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Its Resources and Peopee 




"Knoz^'lccigc of kindred and the genealogies of the aneieiil families de- 
senrth highest fraise. Herein eonsisteth a fart of the Icuoiclcdge of a man's 
011.11 self. It is a great sfnr to look haek on the leorth of unr line." 

— Lord Bacon. 

"There is no heroie poem in the world but is at the bottom the life of a 
man." — Sir Walter Scott. 








"A History of Nevada," wliicli lias lieeii in cduvsc ni iii-ciiaraiidii for 
more than a year, lias, through tlic careful and unremitting (hhgence on tiie 
part of the e<Htors and publishers, heen lirought to a satisfactory state of 
completeness. Within the pages of this work will he found, it is thought, 
the truest expression of the romantic career and wonderful greatness of the 
State of Nevada. While this Commonwealth is redundant with its wealth 
of mineral resources, while its fertile \-alleys are a \eritahle horn of plenty 
which the good goddess of grain and the harvest uiilurned on the thrifty 
agriculturist, and while all the industries and arts of man thrive and flourish 
— all the which are given their due and i)roper estimation and descriittion in 
these pages, — yet Nevada history is most entrancing, as a narrative, and most 
\'alual_)le, as a portion of the world's life story, when it sets forth, not its 
material ])roducts and wealth and extent of domain, hut its I'ersonnel — the 
men who traveled the devious ways and braved the untold dangers of i)ioneer 
emigration, who climbed and explored the mountain fastnesses and laid bare 
to the world the long-hidden mineral wealth: who brought water to the 
thirsty desert |)laces. planted a tree and made the wastes l)loom rmd blossom 
as the rose and firing forth of all the fruits in their season; who Iniilt dwell- 
ings and gave comnnmities a habitation and a name; who foundeil institu- 
tions and from a congeries of human abodes f(juuded a body politic and 
erected a firm and enduring social structure; and, finally, those wdio still dig 
and delve and sow and reap, who toil in the hives of industry, wdio hold the 
marts of trade, who leach and ministei' unlo otliers, and who carry out the 
puljlic will and as chosen servants guide the craft of state. 

Of such does this History treat. In it will be found a carefully pre- 
pared and authoritative narrati\'e of the history of the State from the times 
of its earliest explorers and settlers to the men of the ])rescnl, with trust- 
worthy accounts of the political, material and social gr(.iwth and develo].iment 
during the same period, with the institutions, industries and varied arts g!\en 
due recognition, and, lastly, in biographical form, the facts concerning the 
men of the State whose careers have made them conspicuous among their fel- 
lows, whose deeds and lives have lifted them to the high plane of success, 
and who stand as representatives of the greatness of Nevada. 

The editorial supervision and comiiilation of the History of the State of 
Nevada was among the last works to occupy the time and attention of the late 
Hon Thomas Wren, than whom the State could boast no more conspicuous 



representati\e, in all that goes to make up public-spirited citizenship and 
noble and upright manhood. This History is thereftjre in the nature of a 
memorial to the eminent career of its Editor-in-Chief, and is dedicated to his 
memory and the Commonwealth of which he was so truly representative. 

In the preparation of "A History of the State of Nevada" the best ' 
printetl authorities ha\'e been consulted, and many other facts hitherto un- 
published iiave been procured througii local annalists and custodians of papers 
of historic worth. The work lias been appropriately illustrated with por- 
traits and historical scenery. (The publishers acknowledge indebtechiess 
to the Southern Pacific Railroad Company for furnishing several excellent 
illustrations and scenic views.) All personal sketches have been submitted 
for correction or addition to the parties concerned, and no effort has Ijeen 
spared to secure accuracy and to make the work a true and reliable account 
of the State, its resources and its people. 


LiiArT]':]v; i. 

Iiilr(i(luctiir_\- II 

t llAI''ri':K II. 
First TMiiii^raticiii and Altcndaiit Resiills 14 

CllAr'ri'.R III. 
I (S46- 1 850 23 

ClI.M'Tl'.R \V. 
1851 26 

ClIAl^Tl'R V. 
I'^ii-.s! Cniinl}- Organizali(.ii 28 

CI I A I' r I'. R VI. 

1S57-1858. Carsoi; County T)ep()])ulatC(l 32 

First l)isc()\er\- of Silver 3^ 

Settlement of Territory 35 

ClI.M'Tl'.R IX. 
Territory of Nevada f) 1 

Organization and Political I listory of State 67 

Po1ilic;d [Tistory, 1880-1904 >^7 

Lines in Nevada Established mo 

Pioneer Transportation 107 

Waters of Nevada ' • 7 

CHAPT1':R X\'. 
General Geological F'catures 123 

Laws .\i¥ected liy Mining ij^ 

Mining and New Discoveries ^4^ 


Irrigation in Nevada 152 

Agriculture and Stock 159 

Tlie Railroads 170 

Religion in Ne\ada 1S2 

The Schools of Nevada 206 

State and Go\'ernnient Instituti;)us 218 

The Sons of Mars 225 

The Bench and Bar of Nevada 231 

Secret Orders in Nevada 234 

I. O. O. F.. 248 

K. of P. and Other Orders 255 

Indian .\nnals u{ Nevada 261 

Nevada Literature 311 


Abbott, G. D 587 

Allen, George 501 

Allen, Lenniel 317 

Alt, George 438 

Anderson, }Ionry 720 

Angel, Warren M 487 

Anker, Peter 630 

Argus, The Lovelock 481 

Atchison, John G 422 

Badt, M. and Company 474 

Baker, B. F 493 

Baker, Henry 535 

Bank of Austin 500 

Bank of California, Agency of 548 

Bank of Nevada 630 

Barrett, Charles H 553 

Bartine, Horace F 610 

Beck, H, H 736 

Belknap, Charles H 380 

Berk, George 694 

Berruni, Louis 674 

Bonnifield, M. S 344 

Bonnifield, S. J., Jr 318 

Booker, Simeon M 451 

Bovard, Milton 525 

Bowler, P. M 408 

Boyd, Daniel B 729 

Boyle. Edward D 359 

Boynton, John W 419 

Bradley, John R 326 

Bradley, Lewis L 326 

Brady, Edward 505 

Brady, Hugh J .' 505 

Bray, Charles E 461 

Bray, John E 746 

Brougher, Wilson 372 

Brown, George S 700 

Broy, C. L 621 

Buckle, Charles 580 

Burdick, Truman A 607 

Burke, James .• 463 

Burns, William A 663 

Caine, Edwin E 376 

Canavan, Andrew J 684 

Capell, W. R 582 

Carpenter, L. N 601 

Caughlin, William H 539 

Cavell, W. H....' 746 

Cazier Brothers 514 

Cazier, Jefferson D 514 

Cazier, John H 514 

Charlz, Alfred J 509 

Cheney, A. E 549 

Chism, Gardner 604 

Chronicle, The 430 

Clark, James 458 

Clark, Lincoln G 407 

Cobb, William A 533 

Coflin, Trenmor 429 

Cohen, Sidney B 436 

Colcord, Roswell K 338 

Cole, A. M 732 

Comerford, James 711 

Conboie, Joseph A 356 

Considine, John L 440 

Conway. K. J 638 

Cooke, Herman R 654 

Coppersmith, William 329 

Cottrell, G. W. S 561 

Cottrell, William D 719 

Cox, William L 370 

Craig. John S 504 

Crescenzo, Samuel 333 

Crocker, Alvan W 410 

Cromer, Lawrence W 641 

Cronant, C. H 713 

Crosby, David 565 

Curler, Benjamin 600 

Curler, Benjamin F ." 342 

Daily Evening Report 449 

Dale, George W 679 

Dalton, Peter 637 

Dalton, Thomas H 661 

Dangberg, Henry F 359 

Davis, Herman 368 

Davit, P. E 513 

Davis, Samuel P 418 

Dawley, A. G 468 

Dawson, D. A 586 

Deal, W. E. F 723 

Dewar, James 751 

Dotta. Fmilio 620 

Dunn, James T 345 

Dunn, Herbert C 443 

Dutertre, Louis 478 

Dyer, Henry W 351 

Easton, James 485 

Easton, William 484 

Eckley, J. W 547 

Ede. Stephen 491 

Eggers, J 363 

Ellis. P. B 704 

Elmore. George 725 

Enterprise. Daily Territorial 590 

Eureka County Bank 631 

Eureka and Palisade Railway Co 587 

Evans. .Alvaro 354 

Evans, John N 488 

Farrell, John C 593 

Farrington. Edv.'ard S 707 

Fielding, Frank E 598 


First Natiniial Bank of W'iiineimicca 320 

Fisher. A 512 

Fitzgerald. Adolplnis L 386 

Fitzgerald, John A 377 

FlaniCTaii. P. L 357 

Flaws. T. J. A 375 

Fletcher. A. ' G 692 

Fletcher. Merrill 322 

Fogg. William A 530 

Frazer. William H 519 

French, A 756 

French. Greeley 697 

Freitdenlhal. Herman E 446 

Fulton, John M 699 

Fulton, Robert L 681 

Fuss, Henry W 634 

Gallagher. Patrick 590 

Garcia. G. S 41G 

Garrecht. Gertrude 442 

Gates. Byron 384 

Genzel, Henry 569 

Gibbs, William B 540 

Gibson, Samuel C 619 

Gignonx. Jules E 360 

Giroux. David 675 

(iolconda Hot Springs Hotel 478 

Gooding. Jacob 650 

Gorham. Harry M 335 

Gosse, H. J 546 

Gray. Enoch 745 

Green. George S 454 

(ireer. Henry H 705 

Griftln, Thomas 562 

Griffin. Walson E 635 

Griswold. Eugene 595 

Grover. Charles W 363 

Gulling. Charles 404 

Gulling. Martin 350 

Guthrie, J. W 328 

Hamilton. Cyrus 603 

Hancock, William H 613 

Hardesty. Edward P 452 

Hawley. Thomas P 398 

Hawthorne. William A 709 

Haydon. Thomas E 646 

Hcidcnreich. Henry 475 

Henderson. George S 748 

Henley, W. J 462 

Hcnning, George 573 

Herman, Thomas G 59' 

Hesson. Abraham W .'?66 

Hester. George 11 652 

Hill, John 612 

Hodgkinson, S. J .326 

Hoegb, J. H 597 

Hoenstinc, Frank G 34' 

I lofer, T. R 402 

Hofer, T. R., Jr 486 

Holcomb, (irove R 498 

Holland. Jacob F 567 

Honey man, Frank 54 1 

Hood, Charles J 449 

Hooper, W. J 324 

Horton, Robe'rt L 552 

Howe, H. H 496 

Howell, Eugene "42 

Huffaker. Dan 450 

Hunken, Henry C 536 

H unter, Thomas 6g8 

Hymers, Thomas K 623 

Independent, The Elko 492 

Ingalls, W. A 476 

Ingham, W. H 685 

Isola, J. A 575 

Jacobs, S 572 

Jenkins, Edith 564 

Jenkins, William T 564 

Johnson, Hiram 625 

Johnson. J. W 426 

Johnston. James 577 

Jones. Henry J 433 

Jones, Joseph E 647 

Jones. Robert 391 

Jones. W. D 644 

Jones. Willis R 735 

Josephs, Joe 482 

Judge, James R 388 

Kaiser. Charles 690 

Katz. Frederick 544 

Kelley. Edward D 374 

Kind. Henry 315 

Kinkead. James H 670 

Kinney. R. H 428 

Kinuikin. J. W 744 

Kleinhaus. .-Xudrcw 649 

Kleppe. John 435 

Knox. Charles L 707 

Kyle, Alfred C 726 

Lake, Mary E ,385 

Lamb, Alvin M 456 

L.Tuib. J. M 721 

1 .angan, Francis P 406 

Laveaga, Paul 683 

l^cavitt, Grandvillc 1 517 

Lee, S. L 348 

Leete, R. F 738 

Lemaire, August D 494 

Lemmon, Henry \ 443 

Levy, 1 lerman . : 575 

Lewers. Ross 551 

Lewis, D. E ,332 

Lewis, Frank R 741 

I .e wis. John A 466 

Litcli, Andrew 425 

I.itlrell. Charles F *. 701 

Loftus, Andrew J 395 

Logan. Hugh R 522 

Lonkcy, Oliver .,2'i 

Lord. Frederick C 583 

I.oihrop. Jolm 702 

Lovelock, George 3.36 

I.vnds. Jf)hn B 617 

Lyon County Times 417 


Mackey, Will J 453 

' Malluy, Thomas C 656 

Mapes, George W 33° 

Marker, H. C 639 

Martin, Harry M 669 

Martin, W. O'H 321 

Marzen, Joseph 632 

Massey, W A 346 

Mathews, Frank J 543 

Mathews, Josepli C 549 

Maiite, Andrew 558 

Mayer, Charles E 447 

Mayhiigh, John S 424 

McBride. J. A 393 

McCnllongh. James B 657 

McDonell, A. J 559 

McGrath. John 662 

McGrath, Philip J 477 

McKinty, James 631 

McLeod, Angus 580 

McMidlen, Samuel 748 

Meacham, Robert S 605 

Miller, J. A 500 

Miller. J. H 420 

Moran, W. T 592 

Morgan, George A 554 

Morrill, Enoch 633 

Morrow. John M 439 

Murphy, Michael A 440 

Murphy. Michael J 673 

Nash. Richard 655 

Nelson, Nels 618 

Nevada Planiiig Mill Company 665 

Nevada State Herald 461 

Newlands. Francis G 717 

Nixon. George S 320 

Norcross, Frank H 615 

O'Connor. Daniel W 316 

O'Kane, John 752 

O'Neal, Joseph 755 

Onvon, \v'illiam T 696 

Oshurn. Ralph S .•^67 

O'Sullivan. J. D 472 

Overton, T- H 434 

Owens, W. C 75° 

Patey, Henry 624 

Patterson. Webster .388 

Pearce, William 628 

Peckham, George E 414 

Pedroli, Stephen 47i 

Phillips, J. Warne 689 

Piazza, Luigi D 616 

Pickard, J. E 3,34 

Pike, W. H. A 506 

Pinson, Paul A 685 

Pin, W. C 518 

Pixlev. Myron 754 

Piatt,' Samuel 708 

Pollard, A. K 740 

Pooly, John H 343 

Prater, Nicholas 7ifi 

Press. The Free 467 

Puett, John W 568 

Pursell. H. 5.V 

(Juirk, James 412 

Raftice, Robert E 615 

Rannnelkamp, George •589 

Randall, Dixie P .v8 

Raycraf t Brothers 470 

Raycraft, James 470 

Raycraft. Joseph 470 

Reid, Robert J 319 

Reinhart, E. and Company 660 

Reno Mill and Lumber Co 405 

Report, The Daily Evening 449 

Reveille, Reese River 528 

Reyniers. William A 755 

Richards. Charles A 665 

Rickey, Thomas B 364 

Riddell. Samuel 527 

Ring, Orvis 524 

Riter. Henry 676 

Riverside Mill Co 371 

Roberts, Dillon 534 

Robins. F. C 672 

Rofif, Nate W 714 

Rosenthal. Benjamin 437 

Ross, Gilbert C 643 

Ross, Orrin C 626 

Ruddell, W. C 606 

Russell, James 666 

Rutlcdge, James 579 

Rvan. Dave M 376 

Rvan, Joseph R 588 

Ryan, M. E 652 

Sauer. Andrew 483 

Saunders, Wiltshire 352 

SchafFer. George 642 

Scheel. Robert C 529 

Schoer. Clans S56 

Schneider, F. J 5.18 

Scott. James 402 

Scully, Dennis ,341 

Segal. Marcus ' 602 

Sentinel. Eureka 5' I 

Shalleidierger. George N 695 

Sharon. W. E 680 

Sheehan, Jerry 348 

Shields, Michael 396 

Smikv, William 521 

Smith, Andrew H 337 

Smith, George J .361 

Smith. George S 465 

Smith. Hugh A 578 

Smith. J. E 485 

Smith, Lorenzo D 733 

Smith, 0.scar J 555 

Snyder, Charles 585 

Sparks, John 3^3 

Spencer, A •. 664 

Spencer, John 749 

Spindel. Stephen 6,^6 


Spinner, William 592 

State Bank & Trust Co 366 

Steele. Robert 445 

Steele. Robert M 545 

Steinmetz. Frank J 358 

Stubbs. Joseph E 570 

Suniinerfield, Alexander 431 

Summerfield, G. W 653 

Siinimerficld, Sardis 608 

Sntherland, William 608 

Sweeney. James G 383 

Taber, James H 3S1 

Talbot, George F .I92 

Taylor, O. F^ 444 

Tboma, George H 658 

Thomas. William 4.32 

Thorpe. Margaret 457 

Tonkin, Walter J ,325 

Torreyson, James D 712 

Tribune, The Lovelocks 503 

Triplett. J. F .399 

Trousdale, .4t\vell F (167 

Turrittin. George F 629 

Twaddle. Ebenezer 5^7 

Vandcrlieth. E. D 7.34 

VanPatten, Francis P 677 

Waldo, Gilbert B 515 

Walker Lake Bulletin 397 

Ward, Albert M 687 

Warren, Charles D 581 

Washoe County Bank 409 

Wedekind, George H 576 

Westt'all. Andrew 686 

Wheeler, Daniel C 594 

Whitacre, E. H 502 

Wild, .Mbcrt '. 727 

Wildes, Frank L 532 

Williams, Absalom B 380 

Williams. Edwar<l 668 

Wilson, David 557 

Wilson, George W 557 

Wilson. Nathaniel E 566 

Winfrey. Edward E 404 

Winters. Theodore 479 

Wiseman, Ahner H 715 

Wood, John C 728 

Woodhnrn, Williain 394 

Woodbury, James P 516 

Wren, Thomas 757 

Wright, John 459 

Wright, John T 415 

Wright, William 448 

Yerington, E. B ". 422 

Yerington, Henry M 410 

Veringtrju, James A 411 

Young, Stephen R 314 



Tlie State of Nevada is often referred to as "Tlie Battle Born," and, 
not counting tlie years which have elapsed since siie earned the title by a 
baptism of blood, many citizens of the United States still regard her as 
one of the few remnants of the frontier. With iier early history many are 
conversant through the medium of the United States histories; and that 
she came reluctantly into the Union just at the close of the Civil war, 
forced, almost, to don the robes of statehood to aid in the reconstruction 
legislation when she had neither the population nor the wealth t(j justify 
such a step. Only a personal visit to Nevada can prove to many that 
Nevada is not on the frontier; that her railroads and the march of civilization 
and progress have placed her many decades beyond that period. 

Again, Nevada has been handicapped by the fact that aliens look on 
her through the golden haze of past glories, back to the days of the famous 
Comstock, the lode which gave her the soubriquet of "The Silver State." 
It is true that Nevada has produced more mineral than any state in the 
Union, $625,000,000 in gold and silver, more than one-fourteenth of the 
entire stock of gold and silver in the world to-day. It is only by her mineral 
wealth Nevada is known to many. She is not thought of as a land for the 
farmer, and yet for forty years at every great exposition Nevada has placed 
samples of what the soil and climate can produce, carrying away prize after 

Nevada profited little by her mineral output, for the promoters of 
Nevada's mines sunk all profits in San Francisco, inaugurating world-wide 
enterprises and erecting magnificent honres and public buildings. To-day 
they stand, not as a monument to the greatness of Nevada, but of California. 
None of that wealth was expended in promoting the development of Nevada, 
along any line. Being a neighbor to California has not proved an unmixed 
blessing for Nevada, in many particulars. Lying so close together Nevada 
invariably suffers from the comparisons made. She is not attractive to 
the eye, her general grayness of volcanic ash and sagebrush, her low hills 


and unciilli\ateil plains al first rejiel. \\here California's velvet greenswards 
and wealth of blossoms win all hearts. Bnt below the surface lies an Alad- 
din's lamp which, when used by Xe\ada. will make California's glories 
pale into insignificance, the wonderful power of water will call into life every 
form of plant known to man. from the tropic to tlie frigid zone. 

Much of Nevada is called desert, and Nevada is just learning that 
deserts are the richest land of all when touched by the life-giving water. 
And yet history states that "All the glories of anticpiity sprang from the 
iieart of the desert." One has only to look uixm the fragrant, cool green 
oases of the beautiful farms of Nevada, where water has been abundant, 
to foresee what the future holds in store for the fortunate inhabitants i:f 
Nevada when irrigation is in full sway. Tlie general government has taken 
up the work and great progress has already been made, and five million acres 
are to be reclaimed. Nevada will base much of its assured future ])rosperity 
upon its agriculture. 

Again, the railroad status has alwavs affected Newada unfa\'nraMy. 
Generally when transcontinental lines are built through a new country. 
that country is I)uilt up by the railroad promoting settlement. The Central 
Pacific was invohed in a controversy with the government, and as a result, 
instead of trying to promote the settlement of Nevada, its owners en- 
deavored to divert all business possible to the Southern Pacific. The country 
traversed by the Southern Pacific was advertised and adxanced at the ex- 
pense of Nevada, which was, and has always been, jiowerless in the matter. 
The ])ublic came to look upon Nevada simply as a means to get from Ogden, 
Utah, to California. Because it was not adxertised the Central Pacific 
was regarded as a worthless railroad running through a barren state. But 
times ha\'e changed, and the polic_\' of the railroads toward Nevada has 
changetl also. The prospects are that 1904 will more than double Nevada's 
railroad mileage. Three lines are in piMcess of construction which will 
secure to Nevada practicallv a nionopolv of the great oriental Iraflic, which 
must cross this continent. One is the Southern and Western, to run from 
San b'rancisco to .Salt Lake City, through California, Neva<la and Utah: 
another is the one w Inch will connect Salt Lake City, Utah, with Los Angeles, 
California, and will cross Lincoln county, Nevada, opening up an immense 
district of farm lands and a rich mining countrv; the third is the one which 
will give the great Tono])ah .and (ioldlield mines an (}Utlet \ia the Carson 
& Colorado and \'irginia & Truckee to Reno, where it will connect with the 
overland of the first named road. 

No state suffered as severely as did Nevada from the depressing effect 
of our financial legislation, which resulted in the iall. of silver from $1.29 
an ounce to 60 cents. The demonetization of siher caused the suspension, 

A lllST()k\' OF NI'.VADA. 13 

almost entirely, of siKer ininini^-. 'The operating expenses of Nevada's mines 
amounted to from one-half to lliree-foiirtlis of tlie gross receipts, and the 
price of the pmducts of tliose mines was reduced one half. 'i"he comlilions 
were all speculative and the result was chaos. 

Under all these unfax'orabie conditions Nesada has declined in jjnini- 
lation from si.\t_\'-ri\ e thousand in i8So to forty-iive thousand in 1903. With 
a territory of nearly seventy-one million acres, the fourth state in the Union 
in point of size has had to retire in the l)ackground, a forgotten empire, 
while the other intermountain states and territories trebled in population, 
^'et no one can contend that imc <if these was C(|ual to Ne\ada in cither mineral 
or agricultural resources. 

In the past four years cundilions lia\e changed wonderfully, for Xevada 
has felt new life in ex'cry vein and artery, dlic impetus came with the 
discovery of the great Tunojiali mining district in 1904, and since then vein 
after vein has been opened up, treasure after treasure uncovered, through- 
out the length and breadth of the state. The effect has been magical, .and 
Nevada has attracted not only the attention of the go\'ernmenl, but of the 
capitalists and captains of finance. Her possibilities have been viroN'ed to be 
realities, golden, glowing realities, beyond the dreams nf the most sanguine 
optinu'st. The "turn of the tide" has arrived and Nevada is taking advantage 
of it, not in the speculali\e mode of the Comstock days, but on the solid 
foundation of integrity in all things. The Comstock itself is rehabilitated, 
not only in its methods of working, but in the ways of legitimate mining 

Nevada is far from l:)eing a "new^ country" in fact, but it is one entirely 
as far as its opportunities are concerned. No state freely offers richer 
opportunities in every line to man than does the glorious state of Nevada. 
In the past, Nevada sat in her temple of silver, with her golden sceptre prone 
in the dust, waiting, like the .S])hinx, for something that ne\er came. To-day 
she has opene»l the temple doors and with her sceptre of gold waves a v.'el- 
come to all mankind to come and share lier mineral and agricultural wealth, 
her comfortable climate, and all the satisfying gifts with which Mother Na- 
ture endowed her at liirth. 



First Emigration and Attendant Resi'lts. 

Discovery of Great Salt Lake — First White Man in Nevada 1825— Dis- 
covery of Gold in Mono Gnlch 1825 — The Rival Fur Companies — 
Smith's Second Expedition — Sublette Trapping Exiiedition 1831 — 
\Valker Guides Bonnex'ille Expedition 1833 — McCoy's Hudson Bay Ex- 
pedition 1833 — First Bona Fide Emigrants 1841 — Fremont's Second 
Expedition of Exploration 1843 — A Terra Incognita — Emigrants of 
1844 — Fremont's 1-845 Expedition — Awful Fate of Donner Party 1846 
— Increase of Emigration in 1847. 

In 1825 the first white man visited a portion of the country which is 
now known as Nevada, Jedediah S. Smith, a native of New York. Previous 
to this visit he had been in partnership with William H. Ashley, of St. 
Louis, who discovered the Great Salt Lake of Utah in the year prior, as 
well as the small lake near by which liears his name. Ashley, with his 
partner, Smith, built a fort at Ashley Lake and the mountaineers made it 
headquarters for some time. Smith until his trip to the now Nevada and 
Ashley for the entire time he fdlldwed trapping in the Rocky Mountain. 
.Ashley was well known as a mountaineer and trapi)er when he set up his 
lares and penates at Ashley Lake, and his entire life was a series of ad- 
ventures while pursuing his vocation. Smith passed thmugh e\'en more 
thrilling adventures in ra])id succession, with hairbreadth escapes from wild 
animals and the still more to be dreaded Indians. He was murdered in 
1831 by an Indian, who .shot him down from ambush, the arrow killing him 

Smith left his rendezvous on Yellowstone river to go on one of his 
long tra])])ing expeditions, heading a party of forty Irajjpcrs, crossing the 
country to California and i)assing through a jiortion of tlie country now 
known as western Wyoming. He went down thv lluinholdt, wliicli he n;uned 
after his Indian wife, Mary, on through the Walker River territory and out 
into Tulare Valley, California, via Walker's Pass. He reached this goal 
in July, with but two tra])pers, ;ind three months later he went back over 
the trail he had followed in, his companions remaining behind engaged in 
trapping on the Sacramento river. That he did not retrace his steps exactly 
is shown by notes now in ])ossession of Captain Robert Lyon, of San Buena- 
ventura, California. Smith spoke of the discovery of Mono I^d-:e ( Dead 
Sea) in notes, taken on his return trip, and stated that the upper 
end was very rich: that when Cord, the discoverer, first prospected it in 1859, 
gold was washed up by rains on to the granite rocks, where he collected it. 
Gold was so easilv oblainable .at lliat lime thai Smith stated in these notes 


that there was not one ])lacer tu Ije found in the country between Sacra- 
mento and Salt Lake where tlie veriest tyro in mining coulc! not take a pan and 
a knife and with tiie two simple unplements gatlier a gulden har\est, just 
as was being done in Mono Gidch, at least in the up|)er end of the gulch. 
While the gold in Mono was not at all coarse, pieces were often found weigh- 
ing from twenty-li\'e cents to two dollars.- Captain Lyon says that both Kocky 
Mountain Jack and Jjill Reed, both well known old tra])pers, spent the summer 
of i860 in Mono and that Ijotli men declared they were with Smith in 1825 and 
that they all spent a week pros])ecting in the foothills, where they picked 
up gold, in that year, whicii would support the assertion of I'.ill liyrncs, well 
known in Carson City, that jedediah Smith was the original discoverer 
of Mono Gulch. To further support the claim is the fact that old stumps 
of trees which must have been cut many years, in 1859 had grown again 
into large trees. 

Soon after Smith reached the Headquarters of the firm, Ashley decided 
to withdraw, and Smith foriucd a partnershiiJ with Da\id Jackson and M. 
Sublette under the name of "The Rocky Mountain Fur Company." So 
well did these new partners think of the California expeditinn that no time 
elapsed before Smith was heading another party of trappers to the Golden 
West. Although greater in numerical strength than the first party, the 
last one met with disaster, the entire party being massacred by the Indians 
widi three exceptions, the leader Smith and Tmner and Galbraith. After a 
narrow escape the three reached eventually the missions of California. 

But their troubles were far from being over. The government was 
extremely suspicious of strangers, the more so if the strangers were Amer- 
icans. So the three trappers were at once placed under arrest. An inter- 
esting account of Smith's arrest and detention is among the legacies received 
from the old Spanish authorities now laid away in tlie archi\es of California, 
By good fortune Captain Smith, as he was now called, was able to find 
reliable men to voueh for him, men in wlmm the authorities felt it to their 
interest to place faith. 

As soon as Smith \vas released he fitted out another expedition at his 
Sacramento headquarters and started for the Columbia river in Oregon. 
At the Umpaqua river he was again attacked by Indians and again he 
escaped with two companions to Fort Vancouver. Smith finally recrossed 
the Rocky Mountains, going by a more northern route, accompanied by 
Peter Ogden, a native of New York, who was at the head of a trapping party 
from the Hudson's Bay Company. Previous to this trip the Rocky Mountain 
Fur Company and the Hudson's Bay Company had been antagonistic to 
each other because the latter company claimed all the ground for trapping 
purposes lying between the Sierra Nevada and Rocky mountains. Because 


cjf tlicii" kiinlly treatnitnt of liiiii in liis extremity Smith decided to lea\e 
the disputed region to the Hudson's Bay people. 

Pursuant witli tliis idea he left the Ogden party in 1829 at the head- 
waters of the Lewis river, in order to find his partners and inform them 
of the change of feeling on liis part. Ogden proceeding with his trapping 
west of the Rocky Mountains mo\-ed south ti> what Smith had named IMary's 
ri\er. He followed Smiths route to California down the river, and until 
Fremont overtopped the two by the name of Humboldt, it was as often called 
Ogden's ri\er as Mary's. 

On the 23rd of July. 1832. ]\Iilton Sublette headed the next expedition 
into the countr}'. Iea\ing Peerass Hole in the Rocky Mountains on that date, 
the purpose being to trap the waters of Mary's river. In .\ugust they 
reached the headwaters of the ri\'er in safety: Here the party di\ided, one. 
headed by Xathan Wyeth, starting for Oregon. Sublette with thirty 
men commenced trapping down the river but discovered a scarcity of wild 
game. .M last they were forced to eat the flesh of the beavers they captured, 
which was almost fatal tu many of the men. The lieavers. owing to the 
famine which had affected all animals, had been compelled to eat wild 
parsnips, thereby im[)regnating Lheir fl'esh with poison. It was out of the 
question to stay on the river, so they struck out northward across the country. 
The march was one of horror and untold suffering. Four days were spent 
almost entirely without food of any kind, It tock them several weeks to 
reach Snake river, some fifty miles above the fishing falls, and all that 
time thev partially assuaged their terrible hunger w ith ants, crickets, parched 
moccasins and even puddings, made of the blood drawn a pint at a time 
from their equally hungry animals. 

In 1833 the next expedition set out, a party of forty men fitted out 
by Captain B. L. F. ]->onneville to trap for bea\er between the (ireat Salt 
lake and the Pacific ocean. I'or a guide they were fortunate in p(jssessing 
the since widely known Joseph VVrdker. brom (jreen l\i\er \allcy this 
jiart}' went to the headquarters of Mary's river, trap])ing <lo\\n to its sink: 
hence they crossed we.>t to I'yr.amid lake, from there to Tiuckee ri\er, which 
they followed up into the Sierra Xe\ada. .going across into California. Cap- 
tain Bonneville achieved honors the other explorers did not, in that Washington 
Irving, by touching them with his magic pen. made his Rocky Mountain 
adventures live forever in the eyes of all men. Irving in his n.irralion speaks 
of the thrice named river as the Ogden river, lionnexille died on June 12, 
1878, having attained eighty-fi\e year>. in I'Ort .Smith, Captain 
Bonneville was an officer in tlie I'niteil Slates army and fitted out the expedi- 
tion when on furlough. 

In the same year, 1833, another party of trappers set out for Nevada, 











' m .[TO "n -n ^ 



.\ JllSrom' Ol'" XI'.VADA. 17 

a little ccimpany cif Hudson's Bay men under 'I'honias McC'o}'. Ihc cele- 
brated Christoplier (Kit) Carson with five cunipanions joined tliis party. 
Owing- to the reixirts of the previous visitors that Mary's river fairly teemed 
witli heaxers, the part\- was siirel\- (hsappninled when they met with such 
po(ir success that tiiey had to turn l)ack after reaching its sink, crossing over 
north to Snake river. This was Kit Carson's visit to our now Nevada, 
and eleven years passed hefore he revisited it. 

it was the summer of 1841 before tlie first ])arty of l)ona-tide emigrants 
crossed the Great Basin of Nevada on their way to the Land of r', 
that California of wliicli common report made fairy land. Hitherto all 
emigrants had gone tlu'ough the awe-inspiring voyage around Cape Horn 
or toiled wearily down by way of Oregon. It was left to a group of 
ad\-enturesome young men, educated and full of enthusiasm, to "blaze the 
trail" so that emigrants as well as traj^pers and Indians might walk therein. 
From all parts of tlie Cnited States they met at Independence, Missouri, on 
May 8. 1841, and .started on that long journey. Westward Ho! aufl in 
the fullness of time tliese hardy pioneers emblazoned their names in the 
history of the west, many of them in golden letters. 

The part\' was well e(]ui])pe<I with h<irses and pack animals. 1 hey 
made no deviations from the well known trail to Salt Lake by way of the 
south pass, from there to the Humboldt. Walker and Carson ri^'ers. Pass- 
ing down the Walker to almost the source, they then crossed the Sierra 
Nevada Mountams and passed down its western slope following it Ijetween 
the Tuolumne and Stanislaus rivers to the San Joaquin valley. When 
they reached the ranch of Dr. Marsh, located at the base of Mount Diablo, 
on November 4. 1841. they parted company, seeking different parts of the 
land of their hopes. It took them six months and f(Hir days to make the trip. 

For some time Fremont had been aware of the manner in which the 
maps of the country tliffered from the reports of the trajjpers in regard to a 
number of geographical features. On his second expedition he visited the 
Cireat Basin to ascertain the truth. He entered it on December 16. 1843. 
and in doing so disco\ered a lake which he named Lake Albert, after the 
chief of the Topographical Engineers, to which he belonged. On January 3rd, 
1844. Fremont found that he had reached and run over the positions where, 
if his best maps could be depended on, he would have found Mary's river 
or lake. Listead he was on the edge, seemingly, of a desert which had 
been reported to him, ])resumably by the trappers. The whole aspect of the 
country was such that I'rcmont felt afraid to enter it. and accordingly bore 
away to the south, but in hope of reaching the Buenaventura river kejit close 
to the mountains. WHiile on the mountains Fremont, descrying at a distance 
of si.xteen miles a column of steam w'hich showed the existence of hot 


springs, inimctliately set out fni- them, liiuling- the most cxtraoixUnary of all 
they met with un the trip. In his writings he went into details and also 
enthusiasm m'er their many euririus qualities. 

After reaching and naming Pyramid lake, the party, on the 15th of 
January, reached the point where the Truckee flows into Pyramitl lake, 
and after camping one night followed along up the ri\er. Owing to the 
great abundance of that fish Fremont named the stream "Salmon Trout 
River." The\- finally left that river at about the point where AVadswortli 
now stands on the Central Pacific Ixaihvav, and continued the search for 
Buenaventura river. They w'ent to the southeast, following an Indian trail. 
They reached what is now known as Car.son river, at a point where it emerges 
from the foothills near Ragtown, where it sinks into the \ast plains in 
Churchill county. Down this ri\-er the)- dragged themsches for three hi.mrs 
and went into camp. By this time b'remont had become convinced of the im- 
possibility, apparent!}', of reaching the Rocky jMoinitains in this direction. 
The men were worn out and in too exhausted a condition to tempt fate 
further in that direction, so it was decided to travel across the Sierra west 
into California. Accordingly, the next day the march up Carson river was 
commenced, and in two days they came to where now stands the ruins of 
Fort Churchill. F"remont secured a vantage point on a mountain adjacent, 
and after a thorough inspection of Carson valley and the Sierra beyond came 
to the conclusion that the most feasible route wiiuld be farther to the south. 
On January 21st the forlorn expedition moved south to Walker river, and 
for three days followed the east fork, leaving it to struggle to the west. Jt 
took the Pathfinder and his loyal following tlurty days' arduous straggle 
to win the tortuous pass through the Nevada mountains, but his eventual suc- 
cess and its attendant results is known to all the world. To Fremont's bitter 
disappointment he had to gi\-e up the effort to carrv the momitain howitzer 
further, and he abandoned it on January 29th. It passed into the possession of 
William Wright, at that time well known by his nom de plume of "Dan de 
Ouille," by right of discovery. He gave a description of its resting place 
and it was to b;i\e been taken to Virginia City. But w.nrring elements were 
at work, for both the Union and Secession forces of Nevada were determined 
to secure its powerful influence for their own good. But the I'nion rose 
triuni])hant as Captain A. W. Prey, when the gun arri\ed in X'ii'ginia City 
in June, 1861, ]i;iid two hundred dollars to the part\- who brought it in. The 
howitzer, of the jiattern used l)y the l""rench army against the Algerians, 
is now the i)ro])erly of Captain A, W. Prey, It lies at Glenbrook on the 
shores of Lake Tahoe. 

Des])ite the well known perils, the very next winter after Fremont over- 
came all diflicultics. another b;md of hardv men determined to reach Call- 

A IllSTOm' Ol' NEVADA. 19 

fornia Ihrougli tlie sliininierint;-, mocking wliite fastnesses of llie nioiiiUains. 
slarting from Council Bluffs, May 20, 1S44. Fortune fav(.)re(l them, for 
they came unscathed through the mountains and down to the llumhnliU. it 
was there the Indian guide was secured wliose name Trucl-cee was given l)y 
the party to tlie river wlien tlie lower crossing, now known as Wadsworth, 
was reached. From the same source is deri\-ed the appellation for the famous 
Truckee trijut. On the shores of Duuner lake it was decided to huild a cahin, 
out of pine saplings, roofed In hrush and rawhide, with one o|)ening for 
door and window ; and it has gone down in history as the attem])t at 
erecting a cabin ever made by white men in the contines of Nevada county, 
California, and yet it tciok but two da}'s to put it uj). In the party were 
Dr. Tovvnsend, Allen Montgomery, Moses Schallenberger. John Flomboy, 
Captain Stevens, Joseph Foster, G. Greenhood, John Greenwood, Britt Green- 
wood, James Miller, Mr. Calvin, William and Patrick Martin, Dennis Martin. 
Martin Murjihv and five sons, Mr. Hitchcock and one son. Moses Schallen- 
berger, Joseph Foster and Allen Montgomery determined to- stay in the 
cabin and guard the stores, as the cattle had given out. Leaving one half- 
starved cow and a meager supply of pro\-isions for the. three young men, the 
rest of the party left about November 15th. It took them a wdiole month 
of such toil and privation as tried e\'en their robust frames and heroic 
natures to reach Sutter's fort. Snow and storm impeded e\-ery step of the 
seemingly endless jom'ney, but the\' were on the wa\' battling forward at 
every step while the three left 1)ehind were inbedded in fifteen feet of snow. 
The storm had dri\-en every living thing before it, and when the carcass of 
the cow was on the point of giving out they determined to make an effort 
to. overcome the barricade l)efore it was entirely gone. Successfully they 
mounted to the summit, when to their horror Schallenberger became so ill 
that the only chance for them was to take him back, to the abandoned cabin, 
which he begged them to do, and go on alone. Never was the trite old adage, 
"where theres a will there's a way," better exemplified than in this case. 
Alone in the white solitudes Schallenberger fought bravely for his life. 
Discovering among the goods se\'eral steel traps, he caught enough foxes to 
keep the vital spark alive until the rescuing party reached him, which was not 
until three weary months had passed. 

A\'hen Fremont started on his next expedition in October of 1845, he 
had both Kit Carson and Joseph Walker in his party. The}- left Salt Lake, 
and, as soon as they had crossed the desert beyond, the party dixided. Fremont 
taking fifteen men, among them Kit Carson, who was his favorite scout, going 
west through the country to the south of Mary's river. The others, under 
the leadership of Theodore Talbot, with Jose])h W'alker for guide, went direct 
to Mary's river to a rendezvous appointed near the point where Ragtown, in 


Churchill ciiuiit}', now stands. Truetn compact the two parties came together 
at the designated point, but onl\- for one night in Xovemlier. separating the 
next morning. Fremoait followed the course of the ri\er he had named 
Carson, in honor of Kit Carson, up through the canyon and \alley of the 
same name to Lake Tahoe. From this point he went into the Sacramento 
valley. Talbot went tO' the south by way of Walker's lake and river, which 
had lieen named b\- I'^remont for the famous scout then acting as Talbot's 

In a brief letter written at Prescott. Arizona, in February. iSXi. Fre- 
mont states that he had named Lake Tahoe on his first crossing it in 1843-44 
Lake Bonpland. giving to the river basin tiie name of Humboldt, so placing 
them on his map of that expedition. Fremont stated that probably Tahoe 
was the Indian name, and he had no doubt it was the same lake, though 
he had not then seen it since 1844. when he crossed the Nevada. The 
Bonpland referred to by Fremont was .\made Bonpland of France, who 
accompanied Humboldt when that celel)rated traveler and scientist came 
to America. He was a native of Rochelle and was biM-n in 1773. After 
becoming a physician he Uecame a famous botanist, collaborating with Hum- 
bt)ldt in several celebrated books on natural history, botany and monuments 
of the new world. .After being made a prisoner in Paraguay l)y the Dictator 
Dr. b'rancis. because he dared to attempt the cultixation of the Mate or Para- 
guay tea of that country, he died in that country at Montevideo in 1858. 

In A-pril of 1846. commenced. wMth the starting of an emigrant party 
from Springfield, Illinois, the darkest tragedy of the western trail, the soul- 
harrowing fate of strong' men. devoted women and iielpless little children. 
It was the Donner part}-, headed by George and Jacob, brotliers of that 
name, and their families numbering sixteen. In the ])art\^ at the start were 
also James F. Reefl and bis family of se\en. and I'ranklin W. (iraves with 
a family of twehe. Patrick Breen and famil\' of nine joined them at Inde- 
pendence, Missouri, and beyond I'orl Bridgcr a widow. Mrs. La\inc Murphy, 
and her family, were added. Altogether in the jjarty were ninety persons, 
the train being nicreased tinally to nearl\- three hundred wagons. At Fort 
liridger the first ste]) on the road to dejith was taken when the Donner 
brothers, with a jjortion of the other emigrants, left the others to try the 
new route to California via .Salt Lake and the Hastings Cut Off. The con- 
servati\e ones who stayed with the old route reached their goal in safety, 
while the others were destined to misfortune after misfortune and to the 
endurance of almost incredible sufTering. to which more half suc- 
cuml)ed. Instead of seven it was thirty days jjefore they reached Salt Lake, 
crossing the great desert with e\er sinking hearts. When the western margin 
was reached it was ajiparent th.'it some one must go forward in Sutler's i-'ort. 

A lllSroin' Ol'" Xl'.VADA. 21 

seven liiindred miles" journev, and come liack with provisions. William 
McCntclieon, of Missouri, and C T. Stanton, of Chicago, Illinois, volunteered 
and left on horseback. 

i\v the time (Iravcllv I'ord was reached all were on short rations, cattle 
and emigrants alike half starved. In an altercation at this ix)int. John 
Snvder, a team dri\cr well liked hut pos.sessing an ungovernable temper, he- 
came in\ol\ed in a (piarrel with James F. Reed, in an effort to sto]) the 
tight Mrs. Reed rushed lietween the combatants and received a blow from 
a whip intende<l for her husband, which .so enraged the latter that he stabbeil 
Snvder, inflicting a fatal wound. Reed was banished from the party, to 
make his wav without gun or food the best he could. .\ friend managed to 
convev his gun to him. and his little daughter Virginia went to him, taking 
some crackers she had contrived to hide. This saved his life. 

On October 9th Harclcoop and Keseberg fell behind, the latter coming 
up at night, the former dying. Indians ran off twenty-eight of their cattle at 
Humboldt sink, antl, actually star\'ing, the jiarty wandered on, only the 
children riding. After leaving the Humboldt sink Keseberg, with a rich man, 
W'oHinger, fell behind, Keseberg coming on alone. When dying later, Joseph 
Reinhart confessed to having a hand in the murder of Wolfinger. Relief 
in the person of C. T. Stanton met them near where Wadsworth now stands. 
Stanton had not only provisions. l)ut mules, with two Indian \-aqueros to aid 
in transporting them, all furnished by the generosity of Captain Sutter, who 
refused all compensation. 

When the party reached Reno they made another mistake, one fraught 
with dire results, in tleciding to rest three or four days. A fearful storm 
was gathering in the mountains, and, eagerly as the emigrants urged their 
party forward, the elements outstrijiiied them, and three miles below Truckee, 
at Prosser creek, on October 28, iS4(), four weeks earlier than it usually 
came, the snow commenced falling, six inches at that point, but on the 
summit in some places five feet in depth. Many and desperate were the 
futile attempts to cross that awful barricade of snow from the camp hastily 
made at Donner Lake, hut all in vain; the pitiless snow descended, bringing 
in its wake agony and death. It was impossible to move in any direction, so 
all, perforce, made what arrangements they could to try to weather the storm. 
All live stock was buried alive in the huge drifts, and from their 
the meat, alreadv frozen, was prepared for food. The cabin where young 
Schallenherger made his successful battle for life was still standing, but 
cabins had to be erected for all who could not find shelter in it. the Breen 
family having been assigned to that. Little as they ate, grim starvation was 
.soon lieside them, and on the lOth of December, 1846, a party of seventeen 


started out to luring relief if possible, and if not to die in the attempt, a little 
band known always as the "Forlorn Hope Party." 


Ere they went far two had to return to camp, but the fifteen pressed on. 
among them, Mrs. Sarah Fosdick. iier sister Alary Graves, C. T. Stanton 
and F. W. Graves. One by one death stalking by their side snatched first 
one. then another, until only seven were left. What pen could describe the 
revulsion of feeling when suddenly they came upon footsteps in the snow, 
and following these with awakened hoi)e came to an Indian rancheria. Stoical 
as is the Indian the condition of the seven emaciated, starving persons im- 
pressed them deeply, and they gave every assistance they could. Taking up 
the march with Indian guides, on they pressed only to gradually give out, 
and Air. Eddy, leaving one man and five women, reached Johnson's ranch 
on Bear river, then the only ranch on Sierra's western slope. A relief partv 
went back fifteen miles and brought in the six who had fallen by the way. 

.\ month had ]iassed since the party left Donner lake, and over half their 
number had literally laid down their lives for their friends, not knowing 
whether the sacrifice would be rewarded or not. Help from Sutter was 
secured by John Rhodes in a week, and six men under Captain Reasin P. 
Tucker provided with pro\-isions and mules, left for Donner lake in less 
than two weeks. 


At Donner lake the slow tragedy of life, sustained in a few. while the 
many perished, dragged on, until on the 19th of February, 1847, the rescuers 
appeared. Every moment was precious and the return was soon commenced 
by twent\-three survivors of that fearful siege with their rescuers, and of 
these two had to return and three soon died. Their trials were not over, for 
soon provisions were all gone, and just as they had given up ho])e a second 
rescuing ])arty appeared, headed by John F. Reed, on the 25th of I'cbruary, 
1S47. Reed had preceded the Donner party several months, and the joy 
of iiis reunion with liis family was soon cut sliort. for i\ccd pressed on to 
Donner lake, where bis two little daughters were. ba\ing been carried back 
l>y the preceding party. When Reed's party reached them prmisions had 
gi\cn out and the party of seventeen commenced the journey onward. They 
had not gone far when a terrible storm broke and camp was made, that camp 
known to history as "Starved Camp," and Mr. Reed, with his two little ones 
and a companion, went on ahead to secure aid if possible. Cad)' and Stone 
soon caught up with the inur. .and fin the third night all reached Wood- 
worth's camp at Bear valley alive. One can only imagine the sufferings of 
the ones left at Starved Cam]). \ third relief party. John Stark. Hmvard 


Oakley and Charles Stone, were near, and W. II. Eddy (saved by a former 
party and W. H: Foster), were coming- on the same errand of mercy. They, 
with the addition of Hiram Miller, left Woodworth's camp the next day after 
Reed arrived, hnt when they reached Starvation Camp only two of the eleven 
conld stand upright. John Stark urged and entreated until a portion started 
out, the others remaining f(ir another relief part}- to find them. 

When Foster and hjld\-'s relief party, the third one, reached I )nnner 
lake, George Doi-iner and his wife were the only sur\-ivors at .Mder creek. 
Knowing he was dving, George Donner tirged and entreated his faithful 
wife to lea\-e hiiu and g(i with her children under the care of the third 
relief partv. Steadfasllv she refused, her hc;n-t torn with conflicting emotions 
as her little ones added their entreaties to her husband's. \\'illingly .she 
retraced the weary way where at the end the devoted couple met death 
together, and such :i death ! Time can ne\-er efface the horror of that 

While the third relief party saved four of the five stu-vivors a fourth 
partv was required to sa\-e Lewis Ke.seberg, which they did on August 7, 
1847. O^ t'l*-" iiicmbers of the Donner party, six failed to even reach the 
mountains, forty-two died horrible deaths one by one. lea\-ing only forty- 
eight survivors. 

From the Near 1847 emigration steadilv increased, the discovery of 
gold in California gixing it further iiupetus, many following the trail markefl 
by so many graves, and as if safety laid in numbers the record of suffering 
aud death seemed ended with the Donner tragedy. 


1 846- 1 8 50. 

Ceding of Great Basin 1848 — The Change of Flag — Boundaries of State 
of Deseret — Territory of Utah Established — First Discovery of Gold 
in Nevada 1850 — First Settlement of Carson Valley. 

While the Donner expedition was .struggling for life and death the 
American and the Mexican authorities were struggling for sui)ren-iacy in 
California, the Bear Flag war haxing been inaugurated in Sononia on June 
14, 1846, the American population coming out triumphant. While this 
war was on the United States and Mexico were engaged in active hostilities 
terminating in the usual victory fnr the .\nierican arms. In the treaty of 
Febru;u-v 2, 1848, Mexico ceded ti> Uncle Sam an immense tract of land 
ami dated the session from July 7, 1846, the date when Commodore Sloat 


raised tlie stars and stripes at Mnnterey. The territory acquired com- 
prised all of Mexico lying between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Moun- 
tains that was bounded on the north by the forty-second degree of latitude, 
being the line between California and Oregon; on the south it was bounded 
by the Gila river and tlie present south line of Califurnia. What is now 
known as Xe\-ada, Utah and Arizona was. until the 1846 conquest, part of 
Mexico and the Mexican .territory of Alta California. 


In convention at Salt Lake on March 18. 1849, the Mormons organized 
what they named the "State of Deseret," a territorial government. This 
territory- included within its boundaries what is now Nevada. Arizona and 
Utah, a portion of Colorado, a slice of Oregon, and the part of Wyoming 
lying south of the \\'ind River mountains. Of what is now California 
the portion comprising San Diego and Los Angeles counties as far up the 
coast as Santa Monica was included. The line ran directly from there 
north to the ridge of the Sierra Nevada, and in its boundaries were half of 
Kern county, a jiart of Tulare county, all of Mono and Inyo, part of Alpine, 
])art of Shasta, part ot Siskivou and all of Lassen. 


The territory of LUah was established by the act of Congress on the 
gtli day of September. 1830. the same date California was admitted as a 
state. Its lioundaries were laid down as "Bounded on the west 1)_\- the 
State of California; on the north 1)\' the TerritorN' of Oregon; on the east 
by the summit of the Rocky Mountains: and on the south by the thirty- 
seventh parallel of north latitude." 

'i'he exact date of the lirst discoverv of gold in .Nevada is placed in 
1850, as in the spring of that year a train of emigrants left Salt Lake 
district for California, and. forced to wait on the eastern base of the Sierras 
for the snow to melt, made the time pass by prospecting for gold, which 
they found in ;i stream trilnUarv to Carson ri\er. flowing from a canyon 
near where Dayton stands. It was not rich enough to prevent their going 
on to California, but they took the news of the existence of placers in the 
Creat Basin with them. 

Regarding this discovery and its results, lion. C. .X. .Xoteware, at one 
time Secretary of State ot Nevada, stated lh;it in jiassing the mouth of 
(jold canyon on July 3. 1830. he met a party of miners from California 
going into the canyon and ihev informed him that a ])arly of emigrants 
bad the year before found gold there. 

About the i8th of the same month C.aplain Robeil Lyon passed over 
tiic same route, an<l, writing from .S;ni l>nena\entma. C.'difornia, said that 


at tliat time placer miniii.t; was heiny (1<iik- in the canymi and that same year 
Carson, Steamlxiat and Washoe valleys were thoroughly prospected for gold. 
He made cam]> ahoui the 20th of Jidy at the <il(l Mormon station, now 
(jenoa, and met Mormon miners from California prospecting in Cold can- 
\-on : w hile they had some gold dust they said the placers at Hangtown. 
now riacerville, were richer, and unless they struck something Isetter they 
wiiuld soon return to California. 

To still further authenticate the statement that gold was discovered 
in 1850 the statement of Walter Cesser, a resident of Nevada in 1852, is 
given. Mr. Cesser said that he was mining in Gold canyon late in 1852 
when two \oung men. Rohinson and Cole, came through en route from 
California to Salt Lake to visit their parents and they remained from that 
fall to the spring of 1853. Roliinson during that time told Mr. Cosser 
that he was one of a jiarty from Salt Lake who in 1850 on the way to 
California stopped in the Carson \alley, and while waiting for the snow- 
to melt found gold, as hefore stated, in the spring of 1850. 


In 185 1 the first settlement of Carson valley was effected through 
the medium of John Reese, of Salt Lake City. In the spring of that year 
he left home with ten wagons filled with butter, eggs, flour and other articles 
of commerce with the ohject of establishing a trading post on the overland 
road east of the Sierras. With Stephen A. Kinsey, teamsters and ])as- 
sengers, there were sixteen in the party. Arriving at Ragtown they went 
on to Carson valley. Mr. Kinsey going on ahead to select a favorable 
locality; when he reached the point known in 1849-50 as "Mormon Sta- 
tion," he selected it as a good vantage point and camped until the party 
came up with him. Xo trace of former occupancy remained, for after 
the white men deserted it the Indian removed all signs of the first settlers. 
Mr. Kinsey on July 4, 1851, took possession of the land and it retained 
the name of Mormon Station until fnur years later: then it was surveyed 
and re-named "Genoa." Half a dozen miners were at work in Gold can- 
yon when this party reached there, and twelve of the new-comers joined 
them; in less than six months o\er (ine hundred miners were delving away 
in the can\-on. The log house put up by the Reese party was the first 
house built in Nevada, and it stands at Genoa, the sole reminder of the 
pioneer past. After putting up a stockade corral covering an acre they 
felt secure from Indian attacks. A garden was set in turnips, showing 
soon the fertilitv nf the soil. Mormons, among them Condie, Lee and 
Gil)son, soon arri\cd, and the ixipulation was further increased by parties 


of emigrants who stopped on tlie way to California, fearing tlie mountain 
passes in winter. 

In Novemlier of 185 1 tlie celebrated Eagle ranch was taken up by 
a party of miners from Calif(M'nia, Frank and \\'. L. Hall, Frank and Joe 
Barn. .\. J. Rollins and George Follensbee: they left Bents Bar. Placer 
county, to mine in western Utah, but finding little to reward them took 
up the ranch where the State Capitol now stands. A log cabin for a station 
was rented to Dr. Daggett and Mr. Gay. Frank Hall killed an eagle 
soaring o\er the station and thus the name was deriyed for not only 
the station but the surrounding yalley. 

185 1. 

The Squatter Goyernment of 185 1 — Citizens Hold First ^Meeting — Perfecting 
S_\steiu of Goyernment — Proyision for Civil Goyernment. 

As the population increased it become evident that some form of goy- 
ernment must be instituted so that the rights of the people to acquire and 
hold property could be enforced. To that end a meeting of citizens was 
called on Xovember 12. 1851. and a Squatter Goyernment organized. Either 
they were not cognizant of the fact that in many things they were subject 
to the laws of Utah Territory or else they did not think they covered the 
necessary ground. The object was declared to be the adoption of a system 
by means of which the settlers could so su1)divide the valley as to secure 
for each unc their right to the land taken n]i by them and imi)roved by 
them, and further to agree upon a petition to Congress for a distinct terri- 
tnrial government, the creation of public offices for the valley, the adoption 
of by-laws and regulations to govern the community. Colonel .\. Wood- 
ward acted as chairman and T. G. Bernard as secretary. lUu six resulu- 
tions were adopted at this meeting. 

Tlie survey of laud claims and cmplnyiueiU of a competent surveyor 
were provided for in number one. James H. Haynes acted in that ca])acily 
later, .so he must have been selected at that time. 

The office of recorder and treasurer, one ])arty to fill Ijotli positions, 
was created in number two; his duty was to record and issue certificates 
ci claims, and the fee was to be twenty live dollars. An accounting of .all 
moneys was to lie made to the committee. The third resolution limited 
claims to cpiartcr sections, while unmlK*r foui' ga\e the comnnitlee lull 
jurisdiction uvef the recorder and treasurer, it ha\ing powir to appoint 

A IIIST()R\' Ol" NEVADA. 27 

and rem()\-e; that official also had to account to the committee for all 
his acts. 

Jii numher live tiie recorder \\as required to collect all fees before 
l)erforniing duties. Numher six ])rovi(led for the committee of seven which 
was to have charge of all business regarding claims, in fact act as head of 
the organization and also appoint a recorder, for whom thev were responsi- 
1)le. The committee elected consisted of N. R. Haskill, T. .\. Hylton, Will- 
iam Byrnes. John Reese, E. L. Barnard, A. Woodward and H. H. Jameson. 

John Reese, H. H. Jameson, Wash Loomis, \\'illiam Byrnes and J. 
P. Barnard were appointed to prepare and present at the next meeting 
furtlier resolutions to perfect the system of government. .After reading 
the petition to^ Congress and approving it the meeting adjourned to meet 
again the nineteenth of the same month. 

Accordingly the meeting assemblcrl in due form on November 19. 185 1, 
with John Reed in the chair and T. A. Hylton acting as secretary. Five 
resolutions were adopted and added to the first six. Tn number seven 
settlers were given the right to take up a new claim when they had disposed 
of the one in possession. .\ ])re])ayment of twenty-five dollars to the 
recorder was required in number eight. Number nine compelled all claim- 
ants to put five dollars in impro\-ements on their land within a hundred and 
eighty days after receiving their certificate, f'y number ten's provisions a 
company was permitted to take claims for each indi\-idual of the company, 
and improve one location sufficiently to cover expense on all. Number 
eleven jjrovided that all timber was to be common pro]3erty, save to persons 
who would erect sawmills a certain number of acres was to lie allotted. 


After the ])ctition to Congress was read and another comiuittee of 
five .'qi])ointe(l to draft bv-laws for the ci\'il giwernment of the settlement, 
the meeting adjourned until the next e\ening. .\t this adjourned meeting 
the same otiicers presided as at the last meeting, and T. A. Elylton, H. Id. 
Jameson, W. Byrnes, Wash Loomis and J. P. Barnard, the committee ap- 
pointed at that time, reported a preamble and resolutions which provideil 
for the civil government. A justice of the peace, a clerk of the court, and 
a sberifif were declared the necessary officers ; they were required to exercise 
and enforce the law according to the acknowledged rules of equity govern- 
ing all civilized communities. 

The resolutions further provided : "There shall be four individuals, 
associated with the justice — himself making the fifth — in forming a court, 
and he shall be empowered to summon any four whene\-er occasion shall 
require it, to take cognizance and adjudicate smiiiiiarily in all cases of 


cniitroxersy. debts or offenses agrniiist the pulilic weal; and to enforce fines 
or otlier sufficient penalties upon offenders; to issue warrants and authorize 
arrests. But to provide against the abuse of these powers, citizens and 
others shall have the right of appeal to a court of tiivkv citisciis. summoned 
prdmiscuonsly. who shall constitute a court of incjuiry from whose decision 
there shall he no appeal; scrutinize and reverse if necessary the decrees of 
the magistrate's court : and who shall have power to remove the magistrate 
or impose upon him any other just penalty, in the event of al)usive exercise 
of his authoritv. To strengthen them and jirovide for the execution of 
their verdicts, etc.. there shall he a clerk .'uid ci instable ajipninted tn aid and 
execute the decrees of these courts." 

The resolutions having been adopted, the (officials provided for were 
elected as follows: Magistrate. K. L. Bainard ; Sheriff'. \\'illiam P>yrnes; 
Clerk. Dr. T. A. Hylton. 

.\ cnmmittee was appointed id rejxirt on further mallei's, and the meet- 
ing adiourned until the 29th instant. Init for some reason it was ne\'er held. 
The next record is of a meeting of citizens with J. C. Fain in the chair on 
Ma\- 22, 185J. At this meeting authorizatiim lo lake up a section of timber 
land was gi\en to any one who would build a sawmill. E. L. Barnjird's name 
was signed as recorder in this re])(nt. 


First Coi^ntv'iz.vtion. 

I'lali Legislature Creates Several Xew Counlies — County judges h'lecled — 
The Book of Kecord.s — Carson River Toll Llridge — .VmendnuMil of 
Land Laws — .\ct Creating Carson Counly — Mormons Defy All Law 
— Buchanan Sends .Army. 

'Die first counly organizalion was effected in iS5_'. ITah by an act ot 
legislature creating on March 3 several new counties and defining their 
JKiundaries. There were seven in what is now Nevada. California forming 
their west line, what is still Ctah the eastern limits, and the norlh and 
soulh boundaries iiarallel lines running east and wesl. The name ol Weber 
county was chosen for ihe dix'isior, farlhesl north; I )esert'l came 
next, and on the south lay Tooele, the three comprising one 
liundred and fifty-six miles of the north end of Nevada. The 
most of what is now Washoe and rdl of Storey t'ouuty was 
included in the next division, which w;is about thiity-six miles wide and 
was named Juab. Millard was the name given to the next strip south. 

A IllSroin' Ol' XI'.VADA. 2'.t 

which w.L^ .'ihinil lil'l\ miles wide; il iiichuled most of Walker's Lake and aU 
of whal is now known as the counties of Douglas and Ormshy. Two 
counties of e(|ual size were formed of tlie halance ol the tcrritoi-y. Iron 
and Washington, the latter hounded on the south hy the thirty-seventh i)arallel 
of north latitude, which was at that time the south line of Utah. 

Judges for these counties were elected by the Territorial Legislature 
in Fehi'uary of that )-ear, to each ser\e four years, as follows: For Weljer 
and Deseret counties, Isaac Clark; for Tooele county. y\lfred Lee; for 
Juab county, George Bradley; for Millard county, /Vnson Call; for Iron and 
Washington counties. Chapman Duncon. 


In a little hook of records containing onl\- sixt)' leaves all records 
were kept, and fortunately for posterity it was preserved Ijy Mart Gaige, of 
Carson City. In it was recorded all meetings, entry of land claims, and in 
fact all public transactions. This shows that the tirst land claim was re- 
corded by John Reese on Deceml)er i, 1S52, a one-fourth section extending 
from Mormon Station south to a lone tree, including all between the mountain 
base and Carson river. On the same day one-fourth section claims were 
tiled by W. Byrnes, E. L. Barnard, S. A. Kinsey, James C. Lain, J. Brown, 
all to the north of Reese; J. H. Scott on the same day recorded a half section 
to the south of I\eese. These were the only claims recorded in that year. 

The first toll road grant was accorded to John Reese and Israel Mott 
on December i, 1852. It was to be a toll road bridge on Carson river, 
and they were to repair the road up the mountain also. They asked for a 
live years" franchise and secured it, promising to expend one thousand 
dollars on the work before July ist. 

Lor the benefit of the Mormons a mail route was established by the 
government in 1852 between Salt Lake, Utah, and San Bernardino, Cali- 
fornia. To Mormons was awarded the contract for carrying the mail. In 
order to jilace a supply station near the Potosi lead mine which they had 
determined to work, Brigham Voung established a post at Los Vegas 
Spring, in what is now the south end of Nevada, on the old Spanish trail. 
The post was not abandoned by the Mormons until after the Mountain 
Meadow massacre in September, 1875. 


The ne.xt meeting of citizens was called on March Jist, J. H. Scott 
acting as presiding officer and F. G. Barnard as secretary. The laws previ- 
ously made were amended so that all parties in order to hold land had 
to first file a n<itice with the recorder and then put one hundred dollars in 
improvements on the land within sixty da}s. To make the title good 


either oAvner nr agent had to occupy the land and an alisencc of thirty 
days cancelled all claims. A single person could take up three hundred and 
twenty acres, a man ol" family six huiulred and forty ; all land disputes were 
to be settled l)y arhitration or liy the jury of actual settlers. The recording 
fee \yas reduced to live dollars. 

On ]May 27, 1854. the citizens again assembled, J. L. Gary officiating 
as chairman and M. G. Lewis as secretary. At this meeting a resolution 
was adapted wlierehv it was pro\-idc(l that although every settler should 
have water sufficient for household purposes, yet it must not be diverted 
from its original channels and when more than one livetl on the banks of 
the same stream they should share the water according to the acres culti- 
vated, each using it on alternate days when water was not abundant. 


Carson county was created by an act passed by the Territorial Legis- 
lature of Utah on January 17, 1S54. reading as follows: 

Section i. Be it enacted by the Governor and Legislative Assembly 
of the Territory of Utah : That all that portion of country bounded north 
by Deseret county: east by the parallel of longitude 118: south by the 
boundary line of the Territory; and west by California, is hereby included 
within the limits of Carson county, and until organized is attached to Mil- 
lard county for election, re\-enue, and judicial purposes. 

Section 2. The Go\enior is hereby authorized to appoint a probate 
judge for said county, when he shall deem it expedient; and said probate 
judge, when appointed, shall proceed to organize said county, by dividing 
the county into precincts, and causing an election to be held according to 
law, to fill the various countv and ])recinct offices, and locate the county seat 

Carson count\' included within its boundaries all of what is now 
Ormsby, Washoe, Douglas, Storey, and Lyon counties, with half of Esmer- 
alda, three- fourths of Churchill and a portion of southwestern Humboldt. 
The .second day after creating the county, the legislature divided Utah 
into three judicial districts, Carson being the third. Hon. George P. Styles, 
United States Judge for Utah Territory, being selectetl to jjreside over it. 
The fact that the new county was entitled to representation in the legis- 
lature cau.sed Weber county to lose a meniher of the legislature. The 
Governor having apijointed Orson llyde, a Mormon elder, probate judge 
of Carson county, he left Salt Lake to occupy the position on May 17, 
1855. He was accomiuuiied by Judge Styles, United States Marshal Josei)h 
L. Haywood and l'".nocli Reese, of the funi of J. and E. Reese & Company 
and an escort of thirty-five men. They reached Mormon Station on Jime 
15th. and before fall nianv other Mormons had followed tliem into Carson 


The ofiicers elected to serve first in Carson county were: sheriff, J;nnes 
C. l'"ain; sur\eynr, Henry W. Niles; prosecuting- attorney, Cliarlcs D. Uag- 
j;elt; treasurer, Kicliard ]). Sides; assessor and cnllectnr, Charles D. Dag- 
gett: clerk, llenr\- \V. Niles (the latter not being appointed until Octol)er 
2n(l): constable, H. M. Hodges; constable, James A. Willianis, bonds six 
hundred dollars; Nicholas Ambrosia, justice of the peace, was not able to 
write and signed his name with his mark. lienry Van Sickle, another 
justice of the peace, was placed under one thousand dollar bonds. On 
December 3, 1855, James McMarlin was appointed justice of the peace for 
Gold Canyon. Henry D. Sears. William P. .\llen and James McMarlin 
were the selectmen, each being under one thdusand dollar bontls. This 
organized the county. 


The ne.xt mo\e was to settle uj5on the agricultural [)art of the country, 
and accordingly a party of Mormons left Salt Lake for Carson county on 
May 7, 1856. Enough others followed to place the Mormons in the 
majority, and at the election the 4th of .\ following, the following 
Mormons were elected: recorder, Richard Bentley ; sheriff. Russell Kelley ; 
surveyor, Richard Bentley; selectmen, William Nixon and Permens Jack- 
man ; justice of the peace, Chester Loveland ; constables, Nelson Merkley 
and Seth Dustin. On December ist Charles D. Daggett was appointed 
assessor, collector and treasurer. 

In this year the Mormons had become so hostile to the go\'ernment 
of the United States that an armed mob of them had driven the United 
States district judge not only from the bench but from the territory. They 
defied all laws, and murders committed by them were frequent. Wherever 
the ]\h)rmons were ir. the majority there terror reigned. Carson county 
was the exception. Finally things reached such a chaotic stage that Presi- 
dent. Buchanan was compelled to send a small army under General A. 
Sydney Johnston to Salt Lake in order to uphold the government's suprem- 
acy. Brigham Young termed this small force an "armed mob of Gentiles'" 
and promptly called upon his followers to defend their stronghold, Salt 
Lake City, against the advance of the men under Captain Johnston. 

To further the projects of the Mormons the legislature of Utah on Jan- 
uary 14, 1857. enacted the following law. directed against Carson county: 

'•:;: :;= =;: g^j^^j county is allowed to retain its present organization so far 
as county recorder, surveyor, precincts, and precinct officers are concerned, 
and may continue to elect those officers in accordance with the existing 
arrangements and laws, until further directed by Great Salt Lake county 
court or legislative enactment. 

"Section 5. — The record books, papers and blanks, and seals, both of 

32 A HisTom' or xi".\'.\n.\. 

pniljalc and cnunlv courts, shall 1)0 delivered over to the order ot the pmhate 
court of (Ireat Salt Lake couuty." 

lu accordauce with this mandate Judge Chester Loveland adjourned 
the county court on April 13th until the iirst Monday in the following 
June, hut it was not until Septeniher 3. i860, that this hrauch of the judiciary 



Carson County Depopulated. 

Brigham ^'oun,^ Orders Mormons .Vway From Western L'lah, 1857 — Terri- 
torial (iovernment Again Attempted — The Petition to Congress — The 
Deed of Blood at Mountain Meadow — Hanging of "Lucky I'ill" and 
the Effects Politically — 1858 — Ccninty Election 1858. 

The first contingent of Mormons to leave Eagle Valley for Salt Lake 
was one known as the P. G. Sessions California Mormon train, and in 
it were sixty-five men, women and children, with a train of scx'cnteen 
wagons, forty horses and thirty-two mules. They departed on the i6th 
of July, and it was not until the 5th of September that the order came 
calling every Mormon away from western Utah. It was brought by the 
Conover Company I-Lxpress just after sundown, and twenty-one days after- 
ward a train load consisting of one hundred and tw^enty-three wagons bore 
away four hundred and fifty of "the Elect," among whom were persons from 
both Oregon and California. It lodk them until the 2nd day of November 
to reach their destination. 

F(jr a time the departure of the Mormons left Washoe ;uiil Truckce 
valleys sparsely settled, but people fnmi ("alifornia soon came in. being able 
lo buv for a trille the pro])crl\- aixl im])io\ emcnts of the Mormons, it was 
not long before the vacant ])laces were more than filled by (ieulilcs and 
deserters from the Mormon ranks. 

A second attemiit at territorial government was made on .\ngust 3, 
1857, by the people living on the east base of the Sierra Nevada, a meeting 
i)eing called at (ienoa on that date. It was called after the departure of (he 
Sessions Mormon train on July lOih, but about four weeks l)ef(ire the whole- 
sale exodus of Mormons from western I 'tab. judge Loxeland was iuxited 
to speak at this meeting but clid not dn so. The initiatory step to i)rocure 
the authorization of a new lerritoiy by Congress was taken at a i)rimary 
meeting on the evening of the date above mentioned, fhe citizens of Carson 

A lllSroKV Ol' XlvVADA. 33 

and surrounding valleys assembled in (iilbert's saloon to arrange for a mass 
meeting of all citizens to prepare the i)etition to Congress for a new territory 
to be organized from portions of L'tah, California and New Mexico. C'olonel 
jnlm Reese was chairman and Wilhani Xixnn acted as secretary. Chairman 
Reese briefl}' stated the ol)ject of tiie meeting, and the following resolutions 
were adopted b}' unanimous vote : 

Rfsolzrd: That a mass meeting of the inhabitants of the Territory of 
L'tah. lying east of the Sierra Nevada mountains, west of the Goose Creek 
mountains, and between the Colorado river on the south and the Oregon line 
on the north, be held on Saturday, the eighth day of .August. 1857, to take 
into consideration this subject, and to provide ways and means for presenting 
this whole questi(jn to the earnest consideration of the President of the United 
States and b<:)th Houses of Congress. 

Rcsoh'cd : That a committee of nineteen be api)ointed to make arrange- 
ments for holding said mass meeting in the town of Geno», Carson Valley, on 
Saturday, the eighth day of August, 1857. 

Rcsok'af: That Judge Crane and Judge Loveland be inxited, and are 
hereby recjuested, to address the meeting on that occasion. 

The following gentlemen were appointed as a committee of arrangements : 

R. D. Sides, Clear Creek; Dr. B. L. King, Eagle Valley: Dr. Daggett. 
James McMarlin, William B. Thorrington, Orin Gray, John S. Child, Daniel 
Woodford. INIajor Ormsby, D. E. Gilbert. Samuel Singleton. H. L. Alexander. 
and eight others, Carson Valley. 

On motion adjourned to meet en masse, on Saturday , .Vugust 8. at one 
o'clock P. M. John Reese. Chairman. 

William Nixon, Secretary. 

Genoa, August 3, 1857. 

On the day appointed the mass meeting assembled in due form, and after 
being called to order liy Alajor William M. Ormsby, Colonel John Reese was 
elected president, and Isaac R(jop, Captain F. C. Smith, Dr. B. L. King and 
SolouKJu Perrin were elected \'ice ])residents. Major Ormslj\- mo\ed that a 
committee consisting of Major Ormsby. R. 1). Sides, Elijah Knott, Thomas 
J. Singleton, Dr. B. L. King, Daniel Woodford, S. Stephens, Warren Smith 
and John McMarlin l)e appointed to ]ire.<ent Inisiness to the meeting. This 
was done and the committee retired, and while the\- were awa\- Judge James 
M. Crane addressed the meeting for an hour. The resolutions presented l)y 
the committee were adopted unanimoush- by the citizens assembled. 

This move for a new territor\- received a wonderful impetus when the 
horrible massacre of the emigrants at Mountain Meadow by the Mormons 
and Indians became known. Although it really occiu'red about four weeks 
after this meeting it was not until o\-er two months that it began to Ije sus- 
pected that the Mormons were implicated with the Indians in the perpetration 
of that deed of blood. This, added to the open defiance of the government 


by Brighani Yuung. aroused popular feeliug in --upi)ort ot the proposed new 
territory, the papers of California rallying to its support. e\en to the point 
of exaggerating its importance, l)oth editorially and hv means of curresjx)ncl- 
ents. It was claimed that western' I'tali was a veritable miners" and farmers' 


Just before tieneral Johnston's army arrixed in L'tah an emigrant train 
of one lumdred and fifty persons stojtped at Salt Lake to procure provisions, 
not one being aware that there was open hostility between the Mormons and 
the government. They learned it only when they found that the Alormons 
would neither give nor sell provisions to the Gentiles. In the party were young 
and old, white-haired grandparents and nursing Ijabes, an d starxa tion stared 
them in the face although they had plenty of money. Provisions had been 
taken to last them only as far as Salt Lake, and after leaving" that place they 
passed settlement after settlement of Mormons and in not one could they 
secure a pound of food, h'roni the Indians they managed to procure eight 
bushels of corn. The emigrants were far above the a\erage. not only farmers 
and mechanics and artisans. l)ut ministers and professional men, all hoping 
to find in California everything; they had hitherto lacked. The live stock 
and transportation was valued at three hundred thousand dollars, while many 
carried large sums of money. 

Until the\- reached Salt Lake the expedition had been regarded as almost 
a picnic, but now terror o])pressed them. They pushed on and finally made 
cam]) at Ca\e Springs, in the Mountain Meadows, on September 'ith. where 
they intended to rest long enough to give the live stock time to graze and gain 
strength for the jfjurncy ahead. The very next morning they were attacked 
by Mormons disguised as Indians, and bona-fide Indians under the direction 
of John I). Lee. Fifteen were wounded and se\en killed outright. In a 
moment the emigrants rallied and beat the attacking forces off. killing two 
of the Mormons. 

The Mormons being compelled to withdraw for reinforcements. William 
.\den and another emigrant tried to break through and obtain assistance, 
though there was no he!]) nearer than California. They reached I'into creek, 
where Bill Stewart and a boy com))anion met them: young Aden was instantlv 
killed, and his c<im]);niion though wounded nrmaged to esca])e. Stewart 
visited the spot years later and boasted <<\ killing a (ienlile. kicking the bones 
of young Aden to show his contempt. 

The emigrants in camp were ex])osed day and night to a merciless rifle 
fire all during Monday. Tuesday and Wednesday. They suffered most from 
the want of water, and a heroic wmnan. thinking perhaps her sex 

A IILSIURV Oi' \Ji\AUA. .'55 

wiiiild ])rotect her. left the enclosure lo milk a cow, hut she was shot down 
at once. Then two tin\' children were dressed in ])ure white and like an!>els 
of innocence started to the sprin,^; to try to till a small pail with water. Not 
even they were spared, and hcfore the eyes of their agonized mothers the life 
hlood of the infant martyrs dyed the path. This s])urred the hesieged little 
hand to fresh exertions; a manuscript was written, giving the names of the 
entire party, the church, and secret orders to which each belonged, the history 
of the attack, the condition of the party and all details. That night three 
heroes set out, without food, water or guidance, to try to reach California, 
that California lying hundreds of miles across trackless deserts and formidable 
mountains. In safety they ])assed the line of Abirmons and Indiana, but the 
trail was discovered in the morning and a band of Indians under Ira Hatch 
sent to murder them. While aslee]) on the Santa Clara mountains the pur- 
suers came up with them: two were killed at once, and one escaped, wounded 
in the wrist. In a ])itiable contlition he reachetl Las Vegas in northern Cali- 
fornia, close to the California line. Here he met two men, one, John 
M. Yoimg, and they off'ered him assistance and said they would 
get him to Salt Lake in safetv. He turned with them and at 
Cottonwood the pursuing ]rdr{\ met them and forced his new-found 
friends to gi\e him up. By order of the white tiend. Hatch, the 
Indians sent volley after volley of arrows into his quivering flesh until death 
ended the scene. The paper to which the emigrants had pinned their faith 
was in possession of the Mormons for _\-ears, John D. Lee finally rlestroying it. 
.Vt last the Mormons decided that to secure their victims by force would 
mean a loss of life to them and s<i decided to accomplish the desired end 
l)y stratagem. A flag of truce was carried 1)\- messengers to the emigrants, 
who heard their declaration that the Mormons had come to save them from 
the Intlians, and that if the emigrants would surrender to them they would 
simply be held as prisoners and jirotected fr-om the Indians. Their tale was 
believed and the doomed garrison followed instructions and, unarmed, left 
their defenses, carrying the children and wounded in wagons, the women 
in single file and the men last of all. Without warning Indians and Mormons 
united to exterminate them, and in five minutes, of the hundred and fifty, only 
eighteen tin\' children were alixe. they being too young to talk. Details 
of tliat carnival of blood, the atrocities committed li}' red and white man 
alike, have lieen told and retold until it is familiar history, and yet the fate 
of that ill-starred expedition was (tnly surmised until John Cradelbaugh, in 
iiS5y, was sent to Utah as United States district judge. Just and unafraid 
he determined to unravel the mystery. One of the red-handed Mormons had 
committed suicide and another had gone insane from the memory of that 
horrible scene. The children saved were located, but of course could re- 


member nothing. Finding he could make no further progress Judge Cradel- 
baugh pubhshed to the world what he had been alile to unearth, and it was 
twenty years before justice was meted out to e\en one. and then, on March 
23, 1877. John D. Lee, bishop and murderer, was shot by order of the court 
for his participation in that crime, of which he was one of the instigators 
and leaders. But he was the onl_\' one \\ho paid any penalty for participation 
in that wholesale butchery. 

H.\NGINt; OF UCKY 1511.1,. 

In the year 1858 occurred an event concerning which oi)inions have 
always differed, and that was the hanging of William B. Thorrington, pop- 
ularly known as "Lucky Bill," on June 19th. He was a native of Chenango 
count}'. Xew York, and remme'd from there to Michigan in 1848 with his 
parents. Two years later he crossed the plains to California, removing to 
Carson Valley in 1850. He was a favorite with all classes, handsome and 
jovial ; he was of massive frame, six feet one inch in height and weighing 
two hundred ])ouncls. While his hair was jet black, his eyes were gray. He 
had become quite wealthy and had purchased the Eagle ranch from the Reeses 
and the Carson Valley toll road from Israel Mott and possessed other valuable 
real estate. One of bis characteristics was a tendency to always help the 
weaker part\- in any dis|)ute. no matter if the weaker one had proxoked it. 
He was generous to a fault and noted for his braver}'. Despite his wealth 
he was a gambler and a most lucky one, his best game being the "thimble 
rig game." His luck not only in gambling but in every venture, gained- him 
his sobriipiet, "Luck} Bill." Hundreds of instances are given showing his 
generosity and bravery. Many emigrants who stop|)ed at Ahirmon Station 
had occasion to bless him for his kindness. His surroundings had been such 
that they implanted in his breast sentinients at x'ariance with the ones usually 
harbored by humanity. He had more respect for a thief or murderer than 
for one who would betray either criminal to the authorities if they had been 
asked for protection by the criminal. This little eccentricity was known to 
e\'eryone, as well as the fact that it sometimes prexented justice being meted 
out to criminals, for the bad citizens also were aware of laicky Bill's ideas. 
In the end this one defect led to his ignominious death. A man by the name 
of Bill Edwards in the spring of 1858 shot and killed a man !)\ the name 
of Snelling, in Merced county, CaIiforiii;i, ,'md he came straight to Lucky 
ibil. k'niin him he went to Honey i-ake valley and stojjped with John N. 
(iil])in, W. T. C. Elliott and others. While there, with a man called Mullins, 
lie murdererl Harry Gordier, the object being robbery. Gordier's l)ody tied 
in a sack was found iii Susan rixer. ;inci ,111 innocent man. .'^now, was hanged 
for the crime. Susjiicions finally falling mi the tine murderers h'.dwards went 


til I.uck\- P>ill and tnlil liim thai lie was innocent Init must get away. Tic 
wanted to sell a \aliialile race horse and go to South America. Lucky 
l)ill agreed to Iielp hiiu, lint Elliott and (iilpin were determined to bring 
Edwards to justice, and, pretending to he frieiidh', were told all the plans for 
escape. They purchased the horse, and on the 14th of June all jjarties were 
arrested hut Edwards, who escaped, lie was betrayed by the son of Lucky 
l')ill, Jerome Thorrington, who was told that if Edwards were secured his 
father would lie set free. The lio\ knew the murdererV hiding place and ili- 
vulged it, but his fatlier was not set free. ( )n the 17th the trial, followed 
by con\iction, took place; John L. Car\' was judge and W. T. C Elliott 
acted as sheriff. Tliere were eighteen jnrois, the evidence, all under oath, 
being taken down by C. N. Notewai'e, once Secretary of State for Nevada. 
I'l'oni these notes, the only thing Lucky Bill was implicated in at all was 
trying to help the murderer esca])e. Edwards himself swore that he had 
told Lucky Bill he was innocent am! tlwrc was not one zmrd of evidence to 
the contrary, yet Lucky Bill was found guilty of being an accessory to the 
nun'der after the fact and condemned to death. Edwards, on iiis own con- 
fession, was condemned to hrmg. The others arrested were discharged save 
two, and they were fined one thousand dollars each and ordered to leave the 
country. Attempts to collect the line were unsuccessful and one of them at 
least remained in the valley. Samuel Swager, Walter Cesser and Theodore 
Winters were a])pointcd to take lulwards to llone\' \'alle}' to be hanged. 
This the_\- did, the execution taking place on June -'3, 1S58. 

Lucky Bill was hanged first, on June Kjth, the scaffold l>eing erected 
before the trial was finished. The execution was primitive and took place 
between three and four in the afternoon. The rope from the beam was 
placed around the doonied man's neck as he stood in a wagon and when 
the horses pulled the wagon out fi'om under him be slowly strangled to death, 
llis son died later and bis wife was consigned to the Stockton Insane .\sylum 
in California. 


In October of tlie same )ear a p.artially successful attempt to reorganize 
the county of Carson was made, an election for county of^cers being called 
for Octol^er 30th by John S. Child, who had been appointed probate judge 
by Goxernor Cummings, who succeeded Brigbam Young. There were two 
tickets ])Ut u]), one called anti-iNlormon. thnugii in the whole valley there was 
just one solitary Mormon: the name covered really the vigilantes who bad 
])artici]iated in or sympathized with the act of banging Lucky Bill. They 
referred to Judge Child and his part)' as Mormons. There were six precincts, 
but because of illegal \-oting two onl\- were counted, which elected men on 


what was termed the Mormon ticket, with tlie exception of Aliernathy. Tlie 
candidates for representatixe receiving; tiie same nnml^er of votes, the result 
was declared in favor of H. B. Clemons. according to the L'tah Statutes. 
pages 234. Sec. 12. The votes thrown out would ha\e given Stehhins a 
majority of 48. heing as follows: fiold Canyon. 36; Washoe Valley. 18: 
Eagle Vallev. 21; Smith's Station. 1: total j(i; demon's votes thrown out 
were: Gold Canvon. 2: \\'ashoe \'alle)-. i : Smith's Station. 10: Sink Hum- 
holdt. 15: total 28. 

The legal vote cast ga\e the following results: h'or representative: H. 
B. Clemmons, ^j : Alark Stehhins. 57. For sheriff. L. Ahernathy, 38 : George 
("hedic. 53. For surveyor, C. N. Noteware. 58: John F. Long. 54. For 
recorder, S. A. Kinsey. 56: S. Taylor. 53. For treasurer. M. M. Gaige, 
56: H. Mott. Sr., 54. For selectmen, W. G. \\'yatt, 58; James McMarlin, 
^j: R. D Sides, ^j : John L. Gary, 55; J. H. Rose, 56: W. Cesser, 56. 
Township Xo. i. Justice of the peace: Benjamin Sears, 2-^: A. G. Ham- 
mack. 22. Constahle: T. J. Atchison, 31: J. M. Hering. 13. Township 
Xo. 2. Justice of the peace: James Farwell. 38; H. \'an Sickle, 26. 
Constahle: J. A. Smith. 26; J. :\I. Howard, 18. 

So little attention did the people pay to this election that the ]iositions 
to which candidates were elected were nothing hut sinecures. 


First Discovkrv of Silver. 

Death of the Disco\erers — Search for Placers Rewarded 1858 — Xaming of 
Gold Hill — The Comstock Lode — Located 1859 — The Rush I'rom Cali- 
fornia — First Quartz Mill — Silver in Comstock Ores — Historical Book 
of Records — The Sutro Tunnel — Difliculties and Opposition — Inven- 
tions at the Comstock. 

.\11 these years miners had l)een prospecting throughout Nevada, and 
undouhtedly Allen and llosea B. (irosh were the first tt> discover silver, 
'i'hey were well educated, intelligent men. well \ersc(l in assaying and min- 
eralogy, in their cahin. near \\h:it is now .SiKer City, they kept a well 
stocked library, volumes of scientific wDrk's: tliex' also had e\tensi\e as- 
sayer's and chemical ai)])aratus. 

Mrs. Laura M. Dettenrieder. who mo\cd to .Nevada in 1833, knew the 
brothers. They returned from wintering at X'olcano on their way to Sugar 
Loaf in Six-mile Canyon and stopped at her home for dinner. They told her 
they would camj) at Sugar Lo;if .and jircisjicct finlher for sihei' in the 


wlierc they liad fniind it the _\ear l)ef<)re. They ]M'oniised to stake out a 
claim foi' her mi the I'ioiieer Claim to lie located for the "Pioneer Silver 
Minins;' Company." They had organized a company liy that name while 
in Volcano. In the IVII Mrs. Dettenrieder (she was Mrs. I'",lhs then), went 
to California, and mi her return, in passino- along the .\merican hdat Wash 
on the way to Haytmi. came upon the cahin of the Crosli hrothers. Hosea 
was laid iij) with a sore foot, which he had (h'iveii a pick into, .\llen came 
to the caliin. with their partner, Cai)tain (ialpin, hefore she left. He ga\'e 
her a piece of riK'k and told her it was from her claim, a little above the 
pioneer location, which was three hundred feet in extent. She was taken to 
some elex'ated ground to sec its location and .Mien pi'inted to M(junt l)a\'idsmi 
and said it was at the base of that point. She told, them had news, the murder 
of Cicorge Brown, a station keeper at (IraxelK- hord. They told her he 
was a partner and had intended coming out from the station in the fall to 
assist them to open theii siher mines, lie already had six hundred dollars 
buried. She told tlicm that if they were sure it would be safe she would 
sell her property and raise one thousand fi\-e hundred dollars toi put in. 
They satisfied her cum]5letely by the locations they had entered in a bonk. 
She went to Jolintown. and three (l;iys later Hosea (jrcosh was dead from 
blocxl poisoning in his foot. Allen started back to California, leaving Coui- 
stock in charge of things. He was overtaken bv snow in the Sierra, and 
w'hen relief reached him was so badly frozen his legs had to be amputated, 
from the effects of which he died. She could not find out what became of the 
record hook shown her. 


Johntown was the rendezvous for the miners when the winter frost 
rendered placer mining impossible, around Mount Davidson, or, as it was 
then called. Sun Peak. In 1S5S an unexpected thaw set in in January and 
prospecting parties took ad\antage of the water in the gulches to go to the 
head of Gold Canyon. At a knoll on the west side they tried for gold and 
found it, near wdiat is now the north end of Gold Hill. John Bishop told of 
the discovery briefly. He said he had noticed indications of a ledge and 
got a little color. He spoke to "Old Virginia" about it and he remembered 
the place from hunting game there. He had seen quartz there too, and so 
he joined the party, Comstock following also. Bishop took a pan and had 
to fill it with his foot as they had neither slioxel nor spade. Some of the 
others followed his example, some being supplied with shovels. Bishop 
further says : 

"I noticed some willows growing on the hillside, and started for them 
with my ])an. The place looked like an Indian spring, which it proved to 


he. I began washing out my jian and when I had f:nishe<l I found tliat I 
had in it about fifteen cents and none of tlie others had less than eight 
cents, hut none more tlian 1 had. It was \eiy fine gold; just as fine as 
flour; Old Virginia decided that it was a good place to l<ocate and work. 

"The next difticultx' was to obtain water. \\'e followed the canyon 
along for some distance, and found what ajipeared to be the same formation 
all the way along. Presently Old Virginia and another man wdio had been 
rambling away, came back and said they found any amount of water which 
could be brought right there to the ground. 

"1 and my partner meantime had a talk together, and had decided to 
put the others of the i)arty right in the middle of the good ground. 

■■.\fter Old Virginia got back we told him this, liut we were not under- 
stood, as he said if we had decided to 'hog' it we cnuld do so, and he wuuld 
look around furllier; liut he remained and when the ground was measured off 
he took his share with the rest. 

"After we had measured the ground we had a consultation as to what 
name was to be given the place. It w^as decidedly not Gold Canyon, for it 
was a little hill; so we concluded to call it ("mid llill. That is how the place 
came by its present name. " 

It was only the discoverers at first who thought well nf the new diggings, 
but as the results of work I)ecame richer and richer and froiu fi\e dollars a 
day the men began to wash out twent\- dollars, crowds began to rush in. At 
first everyone cam])ed out, but log houses at last started the town of Gold 
Hill, built over the Belcher, Crown Point, Yellow Jacket, Imperial, Empire, 
Kentuck and other mines of the famous Comstock L<ide. 


It was on June 12 or 13, 1X39, that the lode itself was discovered 
The washes from the north and south sides of Mount Davidson came down 
from the west and ])assing through the foothills to the valley, by way of 
Carson river, cut their way through and over the Comstock Lode; the water 
picked up the gold freed by die deciim|)osing (piartz and left it along the 
way as far as the valley l)clow. washes cut the hills, forming (lold 
Canyon and Six-mile Canyon. As the pay dirt gave out in the former 
canyon the miners gradually worked nearer to the lode. The fdllowing 
description of the discovery of the Comstock Lode was given bv bjuanuel 
Penrod in October of 1880: 

"I left Illinois in 1852 bnuud f(ir Califoiui;i ;iud st<ip])ing. mined with 
success for one mnmh at Gnld Cauynn, and in Xovember continued my 
journey to the Pacific coast. In .Xovember. 1S53, I v.ciU back to thai can- 
yon, where 1 mined until June. 1831. 1 then \isilcd lUiuMis. and relumed 

A TnS1T)in' OF NEVAD7\. 41 

asaiti in 1S36 with my taniily and liave since resided in this state, following 
in snnimer tlio (iccu]ialiiin n\ fanniiii^- and that f)f minintj in winter. 

"I was i)n the jur\- when William Thiirrini^tnn (Lucky Ijill) was 
hanged. It was not as I )an 1 )c (jiiill has it. In a xiijilance cnmmitit-f, 
l)ut hy a ])enple's court. .\ \igilance committee was organized afterwards. 
''= " * I was in (lold Hill wlieu Peter O'Riiey and Patrick McLaughlin 
were prospecting at what is now Ophir mine. They iiad just found a 
good prospect of gnld when Comstock came to them and said: 'N'nu ha\c 
struck it hoys.' He then told them that Old Virginia. James r"inney, Jo 
Curhy. James \\'hite and William Hart claimed this ground, and that they, 
O'iviley and McLaughlin, had hetter huy it or the old claimants would (lri\c 
tliem off. O'Riiey and McLaughlin sent for me and wanted me to huy 
the old claimants out. as Comstock and mvself owned nine shares out of 
ten of the spring that furnished water for working the mine. Comstock 
was to huy the other .share, and we fnur were to he equal owners in the 
claim. We thought it was only a continuation of the ])lacers tliat hcul l)een 
worked lower down on the flat, where the 0])hir hoisting works now 
stand. T got a hill of sale from Finney, White and Curhy for the whole 
of the ground. Hart had left the camp. I paid $50 for it, I think, and 
Comstock gave an old l)liiKl horse for the share of water. There were 
al«)ut six inches of pay dirt after stri])])ing off ahout three feet of surface. 
This streak, or stratum, of pay increased in thickness as we workeil up 
liill. We found the gravel all decomposed cpiartz, some of it as black as 
soot. When it became known that we had good pay — for we were taking 
out three liundred dollars per day to the rocker and were running three of 
them — Joseph D. Winters found that we had not FLart's signature to the 
bill of sale. He, Winters, found Hart and got a bill of sale for his interest, 
and to save trouble we took Winters in as a full partner. About this time, 
June 12 or 13, 1859, our pay-streak turned down into a lead ahout four 
feet wide. I contended that it was a ([uartz lead and the rest of the Ixiys 
laughed at me. Comstock finally sided in with me, and we measured off 
our claim — 1,500 feet as the law allowed — 300 feet to the man and 300 
for the discoverer. This was a day or two before Winters came in. .\fter 
Winters came in the company we tiiok in a man l)y the name of Orsburn, 
in consideration of his building and stocking two arastres, making six men 
in the company, .\fter it was knfnvn to be a lead our company gave Com- 
stock and myself one hundred feet of it. ji lining our work on the north, 
for staking off the claim, antl sruing it to the com])au\'. This one hundred 
feet was the original 'Mexican.' " 



"in a short time the news readied Cahfornia of the richness of this 
mine and then followed a great rush of excited ]3eo])le. 'I'hreats were made to 
cut down claims to two hundred feet, so we each six of our company selected 
his man. and deeded ofif fifty feet each, making three hundred feet in all. 
This three hundred feet came off the north end of the Ophir. This was 
afterwards called the Atchison. Some of the company, I lielieve, got their 
part ot this three hundred feet hack. 1 from the first considered tliis a 
l)ona-fide sale, and still do. .A majority of our company soon sold their 
interest in the Ophir. when the buyers jjroposed to Iniild a two hundred thou- 
sand dollar mill, and to keep from being froze out. 1 sold ni}- one sixth for 
five thousand five hundred dollars to James \\'a1sh. I sold my fifty feet 
in the Mexican to Meldanado for three thousand dollars. Of the six original 
locators or companv. Comstock died in Montana, O'Riley was taken to 
Stockton. ]\IcLauglilin, I heard, dietl in southern California, Orsburn went 
to the States, I belie\e. Jo. 1). Winters was in California when last I heard 
from him, and all except Orsburn, I believe, cpiite po<ir. 

"In 1858 I. with others, mined in a little gulch we called Cedar Ravine, 
just below where Virginia City stands, then from the head of the ravine, 
working the flat, where the Ophir hoisting works now are and to within three 
or four rods of the lead where there was so much clay it could not be 
worked. O'Riley and McLaughlin were running the cut in this clay in 
June. 1859. when the}- struck the croppiiigs of the lead liroken over and 
co\ered three feet deep." 

When Dan De (juille published bis liooL: "Big P)Oiianza" he gave a 
full rc])ort of the disco\-ery of the Comstock Lode. Mr. I'eiirod took excej)- 
tions to this account and in a letter stated: 

"(^n l)agc 52 of the 'Rig Bonanza' Dan 1 )e (Jnille says: 'Comstock 
next demanded that one hundred feet of the ground on the le:id should 
i)c segregated and given to i'enrod and himself for the right to the water 
they were using,' which is incorrect. The one hundred feet of ground 
referred to. afterwards called the Mexican, was gi\cn to Comstock and 
myself. .Miout a week after we four, /. c. O'Riley, McLaughlin. Comstock 
and myself, were all in company and working, following the ])av up the 
hill. ;. (•., the crop|)ings of the lead, broken over when it turned to gn down. 
1 was the first to claim that it was a (pi.artz lead: the rest of the coinjiauy 
laughed at me and said it was onlv a crevice w.'isbed out b\- ;i cnircut of 

LOCATED l"OK .\ OlAKTZ \.V..\\\ 

"I said it would do no harm to locate it for a ipi;irl/ lead and did so. 
I wrote out the notice claiming thiee liinKlred fi-el lo ilu' uKin .ind ihree 














Inindred for discnverv. four men, one thousand five hundred feet in the 
claim, as was ilie law, and signed tlie four names to it. Comsfock then 
sideil in with me and lielped measure off tlie ground ()'Kiley and .Mcl.angh- 
lin laughed at us all the time. In a few days it was proxed to he a lead and 
all the country taken up. 

"In consideration of the location and time and jnitting their names in 
the location O'Riley and McLaughlin ga\e us the one hundred feet to take 
it at any |)]ace we wished. We took it on the north from the discover}'. 
Comstock and 1 owned the water that su])phed the mine. We then ga\'e 
it to the company." 

Less than ten davs after the location of the Comstock Lode as a ipiartz 
\'ein, the following" notice of an article of agreement entered into \\;is re- 
corded : 

This indenture, made and entered into this twenty-second of June, 
1859, hetween Lmanuel Penrotl. Henry Comstock, Peter O'Riley, Pat Mc- 
Laughlin, of the first part, and J. A. Orslnu'u, J. 1). Winters. Jr.. of the 
second part, witnesseth : 

That the first jKU'ty aho\e named do agree to sell and convey to the 
second party (J. A. Orshurn and J. 1). Winters. Jr.) two-sixths of fourteen 
hundred ( 1400) feet of a certain cpiartz and surface claim lying and heing 
located on Pleasant Hill, L'tali Territory, for and in the following con- 
siderations, to wit: The said second party (J. A. Orshurn and J. D. Win- 
ters. Jr.) do agree to huild two arastres and furnish stock to run the same, 
worth the sum of seventy-five dollars each, and the number of horses or 
mules are to be two. It is further agreed In- the parties that after the com- 
pletion of the first arastre, the proceeds from the vein and claim shall be 
equally divided between the members of the company after all debts settle 
(line worn ofif) copartnership. It is also agreed that the second arastre 
shall be liuilt as soon as posible after the completion of the first. It is also 
agreed by the first party that the second party (J. .\. Orsburn and J. D. 
Winters, Jr.) shall have an equal interest in all the water now on the claim 
for the use of working said claim and arastres. It is further agreed by the 
members of the compan)- that, if any member of this company propose to 
sell he is to give the members of the company preference in the sale. W'e 
do further agree that if there is any surplus of water that is not used by 
the above claim that it may be used by Messrs. Comstock and E. Penrod 

on the We do further agree that no member of this 

company shall sell, convey or transact an\' business for the company unless 
he is authorized to do so- by a majority of the company. In testimony 
whereof we, the parties herein mentioned, do cause seal to he made. 

Emanuel Penrod, 

Patrick McLaughlin, 

T. A. Orsburn, 

Peter OT^ilev. 


Josepli D. Winteis. Jr. 

Henry Comstock. 
Attest. B. F. Little. 
Recorded this day. V. .\. Housewnrtli. Reccirder. 


C()])ies of mine locations and other transactions wliicli form \he first 
entries in bcxik A of tlie mining records of Virginia City show tliat all 
locations were put uix)n record less than ten days after the discovery ; these 
copies also show that the miners were in doubt as to whether it was a quartz 
vein vet: the credit of disco\ery was given to Alessrs. Penrod. Comstock 
and Contpan\' as shown hv the first notice of the .Sierra .\e\ada mine as 
follow.s : 

"We the undersigned claimants ha\'e this day located the supposed 
(|uanz vein, discoi'cn'd by Messrs. Penrod. Co'instoek uiui Coiiipaiiy. com- 
mencing with the second ravine north of Penrod. Comstock and Company, 
and running north through the hill and with the vein three thousand, six 
hundred (3,600) feet, with all its depths, angles and s])urs. 
June 22. \Hy). 

Henrv Miller, 

C. C.' Gates. 

J. F. Stone. 

B. A. Harri.son. 

F. C. Tng. 

R. Robinson, 

T. Schamps. (abandoned) 

T. Walsh. 

H. M. Tran.l, 

II. M. Trand, 

j. Sturtevant. (aliandoncd) 

M. .\twood, 

!■". C. !\hui)hy. 

Jos. Woodworth. 
Recorded this day. 
I'"ce ]>aid $3. V. .\. Houseworth. Recorder. 

The names of L. C. Porter and Joseph (iiftord had been signed to this 
document and scratched ofY. 

On the next day Peter O'Riley and I'al McLaughlin filed a notictv claim- 
ing springs and streams on this property as design.iled by notices and st.ikes 
and also jjosted a notice claiming six hundred feet of the (piartz vein com- 
mencing with the .south end of Finny & Company and running south six 
Inindred feet "and two claims," both claims being duly recorded. 

Notice of the ItKation of the (iould M Ciury was recorded on May 
12, 1859, by .\. Cm-ry, J. F. Cl;irk. 11. 1'. Cl;iik .uid C W. Cnrrv Tn (his 


six liundred feel soutli were claimed includiu}; all leads, dips, angles and spurs 
together with the ])lacer diggings im the same: also right of way to run 
dirt or metal to the ra\ine. taken hy them for water. 

( )n Julie 25, 1859, V. A. Houseworth recorded a notice of a hill of sale 
of one-half of his interest in a (fuartz vein discovered hy Pem"od. Comstock & 
Company, situated on I'leasant Point, U. T., to B. F. Little. The price 
was stated to he one dollar. 

A notice claiming nine hundred feet including quartz and surface, com- 
mencing at the notice and running north, was recorded on June 2"], 1839, hy 
I''. Belcher. H. Comstock and G. VV. Argin & Coippany. 


( )n June _'_'. iS5(), Jdhn llishop lile<l a notice claiming one hundred 
and \\\\\ feet of this f|uarlz \ein commencing w itli Messrs. Pem'od & Com- 
pany's claims on the south end and running south one hundred and fifty feet 
"and one claim." 

The second notice was filed l)y H. P). Camp, also on June 22. and claimed 
one hundred and fifty feet of this quartz vein commencing with the south 
end of the lirst claim and running south one hundred and lift\' "and one 

James Core_\- in his notice, filed on the same day. claimed one hundred 
and lift}' feet of the (|uartz vein commencing with the south end of H. B. 
Camp"s claim and running south one hundred and fiftv feet "and one claim." 


E. Payne and Cook, on June 10, 1859, recorded a notice in which 

they claimed "this spring for mining purposes, and also six hundred feet of 
this quartz vein, commencing at the Comstock & Company vein and running 

Book A is much worn and so many of the names are undecipherahle, 
owing not so much to the lapse of time as to poor writing, that a complete 
list of the names of the locaters of the Comstock is unohtainahle. It was kept 
in a saloon during the early days, when V. A. Houseworth, the first recorder, 
had charge of it, and when any of the miners wanted to look up their loca- 
tions they went behind the bar and toijk it down to consult. If the boundaries 
of their locations did not exactly meet with their appro\-al they altered the 
whole thing to suit the latest ideas evolved. When it was not being used 
this way and any of the miners indulged in a friendly scuffle, the book of 
records often figured as an implement of warfare. The changes thus made 
and the fact that the notices of location were all couched in the vaguest lan- 
guage, resulted in great work for the lawyers later on. In locations for springs 


and streams, notices would read "l" or "We. the undersigned, claim" with- 
out giving- any location wliatever. In the same way, recording location of 
mining claims, locaters would define hounchtries as "Ijeginning at this stake" 
and where the stake mentioned was to he found the records did not disclose. 
Thus it was easv when suits over the mines commenced to cliange or alter 
locations, which was done in many cases. As a sample, the notice of the loca- 
tion of the Yellow Jacket mine is given, exactly as it ajijjcars in the historical 
old Book of Records : 

That we, the undersigned, claim twelve hundred (T.200) feet of this 
Ouartz Vain, including all of its depths and spurs, commencing at House- 
worth claim, and running north, including twenty-fi\e feet of surface on each 
side of the vain. This Yain is known as the Yellow Jacket \'ain. Taken 
up on Mav i, 18,9, recorded June 27, 1859. 

H. B. Camp. 
John Bishop, 
J. F. Rogers. 

It owed its name to the fact that when the owners were prospecting 
they came upon a nest of Ii\el)' yellow-jackets. 

In the notice, as in all recorded, the word "depths" meant "dips," indi- 
cating the desire to follow it and thus establishing their right to do so no 
matter where it led. In like manner the word "variations" was presumed to 
give them a right to e\ervthing desiralile in that vicinity. 


ll did, not lake long for the hrst ([uartz mill's establishment, fcjr e.xactl}- 
one month after Fmanuel Pennxl had ])ul up the first notice, which claimed 
the Ophir as a quartz ledge. Hugh Logan and John P. Holmes set alxwt 
securing a location for one. The two men were in Nevada comity, Cali- 
fornia, when the news of the great discovery reached them, and tlie\' at once 
crossed over to investigate. They first purchased an interest in the (lohl 
Hill location, south of the divide, and Mr. Logan went at once to Sacra- 
mento for the necessary machinery. Of the L'nion Foimdrv he purchased 
a small mill, four stamps of four hundred pounds each, with motor ;md 
horse power to run il. In three days it was shipped to ( iold Hill, trans- 
ported in wagons drawn by eight horses and twenty-four oxen. It reached 
its destination the last of August, but the water by this time had all dried 
u\>. and it was taken to the mouth of the canyon on Carson river, where 
Dayton is located. It was ready for business early in October and continued 
until the heavy winter storms, when it closed down, there being no luml)er 
at band to cover the machinery. The castings for a water wheel had been 

A IllSrom' Ol- NEVADA. 47 

ordered fr<iin (/.difdinia. hut were delayed 1)\' simw in transit, and did nnl 
reacii (iuld Hill until the fnlldwinsj; summer. 


,\l first the locaters ne\'er (heamed (jf any values in the Lonist(jck ore 
save tiie gold extracted, and it was hy accident the fact was discovered. 
.Among the curious visitors to the mines was a farmer. W. P. Morrison. 
Prompted by curiosity lie picked up some of the sulphurets thrown away as 
wortiiless. He was on his way to Xevada City, California. Wlien in the 
ofitice of the Journal in that place, in comijany with j. F. Stone, lie exhil)iteil 
the supposedly worthless ores, .\fter inspecting it the ore was given to J. J. 
Ott to assay, and to say that the results astonished them would he putting 
it very mildly, for the test showed in atldition to the gold \alues of $1,595, 
the sum of $3,196 in silver. Scarcely l)elieving the marvelous truth, another 
test was made by another assayer, Mellville Atwood. of Grass Valley. The 
results were identical. Mr. Morrison informed those in the secret that 
there were tons and tons of the ore in plain sight already in the lead opened 
by the Ophir Company. It was to remain a profound secret until these men 
and their best friends could cross over and secure claims on this newly dis- 
covered silver lode. This determination met with the usual result; one best 
friend confided in his liest friend, forming a chain of men comprising half 
the population of Grass Valley, and all this before nine o'clock of the morn- 
ing following the last assay made, which was done late at night. 

Without waiting for the others. Judge Walsh and Joe Woodworth started 
out early that morning on horseback, leading a mule packed with provisions. 
It was not long before the entire population of Nevada county knew this, 
and hundreds of miners left the scene oi mining operations in that location 
I'or this new bonanza. Many had to walk, with their provisions and tools 
carried by mules over the mountains. 

News of this wholesale e.Kodus spread all o\er California in a few days, 
and when the iirst contingent sent back word that the first reports had not 
been exaggerated, the excitement spread. Not only miners lint professional 
men and men of wealth followed the trail over the Sierra to the land of sil\-er. 
Thousands were soon on the spot, and as it did not take long to locate all of 
the original discovery the ]jrospectors swarmed over all the adjacent territor_\-. 
locating every ledge which could Ije found, some of which realized the air 
castles built on their discovery and many of which did not. But in order to 
ascertain the value of these locations many had to remain during the winter 
in discomfort, little tO' eat and nothing to do. There had been a great e.x-. 
change of property, all bu\ing who had the price when they found they 
could not secure locations and could find someone who would sell. Those 


will) sold left before sikiw fell, and hundreds of miners who cared for nolhiny 
hut placer mining, left with them, glad to go to work again in the gulches 
of California. 'I'hose left behind had to pass through an unusually se\ere 
winter during which much of the live stock perislied. 

The following spring, as soon as the melting of the snow permitted, a 
vast tlirong of jieople invaded the mountain solitudes. Very few of the 
])eople. either from California or the east, knew- what silver ore was. Placer 
mining the Californians were familiar with. Init veins of quartz were a deep, 
dark secret, and all knew the mountains were honeycombed with (juartz 
\eins ;md that in those quartz veins lurked the wealth they were after. In 
consecpience nearly every one worked blindl}', locating every piece of quartz 
in sight. To the inexperienced eye all the indications were alike, and many 
and great were the disappointments as locati(Hi after location had to be 
abandoneil. Many of these lodes have been worked since, tunnels run and 
siiafts sunk and every effort made to bring out the precious metal if it exists, 
but few have been successful. 

.\t first the whole excitement had been over gold, but now it was silver; 
the ore that assayed as high- as eighty dollars had been thrown away by miners, 
who regarded it as utterly worthless. The scramble was intensified as fresh 
discoveries were made. Indications were found high up on the mountains 
to the west, ])articularly on ]\Iount David. East of the Conistock, near 
Carson ri\'er, ])roved rich in metal, and the territory north and south of the 
first find ])romised well, and every foot of ground was sewn taken up. 

Trouble over locations occurred everv day, and in many cases claims 
were held sim])ly In" right of might, and the fact is often that possession is 
in such districts not nine-tenths but ten-tenths of the law. Sometiines men 
re.sorted to "shotgun possession." The fact that there was much mineral 
on the surface encouraged e\ery one. all thinking they had a second Com- 
.stock. The croppings from the first discovery looked as well as that did, 
both east and west, especially the latter. Yet while many had some milling 
ore, exploration generallx' ])ro\ed them worthless. 

i'his afforded great opjjoiiunity for the "citting" of all kinds of mine 
frauds. Xevada is said to l)e the banner state in regard to "wild cats." 
.Many fortunes were made and lost in this sort of schemes, and in fact all 
kind of swindling ])rojects flourished. The presence of the "mountain of 
siU'cr" acted as a magnet to draw together not onl\- miuei"s, men of business 
and professional men, but the gambler and thieves as well, and one way and 
another, they, with the abandoned women, secured more than their share of 
ihe money in circulation, for they o|)enly declared that they were entitled 
lc» a ])ortion oi tiie vast wealth, \isible and speculative, which seemed to en- 
compass llic whole field of operations. With the l;itter class it was "easy 


come, easy go" while many, liitlierln unknown, by good judgment and energy to he kings of finance. ])ossessing, it seemed, tlie touch of Ising, 
whereas in realit\' it was only the force of brains backed by industr_\ . 

The inexperience of the miners in ores left them at the mercy of those 
v\ho did know, and they were saddled with all kinds of expensive machinery 
entirely useless to them. or. which, guaranteed to reduce the cost of reducing 
refractory ores, douliled it. Others were by many wiles convinced their 
claims were poor ones and sold out, sometimes for high prices but more 
often for a small sum. Many and costly were the mistakes and exi)eriments 
made by those who knew they had wealth in their possession if they could 
"only get at it." But in time, while the rest of the world was puzzling over 
the deep mining proposition. Nevada miners s(.ilved the problem by means of 
air compressor drills, ])owerful hoisting machines and diamond drills. So 
successful were they that even when Adolph Sutro, using the best methods 
of mining known, started to tunnel the mines at one thousand six hundred 
feet depth these miners distanced him in tlie race, and before he could m;ilse 
the Connection they were bel(i\v the range of the tunnel. 

This Sutro tunnel was a scheme projected liy .\di.ili)h Sutro to Vd[> the 
mines at an a\-erage depth of one thousand six hundred feet l)eIow the sur- 
face; at first the mining companies were decidedly in favor of it but, owing 
to outside pressure, in the end frowned u])on it. Sutro. h(nve\er. went right 
ahead in the face of all obstacles. He was born in Germany and was familiar 
with the s\stem in use there for working deep mines 1)\- means of an adit. 
He knew that the elevation of the mines about two thousand feet above Car- 
son ri\er, which was onl}- a little o\-er five miles distant, made a proper loca- 
tion for a drainage adit. 

Sutro was the target for much ridicule, and o])position increased, not only 
the mining and milling companies but the banking and railroad corporations 
as well fighting the plan bitteidy. He proceeded calmly and without a dollar 
to push tlie project, and in the end his unswcr\ing perseserancc and energy 
carried the da}-. Defeated in his efforts to secure government aid. he went 
to the European monev centers and met with refusal after refusal but in the 
end raised enough to begin the enterprise anrl then he knew success woidd 
be his. 

His i)ersistency was due to the fact that from the beginning he had been 
certain that the Comstock \ein .was a true fissure one and believed it would 
be ]jroductive of wealth to an immense depth. He began his plan by writing 
to the iiapers, in particular in the .Ilia Calif oniiaii in the issue of .\pril 20. 
i860, calling attention to the lack of any system in working the Comstock 
mines. He had been in Virginia City then only one week and the explora- 
tions had extended only thirty feel in depth. In 1861 he put up a mill 



and reduction works and took up liis residence in the vicinity of the Com- 
stock. In iS6i he petitioned the legislature of Nevada for a francliise. 
which was granted, giving Sutro and his associates the riglit of way for a 
tunnel. The official sanction of the state was given, and the amount of 
ro\-alt_\- to he paid by the mine owners was left to the tunnel projectors and 
the many mining companies interested. If took Sutro and Senator Stewart, 
the latter being president of the Tunnel Company, eight months to persuade 
the mine managers to enter into some agreement sn the work could go on. 
It took considerable money and much negotiating before the companies, rep- 
resenting nine-tenths of the value of the lode, agreed that a royalty of two 
dollars per ton should be paid on every ton of pay ore extracted ; compensa- 
tion was provided also for the waste rock and passengers which should go 
through the tunnel. The royalty was considered the least part of the agree- 

With this agreement pi)]nilar ii|iinion, variable as usual, turned, and 
on all sides Sutro found people ready t<i help him, even the Bank of Cali- 
fornia. Sutro thought that with the act of incorporation and the agreement 
he was safe. He went east and in New York put out a small pamphlet ex- 
plaining the tunnel and the benefits which would accrue, and the vast amount 
of money -which would he realized. The\- told him if the prospects were so 
glittering he ought to be able to raise money in California where the mines 
were located. But they agreed that if he could raise from three hundred 
thousand to five hundred thousand dollars they would give him three mil- 
lion dollars. Back he came and informed the mining com])anies. By 
May, 1867. he had six hundred thousand dollars subscribed, many private 
citizens pledging from five thousand to twenty thousand dollars. He began 
to have hopes of raising the entire sum on the Pacific coast, thinking San 
Francisco good for one million dollars. 

-\t the time when popular opinion veered to Sutro, the title or fee to 
the mines was vested in the United States government and it reqiured an 
act f>f Congress to embody the general features of the act already passed 
l)y the legislature of Nevada, to grant the additional privileges thought neces- 
sary. Sutro visited Washington and July 25, 1866, a bill, known as the 
"Sutro Tunnel Act," was approved. Tn this the government entered into 
■a compact with Mr. Sutro direct for the completion of the tunnel, and, in 
afldition to the right of way, granted l)y the first act, gave him power to 
purchase four thousand three hundred and fifty-seven acres of land at the 
tunnel's mouth; and also made him owner of the mines within two thousand 
feet on cither side of the tunnel; Ibis he would have b;id under the common 
mnnng laws. Ihe royall}- of two dollars jjcr tmi was confirmed and made 


all patents obtained liy niinin.^- cimiiianies thereafter subject to the ennditiim 
i)f the royalty. Some minor ci_>ncessions were alst) made. 

All was not clear sailing by any means. People generally iboiight that 
instead of two dollars per tun r(i\-alt\', it sIkhiM be si.x or eight dullars. And 
just as things were nmsl prmnising the Bank of California commenced a 
bitter opposition to all his plans, and as they controlled the mines and mills 
thev forced them to rejnidiate their subscriptions. The bank claimed that 
Sulro had failed to fulhl two conditions. The Tunnel Company had not 
secured $3,000,000 in bona-tide suljscriptions antl bail not submitted the 
agreements to the .stockholders in the mines at their annual meetings. Sutro 
plainly showed them in the wrong, but it availed him nothing. 

The real reason for the change of base was that they feared the tunnel 
would ruin the business of the railroad owned by the bank. The people of 
Virginia Citv were arrayed against Sutro by the statements of the l)ank 
people, who told them that Sutro's erecting immense reduction works at the 
mouth of the tunnel would ruin their city. They claimed that a city would 
be sure to grow up around the reduction works. Once again Sutro was 
stalled. He could not raise a cent either in California or New York. .\ visit 
to Europe resulted the same, owing to the fears of the war between Prussia 
and France. He returned in 1867 to .\merica undismayed. He submitted 
the memorial of the Ne\ada legislature to Congress and when it was re- 
ferred to the committee on mines and mining, Sutro fairly haunted them, 
indi\iduall\' and in bod\', and was hand .and glcne with both bouses of Con- 
sress, and as a result the committee on mines and mining recommended to 
the House a loan of $5,000,000. Just as the committee was to be called in 
the House the impeachment of .\ndrew Johnson commenced and, lasting for 
months Congress adjourned without reaching his bill. The session of 
1868-69 was so short he could not get a hearing. 


\\'hen the ways and means committee visited California in 1869 Sutro 
determined to induce them to visit the scene of the tunnel. The bank people 
secured them as guests but they visited Sutro. went into the mines and sub- 
jected thenvsehes to the terrible beat and became satisfied of the truth of 
Sutro's statements. 

Sutro then \vent to work on the miners themsehes, and by means 
of public addresses and cartoons roused them to action. He a.sked them to 
subscribe five iir ten dollars apiece .so he could carry on the work and in 
the end the miner's union sub.scribed fifty thousand dollars for an interest 
in the Tunnel Company, and that started the great work, and on the 19th 
of October, 1869, the first dirt was turned in the tunnel with appropriate 


ceremonies. By tlie end of tlie year four hundred and si.xty feet had been 
run. In tlie spring tlie hank people sent agents to Washington to get 
Sutro's franchise repealed, hut he rushed after them and when it came up 
in debate, the \\a\s and means committee, being able to speak understand- 
inglv, stood by Sutro. The \dte to repeal the third section which gave him 
the royalty was defeated by a vote of one hundred and twenty-four against 

Mr. Sutro had lieeii promised fifteen million francs in Paris, but had 
to wait until Congress adjourned in order to watch his enemies. liefore he 
could sail he recei\ed word that war was coming, and come it did. and 
Sutro could not get a cent. Back he went to Xe\'ada and struggled along, 
paying miners some money and some stock. In December, iSjo, he went 
to Washington and found the memliers of Congress arrayed against him. 
Finally Congress agreed to send out a commission to investigate. This com- 
mission after examination did not considei" the tunnel necessary for drain- 
ing the mines. More work in Congress resulted in notliing. just when success 
seemed near. Sutro concluded to pin his faith to others and the money to 
complete the tunnel came from cajiitalists. Sutro secured a cast-iron contract 
with the mining com])anies. who signed it to get rid of him. Me raised very 
little money in Loudon or Paris, but on the strength of his contracts got most 
of it from the McColniont lirothers of Scotland. When the tunnel was com- 
pleted its utility was quickly shown: it wris intended not onb' to \'cntilate 
and drain the mines and transport the ores u< where tiiey could be treated 
cheaply, Ijut to ser\e as a channel for the traus])ortation of passengers and 

It did not meet with tlic expectations of the ])roiector, for no rich ore 
bodies were uncovered and as a means of ventilation it failed. Its greatest 
benefit was the increased facilities afforded for the drainage of the mines. 
I!ul it stands a monument not only to .\(k)lph Sutro, but to per.severance and 
])Iuck and the determination which docs not know wheti it is Tieaten. Sutro 
resigned in 1879 as su])crintcndcnt of the company, disjiosing of bis stock. 
at the same time a wealthv man, — wealth which no one begrudged him. 


It was reall_\- to the Comstock Lode that the world of mining is in<lebted 
for the system now in universal use <if limbering mines containing im- 
mense ore Iiodies of great width, for it was inxcntcd for the mine by Philijij) 
Ueidcsheimer. He was brought there for the luirpose of trying to invent 
sonic |)lan to work the mines, and after devoting three weeks to experiments 
succeeded l)eyond expectations. It was in the 0])liir mine he achieved, 
and soon the svslem was introduced all thmiigh the Comstock. He was too 


liiisy to patent his iincntion, and thus lust a great fnrtnne for liimself. tliongh 
the mining world is the gainer. 

Numerous improxements were also introduced at this mine Ijy W. H. 
I'atton. wlio foresaw and o\'ercame the difficulty of placing machinery in 
the lower les'els. The works and mac!nner\- installed hv him will conijiare 
fa\oral)ly with an\- in the wurld. 

All through the rigorous winter of 1S59, one of the most severe ever 
encountered hy the people of Xe\ada, the resitlents of California were wait- 
ing for the snow to melt in order to invade the land of Comstock, and 
the_\- chafed at the long winter, almost as much as the ]jeople who were ex- 
periencing its discomforts. .\s S])ring drew near at last, the excitement 
instead of ahating grew with delay until a large ])ercentage of the popula- 
tion was waiting anxiously to ru.-^h in. Many would not wait for the snow to 
disapi>ear hut holdl\- forced the trails, after ha\ing to walk their mules over 
blankets laid on the snow to prevent their sinking in. John H. Kinkead, 
later governor of Nevada, shi])])ed the first goods in this way. The mer- 
chants of California knew they wi»nld obtain high prices for all goods they 
Could get in, not only because it was a new mining camp in remote regions 
but also because of the sexere winter winch had reduced e\'eryone's larder 
to the kiwest possible ebb. 

It was not long before the larger percentage of the population of Cali- 
fornia was anxious to reach Nexada, and while many rode on horseback and 
an equal number walked, many came through in vehicles, sleighs and even 
stage coaches. The snow at this time was in some places sixty feet in depth. 
\\'hen they reached th.eir goal it was to find th;it only the first influx could 
be housed. Many suffered from the cold, but as soon as the atmosphere 
warmed up a little building commenceil in e\ery direction; but by that time 
m.any had become .so accustomed to cani])ing out that they continued that 
nomadic existence all summer. 

The bona-fide miners were soon ;it work and bv dint of watching them 
many tenderfeet were enaliled to work, too, ;il mining, ;uid soon all were 
as as the beavers. As they delved into Cold Hill and came close to the 
main ledge, the cpiartz became so firm that the\' had to inih-erize it in order 
to ol)tain the gold, and sulphurets required like treatment. To do this the 
Mexican grinding apjjaratus known as arrastra was used. This was not 
such an easy thing to make, for after digging the bole live to eight feet 
across and two feet deep antl setting a ]iost four to five inches in diameter 
in the center, firmly eniljedded, the whcile thing had to lined with bard rocks 
so as to be entirely water tight. The cementing of the rocks together had 
to be done with stiff clay. Just the right qnantit\- of water had to be used, 
hir if too little the fine particles of tire would n(:)t settle to the Ixittom. and 


if too much thev would lie washed out. It was worked hy horse power, a 
sweep heing attached to the center lieam. with an arm reaching some four 
feet, to which two or four horses were attached. The stones which did the 
grinding were attached to the sweep with chains or roj^ies, and by Ijeing 
dragged slowlv around in a circle reduced every inch of quartz to a pulp 
or paste. The gold and silver. ha\ing amalgamated w ith the ([uicksilver used 
for that purpose, was found when the grinding was done at the l5<ittom or 
in the clay seaius. The preciou.s metals were then secured fron: the amalgam 
hv retorting. Where it was difficult to liring in machinery this was con- 
sidered the chea])est wav to reduce the ores. 


A number of these arrastras were in use. some of several tons capacity per 
day. W'oodworth and Hastings had two of them running by horse power on 
the Carson river in the fall of 1859. each of which turned out three tons 
daily. An arastre was used at first on the Comstock Lode to reduce ore. 
and there was one near the spring at (iold Hill at the same time. Logan 
and Holmes soon established their four-stamp horse power battery at Day- 
ton and that constituted the reduction equipment of Nevada in the vear 


Even this primitive way was better than shipjiing the ore to San Fran- 
cisco as was done at first and paying twenty-five and thirty cents per pound 
to ha\c it carried over the mountains on ]iack animals. At first no one 
would belie\e that the ore could be vi irked there, and finally when it was 
decided it could be, no one would tv\ an\lhing but dr\' crushing. The "wet 
crushing" was not tried for some time. 

Dr. 1'",. 1'). Harris, of N'irginia Cit\', later one of the piominent citizens 
of Nevada, carefully studied the situation, and l)ecame convinced of the 
richness of Gold Hill, .\fter making arrangements to erect a mill in connec- 
tion with Sandy Bowers and wife, on their mine, the plan failed because 
of the interference of the Powers' lawyer, who was afraid some one else 
might make money. Harris then determined to put up a custom mill. :uid 
was guaranteed all the rock he could work at one hundred rlollars ])er ion. 

.\fter looking around he formed a ]>artnershi]) with ( '. II. < ionxcr. of 
Sacramento, a wTaltlu- business man. The\ located ,1 millsite nn ;i small 
stream nuining down from "Crown I'nint I'mind.' lie brought from .San 
hrancisco one of llowland's nine-stani]) ])nrt;iblc rot.arv batteries, and with 
engine and lioiler to run it. ,So rapidly did he work that when the machinery 
began to arrive on the 20th of juK he was ready to install it. On the 1 ith 
of .\ugnst he started the machinery, as one can imagine, a great e\ent, hun- 
dreds of peojile being present to watch its fnsl operation. These witnesses 


carried off pieces of the crushed rock as souvenirs of the occasion. Sandy 
Bowers donated the reck for tlie first crushing, vakied at four iiundred 
dollars per ton. 

Harris worked with the dry process until the following October and 
found it a losing business. So against the protests of friends he com- 
menced the "wet process" and increased from working one ton to ten in 
t\vent)'-four hours, besides saving about thirteen dollars per ton. Others 
soon followed his example. The cost of working the ore was less than six 
dollars per ton and one can see \\hat a handsome revenue was derived from 
the work of the mill. ( )tliers slrnted up mills and prices drop])ed until in the 
spring of t86i from one hundred dollars per ton the price fell to fifty dollars 
per ton. Even then the profit was a gcod one. The retorted bullion ran 
from ten to fourteen dollars per ounce, jjut as the mine increased in depth 
values fell off, the silver increasing. 

A. B. Paul erected two mills, one by Devil's Gate, the other below Gold 
Hill, and these were succeeded by many, running the price of cord wood up 
to fifteen dollars per ton, whereas Harris had at first paid four dollars and 
twenty-fi\e cents per curd. Engineers were paid one hundred dollars per 
month and amalgamators sixty dollars. Water was scarce until the spring 
of 1861, when water was found in a tunnel in northern Virginia and con- 
veyed to Gold Hill in sluices and boxes by Williams & Gashwiler who 
sold it for a dollar per inch to the mill men. 


Settlement of Territory. 

Third Abortive Attempt to Establish Government — Causes Given for Sep- 
aration Exaggerated — Adoption of Constitution — First Legal Court in 
Carson Count)- — Election a Fiasco — Death of Congressional Delegate 
Crane — Pro\-isional Legislature Meets. 

Just before the discovery of the Conistock Lode the population of Gold 
Hill increased so rapidly that the importance of some kind of government 
became more apparent than e\er, and a third abortive attempt was made to 
organize some form of territorial government. The last attempt, made when 
John S. Child was appointed probate judge and called a special election 
on the 30th of October, 1858,' was a fiasco. In case of unforseen emergencies 
the miners had no established rules for acticin. A meeting was called by the 
miners for the nth of June, 1859. at Gold Hill, when a number of laws 


were approNed and adujited. Tliose bearins^- flircctly on the sul>ject most 
inip<irtant to tine cnmmunit\- were as follows: 

Whereas. The isolated position we occupy, far from all legal tribunals, 
and cut off from those fountains of justice which every American citizen 
should enjo\', renders it necessary that we organize in liody politic, for ovu" 
mutual protection against the lawless, and for meting out justice between 
man and man: therefore, we, citizens of Gold Hill, do hereby agree to adopt 
the following rules and laws for our government : 

Rules and Regulations. 

Section i. Any person who shall wilfully and with malice aforethought 
take the life of T^n\ person, shall, upon being dulv con\icted thereof, suffer 
the i^enalty of death l)y hanging. 

Section 2. .\n\ person who shall wilfulh' wound another shall, upon 
con\iction thereof, sutler such penalty as the jury may determine. 

Section 3. An)- person found guilty of rol)bery or theft, shall, upon 
con\'iction, be |iunished witli strijies or banishment as the iur\- ma\' deter- 

Section 4. .\nv persrm found guilt\' of assault and batter\-. or exhibiting 
deadly weapons, shall, upon con\iction. be fined or banished as the iur\- may 

Section 3. No banking game under an\' consideration shall be allowed 
in this district, under the penalty of final banishnient from the district. 

\Miile the above rules were olieyed for a time, the influx from California 
soon placed tlieiu in the limbo of the past. The only record of any attempt 
to enforce the rules was the i)unishment of two men. Da\-id Reise and 
George Ruspas, who stole a yoke of oxen. The jury ordered an ear cropped 
off each offender and the\' in addition b;uiished fioni the district. 


The next well defined attemiJt at i:)ermanent organization was l>rought 
about by men who had well defined political aspirations and knew that politics 
without organization were imjiossible. They took advantage of the strong 
feeling of enmity still existing between the citizens of the I'niled States 
and the Mormons to urge the adxantages of and necessity hir a separate 
government for the latter class. With this as a lever they incited the people 
to action. .\ mass meeting on June d. i85(;, at Carson City, called an 
election on |ul\- 14th following and a|)portioned the voting precincts for 
Carson county. The election was for a delegate to visit Washington : a con- 
vention on July 18th was to convene at ( lenoa and count the votes and give 
the successful candidate his credentials as well as tr.ans.act all Imsiness neces- 
sary. Delegates were regularly apjiointcd to meet at Carson City on June 
20tb to select candidates for delegates to the (ienoa convention, to be elected 
the same time as the congressional re|)rescntative. 


Tlie miners of Cmlil llill met on Salunhiy, June i i, 1S59. In t;ike action 
(111 tins movement. As cliairman. A. ( i. llammack lirielly explained the ob- 
ject of the meeting", V. ,\. Ifonseworth acting' a.s secretary. Jndge Crane 
ga\c a hrief account of his labors as delegate of Ne\'ada to Congress, it 
was on motion (U'ci<led ti> endorse the action taken by citizens in Carson 
Cit\- on Jnnc dlh. It was decidc<l to .-ippoinl li\e delegates to meet at Carson 
City, Eagle V'alle_\-, on Jnne Jolh. to appoint delegates of tiold llill district to 
be elected by the people, to the convention to lie held at ( ienoa, Carson 
Valle\-, on July i8tb. Chairman Hammack appointed: \'. A. Fbinseworth, 
J. .\. Osburn. James F. Rogers, L. S. Rowers and Cajitain A. II. Parker 
as delegates. Judge Crane was nn;in;monsl\- endorsed lor his able services 
as delegate to Congress. 

The proceedings of the con\entiou, elected on tlie I4tb and meeting 
at (ienoa on the i8th, were i^rinted in the Territorial Ewicrprisc of July 13, 
1859. A copy is in existence, but beiug much worn and yellow with age 
it is dilTicult to decipher. Its report sliows that the session of the con\-ention 
lasted nine days, adjourning until the jSth. In it are the names of many 
pioneers and the following declaration (jf the cause for desiring a separate 
government showing in its statements some exaggeration : 

Cause Gifcii for Separation. 

Whereas, ^\'e the citizens of the proposed territory of Nevada, con- 
sidering that we have suiTered from a series of internal and external evils 
of so grave a nature as to render forbearance a virtue no longer, and be- 
lieving that the time has now arrived for us to take some permanent action 
upon our future well-being as a people, and believing further that a plain 
statement of the causes wdiich have impelled us to take this course, will con- 
vince a candid and unpreju(h'ced public, we would therefore state: 

That a long train of abuses and usurpations on the part of the Mormons 
of eastern L'tah toward the people of western Utah, evinces a desire on their 
part to reduce us under an absolute spiritual despotism. Such has been our 
patient suiTerings, and such is now the necessity for dissolving all political 
relations which may have connected us together, and we deem it not only 
our right, but also our duty, to disown such a go\-ernment, and such a 
people, and to form new guards for our future securit}-. 

We would charge upon the Alormons a gross violation of the organic 
act creating the territory of Utah. 

Tiiey ha\'e declared themsel\-es liostile to the Constitution, go\-ernment 
and institutions of our countrv. 

Idiey have refused to submit to its laws, while they ba\-c, whenever it 
suited them, claimed protection under these laws. 

They ha\e denied to the judges of the United States a right to try 
in their court the \-iolators of the law, when such \iolations were numerous. 

Thcv ha\e S(T managed b\- their legislation, as to defeat justice, jirotect 


criminals, and render the laws and the authority of the Cnited States in Utah 
territory void and of no effect. 

They have conferred powers on their territorial marshals so extensive 
as to render void the authority of the marshals of the United States in all 

Thev have conferred upon prohate judges the sole' right to select juries 
in civil and criminal cases, in violation of all law and precedent. Thej' have 
also given to said judges and justices of the peace absolute jurisdiction in 
all civil and criminal cases. 

They have made all laws existing under the embryo State of Deseret 
binding upon the people of this territory, and in defiance of the laws of the 
United States. 

They have, by an act of the legislature, declared all unmarried men in- 
eligible as jurymen, unless they have resided in the territory two years. 

They have imbued their hands in the blood of our citizens while they 
were peacefully pursuing their way across the continent and ha\e deprived 
tiiem of their property without due course of law. 

They have poisoned the minds of the Indians against us. forced us 
frequently to open war with them. 

We have petitioned them to redress and protect us in our right, but our 
appeals have ever Ijeen treated with disdain and neglect. To continue the 
connection with Utah longer w'e fear would involve us in treason and re- 
bellion to our country. 

We further consider that the danger, difficulty of transit and expense 
of communication with the seat of the territorial government of eastern 
Utah of themselves valid reasons to induce us to form a separate territorial 

We have appealed for assistance to California, but she has declined to 
aid and ])rotect us because we were without the jurisdiction of the state. 

'i'hereforc. belies'ing in the rectitude of our intentions and believing 
the time has arrived, we make known and declare our entire and uncondi- separation from eastern L'tah. 

To provide for and secure our future protection we pledge to each 
other our sacred obligations, to erect for ourselves a territorial government 
f(nmded ui^on the republican principles of the Constitution of the United 
States, and that we will maintain and defend it to the best of our ability. 
And we look to the protection and sup])ort of the Federal Ciovernnient and 
our fellow citizens in e\cry part of the Union. 


'i"he convention also framed a constitution to be \oted upon by the 
people cm September 7, following; an election was ordered at the same time 
to fill the offices created by it. Obscurity cnvelo])s the result, as no election 
returns were preserved, but Isaac Roop, for governor; A. S. Dorsey, for 
secretary of state; John D. Winters, for auditor, and B. L. King, for treas- 
urer, were probably elected, but, if so, none of them ever served, except 


Governor Roop. Tlic niajurity for tlie ainstitutinn was about four hnndred 


Al this time tlie increasing pojnilation of Carson county necessitated 
another attempt at organization. John S. Child helil the first legal court 
in Carson countv after April 13, 1857, Init found no business before the court 
and adjourned it until next day. Pursuant to adjournment the court con- 
vened next dav, but there lieing no business another adjournment was taken. 
The third dav when court convened Judge Child made business by appointing 
\\'. P. Morrison as coroner and authorizing him to hold an inquest upon 
the body of John Buckdey, who had been murdered at Virginia City. From 
then until the 19th of October, when an application for divorce was filed by 
Mrs. Rebecca A. Bristol, no business was transacted in the court. The case 
of Mrs. Bristol, which resulted in a decision in her favor, was the only case 
tried in 1859. 

Judge Child was determined to gi\e a legal existence to the functions 
of Carson county, and, after dividing the county into ten precincts, called 
a special election for C)ctober 8 to fill the county oflices. Despite the neces- 
sity existing but three precincts opened polls, and they were, Carson No. 2, 
Gold Hill No. 5 and Walker River Xo. 8. The returns showed the plurality 
of C. H. Fountain, candidate for representative, to be 16, lie receiving a total 
vote of 100, against J. C. Jones 84. and S. W. Sullivan and R. M. Anderson 
I each. For selectman W. C. Armstrong received loi votes, L. Drixley 85, 
E. Lam1>e 84, and J. M. Luther 83. For sheriff E. C. Morse received loi 
votes, J. Farwell 84, rmd R. Abernathy i. For treasurer H. Van Sickle 
received 94 votes. L. A. Smith 85, J. M. Henry i. For receiver J. F. Long- 
received 100 votes and P. C. Rector 63. Gliomas Knott was elected justice 
of the peace for Carson Citv, and William Justice, justice of the peace of 
Gold Hill. George Wilder was elected constalile of Carsou Cit)-, and .\lex- 
ander \Vhite constable of Gold Hill. 

P. H. Lo\-el, county clerk, certified to the returns September 24. When 
A. Cumniings, governor of I tab, recei\ed the election returns he forwarded 
commissions dated November 15, 1859, to Mr. Lovel. Li doing .so he 
wrote that there was no authority for calling the election and a legal investi- 
gation would have to be held, but as he desired to aid in organizing the 
count}- he had forwarded the commissions. 

Judge Child wrote to Armstrong and Drixley on the ensuing fourth 
of June urging them to appear and take the oath of ofifice and urging upon 
them the necessitv of son-ie kind of law, but none of the parties accepted the 
])ositions to which thcv were elected, and the only legally authorized county 


officials in wiiat is imw Nevada in 1859 and up to August 6, 1S60. were 
llie following: 

). S. Child, probate judge: George McNeir, clerk (succeeded in March. 
iS(^)0. bv P. H. Lovel) ; S. A. Kinsey. recorder: P. C. Rector, apixiinted 
surveyor March i. i8f)0: D. G. Glovd. road commissioner, appointed in Feb- 
ruarv, 1S60; A. Kinne. appointed road commissioner, l-'ebruary. 1860: James 
White, a])pointed road commissioner in April, 1860. 

Once again the attempt to oj-ganize under existing laws pro\ed a failure. 


.\ blow to the organization of a separate territorial government came 
wiih the death of Judge Crane, the congressional delegate, who died sud- 
denly of heart disease, at Gold Hill, on Septenil:)er 27. The organization 
had been so far perfected, as the adoption of the constitution and the election 
of officers and a legislative liody, authorized by that constitution, could ac- 
com])lish. .\nother election was called for November u, i85(j, to fill the 
\-acancy cau.sed by the death of Judge Crane. This election is also \-eiled 
in obscurity, but according to Sacramento papers of that date, J. J. Musser 
received 935 votes and was declared, by Governor Roop. unanimously elected, 
from which it is safe to assume that he had no opposition. 

.\fter the counting of the vote Re|)resentative Musser started for Wash- 
ington. Isaac Roo]) ha\-ing been declared elected governor, subscril>ed to 
the following oath of nffice: 

Tekkito[*v of Ne\'.\da. ss. 

I do solemnly swear that I will support the Constitution of the United 
States, and the Constitution <>f the Territory of Nevada, and that 1 will, to 
the best of my abilit}-. jierform ,ill the duties of Governor of said Territory 
during my continuance in office. 

(Signctl) Isaac Roop. 

Subscribed and sworn to before mc this thirteenth d;iy of December, 
.\. D. one thiinsruid eight hundred ;uiil hftv-ninc. 

T'. iM. Preston, 
U. S. Commissioner, Second Judici:il District, U. T. 


On the evening of December 15. 1859. the llrst legisl;iture of the new 
territory of Nevada met and organized at Genoa, at the house of (j. D. P.lake. 
O. H. Pierson, of Carson City, was elected speaker; 11. S. Thomjison. clerk, 
and J. H. McDougal, sergeant-at-amis. 

A number of resolutions w-ere passed ;md a committee of three was 
appointed to draft a memorial to Congress to expedite the organization of 
the new territory. Governor Roop delivered his message amid great en- 

A lllSTum ()!■■ NEVADA. <il 

(liusiasin. Tlio lc!L;isl;i(ii:\' llicn ;Hliiiiirno(I imlil llie first Mniiilay in Jn!_\', 
1 8C.O. 

AlkT ad inuniiiK'iil Mr. I\(i<i]i cniiiimicil In act as t;ii\cnini-, musl (il his 
(iflicial acts l)ci'n<^' connected with llie warrint;- Indians and tlie iniuhle they 
eansed in Nevada. llie iinl\' dncninenlary evidence of his ever exercising 
liis authority as go\crnor was the issuance of tlie following military com- 
mission to M. S. Thompson, later state senator from lluml)oldt county: 

Nevada Territory, 

SusANViLLE, Fehruary i, iS6o. 
1. Isaac Ron]), proxisional goxernor of Nevada territory, do herehy 
appoint M. S. Thompson as my aid-de-camp to rank as colonel of cavalry, 
with ])ay and rations as such; this appointment to take effect from date. In 
testimony whereof, I have this day and date affixed my private seal, there 
l)cing no ])uhlic seal ])ro\'ided. 

Isaac Roop. (io\ernor. 
L. S. 

Mr. Musser while in Washington found that he could not olitain iiu- 
mediate legislation favorable to his constituents, and so he returned to 
Carson county. His work there, however, bore good fruit, for there was 
a growing sentiment in Congress against leaving the citizens of the Cnited 
States under AJjjrmon control. This feeling in Washington was intensified 
by tlie dcvekiimient of the Comstock and the subsequent immense increase 
in po])ulation. The lireaking out of the southern rebellion further i-ncreased 
that feeling and on March 2. 1861, the congressional act createfl the terri- 
tory of Ne\ada, thus crowning with success the ofttime foiled attempts to 
secure a separate government. 

Territory of Nevada. 

Nye Commissioned Goxernor of Territory — Officers Appointed by Him in 
State and County — Establishment of Judicial Districts — Civil and Crim- 
inal Codes — Division of Counties — The State Constitution — Its First 
Defeat and Subsequent Victory — Efforts to Remoxe Unpopular Judi- 
ciary — Conditions of i860. 

Details have been gi\en of the difficult}- experienced by Judge Child, 
in his efforts to both hold elections and then prevail upon the men elected 
to fill the positions waiting for them. He tried again in i860, on August 
6th. Carson, St. Mary's and Humboldt counties were jointly entitled to 
(jue memljer in the legislature. At this last election the offices of sherifif. 

62 A HISTORY OF ^"l•:^^\l).\. 

selectmen, treasurer, surxeyur and nienilier of tlie legislature were tilled for 
Carson county. 

Undeterred by the lack of business at the last session of court, some 
three vears before. Judge Child convened the first session of the county 
court of Carson on September 3. i860. His court, with the three selectmen, 
transacted the business usually done by a boaril of supervisors or county 
commissioners. The first transaction, recorded on the loth. was the repudia- 
tion of all county debts and the cancelling of all county script. Business 
.s<K>n ])i)ured in: petitions of all kinds, for franchises of all kinds, from rail- 
roads to toll bridges. 


The need for a court house being imperative, the court, in September, 
authorized the building of one, or rather the completion of one at Genoa. 
Seven hundred and fifty dollars was to l)e expended on finishing and fur- 
nishing. It was not much of a building", in fact an old building repaired, 
thirty by sixty feet and one and a half stories in height. It was here Judge 
Cradelbaugh held the first session of the United States district court. 
Tie had to crawl up a ladder to reach the court room, but later steps were 

Up to the time of the creating of the territory of Nevada the country 
had l)een enveloped in legal shadows which soon, under the pressure of a 
new system of laws, passed away forever. 

(jovernor N\e ajjplied the new svstem of laws to the old subdivisions 
as in existence under Utah, and when the legislature met on the 25th of 
November, 1861, Nevada was segregated into nine counties, but there was 
no Carson or St. Mary county. The records of these were turned over to 
the secretary of state. 


On the 22nd of March. 1861. James W. Nye. of Madison county. New 
York, was commissioned governor of .Nevada territory, and the legislature 
was soon convened. Governor Nye, in his first proclamation, in July. 1861, 
announced the appointment of various oflicers as follows: 

To All Whom It May Concern: 

Whereas, By an act of Congress of the United States of .\merica. en- 
titled, "An Act to organize the Territory of xNevada," appro\ed March 2. 
1861. a true copy of which is hereto annexed, a Ciovernment was created 
over all the country described in .said Act, to be called the "Territory of Ne- 
vada" ; and, whereas, the following named oflicers have been duly a])i)ointed 
and commissioned under said act as officers of said Ciovernment. viz.: 


James W. Nye, Governor of said 'J'erritory, Commander-in-cliicf of the 
Militia thereof and Superintendent of Inchan Affairs therein ; Orion Clemens, 
Secretary of said Territory; George Turner, Chief Justice, and Horatio M. 
Jones and Gordon N. Mott, Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of 
said Territory, and to act as Judges of the District Court for said Territory; 
Benjamin B. Bunker, Attorney of the United States for said Territory; D. 
Bates, Marshal of the United States for said Territory; and John W. North, 
Surveyor General for said Territory ; and the said Governor and the other 
officers having assumed the duties of their said offices according to law, 
said Territorial government is hereby declared to be organized and estab- 
lished and all persons are enjoined to conform to, respect, and obey the laws 
thereof accordingly. 

Given under my hand and the seal of said Territory this eleventh day 
of Jul}', A. D. 1861, and of the independence of the United States of Amer- 
ica, the eighty-fifth. 

James W. Nye, 
Governor of Nevada Territory. 

The succeeding officers were appointed as follows : United States at- 
torney, Theodore Edwards, \ugust 31. 1863: judge of the first district court. 
John W. North, October 2. 1863; assistant justice of the supreme court. 
Powhaton B. Locke, October 14, 1863. 


Warden of prison, Abraham Curry, January i, 1862; treasurer, John 
H. ICinkead, February i, 1862; auditor, Perry G. Child, February i. 1862 
(Child resigned and \V. W. Rose was appointed September 8, 1863) ; school 
superintendent. William G. Blakely, February 24, 1862; superintendent of 
puljlic instruction for two years, A. F. White, December 24, 1863. 


During the year 1861 Governor Nye made the following appointments 
for Carson county: Probate judge, L. W. Ferris. Virginia City, July 29: 
clerk, Nelson W. Winton. Virginia City, July 29 ; recorder, Samuel D. King. 
July 29: district attorney, Marcus D. Larrowe, August 12; county surveyor. 
S. H. Marlette, August 14; treasurer, Alfred Helm, August 20; selectmen, 
J. Williams and Chauncy N. Noteware, George W. Greer. July 31: John F. 
Long, September 2. 


A peculiar division was made of the judicial districts in the proclama- 
tion of Governor Nye on July 17. Gordon N. Mott was assigned to Dis- 
trict No. i; this included all of Carson county King west of the ii8th de- 
gree of longitude; as it embraced what is now Douglas, Storey, Washoe. 


Ornisl)v. L\(in and most of Clunxiiill counties, practicall}' ull of the white 
population of the territory was in it. 

Chief Judge Turner was assigned to the second district; this embraced 
that part of the territory lying east of District Xo. i and lietween tlie 117th 
and iiiStli degree of longitude. This disti'ict was inhaliited hy whites at 
the stage stations, and Pah-Utes antl Shoshones comprised the rest of the 

Judge H. M. Jones was assigned to District Xo. 3. This included all 
the territory lying east of the i 17th degree of longitude. In this district 
were a few stage stations and a number of Gosii-Ute and Shoshone Indians. 

Tiie proclamations stated that the court of the first district would be 
in session two weeks, commencing at \'irginia Citv on July 23. and would 
alternate Ijet'veen Carson and Virginia City. The times and places for hold- 
ing terms of the district coiu't in the second and third districts were to l)e 
designated in a suljsequent proclamation. The idea seems to have 1)een 
to insure the administration of the law among the Indians as well as whites. 

.\nother proclamation was issued, or. Juh" 24, districting the territory 
for election and census purposes. Dr. Henry De Croot, of Carson City, 
was appointed to take charge of the enumeration and the returns showed 
a total population of 16.374. 


The ci\il and criminal codes were ])assed in complete form by the first 
legislature, which was in session fortv-nine davs. The results of their work 
fillefl a royal octavo book of five hundred and eighteen pages, eight being 
devoted to toll road franchises. Six of these were granted. 


Xevada territory was divided into nine counties by an act ai>proved 
Xovember 25. 1861. St. Mary's and Carson were erased, the nine being: 
Lake (changed to Roop December 5, 1862). Washoe, Churchill, Douglas, 
Esmeralda. Humboldt, Lyon, Ormsby, and Storey. Nearly four-fifths of the 
territory were included within the boundaries of Churcliill. Humboldt and 
Ivsmeralda, but tlie other si.\ held the most of the po|)ulation. Soon after 
the division of counties the two branches of the assembl_\- met in joint con- 
vention and nominated three commissioners for each count}'. It was the 
duty of these commissioners to ap])ortion their respective localities into 
precincts, and arrange for the general election, to be held on the ensuing 14th 
of August. 1862. At this election county officers weie to bo chosen. The 
officers elected at liiis time were to serxc only until Sc])lemher. when another 
election of tiic county orCu-ers was to be held. In conseijuencc stime of the 

A IIISK )K\ ( )[•• XI'AADA. tjr) 

CdUiilR's were iiKjie than blessed with dliieeis. three sets in aU — twu elected 
and one appointed. 


Wages paid were high. locked at from tlie view ixiint of these later 
days, hut not so considering the times and condition of iSfio. Female help 
of any kind was ])aid on an average of forty dollars ]ier month. '1 he men 
were ])ai(l, for farm work, three dollars per da\- if hoardeil, and three dollars 
and fifty cents if not. while carpenters and like trades commanded seven dollars 
per day without board. The la1)oring men generally paid twenty dollars per 
week for board, so they had to make fairly good wages. 

.\s can be seen b\- the judicial districts, the ])o]iulation was not widely 
scattered, all converging to the several central points. In Ruliy \-alley there 
was just one farmer, the Indian agent at that time. William Rogers. One 
United States marshal. I. I'. Waters, said that Humlioldt was the most barren 
of any land he had ever passed through. That there were no inhabitants 
excejit th(jse connected with the mail ser\-ice. He said the only other living 
things were snakes, lizards, crickets ami Indians, the latter li\ing on the 
former a [xirtion of the }'ear. 


It was not long before the citizens of the territory decided that the 
robes of statehood would l)e becoming to Nevada, and the legislature of 
1862 passed an act authorizing at the general election in September. 1863, 
the choice of delegates to frame a state constitution. .\ popular \-ote of the 
people as to whether thev desired statehood or not resulted in a majority 
of 3,656 in favor of it. The delegates asseml.)leil on the _'nd of Xovember. 
1863. and continued in session until December iith, and in that period 
framed the constitution under which Nevada eventually became a state. Will- 
iam M. Stewart, delegate from Storey county, made this a stepping stone 
later to the United States senate. 


Owing to political dissension and the ire of disappointed candidates when 
the comention assembled in Carson on December 31, 1863. there was strong 
opposition deveiojjed. The controversies were mosth' of a personal nature, 
but the effects were serious. The constitution i)ro\i<]ed that all the officers 
created by it should lie filled at the time it was submitted to the people. In 
consequence the ])olitical aspirants who failed to recei\e nominations for the 
offices desired by them, determined to fight the constitution. And they 
did. Many delegates bolted the convention, declaring there was a slate. 
The newspapers took a hand because some of the owners wanted otfice. 


notably J. T. Goodman, of tlie Triritdnal H.iiU-r/^ii.s\\ and jdlni Chnrch nf the 
Daily Union, both desirous of lieconiinj; state printer, (leorge \\'. Bloor 
landed this plnm. M. X. Mitchell received the nomination for Governor. 
John B. Winters of Lyon comity was nominated for Congress. The fifty-one 
delegates were in convention three days and a fnll state ticket was nominated. 
There was but the one ticket, the "Union Ticket," and this was supported 
by all the nine newspapers of the territory, excepting four : The Old Pah Ute, 
Humboldt Register, th.e Virginia Union, and the Aurora Times. The fight 
was made ujjon the organic law, and the opjiosition succeeded in defeating the 
State Ticket. 


The next efifort to don statehood rolies was made wiien Senator Doolit- 
tle, of Wisconsin, introduced a bill in the I'nited States senate, authorizing 
another trial. The Doolittle liill was signed l)v President l.incnjn. on March 
Ji, i(Sr)4, (jovernor Xye issuing a proclamation calling for an election on the 
si.xth of June following, to choose delegates once more to frame a state con- 
stitution. This time no state officers were to lie \oled for, by its provisions, 
and the clause which had helped to defeat the Hrst constitution, authorizing 
the taxing of "shafts, drills and bedrock tuimels," was changed so that 
it could not be used as a slogan to rouse the "jxior miners" to opposition. 
The convention was harmonious: no bolters, no friction and the only trouble 
was in Storey county, vxhere the contest was renewed, this resulting in the 
defeat of the regular nominees for county offices. 

Till-: rxropi'[..\R i ^T)TC■TAU^■. 

A change in the judiciary was desired and strongly advocated, both by 
press and pco])le. So much so that a petition asking tiie whole bench to re- 
sign received o\er 4.000 signatures. This monster petition, for those days, 
was printed in full in the Terrikirial Enterprise, and it occupied six double 
columns of that paper. Because one of the supreme judges was more 
than suspected of selling decisions for "cash paid in hand." the people desired 
to do away with the whole bench. To do this the adoption of the constitution 
was necessarv, or so rejircscnted to the voters. The resignation of the 
entire sujireme bench was brought about by charges made by J. T. Goodman, 
editor of tlic linlerprise. They were called on to answer charges of cni-rup- 
tion and bribe-taking or resign. They could not face the facts, and resigned 
as the attorneys refused to jiractice law before them. 

The time .set for the general territorial election was September 7, 1864, 
and the county officers, a legislative as.sembly and delegates to the House 
of Representatives were to be chosen. The territorial convention a.ssembled 
in Carson on the loth of .\ugust preceding, fifty delegates being in attendance. 

A IIISTom' 01/ XI'A'ADA. •'-! 

Of tliesc twenty-six were proxies; Thomas Fitch was \)ul in noniin;ition as 
delegate to the Mouse of Representatives, on tiie regular Union ticket. A. 
C. Bradford was the clmice of the Democrats and Hon. John Cradelbaugli 
the choice of Storey county in the hrst Cdiiventinn, ran independently, the 
vote at the general election being: Thumas Fitch, Republican, 1,208; .\. 
C. Bradford. Democrat. 3,71'^); j"hn ("radelbaugh. Independent Union. 
3,781 ; scattering, 4; a total of 8.7og. The constitution polled a majority vote 
of 9.131- The large vote at Amador was thrown out because of fraud, but 
Nevada, having adopted the constitution, only waited for the proclamation of 
the President to liecome one of the glorious galaxy of states. 



Redistricting of States — Judicial Elections to 1878 — Many I^lections the 
First Year of Statehood — First Presidential Election — Contest for U. S. 
Senator in 1864 — Ashley Elected Congressman, 1865 — Excitement Over 
Attempted Removal of Capital — Senators Determine Choice of Terms 
by Lot — Election of Nye to U. S. Senate, 1867 — Fitch Nominated Con- 
gressman by .\cclamation and Elected, 1868 — Senatorial Contest Be- 
tween Sharon, Jones and Nye. Jones Winning. 1872 — pjattle of the 
■"Money Bags" — Sharon Elected L'. S. Senator. 1875 — Dissatisfaction 
with Sharon — Election of b'air to .Succeed llim. 1880. 

The great day for Nevada, when the parchment making her a state was 
signed by the President of the United States, was October 31. 1864. This 
was the year for all kinds of elections in Nevada; there had been three 
before becoming a state, and a fourth w;is now necessitated, as the territorial 
legislative officers and congressional delegates could not of course serve the 
slate. The members for the House of Representatives were to be chosen on 
(he date of the presidential election, November 8. i8C)4, A full state and 
national ticket was therefore placed in the field b\' both Democrats antl Re- 
publicans. These tickets included rejiresentatives, state senators, state officers, 
state assemblymen, nine district attorneys and eleven district judges. The 
result was as follows, every Re])ublican being elected; 

For Presidential Electors — 9.826 votes. Total vote cast, 16,328. 

Member of Congress, H. C W'orthington — 9.776. Total vote cast. 

Governor. H. G. Blasdel — 9,834. "J'otal vote cast. 16.389. 

Lieutenant Governor. J. G. Grossman — 9.786. Total vote cast, 16.348. 

fiS A lILSroRV OF XE\'.\1).\. 

Secretary of State. C. X. Xoteware — c^.S^c). Total vote cast. i''>.3,?5. 

Controller. A. W. Niglitingill — 9,842. Total vole cast. 1^^1.309- 

Treasurer. E. Rlioades — 9.824. Total vote cast. 16.315. 

Sui)erintendent Public Instruction. A. F. White — 9.823. Total vote cast 
10.33 1. 

Surveyor General. S. 11. .Marlelle — 9,828. Total \ote cast, 16,326. 

Supreme Court Judges. C. M. Bmsnan — 9.838; 11. ( ). I'-catly, 9,804: 
J. l\ Lewis. 9.826. 

.\ttorney General. * ieorge .\. .Voinse — 9.278. Total \iitecasl. 16.308. 

Supreme Court Clerk, .\lfred Helm — 9.84^1. Total vote cast, i6.-3i<'- 

The Democrats elected were two in ninnher. both for the legislature: 
I. .\. St. Clair, assembly, Cluuxhill coinitx': F'rauk M. Proctor, senate, Nye 


The next thing was the choosing of two United States senators, w hich 
was done in joint convention by the two branches of the legislature on De- 
cember 13. \H<>_\.. 'There was a bitter contest, amounting almost to a dead- 
lock at one stage of the proceedings. The Brst vote cast resulted as follows: 

William M. Stewart, of Storey county — 33. 

James W^ Nye. of Onnsby county — 2;^. 

Charles E. DeLoug, of Storey county — 2;^. 

John Cradelliaugh. of Ormsby county — 12. 

B. C. Whitman, of Storey county — 13. 

Necessary for a cF.oice — 2/. 

Mr. Stew.'n't was deckired elected. T'or the second senator the vote stood 
as follows : 

James W. Xye, of ( )rmsl)y county — 2^]. 

Charles E. DeLong. of Storey comity — 17. 

John Cradelbaugh. of Ormsby county — 9. 

B. C. Whitman, of Storey county — 3. 

After this result the convention adjouined until nt'xl da\ al 1 p. 111. 

Mr. StewaiL having been elected himself, turned his attention to getting 
what he could out of the other seuatorships, accorchug to common rejiort. 
lie sent a message to Judge Cradelbaugh assuring him that if he would 
turn over to him all government i)atronage which wmild accrue to him if 
elected, he would himself promise that he rc('»/r/ be elected. 

Knowing the record of Judge Cradelb.augh one can imagine how this 
message affected him. llis reply is .said to have been: "Tell Stewart that 
I had rather be a d(jg and bay the moon, thrui such a senator." That settled 
it. and the ne.xt day it took but one vote to give the result: 

James W. Nye, of Ormsby county — 29. 

Assemblyman Assemblyman 


Senator Assemblyman Senator 




Charles E. DeLong-, f)f Stmev counlv — 7. 
Necessary for a rlinice — 27. 


In the carl)' ])art of iS()4 a land company, with a large amount of capital 
hack of it. laid out a town in the flat just .south from flold Hill and christened 
it American Cit\-. The next move to make the scheme "go" uas the offer of 
lifty thousand dollars to the territor\', a donation if it would remove the state 
capital to American City. It was offered in extenuation of this proposed re- 
moval, or was the alleged reason, that Ormshy county had agreed to furnish 
rooms for the assemhl)- and then turned around and asked four thousand 
five hundred dollars per session for them. Storey county papers, of course, 
advocated its removal and left no stone unturned to hring it ahout. Storey and 
Eyon counties liad heen endeavoring to secure the removal of the capital, each 
to its own locality. They tdok .advantage of the fact that when the legisla- 
ture first met in 1861. when the capital was established at Carson City, 
it was forced to meet where the state i>rison is located. Storey county 
wanted to locate it at Virginia City and Lyon at Dayton. The Onusby people 
iiad then liestirred themselves and by petition asked the legislature to ad- 
journ to Carson City, stating that if it did rooms would be furnished, free 
of charge, and this was done. Quite a sum of money was expended in this 
tight, and it is alleged that some of it found its way into the legislature, thus 
establishing a had precedent for future legislatures, or members. The up- 
shot was that the capital remained where it was. 

Tile charge that the Ormslvy people had charged rent for the rooms to 
be free <if ;dl charge, resulted in strong feeling, for the county could not 
deii\' it. lint the citi.^ens of that county tried to create a di\'ersion by getting 
up and circulating a petition, re(|uesting their count\' comntissioners to 
resign, accusing CcMumissioner .Vdolph \\'aitz, in particular, of ha\-ing acted 
in bad faith in making a charge for the room. Thev accused him of using his 
office for speculation and said thev would not take "No" from him in answer 
to this petition. Mr. W'aitz sent back a strenuous reply, concluding as 

"A proper regard for tlie ])ublic good and those who elected me, as well 
as a feeling of self-respect, forbids that I should hasten to gratify your 
malice, if it be your pur])ose to intimidate me it only proves what I sup- 
])osed was the case, that you were not well acquainted with luy real char- 
acter. I am not apt to 1j€ scared by the threats of armed desperadoes, much 
less tiiose of peevisii and exciterl citizens." 

The Carson Post, in March, 1865, wrote an editorial on the subject and 
in closing, said; "And to show that we are not mistaken in these matters 


we will add that we individually collected the money that was paid to a mem- 
lier of the legislature, to vote against removal." 


The term of Hon. H. G. Worthington expiring in A[arch. 1S65. it he- 
came neces.sary to elect his successor at the slate election on Xo\emher 7, 

Nex'ada had two I'nited States senators, hut no niemher in the House 
of Representatives; three ]\epuhlicans at once \olunteered to ser\e in that 
capacit}'. Delos R. Ashlew of Lander county: Colonel Charles .\. Sumner, 
and Hon. \V. H. Clagget. Tlie former won the election, as claimed Ijy the 
Gold Hill Neii'S. through the agency of the Democratic votes cast for him. He 
was supported in his campaign l)y the Territorial Enterprise of Virginia 
Citv ; Sumner was the choice of the finld Flill XeiM, and Ashlev hv the 
Reese River Reveille. 

When the Re])ul)lican con\ention met at Carson on the loth of October 
it soon became apparent that Sumner. Claggett and .\shley were the real 
contestants, but Sumner withdrew when twehe ballots resulted in no choice. 
John B. Winters then came on the scene as a candidate, but he could secure 
only forty-nine votes. Mr. Ashley received on every ballot fourteen votes. 
At four in the afternoon the convention took a recess, the vote standing: 

John B. Winters — 49. 

'W. H. Claggett — 48. 

Delos R. .Ashley— 8. 

On the next l)aIlot twenty-six of the Claggett's following \'oted for .\.sh- 
ley, and, it becoming apparent he was the man, the Winter's delegation in 
turn cast their vote for him. making him the nominee of the Republicans. 
Mr. .Asliley, in the customary speech, promised to endeavor to obtain all the 
aid he could from the go\ernment in land and money, to build as soon as 
])OSsil)le every railroad which would connect the state of Nevada with the 
outside world. 

At this time the Central Pacific had not reached the state, but two 
roads were seeking subsidies, one known as the Dutch h'lat road, in reality 
the Central Pacific: tlu' nthcr the Placcr\ilk' road. Their ad\enl was eagerly 
looked forward to, and all possil)le concessions were made to them both. So 
strong was the feeling that the prominent jilank in the Republican platform 
was the one affirming the same position regarding the railroads. 

The vote on November 7th resulted in the folldwing \-ote : 

Delos R. .Ashley received 3-691 votes 

II. K. Mitchell received 2,213 votes 

Total votes .v94''> 


And liy this \i)tc tlie Rcpulilican randidate was elected. 


The next year these two gentlemen were pitted against each other 
again, .\shley heing again the nominee of the Repuhlican party, and H. K. 
Mitchell (if the IX^mocratic party. This time there were, of course, national 
issues hmughl (in Ii\ the President, .\ndrew Jdhnson. The entire Repuhlican 
])art\' was elected, the \(ites being cast as fdllows: 

Member for Congress, 1). R. .\shley, 5.047 votes, tntal vote 9>243 

(Governor, H. (i. Rlasdel. 5.1^5 xdtes, total vote 9)-30 

Lieutenant (Idverudr, J. S. Slingerford, 5,211 votes, tdtal vote 9,208 

Secretary of State, C. N. Noteware, 5.207 votes, tdtal vote 8,257 

Controller, W. R. Parkinson, 5,203 vdtes, total vote 9-257 

Treasurer, E. Rhoades, 5,157 votes, total vote 9.239 

Superintendent Public Instruction. A. N. Fisher, 5,218 votes, t(")tal vote 9,250 

Surveyor General, H. S. Marlette, 5,209 votes, total vote 9.256 

State Printer. J. K. Eckley, 5,208 votes, total vote 9.273 

Supreme Judge, James F. Lewis, 5,193 votes, total \'ote 9,266 

Attorney (jeneral, Robert M. Clark, 5,193, total vote 9.249 

Clerk Supreme Court, .\lfred Helm. 5.T03 votes, total vote 9,262 

When the territory became a state the senators were allotted terms end- 
ing March, 1867. and March, 1(869. This making them short terms of two 
and fdur years, respectively, the senators drew for it in the open Senate, 
James W. Nye drawing the short term. He came before the legislature as 
candidate for re-election on the 15th of January, due of the six candidates, 
and the first vote resulted : 

Charles E. DeLong 21 votes 

James W. Nye 18 votes 

John B. Winters 7 votes 

Thomas Fitch 4 votes 

Thomas }]. Williams 7 votes 

Total ^y votes 

The contest between Mr. DeLong and Mr. N^ye was extremely bitter, as 
the former Iiad been for some time making attacks ufKin Nye's work as 
senator, especiail}' his administration df affairs appertaining to the Indians 
in Nevada. He alleged fraud in this connection, all this by means of corre- 
s|)dn(lence in the Cdlmnns (if the papers. 

The day after the above combined vote of both houses, the papers had 
a good deal to .say on the subject, particularly anent the personal feeling 
between DeLong and Nye. In the Daily Appeal H. R. Mighels vented his 
feeling in strong editorials, appealing to the whole L'nited States to work 


for Xye. The population of Nevada to rise iij) and elect "The Grey Eagle." 
Mighels insisted that not only Nevada, but all the Pacific states and terri- 
tories, and the entire L'nited States, desired the re-election of Mr. Nye. 

The San Francisco CaU and the Humboldt Register were the only papers 
opposing; the re-election of Nye. 

James W. Nye 25 

Charles DeLong 27 

Thomas Fitch 4 

Thomas H. ^^'illiams 21 

Necessar}' to a choice 29 

The day following Mr. Nye received 32 votes and C. E. DeLong 25. 
electing the former: the latter received the seven Democratic votes through- 
out. Mr. N\e"s term was to commence on March 4. 186^, and end on March 

DE LONG .\G.\IN .\ C.\XDID.\TE. 

Mr. DeLong. like Banquo's ghost, would not "down," but came to the 
front again in Se])teml)er. when the Republican conxention met at Carson 
City, on the i6th of that month. At this convention Mr. DeLong made a 
very politic move in w ithdrawing from the fight against William T. Stewart 
in the race for the L'niteil States Senate. This was to secure harmony in 
the ranks, which was becoming rather attenuated. So great an imjiression 
did this make that the con\ention passed resolutions eulogizing him therefor. 
Later he was a]ipointed minister to Japan, and here he proved his fitness for 
])oIitical ])refermenl b\ making a fine record. 

Thomas Fitch was 1)\' acclamation nominated for congress and with the 
rest of the entire Republican ticket elected in 1868. 


The Republican ticket elected was in its entirety: 

l-'or Presidential Electors. Republican 6,476 votes 

For Presidential Electors. Democratic 5-2 T 5 votes 

Meml)er of Congress. Thomas Fitch. 6,230 votes, total vote 1 1,379 

.Surveyor (unexpired term), John Day, 6,391 votes, total vote. . 11.677 

.State Printer, IL K. Mighels. 6.425 votes, total vote 11,698 

Supreme Judge (long term). P.. C. Whitman. 6.476 votes, total 

vote II ,698 

.Supreme Judge (unexpired term). Xeely Johnson. 6,398 votes, 

total vote II ,632 

111 this legislature were fifty Republicans and nine Democrats. 

STE\V.\RT RE-EI.ECTi:i i. 

William AL Stewart was in Washington on the i-Mh d,i\- of J;uui;ir\-. 
1S69, when re-elected by ibe legislature, receiving all InU one of fift\- Re- 
l)nblican votes. The nine Democr.ats \oted for Thomas II Willi.uns. 

A JUS Torn' ()!•■ Xi'AAlJA. 73 


It was time fnr the Democrats to score a victory, and they proceeded 
to do so ill the state election of November 8, 1870. The Re])ulilicans liad 
met in Klko, on September 2 1st. and placed a ticket in the field, of course, 
with everv lio])e of another swee])iiVL; \ictory. The nenmcrats won out as 
follows : 

Member of Congress, Charles \\". Kendall, ((,821 votes, total vote.. 13.312' 

Governor, L. R. Bradley, 7,200 votes, total vote ' 3-349 

Lieutenant (lovernor, Frank Denver, 6,689 \-otes, total vote i3-309 

Treasiu'er, Jerry Schooling, 6,942 votes, total vote '3-333 

State Printer, Charles L. Perkins, 6),75i votes, total \nte '3.302 

Supreme Judge, John Carber, 6,787 votes, total vote '3-349 

Attorne\' (ieneral. L. A. Ihickner, f).65o votes, total \'ote \;i^.2j'j 

The Republicans elected the following officials : 

Secretar)- of State, J. D. Minor. 6.689 votes, total vote '3-34' 

Controller, W. \V. Hobart. 6.770 votes, total vote '3-353 

Sui)erintendent of Public Instruction, A. N. Fisher. 6,793 \-otes, 

total vote I3.3''>''' 

.Surveyor General, John Day, 6,902 votes, total vote '3-37S 

Mineralogist, H. R. Whitehill. 6.711 votes, total vote I3.3'^>3 

Clerk Supreme Court. Alfred Helm. 6.8ot votes, total vote i3-3'^'t 

Of those electetl. L. A. I'uckner resigned on January 4, 1874. Judge 
Garber resigned on the 6th of November. 1872. These were Democrats, and 
of the Repul)licans. Alfred Helm resigned on Januarv 2, 1875, '''^ successor 
having been electeil the 3rd of Noxember previous. 


Senate. Assemrt.y. 

Dem. Rep. Dem. Rep, 

Churchill '. i o i i 

Esmeralda i i 4 o 

Elko o I 2 o 

Humboldt 2 o 3 o 

Lander 2 o 4 o 

Lincoln i o i o 



o I I 


Nye I 

Ormsby o 

Storey i 3 3 9 

Washoe o 2 o 3 

White Pine i i 2 3 

Totals 10 12 22 22 

An Independent Senator and two Independent .\ssembh-inen were elected 
by Douglas county. 



.Altlioiigh it was more than susjiected tliat various sums of money had 
lieen expended in tlie fight f<ir tlie remo\al of the state capital and in several 
other mo\es of pulitical schemers, the canijiaign of 1872 was to show tlie 
])ower of money, when skilfully used, in encom])assing the election of an 
untried man as United States senator, and the ele\ation to the place right- 
full v helonging to the man wlm had been tried and nut found wauling. It 
was a three-sided fight, two moneyed kings of finance and a man of the 
people, the first two combatants opposed to each other and. of course, also to 
the man of the jieople. 

W'illirmi Sharon, wlien he first discoxcred the senatorial bee buzzing in 
his bonnet, was a \ery rich man. even rich enough to be called a monopolist. 
With his disco\-ery of political ambition came to the people of Nevada the 
disco\-er\- of the |Mn\er i>f money in a great political fight, ]\[oney was 
])lentiful, in the hands of the few, the mines of Nevada ba\-ing created the 
so-called kings of bonanza, and with money came desire for ])olitical prefer- 
ment. This was the case with a number, but the two men who came to the 
front, willing to ser\e their state in the L'nited States senate, and who 
stayed in the front, were William Sharon and J. P, Jones. Jones was a nu'n- 
ing o])erator and stock dealer and had many friends. 

When the legislature met on January 21st. following, thei'e was but one 
ballot, and it stood : 

I. I', lones 23 

W . W. McCoy 17 

C liarles K, DeLong i 

Robert AlcBeth i 

T( ila! 42 

The friends of Jones entered heart and soul into his fight and forgot 
that the Repul)lican convention had, when in session at Reno in September, 
nominated C. C. (ioodwin for Congress, and that the noiuination bad been 
forced u])i»n him. The Democrats. 1)ccoming aware of this state of affairs, 
lost no time in working for the election of their nominee, Charles W. Kendall, 
electing him trium])hantly. The Rejiublicans elected the su]ireme judge and 
tlie slate printer, the only slate offices to be filled. The vote was: 

ReiHiblican Presidential Electors i^^'.i votes 

Democratic Presidential l"llectors ('),236 votes 

Member of Congress. C. W. Kendall; total vote •4'993 

Supreme Judge, Thomas P. Havvley, 8,193 v'ote.s; total vote. , . . 14,021 
Stale Printer, C. A, V, Putnam, 8, i7() votes; total vote 1 5,(x>8 



l''(ir the two \'ears l'()lli>\\iii.u' the senatnrial clectiim, in wliieli lie was 
realK' defeated hv Jones. W'illiani Shainn had heen laying" his plans to secure 
the senatorship in 1874. To that end he conciliated Senator Jones. In a 
puhlic meeting, or reception, to Senator Jones in Car.son, 1874. Sharon 
eulogized Jones and thanked the ])eo]ile for Jones for giving him such a 
welcome, alluding in words of flattery to Jones' record in the senate. He 
had something to work uixm, as Jones had made an exceptionally good sen- 
ator in the eyes of his constituents. 

.\(lol]ih Sutro had succeeded to the ])lace of contestant, chiefly Iiccause 
Sharon was head of the forces opposing the construction of the Sutro Tun- 
nel, and as United States senator he would wield considerahle power against 
its completion. .\ third party, the lnde])endent, took the field. The "siUer 
tongued" Thomas Fitcli was ])aid hy the Sharon powers to enter the lists 
against Sutro, wdiich he accordingly did. 

The Democratic party at that time was composed of two elements, those 
opjxised to the Confederac)* and those who were sympathizers with it. The 
latter element was in control and made a fatal mistake in throwing aside 
C". W. Kendall, who had twice heen elected memher for congress, and nomin- 
ating an ex-Confederate officer. Colonel .V. C. Ellis. As will lie seen from the 
ticket put up, the Independents selected several men from both the Republican 
and Democratic tickets, only putting up as third candidate. Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor A. J. Hatch, of \\'ashoe county: .Attoroney General A. B. Elliott, of 
Storey county: Superintendent of Public Instruction H. H. Howe, of Orms- 
by county. The latter gentleman declined the nomination, and the others 
went down to defeat. Of those they selected from the Democratic ticket, 
Hereford, Belnap, Ellis and Stewart were defeated at the polls. 

The Democrats, when they set Kendall aside, throught he could be 
pre\'ailed upon to work for the party, but they reckoned without their host, 
for Kendall took the opposite course. He was invited to make a ratification 
sjieech at Virginia City, on Octoljer 8tli. He accepted the invitation : when 
he appeared and was introduced b\ the chairman of the Democratic state 
central committee, he did not waste a moment in prefacing, but started in 
with a fierce attack upon the part\- platform, candidates and managers, with 
some inside information regarding them, and made a damaging accusation. 
He was ordered from the ]ilatf("irm. and. going outside, followed by the 
crowd, got upon a bo.x to finish his denunciation. The Democrats forced 
him from the box and created such a tumult he had to cease. But he re- 
sorted to the opposition papers and had published some very damaging state- 


The Republicans had to hold their meetings in tine streets, as tlie Demo- 
crats and Independents had cliartered the Opera House at Virginia City for 
tlie entire campaign. Tlie tunnel came to the front as an issue and Sutro had 
a number of magic lanterns used in the campaign, all showing Sharon as the 
oppressor of the people, and of course people flocked to see them. Sharon 
worked upon the people of Storey and Ormsby counties by asserting that if 
Sutro were elected it would mean the ruin of both counties, as he would, 
of course, reiuoxe all business possible to the town growing up at. the mouth 
(.f the Sutro tunnel in Lyon county. 

The Republicans in convention at Winnemucca on September 24th. nom- 
inated the following" ticket : 

For Gmgress, William W'oodburn. of Storey county. 

For Goxernor, J. C. Hazlett, of Lyon county. 

For Lieutenant Governor, John Bowman, of Nye county. 

For Secretary of State, J. D. Minor, of Humlx)ldt count)'. 

For Controller, W. W. Hobart, of White Pine county. 

For Treasiu'er, L. J. Hogle, of Eureka county. 

For Superintendent Public Instruction, S. P. Kelly, of Eureka county. 

For Siu'veyor (ieneral, John Day, of Lyon county. 

I'or State Printer, C. C. Powning, of Washoe county. 

L. J. Hogle withdrew afterwards, and George Tufly. of Orm.sby county, 
was substituted. Mr. Hogle must have had an insight into the future and 
preferred not to go down in history as a defeated candidate. 

For Mineralogist, H. R. Whitehill, of Churchill county. 

For Supreme Judge. W. H. Beatty, of White Pine county. 

For Supreme Judge, Warren Earll, of Elko county. 

For Attorney (jeneral, Moses Tebbs, of Douglas county. 

For Clerk Supreme Court, C. F. Bicknell, of Ormsby county. 

The Democrats, at their con\ention two days 1,-iter, held in Carson, 
placed the following ticket in the field : 

b'or Congress, A. C. l-^llis, of Ormsby county. 

F'or Governor, L. R. Bradley, of Elko county. 

For Lieutenant Governor, Jewett W. Adams, of Storey county. 

l'V)r Secretary of State, Charles D. Spires, of lender county. 

I'^or Controller, T. R. Cranley, of White Pine county. 

For Treasurer, Jerry Schooling, of Washoe countw 

F'or Superintendent Public Instruction, E. Spencer, of Lander count v. 

For Surveyor General, George Haist, of Storey count\'. 

For State Printer. J. J. Hill, of llmnboldt county. 

For Mineralogist, W. F. Stewart, of .Storey county. 

l'"or Supreme Judge, .\. M. Hilllu)use, of b'-ureka county. 


l"i>r Siipre'iiic Judi^c, C H. Ijelkiiap. of Ormsl))- idunly. 

I'"cir Attiinic)- (leneral, J. I\. Kittrell, of White I'inc county. 

I'nr Clerk of Supreme Court, U. 11. Hereford, of Lincoln county. 

Spencer was taken oft' the ticket kiter and Mr. W'ilhs was the candi- 
date fur the office of sn])erintendent of ])ul)lic instruction. 

iiie independents met two days later in Carson ami miminated their 
ticket. W hen the election came off on Noveniher 3rd the following' candidates 
w ere successful : 

Member Congress. William Woodhniii, <),24<) votes; lolal votes, t.wo 
candidates, i ~.S()/. 

( iovernor, L. I\. liradle^', 10,310 votes ; total \ote. two candidates, iS.cxj^. 

Lieutenant (jo\ernor. Jewetl W. .\danis, (>,52<) xoles; total \i.ite, three 
candidates. 18,060. 

Secretary of State, J. [). Minor, io,5yj \utes; total vote, two candidates, 

Controller, W. W. lioli;irt. ii,oiij votes; tola! \ote, two candidates, 

Treasurer, Jerry Schooling, votes; total vote, three candidates, 


Superintendent Public Instruction, S. 1'. Kelly, votes; total vote, 

four candidates, 17,865. 

Surveyor General, John Day, 10,078 votes; total vote, two caiulidates, 

State Printer, J. J. Hill. 9,071 votes; total vote, two candidates. 18,038. 

Mineralogist. H. R. Whitehill, 9,043 votes; total vote, two candidates, 

Supreme Judge (short term). Warren Earll, 9.322 votes; total vote, two 
candidates, 18,064. 

Supreme Judge (long term), W. H. Beatty, 9,932 voles; total vote, two 
candidates, 18,088. 

Attorney General. J. K. Kittrell. 9.050 votes; total \oie. two candidates. 

Clerk Supreme Court, C. T. Bicknell, 9,209 votes; total vote, two can- 
didates, 18,038. 


The main fight had been, of course, over the assemblvmen, and the 
following gives the showing made by each county: 

Counties. Rep. Dem. 

Storey 14 o 

Churchill o 3 

Douglas 3 o 


Elko : o 6 

Esmeralda 2 3 

Eureka i 1 

HumlK)l(lt I 3 

Lander 2 i 

Lincoln o 4 

Lyon 4 o 

Nye o 2 

Ormsby 4 o 

AVashoe : o 4 

White Pine 7 o 

Hold-over Senators 9 i 

Total 47 28 

When the \"i.)te was taken in Imth branches of tlie letjislature. in Jan- 
nary. 1S75: the vote lor senator to rejjlace W. I\L Stewart was: William 
Shamn. 49; H. K. Mitchell. _m : Thomas P. Hawley. 4. 


By way of contrast the next political campaign was a cjuiet one. doubt- 
less owing to the fact that there was no senatorship to be fought over. Conse- 
quently, instead of relying on money to aid them, the candidates had. one 
and all. l(.) rel_\' upon their own exertions and .iljilitw Both parties mmiin- 
ated men of high standing, intellectually and morally, the Republicans at 
their convention, August 24th and 25th. at Carson City, and the Democrats, 
in their convention at X'irginia Cit\-, August 28th. The election gave the 
Republicans the victory, for presidential electors a majority of 1,075; ^^'■' 
Congress, Thomas Wren defeated Colonel A. C. K]\\s liy a majority of 911 ; 
for Supreme judge, O. R. Leonard defeated M. Kirkpatrick by a majority of 
of 581. 

There was a demand for a new constitution. ;uid the question of whether 
(jne should be framed or not was \oted upon al this election, being defeated 
by -a majority of 3,9^ :. 

There has been a change in ibc i)olitirs of the Icgislaliu'c. which will 
be shown best Iiy comparison with the table of 1875. 


Counties. Rep. Dem. Rep. Dem. 

Senate. y\ssEMULv. 

Churchill o I o i 

Douglas 1 o 2 o 

Elko I I I 2 

b'smeralda o i 2 o 

Eureka o 2 2 2 

A lilSlom' OF NliVADyV. T9 

Huinlx.ld) o 2 o 3 

Laii(l(.T I o 2 I 

Lincoln i i 2 i 

Lyon I I 3 o 

Nye o I o 2 

Ornishy 2 O 3 O 

Store}' " 2 2 12 2 

Washoe i' i 3 o 

Wliite Pine 2 O 2 2 

Total 12 13 34 16 

Seven Repnhlicans and six Deniocrals were hoUl-overs. 


Senator Junes hail s(i iilaccd himself in puijlic esteem hy his hnlhanl 
statesmanshi]) that exerynne knew it wonld he lio]ieless to rnn against him. 
So the fig'ht centered this election uijon the guhernatorial office. The Re- 
])nl)lican party had many would-he candidates. In Storey connty there were 
three, A. J. Tyrrell, (k-neral Ratterman and R. Ai. Daggett. Daggett with- 
drew just hefore the cnnntv ])rimary; this resulted in an uninslrncted dele- 
gation from that countw in the state convention. 

I'oth ])arties put in a ])lank in their platforms, regarding the railroads, 
demanding reduced prices upon passenger and freight rates. The Re- 
pnhlicans knew they would have hard work to defeat the Democratic gover- 
nor, L. R. Bradley, for he had heconie very popular by reason of his incor- 
ruptihility and devotion t^^ duty. The party was almost bankrupt, and the 
"bosses" did not know which way to turn for funds. What really helpetf, 
in fact did, defeat Bradley, was a speech made in Virginia City, by General 
Kittrell, candidate on the Democratic ticket for attorney general. He handled 
his subject, the "Big Four," or "Bonanza Kings," in a way calculatefl to 
make those gentlemen uncomfortable. Sure of his ground, he went into 
personalities which made the kings of finance wrathy, especialh' h'air and 
Mackey. And the bonanza firm entered the ranks of the Republican party 
and furnished the sinews of war. The Republicans accordingly elected all 
hut two of their candidates. 

The defeat of Henry R. Afighels, of Ormsby, candidate for lieutenant 
governor on the Republican ticket, was a surprise. He had no opposition in 
the nominatmg. Railroad interests defeated him. The Virginia & Truckee 
Railroad Company wanted to see S. H. Wright on the bench, and when 
approached to support him Mighels declined to do so. He was told they 
would defeat him if he persisted, but he did so, and was "slain for his con- 
victions." And one of the worst things used against him was his own arti- 


cles in llie Appeal, in which, wlien the raih-oad was trxing to replace C'rirnish- 
nieii with Chinamen. Miglieis iiad iiplield the i"aih"(ia(l. Mighels had always, 
in all elections, led his ticket. e\'en in the home counties of his opponents. 
^Ir. Mighels has labored early and late for the Republican party, and with 
his ready pen had aided greatly in e\ery campaign and in "times of peace." 

The articles nf which the Ciirnishnien C(ini]:)laine(l were written by a 
man who assumed temporary charge of the Appeal while Mighels was on 
a visit to New York. He could easily have shown this, but held that such 
an explanation would look like "crawfishing." He was offered the solid 
Cornish vote of Storey if he wcudd make a pulilic apology to the C<>rnish 
in the \'irginia City Opera House on the eve of election. He spoke to a 
l)acktd house, and stated that wliile he was alisent from Carson Citv when 
the objectionable articles ajipeared in the Appeal and did not write them, 
he was n(.t in the habit of repudiating the acts of any sul)ordinate nn his 
paper, and that he would not then, even to win his election. He endorsed 
the articles to th.e limit, as they fully ex])ressed his sentiments. Standing 
on the [ilatfurm he flung defiance in the faces of his Cornish amlience. Xext 
day the election sealed hi.s doom, but to this day Nevada honors the memory 
of a man who would not bow to any faction to get votes. 
There were but two tickets in the field : 


Congress, Rollin M. Daggett, of Storey county. 

Governor, John H. Kinkead, of Humboldt county. 

Lieutenant Governor, Henry R. Migiiels, of Ormsby county. 

Secretary of State, Jasper Babcock, of Storey county. 

Controller. J. ¥. Hallock, of Lincoln comity. 

Treasurer, L. L. Crockett, of Washoe count}'. 

Stiperintendent Public Instruction, J. D. Hammond, of ( )rmsby county. 

Surveyor General. A. J. Tlatch. of Wa.shoe county. 

Su])reme Judge. Thouias 1'. llawlex, of White I'inc county. 

.\ttorney General, M. A. Murphy, of Lsmerald.i county. 

Clerk Supreme Court. C. !'". llicknell. of Ormsby county. 


Congress, W. E. F. Deal, of Storey county. 

Governor, L. R. Bradley, of I'.lko county. 

Lieutenant Governor. Jewett W. .\dams, of Storey county. 

Secretary of Stale. George W . Baker, of Eureka county. 

Controller, M. R. Elstner, of Ormsljy county. 

Treasurer, J. E. Jones, of Washoe count\. 

Superintendent of Public Instructiou. I). R. Sessions, of i'"!ko county. 


Sur\e\iir (leiieral, S. Tl. T^av. of Ornisli\- I'nuntw 

Sujireiiic Judj^e, I'". W. C'mIc, of luireka countw 

Attorney tjencral, |. I\. Ixittrcll, nf W'liite I'ine county. 

Clerk Supreme Court, Uicliard Rule, of Store\' county. 

The Democrat.^ elected two of these, Jewett W . Adams, lieutenant jn'oser- 
nor, and 1). R. Sessions, su])erintendent puhlic instruction, defeating H. R. 
Mighels and J. 1). llaniniond. 

The vote on constitutional amendment was : 

Constitutional Amendment. Article iX — Yes, 5,073 \'otes; No, ^t^j votes. 

Constitutional Amendment, Article 11, Section 10 — Yes, 3,357 votes; 
No, 91 votes. 

Constitutional Amendment. Article 9 — Yes, J.^jij: Xo, _'_' \'otes. 


It was known, there heing a majority of Repul)licans, that Senator 
Jones w(jukl he elected, hut the \'ote was a mere formality. His re-election 
was a foregone conclusion, and there was no talk at an}' time of another 
candidate. The Democratic candidate was Hon. .\. M. Millhouse, of Eureka. 
He was an able lawyer and stoo(l well, hut Jones had hv his career of six 
years in the United States senate so demonstrated his ahilit\- that e\en if 
the Repuhlicans ha<l not hcLii in the majoritx' he would lia\e heen re-elected, 
'Jlie perfunctory \-ote was: J. 1'. Jones. 60; A. AT Millhouse. 14. 

legislattke of 1878. 

Sex.\te. :\ssembt.y. 

Counties. Rep. Dem. Rep. Dem. 

Churchill i o i o 

Douglas I o I I 

Elko 1 I 3 o 

Esmeralda i o i o 

Eureka i i 4 o 

Humholdt 1 i 3 o 

Lander [ o o 3 

Lincoln 2 o 2 i 

Lyon 2 o 3 o 

Nye o I I I 

Ormsby 2 o 2 i 

Storey 2 2 14 o 

Washoe 2 o 3 o 

White Pine 2 o 3 I 

Totals 19 fi 41 9 

There were fi\e Republican hold-o\crs. five Democratic and one Inde- 




When the campaign nf iS<So ci>niiiieiK-t.-(l the l\e|)iil)lieaiis were without 
money, and a great deal nf pohtical ])restige liad departed. The people of 
the state were ready for a change, especially in the I'nited States senate. 
Senator Sharon had neglected his duties completelx'. not being in Wash- 
ington half the time, but staying at home, attending to iiis own private afifairs. 
In fact his conduct had turned e\-en the leaders of his own party against 
him. thev ])referring the defeat of the Kei)ublicans to the continuance of 
Sharon in the position. Sharon refused to provide the funds to help enable 
the Republicans to win out. and this still more embittered them. He went 
out on stump, but his s]jeeches were not calculated to win any votes for the 

Then James G. Fair came forward fmni the Democratic ranks as their 
choice. Later on Adolph Sutro tried to gain recognition, hut in vain. In 
place of Sharon. Hon. Thomas Wren was candidate from the Republican 
party. Of the sixty-one members elected to the two branches of the state 
legislature onlv nine were Republicans, two being senators. W. W. Holjart. 
of Eureka, and J. D. Hammond, of Ormsby. 

The sad fate of the Repul)licans speaks in the returns : 


For Democratic Electors 9,61 1 

For Republican Electors ^>73~ 

Democratic majority 879 

The vote against Chinese immigration was an oxerwhelming one. 17,259 
against, to 183 m favor of. 


Elimination of the woi'd "white"' from .Section 1 of .\rticle J— Yes, 
14.215; No. 353. 

Add Article 18, granting rights of suffrage and otticediolding, notwith- 
standing color or previous condition of servitude — Yes, 14,215; No, 5()0. 

To add Section 10 to Article 11. forbidding the use of public funds for 
sectarian purposes — Yes, 14,848: No. 560. 

LEGISLATl-RE Ol' 1 88o. 

Sen.\te. .\ssembly. 

C'oiNTiKS. Re]). DeuL Rep. Dem. 

Ciuirchill I o o i 

Douglas I o o 2 

Elko o 2 o ' 3 

Esmeralda i o o 2 





























A lllST()k^■ OF NEVADA. 83 

luireka 2 

Huniholdt I 

Lander i 

Lincoln i 

Lyon I 

Nye o 

Ormsby 2 

Storey 2 

Washoe i 

Wliite Pine i 

Totals 15 10 ; 43 

The DenKK-rats spent m<iney freely, as of course they could alTnrd to, 
and Fair was elected United States senator 'hy the following vote; 

James G. Fair — Senate. 10; Asseml>l\ , 4_' ; tntal 52 

Thomas Wren — Senate, 13 ; Assemhly, 7 : total 20 

Kdtlin M. Daggett — Senate, i 


The state of Nevada was reaiJi)()rti()ne(l in iS8i, and the nunil)er of mem- 
jjers reduced from seventy-five to si.xty. This was done to reduce expenses, 
the sum total being reduced o\er 5t>io,ooo per session 1\v this drastic means. 


Counties. Senate. Assembly. 

Churchill i i 

Douglas I 2 

Elko 2 3 

Esmerakla i 2 

Eureka 2 3 

Humboldt 1 2 

Lander .• 1 3 

Lincoln 1 2 

Lyon I 2 

Nye r 2 

Ormsbv 2 3 

Storey' '. 3 'o 

Washoe 2 3 

White Pine . . . .' i 2 

Totals 20 40 


.\t this session of the legislature Senator W. W. Hohart, of l'"urcka, 
who had, as state controller, proved himself one I'f tlie ablest financiers of 


Nevada, introduced a salar_\- red 
Its provisions were as follows : 

Nevada, introduced a salar_\- reduction Ijili. This was to take effect in 181S3. 

] 'resent New 

Salary. Salary. 

Supreme Court Justices ( tlu'ee) $7,000 $5,000 

Governor 6,000 5,000 

Secretary of State 3,600 3,000 

Controller 3,600 3,000 

Treasurer 3,600 3,000 

Surveyor General 1,000 i .000 

Superintendent of Public Instruction 2,000 2.000 

Lieutenant (ioxernor 3,600 

Ex-Otficio Register 2,400 2,000 

Clerk. Supreme Court 3,600 2,400 

Ex-Officio Curator and Sec"y Orphans' Home 800 400 

(iovernor's Private Secretary 3.300 2,000 

Deputy Secretary of State 3.300 2,000 

Deputy Controller 3.300 2,000 

Deputy Treasurer 3.300 2,000 

Deputy in Surveyor GeneraTs Office 3,ck)o 2,000 

Warden Prison 3,000 2,000 

Clerk State Library i,Roo 1,000 

Superintendent and Matron Orphans' Home 3,000 2.000 

Superintendent Printing 2,400 2,000 

Totals $77,600 $53,800 

The mileage of the members of the legislature was reduced from 40 
cents to 25 cents, a reducti'on of about $3,000 \ytv session. The bill passed, 
making a total reduction of $26,400 per annum. 

.1 1 UK l.\K^ I'KOM '61 TO '78. 

When the office of probate judge was created in i86t. his duties were 
about the same as of those of district judge now. One was apjiointed for 
each county l>y the governor, subject to the approval of the legislature. The 
term of office was two years. There was no district attorney. The law was 
amended in 1862 making the office elective and ;i prosecuting attornev was 
pro\ideil for each county, e.xcept in Lyon and Churchill, where one official 
served both. 

In 1864 the state was ai)portioned into districts, to whicb Tstrict judges 
were to be elected. In 1865 the office of prosecuting attorney was abolished, 
the office of district attorney succeeding, the first being elected on November 
6, 1866. 

.Ml these judicial officers were really county officers. Often two and 
sometimes more, coiuities, were included in one judicial district as follows: 



First District, Storey county, C V>. P.ur1)ank, 3,4 if> votes; R, S. Messic, 
.^,443 votes: l\. Rising. 3,41!^ votes. Six candidates. 

Second District, Ormshy county, S. II. Wriglit, 687 votes; two candi- 
dates, total \()tes, 1,2/6. 

Third District, Lyon county. William ?Taydon. t/q votes; two candi- 
dates ; total vote, 1,232. 

lM)urtli District, Washoe and Uoop counties, C. C. (loodwin, 1 .of)^ ; 
two candidates; total \'ote, 1,852. 

iMflh District, Nye and Churchill counties, S. L. Baker, 247 votes; two 
candidates; total vote, 442. 

Sixth District, llunilioldl countw F. !•'. Dunne, 445 votes; two candi- 
dates; total \ote, 816. 

Seventl) Di.strict, Lander county. W. II. r.eatt>-, 1.278 votes; two candi- 
dates; total vote, 2,512. 

Eig-hth District. Douglas county, D. W. Virgin, 462 votes; two candi- 
dates; total vote, 637. 

Ninth District. Esmeralda countv. S. H. Chase, 590 votes; two candi- 
dates; total vote, 1,030. 

The state Avas redistricted two years later and gave the following results: 


[•" District, Storey county, Richard Kising, i,Sii \dtes ; two candi- 
dates; total vote, 3,280. 

Second District, Orm.sby and Douglas counties, S. H. Wright, 683 
\-otes; two candidates; total \'ote, 1,058. 

Third District, Washoe county, C. X. Harris, 603 votes ; two candidates ; 
total vote, 1,169. 

Fourth District, Lyon county, William Haydon, 465 Notes; two candi- 
dates; total vote, 762. 

Fifth District, Humboldt county, G. G. Berry, 153 votes; two candi- 
dates; total vote, 305. 

Sixth District, Lander county, W. H. Reattv, 795 votes; one candidate; 
total vote, 797. 

Seventh District, Nye and Churchill counties, Benjamin Curler, 369 
votes; two candidates; total vote, 671. 

Eighth District, Esmeralda county. S. H. Chase, 324 votes: one candi- 
date; total vote, 324. 

Of the winners in this election, when the district of White Pine county 
was created, W. II. Beatty resigned May 17, 1869, to take charge of that. 


S. H. Chase died Octol)er _'8, iS'k;. and Cliarles .\. Leake, who was 
elected in 1868, Xinth District. Lincnhi connty. (hed in August. 1870. 


First District. Stnrev cmmty. Ricliard Ixising', I,fig8 votes; two can(h- 
dates: total vote. 3.300. 

Second District. Douglas. Ormshy and Washoe counties, C. X. TTarris, 
1,169 votes; two candidates; total vote, 2,266. 

Third District. Fsmeralda and I.yon counties. W. ^I. Seawell. 620 
votes: two candidates; total vote, 1,067. 

Fourth District. Humboldt county, fieorge C Berry. 378 votes; two 
candidates; total vote. 731. 

Fifth District, Xye and Churchill counties. Benjamin Curler. 300 votes; 
two candidates; total vote. 733. 

Sixth District. Lander county. D. C. McKenney. 781 votes; two candi- 
dates; total vote, 1,445. 

Seventh District. Lincoln county. M. Iniller. 463 votes; two candidates; 
total vote, 800. 

Eighth District. White Pine county. W. IT Beatty, 914 votes; two can- 
didates; total vote. 1,719. 

Xinth District. Elko county. J. H. ]'"lack. 642 votes; two c:mdidatcs; 
total vote, 1.211. 

Of these. Judge Berry resigned on Alarch 3. 187 1. and the vacancy was 
lilled hv the election of O. R. Lenard, on November 5. 1872. Other changes 
were made in the various districts and the next election was as follows; 


I'irst District. Richard Rising. 3.738 votes; two candidates; total vote. 

Sec(jnd District. Ormsl)y. JVniglas and Washoe counties. S. 11. Wright, 
1,384 votes; two candidates; total vote, 2,731. 

Third District. Lvou county, Wi]li;nu .M . Sciwell. 7'i'i votes; one can- 
didate; total vote, 766. 

Fourth District, llumholdt county. W. S. Bonnitield. 303 \-otes ; two 
candidates; total v<ite. 2.879 votes. 

hifth District, Churchill, Lander and Xye counties. 1). C. McKenney. 
1,063; two candidates; total vote, 1,831. 

Sixth District, Eureka and White I'ine counties, I". W . Cole, 1,290 
votes; twf> candidates; total \ote, 2,333. 

Seventh District. Lincoln count v. ITenry Rives. 633 votes; three candi- 
dates; total vote, 1,334. 


Eiglith District. l'~snier;il(la rduntw James S. Janiisnn, 248 votes; three 
candidates; total vote, 555. 

Nintli District. Elko countv, J. II. Mack. -j~i votes; one candidate; 
tiital \()te, "jji. 


First District Storey county, Richard Txising-. 3.510 votes; two candi- 
dates; tt>tal vote. 5.708. 

Second District. Ornishy, Donglas and \\',-ishoe counties, S. 1). Kint;-. 
1,663 votes; two candidates; total \-ote, 2.S)i2. 

Third District, Esmeralda and l^yon comities; William W. Seawell. 967 
votes; two candidates; total xote. 1,589. 

Fonrth District, ?himlio!dt cmintw W. S. Bonniheld, 533 \oics ; twn 
candidates; total vote, 914. 

Fifth District, Nye and Lander connties, 1). C. McKenney. 1.039 \'otes; 
two candidates; total \-ote. J.051. 

Sixth District, \\ liite Pine, Lincoln and Fnreka connties, Henry Rives, 
J, 104 \otcs; two candidates; total vote, 3.862. 

Seventh District, Elko county, J. H. Flack, j.oii \'otes ; two candidates; 
total vote, 1,852. 


PoLiTic.\T, History, 1880 — 1904. 

Fair's Succes.s — Constitutional Amendments — Land Laws — Effort to Grab 
Indian Reser\'ations — Organization of Silver Party — Fusion Party — 
Taxes in Annual Installments — Prize l^ighting Licensed — Efforts to 
Cut Down State Expenses — Reno Incorporated 1897 — Encouragement 
of Mining — Senator Jones' Retirement — h'rancis G. Newlands. Three 
Times Congressman and Now L'nited States Senator — Death of "Black 
Wallace" and A. C. Cleveland. 

To the delight of his friends and the surprise of his enemies, James 
G. Fair made a fairly good senator, serving his six years from 1881 to 1887. 
But when his term of office had exjjired ex-L'nited States Senator William 
M. Stewart had returned to Nevada and taken up the cares of a political life, 
so there was no second term for Senator Fair. 

Li 1885 a number of constitutional amendments were voted upon, one 
being the chang-ing of the session of the legislature from the first Abinday 
in January to the first Mondav in l'"ebruar\-. Another disfranchised any 
one con\icted of selling his vote at any general or siieciai election. The third 
changed the mode of amending the constitution. The fourth authorized 


the investment of tlie scliool fund in the state himds as well as in United 
States bonds. 

At this period there was great trouble between the ranchers and the 
cattlemen over the unlawful occupancy of land. An act was passed by 
the United States senate preventing "unlawful occupancy of land." It was 
aimed to prevent the lan(l-.t;ra1)bers fmni enclosing- any and all land to which 
they happened to take a fancy. Such persons were warned to severely let 
alone lands to which they had "no claim or color of title, made or acquired 
in good faith, or an asserted claim thereto made in good faith with a view 
to entering thereof at the proper land office under tlie general laws of the 
United States at the time any such enclosure was made, are hereby declared 
unlawful." Such enclosurre was prohibited. If i)arties were found guilty 
of enclosing land unlawfully the fences must be removed within five days. 
Settlers were to be protected in their residence on any public land. .\nd 
any one violating the provisions of the act or anyone found advising any one 
to violate them, "shall be deemed guilt)- of a misdemeanor and fined not 
more than $i,ooo and iniprisoned not n-iore than one year." The president 
was authorized to enforce the land laws, using civil and military force if 
necessary. These arbitrary uieasures helped the ranchers greatly in their fight 
against the encroachments of the cattlemen. 

The legislature of 1S85 in a joint meniorial and resolution asked that 
the Walker River Reser\ation be abolished and the Pyramid Lake Reser- 
\-ation be reduced in territory. Since then siniilar efforts ha\'e been made, 
but the noble red man still has the reservations upon which the covetous 
white nien keep an anxious eye. It is rumored that another effort will be 
made at the next session, and that it is likely to l>e crowned with success. 

It was soon discovered that the constitutional aniendments adopted 
1>\- the legislature of 1883 were null and \-oid. because the laws prescribing 
how they were to be subniitted to the people had not been complied with. 
Manv attempts have been made since to alter the state constitution without 
going to the expense of a constitutional convention. 

In the legislature of 1885 Senator John P. Jones, because of his fine 
record, had a walk-over, (ieorge \\'. ("assidy, ex-Congressman from Eureka, 
receiving the complimentary \ote. 

Political energy seen-ieil to have binned itself out, at least tor a few 
years. In 1882 Jewett W. .Vdams was elected go\'ernor by the Democrats, 
while the Republicans elected C. !•". i.aughton lieutenant governor, the elec- 
tion lieing held on strictly ])arty lines. Mr. Laughton removed to the state 
of Washington, where he was elected lieutenant governor. 

In the state election of 1887 (', t'. Steven.son was elected by the Re- 
publicans, who also elected the lieutenant governor, II. C. Davis. I'.y a 


very strange coincidence ^^r. Dn\is died .\ug^ist 22, 1889. and Governor 
Stevenson died on September _• 1 , i8()(). S. W. Clinl>lAici< was ajipointcd 
to fill the lieutenant o(,\ei-ni>r's oClicc; he resioned on November 30, 1889. 
and h'rank Bell was ajjpninted Id lill the vacancy the day Chuhhuck re- 
signed. When Governor Stevenson died, Mr. Bell, by virtue of his office as 
lieutenant governor, became acting governor. Mr. Bell was warden of the 

In 1887 William M. Stewart was cheerfully elected to serve another 
term as United States senator, Robert T. Keating, a mining superintendent 
of X'irginia Citv, receiving the complimentary \ote of the Democrats. Mr. 
Keating died ucjt long afterwards. 

In 1890 R. K. Colcord was elected governor by the Republicans and 
I. Poujade was elected lieutenant governor by the Repulilicans. .\nd that 
was the last victory for either Republicans or Democrats. In 1892 the 
Silver party was organized and waged a most relentless battle against both 
the Republican and Democratic ])arties of Nevada. And to them hence- 
forward belonged the spoils. Men deserted both the old parties to cast in 
their fortunes with the triumphant new party. And to-day silver is not in 
Nevada the dead issue it is in some states. 

In 1894 the Silver party elected for governor and lieutenant governor, 
John E. Jones and Reinhold Sadler, and in 1891, before the party had 
definitely organized in the state, John I'. Jones was re-electefl by the silver 
men to the United States senate, receiving the unanimous vote. 

For a number of years previous both parties considersd the silver 
f|uestion when making nominations ; the object of a one-issue party in Ne- 
\;ula was to Ijring together in one party all the independent voters of the 
state who favored the remonetization of silver at the ratio of t6 to i. Its 
members were pledged to support no- man for the presidency who flid not 
believe in the free coinage of siher and stand u])on a free coinage platform. 
Many of the old guard of the siK'er party remain true to that party, although 
many who left their respective parties through lnyalt\- to the state have re- 
turned to their old allegiance. 

In 1900 the Democrats and Siher men fused and endorsed Hon. I'". 
G. Newdands, roasting Senator Stewart in their platform. 

In 1897 F. G. Newlands and Hon. A. C. Cleveland, of White Pine 
county, wanted to succeed Stewart. Judge Wren desired to succeed New- 
lands. In lohn P. lones was the choice of the .Siher men, and lie received 
the unanimous vote, 35 ; Hon. George S. Nixon, of Humboldt county, re- 
cei\ing 3 votes; 7 members did not vote. 

In 1896 an attemjit was made to divide Lincoln county and con.solidate 
Store\', Ormsbv, Lvon :nid l.iiicnln cunnties. Both measures were dcfealeil 


when submitted to the people, tlie former hy a phirahty of 419 and tlie 
latter by a plurality of 641. In 1893 '"^ attemjit was made to consolidate 
Storey. Ormsby and Washoe counties, but it did not get past the legis- 

For years efforts have been made to establish a state lottery, and the 
matter has come before nearly every legislature since 1880. Nevada has 
legalized prize fighting, and man\- think a state lutterv wuuld bring in outside 
capital besides keeping in the state the thousands of dollars sent out each 
week for lottery tickets. 

Tiie legislature of 1897 on March 16 provided for the payment of taxes 
in annual installments, which jinived a most beneficial thing. 

In 1895 and 1896 the sa\ing in a reduction of salaries of state officials 
amounted to $28,495. The effort to remove the office of the surveyor gen- 
eral Ut Winnemucca proved abortive, as did the effort to do awav altogether 
with the office of lieutenant governor. The consolidation nf the (itfices of 
lieutenant governor and state librarian was successful. 

in 1897 the city of I^eno was incorporated by act nf legislature, on 
March 8th. This year the state ilebi was less than that of any other state 
in the Union, and yet was near the limit, allowed by the Constitution, of 
$300,000, being $227,000. I'a.xable property had decreased in five years 
$8,000,000, at the state valuation of 90 cents on the hundred. .\ majority 
of lutth houses were engaged in agricultiu'al ])ursuits. The state controller 
reported that the assessed \aluation for 1896-97, was less than any year 
since 1S72. Mines which for twenty years following the organization of 
the state had paid $80,000 i)er year, in 1897 paid less than $1,000. In 
an effort to raise money the legislature licensed jirize fighting. When 
b'itzsimmons and C'orbett took advantage of the license and fought in Carson 
City, ]Maich 17. o\er $100,000 was spent in Carson by outsiders and this in 
addition to the money paid for license and other "legitimate" e.xi)enses. 

In the years of 1896-97 the state borrowed $77,000 from the School 
fund. In endeavoring to cut down cxjjenses an effort was made to abolish 
the State Board of Health, but it had done too good service, es])ccially in 
the smallpox ei)idemic in the Indian schools, and it was not done. .\ like 
effort was made to abolish the state weather bureau. This same session 
the legislature again indefinitely ]xxstpoued calling a constitutional conveu- 
tif/ii. The legislature, however, ])asscd a bill licensing the sale of cigarettes 
and cigarette paper. 

The legislature of 1897 also passed ,1 bill i>n Afarch qtli, amending .Sec- 
tion 2, of ".\n Act to F.ncourage Mining." .•i])i)n)ved March 3, 1887. It 
effectually ])re\ente(l all controversy regarding title td mining claims dis- 
covered u]iMn Lands selected by the st.atc and dispnsed of to settlers, or 


speculators. Under this new law the discoverer of a mine <n\ such lands 
can secure a patent fur same from the United States by complying with the 
mining laws. It gives ijrospectors a show and prevents the grabbing of valu- 
able lands for $1.25 per acre. 

In 1897 John P. Jones was re-elected tn the United States senate 
by a unanimous vote. A big bancinet was gi\en by the Senatoi- lo cnni- 
memorate the occasion. 

In 1898 the Silver ])arty elected the lieutenant governor, ReinhoM 
Sadler, governor, and J. R. Judge, lieutenant governor. .Mthough a nom- 
ination from the Siher party was considered e(|ui\-alent to an election, Mc- 
Millan, the Democratic candidate, came so close to Sadler that it was at 
first thought he had beaten him. Recourse to the courts was had, and after 
nine months the decision was given to Sadler, by a very close margin, his 
plurality being less than 25. Orvis Ring, superintendent of jjublic instruc- 
tion, was the only Re])ulilican elected in NcA^ada at this election. 

In 1899 \\'. M. Stewart found it more difticult to seciu'e his election. 
He had stumped the state the ])re\ious election, and, on account of his many 
changes of attitude, did not receive his usual hearty welcome. After the 
election was over Congressman Newlands openly charged Stewart with 
treachery, giving specific details. Stewart also charged Newlands with 
treachery, and at a meeting of the State Central Sih-er committee, Sltaron, the 
cliairman, was removed from the chairmanship for having aided Newlands, 
his brother-in-law. Newlands' treachery was clearly proven. Newlands 
had been in Congress three terms and his record had been such that the 
]3eoi)le had learned to place implicit confidence in him. Conseipiently, their 
confidence in .Stewart was shaken. One of the charges was that funds had 
heen sent b\' the Repulilican national committee to l.)u\-'s election. 
Col. Jack Chinn ha\-ing charge of the fund. On January 24 Stewart was 
re-elected to the United States senate on the first ballot, the vote being 15 
for Stewart; 6 for Cleveland: one for Williams and one for Flannigan. In 
the House the \-ote was: Stewart 15: Cle\'eland _' ; Williams 8: W'oodbuni 
one and Mason 3. .\sseml)lyman CJillespie was absent. His vote would 
have made it a tie \'ote. Charges of treachery were preferred against him. 
and at the investigation Gillespie said that he was not in favor of Newlands 
and was not elected to support Stewart. Hon. .\. C. Cleveland had licen 
regarded as Stewart's most formidable o])j)onent. but with<lrew before the 
\-oting c(immenced. 

Before his term expired in 1903, I'nited States Senator Jones an- 
nounced his retirement after thirty years' service in the Senate. In 1902 
Senator Hanna, of the national committee, sent another fund to help Sen- 
ator Stewart elect the holcl-o\er state senators: ele\en were to be elected. 


one-fifth of tlie legislature which will convene in 1905, Senator Stewart 
expecting to l)e a candidate again before that body. Senator Stewart en- 
couraged Judge Haw ley to try for the I'nited States senate, hut the legisla- 
ture could see nothing Ijut I'rancis G. Newlands. Mis opixment was W. W. 
Williams, state senator from Churchill county. 

In August, 1902, the Silver and Democratic parties fused, John Sjiarks. 
for governor, and C. D. Van Duzer, for congressman-at-large, heading tlie 
ticket. A. C. Cle\elan(l was offered the gul:)ernatorial nomination 1)\- ihe 
l\epuhlican convention, hut he refused to take it on a silver platfurui ami 
also liecause he was ;i warm friend of Jnhn Sparks. In the interest of har 
mony he was forced to take it, I'rank H. Button being nominated for lieu- 
tenant-governor and E. .\. Farrigton for congressman-at-large. C. C". 
Wallace, commonly known as "Black" Wallace, of Eiu'eka countv who 
had bitterly fought \'an Duzer for years, died January 30, 1901, and .Mr. 
\'an Duzer was elected with the rest of the fusion ticket. Hon. A. C". (Cleve- 
land died y\ugust 23, 1903. * 

ti:rkitoki.\i. officers. 
Trior to the admission of Nevada as a state, its territorial ofticers were 

as follows : 


James W. Nye, appointed March 22, icSAi, 

Secretary of Stufc. 
(~)rion ("Icmens, .-ippointed March 2j. nShi. 

Slate Treasurer. 
John II. Kinkcad, ai)])ointcd Februarv i, 1862. 

.-Iftdriieys (,'eiieral. 
i'cnjamiu |. I'.unkcr. ,ip])oiuteil M.arch 2j. 1 SO 1 , and resigned the same 

J. W. North, ai)pointed in 1861. 

Tlieodore D, Edwards, appointed .\ugust 31, 18O3. 

Siil^eriiiteiuteiils of /'iil)lle histntelioii. 
W. C. Biakley. appointed l'"ebrnary -'4, i86j. 
A. F. White, a])))ointed December 24, 1863. 

Jii.stiees of Supreme Court. 
(ieorge II. 'ruruer, ,i]ipointe(l .March 27, 1861.* 
Horatio N. Jones, appointed March 2y. 1861.1 
Gordon N. Mott, ai)pointed March 2j, 1861. :|: 

*Was chief juslicc from March 27. i8<)i, In Ndviiiihir 1, i8(q. 
fResignecl in 1864. 
^Resigned in i8<i3. 


J. W. Nortli, api)()inte(l Octo1)er J, 1863. 
Pdwliatan B. Locke, apixjinted in 1864. 

Clerks of I lie Siilvcme Court. 

]. McC. KcanlDU. appointed in i8()2. 
Alfred Helm, appointed in 1863. 


Tlie fn^t state officers (|u;dified in Jannar\% 1865. Since its admission 
as a state. Nevada has liad tlic following- state ot^cers : 


Tllasdel. H. G., Rep 1865-1866 

Blasdel. H. G., Rep 1866-1870 

Bradley, L. R., Dem 1871-1874 

Bradley, L. R.. Dem 1875-1878 

Kinkead, John H., Rep 1879-1882 

Adams, Tewett W., Dem 1883-1886 

*Stevenson, C. €., Rep 1887-1889 

Bell, Frank, Rep. (acting- from September 9th ) 1890 

Colcord, R. K., Rep 1891-1894 

f Jones, John E., Silver Party 1895 

Sadler, Reinhold, Silver Party (Acting Governor) 1895-189S 

Sadler, Reinhold, Silver Party 1899-1902 

Sparks, John, Dem. -Silver 1903 

*Died September 21. 1890, and Fr,iiik Bell became Acting Governor by virtue of his 
office as Lieutenant-Governor. 

fDied April 10, 1895, and R. Sadler became Acting Governor by virtue of his office 
as Lieutenant-Governor. 

Lieutenant Governors. 

Crosman, J. S., Rej) 1865-1866 

Slingerland, J. S., Rep 1867-1870 

Denver, Fraiik, Dem 1871-1874 

Adams, J. W., Dem 1875-1878 

Adams, J- W., Dem 1879-1882 

Langhton, C. E., Rep 1883-1886 

*Davis, H. C, Rep 1887-1889 

fChubbuck, S. W.. Rep 1889 

tBell. Frank, Rep 1889-1890 

Poujade, T-, Rep 1891-1894 

Sadler, Reinhold. Silver 1895-1898 

Judge, J. R., Silver 1899-1902 

Allen, Lemuel, Silver-Dem 1903 

'•*Died August 22, 1899, and S. W, Clnil)l)iick appointed September 9. i88q. to I'lll the 

tResigned November 30. 1889. 
I Appointed November 30, 1889. 


Srcrctarii's of Stale. 

Noteware, C. N.. Rep 1865-1866 

Noteware, C. \., Rep 1867-1870 

Minor. T- D.. Rep 1871-1874 

Minor, j. D., Rep 1875-1878 

Bai)Coci<, Jasper. Rep 1879-1882 

Dormer. John M.. Rep 1883-1886 

Dormer, John M.. Rep 1887-1890 

Grey. O. "H.. Rep 1891-1894 

Howell. Eugene. Silver Party 1895-1898 

Howell, Eugene. Silver Party 1899-1902 

Douglass, W. G.. Rep 1903 

State Treasurers. 

Rhoades. El)en. Rep. 1865-1866 

*Rlioa(les. Ehen. Rep 1867-1869 

•f-Batterman. C. C. Rep 1869-1870 

Schooling. Jerry, Dem 1871-1874 

Schooling. Jerrv. Dem 1875-1878 

Crockett, L. h.'. Rep 1879-1882 

Tufly. George, Rep 1883-1886 

:|:Tufly, George, Rep 1887-1890 

Richard. George W'., Rep 1890 

§Egan, J. F., Rep 1891-1894 

Richard, Geo. W., Reji 1894 

Westerfield, W. J., Silver Party 1895-1898 

Ryan, D. M., Silver Party ' 1889-1902 

Ryan, D. M., Silver-Deni 1903 

*Killed himself in llie Occidental Hotel. San Francisco, September g. 1869. 

fAppointed to fill unexpired term. 1S69. 

tRcsigned August t^. iSijo. and George W. Richard apiiointed to fill vacancy. .-Vngnst 
I,-?, 1890. 

§Died April 14, 1804. and George W. Richard appointed to fill nnexpired term. -April 
17, 1894- 

.S7(//(' Coii/nillers. 

Nightingill, A. W., Rep 1865-1866 

*Parkinson, W. K., Rq) ', 1867-1S69 

IDoron, Lewis, l^ej) •. . . . 1869-1870 

Hobart, W. \V., Rep 1871-1874 

PTohart. W". \V.. Rep 1875-1878 

Hallnck. I. !•'.. Rep 1879-1882 

Pfallock. T. F.. Re]) 1883-1886 

Hallock. J. v.. Rep 1887-1890 

PTorton, R. P., Rcj) 1891-181)4 

LaGrave, C. A., .Silver Party 1895-1898 

Davis, Sam P., Silver Party 1899-1902 

Davis, Sam P., .Silver-Dem '9^3 

*Dicd October 14, 1869. 
fAppointed October 15, 1869. 


Jiisliccs (if Ihc Stitircmc i'miii. 

Lewis. [. F., Rep Novenil)er 8, 1864 

*Bc:ittv! H. O., Rep November 8. 1864 

fBrosiian, C. M., Rep November 8. 1864 

Lewis. J. F.. Rep November 6. 1866 

Johnson. J. Neelev. Rep November 3, 1868 

Whitman," P.. C. Rep November 3. 1S68 

:|:Garber, lohn. Dem N<iveml>er 8. 1870 

Hawley, t. P.. Rep Novemljer 5. 1872 

Earl!, 'Warner. Rep November 3, 1874 

Beatty, WilHam H., Rep November 3, 1874 

Leonard, O. R., Rep November 7, 1876 

Hawlev, T. P., Rep Noveml^er 5, 1878 

Belknap, C. H.. Dem Novemlier 2, 1880 

Leonard, Orville R.. Rep November 7, 1882 

SHawley, T. P., Rep November 4, 1884 

Belknap. C. H.. Dem November 3, 1886 

Murphy, M. A., Rep November 6, 1888 

Bigelow\ R. R., Rep November 4, i8<)() 

Belknap, C. H., Dem November 8, 1892 

Bonnifield, M. S., Silver Party November 6. 1894 

I |Massey, W. A.. Silver Party' November 3. 189^) 

Belknap, C. H., Silver Party. November 8, 1898 

JMtzgerakl, A. L., Dem. and Silver Party November 6, 1900 

Julien. Thomas V Sepember 15. 1902 

Talbot. George P., Silver Party and Dem November 4, 1902 

*Resigned November g, 1868. and B. C. Whitman apoointed to fill vacancy. 

fDied April 2i. 1867. and J. Nceley Johnson appointed to fill vacancy. 

JResigned November 7. 1872. and C. H. Belknap appointed. 

§Resigned September 27. 1890, and R. R. Bigelow appointed to fill the vacancy. De- 
cember 2. 1890. 

llResigned September i. 1902. and Thomas V. Julien appointed cm September 15. 1902. 
to fill unexpired term. 

Districl Judges. 


Mesick. R. S First 1865-1866 

Burbank, Richard First 1865-1866 

Rising, Richard First 1865-1894 

Wright, S. H Second 1865-1870 

Wright. S. H Second 1875-1878 

Havdon. Wm Third. Fourth 1865-1870 

Goodwin, C. C Fourth 1865-1866 

Baker. S. L Fifth 1865-1866 

Dunn. E. F Sixth 1865-1866 

Beatty, W. H Seventh. Eighth. Sixth 1865-1874 

Virgin. D. W Eighth . . ." 1865-1866 

Chase, S. H Ninth, eighth 1865-1868 

Harris, C. N Third. Second 1867-1874 

!'6 A HISTORY OU XE\\\\).\. 

Berry. G. G Fiftli. Fourth ; . . . 1867- 

Curler, Benj Seventh. Fifth . . . ". 1867- 

Huhbard. Clias. C, Xintli 1867- 

Boalt. J. H Sixth 1869- 

:\IcCHnton. J. G Eighth 1869- 

*Lake, Chas. A Xinth 1869- 

(Jorin, J. D Xiiith 

Keunev. Geo. D Eleventh. Sixth 1869- 

Seaweil. W. M Third 1871- 

Fnller. Mortimer Seventli 187 1- 

•fFlack. J. H Xinth. Seventh 1871- 

Leonard, O. R Fourtli 1872- 

Bonnifield. W. S Fourth 1875- 

:\IcKennev. D. C Fifth ' 1871- 

Cole. F. W Sixth 1875- 

Jameson. J. S Eiglith 1875- 

Rives. Henry Seventii. Sixth iS/S" 

King. S. D Second 1879- 

IBigelow, R. R Seventh 1882- 

Edwards. T. D Second 1883- 

Murphy. M. A Third 1883- 

Boardnian. W. M Seventh 1883- 

SFitzgerald, A. L Third 1887- 

A\'ells, Thomas Fourth 1889- 

Jones. W. D Third 1901- 

Tallx)t. G. F Fourth 1891- 

!|Cheney, A. E Second 1891- 

Mack. C. E First 1895- 

^fnrphy, M. A First 1903- 

Gurler. B. F Second 1898 

Breen, Peter Third 1903 

Brown, Geo. S Fourth Tgo^ 

P.onnifield, S. J., Jr Fifth 1899 



♦Died ill 1S70; J. D. Gorin appoiiUccl. 
tDied in 1882; R. R. Bigclow appointed. 
^Appointed to Suprcnic liciu-h lX-cenil)ur 2, iSgo. 

§Elected Supreme Court Justice in kkx). and W'. D. Jones .ipiiointed to fill unexpired 
lenn of 1901-1902. 

IIResigned November 25, 1898. and B. I'". Curler appointed to fill the uiiex])ired term. 


.Vounse. G. A.. \<e\) 1865-1866 

Clarke, R. M.. Rep 1867-1870 

liuckncr. L. .\., Dcm 1871-1874 

Kittreil, John R., Dem 1H75-1878 

Murphy, M. A., Rep 1879-1882 

Davcni)orl. W. II.. Rc]) 1883-1886 

.\lexan<ier. j. l-.. Rep 1887-1890 

Ti.rrtyson, J. I)., Kc]) 1891-1894 


*Beattv, R. M.. Silver Partv 1895-1.S96 

■tjudge, J. R.. Silver Party.'. 1896-1898 

:j;J()nes. \\'. [).. Silver Party 1899-1901 

Woodhurn. William. .Siher Party 1901-1902 

Sweeney. J. ( 1.. Deni.-.SiK or ' 1903 

*Died December ro. ifSi/j 

tj. R. Judge appointed lo fill imexpired term, Dcccmtier 24. iXiX) 
tResigned January T5. igoi, and William Woodburn appointed iipnn llie same day 
til fill the imexpired term. 


Marlette, S. H., Rep 1864-1866 

Marlette, S, H., Rep ,. .. 1867-1868 

Day. John, Rep 1869-1870 

Day. [ohn. Rep 1871-1874 

Day. John. Rep 1875-1878 

Hatch, .\. ].. Rep 1879-1882 

Preble, C. S., Re]) 1883-1886 

Jones, John E., Rep 1887-1890 

Jones. John E.. Re]) 1891-1894 

Pratt. A. C. Silver Party 1895-1898 

Kelley, E. D., Silver Party 1899-1902 

Kelley. E. D.. Siher-Dein '903 

C'Irrks af Siipri-iiu' Court. 

Helm. Alfred. Rep 1865-1866 

Helm. Alfred. Rep 1867-1870 

Helm. Alfred. Rep 1871-1874 

P.icknell, C. F., Rep 1875-1878 

Bicknell, C. 1*.. Rep 1879-1882 

Bicknell, C. F.. Rep 1883-1886 

Bicknell, C. F., Rej) 1887-1890 

Josei)hs, Joe. Re]) 1891-1894 

*HoAvell. Eugene. Silver Party 1895-1898 

*Ho\vell. Eugene, Silver Party 1899-1902 

*Douglass, W. (;.. Rej) 1903 

*Ex-ofificio Clerk of Supreme Court by virtue otfiee Secretary of State. 

State Printers. 

Church, John. Rep 1865-1866 

Eckley, j. E., Rej) 1867-1868 

Mighels, FL R.. Rep 1869-1870 

Perkins, C. L.. Dem 1871-1872 

Putnam, C. A. V., Rep 1873-1874 

Hill. John J., Dem 1875-1878 



*Siipi-niitcii(lriils uf Slate PritUiii^. 

fMaddrill. |(ihn W., Rep 1881-1882 

Harlow. J. "C. Rep 1883-1886 

Harlow. T- C Rep 1887-1890 

Eckley. ]. E., Rep ' 1891-1894 

McCa'rthy. J. G.. Silver Party 1895- 1898 

Maute. Andrew. Silver Party 1899-1902 

Maute. Andrew. .Silver-Dem 1903 

*TlVe Legislature of 1877 abulislied the office of State Printer ( lo laUe effect Janu- 
ary I. 1879) and state printing was done by contract in 1879 and 1880. (Stats. 1877. p. 161.) 
The contract system having proved unsatisfactory and detrimental to the interests of tlie 
state, the legislature of 1879 re-established the office under the name of "Superintendent 
of State Printing" (Stats. 1879. P- 13S), and made an apiiropriation to purchase neces- 
sary material. 

fAppointed by Board of State Printing Cnumiissioners, under Slats. 1879. p. I,?8, 
for the years 1881-1882. since which time, under tlic law. the Superintendent of State 
Printing has been elected by the people every four years, as i'i the case with all other 
state officers. 

Supcrintiiidcnls uf Public I nsiniclid}!. 

White, A. I'., Rep 1865-1866 

Fisher, A. X., Rep 1867-1870 

Fisher, A. X., Rep 1871-1874 

Kelly. S. P.. Rq) 1875-1878 

Sessions, D. R., Deni 1879-1882 

Young, C, S., Rep 1883-1886 

Dovey, W. C, Rep 1 8S7- 1 890 

Ring, Orvis, Rep 1891-1894 

Cutting. H. C, Silver Party 1895-1898 

Ring, Orvis, Rej) 1899-1902 

Ring, Orvis, Re]) 1903 

Ri'i^ciils (if Slalc I'lii^'crsitx. 


Wells, Tiionias, Rep Long Term . . . .November 6, 1888 11. L., Rep Long Term Novemljer 6, 1888 

George, l'". T.. Rep Short Term . . . November 6. 1888 

Haines, j. W., Rep Eong Term . . . .November 4, 1890 

I^isli. 1 1. L., Silver Party Eong Term . . . , November 8, 1892 

Mack, C. I'-., Silver Party Short Term ...November 8, 1892 

Deal, W. E. F., Silver Party Long Term . . . . Novemljer 6, 1894 

Starrett, H. S., Silver Party Short Term .. .November 6, 1894 

Evans. J. X.. .Silver Party Eong Term ....November 3. 1896 

Starrett, H. S., Silver Party Shf)rt Term . . . .November 3, 1896 

Deal, \V. E. F., Silver Party Long Term .... Noveml)er 8, 1898 

Starrett, H, S.. Silver Party Short Term November 8, 1898 

Tvvans, J. X., Silver Party and Dem. . .Ei)ng Term .. ..November 6, 1900 

Booher, W. W ., Dcm. and Silver Parly. SIkhI Term ....November 6, 1900 

Booher, \V. \V., Dem. and Silver Party. Long Term . . . . Novem1)er 4, 1902 

Kirman. Richard, Silver Party and Dem . .Short Term ....November 4. 1902 

Long-Term Regents are elected for four year>: .Shnit Term Regents I'T two years. 

A lUSlUKV Ol'" NEVADA. 99 

UiulCil Stoics Scihitors. 

I'cnn I'lCifcin. To Scn'c. 

Janifs \V. Nye March 4, 1865 Two years 

'William M. Stewart March 4. T865 h'our years 

James W. Nye March 4, 1867 Six years 

William M. Stewart March 4, 1869 Six years 

John P. Jones March 4, 1873 Six years 

William Sharon March 4, 1875 Six years 

John P. Tones March 4, 1879 Six years 

James (,. Fair March 4, 1881 Six years 

"John P. Jones March 4, 1885 Six years 

"Wilham M. Stewart March 4, 1887 Six years 

lohn P. Jones March 4, 1891 Six years 

William M. Stewart March 4. 1893 . Six years 

John P. Jones March 4. 1897 Six years 

"William M. Stewart March 4, 1899 Six years 

iM-ancis G. Newlands March 4, 1903 Six years 

Rcpi'iWi'iilafn'cs in Congress. 

Thirty-seventh Congress John M. Cradlebaugh 

Thirty-eigiith Congress Gordon N. Mott 

Thirty-ninth. Congress H. C,. Worthington — Delos R. Ashley 

Fortieth Congress Delos R. Ashley 

Forty-first Congress Thomas Fitch 

Forty-second Congress Chas. W. Kendall 

Forty-third Congress Chas. W. Kendall 

Forty-fourth Congress William Woodlmrn 

Forty-fifth Congress Thos. Wren 

Forty-sixth Congress ^ Rollin M. Daggett 

l*"orty-seventh Congress George W. Cassidy 

Forty-eighth Congress George \\'. Cassidy 

Fortv-ninth Congress \\'m. \\'V«)dhurn 

Fiftieth Congress Wm. Woodhurn 

l""ifty-first Congress Henry V. Bartine 

I'-ifty-second Congress Hemy F. Bartine 

Fifty-third Congress Francis G. Newlands 

Fifty-fourth Congress Francis (I. Newlands 

Fifty-fifth Congress Francis G. Newlands 

Fifty-sixth Congress Francis G. Newlands 

Fifty-seventh Congress I'-rancis G. Newlands 

. Fifty-eighth Congress Clarence D. \'an Duzer 

luo A lllSTURV Ul' Nl':Vy\UA. 

Lines in Nevada F.staisi.isiiei). 

Great Bomidarx- Line War — CountN' (. lainied li\' '\'\\n States — Ronp ( nuiity 
the Cause of Trouliie — Two County Llections in One County — Hlootl- 
•slied by Califoruians and Nevadaus — Peace Compromise Effected — 
New Boundary Line Surveyed — Hoop's (iarden of Eden Taken l>y Cali- 
fornia — Aurora Left to Nevada^KeIin(|uislniient of l-lsmeralda Minini; 
Territory — Boundaries of Ne\-ada as at Last l^^stalilislied. 

L p to the year i86j tlie (piestion of tlie boundaries of the state of Ne- 
vada liad not trouliled any one. Tlie act of Congress, March, 1861, Iiad 
establislied tlie lines of the state as follows (with a proviso excepting from 
the area covered any portion f)f California that might by mistake have been 
included if that state ol)jected ) : 

Beginning at the point of intersection of the fort_\-second degree of 
north latitude with the thirtv-ninth degree of longitude west from Washing- 

Thence running soudi on the line of said tlurt\-ninth degree of west 
longitude, until it intersects the n<irthern boundarx- line of the terrilor\- 
of New Mexico (later Arizona). 

Thence due west to the dixiding I'idge separating the waters of Carson 
valley from those that l1o\\ into the Pacific. 

Thence on said dixiding ridge northxxardlx . to the Tiftx-Tu^t degree of 
north latitude. 

Thence due north, to the southern bouiidarx line of the state of Oregon. 

'Thence due east to the place of beginning. 


When the territory of Nevada was organized the lines of California 
iiad not been established l)y surxex- and the boundaries of Nex'ada were su])- 
])osed to coxer the l>eautiful and ])roliric llonex' Lake xallex'. It xxas the 
home of Hon., Isaac Roop. governor of the territorx' in the ]irxdiminarv or- 
ganization of 1859. and was the ninth council district \x hen (iovernor Nye 
called an election for members of the first legislature. To it were appor- 
tioned one councilman and o?ie representatix'e. On .August _^ i , iSoi, at the 
first election, Isaac Roop was elected coiuuilman and John C, W'light re])- 

Covernor Xye, on ( )clober J3, iSfii. .-[dxiscd the legislatui'c to appoint 
a commission to confer with California ;nid secinx' consent to the running of 
the Sierra Nevada mountain line of dixision. between the two .sections. 
Such a commission. b_v a joint resolution of both bodies, xxas passed Novcm- 


lier (;, ]H(>i, and the commi.ssion was t() l>e appointed by a joint resolution of 
liiitli lidiisfs, l)ut for some reason tlie convention was ne\er lield. Tlie legis- 
latinc, however, on .\oveml)er -'5, divided the territory into nine euunties, 
among' wlncli was the count\- of Lake, the hounchn'ies as follows: 

Beginnin.g at the northwest corner of XVashoe county, and running 
easterly along the northern boundary of said county to the mouth of Truckee 
river; thence due east to the summit of the first range of mountains east of 
said ri\er; thence in .1 northerly direction along said range, and in the main 
granite range of said mountains, to the (Oregon line; thence west along said 
line to the summit of the Sierra: thence south along said summit- Uy the ])lace 
of beginning. 

The county seat was to be selected at the tirst election. Lake and 
Waslioe counties in the same act were created the first judicial district. 

l)epnt\' L'nited States Sur\eyor John \\ Kidder sur\'eyed the line as 
designated in the act of Congress, from Lake Talme northerly to Honey Lake. 

The legislature of iSCii also made an appropriation of one thousand 
dollars to lie expended, under certain conditions, by the gox'ernor. in run- 
ning the west l)oundar\- line from Lake Tahoe southerly to or lieyond Es- 
meralda county. .\s Esmeralda count\- extended to the south line of Ne- 
vada territory the members of the legislature must ha\e had a \-ery hazy 
idea regarding the outlines of their territory, hi 1862 J. V. Kidder and 
I'ntler I\es ran the line !ea\ing .\uror;i in Xe\;ida, but California ne\'er recog- 
nized the survey. 

Honey Lake valley was the (larden of Eden of Lake countv. and Cali- 
fornia claimed that it rightfully belonged within the boundaries of Plumas 
county. California. Ne\-ada was determined not to gi\-e it u]). and to that 
end the legislature, in an act of December _', 1862, changed the county 
name from Lake to Roup. The gox-ernor, on tiie 14th uf December, appointed 
officers for the new Roo|) county, issuing their commissions the next day; 
the officers had been elected the September ])revious. The governor also 
commissioned John S. Ward to act as probate judge, and a special term of 
the first district court was ordered to be held in Roop county in Januarv, 1S63. 

The legislature of i8()2 asked California to cede to Nevada the terri- 
tory included in the original de.scription of boundaries in the act of Con- 
gress. The legislature of California could not see its way clear to this. On 
July 14, iHC)2, a bill introduced by Judge Cradelbaugh, adding to the east 
line of Nexada one degree, or sixty miles in width, of territor\- lying be- 
tween longitude thirty-eight and thirty-nine degrees west from ^Vashiugton. 
was appnned by the president and became a law. 

Roop cfiunty, without the di.sputed territory, was nothing Init a long 
Ijarren strip of land, with nothing to recommend it as a place of residence 


to either white man or Indian. Low ranges or hills ninnini; north and south 
enclosed two chains of valleys. If the western houndary line was run as the 
people of California wanted it to he. the magnificent valleys of Honey Lake 
and Surprise would be within the boundaries of the latter state and nearly 
all the population supposed to belong to the county of Roop would really 
he residents of California, a rather complicated state of affairs. 

Matters were still in an unsettled condition regarding the western 
boundaries until 1863. when open warfare broke out along the border of 
Roop \allev. It was virtually a conflict of authority, the officials of Roop 
county resisting the efforts of the officers of Plumas county to exercise 
authorit\- in the territory in disijute. .\ Plumas county judge precipitated 
the war when he enjoined a Roop county justice of the peace from holding 
court in Roop county, and when the justice held court, fined him a little 
matter of one hundred dollars for Iieing in contempt of his court. Following 
this up, the Plumas county courts ordered the sheriff and count)- judge of 
Roop county to cease performing their functions or exercising any authority 
in any part of Roop county. Naturally no attenti(^n was paid to this com- 
mand by the Roop count}' officers, and the I'lunias county sheriff and his 
deputy came boldly mer the line into Rooj) county and arrested the two 
off'ending officials. 

.\s one man the citizens of Roop county rose in their might am.! re- 
lieved tlic I'kimas county ofliciais of their prisoners before they could cross 
the nmuntains. Xot to be outdone, the Plumas sheriff. E. H. Pierce, swore 
in a posse of Plumas county citizens, consisting of one hundred and eighty 
per.sons. and came back across the line to enforce his authorit\- and resent 
the indignity to which he had been subjected. The delegation was backed 
by a piece of artillery. Put when the in\aders tried to arrest Probate Judge 
jnhn S. Ward and Sheriff' William H. Xaileigh they had them in custody 
but a little time, for the Roo]) county men rescued them in the streets of 
Susan\ille. The Roop county belligerents made a fort of a log house and 
the IMumas county officials followed this cxaiu])lc and fortified a large barn 
ui the vicinity. On the morning of bebruary 15. 1863, the Roop count)' 
forces fired upon the opposing forces and seriously wounded one of them. 
Then the fight was on in earnest, for the Plumas county ranks retaliated, 
and the fighting became general, the Rdnp cdunt) ])C(i])le ba\itig two of 
their party seriously wounded, it is a matter of conjecture as to which side 
first came to a realization of the futilit)- of this guerrilla warfare, but at all 
events a truce was arranged, so as to agree u])on some kind of compromise. 
The comproiuise was finally agreed to as follows: 



A State (if war existing^ l)et\veen the autlKirities (if Plumas county. Cali- 
fnniia. and llie authorities and citizens of Rodp coinitw Nevada territory, 
a committee of citizens of 1 loney Lak'C \allcy and the leaders of the bellig- 
erent parties. con\ened at Susan\ille f(.r the ])nri)ose of makint;' some ar- 
1 an,<.;emcnts for the establishment of peace and to stoj) the further shedding 
ol blood, brank Drake was a|)])ointe'l jiresidcnl. and II. I'. Jennings, .-^ec- 
ret.ary. Mr. Tierce, shenpf of Phnnas count\. made the following propo- 
sition, to-wit: "I'loth parties to suspend hostilities and disband their f(jrces. 
he taking his men home with, and rejiort the case to the go\'ernor of 
Californi.a, ie(|uesting him to confer with the go\-ernor of Nevada territorv. 
that the (piestion of jurisdiction ma\' be settled peaceablv; pending such settle- 
ment neither party to claim jurisdiction: also that the citizens of the valley 
shall draw up a full statement of the case and forward the same to the goA-- 
ernors of California and Xe\ada territory, recjuesting them to settle the 
dit'liculties peaceal)ly and as soon as possible." 

Air. Elliott thought the ])r( /position a fair and honorable one, and that 
it would lead to a speed)' settlement of our ])resent difirculties. He was, 
therefore, in favor of Mr. Pierce's ])roposition. 

Mr. Pierce (sheriff) moved the appointment of a committee of four 
citizens (two of each part}-) to make the statement to each of the governors; 

Mr. Elliott moved that we adopt Mr. Pierce's proposition for a settle- 
ment of our ditificulties ; carried unanimously. 

The chairman appointed upon the committee of correspondence. Messrs. 

Roo]i, Murray, Jones and Young. On motion meeting adjourned. 

Frank Drake. Chairman. 
11. I'. Jennings, Secretar\'. 

I he above proceedings is an agreement of settlement between the con- 
tending parties of Roop and Plumas C(iunties. 

(Signed) E. H. Pierce, 

William Hill Naileigh. 
The alxjve is a true and correct copy of the iiroceedings of the peace 
meeting held in Susanville, February i6, 1863. 

William Hill Naileigh. 
Sheriff of Roop County. Ne\'ada Territory. 


When these difficulties were going on. Secretary of State Orion Clemens 
(brother of Mark Twain) was acting governor. , Hostilities had ceased since 
the referring of the whole matter to the two go\-emors. but excitement still 


ran liigli and tliere was no knowing wlien some overt act on the part of one 
side or tlie other wonld liring aliout the sacrifice of human h\es. So inter- 
ested had tlie whole state and territory hecome in tlie affair tliat tlie conse- 
(|uences threatened to lie serious. Governor Stanford, of California, ap- 
pointed Judge Rohert Rohinson. of Sacramento, to confer with Governor 
Clemens. Together the\ drew up an instrument the first and second clause 
of which provided : 

First, that the governor of the territorv will appoint a commissioner to 
meet a commissioner a]i]iointed hv the state of California to nui and per- 
manently establish the hnundary line between the state of California and 
the territory of Nevada, during the present year. 1863. 

The second clause provided that the line should be temporarily regarded 
as running north through eastern end of Honev I.ake, this being proposed 
b\' Rol)inson and agreed to liv Go\crnor Clemens on the consideration that 
the line south of Lake Bigler, as run li\' Kidder and I\es in i8C)2. which 
])laced Aurora within tlie Xe\ada lines, should be regarded temporarily as 
the true line. Judge Roliinson would not consent to tliis and the document 
was not signed, both agreeing that if the goxernor of California ajiproved 
it. it would be signed b\- him. F)Ut ( io\ernor Stanford did not approve it 
and it went to the legislatiu'e of California, which enacted a law providing 
that the sur\e\or general of California sliould run. measure and mark the 
entire eastern lK)undary of California, a commissioner appointed by the 
governor of Nevada territor\- to accompanv and act with the official, "pro- 
\'ided that Nevada territorx- sh;ill |)av .all expenses of such person or persons 
appointed." All tliis ( ioxernor Clemens embodied in a message to the Ne- 
vada legislature. There was no ])rovisiiin then ])ro\iding mone\' for the Jiay- 
ment of such a commissioner. 

On May 16. 1863. Governor Clemens ;i])]iointed llutlei- l\es. ]''.sfi.. a \ery 
coni])etent surxevor. t<i act for Nevada territory. Ibitlcr \\;is to "prejiare and 
file in the office of the secretary of the territory three copies of the maps 
and field notes of such siu'vex' within sixtx' days after the completion of the 
survev, and make ;; full .and det.ailed report of the manner in which said 
sur\'e\- hafl Iteen made" to the legislatuie. i\es was to be paid $3,000 for- 
the work, hiring all assist.ants himself. In his report to the legislature Go\- 
ernor Clemens said : 

"In conjmuiion with .Mr. Kidder, who was a])])ointed Iw the snrvevor 
general of California. Mr. l\cs ran the line from the ])oint in Lake 
I'iglcr. north to the southern boundary of Oregon, .-nid south to within about 
a degree f)f the southern boundarx- of the tcrriiorw when the sex'ere cold 
and other diflicullies compelled :\ suspension of the labors of the conimission. 
but the imiiorlant jioinls were g.ained, b\- showing the true location of the 


h()iin(Iar\' line in tlic H(ine\' Lake rcqion. and tliiis preventing furtlier diffi- 
culties, while, in the south. u])(in the running" of the line und'er this com- 
mission, the state of C'ali fcrnia immediateK' yielded a jurisdiction, long main- 
tained. n\er the rich Esmeralda mining region, and the ])osition of the line 
and respecti\'e jm'isdiction of California and Xe\ada are now clearl\- knuwn 
\vhere\er there are settlements along our western Ixirders. ' 


An act was ajiproved on h'ehruary 7. iSf)5. making the line hetween 
California the same as had heen decided ujjdU hv C.'difnruia in April. 1863. 
All that was necessarA' to finish die affair was to ha\e hue surve^'ed in its 
entiret\'. The vear hefore an act had lieen api>r(i\ed (irdei"ing such a sur\'ey 
where tlie line had not lieen established. 

A congressional act in Maw [8f)(). ceded to Xe\ada a strij) of terrilDry 
sixtv miles hi width, extending frum ()regi)n to the Colorado ri\'er. and 
all of Arizona, h-ing hetween Colorado river and Nevada's south line, and 
including in its boundaries it. 000 square miles of Arizona, and 20,850 
s(|u;u"e miles of I'tah. Januar\- 18. 1867. the Nevada legislature by act ac- 
cei)ted the gift. 

The legislature made an appro|5riation of four thousand dollars to pay 
for a survey of the east line of Nevada, that by the congressional act had 
l)een made on the tliirt\-se\enth degree of longitude west from Washington. 

.\s a consec|uence of the dense ignorance as to what really constituted 
the west line of Nevada, there were many complications, botli regarding 
real estate and mining and also politics. Litigation was rife, and the town 
of Aurora was not located in either California or Nevada until 1863. Of 
course both claimed it. and it was the countv seat of two counties, Esmeralda. 
Nex'ada, and Mono conut^', California. When Esmeralda countv was made 
one of nine counties. Novemlier 2^. 1861. .\urora was made the county seat. 
Aurora was a new but rapidly growing town and jiroN'ed a bone of conten- 
tion between California and Nevada for two years. In 1861 the town of 
Monoville was growing rapidlv also and California, hv act of legislature, 
organized the countv of Moun. placing the count\' seat in Aurora, alread}' 
the count)- seat of Esmeralda county. In 1863 Thomas N. Machin. of Au- 
rora, was by California elected to the California assembly, and Dr. John 
\\'. Pugh was elected to the Nevada assembly at the same time, resulting 
in a ixilitical ])henomeuon. It was a curious sight to see two judges holding 
court concurrently and exercising jurisdiction by virtue of authority derivetl 
from two (lififerent sources. Both were wise men and there was no conflict 
of authority. Peoi)le simply took their choice as to which duirt should pass 
u])iin their cases. 


One curious affair happened in 1863. for the 1)oim<lary line had not yet 
Ix'en surveyed as tar as Aurora, and no one knew on wliich side they wcmld 
land. The term of office had expired for the officials elected in 1861, and 
some wag hit upon a plan to make things go smooth and e\'enly, namely: 
an election for Mono and one for Esmeralda. The idea was seized upon 
and lioth counties had two tickets. Repulilican and Democratic, in the field. 
The hest of feeling prevailed and a laughahle state of affairs prevailed diu'- 
ing the voting. The polls for Mono county hail heen placed in the ])o!ice 
station and for Esmeralda in the Arm'ory Hall, a little distance apart. Many 
people seemed undecided as to which Cdunty they really helonged and hun- 
dreds voted "early and often" patronizing Ixith pmlls indiscriminate!)-. In 
hoth counties the full Repuhlican ticket was elected. 

It was onl\- ahout twent}' days after this election was hcKl th;it the 
surveyors reached .\iu'ora: they ])assed to southwest. lea\ing the city in 
Xex'ada. .Mthough the California adherents insisted that the lines were 
nui around .\urora ])ur|)osely and that there was a jog [u the state line, )'et 
it was more good-natiu'eil hanter than ill feeling. 

Eearing that legal questions might arise, the governor of Nevada ap- 
])ointed the officers elected at the election. All were sworn into office on 
September 22nd. 

The C'alifornians helped the officers elected in Mono county to load 
u|) a wagon and take the records across the line tc) Bodie, then a small town. 
In tile following spring Bridge]iort was declared the seat of justice and 
thither the records were taken. .\s many of the officers elected to fill Mono 
countv did U'lt want to cross the line, hut remained in .Xuror.a. iheii" places 
were filled hv apixiintment ]>\' the governor ol California. 

In J871 a joint resolution was passed l)\- the \'e\ada legislatiu'c, asking 
Congress to give to Xexada all ol Id.aho that la\ smUh ol the ( )w \'hce ri\er, 
hut il did nut meet with a fax'orahie reception. Nevada, in the same year, 
asked the legislature of California to ni;ike a line of division between Nevada 
.and California, following the lines established in the organic act of Nevada. 
.and this also met witli ;i chilling reception. 

The Imundaries of the state of .Nevada ;is finally settled ;irc .as fullnws: 

BOUNn.\Rii;s Ol' Ni':\.\i>.\. 

Commencing in the center n\ the Colorado ri\er where the thirty fifth 
parallel of north latitude crosses that stream (near b'ort Moja\e): from 
thence in a direct northwesterly line to the point where the thirty-ninth par- 
allel of iiKilh Latitude intersects the forty third ikgree of Iciiis^ilude west from 
Washington (near the center of Lake Taboe) ; thence north 'in s.aid degree 
to tlie forty-second ])arallcl of latitude (which is the south line of {)rogon); 


thence cast on said parallel of latitude to the tiiirty-seventli degree; thence 
SMutli i>n said de,L;rec In the center of the Cnhirado river; thence down said 
ri\cr t(i the place <if heginnin.i^. Area, 120.000 sipiare miles. 


Pi()nf.i=:r Transi'Oktation. 

Mode-s of Emigrant Transportation — Through Purgatory to Paradise — First 
Mail Contract — Mail Carriers and (inards Killed by Indians — Dangers 
iM-nm Snow and Flood — Traveling on Snow Shoes — Pioneer Stage 
Pine — The Overland Mail — The Famous Pony Express — Overland 
Telegraph Line — Stage Lines in iSiSi. 

In the new territory of Nevada means of transportation were at first 
extreniel)- limited, especially for the mail service. It was the year 185 1 
before any regular mode of transporting the mails was secured, yet Nevada 
was in a most prosperous condition before a mile of railroad was constructed. 
Many emigrants had passed through the countrx'. down the Humboldt to 
the green, smiling \-alleys of California, and only shuddered their way over 
the sage-brush which co\'ered the alkali ])lains. Nearly all such emigrants 
went \ia the ox team train. There was much to learn of the great, resource- 
ful state of Nevacfa. as it was afterwards known. There was not a perma- 
nent settlement in the \-alley in 1850, and consecjuently no need for the trans- 
portation of mail into what all considered the acme of horror in the way 
of a Country to li\'e in. ^'ear followed year, the emigrants looking simply 
on the Great P>asiii as a sort of ])urgator\- which must be passed through to 
reach ])aradise,~ California, onh' to be endured because it was a shorter route 
and more desiral.ile than the stormy \-oyage around Cape Plorn or the toil- 
some line of march \ia Oregon. 

When the hurrying emigrant halted at all within the confines of the 
great state of Nevatla, it was simpl\- to afTord his li\e stock grazing en(iugh 
to carry them on to California. The \alleys, which ha\e since been the 
means of attracting population, were not explored at all until after the dis- 
covery of the Comstock mines. Not until then was the magnificent \allcy 
of the Humboldt known to possess the treasures that it does. 

With the Commencement of the settlement of Carson \'alle_\-. in the 
spring of 1851, first started by the Reese trading post, it became necessary 
to have .some kind of mail facilities. .\ regular mail route was established 
by the government between Salt Lake and southern California, the Mormons 
securing the contract for carr}-ing it. 


Before this, in 1831. a firm knuwu as A. NXdodanl & Company had 
a contract to carry mail from Sacramento. California, U< Salt Lake, l^tah 
territory. The men composing the firm were Colonel A. W'nodard and a 
Mr. Chorpening. The entire ronte coxered over se\en luindred and fiftv 
miles, through man\' dangers and difficulties. The trip was made only once 
a month, the mail going and cunung on the hacks of nudes. The route com- 
menced in Sacramento and ran \'ia hdl.som. to Placerx'ille, California, over 
the Sierra Xe\ada through Hope and Strawherrv vallcN's into Carson vallev. 
I'^rom there, hy way of Cenoa, Carson City, Dayton, Ragtown, then across 
the Forty-mile Desert to the 1 fumholdt ri\er, near the Mumholdt Sink: from 
there it followed the old emigrant road east along the Humboldt ri\'er to 
what was later the Stone-house Station, when the Central Pacific Railway 
came along: soon after lea\-ing this point the route left the river and, going 
t<i the southeast, went into Salt Lake liy way of tlie "Hastings Cut-off." The 
shorter route to California, which the ill-fated Donner had tried to follow, 
when it was first discovered, was little known. 

It was no path of roses, the carrying of mail o\er this route. The 
wliole country was infested with hostile Indians, on the watch day and night 
to pick oft' emigrants and mail carriers, sometimes for purposes of rohherv, 
.and ofteii for pure love of deviltry and hloodshed. They would lie in the 
long grass, crouch hehind hrush or rocks, and from there, secure themselves, 
shiKit down the \ictmis. So man\- were killed thus, it w*is found necessary 
to send guards with the mail carrier. 

When Colonel W'oodard started on his trip in the fall of 1851, he liad 
with him a guard of twn young men, ( )scar h'itzer and John Hawthorn; they 
had gone in .safety as far as ( iravel point, near where the\' lelt the river, 
when a hrmd of the hostile Indi.ans killed ;ili three. The partner of tdlonel 
W'oodard did not gi\e u\) the contract after the kilter's tragic death, hut con- 
tinued to carry the mail himself until the fall of 185;;. lie formed ;i part- 
nershi|) with I'en llollidaw and continued to c;irr\- m:iil. The only change 
was using four mule teams and co\ered wagons, which aft'orded hetter se- 
curity froiu the Indians. In order to change to this mode (d conveyance 
])ermission had to he ohtained from the goxernment. .M.ail was carried in 
this mimner until June, 1857, when ;i tri-weekly line of stages was estab- 
lished lunning from l'l;icer\ ille to ( leima, hy j. I'.. Cr.andall. This lelt onl)' 
the line l>etween (jenoa and Salt Lake to them. In that same year, a station 
agent on their line, near Cira\ell\' I'ord, killed h\- the Indians. In fact 
the Indians continued warfare until 18(13, when ( iener.d t'ounor \n\{ a stop 
to tlu-m b\- \igorous means. 


DANCiEK KKO.M S.\(l\\ AND I'l.iloH. 

TlitTc wi'ic jiisl as i^reat dangers to lie (i\erciiiiie fmni the i)lay ol llic 
elciiiciils as fmin the Indians. Eternal vigilance was the price of lile. 'i'he 
snow laid in masses nf from fifteen to twenty feet on the level and from 
fifty to sixty feet, in sume instances, in the monntain passes. There were 
few hridges and when the smiws melted the llnmholilt and Carson valleys 
were often flooded for days at a time. The only way to get across was to 
swim, as keeping a boat anywhere uonid have Ijeen an impossibility. 

The use of snowshoes did awa\- with the difficulties of getting oser the 
deep snows, at least iiartially. In the s])ring of 1S53 l-'red and a 
Mr. Dritt carried the mail in this manner, their trips alternating. Both used 
the Canadian snowshoe. These two were succeeded in the work I)}- George 
I'iercc and julni ,\. Thompson. 

The latter was such an expert tliat his sdhricpiet was "Snowshoe Thomp- 
son." He had learned this plan of traveling in his native country. Norway, 
and, of course, wore the style of snowshoe used in that country : he was the 
first to use that stvle. They were about ten feet in length, turning u\) in 
the friMit like skates, and were about five or six inches in width and one 
and a half inches in thickness; they were generallx' made from the fir tree. 

Stories of his fe.ats while carrying the mail between Genoa and Placer- 
\ille remain as a jjart of the historv of earlv times. He had heard of the 
great difficulty ex])erienced in getting the mails acrf)ss the mountains in the 
dead of winter: he remembered the snowshoes of his boyhood and made a 
pair. After giving them a trial he ajjplied for the jol) and secured it. He 
made his first trip in January, 1856, taking only three days to go from Placer- 
ville to Carson valley. The mail weighed from sixty to eighty pounds and 
was carried in mail l^ags. 

Thompson carried mail all winter, never wearing" an overcoat or carry- 
ing blankets. He looked upon them as unnecessary incumbrances, and when 
he could not travel at night cut down .some spruce limbs and used them 
for a bed. }ie would find some dead ])ine stum]) and set fire to it and lie 
down by it on his spruce bed. .\nd not once was he lost. He was never 
diverted by the swirling snow or the rainy mists, but went on his way se- 
renely. ]n fact he seemed to love to be out in the fiercest storms. So greatly 
did he tax his enormous strength that he literally wore himself out and died 
a comparatively young man. He died in May, 1876, twenty years after his 
initial mail trip, only forty-seven years of age. He participated in se\eral 
Indian fights in the '60s, the whites being victors every time, 


The first stage line was established in the summer of 1857 by Colonel 
y. B. Crandall. running between Placerville and Genoa. The\' made tri- 


weekly lrii)> ami carried ihc "Carson \'alley Express." ihe nianai;er beint;- 
Tlieixlore V. Tracy. E. W. Tracy was the agent at Placervillc. and at (ienoa 
the agents were Major Ormsby and Mr. Smith. 

In Tune. if^^J. anotlier line was established, or rather stations were 
adiled on this route. l)etween Elacerville and Genoa; at Silver Creek. Cary's 
Mill. Brockliss" Bridge and Sportnian's Hall. This was known as the "Pio- 
neer State Line," and was the one connecting at Genoa witli the mail route 
established by Woodard and Chorpening. 


It was not long before a semi-weekly line ol stages was put into service 
between Sacramento and Cienoa. and to the new operators. Lewis Brady & 
Company, Crandall transferred the Pioneer State Line. 

.\ brother of Mr. Chorpening. the mail route contractor, had secured 
the contract to carry the mail from Placerville to Salt Lake, and this line 
was to connect at Salt Lake Cit}' with the regular overland mail to St. 
Joseph. This, of course, changed conditions greatl}- and travel on this route 
into Carson increased. Lender this new system the first coach left Placer- 
ville on June 5. 1858. and the first overland mail stage arrived in Placerville 
on Ah>nda_\'. July 19. of that year, at ten o'clock in the evening. The coach 
1)rought both ])assengers and mail, and its arri\al was greetetl by an outburst 
of i)ul)lic enthusiasm. Bon-fires, general illumination and s]jeeches testified 
to the new liopes aroused by the Overland Mail's coming. Crowds gathered 
and speeches 1)y S. W. Sanderson. G. D. Hall and D. K. Xewell were lis- 
tended to. A fine Ijalloon was sent up by Dr. Pettitt as a testimonial of his 

It was not l)y an\- means sniootii traxeling for the Oxerland Mail, for 
just as many difficulties beset its path as the first mail carriers had c.k- 
])erienccrl. Danger from Indian attacks was just as much to be feared as 
ever, and so dangerous was the road as far as tiie Big Meadows, near the 
.Sink of the Jlumboldt consi'lered. thai guards liad to be engaged as far 
as that point. .\t that place the coach went on unguarded and the guards 
returned with the wfest-lxjund coaches. .Mr. Lindsay and Mr. Rightmire were 
the first guards employed. They otten came across emigrants in deadly fear 
not only of the Indians, but Moinions lleeing from Salt Lake, fearing the 
.Mormons of that city were pursuing them. 

On the 5th of Se])tember. 183S. Mr. Lindsay, one t'i the lirsl guards. 
returned Ui Placervillc. with just a jHirtion of the Salt Lake m.iil of .\ugust 
i6lh. and the mail which left there .\ugust -'3rd. lie repoitcd tliat on the 
night of .August joth the Shoshone Indians, in quite a large liand. ha<l at- 
tacked the mail coach and had stani])eded the stage horses, which the\' had 


ilrixi'ii 'A'(. All tliinu,iL;b llic ni,L;lit tlic i^uarils liail sta\ (.■(!, wiili tin- mil 
iha'lor, anil ,i^narik'il tlu' mail, liul when inorniiii^' came tliey saw thai the 
Inilians were in sncli Idrce i1k'\' eimlil nut remain with tlie maeli in salct)', 
so tlie_\- tiMik til tile iiKiiintains. Afterwards the coach was found, in small 
pieces, the mail ha.t^s rijiped o])en. and letters scattered in every direction. 
The latter were gathered up and taken to I'lacerville. This, coupled with 
other outrages, led the L'nited States government to take measures to pre- 
vent such interference with the mail. 

On Septemlier 20, 185S, the Overland stage, coming with mail and pas- 
sengers from Salt Lake, lirought the more than welcome news that L'nited 
States troops liad been ordered forward from Utah to protect the emigrants 
and mail. On October i^tli the Overland mail came in on horseback in ad- 
vance of the stage, whicli had been delayed. The news came in this mail 
that Dr. b'ornev, the Indian agent for Utah, was at Gravelly Ford and w-as 
working with the Shoshones. 

l-'inaliy the Indians were argued into a more peaceable state of mind, 
and the mails came in on time, good time being made. The Overland 
mail brought in letters ten days in advance of the ocean steamers, and in 
consecpieuce die jjublic began to ])atronize the stage line. 'Idie largest amount 
of mail e\er ship])e(I by the mail coach was on April 23, 1859, when five 
hundred pounds were sent east. 

It had been reported that a new and shorter stage route was to be sur- 
veyed, and in June, 1859, Caiitain Simpson, of the United States Topo- 
graphical Engineers, surveyed a new route running from Camp Floyd to 
Cicnoa, which it was thought would shorten the route used then by about 
three hundred miles. By the old Humboldt route the distance from Camp 
Floyd to Genoa was said to be eight hundred and fifty-four miles: the 
Simpson survey, it was said, would cut this down to fi\e hundred and si.xty- 
I'lve miles. All necessary preparations were made and the com])anv prepared 
to move down on the Simpson route. This the\' did the winter following. 

Lewis Brady & Company secured the contract to carry the mails carried 
by the agents of the Chorpening route, they having neglected to call for the 
mail at Placerville in October, 1859. They carried it then until March, i860, 
when Chorpening got it back, agreeing to carry it with four-horse teams. 

A new stage line was started in October, 1859, liy Judge Child and J. 
A. Thompson, to run tri-weekly Ijetween Genoa and Placerville. Thev used 
coaches as far as Strawberrv- Valley and from there on to Car.son V^alley 
they used two fine sleighs with three seats, the first ever used on this mountain 
road. They commenced to use them in December of 1859. 

In the following spring the "Pioneer State Line" sold out to Louis I\Ic- 
Lane, then running between Placerville and Genoa. JMcLane the next year 


SI lid nut III Wells. Fargo & Company, and this gave the latter cnnipanx- the 
entire route to Salt Lake. McLane had had serious opposition in running 
the line. A. J. Rhodes ha\ing started an opposition line Ijetween Placerville 
and Carson Citv. via Genoa. He had reduced the fare from forty dollars 
to twentx' dollars, rend, using six-horse teams, was enahled to cut down the 
time some eight or ten hours. He ran this from i860 to 1862 and then sold 
to McLane. pledging himself not to start another opposition line. 


If there was one line better remembered tlian the others of that far away 
time, it was tlie famous Pony Express, started in the spring of i860. It 
was organized by Jones. Russel & Company. It was put in operation Iiy ^\ . 
W. Finney, who organized the line between Sacramento and Salt Lake. All 
matter came to Sacramento from San Franci.sco by steamer, and at the former 
citv it was met Iiy a man on horsel>ack. who followed the old emigrant route 
o\er the Sierras until Carson \'alley was reached, and from there the Simp- 
son route was followed. This mute led east through Churchill county desert, 
crcjssing the Reese river at Jacobsville: then northeast to Ruby \'alle_\- and 
then southeast, passing out through Deep Creek around the south end of 
Salt Lake to Salt Lake City. Pony Express took only three and one-iialf days to cover the dis- 
tance between Sacramento and Salt Lake City. Relays were provided every 
twenty-fi\e miles and each rider had to co\-er seventy-fi\e miles each shift. 
He was given onl\' two minutes to change horses at each relay station, and 
the riders generally made about nine miles an hour. Thirteen days 1)etween 
San Francisco and Xew York was the schedule time, going \ia St. 
Joseph, Missouri. 

Five dollars per letter was charged, and the first express, which left 
Sacramento April 4. i860, at 2:45 P- "!•• carried fiftv-six letters from San 
P'raneisco. thirteen from Sacramento and one from i'lacerxille. The hrst 
express, from the other end of the line. Xew ^'ork. reached .*^acramento on 
.\pril 13, i8()0. Eight letters only were l)rought. Ten da\ s' time was con- 
sumed between St. Joseph and Sacramento. 

When the third ex])ress came in it brought all kinds of new ■-. from a 
prize light in London to the adjovunmcnt of the Democratic national con- 
vention at Charleston. South Carolina, to meet at P.altimore the next June, 
as there had been no decision regarding the presidential nominee. When 
the I'ony Express brought the lirst message of President Lincoln tlicy made 
tiic record time, coming from St. Joseph to Carson City in li\e days and 
eighteen hours, covering 1,780 miles. Double sets of horses were made, with 
fresli horses Ijetween stations. 



Ill tlie year 1X59 anticipated trouljles along the southern Hue, owing- 
to tiie war of the rclx;llion, caused the transfer of the Southern and Daily 
Overland Mail to the Central or Simpson route. The Southern line had 
been established that year to go through northern Texas and to California. 
The transcontinental telegraph line was also built along the Simpson route. 
It was started in 1851J and completed in September of 1861. 

Before this telegraph line was constructed the portion of telegraph line 
between Placerville and Virginia City had been built and operated by the 
"Placerville and Humboldt Telegraph Company," and this was more pop- 
ularly known as the "Bee's Grapevine Line." It had been planned and built 
by Colonel F. A. Bee. It was the cause oi much merriment and a great deal 
of annoyance. On the mountains the wire was attached to trees instead of 
to poles and when the wind struck the trees it would stretch the wires, and 
nearly all the time the wire laid along the ground in divers places. Another 
thing whkh caused troul)le was the taking of wire by teamsters whenever 
a piece was needed in repair work. They seemed to regard it as their right 
to cut out a piece of wire any place almig the line. 

When a message was delayed it was transferred to the Pony Express, 
wliich thus beat the telegraph in. The news of the first election of Presi- 
dent Lincoln, and also his first message, was delayed in this way and then 
taken m by the Pony Express ahead df the telegraphic news. But things 
changed greatly for the better with the transfer of the Southern 0\erland 
Mail to the Simpson or Central route. Mail facilities were improx'ed, new 
roads were built and old ones im.proved so that heavy loads could be carried 
over them in good time. Across the Sierra two toll roads were built, one 
called the Dutch Flat and the other the Placerville, the former also known 
as the Donner Lake road. These last two roads were built so that teams 
could pass on any part oi the road. In c(inse(|uence the Overland stage could 
run with perfect regularity. 

With the great discovery of the CVnnstock ami the increase of poi>ula- 
tioii at Virginia City, competing lines of stages were started, as quick 
trips had to be made from Virginia Cit}' to Sacramento. The Pioneer line 
made the trip on F^ebruary 20, 1864, in less than twenty-four hours. The 
record time was made on June 20, 1864. The Larue line on that date made the 
trip from Virginia City to Sacramento in twelve hours and twenty-three 
minutes, carrying not only the mail but three passengers, S. Cook, William 
M, Lent and John Skae. The three passengers had chartered the coach 
and were determined to cut down the record. 

It was not long before the 0\erland line had to add new stations all 
along the route, and in the spring of 1865 they had thirteen stations be- 


tween \ irginia Lit)- and Austin, a distance of one Inindred and ei!.;Iit\ miles, 
using eiglit (lri\ers. fifteen coaches and mud wagons and sevcnty-eiglit 
horses. Froni .Austin to Salt l.ake the companv used twenty-drivers, one 
liiuidred and ninety horses and sixt\' wagons, coxering the thirt\'-si.\ stations. 
This was the Western division, and it uas owned l)\ the Overland Mail and 
Stage Comjiany. The Eastern di\ision was owned hv New Yovk men. 
Ben Holladay lieing their manager. This covered the distance from Salt Lake 
to the eastern terminus, 1,220 miles. 


All these years the Mormons had heen charging the Oserland Stage 
Company the highest prices for hay, grain and provisions, and at last the 
company reljelled. They set about establishing a farm, selecting Ruby valley 
as the best place for their experiment. Success was theirs from the start, and 
by spring, 1865, they had their farm so well dexeloped that one Inuidred 
men, thirty plows and ninety yoke of oxen were employed, and ninety 
thousand pounds of grain were sowed. Wdien harvest time came they had 
8,575 bushels of barley, 8,745 Ijushels of oats, 1,655 bushels of potatoes, 
1,854 bushels of turnips, 1,000 bushels of carrots and 78 bushels of beets. 
.\nd thus the first farm was established in eastern Nevada. 

0\EKL.\M) TELEGR.M'll l.l.XE. 

F(jr .some tune telegraphy struggled along without making much 
progress. The Placerville and Humboldt line was commenced in Placer- 
ville, July 4, 1858: tlie line reached Genoa that fall, and Carson City in 
the .spring of 1859; \'irginia City was not reached until i8()0, and Salt 
Lake until the fall ol 1861. The money came from private sources and 
freqtient appeals had been made to secure first state, then national aid, so 
as to admit of extension. Nothing came of it until June. i8C)0, when an act 
was i)assed by Congress, directing an ad\ertisemcnt by tiic secretary of the 
lreasur\- for sealed i)roposals for "the use of the government" of a line of 
telegrai)h. to be constructed in a period of two years, from JuK _:; 1 . i8(«), from 
some point on the west line of Missouri to San Francisco, for ten years' 
period, 'i'he secretary was instructed to give the contract to the lowest 
bidder, the sum not to be more than $40,000 per year. The Pacific coast 
companies united to .secine this contract ami the result was the organiza- 
tion of the Overland Telegra])h Line, the capital being $1,250,000. James 
Gamble was given supervision over the entire line. Edward Creighton had 
charge of construction from Salt Lake to Omaha: James Street from Salt 
Lake to Ruby Valley; J. M. Ilubtiaid from l\ul>y \';dley to Carson. Horace 
Carpentier had charge from Placerville to .Salt Pake as general sujicrin- 


On May 27, 1861, operations were commenced by Mr. GaniMe's con- 
struction train of thirty wagons leaving- Sacramento and so perfectly was 
tile work planned, tnoether witli tlie fact tliat tiiey did not stop for any- 
thing, storms or !>ad roads, that less tiian four months from its commence- 
ment the great enterpiise had reached completion. On September 22nd the 
first message came over the wires, the news of the Union defeat at Ball's 
Bluff. Virginia, and the death of Colonel E. D. Baker. United States senator 
from Oregon. The telegraph line was built along the central route through 
Nevada and operated in connection with the Overland Stage and Mail line 
until the Overland Railway was finished, on May 13, 1869, when both were 
taken away and the route abandoned. 


The Overland Mail and Stage line being withdrawn and its place sup- 
plied by the Overland Railway, things of course changed greatly. In the in- 
terior, stages, well equipped, ran between the mining camps and towns,, there 
l>eing no railroad lines in operation. In the year 1881 the following stages 
were run from the different towns and camps: 

I'"rom Reno, two dailv, one to Susanville, California, and the other to 
Fort Bidwell in California, ending at Willow Ranch, thirteen miles west. 

From Rye Patch to Vanderwater and to Union villc. tri- weekly, carry- 
ing mail. 

From Mill City to Dun Glen, semi-weekly. 

From Winnemucca north, two daily lines: one carrying mail to Boise, 
Idaho, and the other to Spring City. 

From Battle Mountain, a daily stage, to Mountain City. 

From Cornucopia, a tri-weekly line. 

From Battle Mountain, a tri-weekly line to Lewis. 

Form h'.lko to Tuscainni, daily, connecting with the Battle Mountain 

J'Vom Palisade to P)ullion. ;i triweekly stage. 

From P31ko a circuitous route covering many towns, to Eureka, and the 
stage over it left weekly. 

From Eureka to Belmont, a daily. 

From Morey to Duckwatcr, weekly. 

Osceola east, connecting with the Utah Southern at l'"risco. triweekly. 

From Pioche to Hiko, semi-weekly. 

From Pioche through Bullionville, Panaca and Clover Valley, daily 
east to connect with the Utah Southern. From Pioche to Mineral Park, 
Arizona, connecting with the line running to Yuma, tri-weekly. 


From Spruce ]\h)unlaiii Ui Arllnir ami Kuby Valley, weekly, carrying 

From .Alpha tu Mineral Hill, daily. 

Eureka to Pioclie. gning so as to cover 215 miles, tri-weekly. 

From Hamilton to Elierhanlt and Treasure City, tri-weekly. 

From Wells to Hamilton, liy a route covering 216 miles, tri-weekly. 

From Genoa to Monitor and Silver Mountain in California, a tri-weekly 
mail, the mail being carried by a special supply line between sexeral points. 

From Walker River to Coleville, weekly, carrying mail. 

I'l'om Carson Cil)' there were man\' lines; one daily to Glenbrook, (jne 
daily to Aurora and to other smaller points. 

From Aurora to Bodie, California, daily; fmm .\urora, also daily, to 
Southern California, -passing through Mono and Inyo counties and con- 
necting with the .Southern Pacific Railroad. 

F"rom Aurora daily to Columbus. 

From Columbus to Montezuma, semi-weekly. 

From Mason Valley to Aurora, tri-weekly. 

From Dayton to Wellington, tri-weekly. 

From Wadsworth to Belmont, co\ering many points ami making the 
route 248 miles in length. 

From Austin, the terminus of the Xe\ada Centi"al Railroad, to Canda- 
laria, tri-weekly. 

FTom Austin to Belmont, tri-weeklv. 

Nearly all these stages carried mail and were most important ad- 
juncts; in f.'ict the stages and the express compruiies ha\e pl;i\e(l a luost 
im])ortant part in the development of the great state of Nevada. The stage 
naturally followed the fate of the mining cainps, for as soon as a new dis- 
covery was made, people rushed in and a stage must rush also, to carry pas- 
sengers and, above all, the mail. People at this late date can scarcely imagine 
how eagerly the mail was looked for by the prospector and pioneer. The thing arranged for, when a new settlement started, would be the mail, 
a pelitidu being sent as soon as possible to the governinenl ; ;uid the gov- 
ernment in those days responded quickly, granting subsidies and contracts 
for mail canying at once, without the red tape of these later, more civilized 
days. Sometimes, but not often, this generosity was meanly rewarded, the 
privileges being abused in nian\ wavs. Often the mining bourn would col- 
lapse suddenly at some puint .and the stage wnuld be .abandoned or placed 
on some other route. 

So rapid was the rise and I'.all i>f some of the mining cam]>s that s])eedily 
as the government acted, the a])plicatinn Idr :i postoftice would scarcely be 
granted when there would be a cmkIus. But if the p.arenlal go\-ern- 
















ment snniclinics failed Ihcni tliey knew they eould always fall liack u])on the 
"Wells, Fargo & Company Ex]3ress," which was making itself a power in 
the davs of gold. No matter how inaccessihle the place, if there w'ere letters 
(ir giild dust or bullion to be sent, some emissary of the company stood ready 
to bear them to the outer world. Tn fact the company seemed to always 
have a man ready to go with the rush, anywhere and everywhere. And 
these messengers were always faithful and pmnipt; the company only 
charged from two to seven cents more ]ier letter than the government and in 
time they did the principal carrying. To them was intrusted nearly all 
the bullion of the countr}-, and so faithful a record was kept of all trans- 
actions that their statistics ha\-c t)ect)nie the authoritx' for e\-ervone. 


Waters of Nevada. 

One of the greatest dr:nvbacks to the rajiid settlement of Nevada has 
been the scarcity of water, a scarcity which can onl_\- l)e overcome by means 
of irrigation. The few rivers are small in size and very few in numljer, the 
largest and most important l>eing the Humlioldt river. The Truckee river, 
the Walker, Carson, Amargosa are next in point of size, while the Little 
Flumboldt, llie Reese, the Little Truckee and similar streams are simply 
tributar}- to the large rivers, if any can be so designated, for they are large 
only by comparison in the state of Nevada. 

Of these rivers only two are at all navigable; the Carson lieing used 
principally in floating cord wood down to Virginia, Carson and other points. 
The Colorado is navigable in spots. 'J'here is only one river which reaches 
the ocean, the Owyhee, and this goes by way of Snake river and the Columbia 
river. That there should be a scarcity of water seems strange when one 
remembers the mighty volumes of water which gather upon the eastern 
slope of the Sierra Nevada and other ranges of mountains dividing and 
sulxlivi.ding the state. But when these waters reach the l)ase of the various 
mountains they are, for the greater jiart. absorbed bv the soil, the balance 
discharging into the lakes and rivers. 

Many of the rivers are formed from .springs, and. man v from the melted 
snow of the mountains. Many of the creeks are curious, in that they sud- 
denly appear on the surface, coming ap])arently from nowhere, but none the 
less eagerly welcomed. They will go merrily on their way, singing and 
dancing, with the waters as cold and refreshing as ice water, then suddenly, 
apparently gone forever, the waters disappear. For long distances the bed 


of the creek will be entirel}- ilrv, and then there comes the glint of the 
water and on it flows sereneh', until it takes a n(ilion to again disapjiear. 
Very few of the smaller rivers and creeks ha\e a continuous course. 

At first when the water leaves the hase of the mountains it moves 
rapidly, and lieing large in volume has great strength and rapid currents. 
But this is only for the moment, for soon they dwindle down, then all at 
once are gone forever. Yet small as thc\- are, they are of inestimable value 
to the farmer, for every drop p<issil)le is used for irrigation. 

nf.vaha's kuer. 

The Humlinldt river is the only one flowing from east to west through 
the Great Basin and the Central Pacific Railway that follows its course for 
many miles, nearly its entire course. The emigrants followed through the 
valley made by the Humboldt, the old route to California. The Humlx)ldt 
rises in the Goose Creek Range, about 7.000 feet above the level of the sea, 
and from the northeast of the state runs in a southwesterly direction somt 
three hundred miles. It finally emjities into Humboldt lake, Avhich is on the 
lx)rder of Humboldt and Churchill counties. Here it is about 4,100 feet 
aJjove sea level. 

The path over which the Humboldt wends its way is dreary enough to 
discourage it completely, for it goes over desert land, sandy plains, with not 
a trace of vegetation save where the river has gently touched the sandy 
plains into life, resembling a green ribbon winding through a land of desola- 
tion. In summer the banks are beautiful to look at, but the mosquitoes, gnats 
and flies make lingering undesiralilc when it can be avoided. 

The Little Humboldt rises in the Cotton Range, about one hundred miles 
north of the Humboldt; it flows south as far .is Paradise valley, striving with 
might and main to reach the Humboldt, but it loses the way and disajjpears 
from view in the hot sand. The Reese, a])parently starts on the same errand; 
after it rises from its source in the Toixabe Range, some two hundred miles 
south of the Humboldt, it is a m.agnitlcent river for alxnit one hundred 
miles. It has a current of great rapidity and strength, until just l>efore 
it reaches Jacobsville in Lander count}', and when it passes there it is a 
feeble stream, vanishing entirely some forty miles beyond that city. There 
is a legend e.xtant to the effect that several times, when there had l)een a 
great fall of both snow and, later, rain, the Reese did manage to reach the 
Humboldt, but no one can state that thc\ themselves ever saw the phenom- 
enon. Where the Reese disappears at the lower end of the valley it certainly 
had cause to try to get away, even if bv means of total annihilation, for 
the land is almrvst utterl)- barren, .ind for ;ni\ ])urpose useless. The timber 
is nolbiiig le.'dK but biiish, .and the \eget;ilion is "conspicuous onl\- hv its 


absence." "\'ct wliou fanners jettled in tlie ujjper part of wliat are now 
Lander and Nye counties in early days, the desert truly blossomed like the 
rose; the valley of the Reese was changed utterly and made rich and very 
pro(lucti\e by making irrigation ditches and bringing the water from the 
l^eese and its manv tributaries. 


The Truckee ranks next in point of size to the Humboldt, but is a much 
more rapid stream. It rises in Lake Tahoe. some 6,167 ^^^^ above the sea 
level, and then Hows to the north about twelve miles. ,\t this ix>int it 
Hows into the Little Truckee, on its way from Donner lake, then running 
for sixty-nine miles to the east, il makes another turn and going to the 
north runs about sixteen miles before reaching the Pyyramid lake at the 
southern extremity of Roop county. At the lake it is about 4,890 feet above 
the sea le\el, thus making a descent of over 1,277 ^^^^ ''i ninety-seven miles. 
The Truckee's waters are the best in any stream in Nevada, cold and very 
pure and clean. 

The ui)])er ])ortioii of the Truckee \'allcy makes excellent farming land, 
for the river affords much moisture, its l)anks are for man}' miles thickly 
covered with a heavy growth f)f spruce and pine. These make excellent shin- 
gles and lumber. As mentioned in the chapter devoted to earl\- emigration, 
the Truckee river is stocked with the tinest trout, named as was the river, 
Truckee, from the Indian guide of 1844. There is one variety, called 
the "Lake Bigler trout," which delights every palate and may be the one 
variety named Truckee by the emigrants. Fremont called the Truckee the 
"Salmon Trout Kixer" from the fact of the great prevalence of that fish 
in the river. In time the Truckee, to call it by its best known name, became 
])retty well fished out. and the legislature passed a resolution calling for 
the stocking of the ri\er afresh. This was done in 1879, McCloud ri\er 
s;dmon being used for the ])urpose. Later on, the Carson, Walker. Hum- 
boldt and a number of the other ri\ers of Newada were stocked in a similar 


Next to the Truckee, in ]ioint of size, is the Walker river. It is really 
a zigzag river, for it runs in a ver\' roundalx)Ut way over one hundred miles. 
It is formed by the union of two forks which have their .source in the Sierra 
Nevada Mountains. .Mone they traverse thirty miles, and then unite. First 
they go to the north tliirtv miles, then to the east, then to the south another 
thirty miles, finally finding a resting place in the bosom of Walker lake, 
fortv miles south of Carson lake. .Ml through Mason's valley, in fact along 
its entire course, is some of the best farming land in the state of Nevada, 


a fact soon known to ranchers wlio settled on it. The Walker was named 
for Joseph Walker, well known in early days as a trapper and guide, and 
who accompanied Fremont in Octolier. 1845. on an expedition, the Path- 
finder naming- both lake and river. Walker. Walker accompanied the Bon- 
neville expedition in 1S33. also. 


This river was named Carson by Fremont, in honor of his favorite scout. 
Kit Carson. There are two liranches. the East and West Carson. The former 
is the main stream, and rises in California, in the Blue lakes in Alpine 
count\-. right on top of the summit of the Sierra Nevada. Following a vari- 
able course it wends its way through canyons and dense pine forests down the 
eastern slope, into Carson \-alley, whence it flows to the north, and a few 
miles south of Genoa, in Douglas county, it is joined by the smaller branch. 
United they go to the northeast, passing through Ormshy, Lyon and Storey 
counties, discharging into Carson lake. Both branches have a course alto- 
gether of less than two hundred miles. In some places it is wide, but the 
average width is sixty feet, and the depth three to four feet. This is taken 
as an average, for when there is a great fall of snow or rain it attains 
great depth and width. It is fed entirely by the snow which melts on 
the Sierra Nevada. In some parts the land the river flows through is very 
fertile. Genoa, the county seat of Douglas county, is built in the valley 
of the Carson, and many farms create oases in the land. Tiiere was at 
one time trouble lietween the mill men and the ranchers, the latter resent- 
ing the mill men using the waters to run their mills; for when the river 
was low and the mills in ojjeratinn. irrigation was almost impossible, which 
meant great loss to the ranchers. 


One of the queerest of the queer rivers of Nevada is tlie .\margosa. 
This river rises in the Amargosa mountains, from which it derives its name, 
in the Mountain Spring range. These mountains are in the southwest corner 
of Nye county, and the .\iuargosa runs first in a southea.sterly direction 
one hundred and fifty miles, often entirely disappearing under ground, to come 
up again in some unexpected i)lace. It turns the southern end of the range 
and scurries to the northwest, disapiicaring in Dcrith \:dk'y, on the borders 
of California. This is one hundred .and seventy-five feet below the sea 
level. The waters are pure af first, but it received its name Amargosa from 
the Spaniards, from the un|)leasant taste its waters accpiire before disap- 
pearing. In its course it runs o\cr salt ]>I;iins, rdkali plains and other dis- 
agrecalilc soils until it i^ iiii]iossil)k' to drink it. 



The only rivers in addition to tlie above, wortliy of Ijeing named, and 
they are not really, are the Vegas, Rio Virgen and Ouinn rivers. 

The first rises in the southeast corner of Nevada, somewhere in the 
broken mountains of that locality ; it loses no time in flowing into the Colorado 
river. The Rio Virgen is, as its name implies, a pure, cool stream. 
When the Spanish explorers first found it, on the Old Spanish Trail, they 
were so delighted to find it in that dreary spot they named it Rio Virgen. 

The Ouinn river transforms a large area of land into rich grazing ground 
along its entire course. It rises in the Santa Rosa hills, in the northwestern 
part of the state, near the Owyhee mountains. It runs south for eighty miles 
and then turns west towards Mud Sink, sometimes into the Sink. The 
\allev it tra\erses is called Ouinn valley. 


According to the showing on the maps western Nevada can boast of 
more water than land. This is on the maps, though. In reality the vast 
sheets of water so faithfully depicted are mud flats, which sometimes are 
under water, if there are unusual freshets. There are just two which are 
navigable, the Pyramid and \Va!kcr. The Carson and Humboldt are large 
todies of water, but very shallow. These four lakes are the goal for many 
rivers and creeks, and in consequence are liigh or low, as the waters flowing 
in them are small or rushing torrents. All this is determined, of course, by 
the quantity of snow which has fallen and melted, or to the rainfall, though 
that is an indifYerent factor. While there are so many inlets, there is not one 
outlet. The waters have no way of escaping save through absorption, and 
consequently all the waters of these lakes become and bitter, salty 
and disagreeable. There was for some time a theory which received cre- 
dence, to the effect that these lakes had a subterranean outlet or else i^ercolated 
through the rocks to the ocean, the process being necessarily very slow. 


^^'^alker lake is about forty miles in length, from north to south, and 
lies in Esmeralda county; it is from fi\'e to fifteen miles in width, and is fed 
by Walker river, principally. It lies between great rugged mountains and 
hills, the highest being Mount Corey. These shield the lake from the sudden 
and fierce winds which blow along the eastern base of the Sierras. These 
mountains and hills are almost destitute of both wood and water. Where 
the Walker river reaches the lake there is a large area of fine land. The 
Carson & Colorado Railroad runs along the eastern shores; there are many 
indentations of bay and inlets, the outline of the lake being very irregular. 
The lake is navigable, small steamers dotting its surface. 



On tlie line l)et\veen Iliiniixildt county and Churcliill county lies Hum- 
lioldt lake, into which the water of the river of the same name flows. It is 
about ihirtv miles long and ten miles wide, ar.d lies 4,100 feet above the 
level of the .sea. It is a lake l)y courtesy, for it is merely nothing Init a 
great widening of the Plnmholdt ri\cr at tliis noint ; this is shown by tlie 
fact that when there is extreme iiigh w.'iter, the ri\er continues on through 
the lake liasin anil on to the L^wer Carson Sink, in the south. 


The Lower Carson Sink, into wiiich the llumboldt ri\er flows under 
conditions noted alx)vc. is directl\- south of the llumboldt. ami is ten miles 
in width, and o\'er twenty-live miles long. The Carson lake proper receives the 
water from Carson ri\er; when there is an extremely wet sea.son, the streams 
from east and west overflow the lowlands aboul these lakes and they go on 
towards each other, and form what is known as the Low'er Carson Sink or 
lake; an inland sea is thus created, which finally covers the intervening land 
until the two Carson lakes become one, stretching so far north as to be within 
a few miles of llumboldt. As stated before, these lakes have no outlet, but 
so powerfully do the sun's rays beat down 0,1 the waters that the lakes 
gradualh' dr\' out, unlil (fuite small, thus leaving a large area of country 
dry and bare. 


Pyramid lake is justly celebrated. It was discovered by John (\. Fre- 
mont on January to, 1^144. 'i'hey cam])cd on its banks for a day or so after 
the discovery. It is the largest lake lying wholly within the boundaries of 
Nevada. an<l is situated in the southern extremitx' of Koop count\. It is 
thirtyli\e miles long and tweKe miles wide. It is nruned l'\ranud because 
of a rock in the shape of a ])yr;unid which rises from the center of the 
lake some doo feet abiive llie suri'.ice. It lies amidst the most picturcscjue 
scenery, walled in by sheer. ]ireci])il(ius niounlains. rising in height from 
2,000 to 3.000 feet, walling in the emerald gem, foi' the waters are of a green 
tinge. The waters of the Truckee How into it, the w.ater being' \crv cold 
an<l pure, mostly melted snow. When the Truckee is swollen with the melted 
snow, it overflows its banks, the waters ruiniing ;dong thiougli a cli;uinel 
to the northeast, forming another lake, which has been given the name 
of Winnemucca lake. When sawmills were established along the Truckee 
river the sawdust from them w;is cariicd to the lake, creating a shoal which 
dams the outlet of the river, causing a larger ;unonnt of \\;iter to lldw into 
Winnemucca lake, increasing its depth some feet, and also the area. 


Tlie lake niaile a great improssicjii (in I'reniniit, accustomed as lie was to 
fine scenery. His account of his di.scovcry is as follows: 

"Beyond, a defile between the mountains descended rapidly about 2,000 
feet, and filling u]) all the lower space was a sheet of green water some 
20 miles broad. It broke u]ion our eyes like the ocean. The neigbl:Mjring 
peaks rose high above us, and we ascended one of them to obtain a better 
view, and their dark green color showed it to 1)€ a deep JMidy of water. For 
a long" time we sat enjoying the view, for we had become fatigued with 
mountains, and the free expanse of moving waves was \ery grateful. It was 
set like a gem in the mountains, which, from our position, seemed to enclose 
it almost entirely. Its |xisition at first inclined us to believe it Mary's 
lake (Humboldt), but the rugged mountains were so entirely discordant 
with descriptions of its low rushy shores and open country, that we con- 
cluded it some unknown body of water, which it afterwards proved to be. 

"We encamped on the shore, o])posite a very remarkable rock in the lake 
which attracted our attention for many miles. It rose, according to our 
estimate, 600 feet alxjve the water, and, from the jxjint we viewe<l it, pre- 
sented a pretty exact outline of the great pyramid of Cheops. This striking 
feature suggested a name for the lake, and I called it Pyramid lake; and 
though it may be deemed by some a fanciful resemblance, I can undertake 
to say that the future traveler will find much more striking resemblance 
between this rock and the pyramids of Egypt than there is between them 
and the object from which they take their name." 

NEVADA'.S most NOTKn I..\KF.. 

Nevada claims one-third of the most noted lake i>n the Pacific coast, 
and one now famous throughout the country. It lies on the Sierra Nevada, 
6,000 feet alx^ve the sea level. It is about fourteen miles west from Carson 
City, occupying the westerly ])ortions of Douglas, Washoe and Ormsby 
counties. California is fortunate in possessing two-thirds of the Ijeautiful 
sheet of water. The boundary line of Nevada and California passes from 
the north to the center of the lake, to the intersection of the thirty-ninth 
parallel of north latitude, and then di\erges to the .southeast. At its north 
end are the celebrated hot springs, lying near the Ne\ada line. Not far from 
the hot springs is a fine spring of clear, cold water, which is free from any 
mineral taste. The lake is twenty-two miles long and ten miles wide, the 
waters as clear as crystal and very cold. There is no buoyancy to the 
waters, and as the depth is over 1,700 feet bodies never rise to the surface. 
In the summer the waters at the edge of the lake become very warm, making 
bathing a delight. In the winter the edges freeze slightly. The lake is also 
noted for its fine trout, large in size and df fine flavor. 


The shore line is indented witli l)eantiful bays and inlets, and all along 
the shore villages have grown up and summer homes have been built. The 
lake is alive with all kinds of pleasure craft and steamboats which ply 
Ijetween the shores. All around the lake and vicinity there are good hotels, 
and they are filled to overflowing during the summer months. Tourists 
Tome from all o\er, it being the Mecca for Californians. 

Six miles from Tahoe City, on the west side, is a spur of mountains, 
and on each side of this spur streams of water run into the lake. To the 
south is Emerald bay, an inlet four hundred yards wide at the mouth and 
widening as it goes inland until it forms one of the most exquisitely beauti- 
ful inland harbors in the whole world. Lake creek enters Lake Tahoe at the 
south end and is fed by the snows of the hills to the south. The valley 
along which Lake creek wends its way is a beautiful valley, green, smiling 
meadows and agricultural lands, from the mountain slope to tlie lake. To 
the north of Lake creek's entrance, peaks of the Sierras rise either side 
of the lake three to four thousand feet, and are covered with snow two- 
thirds of the year. Lake Tahoe is fed entirely from the springs and snows 
of its encompassing nuiuntains; its outlet is the Truckee river on the north- 
west. The lake is onl\- tweh'e miles from Truckee ;uid fourteen from Car- 
son City. 

By many Lake Tahoe is thought to be a crater of some extinct \olcano, 
the surrounding mountains ])resenting evidences of vulcanic formation. Mar- 
lette lake lies to the northeast of the rim of Lake Tahoe, and Vir- 
ginia City is supplied with water from this lake. It is said to l>e one of the 
highest lakes in the wmlil, being at an .altitude of 1,500 feet alxive C street, 
Virginia City, which would make it 100 feet alxJve Lake Tahoe or 7,700 
feet above sea level. It is without doubt the highest lake in the world whose 
waters have been used to supply the inhaliitants of city will: water for 
domestic use. 

SM.\I.L L.\KES. 

Washoe lake is ni the eastern pari of Wa.shoe \alley and covers al)out 
six square miles. Its waters are very shallow and taste of the rdkali. It 
is fed by several small streams which come from the Sierras and inti> the 
valley; here they sink out of sight, but underground find their way to 
the lake, 

Franklin and Ruby l;d<es are on the east base oT (be Tlumboldt range 
of mountains, in Elko county. 'J'hey lie in the valley and ,ire reservoirs for 
the surplus waters of the surrounding mountains. .\t high water they 
unite, and then are about seven miles wide .'lud liftren miles long. The 
waters are brackish and in suiumer are ne,'ul\- ;dl e\.q>or;iti'cl. To (he east 





is tlic Gnsh-L'tc lak-f, nv rather pnnd, and iinrtlieasl ui thai Siunv lake, all 
a reproduction of Rul)y and Franklin. 


()\er acniss in Calil'i irni;i lie lakes wliieli fiirm a part of the 
.'ieries of reservoirs on the rim of the Great Basin near the line of Nevada, 
and should, many think, he included in the honndaries of Nevada. Several 
were before the last survey. 

The one farthest across the line is Owens lake in Inyo C(junty, less 
than ten miles from the state line of Nevada. It is very deep and navigable 
for steamers. It is eighteen miles long and twelve in width. It is slightly 
alkaline and has no outlet, being fed by the Owens river, which is 150 miles 
long. Mono lake is ten miles fmni the Nevada line and is a peculiar, and in 
many resj)ects, unpleasant lake. It has been sounded to the depth of three 
hundred feet and no bottom yet found. The waters are acrid, and fish, 
frogs nor any living thing can exist long in its waters. At this lake the 
peaks of the Sierras leach their highest altitude, and the scenery is mag- 
nificent, almost awe-ins])iring. It is in Mono county. 

Honey lake is ten miles across the line and is a sheet of water supplied 
by Susan. W'illnw and Line Valley creeks; its waters are alkaline and very 
shallow, so shallow that in \ery dry summers they disappear. The famous 
Uonner lake, often mentioned in emigrant days, is two miles northwest of 
Truckee, is three miles in length and one mile wide. It is 200 feet deep, 
the water as cool and clear as that of Lake Tahoe. It is surrounded on 
three sides by mountains covered with lir, spruce and pine; its waters are 
discharged into the Truckee river. 


General Geological Features. 

Complex Deposit of Minerals — Longitudinal and Cross Elevations — Rich- 
thofen's Description of Comstock — General Structure of Comstock — 
Character of Quartz — Varieties of Ore — Peculiar Formations in Each 
County — Diverse Mineral Features — Precious Gems — Future Bonanzas 
— The Wonderful Mountain Ranges. 

The geology of Nevada is interesting, especially so to those interested 
in her mines and topography of the country, the basins which for the most 
part hold the state presenting a varied and complex deposit of minerals. 
The topography of the country was undoubtedl}- fixed in the time of the 


great ice age. whicli. while it did not funn the deposits of ores, exjxised tlie 
mineral deix)sits. 

Tn the l>asiiis are vast beds of Ixjrax. .salt, soda, and sulpluir. with the 
main- residting cdiiipoiinds, remains of the great sea once held in the embrace 
of the great nmuntains U])heaved by \i)lcanic actiun. In southern and north- 
ern Xevada this great sea found an outlet through the Colorado and Colum- 
bia rivers, but in the great Utah Basin they were land-locked, the vast de- 
posits of minerals, as the waters evaporated, gradually, through the many 
geological epochs, changing the character of the land. Luckily for the 
human race of to-day, the forces of nature did not stop at the elevation of 
the Rocky mountains and the Sierras. 1>ut sent up parallel and shorter 
ridges of mountains between the two, rising in some instances over 10,000 
feet above sea le\'el. It was no sudden upheaval. l)ut the slow processes of 
nature, taking century ui«>n century to do her work. In this way was the 
Great Basin formed and the Sierras lifted from the vast sea depths. 

It is due to the interior longitudinal and cross elevations l)etween the 
Rockies and Sierras that Nevada has mines far away from both the Com- 
stock and Colorado bodies of ore. These elevations are from twenty to one 
hundred feet apart, some rising thousands of feet and others only hundreds; 
the mining experts dififer as to the plane of elevation at the time of the de- 
posits. Clarence King, Baron Richthofen, and others give an inclination 
to the slopes at the time of the outpour of propylite ami trachyte: while later 
authorities fix the plane nearer to horizontal. Taking Mount Davidson for 
the axis of ele\'ation. it is reasonable to suijjiose that elevation and eruption 
took place at alx)Ut the same time. At any rate sufficient time elapsed be- 
tween the deposit of propylite and the trachyte overBow for the surface of 
propylite to liecome covered with soil ; the remains of charred and silicified 
timber and impressions of vegetation are often to be met with in the up- 
turned strata. 

Clarence King statc^ Ihe ni)hcaval caused numerous fissures and 
renis throug'i the rock, even the solid syenitic mck. and es])ecially along the 
line of the junction of different rocks. 'Ihiough these fissures jKuired a 
third kind of lava, dark color, and known io miners by many different 
names. It is certain it was erupted after the elevation of the mountains, as 
it spread out in horizontal strata over the inclined ])ropylite ;nid trachytes 
which formed the luountains themselves. These rocks arc often termed 
jjorjjhyry, meaning a kind of rock altered by heat, pressure, or exchange of 
mineral bases so as to have crystals of feldspar scattered through them, 
these crystals having different names. When ;i ])ortion of the overhanging 
wall breaks off it is called by the miners a p(>rpliyry horse. The term "jxir- 
l)livrv horse" is only used to designate porphyry lying inside ;i ledge between 

A lIlSTOin OV NEVADA. 127 

the iKiiis^iiiL; aiiil liml \\;ill. Il was diiriiiL;' lliis disUirhaiu-i' the ,i;ix'al Cdin- 
stork LdiIc was fornu'cl, ihc cniptimi nf tlic \eiiis hoiiii; inlimalcly conncc-teil 
with the- ilc|iiisits nf mincial. Really, a descriplion nf the ("onistock l.ddc 
alTnrds a kc\- In the gcnl(_>i>y (if Nc\'ada. This is dctaik'd at Icns^tli in the 
wcii'ks (if C larence King', Rossilcr W. Ra\iniiiid, and liarmi l\ichlhi ileii. 
'Ilii'ii' acc<iuiils will he interesting; tn thnse wlm ha\e nut read the liooks or 
ha\e not peiscmalK' exanunecl the geology of Nevada. The description ot 
the C'ninsliick- will also _qi\-e the key tn most of the Great Basin. 

kichtiiofen's description of comstock. 

"The rans^e of the Washoe mountains on which the Comstock vein is 
situated is se])arated from the steep eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada by 
a continuous meridiaual deijression. marked li\' the deej) hasins of 'i'ruckee. 
Washoe and Carson \alle}S. Its shape is irregular, though in general a 
direction from south to north m:\\' he traced in the Summit range. South, 
it slopes gradualU- ilowu to a snuMith tableland, traversal from west to east 
b_\' the Carson ri\er tlowing in a narrow crevice, beyond which the Washoe 
range continues in the more elevated Pine Nut mountains. Some peaks in 
the latter have an altitude of probably more than 9.000 feet. To the west 
the Washoe mountains sink rapidly beneath the detrital beds of Washoe and 
Truckee valle\s, but are connected with the Sierra Nevadas by two low 
granite ridges, stretching at right angles with its general course across the 
northern and southern ends of Washoe \'alley, and thus isolating the basin. 
To the north and east the WaslKje range passes into a very extensive moun- 
tainous region which has been but little explored; while to the southeast it 
disappears abruptly below one of the middle basins of Carson river. The 
width of the entire range is not more than 14 miles, while its length from 
north to South is not determinable on account of the scanty knowledge we 
]>os.sess about the northern part of the country. 

"The culiuinating point of the range is Mount Davidson, the ele\ation 
of which detenuined li\ j. 1). Whitney, /.H2/ feet. The altitude of the 
other places are: Virginia City, 6,205 ft'et ; Devil's Ciate, 5,105 feet; while 
the basins to the west and south have the following ele\ations : W'ashoe 
Lake, 5,006 feet; Carson City, 4,615 feet; Dayton, 4,490 feet; all according 
to barometrical measurement by Professor Whitne}'. 

"Mount Davidson, a prominent central point, consists of syenite, a 
granitic rock, which is here composed of two kinds of feldspar (orthoclase 
and oligoclase), hornblend in laminated prisms of greenish black color, some 
mica and occasionally epidate. but no quartz. It is probably a continuation 
of the granitic axis of the Pine Nut mountriins, and forms, with the nieta- 
morphic rocks which accompany it, the backbone of the Washoe mountains. 


The latter r()cks join the syenite to tlie north and south and are intercepted 
by dykes of that rock, thereby proving its later origin. Lithologically, they 
exhibit a great variety: but they may be subdivided into three distinct 
groups, one of which is of triassic age, and was discovered by Professor J. 
D. Whitney in El Dorado canyon near Dayton: this is the most recent group 
and its rocks are ordinarily but little metamorphosed. They are imme- 
diately preceded in age by a series of micaceous and quartzose slates, which 
usually contain some beds of limestone. Both these groups occur only at 
some distance from the Comstock vein. Of more importance for the latter 
is a third series of h(jrnblendic Turalitic) rocks with inter-stratified layers of 
quartzite, gray slate and crystalline layers of limestone, which is often accom- 
panied by extensive deposits of ciystalline limestone, with extensive deposits 
of pure specular iron. These rocks form the hills which flank the American 
Flat to the west, as well as those between Silver City and Carson. They 
are capped by an overflow of quartzose proph\ry, and erupti\e rock, which. 
howe\er, is of no importance, e.xcept as forming a foot wall of the Justice 

"These rocks form the ancient series. They partly preceded and partly 
were contemporaneous with the emergence of the Sierra Nevada and the 
Great Basin, and the entire range of the Cordilleras, from the ancient sea, 
whose traces are left in the saline incrustations and salt pools at the bottom 
of the numerous basins between the Sierra and Rocky mountains which had 
formerly remained filled with the water of the retiring sea. The Washoe 
mountains undoubtedly formed an elevated range during the long period 
which elapsed till the commencement of the formation of the recent 
series of rocks, which bear still closer relations to the Comstock vein than 
the former. These rocks are eruptive and volcanic, and belong to the latter 
part of the Tertiary and to the post-Tertiary periods. 

"To the first of them in age we apply the recently introduced term, 
projjylite period. In Washoe the n.'imes 'feldspathic porjjhyry' and 'horn- 
blended porphyry' are commoifly used to designate two prominent varieties 
of it. They are \cry appropriate miners' terms; ijut scientifically ai)plied, 
will be capable of very differing interpretations. In other countries the terms 
'diorite,' 'dioritic porphyry,' 'greenstone,' 'jjorphyritic greenstone' have been 
ap])lied, which confusion of names best shows the indistinctness of the ex- 
ternal characters of the rock. Propylite has this remarkable peculiarity, 
namely, that it resembles many ancient rocks exactly in appearance and yet 
is among the most recent in origin. It is prominent among the inclosing 
rocks of the Comstock vein, and besides incloses several, perhaps most, of 
the largest ami most i)roducti\c siKer \eins in the world, as those in the 
Carpathian mountains, of Zacatecas and other places in Mexico, and prob- 


al)ly several \'eins in Ilcilixia. Alineralogically, it consists of a fine-grained 
paste of ordinarily greenish, lint sometimes gray, red and hruwn color, with 
imbedded crystals of feldspar (oligoclase) and columns dark green and 
fibrous, seldom of black, hornblende, which is also the coloring matter of the 
base. A peculiarity of the rock is its ferruginous character when decom- 
posed. Probably it contains other metals besides iron. Geologically it is 
an eruptive rock ; but it is accompanied by vast accumulations of breccia, 
which is sometimes regularly stratified. The flats of Virginia City, Gold 
Hill, American Citv and Silver City, consist of propylite ; it lies, in general, 
east of the mountains consisting of the ancient formations, and contains 
several mineral veins besides the Comstock Lode. Its distrilnUion in other 
countries of the world is not very general. 

"Several different kinds of eruptive and volcanic rocks followed the 
outbreaks of propylite; but only to one of them have we to direct the atten- 
tion in reference to the Comstock vein, as it probably caused its formation, 
besides taking a prominent part in the structure of the country. It is known 
in Petrology by the name of Saniilin-trachytc: for convenience sake we sim- 
ply use the name Trachyte. Its essential character is 'a predominance of a 
species of feldsjiar, called glass felds])ar or sanidin. which, along with horn- 
blende and mica, is imbedded in a base or paste of peculiarly rough texture, 
caused by microscopical vesicles which fill the rock. It has a l^eautiful 
appearance and presents very different colors.' * * * 

"There is no doubt about the eruptive character of the lava, and this 
term has been applied to it in Washoe. The mode of occurrence shows that 
it has been ejected through long fissures in a \iscous or liciuid state and at 
a high temperature. In some places the eruptions were subaqueous, as at 
Dayton. The entire tableland around that place is built up of trachytic tufa. 
The solid trachyte rises from it in rugged mountains, which form an ele- 
vated and very conspicuous range, passing east of the Gould and Curry mill, 
across Seven Mile canyon (where, for instance, the Sugar Loaf Peak con- 
sists of it), and bending in a semicircle around to Washoe Lake. Pleasant 
valley is entirely surmnnded by trachytic hills: and farther north this rock 
covers the country to a great extent. Sanidin-trachyte has ne\'er been found 
to contain silver-bearing veins, and in W^ashoe none occur in it, and yet it 
has evidently been mainly instrumental in the formation of the Comstock 
lode and other veins in that region. * * * Volcanic and eruptive ac- 
tivity gradually died away, and we now behold their last states in the action 
of the thermal springs, such as Steamboat Springs. The surface underwent 
but slow and gradual denudation, and the events of the volcanic period are 
recorded so perfectly and distinctly in the nature of the association of the 



rucks as to aid us greatly in explaining the niude of furniatioii nf the Corn- 
stock vein." 


"The Comstock runs nearly in the direction of a magnetic meridian 
(the \-ariation being i6l4 degrees east) along the slope of the Mt. David- 
son range, which descends at a steep grade until it abuts against the gentle 
slope of the three flats, on whicli. at an altitude of from 5,800 to 6.200 feet, 
are situated the towns of Virginia, Gold Hill and .\merican City. The out- 
croppings of the vein extend in a broad belt along tlie foot of the steep grade 
and immerliately above the three towns. The course of the vein as far as 
}'et explored is somewhat dependent on the shape of the slope, as it partakes 
of all its irregularities, passing the ravines in concave liends .and inclosing 
the foot of the different ridges in concave cur\'es ; the greatest convexity 
lieing around the broad uninterruptetl base of Mt. Davidson itself. These 
irregularities are important as they influence the ore bearing character of 
the \ein. * * * 

"The Comstock vein, at a depth of from 400 to 600 feet l>eneath its 
lowest out-crops, fills a fissure of from 100 to 130, and even 200 feet in 
width, but contracting in places, so as to allow both walls to come in close 
contact. Roth of the latter, at that depth, descend easterly at an angle vary- 
ing from forty-two to sixty degrees. Upwards from the average depth of 
500 feet, the western wall rises to the surface with the same inclination, 
which, however, occasionally diminishes at the upper levels to fortw and 
forty-eight degrees, while the eastern wall soon bends to the vertical, and 
gradually turns to a western dip. which, at |)laces, is forty-five degrees. Its 
general position to the depth menticjued, therefore, is about vertical, with 
an inflation to the west. The vein, consequently, contracts toward the sur- 
face, in the sha])e of a funnel, 'idie increase in \olume is especially pro- 
duced l)y the intervention, between the vein matter, of large fragments of 
country rock, broken from the walls, but usually moved only a little way 
downward, by sliding from their original place. The bulk and number of 
these fragments, or 'horses.' increase towards the surface, where some of 
them have a length of 1,000 feet, and a width of 50 to 100 feet. 

"Vein matter branching off from below, fills the spaces between the 
fragments, but is generally near the surface, far inferior in bulk, as com- 
pared with the countr\- rock. The width of the belt in which these branches 
come to the surface, and thci'e form scallcrcd i)ulcro]ii)ings, is gcnerallv more 
than 500 feet. 

"On the western side (west of the Virginia and l'".l Dorado cropi)ings) 
the Comstock \cin is accompanied b\- a number of smaller veins, the out- 


croppings of wliiili arc \ isihlc nn Cedar Jlill, Central Hill, Ophir Hill, and 
Mount Davidsnii, and are, in some places, of considerable size. They are 
nearly parallel td the main \ein, and dip to the east. Probably they will 
unite in depth with the ('(imstdck \ein, which by its relation to them may be 
considered as the main \ein nf what CJerman miners call 'a gangzug.' The 
western boundary of this main \ein is exceedingly well defined by a continu- 
ous clay selvage (gouge) lying on the smooth foot wall, and separating the 
vein matter very distinctly from the countrv rock: but it is different on the 
eastern side, where the adjoining country rock, as is often the case with 
true fissure veins, is impregnated with matter similar to that which fills the 
fissure. It is frequently concentrated in channels running parallel to or 
descending from the \ein but. in faet. forming parts of it. The well-defined 
east wall of its main body has, therefore, not often the same jjosition rela- 
tively to the entire vein, and with the growing depth gained by successive 
explorations the development of vein matter, east of what was formerly con- 
sidered the east wall, increases. 


"The rocks which accompany the Comstock vein change in its course. 
They are different varieties of propylite on the eastern side, throughout its 
whole extent. In some places the fretiuent and large crystals of feldspar 
give it a porphyritic character, which in certain \arieties is rendered more 
striking by green columns of hornblende : at others the rock has a very fine 
grain, and the inclosed crystals are of very minute size ; again, the rock is 
either compact and homogeneous, or it has a brecciated appearance from the 
inclosure of numerous angular fragments. Also, the color changes, though 
it is predominantly green, and the different varieties of decomposition create 
finally an endless variety. \\'c will presently have occasion to consider the 
causes to which it is due. 

"The western country offers nioic differences. .Mong the slope of 
Mount Davidson and Mount Butler, from the Tlest & Belcher mine to Gold 
Hill, it is formed by syenite, which, at some places, is separated from the 
vein by a crystalline rock of black color, having the nature of aphanite, but 
altogether obscure as to the mode of its occiu-rence. It is from three to fifty 
feet thick, and the elucidation of its real nature may be expected from fur- 
ther developments. 

(This report by Richthofen was written in 1866. The rock was after- 
wards termed "andesite," and is thought to be of volcanic origin, subse- 
quent to the upheaval or elevation of the strata accompanying it. It was 
also decided to he contemporaneous with, and instrumental in the deposit 
of the mineral matter forming the Comstock Lode.) 


"As syenite to tlie west and propylite to the east, occur in that jiortion 
of the Comstock \ein which has been most explored, and where wurks, more 
tlian an\\vhere else, extend in l;oth directions into the country, it has laeen 
generally assumed in Virginia, that the lode follows the plane of contact be- 
tween two different kind of rocks, and is therefore a contact deposit. But 
I'mmediately north of Mount Davidson, where propylite extends liigh up on 
the western hills, this rock forms the western country as well as the eastern — 
as at the California and Ophir mines — though at the latter metamorphic 
rocks and syenite are associated with prop_\-lite on the western side. 

"On Cedar Hill syenite again predominates; hut further north propy- 
lite forms the country rock on both sides. South of Ciolden Hill the syenite 
disappears from the western wall, and its place is taken, to some extent, by 
propylite, but in greater part by metamorphic rocks of the before-mentioned 
classes, ])rinci])al]v quartzite and uraHtic rocks. * * * Nowhere have 
s\-enite and metamor])hic rocks been found on the eastern side. 


"The ontcroppings of the Comstock Lode do not form a continuous 
line, l)ut ccjusist rather of small and detached fragments of (juartz, ordi- 
narily protruding from the surrounding ground, and sometimes forming 
broad ci'ests, which, in the aggregate, form a broad, uninterrupted belt. The 
horizontal distance across the vein of the outcrops of the different branches, 
amounts to upwards of 600 feet. Those of the western branches which 
retain the eastern dip of the western wall of the \'ein, carry principally crys- 
tallized quartz of a very glassy a])pearaiice, ordinarily of white, or at least 
of light color, and comparatively of pure quality. .Angular fragments of 
the country rock are imbedded in the quartz, and form the center of its 
crystallization: they usually occur in large pieces and in finely disseminated 

"Metalliferous minerals are scrux-e, though not entirely wanting. Noth- 
ing indicates underground wealth, nor, indeed, has such liccn found by su1> 
sequent mining. The onl}' excc])tion is Cedai' llill. where nati\e gold was 
found abundantly in places; but its scarce dispersion never justified great 
expectations. Of this nature are the Sacnmicnto, Virginia and Kl Dorado 
outcrops, and others on Mounts Davidson and lluller. They have, in several 
places, a width of 120 feet, liesides other branches which form ])art of them. 

'Tn the eastern outcrops, particles oi the country rock, together with 
(ilhers of clayey matter and metallic substances, occur, finely disseminated 
througii the (|uartz, causing thereby a marked difference from the character 
of the western oulcro])s. .\ certain jjorons structure <if the (|uartz, e\'i- 
dently originating from the remo\;il of line particles of ore, and the brown 


and red coloring, caused I)y metallic oxides, indicate the ore-hearing char- 
acter of large portions in dci)th : and the dissemination of native gold and 
siKer in small pores and larger cavities, gives evidence of the presence of 
ores of the precious metals. Also the chloride and simple sulphuret of silver 
occur in the eastern outcrops. These different characters of the 'Pacos' and 
'Colorado' of the Mexican, and the 'iron hat' of the German miner, continue 
downward to a varying depth. * * * 


"The \ein matter of the Conistock Lode is of a highly \-aried character, 
if we consider e\ery suhstance which enters into the composition of the Ijody 
of the vein between its two walls as belonging to it. Its chief component 
l)arts are fragments of country rock, clay and clajey matter, quartz and 


"Near the surface, about five-si.\ths of the mass of the Comstock vein 
consists of country rock — 'horses' as the Cornish miner calls them. They 
are often of large size, and then terminate below in a sharp edge. Their 
shape and size vary somewhat with the nature of the rock of which they 
consist. Those of propylite, which ;dong the whole range occur on the 
eastern side, and only occasionallv extend throughout the whole vein where 
the country is of the same character on both sides, are ordinarily very much 
elongated in the direction of the vein, frequently to i,ooo feet or more, 
while their ijreadth is far inferior, and their height is intermediate between 
lx)th. At their ends they thin out graduallv'. Those of syenite terminate 
more abruptlv, and their dimensions are more equal, though they are always 
in the direction of the strike of the vein. From the large 'horses' every 
variety of size occurs down to the smallest frag'uients. The quartz is often 
so thickh' tilled with angular pieces as to have a brecciated appearance. Pro- 
pylite is more common among them than syenite, and brecciated vein matter 
is therefore prevalent in those parts of the lode where propylite incloses 
the same on both sides, or where, at least, it furnishes the larger part of the 
material for 'horses.' It is for this reason abundant in the California, Cen- 
tral and ( )i>hir mines, and m the southern jiart of the Gold Hill mines. 


"Few large veins are so abundant in these substances as the Comstock 
vein. Clay forms the eastern selvage from north to south in continuous 
sheets, sometimes of ten to twenty feet in thickness. Otlier sheets of clay 
divide 'horses' from quartz, or diil'erent bodies of the latter: and where two 
walls come in close contact ihev have in places a united width of twenty 


to sixty feet. This cla\' is or(lin;iiil\- tnuqli and putty-like, and contains 
rounded pebbles of the adjoining rock; (inly where quartz is on Ixith sides it 
partakes of its nature, and is more earthy and dry. But, besides, clayey 
matter occurs in the Ijody of the vein to a great extent, and in places takes 
a prominent part in filling the fissure. Most 'horses' terminate at their 
lower end in a clayey substance, and continue downward as well as in the 
direction of the vein as sheets of clay. Out of the vein the same matter 
occurs to a great extent in the eastern country, but scarcely, if ever, in the 
western, thereby giving another evidence of the indistinctness of the eastern 
boundarv of the \'ein. 


"The differences mentioned before as prevailing in the quartz of the 
outcrop continue downward, but are not so conspicuous in depth on account 
of the general white color of the quartz. But even then the finely dissem- 
inated particles of the wall rock are more peculiar to the eastern than the 
western portion, and are always abundant where the quartz contains ore. 
At the upper le\'els, some bodies of quartz are of a reddish color; this is 
where the 'Colorados' continue downward. Frequently. howe\er, this color 
is only due to the red clay filling the fissures of the fractured quartz. In this 
case it is probably produced l)y the percolation of the \ein matter by water, 
while in the former it is likely that it is connected with the original forma- 
tion of the vein, as are all the ])henomcna presented by the coated iron hat. 
The quartz in the Comstock vein is rarely solid, and blasting is applied for 
its removal in but few instances, (lencrrdly it is fractured, and in numerous 
places the effects of the dynamical action on it .'ire such as to give it the 
appearance of cru.shed sugar. It occurs in this condition when inclosed in 
clay matter, and then frefpiently reminds one of the waving lines of damask. 
But then, also large and continuous bodies consisting entirely of 'crushed 
quartz," as we m;iy call it, arc occasionally met with. Such was the case 
throughout the larger ]iart of the gro;it bonanza of the 0])hir nn'ne. 

\ AKIirrV OF ORK.S. 

"The principal ores of the Comstock Lo<lc arc slephanite, \itreous silver 
ore, native siher and very rich galena; also small ([uantities of pyrargyrite 
or ruby silver, horn siKer and jmlybasite. Besides these are found native 
gold, iron jjyrites, ziiicblcnde. copjjcr ])yritcs, cnbonalc of lead and ])yror- 
pliite, the last two being \ery scarce." 


A better idea will l)e gained of the general geology of Nevada by read- 
ing an extract from Clarence King's exha.ustivc and authoritati\e reiwiit : 


"I'oth tlie Siena and Desert ranges arc coiiiposed first of cruniplcd 
and nplifted strata, IVdin tlie Aznic ])erind to the Jurassic; secondly, of 
ancient eni])ti\e rocks which accompany the Jurassic uplieaxal : and thircUv, 
of modern eruptive rocks l^elonging to the volcanic family, ranging- in date 
proha])ly from as early as the late Miocene to the glacial i)eriod. Folds of 
moic nr less complexity, twisted and \\ar])e(l liy longitudinal forces, often 
compressed intu a series of zigzags, sometimes massed hy outhursts of 
granite, syenitic granite, or syenite, and, lastly, huilt upon by or frequently 
buried beneath immense accunuilations of volcanic material: these are the 
characteristic features of the mountain chain. Thev are usualK- nieridianal 
and parallel ami scjiaiated h\' \alle\s wJiich art' hllcd to a general level 1>v 
quarternary detritus, the result of erosion from the early Cretaceous jjcriod 
down to the present time. The east slope of the Sierra, directly facing the 
Washoe region, is, in brief, a relic of metamorphic schists and slates, skirt- 
ing the foothills and resting at high east and west angles against the great 
granite lj<idy, which, for many miles to the southward, forms not only the 
summit but the main mass of the range. Rising through the granite and 
forming the eastern summit is a loft\' mass of sanidin-trachyte, of a (.lull 
chocolate color, and onl\' remarkable for the beautifullv regular prisms of 
black mica which intersect. The ridge known as the Washoe mountains 
is of this trachyte. Its cuhninating height, W'ashoe Peak, lies directly east 
and west across the valley from Mt. Davidson, the center and summit of the 
Virginia mining region. 

"Little can be learned of the ancient structure rif the N'irginia range, 
for eight-tenths of its mass are made up of \'olcanic rocks. Only at rare 
intervals, where deep erosions lay bare the original range or where its hard 
summits have been lifted abo\e the \olcanic flows, is there any clue to the 
materials or position of the ancient chain. Mt. Davidson is one of these 
relics, being composed of syenite. Inclined against the l>ase of this mass, 
and in the bottoms of ra\ines eroded in the volcanic materials occur consid- 
erable hills of metaphoric rocks, schists, limest(^nes, graphitic shales and 
slates. _ Southward in the canyon of the Carson, and in the ravines of the 
Pine Nut hills, are uplifted slates and carbonaceous shales, ass(xiated with 
irregular limestone beds, the whole surrounded and limited by volcanfc 
(andesite) rocks. Still further southward the crest ridge of the Pine Nut 
region, which is a continuation of the Virginia range, is syenitic granite, 
forming high, rugged crags, of an extremely picturesque aspect. E\-ery 
analogy would point to the belief that these aqueous rocks and the granitic 
masses accompanying them, are identical with the similar rocks which pre- 
dominate in the majority of Cordillera ranges; but we have positive proof 


of this in the fact that in El Doradn canvdii. one of tlie ravines of the Pine 
Xut hills. Professor Whitney has fonntl triassic fossils. 

"In resume, it may he said that this range is one of the old Jurassic 
folds of stratified rocks, and through fissures granite and syenite have 
obtruded : tliat after a very long periotl of comparative repose from the early 
Cretaceous to the late Tertiary the old range was riven in innumerable crev- 
ices, and deluged by floods of volcanic rocks which have buried nearly all of 
its older mass, and entirely changed its topography. During this period of 
\'ulcanism the present \alleys were in great part filled with fresh water lakes; 
and near the base of the Virginia range we had evidence, in the tufa de- 
posits, that a considerable cpiantity of volcanic material was lx3th ejected 
under water and flowed down into it. Water penetrating" the fissured range 
and meeting melted rock ga\'e rise to the solfataras and hot springs, whose 
traces are everywhere apparent. I~ollowing this age of lava and steam 
eruptions came the glacial epoch with its sequel of torrents and floods, and 
finally a great desiccating period, introducing our present condition." 


While the extracts form the works of King and Richthofen, particularly 
that of the Comstock Eode. will give a key to the general geologj' of the 
state, yet an idea of local characteristics would be necessary to thoroughly 
gain an idea of the geological conditions of Nevada in their entirety. Each 
county has some peculiar formation or deposit not contained even by its 
sister counties. For instance, se\eral counties pc)ssess indications of the 
e.xistence of precious gems; in Xye coimty manv beautiful turquoise have 
been found, handsome enough to shine on any fair hand, and many of them 
have been mined. 

Bodies of low-grade ores have Ix'en located in nearly e\cry county in 
the state of Nevada, and when these can be worked liy some cheaj) process, 
a fortune will be within the grasp of hundreds of men. It is more than 
proliable that among these prospects are some which will in the coiirse of 
time develop into "Jjonanzas." In addition to mines, Nevada has immense 
beds of salt, sulphur, antimony, borax, alum and .soda. 

Esmeralda, Churchill and Humboldt counties jiossess the largest num- 
l)er of these saliniferous minerals. .\s they are situated in the lowest por- 
tion of the Great Basin, they are of course near the sinks of the four largest 
rivers, the Munilxildt, Truckec. Walker and Car.son. The counties of Nye, 
White, Elko and Eureka jx^ssess great beds of limestone, remains of pre- 
historic coral beds. Lava seems to overlie the northwestern p;irl of .\e\;ida, 
from tlie great overflow which formed the Abidoc lava beds. 

Fossils of various periods arc found; in the limestone of the Pilot 


Rock mountains are fossils of recent origin; tlie ones first found were dis- 
covered in 1866 l)y Professor Jusliua E. Clayton, at Silver Peak, I'^snieralda 
county, and belonged to the Iciwer Sihn-ian ])eri(id. lie fdund lliem in a 
large valley incrusted with saline de])osits, .and the valley has alwa\s been 
known as Clayton valley from the discoverer. Large thermal s])rings are 
numerous in the \icinity and the adjacent hills contain ledges of gold, iron, 
lead, siKer and copper. These fossils are also found on the ranges of Dia- 
mond Peak, and erosiim in all the ])laces mentioned has so loosened their 
environment that the fossils can be easily procured. They are found in a 
1>ed of thinly laminated yellow sandstone, the trilobites, the earliest living 
creatures on the earth, having their im])ressions clearly defined on each sep- 
arate layer of rock, as the layers are seiiarated. 

Limestone is predominant, the most prominent mines lying in it, the 
limestone seeming to be associated with the gold and silver veins, and to 
have 1>een active in producing the ])recipitation. This is the case in Elko, 
White Pine, Eureka and Nye counties, while in Lander, ICsmeralda, Ormsby, 
Washoe and the mines of the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada, the deix)sits 
are in granite, in narrow fissures, with small indications of deep or e.xtensive 

In Nevada can be found fine specimens of petrified, <ir silicified wo<id, 
and e.xcpiisitely lieautiful crystals and agates. 


The mountains of Nevada are \aried in e\'ery respect; some of them 
affording magnificent scenery, pictures(|ue, weird, awe-inspiring and won- 
derfully beautiful. Clear, cool lakes nestle in their eml)race, wonderful 
springs of every nature, deep, dense woods, beautiful flowers, birds of song, 
everything which the lover of nature worships. And then again, bare, 
bleak, precipitous mountains, destitute of foliage, grass, or any vegetation 
which could charm the eye, lakes filled with brackish water, utter absence of 
song birds and flowers. Yet all were created for some purpose, for under 
the most forbidding aspect ma\- lurk the precious metal or gems. 

Nevada can 1x)ast of over one hundred mountain ranges, and all seem 
to possess some feature making them worthy of attention. Some of them 
are of height, and on the highest elevations have been found some 
of the richest mines, and in a horizontal position beds of limestone have 
captured and held them for future generations. The LTnited States geolog- 
ical exploration of the fortieth parallel gives the following altitudes of the 
elevations ri\alling the parent Rocky mountains in height: Pogonip Peak, 
in White Pine countv, 10,792 feet above sea level; Treasure Hill and Tele- 


graph Peak. 9,228: Treasure Citv, 8,q8o, ami nian_\- ntliers of aljout tlie 
same height. 

There is a general regularity in the api^arance of the mountains, the 
trend of all heing southerly and northerly, )'et there is great irregularity in 
the lithological formation; this is what makes Nevada such an interestmg 
field for -the mineralogist and geologist. The general trend of the interior 
elevations is generally parallel to that of the Kock}- mountains and the Sier- 
ras, though there are transverse elevations, and sometimes mineral veins 
corresponding. The 'parallelism of their trend and the regular recurrence 
are indicative of lateral pressure as the cause. 

In the northwest the principal ranges are the Antelope, Pine I-'orest, 
P>lack Rock, Trinity, Cottonwood, Hot Spring, Independence and Goose 
Creek; these, with a myriatl of smaller mountains lie north of the Humljoldt 
river; south of the river and north of the central parallel are East Humlxildt, 
West Humholdt, Toano, Pecpiop, I'inon. luist Range. Sonoma, Battle Moun- 
tain, Fish Creek; Cortez. In the central belt are the White Pine, Schell 
Creek, Snake, Carson Sink Range, j\ugusta, New [*ass, Desatoia, Sho- 
shone, Toiyahe. Tocjuima, Monitor, Hot Creek, Diamond, l^ancake, Egan, 
and Long Valley Range. To the smitli and southwest lie the Red I\h)un- 
tain, Monte Christo, Pilot, I'^xcelsior, W.'issuch, or Walker river. Kawitch, 
]\e\ei!le, Pahranagat, Mount Irish, Hiko, FAy. Highland, Spring Mountain, 
Cedar, Mormon, \'irgin, (jrapevine. Belted, Desert, \'egas. Muddy and 
Buckskin. Many of the ranges, notably the l^asl Humholdt, Diamond, 
'{'(Myahe, Schell Creek and i'^.gan, e.xtend for ux) miles or more nnhroken; 
the highest ])eaks are fmm 1 to 12,000 feet. 

CHAl'il'.K \\ I. 

L.wvs .\kkixtki) liv Mining. 

Efforts to Adopt a State Constitution — Taxation of Mines and Results — 
Tlie Revenue Law — Why It was Changed I^ter — Bullion Increase in 
1871 — Pledges Made by Legislators and Ignored — Effects of the Veto 
— A Political .Anomaly — Schemes of the I'onanza Firm — Compromise 
Arranged — Sharp Practice to Avoid Paying Penalties. 

Nevada became first known as a mining st.alc .and is so regarded to-(lay, 
and from the first mining has been ]);namounl. The mineral de\elo])meiil 
of the country was the first thing to be considered. Consc(iuentl\' wlieii 
an cfifort was made to frame a st.ite constitution the (piestion of taxing (he 
mines becames one of paramount interest. 


The framers inserted a section autlioriziiig taxation of property, which 
placed all mines, whether productive or not, upon the same basis. In the 
convention tliere was strong;' opposition to this. It was regarded as ta.xing 
futurity altogether too much. William AI. Stewart, afterwards Uhite<l 
States senator, led the o]iposition, and finally [iroposed an amendment. This 
authorized a levy onl\- u])on the net i>roceeds of that class of ])roperty; it 
was defeated. In his speeches he went on record as "Opposed to taxing 
the hopes of poor miners; his shafts, and drifts, and bed rock tunnels." 

This sentence formed one of the warcries of the campaign later, and 
the principal reason the constitutinn was rejected by a large majorit)' on 
the 19th of January, was the fact that the Stewart amendment had not been 
adopted. Knowing this, the next convention, in 1864, took the constitu- 
tion which had been defeated, made slight changes and added the Stewart 
amendment and it was adopted by an overwhelming vote — 10,373 to 1,284. 

A tax of $1.50 was authorized by this act, for the county; and for the 
state, $1.25 on each one lumdred dollars of valuation. But section 99 lim- 
ited the levy on proceeds of mines to one dollar on the $100, one-half for 
county and the other half for state i)urposes. This was a discrimination 
of $1.75 on the $100 in favor of mining property. The law also provided 
that $20 should be deducted for working the ores, and only three-fourths 
of the remainder should be taxed. On a ton oi ore worth $100 the tax 
would be sixty cents. 


The question of the constitutionality of the 99th section was often dis- 
cussed, and the first case to settle it was brought before Judge Wright 
on January 8, 1877. The question was most important. If the 99th section 
was found to be antagonistic to the state constitution, the decision would 
increase greatly the ta.x that producers would lie required to pay on bullion. 

For example: — The asses.sor of Storey county had reported $11,951,876 
as the gross amount of bullion produced in that county. A tax of $17,772.54 
had been paid on it. If the revenue |>aid had been in accordance with that 
portion of the law which the suiireme court finally decided to be constitu- 
tional, the amount would have been increased to $123,776.29 in Storey 
county alone. When the Comstock was yielding from $15,000,000 to $17,- 
000,000 in bullion every year the income wimld have lieen an enormous. one 
for the state. 

A special session of the legislature met on the 15th of ■March follow- 
ing the commencement of the suit ;uid two revenue bills were introduced, 
materially changing the provisions of the law in question. One provided 
a further exemption on the amount of bullion to be assessed; this one 


allowed $i8 per ton on free ores and $40 per ton on such as had to be 
roasted. The nther. introduced hv D. W. Welty. of Lander county, looked 
to the relief of the ta.x-oppressed bullion. The latter passed the senate 
bv a vote of ten to five and the assembl}- by a \ote of twenty-three to five. 
It became, b\- approx'al. a law on .\])ril jnd. The 991)1 section was finally 
declared unconstitutional nn the sixth nf June following, because it made 
"ta.xation uncciual." If it did. the new law did not equalize things, but made 
them still more unequal. 

In Storey county the bullion tax was then 2^ cents on $too for comity 
purposes, and a tax on other properties was Si. 50 on $100 for any other 
property. If the owner of land paid $1.50 in taxes on $100, the owner 
of a mine paid, if the ore yielded $100, and was free milling, twenty and 
a half cents on what remained after taking out the $iS allowed by the law, 
and if it had to be roasted, fifteen cents, taking out the $40 allowed by law. 
It was no wonder that the citizens, especially those of Store}' county, 


In 187 1 the bullion increase over the previous }-ear was as follows, 
shown l)y the reports of the county assessors: 

Esnier.alda county, bullion assessed in 1871, $137,079: in 1870, $92,910; 
increase, $44,169. 

In Storey county, bullion assessed in 1871, $10,644,702: in 1870, 
$6,053,949; increase, $4,590,753. 

Elko county, bullion assessed in 1871, $614, ()46: in 1870, .$219,169: 
increase, $395 -/Z/- 

Humboldt count}-, bullion assessed in 1871, $499,458: in 1870, ,$378,840; 
increase, $120,618. 

Lyon county, bullion assessed in 1871, $579,279: increase, $579,279. 

Lander county, bullion assessed in 1871, .$2,099,013; in 1870, $1,104.- 
590; increase. $994,423. 

Lincoln county, bullion assessed in 1871, $3,604,802: in 1870, $1,662,- 
916; increase, $1,941,886. 

Nye county, bullion assessed in 1871, $474,108: in 1870. ,$191,061: 
increase, .$283,047. 

White Pine Cf)nnty, bullion assessed in 1871, $1,347,528: in 1870. 
$1,177,679; increase, $169,849. 

Total increased bullion as.sessment of 1871 over i'87o. $8,119,801. 


Another thing which made the miners restive was the fact that the 
richer men, the owners of the bonanzas, were di.sposed I0 c\ade ihc ])avment 


(if tlie l)ulli(in tax. 'l"hc ones less al)le to l)e;vr it were, of course, not willing 
to pay the tax and let the millionaires escajje paying it. The latter were 
determined to bring influence to bear u])on the legislature .so as to secure 
exemption from the tax on mining' ])ni(lurts. 

Another fact that weighed heavily in fa\or of exempting mining 
products was the fact, that in 1S69 the legislature had authorized Storey 
county to issue $300,000 in bouds, to be given to the Virginia & Truckee 
Kailroad Coni])an\'. .\ yearly levy of one-half of one per cent was to be made 
upon the iiropcrty of the county to pay interest upon the bonds, and also 
to create a sinking fund for the accumulation of moneys in order to pay 
them eventually. 

The men who owned the best ])aying mines, also owned the stock of 
the raiiroatl, all being under the control of the California Bank stockholders, 
composed of these same men. The ])ower wielded by these men was enor- 
mous. As a result, the legislature, on l-'ebruary 28, 187 1. again changed 
the taxation law. It allowed a reduction from the product of the mines, of just 
the amount ])er ton it cost to extract the ore and convert it into bullion. 
The amount allowed for such expense was limited; the deduction on ores 
going $12, or less, per ton, could not exceed 90 ])er cent of their value. A 
yield of anywhere between $12 and $30 could be deducted 80 per cent. 
If between $30 and $100. a 60 per cent deduction might be made. Fifty 
])er cent deduction was allowed for o\'er $100 yield, but the owner had to 
prove that was the actual expense. An additional deduction O'f $15 per 
ton was allowed on ores wliicli had to be roasted. Owners could, under this 
law, figure expenses so high on the ores which had to be roasted as to 
leave but $1 per ton, lialjle to assessment; while on the free ores that were 
assessed $22 per ton, assessment might lie reduced to $16. 


In 1874 the people of Storey county sent John Piper, of Virginia City, 
to the legislature. He introduced a bill which became a law, the vote in 
the senate being unanimous, and in the assembly only one vote was opposed 
to it. This bill repealed the p(jrtion of the law of 1867 which limited the 
tax on bullion in Storey county to 25 cents on $100, the limit $1.50 and on 
other kinds of property the limit was placed at $1.50. 

This went through easily because William Sharon and his associates 
had almost exhausted the ore bodies in their mines and wanted a change. 
A heavier tax on mines would draw little from them, but it would increase 
the sinking fund out of which Storey county was to pay their railway 

This Avas all right for Sharon, but when, immediately after, the big 


lK>n;inza finii, J(jlin W. Mackey, James G. Fair. Fkiod antl O'Brien, had 
opened np their big bonanza, the Coiisohdated \'irginia and the California 
mines, it was different. Tiiis tlirew the burden of taxation upon them, 
forcing tliem to pav a large projiortion of the Storey county railway bonds, 
and that was what made them make a determined effort to change the com- 
plexion of affairs. War was inaugurated against William Sharon and his 
associates, for thev held him responsible for this state of affairs. To this 
end they refused to \rdy the ta.xes. countv or state; they declared the law un- 
constitutional. The case was decided against them in the United States 
circuit court. 1"hey appealed it to the supreme court, and it lay unde- 
cided during the contest which followed closely. This refusal to pa\' taxes 
was made on the eve of an election : it made a new political issue. Both 
parties were opposed to any change in the taxation of the net proceeds of the 
mines; property owners would ha\e to |)ay themselves any deficiencies in 
county or state. All candidates for the legislature pledged themselves as 
opposed to any change in the law taxing bullion. All did so — but as to 
keeping them — that was a different question. White Pine county did not 
exact such a pledge. 

When the legislature met, the report of the state controller showed that 
the state had to pay, within the next two years, $968,929.38, by l>orrowing, 
taxation, or both. Exclusive of the tax on mines, the revenues of the state 
for that period would be $711,210: add to this $64,464 as the income from 
mines, not including the big boiian"as, and the state would have a sum of 
$775,774, leaving a deficiency of $193,255 to meet, if the lx)nanza kings 
did not ])ay the tax on their mines. 

The above were the figures of the state controller, but they were in 
error. His estimate for running the state government was $12,643.47 more 
than was spent. The mines of the state also paid in to the treasury, $93,626.20 
more than was estimated. 


Storey county had, at the close of 1866, re[)oitcd 110 lloating debt. 
its only obligation being the Virginia & Truckee Railway Ijonds. Of these 
$218,000 remained unpaid, bearing interest at 7 per cent. When the Bo- 
nanza firm refused to ])ay taxes, there was a deficiency in the revenues, and 
$100,000 was iKjrrowcd to ni.iintain schools and pay for the new court 

The Bonanza lirm owed to the county of Storey and tiie state, 
$290,275.72. They owed penalties for not paying the sum when due, 
$77,578.22, a total of $367,853.94. 

The question was whether to borrow $200,000 for the state, force 

A TllSTOm' Ol'- Nl'.VADA. 143 

Storey ciiiiiil)- 111 liiiiTiiw $I()(),(K)(j tn maintain lier credit, nr s^u hack nu 
tlicir sacred pledge and coni])n>niisc with tlie "Hoiianza I'irni." it was ])rac- 
licaUy decided to do tlie hitter, as a clmice of e\'ils. 

•rill''. coMrKoM ish: i;ii.i„ 

A hill was inlroilnccd on l'\-huiar\- i~, 1S77. which was a compromise, 
the i)arties to it heing the I'lonanza lirm, the county officials of Storey county, 
and the stale controller and treasurer. ( io\ernor llradlev acquiescing. These 
officials were elected hefore the question of a comjiromise liad heen raisefl 
and were not pledged in the matter. This hill differed from the existing law 
in that where the former said: Assess the \alue of what hullion remains, 
after deducting the actual cost, and no nmre. of iirochicing it. placing a 
limit to the amount per ton, heyond which owners were not allowed to 
liring in hills of expense. The latter allowed a deduction I'or expenses 
e(]ual to the limits named, regardless of whether the actual cost had reached 
those figures or not. It made a reduction in the ta.x on hullion product in 
the state of thirty-f)ne and a half per cent, or ecpial to twenty per cent of the 
entire taxable property of the state. This was admitted hy the ones in 
favor of the hill; those op])iised to it claimed that it relieved fmni taxation 
nearly fifty per cent of the entire taxable mining products of the state. Nar- 
rowed down it meant that if the state would cut ofif thirty-one and a half 
per cent of the tax on their bullion product, the Bonanza firm would pay 
all they owed in county and state. 

The bill passed the senate on February 24, 1877, with 11 opposing 
votes and 14 in favor. It passed the assembly on the 27th of February, by 
a vote of 27 to 23. On March i. Governor L. R. Bradley vetoed the bill, 
the veto message being a strong one. in fact an arraignment of the legisla- 
ture; in one passage he said: 

'A\ e are sent here, as the serv.ants of the ]ieijple, to execute and carry 
out their will. There is no ]>ower on eaiih to release tis from the pledges 
exacted of us by our constituents, excq>t themselves. The success or failure 
of our government depends u])on the honesty of the representati\e in car- 
rying out his instructions. The whole ])eoplc. in their state conventions, 
and in their count}- con\-entions. have instructed us as to our duty in relation 
to the assessment of the proceeds of the mines. On no other subject were 
the people of this state ever so outspoken, so unanimous. No member of 
this legislature came here in doubt as to the wishes of those who sent him. 
We all will ha\e an accounting with our respective constituencies upon our 
return home, for the proper execution of the trust confided in us. While 
some may return, covered with the wreck of broken pledges, others, I am 
ha^jpy to say, will meet their people, and recei.e the reward of 'well done, 


good and faitliful serxants." Many will go forth from this feast of the 
vultures with pledges kept sacred, with manhood unsullied, and the people 
Avill learn whom to trust in future." 

\\'hat the people did learn was not to reward the eleven senators who 
remained faithful to their pledge. Few received any further office, from 
the hands of their supposedly grateful constituency. Others who betrayed 
the peoi)le were rewarded generously for breaking faith. But the worst 
form of appreciation shown by the people was the defeating of Governor 
Bradley at the next election and in sending to the United States senate one 
of the Bonanza firm. James G. Fair. And if Fair did make a senator to 
be proud of. it does not overcome the treachery of the ones who sent him 
to the senate and Governor Bradley to retirement. For while at the time 
there was a fine displav of enthusiasm, congratulations galore and pledges 
to stand 1)\- him until death, yet he was defeated the first time afterwards 
that he claimed their suffrage. 

Sometimes the minority wins out in the long run, and the small minor- 
ity which Condemned the vetf)ing of the bill, proved a powe- in the future. 
Every newspaper in Storey countv came out in a flood of in\ective and 
\ituperation. "Ass," "imbecile," "old fool" were among the choice terms 
ajjplied to that brave and courteous gentleman. Yet on the other hand 
papers opposed to him, notably the Eureka Republican, said, editorially : 
"Governor Bradley deserves well of the people of this state. We are always 
glad to do justice to a political opponent, and on this occasion we tender 
the governor our hearty thanks for his action. He has, we believe, saved 
the already overburdened ta.x-payers of the state from the imposition of 
additional and unjust Inu'dens." 


But little time elapsed after the vetoing of the bill on March ist, before 
the Bonanza firm luade another attempt at a compromise. On March 17 
they made an offer to Storey county, through its commissioners, to loan 
Storey county $80,000 and later advance quarterly for one year ;in amount 
equal to half of one per cent on their bullion _\icld, atlcr deducting the cost 
of production. 

Attached were three c<indilions; the nioiic}' was to be used only for 
the general and school funds, which left the railroad bonds ;uid other debts 
unprovided for; when the suit then before the supreme court was settled, 
no more money would be advanced. All money advanced was to be credited 
against the amount of taxes due county and .state, if the result of suit was 
adverse to the I'onanza firm: otherwise not. If the latter, the commis- 
sioners were to remit and release as far as possible, all percentages and pen- 







alties f'lr which the C(>m]);mic's wduld lie li.ihle. for having failed to pay llie 
assessments at tlie time they hecame due. 

This attempt was turned down and finally withdrawn. But the great 
men would not give up trying to avoid paying the penalties. They tried 
to effect another compromise. 


On May 3rd they offered to pay all they owed Storey county and the 
state f)f Nevada, including costs of suit, less /^ciiallics and per cents that had 
accrued by reason of nonpayment. That if tlic pending case in the United 
States supreme court was terminated adxcrsely to them, then the district 
court of Storey county was to issue a inandauuis staying execution for sat- 
isfaction of so much of judgment as included penalties and per cents, until 
April I, 1879. By so doing the matter would be carried beyond the next 
session of the legislature giving an opportunity to avoid paying them by an 
act of the legislature. The proposition was accepted and the money, 
$290,275.72, was paid on May 5th. Two days later the supreme court 
decided the case in favor of the people, so some one must have sent inside 
information to tlie Bonanza firm, enabling them to make the deal just in 


At the next session of the legislature, February, 1879, a bill was intro- 
duced, which had it been constitutional, would have allowed the Bonanza 
firm to avoid paying the amount due state and county. It passed the legis- 
lature, was approved by the goxernor, Init when the legislature adjourned, 
Attorney General Mur])h\- askerl the supreme court to place the cases again 
on the calendar (the California and Consolidated Virginia) that they might 
be re-argued: in order to the constitutionality of the hill just passed. 
This was done and the law found to be unconstitutional. The reasons given 
were : 

First — That the district attorney had no right, or jiower, to consent to 
the entry of a judgment, or to receive less than the full amoiuit of taxes 
flue and penalties accrued, to the state and county. 

Second — That the act was in plain violation of sections 20 and 21, of 
Article 4, of the constitution of this state, in this, that it was a sj^ecial act. 
It was therefore ordered that the judgment of the district court be reversed, 
the demurrers ox-erruled, and the defendants be permitted to answer. 

J. H. Harris, district attorney of Storey county, filed an amended com- 
plaint on July 9, 1880: the 6th of November, the court rendered judgment 
in favor of the state, against each company, for the sum prayed for in the 


complaints and the ])enaltics. in all $jj.^ji<.J2.. TIk- companies iniineiliatel\- 
filed an apjjcal. 

.Xiiother effort was made thrciuyli the legislature tn a\<iid lea\ing' the 
issue for the courts to settle. On the 2~th of January, i88j, senate bill 
No. 68. was introduced hv Senator Haines, of Douglas county; in it an 
eft'ort was nade to a\did if possible by phraseology of a general form, the 
objection found in Section 20, Article 4 of the constitution, which had j)roved 
so disastrous to the former act on the same subject. 

It jjassed, at the final passage the senate standing: Republicans, aye, 8; 
no, 5: Denvicrats, aye, 5: no. 4: one Democrat who faxorcd its passage 
lieing alisent. In the assembly, aye. 2i>: no. 18. 

Once again a go\'ernor took a hand in the matter, ( iovernor Kinkead 
\etoing the bill on March 3rd. This veto to th.c "hullion tax ])enalties 1)111" 
was almost entireh' unexpected. Or so it was claimed, although the plat- 
form on whiich Governor Kinkead was elected contained clauses pledging 
can<lidates to oppose any anil all such bills. So (".o\ernor Kinkead by this 
veto justified the man he supplanted. Governor liradley, in his veto of just 
such an act. 

CM.\l"'ri':R Wll. 

AlixiX(; .\.\i) X]-;\v 1 )isco\ ia<iKS. 

Nevada a Star of the l"'irst Magnitude in Mining l'"irmament — l^une of the 
Comstock — Comstock Pumping Association — Rehabilitation of Corn- 
stock — Repairing Sutro Tunnel — Bullion Tax Bill, Signed — Carson 
River Placers — Nevada's Mint — Discovery of Tonopah — J. L. Butler. 
]*"ather of Tonopah — Mines Being Worked and Future Prospects — Great 
Camp of Goldfield — The Wedekind Mine and Its Di.scoverer — Purchase 
by (iovernor Spark.s — Other Sections of Stale — Ne\a<l;i Objective Min- 
ing Region of United States. 

L'ndoubtedly Nevada shines today as a star of the lirst magnitude in the 
mining firmament of the world, chielly because within her honndaries lies 
the Comstock's four-nnle deposit of riches untold — the story of whose rise 
and fall is the mining romance ])ar excellence of the world. Of her past his- 
tory everyone knows, but the jjast is ]), the past when .stockholders and 
superintendents carried on the boldest mining operations known in the world 
of mining, and the Comstock has awakened from her long years of industrial 
lethargy-, to a rejuvenation along the lines of legitimate mining enterprise. 

Six years ago. Septemliei- ist. the controlling interests of the leading 
properties after months of delihei-ation, decided that it would l)e a paying en- 

A lllSTOkV OF NEVADA. 147 

teri)n'se to exploit tiie immense low-grade ore reserves, scornfully passed by 
the bonanza hunters of early Comstock days. It was well known, when 
the mines were allowed to till with water to the level of the Sutro tunnel, that 
great bodies of these ores awaiting cxplnration, lay in liic lower levels, as well 
as those discovered and passed Ijy. 

The cost would be great, but that did nut deter the owners. The Com- 
stock Pumping Association was formed, composed only of the comjwnies 
interested in the lode, and jilans laid t<i rid the lower levels of the waters 
in which they had been so long submerged. In September, 1899, contracts 
were let to supply the Com.stock with cheap power, electricity, the ma.ximum 
cost of which per horsepower was to he $7, the minimum, $4, as against past 
cost of $20 to $30 per horsepower. The plan was to unwater to a depth of 
3,000 feet with the increased ])l;uit. 'Hie assessments were levied and in Oc- 
tober, 1899, the Evans hy<lraulic elevator began the work. I'or over three 
years the water level was kept 450 feet below the level of the Sutro tunnel, 
and the work of exploration and mim'ng has been carried on quietly, chiefly 
by the Consolidated California and Virginia Company, over a million dollars 
being produced the first three years. Not much as compared to the $400,- 
000,000 produced in the great i)ast. but simply a starter for the new and great 
productive era of the Comstock, one which will cast even the vaunted past 
into the shade. The new conditions, new policies, and new economics guar- 
antee all this. 

There is abundant power, the one thing needful, generated in the Truckee 
river in California, and transmitted T^y miles for the operation of mills and 
machinery. It is o'.ie of the most notable installations of electric power for 
mining purposes in the world. 

The owners are determined to leave nothing undone, and last year and 
this they are working to still further unwater the very lowest depths of the 
oldest workings by the use of the Riedler pumps, driven by electric power. 


In 1885 after duly passing the Legislature, the Governor signed the 
"Bullion Tax Bill," over which there was great feeling aroused. It relieved 
the mines of the tax on the gross \ield and was as follows: 

"Section i. — .Ml ores, tailings and mineral bearing material, of what- 
ever character, shall be assessed for State and County purposes in the fol- 
lowing manner : 

"From the gross yield, return, or value of all ores, tailings or mineral- 
bearing material of whatever character, there shall be deducted the actual 
cost of extracting said ores or minerals from the mine, the actual cost of sav- 
ing said tailings, the actual cost of transportation of said ores, mineral or 


tailings, to the place of reduction or sale, and the remainder shall be deemed 
the net proceeds and shall be assessed, and taxed as provided in this Act." 


\\"hile in the i)ast the river bed of the Carson river was worked with 
more or less .success during the summers, no great successes were ever re- 
ported until the past two or three years. 

Dredges were not ^■ery successful. Finally a company known as the 
"Nevada Mining Company" jnit in a hue plant on Uie river. For some reason 
or other work was not what was e.xpected. This year hydraulic mining en- 
gineers from San Francisco are superintending the reconstruction of the en- 
tire plant and great results are looked for ne.xt summer. 

Throughout Nevada are fine jilaccrs which can lie worked after the 
irrigation plant is finished. There is no water now and owners are simply 
waiting for the water to come. In these jilacers gold nuggets weighing some- 
times several hundred dollars are found. The Nevada Company intends 
to work the Carson ri\cr bed thoroughly. 

Nevada's mint. 

The Nevada Mint at Carson City has had an eventful career, since the 
days of political pulls. It was a magnificently equipped plant, but all that 
is left is the fine building and the assaying plant. The machinery has been 
distributed to the other mints in the United States. 

In 1885 politics closed the Mint. It was reopened, again on April 9th 
of that year, with Democrats in control. It was a political seesaw all its years 
of existence. It closed and reopened. When it reopened on A])ril u, 1889, 
it had $1,600,000 in gold in shoe bars. In Jul}', 1S91, salaries were all cut 
down as appropriation did not cover them. 

In 1895 came the uncovering of the stealings which had been going on, 
according to common belief, for years. The flight and return of one of the 
guilty ones, the trials and the results, John Heeney, 8 years at hard labor 
and $5,000 fine, first, and then John T. Jones a similar sentence, with lighter 
punishment for Brule and minor offenders, ga\e materia! for the Associated 
Press for monllis. It was ne\cr known to the outside wdrld, if it was to the 
Government, just how much was taken; one bar stolen from the Standard 
mine was worth $40,000, and stealing, it was proved, had been going on 
for ten years, and ;nnonnted to at least $100,000. 

In July, 1898, the Mint was partially dismantled, and it was decided to 
run it as an assay office only. There was a long and loud wail and the later 
develoi)ments have justified the i)Cople of Nevada in making it, but the Go\'- 
ernmenl was unrelenting. In .'^eplember, 1886, the Director called attention 
to the fact that deposits had ceased because depositors were paid in drafts; 













and also because transportation was higlier than ]irivate shippers. When the 
Wasliington Mint ordered ail bullion in Carson shipped to Washington $200- 
000 per day went for some tnne. Wiien the Mint closed the people sent an 
address to the president, and the courts were appealed to, the people claiming 
that the law was \-ioIated in closing the Mint after it liad been in existence 
15 years. 

Ex-Governor R. K. Colcord is in charge of the assay office and W. M. 
David is chief clerk. For the year ending June 30, 1903, there were 246 
deposits of bullion containing gold and silver; value, $282,475.25, a decrease 
of $37,614.33 against last year's recei])ts. There were 266 assays, includ- 
ing melts, consolidations, Ijullinn and (jre assavs of gold, silver, copper and 
lead. Deposits were $271,622.06, silver, $10,853.19. The earnings were 
$967.70 and expenditures $12,196.44, with a percentage of net expenses to 
deposits of $3,875.12. 


The famous Tonopah Mining District lies on the western slope of the 
.southern portion of the San Antonio mountains and lies partly in Esmeralda 
County and partly in Nye county. For years the whole area was unknown 
as far as mineral possiliilities are concerned, being used for a cattle range. 
Many accounts have been published regarding the discovery of Tonopah but 
the following letter, written November 19, 1902, by the discoverer, J. L. 
Butler, is an authentic account : 

"Dear Sir: In compliance with your request I suljmit the follnuing: 
"Tonopah is an Indian name which. I learned when a boy, signifies 
'a small stream.' The Indians on their periodical trips from the Cowich 
mountains and other places to Rhodes' Salt Marsh, camped at this spring. 
Rich mines have been discovered in the San Antonio range, and, the country 
being highly mineralized, I long considered the mountains in the vicinity of 
the spring a good field for the prospector, .-\ttention to other matters kei^t 
me away from the range until May, 1900, when I left Belmont, the countv 
seat of Nye cmmty, on a prospecting expedition to the south. I passed over 
the Manhattan mountains, left Rye Patch, and traveled all day to the springs 
known by the Indians as Tonopah, near which I found quartz. I followed 
up the float and found leads. There were bold, black croppings of fine-grained 
quartz showing a great quantity of mineral, so much in fact that I consid- 
ered it of very little or no value. Howe\'er, I took several samples, passed 
over a great numlier of ledges, went on alxiut four nnles antl camped on 
May 19, near what is now known as the Gold Mountain mines, and saw those 
leads also but as they were small, compared with the large ledges I had dis- 
covered earlier in the day, I did not think much of them, though I took 
samples with me which 1 afterwards had assayed. 


"The first sample from Toiiopah which I had assayed contained 395 
onnces in silver and i^y^ ounces in gold to the ton. I spent some time 
in waiting for an assay to he made at Southern Klondike hy Mr. H. B. Higgs, 
and on May 26 I returned to Tonopah. made a dry camp, and next day took 
about 75 pounds of ore from se\eral ledges wliich 1 sul;)se(iuently had assayed 
by Mr. \V. C. Gayhart. at Austin, the result being 640 ounces in silver and 
$206 in gold to the ton. I was absent from Belmont when the returns from 
the assay reached there, and when I did return to Belmont I had office duties 
to attend to, and also to harve^-t hay on my ranch, so I ilid not return to 
Tonopah to locate the mines until .\ugust 23, 1900. Mrs. Butler accompanied 
me and assisted materially in UKating.the claims. My first location was the 
Desert Oueen, next the Burro, and then 1 told my wife to name one, which 
she did, naming it the Mizpah. which at that time did not lock any better than 
the others, but since has pnned to he the richest on record. I also located 
the Valley View, Silver Top and Buckhoard, and the group as a whole proves 
to lie among the richest opened up to date in any country. 

"The mines are in porphyry nr rhydlitc and crup ai the base of Mt. 
Oddie and radiate like a fan. The whole country is porphyritic ; no lime 
stone. The quartz contains gold, silver and manganese. The leads have 
talc casings, the formation being the same on the foot and hanging walls. 
The country is a mineral zone intersected with fissures filled with c|uartz 
containing rich sulphides carrying gold and silver. The width of the min- 
eral zone is as yet unknown, but there are 20 or 30 shafts being sunk in an 
area of five or six miles, so that later on the secret will be divulged and the 
extent of the mineral belt known." 

In the past two years since the letter was written, prospecting has been 
actively carried on for a few miles around Tonopah. I'rosi)ectors are out 
in all directions and new discoveries and new fields are being found fre(|uently. 
A large numl>er of companies have been organized and are in active opera- 
tion. In the cami)s of Ciold l-'ield, Ray. Lil)erty, Lone Mountain, Gold 
Mountain, Silver Peak, Montezuma, Klondike and Grand I'a district ex- 
tensive developments have taken place. The fnst named. Cold h'ield, bids 
fair to be even a richer camp than Tonopah. There ,ire fnur pmdncers at 
present, the Diamond I'^ield, Combination. January and Jumbn. Tjie first 
named has been bonded to eastern parties. 

J. L. Butler, now known as the "i'alhcr of Tdndp.ah.'" with his asso- 
ciates, T. L. Oddie and W. Ibougher. completed their locations by Xovem- 
l)€r. Others soon heard of it and miners from .SiKer Teak were gi\en leases 
on portions of the ground. Mr. Butler started .1 shaft on the .Miz])ah ledge. 
An examination of the projjcrty was made by Captain J. K. Delamar's ex- 
perts in b'mtiary. and he aci|uirc(l a bund mi the pro])erty to permit cxamina- 


tion and sampling-, for $joo,ooo. Wliat lie considered a lack of water, pre- 
vented tile purchase of tlie property liy Ca])tain Delaniar. ]*)y January, 

1902, tlie leasers liad extracted $3,000,000 worth of ore, paying the owners 
25 per cent of the amount. 1 )elaniar discharged his e\])erts for not realizing 
the value of the propert)-. 

June I a bond for $360,000 was secured on the prnpt-rtv hv O. A. Tur- 
ner, of Grass \'alley, for I'hiladelphia cajtitalists. The hond was taken 
up and the new owners organized as the ronopah Mining Company. The 
transfer was made on January 1. i()02. and active developments were com- 
menced without delay. Only the highest grade of ore is extracted as a heavy 
loss is entailed for team freight, railroad freight, smelting^ charges and 
percentages. The ore averages ahout $150 per ton net, the cost of mining, 
shipment and production heing $50 per ton. The company decided to build 
immense reduction works, and it is building a railroad from ivhodes" .Marsh, 
on the Carson & Colorado, to I'onopah. a di^stance of 60 miles. 

The Tonopali Mining Company has three hoists installed, two gasolirre 
and one steam. Twenty-one companies have one or two hoists each. A 
stamp mill ol 50 tons capacil}- with amalgating pans is in ojieration. i'"ine 
water works have also been established. 

The Western Ore Purchasing- Company, at Reno, receives maiiy cars 
of ore from the Tonopah district e\-ery day; the Gold I-"ield is also a shipper. 

The Tonopah Mining Comiiany, for the (juarter ending December 31, 

1903, paid the county a bullion tax of $1,544, which means that the mines 
produced during that time $42,000 above operating expenses. When the 
reduction works are huished the hoUlers of pro])ert\- in the Tonopah district 
figure on the out])ut being at least $5,000,000 per month. 

The first of the _\-ear Tonopah had a population of more than 5,000 and 
nearly 100 buildings were in course of construction. The place is lighted 
by electricit\' and \n\ve water is sup])lied in abundance. There is an efficient 
fire department, two cliurches, good hotels, a first-class graded school with 
o\er 100 pupils and two good ne\vsi)ai)ers. .\ railroarl now connects Tmio- 
])ah with So(ia\illc on the C. &. C. I\. l\. 


The famous W'cdekind mine was disco\-ered in iS9() l)y (j. II. Wede- 
kind. a piano tuner (if Reno, who used to spend all of his spare time in 
prospecting. Prospectors and mining men told him he was wasting his tirne, 
that there was no niineral there. When he made the discovery these same 
wise men said that the mine was not justified in being there, but was there 
simply because Wedekind determined there should be one there. The sam- 
ples lie had assayed in I'ebruary, 1900, showed a value of $1,400 in gold to 


the ton. Wedekind immediately sumiiKjiied his sons and son-in-law, and the 
entire district was located hy them. As soon as news of the strike was known 
Charles Bell disputed the title and the case was fought through the courts, 
Mr. Wedekind gaining the decision although Mr. Bell secured property 

Offers for the property poured in to Mr. Wedekind, hut at the hegin- 
ning Governor Sparks told Mr. Wedekind that he would give se\eral thou- 
sand dollars more than the highest Ijitlder. One of the unsuccessful bidders 
was Senator W. A. Clark, of Montana. Governor Sparks acquired title to 
the property in 1901. 

A town has grown up around the mines, and on September 10, 1902, 
the people of Reno and vicinity were guests of Governor Sparks at a grand 
barbecue. Over 4,000 people attended. 

From every source and from every corner of the state news is received 
almost daily of mineral strikes and the discovery of new districts. .\s a 
mining state Nevada is coming into her own again. 


Irrig.vtion in Nevada. 

The Early Efforts of Pioneers to Irrigate their Lands — \Miat the Irriga- 
tion Laws Will Accomplish for Nevada — The Richest Soil in the United 
States — Trouble Over Water Rights — Resort to Courts — Artesian Well 
Bounty Proposed — First Artesian Wells in Nevada — The J.and To Be 
Irrigated and the Terms of Allotment — Secretary of the Interior To 
Fix Prices and Terms — Many Filings Already Made — The (heat 
Water Power To Be Created and the Benefits To Be Derived There- 
from — Progress of Work — No Rush .\nticipated But Steady Inlhix. 

It is related in stories of the "days of nld, the da_\'s of gold, the days 
of '49," that a little child, coming with a party of emigrants through Nevada, 
en route to California, asked earnestly as she saw vista after vista of sage 
brush, "Did Ciod forget this country?'" A riuestion that if the child is alive 
to-day she will find answered in the negative. It is well known that of all 
lands arid lands are the richest, once they feel the touch of the life-giving 
water. Where in other states the soil has to he enriched, here in Xe\ada the 
soil is filled with lime, ])otash, magnesia and sul|)huric acid, w ilh all the 
essentials necessar\- to make Nevada, "after the desert, the rose." Within the 
borders of Nevada is some of the richest soil known to man, largely volcanic, 
with its richness ini<lissi])atc<l by the showers of ages. Where there has been 


an adequate water supply tlie crops of Nevada have been unfailing, tlie yield 
greater a lunulredfold than in the so-called rainy states. 

Water, only water, that is all Nevada needed to make her the richest, 
most populous state in the Union, h'nr Nature dealt kindly with her desert 
child, giving her everything at hirth necessary for the uphuilding of a great 
state; the measure of gifts was filled to overflowing, but so cunninglv did 
Mother Nature hide her rich gifts that it has taken years to make men see 
it; to make the necessary human endeavor to bring forth the jewels from 
Nature's casket, the soils of Nevada. 

The first settlers flocked to the waters which meant life, and as these 
were few in comparison with the settlers, trouble has always been rising to the 
surface. The farmers near certain canyons would agree to each take so much 
water, on a pro rata basis. Then some one would be found taking more 
water than was necessary. Recourse was had in suits, dragging on intermin- 
ably. Sometimes death was the harvest, for a number of men have been 
killed in different portions over the state, in disputing the title to water. 
In 1883 there was a great water famine and the farmers of King's Canyon 
and Gregory's Creek, near Carson, became entangled over the (|uestion. In 
1872 they had agreed as to water rights. A farmer named Phillips sued 
Sweeney, the latter claiming and using not only his 16 one-hunclredths 
allotted but an additional eight inches for sale and distribution through 
pipes to the city of Carson. The court allowed him the first but denied the 
right to the eight inches. Another dry year was 1875 and the farmers found 
Sweeney was again using the eight inches. He was arrested and fined $100, 
which he did not pay. He was again arrested and fined $500 for contempt 
in not paying. He appealed to the Supreme Court, which affirmed the de- 
cision of the lower court, but he did not pay the fine. In 1876, when another 
dry year came and Phillips lost quite a sum of money through crop failures, 
he had Sweeney arrested. He was again fined $500, which he did not pay. 
Things dragged along until the summer of 1883, when Sweeney was again 
arrested. He said he had leased his 80 acres and water rights. But it was 
pro\'ed that in addition to this he was using one-fourth of the water in King's 
Canyon for distribution in Carson. lie was arrested, and ordered to remain 
in jail until the fine of $500 was paid, for he had been fined $500 for the 
third time. He appealed to the Board of Pardons, which declined to inter- 
fere. He was finally given 30 days' parole to raise money for the fine. 
While he was in jail a hole was bored in his reservoir, the water all escaped 
and that settled the fight of years. 

In 1886 a boy, William Crow, killed Curly Hogan in revenge for water 
troubles. Mary Jane Walsh had a water suit in court several years, finally 
winning her suit against 15 men, securing the water she asked for from 


King's Canyon and Gregor\-".s Creek. Tlie (loxernment in 1885 had men 
looking for reservoirs, and in 1888 the United States Geological Snrxeyor 
had men looking for water sttjrage reser\-oirs, and to say that they failed to 
find many becanse they did not know where to look for them, is bnt to voice 
the opinion of all Nevadans of that time. In .\ugust. 1889. the Unitefl 
States Irrigation Commissinn met in Carsim, and the same year Newlands 
made his great irrigation sjieecli in Reno. The legislatnre of this year took 
$100,000 from the school fnnd to huild a dam to store water on the Carson 
river, Init used onlv a ])ortion of the sum. An effort was also made in tliis 
year to revive the bill Powell introduced in 1887. to make an appropriation 
of at least $t 0,000 to offer bounties for artesian wells. In 1886 the W'illiiw 
Creek dam of the Nevada Land & Cattle Company's ranch was finished. 
It was 50 feet high, a reservoir of 500 acres, depth J3 feet. The same \'car 
a compan\- in eastern Nevada built a rock dam in a narrow defile surround- 
ing Squaw Valley in Klko county. It filled a basin of 2,000 acres to a depth 
averaging 13 feet and c<intaining 8.500.000,000 gallons. The com])any also 
built j8 miles of irrigating (hlclies, the main canal ha\ing ;i capacit\' of 
25,000,000 gallons in 24 hours. It put 12 inches of water o\er 26.000 acres 
of land. The company had 1.000 acres in alfalfa and manv acres of grain 
and vegetables. So that many Nevadans were ali\e to the water cpiestion. 
In 1886 many artesian wells were bored in Carson; Otto Schultz had five 
wells of 2.500 gallons' cai)acitv each daily. Rllsworth had one at 70 feet 
which gave 2,000 daily. Al a depth i^\ 135 feet S. V. Davis, on the llol- 
slone r;mch. struck .a llow of 40 gallons a minute. In !8()4 a desperate at- 
lemi)t was made to ha\e the National Irrigation Ccmgress meet in Nevada, 
but Denver coidd offer more and swnred the meeting. The well at Cr.adle- 
baugii's ranch near Cenoa Hows a million .and ;i h.ilf g.allons dailw The well 
on the lUossom ranch, llunibdidi countw llows o\ci' a million g.allons dailw 
The well at (iovernor Sparks' ranch llows 125 gallons per miinile of boiling 
water. It is 700 feet deep. 

In T902 .A. K. Chandler spent ihe season in Carson N'alley and on the 
Carson ri\er, measuring streams and collecting data foi" irrigation, lie ga\e 
lectiu'es the winter following in the l'ni\-ersity and before the i'armcr'^' 
Institutes. Mr. Chandler accejited service with the I lydrograiihic 
but was soon State JMigineer of Ne\.'id;i under the iiro\isions of the irriga- 
tion law i)assed by the legisi.atnre of Nevada and ap]>ro\-ed b'cbruary iT), 

Then came the bghl. after years of struggle, on ihe iiarl of members 
of Congress from Ihe arid states, chief among wlinui lln' then repre- 
sentative from Nevada, I'", G. Newlands. It simjily bad to Cdme. for the 
whole Nation knew that Nevada wauled ,an irrig.alion ^vstem badiv, and 


results in Arizona and Colorado justified tlie act whicli was passed appro- 
priating the receipts from the sale and disposal of public lands in arid states 
and territories to the construction of irrigation works for the reclainalion 
of arid lands. The benefit whicli will result in Nevada is incalculable, and il 
was fitting that to Nevada should be given the initiatory work. The \u])(\ 
is already consideraljly over $10,000,000 and growing steadily. The wurk 
here has so far advanced that almost certain calculation can be made as to its 
grand results. One thing is sure, the populatiim of this stale, estimated Jan- 
uary I, 1904, at from 40,000 to r)o,ooo according as to wliether the estimator 
was an optinu'st or pessimist, will increase a hundredfold before the water 
is turned on, which will be, a small portion, in the summer of 1905. lu 
1905 the amount will be small, the foll(]\\ ing year larger, and so on indefinitely. 
About 70,000 acres of the land to be irrigated belongs to private ])ar- 
ties and the railroads; 20,000 belongs at ])reseut to the Pyramid Pake Reser- 
vation and the remaining 125,000 to l_Tncle Sam. Of this 85,000 acres are 
now open to the right of entry under the Homestead law, subject to the 
"National Irrigation Law" of June 17, 1902. By this kuv the Secretary of 
the Interior can limit the area of land not less than 40 or more than 160 
acres, giving to a family what he thinks it will take, if carefully cultivated, 
to supi^ort said family, when it is under irrigation. He also fixes the price, 
terms and conditions, 'flie lands immediately commanded by and which 
will be irrigated from the canal under construction in Nevada, lie in the 
vicinity of \\'ads\\ortli and Carson Sink Valley. Parts of Lyon, Storey and 
Washoe and Churchill counties are included in this, the larger portion in 
Churchill. Anyone can file on these lands in the LTnited States Land Office 
in Carson at any time, jiayiug the homestead fee. There is ikj charge for the 
land, and the limit of homestead entry had not been determined in March, 
1904. No price has been fixed for water or f(jr the payment or conditions 
upon which it will be furnished, as the lands have not been classified as yet. 
As soon as practicable the lands will be subili\ided into homesteads. The 
character of the soil and the topography will be points of consideration. 
Many filings have been made, subject to the conditions noted. The land 
first divided will be the 160 acre tracts, 80 irrigated and 80 pasture. Only 
the heads of families can file, and one distinct cpiarter section is allowed, 
picking land from two or more quarters is not allowable. The cjuarter must 
be filed on as a whole. .\nd while no one can make a living on these lands 
until the water arri\'es, yet all who file must prove actual and continuous 
residence. And title will be given only when the water is all paid for, though 
the water right can be paid in in annual installments without interest. Set- 
tlers should have a cash capital of $1,000 at least to pay for water right, 
buildings and stock. The authorities state that no building a shack and living 


there twenty-four hours twice a year be tolerated. Bona fule residence is the 
thing, for the Government has been deceived tiiousands of times In- fraudulent 

There will be no delay, things are moving with machine-like rapidity, 
but too mucli pulilicity was gi\en the Truckee-Carson system from the start. 
\\'()uld-l:)e settlers wanted to file and receive water at once. All great bodies 
move slowly, and this is a stupendous scheme. The rate of progress must 
be fi.xed by the space available for workmen, in tunnels, foundation dams 
and kindred work. Many inexperienced engineers ha\e been given work at 
$2,000 per year ; some only $50 per month, the consulting engineers only 
,$3,500 yearly. Instead of $10,000,000 many state the fund now available is 
$18,000,000. The Truckee river will supply the water power principalh'. 
Coming as it does from g''eat snc^wfalls on the summit of tlie Sierra Xevadas 
and flowing and draining i.ioo square miles of land, water power will lie 
created all along tlie irrigating ditches by the dams, some 200 feet high. 
Power plants will spring u]j like magic in many localities. And this means 
nianufactnries, for power will Ije supplied cheap. And it means cheaper 
power for the luiners. ]\[any and diversified are the channels through 
which population and resultant wealth will come via the great irrigation 
canal. It will not be much longer that tourists coming from California will 
sit in the cars and make invidious comparisons for the benefit of the Nevadans 
within range. The stock-breeders will be alile to fatten their own stock for 
the market, because they can water them all, and this will soon increase the 
industry. Those who have seen llie heavy timber of Washington, Oregon, 
and eastern states where bca\y timber grov>s, know that it will cost far less 
to irrigate than to fell timber. Irrigation means a new and glorious Nevada, 
and her future agricultural glory will make' the glory of Comstock jiale into 
insignificance. It means increased opportunities for e\cry line, whether it 
be mining or dairying, for every man and woman in the state or yet to come. 
It means relief for the congested and effete east ; it means independence for 
thousands. Nevada has 71,000.000 acres, and over 80 per cent can be irri- 
gated. The 'iruckee, Carson and Walker ri\ers will furnish a tremendous 
water power, second to none in the I'nited States. .\nd all the waters of these 
rivers and of the Humboldt and numerous others which now e\aporate on 
the desert air. will be sa\ed, e\ery drnp, to enrich Nevada, "Tlie Battle 

If only one acre in ten can be irrigated, Nevada will ha\e as many 
farms as there are in one-half the states. .\nd the balance can be used as 
grazing lands. .\11 this could b,'i\c been ihuw long ago, InU the pcopk' were 
not alive to its need. Irrigation did not appeal to ibc masses at large in the 
early days of Nevada. If the land w;is worth anything they thongbl it 


oui^Iit to have timber im it which would h;ne to be removed to give place to 
farms. But each geucratiou becomes wiser, aud now tliat the project is under 
way, the people of Nevada chafe and fret because time is required for the 
perfection of the plan. 


The work on the big- canal is forging ahead. Contractors must have 
the work done on time, for the Go\'ernment has announced that no excuse 
will be accepted. No\ember ist is the time set for the two sections in 
Churchill county; 750 men are working on them. This includes 14 miles 
from the intake (if the Truck'ce ri\-er in W'adsworth. Se\'eral tunnels are 
over half completed, and some, 900 feet long, have over 400 feet done. One 
problem is the disposition of the drainage from the irrigated lands, .\bijut 
May I the Government will issue maps showing the location of the lands to 
Ije reached by water. iM'audulcnt land agents are claiming to know just what 
land is to be reached and have imposed uiion many persons who have pur- 
chased land on their misrepresentation. There will be no g'reat rush, but a 
gradual, steady inllux. reaching to, no one can estimate, what number. 

Nevadans have heard that the Salvation Army is making an effort to 
secure the land to be reclaimed by the Government at Carson Sink, and one 
and all are opposed to the Army having the land for colonization schemes 
and to the making of Nevada a dumping ground for "assisted" or pauper 

It is not thought that the Indians will have any particular yearning 
for any farms under the irrigation scheme, and it is more than probable that 
the lands allotted to the Indians in Churchill county will be opened for entry 
by the whites. 

A peculiar feature of the work being done is tliat over half of the 
laborers employed in the work ha^•e decided to remain and take up land. 
By being brought in contact with the work they appreciate its scope and the 
result to be attained therefrom. E\-ery laborer who applies is given work, 
and Warren & Company, who ha\e only three sections of the irrigation canal 
to complete, employ over eight hundred men. paying over $1,700 per day. 

No one realizes what is l)eing done until a visit is paid to the works, 
and an effort is being made at this time to secure a special train to run 
between Reno and the irrigatinn works, which will probably be successful. 

Without doubt the federal irrigation law means much more to Nevada 
and her citizens than to any other state possessing arid lands. Nex'ada has 
never tried, seemingly, to secure settlers. It has been, rather, seeking to 
secure capital for the development of mines. The consequence has been, as 
often explained by her public speakers, that Nevada, as far as population 


goes, has been at a standstill for years. She will continue to so stand until 
farm lands are opened for settlement in small tracts through this govern- 
ment irrigation. It is always spoken of as the government or irrigation 
"scheme." when if there ever was a legitimate enter]>rise this is one. When 
worked out in their entirety Xe\ada will have reclaimd about 3,000,000 

Just why Nevada has this land is not generally understood. When slie 
was admitted to the Union instead of receiving the usual donation of alter- 
nate sections 16 and 26 in every townshi]). to be used or sold for educational 
purposes, the government gave her a Hat grant of 2.000,000 acres of pulilic 
land, to I)e located anywhere the legislature saw lit. As told elsewhere in this 
history, one legislature gave over to the stockmen the bulk of this land, with- 
out the state realizing anything worth mentioning therefor. For the stock- 
men, as contended li\- the ranchers, located the lands surnmnding the springs, 
water holes, rivers and creeks. The result has l)een that while Nevada has 
to-day 60,000,000 acres of pulilic land, there is not a quarter section of it 
on which a rancher can make a living, without irrigation. riius it is that 
the lanrl granted to the '^tate fur educatidual purposes only, by the manner 
it was flis])osed oi. practically ruined the state for homesteaders. It is no 
wonder the state liecomes indebted to the school fund. In 1884 Surveyor 
fieneral Preljle reported that in two years over 200,000 acres had been sold 
and that $15,000 per month was being paid thereon. The receipts at the 
land office for 1901 were $138,524.34 and for 1902, $137,528.85, aggregat- 
over a quarter of a million dollars and in excess of any two former years by 
a large sum. Daily frum fifty dollars to several thousands was received. Not 
a day but money is paid into the Land Oflfice. And this all goes into the 
School Fund, which, in proportion to "population, is the largest of any state 
in the Union, with the ]iossible exception of Texas. 

On the other h;ni(l, few ;ind far between are the contests o\er land en- 
tries. .And the homesteaders who filed and then disdained to take the land, 
after making jiayments, were legion, ijj-^./^y.yj acres (^f land having reverted 
lo the government after $226,781.01 had been jiaid : 110,000 acres of the 
forfeited lands have l)een rea])plied for, ami with the ho])c of irrigation in a 
way to be realized, probably the filers will cnm])k'te t)ayment, thus providing 
new life blood for Nevada and hundreds of ranches in the land of great nat- 
ural agricultural possibilities. 


(11 AI'I'l'.R XIX. 


C'ulti\atiijii of Crops in luuiy Days — l""ruit Culture — Coniniciiccineiil of 
Stock Raising — Average Rainfall — Disastrous Cloud Bursts — Uncer- 
tainties of Cattle Raising — Climatic Conditions. 

When the a\'erage Nevadan discourses u])on the agriculture of Nevada 
he sa_\s always, with truth, 'that all Nevada needs is "plenty of water" to 
enable her to r.aise any of the cereals, fnn'ts or vegetables of the temperate 
zone, which is perfectK- true, and where the great benefits of the New land 
Irrigation ih'll come in. In the pioneer days the emigrant suffered from 
this lack of water, later on the pioneer farmers suffered, and so it has con- 
tinued imtil the |)resent day. 

The Indians knew the \rduc of irrigation, for when the lirst j)ioneers 
settled in Walker \alley they found the Indians were using irrigating ditches 
to culti\-ate an edible root, which, like the taro root of the Kankas, formed 
the larger portion of their living. In addition to the work <.if the Indians 
was added the work of the Mormons in Carson valley, prior to 1850. 

Idierc is jiractically no record of the early, spasmodic attempts at farm- 
ing, though in December, iSAj, a .societ\' was incorporated, called the 
"Washoe .Agricultural, Mining and Mechanical Society"; at the fairs which 
were held under its ausi)ices. tlie first on October u, 1862, the great [xissi- 
bilities of the state of Nevada were shown. 

One has to look at the natural growths of the state to understand how 
diversified farming may be so successful in the state. There are many 
varieties of edible roots, used first 1)y the Indians and trappers : ground nuts 
or ainolc, wild leeks, and onion, foreshadow the success of potatoes and 
all root vegetables. Wild sage is plentiful, wdiile perennial bunch grass is 
the mainstay of the stockman. The cajiacity for small fruits is shown by 
the lu.xuriant growth of wild currants, esjiecially on the u])i)er HumboliU, 
the service berry, and the buffalo and manzanita berry. 

That the cultivation of sugar cane would be most profitable is again 
shown by Mother Nature. .Ml along the banks of the lower HumlK)ldl, and 
in other ]«rtions of the state, grows a dwarf sugar cane, generally from 
three to twelve feet in height, and one-quarter to half an inch in diameter. 
So full is it of saccharine matter that wdierever insects bore a hole the sap 
exudes and crystallizes into sugar. The Indians simply detach the minute 
crystals, mainly by threshing out the stalks. They make a sort of harvest 
festival when they go for sugar. 

The state of Nevada lies at an elevation of more than three thousand 


fi\e iniiidred feet for the greater portion, although the elevation in some 
valleys is over six thousand and the mountains from ten thousand to four- 
teen thousand feet. As the rainfall is very small, reliance must be placed 
upon the melted snow from the mountains. The rainfall, sometimes for an 
entire year, will be only four inches, but the immense snow drifts when 
the}' melt and run down, overcharge the rivers antl creeks so that they over- 
flow. The most fertile of land lies along every one of these streams of 
water, illustrating, so that all may see, what irrigation will do for the greater 
part of Nevada. The only ground which cannot be made a veritable Para- 
dise is, of course, the alkaline and salt plains, and they constitute less than 
one-fourth of the \allev lands of the state. 


If there is anything more puzzling than the climate of Nevada it is 
not to be found within the confines of that state. The high mountains in 
most localities shut off high winds, l)ut in Nevada they seem to accentuate 
their fierceness. The gales come roaring down the deep defiles of the ravines 
anfl canyons, at the rate of fifty miles an hour, sweeping everything before 
it. The clouds of dust in summer are stifling and penetrate to every crevice 
and corner, through the tiniest of cracks. 

Then the cloudbursts are sources of destruction and trouble. Science 
says a cloudburst "is a point of condensation of or between two opix)sing 
currents of air, both saturated with moisture, suspended for some con- 
siderable time over a small space." Cloudbursts destroyed Eureka, for their 
force is irresistible, and acres of forests may Ije leveled, farms buried and 
lives lost, and Eureka has sufi'ered from this cause several times : the most 
disastrous one occurred in 1874, when the town was unprepared for it, and 
many buildings were washed away and lives lost. The region lying between 
the Sierra Nevada and Rocky mountains is subject to visits from cloud- 
bursts, whereas in many places \isitc(l by cloudbursts, it is one \isit and no 
more, .\uslin has been a sufYercr a number of times, and both Austin and 
b'.urcka are located in ravines with the incline about ten feet to the one 
hundred, and when the water rushes down the ravines no human power 
can withstand its onslaughts. Sometimes the flood will last an hour oi- 
more. Miners and prospectors have been caught in mountain ravines and 
swept away like ants before its awful force. With the felling of the tiiuber 
for commercial uses, the number of cloudbiu'sts increases, Nevada wants 
water, but not bv means of a cloudburst. 

A lllSTURV Ul' NEVADA. 161 

The climate of Nevada is, as stated, puzzling. The thermometer may 
register thirty-one degrees in the morning and at noon ninety-seven de- 
grees, a condition often compared to the Great Desert of Sahara. All 
along the foot of the Sierra Nevada this condition prevails, hut as one 
travels east it is modified hy differences of latitude and altitude. An alti- 
tude of six thousand five hundred is attained at the head of the upper 
Humlx)ldt, with frosts nightly. In consequence, in Elko county only the 
hardiest grain and vegetahles can lie raised. Yet Humholdt valley itself is 
considered to have a most desirahle climate, no frosty nights, and yet near 
enough to the mountains to henefit hy the rainfalls. In Carson valley the 
farmer has to keep an eye out for frosts sometimes as late as June, frosts 
so late in the year being most destructive to the fruit, as they are almost in- 
variably preceded by warm spring days ; the fruit buds are encouraged to 
peep out and the result is annihilation to the fruit crop. Another bad feature 
of these late frosts are the heavy winds from the southeast which act as 
heralds of warm weather. The force of these winds cut up the ground, 
sand and gravel flying in great clouds, while the early spring grain is often 
injured so that it easily falls a victim to the following frosts. 

Go to the south of the state, around Colorado Canon, and almost trop- 
ical conditions prevail. Warm nights and warm days bring the semi-tropical 
fruits to perfection. 


While, as stated, in some portions of Nevada the average rainfall is 
sometimes four inches, in others (in some of the valleys) it may reach fifty 
inches a year; it has reached sixty, but rarely. On the desert lands the 
rainfall is often less than three inches. At Carson valley the rainfall in 1880 
was thirteen and one-tench inches, and this can be taken as about the aver- 
age rainfall for the northern and west portions of Ne\-ada. Many advocate 
the planting of trees to bring about more rain, others the inauguration of 
a chain of immense reservoirs, hut the majority favor irrigation. If the 
waste waters each winter could he cached in some practical manner, it would 
be a wise mcne — the questiim is just Imw to do this. Irrigation is what 
people ])lace most reliance on when building on the future of the state. If 
the water which goes to waste could be .saved, every square inch of the erst- 
while barren state would be transformed into a living green loveliness, charm- 
ing alike the eye of the tourist and the resident. Writing on this subject 
the assessor of Ormsliy county, H. H. Bence, covered the whole question, 
in detailing the condition of his county and efforts which had been made 
to use the waste water, as follows, under date of November 30, 1880: 

"The approximate area of agricultural land in this county is eight 


llinusaiid acres, hut uwinp; tn a scarcity <it natural supiily of water for irri- 
gati(.iu only a.bout one tliousand one luindred and sixty-four acres are ac- 
tually under culti\ation. and the (|uestion arises, liow water is to he olitained 
for irrigating purposes. 

"Xunierous attempts have been made to supply it h\' means of artesian 
wells, hut all efforts in that direction ha\e failed; and, in my opinion, the 
only solution of this question is that carried out hy Charles M. Schultz, on 
his ranch near the mouth of Clear creek. 

"Some three years ago, Mr. Schultz constructed a reser\-oir co\-ering 
a surface area of about tweut}- acres, about ten feet deei^ at the deeiiest 
jxiint and an average depth of three feet. This reserxoir is tilled from Clear 
creek in the sjjring of the year, wdien there is an abundance of water run- 
ning to waste, and the water is thus stored up for use when most needed. 
When tapped for use, it furnishes a nice, clear stream of water for irrigation 
from four to six weeks at a time. 

"B_\' means of tliis reservoir Air. Schultz has been enabled to culti\'ato 
about sixty acres more of land than could haxe Itecn successfully culti\'ated 
with the natural sujjplies of water at hand, and his success in this particular 
lias been such that he contemplates not onK- increasing the capacity of the 
present 'reser\oir, Ijut the construction of others, immediately 1)elo\\ it, thus 
ciimpleting a s}stem of reser\'(_)irs, one Ijelow the other, that will un<loubtedly 
reward his enterprise with a large increase in agricultural products. 

"There are man\' other suitable sites for rescr\'oirs, and by a reasonable 
outlax' in their construction, the agricultural resources of the coiuitry might 
be more than doubled. 

Statistics have shown that the rainfall along the western border of 
the state, also in the mountains of the west and east, is about thirteen inches 
per aniuini, which if gathered into reservoirs, would be suflicient to irrigate 
all, or nearly all, the land of the valleys, redceiiiing the stale f r. uu its present 

In iH5(j. when the Mormons came into Ca.rson valkw, they brought 
with them butter, eggs, fat cattle and many otlier things. looking to a per- 
manent settlement. 'I'hey planned to make use of the great fertility of the 
\aliey to farm, and sell at gtjod figures all produce raised, to the emigrants. 
A reputation was soon established, and man\- emigrants made Carson \alley 
a supply point. Some grain was used, the Reeses, so often mentioned in the 
chronicles of early days in that \allcy. using a threshing machine as carl\- 
as 1854. While the emigrants bought in c|uanlities. still emigrants were 
not everyday visitors, and California received the hulk of everything raised. 

All this was clianged with the discovery of tlie Comstock, f(ir when 
the |)opu]ation increased by le;ii)s and bounds, some one had to feed the in 


haliilants i>f the many towns which grew, nnishnioni-Hke, in a single niii;ht. 
CaHfoniia chd her best, and this was su])|)leniente(l hy the efforts of tlic 
Carson valley farmers. Prices were in the clouds, for these men of the 
days of gold wanted not only necessities but luxuries. Poultry, fruit, eggs, 
much of the goods wanted was perishable, so that strive as they might, keep- 
ing on the move day and night, many things would not arrive in good con- 
dition. Yet all fruit was high, one dollar per pound the usual price. Freight 
was an item of great expense, so in sheer desperation an effort was made to 
find out if the state could not supply the needs of those within her borders. 
Grain went u]) to almost prohibitive prices. Hay was from the first raised 
in Nevada, Init barley was imported from California, sixty dollars per ton 
for freight being paid, which added to the original price was outrageous. 
It came to about one hundred dollars per ton. 

It was the high prices charged Ity the Mormons which made the Over- 
land Stage C(jmpany start their highly successful farm in Ruby valley in 
1864, and the high prices of the Californians which drove the Nevadans to 
agricultural work as a means of self-preservation. Tlie Humlxildt rix'er 
land was found to be adapted to the raising of grain and vegetables, and the 
same was learned of the valleys north and south. It did not take long to 
demonstrate that Nevada could supply her citizens with everything needed. 
The desirability of the one hundred and fifty thousand acres of land in 
Paradise valley was known in the T)o"s, but, owing to the hostile Indians, 
it was some years before settlers could locate in safety. Knowing that they 
had passed many fine valleys on the way to California in earlier days, settlers 
commenced to hunt them up, among these being Thousand Spring and other 
valleys in the eastern part of the state. They soon filled them up : the valley 
of the Humboldt and all its branches was soon occupied, .and Humboldt 
county was considered to be a great county when it came to the raising of 
grains, vegetables and ha}-, while .sorghum grew luxuriantlx'. 

As soon as agricultural pursuits began to be followed, more attention 
was paid to climatic conditions. They were soon found to be equal to many 
of the northern states, even ahead of some. In 1864. when first watched 
closely, there were seventy-eight days without frost, and the next year 
eighty-seven, consecutively. In 1867 the barley crop w-as one million pounds 
in Humboldt county. The estimated value of the barley, wheat and potato 
crops was one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, and less than half the 
arable land was under cultivation. Ruby \alley. in portion to area of land 
cultivated, had as fine a crop. Carson valley, being nearer to the big mining 
center, grew more rapidly. Flour mills were soon established to take care 
of the grain grown, the first one at Kingsbury Grade in 1859, a larger one 
following in 1865. 



Hunibiildt Ciiunty — 2.300 acres of barley, averaging 40 busliels. worth 
$2.50; i.joo acres of wheat, averaging 40 bushels per acre, worth $3.00; 
3.000 tons of hay. worth $20 per ton. 

Lincoln County — 150 bushels of barley, $4.00 per bushel: 130 bushels 
of oats. $2.80 per bushel; 600 bushels of corn. $3.50 per bushel; 10 tons 
of beets, at 6 cents per pound; 2 tons of parsnips. 7 cents per pound; 10 tons 
of squashes. 4 cents per pound; 15 tons of cabbages. 123/ cents per pound; 
40 tons of potatoes. 5^ cents per pound; and 8.000 melons, no price given. 
The foregoing were raised on three ranches, of a conil)ined extent of ninety- 
five acres. 

Douglas County — 20,000 tons of hay. 2.000 bushels of wlieat. 40.000 
bushels of barley, 15,000 Inishels of oats, 1,000 bushels of corn and 5,000 
bushels of potatoes. 

In Ornisby county the hay. grain .-ind vegetable crop was valued at 
one hundred and six thousand five hundred dollars. It was hard work to 
gather any idea of crops from the Mormons, for they would not gi\'e them, 
at least until late in the '60s, even running the assessor off with guns when 
he came to ins])ect their farms. 


By the year 1874 the farmers had begun to reaj) the [jrofits from their 
farms, the figures for that year being ; 

Acres Sown. Yield Per Acre, Total Yield 
Kind. in Bushels. in Bushels. 

Wlieat , 4.34f) 17 76,300 

liarley 26,651 20 506,790 

Oats 5,372 14 74,695 

Rye 1 00 10 1 ,000 

Corn 493 28 1 3,690 

IJuckwheat 12 17 200 

Peas 326 io>4 3-450 

Beans 53 11 593 

Potatoes 4, 1 36 70 290,458 

Sweet potatoes ^ 96 24 

Onions 76 55I/2 4,210 


Hay 72.101 I 1/12 72,101 

Hops I 125 lbs. 

Beets (tons) 314 

Turnips " 320 

Pum])kins and squashes " 5.350 


Butter (11'^) 227,240 

Cheese " 22,200 

Wool " 668,738 

Honey " 7,400 


A? far liack in tlic past as 1871, success with fruit trees is recorded. 
Sliade and oruamental trees were also imported mid ])Ianted. C,. W. C. 
Ferris planted hard and soft maples, hickory, black walnut, butter-nut, 
chestnut, and other varieties of trees. In 1872 there were in Ormsby county 
o\-er one thousand Ihc luuidred imported trees, fruit and shade, nearly twice 
as much of the former as of the ornamental trees. Many of the fruit trees 
had Iwrne fruit, but the ravages of the frost made the fruit returns uncertain. 
But no matter how unfavoralile were the climatic conditions, every farmer 
tried to raise soiue variety of fruit. In the earlv da\'s it was found that 
Lincoln county was admiralily suited for the culture of graj^es, and tliat in 
Humboldt nearly every kind of fruit could be grown. As time went on, 
different localities, as will be seen were found adapted to every kind of fruit 
grown in any climate, even to the semi-tropical fruits. To show by counties 
the fruit grown in 1874 the following table is gi\'en : 

County *- 

Churchill .... 40 

Douglas 3000 

Elko 100 

Esmeralda . . .3500 

Eureka 20 

Huml>ol(It . . . 3000 

Lander 430 

Lincoln 1 18 

Lyon 45 

Nye 300 

Ormsby 5000 

Storey 240 

Washoe 6000 

White Pine ... 50 



















































































As one may readily understand after reading of the climatic condition 
and the lack of grass, it was difficult in early days to solve the cattle prob- 
lem. At first ambitious settlers brought in fine, thoroughbred stock. In 


the sheltered farms, kept under Ixninds, this was all right, Imt to put nn the 
rang-e, the American cattle were not desirahle. As one early writer put it, 
■'cattle were wanted that could fight nr run away," and this the Texas variety 
could do. By 1880 there were immense herds of the latter hreed, long horned, 
fleet of foot, wandering contentedly through the sage and the bunch grass. 
;\bout two hundred thousand were apportioned in that year as follows : Lux 
& Wilier, ten thousand; Glenn & Company, thirty thousand; Todhunter, 
twenty-fi\e thousand; and N. H. A. Mason, number unknown. It was diffi- 
cult in those days to get anywhere near a correct idea of the number of cattle 
belonging to any of the so-called cattle kings, for the reason that the "kings" 
only rode the range once a year, at the rodeo, and literally did not know how 
many cattle they possessed. 

These ro<leos are held once a year and the cattle owner goes from one to 
another, branding all the cahes he finds with his mark, that are seen follow- 
ing cows tearing bis brand. That is the only way to determine the owner- 
ship of calves when on the range. For the cattle stray miles away from home, 
sometimes fifty miles. When the cattleman wants U> ha\-e a drive, there is 
joy among the cowboys. In a "drive" all the fat cattle are singled out and 
separated from the rest of the herd and eventually reach the open market. 
E\en in those pioneer da}-s thou.sands (if animals were sent in one dri\e, ten 
to fifteen thousand. 

The friend of the cattleman was tlie bunch grass, for the range cattle 
like it, and it is nutritious and hardy; nothing seems to kill it and the cattle 
know bow to get at it even in winter; they will paw the snow away ;md get 
fat on it in winter. This worked very well at first, but the cattle owners 
f(»und out that after the grass was once eaten off it took several years for it 
to grow into condition for eating; true, there was wild sage, but as the herb 
impregnated the flesh it was not the most desirable thing for [>coi)lc who 
like sage only in dressing, .\gain the bunch grass does not seem to be 
evenly distributed, sometimes miles .apart. So cattle bad to kce]> (^n the 
nifne to keep in good condition. 

In uiuisually cold winters, or in dr\- wcither, when the grass is literally 
dried out, herds suffer great loss. The summer ;niil winter ranges were 
kept far apart, .sometimes over one hundred miles; if kept on summer ranges 
during winter, the cattle knew instinctively that no amount of p;iwing would 
find uncropjied grass and they would iMit try to find it. .\uotber f.-ict learned 
by the cattlemen was that cattle must not be ivi] during winter; once started 
in this direction and the cattle would not try to hunt food but would jvist 
stay around the ])lace where they liad been fed, waiting for food. 

In i8;r(j ;nid 18S0. one-third of ibe e.ittle in .\e\;ida died during the 


wintci'. In iSri(; the calllcnicn had sitlVci-fil ahout the same Inss. 'I'lie loss 
i^eiierally was aniiin<^- the heids unaccustDnied to the ran,^e. 


Many diseases were kiKnvii and feared on the ranj^e. The "h\'^ jaw." 
the "hi<^- nieh" and "l)lack leg-," as tliey are unscientifically known, killed off 
hundreds, no cure hcing known fnr the "hlack leg." It usually made its ap- 
pearance in July and August, and from the first symptnius to the last hreath, 
only three or four hours would elapse. 

The stampede was a thing to he dreaded and feared, the more so that 
no one could or can explain its cause, and once started no human power can 
sto]) one, though the cowhovs, knowing" the signs, avert them often. .\t 
night when the cattle were resting, the cowhoys by singing sometimes kept 
off the mysterious foe. 1die greatest loss is not caused by the cattle falling 
into rax'ines and gullies and o\-er ]irecipices, hut from the nervous e.xhaustiou 
following, which takes months for the cattle to recover from. One herd 
of fat cattle in a corral in Paradise valley stampeded and breaking down 
all fences ran for miles. The loss was exactly $10,000, so it is no wonder 
the cattlemen dread stnmpeiles. If a cowboy hap])ens to be near the leader 
in a stampede, or can reach it, he can run with the herd, and gradually turn 
it and bring it under control, but it was not often done. 

Xot i)nly cattle, but horses, sedate family horses, and stolid mules, will 
become imbuetl with the wild, unreasoning horror, and stampede with as 
much reckless aljandon as the range cattle. Cattle yoked together sometimes 
join in a stampede, in fact nothing in the way of stock seems to be exempt 
from it. 


One of the most destructive pests of early days in Ne\-ada was the grass- 
hopper, and as late as 1881 they devastated the entire valleys along the eastern 
l)ase of the Sierra Nex'ada. The_\' were regarded as a deadly menace by 
the pioneer farmers, for a field of grain or vegetaliles would be cut off close 
to the ground and eaten, 'i'hey were fought Ijy many devices, but nothing 
was entirely successful. Smoke and smudging sometimes turned them away 
from threatened territory. 

Another pest, but one which could l)€ destroyed, was the cricket, a wild, 
untamed cousin of the gentle hearth \-ariety. At first they attacked only the 
grain and vegetaljles when their natural food was cut short by drouth or 
excessi\-e mcjisture. But it was a habit soon accpiired, and, like tiie taste 
for olives, an appetite for life was formed. The farmers caught them in 
ditches, or placed rows of tin next to the ground around the gardens and 
fields. In 1868 and 1871 they created great havoc. The cricket not being 


able to fly much, was forced to remain near the place where he was hatcliecl, 
while nothing could stop the flight of the agile grasshopper. 

\\'ild animals were extremely trouMesome in pioneer days, skunks, wild 
cats, coyotes, all varieties of "small varmints," as the trappers termerl them, 
kept the farmers busy watching poultry and slieep. 


The live-stock industry has grown to be of the greatest importance 
and one of the most profitable. There are large areas of the public domain 
which afiford pasturage for herds and flocks the greater part of the year. 
Stockmen, however, have to devote more attention to winter feed than they 
ilid twenty years ago when herds and flocks subsisted the year round upon 
the feed afYorded on the range. 

At the second meeting of the X'evada Live Stock Association, at W'in- 
nemucca, March 4, 1887, the 177 members owned 350,000 cattle, 21,000 
horses and 49,000 sheep. Governor Sparks has for many years been in- 
terested in live stock, importing from England and other countries. In 
1900 he purchased the Royal Hereford, Lemester, in Lemester. England, 
wliich had won all royal prizes in the yearling class the season previous. 
Governor Sparks has taken first prizes with his blooded stock all over the 
United States. As early as 1884 Governor Sparks was known as the cat- 
tle king of Nevada. In that year he branded 14.000 calves. In the Cham- 
ber of Commerce at Reno is a case filled with thirty gold and silver medals 
awarded his live stock, and he has several similar cases at his home near 
Reno. In August, 1901, he considered that the asscs.snr had placed too 
low a valuation, $50 on his cows and $70 on his Imlls, and volunt.nrily raised 
it to $100 on his cows and $500 on his bulls. 

In 1884 the cattlemen suffered severe losses, but in 1890 the herds 
were decimated by the thousands, the loss being 95 per cent. The drouth 
of the previous summer had left the cattle in jxjor condition to face the 
cold and blizzards of that winter. In the si)ring the ravines and gorges were 
filled with their dead Ixxlics. In 1896 the firm of Miller Brothers secured 
600,000 cattle for shipment east, showing that the recovery was rajiid. In 
1898, 31,000 cattle were sent to Denver in one shipment. 

In 1903 many Nevada cattle were found infected with "black leg," and 
it was learned that the disease was cimtraclcd from California cattle. Since 
then there has been a running fight between the cattle and sheep men of 
Nevada and those of California, a (|uarantine having been established against 
a portion of California. 

Nevada's alfalfa-fed bed and muUon comm;nid the liighcsl ])rices in 
tlte markets east and west and are considered eipril if n<]l superior to the 


corn-fed meats of the states east of tlie Rocky Mountains. After 50 years 
of support given tO' llocks and lierds, of immense numlicrs, tlie earlier range 
conditions are rapidly ceasing to exist. Winter feeding has to l>e done 
in order to continue the magnificent record as meat and wool producers. 

In 1902 a total was reported, with no report from Nye county, of 7,688 
horses and mules; 216,679 cattle; 731,075 sheep; 3,445 goats; and 7,995 
hogs. This shows a decrease of cattle in Churchill, Humboldt and White 
Pine counties and a material increase in Washoe and Lyon counties. It 
is estimated that 175,000 sheep will be herded near Golconda this summer, 
and stockmen admit that the actual number of cattle and sheep in the state 
is greatly in excess of what the assessors rejxjrt. 


Agriculture, owing to the lack of water, has not advanced as rapidly 
as other industries. Nevada's hay is in great demand in the markets of the 
east. As early as July 30, 1885, 275 tons of hay were shipped to J. B. 
Haggin for the use of bis thoroughbreds, and it cost $200 per ton to land it 
in New York. 

Nevada potatoes have won a great reputation. In May, 1891, the first 
carload of potatoes was shipped to Kentucky by Mr. Dangberg, of Carson, 
and was followed by several others, and after all charges were paid Mr. 
Dangberg received a cpiarter of a cent more than he would have received in 
tlie home market. 

In 1 89 1 Nevada received a first prize for wheat, at the New Orleans 
exposition. The same year Truckee ranchers shipped hay to South America 
and the Hawaiian Islands, while Paradise and Humboldt ranchers shipped 
grain to Liverix)ol. 

In 1889, after eight years devoted to sugar beet culture in Nevada, the 
government returns showed Nevada beets to be at the head. They contained 
2.12 per cent sucrose. The largest beets stood 39 inches high. 

In 1903 the wheat crop at Lovelocks a\eraged 67 bushels to the acre, 
ranchers making from 900 acres $35,000 net. 

That improved ranches have increased in value in Nevada is evi- 
denced by the fact that on April 30, 1903, Senator W. A. Clark paid $55,000 
for the Las Vegas ranch, in Lincoln county, while Robert L. Douglas, in 
January, 1904, sold his ranch at the Carson Sink for $100,000 to H. R. 
Kline, of South Dakota. 



The R.mlro.^ds. 

Organization nf First Road and Its Ojjeration — Railroad a Plank in Every 
Political Platform — The $3,000,000 Subsidy — The Competing Line — 
Completion of Central Pacific — Discrimination Against Nevada — Reno 
Pays Freight to San Francisco from East and Local Rate Back Again 
— Virginia and Truckee Road — Nevada Central — Eureka and Pal- 
isade — Early Days of Other Roads in Nevada — Two Roads for To- 
nopah. Carson & Colorado and P>road Gauge from Daggett — Sierra 
\'alley To Be Extended to San Francisco — Reno a Railroad Center — 
The New Shops at FLarriman — New Life for Nevada. 

Nevada is one state in the L'nion of which it can he li'ulhfully said 
that railroads did not "make her." Long before bands of steel connected lier 
with the outside world, hustling, prosperous cities dotted the state: farms 
were under cultivation, vast territories were e.xplored, and mining thrived 
apace. Stages and freight wagons coming and going brought e\ervthing 
necessar\' for the welfare of the citizens and afforded them a means of 
transjiortation. The magnificent products of Nevada's mines reached the 
n.arkets of the world, without a helping hand from any railroad. .Vnd still 
l>eople were not content. The thing they did not h;i\e was the one thing 
longed for ardently. 

A railroad was to he the panacea for ex'cry earthly ill, in Nevada. Pic- 
lures were drawn of the great benefits to be deri\-ed. Nevada wanted her 
Old Man of the Sea and she got him. and, true to histor\-. has never lieen 
able to gel rid of him. A st<iry comes from the mists of 1S31 to the effect 
that at that time (jeneral Lea\'enworth planned a road through Nevada; and 
a year or two later a missionary by the name of \Miitne\- introduced in his 
sermons a plan for a railroad, a go\ernmenl road. In Ihe succeeding vears 
the (|ueslion of railroads was the (|uestion of the hour; politicians used it to 
furlhcr their own ends, and e\ery platform had to have a railroad plank in 
it before it went before the people. Of course, for the sake of argument, 
there had to be two sides to the question, ruid in ibis case it was which was 
the more feasible, a southern or northern route. Then came the and 
effectually settled the cpiestion in favor of the northern route. T. D. Judah. 
who had been engineer for the California ro.'ids, had explored the routes 
and ]>asses and had decided upon the Lake Donner route. In 1860 he went 
Ixifore Congress and showed the practicability of the route and wh_\- it could 
not be l)uilt without government aid. He finally triumphed in 1862. 

Then came the organization of a" company. He finally interested C. P. 
llnnlinglon, Mark llo])k"iiis ;Liid Leland .'>tanf( rd with other wealthy ,-md 


inllucntial nicii. The r.-iilr(ia<I ciiinj)aiiy received from the state th.. $3,000,000 
it asi<e(I for. Tlie constitnlion of the United States forbade the creation of 
a debt save for war purposes, and it was decided that tlie Inn' <'f t'le 
road was a war measure. Tlie idea was to build the road from Sacramento 
to Nevada, there to connect with any road from the cast. The firsi earth 
was tiirown for the construction of the Pacific road on Januarv 8, 1863. at 

Progress was slow, however, and Congress allowed the issuance of 
first-mortgage bonds by the compan_\-, equaling the amount of the national 
guarantee. As the work progressed the company began to undcrstaml the 
great scoi>e of the work, and where they bad doubted the ability to biu'ld 
e\'en to Nevada, the right was secured from Congress to extend the road 
to meet the Union Pacific coming from the east. The members of the com- 
pany found that every mile of road gave them not only land but much coin 
as well. In October, 1863, T. D. Judah, the great engineer, died \erv sud- 
denly while in New York on business for the company. 

The first charter gave the company right to build only to the state line 
of California, 1>ut when they sought to extend the line through Nevada, the 
very first legislature gave them the right of way, Leiand Stanford being 
president of the company. At the same session the legislature gave franchises 
to the Esmeralda and Walker to nur from Aurora to Walker river, the \'ir- 
ginia and Washoe to run from Gold Hill to Washoe city, the Virginia, 
Carson and Truckee, to run from Virginia City to the Truckee river by way 
of Carson ; the latter road was given the right to extend to the California line, 
and to build a branch. to Dayton. Not one of the three railroads were built 
under the franchises granted at this session. But the Central Pacific took 
every advantage under the franchise gi\en them. 

In December, 1863, a clause was introduced in the Constitution, per- 
mitting tlie legislature to give any company connecting Nevada by a railroad, 
with navigable waters, $3,000,000 in bonds. The people were wise enough to 
overwhelmingly defeat the Constitution. An efYort was made to insert a 
similar clause in the Constitution in 1864. in order to urge the railroads to 
the state line. It was finally made a part of Article VIII, Section 9, giving 
aid to the road after it reached the territory and then only to the first road 
so doing. Leiand Stanford appeared liefore the con\ention, under a suspen- 
sion of the rules, and objected strongly to the clause, aiid ileclared the com- 
l>any would rather "be left alone than that the state shall grant assistance 
to the Hist road that comes to the state." By a unanimous vote the clause 
was stricken out. 

In December the legislature p;issed a resolution which was forwarded to 
Washington, as follows : 


"Resolved, by tlie Asseniljly. tlie Senate concurring, tliat our Senators 
be and hereby are instructed, and our Representatives in Congress requested, 
to use their utmost endeavors to secure the passing of a law by Congress, 
fixing the sum of $10,000,000 in U. S. bonds, at dates of thirty years or 
less, to such corporation as shall first complete a line of railwa}-, and estab- 
lish the same in perfect running order, without break or interval of stage 
transportation, between the navigable waters of the Sacramento River and 
the base of the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevadas." 

At this time the Central Pacific had a possible rival in the San Francisco 
& \\'ashoe, running from Freeport to Latrobe, and wliich had surveyed a 
line from Placerville to Nevada by way of Carson Valley. The estimated 
cost of the road was $7,015,568, or $76,256 per mile, a total cost to connect 
the road with Carson City, the capital, of $8,726,568, to navigable waters. 
The only eft'ect the resolution had was to force the Central Pacific to use 
its influence at Washington to jirevent it becoming a law, which it \ery 
promptly did. 

Engineer Judah had estimated that it would cost the Central Pacific 
$12,000,000 to reach the summit of the mountains; Stanford calculated it 
would cost $13,000,000 to make connection between the state line, eleven 
miles west of where Reno is now located, and the navigable waters of the 
Sacramento. This ga\e the competing line an advantage of $5,000,000 over 
the Central Pacific at that time, but as since ascertained $9,000,000, on 
which sum the people of Nevada have been compelled to contribute toward 
pajing dixidends e\er since, a needless expenditure. 


December 13, 1867, the first locomotive ran into Nevada, and on May 
4, 1868, the track and telegraph were completed to Reno. The 19th of 
June the last rail was laid between Sacramento and Reno, and on the 13th 
of May, 1869, the two oceans were united at last. lUil the people of Nevada 
found that their joy was not to be unmixed, for from the first a system of 
freight and passenger tariffs worked harm to Nc\ada. They were low 
enough to cut out competition from freight teams and stages, for freight 
the railr<iad had to ha\e; but things were so managed tli.nt manufactories 
were practically impossible. 

'J"he peoijlc rebelled, and in 1874 the Kepublicaii con\ention introduced 
a plank in their platform demanding that the national Congress and the 
Nevada legislature pass laws establishing fares and rates at a reasonable 
figure; also laws ])rohil)iting discrimination in charges and comi)elling the 
railroads to pay a fair and equal amount of taxes on all property owned by 


tlieni in the state. Tliis accnniplishcd iintliini; ami matters rested i|nietly for 
some time. 

Nevada seemed lieli)less in the i^rasp of the Central Paeific. I ler mer- 
chants paid through rates from ocean to ocean, and from $200 to $50(j per 
carload for the privilege of paying freight, h'or instance, if an I'.lko mer- 
chant asked to have a carload of merchandise left there as the train ])assed 
tlirough en route to San Francisco they would charge $500 more than if 
the car was taken the 619 miles to .San l*"rancisco and return. When W'ashoe 
county compelled the Central Pacific to ])ay $45,000 ta.xes, freight was 
doubled, and the people paid $2,500,000 for that $45,000. When people 
agitated the question of cheaper rates the road immediately threatened to 
impose greater exactions. 

Nevada's rich and rebellious ores could not be sent over the road to 
where they could be reduced with chea]i fuel. Limestone was a necessity, 
and when a cpiarry was opened ten miles from Virginia City the rejoicing 
was great, for California lime was not needed. The railroad at once put the 
rate on limestone so low that California lime was sold cheaper than the 
Nevada product. The result was the quarry closed down, the men were 
thrown out of employment; and in no time the railroad put the price (jf lime 
back to where it was formerly. 

In 1865 a law was passed requiring all railroads wholly or in part within 
Nevada to report each year to the Secretary of State the amount of cash 
expended in ])urchasing land, for the construction of roads, the cost of such 
construction, cost of buildings, engines and cars used in the state. The 
roads paid no attention to this until 1878, when the law was amended 
fixing the penalty for non-comi)liance with the law at $500 per day. Even the 
Central Pacific refused to comply. The claim was made that it was im- 
possible as they had no data to give the facts. The attempt to raise the \'alu- 
ation of any of the road's property met with extensive litigation. 

On April 5, 1885, the Central Pacific Railroad and all its iiranches 
north of Go.shen were leased to the Southern Pacific for a period of 99 
years, including all the Central Pacific's leased roads in California. The 
minimum rental was to be $1,200,000, and from that as much more as 
the surplus earnings justified, up to $3,600,000. On September 5th the 
Central Pacific began to advertise its grazing lands, ofifering to lease or sell 
them on easy terms; 4,000,000 acres (28 ranges) were thus advertised. 


Total value of main track. $6,900,150; total value of side track. $668,- 
110; total value of telegraph, $23,818; value of rolling stock, $1,286,665; 
value of other property, $226,090; number of acres of land, 3,050,609, valued 


at $1,347,679: a grand total of $10,452,512. On this there was a tax for 
state purposes of $78,393.84, and for county purposes of $107,041.37; a grand 
total ta.x of $185,435.21. 


While the lirst franchise for this road was never operative save in 
theory, the successor to it came into being under a special law approved 
December 20. 1862; the general direction of the main line was so changed 
that it would pass through Carson City. It had to be completed under 
four years or forfeit the franchise. This road also existed only on i>aper. 
But before the charter expired a new company was organized to build a 
narrow gauge road over the route: a special act of incorporation was ap- 
pro\x'd by the governor, No\eml)er 2. 1865. This also failed to materialize. 
May 8, 1867, papers were filed by Williams Sharon proposing to build a 
railroad from Gold Hill to a point on the Truckee river six miles east of the 
Stone and Gates crossing. The road was surveyed and that was as far as 
it went. 

It had the effect of frightening the people of Eagle and Washoe val- 
le\s, as the route would Iea\e them out. The proposition was made by 
the officers of the proposed road, that if the people of Ormsby county would 
take $200,000 of the company stock at $1 per share and the Washoe county 
people the same the route would be changed to include them. The com- 
missioners of these counties signed articles of agreement, but it was found 
necessary to jjetition the legislature to pass an enabling act. Incorporation 
paj^ers for the road were duly filed, and on June 20th the completion of the 
survey of the road was announced. Later it developed that the road was 
not to be built as agreed. The people would have to put up more money. 
In the cufl the pco])Ie were infoinied that if Ormsby county would donate 
$200,000, Sharon would build a road from Virginia City to Carson City. 
The legislature passed bills authorizing the issuance of bonds for $200,000 
in Ormsby and $300,000 in Storey county. 

(iround was broken on I'ebruary 18. 1869, and the first passenger 
coach went o\er the road November 29, 1869. On the 7th of November 
of the following year the road was comi)lcted to Stcrunboat Springs, from 
Reno, and in .\ugust. 1872, the road between Carsoii and Virgini;i was com- 
]>lcted. In 1872 the company commenced the construction of the car and 
machine sho])S at Carson City. The .same month the telegraph line from 
Reno to Virginia City was finished. It cost the comi)any $52,107 per mile 
for construction. The total \alue of its assets on completion was $3,379,500, 
rf)lling stock included. The road reported in 1880 that the net earnings for 
the year were $4,856,042.25. In 1869, when the assessor placed the railroad 


assessment at $_'<), odo per mile. (Hie halt ni what the eiim])aii_\- had asserted 
it should he when they were induein^ the people to gi\-e them assistanee, 
Ormsby county, $200,000, Store)- county $300,000, and the Comstock com- 
panies $387,383.53, — -there was instant remonstrance on the ]iarl of tlie 
company. 'Jdie assessor reduced it to $14,000: later the county commis- 
sioners reduced it to $11,333 P*^'' 'ti''c. in 1879 11. 11. Hence was assessor 
of Ormsby county, and he visited the assessors of Storey, Lyon and Washoe 
counties and urged them to raise the assessment. This was done, the raise 
being $500,496. The ne.xt year it droi)|)ed to $195,027. for Mr. Bencc was 
not elected, the railroad bringing" all its influence to hear to pre\ent it. In 1880 
the road reported amount of capital stock, $6,000,000; net traffic earnings, 
$449,746.94; total amount expended constructions, rolling stock, etc., $4,- 
856,042.25: amount of indebtedness, $992,600.08. 

For years the roail made immense amounts of money and in return gave 
as little as possible to the people. It. in company with everything con- 
nected with Virginia City or the state, suffered considerably when silver was 
demonetized. With the rich discoveries in Tonopah and (inldlield there has 
been an immense rush of business for the road, for e\ery thing has to go 
by that road to Mound City. 

For the year ending December, 1904. the road made the following state- 
ment as to its valuation : Total of property in Lyon, Ormsby, Storey and 
Washoe counties, $663,109: average value of all property, per mile of main 
track. $12,040.75: tax for .state purposes, $4,973.31 ; tax for county purposes, 
.$7,715.52; total tax, $12,688.83. 


Lander county in 1874 was without a railroad, and the .slow freight 
facilities were very exfjensive. It seemed only a cjuestion of time when its 
residents would have to leave it in order to live. M. J. Farrell, of .\ustin. 
foreseeing this, commenced agitating the railroad question, in the press and 
at meetings called for the ])urpose. A bill was drawn u\i. to be pre.sented to 
the legislature, granting a franchise and ,$200,000 to anyone who would 
build a road. Mr. Farrell was elected to the state senate, and after hard 
work got the liill passed. Clovernor Br.idley, who was bitterly o])posed to 
railroad subsidies, vetoed it, but Mr, Farrell got it passed again over the 
veto. Farrell went to California and consulted with Stanford, for he in- 
tended the road to meet at Battle Mountain, with the Central Pacific. He 
commenced studying narrow gauges: then he took charge of the petition 
made necessary by the bill, and brought it through in triumph. Other citi- 
zens gave it up. and it was laughed at as "Farrell's Folly." From 1875 to 
1879 he wrote volumes on it, corresponding with hundreds of people. 


He called a meeting detailing the information he liad received; he tlien 
proposed a suhscription to pay for surveying' the route. Ready response 
was made and a survey was made with maps and specifications as to cost. 
He sulmiitted these to se\era] parties and finally Colonel Lyman B. Bridges, 
of Chicago, came out and formed a company, Nevada and New "N'ork men 
being the organizers. Work was commenced at once, and on Feljruary 9, 
1880, "Farrell's Folly" was a tangible thing, for the road was completed. 
It is a three-foot gauge, the steepest grade 115 feet to the mile. At one 
place there is 25 miles of continuous air line, at another 27 continuous miles 
of air line. The road when completed was nearly 95 miles in length. The 
intention at the time was to extend the road to Grantsvilie, the extension to 
be the "Nevada Southern Road" and eventually to connect with the Califor- 
nia Central road. 

It cost $944,590.58 to construct. Lander county paying the $620,000. 
The profits the first year were a little over $2,000. Their report for 1903 
shows that the valuation of their property is as follows: Total value of 
main track, $146,940.00: total \alue of side track, $1,000: total value of 
rolling stock, $15,475.00: number of acres. $92.00; value of other property, 
$3,950.00; total, $167,388.00. 


Tlie Eureka and Palisade road was constructed to run between the two 
ti)\vns from which it derived its name. The company was organized on No- 
vember 19, 1873, by E. Woodruff, W. H. Ennor, M. Salisbury, J. T. Gilmer. 
J. R. Witliington and C. H. Hempstead. The capital stock was $r,ooo,ooo, 
but was (l(nibled in September, 1876. The road was not built by them, but in 
1874 the franchise was secured by William Sharon and others and the road 
was constructed at a cost of $1,355,346.78: right of way. equipment and 
other expenditures l)rought the total up to ,$1,556,616.73. 

The company purchased the Ruby Hill road in 1875, paying $75,000, 
and $75,000 was .spent in building six and one-half miles of branches. The 
com|)any's shops at Palisade were erected at once. 

In 1880 the capital stock was $,fx)o.oo ; ca])ital paid up, $1,090,- 
375.00; amount of indebtedness (outstanding bonds) $928,289.52: amou.nt 
due the company, $388,297.79; total profits for 1880, $248,232.94. In 1904 
the total value of the main track was $159,600.00, and of the side track, 
$2,500.00; the rolling stock was valued at $16,040.00; value of other property, 
$'f>/^55'Oo; total value of land, $4,575.00: total value, $199,370.00. The 
tax for .state purposes was $5,133.08 and for county, $14,070.89; total tax, 







On May lo, iS8o, a company was formed In huild a road fr(jm llic 
Mound HfJiise to Candelaria, to supply the freight and passeny;cr transporta- 
tion to and from tlic mines of the soutliwcst. Work started at the Munnd 
House and tlie road was com])lcted as far as Hawthorne, a (Hstance of one 
hundred miles on April i8, 1881. The road is a three-foot narrow gauge, 
steel rails and redwood lies, and was well ecpiipped from the start. On 
May 31, 1881, the capital stock was $r),ooo,ooo. 

In 1904 the total value of main track was $360,750.00 and of the side 
track. $11,350.00; value of rolling stock, $26,557.58 and of other property, 
$8,635.00: total value of land was $152.00, and the total values, $649,199.58. 
The state tax was .$4,869.00 and county, $12,603.65: total, $17,472.00. 


In 1880 a numlicr of roads were planned and incorporation pajjcrs filed. 
The Nevada Northern was to run from Battle Mountain to the Idaho line 
and connect with the Nevada Central railroad. The capital stock ])aid in was 
$150,000. The Eureka and Colorado was Iniill from Eureka to the Colorado 
river and was an extension of the Eureka and Palisade. It was commenced 
in i88r. Arrangements were made also to huild a road from Ouincy. Cali- 
fornia, to Reno, Nevada, in 18S1. It was tf) he called the Reno and Ouincy. 
The Humboldt and Colorado road was ])rojected in 1868 in .Vustin, the road 
to run from the Humboldt river to the Colorado. It was fully organized 
and incorporated, but the project finally collapsed. The Eastern Nevada 
Railroad was incorporated in 1871. and White Pine county granted a subsidy 
of $250,000, but the road was never constructed. The Nevada Southern was 
to extend the line of the Nevada Central road from Ledlie Station to Clover- 
dale. It is a three-foot gauge: the company was formed on I-'ebruary 25. 
1880. The capital stock paid in was $80,000 in 1880. The Salt Lake and 
Western company was organized in June, 1881, and the papers of incorpora- 
tion duly filed. The project was the outgrowth of trouble between the Union 
I'acific and the Central Pacific. The Pioche and Buillionville road was 
commenced in the summer of 1872 and completed in b'ehruary of the next 
year. The road was a failure and was abandoned practically when th.e mines 
at Pioche gave out. The Lake Tahoe narrow-gauge was built in 1875. by 
H. M. Yerrington and D. L. Bliss, to freight luml)er and w-ood from Lake 
Tahoe to the summit of the Sierras. It cost $30,000 per mile to constnict 
and was a paying institution from the start. The Nevada and Oregon was 
chartered to run from .\urora. via Bodie, California, Carson City and Reno, 
etc., to Oregon Line. The company was organized in June, 1880. The 
bonded tlebt was $10,000 per mile. 



In addition tn the roads £!;i\en. tlic following Xevada roails filed a state- 
ment with the State Controller, Jannarv i, i(;o4. The (ilasgow and Western 
of Humboldt county had a total \alue of luain track of $10,000.00 and of 
side track, none; the value nf its rolling stock was $2,200.00, and tliere were 
no land or other values. The Nevada, California and Oregon, of Washoe 
county, had a total \alue of main track of $73,160.00 and of side track, 
$2,040.00: the rolling stock was valued at $4,680.00 and other property at 
$14,360.00, a total of $94,240.00. The Verdi Lumber Company of Wash- 
ington constructed se\eral .vears ago a road to carrv lumber of the great 
lumber camp of \'erdi. Tlie luain track is sumclhing over two miles in 
length and the side tracks less than half that length. The total \alue of the 
main track is $6,000.00 and of the side tracks, $1,500.00. The rolling stock 
is valued at $4,830.00, and other i)ro])erty at $600.00, a total of $12,930.00. 
The San Pedro, Los Angeles and .Salt Lake road of Lincoln county ranks 
ne.xt to the Eureka and Palisade in value and amount of business. The total 
value of main track is $182,160.00 and of the side track, $4,425.00: its roll- 
ing stock is placed at $4,048.00, and other property, $5,025.00, while its land 
is placed at $1,625.00, a total of $198,283.00. 

The Xevada railroads pay for state purposes, all told, on total valuation 
of all railroad properties in the state, $93,369.23: for county inirposes they 
pay a total tax on total valuation of all railroad jiroperty, $146,564.51; total 
ta.\. $239,933.74. The total \aInation of all riiilroad jjroperty in Xewida is 

The Quartette Railroad of Lincoln county, and the Pioche and I'acific 
Transportation filed no report, the valuation being left to the assessors of each 
county to fix. The former is a sixteen-mile narrow-gauge, and the latter 
carries ores from Jackrabbit. 


In the state of Xevada it has always been apparent that there was an 
antagonistic feeling between the i)cople and the railroads, the aftermath of 
the unjust treatment of the peo])le by the Central Pacific. .And each road as 
it was built seemed to try t'l pl.ace itself on a similar footing. bX-erj' efifort 
has been made to evade ta.xation. In 1887 the legislature passed an act re- 
quiring the .Surveyor Cicneral of (he state to make an accurate survey of all 
railroads from boundary line to boundary line: $2,500 was taken from the 
General l'"nn<l for the ])nrpose. And then when it was linisbed Ihimbolilt 
county was deprived of 2 miles of Central Pacific road and a strip of territory 
north rif the railroad to the lilko line. Humboldt county sued Lander, and 


the court so ruled tliat e\fiilii,illy llic state lust t'mir miles ot' r.'iilruad. assessed 
at $45,000 per year. 

In 1897 tlie people of Stoi-cy cnuiit)' won a suit ■•.gainst the Virginia 
and Truckee road fur $7,298.73, which the road had to be forced to ]xiy. 
Almost every road has been sued for ta.xes and forced to pay the full sum 
and costs, as a rule. On the other hand the roads have just as often forced 
a reduction of taxes. 

In 1900 the Carson and Colorado was purchased by the Southern Pacific 
on March ist. The Virginia and 'i'ruckcc was negotiated for then and the 
deal is still hanging fire. 

On February 5, 1900, the California and Northern Railroad liled incor- 
poration papers. The plan was to build a broad gauge 90 miles in length, 
from Eureka, Humlxildt count\\ to Crescent City, Del Norte county, Cali- 

In April, 1902, the Virginia and Truckee road made an elaborate sur\ey 
for a road to southern points, going out through Carson Valley. 

In 1903, July 2. the railroad west of Osino, Elko county, comi)letcd a 
3,000 foot tunnel in the mountains. 

In 1903 a proposition was being considered to move the Mound House 
freight sheds to Carson and transfer all C. and C. freight. Since the Tonopah 
discoveries the C. and C. has l)een doing a tremendous amount of business. 
This is the road of which Arthur McEwen once said, after completing a trip 
over it, that it started from nowhere and ended in the same place. 

Another matter under discussion is the terminal of the C. and C. ; rail- 
road officials have gone over the road to determine whether to establish a 
terminal where the new Rhodes-Tonopah road will meet the C. & C. If it 
is not established it will be because of lack of water, and early in 7904 the 
country was being thoroughly prospected with a view to establishing adequate 
water facilities. 

On the Tonopah road things are moving rapidly. Grading cainps are 
established along the line of the road: several car loads of material were on 
the ground early in 1904. Track laying is proceeding as fast as the road bed 
can be made. 

The first of the year the State Board of Assessors raised the assessment 
on all roads: the Southern Pacific recei\ed the highest rating. The main 
line was assessed at $15,500 per mile and the side tracks at $5,500 per mile. 
The others were raised in proportion. The Southern Pacific has inaugurated 
the automatic block system from Truckee to Reno, at a cost of $1,000 per 
mile. In 1903 184 miles had been equipped and the entire line will be 
changed as fast as possible. 

Great interest is centered on the new transcontinental road, the Western 


Pacific. Its authorized Ixjiid issue of $50,000,000 has liceu finauced ruid tlie 
nioi'tgage fecc^rded in e\erv county in C ahfurnia, Xe\ada and Itali thmugli 
whicli tlie road will pass. It has ami)lc l)acking- and has made immense in- 
\estments in rights of way, terminals and other expensive matters, preliminary 
to con&truction. .\t great ex])ense six artesian wells ha\e heen hored in Utah 
and Nevada, antl enough others will lie hured so as to have one every twenty 
miles or less, apart, and will supply first the construction gangs and then 
the engine tanks. The southern arm of Salt Lake will he l)ridged, saving 
many miles of distance antl a numher of hours. It has heen so surveved as 
to take in the new town of Harriman. The line passes alx)ut 15 miles north 
of the Humboldt House and last Deceml^er several car loads of pipe to lie 
used in sinking wells were unloaded at the Humboldt House. The o1)jective 
p(jint from there is the famous Beckwith Pass, 35 miles from Reno and which 
is conceded to be the only natural pass over the Sierras. Nevada people are 
lioping much from the advent of this new road 


While in tlie past no denunciation of the unjust railroad discrimination Nevada could be too severe, yet in the past two years, 1902-03. many 
alntses ha\'e been greatl}- modified; a little licttcr spirit toward Nevada antl h<;r 
people has been manifested Ijv the present management. Centralization is 
the point now in railroad circles. Rumors of great changes in Nex'ada com- 
menced to circulate more persistently than e\-er in 1903. The straightening 
out of tlie road of the Central Pacific in 1902 was thought to lie just a pre- 
liminary to some great cliange. By the straightening out, which cost o\-er 
$2,000,000, the road was shortened by six miles, but the surveys showed that 
sooner or later Wadsworth would be cut off the main line and the railroad 
shops would be removed — somewhere, and the heavy grade to the Sierras 
commenced at Reno. The motive jjower should be changed there, where t!ie 
grade for switching was jierfcct. .\nd early in i<;()3 it dexelojied that Reno 
was to be tlie |)oint of centralization; that the new works would be located on 
Marlin ranch east of Reno; the filling in commenced in May, 1903, and .soon 
a town sprang up like magic: on October 13, 1903, Mr. Harriman directed 
that patents be obtained for all Central Pacific unpatented lands in Nevada, 
and there were 2,500,000 acres. 

There was some comiietition over the nann'ng of the new railroad town, 
for Reno people thought it should be called luist Keno. On September 11, 
1903, it was settled by a postoffice being instituted mulcr the name of Harri- 
man. Reno was ahea<ly doing a business oi $2,000,000 per aniuim, competi- 
tion being keen in all but railway trafiic. And since the induction of the 
new town, liusiness has heen greatly augmented. I kit Reno's suffering in 


not being a terminal jioint it was lioped would soon be over witb. Even in 
ic)04 mercbants bad to pay tbe freigbt on mercbandise from tbe- east to San 
Francisco and tben tbe local freigbt liack from San Francisco. If tbe mer- 
cbrnit desires a carlnad nf g()f)ds in a burry and wants it detacbcd at Reno 
be bas to pay tbe full rate clnwn and back, and often (|uite a sum in addition. 
Reno was already a railroad center, tbe Central Racific, first of course, and 
tbe Nevada-California-Oregon, running norlb nearly tn Oregon, tbe Vir- 
ginia & Truckee, running tn A'irginia City and connecting witb tbe Carson 
& Colorado, wbicb in a \'ery sbort time will lie connected directly witb tbe 
Tonopab mines and .\rizona, and tbe Sierra Valley, wbicb is being extended 
to San Francisco \'ia Beckwitb l\ass and Featber Ri\cr, all baving ternn'nals 
in Reno. 

Tbe official time for tbe removal of tbe sbops from W'adswortb to Har- 
riman bas been fixed for August t. 1904. Tt is tbougbt tbe new sbops v>ili 
be practicalh' comjileted at tbat time: at tbe same date tbe di\-ision point will 
lie cbanged froui W'inuemucca to Humboldt, jirmidcd tbat a sutTicicnt water 
snpplv can lie found in tbe latter jilace. 

In Harrimau an arm\' of workmen are emjiloyed. First of all tbe ya.rd 
site was filled in, a solid foundation of clay and gravel being used, wbile tbe 
old river wasb was used for tbe fill. Nearly 1,000 men were kept busy and 
gravel trains came and went e\ery moment of tbe day and often at nigbt. 
Immediately after tbe grading tbe building of tbe sbops commenced, and tbe 
laying of tbe jS miles of track in tbe yards. Tbe sbops are on tbe regidar 
S. P., C. P. and U. P. system, and tbe round bouse is only second to the 
largest in tbe world. It is a quarter of a mile around. It will contain 44 
stalls and measures 1340 feet around. It is apple sbaped, and tbe cur\-ature 
is 315 degrees. Tbe stalls will accommodate 88 engines. It exceeds tbe 
capacity of tbe Los Angeles roundbouse liy 7 stalls. Tbe turntable is larger 
liy TO feet tban any turntable on tbe system. Tbe transfer table upon wbicb 
engines designed for repair ,are conveyed to tbe repair sbops is tbe best and 
largest skill can design. 

Tbe repair sbops proper exceed by two stalls tbose at Sacramento. The 
car shops are all feet long and 150 feet wide: tbat is a sixth of a mile 
long: there are over a dozen of these: tbe machine shop was erected for the 
temporary repair work, first thing: it is of lirick and stone, 465 feet long 
and 185 feet wide. The boiler .shop is of similar size. Tbe steel water tank 
wbicb will he used to sn]>ply tbe engines lea\ing aiul entering tbe roundhouse 
holds 50,000 gallons. It is of steel, built on a solid cement foundation. Elec- 
tric power will be used to convey the ponderous machinery from one depart- 
ment to another, as necessity arises. 

The plant covers over 200 acres of ground and there are ^J long side 


tracks. The company has donated to the men who have tlieir homes in Wads- 
worth, a lot for a home, and all the houses which can be transferred from 
W^adsworth will be transported by the company. When asked how many 
men will be employed, answers are vague, but it is certain from 1,500 to 
2,000 will have to be employed from the start, in the shops ; this is the .skilled 
workmen: four in a family are figured on. though five is the usual number, 
and that will give 8.000 persons for the shops alone. In the division terminal 
there will be. both freight and passenger, about one hundred crews employed, 
which with the general officers, dispatchers and other officers, will make 
alxiut 10,000 inhabitants living on tlie wages paid by the Southern Pacific. 
It is estimated that 7,500 more will come to minister to the needs of the 
railroad people, and that means "a city in a night." The new division ter- 
minal will change the map of Nevada in the vicinity of Reno, and elsewhere. 
It is true Wadsworth and \\'innemucca will he the sufferers, but it is a case 
of the greatest good to the greatest number. 

When the terminals of all the roads are established, every railroad in 
Nevada will converge at Reno and Ilarriman. (The town has since Ijeen 
called Sparks, after Governor Sparks.) And these will tap the great farming 
and mining legions. readiing even into California and Oregon. 

On January i, 1904, there were over 1,200 inhabitants in Harrinian. 
A small army of mechanics were kept busy erecting structures for homes 
and stores. Graded streets soon took the place of the alfalfa and meadow 
lands of the Marlin ranch. The franchise for an electric road between Har- 
rinian and Reno was immediately secured by J. B. 0"Sulli\an. He sold it 
to H. E. Huntington, of Los Angeles, and it is probable that the road will 
be in operation this summer. 


Religion in NKV.\n.\. 

Mormons the Pioneers — Their Peculiar Doctrines — lurst Missionary Work — 
]'>rothers at the Faro Table — California Bible Society — First Episcopal 
Service in Virginia City — Trying to Convert Chinamen — Diocesan 
School for Girls at Keno — Pioneer Church in Nevada — Silver City 
Episcopalians — Pioneer Priest in Genoa — M. E. Church in 1859 — First>'terian Church in 1861 — First Baptist Church in Virginia City 
i85^ — First Congregational Church in Nevada in 1873 — Churches of 
Nevada To-Day. 

Tlie first religion in Nevada was, of course, the peculiar religion known 
as Mormonism, introduced when Nevada was not Nevada, but Carson county, 


Utah territory. Tlie first of tliat sect were ti:e .settlers in Carson valley and 
in Washoe valley, hut they were recalled hy Brigiiam Yoiin<^- when he first 
came in Cdiillict with the I'nited States g-overnnient, in 1<S57. Their ])laces 
were filled hy apostate Mormons, who honght their ahandoncd farms. 

In Clover and Meadow \alley the original settlers were all from Utah, 
ahnut thirty-five families in all. in charge of Samuel Lee. By 1872 
the}' had increased to over se\-enty families, then decreased again until in 
1881 u.hiut the original nuniher were there; of these Bislni]) Luke Syplius was 
in charge, as he was also of the Eagle Valley settlement. 

There are t()-fla\ few Mormons in Ne\-ada, and they do not call them- 
selves Mormons, hut memliers of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter Day Saints. The Murmuns did n^t lung remain pioneers alone in 

Man\' and \aricd are the stories told of the efforts of ministers and 
missionaries to establish good works in Nevada in earl\- times. Some are 
pathetic, Imt they are for the most part humorous in the extreme. Manifold 
were the disappo'intments and discouragements experienced. No results 
or ver\- meagre ones. The shifting pojinlalion, now a hustling town, then 
a deserted cami), together with a total disregard for the Salihath on the part 
of the citizens, whether in camp or city, made a hard combination for the 
ones seeking" to bring spiritual influences to hear. Little progress was made 
at first, and late as 1880, in his eleventh report. Right Reverend O. W. 
W'hitaker, Ejiiscopal Missionary Bishop of Nevada, said among other things: 

* =i= ••■■ "They have been years of almost unremitting labor, much of 
which has been attended with discouragement and apparently meagre results. 

* * * If they could be persuaded to relax their labors for one day of a 
week, a much larger attendance upon Sunday services could be easily secured. 
Whether this will ever lie in this generation is \-ery doubtful. It is certain 
that hut little progress has been made in this direction in the last ten 
years. * * * " 

One can imagine the feelings of a cultivated minister, fresh from his 
university, full of enthusiasm and eager to be .saving souls, when he first 
arrived in some of the mining camps of Nevada. When seeking brothers to 
aid them in organizing the church, they often had to seek them in faro 
rooms, or around the roulette wheel. And some of the sisters were not as 
strong morallv as thev should have been, according to earlier records. 

One thing the early settlers demanded — a funeral service for everyone. 
No bad woman or man was buried without one if there was a minister at 
hand. It must have puzzled a clergyman often to know what to say, with- 
out offending friends or relatives, how to lind some good jxiint to eulogize 
in the deceased, who might perhaps have been shot over a gambling game, 


or for some crime lielped into eternity. Some qneer stories are related anent 
religious services in early times, especially regarding marriages. 

The Rev. John Brown married man}- people while in Elko, and the only 
couple he married in church lived together just twenty-four hours. At 
many marriages and many funerals, shooting would commence outside, or 
some excitement, and the entire crowd, including the bridal cou])le if it was 
a marriage, would melt away. If a funeral the cor])se would often he the onlv 
one left with the minister. 

Yet it is to the pioneer workers tiiat X'e\-ada owes a great debt, for 
truly they blazed a trail for others to walk therein, although few saw any 
great results of their work, while in the field. They were self-denying workers 
in the vineyard of the Lord, and many and great were their sacrifices, both 
of the spirit and the t^esh. Luxury there was not, barely necessities, often a 
shanty for a home and a tent or the open air for a church. Yet "in His 
name" they worked, long and earnestly, founding churches, doing His work 
in pioneering the gospel through dangerous shoals. Everywhere they sought 
not their own welfare but that of the community with which thev h;id cast 
in their lot. 


Early in 1859 Jesse L. Bennett came to work in the cause of Methodism 
in Carson valley, then a part of L'tab territory. Several others had been 
before him in the valley, one being Rev. Tra P. Hale, in 1857. But there is 
no record of his work or any one's, until Mr. Bennett came. He was allowed 
by the conference four hundred dollars per year for the work in Carson 
valley. He preached sometimes in Genoa and Eagle Ranch. Rev. A. L. 
Bataiian came In (lenoa in 1859. organized a society and stayed six months. 
The society dissolved. Mr. Bennett also organized a society in Carson, first 
known as Eagle Ranch. When he left in i860 it also ceased to exist. Many 
members went to other c:imp>. others left for the Presbyterian church and 
onl_\' two members were left. 

Mr. Bennett preached in Virginia Cit\- after the discovery of the Corn- 
stock, the first sermon ever heard there, lie had for a church the street, 
C street, and when finished he passed his, .uul was astonished to find 
it filled with gold and banknotes. se\era1 hundred dollars. It was the gay 
liappy times, the days of gold, the days of old. and everyone was "well 
heeled" with gold as with wca])ons. In September. 1861. Bennett was ap- 
pointed to take charge of the church at Washoe, then next in imixirlance to 
Virginia City. 

In the same month and year Re\ . Samuel B. Rooney was also ap- 
pointed to a Nevada charge l)y the conference. He was sent to take Bennett's 


])lace in Virginia. He was an earnest worker, preaching; any place lie could 
get to speak in, from a tent to a lodging house. He built the very first 
church in Virginia, a tiny wooden frame house, at the corner of 1) and 
Taylor, on which a real church was erected afterwards. It cost ahdut $2,000 
and was built in 1861. fie had fifty-one members of the church and fiftv 
Sunday-school scholars. However, Mr. Roouey did not remain long; in 
186-' he was succeeded by Rev. C. V. .\ntlinny, who, after being there one 
year erected a fine brick church, costing $45,000. .\ parsonage was built 
on a lot adjoining which cost another $2,000. The church was dedicated in 
1864. Mr. Rooney came from Stocktou, Calfornia, and was succeeded by 
Rev. T. S. Dunn. The California Annual Conference, at the same meeting 
Rev. Mr. Rooney was sent to Virginia City, created a new district, the 
Nevada Territory District, Rev. N. E. Peck lieing presiding elder. In 1864 
the General Conference created a di.strict, with an independent conference, 
embracing Nevada and that part of Califdrnia lying east of the western slope 
of the Sierra Nevada. The \e\ada Ci inference held its first annual session 
in September, 1865. 

Mr. Dunn was relie\ed in 1866 by Rev. James E. \Vicks, the church 
having attained a membership of 100, and the same number in the Suntlay- 
school. Mr. Wicks stayed two years, being succeeded by Rev. A. F. Hitch- 
cock; this gentleman fell from grace, in that his relations with one of his fair 
parishioners created a scandal, and he was removed in fifteen months. Rev. 
T. H. McGrath followed him, the same McCirath who years later was sexton 
of the Odd Fellow's cemetery in Virginia Cit\-. 

He had not been ministering in Virginia but a year when a high wiml 
demolished the clnu'ch, taking the roof in, instead of off. and wrecking one 
wall. He was n(it at all discouraged: he went to work with indomitable will, 
and in a month the wreck was cleared awa_\- ready for the rebuilding, when 
a disastrous fire to<5k what was left ; lie then sold the bricks and built a frame 
church, costing in the neighborhood of $8,000. Two years later, on Christ- 
mas eve, another wind visited the church, and doors were blown in and 
windows out. To repair the plastering and other damage cost another $3,000. 
McGrath remained another year, and then was succeeded by Rev. George W. 
Fitch. He stayed two years, and his successor. Rev. C. McKelvey, of Canada, 
had been installed only a few weeks when Virginia City was visited by the 
destructive fire of 1875, and the church building burned with the rest of the 

The old site was used in 1875 to erect a fine frame building, costing 
$20,000: it was named the "Centennial ■Methodist Church" because it was 
dedicated the year of the Centennial celebration. In 1878 Mr. AfcKelvey 
was relieved b\- Re\-. \V. C. Grav. 


The i)€ople of Virginia City were always generous in giving to tlie 


An ill fate was that of the second Methodist Episcopal church. It was 
erected in Dayton, in 1863. J. Kilpatrick, the first minister, did not a 
regular church to officiate in; Rev. J. II. Aladdijx was the first regular min- 
ister sent to Dayton. Kilpatrick heing a local preacher; under Maddox the 
first church, costing $3,000. was erected. Maddox stayed only a year. Rev. 
A. F. Hitchcock succeeding liim. the same gentleman who was removed from 
Virginia City later on. Mr. Flitchcock was succeeded l)v numerous others. 
Rev. Warren Nims, \\'. C. Gra\'. .\. .\". Fisher, but only ten years elapsed 
when it was not necessary to send any ministers, for the town was so run 
down the church had to be abandoned. In 1876 a tramp burned the churdi 
to the ground, in the thirteenth year of its existence. 


As stated before. Rev. J. L. Bennett was the first Metliodist minister 
in Waslioe. He was afterw ards elected justice of the peace of that city. He 
was succeeded in 1862 by Rev. \\'. G. Blakely, one year later and Rev. T. 
H. McGrath replaced him, building a frame church at a cost of $4,500, with 
a neat Httle parsonage. In two years Rev. A. F. Hitchcock took his position 
and also remained tw'O years. Rev. Warren Nims was the last minister, as 
the charge had to be abandoned in 1873. It was finally given to the scliool 
trustees to use as a school house, and it made a good one. 


The Methodists placed their fourth church in fiold Hill, in i8r)5, the 
first minister being Rev. A. F. Hitchcock; it was a frame eilifice and cost 
nearly $5,000. After Mr. Hitchcock came a succession of ministers. Revs. 
A. L. Shaw, L. Case. R. A. Ricker. Colin .Anderson, A. Taylor, George Jen- 
nings, T. S. L'rcn. and George W. h'ilch. V. Rightmycr, one of the ministers, 
literally starved to death. He had a very large family, and a small salary. 
To give his familx' the necessaries of life, he went \\ithout; when he died it 
somewhat shocked the people of his church and the community at large to 
know that while it w^as said i)neumonia was the cause, the doctors .said it 
was inanition, a i)leasanter word than starvation. He was very sensitive, 
retiring and gentle, and nc\er complained, but died in harness, in .\pril, 1873, 
a Christian martyr. If bis wants ha<l been known hundreds of peo])le, irre- 
spective of creeds or dogmas, would have come to his rescue. 1 lis widow 
was given a small ]icnsion by the Nevada Conference. 



All the citizens of Austin agreed tiiat wiien Rev. J. L. Trefren entered 
the ministry, tiie business world lost an able linancier. The first church work 
was done by Rev. C. A. E. Hertel, who was there in 1864-65. Mr. Trefren 
found, when he succeeded him. that the people wanted a church, were will- 
ing to help build and support one, but while there were many rich mining 
claims to be developed, few people had ready cash. Whereupon Mr. Trefren 
did some very hard thinking. He had been offered interests in claims in 
lieu of cash ; he decided to accept all those interests and some way convert all 
into cash. He did so, by pooling the claims and organizing the Methodist 
Mining Company. But how to sell the stock ? 

Back east he went with his stock ; he boomed it according to his best 
ideas, and how the brethren did buy that Nevada mining stock; he secured 
over $250,000 and returned in triumph. He built the finest brick church in 
the state of Nevada, next to the Roman Catholic church in Virginia City. 
A brick parsonage was also added and a magnificent organ. This cost i>\er 
$35,000 and then became apparent a nu'stake Trefren had made in selling his 
stock on installments. The boom collapsed, and there was $6,000 due on the 
church. The county bought it for a court house, but the Church Extension 
Society of the Methodist Episcopal church redeemed it, paying the debt. 
Trefren was a disappointed man, and in 1868 he retjuested to be transferred 
to the California Conference. This was done. He was followed by Revs. 
W. A. Cheney, Warren Nims, John D. Hammond and W. C. Gray. Mr. 
Gray was followed by Rev. C. W. Crall, who resigned in 1881. The fifth 
church was the finest one built. 

C\RS0N CHURCH IN 1 867. 

A sixth church was established by the Methodists in Carson City in 1867. 
Rev. Jesse L. Bennett, the pioneer minister, had for eight years been look- 
ing after the spiritual needs of the city, but he had no church to discourse in. 
Really Carson City was where the Methodists first commenced their work, 
but they were poor, and the church was built by subscription. Rev. G. 
Blakely was pastor in charge of the station and at the Quarterly Conference 
meeting", on November 4, 1861, an effort was made to raise funds. In at- 
tendance were such men as Governor J. W. Nye, and $500 was raised. The 
first trustees were: William P. Harrington, Hugh \'. Hudson, Judge Tur- 
ner, Dr. H. H. Herrick, W. D. Chillson and Mr. McLane. A year after 
Rev. T. H. McGrath reported that he had four church members, including 
his wife, two other women and one man. Soon a Sunday school was or- 
ganized, and that did much better, six officers and thirty pupils. Rev. War- 
ren Nims was in charge of the station in 1863 and in a year had a parsonage 


costing $800. In Deceml)er of tlie next year Governor Blasdel and R. L. 
Higgins were chosen as trustees: a l^Iock of land costing $1,000 was purchased 
for a churcli site. And to this day it is remembered how hard Mr. Nims 
worked to build that stone church, hauling stone, raising money, encouraged 
by everyone, and he himself hauled all the stnne in a lumber wagon, usually 
drawn by mules. By June, 1866, $5,000 had been spent and the Iniilding was 
not complete. In November, Rev. J. W'. Stump succeeded Nims, and the Iniild- 
ing slowlv struggled on. .\ marked increase in membership and enthusiasm 
was noticed in 1867, when I\e\'. .\. V>. Karle. an evangelist of the Baptist 
ciuu'ch, arrived. Untler this imjietus the church, costing $io,noo was dedi- 
cated by Bishop Tbompsun, in 1867, September 8. 

But next year and succeeding years (he membership fell off. Kew J. T). 
Hammond succeeded ]\!r. Stump: (luxernor I'lasdel, in i8r)(). ])aid oft the 
church debt of $1,500. Rev. .\. X. i-'isber succeeded Hammond in 187 1, the 
ministry not Ijeing a success under Mr. Hammond, ^[r. Fisher stayed three 
years. The church was renovated in May, 1874. Then came Rev. .\. 11. 
Tevis, and there was constant friction, he and his flock falling far apart. 
The Rev. J. D. Hammond came back in 1876, and liis attempt to heal wounds 
was not successful. He left in 1878 and i)reached occasionally that winter. 
Rev. J. T. Ladd came from Chicago in 1871J and stayed until fall, when Rev. 
E. C. Willis came to take charge. 

O'IMIER iMirniODlST c 11 r lU' 1 1 E.S. 

When Hamilton \\;is bo<imiiig, Rew T. H. McCrath, so often mentioned 
in this cliajjler, was the only preacher in the camp, in 1868. Re\'. \\ . j. 
White and Re\-. W. C. Gray came after Mr. McClratb, and a hall used b\- the 
mining brokers was the cliiirch. The charge was soon abandoned. 

In Winncnnuca the first preacher was Rev. 1.. F\\ ing, a reformed gambler 
who, after being comerted, studied for the ministry. He was considered 
an able man. Mr. Ewing and his successor. Rev. T. S. I'ren, jireaclied in 
the school house. When (leorge \'>. Ilinkle came he built ;i church costing 
$4,000, and when I^cv. W. Carver followed him he Iniilt a parsonage, costirg 
$800. Rev. (ieorge W. Fitch and Rev. V. M. W.arrington were the two 
next, and Rev. John 15. Willis todk charge in 1881. 

In L'nioiuille a wooden clunch \\a> built in 1872, Rev. L. lowing acting 
there as well as in \Vinnemiicca. John C. h.ill, in Virginia, had given largely 
to the fund for tlie first brick church, and in Cniomille he ofifered to gi\-e 
$1 for every $1 given by others to licl]) build the church. So Mr. I'\-ill ])ai(l 
lialf the cost, $2,800. Before L^nionville went down to decay Ewing was 
followed by Rc\'S. .'\. P. White, Colin .\nderson. ( icorge Jennings and John 
\V. W. I'endelton, before it was abandoned. 



In iSri_:> rclii^iiius scr\ ii'cs wcro lield liy llic Mi-tlidilists in Kciio. Revs. 
(;. M. Ilinklc and I'". M. Willis ])rcacliini;-, Iml in Washoe Valley there was 
no re,^-nlar service nntil iveno eMninience<l .<;ii iw ini;-. Services were then held 
for se\eral }ears in a schiiollKnisi'. Rex. .\. R. Richer, in iS/o, cdnmicnced 
hnihh'ng- a chnrch which was dedicated nn July 30th of the next year. It 
Cdst ahnut $4,000. l\e\. ,\. J. Wells came out from l<"nrt Wayne. Indiana, in 
1873. and soiin had a parsonaiLje on West street, lie remained mdy a year 
and then was succeeded hy Rev. Mr. Arnold. In a vear came Rev. Ci. W. 
Fitch; he was followed in a year hy Rev. Thomas S. Uren, and when a year 
elapsed he followed the e.xamjile of the others, and his succe.s.sor was Rev. 
W. C. Gray, in 1877. 

Rev. C. Mclselvey came to Reno in 1878. lie found the chnrch in neei! 
of repairs, and much i)erseveriug' effort resulted in raising $1,000, the society 
being small. This was exixiided in papering, painting and refitting, even 
carpeting the church. An addition was also huilt on for the use of the choir 
and the lot fenced. 'Jdie huilding did not hum in the great fire of 1879. Mr. 
McKelvey, when ]:)astor as stated in Virginia City, lost his lihrarx- in the 
second fire, and all his ])ersonal effects. 

Eureka's first three ministers. Re\s. Arnold. L. Case and |o]iii | )c La 
Matyr, preached in the court house. Rev. John Gray built a church and a 
parsonage in 1875 which cost over $4,000, and both were burned in the 
first fire in 1879. Rev. R. A. Richer partially rebuilt it, hut in the second 
fire of 1880 it was liurned to the ground. 

In September of that same year Rev. J. T. Ladd took charge, and he 
succeeded in building a church costing $2,000. He assumed the debt of 
$250 and the church started free of debt, the third one built in two years. 

Ruljy Hill stands unique in church annals because its first church was 
built without anv pastor being concerned in il. The Methodists of that city 
bm'lt it, and paid for it in 1876, anil Re\. R. .\. Richer was assigned to it first, 
in September. 1880. 

Tuscarora did not have any minister until in the eighties, and then 
when Re\'. T. W. Pendleton arrived he could not be paid a salary; but that 
did not deter him in the good work, for he went into the mines and worked 
on week days and preached on Sundays. He was given a ])arsonage to live 
in, which cost v$5oo. 

Pine Grove and Mason's Valley are one charge, and the first minister 
was Rev. R. Carberrv, in 1866. • Re\-. Orn came next and then Rev. Thomas 
Bartlett. ]\lr. Bartlett started a church society with two or three members 
in 1874, which steadily increased in membership. Rev. J. T. Ladd erected 


a cliuixli in 1880, costing $1,700. Dr. Ricliardson. C. Henilahin, J. J. I'^ox, 
B. F. Ryniers helped active!}' in tlie work. Rev. G. B. Hinkle took charge in 
1880. and since his coming a parsonage costing $600 had been erected. 

Elko in 1881 was a Metliodist station, with twenty cliurch members. 
Rev. Mr. Ewing came first and then Re\". George Jennings, preaching as 

The negroes of Virginia City in 1873 organized a church society and 
built a small church on E between Center and Union, but it was destroyed by 
fire in October, 1875, and after Rev. Weir left it died down. 

An effort was made to organize a Methodist Church South in Virginia 
City in 1862, but failed, although ministers of that denomination came to 
Virginia to look o\er the field several times. 

Rev. T. H. McGrath, so often mentioned in church history of Methodism 
in Nevada, was an earnest, active and faithful lalx>rer. He grew more liberal 
in his views, and finally resigned his church work in. Virginia in 1873 and 
organized a lilieral society of Unitarians. His successor, George W'. Fitch, 
followed his e.xam])le, in 1878, and was confirmed by Bishop Whitaker, of 
the Protestant Episcopal church in Reno, July 7, 1878. He became a postulant 
the next day, and July 23rd was admitted as a candidate for deacon's orders. 
In two years he recanted and rejoined the Methodist church, in 1881 serving 
as minister in Auburn. California. 


In Nevada the' Methodists have heen active from the first. Wherever 
possible the influence of the church has been extended. In 1881 they owned 
$64,700 worth of ]5roperty, and had lost l)y fire $59,600, and by abandon- 
ment from Ixjom failures $6,500. 

The Conference has been helped by the Board of Church Extension very 
greatly: it has given practical aid. erecting new churches and helping re- 
build those destroyed. E\ery new mining camp was visited, no territory, no 
matter how isolated, was neglected, for their tra\eling ministers were always 
ready to visit them. 


Episcopalians received the visits of a rector as early as 1861. a visiti!ig 
minister preaching. In the spring of 1862. Rev. Franklin S. Rising was sent 
from New York by the .\merican Church Missionary Society, and he com- 
menced the church organization. Missionary Bishop Tallxit held services 
in Aurora, Esmeralda county, on Octolier 4, 1863. The Bishop held services 
also in Austin and other camps, and consecrate<l the F,piscoi)al clnu'ch in 
Virginia City, the first church built by them in Nevada. 

A parish was organized in .Aurora and Rev. William Stoy came there on 


Doccnilicr jj, \^(\^. as regular rector, at a salary of $150 montlily. TIio 
l)arisli dill ikiI last, however. Risht Rev. O/.i William Wliitaker, later 
Missionary llislKi]), did nnu'l! Id pidiiKite the .t^niwlh nf ihe chnrch. in Nevada, 
lie was beloved nut only hy his own people, hut hy those of everv faith. He 
was horn in 1830, in New Salem, Massachusetts, and was ordained a Ijishop 
at Grace church, Boston, in 1863. After being- ordained in the fall of that 
year he was detailed for work in Nevada. In 1868 he was elected Missionary 
Bishop of the diocese. In 18C9 he received the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
from Kenyon College, Ohio. He was consecrated a bishop in New York, 
the same year. 

Rev. \\nn'taker, when he became Missionary Bishop, had one clerg)ni;ni 
in the jurisdiction, and in 1880 he had seven. There were two rectories at 
first and in 1880 eight. The membership was increased from 100 to 340 in 
ten years. From 320 Sunday scholars to 1,242, and from 30 Sunday school 
teachers to 93, w^as the record for the ten years. The value of the church 
])roperty was increased in the ten years from $36,400 to $166,529; of tliis 
$33,071 was given from persons outside the state. 

Bishop Wliitaker held services not only in Virginia hut many small 
places as well, in many camps that to-day are unknown. Bishop Whitaker 
established work among the Chinese, and Ah For, a convert, collected $500 
for a mission in Carson, $300 from Chinamen and $200 from white men. 
Bishop Whitaker opened it, "the Chapel of the Good Shepherd," on Septem- 
ber 23, 1874. It seated fifty persons. Ah For built another chapel in Vir- 
ginia City in 1875. He used to preach to bis fellows on Sundays and teach 
them evenings. Ah For translated the Order for Evening Prayer into 
Chinese, witli the hel]) of Bishop Whitaker, and used it in his services. He 
was earnest and intelligent, hut his mission in Carson did not flourish. In 
a year fire destroyed the one in Virginia City, and there was no insurance. 
Ah F"or became discouraged and went as a missionary for the Established 
Church in luigland to China. 


Bishop Whitaker cijmmenced in 1870 to jilan the erection of a Girls' 
School at Reno. In 1873 an appeal was answered with $300 from abroad. 
In 1875 Miss C. L. Wolfe, of New Y(irk, told the Bishop that if he would 
raise $10,000 she would donate a like amount. Then Bishop Whitaker 
"girded up his loins" and secured $4,000 from the people of Reno; from a 
friend, in Nevada, $2,500; and of Mrs. M. A. Grosvenor, of New York. 
$1,000; the balance was paid in small amounts. The Central Pacific Rail- 
road donated half a lilock of land, and another half block was purchased on 
condition that the school would Ije located in Reno, by the citizens of that 


city. It was coninienccil in June. iSjC). tlie ist day. and tlic tnllciwing 
October 12th it was opened. 

It was from tlie first possessed of every modern improvement. It was 
40.X88. three stories, heated liy steam, hot and cold water, and cost $28,000, 
leaving $8,000 debt. JNIiss Kate Hill was the first principal: there was ample 
room for 55 day scholars and 45 boarders. In 1880 the debt was paid. Miss 
NV^olfe giving $2,500, Mrs. M. A. Grosvenor $r,ooo, Daniel Cook, of San 
Francisco, $1,000, the rest being donated in small sums. Two thousand 
dollars more was spent after the school opened, nearly half in securing perma- 
nent and abundant water supplies for the school and for irrigation. 

The beneficial effect of the school was soon felt all through the state 
of Nex'ada. In no place was sucli a school more needed, placing the op- 
portunity for Christian education within the reach of those who would not 
otherwise have been able to secure one. The regular course of study was 
four years. 


The first church of the Episcopalians cost $30,000 and was opened in 
December, 1863, for temporary use, Init was formally dedicated February 
22, 1863. Its cost was paid by members of the parish. The first Sunday 
school was organized May it, 1862, with [4 pupils and 5 teachers. When 
Bishop Talbot visited the city in 1863 he consecrated the church and held a 
confirmation service, conferring the apostolic rite on 13. As stated Rev. F. S. 
Rising was the first rector, coming in 1862 and remaining until 1866, when 
his health failed and he returned east, losing his life in a steamboat collision 
on the Ohio rixer in 7868. He was a brother of Judge Rising and was very 
popular, his death a sonrce of great regret. 

Rev. H. D. Lathro]), D. D., of Gold Hill, held .afternoon services until 
Ajjril 21st, wlien Uev. Whitaker succeeded him. That same year Bishop 
Talbot was elected Bishop of Indiana, and tiiat left Nevada's missionary 
di'^lricl without a head. liisho]) W. Ingrrdiam Kip, of the diocese of Cali- 
forni,!. looked after tilings, lie \ isited St. Paul's church, X'irginia City, in 
Octtiber, 1867, confirming 24 ])ersons. The next year fire damaged the 
church to the amomit of $2,700, covered by insurance. In 1872 the church was 
enlarged, six pews being added. Two years afterwards $9,000 was exi)cnded 
in mi extension of twenty feet on the east, a gallery l)eing built at the west 
end. .\ ])i])e organ, costing $3,000, was ]iut in the gallery. There was a 
large congregation, a Sunday school of 350 pupils and 24 teachers; in the 
fire of 1875 both church and rectory were destroyed; the rectory was rebuilt 
,'it once and the church in the summer of 1876. It was larger than the old 
church, seating 400, and was rmished in December. In that month it was 
dclir.iicd. Its total cost was $25,000. 


Since lie In-st Innk tliaij^i.' \\c\ . W'hilakcr lias rcniaincd, Imt since he was 
appointed liisliop he lias had many a.ssistaiit ministers. Among them were 
Revs. J. \V. Lee, William Henderson, Rush S. iCastman, W. R. Jciivcy. and 
George N. F,astnian. The assistant ministers also had to hold regular serv- 
ices in Dayton and Silver City on alternate Sundays. After the great fire, 
Sunday school was held in the basement of Beardsley's building, op]K)site the 
Presbyterian church. Morning services were held in the Presbyterian church 
also until the Odd F'ellows' Hall was rebuilt, when that was u-sed. 

The first services in Cold Hill were held in May. 1862, and a .Sunday 
school of five persons organized. On July Stli a second service was held 
and the parish of St. John's organized, with Rev. Rising as rector. At first 
church services were held in Gold Hill Theatre, but as gambling was carried 
on all night, the schoolhouse was soon utilized for services. l\ev. O. \V. 
Whitakcr succeeded Mr. {■{ising on Octolicr 18, 1863. and in July of the next 
year a handsome brick church was commenced an<l finished in the fall, at a 
cost of $13,000. Rev. H. IX Lathrop took charge in June, 1865, leaving on 
September i, 1867. Bisho]) Kij) consecrated St. John's church on October 13, 
1867. Rev. Whitaker again took charge of the church in Gold Hill, and with 
Virginia and Carson, he had three churches in charge. He held as many 
services as possible, until in 1870 Rev. J. McCormac took charge. He re- 
mained one year. Bishop \\'liitaker then officiating, alternating with Rev. G. 
B. Allen, of Carson, until July 2, 1872, when Bishop \\'hitaker took full 
charge again. With Revs. R. S. Eastman and W. R. Jenvey regular services 
were held in Virginia City, Gold Hill, Silver City, and Dayton. In 1876 
Rev. R. S. Eastman was elected rector of Gold Hill, serving until 1879, and 
after his dei)arture occasional services were held, although the Sunday school 
continued to meet regularly. Hon. N. A. H. Ball was senior warden and 
superintendent, and his death was a great loss to school and church. 


Rev. Rising was also the lirst rector in SiKer City, holding his services 
in Chrysopolis Hall, on June C), 1862, nearly 100 persons attending. Services 
were held regularly until December, 1873. when they were discontinued 
until 1874, when Rev. Jenvey commenced holding serx'ices, and in Septem- 
ber of 1875 the erection of a church was commenced, but a fearful storm 
razed it to the ground, on November 13th. Mr. Jenvey, undaunted, com- 
menced the rebuilding, and it was ready for occupancy December 25, 1875. 
Mr. Jenvey remained until .\ugust. 1878. After that Rev. George N. East- 
man held bi-weekly services until the eighties. 



Rev. Mr. Rising was again the ])ioncer recti t. ni l"arM>n L'ity. holding 
services on September 25. i86j. in the county court house. 'l"he lirsl regular 
rector appointed was Rev. W. M. Riley, who assumed cliarge of St. Peter's 
parish on October 29, 1863, remaining until .\pril. 1866. He resigned be- 
cause his pro-southern views were not liked by his parishioners, his sympa- 
thies 1)eing with the south. Rev. D. H. Lathrop then held services every 
Friday evening from August, 1866, to September, tSOj. A church was 
commenced in the latter year, being finished in one year: but from 1867 
until the church was finished in July, 1868, Rev. Whitaker held a weekly 
ser\ice in the state capitol. Bishop Kip visited Carson in 1867 and confirmed 
twelve candidates in the Methodist church. Rev. (jeorge B. Allen assumed 
charge as rector on August 9. 1868: the church being consecrated on June 
19, 1870, by Right Rev. O. \V. \\'hitaker, then Missionary Bisho]) of the 
diocese of Nevada, as Trinity church. It cost $5,500, a plain but substantial 
Iniilding. It was enlarged 24 feet in December, 1873, making an auditory 70 
feet in length ; in it were 59 pews in three rows. At the same time two wings 
58x21 feet were added; the stained glass windows were all donated by mem- 
bers of the congregation. The entire cost was $12,000, only half of which 
could be paid. 

On Easter Sunday, 1874, the first service in the church after it was 
enlarged, was held by the Rev. .Mien. On the following Sunday, Bishoj) 
Whitaker formally reopened it. ]\Ir. Allen remained until December 31, 
when he was succeeded by Rev. S. P. Kelly, who remained until Octoljer 11, 
1876; he was followed by Rev. H. L. Foote, who remained imtil May ti. 
1878. George R. Davis took charge of the parish on October 13, 1878, and 
proved a very po])ular rector. \\'hcn he came the church was $3,000 in debt 
and he went to work at once to i)ay it. \Mth the aid of the ladies of St. 
]\'ter's parish, in eighteen months after Mr. Davis arri\ed the entire debt was 
cancelled. In 1881 the church had si.xty communicants and one hundred 
Sunday-scho(]l children. 


The first service of the Episcopal church was held in the school-Iiousc 
in Reno by Bishop Whitaker on October 16. 1870, and the second service 
was held in the same place on .April 12, 1872. Services were held on al- 
ternate Sundays in the court house from Janu.iry, 1873. until Kew W'illiaiu 
Lucas took charge on May 5. 1873. 

The parish had been organized in February, 1873. undci' the name of 
Trinity church; J. C. Lewis was elected senior warden: A. J. Hatch, iunior 


warden; B. F. Leete, secictaiy ; 1^. A. Bender, treasurer; [. S. Slmeniaker, 
Josq)h De Bell and C. M. Eastman, vestrymen. 

In July, 1H73, $400 was i)ai(l fur a lot. ami a rectnry was l)uilt wJiicli 
was ocenpied in Oclnlier. On Septeniher 6, 1874. the lirst confirniatidn 
serviee was held in the court, six candidates being confirmed. The 
corner-stone of the church huilding- was laid on May 24, 1875, and on De- 
cember 12, of the same year, the church was formally o|)ened by Bisho]) 
Whitaker. It was constructed of wood, ^2 by 70 feet, but was not quite 
completed at that time. When Rev. \\'. R. Jenvey sub.stituted for Mr. 
Lucas on September 3, 1878, he undertook the completion of the church 
building. While this was being done Mr. |en\ey held services in Smith's 
Opera House. 

When, on December 17, 1878, the church was formally reopened by 
Bishop Whitaker, there was not a dollar indebtedness on it, and it was con- 
secrated on June 8, 1871;. h'inding that Mr. Lucas could not return. Mi'. 
Jenvey was appointed rector. The total cost of the church was about $6,000. 


The pioneer rector. Rev. Kising, held services in Dayton, in December. 
1862, and a year later a ])arish was organized by Rev. O. W. Whitaker, 
under the name Church of the Ascension. From then until June, 1865, 
regular services were held. In November, 1865, Rev. W. H. Dyer was in 
charge, remaining until April, 1866. In 1867 Rev. Whitaker held regular 
Wednesday evening services during the summer, but after that, until 1874, 
services were held only occasionally. From 1874 until 1878, Rev. W. R. 
Jenvey officiated at the court house regularly. I'rom that time until July, 
1879, services were only occasionally. On that date Rev. G. N. Eastman 
commenced a bi-weekly service. 


The first ser\ices of the church were held in 1863 by Bishop Talbot, 
and it was not until 1866 that regular services were established. .\t that 
time Mr. D. M. Godwin began a lay service in the court house. 

Two years afterwards, Rew Marcus Lane held services in .\uslin for 
one year; a regular parish was organized under the name of St. George in 
1873. The first rector was Rev. C. S. Stevenson, who remained until 
1874; he was succeeded by Re\'. S. C. Blackiston, who remained five years, 
He was succeeded in May, 1879, Ijy Rev. Sanniel P. Kelly, who remained 
only a few months. In 18S0 Re\'. R. S. Eastman took charge of the parish 
on Easter Day, 1880. 

On Easter Sunday. 1877, Mr. Blackiston spoke of the great need of 
a church, the ser\'ices then being held in the court house. He would applv. 


he said, the Easter offerings td such a puriiose. I he [larisli ah\'aily possessed 
a lot, which the memljers liad themselves graded and on which, they had 
huilt a foundation. He asked all to write on a card what amount they wt)uld 
give. When the contrihution plates were returned, Mr. Blackiston was 
pleasantlv surjjrised hy their contents. The Easter offering of Mr. Allen 
.\. Curtis, the superintendent of the Manhattan mine. i)ledged himself to 
huild a church and pay for it, if the others woukl furnish it. \V. S. Gage 
and John A. Paxton united in the gift of a fine hell for the steeple, while 
James S. Ptirteous presented a $1,000 pipe organ. When linislied the clnu'ch 
cost $15,500, all of which hut $500 was given hy residents of Austin. The 
hank at Austin loaned the society $750 to huild a wall around the church, 
to maintain the grade. The total \-alue of the church property was ahout 


Bishop Whitaker held the first Episcopal services in Wliite Pine county, 
in the town of Treasure City, on June 20. 1869; the evening of the same 
day he held the first ser\ices at Hamiltun, in a court room. The next 
service was held on August 7, 1870, in the cit}- hall of Hamilton and serv- 
ices were continued for two months. St. Luke's parish, of Hamilton, was 
organized on Septemher 24, and Rev. S. P. Kelly was chosen as rector. 
.\fter his arrival a house Avas purchased and fitted u\) for a rectory, '{"lie 
next year a frame church was erected, which was consecrated July 14, 1872. 
Mr. Kelly remained a month after the consecration and was succeeded hy 
Rev. John Cornell, who remained one year, when he resigned. Since that 
time there has heen no regular rector in Plamilton. 

One of tiie most notorious camps in Nevada was Pioche, in 1870. The 
first services there were held in a saloon hy Bishop Whitaker on Septem- 
her 13, of that }'ear. 0\'er 150 rough miners crowded in the saloon and 
as large a numl>er were unahle to gain admittance. The next year services 
were held twice hy Bishop Whitaker: then (he Rev. J. \V. Lee officiated three 
or four months, followed hy the l\e\'. II. I,, liadger. When Mr. Iladger 
arrived, Septemher, 1871, he found the town had huriu'd lo ashes three days 
hcfore;. he held services in i)rivate houses until July 21, 1872, when a frame 
churcii and rectory were completed. Mr. Badger remained four years and 
was succeeded hy Rev. H. H. Kline, who left in January, 1877; after a 
year's ahsence Mr. Kline returned and remained one year, preaching on 
Sundays and teaching on week da_\s. lie was the last Episcopal minister in 

A canvas tent was 'used for the fust ser\ i-es in luireka, on Septemher 
28, 1870; the tent heing used as a restaurant. Services were announced 
for 7 o'clf)ck. hut it was nearly i) when Bishop Whitaker arrived, owing to 


a l)rcak<lii\\ii. The iJCnplc liad (lisi)crscil, Imt messengers were sent out and 
lil'tv returned. The next winter l\ev. S. I*. Kelly officiated several times 
and the corner stone of the church was not laid until May, 1871 ; Bislio]) 
Whitaker officiated at this ceremony and sjienl a nmnth in h'ureka, during 
which time a conifortaMe rectory was liuilt. I'nlil Xovcmher, 1S71, the 
services were conducted in a tent, which also sened as a sch(jolrooni. l\e\-. 
W". Henderson took charge of the parish in August, 1S71. He remained 
until .\ugust, 1872, and the next month was succeeded hy I\ev. S. P. Kelly, 
in March, 1872, Rev. C. II. Marshall hccune assistant minister .and cm 
April 5, when Mr. Kelly was elected state su])erintendent of public in.struc- 
lion, Mr. Marshall 1)ecame rector. lie served tnitil February. 1877, and 
in August Re\-. C. B. Crawfnrd ;issumeil charge. 

.\ i)arish was organized in Belmont im b'ebruary lA, 1874, Rev. S. P>. 
Moore being tlie first rector. ?Tc remained four years, building a church 
at a cost of $3,790. I\ev. Daniel bl.-ick succeeded Mr. Moore in 1876, re- 
m.aining a year, .\ftcr Mr. Mack resigned, in 1878, the cliurch was closed 
until December. Rev. S. B. Kelly served until June i, 1879, being the 
fast I ■'.])!. scopal rector in Belmont. Mrs. R. M. King, who was superintendent 
of tlic Sunday school, reorganized it in 1888. 


The first church of this faith was built in \'irginia City, in the summer 
of i860, bv Rev. Father l\. V. Ciallagber. It was wrecked by a storm. 
F'ather Gallagher at the .same time built another church in Carson, which 
shared the same fate as the first, but in this instance the lumber was taken 
away by unpaid laborers. Father (iallagber also built a church in (ienoa 
.about the same time, which was nnt jiaid for, and by \irtuc of the liens 
was afterwards turned into a court house. A $12,000 church was erected 
in 1872 by the Rev. Patrick Manogue and it was consecrated under the name 
of "St. Mary's of the Mountains." A frame church, built nn the divide 
between Virginia City and (jold Hill, was removed to Cold Hill. It was 
built by the Passionist Fathers. In 1864 Rev. Feather P. O'Reilley built 
a more commodious church, which was dedicated July 26, 1864. St. .Vu- 
gustin's church was established in .\ustin in i8r)4. by Rev. Father Monte- 
verde, who Iniilt a church at Hamilton. A church was commenced at 
Aurora, but abandoned. In 1868 a brick church, costing $65,000, was 
erected in \irginia Citv. by Rev. Father Manogue. who was soon after- 
wards appointed vicar general of tlie diocese of Crass Valley. 

St. Theresa's church, in Car.son City, was built in 1870 by the Rev. 
Feather Thomas Crace at a cost of $5,000. Father Scanlan organized a 
Catholic societv at Pioche, in 1871. and that year a frame churcli and par- 


sonage, costing $4,000, were completed. In 1874, a $3,000 church was built 
in Behnont, but no regular services were ever held. St. Brendan's church 
was built in Eureka in 187 1, liut was replaced in 1874 by a brick church, 
costing $5,000, Father Hyne.s being in charge. 

Reno's first Catholic church was built in 1871 by Rev. Father Merrill. 
In 1868 a fine church was built by Father Manogue and destroyed by the 
great fire in 1875. Father Manogue, in 1877, erected a magnificent edifice 
at a cost of $60,000 on the same lot, on E street. The first church was burned 
down in the fire of 1879. A church was built at Cherry Creek, by Rev. 
William Maloney in 1881, and it is one of the prettiest churches in eastern 

Rev. Father Patrick ]\Ianogue was one of the most prominent priests 
in Nevada from his first advent, in 1862. In November, 1880, he was ap- 
pointed as coadjutor to Bishop O'Connell, of Grass Valley. To give the 
complete history of Bishop Manogue would fill several volumes and form an 
exciting and interesting history. Other prominent priests were: Reverend 
Fathers Mevel, Daniel O'Sullivan, Jnhn Xulty, Patrick O'Kane, James J. 
Calian, Luke Tormey, Andrew O'Dnnnell. Joseph Phclan. W'illiam Maloney 
and D. Montel^erde. 


The New School branch of the Presbyterian church organized a society 
May 19, 1861, Rev. W. W. P.ricr officiating. The Presbyterian church was 
the least successful of any of the <lenoniinatii)US in planting the standard 
of their religion in Nevada soil. The firsl meeting was successful, $5,000 
being raised by subscription. Judge blenitinkan was chairman and the 
trustees were W. M. Stewart, 11. 1'.. I'Dnitrny, S. Eraser, J. (iasharie and 
G. A. Sears, the l;ittcr being elected of the Inijird. June 2, 1861, a 
letter was written to Mr. Brier, asking that he organize "a church of Jesus 
Christ to be known by the name of the b'irst Presbyterian church, in Carson 
City, and to be placetl by you under the care of the Presbytery of Sierra 
Nevada, and of the Synod of Alta California." 

September 12, .\. F. White arrived in Carson City as a temporary 
supply. Another $5,000 was soon raised, a church site was purchased and 
building commenced. In May, 1864, the brick church was dedicated by 
Rev. White, assisted by Kev. \V. C. Pond and Re\. Warren Nims. In 
1868 Rev. Mr. Alexander replaced Mr. White. Then came .t succession 
of ministers, Re\-. H. V. Rice taking charge in January. 1881. 

On Seiileiubcr 21, 1862, Rev. W. W. I'.rier organized ;i cliurcli in 
Virginia City. h'.. Caldwell and X. W. Wilson were elected ruling elders; 
Rev. D. II. Palmer was in charge until 1864, when he was re])laced b\- Rev. 


W. W. Martin. There were variDUs elianges until A|)ril, i<S8i. when Rev. 
E. F. Walker assumed cliaroj. 

A curious methcxl was followed to raise funds to pay for the cluirch. 
The trustees received a sure tip on the stock market and, taking the treasury 
;noney, they liought stock which rose several hundred dollars in v.'due and 
they were wise enough to sell out liefore the crash. They hought four 
lots on C street, where they erected huildings, from the rent of which they 
are ena1>led to pay all expenses. The church escaped the fire of 1875. 

The Presbyterians organized a society in ( iold If ill in 1863, hut the or- 
ganization soon died out. 

The Presbyterian organization of Austin lasted from 1864 to 1868. 
Efforts were made to build a church hut ne\'er succeeded. 

I'.lko was more fortunate than Austin, for Rev. John Pirown, in March. 
1870, was given four lots by the railroad C(impany, on wdiich to build and 
the members built a church costing $3,500. .An organ was presented to 
them by the Ivev. Henry Ward lieecher. Mr. l>rown was succeeded liy a 
number of ministers, and a ])arsonage was built. Four of the meml^ers 
became conserts to the ]\b)rmon faith. The depopulation of the town so 
idTected the church that Rev. A. J. Compton, who was appointed in April 
j88o, and resigned in September, was the last to hll that position. 

In August, 1873, six persons organized a ciinrch at Eureka, Rev. W. C. 
McDougal being the first pastor. Rev. Josiah McClain succeeded him, 
remaining until 1876; Rev. Samuel M. Crotbers took charge until May. 
1879, and in 1880 he was replaced by Rev. George W. Gallagher. On 
March 26, 1881, Mr. Gallagher renounced orthodo.xy and resigned his 
charge. Mr. Gallagher was a very popular man, not only with his own 
congregation but with e\eryone. He was a very eloquent and forceful 
speaker, and a petition bearing hundreds of names was sent to him, asking 
him to g'ive publicly the reason he renounced the tenets of bis church. On 
March 30, Mr. Gallagher delivered an address setting forth his point of 

Pioche was unfortunate, for her society, .started in 1873. died out alto- 
gether in 1870 and was taken off the roll of churches. 


The first acti\'e step taken by the white Baptists towards organizing 
a church, was made on Deceml>er J4, 1873, when the First Baptist church 
of Virginia City w'as organized. Rev. C. L. Fisher I>eing the first pastor. 
.\ church costing $2,100 was ready for occupancy on July :2. It was located 
on C street and afterwards a lodging house was con\erted out of the l)ase- 
ment of the churcli at an expense of $1,200. Wiien Mr. Fisher resigned in 


Octol:)er, 1875, he was folUnved by several regular ministers until March, 
1878, when the church closed until November of that year. Rev. T. J. 
Arnold then assumed charge, leaving in May of the next year. Rev. H. W. 
Read assumed charge on January i, 1880. 

An attempt was made in 1874 to hold ser\ices in Carson City, and on 
November i. Rev. C. A. Bateman organized the first Baptist church of 
that town with 16 members. In 1876 Re\-. J. G. Burchett acted as pastor 
for a few weeks, but the church soon died from want of support. 

^\'hen Rev. C. L. Fisher left for Virginia City, he went to Reno, where 
on November 28. 1873, he organized a Baptist church in the opera house 
with a membership of 15. The next year a $2,800 church was erected, and 
shortly afterwards Mr. Fisher resigned. In 1877 Rev. T. J. .Vrnold served 
for 14 months, but on March 2, 1879, the church was burned. On July 12. 
following, the Baptists built a church costing $4,000, assuming an indebt- 
edness of $2,500. In 1880, D. B. McKenzie assumed charge, but remained 
onlv a few days. In 1881 Rev. Mr. Scott was installed as pastor. Shortly 
afterwards, he was succeeded by Rev. W'infield Scott, who proved to lie an 
energetic pastor, building up a large congregation. 


On June 7, 1870, a call was issued for a council of Congregational 
churches, and a meeting was hekl at the schoolhouse in Reno, on February 
18, 1871, and on the following day the h' Congregational church of Reno 
was organized, with Rev. .\. V. Hitchcock as pastor. A church was built 
at once and owned jointl\- with the Independent Order of Odd l'"ellows and 
was entirely free from debt. .\ number nf ministers succeeded Mr. Hitch- 
cock, and in 1881 C. 1'". G. Morgan assumed charge. 


Instead of gaining with the iFglil nf lime, the congregations of the 
various churches of Nevada gradually decreased until in man)- instances 
churclies were altogether abandoned and stand to-dav a monument of the 

The Methodists are decidedly in the ni.ijority in i(>04. Wherever an 
o])i)<irtunity is af¥(;rded for a church, tiiere a church will be found. If not 
large enough for a clnnch, then a mission will be instituted; if not a niissitMi, 
then a Sunday-school will be organized, 'iliere have been no dissensions, 
nothing to mar the h.armony of the church workers. In 1889 the Rev. 
F. W. Vandevanter aroused great indignation a1 the .Methodist Fi>iscoi)al 
conference in Carson by his p.imphlet referring to the nn-(iodIy temi)er;i- 
nient of the \e\'adans. It was a tcnible deininciation of ;dl classes .-uid 


For a number of conferences, 18R4. '(85, etc., tliere were no presiding 
elders at tlie conferences or at the mission conference held at Owens River, 
1885. By far tlie largest and most influential Methodist congregation is 
that of Reno. In August, 1900, the Gothic brick cliurch was finislied in 
that city costing $7,000. It is 100 feet long and there is seating capacity for 
300 in the church and 200 in the Sunday-school room. 

In 1897 the Methodists built a fine church in (iardnerville, dedicating 
it on November 28, 1897. ^he church deivt was paid at the time, h'red Dan- 
Ijerg assisting greatly. 

Rev. A. C. Welch was apjxiinted tn the church in Reno, September, 
1903. Since then the church debt has been paid. Mr. Welch is a native 
of Ohio, served charges in Niles (the birthplace of President McKiniey) 
Youngstown, Cleveland, .\lbuquerque. New Mexico, Omaha, Chico, and 
from the latter place went to Nevada. He is the author of "Character 
Photography" and other works. He is working to increase the mem1)ership. 
Private mailing cards are sent to strangers and others every week inviting 
them to the services. The church was built under the pastorate of Rev. 
G. H. Jones, and was, as stated above, dedicated in 1900, but the debt was 
not paid until Dr. Welch took charge. The note was burned on January 
23, 1904, amid great rejoicings. 

In 1904 the Methodist churches in Nevada were Uxrated, — in Austin, 
of which church S. W. Albone had been pastor for two years, membership 
20; Battle Mountain, Allen Bartlett, pastor for one year, membership 6; 
Winnemucca, H. O. Edson, pastor for one year, memljership, 41 ; Paradise 
Valley, E. J. Bradner, pastor six months, menil>ership, 16; Carson City, 
E. E. Dodge, pastor three years, membership, 60; Gardnerville, W. P. Ran- 
kin, pastor two years, membership, 18 ; Lo\elocks, D. S. Wigstead, pastor 
one year, membership, 11; Ruby Hill, Rev. Joseph Arthur died in harness, 
and no pastor appointed to fill his place, there is a Sunday-school maintained 
but no church ; Virginia City, F. R. Winsor, pastor, one year, meml>ership, 
31; Wellington, G. M. Bigelow, pastor two years, membership 21; Yering- 
ton, T. H. Nicholas, pastor one year, membership 44; Tonopah, Hawthorne, 
Davis Creek and Tuscarora remain on the list as prospective. 

The cry of the Methodists is "Educate." The Epworth League is doing 
a good work. Winnemucca, Carson, Reno and all the larger towns have 
Leagues and prosperous Sunday-schools. There are 2,000 children in the 
Methodist Sunday-schools of Nevada. The missionary work among the 
5,000 Indians in Nevada is progressing favorably under Robert G. Pike. 


The Baptists of Nevada are working hard to create interest in the 
church in Nevada. Rev. Driver, who has been pastor in Reno for nearly 


eleven years, is especially acti\e. With Rev. .\(lanis and other traveling 
ministers he \"isits the rural districts holding ser\'ices and haptising C(_)nverts. 
Many missions ^\•ill be established in Nevada through their efforts. In 
1903 a new church was l)uilt in Loyalton, California, and a numl>er of mem- 
liers of Ne\ada churches were dismissed to join that one. The corner stone 
wrus laid September 13. Re\-. Riiliert Whittaker being pastor. In \'erdi. a 
church was built in 1899 and dedicated in June Ijy B. I". Hnddelson. The 
latter pastor was greatly loved in Nevada ; he died on a train coming from 
California on January 17, 1903. Rev. Boyd is pastor of the church in Loyal- 
ton. \'erdi is simply a mission as yet. .\t Wadsworth there has been no 
minister for some time and when the town is abandoned by the railroad 
l>eople the church will be al:>andoned and a mission kept up. A church will 
l)e awaiting them in Harriman. 

A temporary church has been erected in H.arriman to serve for three 
or four months. Then a handsome churcii to cost $4,000 will be erected. 
First services were held in the temporary church on Easter morning, 1904. 

The church in Reno has a hne choir, with a salaried soprano; the Nevada 
Quartette also sings every Sunday. The church has a grxxl financial record, 
no debts and a menihcrship of over 200. The Simday-school is also flourish- 

.\t the Christian Endeavor convention of two years ago, Mrs. C. Cutts. 
of Carson, presiding, twelve .societies were represented. The annual ci in- 
vention meets in Reno in June, 1904. 


The First Congregational church of Reno, and the only one in Nevada, 
was organized in 1871, February iS, (iccu))ving first a wooden clnn'ch. The 
handsome brick church was erected on the corner nf I'^ilth .-ind X'irginia 
in 1903, quite a debt being assumed. Tliere are now alx^ut 120 meml>ers. 
In 1903, despite the fact that the church was without a ])astor, the entire 
debt of $2,500 was paid up, through the etforls of nienilters and friends. 
'i"he regular services and work of the church were also ke])t u\). 

The auxiliary organizations of the church are the Ladies" .\i(l Society, 
which earned $500 last }ear. the St. Margaret Society, dedicated to the 
social life of the church, the clmir and the Christian Endeavor Society. 
There are i 19 in the Smulay-schodl, ;uid a boy's brigade. The latter is given 
regular military traim'ng. The clmir .ind orchestr.i nn<kr I'li ifo'^sor .\. b". 
yVtkinson is doing well. 

The chinch is f()rtunate in having ;i new minister in Rev. C, L. Me.ars, 
who first officiated on b'aster morning, 1904. Rev. Mears is mily thirty- 
four vears of age and is a native nf Kent connlv. Michigrni. llis first ex- 


perience was five years in Minneapolis and three years in Snohomish, Wash- 
ington. To come to Reno he refused an enthusiastic call to remain in Sno- 
homish a fourth year, and also a flattering call from Portland, Oregon. 

The vacancy in the church in Reno was caused li\- the death of a most 
ahle jxistor. Rev. M. Burkett. 

A church will he organized in Harrinian early in the summer. A 
Sunday school was organized in March of 1904, with a meml>ership of 25. 
A school was organized in the North Truckee schoolhouse near the Wede- 
kind mine in T90T, and the chapel has made good progress. 


In 1903 the Presbyterian churches of Nevada were all doing excellent 
work. The church at Carson City, organized on June 2, 1861, still holds 
its own and owns its building. The pastor is Rev. H. H. McCreey, and 
the membership is 89. The church at Virginia City, organized in i860 owns 
its building. The pastor of 1902 having left the field there, no one has 
been appointed to fill the vacancy. At Elko, organized in 1870, the con- 
gregation owns the church buildings and parsonage. The pasttjr is Rev. 
George H. Greenfield, and the membership, 1 10. The latter minister also 
officiates at Lemoville Valley ; the church there having been organized in 
1890, October 26tli, membership 9. Rev. W. P. I-'riedrich officiates in the 
church at Star Valley, organized June i, 1890, which has a membership 
of 38 and owns its church and parsonage. He also officiates at Wells, where 
a church was organized in 1892, and it has a membership of 29 and owns 
its church building. The church was organized in Eureka, March 2, 1892; 
the membership is 20 and the congregation owns the church building. Rev. 
J. Erwin Johnston is pastor. The church in Reno was organized ^August 
31, 1902; the church building is owned Ijy the congregation and the mem- 
bership is 30. The first minister was G. R. Bird, of Bakersfield. He was 
succeeded by Rev. S. H. Jones. A church was organized at Tonopah (But- 
ler) September 21, 1902. There is no regular minister, but the congrega- 
tion of 24 own the church property. 


It is impossible to secure correct data of the Episcopal churches of 
Nevada. The churches in the larger cities have l>eai maintained, but have 
all decreased in membership, save in Reno, which has a membership of over 
two hundred. The pastor is Rev. Samuel Unsworth, and he has been in 
charge over twelve years. They have a vested choir of twenty-eight young- 
ladies and eight men. They have the usual auxiliaries of guilds. The 
clnux'h is the one built in earlv davs hut large enough as yet. 


In Carson City Rev. B. J. Darneille is rector. Tlie chnrcli is the one 
of early days and there is a vested choir of yoinig ladies and six men. Nearly 
everv rector, inclndiiig Revs. Unsworth, Darneille and Ballamy serve a 
numljer of chnrches, going to and fro. The removal of the dearly lo\'ed 
Bishop \\'hittaker to Pennsylvania, the death of Bishop Kip, in 1893. and 
the death of Bishop Leonard in 1903 ha\e all heen great hlows to the chnrch 
in Nevada. 

A new church was erected in Dayton in 1903 and dedicated in Decem- 
her of that year. Rev. Ramsey, of Virginia City, also serves this charge. 
Rev. Unsworth has heen working fur two years in X'erdi and has estah- 
lished quite a membership, hut as yet there is no regular service and no 
cliurch. In Nevada all told there are about 700 communicants of the church. 
Statistical information is hard to get as the death of Bishop Letinard left 
them with no bishop for eastern Ne\ada, and reports are not a\ailal)le. 


Of all the religions the Catholics ha\e lost ground fastest in .Vevada 
the past twenty years. In Reno they h^ive about as many communicants 
as the Methodists; in Virginia there are quite a number, and Carson City 
and Winnemucca have ])arishes. In many i)]aces the people are visited 
occasionally by priests. 

The priest at Reno, Rev. Father Reynolds, has l^een there a great 
many years. The ])arochial school has dwindled down to a small affair, in 
charge of the Dominican Sisters, and with small attendance. It is the only 
school the Catholics ha\e in Xc\ada. The church in Reno has an anxiiiarv 
in the Society of St. Agnes. 

The priests, it seems, do not collect statistics, nor are anv obtainable 
1)\- which a satisfactory account can be gi\en of the growth of the church 
and its present status. Only surface accounts can be given. The number 
of churches abandoned, the number of ]iriests who have left, and such things 
as can Ije seen by the outsider, are the only data to be obtained. And these 
only by a town to town canvass. 

The death of Bishop Manogue, .so closely identified with the early his- 
tory of Nevada, in b'ebruary, 1895, wa.s a great loss to the Catholics. Rev. 
Father ITenneberry, who conducted a mission in Virginia City, died in .Sq) 
teml)er, 1897. 


Nevad.'i is under the California Conference of \d\enlisls .and embr.iccs 

all that jKjrtion of California lying east of the mountains and on thinngh 

Nevada. Ministers are .sent from California to Inbor in the field, there 

l)eing only two located ministers in Nevada, of ii:e Se\intli |);i\ \d\c'nlist 


failli, l'.l(li.'i- A. J. ()sli(irnf, Hislidp. Iiind i-innity, ( 'alifi inii;i, aiiil I'lldcr 
(.'. 1'.. Lclaiid. iif Ixeno, Nevada. In this diocese lliere are four cliurcli 
lniildinj;s, at Su.s.anville, California, Jiisliop, California, Reno, Nevada, and 
Si. L'lair. There are four small companies, one at Virginia City. The nieni- 
hershi]) of the Reno church, of which Rev. C. E. Leland is pastor, is about 
50 and the others in i)roportion. 


The other religions are all represented in different |)arts of Nevada. 
The ( iernian I,utherans have a small congregation in Reno, under M. M. 
Kussncr, the only one in the state. 

.Ml the churches have au.xiliaries and Sunda\'-schools. 


In May, ^903, the Salvation Army sent officers to Reno, and the noble 
work of the army is being pushed ahead, with the usual services by night 
■and day. They have no barracks as yet. being in temporar_\' quarters on 
Walnut street. Covernor SjMrks, who is in sympathy with the Arm}', has 
offered to head the subscription list when the officers decide to build, which 
they will do as soon as possible. 

Whites and Indians, or, as the Army calls them, natives, know the 
Army is cjn a mission of love, and they are welcomed everywhere. 7'hey 
go direct to the gaming tables where contributions are made regularly to 
the Army. They stoop to the vilest and lowest, outcasts and prisoners, and 
the best of their efforts in Reno are l>eing devoted to the fallen. 

One brave Canadian girl laid down her life in the service of the Army. 
She rests in the cemetery at Reno, a tombstone over her reading: "Pro- 
moted to Glory. Hallelujah ! Captain Dora Hamilton, aged 26 years. Died 
Dec. 14th. 1903. Erected by her' friends." 

Reno is headquarters for the Salvation Army in Nex'ada. 


Reno is headcpiarters for the Volunteer Army of .\merica : meetings 
are held on a similar [ilan to those of the Salvation i\rmv. Sundax' morn- 
ings the members preach and sing in the county jail. They also work among 
the unchurched people and the hospitals. A free reading room has been 
established in Reno. Carson City, Virginia City, Winnemucca, Lovelocks, 
Wadsworth and Verdi are held as outposts by the Volunteers as well as the 
SaKation Arm)'. The places are visited at intervals. Regimental officers. 
Colonel and Mrs. Walter Duncan, of San Francisco, will visit all the out- 
posts in the summer and establish permanent jxjsts. President Ballington 
Booth will visit Reno April i^j, 1904. Captain E. E. Jones is in charge at 



The Schools of Nevada. 

Early History Wrapped in Obscurity — Pul>lic School System Under State 
Organization — Growth of Schools — Diversity in Text Books — The 
State University at Elktj — Sectarianism in Schools — Private Schools — 
The Schools of Nevada To-day. 

The early school history of Nevada is shrouded in mystery; it is known 
that there were schools, Init where located and liy whom carried on, is 
a matter for cimjecture (mly. The first two annual reports made hy the 
superintendent of public instruction to the legislature were lost. The third 
report and the first one on record, is that of A. F. White, Decem1>er 12, 
1864. In this report Mr. White states that when the state was organized 
there were but twelve school districts, eight schoolhouses and eighteen 
schools, and the number itf pupils in 1864 was nearly 1,000. 

Two counties only furnished financial reports, and the cost given for 
maintaining schools was placed at $7i,739-79. There was not a school in 
the state thoroughly graded, and in 1862, in the whole territory, there were 
but five primary classes. There were no fixed sources for school revenue, 
and there w^ere but few free schools maintained. People were lilieral, when 
appealed to, and always contributed cheerfully, but the school system in the 
early days of Nevada was not of a public but private character. 

Many curious methods of adding to the school funds are related. In 
1863 steps were taken to start a school in Austin, then the county seat of 
Lander county, and trustees were elected and a committee apix)inted to raise 
funds. Only $930 was raised. To add to this fund, it was decided to auc- 
tion off a pair of Colonel "Dave" Buel's shoes. He was a very large man 
and his feet, of course, corresponded with the rest of his lx)dy, and he 
always wore his shoes very loose. On May 2fi. 1864. they were auctioned 
off by Tom Wade, and $106.05 was re^dized from the sale. 

Carson City contributed largely to the school fund in 1862. Two men, 
prominent afterwards, while under the influence of licpior entered a theatre, 
while a play was in progress, and ordered the curtain dropped as they 
walked down the main aisle. They were both armed with six-shooters and 
Ixiwie-knives, and when their command was not obeyed they rushed on the 
stage. The actors fled in terror and the two men used their knives to carve 
the ol)jectionable curtain. I'or this pleasure they paid $1,000 into the school 
fund of Carson. 

Great difficulty w;is encountered in securing school buildings. In some 
of the more sparsely settled counties adobe houses were used, with floors 

















(if dill anil llialilu'il Vdul's, and in Ir'ii oI (k'sks nr iliairs, wdodeii Imxc'S of 
c\ cry size were used. 

AiiotluT tjrcal dlistaclc was llie lai'k nl niiili irniily in lext I.xioks, and 
(.'(iiilnsiiin prevailed. In a wlmlc scIkhiI there wmild sonictinies he Init two 
(ir three Imoks alike. All siieli nhstacles were gradualh' ()\ercnme dwint,'' 
til the ]iiiiiieers and imt U> the ]iiililie fund. 


After tlie organ izatimi uf the state a complete and rigid system was in 
force. The law ])rovifled "the princi])al of all mnnevs accruing to this state 
from the sale of lands heretofore gi\en or l)e(|ueathed, or that may hereafter 
lie gi\'en or liequeathed, for pulilic school purposes; all fines collected under 
the penal laws of the state; two per cent of the gross proceeds of all toll roads 
and Ijridges ; and all estates that may escheat to the state, shall he and the 
same are herehy solemnly pledged for educational i)ur])0ses, and shall not he 
transferred to any other fund for other uses. Init shall constitute an irre- 
ducihle and indivisihle fund, to he known as the State School Fund, the 
interest accruing from which shall he divided semi-annually among the 
counties in this state, entitled hy the provisions of this act, tO' receive the 
same, in proportion to the ascertained numlier of persons hetween the ages 
of six and eighteen years, in said counties, for the su]i])ort of puldic schools." 

A state ad valorem ta.K of one-half mill on the dollar was levied on all 
taxahle ])roperty, to which fi\e per cent of all state tax collected is added. 
Semi-annually this money was apportioned among the counties by the state 
su])erintendent, each county levying the necessary supplementary tax. 

The donation of land by the United States government for school pur- 
poses has hecn more than generous. The first grant was of the sixteenth and 
thirty-sixth sections, but so much of it was barren that Congress later gave 
Nevada 2,000,000 acres to he selected anywhere in the state. These dona- 
tions, with the indemnity grant of 12,708 acres, given in lieu of land under 
the sixteenth and thirty-sixth section grant, amount to 2.^/4/)f)^ .acres. It 
would 1)6 an endless task to find out how much land has been sold and im- 
possible to prophesy how much more will be sold. 


In 1865 the school law became operative which provided that no lx)oks, 
pajiers nor tracts of a sectarian character should be used in any school estab- 
lished under the provisions of the act, nor any sectarian or denominational 
doctrines be taught therein, nor any school whatever receive any of the public 
school funds, which has not been taught in accordance with the provisions 
of this act. The uniformity of text books is complete and rigidly kept so, 


the statute for the violation of this provision of law requiring that the school 
district violating it shall lie deprived of its apportionment of state scIkhjI 


The educatiiiiial otlicers of the state of Nevada are superintendent of 
public instruction, county superintendents, school trustees and state board of 
education, the latter being composed of the governor, surveyor general and 
superintendent of public instruction. 

In order that the provisions made for free education in Nevada nn'ght 
attain their fullest scope, an act was passed by the legislature in 1873 com- 
])elling children to attend school, but the compulsory law has proved a dead 

When Nevada was admitted into the Union, her statutes drew the color 
line, provision being made only for the education of white children. All 
colors are now educated in the free school ; several schools for negro children 
w'ere started but died out. 


In December, icSGi, the territorial legislature passed a law authorizing 
the incorporation oi the Sierra Senu'nary, at Carson City, but the incor- 
poration was never made. About that time Miss H. K. Clapp, one of the 
pioneer educators, started a private school for boys and girls, under that 
name. Associated with her was Mrs. E. G. Cutler and Miss E. C. Babcock. 

The Sisters of the Catholic church established a school for girls at 
Reno, and they also established an orphanage and school at Virginia City. 
At Reno was also established the Diocesan school for girls, described in a 
previous chapter. 


When the state constitution was adopted, its provisions made it obliga- 
tory upon the legislature to provide for the establishment of a state uni- 
versity, embracing departments for mining, mechanic arts and agriculture. 
The board of regents, for the first foiu' years, was com|)osed of the goxcrnor. 
secretary of state and superintendent of public instruction. The regents 
were ordered to immediately organize and maintain a mining department. 
The United States government donated 42,080 acres of land to aid in the 
establishment of the university. The same grant was made to Nevada as to 
the other states of 30,000 acres for each representative in Congress (90,000 
acres) for the maintenance of a School of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. 
Mining being the chief industry of Nevada, this fund was afterwards made 
available for the support of the Mining College instead. The site was selected 
at Elko, in Elko county, the citizens themselves building and furnishing the 


brick edifice. Tliis was Cdiiiplctcd in tlic winter of 1S74 and accepted I)y 
tlie regents. 


In 1874 the "Preparatory Department of the University of Nevada" 
was opened hy D. R. Sessions, A. j\I. and II P., of Princeton College. His 
first class consisted of eight boys and girls, all residents of Elko. In 1S76 a 
dormitory was erected and great effort made to induce pupils to attend the 
university from the other counties of the state. No charge was made for 
tuition or lodging, and board was reduced to the lowest possible minimum 
($30 per month). There were never more than three pujiils at a time from 
outside points. Elko won the state university Iw offering the greatest induce- 
ments, and her citizens paid $20,000 in building and fiu'iiisbing the uni- 

The placing of tlie university at Elko was always felt to be a great mis- 
take as the town had less than population. Elko, however, did not 
want to lose the money siie had put into the university. Reno was in first 
place when the transfer of the university to some more favorable point was 
discussed. She agreed to pay Elko $20,000 for her title and also to give 
$5,000 with which to erect buildings. The legislature of 1885 passed two 
bills, which conflicted with each other, one authorizing the transfer to Reno 
if $20.00 is paid; the second authorizing Washoe county to pay $20,000 to 
Elko county after Elko transferred title to unix-ersity site to Washoe. Hap- 
pily all difficulties were smoothed o\er and the university removed to Reno. 
From the time it ojiened in Elko to the time of its closing, in 1885, the uni- 
versity was such only by courtesy, for it was only a preparatory school at 
Elko. It is now as it should always have been, the head of the educational 
system of Nevada. It is in fact the only institution of university or college 
grade and equiimient within the state boundaries, beginning its life as such 
with the academic year 1886-87, when it formally ojiened in Reno. 

The Constitution of Nevada provides that the legislature shall encourage 
by all suitable means the promotion of intellectual, literary, scientific, mining 
and mechanical improvements, as well as agricultural and moral improve- 
ment, and shall ])ro\'ide for the "establishment of a State University which 
shall embrace departments for agriculture, mechanic arts and mining." The 
support of the university is proyided for under the provisions of the general 
government, which says: "Each state and territory to maintain at least 
one college, where the leading object shall be, without excluding other sci- 
entific and classical studies and including military tactics, to teach such 
branches of learning as are related to agricidture and mechanic arts." It 
is further aided by means of biennial appropriations from the legislature of 
the state. From the general government the university receives $25,000 an- 



nually, and the sum from the state varies each year. The legislature of 1891 
appropriated $12,000 for the constructipn and equipment of a stone and 
brick building to be known as the "Chemical and Physical Laboratory." It 
has been conii)leted and is used for instruction and research in chemi.stry. 
The same year the legislature appropriated $3,500 for a hospital for sick stu- 
dents. The two buildings are a handsome addition to the university. The 
hospital is well equipped with a competent nurse always in charge. Since 
it was finished, September 22. 1902, to March. 1904, forty-four students 
have been cared for. The president's house has proved quite a bone of con- 
tention. It is always desirable that the president's house .should be upon the 
giounds proper, supervision otherwise lieing an impossibility. Un- 
able to secure an appropriation for one, the public-spirited citizens of Reno 
erected a building costing $9,000 \\hich will be repaid so that the state may 
ow'n the Iniilding. 

The president sadly needs a library building, the present quarters, in 
the basement of Morrill hall, being badly cramped: $25,000 will build one 
and the only hope seems to be outside of the state legislature. Some friend 
of education may donate one. Another building badly needed is a Metal- 
lurgical building. Appropriations have been asked for and not granted. 
The present Mining Laboratory contains the metallurgical laboratory and 
one class room, the chemical laboratory of the School of Mines and the 
mineralogical laboratory. The assay office has accommodations for only 
twelve students and the (piantitative chemical laboratory for but sixteen. 
The students ha\-e built a small mill in connection with the concentrators, 
amalgamating and leaching plant. 

The state legislature of 1895 P^'ssed an act authorizing citizens of Ne- 
vada to send ores and minerals to the university for assay, without cost to 
themselves. The value of the analytical and assaying wi)rk has been very 
great to the citizens of Nevada. Now that the mining industry is 
advancing so rapidly in every part of the state, much more interest is being 
manifested in the School of Mines. An annex will be added to the present 
School of Mines, containing a metallurgical laboratory and an assaying 
laboratory under one roof. The School of Mines of Xexada, handicapped as 
it has been always, has established an enviable record. Graduates have taken 
the highest of positions, notably in South .\merica. 


The Univei-sity of Nevada now has eleven buildings on a campus of 
thirty-five acres. The oldest of these is Morrill Hall, named in honor of 
Senator Morrill. It contains the college administration offices, the presi- 
dent's office, the faculty room, tlic departments of Latin, physics, history. 


drawing, tlie commercial school and the library in the basement. Northeast 
of Morrill Hall is the United States Agricultural Experiment Station. It 
is devoted to the research work in agriculture. In the basement is one of the 
recitation rooms and a lalmratory; on the first floor there are two recitation 
rooms and the third floor is devoted to the botany recitation room and the 
second to a laboratory. The ch.emical laboratory is used also by the station. 
The station laboratory, the dairy laboratory, and the nitrogen laboratory, 
used exclusively for station purposes, are on the second floor of the building. 
It is often called the Hatch Experiment Station, confounding it with the 
Agricultural Station proper in which are taught not only botany l)ut zoology 
and entomology. Stewart Hall, named for United States Senator W. M. 
Stewart, is west of Morrill Hall. It contains the normal school, departments 
of French, mathematics, English, domestic arts and science. The base- 
ment contains the dining room for dormitory students. The Y. M. C. A. 
rooms are also in the Stewart !)uilding. The Chemistry building is devoted 
entirely to chemistry for university courses and for experiment station as 
detailed above. The Mining building is occupied by departments of mining, 
geology and civil engineering. The Mechanical building contains the me- 
chanical .shops and the draughting room. On the ground floor are the ma- 
chine and blacksmith shops, boiler room, etc. The wood shop is on the second 
floor and contains jig saws, band saws, wood-working machines, wood lathes, 
trimmers and grindstones. There are twenty-four benches for the students 
and twenty-four lockers, fully equipped. Every departiuent is finely equipped 
for practical work. 

The gymnasium is de\-oted to physical training and indoor sports. It 
is also used as an assemlily hall for the faculty and students. It is modern 
in construction, 60 feet wide and 120 feet long. The equipment is modern 
and ample for all college purposes. Lincoln Hall is the dormitory for young 
men, the legislature appropriating .$35,000 for this and the "Cottage," the 
dormitory for young women. It is a delightfully modern college hall, antl 
a well furnished home for the young men. 

"The Cottage" is the hall for young women and is also modern and 
well furnished. It is located upon the ])laza in the southwest part of the 
campus and overlooks both Reno and the whole \'alley. There are single 
and double rooms to accommodate forty young women, and there is a reatling 
room and parlor for the students as also for the lady in charge, best known 
l)y the title "Mistress of the Cottage." The rightful title of "The Cottage" 
is "Manzanita Hall," but it is seldom spoken of by the latter name, as its 
name was changed from the former to the latter as late as 1903. 

If only the library had pleasant cpiarters it would be a great addition 
to the university. It has over 10,000 bound volumes, and about 8,000 pam- 


phlets. Daily and weekly newspapers are supplied, many by courtesy <if the 
publishers. The books of reference are especially fine. The lil)rary is classi- 
fied according" to the Dewey Decinial Classification System. 


Five minutes' walk from the university campus is the Experiment Sta- 
tion Farm. It contains o\er sixty acres of land, with ninety inches of water 
for irrigation. Not only ordinary experiments but special irrigation experi- 
ments ha\'e been carried out. It is finely located, and since its purchase the 
land has nearly doubled in A-alue. This land has not all been made available 
for the production of farm crops, there Ijeing about three acres on a rise of 
ground in the northwest corner of the farm, for which water is hard to secure. 
The buildings for live stock will be placetl here and also supply an area for 
testing range grasses without irrigation, eighteen acres havingf been ]ilowed 
and mapped into acre jilats and fractions of acres. There are several low 
[ilaces which are being gradually leveled. The balance of the farm is seeded 
to alfalfa and Kentucky blue grass. Five acres of the hay land was used 
for crops the past two years and more mone}' realized than from the hay. 
The station staff in igoi held the first farmers" institute ever gi\-en in Ne- 
vada, and in 1903 three institutes were held, one in Elko, one in Loxelocks 
and one in (jardnerville. The \ice director was in charge and highly pleased 
with results. The recent fire caused great loss to the station, plants, insects 
and birds being destroyed, but the loss has l)een nearly rejjlaced already. 
The station is sui)])orted entirely by the United States Hatch Fund, and 
what is realized from the sale of farm products. The slate of Nevada has 
not given a dollar to the station, ranches and stockmen recei\ing all benefits 
without cost to themselves. The board of regents of the university constitute 
a "board of control" for the station, having charge of all moneys. 


All male students, unless physicall_\- unable, are rc(|uired to belong to 
liie company of cadets. The course includes instruction in military tactics. 
with comi)any and battalion drill e\ery day. A commissioned army officer 
is always in charge, detailed liy the War l)e])artment. A number gave un- 
satisfactory results, being totally unfit to have charge of yoimg men. ;md 
Captain H. C. Clark, by reason of his wounds, was incajjable. The cadets 
are known as "The Battalion of Cadets of the Nevada .Stale L'nivcrsity." 
There are two companies and a fine band. The cadet officers receive commis- 
sions from the governor, who is entitled to their services in case of insur- 
rection or rebellion. 

There are litcrarv societies and .social clubs, which with the informal 


dance once a inontli ser\-c lo make social life pleasing'. The \-arious classes 
also gi\e dances. Fo<itball, Ijaseliall. tennis and basket hall ha\e many fol- 
lowers. The athletic field consists of six acres, loaned to the university Ijy 
Regent J. N. Evans. The tennis courts and Iwsehall and military drill fields 
are located here. The .Athletic .Association comjirises every student. Semi- 
annual assessments pay expenses. The track team, the l)asel)all team, the 
football team, and the basket ball team for 1904 are all doing good work and 
indidging in C(.m]>ctition with other 'varsity teams. In the way of music, in 
addition t<i the cadet band, there is also an excellent orcheslni and an C(|ually 
fine S\ni]ihony Club. 


In September, 1893, the upper classmen agitated the matter of pul)li«h- 
ing a college paper. .\t first the regents agreed, then forbade its issuance. 
The Adelphi, then the literary society, had the matter in charge, but upon 
the action of the regents severed all connection with the idea. Twenty stu- 
dents of the senior, junior and sophomore classes, decided to issue a paper 
in defiance of the regents. It was call "^dle Student Record" and in secrecy 
printed 1)_\' the Ne\ada State Journal. It has grown in size every year and 
is a credit lo the students. The students who publish it form an independent 
association and ha\'e made money, donating $joo to the gymnasium fund. 
The college annual is also ]niblished by the association. It is beautifully 
bound in blue and sil\-er, handsomelv illnstraterl, with full records of all 
■\-arsity societies and ])roceedings. The literar_\- work, fiction especially, is 
entitled to high praise. 

In addition to the social and literary societies there is a Young Men's 
Christian Association and a A'oung Women's (.'hristiati .\>sociation of the 
University of Nevada. 

The dramas and farces played are sometimes written liy the students and 
sometimes culled from the outer world. 

From the beginning the uni\'crsit\^ has had much to contend with. It 
started off in Reno with SiJ,700 for the first fioor and exterior, Rurke 
Brothers receiving the contract in Jnly, 1886, and it was gradually added to. 
Fler first presidents accomplished all that was possible, excepting Professor 
Le Roy Brown, wIkt was asked to resign in November, 1889. The present 
•president, Joseph Fdward Stubhs, D. D., LL. D., was appointeil in 1894, 
and has gi\'en great satisfaction to students, regents and the state. The de- 
\elopment of the institution has been remarkable in his nine years of admin- 
istration. The course of study has been raised, the enrollment of students 
increased from 189 to t,^C^: a number of fine buildings have been erected, 
the campus enlarged, and his eft'orts in organizing University Extension 


classes lias made the university influence widely felt. He has shown great 
tact, energy, enthusiasm, and sound business judgment, and his influence 
is felt not only in the university but by the community at large. 

Dr. Stubbs was born in Ashland, Ohio, March 19, 1830, receiving his 
early education in the Ashland high school, later entering the Ohio W'eslevan 
University at Delaware. He has held many responsible positions. W'lien 
president of the Baldwin Uni\ersity at Rerea. he was given two years' leave 
of absence, which he spent in the University of Berlin and in travel. Dr. 
Stubbs is assisted by a faculty of 24. The standard of admission to the 
University of Nevada is reasonably high, and is equal to the colleges of 
second rank throughout the United States. The faculty is made up of young 
men and women of approved learning and ability, antl thev are pushing" the 
work of the university in all its departments as fast as possible to a ]:)ractical 
but yet scholastic standard. 


The universit}' has three colleges, College of Arts and Science, College 
of Applied Science, and College of Agriculture and Domestic Arts. The first 
has two schools, the School of Liberal Arts and the School of General 
Science; the second has three schools, the School of Mining Engineering, 
School of Mechanical Engineering, and School of Civil Engineering. The 
third has two schools, the School of Agriculture and School of Domestic 
Arts and Science. 

The State Normal School is a co-ordinate part (it ihe universit\- aiid 
has two departments — one for schools of the grammar grade, the other 
preparing teachers for high schools. 

The university also maintains a high school designed for students from 
sections of the state whicli ha\e no high schools. Tiie lhii\-ersity high 
school ofifers a three years' course, cither Latin, German or commercial. The 
high school is organized separately from the university. In the high school 
are 146 students. 

The degrees gi\cn are: i.achclor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Master 
of Arts, and Master of Science. In addition are the engineering degrees. 
Mining Engineer, Mechanical Engineer and Civil Enj^ineer. 

The university is delightfully situated on the nortJiern bench of tiie 
Truckee Valley, with a beautififl \iew of the mountains sweeiiing in a semi- 
circle around it. Mt. K(jse and Mt. Slide of the Sierra X'evada range arc 
on the west, and a lower but not less beautiful range of mountains to the 
south and east. The surroundings all make for health and beauty. The 
university is at the junction of three railroads, another fact in its fa\'or. The 
town of Reno is growing so rapidly that the enrollment .at the uni\'crsity is 
certain to keep pace. 


Nevada's puislic school system. 

Tlie pulilic school system lias not greatly improxcd in Ncwula. It is 
not from lack of money, for in December, 1901, there was a net balance in 
the State Educational b\in(l of ,$1,596,958.62, the total amount of bonds, 
with accrued interest, and cash held l)y the State of Nevada in trust for the 
State Educational Fund. In December. 1902, there was $1,631,002.63 and 
relatively the same amount in 1903. 

One great drawback is the inequalit_\- in the length of the school terms. 
There are four schools whose terms are less than three months; there are 
nineteen maintained three months; there are thirty maintained over three 
and less than si.x months ; 83 are in session more than si.x and less than 9 
months, while i ?2 are maintained nine months and over. Of these fortv- 
four are primary, 211 unclassified, forty-eight grammar and fourteen high 
schools, a total of j^t, in 239 school districts. In consequence the teachers 
of the short term schools are often poorly paid and inefficient. When the 
cliildren of these schools come in to the graded woi^k of towns and cities, the 
showing is pitiful. If the population were not so scattered, districts could 
be consolidated but the state is so sparsely populated, and the 60,000 people 
so widely scattered, it is almost impossible. A great mistake was made 
when the ofiice of county superintendent was aliolished and district attorneys 
compelled to act as ex-officio superintendents without additional pay. The 
office should be re-created and salaries commensurate allowed. Another 
false economy, or so regarded by the teachers, is the non-allowance of help 
for the state superintendent. He has to do clerical \\-ork and cannot visit the 
schools. The sum allo\\-ed him for expenses has been nearly all turned 
back to the state treasury. Yet with all this lack of supervision the schools 
are impro\-ing, noticeably so the past few years. When one stops to think 
that these rural schools are scattered over 1 10,000 square miles of mountains, 
valleys, plains and deserts from thirty to fifty miles apart, the teacher often 
a graduate of Nevada's high schools or university, it seems wonderful that 
so many find their way from them to the .State University. Although, as 
stated, many of the teachers are inefficient, many more are wide-awake, pro- 
gressive and earnest \yorkers in the cause of education, but you do not often 
find them in poorly paid, short-termed schools. The educational achievements 
of Nevada have made her an en\'ial:ile name in the older and more populous 
states. It rests with the j^eople of Ne\ada whether the school system shall 
be improved and placed where it should be. Many forget that conditions 
change with the flight of time, rendering new modes of education, new school 
law'S, imperative. What was all that was required in 1863 is totally inadequate 
in 1904. One thing was done which was commendable, and that was the 
adoption of a new series of text books in 1901, the same year the legislature 


appropriated $200 to pay the expenses of a state institute, tlie first one Ijeing 
held in Carson the April following. The State Board authorized in 1902 
the purchasing of United States bonds, 4 per cent, of the par value of $1 1 5,000, 
which cost $158,766.07. or a premium of $43,766.07, greatly reducing the 


In March, 1S95, a bill was passed by the legislature, allowing the estab- 
lishment of County High Schools. Elko county took advantage of this at 
once, locating one in Elko, the county seat, bunds were raised by taxation 
and a fine brick buiUling erected. Considerable apparatus, chemical, physical 
and physiological, was purchased and three teachers employed. Elko was 
the only county taking advantage of this opportimity of educating children 
at home after tliey passed out of the grammar grades. 

Nearlv all the principal schools have high school departments. Carson, 
Gold Hill, \'irginia City, Reno, W'adsworth, Gardnerville, Winnemucca, 
Austin and Eureka gi\'e three-year cnurses in high school work. .\ nunil)er 
of other schools give instruction in high school branches. 

The number of children in Nevada is constantly changing. From 2,601 
in 1865 it jumped to 10,592 in 1880, then down a thousand or so until 1890, 
when it reached 10.022. and in T004 it has increased sex'eral thousand, no 
census having been taken since ic)02, when it was 9,277. That is the num- 
ber of school children between the ages of 6 and 18. Only 6.952 were en- 
rolled on the ])ublic scIkkiI register. .\ ct)mpulsory school law is needed and 
will probably be framed and approved. The present one is, as stated before, 
a dead letter, and is not effective, and when put into execution is unable to 
stand the test of legality. The salary paid tn teachers is high, averaging 
$100 per miintli fur men and $61.58 for women, which means that good ones 
are very well paid and i)oor ones very badlv, and yet in accordance with 
their deserts. There are 281 women and 38 men teachers in Nevada. 

In January, 1902, $69,918.43 was apportioned to the different counties, 
and in July, $61,524.44. 

The school census marshal, one in each district, has to take an annual 
census every May, and his report is embodied in the report of the state super- 

Although the legislature of 1903 authorized school trustees to unite 
school districts on the plan outlined above, so far little has been done. Under 
the act school children can be transferred from one district to another, with 
all school moneys a])])ortioned to it. I'lider the old law children could not 
lie transferred, and if there were not ten in ;i district, that district C(]nld not 
draw any money. 

The text lxx>ks ba\'e not always been accurate and the teachers experi- 


enced great trouble with tlieni. I'or instance, wlien Harper's Geograpliy 
appeared in 1883, it was found to be full of inaccuracies. High schools and 
even towns were wrongly located, po])ulations either far alx)ve or far below 
census reports. It was soon superseded by reliable geographies. The legis- 
lature of 1901 made many radical changes in the fish and game laws, and 
all teachers are ikjw re(|uired to read them to the pupils. 

In July, 18S7, the industrial sciiool at the Orphan's Home, the gift of 
Senator Sharon, was di.scontinued, owing to the small numlier of ])U])ils who 
could take advantage of the opportunities afforded. 

In 1887 the Land Office at Washington appnned the selection of ■/■/2,.~2 
acres of agricultural land made by the state of Nevada for nni\'ersity i)ur- 

Carson City has tried repeatedly to secure an appropriation for a new 
school building, but the best that could be secured was the addition to the 
old buildings. The matter was submitted several times to the vote of the 
])eople, the last time April 30, 1889, but was always defeated. The school 
bond election, $40,000, was again defeated in Carson in May, 1892. In 
1884 the regents of the State University raised the price of school lands 
from $1.25 to $2.50 per acre. There was troul)le over this, for it was when 
the cattlemen were at war with the farmers, the latter contending that the 
cattlemen would secure land near water and then use all land adjacent for 
grazing purposes, for the farmers could not use the land without having 
access to the water. In 1886, about the time the uni\ersity was accepted 
by them, the regents reduced the price of land to the old price, $1.25 per 
acre. In 1885 the state was deeply indebted to the school fund, and also bor- 
rowed $20,000 from the University Fund. And the state has gone on bor- 
rowing intermittently from the School T<"und whenever necessary. 

At Reno a $40,000 schoolhouse was finished in 1904, and small school- 
houses erected in the new mining districts. A small schoolhouse was also 
built in Harriman (now Sparks). But the majority of the school children 
of Harriman go over to Reno to attend school. 

Private schools are an unknown quantity in Nevada. The university 
has removed all necessity for such a fine school even as Bishop W'hitaker's 
Girl School in Reno, which closed its doors fore\-er in June, 1894. having 
been in existence for over eighteen years. So popular was the school that an 
addition of 50 by 24 was made in 1886. In 1884 there were forty day 
scholars and forty-four boarders, eight teachers being employed. In 1886 a 
friend of the school and of the Bishop left $10,000 to the school. The will 
was contested but the school won the suit. Senator Sharon also left the 
school $5,000. The Bishop worked hard to make the place attracti\-e. and 


his garden was a marvel of beiiitv. Tlie scluiol luiilding was sold in 1903 
for a prixate liospital. it being- admirably adapted to such an institution. 

The children of Xe\ada celebrate every holiday. Arbor day is a day 
special stress is laid upon. The first Arlx>r day was celebrated April 13. 
1887. Adolph Sutro gave trees to the children to plant, evergreens, 
maples and locusts. Governor Stevenson sent east for another 1,000 and it 
was estimated that 10,000 trees were planted in all that first Arbor day. 
The day is set by the governor and is a legal holiday. 

Admission day is also celebrated by the schools, and the chilch-en are well 
drilled in patriotic exercises, flag-raising and kindred exercises. 

Reno has a fine kindergarten, the corner stone of which was laid by the 
Masons, the Grand Lodge, on May 29, 1901. It is known as the Babcock 
Memorial Building, its erection as a free kindergarten being the labor of 
love of Miss Clapp and Miss Babcock. 


St.\te a.\d Government Institutions. 

The Orphans' Home at Carson City — Loss by Fire — Nevada Hospital for 
Mental Diseases at Reno — New Hospital Building — The State Prison 
at Carson City — Work of Prisoners — Improvements Instituted by New 
Warden, John Lyons Considine — The State Library — The State Print- 
ing Office at Carson City— New Government Building in Reno — Car- 
son's Public Building — The Indian Reservations and Indian Schools. 

Nevada has not as many state and government institutions as manv other 
states, but those she has are kcjit up in perfect condition, whether state or 
government is in control. 

The Orphans' Home in Carson is a most worthy institution. It has 
been under the management of Mr. and Mrs. J. Josephs for a number of 
years. On the morning of July 4, 1902, the main building of tb.e Home was 
found on fire. It was a wooden fire trap, and it did not take long for it to 
burn to the ground. The fire originated in a defective flue. Occurring in 
the daytime not a life was lost. Had it occurred at night the lf)ss of life 
would have been heavy. 

The children are in temjiorary (|uartcrs while the new home is in process 
of construction. The remaining buildings are used for the juirpose. The 
new Home will cost about $35,000 and will be bnilt of stone from the prison 
quarries. It costs about $15,000 to niainl;iin the liume yearly, exclusive of 
teachers' salaries. 





















In 1901 there were eiglity chiltlren in tlie Home and ahnnt the same 
average each suhsequent year. It costs 30 cents net eacli cliild per day. .\n 
e.xtraonhnary number of cliildren have left the liome during the ])ast year, 
going to relatives or to homes which have been procured for them. In the 
whole number of children less than a dozen are full orphans. A profit of 
nearly $2,000 yearly is made off the live-stock. Chickens, cows, hogs, two 
horses are kept and all kinds of vegetaljles raised in addition to wheat, grass 
aivl alfalfa hay. 

March 3, 1869, the act providing for a State Orphans' Home was ]>asse(l, 
and on the 27th day of September, 1870, the directors of the Nevada Orphan 
Asylum at Virginia City were notified that all or])hans in their charge would 
be received at the State Home. On the 28th day of the following October 
the first children were received. Since the opening to 1903 nearly 700 chil- 
dren have been admitted. In the thirty-two years but four deaths have 
occurred in the Home. 


On March 5, 1880, the board of commissioners formally accepted the 
State Hospital for Mental Diseases, or as it was known then, the State In- 
sane Asylum, from the contractors. On the 2nd of the following July, 148 
insane patients were removed to the new hospital from the Insane Asylum 
at Stockton. On July 22nd of the same year tiie widow of Jerome Thornton 
(Lucky Bill) died in the hospital. Her husband's horrible death unseated 
her reason, and when her son died she gradually faded away. 

The hospital officials are: W. H. Patterson, M. D., superintendent; 
J. G. McCarthy, supervisor and clerk ; Mrs. Ida Sheehy, matron ; F. G. 
Folsom, engineer. F. L. Wildes is secretary of the board of commissioners 
for care of indigent insane. 

The 1st of January, 1903, there were 142 males and 57 females in the 
hospital. During the term just passed there were 25 deaths, and 16 patients 
were restored to reason. 

From the pay patients the sum of $1,591.25 was collected during the 
term. The total e.xpense was $71,000, leaving an actual cost to the .state of 
$69,408.75, a per capita per diem of 50.79 cents. The farm is a source of 
profit, as well as a healthful em]iIoyment for patients. Each year 24 acres 
of run-out land is broken up, used as farm land for two years and tlien 
seeded to alfalfa. The past term, two years, a net profit of $14,047.18 was 

At the meeting of the last legislature $6,000 was appropriated for a new 
hospital building and improvement of heating appliances in main building; 
$1,500 was expended for the latter and another appropriation of $2,500 had 


to he secured to erect tlie new Iniilding, which is made nf stone fmm tlie 
old ])rison walls. 

In the tailoring dejiartment, under Th(inias Speck, q88 articles were 
made during the term. 


The State Prison is located ahout three miles from the city of Carson. 
There are altogether eight huildings, made of the stone from the prison 
quarries, which is \ery fine. In n^oi tliere were sixty-seven prisoners and 
forty-fi\e added <luring the year, a total of 112. Thirty-six were discharged, 
sentence ha\ing expired. Thirteen were ])ardiined and one died, and one was 
sent to the State Insane .\s)-lum. In 1902 sixty-i)nc were in ])risi)n at com- 
mencement of year and thirty-se\en were received, a total of ninety-eight. 
The sentences of thirty-three expired and six were pardoned. Two were 
sent to the insane asylum. December 31, 1902. there were fifty-seven ]3ris- 
oners. March 21. 1904. there were se\'enty-nine prisoners. 

On January 23, 1903, John Lyons Considine succeeded L. O. Hender- 
son as warden, and he has alreadv made a record. He has instituted .1 num- 
1)er of ref<jrnis in the prison. The two arc lights in front of the main huild- 
ing have been removed and incandescent lights have l)een scattered around 
the groiuids in a complete circle of an eighth of a mile on e\-ery side of the 
main building. 'i"he safety of the prison at night, and from an attack from 
the outside, has been greatly augmented. .\ complete electrical alarm svstem 
has been introduced, and at the touch of a button the entire guard, the ca])tain 
of the guards and warden are summoned. These precautions make a prison 
delivery almost an impossibilitx-. Warden Considine has also replaced the 
steam ]>umping \>VauI with ;in electrical one which is cheaper to snppoil and 
instantl}' available in case i>f lire. Judging from the jirogress made in such 
a short time Mr. Considine's four years" term will be extended over man_\' 
subserjucnl ones. He rccei\ed word several times that arms anil ammunition 
would lie i)lanled in the vicinity of the prison 1)\- ci'iinin;ds from California: 
consequently e\erv night tlie bloodhounds of the ]irison ,'ire released and roam 
the grounds until daylight. 

Ml". Considine has also been utilizing the prisoners b\' gi"ading and 
filling in the boulevard from the prison to Carson, i-'or <|uite a distance lead- 
ing from the ])rison, shade trees have been ])lanted. and these will be added 
to until there will be a shaded boukward clear to Carson. 

The prison is not self-su])porting. the onl\- rcxenne being ;m insignificant 
amount from the sale of stone, dressed and undressed, from the (piarry. The 
cost of running the prison per year averages $33,500. The prisoners make 
jewelry, hair i)ridlcs. rawhide riatas, headstalls, (jiu'rts, miniature furnilme, 


liaudkcrcliicl' sacliets, pin i-iisliii)iis. satcliels, etc. W'liat (licy make is solely 
idr tlieir persfjiial profit. 

The jjrisDii relig'ious exercises are coinluctcd alternately each Siimlay 
afternoon by four clergymen of different denominations, comprising all the 
churches represented in Carson. The services consist of a sermon, prayers 
and hymn-singing. 

A large part of the \'egetal)Ies consumed, chiefly ])otato€S, onions, cab- 
bages and garden vegetables, are raised in the i)rison gardens. The prison 
surroundings arc thoroughly hygienic in every respect. A cosy office has been 
fitted up for the physician for his inter\'ie\vs with the prisoners. It is safer 
than the former [ijan of seeing jjatients in the room just off the entrance to 
the cell room. 

The prisoners are em])lo_\ed in the (|uarry, baker}', shoe shop, tailor shop, 
laundry, carpenter sho]), dining room and in general work. 


The act consolidating the offices of secretary of state and state li!)rarian 
took effect January 8, 1895. There is much detail and routine work in the 
lil)rary, for all volumes that come in have to be stamped, recorded and cata- 
logued with the title. ]irice, date and character. .All books going out are re- 
corded in full ;md charged to the individual and credited when returned. 
Correspondence is also kept up with other state institutions relati\-e to ex- 

In early da}-s attorneys were the ])rincii)al patrons, but now all tax- 
payers are entitled to its privileges. All the standard literature of the day, in 
the way of magazines and j:)eriodicals, may be found there. All the news- 
pa])ers, daily and weekly, printed in the state, can be found at the librarv' 
and at the end of the year the papers are bound, in yearly volumes, for future 
use. All the dilTerent law volumes, required by the supreme court, all the 
latest editions of text books published, court reports from the different .states, 
federal reports and digests, are to be found on the library shelves. Standard 
works of fiction have been added to the lilirar}-. 

The catalogue is graded in two separate anrl distinct forms, one known 
as the law catalogue and the other known as the miscellaneous catalogue. 
In 1899 more room was necessary and this was obtained by adding the former 
office of clerk of the supreme court. It is now known as the north room 
of the liljrary. and it accommodates 7,000 additional volumes. On the library 
exchange list are all the states in the Union, the territories, federal govern- 
ment and all uni\-ersities and efhicational institutions. In the dome are sev- 
eral thousand volumes, and the accumulation of many years of valuable docu- 
ments and reports. The immense weight is causing the dome to settle. Over 


$i,ooo per Aear is expended for buoks and sometimes double that amount. 
Tlie monev for tlie purchase of books comes from the hbrary fund, which 
is kept up from fees from the office of secretary of state and the office of 
clerk of the supreme court, no legislative appropriation being made for that 

The State Library is located on the second floor of the capitol building, 
in Carson City. 


The State Printing Office is kxated at Carson City, in the rear of the 
capitol, but across the street. It is built of stone from the prison quarry and 
cost $5,000 to construct. The first floor is devoted to the machinery and 
mechanical work, while the binders are upstairs. State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction Ring also has his offices on the second floor. Next to 
his rooms is located the museum, donated to the state by the disbanded 
Society of Pioneers. E. D. Chandler, in charge of the government irriga- 
tion work at Carson, also has rooms on this floor. 

.Andrew Maute is superintendent of state printing and has offices on 
the ground floor. By him the state printing office and binding department 
has been conducted in a most thorough, excellent and systematic manner. 
Will U. Mackey is his foreman. The class of work annually turned out by 
this department cannot be excelled by any government or state printing. estab- 
lishment in the United States. Work is increasing constantly. In 1901-2 
the total number of copies turned out was 138,133, a total nunilier of im- 
pressions of 1,144.924. 


On January 5. 1885. in Washington, D. C, on motion of Cassidy, rules 
were susi^ended, and the senate bill was passed, appropriating $100,000 for 
a public building in Carson. .\ commission was apjx^inted to select land in 
Carson for a site. C. M. Noteware, Judge W. M. Cary, S. C. Wright, M. 
Cohn and Jacob Kline w-ere appointed as a commission. Judge Cary was 
elected as chairman, and tlicn ensued a long and bitter fight o\cr the loca- 
tion. It was a number of years before the building was completed. While 
the fight was going on, Reno offered a $30,000 block in the center of that city, 
which quelled the fighting in Carson. It is a handsome block, and in it arc 
If^ated the postoffice and a number of federal offices. 

Three blocks down the street from the postoffice building is located the 
state capitol, a massive block constructed of stone from the prison quarries. 
It is surrounded by handsome grounds, in which is stationed the band stand 
used by the celebrated Carson City Band, fn the cajiilol arc located all of 
the state offices and the state library. 


Sliortly after the granting of tlic aiiiiropriatitm fur the puhhc hnikhng 
at Carson, a similar api)ropriation was made for a ])u1ihc huilcHng in Reno. 
The affair lias dragged along for a number of years. Last year a magnificent 
site was purchased on the l>anks of Uie Truckee ri\cr, just lielou the inm 
bridge and across the stream from the Carnegie lilirary. Work nu the build- 
ing will be commenced early this summer. 


There are nearly 6.000 Indians in Nevada, belonging to the Pah-Ute 
(vulgarized by the whites into Piute), Shoshones and Washoe tribes, the 
Pah-Utes being in the majurity. The Shoshones li\-e in the northeastern 
part of the state, the Washoe in the western part, near Carson City and 
Reno, and the Pah-Utes scattered throughout the state, some living in nearly 
every valle\- and settlement. 

There are four Indian reservations in Nevada : The Western Shoshone 
reser\-ation in the northern jiart of Elko county, lying partly in Idaho; it is 
the home of some 500 Indians about equally di\'ided between Shoshones and 
Pah-Utes. This reservation is in charge of Superintendent H. H. Miller 
and a corps of employes. A boarding school is maintained with an attend- 
ance of from sixty to seventy pupils. 

The Pyramid Lake reser\'ation, near Wadsworth, is occupied by some 
600 Pah-L'tes and is in charge of Superintendent F. B. Spriggs. .\ board- 
ing school is maintained with an attendance of about sixty. 

The Walker River reservation, south of Virginia City, is the home of 
nearly 500 Pah-Utes and is in charge of the superintendent of the Carson 
training school. There is a day school there with an attendance of atout 
thirty. The work of the agency is in immediate charge of a neighboring 

The Moopa reservation in the southeastern part of the state is a very 
small reserve and occupied by but very few peojjle. Steps are being takai 
to establish a small school there. The work is in charge of \\Mlliam Sharp. 
The Indians of Nevada are almost wholly self-supporting. The only ones 
getting any help are a few old people on each reservation who are unable to 
work, but the whole number so helped will hardly aggregate 250 people. 
Man}- (ju the reservations have their own land on which they produce hay, 
grain and fruit and make a good lix'ing. 'I'he men are in detnand as ranch 
hands, slice]) shearers antl \-aqueros, and they do such good work that em- 
ployers express their preference for Indians over transient labor. The women 
do domestic work, for which they are the main dependence throughout the 
state. The poorest class of Indians li\e about the town, along the railroads 
and create a most erroneous impression of the race. 


Tlie principal Indian school of Xevada is three miles from Carson City, 
and has an attendance of some 220 pupils. This is a training school with 
departments for instruction in carjientry, blacksmithing;, tailoring, shoemaking, 
sewing, cooking, farming and all useful trades. Pupils attend school half of 
each day and are engaged in some industrial department the other half, this 
being necessary for the accomplishment of the work as well as for instruction. 
The clothing for girls, and a large part of that for the boys is all made in 
the school. The laundry work, cooking, sewing and general work for such 
a number is no small task. 

The pupils print a little nmnthly \n\]Kr which is sent to regular sub- 
scril>ers as second-class matter. .Ml the mechanical work is done by the 
pupils and much of the literary wnrk. The pupils of the school are skilful 
in all mechanical work, excelling all white children in matters of art or hand 
work. The girls go out into families and give great satisfaction in w-ork and 
general conduct. The supply is not equal to the demand for servants from 
the school. 

The Carson school has twenty-two employes, including teachers, matrons, 
clerks and industrial instructors. The efficient superintendent is C. H. As- 
bury, who has been in charge since 1903, and has been in the Indian school 
service over twelve years in various schools as teacher and sujierintendent. 
The great trouble, in point of education, has been the failure to keep pupils 
to fixed habits of industry and temperance. They lea\e in a short time to be 
classed by the whites, in derision, as "educated Indians." The time is too 
short to educate anyone, especially when the starting point is so low. The 
prejudice against Indians is strong and the average white refuses to see any 
good in them, thinking they should do their drudgery eternally and cheer- 
fully and any manifestation (;f independence is classed as shiftlessness and 
bad faith to the whiles. The Indians are becoming used to such treatment 
and are able to look after their own interests. The Indi.-uis do some basket 
and Jjead work. 

A band has been maint;imc<l at the Carson Tr.-iining School for ;i Inng 
time, and several members of last year are to ])lay in an Indian band, selected 
from throughout the country, at the St. Louis fair. The Indians are good 
at football and baseball and wherever organized have held their own against 
all comers. 

A point in their fav<ir is the fact that Indian agents and sui)erintendciits 
are devoted to their charges. C. H. .\sbury, of the Carson Training Sch(x>l, 
is especially enthusiastic, and says that considering the few years the Indians 
have been removed fmni utter savagry be thinks they .are doing well to dress 
as citizens, make a livelilmod at lalmr ;ind cnini)ete with white people. 












The Sons of M.ars. 

Early Military Affairs — The Secehsion Conspiracy — First Call to Arms — 
Action of the Democrats — Raising and Forced Lowering of Confederate 
Flag— The First Nevada Volunteers — The Sanitary Commission and 
Sack of Flour — Paying the Wager — Only Militia in State At Present — 
All Forts Have Been Abandoned — National and State Appropriations 
For Militia — Roster of Officers — Nevada's Militia in Late War. 

Nearly the entire hi^tury of the Militia is told in the chapters on In- 
dians and the warfare carried on by them. The history of the regular army 
lies largely in that epoch, also. F>ut the unwritten history of both State 
Militia and the regularly enlisted rank and file would make more interesting 
reading than that of the Indian wars. even. The great Civil war came at a 
time when Nevada was striving to emerge from the condition of a territory 
to the dignity of a state, starting when she was not even a territory and not 
ended wdien she was admitted as a state. 

In wdiat was then truly the outposts of civilization, Nevada, only rumors 
of the war were heard at first. Nothing was known save what came through 
the mails and over the wires. Y'et there were patriots and to spare. The 
population was composed of both northern and southern men, and while the 
former were in the majority the foreign element sympathized with the .south. 
The southerners were emboldened to the extent of desiring a ci\-il war in 
Nevada. This led lo many <lemonstrations of xiolence. The southerners 
were still further encouraged by the fact that the military department was in 
charge of General A. S. Johnston, a native of the soutli and understood to 
l)e ready to co-operate with the Confederate government. General Edwin 
Vose Sumner suddenly arri\ed in San b'rancisco and took command, ending 
the hopes of the southerners on the Pacific coast. 

It was believed that there was a secession conspiracy, of from 20,000 
to 30,000 men, having for its object the establishment of state and territorial 
governments under Confederate authority. Commissions of governors and 
military officers, signed by Jefferson Da\'is, were sent to the leaders of the 
conspiracy. But all were under the watchful eye of the Federal government. 

At this time Genera! \\\ C. Kibbe was adjutant general of California. 
He applied to the United States military authorities, asking for 10,000 stand 
of arms. The conspirators, it was .said, had promised David S. Terry that 
he should be governor of Nevada. Many thought the Democrats were con- 
cerned in this plan, but many were o\)qu in expressing their lo}'alty to the 
Union and others as open in disavowing such, loyalty. So many were there of 
the latter class that the military authorities took a hand and Arrested them. 


imprisoning tliem in Fort Cliurcliili and piniishing them 1)_\ n.iaking them 
carry sacks of sand nnder guard of Federal soldiers. At that time the gov- 
ernment took the stand that every man who was not for the government was 
against it. Many .southerners declared that whichever wa\' their nati\e state 
went they would go. Many were Kentuckians. hut wlien their native state 
failed to go the way tlic\' w anteil her to they still were rahid secessionists. 
The Democracy was helpless on the Pacific coast, and especially so in Nevada. 
They had no part in the organization of the territorial government. 

Naturally they wanted a party. On I'eliruary 14. 1863. a call for a 
meeting was issued, signed by 64 leading Democrats, in Virginia City. The 
results were doubtful. Rebellious as they were there was only one occasion 
when the Confederate flag was hoisted. .\ man by tlie name of John-L. 
Newman hoisted it in X'irginia City, over his store, corner of Sutton a\enue 
and A street. He, with a crowd of southerners, stood around to protect it. 
Immediately, R. M. Waterhouse, the partner of Newman, hoisted the Union 
flag at the other end of the building and, pistol in haml, defied the whole 
southern Confederacy and said he would kill anyone who made a mo\e to 
take it down. Feeling ran high, but the southerners had to }ield and run 
down their flag. The secessionists were told that death would be the portion 
of anyone attempting to again raise the flag of the Confederacy. .\nt\ they 
heeded the warning. Later, they organized the "Golden Circle" to further 
the Confederate cause. To counteract this the Unionists organized the 
"Union League." Bt)th orders were liranches of those orders in the east. 


While California commenced the organization of four regiments in 
1801. it was the spring of 1862 before a recruiting olfice was opened in Ne- 
vada, the flrst one being in \'irginia City. Lieutenant S(i;q)cr, the officer in 
charge, as was the custom then, secured two drummer boys and a flag bearer 
and started througli the streets to announce the oi)ening of the office. A 
southerner rushed towards them and destroyed one drum. ;uid had started on 
the other when he was knocked down b\' the flag bcircr. Lieutenant J. H. 
Matthewson. I'nionists came to his aid. Jack Williams acting as drummer, 
a great procession of L'nion men was formed. 'I'he comp;niy marched to the 
city hall, where an enthusiastic Union meeting was held. Xe\ada gave J^ 
volunteers to California before she received jjermission to raise companies of 
her own. In 1862 the Third Regiment of California Volunteers under com- 
mand of Colonel P. E. Connor took possession of the L'nited States posts 
in Nevada. 

In the spring of 1863 Ne\ada received permission to raise a battalion 
of cavalry. J. II. Matthewson, afterwards lieutenant, opened a recruiting 


office at Gold Hill, he being the first officer mustered into service, with the 
rank of first lieutenant of Company B, Nevada Territory Cavalry Volun- 
teers, N. Baldwin being captain. At this time a company was recruited at 
Silver City, Company A, Cajitain E. B. Zabriskie. 

The two companies were mustered into service and marched to Salt 
Lake, in 1864. Zabriskie declined jjromotion and Baldwin was promoted 
to major of the battalion and placed in command of Fort Bridger. Four 
more companies were added to this battalion: Company C, recruited through- 
out the state, H. Dalton, captain: Company D, recruited in Gold Hill, Milo 
George, captain: Company E, recruited in Genoa, Carson and Silver City, 
Robert Lyon, captain : Company F, recruited in Aurora. J. W. Calder, cap- 
tain. There were also 1,000 men in six infantry companies, under captains 
A. J. Close, M. R. Hasset, G. .\. Thurston, Wallace, A. B. Kelly and Lieu- 
tenant W. G. Seamonds. They were stationed at various places in Nex'ada 
territory and Utah. 


When the members of the Sanitary Commission came to the Pacific 
coast to collect money and secure assistance wliere\er possible, they were 
surprised at the amount subscribed. Many who could not go to the front- 
sent their fortunes. Of the $4,800,000 raised by the Commission over 
one-fourth came from the Pacific coast. Douglas county gave $2,975 • Es- 
meralda, $10,080: Lander, $10,650: Lyon, $13,830: Ormsby, $13,600: 
Storey, $109,760.07: Washoe, §2,686: a total of $163,581.07. Churchill, 
Humboldt and Nye counties gave largely, but no record was kept of their 

At Austin, in April, 1864, there was a city election. The candidates for 
mayor were : Charles Holbrook. a Republican and a hardware merchant, and 
Colonel David E. Buel, one of tlie proprietors of the towmsite, and a Demo- 
crat. Excitement ran high over these two : Dr. H. S. Herrick, an ardent 
Republican, then in the Internal Revenue service, discussed the status of 
affairs heatedly with R. G. Gridley, a grocer. Gridley urged Herrick to bet 
on the election. A wager was finally made, the stake a sack of flour, fifty 
pounds; if Buel was elected Herrick should purchase it and carry it from 
w^estern Austin to Gridley's store, about a mile. If Mr. Holbrook was elected 
Gridley was to carry a sack of flour from his store to Herrick in western 
Austin. A band was to accompany the carrier of the flour, if Herrick, play- 
ing "Dixie," and if Gridley, "John Brown's Body Lies Mouldering." The 
Republican candidate was elected the next day, and Dr. Herrick appeared at 
Gridley's store demanding the wager. Dr. Herrick decorated the sack with 
small Union flags and the procession set forth. Herrick carrying Gridlev's 


Tlie procession was lieaded 1)\' the Austin Brass Band, the ne\\l_\' elected 
city officers, on horsehack. Dr. Herrick, then Gridley : Gridley's son marched 
by him, carrying a tlag, and a man followed them carrying a broom, the 
insignia of Democracy, draped in mourning. .V large throng of citizens, 
carrying lianners, etc., followed, among them a man with a sponge. Wiien 
the place of destination was reached, the sack was delivered, the sponge 
was tossed up in token of surrender, and the broom placed away in token 
of submission. Appropriate s])eeches were made, and the hilarity and joy 
was great. Dr. Herrick donated the tlonr to the Sanitary Commission. It 
was to be sold at auction. Then ensued a scene n<it soon forgotten. 

A stand was erected in front of Mayor Hollirook's store, and T. B. Wade, 
former mayor of Placer\ille, California, announced as the auctioneer. Music 
l)y the band and a few speeches warmed the hiilders up. Republicans ;nid 
Democrats strove to outbid e:ich other, all anxious to show their sympathy 
for the boys at the front. Buel, the defeated candidate, offered a certificate 
of indebtedness of 81,115 from the Indian Department, but ready cash was 
demanded. Mining stocks, mines, town lots, were all offered. .\ L'nionist 
bid $350 and asked to go to his home to get the coin, but was refused and the 
sack given to M. J, Xoyes for the same amount. He presented it to the 
Commission to be auctioned again. Everyone enjoved the bidding, and the 
ni)ur was sold and resold, indi\iduals i>urchasing it ruid later joining with 
others of their party to buy it again, (iridley's firm liid $200, and the mer- 
chants united and bid $300; lodges bid, the Masons bidding $1 13.50, and the 
attaches of the Reese River Reveille, $100, until .$4,549 in gold, or $6,000 in 
currency was realized. Accounts of the affair w^cre widely published, and 
then copied throughout the United States. Photograplis of Gridley and the 
sack found an immense sale, and the city of Austin adopted as a seal and 
coat of arms a representation of the sack. 

Mr. Gridley then determined to travel with the precious .sack of Hour, 
rejieating the sales. ])aying his own e.\'|)enses. He left his store and sLuIimI 
out in May. When the ])rocession started in Virginia City. Mark Twain 
accompanied it and Tom hitch made a s]iecch. .\t ;i ])re\ious g;ilhci'ing 
there he realized $580. But this second sale was held in (if)ld Hill ;md 
$6,062.50 realized. The procession went to SiK'er City where .'*^f^o5 was 
bid; then to Dayton, where $1,200 was hid; tlun hack to Gold 11:11, where 
$1,200 more was bid: then to Virginia City, Here $12,025 ^^''^ '''''• '" ■'"• 
$25,042 in gold, or $40,000 in United States currency. 

I'rom Nevada (iridley went through the princii);d citic,> f)f California 
realizing about $174,000 for the Sanitary fund. 1 h' went cast then, realizing 
large sums. A peculiar thing was that the sack of Hour changed Gri<lley from 
a rabid secessionist to an ardent Unionist. In a \ear he returned to Austin, 


ill and liadly in dehl. TTis business had gone to pieces in liis absence. Tie 
went to Stocktiin. CalilDrnia, where lie died in iSSi, and where he rests with- 
out even a wooden headstone to mark his gra\e. .\ ])oor recompense for 

The sack of Hour had brought about a change of feeling in Nevada 
Men realized that they could feel ditTerently about the war and still be friends 


The feeling n\er tlie death of Lincoln was intense, every town and 
city, every worthy residence in Ne\'ada, was draped in deep mourning. On 
the day of his interment, .\pril 19, 1^63. public services followed those in the 
east as closelv as possible. .Ml places of business closed for the dav. And 
it seemed that with tlie burial of the martyr were buried all partisan animosi- 
ties in Ne\'ada. 

I'Vw but sorrowed for the great dead. One man, who remarked at (jold 
Hill that; "It's a pity he was not killed years ago," was arrested and sen- 
tenced to recei\'e thirty lashes on the bare back; when ten had l)een given the 
sentence was commuted to carrying the Union flag from Gold Hill to Vir- 
ginia Citv, a card on his back re;iding; "A traitor to his country." (3n the 
way he was arrested b\- the provost guard and imprisoned. 


On January 12, 1877, the Mexican War Veteran Association was organ- 
ized for the state of Nevada in Carson City. It flourished for years, but 
few of the old guard are left. W. F. Stewart was its first president and 
A. D. Treadway first vice jiresident ; \\'. (iarrard was corresjionding secre- 
tary, and E. B. Zabriskie, recording secretary. The Association started with 
fifty-two members, many prominent men. 


Nowhere in the United States was there more intense feeling o\'er the 
Maine incident than in Nex'ada. It seemed as if the whole state w'anted to 
march to the scene of action cii masse. There were meetings and parades 
and enthusiasm ran high. Delay after delay did not dampen the patriotic 
ardor. Men enlisted, and while manv did not get to the front, only as far 
as Jackson\-ille, Florida, and some went only as far as Carson, it was their 
great misfortune, not their fault. 

The bravery of the Nevada patriots is on record and is an enviable one. 
Nevada furnished 600 men to the United States War Department, as follows ; 

Troop A, Cavalry, U. S. V., Captain F. Linscott commanding. 

Troop M, Second Regimental Cavalry, U. S. \'., Cajitain W. L. Cox 


Colonel Torrey's Rough Riders. 

First Nevada Battalion Infantry. U. S. X'olunteers, 426 mai commanded 
as follows : 

Company A, Captain Charles H. Colburn ; Company B, Captain W. G. 
Sanders ; Company C, Captain C. H. Stoddard ; Company D, Captain W. C. 

Troop A succeeded in reaching the seat of war and served one year in 
the Philippines. 

Troop M reached Jacksonville. Florida, enroute to Cul)a with the Rough 

The First Battalion of Infantry remained at Carson City, in camp, alxiut 
four months. It was mustered out, to the deep disappointment of the boys 
at tliat time, not having lieen calleil into active serxice. 


Tlie present strength of the National Guard of Nevada is 140, llie com- 
mander-in-chief and staff numbering 5: Company A. Infantry, stationed at 
Virginia City, 70: Company B, Infantry, stationed at Virgiin'a City, 6t ; both 
companies having eight commissioned officers. 


Commander-in-Chief — Governor John Sparks, Carson City. 

Brigadier-General — Lieutenant-Governor Lem .Mien, .Adjutant-General, 
Ex-Officio Quartermaster, etc., Carson City. 

Paymaster-General — Colonel J. .\. Conboie, Virginia City. 

Surgeon-General — Colonel S. L. Lee, Carson City. 

Chief-Engineer — Colonel Joseph Marzen, Lovelocks. 

Advocate-General — Colonel James H. Kinkead, Virginia City. 

A. D. C.'s — Lieutenant-Colonel F. L. Wildes, Virginia City; Lieutenant- 
Colonel Frank Golden, Reno: and Lieutenant-Colonel W. L. Co.x, Reno. 

Colonel and .Assistant .\djutant-Gcncral — .S. II. Day, Carson City. 

Company A. 

Captain — D. M. Ryan, Virginia City. 

Mrst Lieutenant — Henry Conrad, Virginia City. 

.Second Lieutenant — Melville E. Lamb, Virginia City. 

Company B. 

Captain — George D. Pyne, Virginia City. 

First Lieutenant — James Malioney, Virginia City. 

Second Lieutenant — (icorge M. Wren, Virginia City. 



As there lias never been made any requisition on eitlier government or 
state for any property for use of the National Guard, since early in 1898. 
there is left of the national apprnpriation over $18,000. The legislature of 
1901 apprnpriated $600 for the (iuard, all of wliich was spent. 


In 1880 the bodies of the soldiers buried at Fort Churchill were re- 
moved to Carson City. Only two could be identified. Major Ormsby and 
Major McDermit : the little son of the latter was buried with him. 
The headstones of all other graves had rotted away. The l^odies were in- 
terred with great ceremony, on February 18th: public services and military 
ceremonies were used. There were fifty bodies. In 1885 the 1)ody of the 
hero. Major Ormsby. and his wife were taken from Carson to Oakland bv his 
son-in-law, A. Donnell. 


The Bench and Bar of Nevada. 

The Lawyers Came With First Emigrants — Early Litigation — First Case in 
Utah Territory, Now Nevada — First Session of Probate Court in Car- 
son County — First Criminal Case — First Admission to Bar — U. S. Dis- 
trict Court — Admission of Attorneys — First Grand Jur_v — First In- 
dictment — Nevada Territory Judiciary. 

It is often asserted by Nevadans that they were never without lawyers, 
for they came with the first emigrants. For a year or two there was nothing 
for them U< do. In 1853, when E. L. Barnard was acting as justice of 
the peace, the first was brought before him on March 14th, John Reese 
suing Woodward and Company for $675. 

Two days later the first probate court in and f(ir Carson county, L'tah 
territory, was held by Orson Hyde, probate judge, where Genoa now stands. 
The county had been organized, and the territory was an immense one for one 
judge to cover. It was really little more than a court of a justice of the 
peace. In October, 1855, the first case was heard, J. Mclntyre' vs. A. A. 
Knouse, an action to recover $187.75. The court found for the defendant, 
taxing him with costs of suit. 

The first criminal case was that of a negro, Thacker, who had openly 
threatened A. B. Wyckoff and Mrs. Jacob Rose. He was arrested, fined 
the costs of the suit, $50, and advised to go over the mountains. 


Dr. Charles D. Daggett and Solomon C. Perren were tlie first attorneys 
admitted to tlie bar, on November 2, 1855. 


In 1856 Judge Driimmond came from Salt Lake to Carson X'^alley with 
one hundred families. His first grand jmy had no Mormons, but at the ex- 
piration of nine days he expelled seven, replacing them with Mormons. The 
court met in ]\Iott's barn at Muttsville antl the grand jury met in IVIott's 
house in the cool mornings and in a blacksmith's shop in the afternoon. The 
jury found one true bill against two parties, one E. Lamb, for stealing two 
horses. Lamb immediately made his escape. Later Judge Drummond threat- 
ened to "iron" the jur)-. InU failed to do so. In six weeks the judge left 
Mottsville forever, going to California. Judge Cradelbaugh succeeded him, 
convening court at Genoa on September 5, 1859. On the loth of October 
following, C. H. Bryan, R. Anderson, G. D. Hall, J. J. Musser, W. H. Brum- 
field and \\'. Stewart were admitted to the bar of the territory. 


On the 2ist of the same month the first indictment for murder, against 
William Sides for homicide, committed at Gold Hill, was found. Two in- 
dictments were found for lewdness, one for adultery, and one for robl^ery. 
Altogether that vear five bills for lewdness, one for adultery, one for rob- 
bery, six for assault with intent to kill, three for murder, and one for felony, 
were found by the grand jury. In i860 three indictments for murder are 
recorded, but these indictments must have been without merit as none were 
prosecuted. In October. 1860, Judge Cradelbaugh was succeeded by Judge 
R. B. Elanikcn. The latter was accompanied by L^nitcd States Marshal 
Henry Grice. Judge Maniken held court in Car.son City until its close. 


When the new terrilnry of Ne\ada was organized in 1861. (iox-ernor 
James W. Nye, on July 17th, divided the territory into three judicial dis- 
tricts as follows : 

First Judicial Di.strict — The comity of Carson, including all that por- 
tion of Nevada lying west of the 1 i8tb degree of longitude, west from 
Greenwich ; Gordon N. Mott, judge. 

Second Judicial District — All that portion of the territory lying be- 
tween the 117th and ii8lh degrees of longitude; George Turner, judge. 

Third Judicial District — All tliiil portion of the Icrriiiiry lying cast of 
the 117th degree of longitude; Horatio .M. Jouts, judge. 

This was the beginning of Nevada judici.d history, entirely discon- 
nected froiu the inlluence of the Mormon church, in Ltah. However, Judge 


Cradell>aiigli establislicd a national reputation hy fu-mly opposing tlie Mormon 
powers during liis administration. 


Tlie first district court was held princii)ally in Virginia City, and the 
litigation was nearly all over mining properties. A sort of common law. 
customary in mining districts, largely determined the questions involved. 
The best lawyers of the California bar participated in these cases. The trials 
were always marked by great excitement, and the stock lists of San Fran- 
cisco and Virginia City rose and fell with judicial rulings. Perjury and 
bribery were rampant, and even the judges did not escape suspicion but 
were openly charged witli being corrupt. The peculiar conformation of the 
Coni.stock gave rise to two theories "the one ledge" and "two ledge." 

In 1863 Judge Mott resigned, and Hon. J. \V. North, first surveyor- 
general of Nevada, was appointed by President Lincoln to fill the vacancy. 
He was an honorable man of unexceptional character, but the attacks on him 
by attorneys and litigants were as fierce as they had lieen- upon his prede- 
cessor. Hon. W. M. Stewart was especially savage in his charges of corrupt 
conduct on the part of Judge North. The result was a lawsuit for libel, 
which was tried in 1865, and Judge North was exonerated and all accusations 
against him declared to be without basis of fact. Judge North resigned in 
October, 1864. The appointment of North's successor was never made by 
the president, as the constitution of Nevada was adopted in September of 
that year. At the general election of the November following, the following 
judges of the supreme court were elected : Hon. James F. Lewis, of Washoe 
county; Hon. H. O. Beatty, of Virginia City; Hon. C. M. Brosman, of Vir- 
ginia City. Lots were drawn according to the state constitutional provision, 
and Judge Lewis became first chief justice, having drawn the short term of 
two years ; Judge Beatty drew the term of four years, and Judge Brosman 
drew the term of six years. Judge Brosman died April 21, 1867, and Hon. 
J. N. Johnson was appointed to fill the vacancy, remaining upon the bench 
until January, 1871. 


In 1864 there were nine judicial districts : First district — Storey county; 
second district — Ormsby county; third district — Lyon county; fourth district 
— Washoe county ; fifth district — Nye and Churchill counties ; si.xth district 
— Humlioldt county; se\-enth district — Lander county; eighth district — 
Douglas county ; ninth district — Esmeralda county. The first district was or- 
ganized to allow for the election of three judges with ecjual powers and 
jurisdiction so that the accumulated, unfinished business might be rapidly 
finished. Hon. R. S. Mesick, Hon. Richard Rising and Hon. Caleb Burbank 


were elected tii fill those three positions. The next legislature provided that 
but one judge should be elected in 1866. and Judge Rising was re-elected. 
The other district judges elected at the first election were: S. H. Wright, 
W. Haydon, S. M. Baker, E. F. Dunn. W. H. Beatty, D. Virgin and S. H. 
Chase. Some of them had not been trained to the law and the district courts 
had almost entirely original jurisdiction. 

Since the first organization many changes ha\e been made until in 
1881 the state had init seven judicial districts, and in 1904 but five. 


Secret Orders In Nev.vd.v. 

Masons First To Institute Lodge In Nevada — The Order Very Strong In 
Nevada To-day — First Lodge Under Nevada Jurisdiction — Losses by 
Fires — Subordinate Lodges — Commanderies — General Grand Chapter — 
Grand Lodge F. and A. M. — The Order Strongest in Nevada in 1903 — 
Location of Lodges and Officer.s — The Grand Lodge — Grand Lodge 
Royal Arch Masons — Other Masonic Bodies — The Eastern Star. 

.\s the Ancient Order of Free and .Accepted IMasons is the oldest secret 
organization in the world, it was fitting that it should be the first secret organ- 
ization instituted in Nevada. It was to Carson City the honor was given, 
and the lodge was named for that city. Previous to the organizing of tliis 
lodge Masons had gone to California to attend lodge whenever possiljle. 

Many Masons, banded in companies before leaving the east, had applied 
for dispensations to open lodges in the west, wherever they might make 
their homes. The first funeral ever held in the west took place in California 
in 1849. The body of a man was found floating in the San Francisco bay. 
On his lx)dy was only one mark — the silver mark of a Mark Master, bearing 
the initials of his name. No other clue was there, but the Masons took the 
body to prepare for the grave, and soon found other tattooing besides the silver 
mark. His Ix^dy was covered with Masonic emiilems, beautifully executed, 
in all the appropriate colors. It must have taken years to do the work and a 
vast expenditure of money have been required. Over his heart was the Pot 
of Incense and on his breast the Lights of Masonry. On his right arm were 
the plumb, the level and the scpiarc of the Fellow Craft, and on his left the 
emblems of Entered Ajiprentice — the Holy Bible, the square, the compass, 
twenty-four gauge and the common gavel. In addition to these were the 
Mosaic pavement. King Solomon's Temple, the tassel which surrounds it 
and the blazing star in the center. On the right arm was also the Fi\c Orders 


of Architecture, Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corintliian, and Composite. On the 
other parts of his body were the trowel, all the tools of Operative Masonry 
and the emblems of the Master Mason Degree, the bee hive, tlie Tyler's sword, 
guarding the book of constitutions, the sword pointing to the naked heart, 
the all-seeing eye, the ark and anchor; the hour-glass and the forty-seventh 
problem of Euclid were there, with the sun, moon and stars and comet; on 
one portion of his body were the three steps, emblematical of youth, man- 
hood and old age. The work was something marvelous. The broken column 
upon which rests the book of constitutions was a masterpiece. Reclining 
against it was the weeping virgin, holding in her left hand the Pot of In- 
cense, in the right the sprig of acacia, emblems of a pure heart and the im- 
mortality of the soul. Winged Time stood beneath her, his scythe by I'.is 
side, his hand resting on the maiden's head. 

Masons came from far and near to see the liody. Never before nor since 
has such a work of Masonry been seen. The identity of the man was never 
known, but every Mason in the vicinity, and among them many Nevadans of 
to-day, attended tlie funeral, and the Grand Honors were given to the stranger 

Thirteen years after this the first lodge between the Rocky Mountains 
and the Sierras was established, Carson Lodge No. 151. In February, 1862. 
a dispensation was granted by the Grand Lodge of California, the petitioners 
being Henry Grice, Abraham Curry, Phillip Stoner, R. B. Ellis, F. A. Tritle, 
F. W. Peters, J- W. Wayman, \V. C. Phillips, Seymour Pixley, D. L. Britton, 
Herman Armer, Wellington Stewart, W. B. King, and H. F. Rice. 

Until May 15 the lodge worked under this dispensation, when a charter 
was granted, and tli^y had legal Masonic existence, under the jurisdiction 
of the Grand Lodge of California. The first officers were Marcus D. Lar- 
rowe, Worshipful Master ; Etlward J. Smith, Senior Warden, and Henry 
Rice, Junior Wartlen. At the second meeting ten were initiated, and the order 
grew wonderfully, until in January, 1865, when the Grand Lodge of the 
State of Nevada was created, new charters were ordered with new numbers 
for the lodges within its jurisdiction, and Carson Lodge No. i. replaced 
Carson City Lodge No. 154, of California. Its membership then was 50, and 
in 1877 it was 138, but from that time it gradually decreased. ■ Its earliest 
Past Masters were: Marcus D. Larrowe, Henry G. Blasdel, Charles Mar- 
tin, Jacob Tobriner, B. F. Foster, H. A. Mason, Benjamin Edson, R. W. 
Bollen, H. I. Bickner. 

The second Masonic Lodge was organized on July 26, 1862, under dis- 
pensation from California, receiving its charter on May of the following year. 
It was given the name of Washoe Lodge, George W. Brown l^eing Worship- 
ful Master, R. R. Johnson, Senior \\'arden, and T. B. Prince. Junior Warden, 


under the cliarter; under dispensation tlie oflicers were: D. J. Glo_\-d. Worship- 
ful Master, P. E. Shannon, Senior \\'arden, and R. R. Jolmson. Junior 
Warden. When the Grand Lodge of Xevada was organized. Washoe Lodge 
severed, of course, its connection with the California Grand Lodge. It started 
with nineteen meml)ers as Washoe City was just commencing; it had 58 mem- 
bers in 1868. Init gra(hiall_v members left, until \ery few remained. The 
Washoe lodge was better off than the Carson lodge, for it owned its own 
hall, furniture and regalia, while the former had no temple, .\mong the Past 
Worshipful Masters were: W. I'Dote, C. X. Harris, Cj. Robinson, C. F. 

In 1863 a numlier of lodges received dispensations from California. On 
January 15, \'irginia Lodge Xo. 162 was organized, receiving its charter in 
May, 1863. The officers were: A\'. H. Howard, Worshipful Master: J. De- 
Bell, Senior Warden; J. S. Kelley, juninr Warden: when it came midcr the 
jurisdiction of the Xevada Grand L;)dge it hatl o\er 100 meml>ers, and in 
1878, when \'n-ginia City was in its glory, it had 213 members. Soon after it 
commencet! to decline, going down by degrees. It was known under Xevada 
jurisdiction as Virginia Lodge Xo. 3. In charitx' this lodge spent over 
$12,000. In the great hre which swept Virginia City in 1875 every thing 
the lodge possessed was lost; a few things were saved, among them the 
jewels; when the second fire came, the lodge was meeting in Odd l-'ellows' 
Hall ; after tliis fire the jewels were dug out of the ruins, only one jewel be- 
ing missing. They were made of Ophir gold and presented to the lodge b\' 
Colonel W. H. Howard. Their cost was over $500. Past ]Masters were 
W. H. Howard, .When Hires. J. C. Currie, M. j. Henley, J. H. Dyer, W. 

Silver City had the fourth lodge, organized under California. March 
20, 1863. Its charter was received the following IMay. its oflicers were 
J. C. Currie, Worshipful Master; M. J. Henley. Senior Warden; W. P.. 
Hickok, Junior Warden. It started with 34 members, had 76 in 1878, and 
then commenced like all the secret orders to decline. .\t first it was Silver City 
Lodge No. 163, changing under Xevada to .\mity Lodge Xo. 4. Its Past 
Masters had among them: Charles D. McDuflie, James McGinnis. fiarvey 
Randall, Isaac Haas, W. F. Frame. 

Gold Hill was the home of the fifth lodge, organized under dispensa- 
tion, receiving its charter October 13, 1864, working under dispen.sation 
from July i ith of the previous year. It was first Silver Star Lodge Xo. 165, 
changing under Xevada in 1865 to Silver Star Lodge .\o. 5. It commenced 
with 13 memliers, and in 1880 bad 177. Then with the dlhers it started 
lo.sing ground. Among its Past Masters were: S. W. Cliublnick. J. .Mc- 

A HIS rum oi- xe\.\d.\. 237 

Allistcr, L. C. Wiggans, A. Cillispie. \V. D. SullKTiiii, \\'. R, Wlurlcr, A, 
Ii'.gruncl, D. 'l'liiil)uni, J. II. llubl)s. 

Esmeralda Lodge No. 170 wa.s organized under dispensation in Septeni- 
lier. 1863, reeeiving its charter October I3tli following. Its first oflicers were 
J. H. Richardson, Worshipful Master: J. I.. Carter, Senior Warden: .\. A. 
Green, Junior \\'ar(Ien. In 1864 it had (14 nienihers. changing its name in 
1865 to Esmeralda Lodge No. 6. It went down until in 1S81 it had less than 
_^o members. Among the Past Masters were: M. A. Mnr])hy, J. Neidy. 
F. Neab D. J. Lewis. 

Escurial Lfxlge No. 171 worked under dispen.sation from janna.ry, 
i8r)4, luitil October i_:;, following, when it received its charter: its first officers 
were: (i. W. Hopkins, Worshipful Master: W. A. M. Van Bokkelen, Senior 
Warden : C. W'alker, Junior Warden. When it came under the jurisdiction 
of Nevada it was known as Escurial Lodge No. 7. and had 42 members. In 
1869 it had 154 members, declining with all secret orders from th;it year. 
Past Masters were: S. Owen. R. II. Taylor. G. W. Hopkins. LI. A. Gaston, 
Henry Rolfe. 

Lander Lodge No. 172 was the hist lodge in Ne\ada organized under 
dispensation from the Grand Lodge of California. It received its dispensa- 
tion March 25. 1864, with a full set of officers, L A. Titus, W. M. : A. D. 
Rock, S. W. : G. W'. Terrill, J. W. : T. A. Waterman, treasurer: J. W. Jones, 
secretary: R. C. Gridley, S. D. : E. X. Willard, J. D. : D. A. Metz, Tyler. It 
received its charter October 14. 1854, and had 20 members. It was known 
as Lander Lodge No. 8 when it came under Nevada jurisdiction. Its Past 
Masters were: D. M. Goodwin, I. S. Titus, W. A. Rankin, A. Nichols, H. 
Mayenbaum, De Witt C. McKenny, W. W. Wixom, M. A. Sawtelle. 


The first lodge to lie organized under the (irand Lodge of X^evada 
was Valley Lodge No. 9 at Dayton. Its dispensation was gix-en March 7. 
1865, its first officers being: C. F. Brandt, W. M. : H. Sweetapple, S. W. ; 
A. Gallatin. J. W. In 1865, October 15, when it received its charter, it had 
19 members, in 1879 it had 39 members, then began declining. Its Past 
Masters were: J. Crawford, C. E. Brandt, G. W. Keith. J. L. Campbell. 

Austin Lodge No. 10 was granted a dispensation on April 12, 1865. 
and on the following October was gi\en a charter. Its first officers were: 
Thomas \\'ren, \\'. M. : W. S. Thomas, S. W. ; M. A. Sawtelle, J. W. In 
1868 it had 57 members, and then declining, in 1871. by vote of the members 
its charter was surrendered, its property turned over to Lander Lodge No. 
8, and its life ceased. 

Seventeen Masons in Belmont applied for a dispensation, wdiich was 


granted to tliem on January 7, 1868, organizing Oasis Lodge Xo. 11. The 
charter was given them on September of the same year. The first W. M. 
was James :\I. Kennedy; first S. W., D. W. Cutts: first J. W'., S. Goldstein. 

In 1880 tlie membership was only 43, while in 1877 ^^ "^^'^^ 53- It also 
suffered the declination with other Nevada lodges, .\mong Past Masters 
were: Samuel P. Kelly, F. McX'eal, Woodson Garrard. 

Douglas Lodge, of Genoa, was organized by twelve Masons in 1868. the 
dispensation being given them in Feliruary, 1868, the charter September 17 
following. The first officers were: R. \\'. Bollem. W. M. ; S. E. Tuttle. 
S. W. ; H. Do\'le, J. W. Its highest numljer was 56, and it went down hill 
with the others. 

Reno Lodge Xo. 13 was from its organization a successful Masonic 
body. It secured a dispensation January 14. 1869, and its charter, Septem- 
ber 23 following. Its first officers were: James Z. Kelley, W. M. ; Barent 
Springsted, S. W. ; George Gisin, J. W. The first year its membership was 
34, in 1880 it was 90. It has gone on increasing with the years. The lodge 
first met in a frame building, but in 1872 the lodge incorporated, a lot was 
purchased, corner of Commercial Row and Sierra street, Reno, on .Septem- 
ber I and on October 15, 1872, the corner stone was laid with impressive 
ceremonies. In 1880 the lodge owned property worth $10,000. Its first 
officers were: H. L. Fish. W. M. ; George H. Fogg, S. W. : F. J. Windrell, 
J. W. ; T. K. Hymers, treasurer; B. E. Hunter, secretary; \\'. L. Bechtel, 
S. D. ; B. S. James. J. D. ; Martin Sanders and L. B. Batchelder, stewards; 
N. C. Haslund, Tyler ; W. A. \\'alker, marshal. Past Masters are : Joseph 
DeBeii. L. L. Crockett, H. L. Fish, J. H. Kinkead. F. J. Winchell, J. C. 
Hagerman. Charles Knust. 

White Pine Lodge No. 14 was the outgrowth of the Masons of Hamil- 
ton, Treasure City and Shermaiitown comljining for mutual assistance. 
They secured a dispensation in 1870, March. The charter was received Sep- 
tember 22 ff)llowing. 'I'hc first members numbered 52, increasing to 84 in 
1872, then graduajlv declining. In that year a fire deprived them of their 
original charter, which was (hi])licatcd by the Grand Lodge. T!io lodge 
built a stone temple in 1869. The Past Masters were: T. X". Bnnvii. (1 P. 
McConkey, E. Harris, J. L. Robertson, E. H. Morton. 

In January, 1869, the Masons of Elko organized, and received a charter 
Sejjtember 21, 1871, working under dispensation frnm January, 1871, mitil 
then. Tiie first memi)erslnp was 20, and in 1874, 75, in 1880, 65. It suffered 
from depression as did tlie others. In 1880 the lodge owned a half interest 
in a brick block, furniture, regalia, etc. Its first officers were: J. D. Treat, 
\V. M.; H. .\rmer, S. W. ; E. S. Yeates, J. W. ; R. Oliver, trea.surer; T, N. 
Stone, secretary; J. J. Hoffman, S. D. ; J. C. ICchnancr, J. D. Past Masters, 


M. 1'. iM-eenian, C. P,. Al.k-, T. N. Stone, J. D, Treat. Tlie name is Elko No. 


Eureka Lod^^'e No. lO was organized in 1871, receixiny dispcnsatinn 

April 3, 1872: tlieir eliarter was granted in September following. It had 

42 members, and its first officers were: D. P>. Tmmel, W. M.; D. E. Bailey, 

S. \V. : J. Rilley. J. W. : its Past ^Masters are: 1). E. Bailey. A. D. Rock. 

J. (iillispie, R. (jillisi)ie. Hiram Johnson, C. J. R. Buttlar. Reinhold Sadler. 

In 1S97 .'1 fire destroyed tem])le. jewels, regalia and furniture, the loss being 

$20,000 witli $5,000 insurance. Humlioldt, Eureka count\\ was the liome of 

this lodge. 

Humboldt Lodge No. 17, of Unicjiiville. came into existence by dis]jensa- 
tion November 6, 1S71. The charter was given November. 1873. Its first 
officers were: W. L. French. \V. M.: G. E. Muller. S. W. ; O. R. Stampley, 
J. W. Its Past Masters were: \\'. L. b'rench. George E. Miller. Its member- 
ship was never over 25, oftener 18. 

Pioche was the scene of operation for Masons some time before the 
dispensation was gi\en them. August, 1872; the charter following in No\-em- 
ber, 1873. Its f^rst officers were: J. F. Gray, W. M. ; D. R. Mitchell, S. W. : 
D. K. Dickinson, J. W. Past Masters : R. H. Elam. J. F. Halleck, C. E. 
Myers. J. M. Hanford. Its highest memljership was 84 in 1874, gradually 
falling away. Its name was St. John Lodge No. 18. 

\\'innemucca was the home of W'innemucca Lodge No. 19. The dispen- 
sation was given on June 17, 1874, the charter November 18 following. It 
.started with 16 members, its first officers being: P. \V. Johnson. W. M. : 
A. J. Shepard, S. \\\ ; Thomas Shone, J. W. Its highest membership was 
in 1877, when it had 47. It dwindled away with the rest. Its Past blasters 
were: A. J. Shepard, P. W. Johnson, T. Shone. 

Palisade Lodge No. 20. of Palisade, had a hard time getting established. 
Elko Lodge against it and Eureka Lodge for it. It had a very small mem- 
bersliip. ne\'er more than 20. It secured a dispen.sation on June 20. 1876. 
and a charter June 13, 1877. T. F. Lawler, W. M. ; G. Rogul, S. W. : J. E. 
Marshall. J. W.. were the first officers. Past Masters were: T. E. Lawler; 
W. S. McLellan. 

A dispensation was given to Tuscarora Lodge No. 21. of Tuscarora. 
in February, 1878. Its charter was given in June of the following year. It 
had 36 members when the charter was given. Its first officers were : J. Z. 
Kelly, \\\ :\I. : ^^^ T. Smith. S. \y.; W. J. Hamilton. J. W. Past ^.[asters: 
J. Z. Kelly. E. S. Yeates. 

Hope Lodge with ten members was given a dispensation in 1880, but 
even next vear no charter was secured. Its first officers were : .S. B. Hinds. 


W. M.: J. E. Hart. S. \V. : B. M. Hague, J. W. lt> liome was in Mason 

A Masonic Association was formed by Masons in the vicinity of Ward 
in 1876, and it was in force for years. Its membership was 40, tlien 52, at 
last 20. It dispensed nearly $2,000 in charity. It was known as the Ward 
Masonic Association. 


In May. 1863. a dispensation was given to Carscjn City Masons to or- 
ganize Lewis Chapter No. i : its first officers were: G. \V. Hopkins, High 
Priest ; J. H. Wayman, King ; J. Stewart. Scrilje. Its cliarter was given Sep- 
tember 8. 1865, by the General Grand Chapter of Columbus. Ohio. Sixty-six 
Royal Arch Masons were on the roll in 1874. It also suffered loss of members. 

V'irginia Chapter No. 2 secured dispensation in Septemlier. 1865, and a 
charter, September 18. 1868. It had at one time 113 members. Its first 
officers were: G. W. Hopkins, High Priest; S. W. Chubbuck, King; .S. 
Owen, Scribe. 

Royal Arch Chapter Masons of .Vustin, seciuTd dispensation for Austin 
Chapter No. 3, in October, 1866, and charter in September, 1868. Its mem- 
bership decreased from 47 to a small number, then built up to 51 in 1S80. 
Its first officers were: DeWitt C. McKenney, High Priest; W. W. Wixom, 
King; H. Mayenbaum, Scribe. White Pine Chapter No. 4 secured dispensa- 
tion in January. 1871. charter the September following. It started with 14 
members, gradually increasing in 1880 to 27. Its first officers were: T. P. 
Hawley, High Priest: W. Timson, King: J. Tyson, Scribe. 

The Royal Arch Masons of Eureka, secured a dispensation for St. 
John's Chapter No. 5, April 26, 1873, and a charter November 21 of the 
same year. The first officers were: Samuel P. Kelly, High Priest; G. C. 
I^obinson. King; F. A. P>elkna]), Scribe. In 1874 there was a membershi]i 
of 36 and in 1880, 55. The chajjler lost all its property in the great Eureka 
fire of April 19, 1879. Past High Priests were; P. Kelley, Hiram Johnson. 

Keystone Chapter No. 6, Pioche, worked under dispensation from June 
12, 1873, initil a charter was received November Ji of same year. Its first 
officers were; E. D. L. Cutts. High Priest; G. R. Alexander, King; 'I". W. 
Abranis, Scribe. Starting with 14 members, it reached 50. and then in 1880 
had 23. 

A di.s|)cnsation was given Reno Chapter No, 7, of Reno, on March i, 
1875, '' charter being granted on November 23, of the next year. The first 
officers were: i'Tank IJcll. High Priest: C. Knust, King; A, H. Manning, 
Scril)c; L. W. Lee, C. of H.; J. P.oyd. ]\ S. ; C. Courtois. R. A. Captain It 
increased its memljership of 29 ten niemljers in ten years. 


The Grand Chapter granted a (Hs]3en.sation to Gold Hill Chajiler No. 
8, of Gold Hill, in November, 1876, and a charter in the following year. Its 
first officers were: S. W. Chubbuck, High Priest; G. Robinson, King; B. 
H. Carrick, Scribe: \V. C. Davis, C. of H. ; J. McAllister, P. S. : A. Ingrund, 
R. A. Captain. This chapter increased from 39 members to 70 in 1880. 


DeWitt Clinton Commandery was organized by Sir Knights at Masonic 
Hall, in Virginia City. Decenilier 16, 1866. and a petition was answered by 
a dispensation February 4, 1867. At the first assembly Jacob L. Van P>ok- 
kelen was Eminent Commander. He also served in 1867 and 1868. Sixteen 
members increased to 92. and in 1880 there were 86. The Commandery 
lost everything in the fire of 1875 save the charter and officers' jewels, and a 
committee report on preparation of bylaws. This Commandery was No. i. 

In July, 1880, Eureka Commandery No. 2, of Eureka, received a dispen- 
sation, working under it until August 19 following, when the charter was 
granted. H. H. Conklin was its First Eminent Commander. 

Silver Lodge of Perfection. Scottish Rite No. i. was organized in Vir- 
ginia. City, April 23. 1874, Henry St. George Hopkins being T. P. G. W.. 
and its meniberslii]i in 1880 was 100. 


On November 18, 1873, ^ convention of the High Priests. Kings and 
Scribes of the four chartered chapters of Nevada, acting under a warrant 
from J. H. Drummond. Gen. G. H. P., in 1873, November i, formed the 
First Grand Chapter for the State of Nevada. George Robinson was G. H. 
P., and when the Chapter convened for the first time three days later. Sam- 
uel C. Wright of Lewis Chapter No. i, was chosen G. H. P.: John C. Currie 
of Virginia City was G. H. P. in 1875 ; DeWitt McKenney, of Austin, in 1876 
and in 1877: Phillip Seldner, of Virginia, in 1878. and David E. Bailey, of 
Eureka, in 1879; Frank Bell in 1880. 


A Convocation of Delegates from the six Masonic lodges of Nevada 
organized a Grand Lodge for Nevada, in Virginia City, January 16, 1865, 
and adjourned, the Grand Lodge convening the following day. Joseph De- 
Bell was Grand Master, and George W. Bailey, Deputy Grand Master. New 
charters were ordered for all state lodges and other important business trans- 
acted. Three times in 1875 did the Order sutler from fire: May 19, the 
Masonic building in Virginia City was burned and with it most of the Grand 
Lodge Library. The Masons then met in I. O. O. F. hall, and when tliat was 
burned September 3, it took nearly all that was left. When the third fire 


came on October 26. nothing was left the ]\Iasons hut the funds they liad in 
a fireproof bank \-ault. 

For a time there was no l)uil(hng in whicli a secret (•)r(ler could meet. 
and then to<jk place the famous lodge meeting on Mount Davidson. Tliis 
mountain is 7,927 feet above sea level. In early days of the craft high hills 
were used for lodge rooms and similar meetings were held in California, 
in Eureka and .Auburn. 1851, Ijut this was on greater heights, a meeting far 
from human habitation. It was held l)y Virginia Lodge No. 3. but Masons 
were present from all portions of the globe, the following being represented : 
Nevada, California. New York, Kansas. Michigan, West Virginia, Utah, Mis- 
souri. Iowa. \\'isconsin. Maine. Colorado, New Jersey. \\'ashington (District 
of Columl)ia). England. Scotland, ^Minnesota, [Massachusetts. Washingt(jn 
Territory, Oregon, Virginia, Nova Scotia, North Carolina, Nebraska, Penn- 
s\lvania. Illinois, Canada West. Idaho. New Zealand, and Kentucky. 

A row of pickets, designated l)y white Iiadges around their left arms, 
were stationed around the summit so none could pass without permission. 
An altar of rough Ashlar supported the three great lights of ^Nfasonry. 
rough granite chairs were used by the Worshipful blaster. Senior and 
Junior Wardens. After the opening ceremonies the Masonic flag unwrapped 
its folds, showing the square, compass and Letter G, and it was greeted with 
three cheers and a tiger. Grand officers. Past Grand officers and members 
and dignitaries, enjoyed the l)anf|uet w hich was served before opening lodge. 
The regular order of business was followed, and afterwards speeches were 
made, Col. R. H. Taylor read a ]H)em. the evening closing with the singing 
of "Auld Lang Syne." 


The Masonic Lodges of Nevada are to-day in a fairly prosperous con- 
dition. They have performed more work, and although their losses b\' death 
and flimissions ha\e been (|uite large, still the net gains are much larger 
for 1903-4 than for many years ])rior. Erstwhile dormant lodges have 
awakened to new acti\it\". 

There are on the rolls 944 Master Ma.sons. 

Of the older lodges, Carson Lodge No. i has for Past Masters: G. C. 
Bryson, Trenmor Coffin, P. A. Doyle. P. G. M.. G. Gillson, M. A. Murphy, 
P. G. IVL, C. N. Notewarc. C;. W. Kirhard. C. j. Rulisoii. 1). ( i. Kitzmeyer, 
G. W. Keith. It has over 100 members. The present officers are: Samuel 
Piatt, W. M. : T. G. Farrer. S. W. ; W. H. Cavell. J. W. ; C. W. iM-iend. 
treasurer: E. D. Vanderlieth. .secretary: W. M. David, S. D. : G. B. Russell. 
J. I).; S. S. Robinson, steward: 11. Ileidenrich. steward: W. l". M:ickcv, 
M. ; B. J. Darnielle. chaplain: A. Jacnbs, Tvier. 


Virginia Lodge No. 3 of Virginia City. Storey county, lias for Fast 
Masters: William Dunn, H. Patey, William McMillian, P. G. M. ; R. M. 
Jackson, M. C. McMillian, A. O. Percy, E. Strother. P. G. M., J. Steffan. 
There are 54 members. The present officers are : J. F. Steffan, W. M. ; S. A. 
Chapman. S. Warden: J. D. R. Corhett, J. W. : R. S. Meacheam, T. ; William 
Dunn, secretary: J. H. Sutherland, S. D. : R. Bravin. J. D. : J. W. Richards, 
S. : J. Gentz, M. : A. O. Percy, Chaplain ; L. Lohenstein, Tyler. 

Escurial Lodge No. 7, of Virginia City, has for Past Masters: C. E. 
Mack, J. W. Eckley, P. G. M.. H. M. Clemmons, G. Henning, G. A. Morgan. 
P. G. M., H. Levy, R. A. Buhner, H. R. Shade. It has 80 members and the 
present officers are : H. Levy, W^ M. : R. A. Buhner. S. W. ; J. W. Locklin, 
J. W. ; G. A. Morgan, T. : G. Henning, S. : M. C. Pacheco, S. D. : D. P. 
Morgan, J. D. : W. II. Trathen, Steward: W\ H. Hancock, Steward: J. A. 
Conboie, Chaplain ; L. Lohenstein, Tyler. 

Valley Lodge No. 9, of Dayton, Lyon county, for Past Masters: J. L. 
Campbell, W. W. Stephens. W". J. Harris. L. Vincent, B. Gates, M. L. John- 
son, M. J. King, J. E. Gignoux. There are 30 members and the present 
officers are: C. E. King. W. M. : A. J. Loftus. S. W. : A. M. Smith, J. W. : 

B. Gates. T.: M. J. King, Sec: H. Davis, S. D. : F. P. Shirley, J. D. : J. M. 
Tailleur, Tyler. 

Douglas Lodge No. 12 has for Past Masters. C. W. Dake, F. Fettie, W. 
D. Gray. D. W. Virgin. H. H. Springmeyer. T. Tillman, L. Springmeyer. 

C. L. Fulstone. It has 36 memliers and the present officers are: D. W. 
Virgin, W. M. : W. H. Plelberg. S. W. : L. E. Jones, J. \\\ : J. R. Johnson, 
T. ; C. W. Dake, Sec. : F. Fettie. S. D. : J. Raycraft, J. D. : S. Rice, Steward : 
A. Lentz, Steward: T. Tillman, Tyler. 

Reno Lodge No. 13, of Reno, Washoe county, has for Past Masters: 
L. L. Crockett, F. Bell, P. G. M., R. H. Kinney, F. D. King, W. H. Patter- 
son, S. Logan, R. Lewers. W. L. Bechtel, A. D. Bird. S. Summerfield. C. .\. 
Richardson, T. Wren, J. M. McConnack, P. G. M., J. A. Christie. There are 
164 members and the jiresent officers are: I'". H. Norcross, W. M.: T. J. 
Steinmitz, S. W. : E. Barber, J. W. ; T. K. Hymers. T. : S. M. Januson. 
Sec; F. Grob, S. D. : A. W. Holmes. J. D. ; Stewards. H. G. Wedekind. 
T. W. Clarke; L. L. Crockett, Tyler. 

Elko Lodge No. 15, of Elko, Elko county, has for Past Masters, T. 
Hunter, S. S. Sears, J. M. Morrow, W. T. Smith, J. A. McBride, J. Hender- 
son, J. L. Keyser, C. H. Hale. Its present officers are : C. B. Henderson, 
W. M. ; G. Hunter. S. W. : P. S. Greely. J. \\'. : J. Henderson, T. : J. F. Trip- 
lett, Sec: R. H. Mallit, S. D. ; M. H. Wallace. J. D. : Stewards. J. Ackland, 
J. Clark: James Russell. Tyler. There are 80 members. 

Eureka Lodge No. 16, of Eureka, Eureka county, has for Past Masters, 


A. L. Fitzgerald. P. G. U.. D. Falconer. J. X. Hill. R. Sadler. A. Fraser, 
J. S. Burlingame, C. S. Batchelder. R. J. Reid. J. H. Shoemaker. J. H. Hoegh. 
J. H. Jury. J. Hancock. M. G. Foster. R. A. Laird. It has 47 memhers. Its 
present officers are: J. Hancock. Jr.. W. ]M. : B. L. Smoth. S. W. ; H. C. 
McTerney. J. W. : R. INIcCharles, Sec. : A. AlcCharles. S. D. : F. J. Brossa- 
mer. J. D. ; A. Hintze. Steward : T. Dixon. Steward. 

W'innennicca Lodge Xo. 19. of \\'innemucca. Humboldt county, has for 
Past Masters. T. Shone. E. D. Kelley. S. J. Anderson. A. Brown. M. Rein- 
hart. G. F. Muller. R. Battels. It has 55 members. Its present officers are: 
W. A. Brown. W. ^I. : F. Poulin. S. W. : A. Ruckteschler. J. W. : T. Shone, 
T. ; C. Wolf. Sec. : C. \^'. :\Inller. S. D. : T. D. Brown. J. D. : Stewards. J. A. 
Hill. A. L. Bracketl; James Hurst. Tyler. 

Tiiscarora Lodge Xo. 21, of Tuscarora. Elko county, has for Past Mas- 
ters. E. L. McMahon. A. H. Smith. F. Barnaba. W. McI. McMasters. J. C. 
Dought}'. W. S. Hillman. O. Graham. A. ^^'. Sewall. It has 26 memliers. 
Its present officers are: C. C. \'ach. W. ]M. : A. L. Anderson. S. \\'. : L. H. 
McMahon. J. \\'. : E. L. McMahon. T. ; J. C. Doughty. Sec. : O. Graham. S. 
D. : A. A. Primeaux. J. D. : Stewards. \\\ S. Hillman, A. W. Sewell: J. P. 
Burkett. Tyler. 

Hope Lodge X'o. 22. of Yerington. Lyon county, has for Past Masters, 
C. T. Martin. H. H. Reymers. G. I. Leavitt. G. W. Kneirim, \\'. G. Larue. 
It has 25 members. Its i)resent officers are: W. H. Metscher. \\". M.; ^V. 
N. Aiken, S. W. : H. A. Meissner. J. W . ; W. A. Reymers. T. ; G. L. Leavitt. 
Sec: J. S. Craig. S. D. : G. W. Kneirim, S. D. : Stewards. J. Walters. G W. 

Steptoe Lodge Xo. 24. of Cherry Creek. \\'hitc Pine county, has for 
Past Masters. H. A. Comins. D. R. Collins, W. 1). Cami)bell. G. 1'.. Parker. 
A. T. Stearns, B. I'. Bird. J. B. \\'illiamson. E. Harris. It has 30 members. 
Its present officers are: W. L). Campbell. W. M. : W. C. Gallagher. S. W. : 
C. F. Pahlan. J. W. : D. R. Collins, T. : J. Wearne, Sec. : J. P. McOmie. S. D. : 
H. Bress. J. I). : Stewards. M. Mc.\uley. H. Olson ; A. Huesser. Tyler. 

Wadsworth Lodge Xo. 25. of \\'adsworth, Wa.shoe county, has for Past 
:\lasters. T. L. Bellam. L. S. Bridges. M. Kline. G. A. McPherson. C. .\. 
Beemer, E. Shepley. It has 26 members. Its ])resent officers are: V.. II. 
Bcemer, W. M. : C. W. Lipe. S. W. : J. B. Woods. J. W. : T. L. Bellam, 
Sec; L. S. Bridges. T. : C. A. Beemer, S. D. : .\. W. McR.ickcn, J. I).: Stew- 
ards, E. Shepley. G. W. Davis; C. Griffin, Tyler. 

Amity Lodge No. 4. of Silver City. Lyon county, is among ih.c lalcr 
lodges. Its Past Masters arc Harvey Randall, j. Ilcnnctt. it h;is 19 mem- 
bers and its jircsent officers are : H. Randall. W. .M.: A. N. Ilcnnctt. S. W. : 


C. F. Stock. J. W.: A. R. Pollard, T. ; l^ Trimble, Sec; C. G. Hamilton, 
S. D, ; V. W'uuWsh. J. D. ; \V. Stock, Tyler. 

Silver Lodge No. 5, of Gold Hill, Storey county, has for Past Masters, 

F. L. Clarke, A. W". Perkins. It has 36 members. The present officers are: 
W. D. Bray, W. M.: W. H. Schweis, S. W. ; A. Washburne, J. \V. ; W. S. 
James, T. ; L. A. Lichtenberger. Sec. : F. L. Clark, S. D. ; \V. L. Bray, J. D. ; 
Stewards, C. G. Butler, B. F. Hazeltine; I'". Marohn, Tyler. 

Lander Lo<lge No. 8, of Austin, Lander county, has for Past Masters, 
A. Dren, W. D. Jones, E. Craine, W. C. Gayhart, J. A. iMiller, P. G. M. 
It has 36 members. Its present officers are: G. J. Polkinghouse, W. M. ; 
J. Tallack. S. W. : W. Eastou, J. W. ; J. A. Miller, T. ; W. D. Jones, Sec.; 
P. Terwillger. S. D. ; E. Williams, J. D. ; Stewards. T. Tlmmas, L. Steiner: 
E. Crane, Tyler. 

St. John Lodgp No. 18, of De Lamar, Lincoln county, has for Past Mas- 
ters, F. D. Turner, T. J. Osbourne, J. D. Campbell, H. \V. Miles, G. Nesbitt. 
It has 28 members. The present officers are : George Ne.sbitt. W. M. ; H. 
\V. Miles, S. W.; E. D. Turner. J. \\-. ; J, Roeder, T. ; J. Shier, Sec: M. 
Churich, S. D. : J. Fugle, J. D. 

Battle Mountain I^odge Xo. 27i. of Battle Mountain, Lander county, 
has for Past Masters, T. Nelson, E. T. George. It has 20 members. The 
present officers are : F. A. Limbaugh, W. M. ; L. A. Lemaire. S. W. ; J. C. 
Moore, J. W. : M. McGregor, T. : A. D. Lemaire, Sec; E. T. George, S. 
D.: L. EgofT, J. D.; Stewards, B. F. Wilson, W. C. I^ancock ; M. M. Yirt, 

Churchill Lodge No. 26, of Fallon, Churchill county, has for Past Mas- 
ters, W^illiam H. Sifford. It has 13 meml)ers. Its present officers are: W. 
H. SifYord, W. M. ; I. H. Kent. S. W. ; G. W. Webb, T. : J. W^ Richards, 
Sec; T, Dolph. S. D. ; F. Snnll. J. D. ; W. W. Williams and W. R. Lee, 
Stewards ; L. Allen, Tyler. 

Humlx)ldt Lodge No. 27, of Lo\elocks, Humboldt county, has for Past 
Masters, J. Marzeu. J. ;\. Ascher, R. Fulstone. it has 19 members. Its 
present officers are: J. A. W. ]\r. ; J. M. Foltz, S. W. ; H. B. Mc- 
Donald, J. W.; H. C. Marker, T. : .\. R. Edmoudsou, Sec; A. W. Edmond- 
son, S. D. ; E. Stiff, J. D. ; Stewards, B. C. Maris, F". Anker; A. Borland. 

Tonopah Lodge No. 28, of Butler, Nye county, has for Past Masters, 

G. T. Holmes, A. L. Smith. It has 25 members. Its present officers are : 
A. L. Smith, W^ M. ; H. N. Stevens, S. W. ; J. Lazorovich. J. W. : G. David- 
ovich, T.; J. R. Duffield, Sec; A. L. Hudgens, S. D. ; M. Sheridan, J. D. : 
Stewards, G. A. Bartlett, G. P. Holmes ; J. F. McCambridge, Tyler. 



The Grand Lodge held its thirty-ninth annual Grand Communication in 
Masonic Hall. Virginia City, June 9 and 10, 1903. The Grand Lodge officers 
elected for the year were: M. \\'., Trennior Coffin, (i) Grand Master; R. 
W., George Gillson, (i) Deputy Grand Master; R. W'., Chas. A. Beemer, 
(25) Senior Grand Warden; R. W., William H. Sifford, (26) Junior Grand 
Warden; R. W.. George A. Morgan, (2) Grand Treasurer; R. W., C. N. 
Noteware. (i) Grand Secretary; V., Rev. Thomas L. Bellam. (25) Grand 
Chaplain; W.. Samuel Piatt, (i) Grand Orator; W., B. H. Reymers. (22) 
Grand Marshal; W.. J. D. Camphell, (18) Grand Standard Bearer; W., 
George F. Parker, (24) (irand Sword Bearer; W., E. D. Kelley, (19) Grand 
Bible Bearer; W., J. C. Doughty, (21) Senior Grand Deacon; W., C. L. 
Fulstone, (12) Junior Grand Deacon; W., F. H. Norcross, (13) Grand 
Steward; W., E. H. Beemer, (25) Grand Steward; W., Thomas L. Cara, 
(7) Grand Organist; W., B. C. Maris. (27) Grand Pursuivant: W.. Adolph 
Jacobs, ( I ) Grand Tyler. 


The subordinate chapters of Nevada, under the jurisdiction of the Grand 
Chapter of Nevada are: Lewis Chapter No. i, of Carson City. Ormsby 
county. It has 72 members. Past High Priests, T. Coffin, P. G. H. P. ; P. 
A. Doyle, P. G. H. P. ; C. N. Noteware, P. G. H. P. ; T. J. Edwards, T. P. 
Hawley, D. W. Cutts, E. D. L. Cutts, M. A. Murphy, p" G. H. P.; G. C. 
Bryson, Jr. ; C. J. Rulison. G. Gillson. C. L. Fulstone. Its present officers are : 
C. L. Fulstone, H. P.: J. Piatt, King; E. D. Vanderlieth, Scril^e; C. J. Ruli- 
son, C. of H. ; Trennior Coffin, P. S. ; S. S. Robinson, R. A. Capt. ; D. G. 
Kitzmeyer, M. 3(1 Vail; W. H. Cavell. M. 2nd Vail; F. J. Stcinmitz. Master 
1st Vail; C. W. Friend, T. ; G. W. Keith, Sec. ; A. Jacobs, Guard. 

Virginia Chapter No. 2, of Virginia City, Storey county. It has 62 
members; its Past High Priests are: W. Sutherland, P. G. H. i*. ; E. 
Strother, P. G. H. P.; Harvey Randall: J. W. Eckley, P. G. H. P.; A. O. 
Percy, P. G. II. I'.; II. Levy, S. (krrans. W". J. Harris, William McMillian, 
William Southwell, S. Dowling, W. S. James, G. A. Morgan, William Dunn. 
Its present officers are: William Dunn, H. P.: R. S. Meacham, K. ; S. A. 
Chapman, S. ; William Sutherland, C. of 11.: .\. (). Percy, P. S. ; II. R. 
Shade, R. A. C. ; J. F. Steffan, M. 3d V.; J. W. Locklin. M. 2nd V.; H. 
Levy, M. ist V. ; J. W. Eckley, T. ; William Southwell, Sec. : L. L()l)en.stein, G. 

Austin Cha])ter No. 3, of ,\ustin. Lander county. It has 17 members. 
Its Past High I'riests are: T. II. (Jeorge, L. Steiner, W. C. Gayhart. Its 
present officers are: \\'. C. Gayhart, H. P.: h'. Williams, K. ; Charles Pol- 
kinghorne, S. ; W. 1 >. Jnnes, C. of IT.: L. .Sieincr. K. A. C'lptain : William 


Easton, M. 3d V.; J. A. Miller, T. : J. A. Miller. Acting Secretary: four 
offices were not tilled. 

St. John Chapter No. 3, of Eureka, Eureka county, ha.s for Past High 
Priest.s. J. S. Burlingame, P. G. II. P. ; A. L. Fitzgerald. P. G. H. P. ; A. 
Fraser. R. Sadler, R. J. Reicl, J. H. Hoegh, J. H. Shoemaker, John Hancock, 
Sr. It has 31 members. Its present officers are: M. G. h'oster. High Priest: 
H. C. McTerney, K. : C. Krauss, S. : R. J. Reid, C. of H. ; J. H. Hoegh, P. S. : 

B. L. Smith, R. A. C. : T. Dixon, M. 3d V. : A. Fraser," M. 2nd V. ; J. H. 
Shoemaker, M. 1st V.; H. Kind, T. ; J. H. Jury, Sec. : J. Hancock, Sr., Guard. 

Keystone Ch.apter No. 6, of De Lamar, Lincoln county, has 17 members. 
Its Past High Priests are: S. D. Edwards, H. W. Miles. Its present officers 
are: H. W. Miles, H. P.: G. Nesbitt, K. : William Oxman. S. ; P. Salxivich, 

C. of H.: J. Knight, P. S. : J. E. Jennison, R. A. C. : B. F. Hill, M. 3d V.; 
M. Churich, M. 2nd V. : T. J. Osborne, M. ist V. : John Roeder, T. : J. Shier, 
Sec. ; E. D. Turner, Guard. 

Reno Chapter No. 7, of Reno, Washoe county, has "jj members. Its 
Past High Priests are: A. D. Bird, F. P. Bell, P. G. H. P., R. L. Fulton, P. G. 
H. P., G. H. Thoma, Matthew Kyle, P. G. H. P., R H. Kinney, P. G. H. P.: 

F. J. Winchel. W. L. Bechtel, J. M. McCormack, P. G. H. P. ; F. D. King. 

G. H. Fogg, L. L. Crockett. S. Logan. Its present officers are: H. \^^erner, 
H. P. : G. H. Cunningham. K. : F. Grob, S. ; G. R. Oliver, C. of H. : J. M. 
McCormack, P. S. ; T. J. Steinmitz, R. A. C. ; B. J. Gensey, M. 3d Y. ; W. 
H. Noyes, M. 2nd Y. ; F. M. Schadler. M. 1st Y. : F. D. King. T. ; W. L. 
Bechtel, Sec. ; G. H. Fogg, G. 

Humboldt Lodge No. 9, of W'innemucca, Humboldt county, has for 
Past High Priest, Charles D. Duncan. It has 45 members. Its present officers 
are T. Shone, H. P. : W. A. Brown, K. : C. D. Duncan, S. : F. Paulin, C. of 
H. : A. L. Brackett, P. S. ; A. Ruckteschler, R. A. C. : G. H. Nease. M. 3(1 \. ; 
J. A. Rogers. M. 2nd Y. : A. C. Webb, M. 1st Y. : G. Berk. T. : C. Wolf, 
Sec. : W. S. Porter, G. 

There are in all 321 Royal Arch Masters. 


The Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the state of Nevada met in its 30th 
annual Grand Convocation, in Masonic Hall. \'irginia Citv. June 8 and g, 
1903. A. I. 2433. 

The Grand Lodge officers for the ensuing year w ere elected as follows : 
M. E., J. A. Miller, Grand High Priest: R. E., H. Levy. Deputy Grand 
Priest; R. E., George Gillson, Grand King: R. E., Charles L. FuLstone, Grand 
Scribe: R. E., George Morgan. Grand Treasurer: R. E.. C. N. Noteware. 
Grand Secretary; E., ^\'illiam Dunn, Grand Captain of the Host; E., H. C. 


WcTerney, Grand Principal Sojourner; E., William A. Brown, Grand Royal 
Arch Captain; E., E. D. Vanderlieth, Grand Master y\ Vail; E.. Herman 
Werner, Grand Master 2nd Vail; C. B. Pohl, Grand Master First Vail; E., 
William Southwell, Grand Chaplain; E.. S. A. Chapman, Grand Organist; 
E.. Adolph Jacobs, Grand Guard. 


No reports were available of Ancient antl Accepted Scottish Rites. Reno 
Consistory Pyramid Council of Kadosh, Washoe Chapter Rose Croix, Nevada 
Lodge of Perfection. Neither could data be obtained of De W^itt Command- 
ery No. i. Knights Templar, or Eureka Commaudery No. 2, of Eureka. 
.Silver Lodge of Perfection. Scottish Rite, of V^irginia, has nothing available. 


The Eastern Star has no Grand Chapter in Nevada, but works under 
dispensation. There are lo chapters, located at Carson, Esther; Virginia, 
Agatha ; Wadsworth, Martha ; Reno, Adah ; Tonopah, Austin, De La Mar, 
Elko, W^innemucca, Eureka. 

Adah Chapter, O. E. S., of Reno, has the following officers: Ella 
James, W. M. ; W. L. Butler, W. P. ; Anna Schadler. A. M. ; Nellie Hughes, 
Sec. ; Emily Luke, T. ; Echo Loder, Cond. ; Marion Caplan, Asst. Cond. ; 
Adah, Miss E. Webster ; Ruth, Miss L. Shirley ; Esther. Edith Krall ; ]\Lartha, 
Mrs. L. Sadler; Electa, Felicie Grummon ; Warden, Kate Robinson; Sentinel, 
C. Keinast ; Organist, Emma Butler. 

Esther Chapter No. 3, of Carson, celebrated its ist anniversary March 
28, 1887. 


A fine brick block has been erected in Harriman, the upper floor of 
which will be fitted up as a Masonic Temple. A Blue Lodge is to be instituted 
in the early sjjring. 

I. O. O. F. 

Wilfley Lodge No. 1 — Lodges Instituted in I'.arly Days — Odd Fellows Asso- 
ciations — Subordinate Fncam])mcnts — Grand I'jicampmcnl nf Nevada — 
Grand Lodge I. O. O. 1". — Rebekah Lodges l'"rom Institution — l\ebekahs 
in 1904 — L O. O. F. in Nevada in 1904. 

"Friendship, Love and Truth," is the watchword of tlio Independent 
Order of Odd l'"ellows, and their work in Nevada has always been along those 
lines. It is a strong order, running a race in Nevada with the Knights of 


Pythias, to liokl second place in the world of secret orders, the Masons being 
first. Gold Hill was the home of the first lodge, which was organized April 

1, 1862. It was given the name of the founder of the I. O. O. F in America, 
and was known as Wildey Lodge No. i. The charter members were L. Hite, 
P. Meyer, W. W. Shelly, J. Pfoiitz, M. Schwartz, O. Eastman, J. W. Phil- 
lips, W. H. Beegan. H. C. Jacobson, A. D. Elder, J. Lambert and D. Van 
Vranken. J. W. Phillips was elected N. G. : J. Pfoutz, V. G. : and W. H. 
Beegan, Secretary. 

On April 14, 1862, Silver City Lodge No. 62 was instituted in Silver 
City with P. J. H. Smith, Casper Naupt, W. G. Blakely, R. C. O'Neill and 
F. McMahan as charter members. 

Mount Davidson Lodge No. 3 was instituted at Virginia City, April 22, 
1862, with E. Bond, A. Phillipson, J. Steele, M. Holmes, J. W. Noyes, W. B. 
Hall and H. J. Witte as charter members and first officers. 

On April 25, 1862, Carson Lodge No. 4 was instituted in Carson City. 
D. B. Woolf. E. B. Rail, J. H. Wayman, E. Barkely, J. W. West, B. F. 
Clark, M. Bick, J. Mandlel)aum, W. D. Noland, F. W. Blake, J. Wagner and 
F. A. Tritle were the charter members. 

Dayton was the home of Dayton Lodge No. 5, which was instituted June 

2, 1863. The charter members were R. E. McConnell, L. Lamb, I. G. l^Iar- 
lan, J. B. Brazelton, D. J. McQuilty, T. Madden, W. Haydon and J. E. 

Esmeralda Lodge No. 6 was instituted in Aurora. September 16, 1863, 
with J. Fisher, W. Eichelrath, M. Schwartz, G. O. Kies, J. VV. Riens, J. W. 
Simpson, C. Cardinell, E. P. Davis and F. Lambert as charter members. 

A second lodge was instituted in Virginia City on January 15, 1864, 
and given the title of Nevada Lodge No. 7. The charter members were 
D. B. Woolf, D. M. Love. T. Heffron. M. White, J. A. McQuaid, I. Pfor- 
shiener, J. Feldberg, F. Denver, R. M. Black and C. M. Cornell. 

Washoe Lodge No. 8 was instituted in Washoe, January 18, 1864. with 
J. Stark, H. Barton, L. Wertheimer, W. M. Bradley, T. H. McGrath, and 
C. A. Gibson as charter members. 

On January 23, 1864, Austin Lodge No. 9 was instituted in Austin, the 
successor to an Odd Fellows association which had been organized September 
12. the year previous. The charter members were A. D. Rock. N. R. Davis, 
J. H. Crane, F. V. Drake and E. X. Willard. 

A third lodge was instituted in Virginia City on May 18, 1865, and was 
entitled Virginia Lodge No. 10. The charter members were E. Bond. F. B. 
Smith, W. L. Von Allen. D. N. Love. J. S. Kaneen, E. W. Hines. W. Doolin, 
C. M. Brown. J. Steele, C. Finley, G. C. Burnett, G. Downey, J. Earle. J. B. 
Rennie and J. B. Farrington. 


A second lodge was instituted in Austin on Marcli 14. 1867. It lived 
only three years, surrendering its cliarter in 1871. 

Virginia City secured a fourth lodge on April 4, 1867, in Olive Branch 
Lodge No. 12. The charter members were C. M. Cornell, H. S. Winn, W". H. 
Virden, A. Williams, J. B. Safford. H. Somers, J. Estep. R. M. Black, B. 
Callaghan, J. L. Durant, AI. Collins, T. Cowin and J. Cowin. 

Gold Hill received its second lodge October 8, 1868, it being given the 
name of Parker Lodge No. 13. The charter members were H. H. Motze, 
J. Nelson. S. E. H. Spurling, W. H. Dolman, G. Stockle, D. Young, J. F. 
Parks and E. Schaefer. 

Reno received her first lodge, Trtickee Lodge No. 14. on October 28, 
1 868. Its charter members were G. W. Cunningham, W. L. Hudnall, T. P. 
Sikes, B. F. Ingram, J. Borland, D. Lachman and T. F. Lewis. 

Genoa Lodge No. 13 was instituted in (ien(\a, December 23. 1868, with 
L. S. Greenlaw, J. Kilpatrick, J. Martin, and I. W. Duncan as the first officers, 
there being no record of the charter members. 

J. E. Sabine, T. W. McGren, T. V. Julien, J. Barnes, C. F. Moeller, C. 
Haupt. J. Hunkins. were the cliarter members of Humboldt Lodge No. 16. 
which was instituted in Winnemucca on August 29, 1869. 

On April 26, 1870, the seventeenth lodge, Hamilton Lodge, was insti- 
tuted in Hamilton by the following charter members: J. P. Dayton, J. T. 
Matthewson, J. O. Darrow, J. ]\Iarchant. J. W. Simpsiin and R. Sadler. 

Elko Lodge No. 18 was instituted in Elko on October 19, 1889, with 
these charter members: .\. J. Clark, J. B. Fitch, T. C. Kenyon. F. A. Rogers, 
E. S. Yeates, J. Ainly, C. B. Johns and W. A. Harvc\-. 

Reno Lodge No. 19 was instituted in Reno on May 18, 187 1. with D. H. 
Pine. J. S. Sellers, D. McKay, \V. T. Frank, P. B. Comstock, J. Harwood, 
N. J. Roff, T. Forbes, D. C. Martin, H. P. Cowels, N. C. Kenney, and R. 
Harrison as charter meml)ers. 

Carson City was the Imnie of Capitol Lodge No. 20, which was instituted 
July 28, 1871. The charter members were : W. D. Torreyson, J. 11. Connor, 
G. H. Maish. J. D. Minor. J. Trap, D. G. Kitzmcycr. J. .\. Risdon, G. W. 
Chedic, J. W. Waters, J. W. Robinson, G. W. White, and N. McD. Kennedy. 

Buena Vista Lodge No. 21 was instituted in L'nionvilic on October 26, 
1871, with S. S. Grass, E. D. Kelly, F. X. Banks, H. A. Waldo, James Mc- 
Cormick, O. R. Leonard and J. W. Tyler as charter members. 

Eureka Lodge No. 22 was instituted in Eureka on March 14, 1872, the 
charter members being: M. Borowsky, M. Levy, W. Head. E. L. Willard, 
A. Charson, O. Peterson, P. Keyser, C. G. Tlybbard, Q. Waidhass. C. Goll. 
N. Raffaelovich, W. Emery, S. Aschiem, S. Ridge, M. Frcdenlnug, W. A. 


Seaton, S. Goldstoiie, E. E. Pliillips, E. Schaefer, J. H. Haslam, and James 

Pioche was selected for Nn. 23, Pioclie Lodge being institntcd in that 
city on September 10, 1872. witli the foUowing for the charter meml>ers : 
J. W. Wright, E. M. Crane. PI. M. Barnes, H. Boone, E. Willett. A. Brown, 
and J. R. James. 

Behnont Lodge No. 24 was instituted in Behnont on Marcii 5, 1873, 
tlie following being the charter meml)ers : W. S. McCornick, J. Cornelius, 
R. N. Oliver, S. Black, J. H. Hatch, T. Wharburton, J. Burnett, 

Paradise Valley received the 25th lodge. Paradise Lodge, which was 
instituted on October 17, 1873. Its charter members were: R. H. Scott, 
T. Shirley, R. F. James, B. F. Riley, T. Mullineau.x, and F. Bauman. 

Palisade Lodge No. 26 was instituted in Palisade on April 2t,, 1874, the 
charter members being: J. B. Tolley, J. Marchant, J. Talbott, J. C. Wil- 
kinson, J. B. Rosburg, C. Zimmerman, W. S. Evans, D. L. Davis and W. N. 

Mountain Lodge No. 27 was instituted in Eureka on May 11, 1875. Its 
charter members were : C. G. Hubbard, N. Simonson, J. Beese, P. Wagner, 
T. J. White, R. A. Doak, and James Hunkins. 

Tybo Lodge No. 28 was instituted in Tybo on April 17, 1877. S. Rosen- 
thal, J. Gregovich, J. Wheatly, J. D. Page, D. O'Niel, R. Wheatly, \\'. 
\Mieatiy, J. S. Hammond, D. B. Austin, R. N. Oliver and J. T. Walker were 
the charter members. This lodge was the successor to an Odd Fellows' Asso- 
ciation which had been organized on December 18 of the year previous. A 
hall of brick had been built by the Association costing over $3,000, which 
the lodge paid the association for, the latter disbanding when the lodge was 

Cornucopia instituted Lodge No. 29, named for the town, on May 31, 
1S77, D. Meacham, M. Tobias, A. S. Eisenberg, W. W. Rogers, S. L. Stark, 
and W. T. Early being the charter members. 

Tuscarora Lodge No. 30 was instituted in Tuscarora on June 7, 1878, 
by the following charter members : E. S. Yeates, G. W. Phillips, A. D. 
Ayers, A. P. Adams, D. B. Higgins, L. Curry, M. Tiffany, and A. D. Walsh. 
This lodge succeeded an Association formed the year previous. 

Battle Mountain Lodge No. 31, of Battle Mountain, was instituted on 
March 19, 1879. Its charter members were: R. McBeth, J. McWilliams, 
J. Bachedler, E. Northway, P. T. Mackrow and A. D. Lemaire. 

Gardnerville Lodge No. 36 was instituted in Gardnerville, Douglas county. 
February 2j, 1897, with 11 charter members, and added 17 new members 
same date. 

An Association was formed in Grantsville on November 17, 1878, as 


there was no lodge nearer than Austin. It liad 15 meniljers. Ijut soon was 
reduced to 10. Its object was to care for the sick and helpless members of 
the Order in that vicinity. J. Ir\ine was president, R. L. Thomas, secretary, 
and A. J. Franklin, treasurer. A similar .\ssociation was organized in 
Cherry Creek in JNIarch, 1880. the following being officers: Dr. J- H. Tof- 
ford. president ; E. K. Phipps. secretary, and Jacob Weber, treasurer. The 
nearest lodge was at Hamilton. This Association purchased a cemetery for 
deceased members. It started with 22 members, gradually declining. 


The Grand Encampment of California ga\'e authority fi>r the first six 
Encampments in Nevada. No. 7 was authorized by the So\-ereign Grand 
Lodge and the last three by the Grand Encampment of Nevada. 

Pioneer Encampment No. i was instituted in \'irginia City on July 17, 
1864, its charter members being: D. B. W'oolf, I. Pforzheimer, E. Bond, W. 
Heaton. F. Seely, J. L. Durant, J. S. Kaneen. 

Carson Encampment No. 2 was instituted on November 18, 1867. in 
Carson City, by the following charter members : A. Waitz, J. S. Vandyke, 
VV. D. Torreyson, A. Curry, G. Tufly, D. B. Boyd. A. ]\I. Clark. 

Piute Encampment No. 3 was instituted in Virginia City on February 
20, 1867. D. M. Love, C. Sutterly, C. Finly, S. Rosener, G. T. Finn, J. A. 
Moch, G. Downey, C. J. Collins, were the charter members. 

Reese River Encampment was instituted at Austin, on November 19. 
1869, by the following charter members: I*". V. Drake. W. A. Rankin, II. 
Sarter, H. Van Winkle, L. Steiner and T. Obcnfelder. 

Reno Encampment No. 5 was instituted on January S. 1872, its charter 
memljers being: A. Prescott. .\. Trant, M., J. V. l''erguson, R. A. 
Frazier, A. F. Hitchcock, and J. P. Richardson. 

Garden Valley Encampment No. 6 was instituted with the following 
charter members at Dayton on December 13, 1873 : W. H. Hill. H. Kennedy, 
L. L. Crockett, L. Lamb, L. Stoner, J. Newman. T. P. Mack, T. Shedden, 
L. A. Guild, J. D. Sims, P. Barnes, J. Gates, J. S. Dallas and S. Allen. 

Silver State Encampment was instituted on I'"cbruary 17, 1874. in Vir- 
ginia City, being No. 7. The charter members were: V. V. Drake, H. Black, 
L. Schoenfeldt, J. E. Guild. J. Russ. W. James, 1\ Schmadeke. 

Mount Vernon Encampment No. 8 was instituted in Piochc on June 17. 
1875. Its charter nicmbcrs were: R. II. Elam, II. S. Lublnick, J. .\. 
Spraker, J. N. Curtis, D. A. Fulks, S. W. Steele, and C. I-". Bowen. 

Elko Encampment No. 9, of Elko, was instituted on September 3, 1877, 
with fifteen charter members, the following being selected fnr officers: M. 


P. Freeman, R. R. Bigclmv. H. W. Brown, P. A. Rowe, G. Russell, W. 

Bullion Encampment No. lo was instituted in Eureka, Septemlier 6, 
1877, witli 21 charter memliers. and from tliem were selected the following 
for first officers: \V. H. Davenport, W. Doolin, B. C. Levy, A. T. Stearns, 
W. J. Smith, R. Sadler. 


The Grand Lodge of Nexada, 1. O. O. F., was formed in 1867, the first 
ten lodges having heen formed under the jurisdiction of California. The 
convention organizing it was held in Virginia City January 21, 1867, the 
Grand Master heing J. S. Van Dyke: the Deputy Grand Master, J. W. Tyler; 
Grand Warden, P. J. H. Smith: Grand Secretary, R. H. Taylor; Grand 
Treasurer, R. M. Black; Grand Representative, J. E. Sabine: Grand Chap- 
lain, J. A. Collins: Grand Marshal, J. B. Brazelton : Grand Conductor, C. 
Finley ; Grand Guardian, D. L. Beam ; Grand Herald, C. C. Wright. 

The Grand Encampment of Nevada, I. O. O. F., was organized in Carson 
City, December 28, 1874. the dispensation heing granted the February fol- 
lowing. At that time the encampments of the state had 321 members, and 
a revenue of $3,500. The first officers were: J. C. Smith, G. P.; W. H. 
Hill, G. H. P. : g' W. Chedic, G. S. W. : C. W. Jones, G. J. W. : F. V. Drake. 
G. S. ; G. Tufly, G. T. ; H. O. Douchy, G. M."; C. H. Maish, G. S. ; J. V. 
Peers. Dep't G. S. 


Colfa.x Lodge No. i was organized in Virginia City some time in the 
seventies, but no record could be oijtained of organization or first officers. 
The Noble Grand in 1881 was Mrs. C. A. Hancock; Mrs. M. Lochlin, V. G. ; 
Mrs. J. M. Lamb, R. S. ; Mrs. L Goodfriend, T. ; Mrs. A. A. Goe, P. S. In 
1903 the officers were: N. G.. Minnie Mudd ; V. G., Lillian Richards; S., 
Mrs. H. V. Lawson; T., A. Greenhalgh ; P. S., Julia Murphy: D. D. P., 
Fredrica Shade. 

Esther Lodge No. 4 was the only other lodge making any reports to 
the Grand Lodge. It was organized May 13, 1880, and the fate of the lodge 
was unlucky as the date of its organization. It went into obli\-ion with Lodges 
2, 3, and II, and the lodges of Rebekahs and officers in e.xistence in 1903 were 
in addition to No. i : 

Harmony No. 5, of Dayton. N. G., Daisy Lothrop; V. G., Emile Tail- 
leur; R. S., Mrs. L. Whitten: T., Emma Lothrop; D. D. P., Annie E. Mack. 

Naomi No. 6, of Paradise. N. G., Dora Lye; V. G., Francis Case: R. 
S., Mrs. Nellie Mealey; T., Eva Byrnes: D. D. P., Minnie Bradshaw. 

Nevada No. 7, of Reno. N. G., May Dunning; V. G., Tillie Neasham; 


R. S.. Miss L. LaLntte; T., Marv Brown; P. S., Lizzie Curtis; D. D. P., 
Lizzie McGrew. 

Diamond No. 8, of Eureka. N. G., Melia Fletcher; V. G.. Grace Travers; 
R. S., F. J. Brossemer; T.. W. J. Hooper; D. D. P., Caroline Lewis. 

Queen Esther No. 9. of Wadsworth. N. G., Luella Buller ; \ . G.. Lulu 
Behler; R. S.. Mrs. L. Herbert: T., Anna Sisson; P. S., Nellie Bastian ; D. 
D. P., Josephine Beemer. 

Ruth No. 10. of Genoa. N. G., Mary Heimsoth ; V. G., Mattie Jepson ; 
R. S.. Rose Klotz; T.. Ida McCormick ; D. D. P., Mabel Ritchford. 

Martha No. 12, of De Lamar. N. G.. R. J. Gordon ; V. G., Libbie Reed ; 
R. S., Charles Fernander; T.. Mary Pettee; D. D. P., Margaret Kendrick. 

Austin No. 13, of Austin. N. G., Mary Christian: V. G.. Etta Hodge; 
R. S., M. Polkinghorne : T.. Susan Mitchell: D. D. P., Jessie Schmidtlein. 

■Capitol No. 14. of Carson City. N. G.. Delia Dorrity; V. G., M. Lind- 
say; R. S., Mrs. M. Furlong; T.. M. Kitzmeyer; P. S.. Jenny Jacobs; D. D 
P., Mary McCabe. 

Ivy No. 15. of Elko. N. G., Molly E. Lane: V. G., Pearl Bruce; R. 
S., V. Bruce; T., Marie Mayer; P. S.. Libbie Harris; D. D. P., Ella Grant. 

Silver Star No. 16. of Tuscarora. N. G., Alma Plumb; V. G., Etta 
Douglas; R. S.. F. Doherty; T., Bessie Henderson; P. S., Clara Plumb; D. 
D. P.. Bessie Dove. 

Garden City No. 17, of Lovelocks. N. G., Lizzie Marker; V. G., Etta 
Thies; R. S.. Addie Stoker; T.. Myrtle Marker; D. D. P., Emily Marker. 

Loyal No. 18. of Battle Mountain. N. G., N. R. Ramsdell ; V. G.. 
Lisette Hoffman: R. S., L. A.'Lemaire: T., Jane Woolcock; D. D. P., Kate 

Fair Oak No. 19, of W'inncniucca, sent no report 1903 nor in 1902. 
Her D. D. P. is not assigned. It is jirobable that the charter of b'air Oak 
will be recalled as meml)ers fail to attend to duties or Id meetings. 

Queen of the Lake No. 20, of Flavvthorne. N. G., luiima Marx; \'. G., "vVbite: R. S.. Mrs. .\. Wichman; T., Lydia J. King; I'. S., J. H. Miller; 
I). 1). P, Delia WnodrulT. 

Martha Washington No. 21. of Gardnervillc. N. G., Pearl Rankin: 
V. G., M. Heningsen; R. S., A. Goldstein; T., Edna Neilson; D. D. P., 
Georgia Dangberg. 

.\t tlie Rebekah As.sembly, held in June, 1903, the following officers were 
elected; President, Mary E. Woodbury, of Reno; Vice President, Jennie T. 
Coll, of Tuscarora; Warden, Ella Gillilan, of Paradise; Secretary, Anna M. 
Warren, of Virginia City; Trea.surer, Emma K. l.ntJuop, of Dayton; Trus- 
tees; Mary J. Mack, of Virginia City: .\dda Leei)er, of Reno; and Emma 
B. Coffin, of Dayton. 


At tlie same meeting- the finance committee reported $609.25 cash in 
hand and capitation tax on 846 memhers in tlie state. The expenses were 
estimated at $425. The majority of the lodges reported a gain in memlier- 
ship. while some few showed discouraging- losses, due to lousiness depression, 
and in Sduie instances lack of interest. 


W'ildey Lodge No. i, of Gold Hill, consolidated with the Virginia Lodge, 
and is now known as Wildey No. 3. 

Carson Lodge No. 4 consolidated witli Cajiitol Lodge No. 20, at Carson 
City. October 28, 1895, and is now known as Capitol Lodge No. 4. 

Truckee Lodge No. 14 consolidated with Reno Lodge No. 19 on May 2, 


K. OF p. AND Other Orders. 

I'^irst Lodge in Nevada— Present Lodges — G. A. R. — Consolidations and 
Present Posts — Independent Order of Red Men — Aeries of Eagles — The 
Elks in Nevada — Their Fine Building at Reno — Rathbone Sisters — De- 
gree of Honor — Ladies' Relief Corps. 

The Knights of Pythias founded their order upon the ancient story of 
Damon and Pythias, those shining examples of devoted and honorable friend- 
ship, who were the disciples of the Pythagorean principles of friendship. The 
first lodge was instituted in Nevada in 1S73, March 2^, at Virginia City, 
through the efl^orts of S. H. Goddard. It was known as Nevada Lodge No. 
I. The charter memhers were: E. F. Clarkson, J. P. Flanningham, ■M. Nel- 
son, A. G. Koch, C. Becker, J. ^V. Varney, A. Borlini, P. Gugnina, G. Bet- 
tinger, F. Schroeder, M. Strouse, W. P. Bowden, T. H. Ouinlan. \X. Waltz. 

Damon Lodge No. 2 was instituted in Carson City, July 18, 1873, the 
charter memhers numbering 18. 

Mystic Lodge No. 3, of Gold Hill, was instituted November 24. 187^. 
There were 45 charter members. 

Carson Lodge No. 4, of Carson City, was instituted in 1873, December 
21. There were 24 charter members. 

Humboldt Lodge No. 5, of Genoa, was instituted in March, 1874, with 

23 charter meiubers. It surrendered its charter in less than a year and its 

paraphernalia was delivered to Nevada Lodge No. i, when that lodge lost all 

its property in the great fire of 1875. At a later fire all this property was 



Lincoln Lodge No. 6 was instituted in Virginia City, on March 2q. 1874, 
with 1 1 charter members. It grew wonderfully and then declined with other 
secret orders. It was suspended in 1875 but reinstated a month later. 

Beatific Lodge No. 8 was instituted in Eiu'eka on September 22, 1874. 
with 25 charter members. 

.Vmity Lodge No. 8 was instituted in Reno on Jauuary 31, 1875. ^^ 
had 20 charter members Init grew rapidly. 

Toiyabe Lodge No. 9 was instituted in .\ustin on November 9, 1875. 
It had only ten charter members. 

Argenta Lodge No. 10, of Battle Mountain, was instituted on July 20, 
1876. with 25 charter members. 

Triumph Lodge No. 1 1 was instituted in Virginia City on October 29. 
its charter members lieing members of Mystic Lodge of Gold Hill. For a 
time it met in Gold Hill. 

Lyon Lodge No. 12, of Dayton, was instituted on October 15, 1880, with 
19 charter members. 

The Knights of Pythias lodges in Nevada are as follows, the number 
of members, and number of lodge, with the name of the Keeper of the Records, 
being all that was obtainable in 1904. 

Nevada No. i, Virginia City; 118 members: K. of R., H. G. Maish. 

Carson Lodge No. 4. Carson City: 100 members: K. of R.. P. H. 

Beatific Lodge No. 7, of Eureka: 41 members: K. of R., S. Reynolds. 

Amity Lodge No. 8, of Reno: 130 members: K. of R., S. H. Rosenllial. 

Toivabe Lodge No. 9, of Austin: 43 members: K. of R., O. J. Clifford. 

Argenta Lodge No. 10, of Battle Mountain; 25 members; F. E. Wool- 
cock, K. of R. 

Lyon Lodge No. 12, of Dayton; 39 members; K. of R., E. F. Hayard. 

Elko Lodge No. 15: 53 members: K. of R., \V. G. Kline. 

Esmeralda Lodge No. 16, of Hawthorne; 51 meml^ers; K. of R., W. J. 

Owyhee Lodge No. 14, of Tuscarora: 47 members; K. of R.. W. J 

Pvramid Lodge Nn. H). nf W'adsworth : 71 members; K. of R., T. L. 

Ivaniioe Lodge No. 18, of Winncniucc.i ; 34 members: K. of R.. C. B. 

Myrtle Lodge No. 20, of Verdi: ^j,j, lucnibers : 1\. of R., J. V.. Sanchereua. 

Abraham Linohi Lodge No. 21. of Dc i.,im;ir: 36 members; K. of R.. 
J. W. Scott. 


Aqtiila Lodge No. 22, of Lovelocks; ji members: K. of R., O. T. 

Wells Lodge No. 2^, of Wells; 52 members; K. of R., E. F. Stanton. 

Alpine Lodge No. 24. of Fallon; 28 members; K. of R., R. T. Fortnne. 

Mizpab Lodge No. 25, of Tonopah ; 45 members; K. of R.. A. P. 


The i\u.\iliary of the Knights of Pythias is known as Rathlujne Sisters. 
There is a temple in nearly e\ery large city of Nevada where there is a 
Knights of Pythias lodge. The one at Reno, Calanthe Temple No. 11, is the 
largest, having for charter memljers. 130. It now has 143 members and is 
constantly growing. It was instituted on May 12, 1902, by the State Organ- 
izer, Ida M. Pike, who was assisted by Pyramid Temple No. 10, of Wads- 
worth. They have no insurance branch yet. The officers are as follows : 

P. M. E. C, Mrs. Harriet Williams; M. E. C, Mrs. Bertha Doane; 
E. S., Miss Ivan Sessions; E. J., Mrs. Kate Dromiach; M. of T., Miss Edna 
Robinson; M. of F.. Mrs. Dora Ziegler; M. of R. & C, Mrs. Jennie Kerr; P. 
of T., Mrs. Ruby Lumsford; G. of O. T., Mrs. Carrie V. Sessions. 

Mrs. Catherine Marsh, of Virginia City, is at the head of the Grand 
Lodge. G. M. of R. & C. 

G. \. R. OF NEV.^DA. 

Of late years there has been a wonderful falling off in tlie member- 
ship of the G. .\. R. of Ne\ada. In 1868 the ex-Union veterans of Virginia 
City organized under the name of "Boys in Blue" to promote the election 
of L^. .S. Grant to the presidency. Later they reorganized as Post No. S, 
G. A. R. Their first Cominander was A. H. W. Creigh. They went out of 
existence in the fire of 1875. having 60 members. In 1878 they organized 
again as Phil Kearney Post No. 10. They had 20 memljers. and soon 40. 
G. E. Gaukin was Commander. Stanton Post No. 29, which was organized 
in 1870. with J. .\. Burlingame as Post Commander, disbanded three years 
later, or rather consolidated with Phil Kearney Post in 1878, after a brief 
reorganization as Stanton Post No. 10. 

Other posts organized and passed out of existence were : Baker Post 
No. II of Pioche; McPherson Post No. 12, of Reno; Col. Baker No. 
13, of Cherry Creek, and L^pton Post of Eureka. The only posts now are 
Phil Kearney Post No. 10, of Virginia City, General O. M. Mitchell No. 69, 
of Reno, Custer Post No. 5, of Carson City, and McDermitt Post, of W^in- 
nemucca. The latter post is all but out of existence, and it is probable the 
posts of Carson, Reno and Virginia will be consolidated in one post, in Reno 
city, under the title of Gen. O. M. Mitchell Post No. 69. This post was 


organized in 1884, and chartered October 2, 1884. Its present oflkers are: 
E. J. Wood. Post Commander: C. J. Kienast, Senior Vice Commander; G. 
W. Robison, Junior Vice Commander; Dr. G. H. Tlionia. Surgeon; G. O. 
Wright. Chaplain: A. G. Fletcher, Quartermaster: Walter S. Long. Adjutant. 
Major Long is National Aide de Camp on staff of Commander in Chief, and 
also special Aide de Camp on staff of Department Commander, in charge of 
patriotic instruction. 

The Reno post has a fine cemetery, and through the efforts of Congress- 
man A'an Duzer marble headstones for deceased members have been obtained 
from the gn\-ernment and were placed in position on .\pril 3, IQ04. The 
different posts have Relief Corps, the one in Reno being especially active. 
The membership of the posts is: Custer No. 5. 12 members: Phil Kearney 
No. 10, 54 members; G. O. Mitchell Post No. 69, 70 members. The mem- 
bership of Phil Kearney Relief Corps No. 85, of Virginia City, is 17; Custer 
Relief Corps No. 15, of Carson City, is 18, and of Gen. O. M. Mitchell Corps 
No. 27, of Reno, is 60. 


The Reno Lodge of B. P. O. Elks No. 597 was organized in Reno on 
June 30. 1900. H. J. Gosse being the moving spirit and assisting in the 
organization. D. D. G. E. ,R.. F. L. Gray, instituted the lodge, assisted by 
ofificers from Sacramento. Grass Valley and other points. The first officers 
were: Exalted Ruler. II. J. Gosse: Esteemed Leading Knight. F. D. Dun- 
can; Esteemed Lo\al Knight. W. L. Cox; A. E. Cheney, Esteemed Leading 
Knight ; Kyle Kinney. Secretary : H. P. Kearns, Secretary. There were 45 
in the class. The local Elks had a band out to greet the visitors and after the 
initiation a grand banquet was served. 

AV. L. Cox was elected Exalted Ruler at the next election and he was 
succeeded successively 1>y Frank Stewart. A. E. Cheney, Joseph McCormack, 
and Kalpb I!. I lawcroft, the latter serving in 1904. 

The Elks laid the corner stone of a $35,000 lodge building September 
30, 1903, with approjjriate ceremonies, H. J. Gosse being J\Iaster of Cere- 
monies. Elks came from far and near to assist. It was formally dedicated 
on April 2^^. 1904. Elks came from all o\er the coast, Sacramento and San 
F'rancisco I'.iks prcdominrding. .\ grand ban(|ucl closed the ceremonies. 

A. O. U. W. 

The first lodge of the Ancient Order of United Workmen was instituted 
in Eureka, March 11, 1879. ^'^^ ^''^^ officers were M. Rockman, P. M. W. ; 
H. A. Unruh, N. W. ; E. A. Robinson, foreman; C. J. Scanland, O. ; I. C. C. 
Whitmore, recorder: P.. C. Levy, financier; W. Pardy, receiver; !•". W. Pen- 
field, G. ; S. S. Slass. I. W. There were }^2 charter members. Several lodges 


have been instituted in tlie princijjal cities of the state, Reno lodge being 
especially flourishing. R. H. Buncel is G. M. ; and R. Buncel is foreman. 
H. F. Pavola is o\'erseer. 

The Degree of Honor is the auxiliary of the A. O. U. W., and there 
are lodges in Reno. Carson City, Virginia City, Hawthorne, Dayton, Winne- 
mucca and Elko. Ivy Lodge No. 4 was instituted in Reno in March, T900, 
by P. S. M. W., J. W. Kinsley. There were 48 charter members. The 
present officers are P. C. of H., Alma Pavola: C. of H., Gertrude Buncel: 
L. of H., Kate Kline; C. of C, Mrs. D. Smith: Usher, Mrs. M. Buncel: 
Financier, Dora Ziegler; Recorder, Mrs. Jennie Kerr. 

The A. O. U. W. and the Degree of Honor are making arrangements for 
a lodge in Harriman. Supreme Dejjuty C. S. Thurston is to visit Harrinian 
to assist in installing the order there. 


The Fraternal Order of Eagles, although only in existence in Nevada 
for three years, has six aeries, being represented in Tonopah, W'innemucca. 
Elko, Virginia City, Carson City and Reno. There are 800 members in all. 
Reno Aerie No. 207 was instituted in Reno, February 20. 1902, with 61 
charter members. January i, 1904, it had over 200 members. Among its 
members are John Sparks, Governor of Nevada : L. Allen, Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor; Congressman V^n Duzer and Assemblymen P. J. McCarran and \\'. 
D. R. Graliam; Senator A. Living.ston. Present otificers are: G. W. Perkins, 
senior past president : G. W. Pettigrew, junior past president : G. W. Callahan, 
worthy president. The motto of the order is "Liberty, Truth, Justice and 


The Grand Council of I. O. R. M., of Nevada, was instituted January 
7, 1873, Jonas Seeley being the G. T. Piute Tribe No. i was organized at 
Carson City, January 19, 1879, with .\. Curry as Sachem. There were 20 
charter members. 

In 1904 there were Red Men lodges at Tuscarora, Carson City and Vir- 
ginia City. The Cirand Lodge is at Carson City. C. E. Slingerland being 
Great Sachem. Washoe Tribe No. 1 1 was organized in Reno with a full 
complement of officers. H. R. Cooke being Sachem. It disbanded in three 


The Independent Order of Foresters have several lodges in the state and 
several auxiliaries. It is a beneficiary order. The first lodge of the order in 
Nevada was instituted in Virginia City in 1879. 

The Ancient Order of Hibernians, the Order of Pendo, the Fraternal 


Brotherhood, the Italian Bene\^olent Society, the Order of Dania, Woodnien 
of the World, Maccabees, Sons of the Revolution, Caledonians, and Italian 
Druids, all have lodges in the state, some only one. Many have auxiliaries. 

The Modern Woodmen of the World, though only estaljlished two years 
in Nevada, are growing rapidly, each Camp having an auxiliary of Royal 
Neighbors. Peavine Camp was organized in Reno in 1901, and the others 

The Pioneers formed two societies. Society of Pacific Coast Pioneers 
and Reese River Pioneers, the former in 1872 and the latter the year follow- 
ing. Both ha\e disbanded. The magnificent museum of curiosities lielong- 
ing to the former society was by them donated to the state. It is now in an 
upper room of the State printing office in Carson. The State Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, Orvis Ring, acts as curator. It is a valuable collection; 
many of the Indian relics it wf)uld he imiiossible to duplicate. 

Nevada is, as are all mining states, a strong union state. There are 
Miners' Unions in every town of any size. The first one was organized in 
Virginia City in 1863, and the last two at Tonopah and Gold Field. The 
unions have helped the miners greatly in Nevada. The Miners' Union Library 
was established in 1877 in Virginia City. The first Imilding was swept away 
in the great fire there and the present one was erected in 1876 at a cost of 
$15,000. There is not onlv the librarv but a ball and chess room. There 
are many thousands of dollars' worth of books in the library. 

The Nevada State Medical Society was organized in 1878 and is in- 
creasing in memljership all the time. The Historical and Scientific Society 
was organized in 1865 and did good wdrk in early days. 

The Wheelmen's Club of Reno is a unique organization, organized by 
the leading Inisiness men of Reno to provide a place for young men to pass 
leisure hours. From a small beginning it has gnnvn until it possesses a 
magnificent building with all athletic and social ]):u-;i])hernalia. Its teams in 
manv branches of athletic work liax'c pro\cd \ictorious and the name is k'uown 
all o\-er the west. 

N'ext door to the W'heehncii's Club is the \^e\:i(l;i Club, also owning its 
own building. It is purely social, known as an adjunct of Reno's 400. Its 
memljcrshi]) includes both men and women. 

The Y. M. C. A. and its auxiliaries are well established in Xe\ad;i. In 
fact there is scarcely a secret, or bene\olent or social order not 
represented in Nevada, if it is by oidy one organization. 


Indian Annals df Nevada. 

In detailing reminiscences of Indian trouliles in Nevada, the narrator 
generally gives the "tale as told him,"' for there are few survivors of to-day 
who actually saw any of the incidents they relate, and Poor Lo' is, according 
to representation, or misrepresentation, always the aggressor. To prove this 
contrary to the facts one has hut to turn hack the records to the first inscrip- 
tion, the first meeting of the white and red men, in 1832. 

It will he rememl)ered that in a foregoing chapter mention is made of 
the trapping expedition of Milton Su1)lette, in 1832, and authentic history 
states that in this party were the men who started the murdering of Indians 
out of wanton cruelty. Opposed to this is the story of the life and death of 
Jedediah S. Smith, which states that when he was on his first return trip 
from California, in 1S25, all of his party hut two "were shot and killed, 
Smith escaping with Galhraith and Turner," and he finally met death "by 
the arrow of an ambushed Indian assassin on CimariMu river." Be that as 
it may, the first account of Indian contact with white men, in which there 
were hostilities on either side, was in 1832. 

.\niong the trappers with Sublette was Joe Meek, and he shot down 
and instantly killed a Shoshone Indian. He defended his action by saying 
that it was a gentle hint to the Indians not to steal any of their traps. He 
was asked if any had been stolen, but said, "No, but he looked as if he was 
going to." 

Joe Walker, the famous trapper and guide, was the next aggressor, 
when with the Bonneville expedition of 1833. Meek was also one of this 
party and probably urged the action taken. At first the Indians had been 
afraid of the curious looking pale faces, but as they saw they were unharmed, 
they, childlike, followed them in greatly increasing numbers. So many of 
the articles used by the scouts were new to theiu that occasionally one of 
the Indians would steal some trifling thing. But generally they kept at what 
they considered a safe distance, not knowing the power of the rifles, or, in- 
deed, that there was such a thing in existence. 

Then followed an event which fails to show any reason therefor, and 
which also shows the white man in a poor light. One morning the trappers 
were preparing to cross the Humboldt ri\cr, by fording: on the opposite 
shore stood a number of Shoshone Indians, watching their movements with 
great curiosity. By order of Walker, who said afterwards he feared an 
attack, the trappers fired upon the Indians, killing twenty-five instantly. Not 
one Indian tried to return the fire, but fied in e\ery direction, howling and 


wailing, overcome with terror at tiieir tirst introduction to tlie rifle. The 
trappers were not content witli this wanton murder Init chased the Indians 
as tliey fled in terror, kilhng many more, some of the trappers gixing the 
number at seventy -five and the others at over one hundred. 

Soon after one of the trappers found some traps missing and cooly 
shot down the iirst Indian he met. In the next seventeen years, until 1849, 
there was no further slaughter of the Indians by the white men. Then emi- 
grants killed a number of Shoshones in a spirit of bravado. That was the 
last uncalled for murder of Indians which went unpunished. For the next 
year the Indians of this tribe started to average things up. and kept at it 
until 1863. 

A first attempt at reprisal was made in June of 1850, when one of an 
emigrant train from Joliet, Illinois, while on picket duty, was shot through 
the heart with an arrow. In the course of a few hours this party came up 
with a party of twelve men, standing by seven wagons, the stock having 
been all stampeded by the Indians. Determined the Indians should not have 
the wagons and contents, they burned everything which could not be added 
to the outfit of the first party and went on foot the rest of the way to Cali- 
fornia. The Indians met a a check that same summer, for later on when they 
stampeded stock from a party of emigrants, there happened to be in the party 
several mountaineers, and the Indians, Shoshones, were overtaken, over 
thirty killed and the stock recovered. 

This stopped the Indians for a while and all might have been peace if 
it had not been for the actions of a party of Mormons, among them Walter 
Cosser, afterwards a resident of Douglas county, Nevada, and the infamous 
Bill Hickman, whose actions in the Danite murders have made him exe- 
crated of men. liickmcn being the guide. 'i"he party left Salt Lake to go 
to California, and en route shot down two Shoshone Indians, who stcxxl near 
them watching them curiously. Four days later, on the Humboldt river, 
these Danites shot and killed two Indians and one Indian woman, and then 
scalped them. It is sm;ill cause for wonder that the Indians lost no time in 
seeking revenge. To them all white men were the same, and the kindly 
emigrant externally presented the same aspect as the Destroying .\ngels. 

The killing of Colonel A. Woodard, of the mail contracting firm of 
Woodard & Chorppening, followed soon. He was killed with two guards, 
John Hawthorn and O.scar Fitzer, on the very siiot wiierc llickman had 
killed tile Shosliones. 'J"he carrier of the east-bound m.iil, S. A. Kinscy, 
found the bodies, mangled ;nid mutilated. With his two guards he had a 
narrow escape, as the Indians laid in ambush, the three whites escaping only 
by strategy. The body "f a white man. name unknciwn, was found in June 


of that year, and liis body liuried by Josqjh Zumwalt and party near Pyramid 
lake. 1 fc had been kiUed liy Pali-Utes, judging frnm the Indian signs. 

FA'ENTS OF 1852-39. 

Tlie Inthans began to acquire the stock of the settlers, and this, of 
'course, caused trouble. In the summer of 1(852. a party of men under 
Pearson, a noted Indian fighter afterwards, undertook to recover some stock 
from a band of Washoe Indians, but had to retreat. Two men, Frank Hall 
and Cady, determined to try friendly means and went to the Indians with 
small gifts; the Indians accepted the gifts and then told the two men to 
"go home," and they lost no time in doing so. All during that year the 
Indians carried off stock, and the settlers in Carson valley captured two of 
them, a boy and a nian. 'J1ie latter was set free, after his companion had 
been killed while trying to escape. Until the year 1857 there were many 
murders committed on both sides of which there are no authentic records. 
Tn the latter year two men, John McMarlin and James Williams, were killed 
by Washoe Indians while in charge of separate pack trains going from Mor- 
mon Station to California. 

In 1859 a party of prospectors, among them Peter Lassen, for whom 
a peak of the mountains in the Sierra Nevada is named, were in the Black 
Rock country. They separated for a time and Lassen and two men. Clapper 
and Wyatt, reached a rendezvous agreed upon. Indians fired on them and 
Clapper was instantly killed. Lassen, lirave old hero, ritle in hand, watched 
the shadows where the enemy lurked, while- Wyatt was trying to remove 
their effects to a safer spot. Another volley and Lassen sank mortally 
wounded. He told Wyatt to make his escape, which the latter did, bare- 
backed on one of the horses. The party which had preceded them, reached 
the rendezvous only to find the two bodies. They buried them where they 
fell, but in November the body of Lassen, the famous mountaineer, was taken 
u]) antl buried near Honey Lake. 


To add to their real wrongs, the Indians then secured an imaginary one, 
for when the cruelly severe winter of 1859-60 came, it was easy to believe 
that the whites were alst) responsible for this. The red man suffered terribl}', 
and when visited by Governor Roop and part}' at Truckee Meadow, they 
were actually afraid to eat the food given them, fearing it was poisoned. 
Fires were built for them, but many died. In January Dexter E. Demniing 
was murdered at his ranch in Willow Creek valley, and a jietition signed by 
ninety-one white men was sent to Governor Roop, asking him to send out 
the luilitary forces and punish the Indians. This he did, and a detachment 
was sent out at once. On January 24th Lieutenant V. J. Tutt reported to 


the governor that tlie murderers had l)een tracked to tlie Pali-Ute camp. On 
the 28th two commissioners were appointed li}- tlie governor to visit Winne- 
mucca. the cliief of the tribe and demand the murderers, under a treaty W'inne- 
mucca liad previously made. The commissioners, T. J. Harvey and William 
W'eatherlow, reported on February 1 1 that their errand was fruitless ; not 
only that, but on the third dav out they had been made prisoners over night 
to prevent them reacliing the Pah-Ute camp. They were ordered to return 
to Honey Lake valley, and on the way a fog came up ; taking advantage of 
this they recrossed the river, finding a camp of the Indians, who refused 
to give them any information as to the wherealx>uts of the chiefs. Going ten 
miles down the Truckee to Pyramid lake, they found the camp of Chief 
W'innemucca, and to their disappointment were told that he would not go 
to Honey valley. He said he knew that, if he acted acconling to the treaty 
he would give up the murderers, but he would not obey the treaty conditions. 
He would not promise to try to prevent future depredations. He declared 
that the white men must pay him sixteen thousand dollars for Honey valley. 
After leaving camp the two commissioners found that W'innemucca was mak- 
ing the unprotected herders give him two beeves weekly, and they had to 
do it, as they could not get near the settlements owing to the deep snows. 

Finally the commissioners returned home. Governor Roop asked aid 
from the Pacific Department in the following document, now historic, as 
its failure resulted in the horrible death of so many brave men. It follows, 
in full : 

General Clarke, U. S. A., 

Commander of the Pacific Department. 

Sir : — We are alx>ut to be plungetl into a bloody and protracted war 
with the Pah-Ute Indians. Within the last nine months there have been 
seven of our citizens murdered by the Indians. Up to the last murder we 
were unable to fasten the depredations on any particular tribe, but always 
believed it was the Pah-L'tes, yet did not wish to blame them until we were 
sure of the facts. On the tiiirteenth day of last month, Mr. Dexter E. Dem- 
ming was most brutally murdered in his own house, and plundered of every- 
thing and his horses driven off. .\s sewn as I was informed of the facts 
I at once sent out fifteen men after the nnnilerers (there iKHng snow on 
the ground they could i)e easily traceil) with orders to follow on their tracks 
until they could find out to what tribe they belonged, and if they would 
prove to jje Pah-Utes, not to give them battle, but to return and report, as we 
had, some two years ago, made a treaty with the I'ah-l'tes, one of the stipu- 
lations l)eing that if any of their tribe committed any murders or depreda- 
tions on any of the whites we were first to go to the chiefs and that they 
would deliver up iIh- murderers or make redress, and that we were to do 
the same on our part with them. On the third day nut they came on to 
the Indians and found them to be Pah-Ute.s, to which 1 call your attention 


to the paper marked "A." Jmenidiately on receiving this rejiort and agree- 
able to the said treaty, I sent Captain Wilham Weatherlow and Thomas J. 
Harvey, as commissioners, to proceed to tlie Pah-Utes' headquarters, and 
there inform the chief of this murder and demand rech'ess. Here allow me 
to call your attention to the paper marked "B." It is now pretty well an 
established fact that the Pah-Utes killed those eight men, one of them being 
Mr. Peter Lassen. How soon others must fall is not known, for war is now 
inevitable. We have but few good arms and but little ammunition. 

Therefore, I would most respectfully call upon you for a company of 
dragoons to come to our aid at once, as it may save a ruinous war, to show 
them that we have other help besides our own citizens, they knowing our 
weakness. And if it is not in your jxiwer at present to dispatch a company 
of men here, I do most respectfully demand of you arms and ammunition, 
with a field piece to drive them out of their forts. A four or six-pounder 
is indispensable in fighting the Pah-Utes. We have no Indian agent to call 
on, so it is to you we look for assistance. 

I remain your liumble servant, 

Isaac Roop, 
Governor of Nevada Territory. 

Susanville, February 12, i860. 

P. S. — Dear Sir; — If you should forward to us arms, ammunition, etc., 
I herel>y appoint Col. I. H. Lewis to receive and receipt for and bring them 
here at once. 

I. Roop. 

Despite the urgency of the case. General Clarke sent neither men nor 
arms, and in May followed the outbreak resulting in such loss of life. It was 
the commencement of the most important Indian war Nevada ever suffered. 

The Pah-LUes took the initiative. They held a great council the latter 
part of April, i860, at Pyramid lake, to decide what to do to prevent further 
encroachment, as they termed it, by the whites. Before the ist of May a 
large number were there, from all over the territory. Of the big chiefs all 
were for war, save only one, Numaga, and his efforts were in vain. 

Of the big chiefs who urged the war, nearly all met with violent ends. 
Some of the chiefs were not Pah-Utes. One, Ou-da-zo-bo-eat, was a Sho- 
shone who had married a Pah-Ute woman. Sa-wa-da-be-bo was half Pah-Ute 
and half Bannock. The former was killed by his own tribe for getting them 
into trouble by stealing stock. The latter was killed by the whites. Sa-a-ba, 
a Smoke creek Indian, who had married a sister of Old Winnemucca, was 
also killed by a fellow tribesman. No-jo-mud, chief of the Honey lake tribe, 
was killed also by his tribe for his continued hostility to the whites. Ho-zi-a 
was killed by Captain Dick. Yur-dy, called Joaquin by the whites, died a 
natural death. Se-quin-a-ta lived afterwards on the reservation, dying there; 
he was the one who prevented any peace talk before the battle commenced, 


by rushing his followers past Young \\'iiinemucca (Numaga), as he halted 
his hand to try and have a talk with tlie whites. 

I\Io-giian-no-go, known to the whites as Captain Soo. later became a 
great friend to the whites and was killed for leading soldiers into the Black 
Rock country where they killed some Pah-Utes. The real chief of all, Old 
\\'innemucca. said nothing, for or against war, though he favored the latter. 
He saw that it was coming any way and wanted his own skirts clear. 


Of them all, only one stood forth for peace, and that was Numaga. 
He was called Young Winnemucca by the whites, who supposed him a war 
chief. His own name told his nature, meaning the gi\-er of food and indi- 
cating a generous, kindly man. The chief in command of the Indians at 
the battle of Pyramid lake was Poito or Old Winnemucca. The two were 
enemies, not by choice of Numaga, but of the former. Numaga lived on the 
reservation, and was leader of that tribe, and was not related to Old Winne- 
mucca. Numaga was an Indian chief, but he was also a statesman and diplo- 

Numaga knew the real power of the whites, and the uther Indians did 
not. He had lived in California and associated with whites. He knew that 
if the Indians assembled w^ent on the war path, their victory would be short- 
li\ed. If he had had time enough he might have changed the tide of affairs, 
for he was eloquent and untiring. He rode from camp to camp, urged one 
chief and then another not to fight. He told them war might mean de- 
struction for some of the whites, but that there were thousands who would 
come from far away and wipe them out of existence. He was listened to 
with great respect, but not one would ])romise to obey him. When every- 
thing failed this great-iiearled chief withdrew and, lying prone on the ground, 
hid his face from sight and in silence mourned over the coming destruction, 
first of the whites and then of his brothers. I'or three days he laid thus, 
and it l>egan to have a great efYect, some beginning to waver. This so 
angered the bloodthirsty chiefs that they tried to force him to leave, and 
he was threatened with death. He urged them to kill him, .saying- he had 
ni> desire to live. Hut this they did not dare to do. 


On the fourth day the council met, and chief after chief arose and de^ 
tailed, incident by incident, the wrongs suffered by liis peo])!e, at the hands 
of the whites. All had s]X)ken when in stalked Numaga, more dead than 
alive, for he had not eaten or drunk for all those three d.'iys .nid nights. I Fe 
commenced his speech, which was listened to with ;i\\c .and respect, as 
follows : 


"You would make war ui)f)u tlie wliites," lie said; "I ask you to pause 
aud reflect. The white men are like the stars ahove youi^ieads. You have 
wrongs, great wrongs, that rise up like those mountains hefore you ; but can 
you, from the mountam tops, reach out and hlot those stars? Your enemies 
are like the sands in the bed of your rivers ; when taken away they would ouly 
give place for more to come and settle there. Could you defeat the whites 
in Nevada, from over the mountains in California would come to help them 
an army of Avhite men that would cover your country like a 1)lanket. What 
hope is there for the Pah-Ute? From where is to come your gims, your 
powder, your lead, your dried meats to live upon, and hay to feed your ponies 
while you carry on this war? Your enemies have all these things, more than 
they can use. They will come like the sand in the whirlwind and drive you 
from your home. You will be forced among the barren rocks of the north, 
where your ponies will die, where you will see the women and old men 
starve and listen to the cries of your children for food. I love my people. 
Let them live; and when their s])irits shall be called to the Great Camp in the 
southern sky, let their 1x)nes rest where their fathers were buried," 

While the council sat listening to Numaga, an Indian rode up hurriedly 
with news which made all the efforts of Numaga in vain; for he walked 
inti> the center of the grave circle and said: "Moguannoga, last night, with 
nine braves, burned Williams' Station, on the Car.son river, and killed fixir 

As he ceased, Numaga, pointing to the southeast, said : "There is no 
longer any use for counsel ; we must prepare for war, for the soldiers will now 
come here to fight us." 


The news brought by the Indian was only too true. James O. Williams, 
the owner of the station, escaped, because he was in camp only two miles 
from the scene of the horror. His two brothers, Oscar W'illiams, a married 
man and a native of Maine, and David Williams, single and a native of New 
York, were killed, as were Samuel Sullivan, married, and a native of New 
York ; John Flemming, a single man and a native of New York, and "Dutch 
Phil" name, age and place of nativity unknown. They were all young men, 
Oscar Williams, 33; his brother, 22; Sullivan, 25, and Flemming, 25. What 
torture preceded the killing was unknown, though the bodies were mutilated. 

Lack of time only saved the lives of other settlers, for daylight was 
the signal for the Indians to retreat. 

J. O. Williams returned to his station the next morning to find his 

home burned to the ground and brothers and friends' bloody corpses. He at 

. once started for Virginia City to inform the people there and bring aid to 


the settlers near. C. M. Davis, next to tlie \\'illiams' Station, was considered 
a real friend by the Indians and so they did nut attack him. It was three 
days Ijefore he and the others near him heard of the massacre, and \\hen 
they did they started to Dayton, and reached Buckland's Station just when 
the Ormsby party, on its way to punish the Indians, arrived there, May 9th. 


^^'hen Williams arri\-ed in \'irginia City and told his tale of horror, men 
were up in arms to punish the murderers. Anxiety was great, for all over 
Nevada were small parties of prospectors, miners and ranchers, and it was 
feared few would escape if the Indians were really on the war path. Dozens 
of relatives and friends of these isolated ones, without thought of danger 
to themselves, went swiftly on Imrseljack to warn the threatened ones of their 
peril. Then came the call for volunteers, for one and all were determined, 
if possible, to wipe the Pah-Utes ofi the face of the earth. Small com- 
panies were organized in Virginia, Carson, Genoa and Silver cities, and all 
met in the first place, going to Buckland's Station and then on to bury the 
corpses at Williams'. 

After doing this a vote was taken as to wlietlier it wnulil be better to 
return home or go on into the land of the enemy. By a unanimous vote they 
marched on, camping that night on the Truckee river, where W'adsworth now 
stands, and rescuing five men who were fortified in a cabin on tlie opposite 
side of the river. They had, the Sunday before the massacre, been hunting 
with three others at Pyramid lake; the Indians liad killed three and these 
five had escaped and shut themselves in the cabin. They were brought across 
on logs, drawn by lariats, and joined the expedition, going on foot. 


There were, all told, in the revengful little army, but one hundred and five 
men, in four detachments; there was no one in charge, as chief: Thomas F. 
Condon, Jr., w^as in command of the (lenoa detachment; Major Ormsby, of 
Carson City, Richard Watkins, of Silver City, and Archie McDonald, of Vir- 
ginia City. Major Ormsby, J. Gatewood and others urged the men to choose a 
leader, but they did not do it for some reason. At heart, few believed the 
Indians would fight, if they had, very few would ha\c retreated; but both 
lx)ys and men were for the most i)art brave and couragecnis; needing but a 
leader to make them victorious; hence the awful result. And worst of all, tlic)- 
were poorly armed, and so the ill-fated party went on to its doom, it is 
impossible to get a complete list of the men and boys in the "Oinisby part\'," 
as it has been called. If it had lieen. indeed. Ormsby's iiartv and he in charge, 
no such fate would have o\ertaken that gallant officer, as did. The list as it 


is on reciird is as fullows, the names of nian\', Ixitli liemes antl eiiwards, not 
on it : 


Carson City Rangers : Major William M. Ornisby, Jf)Iin L. Blackburn, 
Chris. Barnes, William S. Spear, William Mason, Richard Watkins, Samuel 

Brown, Dr. Anton W. Tjader, Eugene Angel, F. Shinn, Lake, James 

Mclntyre, James Gatewood, Frank Gilbert, C. Marley, John Holmes, Dr. 
William E. Eichelroth. W'ith them were nine enlisted soldiers. 

Silver City Guards: Anton Kauffman, James Shabell, Keene, Albert 
Bloom, James Lee, Charles Evans. They were captained, as stated by 
Watkins ; he was a veteran of the Walker fililnistering expedition to Nicar- 
agua and lost a leg there. At first he refused to take charge and go, but 
when told that some of the men who were under him in Nicaragua wanted 
him he went. He was strapped to his jxiwerful horse and afterwards wrote 
an accurate account of the battle and march preceding (his account being used 
as a book of reference). 

Genoa Rangers: Captain T. F. Condon, Michael Tay, M. Pular, J. A. 
Thompson, C. E. Kimball, Rubert Riley (better known as "Big Texas"), Lee 

X'irginia City: First Company — Captain F. Johnston, F..J. Call, 

McTemey, Charles McLeod, Henderson (a Greek), Marco Kuergerwaldt, 
O. C. Steel, Hugh McLaughlin, John Fleming (a Greek), Andreas Schnald 
(an Italian), John Gaventi George (a Chileno). Company Second — Captain 
Archie McDonald, Charles W. Allen, G. I. Baldwin, J. C. Hall, F. Hawkins. 
A. L. Granis, A. K. Elliott, Arch Haven, George Jones, William Armington. 
G. F. Brown, D. D. Cole, Charles Forman, F. Gatehouse, R. Lawrence, 
Henry Meredith, Pat McCourt, Henry Newton, A. I. Peck, M. Spurr, Col. 
M. C. Vane, FI. Mcintosh, S. McNaughton, John Noyce, O. Spurr. Un- 
known Compan}- — J. Bowden. James McCarthy, J. F. Johnson, N. A. Chand- 
ler, A. G. B. Hammond, Armstrong. Galehousen. 

After camping that night the little army pushed on north down the 
Truckee ri\er. No Indians were met until bottom land was reached, one- 
half mile north of the present reservation building. The bottom land widened 
out, a broad meadow on both sides of the ri\-er, belted with cotton trees and 
Ijrush, and enclosed on the west by a mountain and on the east by a com- 
])arati\e]}- smooth talile-land, elevated slightly alwve the meadows. The 
elevation increasetl in height until terminating in a bank fifteen feet high at 
the south end of the valle_\-, where the meadows dwindled to a few yards on 
each side of the Truckee; a trail runs from this south end down into the 
lower ground and then runs on the east side of the ri\er to Pyramid lake. 


It was where this trail passes into tlie valley that the Ornish)- party made its 
last stand. 


The Indians made their appearance just as the white hien were nearly 
two miles into the lowland, a hand the size of the whites, keeping out of gun 
range. Major Ormshy gave the order to dismount and tighten girths, and as 
they were doing this A. K. Elliott, who had a globe-sighted rifle, tried to 
pot some of the Indians, in vain. \M:en the order was given to charge, the 
company made a dash up the grade, but the Indians melted away, appearing 
again just out of rifle range. They encircled the whites completely. The 
Indians fired with both rifles and bows, and with usual demoniac war cry. 
If the whites had continued right on after them, success would have Ijeen 
theirs, but the larger number dropped behind, horses became frightened, 
forcing revolvers from holsters and compelling riders to drop their guns to 
keep on their backs. Fear infected the whites, for all thought themselves 
already defeated. The volunteers of the first charge turned and rode after the 
lagger.s, who were in full retreat. And they rode to the l^ottom to the west, 
where Se-quin-a-ta (Little) W'innemucca and band lay in ambush. The 
Indians outflanked the whites and moved south, shooting down into the 
timber: Se-quin-a-ta (Little) W'innemucca was joined by other Indians in 
the timber; as the Indians rushed forward Xuniaga, who had just come up, 
rushed between them and the whites, waving his own band back, trying 
to obtain a parley. Winnemucca and followers dashed by him. Numaga's 
band following; the whites fell back, but in a few hundred yards reformed. 
William Headley, under Ormsby, was so conspicuous by his bravery the 
Indians named him "White I'rave." He was supposed to he in command 
and was killed. 

It was in vain the bravest men tried to make a stand ; some tried to 
cross the river, but were swept back; half a mile from where the l>attle began 
the river a])proaches within fiftv feet of an elevated pciiiit and here a number 
of mounted Indians were grouped and the whites had lo run the gauntlet ; 
the horse of Eugene Angel, of the Carson City Rangers, was sliot under 
him, and he was thrown to the ground. He did not shrink and beg for 
mercy, but turned and .shot at the foe. wounding one in the knee before falling, 
riddled with bullets and arrows. 

The white men. Ihrec-quarters of a mile farther Sduth in the iMittom- 
land, made another rall\- : to the north there was an open space, and in his 
anxiety to kill, Se-quin-a-ta rode into it ahead of his band. Henry Meredith, 
a mere boy, with the Virginia City comijany, was killed in the rally, and the 
"White Brave" had been lingering behind his party ; when he saw Winne- 


mucca lie forgot that he d'u\ imt liave a shot left, but rode straight at him; 
Winnemiicca fled to his hand, }4eadly after him; and together they passed the 
line of Indians, when Headley was sh(3t through the head from behind. 

Ormsby's couiniand made a last effort less than a quarter of a mile from 
where the trail passed out of the lowlantl, up a steep bank to the tablelands. 
If the whites were to escape this point had to be held, for if the Indians 
gained it, the only point of exit from the valley, the fate of the white men 
was sealed. Major Ormsby ordered Richard W'atkins and Thomas F. Con- 
don to go with their commands and hold this point, and they did start, but 
were deserted 1>y nearly all their men before it was reached. Anton Kauff- 
man. a lx>y of sixteen, said afterwards that the last he saw was Major Watkins 
standing on his crutch on the trail, firing at the foe. 

The horse that Se-quin-a-ta had been riding was shot under him as he 
returned after the killing of the brave Headly, so he took no part in the 
massacre wliich followed. Thomas V. Condon rode back to inform Ormsby 
of the critical condition at the pass. And it was critical. 

First young Meredith fell, and the whites gave way as the Indians pressed 
them out of the timber. The Avhites went to the south to reach the upper 
country, and perhaps safety. The war cries of tlie Indians, their yells of 
triumph, with the constant rain of arrows and bullets, changed the retreat 
to a wild stampede. When they reached the steep bank they were jammed 
together in the rush and eight were killed, Richard N. Snowden, another 
lx)y of the Virginia City company, reaching the summit before he fell. 


When the upper country was reached it was a mad flight for life, any 
way to get away from the merciless foe. As they grew bolder the Indians 
rode up to the men who could not keep up and, putting an arm around him, 
lifted the white man from the saddle. The first man offered no resistance. 
But the second, the heroic Californian, William S. Spear, of the Carson 
City rangers, was of different metal. He shot at the Indian with his pistol 
and they rolled to the ground, fighting hard, rolling over and over; the Indian 
was nearly strangled to death when his companions killed Spear. Many other 
brave acts of the white men are recorded, the names of the heroes unknown. 

Major Ormsby had left Lake, of the Carson City Rangers, where a 
mountain came down to the river, a narrow neck of land, through which 
the trail passed dowu to the meadow and then in half a mile out to the 
high open country. Lake had a number of men, and Ormsby intended, if de- 
feated at the lake, to make a stand here, with a favorable position to aid him. 
At the narrow pass Lake waited with his men, but when he saw the retreat and 
knew the white men were flying before the enemy he, with the reserves, 


joined the retreating fugitives. One dozen of rail men could ha\e held tlie 
pass against the enemy for a time at least. One can imagine Ormsby's 
feelings when he arrived and found the reserves gone, and he had to ride 
on. The men were crowded in the narrow pass, the Indians forcing the horses 
of those in the rear Ijack, and, leaving their helpless riders to ]>e killed by 
the warriors in the rear, rode on after the fugitives. Five were kmnvn to 
have been killed here. 

Major Ormsbv had been shot in the mouth and both arms had been 
shot through, and he was mounted on a mule which had been shot in the 
flank. Major W'atkins passed him trying to rally the men, and ordered 
Lieutenant Chris. Barnes to remain with Ormsby and try to urge the mule 
along. \\'hen he found he could not rally the men Watkins returned to 
Ormsby. The Indians were close and, firing, hit Barnes. Captain Watkins 
tells of what followed, showing he thought discretion the better part of 
valor, yet he could not really be blamed, for always "self preservation is the 
first law of X'ature," or nearly always. 

"I then made up my mind that the fight was up, that I could do no more 
for the Major but might save myself, so making a motion to Barnes to go, I 
said to Ormsby that I would try once more to rally the men. He replied that 
it would be of no use, liut to look out for myself, as it was but a question of 
a few more minutes with him, and that all he now asked was strength to 
face the foe when he received his death shot. The Indians were gaining on 
us rapidly: one look at them, and thought of self conquered valor, and the 
next moment, with a few parting words to Ormsby, I was on my way to 

Captain W'atkins farther on took a man up on his horse and saved him. 

Left alone, helpless in the face of the foe, Major Ormsby struggled 
on as best he could, reaching the last little valley by the river where the 
five men had been killed ; here he was passed by many fugitives and left l)ehind 
and just where the trail leads out to the oi)en country he was overtaken by 
the Indians. His saddle turned, he was thrown and his mule went 
l)ack towards the enemy. Major Ormsliy walked to the top of the grade and, 
recognizing one of the pursuing Indians who had been his friend, ad\anced 
to meet them, blood running from his wounds, his palm extended as he waved 
his hand. 

"Don't kill me." he called to the Indian friend, and he mentioned his 
name; "I am your friend; I'll go and talk with the whites and make peace." 

"No use now," replied the Indian ; "too late," and he sent an arrow 
through the face and another through the stomach of his one-time friend. 
Ormsby rolled from the ridge to the guUey, wliere he died. 

In advance of Ormsby were two men; one there, N. A. Chandler, of the 

A lllSruKV Ul' NI':VADA. 27:! 

unknown conijiany, Iiecause he had no horse. As he saw Ornishy descend 
tlie hill to talk to the Indians he ran down to a steep point, laid down his 
revolver and escaped. 

Not so the other, who will always he known to fame as "The Nameless 
Hero." He was mounted on a good horse, hut when he saw Ormsby thrown 
from the mule he dismounted. He was only twenty feet from them when 
Ormsby was talking to his supix)sed friend. As Ormsbv fell, two Indians 
rushed past him to kill the young hoy, hut he got behind his horse and fired, 
but without effect. The struggle was soon ended, and he went down on the 
trail; but he was found and buried afterwards. The Indians themselves 
recounted this brave effort to lielp Ormsljy, as they did rvther acts of bravery 
done l>y other whites that day of fate. He died gloriously, but those who 
buried him felt it keenly that they did not know his family or home so 
they could inform his relatives of the brave death of the "Nameless Hero." 


The last victims to fall were Charles McLeod and George Jones, of the 
Virginia City companies, and James McCarthy, of the Unknown Company. 
They were overtaken in the ojjen country and made one of the most desperate 
resistances of the day. They kept the Indians at bay with their revolvers as long 
as their ammunition lasted, and then were killed. So brave did the Indians con- 
sider these three men that they honored them, for it is an honor in the eyes of 
the Indian, b_\- dancing a war dance around the bloody corpses. After the sun 
went down, as it did as they danced, they kept u]) the pursuit, but in \ain, for 
in the darkness the white remnant reached safety. 

It w-ill ne\er lie known how man}' perished on each side. The Indians 
claim they killed forty-five only, though some wounded might have crawled 
ofif and died. Their loss, which the survivors knew to be a false statement, 
they stated was only two horses killed and three warriors wounded. 


When the worn, weary antl often-wounded stragglers reached cixilizatioii, 
terror overcame the whites. The disaster was soon known all over Nevada 
and also wired to California. It was exaggerated, of course, and prepara- 
tions for i)rotection were made all through Nevada. The women and chil- 
dren in Virginia City were placed in a half-built stone building, which 
was soon converted into a fort. It was christened Fort Riley, and l.Kcame 
afterwards the Virginia Hotel. 

Silver City citizens at once built a stone fort, on the rocks overlooking 
Devil's Gate and the town itself : they had no cannon, so an ingenious citizen 
made one of wood, hooped w ith iron, and trained it so as to rake the canyon 


Ijelow, in event of an attack. \\'hen the war was over men took the cannon 
Ijack on the liiU ami it ]irove<l to be a torpedo instead of a cannon, for when 
a slow match was applied to it. it Ijurst in all directions. 

The women and children of Carson Citv were fortified in the Penrod 
House, and men picketed, day and night, the country around the city. 

Warren Wasson proved another hero; the only Iniilding- in Genoa suita- 
ble to fortify was his stone cabin. He vacated the night the news of the 1>attle 
was brought, and left alone for Carson City, to find out why no telegraph 
messages had come from there, fearing that the Indians had cut the wires. 
The Genoa operator had called Carson City repeatedly, with no result. 

When he reached Carson City he found the operator had paid absolutely 
no attention to the calls from Genoa. Why, is not stated. He was told that 
no Indians had appeared in either Carson or Eagle \alleys. but that a party 
was being organized, under Theodore ^^'inters, to take a dispatch from 
Governor Wright, of -California, to a company of ca\alry, somewhere in the 
vicinity of Honey Lake valley. The dispatch contained orders for the cavalry 
to march at once to Carson City. 

At once \\'asson recpiested to be allowed to carry the dispatch to the 
cavalry, alone. This he did. in fourteen hours, covering' one hundred and 
ten miles, without change of horse, his being a jiowerful animal; he found the 
cavalry, and the company left at once for Carson. On the entire trip Was- 
son did not see an Indian. 


When the news of the fate of the "Ormsb\- Parly" Hashed over the wire. 
Californians were intensely excited and eager lo aid the Nevadans. In 
Downie\ilk'. thirt\-six hours after the death of \'oung Meredith was known, 
a company numbering one hundi'cd and sixty-five men was raised, eciuijiped. 
and with forty rounds of ammunition, reached Virginia Cit)' five days later, 
liaving made the journey on foot. 

In Sacramento. Placerxille. .Nevada Cit\- and San juan, other com- 
panies were organized at once, and were soon in X'irgiina C it\', eager to make 
an immediate advance ujjon the Indians. 

The Nevadans were all volunteers, companies being organized in Car- 
son, Gold Ilill, Genoa, Silver City, Davtou and X'irginia Citw the men 
flocking froiu all o\-cr the state as soon as they heard the story of the l)attle 
to some one of these points. Go\-ernor Wright, of California, sent to the 
Nevadans fi\c hundred Minie nuiskets .and plenty of ammunition. The citizens 
of Nevada contributed to provision the entire force, and a thorough and com- 
plete organization of each company was enforced. The following were the lucn 
who set out as soon as posible. lo annihilate, if possible, the red fiends. 


Washoe Regiment Organization, witli eight companies of infantry and 
six of cavalry: Field officers — John (.'. Hays, colonel commanding; J. Saun- 
ders, lieutenant colonel; Dan V.. Hungerford, major; E. J. Bryant, surgeon; 

Perkins, surgeon: Bell, surgeon; Charles S. Fairfax, adjutant: J. 

S. Plunkett, acting adjutant of infantry: Alex Aloit. department cjuarter- 
master; Benjamin fi. Li])pincott, regimental ciuartermaster ; John McNish, 
assistant regimental (|nartermaster ; K. X. Snowden, commissary. (R. N. 
Snowden. Jr.. had heen killed in the hattle i:)f Pyramid lake.) 

Compan\- A (known as Spy Company) — J. B. Fleeson, captain. 

Company B (known as Sierra Guards) — E. J. Smith, captain: J. B. 
Preasch. first lieutenant; William Wells, .second lieutenant; J. Halliday. third 
lieutentant ; men under them, forty-seven. 

Company C (known as Truckee Rangers) — .\lanson W. Nightingill, 

Company D (known as Sierra (iuards) — J. B. Reed, captain; N. P. 
Pierce, first lieutenant; D. C. Ralston, orderlv: numher of men under them, 

Compaii}- E (known as Carson Rangers) — P. H. Clayton, captain. 

Company F (known as Nevada Rifles) — J. B. Van Hagan. captain. 

Company G (known as Sierra Guards) — F. F. Patterson, captain: C. S. 
Champney. first lieutenant: T. Maddux, second lieutenant: A. Walker, third 
lieutenant : numher of men under them, forty-one. 

Company H (known as San Juan Rifles) — N. C. Miller, captain. 

Company I (known as Sacramento Guards) — A. G. Snowden, captain. 

Company J (known as "From Sacramento") — Joseph Virgo, captain. 

Company K (known as Virginia Rifles) — E. T. Storey, captain: number 
of men under him. one hundred and si.x. 

Company L (known as Carson Rifles) — J. L. Blackburn, cajitain ; .\. L. 
'rurner. first lieutenant : Theodore Winters, orderly sergeant. 

Company M (known as Silver City Guards) Ford, captain. 

Company N ( knf>wn as Highland Rangers, or Vaqueros) — S. B. Wallace, 
cajjtain; Robert Lyon, first lieutenant; Joseph l'\ Triplett. second lieutenant; 
number of men under them, twenty. 

Company O (known as Sierra (iuards) — Creed Hammond, captain: 
George A. Davis, first sergeant: H. ]\[. Harshbarger, second sergeant; number 
of men under them, twenty. 

Total number of men enrolled, rank and file. fi\'e hundred and forty-four. 


The Washoe i*egiment mmed out of Virginia City, cheered l>y the 
citizens of that city, and Gold Hill and Silver City, as it passed through them. 


They camped the first night. May _'4th. at a place caUed "Chinatc.wn,"' at 
Miller's ranch. The next day they remained in camp, receiving' ctminiissary 
stores, tlie poor quality being a subject of much cr>mment. Companies A, 
C. F. G. H, L. X. and halt of the \'irginia Rifles, were mounted: the 
entire regiment was armed with Minie rilies and muskets without ha_\'onets. 

On the 26th the}' struck cam]) and when they reachetl Reed's Station. 
a scout. Michael Bushy, went out o\er the Twenty-Six Mile Desert to IcKate 
the Indians. He never returned, and twn \'ears later his liones were found 
1)\ Warren W'asson eight miles frum Williams' Statinn. where he had Ijeen 
killed Isy the Rah-Ute Indians, some of them guiding W'assun to the spot. 
They iold of the Ijrave light for life niade by Busliy. and Imw he was 
murdered. He was a celebrated Indian tighter. ha\ ing been cunspicunus 
in the Indian wars in Washington territory .and Oregon. 

The l)anks of the Carson rner. <in the meadow where the ri\er turns 
to iViw towards Williams' Station, was the next encampment place. The 
Indians fired into the canip the next morning, the fire l>eing returned, with 
no results on either side. The Indians retreated. The Ixidy of James 
I'deniming. one of the men killed at Williams' Station, was fomid here and 
Ijtu'ied. The station was only a mile away. 

Ma\ 31st. the Washoe regiment was joined, at the present town of Wads- 
worth, by the detachiiient of United States troops. The officers were: 
Ca]Hain Jasper M. Stewart, commanding; Cajjtain T. Aloore. quartermaster; 
Charles C. Keeney, surgeon. Compan\- G, Third Artillery — Jasper M. 
Stewart, captain; eighty-two enlisted men under them. Detachment of Com- 
pany !. Third Artillery — Lieutenant (iibson. witli two lii}\vitzers. and ten men. 
Company .\, Sixth Infantry — Cajitain ]•". 1-". I'lint. with si.xtv-two enlisted 
men; Company H,6tli Infantry — Lieutenant McCreary. with fift\'-three enlisted 
men; a total of two hundred and seven, niaking, with the \ciluntcer force, a 
gra'id total of seven hundred .and liflv-four men. a fai" dift'erent force from 
tl'iC little handful of undisciplined men lhe\' were going to avenge. 

It was decided by regulars and \'oluntcers. that Colonel Jack Hays 
sJDuId assimie command of both forces. That night, as they la_\' in cam]) at 
the lower crossing of the Truckee river, two of the men discovered the Ixxly of 
one of the white men killed in the pre\ious battle. 'i"he body was terribly 
mutilated and no means of identification could they find save a heart-shajied 
gold ring on bis left hand, on the foui'th linger. The bod\' bad been 
partially eaten by .some wild beast, but they found ih.'it the tliii'd ;md foui'th 
toes of one of the feet were webbed. 

On June ist the small army cam])ed eight miles further dow n the Truckee 
river; here small earth works were thrown u]): the ])lace is now known as 
Fort Storey, for the cai)tain of the X'irginia i\illes. I leie one of his com- 


niand was accidcntall)- slml and l<ilk'il. lie was Imn'ed wn'tli military lumors; 
it was S. C. l-'lctcher. 


\\ itiiout knii\\in,!4' it the cuniniand was (iiil\- diie mile t'lMni the corjise of 
Major Ormshy, which still lay in the i;nllv where it liad rrjlled. In-om hein;;- 
determined not to he canght, as had been the iirsl command, the forces under 
Colonel [lays were, if an)thini;', over-cantions. On June 2nd, a detail of forty 
men from Captain J. \\. \'an Hagan's command and forty from Captain E. 
F. Storey's command, tli<ise officers in charge of theii' own men, went scouting 
down the "i'ruckee river, to the Pah-Ute village at its mouth ; if they met 
any of the redskins they were to f.all hack to Crmi]) Storey, as it was called, 
and give the information. 

The little com])an\- mo\-cd o\er the recent hattlefield, grewsonie sights 
on every side, making them more eager to punish the slayers of the white 
men. Reacing the point where the hattle of Pyramid lake had been fought, 
part of the force went down the abrupt trail to the \allev, the otliers remaining 
on the highei' ground, llere was where Sjiear and Snowden had fallen; 
the company on the lower land had just found the body of young Meredith 
when the companx- on the tableland signaled that the enemy was in sight. 
'Jdie Indians were three lunub'ed in number, and were coming rapidly, in a 
wedge, with the poiiit ad\anced. on horseback. Three hundred more were 
running up the valley, in no form at rdl. The white men made an orderly 
retreat, Init it. galled them, bra\e men that the\' were, to h;i\-e a fusillade 
constanth- in the rear, the balls whistling from a ride in the han<ls of an 
Indian riding in advance of his fellows; evidently the glol)e-sighted rifle 
A. K. Elliott, of the Virginia company, had carried, and which was probably 
torn from his dead hand b\' the Indian. ( )nl\' one of the retreating men was 
hit. Andrew ii;ise\', who was se\'erel\' wounded in one hip: he ne\er men- 
tioned it until his companions passed him in a charge later; he was weak 
from loss of blood and it was several years before he recovered, after a severe 
operation performed in San h'rancisco. 

As the enemy folic >wed in ])erisistent i)ursuit, the officers of the 
.scouting" part}- saw. as they passed over the rough ground on the east side 
of tlie Truckee. the main liodv of troops under Colonel Havs, coming to 
meet, them, and the\' determined to gi\e b.attle. It was the best of ground for 
the Indians, steep, sloping sides for a lookout and signal station, and a barrier 
to an\' flank mo\'ement on the west side. The Truckee river ^flowed on the 
east. ])reventing any flank moxement on that side; consequently, all the Indians 
h;id to tlo was to watch the foe in the open front, with no trees to screen their 
approiuh. .\ large number of the Indians masssed on ;i round, rock\' butte. 


about Uvi) liundred feet high. It was located aliout a quarter of a mile down 
the mountain, as it sloped to the ri\er. IJetween the Initte and the ri\er 
were numerous gullies. 


In a moment the scouting party was under fire, not only from the butte 
hut from a line extending from the river far up the mountain. Captains 
Storey and Van Hagan decided tn take the rocky l>utte before the main body 
under Colonel Hays reached them. They did so, in one gallant dash ; and 
they retained it, despite a raking fire from the river and the mountain side; 
they soon found themselves in the enemy's lines, liy the arrival of the main 
force. The regulars ])assed to the west of the buttc, cleployetf as skirmishers 
in open order, then along the mountain side, forcing everytliing Ijefore them. 
The volunteers, on foot, passed to the east of the butte, in the same order, 
firing as they went; this made a continuous line from the river to near the 
top of the mountain, and when this was formed the battle began, the Indians 
having a similar line. .\s the cax'alry advanced every sixth man was left 
to hold the horses, the cavalry being ortlered to dismount. The infantry was 
held as reserves. The Indians sent forth their blood-curdling war cries, 
mingled with exultant yells when they thought they had sent a shot home: 
even their death cries were shrill and car-piercing, and there were many of the 
latter as the day wore on. 

The whites forced the fighting, charging every stronghold, driving the 
painted, howling warriors back. I'lN-ery inch of ground was hotly contested. 
But this time right was might, and liold and fearless as they were, the Pah- 
Utes were forced backward: at first they carried their dead and wounded with 
thcni, but some participants in the liattle state that towards the last the dead 
were concealed in the cliffs: the wounded were taken at any cost. The 
battle gave a most decisive victory to the whites, and only two-thirds of 
the white force was engaged in the real lighting: two hundred being held as 
a reserve and fifty guarded the camp. I low tlie Indians held out as they did 
was a surprise to everyone engaged in the fight. The whites were armed 
with long-range rifles and rifle muskets, carrying a heavy ball 1,000 yards, and 
\'we hundred were constantly in action. there being plentyof aninuinilion and re- 
loading rapid. 

ROLL (U- |)1':.\I) AND WOI'NDEI). 

Glorious as was the result of the l)altle, there was ;i saddening after- 
math, for Captain Storey, loved of all men, was mortally wounded, shot 
through the lungs; he insisted on remaining on the field while the battle 
raged; /\. H. rhel])s and John Cameron, of Storey's command, were shot 
through the head, dying that night. A imniber of the regulars were severely 


wnuniled. Tlie Ijixlies of the Iwn ]iri\atcs were buiied near Cam]) Storey; 
the body of Major (Jrnisby liad been found and it was buried teni])orariIy, 
being removed at a later jjeriod to Carson City. 

The bo(hes of McLeod and MeCarthy, tlie two men wlio had made sueli 
a desperate resistance tliat tlie Indians had honored their corpses with a war 
dance, at the close of the battle of Pyramid lake, were found, where the 
Indians had in their dance beaten the earth down solidly and hard in a 
circle around them. The men who found them said that the sinews along 
the back bone had been cut from McLeod, evidently to make bow strings. 
The faces of both men wore an expression of defiance. The body of Jones, 
killed at the same time, was found three hundred feet from these two. 
The Ixidies were buried with the ceremonies of the Odd Fellows, at the 

The Indians always denied that their loss was more than four killed 
and .seven wounded, but a corresi)ondenl to the Territorial Enterprise, who 
claimed to have participated in the battle, asserted that there were at least 
one hundred and sixty, his informant having been a spy from the regulars, 
wdio was with the Pah-Utes during the fight. This correspondent said that 
se\enty bodies were found in the clifl^s. Joseph F. Triplett, a citizen of 
Elko county, stated that he learned from four Pah-Ute chiefs, Buffalo Jim, 
Big George, Captain Natchez and Captain Breckenridge, right after the 
war, that forty-six Indians were killed. He was a participant. But not 
one of the whites could say the}- saw more than three dead Indians. 


On the 4th of June the command marched on, in ])ursuit of the Indians, 
leaving a company behind at Fort Storey, under Captain Joseph Viroo. 
of Company J, Sacramento, to look after the wounded, among them Captain 
Storey. On the march the men constantly came to bodies of the victims of 
Lake Pyramid battle, and all were biu'ied where found, as they were en- 
tirely nude and fast decomposing. The bodies of William S. Spear, Henry 
Meredith and John Snowden were. howe\-er, taken up and later sent to 
their former homes in California. When they reached the Pah-L'te village not 
;ui Indian was to be seen, but they found the trail, and, as it led to the ni>rth, 
to the north the pursuers marched. 

While this command was marching on, a force of thirty men, under 
Captain Weatherlow, was scouting on the north side of Lake Pvramid. ac- 
cording to advices he sent Cio\ernor Roop, under date of June 4th ; he said he 
was in view of the ground where Major Ormsby died, and said : "I w-isli to 
God I had fifty men; I would clean out all the Indians from this region." 
He wanted more men sent to him, saying his men wanted to fight. He 


closed by asserting that tliere were no Indians in the nortli end of the \alley. 
Captain W'eatherlow was Incky enough to get out of the valley before the 
Indians did reach the north end, else the letter spoken of might have 1>een 
his last. 


Warren \\'asson, the hra\e man often mentioned in the history of the 
Indian wars, together with Captain Thomas F. Condon, had induced eight 
men to go with them to guard a pass to th.e west of the south end of Pyramid 
lake; the Pah-Utes would proba1)]y try to escape through this pass if de- 
feated by tlie Washoe regiment. It was an important position, hut the ten 
men would have lasted l)ut a few moments if the Pah-Utes had come that 
way. May 31st a detachment of twenty-four men came from the \alley, giv- 
ing a force of thirt\-four men. under Captain Condon. Their position was 
made more tenable by this reinforcement. Snow fell to the depth of two feet 
on June 2nd, and on the night of June 4th, this command reached the 
opposite side of the river from Captain Stewart's command, at the south end 
of Pyramid lake. Here they found the remains of se\-en white men ; their legs 
were ]:)urned off, but the rest of their bodies were intact, even the Ijeards and 
mustaches being unharmed. There was no way to identify them at the time, 
thought they were supposed to be a party of Californian prospectors. They 
knew nothing of the Indian outbreak and were never heard from after May 
I3tb. Their names were: Charles Ruth. Daniel King, X. H. Canheld. .Spero 
Anderson, John (lil)son, Courtright, Cenovitch. 


On June 5th tlie main command mo\ed to the north, as stated: when 
tliey reached the base of the range of mountains separating the east bank 
of Pyramid lake from Mud I.ikc they marched along until they came to a 
canyon running from the low lan<l to the mountains; here they halted, and 
William S. Allen, Cai)tain Robert Lyon, Samuel F>uckland, S. C. Springer 
and Benjamin Webster, were sent ahead as scouts. 

.\t the upper end of the canyon they came to a large rock, and Lyon and 
Allen passed around it while the otlier three halted. .\ volley rang out and 
Allen dropped dead, a ball tJu-ougli Ins mouth and brain. Cai)tain Lyon 
never thought of tiie danger to himself Init tried to raise the body of his 
friend; they, for some reason, did not slioot Lyon down at once, and, as they 
grabbed at his horse, he reached for bis revfilver and fired a shot, then turned 
his horse and I'ode for his life. I low lie c\er rode ijown the steep niouiilaiii 
at that breakneck sjjced no one could com])rehend. Iiullets and arrows whizzed 
passed him, and lie jiassed two bands of Indians on the way, both bring at him 
but d<)ing no harm. He |)assed the three men hy the rock and IJien Colonel 


Hays and Captain Niglitingill, in ach'ance of the command. Captain Lyon 
asked for his company to go witli Iiim to recover the Ixidy of his friend. 
Colonel Ha)s told him they would all g(>; hut when they reached the spot it 

was lying nude, the Indians having taken clothing, horse and arms. The 
hody was placed on a horse and taken to canijx 

This was the last hostile act of the Indians ni this war, and the volunteer 
army started hack to Virginia City the next morning, where they huried 
Allen with military honors. Captain Lyon's company had lost two men. 
The Carson Company hore the hody of Major Ormshy to that citw 

On June 7th. the volunteer forces under Colonel Hays dishanded, hut 
those under Captain Stewart, the regular troops, remained at Pyramid lake, 
where earth works were thrown up and n;nned h'ort ILaven for Genera! Haven, 
of California, who liad volunteered as a private under Colonel Hays. 


Colonel F. W. Lander was engaged in surveying and constructing a 
wagon road across the Sierra Nevada and (ireat Basin in the summer of 
i860, and was near Honey lake when the war was going on. He had in 
August al3out seventy men with him, all armed, and they had a lively skirmish 
with the Indians in the Black Rock country, losing one man, Alexander 
Painter, for whom a valley in Roop county is named. Lander was in the 
service of the general government at the time. He then had a peace talk 
with Numaga, the gentle chief of the I'rdi-Utes, and the redskins were 
quieted down. Numaga said that his peo])le were starving, heing tlriven from 
their homes at Pyramid lake. For his services then and subsequently, Colonel 
Lander's name was given to a county in Nevada soon after it was organized 
as a territory. Colonel Lander became prominent in the war of the rebellion, 
a general of \dlunteers, and died (if wounds receixed in a liattle in Virginia 
in 1863. 


After the brave volunteers of California had returned home, the regu- 
lars, no less brave, were retained under Captain Stewart. By their coolness, 
perfect discipline and ready obedience to orders, they had l)een an example 
of great worth to the inexi:)erienced volunteers. After the \'olunteers left 
the troops on June 8th, Warren Wasson was engaged by Captain Stewart 
to act as scout, and, fortunately for jxjsterity. Wasson kept a complete record 
of all his connections with the Indians. He helped Indian Agent Major 
Frederick Dodge in his efforts to pacify the Indians, return them to their 
reservations and gi\-e them the necessities and e\en comforts they needed so 
sorely. The Pah-Utes returned to Pyramid lake in force and committed depre- 


dations and were extremely hostile, tlumgh after that last conflict with the 
conquering race they did not care to try conclusions again. 

Wasson acted as scout and express rider, and had many hairljreadth es- 
capes from death and torture while doing his duty. A number of settlers, 
M. A. Bra'lv, \\"ashington Cox Corey, J. D. Roberts, Thomas ]\Iarsh, Robert 
Reed, Hans Parian, O. Spevey and Anderson Spain took up farming locations 
on the Truckee river, late in June, near Pyramid lake. The two first, Washing- 
ton Cox Corey and M.A. Braly, discovered the mines at Aurora, and gave their 
names to Mounts Braly and Corey. They nearly lost their li\-es, for, when 
the soldiers left Fort Haven to help build Fort Churchill, the Indians were 
determined to murder them and all whites in the vicinity. Major Dodge 
had left Wasson as Indian agent. Numaga. the peace loving, and Oderkeo, 
another peace chief, prevented the massacre. The last of July Major Dodge, 
then stopping at Buckland's Station on Carson ri\er, directed W^asson to 
post notices on Pyramid Lake Reservation, defining the boundaries and warn- 
ing all intruders to leave at once. They were printed, dated May 20, i860. 
The 5th of September, Major Dodge went to Washington, leaving Wasson 
to act as Indian agent. His record as such is an enviable one. 

He induced the Indians to cut hay, put up adobe buildings, with other 
work, at both P}'ramid and Walker Lake Reservations. He gave a "jx)t- 
latch" in December, i860, and gave each man a hickory shirt and blue over- 
alls; to all the women he gave calico, needles and thread. An aged Indian 
arrived after Wasson had given away all he had. The Pah-Utes were de- 
lighted, waiting to see what ^\'asson would do. What he did made a good 
impression on them all, for he stripped off his own wliite linen shirt and cotton 
drawers and ga\'e to this last guest. 

Captain Truckee, the Indian guide whose «anie was gi\en b\' the emi- 
grants to the river and trout, was on the reservation under Wasson; he 
had papers from b'remont, detailing his services to the great explorer. 
Truckee died on Ocloljer 8, i860, in the Pine Nut Mountains, south of 
Como, Lyon county. 

Wasson had in his book of records many odd things; one was the burn- 
ing of the he;id medicine chief of the Pah-Utes, of Mono lake ; the people 
of iiis trilje insisted that on the third d.iy after his death, a whirlwind came 
and the ashes were blown into a huge pillar and out of it walked the medicine 
chief, Waz-adz-zo-bah-ago. Wasson adds that "if I h;id seen it myself, 1 
could not have believed it." 


Wahe, a vicious brave, a brother of Old Winncnuicca. tried to create 
trouble in April and May of the next year, 1861. He gathered them, to the 


number of 1,500, at the fisheries near the mouth of Walker river. Wasson 
was informed of this by a servant and interpreter. Wahe intended kilHng 
Wasson and then by strategem gaining admittance to Fort Cluu-chill and 
there kill the entire garrison. Only forty soldiers were there at this time. 

Wasson at once went among the Indians, finding Bannocks and Pah-Utes 
from all over, the former from both Idaho and Oregon. He argued with 
them and was reinforced by some of the Indians who had mingled with the 
white men and knew their power. Wahe claimed to be a spirit chief, but he 
had to flee, going to Oregon. He returned in May of the next year and 
was killed by two of the Pah-Ute chiefs, who desired to see if he were really 
a spirit chief. They found he was not, but still were superstitious enough to 
cut his body in bits and throw it broadcast. 

Governor Nye arrived in Nevada in July, 1861, and assumed charge of 
the Indians, but their power was gone in eastern Nevada. The increasing 
ixjpulation of whites gave the Indians more clothing and food than they had 
ever possessed, the hatchet was buried, at least outwardly. 


California in this same year, 1861, was having trouble with the Indians 
in Owens valley. The red men this time started the trouble by stealing 
stock from the settlers ; by way of reprisal the settlers killed a few Indians, 
and the war was on in earnest, for the savages proceeded to kill every white 
man they could find away from his fellows, for they did not want to incrim- 
inate tiiemselves. The men they were known to have killed were R. Hanson, 
E. S. Taylor, J. Tallman and Mr. Crosen. The white men rounded up 
their stock some thirty miles above Owens lake and entrenched themselves 
as best they could, sending to Carson, Nevada, and Visalia, California, for 
aid. There were forty-two cattlemen in the fortified point, and on March 
28, 1862, eighteen men joined tliem, coming from Aurora. 

Colonel Mayfield was in command, and the white force soon moved on 
the enemy. When they had gone fifty miles they camped on an old Indian 
camping ground. It was not until the 6th of April that the redskins ap- 
peared. Then a large force came from the southwest, and the white men 
divided in two divisions and hastened forth to give them battle. The Indians 
killed C. J. Pleasants, of Aurora, and retreated. The Indians followed up 
their victory, and the white men retreated to an irrigating ditch built by the 
Indians, and until night the firing was general at long range. Sheriff Scott, 
of Mono, was shot through the head and instantly killed; a Mr. Morrison, 
formerly of Visalia, was shot and died next day. As soon as the moon 
went down the Indians stopped firing and the whites escaped to their fortified 
ix>.st. They buried their ammunition but had to leave the lx>dies of the dead 


and eighteen horses. They had killed one -Imhan. In their retreat tlicy met 
Colonel Evans, with some of the Second California cavalry. 

On March 25th. Warren Wasson wrote to Governor Nye, of Nevada. 
He informed him as to the condition of affairs at Owens river and of his 
fear tliat the hostiles would advance into Xe\ada territory. W'asson said 
tiiat a sufficient force of men should be sent to check them, for if defeated by 
the Indians the latter would wage bloody and unrelenting war. Wasson 
had just visited Walker River Reservation and found the Pah-Utes had 
heard of the trouble, and were greatly excited. 

The governor telegraphed t(i Wasson that General \\'right would order 
tifty men to accompany him to the scene of action, and also told Wasson to 
take fifty muskets from the fort and ammunitinn. Wasson repaired to Fort 
Churchill, and after ctmsultation with Cai)tain Rowe left f<ir Owens river. 
Lieutenant Noble was in charge of the little detachment and instructed to 
let circumstances determine his actions, but that he was "to consult with 
Indian Agent Wasson, who accompanies the expedition for the purpose of 
restraining the Indians from hostilities. Upon no consideration will you 
allow your men to engage the Indians without his sanction." 

Probably a' better itlea can be formed of the whole trouble l)y giving 
extracts from Wasson"s report of the fight at Owens ri\'er: 

* * * "We left Aurora for the scene of action on Owens river, on 
the 3rd of .\pril, sending you at that date a brief rqxirt of our proceedings, 
disposition of arms, and our i)lan of ojieration, ris far as we could form them 
at th;it time, (leorge, the interpreter, ha\ing become worn out and unable 
to accompany me, at Walker ri\cr I ])rocured the services of Robert, a 
Pah-LIte, with. whom 1 left Aurora, in advance of the command, and pro- 
ceeded bv Mono lake, where 1 found the I'ah-L'tes of that section congregated 
.and much excited, but in an interview succeeded in (piieting them. They 
were much pleased that 1 was going to stop the troubles, as they feared 
they might themselves liecome involved in the difficulties, and they sent with 
me one of their tribe who S]K)ke the linguage of the (^wens River Indians. 

"We joined Eieutenant Noble at Adobe Meadows, thirt_\- miles from 
.\urora, on the night of the 4th of April. The next day I left the command, 
willi the two Indian interpreters, and ti;i\eled eight or ten miles in advance 
of the troops, .\boiit noon we jiassed the boundary between the l';di-Ute 
and Owens River Indians Country, rmd traveled twenty-five inile<, and 
encamped, seeing' no Indians Init .abundance of fresh signs. Mv Mono Lake 
Indian, on the morning of the 7th instant, informed me he knew by 
certain signs the Indi.ans were to the right .and up the v.alkw. .and I sent 
him towards where they were, while we ])roceeded down the v.allev tow.ards 
the fort, which was fifty miles distant. J instrucled him to tell the Indians 


llial we liad not come In fio-hi iliem, 1mt In in(|uire into tlic cause f)f their 
(lirficultics with tlie wliites; and that if tlie-y uuuld do right, and were vvill- 
inS' to come to a fair settlement, justice should he done to them; that at 
all e\'ents J desired to .see and consult with ihcni : I also instructed iiim how 
to approach our camp that ni.ght in order to avoid danger of heing shot 
down hy the soldiers; and told him our camp would he twenty miles helow on 
the ri\-er. .After we had proceede<l ahout twehe miles down the stream, 1 
saw a hody of ahout one hundred men at the foot of the mountain to our right, 
.some three miles distant, and concluded to await the arrival of Lieutenant 
Noljle and his c<imnirmd, who were in the rear about five miles. W'lien they 
arrived. Lieutenant Xohle ami myself left the soldiers, and rode over to see 
who the parties were. We found Lieutenant-Colonel George Evans, also 
Lieutenants French and Oliver, with aliout fort)' soldiers. Second Cavah^y. 
California Wjlunteers, and Colonel Mayfield, a citizen, in command of about 
forty or fift)' residents of the \alle\'. \Ve made known to them our liusiness 
and instructions, but found little or no encouragement to make peace with the 
Indians, their desire l)eing onlv to exterminate them. 

"They informed us that the citizens from the fort, some sixty in num- 
ber, had had ;i battle the day before im a creek some twelve miles alnjve, 
and in the direction my Mono Lidian had gone that morning. In the fight 
they had three men killed and were shamefully defeated. The citizens were 
retreating towards their fort, when they met Colonel Evans, who induced 
forty-five of them to return with him in pursuit of the hostiles, and they were 
also in pursuit when we found them. Evans being Colonel of Noble's regi- 
ment took command of the entire expedition, ordered Noble to Ijring up his 
comj)any, and when he had done so, we proceeded to the scene of the fight 
between the citizens and Lidians, and camped on the battleground. The next 
morning by daylight Evans had ordered out scouting parties in all directions, 
numljering from six to ten men each. About noon that day some of them re- 
turned, reporting the enemy in force twehe miles above, and at the extreme head 
of the valley. Colonel Evans then ordei"ed a rapid movement in that direction, 
and in two hours we reached the mouth of the canyon in which the Lulians 
were reported to be. Here we encountered a terrific snow storm, accompanied 
by violent wind in our faces. Notwithstanding which Evans ordered an ad- 
vance up the mountains each side of the canyon for a distance of three miles. 
Fortunately for us, however, we found no savages there, otherwise an easy 
victory woidd have been obtained over us, as arrows assisted iiy that gale, 
would have had dreadful effect. We could have had no choice of position, 
and the enemy choosing theirs, could have taken advantage of the wind. 

"Becoming satisfied that no Indians were in the canyon, we w'ere ordered 
to retrace our steps, and encamped in the xallev three miles below-. I remained 


behind, and. tlie st^rm liaving abated, witli the aid of a glass I observed Indian 
signs in a canyon one mile north. I conchided to visit the locaHty, and 
when near the mouth of the canyon I discovered a large Indian trail, freshly 
made, leading out of it in a northerly direction. As night was approaching, 
I was unable to see any Indians, and turned my horse towards camp that was 
some two and a half miles distant, when I heard an Indian halloo, some four 
hundred yards from me among the rocks. I answered him in the same way, 
but heard no reply. I then halkioed in English, Spanish and in Pah-Ute, also 
making friendly signs, several times, but received no reply, but as I turned to 
go away, the hallooing was repeated. I replied, but got no answer. This 
was repeated several times, and becoming satisfied that he only intended to 
decoy me, I proceeded to camp. On my arrival, looking back, I discovered 
fires in the same canyon. 

"The next morning Colonel Evans ordered Sergeant (iillispie. with nine 
of Noble's men, to reconnoiter it, at the same time moving the whole com- 
mand in that direction. The detail advanced some three hundred yards up 
the canyon, when they were fired upon. Gillispie being instantly killed, and 
Corporal Harris wounded in tiie left arm, when they retreated, leaxing behind 
the sergeant's lx)dy and his arms. They met the command half a mile below 
the mouth of the canyon, when as many as were not required to hold the 
horses, were ordered to the attack. Lieutenant Noble and his company were 
sent to take possession of the mountain to the left of the canyon. Colonel 
Evans was to have taken the mountain to the right. Colonel Mayfield and 
four citizens accompanied Noble, the balance of Mayfield's company re- 
maining below. Lieutenant Noble succeeded in gaining his position under 
a brisk fire from lx)th sides from concealed Indians. Here Colonel Mayfield 
was killed. Lieutenant Noble, finding it impossible tn maintain his position 
without great loss, or to proceed up the mountain on account of its precipitous 
nature, or return the fire upon the concealed foe with effect, retreated in good 
order down to Colonel Evans' company, carrying with him Sergeant Gillis- 
pie's body.. Colonel E\ans. from the rugged and inaccessible nature of the 
mountain, being unalde to advance to the position he intended to take, the 
whole command retreated down the \'alle)', the Indians following and build- 
ing their defiance fires on our cani])ing grouml before the rear of the column 
was a mile and a half distant. 

"We encamjKd that night tweKe miles below, at the s])ot where Sheriff 
Scott, who had been killed the day before in the fight between the citizens 
and Indians, was buried. Colonel Evans, being without provisions, except 
beef obtained in the valley, was compelled to return to his former jwst near 
Los Angeles, three hundred miles distant. Lieutenant Noble, with his com- 
pany, accompanied him as far as the Citizens' Fort, fifty miles below, for 


the pur])ose of escorting the wliites witli their stock, ammmtiiig to about 4,000 
liead of cattle and 2,500 sheep, to lliis territory. During the engagement 
above mentioned, I selected ;i high rock at aljout the center of operations, 
wliere I could i_>bser\-e all parties, and I am satisfied there were not over 
twenty-five Indians, who had probalily Ijeen left behind as a decoy to the 
whites and to protect the main body and families, who had gone on into the 
mountains to avoid a collision with the troops. 

"These Indians have dug ditches and irrigated nearly all the ara1>le 
land in that section of the country, and live 1>y its products. They have 
been repeatedly told by officers of the government that they should Irave 
exclusixe possession of those lands, and they are now fighting to maintain 
that possession. Their number is between 500 and 1,000, and they Ijelong 
to the California Digger Indian tribes. Many of them are the refugees from 
Tulare valley, who in 1852 and 1853 massacred the white inhibitants and de- 
populated the P'our Creek country. At great expense to the government 
they were driven over to this side of the Sierra Nevada from Tulare valley, 
and having taken up their aliode along Owens river as a place of last resort, 
they will fight to the last extremity in defense of their homes. 

"Lieutenant Noble conferred with me and we agreed as to the course to 
be pursued till we met Colonel Evans, wdio then assumed command. This re- 
enforcement ruined all our plans. We might ha\-e done better; we certainly 
could not ha\e done worse. Lieutenant Xoble and his men liehaved gallantly 
on the field. 

"The next morning after the fight, finding ii out of my power to do any 
good in the neighborhood under the circumstances, and fearing the effect of 
the victories these Indians had gained over us would be to incite the Pah- 
Utes t(_) hostilities, I left, accompanied only bvmy interpreter; and the fol- 
lowing niglit reached the line of the Pah-Ute country. From the time of en- 
tering it I met many of that nation who were anxious to hear the news from 
the seat of war, and what would bo the possible result. I told them not to 
participate in the difiiculties and assured them that unless they did so they 
should not be molested, etc. They promised to be go\-erned by my instruc- 
tions and advice. 

"I arrived at the Walker River Reservation on the i6th instant. The 
Indians were all glad to see me return. Said they had been afraid the inter- 
preter and myself would be killed by Owens River Diggers, and if such had 
been the case they had six hundred warriors ready to go and a\-enge our 

"I was detained at Walker reservation and at Fort Churchill three days, 
on account of the officers at the latter place insisting upon herding the 
government stock, cavalry horses and all, thirtv miles from' the fort in the 


Indians' country, nntw ithstanding grass was just as good near the fort (an 
argument used by the Indians), having excited and alarmed tiie Pah-Utes, 
who regarded it as an infringement on their rights. I took sucli measures 
as were calculated to allay the ditficulty: and I will add here, that for the first 
time since the establishment of that jxist. its management promises to be 
productive of more evil than good among the Indians." 

In the end W'asson iielped to end the war of Owens river, for he was 
called to San Francisco to confer with Clovernor Stanford, General Wright 
and J. P. H. Went worth. Indian agent, as to the best way to settle the war. 
Wasson collected the Indians of that section at Fort Independence, where 
Wentworth met him with goods for presents and a treaty was made. Four 
hundred Indians assembled, the presents were distributed and the Indians held 
a great [jeace dance, closing the war of 1862. 


In May of that _\ear ( jovernor X\e desired to meet the [jrincipal Pah-Utes 
and Wasson arranged a meeting. Old Winnemucca and Numaga were the 
highest, but the latter was north and at first refused to be present, wanting to 
force the old chief to settle his own afifairs. Governor Nye, with an escort of 
one hundred cavalry of California volunteers under Capain Price, reached 
the lower bend of the Truckee river, and beyond that point Winnemucca 
would not allow them to move. He had two hundred warriors, mounted and 
armed, concealed beyond. Captain Price was not told 01 this for fear he would 
resent it and cause trouble. 

That evening Wasson came with his Pah-Utes. four hundred strong. 
They were gaily dressed in all their gala attire and made a great display, for 
two days keeping up a continuous war dance, undergoing tortures to show the 
whites how indifferent they were to pain. \\'innemucca was with them, but 
-X'umaga did not come until the night of the 25th; he was the diplomat of the 
tribe, and it was with him Governor Nye discussed afifairs. No treaty was 
ni.idc. l)Ut ])resents were exchanged before the se])aration. Wasson gave 
to Winnemucca the ])ro])erty of his brother, Walu'. the chief who iiad 
been killed by two I'ah-Utes, as related jjreviously. 

Xumaga, the peace loving, gave Wa.sson as a sign of [leace and friendshii> 
his pipe of i>eace, a magnificent Ik>w and ;irro\\ s. .iiid his war cap. made of ;i 
whole otter skin, trimmed with great eagle plumes, and his tomahawk, ;dl 
articles worn by him in all his battles. 


It seems strange that Numaga should ever have l>een the of terror 
to the whites, of his volition, but in 18O3 he met the whites of Como and 


ultei"e<l a ])r()tcst ai^aiiist llic whites (k'slrnyint;- tlic i)im' nut groves: he said 
tliese groves were the main reliance of liis i)eo])le, their chief fond, tlieir 
orchards in fact. The wiiites were welcome to tlie dead and fallen trees, but 
the food-l)earing trees must be left alone, lie would not permit their de- 
struction. No attention was paid, for was it not Numaga who had warned 
them? Suddenly prowling, skulking forms api>cared before the wood cho])- 
])ers, with stern faces and hostile looks, but no show of violence. 

Then the people of Como had a genuine war scare, which turned into a 
fiasco. Tlie town was put under martial law, couriers secured a lieutenant 
and twenty men from Fort Churchill. That night everyone was given the 
l)assword, but two forgot it, and meeting in the dark blazed away at each other 
until ammunition Avas exhausted. Alarm and consternation spread over the 
town, some one in the excitement also tired at nothing and pandemonium was 
let lof>se. The joke of it all was that next morning solemn-visaged savages 
came down to the town to know what had caused the shooting and general 
Fourth of July celebration the night previous. 


The wanton murder of E-zed-wa. a chief of the Walker River Indians, 
came next. He had a complaint to make to N. H. A. Mason, regarding his 
overseer. John F. Hale, and while on his way to see that gentleman, he was 
met by Hale, who beguiled him into drinking and when the chief was drunk 
Hale killed him and then killed his horse. Members of the tribe found their 
chief's bod\- in the C"arson ri\cr, where Hale had thrown it, but before they 
could secure him, he had informed Mr. Mason, and then made his escape. 
Thirteen hundred Indians assembled and sent a messenger to Fort Churchill 
demanding redress for the murder of Captain (leorge as the whites called 
the chief. Lieutenant O.scar Jewett was sent to hold a parley with them and 
in the end they were (|uieted by a gift of a wagon load of pi"o\'isions and 
clothing and one thousand dollars in cash frcmi Mr. Mason. 

TROUBLE.S IN 1 864-65. 

On the 4th of March. 1S63, three men. Dr. J. H. Smeathman. Frank 
Thompson and W. F. White, were i)rospecting near the north line of Nevada, 
west of Pueblo. They were fired upon and Dr. Smeathman fell wounded 
from his horse, crying for help, liut, without waiting to see how many In- 
dians were in ambush, his two partners fled, leaving him to the savages, 
making their way to Humboldt City. 

The following May, in that same portion of the country, a party of seven 
prospectors were fired upon by Indians and four killed, among them G. W. 
Dodge. Of the three left, one, named Noble, although wounded in the neck, 


shoulder and groin, kept the foe at hay until the other two Ijrought up the 
horses, when they escaped to Star City. The peak where this occurred was 
named Disaster Peak. 

Early in 1865 two Walker Ri\er Pah-L"tes niurderetl two prospectors, 
Isaac Steward and Rohert Rahe. near Walker Lake. Ralie was in camp, 
lighting" the fire, when shot through the Ijack. The Indians killed him by 
smashing his head in. and then started after Steward who jumped into the 
lake and was never heard of again. Ral^e had a large sum of money on him and 
the two had each two horses. A friendly Indian informed the authorities 
and the uiurdemus red men \\ ere captured, h^or some reason both were re- 
leased. On the day the two men were arrested. Captain Wells, with a com- 
pany of cavalry, surprised a camp and killed every Indian there, thirty-two 
in all. The same day word was received that Black Rock Tom had gone on 
the war path in the north. 

That night two men, George Thayer. Lucius Arcularius and an unknown 
man were killed on the Honey Lake road. The Indians were said to ])e 
gathering at the head of Humboldt Canal. Al. W. Haviland, on ]\Iarch 20th, 
arri\-ed in Star City, asking help for Paradise \alley people. 

.\ N.\RROW ESC.\PE. 

In Paradise \-alley were a number of settlers, anil a friendly Indian in- 
formed .\. Denio, that in "two sleeps" warriors would come to kill the set- 
tlers and stampede their stock. Mr. Denio, A. and T. J. Bryant, T. J. Fine, 
and Mr. Stockham lived near each other. Mr. Stockham was away, seeking 
military hcl]). l>nt his wife was there. Mr. Fine was helpless with rheuma- 
tism and both he and the children of the Denios had to be carried. .\ cart 
was arranged but a terrible storm swei^t down on them, making it impossible 
to go until nicirning. and then Thumas B\rues and joh.n Lackey arrived. .\u- 
other settler, Rcmbreaux arrived also, 'i'hey started to reach Willow Point. 
having to ford the swollen creeks and a swani]) "f mud o\er which the chihl- 
ren and Mr. h'ine had to lie carried. Denio .-md Rembreaux had ti> jiull the 
cart, but met Jacol) Ilufford ;ui<l he attached a rialu to the cart and with the 
other entl tied to his saddle hauled it along. The rest of the party stayed at 
Cottonwood creek to try to get the goods, provisions, etc.. across. ' They ex- 
pected Christopher Fearbourne along, he basing gone u]) the \alle\- with his 
ox team the night before, to get the effects of Messrs. Parbor and Collins. 
and they were expected with him. 

Fear1)ourne had reached tiie iilace. bul in ihc murning when Ihey arose 
the tiu'ee men found Indians in force all around the house and corral: no 
demonstration was made at first, but they soon l)ecame insolent. Barber 
wanted all three to go out, get their horses and ride away: the others object- 


ed saying" a bold frimt was lietter. Barl)cr went, telling his friends he wonld 
try to get through to get help, and if there was trouble tor them to shut them- 
selves in the cabin and try to hold out. He got his best horse and an In- 
dian asked him what he was going to do; he said "going out to drive in a beef 
to kill"; they let him go but two rode some ways with him. Then convinced, 
they went back, and Barber, once over an elevation, rode for his friends' lives. 
He reached the party at Cottonwood creek waiting for Fearlx)urne still. As 
Barber was telling of the danger of his friends, smoke was seen in the valley 
and they knew the cabin had been fired. Byrnes and Barber with Lackey 
started to the rescue. The Bryant and a Denio lx>y left for Hamblin's corral, 
where the rest of the party was to meet them. 

Barber and Byrnes and Lackey were assailed by twenty-two Indians on 
horseback and more on foot, Init reached the corral, and seeing the Bryants 
and the twehe year old Denio boy being cut oft by the Indians made a raid 
and all reached the Hamblin corral ; nov.' that all the emigrants were within 
the enclosure there were just ten men, one Ixiy, three women and four small 
children, Mr. and Mrs. Denio and four children, Robert Denio, the boy, Mr. 
and Mrs. Jacob Hufford, Mrs. Stockham, T. J. Fine, A. Bryant, T. J. Bryant, 
John Lackey, Waldron Foster, Thomas Byrnes, Rembreaux and Barber. 
Denio was virtually in command of the tiny garrison. Fifty yards from the 
corral was Hamblin's house, whicli would afford a fine vantage point for the 
Indians to station sharpshooters. At once T. J. Bryant and Waldron Foster 
sallied out to burn it ; they succeeded in the face of an incessant fire from the 
foe. All the arms the garrison possessed were one na\-y and five small Colt's 
revolvers, two double-barrelled shot-guns, one musket and three common 
rifles, -while the Indians were armed with long range guns. 

It was soon apparent that it was only a cjuestion of time when the en- 
tire party would have to succumb to the Indians; as a last resort, some one 
must go for aid; if by a miracle the one who went should get through the line, 
the people of Willow Point w<:)uld come to the rescue. Thomas Byrnes was 
the hero who' volunteered, and mounting his horse he n.ide straight at the In- 
dians, through their lines and away o\er the plain, with a dozen or more 
savages at his heels, shooting as they rode. But not a bullet touched him and 
at 3 in the afternoon he reached the \\'illo\v Point Station and there found 
thirteen men and twehe horses. All started at once for Harnblin's corral. 
The thirteenth man. an old \eteran, white-haired but full of vigor, who would 
not be left behind, grabbed his rifle, laid hold of the pommel of a saddle with 
one hand and ran all the thirteen miles; his name was Givens, and he would 
not ride, having only one thought, to save the women and children, and they 
were sa\ed. \Mien the Indians saw the relief party they hurriedly decamped, 
and nine o'clock the reenforced emigrants started for Willow Point Station. 


When thev reached there at 3 in the nmrning, they fcnind Lieutenant Joseph 
W'nlverton and twenty-five men who had arrived iate tlie evening- previous. 

Tiie next dav Lienteiianl \\'ol\erlon ami his command, with a nunil)er 
of settlers, fonnd and huried the hothes of Collins and I'^earhournc : they had 
evidentlv remained in the cahin until it was fired; Fearhourne's body was 
frighttnlly burned, his hands and arms cooked: he had run out of the house 
when his agonv liecame imendnrable. and had been shot in the hack. Collins 
while alive had been [jlaced over a funeral pyre, his heart cut out and his body 
liorriblv mutilated. 

On the 15th the whites killed eighteen Indians, and scaljjcd them. 
Lieutenant W'oherton and command, or. the 17th, found a band of Indians 
and killed ten. and going thirt_\--twi.) miles further killed twit more, 


James Emory, a prospector, was shot and killed by Pah-Utes on May 
5th : he was w ith a party of seven, and another man, Spencer, was wounded, 
while in the fight four Indians were killed. 

l'"i\e hundred Indians, becoming tired of the desultory warfare deter- 
mined to show the whites they could do much better, and accordingly assem- 
bled se\entv-fi\e miles from Paradise valle\', facing Cajitain \\ ells and only 
thirty-six men: the whites of course being reiiulsed with the loss of two men, 
James Monroe and I. W. dodfrey. of the l'"irst Nevada Cavalry. Coni])any 
D. I'our men were also wounded: the Indians" loss being unknown, if any. 

(jrown bolder, on jul\- 3rd the Indians attacked a jiarty of seventeen 
men, en route to Boise, at the time twenty miles from Onin's ri\er. One 
man. P. W". Jackson, of Virginia City, was instantly killed; Thomas Ewing 
was shot through the body, Thomas Rule, of Humboldt river, was shot in 
several places: a French Can.idiriu, from N'irginia City, was shot through 
the lungs. The fight lasted over" two hours. 


hor the .Shoshone Indians the whites felt contempt, as did Ihe \':[h- 
Utes, who helfl them in subjection. The .Shoshoues were comiielled b\' the 
Pah-Utes to stay in one section of the country, the Shoshone mountains on 
the west. They were oppressed in every maimer, not being allowed to own 
horses, or in fact any ])ro])crty. They never built wigwams, or h;id ;niy 
as])irations, living on mice, snakes, pine mils, pine burs. go]ihers and rab- 
bits seldom killing any larger game. 

The coming of the white had been a blessing to the .Shosliones. 
for it had enabled them to throw off the yoke of the Pah-LUes and betlered 
in everv way their inferior conditi<in. Creat was the wralh of the setlUrs. 


llicreftire, wlien they learned tliat, not contcnl with thieving- depredations, 
the Shoshones were ready tu go on the war patli. i'hev had assenililed in 
a nuniher of large liodies in Lander eonnty. 'i'lie jieouk' did not wait for the 
Indians to take the initiati\e, hut sent for militar\- aid at once. 

C(jlonei Moore, of the California Volunteers, was in charge at I'^ort 
l\u1)y, and he promptly sent Lieutenant W". TL Seaniands, with forty men 
and a niounl;iin howitzer, to the northern i>;irt of Kcese Ki\er \-allev, the 
seat of the trouhle. It took that young and energetic officer Ijut little time 
to settle the trouhle. for he fired enough shots to fill them with terror and put 
tliem to rout, with great loss to them and none at all to himself or his com- 
mand. Tlie Indians suhsided. sa\c a few refractory ones, and they were 
wise enough to leave the neighhorhood of howitzer, going to northern 
Nevada and southern Oregon, and a]l\ing themselves with predatory 
hands in pett\- warfare and crimes, principal!)- stock stealing. 


In 1865 the .settlers in Paradise N'alley deternnned to try to raise at 
least one crop of grain. des])ite (he .ravages, it was thought that if several 
colonies were formed the Indians would he loath to attack them. On a 

ranch afterwards ow-iied by Rice, B. V. Riley and Charles Singhas. 

seven men joined t(.gether to try .-md farm .son-ie of the land; several of 
them had, as will l)e seen from the names, pre\iously suft'ered from the In- 
dians: Charles Adams, A. Denio, Thomas Byrnes, Maryland, 

Doom, and Travis were in the little party. They cultivated eighty 

acres successfully, and with no molestation from the Indians. On luly ist 
they went to another farm, afterwards owned hv R. Brenchlv. to cut hav. 
Mere they found numistak.-dile signs of the ])ro.\inuty of hostile Indians. 

Another colony was ( ^n the east side of the valley, with Martin 
Creek running hetween the tw-o colonies, and consisted of Michael Mavlen. 
Joshua Warford, Victor T. Schann., Edward Lvug, C. A. Nichols, Richard 
Brenchly, Charles Gegg, and R. H. .Scott, all wcirkin^- in the flavtime on 
their own ranches and at night congregating at the cahin of Scott. This 
colony, like the other, was successful, h'our left in Jul\- .-,nd the others 
remained until the Indians were in the vicinity, when they hecanie alarmed, 
and Scott left in search of military aid. On the way he came across the 
temporary camp of Colonel McDerniit. wIki detailed a corporal and six- 
teen men under Sergeant Thnmas, of C'ompany D, X^ev-ada Volunteers, to 
accomi)any him to his imjieriled friends. 

They went north to occupy an adxanced position in the \-alley, and di- 
vided, the corporal and six men going ahead. .Suddenly, on July 26th, they 
were confrtnited, when loin- miles trt)m the main command, with a large 


body of Indians, who did not make an attack lint acted in a liostile manner. 
A courier soon had Sergeant Thomas and his men on tlie spot. When the 
Indians saw this force, tliey put up a wliite flag, but the sergeant cliarged 
them, driving them into a swamp, wliich proved a trap for Ihem. An ol> 
stinate battle ensued, e\ery luan fighting liis own wa}-, ami imitating the 
Indian style of skirmishing. Several settlers helped the white forces, mak- 
ing an equal number on each side. It resulted in a complete victory for the 
whites, who killed twenty-three Indians. The whites killed were : Joseph 
Warfield, a citizen, Hereford, private. Company I, California Volun- 
teers; wounded: Privates Daniel jMuffly, Rehil, Travis, all of 

Company I, California Volunteers. jNI. \\'. Haviland, settler, was also 

The revenge for this was the killing of Colonel Charles McDermit, as 
lie was returning to Camp McDermit, from a scout (ju Ouin's river. He 
was in command of the Department of Nevada and his liody was buried at 
Fort Churchill. This happened on August jth. Colonel McDermit having 
just sent word that "\\'e have killecl 32 Indians since I took the field and 
have had one man killed and one man wounded." On August nth the 
whites recognized an Indian "Tom." as one of the participants in the Para- 
dise Valley outrages, and shot him. 


As the trouble with Indians continued the soldiers adopted their meth- 
ods, waiting no longer for attacks but shooting them down when in sight, 
and hunting them when they were out of sight. Lieutenant Penwell, with 
twenty men, surprised a camp of hostile Pah-Utes, on September 3rd, at 
Table Mountain, Ijeing guided by friendly members of the tribe. There 
were ten Indians and not one escaped. September 13th Ca])tain Payne and 
company attacked a cam]) of Indians at Ouin's Ri\cr valley, at Willow 
Creek, and a fight which la.sted three hours resulted in the killing of thirty- 
one Indians, one white man being woundetl. 

In March previous, great trouble was started by the going on the war 
])ath of Black Rock Tom, wlm im the i4lh nf that mimth started in putting 
up a hostile front to the whites, terrorizing ail the whites in Taradise Val- 
ley and on the northern frontier. The friendly Pah-L'tcs were incensed at 
his actions, for the majority of his band were Shoshones r;nd Bannocks. 
The Pah-Utes feared the result tn their wlmle nation, and cdncluded to 
sever all trilial relations and aid tin Sdldiers in killing off the hostile rene- 
gades. This action was hastened by the killing of a driver i)f an o.k team, 
the stealing of the goods and settir.g lire to the wagon. The driver, with 


three others, was going along the Honey T.ake route, and got in a(l\-ance of 
the rest. 

Lieutenant Powell and twenty-six men went in pursuit. Captain Son, 
the leader in the Williams' massacre, being the guide, lie looked at the 
signs and said Black Rock Tom was the guilty party. When they found the 
hostiles they could not dislodge them from their stronghold in the moun- 
tains. They had to retreat, neither side sustaining any loss. A stronger 
force was sent out on November 13th, Lieutenant R. A. Osnier, of Com- 
pany B, Second California Cavalry, with sixty men, fi^ur citizens and Cap- 
tain Soo with fourteen warriors going in jjursuit. At Ouin's ri\-er sink they 
left the wagons in charge of fourteen men. The nmrning of the 17th, 
Captain Soo pointed out the smoke from Black Rock Tom's camp. The 
whites got to within two miles witb.out the hostiles discerning them, and the 
lieutenant issued the order: '"Come on, lK)ys; we can't all go around, the 
best man will get there hrst," and it was a race then for the enemy. And 
Captain Soo was the best man, for he cut his saddle off and charged the 
enemv. After the battle fifty-five dead Indians were found, but many were 
in the gullies and sage brush, for the battle raged over three miles" area. 
Black Rock Tom, :'ive men and five squaws escaped. A corporal noticed an 
Indian woman who had been wounded, lying with a little baby and two-year 
old child; he told a private who was with him to call a certain citizen to help 
him take them down to camp. The private came soon and tuld him that 
the citizen had "shot the whole lot of them, babies and all." 

It chagrined the militia to find Black Rock Tom had escaped, and more 
so when he gathered more renegades and established quarters on Ouin's 
river. His camp was finally discovered by militia from Camp . McDermit, 
part of Company I and part of Company B, from Dun Clen. They met at 
Kane Springs for a scout under Captain Conrad, early in Decemljer. The 
Indians were discovered on Fish Creek and surrounded in the night. All 
warriors, forty, were killed, and one squaw, a boy and old man were cap- 
tured. Not one man of the whites was injured. 

Black Rock Tom, when he heard of this crushing blow, surrendered 
himself to Captain Soo, who turned him o\er to the militia. Captain Soo 
was informed that Tom was going to be lynched by citizens, and he had 
better be given a chance to escape. The hint was taken, and the renegade 
was killed as he tried to escape. 

Captain Murray Davis, with I,ieutenant John Laft'erty, second in com- 
mand, with Company A, L'nited States Cavalry, estal)lished Camp Winfield 
Scott, on the 12th of December, 1866, in the north end of Paradise Valley. 
Lieutenant Lafferty proved himself a terror to the Indians. On January 
12, 1867, he killed a number of Indians on the Little Humboldt: he also 


drove many into tlie monntains. tliey escaping because of tlie deep snow. 
He was left in command the last ot February. When on March 13th In- 
dians ran off stock iielonging to Charles Gegg, he pursued them nine days 
in a fierce storm, killed six and cajHured their arms. This quieted the hos- 
tiles down until August, and the farmers put in good crops. The ist of the 
month. Hon. James A. Banks, of Dun (den, visited the Camp Winfield 
Scott, with Rev. Temple, of Xew \'ork city. Mr. Banks went up the 
stream for a walk; when he did nut return search was made and his body 
was found, shot through the breast, nude and mutilated. He was buried in 
the camp cemetery, his friend preaching his funeral sermon. Tiiis nunxler 
aroused everyone, for Mr. Banks was well known. He was only thirty- 
nine, a native of Pennsylxania. He went to California in 1852. and was 
for several years a member of the legislature of that state. He came to 
Nevada in 1863. and was a member of the con\-ention that framed the state 
constitution, and was speaker of the house during the second annual session 
of Nevada's legislature. He was an able man. i)ublic-s])irited and well 

It was ascertained that three Indians had murdered him. and the first 
detail sent out returned unsuccessful. Lieutenant Lafferty took his entire 
command and started himself after the murderers; he found them at the 
headwaters of the Owyhee, killed four and captured four; later in the day 
while alone in a canyon, he found four more, killed two in a hand to hand 
fight, and drove the other two into bis camp. Lieutenant Laft'erty was re- 
lieved from his command Xo\eniber 1st. Lieutenant Josejib K.argc arriving 
in cam]) with reinforcements. 

i.\ 1867-1868. 

W'itli L;irferl\- out of the innning. the Indi.nns at once made a rai<l and 
drove off nearly all the stock in the eastern i);n-t of the \alL'_\. .\ pursuit 
was in vain. It was a hard winli'r for the settlers; with the s])ring came 
the Indians again, and they drove off all the stock of M. W. llaviland. Big 
Foot, a greatly feared Indirui. .and twenty braves did the work. Lieutenant 
Karge ordered young llunter, a jnst-arri\ed lieuten.ant. to lakc three men. 
Sergeant Kcllv, Corporal Thomas Reed and Private Thomas Wind, to 
catch the Indians, "whip them and bring back the stolen ])r(iperty."' .\ big 
order indeed. When Lieutenant Lafferty heard the order he asked to go in 
place of the inex])erienced ofliccr, and unpleasant wurds ]),issed. TIk' three 
men, with ;i settler, John Rogers, strutted out. Latferty was sliortly after al- 
lowed to take selected men. a small force, and go after the detail. He soon 
met a messenger, telling him his friends were in peril, lie found tluit Lieu- 
tenant Hunter li;id Ih'cu wounded and the sergeant and private inorl;ill\- 


wounded. Tlie corporal and citizen took refuge l)elu'nd a rock, and Rogers 
took off coat, hat and Ijoots and nialcing a dasli got away. He soon readied, 
first, Lafferty, who was just starting, ;ind tlien tlie camii. The entire force 
started for the scene, eight miles away. They found that Private Thomas 
Reed had protected his wounded comrades, killing several redskins and keep- 
ing them off, by sheer nerve and courage. He later received a medal for 
his gallant conduct. But when the command arrived, the Indians, all that 
were left, escaped. Lieutenant Laft'erty did not come with the command. 

Later, Lieutenant Lafferty was ordered to Arizona, where he made him- 
self conspicuous by his bravery, in fighting with Cachise's .Apaches, the most 
dreaded Indians on the continent. In his last fight, Octol>er 20, 1869, he 
was holding the Apaches in check, trying to recover the bodies of comrades, 
when he was disabled and disfigured for life, his lower jaw being carried 
away by a bullet. Colonel R. \'. Bernard, in reixjrting the fight, said : 

"The conduct of Lieutenant Lafferty, Eighth Cavalry, w;'.s most gallant 
and brave. The cavalry arm in y\rizona has lost, for a time, a good and 
brave ofticer in Lieutenant Lafferty. A government, in extending thanks to 
their officers, cannot Ijestow them too freely n])on such officers as Lieutenant 
Lafferty, Eighth Cavalry." 


The settlers of the Pyramid Lake section were not the only ones who 
suffered from Indian outrages in 1860, for in eastern Nex'ada the Indians 
committed many crimes. One encounter, known as the "Dry Creek Fight," 
was caused because the keeper of a statitin. Si McCanless, was li\ing with a 
Shoshone squaw. Her tribe wanted her to return to them, but she refused. 
On May 22nd, some twenty braves went to McCanless and told him he must 
give up the scjuaw or take the conse(|nences. McCanless made them a present 
of provisions and they left, apparent]}' content. 

In the station were McCanless antl the .squaw, John Applegate, Ralph 
M. Lozier, and W. L. Ball ("Little Baldy"). The station had just been 
built and the logs had not been "chinked" with mud. leaving open spaces. 
About seven o'clock the Indiruis returned, and before the men inside were 
aware that the savages were upon them, a volley had been fired through the 
open spaces between the logs. Lozier was instantly killed, and .\pplegate 
wounded in the fleshy part of the thigh, the l)all ranging up and coming out 
through the pocket of his pants. McCanless and Ball left the station, accom- 
panied a little way by Applegate, then weak from loss of blood. Ilie latter 
asked Ball for a revolver he had let him take when the trouble commenced. 
He knew he could not run any longer and delil)erately blew his l)rains out, 
to escape torture from the red fiends yelling at their heels. The squaw helped 


the wliite men by keeping between them, trying to keep her friends bnck. 
McCanless and Ball ran for life, throwing off their garments as they ran, and 
finally reached safety at Robert's Creek, thirty miles from the station. A pony 
rider and a Spanish cook were there and next morning the four set out for 
Diamond Springs, thirty miles away. Here they met R. H. Egleston, a resi- 
dent of Eureka, who promised that when he and his party reached Dry Creek 
they would bury the bodies of the two men at the station. Mr. Egleston, 
with Thomas Smith and Elisha Mallory. of Genoa, was on his way to Carson, 
from Camp Flo}'d. 

It was nearly a week before the party reached there, and they found 
the body of Lozier, horribly mutilated, the coyotes having torn it to pieces. 
Applegate's body was little harmed and the remains were buried, and a monu- 
ment of stones piled up to mark the double grave. McCanless must liave 
been really attached to the squaw, for he went back and got her. then took her 
to Salt Lake and married her, raising a family there. 


In the fall of 1861 a party of emigrants from the east, thirteen persons 
in all, including fi\e children, came over the plains in four wagons drawn 
by oxen. The party stopped at the Stebbins' trading post in Ruby Valley; 
in the party was one little girl, so charming that Air. and Airs. Stebbins be- 
came greatly attached to her during the short stay. They tried every induce- 
ment to persuade the parents to let them have her, if not for adoption, for a 
long visit. But in vain; if the parents could have known what the future 
held for the beautiful child they would gladly have consented. Not only did 
Mr. and Mrs. Stebbins love the little girl, but an Indian squaw who worked 
for them manifested much affection for the little one. The da_\' after the 
emigrants went on, this squaw, Maggie, disappeared. She did not return for 
several nights, then late at night some one knocked and the squaw came in, 
so cut and bruised that Mr. and Mrs. Stebbins scarcely knew her, and she 
could not speak at first. Fin;dly she told her story, so full of horror that she 
was not at first believed. 

Maggie had learned, before the emigrants left the station, that \oung 
warriors of her tribe — Shoshone — intended to nuirder the entire party. She 
followed the emigrants, determined to sa\e the child who had wmi ;ill hearts; 
she had reached the party when all ;uri\ed at ^ ago Can)dn, which is a few 
miles southeast of Gravelly Ford. When the killing commenced the old squaw 
obtained possession of the little girl, and managed to get away, as she be- 
lieved, unseen. Carrying the child she fled an entire day and night before 
two Indians overtook her. She was beaten senseless and the innocent little 
girl tied to a stake driven into the ground; before the squaw came to her 


senses the savages had used a knife to aid them in committing a nameless 
outrage, kilHng the child after horrihle tortures. It seemed as if her hcauty 
and helplessness had only incensed them the more. 

Mr. Stebbins gathered a party of men and took the trail until tlicy cruue 
to where the child he had loved so fondly lay, staked to the ground, bloody 
and disheveled but still Ijeautiful, the innocent, agonized eyes wide o])en. 
Maggie had told the names of the two Indians, and Mr. Stebbins and the 
others swore vengeance above the body of the murdered girl. It was a full 
year before the two murderers made their appearance; then they came into 
Ruby Valley, and one was hanged, the other shot dead while trying to 


In Elko county lived a Shoshone chief who was friendly to tlie whites. 
He died of consumption in the house of Charles Stebbins, mentioned above, 
who afterwards removed to Austin. His tril)e wanted to follow the usual cus- 
tom and kill his squaw. The chief's name was Sko-kup and he was well liked, 
so the Indians wanted him to have the company of his wife on his journey 
to the Happy Hunting Grounds; she objected and fled to the Stebbins" trading 
post, and asked for protection. The protection was accorded, and when 
the Indians found she would not be given up to their tender mercies, they 
determined to take her by force. The whites appealed to Governor Nye for 
aid and once more Warren Wasson, now known as "Colonel" W'^asson, partici- 
pated in the settlement of an Indian difficulty. He was sent to the scene by 
Governor Nye to take what action he deemed best. 

Colonel Wasson left on December i6th, and reached the seat of war in 
Ruby Valley on the i8th. This was Smith's Creek, the first station in the 
Shoshone country. Two days later he arrived at Reese River and met To-to-a, 
a Shoshone chief, with one hundred Shoshones. He told Wasson he was at 
peace vyith the whites, and would assist to bring about a settlement of the 
difficulty. Wasson, however, preferred to settle it alone. He found tliat 
To-to-a had four hundred followers, and all were destitute. He also learned 
that the Overland Mail Company was issuing rations of grain to keep the 
Indians from starving. At Roliert's Creek, \\'asson met a young chief. Buck, 
with one hundred warriors. Buck told Wasson that the .squaw Julia had been 
left by Sho-kup to him, as he was to be Sho-kup's successor. His tribe did 
not obey his last wishes, but after trying to capture the squaw, Julia, killed the 
chief's horses, and made preparations for the funeral pyre. Great was their 
wrath when they found she objected to the "suttee" and that they could not 
gain possession of her. She was very intelligent, and determined efforts 
were made to secure her, the Indians threatening to kill every white person in 


tlie A'allev. llie sa\'ages placed a guard around Stdiliins" Station; an Indian 
of the ^\'llite Knife liand killed Sho-kup"s old favorite Indian doctor, and 
whether he was accepted as the victim instead of Julia, the whites could not 
learn, hut the excitement cooled greatly. The Indians promised not to kill 
Julia, and Buck led lier to his cam]). He returned ti> the station and later a 
gun report was heard, and the whites feared Julia had heen murdered. Buck 
ran for his horse, Init was shot at and prexented from mounting. In the end 
it proved a false alarm and everything simmered down. 

All this Wasson emhodied in his repnrt tn Ciovernor Nye, ending hy say- 
ing that Captain McLean and detachment had arrixed im the 27th. ^^^^sson 
informed the Governor further : 

"The dangers of interruption to the mail and telegraph lines. a])prelicnded 
in the coming spring, are from a band of Shoshones, called the "W'liitc 
Knives," occupying the countr\- between the upper Humboldt and the present 
mail road. Also from the Gosh-Utes, who reside east of Ruby \'a!ley. The 
former are quite numerous and said to be \'ery hostile. I sent for them to 
come and meet me in Rul)y Valley, but had weather prevented them from 
coming, and the same reason pre\'ented me from visiting them. I would 
respectfully recommend thai they receive early attention in the spring. 

"The remaining pro\'isions sent out by vou for the Indians. I placed 
in charge of G. W. Jacobs, the road agent, who will see tliat it is projierly 
issued to the Indians from Reese Ri\er to Robert's Creek: and we estimated 
that it would be ample for their necessities until spring. In view of the \-ast 
numl)er of wild Indians in the eastern portion of this territory who were 
not included in the estimate for the expenses of this superintendency for the 
present year, and the increasing necessitv for jiromjit action to keep them 
quiet, from the fact of the rapid settlement of that portion of the 'en-itory 
hy tlie whites, and for the protection of the mail and telegraph lines, as well 
as the overland emigration, 1 would most respectfully suggest that this Con- 
gress be urged to make at least as large an appropriation for this .service as 
for the Tah-l'tes and Washoe tribes. 

"J woidd also recommend two more Indian reservations, one to be located 
near (ira\elly b'ord, on the Ilnmboldt, .and the other in the neighb(;rhood of 
Reese River. * * *" 

In the face of W'asson's recommendations and delineation of what might 
be expected, no such approjiriatious were made, trouble ensuing. The Sho- 
slujiie Indians along the I lumboldt ])roceeded to attack emigrant trains, killing 
all the whites they could and running olT the slock. ( )f one |iart\' all t'lat was 
left was some letters, a wagon and three yokes for oxen. About the s.ime 
lime a party of two men and their wives .and nine children weie kille<l, both 
the tragedies (Kxurring near Gravelly b'ord. .\nother \y,iy{\ was more fortu- 

A lllSi'Uin; Ul' NliVADA. 301 

iiatc, for w'lien llicir slnck was run nFt al (ii'a\clly [''mal, llic cinigranls man- 
aged Id keep tlic Iniliaiis al l)a\- until aid iwhIilmI llicni Irmn I 'in'onville, (ieorge 
L. C'onistnck, a resident nf .\e\a(hi since iSho. Iieing ime nf tlic rescuers. Tn 
the fnrce were tliirt\-t\\ii men under ('a|)tain I'nul. 'I lirv effected a rescue, 
and next morning Captain i'onl's command went scouting, killing thirteen 
\-- arrinrs (_)Ut of sixty; later in the day li\e of the I 'ool command killed five 
warriors out of a hand of sixteen. 


As ])redicted by Wasson, the riosh-Utes. \uider their great war chief. 
White Horse, commenced making trouble earlv in 1863. On March 2Jnd 
they killed the keeper of Eight-Mile Station: then they waited for the 
overland stage east boiuid. It came in with a popular dri\-er, known as 
"Happy Harry," and four passengers : Judge G. N. Mott, of Nevada, and 
a man and his two little l)oys, on the way to their home in the east. 

The Indians fired, with exultant )ells. I)ut although mortally wounded. 
Happy Harry sent the horses on, clinging to his seat. Inside the stage, the 
father had Ijeen wounded by an arrow. The heroic dri\'er by sheer force 
of will, kept the horses on the way. until he knew be could not last another 
moment: then he called Judge Mott, who managed to climb along the sides 
of the coach, mitil he reached the driver's seat. As be grasped the lines. 
Happy Harry sank dead on the floor of the coach. Surely another hero, 
who thought last of all of himself, intent on saving those in his charge. 

Judge Mott reached Deep Creek Station safely, one horse dying from 
the run: the father recovered afterwards. Left 'lehind, the Indians Inirned 
the station, and emboldened by the fact that they had been so far successful, 
planned other murders. The Eight-Mile Station crime commenced the w'ar 
always spoken of as "The Overland War of 1863." 

Finding the Indians were ready to give battle from Schell Creek to 'Salt 
Lake City, all along the route of the Overland, 225 miles. Company K, 
Second California Cavalry Volunteers, under Captain S. P. Smith, was sent 
from Camp Douglas to Eight-Mile Station, but divided, the main body 
arriving- at Fort Ruby the last of April. On May 5tb Company E. Third 
California Infantry Volunteers, left Camp Douglas to act as guards for the 
Overland road between Austin and Salt Lake. Soldiers, usually four, were 
left at each station, and as the stage arrived at a station two of the soldiers 
on guard in the station would accompany the stage to the next station, then 
guard the next return stage. The ca\-alry in the meantime was ranging over 
the countrv, patrolling the road and scouting. In spite of these precautions 
a stage was ambushed soon, when fi\e soldiers were on board. The latter 


returned the fire and the only loss was a stage horse, shot to death, dying- 
a mile ahead of the ambush. 

Henry Buttei-field, an interpreter of the Slioshone language, had been 
appointed as Indian agent at Ruby Valley by Go\ernor Nye. He sent out 
two friendly Indians as spies : they soon returned, having ascertained which 
Indians were guilty of the murder at Eight-Mile Station. It was found 
that they were Gosh-Utes. Captain Smith's company of California cavalry 
moved at once to Schell Creek, reaching it on May 2nd, having marched 
sixty miles in less than twenty-four hours. Here they kept concealed until 
night, then moved south in Steptoe Valley, at the base of the Schell Creek 
Mountains. By daylight the command camped in a deep canyon, sending" 
the Indian spies ahead. These returned at sundown, stating that some of 
the Gosh-Utes were camped on Duck Creek, ten miles south. At night the 
cavalry surrounded the camp, and when daylight broke, a pistol shot gave 
the signal for the work of revenge to commence. In camp were twenty-six 
warriors and only two escaped. Next morning five Indians approached, 
unsuspecting the presence of the soldiers, and they were killed, one cavalry- 
man being wounded. 

Captain Smith determined to keep on and avenge the death of Happy 
Harry by the death of as many Indians as he could find, going north to 
Spring Valley, reaching there May i6th. An Indian camp was found but 
the ground was all swampy and many of the cr.valry horses mired ; this 
allowed some of the Indians to escape but twenty-three were killed, Captain 
Smitli having one man \\ounded and one horse disabled. This made a total 
of fifty-two Gosh-Utes sent to the happy hunting grounds, and Captain 
Smith returned with his command to Fort Ruby. They reached there about 
the middle of May. 

They did not stay long, for (in the 20lh the Overland was fired on and 
the dri\cr, Kiley Sim]).son, killed, ;i |)assenger named Fgan bringing ihe 
stage in. Captain Smith and Company K returned to Deep Creek and re- 
mained there the balance of the year. 


The day after killing Happy Harry the Indians burned a station alxnit 
eight miles of Deep Creek, killing the station-keeper. When Company 
E. 'i'hird California Infantry, was ])osling soldiers at the stations, four were 
left here: Jacob 11. l^lliott, Jacob Burger, Ira Abbott and W. S. Hervey, 
residents of Tuolumne county. California. They found at the station "Deaf 
Bill" and an assistant, who cared for the stock of the Overland Stage, .\bbott 
and Hervey guarded the stage from Deep Creek to their home station th^ 


last of June; Hervey tolil a ladv ])asseng'ei' tliat lie liad a presentiment of 
cum ins;' disaster. 

After reachini;- the station tliey liad to iin with a wagon for water, it 
being what was known as a dry station, all water hax'ing to lie hauled under 
guard from Deep Creek Slough. ;\hl)ott and FIer\-ey took Deaf Bill as a 
dri\-er for the wagon. Hervey spoke of his presentiment to Ahbott, who told 
of it afterwards : "I dreamed last night that I was going to be shot and 

killed by Indians to-day, and " he did not finish the sentence, for a shot 

silenced him forever and he pitched forward in the road, dead. The Indians, 
eighteen in numljer. had wounded .Mibott in the right shoulder, knocking him 
from the wagon. A shot cut off one of Deaf Bill's thunilis, and wounded 
one horse. Deaf Bill could not hear the shots but he felt the wound, and 
stopped the horses after they had run one hundred feet ; he opened fire, 
wounding one of the Gosh-Utes. Abbott ran to the wagon, got his gun, and 
with the redskins only a few feet away, ran back to get the l)ody of his 
friend. The Indians kept firing, concentrating it all on Abbott, hoping to 
disable him. He was shot in both legs. He reached the body, and took up 
the gun, dropped from the nerveless hands. He fired, but the barrel was 
bent where the wagon's wheels had passed o\er it and he hit no one. He 
then took Hervey's revoh-er but his wound began to paralyze his arm, and 
he had to cease firing; he picked up the body of his friend and took it to 
the wagon ; while struggling along, bending under the weight of the inert 
body, he was hit twice more, once on each side; but he held on, and after 
he put the body and weapons in the wagon. Deaf Bill started the horses on 
a dead run and they reached the station. 

Arriving there the assistant hostler told them Elliott and Burger had 
gone to hunt sage hens ; looking in the direction they had taken, Abbott saw 
a rifle in the hands of one of the Indians, on a knoll near by, which he knew 
had belonged to Elliott. He knew then both men were dead. The men in 
the station fired repeatedly on the Indians, who at last withdrew. Siu'c 
enough, when an emigrant train drew up at the station half an hour after, 
the body of Elliott was with them, they having found it in the road. Elliott 
had made a hard fight for life; his body was badly mutilated; his heart had 
been cut out and taken away. He was bald but wore whiskers, and these 
the Indians had scalped from his face. The next day the body of Burger 
was discovered, he e\-idently having l>een killed first. A surgeon with this 
party dressed Abbott's many wounds. 


The result of this attack but made the Indians more desirous of burning 
the station, but they waited only until new men replaced Abbott. Deaf Bill 


was there, with Iiis assistant (Deaf liilTs name was William Riley) and fuur 
soldiers, of Company E, Third California Cavalry: Tarsey Crimsliaw. 
Micliael McNamarra, Lewis Pratt and Anthony Myers. On the 6th of 
July, as Deaf Bill was currying a horse at the barn he was shot dead, from 
ambiish. His assistant heard the shots and rushed from the harn. heing shot 
dow-n as he appeared. A soldier who heard the shots came out of the station 
and was also killed. The three soldiers in the station, which was a "dug 
out" under ground, knew they stood no show there, so made a dash for the 
barn, and Grimshaw was killed while half way there: this left Myers and 
Pratt: they reached the barn, and for half an hour kept the enemy at bay. 
Then the savages set fire to a stack of hay against the barn. Death was 
certain there and the two decided to mount horses and try to get past the 
b'nes of howling redskins. One horse was very swift, and tliey drew lots 
to see which should use it — Pratt winning: the two men shook hands and 
dashing from the barn rode for their lives: they had gone some distance, 
when Myers fell from the saddle: his horse staggered a few steps, then 
dropped dead. Pratt, although mortally wounded, got away from the In- 
dians before he dropped. Later in the day an emigrant train came acro-ss 
Lewis Pratt, dying in the road, his horse lying dead by his side: !ie lived 
long enough to be carried to Willow Station, and tell the story of the mas- 
sacre. Company K, in pursuit, could not catch up with the perpetrators of 
this last crime, but killed two Indians, for the "general good." 


After this the militia kept on the trail of the Gosh-Utes and finally the 
tribe sued Un peace, which l)eing granted them, they returned to their reserva- 
tion and recei\cd rations. It was considered strange that the Gosh-Ctes 
singled out the Overland Stage Company for victims. The company lost 
sixteen men, 150 horses and had seven stations burned. But even with all 
these disasters to struggle against, seldom was a stage late, and the schedule 
trips were always made. The com]>any treated the Indians well, fed Ihcni 
and gave them employment. 

The MornK)ns were at enmity with the ()\crland Company, the company 
resenting the exorbitant prices the Mormons charged them for everything, 
it ending finally in the com])any starting a farm, as narrated early in this 
history. The Mormons, so White Horse informed Henry Butterfield. urged 
the Gosh-L'tes on to war: they told the Indians that the whites were holding 
back the annuities from the government to the Indians, and keeping them 
fr.r their own use. 

When the Gosh-L'tes came back to the reservation war was ended for- 
ever in Nevada, though tliere were several scares, notably one in eastern 


Nevada in Septenilicr, 1875. Troulile (uer a mine caused a killing: Gosli- 
Ute Indians offered to sell a mine to A. J. Leathers and James Tollard. The 
price for a location was to be $50: on looking at the ledge it was fotind to ije 
worthless and the white men refused to pay for it. To the Indians all quartz 
ledges were the same, so when payment was refused, To-ba killed Tollard ; 
Leathers escaping to the ranch of A. C. Cleveland. That gentleman went 
on the warpath himself and captured an Indian, killing him when he at- 
tempted to escape. Mr. Cleveland was going to hand him over to the au- 
thorities. One of Cleveland's herders killed an Indian who refused to give 
up his gun. At the time of these incidents the Gosh-Utes were gathering 
pine-nuts in large bands. They were the ones frightened, but a war scare 
was spread, \'olunteer* troops were organized. Governor Bradley was asked 
for aid ; he in turn asked help of Major-General Schotield, in San Francisco. 
Major Dennis and command reached Spring Valley, and nearly scared the 
Gosh-Utes into a panic. The murderer of Tollard was demanded and at 
once given u]i. Citizens took him away from the militia and lynched him. 
And that was really all there was to the great war scare of 1875. 

For several years the Indians kept up an intermittent annoyance, on 
one occasion going into lone, the county seat then of Nye county, and de- 
manding money because some jolly boys had offered some of the tribe what 
they considered indignities. The money was paid and no blood was shed. 

In 1874 Naches, a tall, fine-looking chief of the Pah-LTtes, was said to 
be striving to cause trouble among thf^ Indians on the Humboldt. He was 
arrested and taken to Fort Alcatraz, San Francisco. He was made mucli 
of, loaded with gifts, and sent home from the harbor rejoicing. Naches 
said that Mr. Pateman, Indian agent, wronged his tribe and the government. 
Some Nevada papers upheld Naches, saying Pateman wanted the Pah-Utes 
on the reservation to swell the number. In June, 1878, Naches resigned 
his position of authority with his tribe. Captain Charley, of W'adsworth, 
succeeded ; be was killed, the tribe then killing his murderer. 

Naches was always a leader among the Piutes, and was regarded b\' the 
whites as a most intelligent Indian. In 1884 be was elected Big Chief of 
the Piutes ; he declined emphatically, but at a later pow-pow when he was re- 
elected be accepted, as he was regarded as the head of the tribe always. He 
cultivated for some time land belonging to the Central Pacific Railroad, and 
in 1885 he purchased it. 190 acres, for $400. It was located on Big Meadows, 
and when be secured the deed he was very proud of it. He secured the land 
\'ery cheaply, the railroad recognizing his great influence over his fellow 
Indians. When Tom Naches died in 1885, Chief Naches and Princess Sarah 
\\'innemucca entered suit in court to secure horses and other farm articles 


\\liich tlie\- claimeil to nwn, and prolialjly Cliief Naclies did own what lie 
claimed, but Sarah was regarded as an unreliable Indian. 

Sarah was an educated Indian and tra\eled over the L'nited States 
lecturing- on the condition of the Indians and the cruel manner in which they 
were treated by the Indian agents. She illustrated her lectures by putting- 
money on the floor and then grabbing for it, acting the agent for tlie time 
being. She was deeply attached to her people and at the last it was decreed 
she should die away from home. She had a sister, also educated, who had 
married a white man and removed to Monida. Montana. Sarah went to 
visit her and died there, October i6, 1891. .\t the tinie it was decided to 
bring her body back to Nevada, but where it is interred there is no record. 

Old Winnemucca was always a stumbling block- to the Indians. He 
had Ijeen (in the warpath, worsted the whites and cnuld not forget it. His 
tribe in council decided in 1873 to send him to Malheur Reservation, Ore- 
gon, and that as many of his trilie as desired should go too. Those who 
were peacefullv earning a living or had farms, should remain in Nevada. 
Those who went to Oregon were to take up land in severalty, each head of 
a family a tract of land. But he did not go. When he liecame ill in Sc-p- 
tcmljer, 1880, his tribe ]iromptly stoned his wife and child to death, but that 
did not sa\-e the old chief, and he died October 2"], 1880, his funeral scr\-ices 
being most impressive. With his death the long feud of tlie W^ashoes and 
Piutes seemed certain to end, as the W^ashoes had always regarded him as a 
supernatural lieing and his death made them more aggressive. On December 
28 the hatchet was formally Inn-ied. Later on the feud with tlie Shoshones 
was ended. The latter race was ahvays regarded as the lowest tribe, unable 
to call e\en their lives their own if a ^^"ashoe or Piute wanted to take them. 

That thc\- would adxance if given a chance was shown by the fact that 
on Decei-nber 28 whites \'isited the Indians at Duck N'allcv and reijortcd that 
the fifty-one Shoshone families had o\cr 2,000 horses, each faniily two or 
tliree cows, plenty of chickens. ])igs and farni animals. They raised vege- 
tables, cut 250 tons of hay. built an irrigating dam, log houses and barns, all 
under the supervision of two Indian farmers, Cai)tain Charley and Captain 
Buck, the latter often spoken of in the account of ]ndiai-i wars. .\ ten-horse 
thresher was one im])lement used on the reservatioii. 

In November, 1884, the I'iutcs and Washoes met to pow-pow at Pyra- 
mid Lake; two Pintes had been killed, one it was thought the victim of a 
Washoe. The Washoes offered $500 to the father of the murdered man as 
rq)aration, but it was not accepted. Naches, the Big Chief, then proposed 
that the murderer be given \\\\ to the whites for trial. The Washoes met at 
Carson in cmincil and did so. About this lime Naches was re-elected Big 


In 1884 \V. D. C. Gibson was Cdiifiniietl as Indian agent and im-urrcd 
the enmity of Sarali Winnemucca, who preferred cliarges against In'm. l^ater 
she was arrested, ch-arged with ih'unkenness and poker playing, both i)astinies 
to which Gibson and otliers asserted she was adcHcted. 

In 1895 the Pintes l<ilied a S(|naw Ijecanse slie could s|ieak l''rencli. and, 
her child also. Every little while some act would show that civilization was 
only skin deep, as Gibson put it. In 1887 the Piutes shipped to San Fran- 
cisco 1,000 sacks of pine nuts. And at the Midwinter Fair in San I'rancisco 
ma]js done by the Pyramid Lake Reservation Indians aroused great ad- 
miration. The coloring was done by pigments they made from the soil 
around the lake, the secret of which they steadfastly refused to reveal. There 
was another war scare in i8S(;, the Mr>no war scare. Piute Jack killed 
Louis Sammann at Mono Lake and the Washoes then killed another Piute. 
The tribes were greatly excited. The governor of California was asked for 
troops, but the scare soon died out. Killings were frequent among the In- 
dians. A Western Shoshone scpiaw was killed because it was alleged she 
killed a medicine man. In October, 1890, a Smokey Valley Indian, Abe 
Minnum, loved a squaw who frowned on his suit ; he killed her and her 
family. Sam then killed him. In this year it was claimed not two-thirds of 
the Indians were on their reservations. In December, 1890, war in Owens 
Valley was feared. 1.500 Indians gathering there. The people wanted the 
legislature to provide military companies for the valley. 

In January. 1892, there was great religious excitement among the In- 
dians, Jack Wilson on the Walker reservation claiming to lae the Messiah. 
Piutes and Washoes, and e\-en Dakota and Montana Indians gathered, but 
the prompt action of Naches and agents averted trouble. 

In February, 1897, there was quite a war scare at Yerington, better 
known as Pizen Switch. Two white men, Logan and Genzell, followed two 
squaws, and when an Indian i)rotected them, Logan killed him. Logan 
escaped, and the Indians became so enraged that the whites gathered in a 
stone building and arms were sent tn them. Logan was arrested in Winne- 
mucca, and the Indians were appeased. Then there was a farce of a trial, 
and the Indians, armed h.eavily, surrounded the court house where Logan 
hid, afraid to come out. This was finally settled, and the Indians were 

In 1897 a numl)er of Indians were in the big wreck on the railroad 
while going to California. Five Piutes and three Washoes were killed. 
They were riding on the platforms, and many were badly injured. Captain 
Sam, of the Piutes, was in charge, as the Indians were going to California 
to pick hops. The Indians considered it as a command from the Great Spirit 
to remain in Nevada. 


In October, 1898, Reese fanners were much alarmed for fear of tlie 
Indians rising. Ballard, an Indian, was beaten severely by McLeod, a white 
man. but the trouble finally blew mer. 

In .\pril. 1899, a relic of the Indian wars was dug up near the city of 
Reno. In 1859 the \\"ashoes and the Piutes were at war. and incidentally 
killing the whites. Kit Carson and four scouts heard that the Indians had 
just murdered a settler and carried off his wife. Carson and one scout started 
to rescue the woman, the other three waiting in ambush. When Carson 
returnefl he found the W'ashoes had killed the three scouts and buried their 
heads. The skull dug up was that of one of the three scouts. 

]NL'un- people wonder wlience came the name \\'innemucca, 1or it is not 
strictly Indian. Away back in the fifties two white men came through Ne- 
vada, the first the Piutes had ever seen. The chief was a very young man, 
and he wore one moccasin., in Indian "]\Iucca." In part English and part 
Indian the trappers called him "Onennemucca," or one moccasin. The chief 
was plea.sed with the name. It was afterwards corrupted into Winamuck. 
In 1863 S. B. O'Bannon named the town W'innemucca. There is also \\'ina- 
muck Valley and ^.\'inamuck Lake. 

In Septeml)er, 1899, two Piutes in the ranch of the Dangljergs in Car- 
son Valley were quarreling, one Ijeing employetl on the ranch and the other 
a visitor. ^Vill Dangberg, a son of the owner, attempted to drive him away, 
and the Indian fired upon him, killing him instantly. There was instantly 
great excitement amnng both Indians and whites. A posse went after him. 
capturing him, and landing him in jail. Later he escaped and he was trailed 
by an Indian posse. He was armed and in attempting his capture the Indians 
killed him. he first killing one of the posse. .\ reward of $500 was ofifered 
for liis cai)ture. 

In the last smallpox scare it was ordered that all the Indians on the 
reservations, and if possible those off, should be vaccinated. There was flat 
rebellion. Old John.sf)n Sides, the L^nited States peacemaker, wrote letters 
to the papers expostulating. Lie said that all had been vaccinated that ought 
to be. He concluded his letter with the veiled threat that if the Indians tied 
to the hills to escape vaccination, many would be without food — "if they kill 
cattle, then trouble." The vaccination order was recalled. When Johnson 
Sides died in California where he had gone for his health bis people wanted 
him buried in Nevada. .Allen C. Bragg, of Reno, circulated a sub- 
scription list and the old chief was brought back. He was buried with great 
ceremony, the whites all ])arlicipating, even the governor making a few- 
remarks. He was buried in the Reno cemetery, the ceremonies taking place 
in the city park. His jiicture now adorns the Xc\ ada postcards. He has been 


succeeded liy a ne]>liew, ^'cmn,!;- jdliiisim Sides. Toin PTarris is a leader 
among tlie Reno Indians. 

In June, 1901. tlie W'aslioes solemnly announced that they would for- 
ever gi\e up medicine men, painting their faces and other savage methods, 
but they have ap])arently forgotten ahout the medicine men, who still flourish. 
In the old days when a medicine man lost three patients, they killed him. 
Now they take him to an isolated spot, give him food and water for several 
days and leave him tO' die, which he nearly always does. Once in a long 
while one is rescued by the w hites. They are always very old men, resorting 
to the arts of the medicine man when nthcr means of earning a livelihood 

In October, 1903, the go\-ernmer.t decided that the Indians were entitled 
to the hill lands southeast of Carson Valley, wdiere they gathered the most 
of the pine nuts for w-inter use, A long feud over these trees was thus settled, 
the wdiite man desiring to cut the trees down for wood. 

How it is done the authorities fail to find out as a rule, but the noble 
red man, and woman, is always well supplied with liquor. Verv few can 
be convicted for the crime, many of the offenders being women. In 1891, 
twenty were sent to the penitentiary for the crime, and of these six were 
Chinamen, while in 1899 fifteen were sent for the crime, twelve being Cliina- 
men. In 1900 only ten went in and only three w^ere Chinamen, and in 1903 
the fact that the Chinamen were wiser was e\'idenced by the fact tiiat while 
thirteen went in not a Chinaman was in the number. 

Even above drinking t-lie Indian likes gambling. They are in\-eterate 
poker players, and the bridge, or rather under it, at Reno, is known as the 
"Indian Monte Carlo." Male and female alike play, and no small sums are 
wagered and lost. The Indians al\\a}-s ]ia\e plenty of money. The Piutes 
have the pick of the fishing, no white man being allowed to fish in the waters 
of the reservation, and the trout sell for 20 cents per pound the vear around. 
The Washoes are the only Indians in America who have not been allotted 
a reser\-ation, and why no one seems to understand, fnr they are \'ery numer- 
ous. Still they are cunning fishermen and trappers, and can alwavs find 
money to play w itli, 

A peculiarity is that the Piutes still keep the \\'ashoes in what thev 
consider their proper place. No Washoe dares ride a pony, or go beyond the 
boundaries laid down for them hundreds of years ago by the Piutes, Just 
so, the Shoshones are kept within their boundaries, not daring to come beyond 
the foothills of the Shoshone mountains. The Piutes are kept in check in 
turn by the Apaches, the only Indians they are afraid of. They have tried 
conclusions more than once and have always been worsted. So they keep 
away from the eastern state line. Any infringement of the laws laid down 


causes several deaths. .\ \\'aslK)e dared In ride into Reno in 1900. and he, 
\\itli a few relatives, was ne\er seen again. 

The \\'ashoes are lax in their ideas of morality, offenses in line 
being condoned, the squaws sometimes lieing beaten, but rarely killed, and 
never if her lord and master profits thereby. The Piutes still uphold the old 
stern laws — a sf|uaw who oversteps the line is killed and generally tortured, 
though this cannot be proved nor can the whites find proof to punish the 
husband. Many a white man meets with summary justice when he dares hang 
around the Piute camps. Their bodies are generally found in one of the 
irrigating ditches. The white men Inok for certain sigms, and finding them 
a1)andon any idea of bringing the murderer to justice. On this subject the 
Piutes stand massed together. .\ pure life is exacted for every sc|uaw, and 
woe be to the white man who would tempt her therefrom. It is an old say- 
ing that thie\-es, cowards and lewd women are nex'er found amo^ig the Piutes. 

At first glance all Imlians look alike. Closer inspection shows the 
Washoes to have a round, chubby face, an inconsefiuential sort of face. The 
Piutes have a long face, rather narrow, and a wonderful cranium tlevelop- 
ment. There is nothing the Piute cannot learn, and they are gifted with 
wonderful powers of oratory. This is pnjved in the schools on the reserva- 
tions. In mechanical work the Washoe does well, it is head work be fails 
in; while the Piute is good in both mental and physical tasks. The teachers 
Ijecome greatly attached to their |nipils. who learn all sorts of usefid arts, 
from sewing, tailoring, carpentering, mechanics, to dairyings. 

Some of the Indians have graduated and in their turn become teachers. 
Many work out as ser\ants, and capable ones they make, being extremely 
loyal to their employers. Their marriages are always strictly according to 
the white man's law. The great majority dress as the white man. the squaws 
Avearing aprons generally. But nearly all cling to the gaudy blanket, w-ear- 
ing it over their heads if the day lie stormy, around their shnulilers if it be 
fine weather. One thing they liave learned — to rush into print if anv wrong 
is done them. They have leaders who can tell what the trouble is, and the 
papers always give space to ihem. M.iny a wrong is thus prevented, for 
many white men are always trying to get the best of Poor Liui, and generallv 
failing now they are ci\ilizcd. 


CHAin'KR X\'\. 

Nevada Liticraturk. 

Some of the writers wlio liave enriclied tlie literature of the west are 
Mark Twain, Josepii T. Goodman, C. C. Goodwin, Rollen iJaggett, Harry 
Mighels, Tliomas Fitch, Sam Davis, P. V. Mighels, Fred Harte, Dan De Quill, 
Dr. (ially, Mariam Miclielson and Sarah Winnemucca. 

Nevada, though a young state, has made a lasting mark in literature. 
Mark Twain jjegan to first attract attention when writing on the Virginia 
F.iilcr/^risc. Joseiih T. ( ioodman was the i)ulilisher, and, his eve falling on a 
communication written to the pa])er by Mr. Sanuicl Clemens from Dayton, he 
remarked to his partner, D. E. McCarthy, that he had discovered a genius and 
imme<liatel_\- sent fur the young man to come to Virginia City and take a jol) 
on the Enterprise. The man was first a sort of laughing stock (if the office, 
as he was a slouchy, ungainly fellow, with a pronounced drawl, hut Cmod- 
man, whose literary judgment was unerring, never lost faith in his man and 
gave him every encouragement. The rest is too well known to dilate on here, 
and the man wh:ini CiOddman picked up and hacked is miw one of the best 
reacl and most popular writers of the wDrld. 

Next in order comes Mr. Goodman, lie is the authdr of one of the 
greatest archeological works e\'er written. It is entitled "The P.iologia of 
Central America." For years the different g(i\crnnieuts of tlie wurld have 
been sending expeditions (if scientists to Yucatan to investigate the miles 
and miles of ruined cities which lie tliere. It is estimated that they antedate 
anything in the known world, liut up to the tiiue of the publication of Mr. 
Goodman's bodk. it was all surmise. He has succeeded in translating the in- 
scriptions on the walls and monuments and shows conc!usi\-ely that they were 
meant to be chronological tables. Fie shows that when this race went to its 
doom it had kept a record of tlie time covering o\-er two lumdrcd and eightv 
thousand years. This people flourished before the pyramids rose the 
sands of Egypt, liefore the songs of the worshipers rose in the [jillared teiuples 
of Karuac. Mr. Goodiuan began the task of deciphering these seemingly 
meaningless hieroglyphics much as Edgar I'oe describes the reading of the 
cipher in his famous story of " The Gold Bug." This work has now liecome 
standard throughout the ci\ilized world. The author was refused a hearing 
!>efore the California .\cadcmv of Sciences, and it remained for the .\rchefi- 
logical Society of London through its representati\e, a Mr. (iodman. to a]i- 
jjreciate the value of the work and stand the expense of publication. 

"Dan De Quill," whose right name was Charles Wright, was one of the 
quaintest writers of Nevada. He published "The Big Bonanza" and gave 


the world a more general and accniate knowledge of the history of the Com- 
stock than any other w riter. 

Hon. C. C. Goodwin wrote "The Comstock Club'" and was one of the 
best editorial writers of the west. He was also a rare poet, like Goodman and 

Rollen Daggett was also one of the famous editnrial writers of the Enter- 
prise and wrote " Braxton's Bar " and a number of fine poems. 

Dr. Gaily was the author of " Big Jack Small," a strikingly original 

Hon. Tom Fitch, known as the "Silver Tongued," wrote ".\ Wedge of 

Sam Davis, now State Controller, published a volume of "Short Stories 
and Poems." The story which heads the work, "The First Piano in Camp." 
has been translated in foreign languages and will live as a classic of the \\'est. 

Harry R. Mighels, just l>efore his death, wrote a striking book, " Sage- 
brush Leaves." His keen humor and delightful English reminds one of Oliver 
Wendell Holmes. His son, Phillip V^erril Mighels, is now a regular c<in- 
tributor to the leading magazines, and such publishers as Harpers antl Mc- 
Clures are bidding for his books. 

Fred Harte wrote the "Sazarac Lying Clul>." 

Mariam Michelson. a young lady born on the Comstock, was the author 
of one of the striking books of 1904 entitled "The Bishop's Carriage." It 
has already gone into several editions. 

Sarah Winnemucca, the daughter of nid Chief Winnemucca. a fidl- 
blooded Indian, wrote a remarkal)le book, "Life Anmng the Piutes." She 
was educated at an eastern seminary and became a very bright woman. She 
traveled about the countrv and delix'ered lectures which drew lartic an<licnces. 




HON. JOHN SPARKS, governor of Nevada, has long resided in the 
state, having come here in 1868. He is a native of Mississippi, wliere he 
was born August 30, 1843, ^^^^ comes of old Englisli stock. Four brothers 
bearing tlie name of Sparks emigrated from England at an early date and, 
settling in Maryland, established the family in America. This family was 
well represented in the Revolutionary war and in the war of j8ij, and its 
members have always been numbered among the Ijrave and loval citizens of 
this country. 

The grandfather of Governor Sparks, Millington Sparks, was born in 
Maryland and l:)ecame a prominent planter and attained to a ripe old age, 
dying firm in the faith of the Baptist church, to "vvhich he had adhered 
through a long and useful life. 

His son Samuel, father of Goxernor Sparks, was horn in Hagerstown, 
Maryland, and married Sarah Deal, a native of South Carolina, and both 
were consistent Baptists. They were the parents of ten children, five of 
whom are still living. Of this family Governor Sparks was the seventh in 
order of birth, and is the only one residing in Nevada. In 1837 the entire 
family removed to Texas, settling at Lampasas, and became the iiioneer 
stock-raisers in that portion of the state. At that time there were many 
Indians in the state, and the Sparks family engaged in many skirmishes 
with the savages. Governor Sparks bearing his part in the fights, which 
events he recalls with much enjoyment, for those were days of excitement, 
when all the bravery in a man's nature was called forth and opportunities 
were numerous for courage to be tested and proved. 

Governor Sparks began working for himself at the age of fourteen 
years, and since then has made a great success of raising cattle. He came to 
Nevada to extend his large business, although he still has large holdings in 
Texas. Upon settling in Nevada he bought out several large cattle ranches, 
and at one time owned seventy thousand head of cattle. In the very hard 
winter of 1889-90 he lost thirty-five thousand head. He calls that winter 
the great equalizer, as it affected all alike. Early in his business career he 
realized the value of fine thoroughbred stock, and has the honor of being 
the pioneer impc^rter of registered Hereford and Durham. He has sold and 
established twelve fancy herds of Hereford on the Pacific coast and has also 
shipped to Honolulu, and sold to the Utah Agricultural College their first 
registered Herefords. He keeps and raises both Herefords and Durha'ms, 
of pure strains, and has also experimented in making a cross of them, and 
has thus produced a grade of buff cattle of which he is very proud. For 
years he has exhibited his Hereford cattle at the California state fairs and 
has taken numerous first prizes. His Duke of Shadeland carried off the 
honors at the World's Fair. Governor Sparks is also greatly interested in 
both elk and Ijuffalo, and has had a family oi the former for the past twenty 
years, and of the latter for the past ten years. These run among his other 
cattle and are perfectly docile, and the country owes the Governor much for 
his efforts to keep these animals from extermination. In addition to other 
interests Governor Sparks is the owner of the celebrated Reno Star mine. 
Both in public and private life Governor Sparks has taken a leading part 
in the development of the state, and is generally recognized as one of its 


leading men. Upnii lii> niagnilicent two tliousand five luindral acre raiicli. 
located on the railroad between Reno and Carson City, he has a tlowing 
well which produces one hundred and twelve gallons per minute and is a 
little over five hundred feet deep. Upon this ranch he has a very comfortable 
residence and excellent farm buildings, and needless to say the premises are 
sujjplied with everv convenience and all the improved machinery on the 

Governor Sparks' lias been in i)olitics since boyhood as a Democrat, bis 
first service as a public man being when he discharged the duties of c< unity 
commissioner. In 1902 his party prc\ailed u])on him to accept the nomina- 
tion for governor of the state, .\fter making an excellent can\-ass he was 
elected bv a majority of one thousand eiglit hundred, and is giving the people 
of his state a clean, honorable administration. When the president arrived 
in Carson City upon his late western trip, he was cordially and enthusiastic- 
ally received by Governor Si)arks who welcomed him in a very ajjiiroiiriate 
manner, his speech being happily chosen, and the two became fast friends, 
in spite of ditTerences of political opinion, each recognizing the sterling 
worth of the other. 

In lune, 1872, Governor .Sparks was married to Miss Rachel Knight, 
a native of Texas and the tlaughter of I). V. Knight, who was born in Ohio 
and came of English stock. One daughter has been born of this union, 
Maud, who is now the wife of .\. McKinzie, a son of the Rev. Dr. .Mc- 
Kinzie, a noted Presbyterian divine. Mrs. Sjiarks died in 1878, and a year 
later Governor Sparks married her half-sister, iMiss Nora Knight. They 
have three sons, namely : Benton H., now in .\ndover College, iirejiaring 
for "S'ale: Charles, attending the State University; and Leland, who is 
attending high school. Governor Sparks is a very active member of the 
Order of Elks, the Order of Eagles and the Order of Oild Fellows. In their 
present governor the people of Nevada have a m;m whose sympathy, broad- 
ness of mind and thorough knowledge of human nature particularly fit him 
for his exalted jiosition and enable him to administer the affairs of the state 
judiciouslv, honorably and to the highest interests of those whose destinies 
he is now controlling. 

STEPHEN R. YOUNG has been one of the foremost men in the 
ui)buil(ling and improvement of the fertile valley in wdiich the town of Love- 
locks is situated. He is the owner of the only large brick block in the town, 
which he built in 1891. It covers seventy by one hundred feet of ground 
space, and the west half is occui)ie(l by the Lovelocks Commercial Coni])any 
in the conduct of a large deiKulment store, and the east half is the ^'oung's 
Hotel; the ground lloor of the hotel is occiqiied by the office, restaurant and 
dining room, while the up])er ]iart is divided into a front parlor and large, 
well-funiishcd sleeping rooms. Mr. N'oung also has a livery stable, a good 
residence and se\eral dwellings in the town, lie owns twelx'e hundred acres 
f)f land in the vicinity, and to make this productive has expended sixty 
thousand dollars on a water and irrigation .system, which is perhaps his 
imixMtant enterprise both from his own standpoint and ijecause of its im- 


mense value to tliis section of tlie county. He lias a water ])o\vcr wliich now 
furnislies one hundred horsepower, and tlie plant is so constructed tliat nine 
otlier wheels can be put in of one hunchx'd horsepower each, niakint^- a total 
of one thousand horse power. It is the intention soon to install an electric 
light plant and also to pipe the water to the town, which innovations will 
place Lovelocks at the front in the matter of civic improvements. One hrdf 
mile of the water canal is thirty feet deep, seventy feet wide at the toj) and 
twenty-five at the bottom, and it conveys water to ten thousand acres of 
land, and ultimately the whole upjier end of the valley will be covered by 
its water. The Big Meadows, in which the town of Lovelocks is located, 
is about ten miles wide and thirty miles long, and its rich dark loam soil 
needs only irrigation to make it produce abundantly, as its many fine farms 
already indicate. Irrigation to any important extent is a great undertaking 
and requires capital, and where it is not carried through by government 
management some man of entcr])rise. executive ability and public spirit must 
step forward and assume the risks and labors attendant upon such endeavors, 
and such a man has Lovelock valley found in Mr. Young. 

Stephen R. Young was born in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, January 24, 
1855, and is of German and Irish ancestry, and the son of S. R. and Julia 
(Madigan) Young, the former a native of Canada and the latter of Ireland. 
These parents died at the respective ages of forty and sixty-five years, and 
of their six sons Stephen is the only survivor. He was educated and reared 
to manhood in the state of Maine, and came to Unionville, Humboldt county, 
Nevada, in 1873. He has the credit of discovering the first pay dirt in 
Spring valley, and from eight to eleven miles of the valley has been placer- 
mined. He came to Lovelocks in 1876 and conducted a general mer- 
chandise store for ten years, after which he sold out to the Lovelocks Com- 
mercial Company. ,\11 his time is now taken up witli the care of his exten- 
sive irrigation and other property interests. 

In September, 1883, Mr. Young was married to Miss M. E. Wilson, a 
native of the state of New York. Four children have been born to them, 
all in Humboldt county, namely: Clarence. Leland, Blanche and Mary. 
Mr. Young is a Repul)hcau in politics, but has never had time to consider 
politics in any other way than to cast liis vote for the man and principles 
that seem to him to represent tlie best interests of town, county and state. 

HENRY KIND, one of the most public-spirited as well as successful 
of the pioneer merchants and business men of Eureka, has had an enviable 
career in business since coming to this country forty years ago. at which 
time his equipiuent for a career in the new world did not even extend to a 
knowledge of the language, but he did Iia\e the quick business acumen of 
his race and the unflagging energy and perseverance which bring succes.s 
anywhere. He has a fine business in Eureka, and the town and county have 
greatly benefited by his generous efforts toward improvement and de- 

Mr. Kind was born in Bohemia in 1847. a son of Adolph and Mary 
(Lank) Kind, also natives of that country, where the former died when 


Henry was a boy. He was educated there, and in 1862 set out for the new 
world, landing in New York. The following year his mother and her three 
sons and three daughters followed iiim. He went to San Francisco, and 
thence to Auburn, Placer county, California, where he was a clerk in a store 
for a year, after which he was taken in the l)usiness as partner, and continued 
in the general merchandise trade there with good success for nine years. 
He came to Eureka, Nevada, in i8j2. and established a store in the lower 
end of the town, where he carried on business for twelve years. He then 
bought the stock of W. H. Clark, and has done busines at this stand ever 
since. His store is a substantial stone building twenty-five by one hundred 
feet, with two stories and a basement, and he also has a large wareliouse. 
His large stock of general merchandise is the best in the town, and attracts 
a patronage from all directions about Eureka. Mr. Kind has given close 
attention to the development of this enterprise, and he merits the large trade 
which he now enjoys. He owns two otlier store buildings in the town, 
wdiich he rents, and he is a partner in the firm of E. Marks and Company at 
Tonopah. Besides this he has \aluable mining interests, and his business 
relations extend well over the county and state. 

While a life-long Republican in principle, Mr. Kind gives his vote and 
influence to the silver cause. He has served his towi as school trustee for 
ten years, and his county as commissioner, and has gi\'en a helping hand to 
every enterprise intended to foster the advancement and well-lieing of town 
or county. He is a blue lodge and Royal Arch Mason, and has served as 
treasurer of his lodge for six years. He is a member of the Ancient Order 
of United Workmen, in which he has passed all the chairs, and belongs to 
the B. B. Lodge at Reno. 

In 1874 Mr. Kind was unitetl in marriage to iNliss Eliza Loljner, a 
native of New York city and a daughter of Leopold Lobner, of that city. 
Seven children have been born of this union in Eureka, as follows : Eddie, 
who was educated in San Francisco and is now in New York: Frederick, a 
graduate of the Eureka high sclu)ol, is with his father; Rose is at school in 
San Francisco; Leon is also a student in San Francisco; Clarence is in his 
father's business in Tonopah; May Ethel is a successful teacher: and llarold 
is at school. They are adherents of the Hebrew faith. In November, 1903, 
Mr. Kind with his family nuived to Tonoi)ah, Nevada, intending tn locate 
there. I lis business interests in luueka continue as before. 

DANIEL W. O'CONNOR. Men who have been the founders of the 
state of Nevada and who have Ijorne their full share in pioneer development 
and later advancement are deserving of the gratitude of all the citizens ot 
this commonwealth. Mr. O'Connor is numbered among the early settlers and 
has been a resident of Nevada since 1862. lie is the builder and owner of 
the O'Connor block at Reno, and in this \\;iy has contributed lo the imjirove- 
ment of the city. 

A native son of Canada, his birth occurred in ( tntario on the lOlh of 
November, 1837, and he is of Irish lineage. He was educated in his native 
province, and in 1860 came to the United States, then a young man of about 


tvventy-three years. He made his way tn California liy tlic istlmius route 
and later engaged in mining in Crass Valley, settling in Nevada county. 
He was not very fortunate, howexer, in liis mining experiences there, harely 
making a living, and in 1862 he made his way to Virginia C'ity because of 
the discovery of gold there, li; that jilace he worked with a pick and sho\-el 
in the mines for two years and on the expiration of t'.iat ])ei'iod he removed 
to Clendale, where he purchased a ranch of four hundred acres. This he 
de\eloped from sage brush and annually raised a large crop which brought 
as high as one hundred and sixty dollars jier acre. Clearing his farm he 
placed it under a high state of cultivation, erected thereon good buildings 
and eventualy sold the property at an excellent price. In i88g he came to 
Reno, to reside. Going to Texas, he bought cattle, but the drought that 
year was severe and he lost money on the venture, .\gain he came to Reno, 
and in 1898 he built the O'Connor block, a two-story brick structure, se\-enty 
l)y sixty-fi\'e feet, with a very neat and artistic front. This is rented for 
store and otfice purposes and is a credit to the city. Mr. O'Connor was 
among the first to show his faith in Reno by the building of valuable prop- 
erty, and since that time many fine structures have l-een erected here. He 
also owns a good residence in that city. 

His political support was given to the Repulilican ]iarty until it an- 
nounced its platform in favor of the gold standard. He has since been 
identified with the silver movement in this state, belie\ing in the free coinage 
of the white metal. He is a member of the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows. He believes in following the Golden Rule, and has exemiilified 
that high principle in all of his dealings with his fellow-men. He is justly 
regarded as one of the reliable residents of Reno. 

HON. LEMUEL ALLEN, lieutenant governor of Nevada, has been a 
resident of the state since 1862 and has been prominently identified with the 
legislation of the commonwealth for manv years. For nine terms he was a 
memljer of the state assembly, and during three of the last terms he was 
speaker and proved himself so thoroughly just in his rulings as to give 
fullest satisfaction to both parties. In 1902 he was the candidate of his 
party for lieutenant governor, and after a \ery able canvass was elected by 
a majority of 1,558. 

Go\'ernor Allen is a native of Ohio, haxing been born in Harrison 
county, April 12, 1839. He comes of English and Scotch ancestry, bis 
people being among the earlv settlers of Connecticut and later of New York. 
His grandfather, Joseph Allen, settled in the latter state at an earh- date. 
His father, Cranston Allen, was born in Osv.-ego, Nev.^ York, July 14, 1816. 
He married Elizabeth Hootman, a native of Ohio, and they had si.x chil- 
dren. The father now resides in Nevada, aged eighty-seven years. His 
wife died in 1893, aged seventy-se\-en vears. 

Governor Allen was educated and reared to manhood's estate in Iowa, 
attending" the private log schools. When old enough he began farming and 
stock-raising. After his arrival in Nevada he read law and was admitted 
to the bar, and in addition to his farming interests he was for many years 


prosecuting attorney of his county, and he then entered upon his legislative 
career. Until the formation of the gold standard he liatl been a Democrat, 
but, believing as he did upon the question of sih-er. he felt that there was no 
other course open to him but the promotion of the interests of the silver 
party, and was returned to the office of lieutenant governor by a large ma- 
jority in what had Ijeen conceded a Republican state. 

On March 13. 1859. he was married to Sarah Ann Peugh. a native of 
Ohio and a daughter of J. Peugli. i^f that state. Nine children ha\e been 
born to Mr. and Mrs. .Mien, namely: Hugh Judson. a blacksmith and liv- 
eryman in AV adsworth, Nevada ; Eva May. who manied E. H. Proctor and 
resides in \Vadsworth ; Charles Loren, a farmer residing near his father: 
Mary Daisy, at home, is her father's bot)kkeeper; Lemuel L.. at home on 
the farm: Sarah Elizabeth, who married R. T. Fortune and resides at Soda 
Lake: and three who died in infancy. Governor and Mrs. Allen ha\e seven 
grandchildren and are verv proud of their children, and most deservedly so. 
Governor Allen has Ijeen a highly honored member of the Masonic fraternity 
for sixteen years, and is also a member of the Knights of Pythias and the 

HON. S. J. BONNI FIELD. Jr.. judge of the fifth judicial district of 
the state of Nevada, has risen to a high place in the ranks of the legal pro- 
fession, and his prestige at the li;ir of Humboldt county stands in evidence of 
his ability and likewise serves as a voucher for intrinsic worth of character. 
He has been a resident of the "Silver" state during the past forty \'ears. 
hax'ing arri\-ed in the territory in 1863. 

Judge Bonnifield is a native of the commonwealth of Iowa, his birth 
having occurred in Jefferson county on the 12th of December. 1847. He 
is of I'Vench descent, his ancestors having been early settlers in the colony 
of Virginia, particpants in the war for independence and |)r(jminent in the 
early history of the country. His father. S. J. P)Ouni!ield. was born in Ran- 
dolph county. \'irginia. In 1853 he made the journey to Californi.a. where 
he was engaged in stock-raising in ^'rcka and Shasta counties, and he now 
resides in Oakland, that state, having reached the age of eighty-seven years. 
In 1841 he was united in marriage to Miss Nancy Ross, who was born in 
Rush county, Indiana, in 1SJ5. Tlicii' marriage was cclcbialcd in bi\\;i, 
and in 1857 the wife and mother was summoned into eternal rest. ])assiug 
away at the age of thirty-two \ears. They became the ])arents of six chil- 
dren, three sons and three daughters, namely: W. -S.. an attorncv in W'inne- 
mucca; S. J.: Mary, the widow of J. \V. McWilliams and a resident of 
Ilerkeley. California: Margaret and Nancy, who ha\e passed ;iwa\-: ;nid 
W. I'"., a resi<lent of Lovelocks, this state. 

.S. J. Bonnifield received his elementary educatii^u in the public schools 
of .Shasta and Si.skiyou counties, California, while his law studies were 
pursued in .Allegheny College, of Meadvillc. Pennsylvania. With his ]);n"- 
ents he crossed the plains to California in if^53. and ten years later, in 186^, 
took up his al)ode in Unionville. ilumboldt county, Nevada, engaging in 
teaming and freighting from l-Icd P.luff and M;u"ys\-illc. Crdifornia. to the 

A mSI'URV Ol' NEVADA. 319 

different mining camps in Nevada, inclndiiig- Virginia City. He also worlced 
in llie mines in the latter city and in the different mining camps of Lander 
and linmholdt connties and at (iold jlill, .Storey connt)'. He recci\-ed fonr 
dollars a day in compensation for his mining labors, and while working in 
the .Vrizona mine near Cnionville he was elected to the oftlces of county 
recorder and auditor, in wliich he served during the years of 187 1-2-3-4. 
He was also employed in other c<amty offices, at the s;nne time read law and 
was admitted to the bar in 1879, after which he entered u|)on the acti\e 
])ractice of his profession. Mr. Bonnifield was soon elected by his fellow- 
townsmen to the position of district attorney, and on the exj)iration of his 
fonr years" term of service returned to the duties of his private jiracticc. in 
which he continued until elected to the iiigh office he is now filling, that 
of district judge, this lieing his second term in that capacity. In matters 
political the Jndge has been a life-long Democrat, but took an active ])art in 
the organization of the silver party. Public-spirited and progressive, he 
gives his political .support to all enterprises which he believes calculated to 
advance the public welfare, and is justl)' numbered among the ^•alncd citi- 
zens of his adopted county. 

On the 13th of Februar\-. 1879. Jndge Bonnifield wris united in mar- 
riage to Miss Annie Peterson, a nati\'e of Denmark, l)ut she was reared to 
mature years in the states of Utah and Nevada. This union has been blessed 
with two children, Mary and Blanch, both native daughters of the "Silver" 
state. Tlie wife and mother was called from this life on the 4th of .\|)ril, 
iSc)7, and the daughters are now serving as their father's housekeepers. The 
Judge is a member of the Masonic fraternity, having recei\-ed the master's 
degree at Union ville in 1872. He has closely studied the tenets of this 
noble order, and its principles have actuated his daily life. 

ROBERT JAMES Rb'll), wIkj has been carrying on a fine business as 
blacksmith and carriage-maker in Eureka for over thirty years, came to 
Nevada in 1869. and has been one of the mo.'^t industrious and capable citi- 
zens since that time. He derives Ins intelligent industrv and S(di(lity. of 
character and business ability from good Scotch ancestrv. and is a rejire- 
sentati\-e of the class of men who have done most for the industrial, intel- 
lectual and moral life of his state. In other words he has been the op|)osite 
of the parasite on the body politic, and has been able to do more than ])nll 
his own weight in life, with the result that he has been helpful and useful in 
all departments of life and to all with whom he has ciime in contact in busi- 
ness or domestic relations. 

Mr. Reid was born in Calais, Maine. May 14. 1848, and is a son of 
James Reid, who was born in Scotland and emigrated to the United States 
when a young man. Mr. Reid was educated and learned his trade in Ne\\' 
Brunswick and in Maine, and was tw^enty-one years old when he came to 
the state of Nevada. He worked for wages of five dollars a day at White 
Pine, and also had a shop of his own for a year. In January, 1871. he 
arrived in Eureka, where he opened his own shop, and in 1879 built his 
present shop. His scale of prices when he first came here was twenty-five 


cents for sharpening picks, two dollars for steeling ])icks. four dollars for 
shoeing a horse. He made money and saved it, and has never had to lose 
a day on account of sickness. For some years he was engaged in the cattle 
business in White Pine county, where he had twer;y-eight hundred acres 
of land and kept as high as a thousand head of cattle. He has since disposed 
of this property to advantage, and his principal interests are now centered 
in liis trade, in which he takes great pride and is known everywhere as a 
.skilled and thorough mechanic. 

Mr. Reid has been a life-long Republican except during the siher mo\'e- 
ment, when he devoted all his influence and votes to the cause of bimetalism. 
He has shown deep interest in educational matters, ?nd for ten vears has 
been a school trustee. He was made a blaster Mason in Eureka Lodge 
No. i6, F. & A. M., in 1872. and has since received the Royal Arch degree 
in St. Johns Chapter No. 5, R. A. M., and was made a Sir Knight Templar 
in Eureka Comniandery No. 2: he has been an active Masonic worker, and 
is a past high priest of his chapter and holds the office of captain general in 
the commandery. 

In 1873 Mr. Reid married Miss Louisa Barber, a native of his own 
town in Elaine, and the following children have been born to them in Eureka : 
Nellie A. graduated from the high school and then from the New England 
Conservatory of Music at Boston, and is now an accomplished teacher of 
music; the son, M. R.. died in his eighteenth month: and Robert Albert 
Blaine and Stella Louise are the youngest. The family have one of the 
pleasantest homes in Eureka, and they are all bright and popular members 
of the social circles of the town. 

tional Bank of Winnemucca had the distinction of being the onl\- national 
bank in the state of Nevada up to N^ovember, 1903. It was organized on 
October 20, 1886. George S. Ni.xon, now its president, being the chief factor 
in the enterprise. It was started with fifteen stockholders and a paid-up 
capital stock of fifty thousand dollars, which was later increased to eighty- 
two thousand, its present capital, and it now has a sur])lus f)f thirty thousand 
dollars. The I'" National does a general Ijanking business, and has en- 
joyed a splendidly successful record and a reputation for reliability since its 
organization. Its total resources are now $735,500.68. Mr. Nixon was 
cashier for fifteen years before bis election to the ])residcncy : b'rank M. Lee 
is the casiiier and one of the stockholders, and was cho.sen to this position 
in 1900, for fifteen years having been connected with the Washne County 
Bank at Reno; Mr. J. Sebbald is vice president, and R. C. Moore and 11. 1". 
Busch are directors. Mr. Nixon is also president of the large commercial 
company at Lovelocks, and Mr. Lee is vice presideni They are connected 
with the Lovelocks Land and Development Company, and ha\c a large 
tract of rich land at Lovelocks which is being farmed to grain and alfalfa. 

George S. Nixon was born in Newcastle, Placer county, California, 
April 2, i860, his parents, J. H. and May (Estcll) Nixon, having crossed 
the plains to California in 1S51 and located at Dotens Bar, where the former 



was a successful fanner. Mr. Nixon was reared and educated at Newca.stle. 
wliere he remained till his twentieth year. He learned telegraphy, and came 
to the Humholdt House in Humboldt county, Nevada, in the employ of the 
Southern Pacific Railroad, as agent. In 1883 he went to Belleville, on the 
Carson and Colorado road, where he was agent for a year. In 1884 he 
accepted a position in the First National Bank at Reno, which is now the 
Washoe County Bank, and in 1886 came to Winnemucca for the purpose 
of organizing- the bank v\diich has been described above, and with whose suc- 
cessful conduct he has been identified e\er since, its position as one of the 
leading financial institutions of the state being in no small measure due to 
his judgment and executi\-e ability. 

Mr. Nixon as a Republican ser\ed in the Nevada state legislature in 
1891. In 1891-2 he was chairman of the silver party .state central commit- 
tee, but at present holds an independent attitude toward political questions. 
He is state agent of the Southern I'acific Railroad Company in Nevada. 
Mr. Nixon is a member of the Masonic fraternity, the Knights of Pythias 
and the Elks. January 29, 1887, he was married to Miss Kate Imogene 
Bacon, a native of Princeton, Illinois. They have one son, Bertram Estell. 
Mr. and Mrs. Nixon have hosts of friends in Winnemucca and throughout 
the state, and their pleasant residence in \Vinnemucca is one of the society- 
centers of the town. 

HON. W. O'H. MARTIN. The name of Hon. W. O'H. Martin is in- 
delibly inscribed on the history of Nevada because of his acti\-e connection 
with its early progress and development; all who examine into the annals 
of the state will recognize the fact that his labors have been most effectixe 
and helpful in the expansion of the trade interests of the commonwealth, 
in which lies the basis of all prosperity. 

Mr. Martin was born in Platteville, Wisconsin, September 9, 1845. 'i"'' 
was of Scotch-Irish lineage. His paternal grandfather, Morris Martin, emi- 
grated to the new world in 1822, settling in New York city, where his son. 
Morris Washington Martin, was born. The latter married Miss Margaret 
O'Hara, a native of Canandaigua, New York, and a daughter of Captain 
William O'Hara, who was a graduate of Duljlin University, and later entered 
the British army, under George III. Captain O'Hara afterwru'd resigned 
his commission and came to New York city in the same year in which the 
Martin family was established there. He sulisequently Ijecame a resident of 
Wisconsin, and died in Platteville. in 1847, '^t the age of si.xty-four. 

Morris W. Martin, the father of W. O'H. Martin, removed to Wis- 
consin at an early epoch in the development of that state, and became a 
prominent and influential citizen, serving for several terms as recorder of 
his county. He afterward returned to New York, and in 185 1 sailed with 
his family for San Francisco, attracted l)y the discovery of gold and the 
business possibilities of the rapidh' developing west. He continued to reside 
in the Golden state until his death, which occurred in Cherokee. Butte county, 
in September, 1865. 

Hon. W. O'H. Martin olitained his earlv education in California, and 


engaged for a time in placer mining. In 1868 lie went to Empire. Ne\a<la, 
and accepted a clerkship in a general merchandise store, but after a few years 
he purchased the interests of the firm and continued in trade there until 
188 1, when he sold out and spent a year as a stock broker in San Francisco. 
In 1883 he located in Reno, Washoe countw Xexada. where he purchased a 
wholesale and retail merchandise store. W ilh characteristic energy and en- 
terprise he Iniilt uj) a splendid business, which he later incorporated as the 
Reno Mercantile Company; through his honorable methods, keen sagacity 
and diligence he established a firm which has continued to ))rosper to the 
present time, and is now one of the leading mercantile concerns of the state. 

In 1895 Mr. Martin was elected president of the Washoe Comity LJank. 
and effected its reorganization; the capital stock was advanced to three 
hundred thousand dollars, and a little later it was ad\anced to fi\-e hundred 
thousand, all of wliich was paid up. During his presidency the increase in 
the business of was almost ])]ienonicnal ; financial conditions improved 
throughout the state during this period, but his guidance of the affairs of 
the Washoe County Bank strengthened its position materially. Its prosjjerity 
was due in no small measure to his per.-^onality and influence. He continued 
at the head of the institution till death, which occurred September 14, 
1901. At the time of his death Mr. Martin was also president of the River- 
side Mill Company and the Reno Real Estate and In\-estment Com]xuiy. cor- 
porations which owe their success in large measure to the farsighlcd judg- 
ment and unselfish spirit of their president. , 

In his political affiliation Mr. Martin was a !\e]iublican. and while 
living in lunpire represented Ornisby county in the state senate. His devotion 
to tiie public good stood as an unf|uestioned fact in his career, and though 
his Ijusiness interests made liea\y demands ujion his time he always found 
op])ortunity to co-operate in measures for the general welfare. But he con- 
sistently refused to accept the political preferment which the leaders of his 
party urged upon him. 

Kindness and unquestioned integrity were (Ujminating traits of his char- 
acter. His life was in harmony with the teachings of the Masonic fraternity, 
in which he advanced to the Knight Templar degree. He was a de\-oted hus- 
l)and and father, a relialile man of affairs, a loyal citiv^cn, and me whose true 
no])ility of character awakened for him honor and respect wherever he was 

Mr. .Martin was married in 1873. and bis widow and se\en cliihh'en 
occu])}- one of the beautiful homes of Reno. 

MERRTTT. FEETCFTER, of the firm of Metcher Brothers, liverymen, 
of J'Aireka,_ has the honor (jf being one of the coni])arti\ely few grown men 
who are native sons of this town, where he was born July 3. 187O, and is the son of a man who held a ccinspicuous ])lace ;niiong the ])ioneers of 
the state and was eminent in tlie commercial and public life of town, countx' 
and state. 

Mr. {'"lelclier is a member of a family which played as honorable 
and useful a part in the world's affairs as lias any oibc in history. Its 


antiquity dates Ijack to the Middle As;es. and tlic name, wliicli must liave 
originated in I<"rance many centuries ago, under the form oi" "de la I'lecliicr," 
signified an arrow-maker or one who feathers arrows. The family is known 
to ha\e had its seat in England as far back as the Ihirteenth century, and 
contained members of the nobility and was honored with a coat of arms. 
The history of the .\merican branch of the faiuib- begins with Robert 
b'letcher, who was born in iMigland in 1 5g2 .and emigrated to the cohjny of 
Massachusetts in 1630. making settlement in Concord. His posterity now 
numbers over ten thousand, and many of them lia\e held liigh ]jositions of 
honor and trust, ha\'e been noted for their lulelity to dut\' ;ind their patriot- 
ism, and the early history of Massachusetts and of i;lhcr colonies contains 
many of their names as high in official positions. The .\merican descend- 
ants of Robert Fletcher have published an interesting rmd valuable genealogi- 
cal record of the family. 

One branch of the Fletchers existed in Switzerlantl for some gener;i- 
tions, where they were as noted as the Swiss themseK'es for ])iet\' and ])a- 
triotism. The great Methodist di\ine John b'letcher was a native of that 
little republic, and his name was Jean de !a bdechier, which in England 
became simple John Fletcher. In the records of the family in America it is 
learned that two bdetcher brothers lost their li\'es in the colonists" wars with 
the Indians; a large number of Fletchers were enrolleii in the colonial militia 
and fought at Concord and Le.xington and at Bunker Hill : Paul Fletcher 
died at Valley Forge, and Henry was killed at White Plains; two hundred 
and fifty-eight of the name fought for the Union cause in the Civil war. 
Three Fletchers were governors of states, ten were members of Congress, 
and the name is also represented in high positions on the bench. Of the 
daughters, Annie Fletcher became the wife of Daniel Emerson, and Grace 
Fletcher the wife of Daniel Webster. 

Samuel Fletcher, the great-grandfather of Merrill Fletcher, was born 
in Chesterford, Vermont, about the year 1750, and was a soldier in the 
Revolution, so that by this record his descendants can ha\e membership in 
the patriotic order of Sons and Daughters of the American Rex'olution. 
Arad Fletcher, the grandfather uf Mer-rill Fletcher, was born in Waterford, 
Vermont, September 27. 17^9. and Ins son, (iran\ille .\. I'detcher, the 
Nevada ]jioneer mentioned aljove, was born in liarnston, Pro\ince of Quebec, 
April 18, 1840. He crune to California by way of the Isthmus of Panama 
in 1859, and in the following year arrived in what afterward became the 
state of Xe\-ada. He was engaged in various mining and milling enter- 
prises, and built the Norton mill in Mountain City. Pie was in business in 
Elko for some time, and from there came to Eureka in 1870, where he at 
first had a hay and grain, business below the depot, in 1889 he bought the 
property on which his sons have built the livery barn, and he himself was 
engaged in the li\-ery business from 1880 till the time of his death, which 
occurred on the 24th of October, 1899. He was a Republican in politics, 
but supported the cause of silver. Plis county elected him county commis- 
sioner, and in i8(;o sent him to the state legislature. In every position of 
life to which he was called he acquitted himself honoral>ly and creditably. 


and the rec^u'd wliicli lie left l.ehiiul is one of capable serxice to liis family 
and town, county and state. 

In 1874 Granville Fletcher was married to Aliss Permelia McCowen, a 
native of the state of Ohio. His wife and two sons survixe him, and make 
their home in one of the nice residences of Etn"eka. Gran\ille .\., jr.. and 
Merrill built their present livery barn in 1900, and liave been successfully 
carrying on the business which their honored father established. Theirs 
is the leading establishment of the kind in town, and they have a large 
patronage and are esteemed in business and in social circles. Merrill is 
Master Workman of the Ancient Order of I'nited WVirkmen, and is also a 
member of the Knights of Pythias. 

\\". J. HOOPER, the assessor (jf Eureka county and of the best 
known and most capable mining men in this part of the country, has been 
a resident of Nevada since childhood, and in the subsequent twenty-seven 
years has made himself a prosperous place as a man of affairs. There are 
few men who understand mining conditions and the luineral resources of 
the state better than he. and he is likewise popular and esteemed in political 
circles and has received one of the important county offices at the hands of 
the people. 

]Mr. Hooper was born in England, April 2. 1864, a son of T. J. and 
Ellen (May) Hooper, who were both born in England and a year after the 
birth f)f their son emigrated to the United States. The former died in 
Ruby Hill. Nevada, in 1884, at the age of forty years, but his wife is still 
residing at Ruby Hill. Air. Hooper was but a baby when he was lirought to 
the new world, and his early training was received in A'irginia City and 
Gold Hill, Nevada. He began working in the mines when a b< _v. and was 
employed in the Eurelca Consolidated, the Richmond and in all of the large 
mines of the district at that early day. Mining enterprises have been the 
])rincipal object of his endeavors all his life, and he knows the business from 
the ground up, both technically and practically. He is now superintendent 
of the Jackson mine on Ruby Hill, which has produced over a million dol- 
lars' worth of gold, silver and lead, and is also su])erintendent of the Ham- 
burg mine four miles south of Eureka. Mr. Hooper is satisfied that all 
this part of Eureka county lies in a wonderfully rich mineral belt, and it is 
only a question of ])roper management and capital to produce nnich larger 
amounts of bullion than have yet been brought to light. He has the reputa- 
tion in this ]iart of the country of a practical miner, and bis judgment is 
correspondingly respected and much sought. 

Mr. Plooper was an ardent Republican u\) to the time that parly was 
s|)lit on the silver issue, and h.e then became aclixe in the silver movement 
and was a prominent factor in. the organization of the silver party and is still 
loyal to its principles. In 1900 lie was elected assessor of Eureka county, 
having served as deputy assessor for several years previously, and he has 
given eminent satisfaction in this office. He is a member of the lndei)endent 
Order of Odd I'cllows and of the Rebekahs, and is a member of the grand 
lody'e of the state; he also aflihates with the .Ancient Order of United Work- 


men. Mr. Hixiiier was married on Feliruary 21, i88q, to I'lstella [•'.. 
Manuel, and tln'ee children \vdve come to brighten their li(j;ne in luirek.; 
countv : Richard W., Elsie Mav and ludson V. 

HON. WALTER J. TONKIN, a leading- merchant and business man 
of Eureka, first came to Nevada in 1875, and has been engaged in various 
lines of commercial and industrial activity ever since. Merchandising has 
been the occupation in which he has made bis jjrincipal success, but he has 
also mined and been interested in stock-raising. Besides his respected posi- 
tion in business circles, he stands as high in Masonic honors as any other 
man in the state, and is foremost in the beneficent work of this ancient order. 

Mr. Tonkin w^as born in Cornwall, England, January 29, 1854, and 
was educated in that country. He was twenty-one years old when he came 
to the United States, in 1875, and his first destination was Virginia City, 
Nevada, which was at that time in the height of its prosperous development. 
He liad learned merchandising in bis native country, Ijut on his arrival here 
he got a ])lace in the mines at four dollars a day. He was already some- 
what familiar with mining operations, for be had come from the mining 
center of England, and be was on sure ground when be came to the mining 
regions of the west. From Virginia City he went to Bodie, California, and 
was appointed night foreman of the Noonday mine, having full charge of 
it during the night. Mr. Tonkin came to Eureka on September 18, 1880, 
and opened a stock of licjuors, which business he carried on successfully for 
ten years. He then sold out and opened a dry goods and clothing store 
on March 4, 1891. He has a large trade in this line of merchandising, and 
has been applying all his energy to building up the business, with gratifyin^tj^ 
results. In 1887 he began stock-raising in Eureka county with his brother. 
John G. Tonkin, as partner. They had a ranch of six liundred and forty 
acres, on which they kept as high as six hundred cattle, but he has since sold 
these interests in order to devote himself unreservedly to his principal work. 

Mr. Tonkin has the honor of having been made a Master Mason in 
One and All Lodge, No. 330, F. & A. M., at Bodmm. England, and he re- 
ceived tiie Royal Arch degrees in Bodmin Chapter, and was made a Sir Knight 
Templar in Eureka Commandery No. 2. He Ikis also recei\'ed all the Scot- 
tish Rite degrees including the thirty-second. He affiliates with all the 
lodges in Eureka, is a member of the Reno Consistory, and his standing as 
a Mason in Nevada is ec|ual to the best. Mr. Tonkin has been a consistent 
adherent of the Repuljlican principles since coming to this country, but gave 
bis vote and influence to the cause of silver. 

On December 16, i88g, he married Miss Reljecca Crombie. Her 
father, John C. Crombie, was born at New Boston. New^ Hampshire, Janu- 
ary 10, 1834, and married Miss Elizabeth Lee. He came to Nevada in 
1864, and has been one of the most enterprising of tiie state's mining men. 
He is still owner of valuable gold and copper mining property, and has 
done much for the development and prosperity of his state. His pir)neer 
wife also survives. Mr. and Mrs. Tonkin have two children, both Ijorn in 
Eureka, Walter Crombie and Celia Ailene. They have one of the nice 


lioines of Eureka, cheerful and Ijrii^ht in all its comforts and surrounding's. 
and he also owns his store liuilding". They are Episcopalians in religious 
faith, and are popular niemhers of the society nf the county scat of Eureka 

LEWIS LEE BRADLEY, one of the well known and highly respected 
business men of the community, is a member of the firm of Bradley & Dunn, 
owners of the Commercial Hotel, the leading hotel in Elko. He is also 
extensi\ely engaged in the stock business in this county, and is numjjered 
among the leading and public-spirited citizens of his adopted county. He 
is a native son of California, his birth occurring in Stockton on the 17th of 
November, 1866. He is a grandson of ex-Governor L. R. Bradley, of 
Nevada, and a son of John R. Bradley, who married Miss Betty Hitt. The 
family were Virginians. 

Lewis Lee Bradley attended the public schools during the period of his 
boyhood and youth, and later became a student in the Pacific Business Col- 
lege in San Erancisco. .Vfter comi)leting his education he embarked in the 
cattle business at Deeth, Nevada, in company with his brother, J. D. Bradley, 
and his brotlier-in-law. J. H. Clemins. This company was organized in 
1900, l)ut all had pre\iously been engaged in the cattle business, and the 
com])anv at one time owned between seven and twenty thousand head of 
cattle. During the hard winter of 1899-1900, however, the firm suffered 
heavy financial losses, losing eighty ]jer cent of the cattle, and Mr. Bradley 
and his father were in very straightened circumstances at one time. But 
they have since lieen eminently successful in the stock business, and ai'c 
now breeiling the Hereford and Durham cattle. In company with Mr. 
Dunn. Mr. Bradley purchased the Commercial Hotel, and they .are now- 
doubling its size. It is built of brick, being one hundred by one hundred 
feet in dimensions, contains sixty-five sleeping rooms. ;l large room, 
oflice and all modern coiueniences, and is considered the leading hotel of 
Elk<i. in his fraternal relations Mr. Bradley is a member of the Ancient 
Order of United Workmen and the Masonic fraternity, having been made a 
Mason in Elko Lodge No. 15. \\ & .\. M., in 1900. Although not a seeker 
after political preferment, he gives a stalwart su])piirt to the Ik-mocralic 
party, and is an active worker in the ranks of his ])arty. 

On the 25th of b'cbruary, 1891, Mr. Bradley was united in mariiage 
to Miss Marv H. .Armstrong, who was liorn in Star valley, b^lko county, 
and is a daughter of Benjamin .\rmstrong, also of this county. They have 
two daughters. Beulah and Alice May. The family reside in a commodious 
brick residence in I'^lko. and they enjoy ;i wide circle of friends and ac- 

HON. S. J. IIODCKTNSON. There is no druggist of jvtcnn who has 
longer iieen a resident of the city than lion. S. j. I lodgkinson. and he 
is likewise numbered among the ])ioneers of .\'c\;i(l;i. h;i\ing settled here in 
lerritori;il days. Widely known .ind respeckd ihronghont the state, his 
record will prove of interest to many of our readers, and it is therefore with 
])lcasure thai we present ihis rcci rd. \ native of Missouri, he w;is lnn'ii 

o/^. J" (fW^^c?l,^jz^ ^ 



in 185J, and is of Kiigiisli ancestry. His parents, S. 11. ami Mary Ann 
(Jackson) H(Klgkinson, were liotli nati\'es of England. 

Crossing the Atlantic to the United States, his father resided in Mis- 
souri for some time. In the fifties he, accompanied hy his wife, three daugh- 
ters and .son crossed the plains to California. He worked on a ranch in Santa 
Clara county, and in iS(k.) came to the tcrritor\- nf Nevada, settling on a 
ranch on the east fcM'k of the Carson ri\-er near C;(rson City. There he 
cultivated and impnwed a farm, and, selling that property, purch;ised a 
home in Carson City and was engaged in teaming there. I"or .some time 
he held the ofifice of con.stahle, and he was captain of the guards at the state 
penitentiary under P. C. Hyman. Both he and his wife were earnest Chris- 
tian people, his memhership heing with the Methodist church, while she he- 
longed to the E])isc()i)al church. In jiolitics he was a Democrat, and as a 
citizen was known for his loyalt\- to all that he helieved would pro\e of gen- 
eral heneht. He died in iSi)i, and his good wife, still sur\i\ing him at the 
age of se\'enty years, is ni w h\iug in San Francisco. 

S. J. Hodgkinson was in his nnUh year when he arri\ed in .Xewada. 
He was educated in a prixate seminai-y in Carson City, and when thirteen 
years of age entered the drug stcre of ( ). 1'. Willis as a clerk, h'or eight 
years he remained with that gentleman, ac(|uiring' a thorough knowledge of 
the business and serving his employer so faithfully that he won his un- 
qualified confidence and regard. He was at first paid twentv dollars per 
month, and his wages were ad\anced fr(]m time to tune as he Vjecame more 
capahle and ac(|uired a more compreheusi\e understaiiding of the business. 
On lea\-ing the ser\-ice of Mr. Willis he accepted a clerkship in tlie store of 
John G. Fox, a dealer in general merch.andise, jewelry and notions. Later 
he s]5ent a year and a half in marking clothes in a laundry, and for two vears 
was inside guard at tiie ])enitentiarv mider (ieneral Eatterman. It was on 
the 22d of September, 1882, that Mi'. Hodgkinson arrived in Reno, where 
he secured a position in the drug store of John Myers. .\ little later he 
borrowed the four thousand dollars with which lie ]nn"chased the liusin.ess 
of his emjjloyer, and from that time until the uresent his patronage has steadib' 
grown. Soon he had discharged all of his indebtedness, and he now owns a 
store building as well as his stock and is enjoying a most e.\tensive patronage. 
I'or more than twenty-one years he has engaged in business in Reno, and 
his reputable business methods, his enterprise and probity ha\e won for him 
the confidence and good will of the entire |)ublic. 

In 1890 Mr. Hodgkinson was joined in wedlock to Miss Eugene E. 
Wall, a native of Rensselaer Falls, New York, and a graduate of St. Law- 
rence L'ni\ersity. Three sons graced this marriage, all born in Reno: 
Lawrence J., Francis and Samuel J. Mrs. Hodgkinson is a \alued memljer 
of the Episcopal church and is an estimable lady, presiding with gracious 
hospitality over their pleasant home. Mr. Hodgkinson is a member of the 
Bene\olent and Protective Order of Elks and of the Kniglits of Pythias 
fraternity, and in the latter is jiast grand chancellor. His ]iolitical allegiance 
is given to the T'Jepublican party, and he has lieen chief of the Reno fire de- 
partment for twelve years. He was elected and served for two terms in the 
Nevada state assembl'v, and he served on the stafY of Governor Bradley with 


the rank of lieutenant colonel. He lia.s also I)een a captain of Company C 
of the National Guards of Nevada. He was the first president of the first 
board of pharmacists of the state. He has been active in public life as a 
representative of commercial and political interests, and the salient features 
of his character have been allegiance to duty, strong purpose and unfaltering 
energ)' in carrying forward any task or trust reposed in him. 

J. W. GUTHRIE, the efficient county assessor of Humboldt county, 
Nevada, was born in Ohio on the 15th of March, 1858. His father, John 
Baker Guthrie, was a native of Pennsylvania, but was married in Ohio, the 
ladv of his choice being Miss Harriet Watt, a native of that commonwealth. 
With his wife and four children, two sons and two daughters, John Baker 
Guthrie crossed the plains to California, being six months on the journey, 
and they were fortunate in escaping disease and from the Indians. On 
their arrival in the Golden state the family located at Texas Springs. Shasta 
county, where Mr. Guthrie engaged in teaming from Sacramento to Union- 
ville, Nevada, and in 1862 the family located at the latter place, the father 
continuing his teaming operations, hauling goods from Sacramento to 
Unionville, wood to the mills and salt from the Humboldt salt marsh to 
Silver Citv, Idaho. He owned the old Humljoldt salt marsh, and oxen were 
used in his hauling. In those early days many thus engaged were killed by 
the Indians, but Mr. Guthrie fortunately escaped. He owned nine ox-teams 
(nine yoke to the team) and each teamster was furnished with a Henri 
rirte, and thus the redskins were afraid to attack the party. Later in life 
he purchased a ranch twelve miles southwest of Winnemucca, the tract con- 
sisting of four hundred acres, and there he planted one of the finest fruit 
orchards in the state. He was called to his final rest in 1890, when he had 
reached the age of sixtv-four years, and his widow, who bra\ely shared with 
her husband in all the trials and hardships of a pioneer life, still resides on 
the old home ranch, being now in her seventy-second year, and her many 
noble characteristics have won for her many friends. Of the four children 
who crossed the plains with this worthy couple in 1859, the second daughter, 
Minerva |ane. is now deceased; Florence 1... the oldest daughter, married 
C. S. Varian, a prominent attorney, and resides in Salt Lake City, Utah ; 
S. R. Guthrie resides in Winnemucca. The following children were born 
to them in their western homes: Sarah Melissa, now Mrs. Charles McDcid, 
and a resident of Winnemucca; Carrie, the wife of G. M. Rose, a printer, 
also of that city; John I'rank, a resident of Plea.sant valley: Hattie A., the 
wife of W. A. Brown, a druggist in Winnemucca; James Albert and Charles, 
deceased ; and Arthur W., who makes his home on the ranch with his mother. 

J. W. Guthrie was but one year old when he was taken by his parents 
across the plains to California, and in Unionville, Nevada, he was reared to 
mature years and received his education in the public schools. Since attain- 
in.g his majority he has devoted his attention to ranching and the stock, and is now interested in a sulphur mine near the HunilK)ldt House. 
in which locality the first sul])hur in the state was found and where large 
quantities are now being produced. In jiolitical matters Mr. Guthrie allied 


his interests with the Repul)Hcan party, I)Ut lias suijported tlic niuxcnicnt in 
favor of silver when he believed it a benefit to the community to do so. In 
1890 he was elected to the responsible office of assessor of the county of 
Humtoldt, to which he has since been re-elected for tliree four-year terms, 
and is now serving in a two-year term. When he first became a candidate 
for the position on the Republican ticket in a strongly Democratic com- 
munity, he received only a small majority, but at each succeeding election 
he has polled a handsome majority. He is thoroughly posted as to prop- 
erty valuation in the county, and is considered by his fellow-citizens as the 
right man for the place. 

In 1879 Mr. Guthrie was united in marriage to Miss May Viola George, 
a native of the state of Iowa, and they have six children : Vera Ethlyn, 
Malvina Grace, Edna Elizabeth, John Ira, Charles William and Florence 
May. The family reside in a pleasant residence in Winnemucca, and are 
among the highly esteemed residents of the city. Mr. Guthrie is a past 
master in the Ancient Order of United Workmen. 

WILLIAM COPPERSMITH. The enterprise and efforts of William 
Coppersmith have contributed materially to the improvement of Reno, for 
he has erected a number of residences here and their attractive style has 
added to the beauty as well as the growth of the city. In various ways he 
has been associated with the development of the great west, and the spirit 
of progress which has so long been dominant here is exempliliefl in his life 

Mr. Coppersmith was born in Baden, Germany, on the 6th of March, 
1843. His father died in that country, and his mother, Mrs. Francisca 
Coppersmith, afterward emigrated to the L-ni-ted States, bringing her two 
children, while two of the family had preceded them to the new world. 
Subsequently the mother returned to Germany and .spent her remaining days 
in her native country, dying at the advanced age of eight-seven years. 

Mr. Coppersmith was a youth of eleven years when he arrived on this 
side of the Atlantic. The family home was established in Ouincy, Illinois, 
where, in the public schools, he continued his education, which had been 
begun in the fatherland. Almost from the time he arrived in America, 
however, he has been dependent upon his own resources for a living, antl 
is deserving of great credit for what he has accomplished in the business 
world. In i860 he crossed the plains with oxen, desiring to take advantage 
of the opportunities offered by the great west, which was just he'mg opened 
up to the civilization and enterprise of the east. He first settled on Blue 
river, and there engaged in placer mining, but in that venture met with 
poor success. In i86.^, attracted by the mining excitement in ^Montana, 
he made his way to Grasshopper Gulch, where he carried on minijig, ha\'ing 
a rich claim and being one of the first to meet success in his undertakings 
there. His brother Louie was killed there bv the caving in of a mine. 
After making a stake at Grasshopper Gulch, Mr. Coppersmith went to San 
Francisco, where he engagefl in dealing in sheep. He also made a trip 
to Los Angeles, where he purchased two hundred and fifty head of horses, 


wlii li he drove to Reno. After selling a part of tliem here, he (h'ove the 
remainder to ^\'innemucca, wliere he completed his sale. On the expiration 
of that period he returned to Inyo county, California, where he purchased 
cattle which he took to Lassen county, California, and there he secured a 
ranch of eight hundred and fourteen acres, on which he built a residence and 
made good improvements, later selling the propertv at a good ad\;mce, so 
that he realized a very desirable financial return on the investment. 

Mr. Coppersmith then came to Reno. This was in the year iHqy. and, 
ha\'ing faith in the development and progress of the city, he invested in 
lots and liegan building residences for renting. In this enteriirise he has 
since continued, and has now erected a number of fine residences which add 
to the material growth and improvement of the city and make his labors of 
much value to Reno as well as a source of good income to himself. Although 
he is not a carpenter and therefore takes no part in the construction of the 
houses, he superintends the building and has both practical and excellent 
ideas concerning the building of attractive and commodious homes, Mr. 
Coppersmith is likewise a stockholder and one of the directors of the 
Co-o])erative (jeneral Mercantile Store of Reno. His present enviable ]iosi- 
tion in financial and business circles is in marked contrast to his condition 
when as a lx3y he started out to make his own way iii the world. 

In 1869 Mr. Coppersmith \\:is united in marriage to Miss Paulin.n Peck, 
a native of Germany, and they nnw haxe two children: \\'illie, the present 
manager of the Co-operative store; an.d I'^annie, the wife of C. A. Scott, a 
resident of Long V'alley, California. In his political afliliations Mr. Copper- 
smith is a Kepuljlican and served as postmaster under the administration 
of President McKinley, before leaving California. He is a business man of 
the highest integritx' and aliility, and Reno has profited by bis labors here, 
for he belongs to that class. of enterprising, progressive citizens who while 
]irnmftting their individual success also enhance the general welfare. 

(jL(JR(jb^ W . M.M'LS. Ilistory is no longer a record of wars and con- 
quests nor the account of the subjugation of one nation by another, but is 
formed of business annals and is a representative of what has been ac- 
complished in commercial, agricultural and mining circles. The men who are 
therefore prominent in town, county or state are they who are managing the 
important business affairs which largel}- affect the interests of state. In 
such connection George W. Mapes is well known, being the president of the 
Washoe County Bank. He came to Nevada in 1863, and through his own un- 
aided efforts in the stock business has risen to a position ]>rominent among the 
weaJtliy men of the state. 

.\ native of New York, Mr. Majies was born in 1 lartland, Niagara 
county, on the 21st of March, 1833. His parents were likewise natives of 
the Empire state, but in 1847 his father. Ira Majjcs, removed with his 
family to Michigan, settling on a farm in Eaton county, near the town of 
Bellevue. There he cultivated and im])ro\ed ,1 good tract of land, making a 
va]ual)lc farm pro|)erty. Industrious and honorable in all his business deal- 
ings, he met with good success and acquired a comfortable com])ctence for 




old age. He departed this life in tlie seventy-fourth year of his age, while 
his wife attained the age of seventy-three years. They were the parents of 
six sons and one daughter. 

George W. Mapes, who is the only representative of the family in 
Nevada, was a youth of fourteen years at the time of the removal of his 
parents to Michigan. The family home was in a district which was tlien 
largely wild and uniniprox-ed, and pioneer conditions existed to a consider- 
ahle extent. He worked upon the home farm during the summer months 
and attended school through the winter seasons, completing his education 
in the Congregational College in Olivet, Michigan. The great west, with 
its broad opjxjrtunities, then attracted him, and in 1854 he proceeded by 
steamer to California. He was engaged in placer mining in Sierra and 
Nevada counties for four years. Init met with only moderate success in that 
work. In 1858 he engaged in the stock business in Sonoma county, Cali- 
fornia, and since that time has been acti\ely connected with that depart- 
ment of business activity. He prefers high-grade Durham cattle, and is 
now engaged in raising stock of that kind. His success has been such that 
he is now proprietor of large stock ranches in California, in Oregon and 
Nevada, having many thousand acres of land. He remo\'ed to Plumas 
county, California, in 1863, and resided in the Sierra valley for seventeen 
years, during which time he did business in Virginia City and later in Reno, 
furnishing the towns with beef cattle. During the forty-four years of his con- 
nection with stock-raising interests he has placed upon the marked many 
thousands of cattle, bis sales reaching a large annual figure, and to-day he 
is justly niunbered among the leading representatives of the business on the 
Pacific coast. He has a thorough knowledge of the needs of stock, and in 
all bis work is particularly cajxible and progressive. 

In 1866 occurred the marriage of Mr. Mapes and Miss Josephine Whit- 
craft, a daughter of John W'hitcraft and Alluna (Shaw) Whitcraft, who 
crossed the plains in 1852. Mrs. Mapes' father was a native of New 
York, and in early days was a school teacher and afterward an attorney. Mr. 
and Mrs. Mapes have three children : George L., who is connected with his 
father in stock-raising interests; Charles ^V., who is recei\'ing teller in the 
bank ; and Echo, who is now a student in San Francisco. 

In 1880 Mr. Mapes remox'cd with his family to Reno and now has one 
of the most attractive and beautiful homes of the city. He has invested a 
large amount of money in realty here, and owing to the rapid growth of the 
city this has greatly advanced in value. He owns the large block in which 
the Reno Mercantile Company is now doing business, the block in which 
the Levy store is located and also the block in which the Frank clothing house 
is located. He is likewise proprietor of the telephone liuilding, and is associ- 
ated with the conduct of \arious business enterprises of Reno, all of which are 
being capably conducted, his advice and wise counsel being important factors 
in their successful management. Mr. Mapes is a member of the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows, with which he is identified in all its branches. 
He was a Democrat in early life, but is now a believer in the principles 
of the Republican party, and he kee]is well informed on the questions and 
issues of the day, although he has never been a seeker for public ofifice. 


lie is a large stnckliolder in tlie \\'ashoe County Bank, is now serving as its 
president and takes an active and deep interest in promoting its success. 
He has been connected with the bank since it organized with fifty thousand 
dollars capital, and has been one of its principal stockholders to the present 
time. He possesses untiring energy, is quick of perception, forms his plans 
readily and is determined in their execution, and his close application to busi- 
ness and his e.xcellent management have brought to him the high degree of 
prosperitv which is to-day his. His course demonstrates the truth of the say- 
ing that success is not the result of genius but the outcome of clear judgment 
and experience. 

D. E. LEWIS, a successful and long establi:-heil busmess man of 
Eureka, is one of the old settlers of Nevada, and made his acquaintance with 
it as a territory in 1854, when he passed through with an emigrant train to 
California. He has been engaged in various enterprises since coming to 
the west, and has met with more than his share of unavoidable reverses, but 
his energy and true w'estern spirit of never-give-up have each time placed 
him on his feet again and made him more prosperous than before. During 
thirty years of residence in Eureka he has gained the resjjcct and esteem of 
all with whom he has come in contact in business or personal relations, and 
be and his sons are classed with the solid and progressive citizenry of the 
town and county. 

Mr. Lewis was born in Wales, z\pril 28, 1837, and is a son of Edward 
and Mary (Thomas) Lewis, also natives of that country, and who emigrated 
to America in 1846, bringing with them their nine children. They settled 
in the state of Missouri, where they remained a few yeru's. and in 1854 made 
the journey across the plains to California, six of their children accompany- 
ing them. They drove oxen, and were four and a half months on the way. 
They brought their live-stock with them, and when ihey arrived in Sacra- 
mento county they engaged in farming, b'dward Lewis died in California 
in 1883 at the ripe age of eighty-si.x years, and bis pioneer wife bad passed 
away in 1863. But two of their children are nnw li\uig. 

Mr. Lewis was but a child when he was brought to this country, and 
was still a toy when the journey was made across the ])lains. The greater 
]>art of his eclucation was received in California, and before he started out 
independently he helped his father with the farm work. He bad a farm 
of his own in Sacramento county, but after the flood came in i860 and 
drowned all his stock, he gave up tb.'it business and for a number of years 
was successfully engaged in teaming, 'i'hcre was all the work in this line 
that one could attend to in those daj's, and it paid \\>.ll. although it was an 
outdoor life ruid exposed to hardships anrl many dangers. While thus en- 
gaged he freighted to \'^irginia City and Silver City, Nevada, and, having 
thus made the acquaintance of the country, he came to the state in 1868 
and made it his permanent headquarters while he continued teaming. He 
hauled ore from the Yellow jacket mine, and followed this occupation for 
two years. He came to l^ureka in 1870, and for the following three years 
was foreman of the furnaces. He began bis livery business in 1889, and 


has continued in this with <>'()oil success to tlie present time. In addition, 
he now deals in hay and grain, and liis wide acquaintance in Itie state and 
his straightforward methods of doing business liave brouglit him a good 
]iatronage. During his residence in California and Nevada he lias had the 
almost unparalleled record of having heen burned out fourteen times, each 
time without insurance, and he was nearly financially ruined every time. 
In 1874 the opposite demon uf water visited him, and carried away his resi- 
dence, so that there seems to lia\e heen some malice in fate's constant attend- 
ance upon him. He has ne\er surrendered, however, and each time his 
sterling manhood has only come out the stronger. 

In i860 Mr. Lewis was married to Miss Mary Mathews, and of this 
union four children were horn, of wliom two are living, Frank and h'red, 
the former driving stage and the latter with his father. Mrs. Lewis died 
in 1894, after a happy married life of nearly thirty-five years. She was a 
faithful wife and a good mother to her children, and her loss has been felt 
in the community as well as in her family. Mr. Lewis has a good residence 
in Eureka, and is well known throughout the county where he has been 
active for so many years. 

SAMUEL CRESCENZO, the well known retired capitalist of Austin, 
Nevada, is one of the oldest living pioneers of the state, having first come 
here in 1864. He has been in business in Austin almost continuously for 
forty years, which marks him as one of the conspicuous men of Lander 
county. He has had a life of varied experiences, and has been leading an 
independent existence since he was twelve years old. He was a young 
man when he came to the Pacific coast, lint had saved his earnings, and 
from the time he started his first mercantile enterprise he has prospered and 
enjoyed increasing success till the present. He gave up active business life 
a few years ago, and is now living in pleasant retirement, enjoying the 
esteem and confidence of those with whom he has been associated through 
so long a period of years. 

Mr. Crescenzo was born in Italy on April 8, 1833, and was educated 
in his native land. He went to sea, working his way through the grades 
of seamanshiii. and was in New York city as early as 1845. ^'^^^' twelve 
years he sailed on vessels, and had some sa\'ings when he took up a perma- 
nent residence in the United States in 1854. In 1856 he landed at San Fran- 
cisco, and shortly afterward opened a store at MokeUimne Hill, Calaveras 
county. He also sold general merchandise at Angels Camp, and made money 
at both places. He afterward went to Washington territory, where he sold 
goods for two years. He had been in Nevada in 1863 and in 1864 he located 
permanentl}' at Austin and liought the International H<:)tel. which he con- 
ducted for thirty-seven years, selling it onlv a year or so ago. He also 
built the hall in connection with the hotel, and he was the enterprising man- 
ager of both, making them pay profitable returns. He still has a number of 
other business places in the town. In 1881 he built the large brick store 
which his son. John A. Crescenzo, is conducting. They have a large stock 
of general merchandise, and the large double store is full of first-class goods 


liMUglu for casli and retailed to an ever increasing patronage at reasonable 
prices. His son is a iiative of Austin, and is one of the prominent young 
business men of the town. 

Mr. Crescenzo has lieen a life-long Democrat, but casting his jjallot 
intelligently has lieen his principal jvilitical effort. He was made a Master 
Mason in Austin, and has received all the ^'nrk and Scottish Rite degrees, 
including the thirty-second. Li 1868 he was married in Austin to Miss Ehza- 
heth Oertli, and they had three children. Samuel A., the eldest, died at the 
age of thirty, and the other son has been mentioned; Lucy, the only daughter, 
is the wife of Oscar Clifford, a ])rominent citizen and druggist of Austin. 
Mrs. Crescenzo died Linuary 3, 1892, after they had spent nearly twenty- 
five years of happy life together. Mr. Crescenzo has a pleasant home in 
Austin, and has pro\ed himself a public-spirited and conscientious citizen 
in all the affairs of life. 

J. E. PICKARD, M. D. A prominent physician and surgeon of the 
regular school, practicing his profession at Virginia City, Dr. J. E. Pickard 
enjoys the admiration and respect which the world instinctively pays to the 
man whose success has been worthily achieved and whose prominence is not 
the less the result of superior ability than of an irreproacliable life. 

A native of Ontario, Dr. J. E. Pickard was born in Kent county, on the 
14th of July, 1856, and is descended from an old Pennsylvania family, his 
ancestors ha\'ing resided through several generations in the Keystone state. 
His parents were Elias and Elizabeth (Everett) Pickard, who were farming 
people and settled in Kent county, Ontario, where they reared their family. 
They have always been adherents of the Methodist and Presbyterian faith as 
a family, and the representatives of the name have been people of sterling 
worth of character. Both the parents ha\e passed away, the father having 
died at the age of seventy-one years, while his wife departed this life at the 
age of si.\tv-two years. Of their family of five children, three are now 

The son John Everett Pickard is the only member of the family in 
Nevada. He pursued his education in the Chatliam Collegiate Institute and 
the Ottawa Normal School, and his medical degree of M. D., C. M. was 
obtained in the Victoria University at Coburg, in the year 1885, and his M. D. 
in Torontf) University in the .same year. He then practiced his profession in 
Thamesville for seven years, at the end of which time he determined to 
try his fortune in the west, believing that he might have better oi)iK)rtunities 
in' this great and growing section of the country. Accordingly he came to 
Nevada, settling in Virginia City in January. 1892, and here he .soon secured 
a large and remunerative patronage. 

He is a member of the State Medical Association and the American 
Medical Association, and is the county physician for Storey county. He 
has a large suite of rooms, and has all the latest electrical appliances, including 
an X-ray machine. He uses the latest and most i)erfect surgical instruments, 
and, while he conducts an extensive general i)ractice, he lakes especial in- 
terest in surgery and has met with eminent .success in this branch of the 


prufc'ssimi. lie li;is a ciini|iri'hcnsivt' and accurate know lcili;c nf anatomy, a 
nicety of touch and a i-mil head and steady nerve wliicli have made liis 
surgical work of great beneht to his fellow men. He is a close and earnest 
student of his ]M"ofession. discriminating in his reading, and he readily selects 
the ideas ;md methnds which are ad\anced that will pro\e of most benefit 
to him in his |)racticc. ilc is an enthusiast in his profession and when called 
upon t(i allcxiate lunnan suffering he never takes into consideration the 
financial' standing of his ])atient, but renders his aid as freely to the im- 
|Jccunious as to those who are abundantly alile to amply repay him for his 
work. He has thus made his professional labors a benefit and blessing to 
his fellow men, and while he has acquired a comfortable competence it has 
ne\'er been with him the paramount issue. 

In 1893 Dr. I^ickard was united in marriage to Miss Mary Collier, of 
Sarnia, Ontario, a lady of refinement and culture and a valued member of the 
Presbyterian church. The Doctor is ;i Sir Knight Templar, belongs to the 
Mystic Shrine, and aims to scpiare his life by the tenets of the craft. 

HARRY M. GORHAM, of Virginia City, Nevada, superintendent of 
the Challar F^jtosi and Sooage mines, came to this locality in 1877. He is 
a native of Cleveland, Ohio, where he was born March 4, 1859, and he comes 
of old English ancestry. The founder of the family in America was John 
(lorham, who emigrated to New England in 162 1, and was a sea captain b)' 
occupation. He married Desire, the daughter of John Howland, of New 
England fame. ]\feml:iers of both sides of Mr. Gorham's family were active 
participants in the early history of the country and served in botli King- 
Philip's war and that of the Rexolution. 

Edward Gorham. the father of H. M. Gorham, was born in New 
Haven, Connecticut. July 31, 1832. He married Miss Ctjrnelia Jones, a 
native of Cleveland, Ohio, born June it, 1839, a daugliter of Thomas Jones, 
Sr. who was one of the founders of the city of Cleveland. Edward J. Gor- 
ham had gone to Cleveland when a young man, but later in life went to 
California, and there died May 9, 1903. His wife survives, aged sixty-four 
years. These parents had two children. Harry M. and Mrs. Schu\-ler Cole, 
of Cole Grove, California. 

Mr. Gorham was educated in Clex'cland. where he grew to manhood, 
and then came to Nevada, at first accc]3ting a position with the Crown Point 
Company as timekeeper, but soon was made superintendent of the Kentuck. 
and gradually advanced to higher and more responsible places. Mr. Gorham 
has been connected with several of the leading mines of this locality, and his 
reputation as a mining expert is very high not only in Virginia City but 
throughout the state. 

Until the silver question arose. Mr. Gorham was a Republican, but 
he then felt that the party had fleparted from its true principles, and from 
then on be has been a silver Repul)!ican. He has always been active in politics, 
attending county and state conventions, and supporting those measures he 
believed would work for the best interests of the state and country. 

Oh April 15, 1885, he was married to Jessie Anderson, a native of 


San Francisco, California, and a dangliter of Hon. Tliomas Anderson, now 
deceased, of that city. Three children have been born to ]Mr. and ^Irs. Gor- 
ham but only a son. Harry Winthrop Gorham, remains. Fraternally Mr. 
Gorham is a member of the order of Elks and is a Knight Templar Mason. 
Successful, enterprising, thoroughly posted in his chosen profession, Mr. 
Gorham occupies a verv high position among the leaders in the city, and has 
a host of warm personal friends. 

GEORGE LOX'ELOCK. ])ioneer. the founder of two towns which 
bear his name, honored and respected as the patriarch of the town of Love- 
locks. Humboldt county. Nevada, has had, during his life of eighty years, 
a career of varied experience, passed in different climes, and of successful 
efTf)rt and accomplishment. He is a native of England, born March ii, 
1824. and was reared and educated in that country. He married Miss Mary 
Forest, and shortly after their marriage they took ship to Australia, being 
four and a half months on the voyage, and their first child, Fred Lovelock, 
was born on the passage. In Australia he was employed in the copper mines 
for over two years, after which he and his family embarked for the Sandwich 
Islands. When seven miles from the islands tliey were wrecked on a reef. 
and during the storm their infant daughter died, but was buried on land. 

Leaving his wife and child on these islands of the Pacific. Mr. Lovelock 
set sail for San Francisco, in the schooner Starlin. In the course of the 
voyage he chanced to overhear the plot of some pirates, stowed away on 
1x)ard. to capture the ship, throw the passengers o^•erboard and sail away 
on their freelKJOting enterprise. Mr. Lovelock revealed this information 
to the captain during the night, who took measures to frustrate their plans 
by battening them down under the hatches, whence they were allowed to 
come forth one by one and surrender, being kept under guard all the re§t 
of the way. On arriving at .San Francisco, on April 3. 1850. the pirates 
effected their escape. 

Mr. Lovelock had learned the carpenter trade, and for the first few 
weeks he was en,gaged in building houses in Happy valley. In May he 
went to Sacramento, where, in June, he was joined by his wife and family, 
after which they removed to Brown's valley, and thence to l'"eather rivci\ 
where he built the secf)nd house in what is now the city of Onnillc. and 
his .son Thomas was the first child bom there, in September, 185T. In 1S52 
he moved to Marysville. California, for a more healthful location for his 
family, and thence to Butte creek, cutting out the pine trees to make a road 
thither. He built a little store there, and the place was named Lovelock in 
his honor, so that this little California village still exists as a memorial to his 
efforts there. He remained there until the spring of 1855, when he made 
the wagon road over the mountains to Honey Lake valley, where he was 
engaged in placer mining at Meeker's h'lat. above Rich Bar. and had fine 
luck, taking out from eighty to one hundred dollars a day. He was 
enga.ged in teaming. He removed to Butte. California, in 1859. He 
built a sawmill at Lovelock, but at the beginning of the Civil war the demand 


for lumber ceased and he aliandmied liis California enterprises and struck out 
for Nevada. 

He was Incated at the niuuth (}f Rocky canyi'U. Humboklt C(junty, 
until 1866, when he remo\ed to where the town of Lovelocks has since 
l)een built, and bought the scjuatter's right of two old men. three hundred 
and twenty acres, for $2,250, and got with it the oldest water right on the 
river. When the Southern Pacific Railroad was being built in 1867 he gave 
eighty-five acres for a town site, which the company named Lovelocks, and 
they also promised to give him a blnck in the town; but this agreement was 
not kept, and he had to pa)- fi\e hundred dollars for half of the block. Also, 
in return for g"i\'ing the road the right of way he was to receive a free pass, 
but he had only one free ride; and, as the company now has no title to the 
right of wa}-, he intends to make them pay for it. 

Besides his e.xtensi\-e real estate interests, Mr. Lo\-elock has always 
continued his prospecting and mining, and is a thoroughly posted mineralo- 
gist. He now owns in Churchill county, near the Humboldt county line, 
three claims, a mile and a c[uarter long, which contain a high per cent of 
cobalt, nickel and copper, and this property is now bon<lefI at fiftv thousand 
dollars to parties who are dex'cloping the mines. 

Eight children were born to ^[r. and Mrs. Lox'elock in Xe\-ada, and 
five of them are living. Fred resides in Tonopah, and the daughters and 
their husbands all live in Lovelocks, on lands of which Mr. Lovelock was 
the owner at an early day. In 1882 his first wife died, and Mr. Lovelock 
then married Mrs. E\'ans, who lived with him happilv for three years, when 
she was drowned in the ri\-er near at home, wdiere she had been fishing. 
Mr. Lox'elock has a number of grandchildren and great-grandchildren, and 
has had a happy family life, being beloved antl honored by both relatives 
and his many friends. He has ne\er joined any society, and has made his 
own way in life, his career being its own justification and eulogy. In politics 
be has always voted the Republican ticlcet, and is a member of the Episco- 
pal church. 

.ANDREW H. SMITFI. The German-American element in our citi- 
zenship is an important one. The Teutonic race has been a factor in the 
civilization of the world for many centuries, and the German empire has 
sent its sons into many lands, carrying with them the ci\'ilization and jirogress 
of their own country. They ha\-e assisted materially in the upbuilding of 
various sections of the world, and in the L'nited States ba\-e Ixirne an im- 
portant part in the work of development. Andrew H. Smith, a representati\-e 
of the fatherland in Nevada, was born on the 5th of January, 1854. His 
father-died in Germany, and in 1862 the mother, with her two sons, Tose]3h 
and Andrew H., emigrated to the L^nited States, locating at Burlington, 
Wisconsin. Andrew H. Smith was then a lad of twelve summers. He had 
attended school to some extent in Germany, and he afterward spent one 
winter as a student in the schools of Burlington. In that city the mother 
continued to reside until called to her final rest when in the si.xtieth year 
of her age. 


Mr. Smith is the only member of the family in Xe\acla, and from his 
arri\al in this cotmtrv he has earned his own ii\ing", and assisted in the 
support of his mother while she was yet lixing. In Wisconsin he was em- 
ployed in a brick yard, following that pursuit until his remo\-al to the west 
in 187 1. Coming to Nevada, he was employed in Washoe county for thirty 
dollars per month and his board. A little later he went to \Mrginia City, 
where he began working in the mines with pick and shovel, being thus em- 
ployed until the great fire there. He then removed to San Francisco, where 
he secured a situation in a feed store, but in 1S76 returned to Nex-ada, settling 
in Tuscarora, where he worked in th.e mines for twehe years, acquiring a 
practical knowledge of the business and gaining information that has been 
of much value to him in later years. He was for a time engaged in the 
brewing business, and in 1896 he purchased an interest in the Bull Run mine. 
In igoo. in connection with a partner, he built a ten-stani]) mill and i)ut in a 
cyanide ])rocess. Thev began the operation of the mill on the 1 st of Xovem- 
ber, and continued it until the 1st of January, 11)03, during which time they 
shipped one hundred and forty thousand dollars' worth of bullion. On the 
expiration of that period they sold the mine and jilant for one hundred and 
fifty thousand dollars. Mr. Smith then retired from mining interests and 
established his home in Reno, purchasing a fine residence at the corner of 
h'ourth and Chestnut streets, which he occupies with his familv. 

In 1887 occurred the marriage of IMr. Smith and Miss Katie Cuneux, 
a native of Nevada, born in l'nion\ille and of French ancestry. They now 
hax'e two children: \'clma and I'rank. both of wh..m are students. Mr. 
Smith is a Republican in liis political allegiance, and fraternally is connected 
with the Knights of Pythias and the Masons, haxing been raiseil in Tuscarora 
Lodge No. I, F. & A. M. He is a past master of his lodge, and is deeply 
interested in its development, believing firmly in its princijiles and tenets. 

Mr. Smith certainly deserves to be classed among the self-made men 
whose life records are worthy of the highest commendation and of emula- 
tion. Starting out for himself at the early age of tw-elve years, be has since 
been dependent u])on his own resources. Difficulties and ol)stacles have at 
times beset his ])ath. but these ha\e seemed but to serve as an impetus for 
renewed effort. an<l with laudable ambition to stimulate his energies and 
enterprise he has gradualK- worked his way u]nvard until he is now in the 
possession of a handsome comjjetence that enal)les him to li\e retired. 

HON. ROSWELL K. COLCORD. ex-governor of Nevada and sujier- 
intendent of the United Stales mint at Carson City, has been a resident f)f 
the state since 1863. He is a native of Maine, having been born in Waldo 
county, A])ril 25, 1839, and is descended from a family wiiose members 
iiav'e borne an important i)art in the uijbuilding of the country. His grand- 
father, David Colcf>r(l, was born in New Hampshire and spent his life in 
farming anrl as a local Methodist minister, living to the age of eighty-seven 
years. His son James was born in Maine, when that state formed a iiart 
of Mas.sachusetts, in 1803. and when a young man engaged in a seafaring 
life, but later became a farmer. lie married VAha Cimningham, als(j a 


n;iti\'e of Maine, and hotli were consistent inemlicrs of the Metliodist churcli. 
Slie (lied at the a!;e of fifty-eii;lit years, while he li \ ed to he seventy-three 
years of age. Si.x children were horn to these parents, naniel)' : Sarah Iv, 
Maria N., James W., Roswcll K., ina\illa and Orilla, hnt (lovern'jr Culcurd 
is the only one lix'ing in Ne\'ad;i. 

The education of Hon. K. K. Colcord was received in the town nl 
Seaport, and also learned mechanical engineering in the evening school 
of that place. When but fifteen years of age he was apprenticed to the 
ship-carpenter's trade. In the meantime, in 1851, his father visited 
fornia, and spent two years there, and in 1856, impressed with the ])ossi- 
hilities of that country, he returned, taking liis son Roswell with him, the 
latter heing then sex'enteen years of age. They mined in Tuolumne and 
Calax'eras counties. Aljout 1863, after some years sjjent together mining 
with marked success, the father returned to his eastern home, and the son 
journeyed to Nevada, which was to hecome the scene of his future great- 
ness. Upon locating in this state Governor C"olcord engaged in building 
bridges and mills, and soun became well known as an expert mechanical 
engineer and contractor, and to this day he has been identified with the 
most important triumphs in mechanical construction througlmut the state. 
Perbajis his nK)St marked success along these lines was his work on the old 
mine at Bodie. This mine had been worked for twenty years without any 
definite results, but after Go\'ernor Colcord took charge of it, putting in 
his machinery and developing all its resources, it became one of the best 
paying mines in the locality. He was also the superintendent of the Imperial 
mine at Gold Hill at the time it was one of the largest mines in the state, 
and was general manager of the English Company's property at ,\urora, 
out of which he took one buuflred thousand dollars in bullion in sixty days, 
running the stock up to twenty-two shillings, and of which he continued 
manager for a number of years. He is now -general superintendent of the 
consolidated mines of the Esmeralda Comi)any, which is a fine property 
owned by one of the most reliable companies in the country. During all of 
these years Governor Colcord has been acquiring valuable property of his 
own throughout this state and California, including a beautiful home in 
Carson City, surrounded by extensive grounds, where he and his family 
reside, enjoying all nf llie luxuries of life. 

Since casting bis first vote Governur Colcord has been a stanch Rei)ul.)- 
lican. In fact his symjiathies were with the princijjles promulgated b_\' that 
party when it was organized, but lie was too young to gi\e expression to 
them legally, although on the passage to California, when a \-ote was taken 
among the passengers, he was happy to support General Fremont, the Re- 
publican candidate. Out of the ele\en hundred passengers Fremont recei\ed 
a majority of two himdred and eighty-se\'en votes. Although so ardent 
a supporter of party principles, he ne\er sought office, and it was with diffi- 
culty that his friends induced him to accept nomination for governor. The 
fact that he was elected bv a majority of eight hundred and sixty-three, 
however, proved that the jjenple appro\'ed of the choice, and during his 
aflministration lie fully justified the placed in him liy the ])arty 
and his constituents. While acting as governor he was also e.x-officio regent 


of the State University, and in that capacity succeeded in ha\iug a depart- 
ment of mechanical engineering founded, with full equipment of tools and 
other appliances provided so that a thorough practical knowledge of this 
most useful science could be obtained by the students. 

During the general strike in 1893. President Cleveland sent United 
States soldiers to protect the mail routes across the country, and the Gov- 
ernor recei\ed a telegram from Reno asking if he would call (nit the state 
militia to assist the United States troops if required. He immediately re])lied 
"yes" and that he would take personal command. During that strike there 
were trying times along the lines of the railroads in Nevada, and it was 
the only time Governor Colcord was ever known to completely lose his 
temper while in office. A petition was presented to him containing three 
hundred and eighty-seven signatures, requesting him to demand of the presi- 
dent that he immediately withdrav.- the ]'"ederal troops from the state. He 
replied that anv man whd wiuld circulate or sign such a petiticju was a 
traitor to his country, and that President Cleveland's action in calling out 
the troops to protect life and property, enforce the laws and preser\-e order 
was thought justifiable and the most commendable cf any during his ad- 

By the state legislature he was also made chairman of the state board 
of assessors and equalizers of taxes, and the valuation was raised on all 
])roi>erty to practically double the former assessment. This raised a great 
deal of opposition, but (lovernor Colcord would not recede from the posi- 
tion he had taken, and he never failed to stick firm to his convictions and 
to carry out what he believed was right, no matter what pressure was 
brought to bear upon him. On October 14, 1898, to the satisfaction of the 
entire community, he was appointed superintendent of the United States 
mint at Carson City by President McKinley. which honor.ible position he 
still holds. 

On the 25th of A|)ril. 1868, Governor Colcord was married in Bishop 
\\'hittaker"s church, at Virginia City, Nevada, to Miss Mary F. Hopkins, 
and one daughter, Stella G., has been born of this union. The young lady 
is very accomplished and an imj)ortant factor in the social life of the 
community. Governor Colcord has been a very ])romincnt member of the 
Masonic fraternity since 1865, was master of Silver Star bodge in Gold 
Hill in 1866, joined the chai)tcr the same year and has since passed all the 
degrees in that order. 

The highest praise which can l)c accorded him lies in tlie words: "lie 
always has done his full duty." Whether as the you.ig boy working under 
his fatiier in the mines of California, the enterprising mechanical engineer 
redeeming \alueless projjerty. the keen, practical mining expert successfully 
directing the affairs of ])riccless ])roperty, the fearless, honorable director 
r>f a mighty commonwealth, the skilled and incorruptible government oHici.d, 
or the private citizen. Governor Colcord has conscientiously ,-nid faillii'nIK 
])erformed his work and done what he believed was bis wiiolc duty, and 
none could do more and few as mucli. 


HON. FRANK G. HOENSTINF, treasurer of Humhnl-lr county. 
Nevada, and for some years a soldier of the regular United States army, 
during which he saw much ser\ice in the west against the Indians, was 1)i)rn 
in St. Clairsxille. Delaware county, Pennsylvania, April 2^, 1852. His 
grandfather, Thaddeus Hoenstine, a native of (jerniany, emigrated to Amer- 
ica in 1818, and his parents, Thaddeus, Jr. and Lea (Carn) Hoenstine, were 
both born in Pennsylvania, wliere they spent their entire lives. They were 
members of the German Reformed church, and he was by occupatiini a 
farmer and miller. He died in 1888, in his eightieth }ear, and his wife still 
survives, being now (1903) eighty-five years old. 'Iliey were the parents 
of eight sons and four daughters, two sons and two daughters still living. 

Frank G. Hoenstine. who is the only one of this family in the state 
of Nexada, was educated in the public schools of Pennsylvania, and worked 
on his father's farm until he was eighteen years of age. He then went 
to Canada and was engaged in Ivunbering for the next nine years. In 1879 
he enlisted in Company E. Sixth L'nited States Infantry, and was stationed 
at Fort Buford, Dakota, and also in Colorado and at Fort Washakie, \Vy- 
oming. After eight months of service he was promoted to first sergeant, 
and after five years of service the Indians, in the course of which 
he was in numerous campaigns and conflicts, he was discharged at Fort 
Douglas, Salt Lake City, in 1884. He had always escaped uninjured in 
battle, but was ill with inflammatory rheumatism for seventy-nine days. In 
1884 he arri\'ed in Paradise Valley. Nevada, and secured work in the mines 
at four dollars a day. Since then he has been engaged in various occupa- 
tions, and has gained a due share of success from his efforts. 

Mr. Hoenstine has been a life-long Democrat, and in 1897 was elected 
a member of the Nevada state legislature, where he was a conscientious 
worker for beneficent laws and measures for his county and state. In 1902 
he was chosen treasurer of Humboldt county, the ofifice of which he is at 
present the efticient and popular incumbent, and he has always discharged 
his official duties so as to win the commendation of the public. ]\Ir. Hoenstine 
is a member of the Inde])endent Order of Odd b^ellows and of the Eagles. 

DENNIS SCULLY, who has ser\'ed, by repeated re-elections, as sur- 
veyor of Lander county, Nevada, for the jiast ten years, is one of the most 
prominent men in his profession in the state. He is a master oi his art, 
and during the last twenty or twenty-five years has gained a fine reputation 
in different parts of the west, his work having called him into various 
states and territories from the Mississippi valley to the coast. 

Mr. Sculh' was born in county Cork, Ireland, in April 24, 1848. He 
was educated in his native land, and learned the rudiments of his profession 
there. He came to the United States in 1879. and from New York went to 
Indiana, thence to Nebraska, to Wyoming", and then to Austin, Nevada. 
He is an expert in mining, surveying and engineering, and after coming to 
Nevada was engaged in mining in Austin and at Tuscarora, making some 
money by his operations. Lie was elected county surveyor of Lander county 
in 1894, and has been chosen at each succeeding election. 


]Mr. Scullv surveyed for tlic Union Pacific Railroad in Wyoming and 
Utaii, and has done mvich professional work in the mines of the west. He 
was employed by the United States government in surveying in Lander and 
Nye counties, and through the northern part of the state he ran the standard 
lines preparatory to making the subdivisions. He has the reputation of being- 
one of the best if not the best mathematician in the slate, and he is devoted 
to both the theoretical and the practical side of his profession. Mr. Scully 
is a member of the Roman Catholic church, and is a Democrat in political 
])rinciples, but now adheres to the silver v)arty. He is a man of thought, 
well ])osted on general affairs, and has made a reputation for his efficient 
work in his profession and also for the intelligent part be has taken as a 
citizen of his adopted county and state. 

HON. BENJAMIN F. CURLER. The legal profession demands a 
high order of ability and a rare combination of talent, learning, tact, patience 
and industry. The successful lawyer and the competent judge must be a 
man of well balanced intellect, thoroughly familiar with the law and jirac- 
tice, of comprehensive general information, possessed of an analxtical mind 
and a self-control that will ena.ble him to lose his individuality, his personal 
feelings, his prejudices and his peculiarities of disposition in the dignity, 
impartiality and equity of the office to which life, property, right and liberty 
must look for protection. Possessing these cpialities, Hon. Benjamin V. 
Curler justly merits the high honor which was conferred upon him by bis 
election to the bench of the second judicial district of Nevada. 

ludge Curler was born in La Plata, Churchill county, Nevada, on the 
uSth of February, 1866, and on the paternal side is connected with the 
prominent and well known Van Cuylcr family of New York, of Holland 
Dutch ancestrv. Representatives of this family were among the first settlers 
of New Netherland, now New ^'ork city, and Dr. Theodore Van Cuyler, 
a prominent divine of Brooklyn, is oi the same family. On the maternal 
side Mr. Curler is a representative of the Thompson family, of Scotch and 
I-jiglisb lineage. Judge Benjamin Curler, the father of Judge Curler, was 
formerly upon the bench of the lifth judicial district of Nevada, which 
district then comprised one of the counties which is now in the present judge's 
district. He was elected to that position wlicii thirty-two years of age, and 
a strange coincidence is that Judge Curler was chosen to the same high 
and important office when also thirty-two years of age, and just thirty-two 
years after his father's first election. 

Judge Curler was educated in the University of Southern L'aliforni.i 
in Los Angeles and in the California State University at Berkeley. When 
he had ;u:(|uired broad literary learning he took u]i the study of law with 
the desire of becoming a meiuber of the bar, matriculating in the law college 
in San I'Tancisco. T'revious to this time he had engaged in teaching school 
for one vear in Hawthorne, Nevada, and it was subser|uently that he entered 
the California University, {"ollowing the comi)lelion of his legal course he 
retiu-ned Im llawthorne and ojjcned an ollice in that place. He was elected 
district attorncv and servcfl for r\ Icrni of two yc;irs. Tlis first case was the 


prosecution of a man named I'ullock, wlio liad killed the postmaster of Silver 
Peak, Nevada. Roljert Linsey, a distinguished criminal lawyer, was em- 
])loyed on the defense, but Mr. Curler carefully prepared his case, mar- 
shaled with ])recision the points in evidence and presented his case so clearly 
and forcefully that the prisoner was convicted of manslaughter and was 
sentenced to the penitentiary for ten years. The ne.xt criminal case with 
which he was connected was that of the state against Stephanzyn, and cm 
this suit the Judge's father, who is also a noted criminal lawyer, was on the 
defense. The son. however, put forth his best efforts and gained a \-erdict 
of manslaughter, and again the prisoner was sentenced to a term of ten 
years. Winning in contests with men of greater years and experience. Judge 
Curler soon manifested his marked ability and won high reputation as an 
able public prosecutor. 

On the close of his term of service he remo\'ed to Reno, where he 
])racliced law for two years, and was then elected district attorney of Washoe 
county, and by re-election was continued in that office for two terms, during 
which time he conducted many noted criminal cases, which he prosecutcil 
with his usual ability. In 1890 he was nominated on the Populist ticket for 
supreme judge, and ran far ahead of the party vote, although defeated by 
Judge Massey, a very able and popular lawyer representing the opposition. 
In 1898 Mr. Curler was elected district judge, and after serving for four 
years was re-elected in 1902, so that he is the jjresent incumlient and will 
continue in the office until his service on the bench shall have co\'ered eight 
years. He is making a most satisfactory record, his decisions indicate strong 
mentality, careful analysis, a thorough knowledge of law and an nnliiased 
judgment. His legal learning and the readiness with \\hich he grasps the 
jinints in an argument combine to make him one of the most capable jurists 
that has ever sat upon this bench, and the pnljlic and the profession acknowl- 
edge him the peei' of many of the strongest representatives of the Nevada 
bar. Judge Curler was a stanch Republican up to the time that the silver 
(|uestion came prominently liefore the people, since which time he has favored 

In 1888 Judge Curler was united in marriage to ]\Iiss Dirsey D. \'ogel, 
a native of Mississippi and a daughter of A. B. Vogel, of that state. Thev 
are now the parents of three children : dussie R., Mollie D. and Ben \'ogel. 
The attracti\'e home of Judge and Mrs. Curler is situated in Reno and its 
bos]iitality is enjoyed by many. They are members of the Ba]:itist church, 
and it is their good fortune to enjoy the friendship of many of the leading 
citizens of Reno and of the state. The Judge's nature is kindly, his tempera- 
ment jovial and genial, and his manner courteous. He is a most companion- 
al)le gentleman, Init when on the bench his attitude at once indicates the 
studious, earnest and schn'arly judge, whose course fully nplmlds the majesty 
of the law. 

C.\PTAIN JOHN H. POOLY, foreman of the Gould & Curry mines, 
has been connected with the mining interests of the Comstock mines since 
T870. He is a native of Cornwall, England, where he was Ijorn October 2^. 
1846. and his father. Jnhn I'mily, was born in the same locality. I'.eing 


iiitetested in mining affairs, tlie latter emigrated to America in 1848. at tlie 
time of the great gold excitement. Prior to his emigration he had li\ed in 
Brazil and in San Domingo, and finally died in Spain in May, 1864, aged 
fifty-four years. He married Elizabeth Trevern, a native of England, and 
she died in 1869, aged sixty years. They were members of the Church of 
England, and are both buried in England. They were the parents of nine 
children, of whom Captain Pooly is the only member in Nevada. 

For fourteen years John H. Pooly worked in the Chollar mine, and 
also for Hon. \V. E. Sharon in the Yellow Jacket and all the Gold Hill mines 
for nine years. He was made foreman of the Gould & Curry mines in 
1900 and is now doing developing work and quartz mining. As he thoroughly 
understands every detail of his work he is very well qualified for it. 

Captain Pooly was married in his native land to Mary Richards, who 
was born in Cornwall, England. One son was born to them, William J. 
Pooly. After twenty-eight years of happy married life. Mrs. Pooly was 
taken away by death January 17, 1903. She had lieen an excellent help- 
mate, a true wife and wise mother. 

William J. Pooly was Iiorn in \'irginia City in 1877 and was educated 
in the public schools of his native place, and was a very intelligent young 
man. He had Ijeen living in San h'raucisco but upon the death nf his mother 
he returned to Virginia City, and after remaining with his father as lung 
as he felt he could, the young man returned to San Francisco, intending to 
take the civil service examination, but was taken ill and died March 9, 1903. 
The doubly bereaved father brought his only child's remains to his native 
town, and the citizens of \'irginia City turned mit in a body to (\n honor 
to the brave young man. scarcely out of boyhood, who had been taken away 
from what promised to be a long and honorable life, filled with useful deeils 
and true happiness. They also united in their expression of heartfelt sympathy 
towards the heartl)roken father, whom thev so esteemed and honored. 

HON. M. S. BONNIFIELD, of Winncmucca, fcr a number .if years 
judge of the supreme bench of the state and now actively engaged in the 
practice of law, is one of the eminent members of tlie Nevada bar. He is 
also numljered among the early pioneers of the state, having crossed the 
plains to the territory in 1862, and his name has since been indissolubly 
identified with its annals. Mr. Bonnifield was horn in West Virginia on the 
14th of September, 1833, and it is claimed that the I'amily were originally 
of I'rench ancestry but had for centuries resided in England. Rhudham 
iliinnilield, his father, married Miss Mary Minear, a lady of German ances- 
try, and they removed from West Virginia to Iowa i.i 1836. in which latter 
commonwealth they were numbered among tlie bra\x and lo\al pioneers. 
They were farming people, and were members of the Methodist I'^iiscopal 
church. The father pas.sed away in death in 1838, nt the a,gc of tifty-four 
years, and his widow survived him only three months. .\ son and daughter 
also passed away within three months of each other, dying of pneumonia. 
Mr. and Mrs. Rhodham Bonniiield became the parents of fifteen children, 

/}l^J. (^a^t^L^Oz^^^C^ 


five of whom still survive, hut M. S. Bonnifield is the ouly representative 
of the family in Nevada. 

Judge M. S. Bonnifield received his literary education in .Allegheny 
College, of Meadville, Pennsyh'an.ia, and after his graduation therefrom 
wa.s elected president of Riciiard C(^llege, serving in tliat capacity f(jr one 
year. Removing to Kansas In 1856, he was there admitted to the har hy the 
celehrated Judge La Compt, and after practicing his chosen profession in 
the Sunflower state for two years returned to Ottumwa, Iowa, there resum- 
ing his legal duties. In 1861 he crossed the plains to Red Bluff, California, 
the journey being made with horses, and the long trip was accomplished in 
three months' time. While residing in Meadville, Pennsylvania, in 1855, 
Mr. Bonnifield had married Miss Laura Ames, and she accompanied him 
on his removal to the Golden state. In 1862 they came to Humboldt county, 
Nevada, where for the past forty-one years the Judge has continued to make 
his home, and throughout this long period he has been constantly engaged in 
the practice of the law, with the exception of the time spent on the supreme 
bench of the state. In addition to his large law practice he has also been 
interested in many mines, one being the celebrated Crown I'oint mine, in 
which Hon. J. P. Jones received his vast fortune. 

While a resident of Kansas Judge Bonnifield was a prominent h'ree-soil 
man, and by that party was elected a member of the Kansas senate. After- 
ward he allied his interests with the Democracy, and in 1892 became one of 
the active organizers of the silver party, and is still a stalwart belie\er in 
bimetalism. He has represented Humboldt county in two sessions of the 
state senate, and in 1892 was made presidential elector and was selected to 
carry the vote of the state to Washington, the three electors casting their 
ballots engraved on silver jilates. In 1895 Mr. Bonnifield was elected judge 
of the supreme court, having ser\'ed for six years on the supreme l)ench of 
the state, and since retiring from that high office has continued his law 

The union of Judge and Mrs. Bonnifield was blessed with three daugh- 
ters, namely: Emily, the wife of J. A. McBride, of Elko, this state; Delia, 
who became the wife of J. D. May and resides in Portland, Oregon; and 
Dora, the wife of J. P. Slaughter, of Pueblo, Colorado. Mrs. Bonnifield 
was called to her final rest in 1887, and two years later, in 1889, Judge 
Bonnifield married Mrs. Nellie Lovelock, the widow of George Lovelock, 
Jr., and they reside in one of the delightful homes of Winnemucca. The 
Judge has taken the degrees in the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the 
Workmen and the Chosen Friends, and was made a Master Mason in Iowa 
in 1885. His religious views are in harmony with the principles of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. 

JAMES T. DUNN, who is now serving his third term as clerk of 
Humboldt county and ex-oilficio clerk of the district court, is one of the 
comparatively few men who can claim Nevada as their native state. His 
father, L. F. Dunn, is a prominent pioneer mining man of the state, and was 
likewise for several years an official of Humboldt county. He was born in 


Fayette county. Wisconsin, June 3, 1S43. I" '^'''4 '-^ crossed the plains to 
Calitornia, and as the Sioux Induuis were then on tiie warpatli emigrants 
were compelled to collect themselves in hands of one hundred or more in 
order to defend themselves. During the first year in California he hunted 
deer and bear for the San Francisco market, hut in the fall of 1865 came 
to Humljoldt county, Nevada, and engaged in mining, which has been his 
principal occupation ever since. For eight years he served in the same 
official capacity in which his son is now^ serving, and he has gained a wide 
ac(|uaintance with the greater number of the inhabitants of the county. He 
mined in the Spring Valley placer, which \-alley is eleven miles long, and 
it was rocker diggings, from which some coarse nuggets worth forty or 
fifty dollars were found. He located claims throughout this canyon and 
in Dry Gulch, and got out, in all, about si.xty-three thousand dollars" worth 
of gold. He is now the owner of the Chicago mine, a (juartz claim in the 
central district, whose assays run from six dollars to six thousand dollars a 
ton. and the development work which has Ijeen done on this projierty indi- 
cates that it will be very profitable to its ow-ner. Mr. L. V. Dunn w as mar- 
ried September i, 1873, to Miss Philapena Pfluger, and they had four chil- 
dren, of whom three are still living, Rol)crl 1'., a miner, Kathryn K., and 
lames T. The mother of children died in 1891. 

lames T. Dunn was born in Nevada, November 21, 1876, and was 
educated in Oakland, California. In 1893, ^t the age of sixteen, he came to 
Winnemucca, and has been connected in some capacity with the county 
clerk's office ever since that time. As his father's de])uty he became thor- 
oughly conversant with all the details of the business, and alsn won his 
way into the confidence of the people to the extent that be was elected to 
the office of countv clerk and clerk of the district court in 1898. Ide was 
twenty-two vears old at the time of bis election, and has been twice 
re-elected, so that his record as a county officer has recei\ed the stamp of 
public approval and is satisfactory to all concerned. Besides his official 
duties he is interested with his father in mining. Like his father, he is an 
adherent of the Democratic party, and fraternally is connected with the 
Knights of Pythias and the Eagles. 

HON. W. .\. M.ASSFY has been connected w illi Ixilh the framing 
and the interpretation of the laws, having ser\ed as a member of the gener.Tl 
assembly of the state, a member of the supreme court, and for a long periml 
has been accounted one of the eminent practitioners at the bar df the state. 
He belongs to the prominent law firm of Cheney, Massey & Smith, of Reno, 
which has a very large and distinctively representative clientage, embracing 
connection with much nf the mi)st important litigation tried in the courts of 
the state. 

Judge Massey was born in Perry county, Ohio, on the 7tb of October, 
1S56. His grandfather, Mathew Massey, was a native of the north of Ire- 
land, and when a young man came to the United Slates, lucating; in New 
Vork, where he was married, thus becoming the i)rogenitor of the f.imily 
in this country. Me removed to Morgan county, Ohio, where his son, William 

^ ^c^ ^""Vv 




Massey, tlie fatlier of Judge Massey, was born on the 5th of May, 1826. 
During tlie greater part of the Civil war William Massey was a member of 
the Union army, serving first in West Virginia, after which he was trans- 
ferred to the Western Army. He was present at the investment of Vicks- 
burg and served under General Sherman in the thirty days' fighting on the 
way to Atlanta. He also i)artici])ated in the capture of that city as well as 
of Vicksburg. By profession he was a physician, but went to the front as 
a lieutenant, althougli he was later made surgeon of the Sixty-eighth Ohjo 
Battery. Following the cessation of hostilities he established his home in 
Paris, Illinois, where he continued in the practice of medicine up to the 
time of his death, which occurred in 1882. He had wedded Miss Mary 
Thorp, who was born in Perry county, Ohio, and their union was blessed 
with five children, of whom two are yet living, the l)r(ither of Judge Massey 
being J. A. Massey, of Illinois. 

Judge William A. Massey was but a small boy when his pru'ents re- 
moved from Ohio to Illinois, where he was reared. His early education, 
acquired in the public schools, was supplemented by study in Asbury l^ni- 
versity, at Greencastle, Indiana, and Hien preparing for the practice of law- 
he was admitted to the bar in Sullivan, Indiana. In 1883 he removed to 
San Diego, California, .and after spending a year there came to Nevada. 
He engaged in mining in Elko county for four years, Init was very unfor- 
tunate in his mining ventures, losing all his money. He then resumed 
the practice of law, and his ability in the line of his profession snun won 
recognition and a liberal clientele. While residing there, he was, in 1892, 
elected a member of the state legislature, and proved a must active worker 
in the house in the interests of those measures which he beliexed would pro\e 
of greatest benefit to the state. In 1896 he was elected a member of the 
supreme court iif Nevada and removed t(_) Carson, but in 1898 he resigned 
from the bench to form his present law partnership and is now actively 
engaged in a very successful practice, embracing connection with all depart- 
ments of jurisprudence. He is thoroughly well informed concerning legal 
principles, and he took to the bench the highest Cjualification for that most 
important ofiice in the gift of the people. Patience, urbanity and courtesy 
made him a successful jurist inasmuch as these qualities supplemented l)road 
legal learning and an analytical mind, which is readily recejjtive and re- 
tentive of the points brought forth in e\'ery case. In argument he is strt)ng, 
forceful and convincing, and his deductions follow in logical sequence. 

In 1879 Judge Massey was united in marriage to Miss Florence Mas- 
sey, who was descended from the same ancestry as the Judge, but is not a 
near relati\-e. This union has l)een blessed with two sons : R. R. Massey, 
now in college; and \\'. H. Massey, also a student. The wife and mother 
died in 1890, and a few years afterward Judge Massey wedded Miss .\nnie 
Sheehan, a native of New York. They occupy delightful apartments at the 
Riverside Hotel, and they enjoy the hospitality of the best homes of Reno. 
The Judge belongs to the Masonic fraternity, having Ijeen made a Mason 
in Elko Lodge No. 15, F. & A. M. Faultless in honor, fearless in conduct 
and stainless in reputation, he stands as a high type of our American man- 


TERRY SHEEHAX. county recorder and ex-officio auditor of Hum- 
boldt county, Nevada, lias been a resident of tbis state ever since be was 
five vears old. He was born in Jobnson county, Wyoming, May 19. 1870, 
a soil of Jobn and Catharine (Buckley) Shee'han, both natives of county 
Cork. Ireland, whence they emigrated to America in 1850. They first located 
in New York, and then came to Wyoming, and from there to Nevada 
in 1875. 

Jerry Sbeehan was left an orphan at the age of thirteen, and thus de- 
prived of the care and assistance of these worthy and excellent parents, he 
fought the battles of life pretty much by himself, and has won most of 
them. He was educated in the pu!:)lic schools and in the Nevada State 
University before it was removed from Elko to Reno. He then learned 
telegraphy, and was in the employ of the Southern Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany for sixteen years, a part of the time in the office as operator, and in the 
train service from Wells to \\'a<lswortb rose from brakeman to conductor, 
which last position he held until he was appointed recorder of Humlioldt 
county in June, 1902. to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Air. J. J. Hill. 
In the fall of the same vear he was elected to this office, wlmse duties he has 
so capably and energetically discharged to the present time. He is a good 
business man. and because of his splendid penmanship and his mctboilical 
care tlie records of the county are beautifully kept. 

In 1895 Mr. Sbeehan was married to Miss Fanny Aluller, of (German 
ancestry. They have two little daughters, Evaline and Grace. Mr. Shcehan 
is a member of the Order of Railway Conductors and of the Ancient Order 
of United Workmen. In politics he is a Democrat, and is highly esteemed 
Ijy all for his pleasaiit, genial ways and for his whole-souled worth as a 
citizen and oflicial. 

S. L. LEE, M. D. One of the distinguished members of the medical 
profession in Ne\-ada is Dr. S. L. Lee, of Carson City, whose ])ronounced 
ability and broad experience \vdve gained him prominence scarcely second 
to any in the state. Fortunate is the man who has i>ack of him an ancestry 
lionorable and distinguished, and bajjp)' is he if his lines of life are cast 
in barnion)' therewith. In person, talents and character Dr. Lee is a worthy 
scion of his race. He comes from a family that has not only figured iM'omi- 
nently in public affairs in this country, but can also trace bis ancestry to the 
Lees who went with William the Conqueror to England at the time of the 
invasion in io65. 

Jobn Lee emigrated frcmi "the merrie isle" to New l'"nglai;d in the 
year 1641, and afterward became a resident of i'aimington. C'nnnei-ticut. 
while bis cousin, Richard Lee, settled in Virginia ,-ind became the founder 
of the branch of the family that has furnished so niany eminent men In the 
Old Dominion. W'iUiam Lee. a direct ancestrir of Dr. Lee, was a i)artici])ant 
in the Revolutionary war. and the lo\'e of liberty and the haired of oppres- 
sion has ever been a dominant trail in the family. W illiam Leo. Dr. Lee's 
great-grandfather, and bis sons, were all participants in the war of 181 2. 
and one of these sons was Lemuel Lee, the grandfather of the Doctor. 

S, L. LEE, M. D. 


Benjamin I'". Lee. Dr. Lee's father, was Ijorn in Onondaga connty, New- 
York, on the 15th of Septeml)er, 181 7, and was but three months old when 
his parents removed witli tiieir family tn Ilhnois. wliere he has since lived, 
having now attained the eighty-sixth year of his age. He married Miss 
Charlotte Loraine Bisho]), a descendant of the noted De Auhrey family, 
her grandfather Ijeing Dr. De Auhrey, who was a surgeon in the continental 
army during the war of the Re\olution. Mrs. Lee died Decemher 19, 1894, 
at the age of seventy-two years. By her marriage she had hecome the 
mother of seven sons. The eldest, James Monroe, was killed in the battle 
(if Shiloh, while fighting in defense of the starry banner, the symbol of the 
L'^nion cause. His regiment was the Thirty-second Illinois Infantry. 

When this brother enlisted. Simeon Lemuel Lee, the subject of this 
biography, was but a youth of sixteen years, having been born in Vandalia, 
Fayette county, Illinois, on the 4th of Sqitember, 1844. He l>ecame fired 
with patriotic zeal, inspired by his brother's example anfl his own knowledge 
of the condition of affairs in the south, and in 1863, he prexailed upon 
his father to allow him to take the ])lace of his deceased brother as a defender 
of the Union. Enlisting as a member of Company LI, Eighth Illimjis Vol- 
unteer Infantry, he went to the south to aid in filling the ranks of that regi- 
ment, which had been \er}' much depleted. The command proceeded im- 
mediately to the scene of hostilities, and he served with General Sherman 
in General John A. Logan's divisi()n of McPherson's corps, from February, 
1864, until November of that year, when the members of the command re- 
enlisted and were given a thirty days' furlough. After the return to the 
front, this regiment led the assault on Fort Blakely, being connected with 
the Nineteenth corps of Granger's army. There were but thirty-five mem- 
bers of the company when they started on that movement, and fifteen of 
these were either killed or wounded in the charge, but they carried the fort, 
w'hich was the defense of the city of Mobile, and which then surrendered. 
By gallant service and unmistakable loyalty Dr. Lee had risen to the rank 
of second lieutenant and was discharged as such in Spring-field, Illinois, on 
the 1 6th of May, 1866. 

Previous to the war Dr. Lee had been a student in the high school of 
Vandalia, and after his discharge he began preparation for his life work by 
becoming- a student in the Cincinnati Medical College of Ohio, in which he 
completed the prescribed course and was graduated with the degree of M. D., 
in the class of 1870. Immediately after leaving college he came to Carson 
City and entered upon the practice of his profession, which he ha-; since 
cmitinued here with marked ability for thirty-three years, during which 
time he has been recognized as one of the most learned and capable memljers 
of the medical fraternity in the state. He became a niember of the first 
board of health of the state, and for several years has been a n-iember of the 
state board of medical examiners and is now surgeoii general on the gov- 
ernor's staiT, with the rank of colonel. He educated his youngest brother, 
Ortey Frederick Lee, for the medical profession, of which he became a most 
prominent and progressive member. He was engaged in the practice of 
medicine in Marysville, California, when overwork brought his brilliant 


career to an untimely close and caused a severe loss to the ranks of the 
fraternity in that state. 

Dr. Lee is a prominent Mason, belonging to the blue lodge, chapter 
and commandery, and also to Islam Temple of the Mystic Shrine in San 
Francisco. He is thoroughly informed concerning the tenets of the craft. 
is in sympathy with its purpose, and in his life exemplifies its lieneficent 
and helpful spirit. 

On the 26th of Xoyember, 1868. Dr. Lee was happily married to Miss 
Lola Montez Watts, a member of the noted Watts family of Ohio, while 
her mother was an own cousin of Hamilton Fisk. United States secretary of 
state. Thev have three .sons: l-rank Lee is in southern California. 
William L., an electrical engineer, was graduated in a school fitting him fur 
his chosen profession. Adelbert Watts is a graduate of tlie medical de- 
partment of the University of California and is now assistant in the chair 
of anatomy there. He expects soon to go to Leipsic, Germany, to perfect 
himself in his profession. He stood at the head of his class in college, and 
is a young man of strong mentality and laudable ambition, and undoubtedly 
a bright future awaits him. Both the Doctor and Mrs. Lee are well known 
in Carson City and other parts of the state, and occupy an enviable position 
in social circles, while their own home is the center of culture, hospitality 
and good cheer. Mrs. Lee is a member of the Episcopal churcli. 

The Doctor has always been a student, reading broadly and thinking 
deeply, not only m the line of his profession but over a wide range of sub- 
jects. Fie has a library of more than two thousand volumes, and is also 
the possessor of a choice and valualjle collection of minerals, of chinaware 
brought from foreign cities and of Indian baskets, some of which are of very 
early manufacture and are very costly. He takes just pride in these, and 
they prove an interesting feature of his delightful home. 

MARTIN GULLING, who is now living a reti'-ed life, is a self-made 
man and all that he has enjoyed and possesses in life has been accjuircd through 
his own determined i)uri)ose and capable energy. He was h)vu in b'rance 
on the nth of Xovemebr, 1829, and when two and a half years of age was 
brought by his parents to the L'nitcd States, the family home being estab- 
lished in Stark county, Ohio, near Canton. There the son was educated 
in the iniblic schools, and upon his father's farm he was reared to manhood 
and became familiar with the duties and labors that fall to the lot of the 

On the 20th of ]'"ebruary, 1855, be sailed from New York to San I'ran- 
cisco, going by way of the Isthmus of Panama and reaching his destination 
in the month of March. He then went direct to Cam])tonville, Yuba county, 
California, where for two weeks he engaged in placer mining, but meeting 
with no success during thai i)eriod he abandoned mining and .=ecured a situ- 
ation in a sawmill, where he was emjiloyed for two years. He then went 
to San Juan, Nevada county, and worked in a sawmill for two years. On 
the expiration of that i)eriod he removed to Rntte county, California, and 
secured a tract of laml nine miles from the present site of the city of Chico, 


altlunigh the lnwii liail not hecu fouuded al that time. With I'liaractcristic 
energy lie Ijegaii tlie development and nn]irii\enient of his land, and con- 
tiinied to engage in farming there nntil 1SC16, when he .sold out and came 
to Waslioe countv, Kcxada. Near the \icinity of Glendale he purchased a 
farm of foiu" hundred and forty acres, which he cultivated for a time and 
then sold. Next, in com])any with a partner, he purchased an interest in 
another tract of land and devoted his energies to general farming until 1873. 
He made a specialty, however, of raising hay, which sold in Virginia City 
at from thirty to one hundred dollars a ton. After some time had passed 
Mr. (lulling also disposed of this property and engaged in the stock husiness 
at High Rock, Lassen countv, California. He purchased land there, and 
at times he has had as many as nine hundred head of cattle, in this husiness 
he prospered, and e\entuall\- he traded his property there for two hundred 
acres of land near tlic W'ed.ekind mine, retaining possession of that tract 
until March, 1903. when he sold the land to a good advantage and returned 
to Ohio to \isit relatives in that state. On again coming to Ne\ada he 
retired from active husiness life and is now enjoying a well earned rest in a 
new and attractive home in Reno, wdiich he has erectCvd. His career has been 
one of activity, and year after year he l.ahored in an untiring manner until 
his indefatigable industry, guided by sound judgment, had brought to him 
very creditable success. 

In May, 1856, Mr. Culling was united in marriage to Miss Rosanna 
Sosie, a native of France, and this marriage has been blessed with four chil- 
dren : Charles, who is a stockholder in and manager of the Reno Mill and 
Lumber Company: Mrs. Mary LeVrie, of Reno; Josephine, the wife of 
James Eason, of this city: and John, who is also married and ]i\'ing in Reno, 
Mr. Gulling and his family are all members of the Roman Catholic church, 
and are highly respected citizens of the state in wdiich they have so long 
resided. In his political views he is a Democrat, and while he keeps well 
informed on the issues of the day and is interested in his party, he has never 
sought or desired public office. 

HENRY W. DYF'R, recorder and e.x-officio auditor of Lander county, 
is a native son of Austin, where his birth occurred on the 14th of January, 
1880, and he is of Scotch ancestry. His father, George M. Dyer, was horn 
in Missouri, on the 26th of January, 1828. In an early day he went to 
California, but at the time of the secession of the south from the L'nion he 
returned to his old home, and true to his loved southland enlisted in its 
service, continuing in the commissary department of the Confederacy until 
1863. Returning thence to Nevada, he located in Grass Valley, on a ranch 
which lie had previously purchased, but later removed to Reese river, and 
thence came to Austin. In this city he embarked in merchandising. A 
stanch Democrat in his political views, he was elected on its ticket to the 
]50sition of treasurer of Lander county, and in 1898 became the auditor and 
recorder of the county, successfully ser\-ing in. those positions until his death, 
which occurred on the 19th of March, 1903. He was numbered among the 
honored early pioneers of eastern Nevada, and was a man of strong convic- 


tions. exceedingly loyal to his friends, a competent and efficient pnhlic officer 
and an upright and honorable citizen. On the 25th of April, 1867, he had 
married ?*Iiss Augusta Elgum. and they became the parents of eight children, 
six of whom are li\-ing. as follows: Maggie, the wife of Dan W. Mitchell, 
of Austin: \\'i!liam R.. residing in Tonopah, Nevada: Alexander I., of 
Austin: and Inez M., Louis C. and Henry W. 

Henry W. Dxer received his education in the public schools of this his 
native town, and for a time after leaving the schoolroom was employed in 
one of the mercantile houses of Austin. He then entered the recorder's 
office as his father's deputy, and after the latter's death was appointed to 
that office by the county board of commissioners, the duties of which he is 
now filling with marked ability. In politics he, too, is allied with the Democ- 
racv, and is a native son of Austin of which she has e\'ery reason to be 

WILTSHIRE SAUNDERS. I'ew residents of Reno have longer been 
connected with the cit\- and its de\elopment than has Wiltshire Saunders. 
Almost half a centur\- lias passed since he became a California pioneer. The 
traveler of to-day, seeing the thri\-ing towns, the splendidly developed farms 
and the excellent ranches and industries of every character, can scarcely 
realize the condition of things which faced Mr. Saunders at the time of his 

He was l)orn in Nova Scotia, September 13. 1830. a son of John and 
Jemima (Wilson) Saunders. The Saunders family is of English and Scotch 
extraction, and the grandfather. John Saunders, who had emigrated to the 
new world, settling in New York, was a loyal defender of King George's 
cause, and at the time of the Revolutionary war removed to Nova Scotia. 
There he was given a fine grant of land and became one of the ])rominent 
and influential early settlers of that part of the continent. 

John Saunders, Mr. Saunders' father, was born in Nova Scotia on the 
26th of October. 1782. and throughout his life carried on agricultural ]nir- 
suits. He wedded Jemima Wilson, who was a native of his own town, burn 
on the 20th of March, 1790. Both held membership relations with the 
Baptist church, taking an active part in its work, and Mr. Saunders became 
a preacher of considerable ability, although never ordained to the ministry. 
He died in the seventy-fifth year of his age. while his wife passed away at 
the age of eighty years. They had l)ecome the parents of eleven children. 
Inil XViltshire is the only one now living. 

Wiltshire Saunders s))ent his early years in his native town, but when 
nineteen years of age renioxed to Boston. Massachusetts, and learned the 
car])eiiter's trade in Watertown, a small place near Boston, .\ftcr com- 
pleting his ap])renticesliip he remained with his employer for one year as a 
journeyman, and because he had attained efficiency in his chosen field of 
labor he ffiund it easy to secure good paying ]iositions. He had also worked 
in a lumber yard in Boston prior to learning bis tiade. the firm building for San iM'ancisco and shi|)])ing them ready to be erected. Mr. 
Saunders also was employed for fi\-e years at his tr.'idc in Xo\;t .'^cotin. but 





lie had heard much of the west, its development and its pcjssihilities, and 
in 1S58, attracted hy the o])piirtnnities of the Pacific country, he made his 
way to California hy the isthmus route. His brother Charles had gone to 
California in 1849. '"if' M''- Saunders joined him in the Golden state nine 
years later. There he worked at his trade of carpentering and also followed 
carriage-making. He and his cousin Stephen, who came out with him, joinefl 
his brother, who was located at Monte Cristo. Later he and his brother 
and cousin went to what is known as Whisky diggings, near Gibson, and 
were there engaged in mining. The work was carried on by means of tun- 
nels, and they were thus enabled to prosecute their labors throughout the 
winter. Mr. Saunders did the outside work, howe\er. framing the timbers 
for the tunnel. In the s])ring they sold their pro]3erty, receiving for it 
twenty-one hundred dollars, or a sum of se\-en hundred dollars for each one. 
The following" winter they mined on the other side of the ridge, but again 
sold out, and as Stephen Saunders was a daguerreotype artist Wiltshire 
joined him in the conduct of a pliotograijhic gallery. They took some of the 
first daguerreotypes in California, charging at that time from five to eight 
dollars each. They journeyed from camp to camp, carrying with them their 
outfit, and at Onion Valley they established a gallery which they conducted 
for one season. In 1862 they remo\-ed to Marys\-ille and purchased the 
Heath gallery on D street, wdiere they did a photographic business for two 
years and during the time of the great fl(X)d. Soon afterward Mr. Saunders 
sold out to his partner and removed to Oroville, California, where two years 
were a,lso passed. 

On the expiration of that [leriod Mr. Sauntlers and his brother Charles 
went to Honey Lake and rented the Dr. Spalding farm of one hundred 
and sixty acres. In the meantime he liad been ill. and thus much of his 
savings had dwindled away. The first year the l>rothers ^cut hav, which 
brought a comparatively low price that season, while potatoes sold at a \erv 
high price. Therefore, the)' decided to devote their ground to the raising 
of the latter \-egetable, and planted four acres of ground. They plowed the 
ground three times, getting it in excellent condition, and paid nine cents a 
pound for seed potatoes. The plants grew splendidly, and when alx)ut a foot 
high the army worm came and ate every living green thing in sight. In 
the succeeding fall Mr. Saunders engaged in hauling goods in order to earn 
money to pay for his seed potatoes. He teamed to Humbolt and on taking 
the last load he was caught in a severe storm on Smoke creek, having his 
foot frozen on that occasion. However, he managed to reach Humboldt, but 
his foot and limbs were ver\- badly frozen so that a l^ed of straw was made 
in his wagon and he was placed upon it, bis team following the others back 
to the starting point. After severe suffering he eventually reco\'ered, losing 
only one of his toes. He and his brother s]:)ent the remainder of the winter 
in Honey Valley, Dr. Spalding residing with them. They then took another 
ranch, and Mr. Saunders continued to engage in teaming, hauling freight tn 
Virginia City. He had two wagons and ten big horses, and, receiving quite 
a liberal patronage, he was enabled to pay off all his indebtedness. Later 
he engaged in teaming between Reno, Carson and Genoa. He began his 
carpenter work and built a number of the best homes in Reno Surveyor 



General Hatch also employed him to make a coffin, which was one of tlie 
first made in tlie town, and tliis led to more patronage in that same line, so that 
he eventnally did quite an extensive business. Having invested in village 
l(_)ts at a time when land was very cheap he located the Hillside cemetery, 
and now owns that property together with a nice home in the city and several 
(jther residences, his realty possessions being a monument to his industrious 
efforts and diligence. The growth of this city and the conse(|uep.t rise in 
land values have made him one of the substantial residents here. 

In 1871 Mr. Saunders was married to Miss Margaret Williams, a native 
of Cartliff. Wales, and a daughter of Thomas and .\nn (Hopkins) Willianii. 
Thev have two sons. Robert Wiltshire, now a student in the Industrial .\it 
.School in San Francisco and a \-ery iiright _\oung man: and Jolm Olin. who 
is now attending the high sch(jc;l hi Reno. Mr. Saunders and his s^ms arc 
members of the Bajjtist church. He has always been a stanch Re]niblican 
in ])olitics. and while living in Oroville. California, during the Ci\ii w^ar. 
he serxed as lieutenant in the Oro\-ilje Guards. For many years he has been 
identified with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and deeply interested 
in the success of that worthv organization. Few men have luulergone more 
of the pioneer experiences than has Mr. Saunders, and while engaged in 
teaming he often encountered great danger, for the Indians were fretiuently 
ui)on the war path and he and his comrades had to sleep on their in' 
the wagons. The Pacific country owes a great debt to tlic brave pioneers 
who inaugurated the ci\ilization of this section. 

ALVARO E\ AXS is one of Xevada's ])ioneers who dates his arrival 
in the territory from 1859. He was born in Defiance. Ohio, on the 2y\ of 
May, 1827, and comes of a family of Welsh origin. His great-grandfather 
on the ])aternal side emigrated from Wales and settled in \'irginin. in which 
state Pierce ' Evans, the father of Alvaro Evans, was born and leared. 
Having arrived at years of maturity Pierce Evans wedded Miss Mary 
Braucher. who was a native of Virginia and of German descent. They re- 
moved to Ohio, and he hel|)e(l to Ijuild the first brick building in what is 
now the large and beautiful citv of Cincinnati. In the war of 1812 he was 
a loyal defender of the country. Throughout his entire business career lie 
followed merchandising, and his energy ;md acti\itv in that field of labor 
brought to him a gratifying i)r(j.s])erity. .\ nian of marked capability and 
strong intellectuality he was v,-ell fitted for leadership., and left the impress 
of his individuality upon jiublic thought and feeling. He filled the office 
of circuit judge for several years and took a very prominent ])art in the 
presidential campaign of 1840. Both he and his wife died on the same day 
in 1862. an<l each was about sixty-five years of age at the time. Thev were 
the i)arents of eleven children. Init only three are now living, namely: .\1- 
\aro. J. X. I'Aans and Mrs. Mary ,\rrowsmith. 

In the state of his nativity Alvaro Evans ac(|uircd his education, lie 
was a young man of about twenty-three years when he sought a home in 
the west, hoping that he might im])rove his financial condition in the state 
in which fortunes were rapidly being made through the discoverv of gold. 

OL£i^-^'t^^^ (B^yT^j^ 

A lllSrom' ()!' NEVADA. 355 

In 1850 he arrived in Califurnia, going 1j)' \\a\- of llic Istlinius. and luUowing 
his arri\al upon the Pacific coast he engaged in niinnig in Nevada county, 
California. He l>ecame one of tlie owners of tlie Bucl<eye Hill mine, which 
the company mined for eighteen years, eight years bemg occupied in making 
a tunnel in order to open the mine. This property yielded about half a million 
dollars to the com|)any and was then sold for two hundred thous-and dollars. 
During this time Mr. E\ans returned to the east and purchased cattle in 
Illinois and Iowa, driving them across the plains in i'859. He had eight 
hundred head in the herd and was engaged in the stock business in Lassen 
county, about forty miles north of Reno. In that business he continued for 
several years, and his sound judgment resulted in bringing to him very 
gratifying success. On leaving Lassen county Mr. E\ans removed to Hum- 
Ixjldt county. Ne\ada, and, securing cattle in Texas, he was engaged in 
stock dealing in Humboldt county on a very extensive scale, having at one 
time as high as ten thousand head of cattle, which he sold for one hundred 
thousand dollars. He now has a ranch at Reno, comprising one hundred 
and sixty acres in the northwestern part of the city. A part of this land he 
has platted, calling it the Sunny Side addition to Reno. Upon his land he 
has a fine lirick residence, and much building is now being done upon the 
addition, which is becoming one of the most desirable residence ])ortions 
of the city. Mr. Evans also owns eight hundred and sixty acres of land 
eight miles south of Reno, constituting a finely improved farm. He is now 
retired from the cattle business and is spending the evening of a very active 
and successful business life in this city, surrounded l:y many comforts and 
luxuries which go to make life worth the living. 

In 1847 occurred the marriage of Alvaro Evans and ^liss McCurdy. a 
native of Pennsyh-ania. They had one son Pierce E\-ans, now a prominent 
attorney of Los Angeles, California. Mrs. Evans died in 1873, and in 1884 
Mr. Evans was again married, his second uninn being with Miss Annie 
Gull. Two children were born of this union, Aharo and Lester, both stu- 
dents in the public schools. 

In early life Mr. Evans gave his political allegiance to the Democratic 
party and voted for General Cass for the presidency in 1848. He continued 
to affiliate with the Democratic party until 1864, when, because of his sym- 
pathy with the LTnion, he supported Abraham Lincoln, and since that time 
has been a Repul)lican. He has filled the office of county commissioner and 
while .still living in Ohio he was receiver in the land office. In 1848. in 
Defiance, Ohio, Mr. Evans was made a Master Mason. He has taken all 
of the York Rite degrees and is now a Knight Templar, belonging to DeWitt 
Clinton Commandery at Virginia City. He is one of the oldest ^Masons in 
the state of Nevada and is a very pronu'nent and representati\-e member of 
the craft. He has, too, a military record, for in 1846 he enlisted at Defiance. 
Ohio, to serve in the Mexican war. With his regiment he went as far as 
Galveston. Texas, but it was there learned that the troops were not needed. 
and they received an honorable discharge in that place. Mr. Evans' hearing 
is slightly impaired, but with that exception he is a hale and hearty old gen- 
tleman in the possession of all of his faculties, and is a splendid representa- 
tive of the California and Nevada pioneer. 


HON. JOSEPH A. COXBOIE. now comity clerk and treasurer of 
Storey county, Nevada, was born in Ireland, and when a child was brought 
to the United States by his parents, George and Maiy G. ( Xeri ) C'onboie. 
both natives of Ireland. They settled in New York city, wliere his father 
was a constructor and builder. Later he removed to Cincinnati, returning 
to New York and there dying, when fifty years of age. His wife survived 
him and lived to be ninety years of age. They were the parents of five 
daughters and three sons, Mr. Conboie and three sisters alone surviving. 

Air. Conboie was educated in New York city, in the public schools and by 
pri\-ate tutors, and remained with hi.■^ parents until he was seventeen, learn- 
ing the carpenter and brick-layer trades, but not liking the latter, he worked 
for some years as a carpenter. Later he read medicine with a physician, 
Dr. Bond, of New York, for some time. In 1859 he went to California 
and worked as a miner at Gold Run and (iold Flat. Nevada county. His 
party was dislianded, and he returned to Sacramento, where he found work 
at his trade. 'J'hen he moved to Chico. where he built for General Bidwell 
the ]\Ia.sonic hall and postolifice building. During the winter of 1861 he 
was in Sacramento, and participated in some of the incidents of the flood. 
Later he engaged in an undertaking business in that city, and thus conthiued 
until 1874. when he sold out and Ixnight a drug store in San Jose. Init as it 
did not prove a success he sold the property for six thousand dollars and 
went to San Francisco and remained two years. Thence he went to Vir- 
ginia Citv and engaged in the undertaking business, and is now the oldest 
in that line in the citv. He has given much attention to his business, and 
is verv capable and in d.emand whenever his offices are required. .\ patent 
of his has 1)een found very desirable for holding the hands of the deceased 
in place, and he follows many original ideas in bis work. Like many others 
in Virginia City. Mr. Conboie has taken an active interest in mining stock, 
and still has holdings. 

Mr. Conboie is a Republican and was coroner in Sacrament >. In 1895 
he was elected to the Nevada legislature, but was def'.^ated for the following 
term. He was then elected to the state senate, as it was believed that the 
incumbent could not retain his scat and the position of army paymaster, but 
he could and did. Mr. Conboie was returned to his p-esent responsible office 
by a good majority. Mr. Conboie is held in the highest esteem throughout the 
state. He served on the staff of Major General Keating with rank of colonel. 
and upon the stafif of two of the .succeeding governors, and is now on the 
staff of Governor Sparks with the same rank. For the ]iast forty years 
he has been a mcnil)er of the Masonic fraternity and the Independent Order 
of Odd h'ellows, and for twenty years a Knight of Pythias, and is on the 
staff of Major General Carnaban with the rank of colonel in the uniform 

In 1876 he was hajipily married to Alice Agnes Fuller, a nati\e o\ C.'di- 
fornia and a daughter of Richard I'"uller. who was a connection f)f the family 
of Chief Justice I'uller. One son was Irarn of this union, namely, Joseph 
A., Jr., now married and a resident of .San Francisco. Mrs. Conboie died 
in 1888. 


P. L. FLANIGAN. When we think tliat P. L. Flanigan came to Reno 
a young- man of nineteen \ears without any cajiital ar.d liegan life liere as a 
sheep herder, and tliat lie is to-day the largest individual taxpayer of his 
county, it is a record that seems almost plienomenal, and yet his entire career 
has heen one of husiness acti\-ity that will hear the closest investigation and 
scrutiny. He has based his Imsiness principles and actions u])on strict ad- 
herence to the rules which govern industry, econonn' and unswerving in- 
tegrity. His enterprise and progressive spirit have made him a typical 
.\merican citizen in ever}- sense of the word, and he well deserves mention 
in this history. What he is to-day he has made himself, for he began in life 
with nothing but his willing hands and unfaltering energy to aid him. By 
constant exertion, associated with good judgment, he has raised him.self 
to the prominent position he n(.)w holds, ha\'ing the ':'riendship of many an.l 
the respect of all who know him. 

Mr. Flanigan was born in Tioga county. New York, February lo, 1838, 
and is of Irish lineage, his father, James Flanigan, having been born on the 
Emerald isle, whence he came to the United States when sixteen years ( f 
age. He settled in New York and for a numlier of years engaged in teach- 
ing school in New York city. He married Miss Hannah Linahan, a native 
of Ireland, and he de])arted this life in 1902, at the age of eighty years, 
while his wife survives him and is now living in Reno in the seventieth ve:ir 
of her age. He was a man of strong mentality and attained considerable 
prominence and success as an educator. To him and his wife were born 
seven children, four of whom are residing" in Nevada, one daughter living 
with her mother in Reno. James also makes his l.ome in this citv, and 
Joseph D. Flanigan is engaged in the sheep business w ith bis brc.itber, P. I„ 

In his nati\e town P. L. Flanigan was reared and educated, and at 
the age oi nineteen years came to Nevada, at once m;'.king his way to Reno, 
where he took uj) his abode in 1877. Here he began life on his own account 
as a sheep herder, Init, sa\ing his wages, lie soon made arrangements to 
engage in business (_)n his own account. Since that lime be has continually 
increased bis holdings in live-stock, and is the oAvner of sixtv thousand head 
of sheep, five thousand head of cattle and sixty thousand acres of land, all 
in Washoe county, Nevada, and Modoc and Lassen counties, California. 
This is an indication of Mr. Flanigan's prosperity, but it does not by any 
means represent the extent of his business interests. He is a man of resource- 
ful ability, quick to note and improve an opportunity, and he has developed 
in Reno one of its most important enterjjrises. Here he has built the large 
brick warehouse and cold storage plant, the warehouse Ijeing one hundred 
by one hundred and sixty feet. When it was built in 1901 it was believed 
by many to be far too large and that it could ne\er be used, but to-day every 
foot of space is occupied clear to the ceiling and more room is needed. The 
cold storage is used for the storage of fresh and salt meats and has proved 
a paying concern. Mr. Flanigan also handles large quantities of w(X)l and 
many other commodities, and his business has reached a very extensive figure. 
He is also the principal stockholder in the Water, Light & Power Company 
of Reno, furnishing the city with water, power, eleccric light and gas. Of 


tlie conipan\- Mr. Flanigan is the president. He is also a stocklmlder. a 
director and one of the vice presidents of the Bank of Nevada, and is thns 
closely associated with some of tlie mamnioth enterprises of the state, adding 
vastly to its wealth, as well as to his indi\idual success. 

In 1900 Mr. Flanigan was united in marriage to Miss Hannah Linahan. 
a native of California. She h )re the same maiden name as did his mother, 
and yet they were not related. They have two children, Paul L. and Helen 
May, who add life and light to the- household. Mr. Flanigan has erected one 
of the finest residences in Reuo on South Virginia street, and his wife pre- 
sides with gracious hospitalit}- o\er this lieautiful home, which is supplied 
with all the adornments that wealth can secure and refined taste suggest. 
Mr. Flanigan is an earnest Republican, hut not an office-seeker. He belongs 
to the Catholic Benevolent Society, and he and his family adhere to the 
faith of his ancestors and are mem1)ers of the Roman Catholic church. 

Few indeed within the space of a quarter of a century ha\-e acliie\ed 
so brilliant a success in the business world as Mr. Flanigan. Tireless energy. 
honorable effort and a genius for devising and executing the right thing at 
the right time, added to every-day common sense — these are the chief char- 
acteristics of the man. They have made him a prominent factor in industrial 
and agrcultural circles of the west, and he stands to-day as one of the lead- 
ing business men of the state. 

FRANK J. STEINMETZ, tme of the progressive young business men 
of Carson City, Nevada, and the oldest druggist in the place, was born in 
Sutter Creek, .\mador county, California, February 10, 1862. He comes 
of German and English ancestry. His father. Jacob Steinmetz, was born 
in Germany and came to the United States in the year 1847, when fifteen 
years of age. In 1854 he went to California and located in Amador county. 
His trade was that of a shoemaker, but he afterwards became a manufac- 
turer of liarness. Later he liecame a merchant, and now makes his home 
in Warm Springs, Alameda county. C'filifornia. In the year 1861 he married 
Miss Helen S. Hubbell, a native of Ohio and of English ancestry. They 
are the parents of four children, of whom h'nnik J. is the eldest and the 
only one residing in Nevada. 

Mr. Steinmetz received his education in the common schools of Cali- 
fornia. At the age of seventeen years he entered the drug business in Yolo 
county, California. In the spring of 1882 he went to San Francisco, where 
he served as a clerk in a drug store and attended the College of Pharmacy. 
He removed to Car.son City in June. 1885, where he has resided almost con- 
tinuously since. Eight years later he became proprietor of the store where 
lie is now doing business, and has since then by his honor.'iblc luctbnds built 
up a valualjle trade. 

On Feljruary 15. 1896, be was married to Miss Lola F. Gliddeu. of 
San Francisco, the second daughter of .\. K. P. and Mary FI. Gliddcn. 
They have one child. Ruth Lolita. Mr. Steinmetz is i ne of the five members 
of the Nevada .State Board of Pharmacy, and upon its organization w;is 
elected its secretary, which olTice he slill holds. He is a most worthy and 


prominent member of tlie Masonic onlcr. hotli lilue;c ami chapter, llie 
Eastern Star and the Kniglits of I'ythias. In his pohtical .arfiliations he is a 
Repnhhcan. ■* 

EDWARD DOUGHERTY BOYLE was a native of connt> Donegal, 
Ireland, coming with his parents to the United States in 1833, when they 
settled in the state of Pennsylvania. .\s a youth he worked in the iron works 
of Brady's Bend, and in 1852 came to the Pacific coast hy the isthmus 
route. He mined through California uniil 1863, when he came to Nevada, 
where he was identified with the mining industries of the state, and 
especial!}' the Comstock Lode, until his death. 

He was prominent in politics, h.aving represented Storey county for 
twelve years in the senate of the state legislature, took an active interest in 
the militia, in which he was a lieutenant colonel; and \vas an active and 
conspicuous figure in the jiulilic work of the communities in which he resided. 
He was a fellow- in tlie ,\stronomical Society of the l^icilic and dexoted his 
spare time to astronomical and literary research. 

Lack of opportunity in his youth did not hinder him in the gaining 
of an exceptionally broad ;uiil linished education, for he was as competent in 
the technical branches of his engineering profession as his vast mining 
c.xperierice made him in its ])ractice. 

Prior to 1877 he was in charge of the Justice and Waller Defeat Mines 
in lower Gold Hill, leaving the former named to take the superintendency 
of the .\lta, which ])osition he held for twenty-five years, accumulating at 
the same time extensive mining interests throughout the state and the west. 

In 1901 he tcjok the management of the North Rapidan Mine in Como. 
Nevada. On January 2, 1902, wdiile driving to Dayton from the mine with 
a companion, his team became unmanageable, and from the injuries recei\'ed 
he died on the 9th of the following month, leaving a wife, wdio survived him 
only a few weeks, and two sons, Emmet D., and Alexander M., the former 
of whom .succeeded his father in the management of the North Rapidan. 

Mr. Boyle leaves a memor)- conspicuous for charity, ability and scrupu- 
lous lionesty, and his death dejirived the state of Nevada of one wdio for 
nearlv a third of a century had devoted his best energies to her u|)building. 
r>\' his death Newada lost one of her most honorable and respected citizens. 

HENRY FRED DANGBERG. SR.. principal member and founder of 
the well known firm of H. F. Dangberg Land and Li\-e Stock Company, in 
Gardnerville, Douglas county, Nevada, has had a characteristic western 
career, and his life history is best told in the successive enterprises to which 
he has devoted his energies from the time of boyhood. After coming to 
America he engaged in hard manual labor for many years; he came to 
Nevada in the early days, and from mining turned his attention to the stock 
business, in which he has progressed, oftentimes by leaps and bounds, luiti! 
he is now one of the largest producers in the state, as well as one of its 
most honored and esteemed business men and public-spirited citizens. 


He was born in Westphalia. Germany. September i6. 1S30, being a 
son of William and Katrina (Duckweiler) Danglierg, the former also a 
native of Westphalia and a farmer by occupation. Henry Dangberg attended 
school in his native land, and at the age of eighteen, in 1848. came to the 
United States, where his first work was in rafting logs on the Mississippi, 
that rough yet care-free life which Mark Twain has so interestingly described 
and left as a picture of past scenes never to be revived in real life. While 
in the old country he had worked in a flour mill, and while stopping in St. 
Louis secured employment in a mill, where he worked for a year. He was 
then on a farm in Illinois for three years, but in 1853 left the middle west 
and set out for the goal of his future endeavors and successes. He worked 
his way across the plains by driving two hundred head of stock, and landed 
in Dayton, Nevada. October 11. 1853. On the following day he went to the 
mines in Virginia City, and was engaged in mining until 1857. He made 
permanent location in Carson valley in that year, and that has been the 
scene of his activities ever since. He started in stock-raising, which industry 
he lias built up from small beginnings. The H. F. Dangberg Land and 
Live Stock Company was incorporated in igo2, and it now controls twenty 
thousand acres of fine land and is one of the largest stock-raising concerns 
in the state. 

Mr. Dangl>erg was three times a memlier of the state lower house and 
twice represented Douglas county in the state senate. He is an independent 
in politics, and is a member of the Lutheran church. He married Miss 
Margaret G. Ferris, a native nf Illinois, and they had the following chil- 
dren : Henry F.. Jr.: Albert, born March 22, 1868, died March 20, 1870; 
John B., lx)rn January 10, 1871 ; Eva K., born August 19, 1873; George 
F., born July 20, 1875; and Clarence O., Ixirn ]\Iarch 30, 1879. 

HON. JULES E. GIGNOUX is one of Nevada's most prominent 
citizens and mine-owners. He is a native of the Empire state, his birth hav- 
ing occurred on Staten Island. New N'ork, on the 14th of July, 184S, and he is 
of French and English ancestry. His grandfather. Claude Gignoux, v>as born 
in France, and after coming to New York was for many years engaged as a 
silk importer, in which occujjation he acquired wealth. His son, who also 
bore the name of Claude, was born in New York city and became identified 
with his father's business, spending his entire life in that city, and he attained 
to the ripe old age of eighty-two years. He married Miss Harriet Christ- 
mas, a native of Brooklyn, New York, and she was called to the home beyond 
when seventy-one years of age. They became the ]:)arents of ten children, 
of whom five are still living. 

J. E. Gignoux, the only representative of the aliove family in Nevada, 
acquired his higher education in Germany, and lie is now recognized as a and metallurgist of eminent ability. For three years he was a mining 
engineer in Virginia City, and in 1879 came to this city as chemist for the 
Lyon Mill i1- ^Iining Company. Three years ago he ]) stock in 
the Nevada reduction works and cyanide i)lant, one of the most complete 


mining, milling and rednction works in the state of Nevada. 'J'he mill has 
twenty stamps, of one thousand poimds, and Iiy constant remodeling has been 
made' modern in every particular. By the cyanide process they consume 
one hundred tons a day, and the company mine their own rock, haul it to 
the mill and there it is utilized for many purposes, even to the refining of 
gold. They use a new cyanide process, invented by Mr. Gignoux's partner, 
Herman Davis, and this is a very valuable improvement. The company also 
manufacture all their own tools and the large mountain wagons, in fact 
making everythi