Skip to main content

Full text of "History of the state of New York"

See other formats

Hntorsttg of JPtttabur^li 

Darlington Memorial Library 



v. Z 





, V — . r " 

r%f: r>! 





>■ , .! 

■■''. •'■. •.•;..• .■.,■ ■■ . , <-a' .; 

• ' :< kv* vi ;'•%• ^i^^^M '■ K'- '^ ' ■•'.:-*, *^ % 

\^.f -*«n ;/" ': ■ 




>t.vt* • 

";' v; V 

1 ..■» -' * . 

i • ■ 

»';^f ^- ^^V:;, 

- ^ 

^■yjtA ■, ,»,♦■. 




';■• '.■ 













"2^/7 3 ^.V 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 187], by 

John Romevn Brodhead, 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



When this volume was begun, it was my purpose to bring its 
contents down to the accession of Queen Anne of England, and 
the chapters embracing the years between 1691 and 1702 are ready 
for the printer. But, by the affluence of original authorities, and 
the temptation to use them, perhaps, too liberally, this book, in 
spite of laborious condensation, may have grown unfashionably 
large ; and these chapters must be reserved for another volume — 
should the public manifest a desire to learn more of early 'New 
York, down to the inauguration of ^Yashington. 

Descended from an. English officer who helped his king to con- 
quer Dutch New Netherland, as well as from a colonial Hollander 
who stood up manfully for his Kepublican Fatherland, I feel no 
partiality in telling the history of liie greatest European plantation 
in America. My object has ]been to exhibit the truth honestly and 
minutely. In doing this, I have long and carefully studied the re- 
ceived authorities relating to the colonial annals of our country, 
and also all that I have seen, recently brought to light. If I have 
missed my aim, let my failure be imputed to incapacity rather than 
to lack of industry or candor. 

John Roivietn Beodhead. 

Neio York, February, 1871. 


C II A r T E R I. 
War at hand; Louis the Fourteenth, page 1 ; The Dutch Republic, William of Orange, 
and John De Witt, 2 ; England and Charles, 3 ; James, Duke of York, 4 ; The En- 
glish King's jNIinisters, 5 ; Downing, G ; Canada, New England, New Netherland, 
and Virginia, 7; Admirable Situation of New Netherland, 8, 9 ; Territorial Jealousies 
in North America, 10, 11 ; Charles's Policy, 12 ; English new Navigation Law, 13 ; 
New Netherland to be seized by England, 14 ; The Duke of York's Patent, 15, 16 ; 
Colonel Richard NicoUs, 17; Royal Commissioners, 18; Instractions of the Commis- 
sioners, 19 ; English Expedition against New Netherland, 20 ; Infatuation in Hol- 
land, 21 ; Swedish Complaints, 22 ; States General refuse to defend New Netherland, 
23 ; New Amsterdam blockaded, 24 ; Stup-esant returns from Fort Orange, 25 ; 
The Metropolis defenseless, 2G ; Nicolls demands the Surrender of Jlanhattan, 27 ; 
Stuyvesant's Letter to the W. I. Company ; Willett and Winthrop, 28 ; Winthrop's 
Letter to Stuy^-esant, 29 ; Stuyvesant tears up Winthrop's Letter, 30 ; Stuyvesant's 
Justification of the Dutch Title, 31 ; Nicolls at Gravesend, 32 ; Submission of Long 
Island to the English ; New Amsterdam beleaguered, 33 ; Panic in the Metropolis, 
34; English and Dutch Commissioners appointed, 35 ; Articles of Capitulation agi'ced 
upon, 3G ; Surrender of New Netherland to the English, 37-41. 



Fort Amsterdam given up, and the English Flag hoisted, 42 ; New York and Fort 
James named ; Nicolls's new Goverament, 43 ; English and Dutch Church Service, 
44 ; Fort Orange submits, and is named Albany ; IManning commander ; Brodhead 
in command at Esopus, 4G ; Oath of Allegiance requii-ed from the Dutch, 47 ; York- 
shire and Albania, 48 ; Nicolls's Grants of Land, 49 ; Conquest of the Delaware by 
the English, 50-53; Connecticut Boinidarj', 53; Long Island adjudged to New York, 
54 ; Boundaries established between New York and Connecticut, 55 ; Long Island 
Affairs, 5G ; The Dutch Government demands Restitution of New Netheriand, 57 ; 
Hostihties begun by England, 58 ; Nicolls seizes the W. I. Company's Estate, 59 ; 
Stuy\-esant retunis to Holland ; New City Officers in New York, 60 ; Provincial Rev- 
enue, CI ; Royal Commissioners in New England ; Nicolls establishes a Court of As- 
sizes in New York, 02 ; Long Island or Yorkshire divided into Ridings, 63 ; Purpose 
of the Court of Assizes, 64 ; The Duke of York's Power to make Laws, 65 ; Enghsh 
Laws established, 66; Meeting at Hempstead; Nicolls's Code, 67, G8 ; Hempstead 
Address to the Duke of York, 69; "The Duke's Laws," 70-73; Race-course at 
Hempstead ; Albany Affairs, 74 ; City Government of New York changed, 75 ; Wil- 
lett Mayor, 76 ; The Dutch dissatisfied, 77 ; Holland appeals to France against En- 
gland, 78 ; War declared between Holland and England, 79 ; Feeling in New York, 


80; Berkeley and Carteret, 81 ; James conveys a part of New York to tliem, and 
calls it "New Jersey," 82 ; The Duke's Letter to Nicolls, 83 ; Philip Carteret Gov- 
ernor of New Jersey, 84-86 ; Delaware and Pemaquid, 86 ; Admiralty Court in New 
York, 87 ; NicoUs's Instructions to Brodhead at Esopus, 88 ; Purchase of Esopus 
Lands ; NicoUs's new offers to Planters, 89 ; Case of Witchcraft, 90 ; Dutch Prop- 
erty confiscated by Nicolls ; Condition of New York, 91, 92 ; War between the Dutch 
and English in Em-ope, 93-96. 



France declares War against England ; Charles's Colonial Orders, 97 ; New York and 
Canada, 98 ; The Jesuits oppose the Liquor Trade, 99 ; De Mezy recalled, and Cour- 
celles Governor of Canada; Talon Intendant, 100 ; Tracy Viceroy of New France, 
101 ; The Iroquois and Onnontio, 102 ; Courcelles's Expedition against the Mohawks, 
103; Action of Nicolls, 104; The Delaware Territorj-, lOG; Discontent on Long 
Island ; Nicolls warns the seditious, 107 ; Narrative of the Hempstead Delegates ; 
Action of the Court of Assizes, 108 ; New Land Patents, 109 ; New York and Al- 
bany, 110 ; Eoyal Commissioners recalled. 111 ; NicoUs's Eeport on New York, 112, 
113; Submission of the Western Iroquois to Canada, 114; The Oneidas and Mo- 
hawks submit to the French, 115; Tracy's Expedition against the Mohawks, 117- 
119; Precautions of Nicolls, 120; Van Curler drowned in Lake Champlain, 121; 
Brodhead suspended from command at Esopus, 121-123 ; Naval War between the 
Dutch and English, 124; Great Fire of London, 125; Krynssen in Virginia, 126; 
New York Privateer in Acadia, 127; French Missionaries assigned to the Iroquois, 
128-131; Stup-esant and the West India Company, 132, 133; The Dutch in the 
Thames, 134 ; Treaty of Breda ; New Netherland given up to England, 135 ; Feeling 
in London ; Fall of Clarendon, 136 ; Stuyvesant's return to New York, 137 ; Martha's 
Vineyard and Nantucket, 138 ; Fisher's Island granted to Winthrop, 139 ; Delaware 
Affairs, 140 ; Nicolls leaves New York, 142. 



Colonel Francis Lovelace Governor, 143, 144 ; Esopus Affairs ; a Printing-press want- 
ed, 145; Jesuit Missions among the Iroquois, 146-148; New Jersey Affairs ; Staten 
Island adjudged to New York, 149, 150; The English refuse Free Trade to New 
York, 151; Triple Alliance, 152; Aspect of the Metropolis, 153, 154; Panic on 
Long Island, 155; Marbletown, Hurley, and Kingston, 156, 157 ; Provincial and 
City Seals, 157, 158 ; Ministiy of the Reformed Dutch Church, 159 ; Court of As- 
sizes, 160; The Mahicans and Mohawks, 161 ; Jesuit Explorations in the West, 162; 
La Salle, Dollier, and Galinc'e explore Lakes Ontario and Erie, 163 ; Delaware Af- 
fairs, 164, 165 ; Lovelace buys Staten Island from the Indians, 165, 166 ; Esopus and 
Albany Affairs, 167 ; No foreign trading Vessels on the Hudson, 168 ; Iroquois and 
the French, 169, 170 ; Case of Witchcraft, 171 ; Long Island To-nms seditious, 172, 
173; Lutherans, 174; Reformed Dutch Church in New York, 175, 176; Captain 
James Carteret, 177 ; Iroquois Missions, 178 ; The French in the Northwest, 179 ; 
Courcelles's Voyage to Lake Ontario, 180, 181 ; North River Vessels, 182; Purchase 
of the "Domine's Bouwery" by Lovelace, 183; Death of Stuyvesant, 183; England 
and France unite against the Dutch, 184 : William Prince of Orange, 185 ; Death of 
Nicolls, 1 86 ; English Plantation Council, 1 87 ; New York, Massachusetts, and Rhode 
Island, 188, 189 ; Mainland rebuked by New York, 190 ; George Fox in America, 


191; Jesuit Missions, 102; Fort at .Cataracouy projected; Frontenac Governor of 
Canada, 193, 194 ; Law of Divorce in New York, 195 ; Post to New England estab- 
lished by Lovelace, 196-198; Pemaquid, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket, 199; 
New Jersey Affairs, 200; Lovelace in Connecticut, 201 ; English " Test Act" passed ; 
how it atiected the Duke, 201, 202 ; War between the English and Dutch, 202 ; "Or- 
ange Boven;" AYilliam the Third, 203; Death of De Witt, 204; Expedition of Ev- 
ertsen and Binckes, 205 ; the Dutch reconquer New York, 206-208. 



British Sovereignty extinguished in New York, 209 ; Province again named New Neth- 
erland, 210; Anthony Colve appointed Governor, 211 ; City of New York named 
New Orange, 211, 212; Esopus and Albany reduced, 213; Lovelace arrested, 213, 
214 ; Eastern To\\iis on Long Island submit to the Dutch, 215-218 ; Ivingston named 
Swanenburg, and Albany Willemstadt, 218; Dutch Church again established, 219 ; 
Letter from New Orange to the States General, 220, 221 ; English and French Prop- 
erty confiscated, 223 ; Andries Draeyer Commander at Willemstadt, 224 ; Fortifica- 
tion of New Orange, 225 ; Long Island Affiurs, 226-228 ; The New England Colo- 
nies, 229 ; Connecticut and Colve, 230, 231 ; New England Vessels captured, 232 ; 
New Orange Regulations, 234 ; Achter Col or New Jersey, 235 ; Jesuit IMissions, 
236, 237 ; Frontenac's Visit to Lake Ontario, 237-239 ; Fort Frontenac built at Ca- 
taracouy, 239 ; La Salle Commander, 240 ; The Upper Mississippi explored by Mai- 
quette and Jolliet, 240, 241 ; New Orange taxed for Fortifications, 242 ; Dutch Expe- 
dition to Shelter Island, 243 ; Action of the States General ; Joris Andringa appoint- 
ed Governor of New Netherland, 245, 246 ; England wishes to regain New York, 247 ; 
Marriage of the Duke of York to Mar}- of Modena, 248 ; Treaty of Westminster ; New 
Netherland restored to King Charles by tlie Dutch, 249-251 ; Dutch in New Nether- 
land disgusted, 252 ; Connecticut Boundary, 253 : Capture of French Forts in Aca- 
dia by the Dutch, 254 ; Reformed Dutch Church ; FeeHng against the Restoration of 
New Netherland to England, 255, 256 ; Major Edmund Andros commissioned to. re- 
ceive New Netherland for the King, 257, 258 ; Orders of the States General to Colve 
about the restitution of New Netherland, 259. 



Effect of the Treaty of Westminster, 260 ; Duke of York's new Patent, 261 ; Major 
Edmund Andros commissioned Governor of New York, 262-264 ; Anthony Brock- 
hoUs Lieutenant, 264; Dyer Collector of New York, 265; New Jersey Affairs, 268; 
Andros at New York, 270; New Netherland restored to England, 271; Andros's 
Proclamation, 272 ; Former Grants confirmed, 273 ; Lovelace's Estate seized for the 
Duke of York, 274 ; Long Island Towns submit to Andi'os, 275 ; Trial and Sentence 
of Manning, 276; Andros requires Oaths of Allegiance from the Dutch, 277 ; Mar- 
tha's Vineyard, Nantucket, and Delaware, 278 ; Duke of York disapproves of popu- 
lar Assemblies, 279 ; Connecticut Boundary, 279, 280 ; Philip of Pokanoket and New 
England Policy, 281, 282; Rhode Island proposes Arbitration, 283; Philip begins 
War, 283 ; Andros at Saybrook, 284 ; Connecticut Protest pronounced "a Slander" 
by Andros, 285 ; New York offers Lands to Emigrants, 286 ; Andros named " Coi'- 
laer" by the Mohawks, 287; Robert Livingston appointed Indian Secretary, 287; 
Domine Nicolaus van Rensselaer, 288 ; Massachusetts Coopers not liked on Long 
Island, 289 ; Andros helps Rhode Island, which rebidies Massachusetts, 290 ; Massa- 


(.hiisetts asperses New York, 291 ; Connecticut Agents at New York, 292 ; Duke sus- 
tains Andros's action about Connecticut, 293 ; Andros at Schaghticook, 29i ; Pliilip 
slain near ilount Hope, 295 ; Pemaquid burned, 29G ; Charles's Plantation Commit- 
tee ; Randolph sent to Boston, and insulted, 297, 298 ; Massachusetts Agents sent to 
England, 298 ; The Iroquois conquer the Andastes, 299 ; Jesuit Missionaries ; Prai- 
rie de la jSIadeleine ; Caghnawaga on the Saint Lawrence, 299 ; Domine Van Rens- 
selaer, Leisler, and Milborne; Dock in New York, 300; Delaware Affairs, 301 ; Fen- 
wick sails to the Delaware, and is imprisoned in New York, 302 ; Duties levied by 
New York on New Jersey Importations, 303 ; Quintipartite Deed for East and West 
New Jersey, 303, oO-l ; New York refuses New Jersey a separate Port, 30.") ; Andros 
and New Jersey Quakers, 305 ; Burlington founded, 306 ; Andros asserts English sov- 
ereignty over the Iroquois, 30G, 307 ; Hennepin among the Mohawks, 307 ; La Salle 
builds Barks on Lake Ontario, and returns to France, 308 ; New England called 
" Kinshon" by the Iroquois, 309 ; Maryland Agents in New York ; Greenhalgh sent 
to the Senecas, 309, 310 ; Fort Charles at Pemaquid, 310 ; New Paltz Patent, 311 ; 
Andros returns to England, and leaves Brockholls in charge of New Y''ork, 312 ; New- 
York described by Andros, 313. 



William of Orange married to Mary of England, 3U, 315 ; Peace of Nimeguen, 315 ; 
Andros knighted by Charles, 315; Andros suggests the Consolidation of New En- 
gland ; His Report about New York, 31G ; The King absolves New York from the 
"imputation" of Massachusetts, 317; Andros returns to New York with Chaplain 
Wolley ; Bolting of Flour ; Population and Shipping of the iletropolis, 318 ; Leisler 
and other New Yorkers redeemed from the Tui-ks, 319 ; Fen wick arrested on the Del- 
aware and sent to New York, 320 ; Andros complains of New England ; Case of 
Jacob JNIilbome, 321 ; Louis authorizes La Salle to explore the Mississippi, 322 ; 
French at Niagara, 323 ; Hennepin among the Senecas, 324 ; La Salle builds a Ves- 
sel above Niagara, 325; Launches the "Griffin" above Niagara, 325; Embarks on 
Lake Erie or " Conty," 326 ; The Iroquois at Albany ; " Corlaer governs the whole 
Land," 327; Conquest of the Andastes by the Iroquois, 328 ; Virginia Agents at Al- 
bany, 328 ; Andros at Pemaquid, 328 ; Dutch Labadists in New York, 328 ; Dutch 
Ministers in New York ordain Petrus Tesschenmaekei", 329 ; Coopers fined for strik- 
ing in New York ; Bolting Flour ; Shoemakers, 330 ; Imported Indian Slaves de- 
clared free in New York, 331 ; New Dutch Church in New York, 331 ; Chaplain 
Wolley retui-ns to England, 332 ; Trouble between New York and New Jersey, 332 ; 
Andros proposes Beacons and a Fort at Sandy Hook, 333 ; Carteret seized at Eliza- 
bethtown, and tried and acquitted at New York, 333, 33-1 ; Pemaquid Affairs, 335 ; 
Andros at Boston, 336 ; Negro Slaves in jMassachusetts and New York, 337 ; Habeas 
Corpus Act in England ; Freedom of the English Press ; Tories and Whigs, 338 ; 
Penn's Argument for the New Jersey Quakers, 339 ; Sir William Jones's wary and 
fallacious Opinion, 310, 341 ; James releases East and West Jersey, 342 ; Andros 
recalled, 343 ; Lewin sent by the Duke as his Agent to New York, 343, 344 ; The 
great Comet of IGSO, 345; Andros leaves New York ; Brockholls Commander-in- 
Chief, 345; Pennsylvania chartered by Charles II., 346-348 ; Brockholls relinquishes 
Pennsylvania to Penn, 349 ; Carteret's Claim to Staten Island denied, 350 ; New 
York Merchants refuse to pay Duties to the Duke, 351 ; Collector Dyer tried and his 
Case refeiTcd to the King, 352 ; Petition of the Court of Assizes to James, 353, 354; 
Disaffection in New York, 355 ; Duke of York's orders to Brockholls, 356-358 ; 


Perm's Frame of Government ; Kandolph again in Boston, S'jO ; Massacliusetts sends 
Bribes to England, 360 ; Connecticut Boundary Question referred to the Duke, 360, 
361 ; Selyns returns to New York, 361 ; La Salle's Adventures in the Mississippi Val- 
ley, 362, 363 ; Louisiana named, 364 ; De la Barre appointed Governor of Canada, 
365 ; James grants the Delaware Territory to Penn, 366 ; Philadelphia founded, 367 ; 
Penn's Treaty at Shackamaxon, 363 ; Rudyard succeeds Carteret as Governor of 
New Jersej', 368 ; Canada and New York Affairs, 369, 



Colonel Thomas Dongan appointed Governor of New York, 370 ; Dongan's Commission 
and Instructions, 371-373; James allows an Assembly in New York, 374; Spragg 
Secretary, Santen Collector, and Gordon Chaplain in New York, 374 ; Dongan ar- 
rives in New York, and summons an Assembly, 375 ; Dongan, Penn, and the Susque- 
hanna Lands, 3 76 ; Dongan renews Andros's claim of English Sovereignty over the 
Iroquois, 377 ; De la Barre against the IroquoLo and La Salle, 378 ; Louis thinks La 
Salle's Discovery "useless," 378 ; Dongan warns Castin at Pemaquid; Jealousy in 
Boston, 371) ; Clergymen in New York, 380 ; Address of the Court of Assizes to the 
Duke, 380, 381 ; Easthampton's Address to Dongan, 381 ; A Majority of the New 
York Assembly Dutchmen ; Nicolls Speaker, and Spragg Clerk, 382 ; Charter of 
Liberties adopted by the New York Assembly, and a Revenue granted to the Duke of 
York, 383, 384 ; Democratic Idea in New York ; ' ' The People" the fountain of Sov- 
ereignty, 384, 385 ; New York divided into Counties, 385, 386 ; Courts of Justice es- 
tabhshed, 386; Naturahzation Law, 387; Connecticut Boundary, 387-389; New 
York City Government ; The City divided into Wards, 389, 390 ; Metropolitan Court 
of Sessions ; Bolting of Flour, 391 ; Shipping of the Metropolis, 391 ; The City's Ad- 
dress to the Duke ; New York and New Jersey, 392 ; Dongan opposes Penn ; James's 
Orders to Dongan ; The Susquehanna Lands, 393 ; Dongan's Orders for Pemaquid, 
394 ; Dongan's Indian Policy finn for New York, 395 ; Lord Effingham, Governor of 
Virginia, visits New York, and is made a Freeman of the City, 396 ; Dongan and Ef- 
fingham at Albany; Effingham named "Assarigoa" by the Iroquois, 397; Duke of 
York's Arms put on the Iroquois Castles, 398 ; Speeches of the Iroquois to Dongan 
and Effingham, 399, 400 ; Dongan's Dispatches to London by Baxter, 401 ; De la 
Ban-e's Expedition against the Iroquois, 401, 402 ; Viele at Onondaga, 402 ; Grande 
Gueule opposes Corlaer ; The Iroquois free, 403 ; De la Barre at Fort Frontenac ; 
Goes to La Famine ; Conference there ; Grande Gueule insults De la Barre ; the 
French succumb and make a Treaty with the Iroquois, 403-405 ; Louis orders robust 
Iroquois to be sent to his Galleys, 406 ; Pemaquid ; Esopns ; Easthampton Affairs, 
407 ; Josias Clarke Chaplain in place of Gordon, 407 ; David Jamison, a Scotch 
"Sweet Singer," comes to New York and teaches a Latin School there, 407, 408 ; 
Second meeting of the New York Assembly ; Provincial Navigation Law, 408 ; Coint 
of Oyer and Terminer established ; Rudyard Attorney General, 409 ; City Corpora- 
tion ; Staten Island, 410; No " innovation" on the Hudson River to be suffered; 
Staten Island "without doubt"' belongs to New York, 411 ; Perth's Letter to Don- 
gan; Dongan's reply, 412; Connecticut Boundary Commissioners appointed, 412; 
Colonial Post with New England established by New York, 413 ; Massachusetts and 
Connecticut Boundaries, 413; Rye-House Plot in England; Princess Anne of En- 
gland married to Prince George of Denmark, 414 ; Charles dispenses with the Test 
Act, and restores James to his Offices, 415 ; James signs the New York Charter, 415; 
Massachusetts Agents foiled in London •, Charles determines to quell that Colony, 416; 


The Massachusetts Patent canceled, 417; Debate in the British Council; Halifax; 
Decision about the New England Government ; Kirke appointed its Governor ; No 
Assembly allowed, 417-41!) ; Duke of York suspends the New York Charter ; Hali- 
fax, Louis, Charles, and James ; The King and the Duke, 420. 



Decease of Charles II. ; Accession of James II., 421 ; New York Colonial Records sent 
to the King's Plantation Oifice, 422 ; New York a royal Enghsh Province ; James 
does not confirm its Charter, 423 ; Orders of James's Priiy Council to New York, 
424 ; James II. proclaimed King in New Y''ork, 425 ; Address of the Metropolitan 
Coi-poration to James, 426 ; Jews in New York, 426, 427 ; Last Meeting of the New 
York Assembly, 427, 428 ; Thanksgiving ; Court of Exchequer, 428 ; Dongan gives 
Passes to New Yorkers to hunt in the West, 429 ; Conference with the Iroquois at 
Albany, 430 ; Louis removes De la Baire, and appoints Denonville Governor of Can- 
ada, 431 ; Dongan and Denonville ; New Jersey ; Reid and Scott, 432 ; James con- 
siders Colonial Affairs ; Co^nnecticut, Rhode Island, Jersey, and Delaware in danger, 
433 ; New England regulated ; Randolph Deputy Postmaster, 434 ; Baptism of Ne- 
groes in the Enghsh Plantations, 434 ; Louis revokes the Edict of Nantes, 435 ; Penn 
gains the Delaware Territory, 435, 436 ; Press Censorship revived in England, 436 ; 
William Bradford begins to print in Philadelphia, 437 ; Dongan granted Lands on 
Long Island, 437 ; Dongan's Charter to the City of New York, 438 ; Albany incor- 
porated as a City, 439 ; Robert Livingston Clerk of Albany, 439, 440 ; Dongan op- 
poses Denonville's Policy about the Iroquois, 440-442 ; Lamberville deceived by De- 
nonville, 442 ; Dongan again sends Rooseboom and others to the West ; MacGregorie 
sent after Rooseboom, 443, 444 ; Huguenots sheltered in New York, 444 ; Palmer 
and West sent to Pemaquid, 444, 445 ; Dudley and Randolph installed at Boston ; 
Quakers unjustly taxed at Plymouth, 445, 446 ; Connecticut claimed by James ; Dud- 
ley and Treat against Dongan, 446, 447; Consolidation of his American Colonies the 
Idea of James ; Royal in place of Colonial Despotism, 447, 448 ; James commissions 
Sir Edmund Andros to be his Governor of New England, 448, 449 ; James allows 
Liberty of Conscience to "all Persons" in New England, 450; Great Seal of New 
England, 451 ; Its " remarkable Motto" taken from Claudian, 451 ; English Soldiers 
sent to Boston by James II., 451 ; Captain Francis Nicholson Lieutenant under An- 
dros, 451 ; James orders Pemaquid to be taken from New York and annexed to New 
England; Dongan in favor of the change, 451, 452 ; James gives Dongan a royal 
Commission, 452 ; Dongan's Instructions, 453 ; James repeals the New York Charter 
of Liberties, 453 ; The Church of England established in New York, 454 ; English 
Schoolmasters to be licensed in New York, and Liberty of Conscience declared by 
James, 454; "No innovation" to be allowed on the Hudson River; Royal African 
Company ; Conversion of Negroes and Indians in New York ; No unlicensed Print- 
ing in New York, 455 ; Orders of James's Plantation Committee to Dongan, 456 ; 
James 11. establishes the English Episcopal Church in New York ; Bishop Compton ; 
Ai-chbishop Sancroft, 456 ; James's Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction in his American Colo- 
nies, 457 ; Rev. Alexander Innis Chaplain at Port James, 457 ; Dongan receives his 
royal Commission ; His Counselors sworn ; Population of New York in 1686, 458 ; 
The New York Assembly dissolved by Order of James 11. , 458 ; First Laws passed 
by Dongan and his Council, 459 ; Kingston Patent, 459 ; Quakers in New York not 
exempted from Military Service, 459 ; Northern Boundary between New York and 
New Jersey, 459 ; Dongan complains of East Jersey, Smuggling, and Interlopers, 


4G0 ; Dongan wishes a Tort built on Sandy Hooli to command the Channel to New 
York, 460; Thinks that New Jersey should be reannexed to New York, 461 ; The 
Mouth of the Hudson Eiver at Sandy Hook, 461 ; Inconvenience of a separate Port 
in New Jersey, 461 ; Collector Santen suspended and sent a Prisoner to England, 462 ; 
Van Cortlandt and Graham Joint Collectors in Santen's place, 462 ; Palmer and 
Bayard sworn Counselors, 462 ; Dongan's Report on New York sent to England, 462 ; 
Its interesting Details ; Militia of the Province ; Prolific Woman ; Forts James, Al- 
bany, and Charles, 462, 463 ; Dongan advises Pemaquid to be annexed to Massachu- 
setts, and Connecticut to New York, 463 ; Eight of New York to Connecticut, 464 ; 
English, Scotch, Irish, and French Immigrants into New Yoi'k, 464 ; Petition of 
French Protestants to James II., 464 ; Religious Persuasions in New York ; The 
Dutch Church used by Episcopalians, etc., 464, 465 ; No Beggars nor Idlers in New 
York, 465 ; Address of the Corporation of New York City to King James II., 465 ; 
Case of Stepney, a Dancing-master, 465 ; Dongan appoints a New York Postmaster, 
466 ; William Nicolls made Attorney General of New York, 4G6 ; A New York Ship 
pillaged by Irish Pirates, 466; The Iroquois the "bulwark" of New York against 
Canada, 466 ; Dongan's Advice to James unheeded, 466, 467 ; Sir Edmund Andros 
at Boston, 467 ; Assumes the Government of New England, 467 ; Dudley Licenser 
of the Press, and Judges appointed in the Dominion of New England, 467 ; How An- 
dros's coming to New England afiected New York, 468 ; Dongan surrenders Pema- 
quid or Cornwall to the New England Government, 468 ; Artful Letter of Connecti- 
cut to Loi"d Sunderland, 408 ; Dongan sends Palmer and Graham to Connecticut, 
469 ; Palmer and Graham's Report to Dongan, 470 ; Dongan's Report to Lord Sun- 
derland, 470 ; Assumed Submission of Connecticut to James, 471 ; Dongan reproves 
the Conduct of Connecticut, 472 ; Andros takes the Government of Connecticut into 
his hands, 473 ; The Senecas seek the Protection of Corlaer, 474 ; Whitehall Treaty 
of Neutrality in North America, 475 ; Vaudreuil in Canada ; Denonville's Expedition 
against the Senecas, 476 ; Iroquois sent Prisoners to France, 476 ; Lamberville in 
Danger, 477 ; The French at Irondequoit ; La Fontaine Marion shot, 478 ; Denon- 
ville's Advance, 479 ; French take Possession of the Seneca Country, 480 ; Denonr 
ville builds a Fort at Niagara, 480 ; Dongan's Conference with the Iroquois at Al- 
bany, 481 ; No French Priests to be allowed among the Iroquois, 482 ; Dongan sup- 
plies the Iroquois with Arms, 483 ; War Tax in New York, 484 ; Palmer goes to En- 
gland with Dongan's Dispatches, 485 ; Spanish Indian Slaves again set free, 486 ; 
BrockhoUs in Command at New York, 487 ; Dongan winters at Albany, 488 ; De- 
nonville sends Vaillant and Dumont to Albany, 489 ; James's Declaration of Liberty 
of Conscience, 490 ; French Protestant Refugees favored by James, 490 ; Perth Am- 
boy made a Port subject to New York, 491 ; New Royal Seal for New York, 491 ; 
Plowman appointed Collector of New York, 492 ; James's Instructions to Dongan 
about the Iroquois, 492 ; Agreement between James and Louis to prevent Colonial 
Hostilities, 493 ; The French assert Sovereignty over the Iroquois, 494 ; Negotiations 
of the French Agents with Dongan at Albany, 494 ; Dongan's Report to Sunderland, 
495; Dongan calls on the neighboring Colonies for Help, 496 ; Address of New York 
to the Kiiig, 496. 



Colonial Administration of James the Second, 497 ; Popular Representation not allow- 
ed in the English Colonies, 498 ; James faithful to England, 499 ; New York Con- 
solidated with New England, 500 ; Andros appointed Viceroy of the Dominion, 501 } 


Jf.mes's new Commission to Andros, 502 ; Andros's Instructions, 503 ; Francis Nich- 
olson appointed Lieutenant Governor, 504 ; New Tax levied in New York, 505 ; The 
Reformed Dutch Church asks to be Incorporated, 506 ; New York, Canada, and the 
Iroquois, 507 ; Grande-Gueule rebukes Denonville, 508 ; Denonville makes Peace 
with the Iroquois, who assert their independence of England and France, 508 ; French 
Fort at Niagara demolished, 509 ; Indian Slaves to be set Free, 509 ; Tax Law Sus- 
pended, 510 ; Andros at Pemaquid, 510 ; Keturns to Boston, 511 ; Graham and Ja- 
mison favored by Andros, 511 ; Palmer made a New England Judge, 511 ; Andros 
in New Ywk ; The Seal of New York broken, 512 ; New Jersey reduced, 512 ; New 
York dislikes Annexation to New England, 513 ; New York and Massachusetts very 
different, 511: ; Laws passed at New York by Andros, 515 ; Selyns's Opinion of An- 
dros ; Hinckley's Opinion of Dongan, 51G ; Birth of the Prince of Wales ; Eejoicings 
in New York, 516 ; Andros at Albany calls the Iroquois " Children," 517 ; The Mo- 
hawks wish to remain "Brethren," 518 ; Adario captures the Iroquois Delegates, 519 ; 
Denonville baffled ; Callieres sent to France, 520 ; Andros returns to Boston, leaving 
Nicholson in command at New York, 521 ; Andros goes to Maine as General, 522 ; 
Traitorous Boston Merchants ; Garrisons established in Maine by Andros, 523 ; Buc- 
caneers or Pirates imprisoned by. Nicholson in Boston, 52-1 ; The old Boston Mint 
coins Piratical Plate, 525 ; The Massachusetts Hedge broken by Episcopal wild 
Beasts ; Misrepresentations of Andros, 526 ; The New York Confidents of the Gov- 
ernor, 527; Puritan hatred of Episcopacy ; Mather goes to London, 528; Sir Wil- 
liam Phipps High Sheriff of New England, 529 ; Mather kindly received by James, 
529 ; Massachusetts wishes James to establish a Colonial Landed Aristocracy, 530 ; 
James favors Penn, 531 ; James's Second Declaration for Liberty of Conscience, 532 ; 
Trial and Acquittal of the Bishops, 532 ; Birth of the Prince of Wales, 532 ; The 
Prince of Orange invited to England, 532 ; The Prince's Policy, 533 ; Cornells Ev- 
ertsen of Zeeland ; William lands at Torbay, 533 ; James's Proclamation and Letters 
to the American Colonies, 53-1 ; Lovelace, Coi-nbury, and others flock to William, 
53-t ; James throws his Great Seal into the Thames and goes to France, 535. 



William in London, 536 ; Orange Ribands worn, 536 ; William's first Colonial Acts, 
537 ; The Prince's Circular Letter not sent to Boston, 537 ; The Convention Parlia- 
ment : Its Declaration of Right copied from the Dutch, 538 ; William and Mary King 
and Queen of England, 539 ; William's Plantation Committee, 539 ; All Persons to 
remain in their old Offices in the Plantations until farther Orders, 540 ; English 
Corporation Bill ftiils, 541 ; Phipps and Mather's Petition to William, 541 ; Wil- 
liam wishes to preseiTe the Dominion of New England whole, 542 ; James and 
Phipps, 543 ; Phipps goes to Boston, 543 ; The Plantations to be made more de- 
pendent on the Crown of England, 544 ; James in Ireland, 544 ; War declared 
between England and France, 545 ; Colonial Policy of Louis, 545 ; Iroquois Pris- 
oners sent home from France, 546; Callieres's Project approved by Louis, 547; 
Denonville recalled, and Frontenac appointed Governor of Canada, 547 ; Fronte- 
nac's Instructions in regard to New York, 547 ; Andros's Proclamation from Pem- 
aquid, 548 ; Andros returns to Boston, 549 ; A "general Buzzing" at Boston, 550; 
Politics of the Boston Gentlemen ; Lies circulated, 551 ; Insurrection in Boston, 552 ; 
Andros Imprisoned by the Boston Insurgents, 553 ; Plymouth does not like " to trot 
after the Bay Horse," 554; Secession triumphs, 554; Connecticut revolts, 555; 
Phipps's Felony at Boston, 555 ; Inconsistency of the Boston Revolt, 556 ; Virginia, 


Maryland, and Pennsylvania, 55G ; Nicholson Lieutenant Governor at New York, 
557 ; Phillipse, Van Cortlandt, and Bayard Resident Counselors, 558 ; Convention of 
Officers called in New York, 559 ; Nicholson's Letter to the Boston Eebels, 560 ; 
Long Island in trouble, 560 ; Nicholson's Eeport to AVilliam sent by Eiggs to En- 
gland, 561 ; Andros's verbal Orders to Nicholson, 561 ; Baxter and Eussell suspend- 
ed, 562 ; Excessive Protestantism in New York, 563 ; Nicholson insulted and misrep- 
resented, 563 ; Jacob Leisler a German, not a Dutchman, 564 ; Dutch Influence in 
New York ; Leisler's Declaration, 566 ; Leisler in Fort James, 567 ; Leisler's Proc- 
lamation from Fort James, 568 ; Leisler's Address to William, 569 ; Nicholson leaves 
New York ; Letter of the Council to the English Government, 570 ; Leisler assumes 
the Command, 571 ; William and Mary proclaimed in New York, 572 ; Leisler's Con- 
vention at New York, 573 ; Committee of Safety ; Leisler Captain of the Fort, 574 ; 
Leisler commissioned as Commander-in-Chief by his Committee of Safety, 575 ; Leis- 
ler writes to William, 576 ; Jacob Milborne ; His bad Advice, 576 ; Michaelma^ 
Charter Election in New York, 577 ; Leisler attempts Albany, 578 ; Bleecker and 
Schuyler, 579; Bayard at Albany, 580; The Albany Convention, 581; Millet an 
Oneida Sachem, 582 ; The Iroquois ravage La Chine, 583 ; Leisler writes to Wen- 
dell and Bleecker at Albany, 584 ; Eival Governments in New York and Albany, 585 ; 
Leisler's Despotism, 586 ; Milborne sent to Albany, 587 ; Bleecker and Schuyler op- 
pose Milborne, who is baffled at Albany, 588 ; Connecticut sends Soldiers to Albany, 
589 ; Bayard denounces Leisler, 589 ; Phillipse submits to Leisler, 590 ; The Fourth 
and Fifth of November Holidays in New York, 591. 



Trouble in London about the Colonies, 592 ; WiUiam's Letter to Massachusetts, 593 ; 
His Letter to'Nicholson at New York, 593 ; Eiggs brings the King's Dispatches to 
New York, 594 ; Henry Sloughter appointed Governor of New York, 594 ; Nicholson 
made Lieutenant Governor of Virginia, 595 ; Stoll foiled in London ; Matthew 
Clarkson appointed Secretary of New York, 596 ; Leisler seizes the royal Dispatches 
to Nicholson and his Council, brought by Riggs to New York, 597 ; Leisler assumes 
to be Lieutenant Governor, 598 ; He appoints Counselors, and makes a Seal for New 
York, 599 ; Leisler issues new Commissions and erects Courts, 600 ; Leisler's Letters 
to the King and Bishop Burnet, 600 ; Bayard and Nicholson Prisoners in the Fort, 
601 ; Albany Convention declares against Leisler, 002; Frontenac at Quebec, 603; 
French Message to the Iroquois ; Grand Council at Onondaga, 604 ; The Iroquois stick 
to " Quider, " 005 ; Advice to attack Quebec, 605 ; Frontenac's Expedition against 
Schenectady, 606 ; Schenectady attacked, 607 ; Domine Tesschenmaeker and others 
killed, and Prisoners taken, 608 : Captain Alexander Glen, or Coudre, 608 ; The French 
return to Canada, 609 ; Albany advises an attack on Canada, 609 ; The Mohawks at 
Albany, 610 ; The Albany Convention sends Barentsen to New York, and Livingston, 
Teunissen, and Garton to New England, 61 1 ; Albany urges the union of all the British 
Colonies against Canada, 611 ; Leisler imprisons Andros's officers, 611 ; DonganinNew 
Jersey, 612 ; Leisler rebuked by Connecticut, 612 ; Leisler tries to arrest Livingston, 
613; Massachusetts cold toward New York, 613; DeBruyn and others sent by Leisler 
to Boston ; Fort Orange surrendered to them, 614 ; Suffolk County disregards Leisler's 
authority, but his Assembly meets, 615 ; A Colonial Congress at New York ; Its Ac- 
tion, 616; New York Cruisers against the French, 617; Frontenac sends D'Eau to 
Onondaga, 617 ; Conference at Albany with the Iroquois, 617 ; D'Eau seized at Al- 
bany and sent to New York by the Iroquois; Kryn, the great Mohawk, slain, 618; 


StoU returns from London with bad News for Leisler, 618 ; Address of the principal 
Inhabitants of New York to William and Mary, G19 ; Leisler assaulted; Sends Let- 
ters to the King by Blagge, 619 ; Leisler appoints Milborne General, who is objected 
to by Connecticut and Massachusetts, 620 ; Winthrop appointed General ; Marches 
to Albany ; Council of War at Wood Creek, 620 ; Epidemic Small-pox ; The Army 
marches back to Albany ; Leisler imprisons Winthrop, and is rebuked by Connecti- 
cut, 621 ; Captain John Schuyler's successful Expedition against La Prairie, 622 ; 
Leislers intemperate Letters to Massachusetts and Connecticut, 622 ; Phipps re- 
pulsed at Quebec ; Massachusetts obliged to issue Paper Money, 623 ; New York 
Cruisers take French Prizes, 623 ; Assembly at New York ; Laws passed, 623 ; Al- 
bany Officers appointed, 624 ; Leisler quarrels with the Dutch and French Clergy of 
the Province, 624, 625 ; Huguenots at New Eochelle, 625 ; Milborne sent to subdue 
the opponents of Leisler on Long Island, 625 ; Clapp's Letter against Leisler to the 
t Secretary of State, 625, 626 ; Viele Agent at Onondaga, 626 ; Boston advises Leisler 
to be moderate, 626 ; Leisler's abusive Letter to Connecticut, 626 ; Last Acts of 
Leisler's Despotism, 627 ; William's New York Goverament, 627 ; Sloughter's Com- 
mission ; Assembly ; Council, 627, 628 ; Sloughter's Instructions ; Councilors, 628 ; 
Andros and others sent to England and discharged, 629 ; Dudley a New York Coun- 
cilor, 629 ; New Provincial Seal ; Soldiers for New York ; Major Richard Ingoldesby 
commissioned, 630 ; Blagge in London ; His Papers referred to Sloughter, 631 ; 
Sloughter sails for New York, and is carried to Bermuda, 631 ; Ingoldesby at New 
York ; Demands the Fort ; Leisler very angry at the demand ; Refuses Compliance, 
631, 632 ; Leisler obstinate, 632, 633 ; Leisler opposes Ingoldesby, 633 ; Leisler keeps 
Councilors Bayard and Nicolls Prisoners, 633 ; Leisler's fresh Lies, 634 ; Action of 
the Eoyal Council, 634 ; Leisler's Proclamation, 634 ; Clarkson writes to Connecti- 
cut ; Allyn's Advice to Leisler, 635; "'Peace Address" from Kings and Queens 
Counties, 635 ; William Kidd, a Privateer, 635 ; Leisler's Declaration against In- 
goldesby ; Reply of the Council, 635 ; The Council consider Ingoldesby chief Com- 
mander, 636 ; Leisler fires on the Troops ; Persons killed ; The Block-house surren- 
ders, 636 ; Arrival of Sloughter ; Councilors sworn, 637 ; Milborne and De la Noy 
imprisoned, 637 ; Leisler's Submission to Sloughter, 638 ; Leisler imprisoned, and 
Bayard and Nicolls set free ; An Assembly called, and Officers appointed by Slough- 
ter, 638 ; Domine Seljnis's Sermon, 638 ; Sloughter appoints a Special Commission of 
Oyer and Terminer, 639 ; The Prisoners indicted by the Grand Jury, 639 ; Leisler 
and Milborne refuse to plead ; Opinion of the Governor and Council on the King's 
Letter to Nicholson, 640 ; Eight of the Prisoners convicted ; Two acquitted ; Prison- 
ers sentenced and reprieved, 640 ; Blagge's Memorial answered, 641 ; Sloughter's Re- 
ports to England, 641 ; Jamison Clerk of the Council ; Dellius returns and is reward- 
ed, 641 ; The Assembly meets ; Its Members, 642 ; Speeches of Sloughter and Dud- 
ley to the Assembly, 642 ; Assembly's Resolutions against Leisler's arbitrary Acts, 

642 ; Rebellion abhorred by the Assembly, 643 ; The Assembly resolves that the Co- 
lonial Laws of James are void, 643 ; The Council does not concur in this Resolution, 

643 ; Assembly's Address to William and Maiy, 644 ; Assembly Bills to be drawn by 
the Attorney General, 644 ; Law passed to quiet Disorders, 644 ; Law declaring the 
Rights of the People of New York, 645 ; Courts established, and Judges appointed, 
646 ; Revenue Act, 646 ; Kidd rewarded, 646 ; Amnesty Law ; Certain Exceptions, 
G47 ; Sloughter's Proclamation, 647 ; Petitions for Leisler's pardon ; His Execution 
demanded, 647 ; Resolution of the Council ; Sloughter signs the Death-warrant of 
Leisler and Milborne, 648 ; Leisler and Milborne executed ; Their dying Speeches, 
648 ; Their Execution a Political Mistake ; Its Consequences to New York, 649. 




Note A Page 651 

NoteB 653 

NoteC 653 

NoteD 658 

NoteE 659 

NoteF 661 

Note G 662 

Note H 662 

IxDEX 665 





The year sixteen hundred and sixty-foni' found the cnAr.i. 
strongest powers of Europe on the brink of a fierce war. ^ , 
That war determined the fate of New York. war at 

In France, Louis the Fourteenth was pushing up to its ^"'°'^- 
pinnacle the idea of absolute monarchy. The king was 
himself the state. Laborious and untiring, Louis had the 
rare faculty of choosing well his subordinates. Colbert 
became his minister of finance ; Lionne, of foreign affairs ; 
Louvois, of war. Conde, Luxembourg, and Tm-enne, his 
victorious generals, earned him bloody renown. The 
French king was a devout son of the Eoman Church. France 
But, above all other characteristics, he had the instinct of the Four- 
grandeur and the thirst for glory. " There is stuff enough ^^^ 
in him," said Mazarin, " to make four kings and an honest 
man." If Louis was not the greatest sovereign, he was 
" the best actor of majesty that ever filled a throne." More 
than any other monarch, he had " the marvellous art of 
reigning." Supreme in France, he wished to sway all Eu- 
rope, and to that end he directed his subtile diplomacy. 
He soon established a control over the half French king of 
England. "With the. United K'etherlands he made a treaty 
of alhance. But the system of bribeiy by which Louis 
succeeded almost every where else, failed when it was used 
against the chief servants of the Dutch BepubHc. 

After the death of the second William of Orange> in 
XL— A 


cnAP. I. November, 1650, the dignity of stadtholder had remained 
"77~~~ in abeyance, and the Dutch executive authority had been 
administered by statesmen whose political opinions were 
opposed to those of the deceased prince. One of these 
opinions was that the almost royal power which the stadt- 
holdera,te gave to the house of Orange was dangerous to 
the republic. A few days after the death of William, liis 
widow, who was the daughter of Charles the First of En- 
The Dutch gland, gave birth to a son, whom she desired to name 
.indwii- Charles, but who was baptized William Henry, in the 
Third. ^ great Dutch Church at the Hague. He succeeded liis fa- 
ther as William, the "Bhird Prince of Orange. This event 
roused the apprehensions of the Louvestein, or aristocratic 
party, at the head of which was the young John De Witt, 
a disciple of Descartes, already conspicuous for his abihty, 
firmness, and integrity. So highly were his talents and 
prudence esteemed, that he was frequently called " The 
wisdom of Holland." His mind was well compared with 
that of Richelieu. In 1653, De Witt was made Grand 
Pensionary of Holland, and thenceforward he became the 
real chief magistrate of the republic. To gratify Crom- 
well, he procured an act of the States excluding the Prince 
of Orange fi-om the office of stadtholder. Upon the resto- 
ration of Charles the Second to the throne of England, 
this act, so insulting to his nephew, was repealed. De 
John De Witt, nevertheless, remained at the head of Dutch affairs, 
wliich he directed Avith consmnmate skill and nearly regal 
authority. His coimtry had reached the zenith of its pros- 
perit}' and glojy. Domestic trade and manufactures main- 
tained a growing population in content and abundance; 
while foreign commerce, searching every shore of the 
globe, poured continual riches into the warehouses of Hol- 
land and Zealand. An alhance had secured the friend- 
ship of France. A similar treaty promised peace with En- 
gland ; and Charles, solemnly professing gratitude and af- 
fection toward the Dutch people, confided to the States of 
Holland the guardianship of his infant nephew, William 
of Orange. With the king apparently so Avell disposed, it 
seemed as if enduring fi-iendship was established between 
the two great Protestant nations of Europe — continental 
Holland and insular England. 



It "was an interesting circumstance that the royal family chap. i. 
of Great Britain was connected with the Kino; of France "" 


and the Prince of Orange in a nearly equal degree. To- 
ward Louis and William, Royalist Enghshmen felt much 
more kindly than did the men of the Commonwealth. 
But Englishmen generally hated both Frenchmen and Hoi- England 
landers with strong national antipathies. The court poets uonai an. " 
praised the frivolous French, whose fashions were imitated *'p**'®'- 
at Whitehall, while they lampooned the honester Dutch, 
whose national virtues were a reproach to their king and 
to themselves. Even the most accomplished English schol- 
ars were superciliously ignorant of the literatm'e of Hol- 
land, .then so rich in varied learning. Yet, with all their 
affectation of contempt, the English were intensely jealous 
of the Dutch, whose enterprise, outrunning their own, had 
estabhshed a profitable commerce in Asia and Africa. 
The Ka^^gation Act of the Commonwealth, de^■ised to crip- 
ple the foreign trade of the Netherlands, was made more 
vindictive just after the Restoration. Dry den but uttered 
the envy of his countrymen when he wrote of the Hol- 
landers — 

"As Cato fruits of Afiic did display, 
Let us before our eyes their Indies lay ; 
All loyal English will like him conclude, 
Let Ca;sar live, and Carthage be subdued. "* 

Nevertheless, there was no cause of war between En- , 
gland and Holland. The British sovereign ostentatiously 
professed liis own good feeling toward the nation which charies the 
he allowed his corn-tiers to abuse. But there was no faith *^'^°° ' 
in the frivolous King of England. Of all her monarchs, 
Charles the Second was the meanest and most insincere. 
If Louis of France was the best actor of majesty, Charles 
of England was the greatest dissembler that ever sat on a 
throne. He did not lack talent, nor education, nor the 
training of adversity, but he did lack conscience, a sense 
of shame, and an honest heart. His early years had been 
passed in his father's palace, whence he had been driven 
into strange lands. Dimng the period of the Common- 
wealth he had wandered among princes and peoples, en- 
during vicissitudes of fortune which few royal personages 

• Satire on the Dutch, 1G02. 


Duke of 


cuAP.i. ever had the advantage of enjoying, but profiting nothing 
from an experience which should have made him one of 
' the greatest of kings. At the age of thii-ty years he was 
recalled to England and crovrned its sovereign. But 
Charles brought back with him from his exile no proper 
sense of his kingly office. Like a prodigal heir, who pos- 
sessed an estate after long nm'sing by a prudent guardian, 
he came home to Whitehall, eager to expend a splendid 
inheritance. His selfish heart, and easy temper, and glib 
tongue enabled him calmly to put by every embarrassing 
question of public concern, while he submitted liimself to 
the most degraduig influences. It followed that the reign 
of Charles the Second was the most execrable of any in 
the annals of England. 

Charles had a brother, three years younger than him- 
self, James, Duke of York and Albany. As the king had 
no legitimate offspring, the duke was heir presmnptive to 
the British throne. Although married to a daughter of 
his brother's chief minister, James was a cold-blooded lib- 
ertine ; and, while he professed to be a Protestant, was 
gradually becoming a Boman Catholic. His temper was 
harsh and obstinate, his understanding slow, and his views 
narrow; but his word was sacred. He loved the details 
of business as much as the king detested them, and with 
all the method of a conscientious clerk, he seemed to work 
. for work's sake. To aid in supporting his dignity, the rev- 
enues of the post-ofiice, estimated at about twenty thousand 
pounds a year, were settled on the duke by an obsequious 
Parliament. One of the first acts of the Mng was to ap- 
point his brother lord high admiral of England. In exe- 
cuting the duties of this ofiice, which involved all the ad- 
ministration of the navy, James was assisted by a Board 
of Admiralty, of which John Lord Berkeley, of Stratton, 
and Admiral Sir William Penn, were commissioners. Sir 
George Carteret treasurer, and Samuel Pef)ys clerk. The 
duke's own private affairs were managed by three com- 

The duke's missioners. Sir William Coventry, who also acted as his sec- 
retary, Henry Brouncker, and Thomas Povey, who was 
likewise his treasurer and receiver general. 

There was at this time, properly speaking, no ministry 
to conduct the public affairs of England. The privy coun- 



cil were the nominal advisers of the sovereign. Each de- chap. i. 
partment of the government was directed by a comiselor ~ 
responsible for his own acts, but not for those of his asso- " 

ciates, as is the modern British cabinet minister. The 
most important, and by far the most able of the king's Ministers 
servants, was the lord chancellor, Edward Hyde, Earl of the second. 
Clarendon, and father-in-law of the Dulve of York. The 
secretaries of state were Sir William Morrice and Sir 
Henry Bennet, afterward Earl of Arlington. Sir Anthony 
Ashley Cooper, Lord Ashley, and afterward Earl of Shaftes- 
bury, was president of the council, and Thomas, Earl of 
Southampton, lord high treasurer. These five chief minis- The En- 
ters were collectively called " The Cabal," or cabinet. The " cabai." 
affairs of the colonies and foreign plantations of England 
were managed by a council appointed by the king, consist- 
ing of the chief ofBcers of state and others, among whom 
were Lord Say and Sele, John Lord Berkeley, Sir George plantation 
Carteret, Denzil HoUis, Robert Boyle, Sir "William Cov- 
entry, and the poet, Edmund Waller. They were specially 
instructed to acquaint themselves with the condition of 
each colony, correspond with the governors, cause the Act 
of Navigation to be strictly executed, provide for the settle- 
ment and maintenance of " learned and orthodox minis- 
ters," and endeavor to bring the several colonies into more 
certain uniformity of government, and render " those domin- 
ions useful to England, and England helpful to them."* 

Of all the servants of Charles the Second, the one whose 
influence was at this moment most pernicious was Sir 
George Downing, his envoy to the United Pro^dnces. Downing. 
Downing was a nephew of the elder John Wintlirop, and 
was one of the earliest, ablest, and basest graduates of 
Harvard College in Massachusetts. He was sent by Crom- . 
well ambassador to Holland, where he insulted his exiled 
king ; but as he was " capable of managing a bad design," 
he was forgiven and taken into the favor of Charles at the 
Restoration. Those who knew Downing best described 
him as " a crafty, fawning man," a " perfidious rogue," a 
" most ungrateful villain," and " a false man who betrayed 

* Pepys's Diary (Bohn's ed.), ii.,312; iii., IGT, 328, 331 ; Letters of D'Estrades, ii., 487; 
Rapin, ii., 635 ; Llngard, xii., 2C6 ; Macaulay, i., 211, 212, 2T3 ; iv., 435 ; New York Colo- 
nial Documents, iii., 32-36; Sainsbury's Calendar of State Papers, i., 492,493,494; ante, 
vol. i., p. 686. 



liis trust." The renegade certainly seems to liave merited 
his damaging portrait. " If we may believe history, he was 
a scoundrel." He was "keen, bold, subtile, active, and 
observant, but imperious and imscrupulous ; naturally pre- 
ferring menace to persuasion ; reckless of the means em- 
ployed and the risk incuiTed in the pursuit of a proposed 
object ; disliking and distrusting De Witt and the Dutch, 
and forearmed with a fierce determination not to be foiled 
or overreached."* 

Downing lost no opportunity to inflame English jealousy 
of the Hollanders. His correspondence with Lord Chan- 
cellor Clarendon, who seems to have as much to dp with 
the foreign department as the secretaries Morrice and Ben- 
Downing'3 net themsclvcs, oxhibits a constant desire to provoke the 
cnce. ' king into a war with the United Provinces. Pretexts were 
not wanting. The Dutch East and West India Companies 
were charged with colonial aggressions. Charles, howev- 
er,- disliked hostilities, although he hated De Witt, whom 
he considered the chief obstacle to the advancement of 
his nephew, William of Orange. The Duke of York, on 
the other hand, absolutely detested the Zealanders, who 
had punished, less promptly than he wished, the authors of 
some 'libels against himself. Besides,, said Clarendon, " hav- 
ing been, even from his childhood, in the command of 
armies, and in his nature inclined to the most difficult and 
dangerous enterprises, he was already weary of having so 
little to do, and too impatiently longed for any war in 
which he knew he could not but have the chief command." 
Moreover, James was the governor of the new Royal Afri- 
Engiishne- cau Company, which, besides selling their negro slaves "at_ 
gros a\e3. ^j^^ Barbados, and other the king's plantations, at their own 
prices," imported into England fi*om the coast of Guinea 
" such store of gold that administered the first occasion for 
Origin of the coinage of those pieces which from thence had the de- 
guineas. j^Qjj^jjjg^|.jQjj Qf guineas.^^ The Dutch West India Company 
were accused of injuring the duke's African interests ; but 

* Hutchinson's Massachusetts, i., Ill, 510 ; Savage's Winthrop, ii, 240-243 ; Mass. Hist. 
Soc. Coll., xxxvi., 536-544 ; Palfrey's New England, ii., 431 ; John Adams's Works, x., 329 ; 
Pepys, i., 204, 2C5; Evelyn, ii., S; Burnet, i., T9S ; Lister's Life of Clarendon, ii., 231; D'Es- 
trade's Letters, ii., 3G3, 304; K Y. Col. Doc., ii., 410^18 note; aii^*", vol. i.,p. 700. There 
is a curious narrative of an interview between Charles the Second and Do^nling at the 
Hague, while the latter was Cromwell's ambas-ador, in the Antiquarian Kcpertorj-, and in 
the Universal Magazine for November, 17T0, vol Ixv., p. 245. 


even Downing could not make out a fair case against tliem. chap. i. 
Nevertheless, Sir Kobert Holmes was secretly dispatched 
with a squadron to the coast of Guinea, where he seized j-ebmary'. 
the Dutch fort of Cabo Corso, and committed other acts of 
affsression, which Lord Clarendon afterward admitted were 
"without any shadow of justice."^^' 

Another motive influenced the mind of James, and even- 
tually governed the action of Charles. This arose out of 
the condition of affairs in ISTorth America. There, for 
nearly half a century, England, France, and Holland had European 
each, with various success, endeavored to appropriate terri- North 
tory and plant and rear dependent colonies. France, the '^^"'^'''• 
pioneer, had first pushed her adventurous way through the 
valley of the Saint Lawrence, and had set up the emblem 
of her national faith beside the banner of her king among 
the savage tribes which inhabited its borders. Thus arose 
her dominion over New France, or Canada and Acadia. Canada. 
Farther south, England had clung to the sea-coast, the clear 
waters of which were alive with the finest fish, and where 
commodious harbors invited her emigrants to linger near 
those cr)'stal waves which could roll unbroken to Land's 
End. Yet England had not explored nor occupied the 
whole of that more southern coast. Midway between Vir- virgini.i 
ginia and New England — in a region, the most of which no England. 
European eye had seen before — colonists from Holland, 
following the track of the Half Moon of Amsterdam, 
planted themselves, without question, among the native 
Americans, from whom they bought the soil, and thus add- New Neth- 
ed a New Nethekland to the Dutch Eepublic. 

The progress of the various enterprises by which these 
several territories were first colonized has already been 
minutely traced. Each has its own peculiar history, event- 
ful, romantic, and instructive. Of none of them were the 
motives of the projectors or the views of the promoters ex- 
actly alike. Canada was peopled by Europeans, speaking 
the French tongue, and professing the Roman faith. New 

• Pepy?, ii.,6S, 128; Clarendon's Life, ii., 232-234; Lister's Clarendon, ii., 2-11, 251, 258- 
2G2; iii., 288, 290, 801, 302, 347; Basnage, i., 711 ; Aitzema, iv., 579; D'Estrades, ii, 364, 
435; Lingard, xii., 165-16S ; Rapin, ii., 036; Davies's Holland, iii., 19, 20, 25; Anderson's 
Colonial Church, ii., 279, 280 ; Cobbett's Parliamentary History, ir., 292, 293 ; awC^, vol. i., p. 
735. Anderson, in his Origin of Commerce, ii., 473, 526, seems to think that guineas were 
first coined in 1673. But Pepys, ii., 4S3 ; iv., 20, alludes to them, in 1606 and 1068, as al- 
ready at a premium in London. 


cnAT.r. Netherland was colonized by Protestant emigrants from 
a fatherland which had conquered in the most glorious 
Motites of strife for civil and religious liberty that the world has ever 
ttou°^^" "^tnessed! Virginia was occupied by loyal Englishmen 
who admired the hierarchy ; ISTew England chiefly by Pu- 
ritans who abhorred prelacy ; Mainland by larger-minded 
Roman Catholics. But all these were Britons, who spoke 
the tongue of Shakspeare and Milton ; who, much as they 
differed among themselves respecting creeds or fashions, 
were the subjects of one common sovereign ; and who, ar- 
rogant and exclusive by nature, looked upon other races as 
their inferiors, and willingly combined against them as 
national foes. Their hereditary hatred of foreigners ac- 
companied the English emigrants across the Atlantic, and 
even burned more brightly in some parts of the wilder- 
ness. There was a constant tendency on their part, and 
English in- especially among the New England Puritans, to quarrel 
so ence. ^^j^]^ ^j^^ overbcar both their neighbors, the Koman Cath- 
olic French of Canada, and the Protestant Dutch of l^^ew 
Ketherland. This tendency had already resulted in the 
conquest of Acadia, or Nova Scotia, from the French, by 
order of Cromwell, in 1654. That acquisition the Pro- 
tector declined to restore, and made it a British province. 
Cromwell's His dcsigu to rcduce the Dutch possessions, which were 
ofxl?v'''°° the more coveted because they were so advantageously 
Sud!^'^' situated, was abandoned in his treaty with De "Witt, by 
which England virtually conceded New Netherland to 

The Dutch province was indeed the most admirably sit- 
uated region in North America. Its original limits in- 
cluded all the Atlantic coast between Cape Henlopen and 
Admirable Moutauk Poiut, and all the inland territory bounded by the 
of Ne'w'' Connecticut Yalley on the east, the Saint Lawrence and 
fani^^' Lake Ontario on the north, and the affluents of the Oliio, 
the Susquehanna, and the Delaware on the west and south. 
Within those bounds is the only spot on all the continent 
whence issue divergent streams which find their outlets in 
the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the Atlantic Ocean, and the 
Gulf of Mexico. Diagonally across its surface runs a 

* Charlevoix, ii., 199-204; Chalmers's Political Annala, i., 18T; Pepys, iii., 120, 344; Wil- 
liamson's Maine, i., 301 ; Palfrey's Xew England, ii., 372 ; Proud, i., 281; Grahame (ea.lS4S), 
i., 406 ; Smith, i., 3ST ; ante, vol. i., p. 580. 


chain of the AUeghanies, through which, in two remarka- chap. i. 
ble chasms, the waters of the Delaware and the Hudson 
flow southward to the sea. At the head of its tides, the -^""*- 
Hudson, which its explorers appropriately named " The its physic- 
Great Eiver of the Mountains," receives the current of the teristics. 
Mohawk rushing in fi'om the west. Through the valleys 
of these rivers, and across the neighboring lakes, the savage 
natives of the country tracked those pathways of travel and 
commerce which civilized science only adopted and im- 
proved. Along their banks grew up flourishing villages, all 
contributing to the prosperity of the chief town, which, with 
unerring judgment, had been planted on the ocean-washed 
island of Manhattan. In addition to these superb geo- 
graphical peculiarities, every variety of soil, abimdant min- 
eral wealth, nature teeming with animal and vegetable life, 
and a cKmate as healthful as it is delicious, made New 
l^etherland the most alluring of all the European colonies 
in America. From the first, it was always the chosen seat 
of empire.* 

It was an admirable decree of Pro^adence which or- 
dained that this magnificent region should first be occu- 
pied by the Bata^aan race. If originally as homogeneous influence 
as the English, that race had certainly become less selfish founder.'' 
and exclusive. The well-considered policy of Holland at- 
tracted to her shores many of whom their own lands were 
not worthy. This magnanimity was rewarded by almost 
unexampled national prosperity. After achieving their 
own independence and establishing a republic on the basis 
of religious toleration, the Dutch colonized the American 
province which they had discovered, and at the same time 
invited strangers of all races to come and find homes along 
with themselves in its temperate and attractive territory. 
The Batavian emigrants brought with them the liberal 
maxims of their fatherland. Soon, eighteen different lan- 
guages were spoken in New Amsterdam.f Thus, by de- 
grees, grew up the germ of a mighty cosmopolitan state. 
In spite of the stunting mismanagement of the West India 
Company, to wliich its government had been unwisely in- 
trusted, New Netherland gave early promise of coming 

* Lecture on the " Topography and History of New York," by Governor Horatio Sey- 
mour, Utica, 1856 ; also Golden, in Col. Doc, vl, 122 ; Doc. Hist., iv., 112. 
t^n<e,vol. i.,p. 374. 


cuAP.i. grandeur. The fatherland scarcely appreciated the trans- 
Atlantic dominion which its emigrants had founded. But 
the growing greatness of that dominion, which had long 
excited the jealousy of its New England neighbors, at 
length moved both the pride and the cupidity of the En- 
glish com-t to seize it as a royal j)rize. 

To estimate properly the course which Charles the Sec- 
ond now pursued, we must consider the irreconcilable views 
of title to American territory which the English and the 
Dutch severally maintained. They may be stated thus : 
As Columbus had discovered the New World, which should 
have borne his name, in the service of Spain, the Pope 
granted it to the Spanish sovereigns. A few years after- 
ward the Cabots, under commissions of Henry the Seventh 
of England, discovered Newfoundland, and sailed at a dis- 
tance along the North American continent as far south as 
the latitude of Gibraltar. By virtue of these discoveries, 
The terri- the English sovereigns claimed dominion over all that part 
tionia of North America along the coast of which the Cabots 
Ameiica. had sailcd. But, as the previous sweeping title of Spain 
was in the way of the English claim. Queen Elizabeth, in 
1580, annoimced the principle that " prescription without 
possession is of no avail ;" or, in other words, that actual oc- 
cupation must follow discovery in order to confer a valid 
right. Accordingly, England did not question the title of 
France to Canada and Acadia. But, as the discoveries of 
Yerazzano and of Gomez, farther to the south, did not lead 
to French or Spanish colonization, James the First granted 
a patent in 1606, under which the English asserted an ex- 
clusive right to colonize all the Atlantic coast between Cape 
Fear and Acadia not " actually jjossessed by any Christian 
prince or peoj^le." Under this patent no English mariner 
had searched the shore between Buzzard's Bay and the 
Chesapeake, when Henry Hudson, in 1609, in the servic^of 
the Dutch East India Company, explored " the great River 
of the Mountains." Tiiis gave' the Hollanders an unques- 
tionable title by discovery, which they soon fortified by far- 
ther visitation and actual occupation. In 1614, the States 
General granted a trading charter which recognized " New 
Netherland" as a Dutch territory. Six years afterward, 
James the First granted, in 1620, a second patent for " New 


England in America," which included all the region be- chap. i. 
tween the fortieth and the forty-eighth degrees of latitude, 
and from the Atlantic to the Pacific. But his patent ex- 
pressly provided that no territory was intended to be grant- 
ed which was " actually possessed or inhabited by any other 
Christian prince or estate." This proviso clearly excepted Canada 
New France and New Netherland. Nevertheless, from the N^therilnd 
time of the landing of the first Puritan emigrants on new Ne^y En-'' 
Plymouth beach, the English pertinaciously insisted onfjft^ 
styling the Dutch occupants of New Netherland " intrud- 
ers" into New England. With inconsistent logic but char- 
acteristic assurance, they maintained their own title under 
the patent of James, while they denied that of the Hol- 
landers, which was recognized in its proviso. This they 
continued to do, although the House of Commons in 1621 
confirmed Queen Elizabeth's doctrine, and insisted that 
" occupancy confers a good title by the law of nations and 
natture." In 1635, the grantees of the New England pat- 
ent conveyed to the Earl of Stirling the territory of Pema- 
quid, between the Saint Croix and the Kennebeck in Maine, 
and the island of Matowack, or Long Island. The Dutch, 
however, utterly denied the Enghsh claim to any part of conflicting 
Long Island, and expeEed Lord Stirling's agents. At length English 
Peter Stuyvesant, the director of New Netherland, by a "^ '*"™" 
treaty made at Hartford in 1650, surrendered to the En- 
ghsh all the territory south of Oyster Bay on Long Island, 
and east of Greenwich on the continent. This treaty was 
ratified by the States General in 1656, but no reciprocal 
action was taken by the British government. Cromwell, 
however, after directing an expedition to take New Nether- 
land, recognized the Dutch title by the treaty of 1654 ; and 
no demonstration was afterward made against what New 
England men pertly considered " a thorn in the side."* 

Thus stood the question when Charles the Second was 
restored to the throne. The antipathy of the Puritan colo- 
nists of New England against their Dutch neighbore in New 
Netherland, which to some extent seems to have moved the 

• Ante, vol. i., p.iges 4, 11, 3G, 63, 64, 96, 139, 250, 262, 519, 5S2, 5S3, 5S6, 621, 625, 643, 653, 
6S5; Thurloe's State Papers, i., 564,721, 722; ii.,419; Mass. H. S. Coll., xxxii., 230-232; 
Sainsbury's Calendar, i., 204 ; Chalmers's Political Annals, i., 6, 82, 83 ; Kennett's England, 
ii., 4S0; Parliam. Debates, i., 250, 251 ; Smith, i., 387 ; Proud, i., 2S1 ; Palfrey, ii., 371, 372. 
Smith, i., 7, errs in attributing to Richard Cromwell the instructions given by Oliver in Feb- 
ruaiy, 1054 ; and Grahame, i., 409, follows Smith ; see ante, vol. i., p. 5S3. 


Chap. I. Protector, had no similar influence on the king. Charles 
had no sympathy with the likes or the dislikes of his New 
Poucyof' England subjects. His restoration had been a sore disap- 
^j^^^^^'^^pointment to tliem. They had received the tidings with 
"scrupulous incredulity." They had acknowledged him 
as king with a very grim austerity. Constant complaints 
were preferred against them at Whitehall. In the sum- 
mer of 1661, Henry, the fourth Earl of Stirhng, complained 
to the king of the " intrusion" of the Dutch upon Long 
Island, and petitioned that they might be subdued or ex- 
pelled. Lord Stirling's petition was referred to the Coun- 
cil of Plantations, at the head of which was Clarendon. 
But before any action was taken, the king granted to Jolm 
Winthi'op a charter for Connecticut, which appeared to 
cover a large part of E^ew ISTetherland, together with " the 
islands thereunto adjoining." The charter, however, was 
violently opposed; and it finally passed the great seal in 
April, 1662, with the understanding that the king would 
" send Commissioners into those parts, who upon the place 
should settle all differences and pretences upon the bounds 
of each colony." In the following September, Clarendon 
declared in the Plantation Committee that the king would 
dispatch commissioners, and the Duke of York was re- 
quested " to consider of the choice of fit men." Charles 
himself, m April, 1663, announced to the Privy Council 
that he intended to send commissioners speedily to New 
England, " to see how the charter is maintained on their 
part, and to reconcile the differences at present among 

There was another subject which was now pressed upon 
The En- the kiuff's attention. The Navigation Act of 1660 had been 

elishNavi- ^ 

gationAct. opculy disregarded or clandestinely evaded in the British 
American plantiations. One of the chief obstacles to its 
execution was charged to be the existence of the Dutch 
province. The trade carried on between New Netherland 
and New England on the one side, and Maryland and Vir- 
ginia on the other, was alleged to be " very much to the 
prejudice of England, and to the loss of his majesty, in re- 

• Chalmers's Pol. Ann., i., 249, 250, 253, 256, 25T, 293, 3S6, 432; Col. Doc., ii., 389 ; iii., 32, 
42, 43, 55 ; vii., 431 ; Mass. II. S. Coll., xxxii., 2S4 ; Duer's Life of Stirling, 31 ; TnimbiiU's 
Connecticut, i., 523 ; Col. Rec Conn., i., 5S1 ; ii., 3-11 ; Palfrey, ii., 540-545, 574, 575; ante, 
VOL i., p. 189, 7G2, 720 ; N. Y. II. S. Coll. (1869), 1-57. 


spect to customs, many thousand pomids yearly." Lord cuap.i. 
Baltimore, the Proprietary of Maryland, promised to " do 
his best to prevent" this trade ; and Sir William Berkeley, 
the royal governor of Yirginia, was ordered to enforce the 
law. Still, the intercolonial traffic was continued. Parlia- New navi- 
ment accordingly enacted a new law in 1663, which pro-^*'*°° *^' 
hibited the importation of European commodities into the 
English plantations, except in English vessels fi-om En- 
gland. In June of the same year, the Privy Council or- 
dered all the American governors to enforce this act, which 
the king was determined to have " very strictly observed, 
in regard it much concerneth the trade of this kingdom." 
At last, in December, 1663, the farmers of the customs, 
who were paying the king nearly four hundred thousand 
pounds a year for their monopoly, demanded redress for 
the " great abuses committed and done as well by the in- 
habitants and planters on, as by the masters, mariners, and 
traders to, Yirginia, New England, Maryland, Long Island, 
etc., who, under pretence of fmiiishing some of those plan- 
tations and other his majesty's dominions, do both, by land 
and water, carry and convey great quantities of tobacco to 
the Dutch, whose plantations are contiguous, the custom 
whereof would amount to ten thousand poimds per annum 
or upward, thereby eluding the late Act of Navigation and 
defrauding his majesty." This brought the question to a 
crisis. The Navigation Law, meant to cripple the commerce 
of the Dutch and foster that of the English, must be main- 
tained. It could be enforced, and it was enforced in En- 
gland. It was evaded, and it could not be enforced in 
America as long as New Netherland existed as a Dutch 
plantation. New Netherland, therefore, must no longer 

This convenient and characteristic logic was exactly 
adapted to the situation of Charles the Second. The read- England 
iest way to sustain it was to insist that New Netherland seizeTew 
was " the true and imdoubted inheritance of his majesty," land.^'^' 
and to subject it accordingly to English rule. It so hap- 
pened that three persons had just before this time come 

* D'Estrades, ii., 312 ; Chalmers's Pol. Ann., i., 242, 260, 261 ; Holme?, i., 330; Anderson 
on Commerce, li., 475; New Haven Rec., ii., 510-512; Col. Doc, iii., 40, 44, 50, 209, 210; 
Lister's Clarendon, li., 453; iii., 308; Statute 15 Ch. II., cap. xvii. ;Grahame,i., 92; Bancroft, 
ii., 43 ; Falfrey, ii., 566 ; anle, vol. i., 685, 702, 725, 735 ; N. Y. H. S. Coll. (1869), 1-57. 


Chat. I. ovGi' to Londoii, wlio Were admirably qualified to stimulate 

English animosity against the Dutch colonists in America. 

Scott B^x- These persons were John Scott and George Baxter, who 

ter.and cherislied no " a-ood opinion of the law" under which they 

Mavenck -» 

testify, liad smarted in New Netherland, and Samuel Maverick, a 
zealous Episcopahan who had formerly lived in tribulation 
in Massachusetts. All the three made universal profes- 
sions of loyalty. Scott, especially, was clamorous for a roy- 
al grant to him of the government of Long Island, nearly 
the third part of which he pretended to have purchased. 
But Lord Stirling's claim, which had not yet been acted 
on by the Council for Plantations, stood in his way. The 
three American witnesses, however, were called before the 
board, and ordered to draw up a statement of " the title of 
his majesty to the premises; of the Dutch intrusion; of 
their deportment since and management of that possession, 
and of their strength, trade, and government there ; and 
of the means to make them acknowledge and submit to liis 
majesty's government, or by force to compel them there- 
unto or expulse them." The result of these witnesses' la- 
bors and of Downing's arguments fi'om the Hague was to 
satisfy Lord Clarendon that N'ew JSTetherland belonged to 
do^a opin- *^® kii^oj ^i^d that it had been " only usurped" by the Dutch, 
ion. yj^i^Q i^ad " no colour of right to pretend to" its possession. 
The chancellor's opinion, although it was utterly inconsist- 
ent with truth and reason, was conclusive. The difficult 
point was that the Dutch were, and for half a century had 
been, in uninterrupted possession of the Yalley of the Hud- 
son and its neighborhood. How the English could best 
gain possession became the question.* 

It was certain that the government at the Hague would 
not acknowledge any English pretension of right to Dutch 
New Netherland. The States General had, indeed, just 
directed their ambassador at London to insist on " the de- 
termination of the boundary line" between the English and 
Dutch possessions in North America. They also requested 
i| jnn'ry. the king to issue orders " for the immediate restoration of 
niaLtain ^ tlic to^\^ls aud places in New Netherland invaded by his 
rights. subjects within the aforesaid limits, and for the cessation 

* Col. Doc, iii., 40, 48, 105 ; Listei^'s Clarendon, iii., 276, 347 ; Hutchinson's Massachusetts, 
i., 147; Collection, 380, 381; Palfrey, ii., 664-507, .583; Aspinwall, In Mass. }I. S. Proceed- 
ings, 1SG2, 00-73, note; N. Y. U. S. Coll. (1SG9), 19-G7 ; antr, vol. i., 579, 020, 071, 725. 


of all fui'ther usurpations." Of this action Clarendon was chap. i. 
promptly informed by Downing, to whom De Witt had also 
spoken about the "encroaching" of the English upon the 
Dutch in K"ew ISTetherland. " It would be good, I tliink," 15 janua- 
was the crafty envoy's advice to the chancellor, " after "^^ 
three or four months' delay, to give them for answer that 
his majesty -will write into those parts, to be informed of 
the truth 0:^ the matter of fact and right on both sides." 
The next month, ref e Ang to the complaints of the West 12 Febm- 
India Company against the aggressions of the English, he 
suggested "if his majesty think fit to leave that matter to 
me, I shall deal well enough with them."* 

Yet Charles and his ministers were for some time per- 
plexed whether they should view the Dutch " intruders" as 
subjects or as aliens. At length the king's com*se was de- 
termined. In spite of treaties, at the risk of war, it was Engiisii 
resolved that the principle announced by Queen Elizabeth ordered. 
and afiirmed by Parliament in 1621 should be repudiated 
and reversed. New Netherland must be seized at all haz- 
ard, and the English claim by " prescription" must be main- 
tained against the Dutch title by actual discovery and con- 
tinuous occupation. An expedition " against the Dutch in 29 Febm- 
Kew England" was ordered. But this was kept profoundly ^^' 
secret, lest the States should send a squadron to aid the 
weak garrison at Manhattan. A quiet grant to the king's 
own brother would be both the readiest assertion of title 
and the best apology for any consequences. This, indeed, 
had been decided upon before Scott returned to America 
with the royal orders to enforce the navigation laws. Its 
execution was perhaps hastened by his report to Under 
Secretary Williamson of the condition of affairs at the 
western end of Long Island.f 

Lord Stirling's interest was accordingly purchased by 
Clarendon for his son-in-law, who promised to pay for it 
three thousand five hundred pounds. Long Island, of The Duke 
which the greater portion was already subject to the crown, patent. 
being thus secured to the Duke of York by a color of title, 

* Col. Doc., ii., 224-229; Aitzema, v., 64, 65; HoU. Merc, 1664, 13-15; Lister's Claren- 
don, iii., 2T6, 277, 27S ; ante, vol. i., 730. 

t Ogilby's America, lfi9; Chalmers's Rev. Col., i., 116; Col. Doc, ii., 302, 024, 325, 332, 
379,350,400,507; iii.,47,4S; New Haven Rec, ii., 510, 515; an^e, vol. i., 725, 72G. On the 
29th of February, 1664, a waiTant for £4000 was issued on account of the expedition against 
New Netherland : Am. and W. I. (S. P. O.), 372. 


cuAP. I. the rest of New Ketherland was added by the mere word 
of the Idno;. The Connecticut charter was entirely disre- 
garded. A patent to James was prepared, to which his 
father-in-law hastened to affix the great seal. The descrip- 
tion of the premises conveyed was framed in part from 
Lord Stii'ling's original grant, which Clarendon borrowed 
12 March, for the purposB. By liis patent, Charles the Second grant- 
ed to liis brother, and to his heirs and assigns, the territory 
of Pemaquid, in Maine, between tile Saint Cfoix and the 
Kennebeck, " and also all that island or islands commonly 
called by the several name or names of Matowacks or Long 
Island, situate, lying, and being towards the west of Cape 
Cod and the Narrow Higansetts, abutting upon the main 
land between the two rivers there called or known by the 
several names of Connecticut and Hudson's River; together, 
also, with the said river called Hudson's E-iver, and all the 
land from the west side of Connecticut to the east side of 
Delaware Bay, and also all those several islands called or 
known by the names of Martin's Yinyard, and Nantukes, 

Territorial othcrwise Nautuckett." The inland boundary most con- 
extent of. • 1 1 • ^ •• /rT r T 1 -I n 

the Duke'3 sistent With this description was " a line from the head or 
Connecticut Eiver to the source of Hudson's River, thence 
to the head of the Mohawk branch of Hudson's River, and 
thence to the east side of Delaware Bay." The grant " was 
intended to include all the lands which the Dutch held 
there." These territories were to be held of the king in 
free and common soccage, and imder the yearly rent of 
forty beaver-skins, when demanded. The patent invested 
the Duke of York and his heirs, deputies, and assigns with 
"full and absolute power and authority to correct, punish, 
pardon, govern, and rule" all British subjects inhabiting the 
territory, according to such laws as he might establish, and 
The duke's in cascs of ncccssity according to the " good discretions" of 
govern- liis dcputies, providcd that such laws should be, not contra- 
ry, but agreeable to the statutes of England. It granted 
him authority to appoint and discharge all officers, execute 
martial law, regulate trade and the tenure of lands, send 
out emigrants "not prohibited or under restraint," expel 
all persons living under his government without his license ; 
and it declared that, notwithstanding any uncertainty or 
imperfection, or any former grants to any other persons, 


or any statute to the contrary, this patent to the Duke of cuap. l 
York should be " good and effectual in the law, to all in- ' ~~ 
tents and purposes whatsoever." This instrument, clearly '■^'' 
defective in many material points, was much less cumber- 
some than those which the kings of England had previously 
sealed to American proprietaries. It was the most impu- 
dent ever recorded in the colonial arcliives of England. 
But its crisp clauses warranted all that a despot could de- 

The duke's parchment title now appeared to be com- 
plete. The next step was to give it validity by obtaining 
possession. James was informed that his newly-patented 
territory might peld him thirty thousand pounds a year, 
and he was anxious to enjoy his anticipated revenues, 
peaceably or by force. To this end, it was necessary that 
the person to secure and govern the prize should be well 
selected. The duke was singularly fortunate in the choice 
he made. There was at tliis time in his household Colonel 
Richard Mcolls, a gentleman whom he had long known, coionei 
and in whom he justly felt great confidence. Nicolls was nIcoUs! 
born in 1624, at Ampthill, in Bedfordshire, where his an- 
cestors had lived in great esteem. Tlis father was a barris- 
ter of the Middle Temple, and his mother a daughter of Sir 
George Bruce, ancestor of the Earl of Elgin, At the Uni- 
versity he distinguished himself as a scholar ; but on the 
breaking out of the ci\'il war in 1643, he left his college 
and joined the royal forces, in which he obtained the com- 
mand of a troop of horse. Is^icolls adhered faithfully to 
the royal cause, and shared its fortunes. Attaching him- 
self in Paris to the Duke of York, he served with him in 
the French army under Tureniie, and afterward on the 
other side under Don John of Austria and the Prince of 
Conde. At the Restoration NicoUs returned to England, 
and was made a groom of the bedchamber to the duke. 
His sincerity, courage, capacity, and prudence recommend- 
ed him for the most important trust which liis patron could 
now confer. Nicolls was' accordingly commissioned by the 2 Apnu 

* Patent,', i., 100 ; Duer's Life of Stirling, 37, 3S ; T>' Es'trndei', iii., 334 ; Chalmers's Ann., 
i., 5T3, S80 ; Col. Doc, ii., 295-29S, 400, .50T ; iii., 4T, 48, 215, 215, 240, 260, 60G, 60T, T96 ; v., 
330, 506; vi., 508; vii., 431, 564, 596, 597; viii., 107, 436, 440; Maine H. S. Coll., v., 2-6; 
Learning and Spicer's Grants and Concessions, 3-8 ; Smith's N. Y., i., 15; Thompson, ii., 
303-311 ; Wood, 6, nnte ; Palfrey, ii., 53 1 ; antp, vol. i., 725, 7?6. The original patent, beau- 
tifully engrossed, is in the State Library at Albany; a copy is in Appendix, Note A. 

II.— B 







sionera to 
New En- 

£5 April. 

Duke of York to be liis deputy governor during pleasure, 
within his American proprietorsliip, to execute all the pow- 
ers granted by the patent, and obey such orders as he might 
receive. A set of instructions fi'om the duke was also given 
to Nicolls for his general guidance.* 

The king now determined to send commissioners to New 
England, as he had announced his purpose of doing a year 
before. They appear to have been selected by the Duke 
of York. The first was Colonel Richard ]S[icolls, whom he 
had just commissioned to be the deputy governor of his 
yet unpossessed transatlantic territory. The second was 
Sir Robert Carr, a needy Royalist knight, of loose princi- 
ples, avaricious, and supercilious, and a " rank papist," who 
had already been talked of as governor general of JS^ew 
England. The third was Colonel George Cartwright, of 
Nottinghamshire, " naturally morose, saturnine, and suspi- 
cions," but clear-sighted and energetic. These three were 
officers in the royal army. The fourth commissioner was 
Samuel Maverick, an ardent Episcopalian, who had lived 
fi'om his youth in Massachusetts, of which he was the 
avowed and well-informed enemy, and who, with Scott and 
Baxter, had just before advised the Council of Plantations 
respecting the best means of subduing New Netherland. 
To these fom* persons a royal commission was issued, di- 
recting them, or any three or two of them (of whom NicoUs 
was always to be one), to visit the several New England 
colonies, and " examine and determine all complaints and 
appeals in all cases and matters, as well military as crim- 
inal and civil, and proceed in all tilings for the providing 
for and settling the peace and security of the said country, 
according to their good and sound discretion, and to such 
instructions as they, or the survivors of them, have, or shall 
from time to time receive."t 

* Col. Doc, ii., 234, 400, 507 ; iii., 133, 154 ; Thompson's Long Island, ii., 325; Clarke's 
James II., i., 54 ; Chalmers's Pol. Ann., i.. 513 ; Lyson's Magna Britt., i., 3S ; Lister's Claren- 
don, !., 36S ; ii., 259 ; N. Y. H. S. Prnc, 1844, App., IIG-IIS ; Notes and Queries (2d series), 
iii., 214-216; Nichols's Topographer and Genealogist, iii., 539-544; Learning and Spicer, 
CG5-667 ; Patents, i., 14C ; aiite, vol. i., 727, 736. A copy of Nicolls's Seal is in Hist. Mag., 
ix., 177. A copy of Nicolls's Commission is in Appendix, Note 15. His Instructions from the 
Dulce, which were exhibited at Hempstead in March, 1605, are not on record at Albany, nor 
did I fin'1 them in the State Paper Office at London. Perhaps they were lent to Evelyn in 
1071, ;>nd he may not have returned them : Pepys, iv., 221, 222 ; Evelyn, iii., 241, 240 ; jwst, 
p. 422, note. 

t Hutch. Mass., 1,225, 230, 250, 535; Evelyn, ii., 05 ; Chalmers, i., 3S6, 432; Winthrop, 


It was the duty of the secretary of state to prepare in- chap. i. 
structions for the commissioners. But the lord chancel- ~ 

lor had given minute attention to the affairs of the N^ew 
England colonies, and, in the plan which he drew up for 
their visitation, had considered them as " ah-eady well-nigh 
ripened to a commonwealth." To Clarendon, therefore, 
appears to have been assigned the task of drafting the com- 
missioners' instructions, of wliich there were different sets 23 Apni. 
relating to the several colonies. In those for their private tiona of the 
direction they were thus instructed : " You may inform all sl'oiieii" 
men that a great end of your design is the possessing Long 
Island, and reducing that people to an entire submission 
and obedience to us and our government, now vested by 
our grant and commission in our brother the Duke of 
York, and by raising forts or any other way you shall judge 
most convenient or necessarj^, so to secure that whole trade 
to our subjects, that the Dutch may no longer engross and 
exercise that trade which they have wrongfidly possessed 
themselves of ; that whole territory being in our possession 
before they, as private persons, and without any authority 
from their superiors, and against the law of nations and the 
good intelligence and alliance between us and their supe- 
riors, invaded, and have since wrongfully obtained the same, 
to the prejudice of our crown and dignity, and therefore 
ought in justice to be resumed by us, except they will en- 
tirely submit to our government, and live there as our good 
subjects under it ; and in that case you shall let them know, 
both by private significations and treaties, or by any public 
declaration set out by you in our name, that we will take 
them into our protection, and that they shall continue to 
enjoy all their possessions (forts only excepted), and the 
same freedom in trade with our other good subjects in 
those parts." It would be difficult to find in any official 
document of any government a more impudent falsehood 
than the one in this clause, that the " whole territory" of 
JSTew Netherland had been in the " possession" of the En- 

i., 27; Mass. II. S. Coll., xxxii., 284 ; Maine II. S. Coll., i., 301 ; Barry's Mass., i., 390; Col. 
Doc, iii., 04,92,94; Patents, 1., 148-150; Hazard, ii., 63S; Trumbull's Conn., 1., 522; ante, 
vol. i., 736. Palfrey, ii., 580, note, errs in confounding Sir Robert Cavr, Knight, the com- 
missioner (who died at Bristol, 2d June, 1667 ; Col. Doc, ill., 161 ; Morton's Meraoi-ial, 315, 
note ; Smith, 1., 33, note), with Sir Robert Carr, Baronet, of Sleeford, in Lincolnshire, who 
married a sister of Secretary Bennet, and certainly was alive in IOCS: compare CoUins's 
Peerage, iv., 312, 330; Evelyn, i., 40! ; Pepys, iii., 200, 427. 


Chap. I. glisli crowii before the Dutch "-wrongfully obtained the 
same." Several other particular directions were given to 
* the commissioners, who, when in New England, were to 
avoid giving any offense in matters of religion, and even 
to frequent the Pm'itan churches, wliile their own Episco- 
palian chaplain was not to wear his sui-plice, " which, hav- 
ing never been seen in those countries, may conveniently 
be forborne at tliis time." The main object of the king, 
however, was to obtain such alterations in the charters of 
the New England colonies as would give him the appoint- 
ment of their governor and of the commander of their mi- 
litia. " We should look upon it as a good omen," said 
Charles, " if they might be so wrought upon at the General 
Assembly as that Colonel Nicolls might be chosen by them- 
selves for their present governom-, and Colonel Cartwright 
for their major general." 

E-oyal letters were also addressed to the several colonies. 
The reasons for the visit of the commissioners were ex- 
plained in soothing language ; the motives for subduing the 
Dutch, and " the benefit and advantage which, with God's 
2p Ai)rii. blessing, must accrue" to New England fi-om the reduction 
ters. of New Netherland, were seductively exliibited, and a full 
compliance with all the king's desires was required. "■ For 
the glory of the matter," these letters were dated on Saint 
George's day.* 

The Duke of York, who, as lord high admiral, directed 
the fleet, now borrowed several men-of-war from the king. 
They were the Guinea, of thirty-six guns, Captain Hugli 
Hyde ; the Elias, of thirty. Captain Wilham Hill ; the 
Tiie En- Martin, of sixteen. Captain Edward Grove ; and a cliar- 
diiioif'^^^' tered transport, the William and Nicholas, of ten, Captain 
>?ew"" Morley. About four hundred and fifty of the king's vet- 
fm±'' eran soldiers, fonning three full companies, which were 
commanded by Colonels NicoUs, Carr, and Cartwright, were 
embarked on the squadron. NicoUs was commander-in- 
chief of the expedition. Among the commissioned ofiicers 
serving under him were Captains Matthias Nicolls, Daniel 
Brodhead, Robert Needliam, Harry Norwood, and Ensign 
Sylvester Salisbury, of the British army, some of whom, 

* Col. Doc, ii., 23T; iii., 51-G3; Oldmixon, i., 23S ; Tninibtill, i., 523; Holmes, i., 333, 
)U>te; Hazard, ii.,30-i; Palfrey, i., 193, ?io<e; ii.,6a0, 6TS, 579, 5S2-536; iii., 23S. 


intending to settle themselves permanently in the Dutch chap.l 
province after its reduction, were accompanied by their 
families. The forces were " exceedingly well fitted with all 
necessaries for waiTe, with such ingineers and other expe- 
dients for the forcing the strongest fortifications." Nicolls 
and Cartwright went on board the Guinea, wliile Carr and 
Maverick embarked in the Martin. The expedition set sail i§ ^^7- 
fi-om Portsmouth, with orders to assemble in Gardiner's 
Bay, at the eastern end of Long Island.* 

Intelligence of these preparations soon reached the 
Hague. Stu}^esant had already warned the West India 29 Febiu- 
Company of the intended grant of Charles to the Duke of ^^' 
York, and that not only Long Island, biit the whole of New 
Netherland, would be lost, unless speedily re-enforced fi'om 
Holland. But the company, now on the brink of bank- 
ruptcy, wrote back, with mar^^elous infatuation, that the 
king, " being inclined to reduce all liis kingdoms under one 21 Apiii. 
form of government in Chm'ch and State, hath taken care 
that commissioners are ready in England to repair to H^ew 
England to install bishops there, the same as in Old En- 
gland ; therefore we believe that the Enghsh of the North, 
who mostly left England for the aforesaid causes, will not infamaiion 
give us henceforth so much trouble, and will prefer to live 
under us with freedom of conscience, rather than risk that 
in order to be rid of om* authority, and then again to fall 
under a government from wliich they formerly fled." Nev- 
er was the Puritan sentiment in New England more thor- 
oughly misapprehended than by the Dutch "West India 
Company. Scarcely had this absurd letter been dispatch- 
ed before the real pm'pose of NicoUs's expedition was bet- 
ter understood. In great concern, De Witt sought from 
Downing some explanation of the report of the English 
" sending to take New Netherland." The British envoy f ^ siay. 
replied, " I know of no such country but only in the maps ;" 
and he boldly insisted that " the Enghsh had the first pat- 
tern of first possession of those parts." The Dutch govem- 

* Col. Doc., ii., 243, 372, 410, 4:3, 445, 501 ; iii., 6.5, 6C; Mass. H. S. Coll., x.xxvi., 5Q7; 
Smith,!., 10; Clarke's James n.,i., 400; Pepys, iv., 353 ; N. Y. General Entries, i., 2, 3, 2?, 
27, 2S; Valentine's Manual, ISGO, 532; Wood, 144; a7ifc, vol. 1., 730,744, «o/e. Of the En- 
glish officers who accompanied Nicolls, the family of Captain Matthias NicoUs settled on 
Long Island, and tho.=e of Capt.iin Pnniel Brodhead and Ensign Sylvester Salisbury in L'l- 
efer County, in the province of New Yorlt. Numerous descendants now bear these ancestral 
names. See abo X. Y. II. S. Coll. (1860), 57. 


cuAP.i. ment was now sufSciently warned of the danger which 
menaced ISTew Netherland. But a purblind confidence in 
the honor of Charles, and an unjust estimate of the impor- 
tance of its American province to the fatherland, clouded 
the judgment of De Witt, Prompt ordei's to De Ruyter, 
who was now on his way to the Mediterranean, might have 
hurried his squadron to Manliattan in time to assist Stuy- 
vesant, and give the Duke of York's expedition a memo- 
rable repu^lse. But, unhappily, the Dutch province was im- 
der the immediate government of a commercial monopoly 
which had but little popular sympathy. " What !" cried 
the commonalty at the Hague, " must we have a war for 
the East and West India Companies? We will rather pull 
them by the ears."* And so the fatherland abandoned New 
Il^etherland to her fate. 

i^icolls's squadron worked slowly to the westward. It 
was nearly ten weeks before the first of his ships reached 
New England. In the mean time, Appleboom, the Swedish 
minister at the Hague, awakened from its sleep of eight 
l^ June, years the complaint of his king against the proceedings of 
com^^^^^ Stuy^^esant on the Delaware in 1655. In a well -written 
plaints, memorial to the States General, he demanded that the West 
India Company should be ordered to restore the " wrested 
lands" to the Swedish Company and pay all damages. 
This should be speedily done, because it was reported that 
the Dutch Company " were themselves now questioned by 
j^^ August, others in those parts." Two months afterward, the Am- 
sterdam chamber submitted a full justification of their pro- 
ceedings against the Swedes ; and here the question, which 
9 October. ^^^^ been revived " for form's sake," was ended.f 

Appleboom's suggestion was almost a prophetic sneer. 
The Dutch were, indeed, effectually " questioned by others" 
in New Netherland. In alarm at the now certain destina- 
28 June ^^^^^ ^^ Nicolls's squadrou, the West India Company de- 
sjaiy] manded assistance from the city of Amsterdam, and asked 
the States General for " three hmidred soldiers as a re-en- 
forcement for New Netherland, and a ship of war to op- 

* Lister's Clarendon, iii., SOT, 310, 318, 320, 322 ; Kennetfs England, iii., 251, 253; D'Eg- 
trades, ii., 435; Col. Doc, ii., 230-237, 367, 400, 408, 421, 431, 432, 492, 493, 505, 507 ; Letter 
of W. I. Co. to S. G., 20 June, 1664, MS., N. Y. Historical Society; Mass. Eec, iv. (ii.), 101- 
110; Palfrey, ii., 576, 650,587. 

t Col. Doc, i., 615; ii., 240-242, 246, 247, 258-200; Aitzema, v., 247-C40; IIoll. Merc, 
1064,135-137; Lister's Clarendon, iii., 359; anfe, vol. 1., 622. 


pose the English, designs there." But Yan Gogh, the am- CHAr. i. 
bassador at London, reported that the king constantly pro- ~ 
tested that " he would not in any way violate his alhance g^ j^^^ ' 
with the Dutch ;" and the States General, wishing to give lu juiy. 
no umbrage to England, refused the company's request for GenerlTi'n- 
assistance. Early in the autmmi, Yan Gogh wrote that it ^^^ ^^^^^' 
was rmnored that the English had taken Long Island, and i^^^*^'' 
intended to reduce New Amsterdam and the rest of Isew 1-3 ^^p'- 
jSTetherland. Soon afterward the West India Company no- g^Jc'tober 
tified the States General that Stuy\^esant's dispatches an- 
nomiced that the Duke of York had already reduced Long 
Island, and was about to attack ISTew Amsterdam, the cap- 
ital, " and thereby to erase the name of New Netherland 
from the map, and cause a loss of millions to the company." 
The same week intelligence reached London that the Dutch 29 sept. 
had been " beat out" of Guinea and New Xetherland, " with- ^ '^''°^'- 
out pubhc knowledge or reason," according to the honest 
notion of Pepys, the clerk of the Admiralty. The Idng did 
" joy mightily at it." The mask need no longer be worn. 
" But," said Charles to his vice-chamberlain Carteret, laugh- 
ing, " how shall I do to answer this to the ambassador when 
he comes ?"'^ 

Meanwliile Nicolls and Cart wrig-ht, with part of the 23 juiy. 

Nicolla at 

squadron, had reached Boston after a tedious voyage, and Boston. 
had dispatched a letter to Winthrop requiring the assist- 
ance of Connecticut. This was very readily given. At 
the suggestion of the commissioners, the Massachusetts au- 
thorities, with evident unwillingness, ordered two hmidred s August, 
volunteers to be called out to aid in reducing New Neth- 
erland. The West India Company, as we have seen, had 
cherished the absurd bebef that the Pm'itan colonists would 
not assist the royal forces in overthrowing the government 
of New Netherland, in which " freedom of conscience" was 
so fully recognized. But the English jealousy of the Dutch, 
which New England fostered, together with a cm-ious notion 
of loyalty to the king, prevailed over Puritan dread of epis- 
copacy. Nevertheless, the backwardness of Massachusetts 

• Col. Doc, ii., 243-240,253,255,250; Lingard, xii., 16S; Davie3,iii., 25; Rapin, ii., 63T, 
638; Parliamentary History, Iv., 29S-302; D'Estrades, ii., 453, 460, 494; Lett, of De Witt, 
iv., 306, 342 ; Pepys, ii., 171. It is another instance of the ignorance which English scholars 
fo constantly display in re.^ard to American history, that the editor of Bohn's recent edition 
of Pepys repeats tlie erroneous statement of Hume, vi., 3S3, ami others, that the expedition 
sent against New Netherland was commanded by Sir Robert Holmes. 


Chap. I. gave NicoUs and Cartwright an opportunity to complain 
to Secretary Bennet. As soon as the rest of the Enojlish 
•0 Jul ships reached Boston, McoUs wrote again to AVinthrop at 
Hartford, and also to Captain Thomas Willett at Plymouth, 
desiring them to meet the commissioners at the west end 
of Long Island, whither the expedition soon afterward 
jgAnsust. sailed. The squadron, piloted by New England mariners, 
TuJf a^Ny- anchored at Nyack or New Utrecht Bay, just inside of Co- 
^'^^' ney Island. Here the royal commissioners were joined 
by Winthrop and his son Fitz John, with Willys and sev- 
eral other Connecticut magistrates. Willett also appeared 
on behalf of the new Plymouth colony, and " greatly rec- 
ommended himself to the commissioners by his acti\dty and 
intelligence." Scott was likewise at hand, with men from 
New Haven, " pressed by authority," to go with him to Long 
Island. A number of militia, summoned fi'om Southold 
and the other towns at the eastern end of the island, soon 
appeared in arms under the command of Captain John 
Connect!- Youngc. Tliomas Clarke and John Pynchon also came 
outhfi^" from Boston with a report of its military arrangements, 
^eus dde- But, as there was already an overpowering force collected, 
^^^^^- the services of the Massachusetts troops were found to be 

j^ August. All the approaches to New Amsterdam by land and wa- 
^tOTdifm' ter were immediately blockaded, and communication be- 
biockaded. i^QQj^ the city and Long Island, Bergen, and Achter Cul 
was cut off. The block-house on Staten Island, opj)Osite 
the squadron, was occupied. Several coasting vessels, on 
their way to the South River, were captured. Tlie Long 
Island farmers were forbidden to furnish any supplies to 
the capital, on pain of destruction of their property. At 
3§ Anguat. tlie samc time a proclamation was issued by the commis- 
sioners on board tlie Guinea, copies of which were " scat- 
tered broadcast" among the Dutch towns, and soon found 
piociama- tlicir way to the burghers of the metropolis. " Forasmuch," 
r!oy.i;com- were its words, " as his majesty hath sent us, by commission 
iuLs.^i.mei-s. ^^j^^igj. i^jg great seal, among other tilings to expel or to re- 

* General Entries, i., 2-7 ; Col. Doc., ii., 235, 236, 372, 409, 410, 438, 444 ; Hi., 65, 66, 84 ; 
Chalmer.s, Ann., i., 386, 387, 573 ; Mass. Rec, iv. (ii.), 117-128, 141, 149, 157-lOS; Mas?. II. 
S. Coll., xviii., 92-94; xxxvi., 527, .'i23 ; Hutch. Mass., i., 230, 231; Barry, i., 390, 391; Pal- 
frey, ii., 57S, .'i86, .'591 ; iii, 236, 238; Morton'.'! Mem., 311, no^e .• New Haven Rec., ii., 550; 
Trumbull, i., 2CT ; Smith, 1., 17, 18 ; Wood, 27 ; Thompson, i., 127 ; ant£, vol. i., 737. 


duce under his majesty's obedience all such foreigners as chap. i. 
have without his majesty's leave or consent seated them- 
selves amongst any of his dominions in America, to the prej- ■'■""*• 
udice of his majesty's subjects and the diminution of his 
royal dignity, We, his Majesty's Commissioners, declare and 
promise that whosoever, of what nation soever, will, upon 
knowledge of this proclamation, acknowledge and testify 
themselves to submit to this his majesty's government, as 
his good subjects ought to do, shall be protected by his 
majesty's laws and justice, and peaceably enjoy whatsoever 
God's blessing and their own honest industry have fur- 
nished them with, and all other privileges with his maj- 
esty's English subjects. We have caused this to be pub- 
lished that we might prevent all inconveniences to others, 
if it were possible ; however, to clear ourselves from the 
charge of all tliose miseries that may any way befall such 
as live here and will not acknowledge his majesty for their 
sovereign — whom God preserve." The inhabitants of the 
several towns on Long Island were also specially sum- 
moned to meet the commissioners at Gravesend on the fol- 
lowing Thursday.* 

In the mean time, Stuy^^esant, on receiving the letter 
which the West India directors had written to him in 
April, was somewhat relieved fi'om fear of an attack by 
the English, although he could not refrain from ^vriting to 25 juiy. 
the company that the design of the royal commissioners ^ August, 
was rather against New Netherland than for the "imao;- 
ined reform of New England." Willett, of Pljnnouth, who 
liad originally warned him of the danger, now contradicted 
his previous statements, and the director incautiously went 27 j«iy. 
up to Fort Orange to repress some disorders among the In- |tuy?e'ant 
dians in its neighborhood. Upon learning the approach of oran-e 
the English expedition he hurried back to Kew Amster- Returns to 
dam, which he reached only the day before the Guinea ^terafm.'" 
anchored in Nyack Bay. Accordiner to the rule " in such , . . 
critical circumstances," the burgomasters were called into Tae city 
council, and every thing possible was done for the forti- t^at^eT 
ficatioii and defense of the city. But its condition was counciK" ° 

* Col. Doc, ii., 372, 410, 411, 434, 438, 443, 444, 476 ; General Entries, i., 7, 8 ; Colonial 
Manuscripts, x. (iii.), 290-303 ; Albany Rec, xxii., 307, 385; Smith, i., 387, 3SS ; S. Smith's 
New Jersey, 30, 37 ; Oyster Bay Rec, A., 10 ; O'Call., ii., 521, 522; Thompson, i., 124, 125 ; 
an«r, vol. i., 738 ; N. Y. II. S. Coll. (1809). 53, C3. 



Chap. I. hopeless from the first. No aid could be obtained from 
Long Island. The regular soldiers in the garrison did 
not exceed one hundred and fifty ; and the burghers — of 
whom only two hundred and fifty were able to bear arms — 
thought more of protecting their own property than of de- 
fending the open town. The v/hole city force, placed man 
Defense- by man four rods apart, could not guard its breastwork. 
tionofthe Fort Amsterdam itself was untenable against a regular be- 
metropohs. ig^guering, having been originally built to resist an attack 
of the savages rather than an assault by European arms. 
Houses were clustered around its low earthen walls, which 
in some places were not over ten feet high, and were com- 
manded, within pistol-shot on the north, by much higher 
ground on the " Heere-weg," or Broadway. Its six hund- 
red pounds of serviceable powder were not suflicient for 
more than a few hours' firing. Long before its extremity, 
Stuyvesant had given his mihtary opinion, which modern 
judgment has only confirmed, that " whoever by water is 
The river mastcr of the river will be iii a short time master by land 
'^ '^ ■ of the feeble fortress." The contingency he dreaded had 
now happened, and the English squadron was in full com- 
mand of the harbor. Nevertheless, the director resolved 
to hold out to the last. At the request of the burgomas- 
ters, and to ascertain the condition of affairs on Long Isl- 
and, he sent four commissioners, representing the council 
If August, and the city, down to the English commanders, with a let- 
se*n^tr°' ter inquiring the object of their coming, and why they re- 
wiwre- mained at Nyack without giving notice to liim. Nicolls 
^'"^^' answered them that he had come to reduce the country to 
the obedience of the King of England, whose commission 
he exhibited ; that he would not argue about his majesty's 
right, which he would leave to be vindicated by the king 
liimself ; and that, the next day, he would send a letter to 
New Amsterdam " over the ferry."* 

Colonel Cartwright, Captain Needham, Captain Grove, 

and Mr. Thomas Delavall accordingly came up to the city 

gg August, on Saturday morning with a letter from NicoUs to Stuy- 

• Alb. Rec, xviii., 276-29T, 311, 312; Colonial MSS., x. (iii.), 251, 299 ; xv., 140 ; Mass. 
Rec, iv. (ii.), 101-106; Palfrey, ii., 5T6; New Amsterdam Kec., v., 552-554, 607-570 ; Val. 
Man., ISGO, 592 ; ISGl, 603-605 ; Col. Doc., ii., 235, 24S, 367, 368, 371, 372, G76, G77, 40S-411, 
421, 431-434, 43S, 44!\ 441, 44-3, 446, 469, 474, 4T5, 494, 499, 505, 50S; Gen. Ent., i., S, 9; 
Smith, i., 18 ; S. Smith, 37, 38 ; Hazard's Reg. Penn., iv., 30, 31 ; Letter of Drisius, 15 Sept., 
1664 ; antr^ vol. i. , 737, 738, 741. 


vesant, asserting the " im questionable riglit" of the English chap. i. 
king " to these parts of America," and requiring the sm-- 
render of the " town situate upon the island commonly j^.^^ig fg 
Ivnown by the name of Manhatoes, with all the forts there- mands the 

*' , ^ ' ^ surrender 

unto belonging," at the same time assuring him " and every of Maniiat- 
respective inhabitant of the Dutch nation that his majesty, 
being tender of the effusion of Christian blood, doth by 
these presents confirm and secure to every man his estate, Terma of- 
life, and hberty, who shall readily submit to his govern- ^^^ 
ment, and all those who shall oppose his majesty's gra- 
cious intentions must expect all the miseries of a war 
which they bring upon themselves." A copy of the proc- 
lamation of the royal commissioners was also sent. Fond 
of parade, and determined to " keep up state" to the last, 
the Dutch director received the English delegates with a 
salute of artillery which expended a large proportion of 
his slender stock of powder. As Kicolls had omitted to 
sign his summons, it was retm-ned to the delegates, and a stuyvesant 
delay was thus gained. StujTesant, on his part, showed nlt^s*^ '' 
them his commission as Director General of New jN^ether- 
land, and the grant of the States General to the West India 
Company in 1621, which, he insisted, gave as much power 
and authority as the King of England had given or could 
give to any colony in America. The municipal authorities, 
with some of the burghers, now assembled at the City Hall, 
and agreed that the city should be so fortified as to prevent 
a surprise, that thus " good terms and conditions" might be 
obtained fi'om the enemy. But, as protracted resistance 
was out of the question, a copy of the Enghsh communica- 
tion was to be demanded from the director. 

On the following Monday morning, i^icolls,ha^dng signed 
liis summons, sent it back with a note of apology by Cap- 32Aiigii8t. 
tains Hill, Needham, and Matthias NicoUs. Another salute jJ^J^ 
was fired, and on the departure of the Enghsh deputies the ^^"'^^^ 

' ^ o i summons. 

burgomasters asked Stuyvesant for a copy of the smnmons, 
to be shown to the citizens. But the director, fearing that 
its easy terms might lead them to capitulate at once, re- 
fused. The burgomasters endeavored to explain the pur- 
port of the summons, but the citizens insisted upon seeing 
for themselves. Stuyvesant then went in person to their 
meeting, hoping to dissuade them from their purpose. 


Chap. I. " Sucli a coui'se," liG Said, " would be disapproved of in the 
fatherland : it would discourage the people, and he would 
* be held answerable for the surrender." At last, finding it 
coramuni- usoless to rosist the popular will, the director furnished the 
the^peopis. required copy, with a protest that he should not be held re- 
sponsible for " the calamitous consequences."* 

With a sorrowful heart Stuyvesant now drew up a dis- 
patch to the West India Directors, informing them of his 
"perilous and very alarming" situation. "Long Island is 
gone and lost." The capital, threatened by Old and IsTew 
22 August. England forces, could not hold out long. " The company 
1 septem. ^g ggolded and cursed by the inhabitants, in regard that not- 
withstanding the so often renewed and successive warn- 
stuy^-e- ina-s and remonstrances from time to time, no attention has 

sant's let- 

ter to the been paid, and none of the solicited succor obtained. Yea, 
paiiy. ' it is loudly and openly proclaimed, to the contempt and 
shame of your faithful servants, that your honors by pre- 
meditation abandoned the inhabitants, if you did not in- 
tend to expose them for sale, and endeavored to devote 
them to slaughter." This dispatch was intended to be sent 
by the recently arrived ship Gideon, which was to pass that 
1 night " in silence through Hellgate." But, upon considera- 

tion, Stuyvesant refused to let the vessel sail, and Gelde, 
her master, could only protest against his detention.f 

By this time Nicolls had become better informed of the 
state of affairs in New Amsterdam through Willett, who 
wiiiett was " more acquainted with the manners and customs of 
winthrop. the Dutch than any Englishman in the country." Win- 
throp had also explained to him how easily the citizens 
might be induced to compel Stuyvesant to surrender, if 
they were assured that their intercourse with Holland 
22 August, would not be interrupted. NicoUs accordingly wrote to 
1 septem. Wiuthrop, " As to those particulars you spoke to me, I do 
Nicoiis's assure you that if the Manhadoes be delivered up to his 
Winthrop. majcsty, I shall not hinder, but any people from the Neth- 
erlands may freely come and plant there, or thereabouts ; 
and such vessels of their owne country may freely come 

• General Entries, i., 9-11; Alb. Rec, xviii., 311-317; xxli., 314, 315; Col. MSS., x. (iii), 
.309, 311 ; XV., 143, 144 ; Col. Doc., ii., 441, 443, 469, 4S)S ; Hazard's Reg. Penn., iv., 31, 41 ; 
Smith, i., lS-21 ; S. Smith, 3S, 39 ; Thompson, i., 12S ; Bancroft, ii., 314 ; O'Call., ii., 522, 
523; anfc, vol. i., 738, 739. 

t Alb. Rcc, xviii., 302-304; xxli., 31S-321; Col. JISS., x. (iii.), 313; xv.,141; Thompson, 
L, 128, 129 ; General Kntries, i , 34, 141 ; Col. Doc, ii., 22?, 430, 469, 744. 



thither, and any of them may as freely returne home in chap.i. 
vessels of their owne country ; and this and much more is 
contained in the privilege of his majesty's Enghsh sub- 
jects ; and thus much you may, by what means you please, 
assure the governor." In thus promising the people of 
!N^ew Il^etherland a fi'ee intercourse with Holland, in viola- 
tion of the English Navigation Acts, Nicolls exceeded his 
instructions fi-om the king, which authorized him to assure 
the Dutch colonists only " the same freedom in trade with 
our other good subjects in those parts ;" and he even as- 
sumed more power than his own sovereign possessed, who 
" could not dispense with the laws by permitting a com- 
merce which they had prohibited."* 

Having, nevertheless, gained his point, Winthrop ad- 
dressed a friendly letter to Stuyvesant and his comicil, i^acpfem. " 
urging them to "speedily accept his majesty's gracious ten- 
der," and adding that " otherwise you may be assured that AVintuiop-s 
both the Massachusett colony and Connecticutt, and all the s1,uyve- 
rest, are obliged and ready to attend his majestie's service; 
and if you should, by wilf uU protraction, occasion a gen- 
erall rising of the English colonies, I should be sorry to 
see the ill consequences which you will bring upon your 
people thereby, of which I hope and persuade, in reall com- 
passion, that you will not run so great an hazard to occa- 
sion a needless warre, with all the evills and miseries that 
may accompany the same, when nothing but peace, and lib- 
erties, and protection is tendered. I have, I hope, obtained 
of their honors this farther addition to their former free 
tenders for the good of yourselves, your friends, and allies, 
that any of your friends in Holland that will come over 
hither shall have free liberty to inhabite and plant in these 
parts, under his majestie's subjection, and to transport 
themselves in theire owne country ships, which (if you con- 
sider well) gives you such a settlement in your present con- 
dition, that you will find little alteration but your submis- 
sion to and acknowledgment of his majestie's emj)ire (for 
the most apparent future good of all your people), who 
hath imployed such persons of honor and worth that your 
people may be happy under their government." To this 

• Gen. Ent , i., 12; Morton's Memorial, 311, note; Col. Doc, iii., 57, 1C5; Chalmera, i., 
574, 590 ; OCaU., ii , 52.'! ; on'^, p. 19 ; vol. l, 739. 


Chap. I. letter Nicolls, Carr, and Cartwright added their autograph 
~ ~ approval and assent " that it be sent to the governor of the 
1^^^- Manhadoes."* 

Winthrop, with his son Fitz John, and Willys of Con- 
necticut, accompanied by "Willett of Plymouth, and Clarke 
and Pynchon of Massachusetts, came up the next day with 
23 August, this letter from Gravesend "in a row-boat with a white 
wlnufrop fi^&?" ^^ t^^ ^ity wharf, whence they were " immediately 
at New conducted to the nearest tavern." Another salute was 

dam, fired as they landed, and Stuyvesant went with his council 

and the two burgomasters to greet them. The Enghsh 
delegates declared that they had come to offer " all the in- 
habitants, in the king's name, fair conditions, and, in case 
these were not accepted, to excuse themselves for any mis- 
chief that might follow — it being their business, as they 
bad been ordered by England's majesty, and were therefore 
obliged to assist General ISTicoUs." Many " speeches and 
answers" passed at the long conference. On taldng leave, 
Winthi'op handed his own sealed letter to Stuj^'esant, who, 
when he returned to the fort, opened and read it before the 
council and the burgomasters. Its effect was immediate. 
In a short time the burgomasters came back to the council 
chamber, and demanded a copy of Winthrop's letter to be 
communicated to the city authorities. This Stuyvesant de- 
cHned to allow, thinking it " rather disadvantageous than 
favorable to communicate such letters to the inhabitants." 
The burgomasters insisted that the director " ought to com- 
municate to the commonalty all that had any relation to 
the public welfare." Stuyvesant explained the disastrous 
consequences of so doing ; but the burgomasters persisted, 
and as they went away, " greatly disgusted and dissatisfied," 
stuyvesant the dircctor, against their protest, tore the letter in pieces, 
wntiZp's " in order thereby to prevent its communication." Shortly 
letter. aftcrward, most of the burghers assembled at the City 
Hall; the work on the palisades suddenly stopped; and 
three of the principal citizens, " not belonging to the gov- 
ernment," came to the council chamber and peremptorily 
demanded a copy of the letter. The fi'agments were shown 
to them, but no reasoning would satisfy ; and Stuyvesant 

. • This letter was published for the first time in 1S63, from Winthrop's original drift, in 
Mass. II. S. Coll., xx.xvi., 527-529 ; N. Y. II. S. (Joll. (1SG9), 5S. 


was obliged to liasten to tlie City Hall, " to encourage and chap. i. 
appease the burghers, and bring them back to work." In 
vain did he try to pacify them; complaints against the -'•""*• 
company's shameful neglect of the people's representations 
were uttered on all sides ; and a prolonged defense of the 
city, without hope of relief, was declared to be impossible, 
"seeing that to resist so many was nothing else than to 
gape before an oven." In vain did the director again re- 
fuse a copy of the letter, because " it did not concern the 
commonalty, but the government," and, moreover, it had 
been torn up. " The letter ! the letter !" was the only re- 
ply. Fearing a mutiny, Stuy^^esant returned to the coun- 
cil chamber; and Bayard, the clerk, having made a copy a copy giv- 
of Winthrop's mutilated writing, gave it to the timorous duz^ns.^ 
burgomasters . * 

Meanwhile Stuyvesant had been preparing a reply to the 
summons of NicoUs. It was an overwhelming argument, 23 August. 
tracing the history of New Netherland, denying the English gtijy'ye."' 
pretension, and maintaining the Dutch title by first dis- ^g"'j>4"fj.'- 
covery, uninterrupted possession, purchase of land fi'om the *|l^ ^"''^^^ 
native owners, and the recognition of the sovereignty of the 
States General by the articles of peace with England. For 
these reasons, the unsoundness of the English claim was 
" as manifest and palpable as the brightness of the sun at 
noonday." At the same time, the director proposed to re- 
new the agreement with Scott in the previous March, that 
the question of boundaries on Long Island should be ami- 
cably determined by the king and the States General, " in 
order to prevent bloodshed here and further trouble in Eu- 
rope," which must follow any hostile aggressions. 

This letter was conveyed by four of Stuy^^esant's ablest 
advisers, two from the council and two from the city, who 
were instructed to "argue the matter" with the Enghsh 23 August. 
commander. But Nicolls, declining discussion, told them KicoCde- 
that the question of right did not concern him ; it was to cusllon.'^' 
be considered by the king and the States General. He must 
and should take the place ; and if the reasonable terms lie 

• Col. Doc, ii., 308, 369, 444, 445, 469, 4T6 ; iii., 165; Alb. Eec, xxii., 316; Col. MSS., X. 
(iii.), 311, 313; Smith, L, 20; Trumbull, i., 26S; Bancroft, ii., 314; O'Call., ii., 523, 524; 
Mass. H. S. Coll., xxxvi., 528, 529 ; ante, vol. i., 739. According to Smith, Trumbull, and 
others, Stuyvesant tore Winthrop's letter " in a fit of anger;" according to his own account, 
in Alb. Rec, xxii., 316, and Col. Doc., ii., 445, " to prevent its communication" to the people. 


Chap. I. had oifered were not accepted, he would attack the city, 
for which purpose, at the end of forty-eight hours, he would 
bring his forces up nearer. " On Thursday, the fourth," he 
added, " I will speak with you at the Manhattans." The 
Dutch deputies replied, " Friends will be welcome if they 
come in a friendly manner." " I shall come with my ships 
and soldiers," said ISTicoUs, " and he will be a bold messen- 
ger, indeed, who shall then dare to come on board and so- 
licit.terms." To their demand, " Wliat, then, is to be done ?" 
Nicoiis-8 He answered, " Hoist the white flag of peace at the fort, 
repiy.'°"^ and then I may take something into consideration." "With 
this imperious message the Dutch delegates returned sad- 
ly to New Amsterdam."''' 

Seeing that Stuyvesant was disposed to hold out, Nicolls 
24 August, directed Hyde, of the Guinea, " to prosecute, with the ad- 
Anl^ttaTk "^'ice of the captains under his command, his majesties' 
ordered, (^l^ii^ and iutcrest by all waj's and means as they shall 
think most expedient for the speedy reducing of the Dutch 
under his majesties' obedience." The transport ship Wil- 
liam and Nicholas was also " pressed" for active service, 
and an agreement was signed with Morley, her captain, to 
indemnify her owners in case she should be damaged.f 
At the appointed day, a great number of the inhabitants 
25 August, of Long Island assembled to meet the royal commissioners 
Nkous at at Gravesend, Winthrop and the other Connecticut mag- 
oravesend. jg|;j.ates wcrc prescut. Nicolls, in their presence, pubhshed 
the king's patent to the Duke of York, with his own com- 
mission, and demanded the submission of Long Island to 
his authority. On the part of the inhabitants living east 
of the Dutch towns there was no doubt respecting alle- 
giance. They were already British subjects, and under the 
jurisdiction of Connecticut. The only question was about 
coming under the Duke of York's government. Winthrop, 
on behalf of Connecticut, declared that as the Idng's pleas- 
ure was now fully signified by his letters patent, the j mis- 
diction which that colony had claimed and exercised over 
Long Island " ceased and became null." Nicolls, on the 
part of the duke, replied that he would not displace any of 

• Col. Doc, ii., 406, 411-414 ; Gen. Ent., i., 15-20 ; Alb. Kec, xviii., 319, 320; xxii., GIT ; 
Col MSS., X. (iil.), 313; xv., 144; Hazard's Reg. Penn., iv., 41, 42; Val. Man., ISGO, 592; 
Smith, i., 20-26 ; B.incroft, il , 314; O'Call., ii, 526 ; an«c, vol. i., 72S, 740. 

t Gen. EDt.,i.,ai,22, 27, 28; Smith, i., 27 ; .S. Smith, 40 ; Hazard, l;eg. Penn., iv., 4^4 . 


the civil officers appointed by Connecticut, but would con- cqap. i. 
firm tliem to act under him "until a convenient season 
served to convene deputies fi-om all the towns on the isl- 
and, when and where laws were to be enacted and civil of- 
ficers estabhshed." Tliis assurance seemed to explain the 
vao-ue promise in the proclamation of the commissioners, 
that all persons submitting to the royal government should 
eniov " all other privileges with his maiesty's English sub- submission 

J J ^ '-' • T -\ • r T oiLonglil- 

iects." It was, at all events, considered satistactory. Long and to the 

J ' -i-nTi 111'ii Duke of 

Island, chiefly inhabited by Englishmen aheady subject to York. 
the crown, submitted at once to the authority of the Duke 
of York ; and the volunteer forces from its eastern towns, 
joined by those of New England, marched fi-om Amers- 
f oort and Midwout toward Brookl^Ti, to assist in reducing 
the Dutch capital.* 

Observing the approach of the English forces, Stuy^'e- ^sAugust . 
sant m'ote once more to Nicolls, that although by his or- Ituyv'e'l"'' 
ders he was " obliged to defend our place," yet, to prevent l^J"^^ 
the shedding of innocent blood, he proposed that commis- 1"^^^°- 
sioners should be appointed on both sides to treat about " a 
good accommodation," and that in the mean time all hos- 
tilities should cease. The Enghsh commander replied fi-om 
Gravesend that he would willingly appoint commissioners 25 August. 
" to treat upon articles of surrender." At the desire of * '^'p"^"^'. 
Stuyvesant's delegates, orders were given to Commodore 
Hyde not to fire first on the city. But Kicolls refused 
their request that the troops should not be brought nearer. 
"To-day I shall arrive at the ferr}^," he added: "to-mor- 
row we can agree with one another." f 

The regular soldiers, consisting of thi-ee full companies, 
eager for booty, were then landed at Gravesend, whence 
they marched up to the ferry at Brooklyn, where the auxil- tij^ Kn-^^^ 
iaries from Long Island and New England were abeady sta- at Brook-' 
tioned. Two of the ships moved up near Nooten, or Gov- ^°' 
ernor's Island. The other two frigates came on with full 
sail, and ffuns ready to open broadsides, and, passing in fi'ont Ke^ a™. 

t I'TT^iTT ^Tr J. 1 sterdambe- 

of Fort Amsterdam, anchored m the East Kiver. VV atcli- leaguered. 
ing them from the parapet as they sailed along, Stuy\-esant 

* Deeds, ii., 43, 44 ; Wood, 2T, 2S, 87, 1T3, ITT; Thompson, i , 126, 127; ii., 323, 323 ; Col. 
Doc, ii., 407, 408, 414, 445, 501 ; Col Rec. Conn., i. 424, 42T, 429 ; ante, vol. i., T38, T34. 

t Gen. Ent., 1, 13, 14, 15; Alb. Kec, xviii., 321 ; Col. MSS., xv., 144; Col. Doc, ii., 414; 
Hazard, Reg. Pena., iv., 31 ; Smith, i., 27 ; S. £mitl), 41, 42 ; ante, vol 1., 740. 




Chap. I. wRS about to Order his gunner to lire, when the two Domines 
Megapolensis led him away between them, imploring him not 
to begin hostilities. Leaving fifty men in the fort-, under 
the command of Fiscal de Sille, the director, at the head of 
one hundred of the garrison, marched into the city, in or- 
der to prevent the English from landing " here and there."* 
Panic in By this time the Dutch regular soldiers themselves had 
tropX. become more disposed to plunder than to defend. They 
openly talked of " where booty is to be got, and where the 
young women live who wear chains of gold." Warnings 
had come from Long Island that the New England auxil- 
iaries of Nicolls declared " that their business was not only 
with New Netherland, but with the booty and plunder, and 
for these they were called out and enrolled." The " curs- 
ing and talking" of these Eastern adventurers forced the 
citizens of New Amsterdam to look upon them as their 
" deadly enemies, who expected nothing else than pillage, 
plunder, and bloodshed." The whole population on Man- 
hattan Island was about fifteen hundred, of whom only 
two hundred and fifty were able to bear arms. Opposed 
to these were more than a thousand effective soldiers and 
sailors in the English squadron, besides the re-enforcements 
from New England and Long Island. Moreover, it was 
understood that six hundred Northern savages and one 
hundred and fifty French rovers, with English commissions, 
had offered their services against the Dutch. Seeing them- 
selves thus " encircled round about," with no means of de- 
liverance, and considering " the notorious and palpable im- 
possibility of being able to defend and hold the place," the 
city authorities, clergy, and oflficers of the burgher guard, 
5 septem T ^^ ^lic suggestiou of the elder Domine Megapolensis, adopt- 
ijeuion- ed a remonstrance to the director and his council, implor- 
sufyve- ** ing them to accept the conditions offered by the English 
commander. His threats, it stated, " would not have been 
at all regarded, could your honors, or we, your petitioners, 
expect the smallest aid or succour. But God help us ! 
whether we turn for assistance to the north or to the 
south, to the east or to the west, it is all in vain." Ninety- 
three of the principal citizens, including all the municipal 

« Col. Doc, ii., 414, 422,444, 445, 501, 502, 5 3, 5f)8, 509; Val. Man., ISGO, 592; Drisius to 
ClaBsls of Amsterdam, 15 Sept., 1064; ante, vol. i., 740. 



officers, and Stiiy vesant's eldest son, signed the paper. The cuap. i. 
threatening answer of JSTicoUs to the Dutch commissioners 
had meanwhile been spread among the people, and many -'^""*- 
of them, with their ^ves and children crying and prapng, 
besought the director to parley. To all their supplications 
he sturdily repHed, " I had much rather be carried out 
dead !" But now he was obliged to yield to inevitable ne- stuyvesant 
cessity, and prevent the mischiefs about to overtake, " evi- ^*^ 
dently and assuredly, the honest inhabitants."* 

The lesson in Saint Luke's Gospel taught Stuyvesant 
how vain it was, with ten thousand men, to resist him that 
came with twenty thousand. Tet there was one balm for 
the director's wounded spirit. NicoUs had voluntarily pro- 
posed "to redeliver the fort and city of Amsterdam, in New 
Netherland, in case the difference of the limits of this prov- 
ince be agreed upon betwixt His Majesty of England and 
the High and Mighty States General." A full power to 
agree upon articles with the English commander or his 26 August., 
deputies was accordingly given by the Dutch director and ^ septem. 
his council to Counselor John De Decker, Commissary Dutch 
Nicholas Varlett, and Doctor Samuel Megapolensis, repre- sionera ap- 
senting the pro\"incial government, and Burgomaster Cor- ^™ ^ ' 
nehs Steenwyck, old burgomaster Oloff Stevensen van 
Cortlandt, and old schepen James Cousseau, representing 
the city. Nicolls was now encamped at the Brooklyn fer- 
ry, " before the Manhatans," with the royal " beleaguering" 
forces. On his part, he promptly named liis two col- 
leagues. Sir Robert Carr and Colonel George Cartwi'ight, English 
with John Winthrop and Samuel Willys of Coimecticut, liolTn' 
and Thomas Clarke and John Pynchon of Massachusetts, °^™^*^- 
as his commissioners. " The reason why those of Boston 
and Connecticut were joined in the treaty," NicoUs after- 
ward explained to Arhngton, " was because those two col- 
onies should hold themselves the more engaged with us if 
the Dutch had been over-confident of their strength."! 

The next morning, which was Saturday, the plenipoten- "^ '^°""''^- 


* Alb. Rec, xviii., 320, 321 ; Col. MSB., xv., 144 ; Col. Doc, ii., 248-250, 369, 423, 444, 446, 
4T6, 503 ; Driaius's Letter ; Val. Man. , 1S60, .592, 593 ; ante, vol. i. , 741. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 414, 440; iii., 103 ; Gen. Ent., i., 30-33 ; Alb. Rec, xviii., 323, 323; Col. 
MSS., XV., 144, 145; H.izartl'3 Ann. Penn., iv., 44; O'Call., ii., 531 ; Saint Luke's Gospel, 
xiv., 31 ; ante, vol. i., 741, 742. Smith, i., 27, inaccurately says that Stuyvesant agreed to 
surrender "on condition the English and Dutch limits in America were settled by the 
crown and the States General." 


cuAP.i. tiaries ou both sides met by agreement at Stup'esant's 
" Bouweiy," or farm. Their only dispute was about the 
• Dutch garrison, whom, as the English refused to do it, the 
city deputies agreed to convey back to Holland. The proc- 
Artidesof lamatiou of the royal commissioners and the reiterated 
tfon agreed promiscs of Mcolls formed the basis of the twenty - four 
"^°°* articles of capitulation. These declared all the inhabitants 
of ISTew I^etherland to be " free denizens," and secm-ed to 
them their property. Any persons might come from Hol- 
land "and plant in this country," while Dutch vessels 
might "freely come hither, and any of the Dutch may 
freely retm-n home, or send any sort of merchandise home, 
in vessels of their own country," For the next six months, 
intercom*se with Holland was to continue as before the 
coming of the English. The Dutch inhabitants were to 
" enjoy the liberty of their consciences in divine worship 
and Chm-ch discipline," as well as " their own customs con- 
cerning their inheritances." All public buildings were to 
continue in their existing uses, and all public records to be 
respected. All inferior civil officers were to remain as they 
were until the customary time for new elections ; and the 
town of Manhattan might choose deputies ^vith " fi-ee voices 
in all public affairs." Owners of houses in Fort Orange 
were to enjoy their property " as all people do where there 
is no fort." The articles of capitulation were to be con- 
sented to by Nicolls, and delivered to Stuyvesant, together 
with copies of the king's patent and the Duke of York's 
commission, by eight o'clock the next Monday morning, 
" at the old mill,"* Witliin two hours afterward, the fort 
and town " called New Amsterdam, upon the isle of Man- 
hattoes," were to be surrendered, and the military officers 
and soldiers to " march out with their arms, drmns beating 
and colors flying, and lighted matches."t 
2s August. These very advantageous and conciliatory terms were 
7 septem. ' explained to the burgher authorities at the City Hall on 

" This "old mill," which wna the nenrest point on Manhattan to " the ferry" iit Brooltlyn, on the shore of the East River, near what is now the foot of Roosevelt Street, but then 
at the outlet of a brook running out of the "Kolck," afterward vulgarly called "the Col- 
lect:" see Valentine's Manual, 1S53, 551, and 1SC3, C'21, and the maps appended; ante, vol. 
i., p. 1G7, note. We owe the recovery of these maps to the research and care of George II. 
Moore, the present librarian of the New York Historical Society. 

t Gen. Ent., i., 23-26, 33 ; Col. Doc, ii., 250-253, 414 ; Smith, i., 27-32 ; S. Smith, 43^0 ; 
Hazard's Keg. Penn., iv., 43 ; HoU. Merc, 1G64, 15-3, 154; Alb. Rec, xviii., 325 ; Col. MSS., 
XV., 145; Chalmers's Ann., i., 574; 0'Call.,i., 532-535; ftJi^e, vol. i., 742, 762. 


Sunday afternoon, " after the second sermon." It was the chap. i. 
last religions service that was expected to be celebrated ~~Z 
under the Dutch flag in Kieft's old church in Fort Amster- ^^^^^ ^^_ 
dam. The next morning Stuyvesant and his council, hav- ^^e'°eo \e 
ing ratified the articles of capitulation, exchanged them 
with NicoUs, who, on his part, dehvered the stipulated doc- 29 August. 
uments ; and thereupon New Amsterdam was surrendered, AnideT' 
and " the Enghsh, without any contest or claim being be- ^fg^^^^j. 
fore put forth by any person to it, took possession of a fort g[f/j!^g^™gr- 
built and continually garrisoned about forty years at the ^^^ 
expense of the West India Company."* 

The story of the reduction of Long Island and New 
Amsterdam has now been minutely told : the unexpected 
blockade of the port by the English ; the overwhelming 
force of the invaders ; the weakness of Fort Amsterdam 
and its garrison ; the almost solitary heroism and loyalty 
of Stuyvesant ; the natural resentment of the city burghers 
against the authorities in Holland, who had left them un- 
protected against surprise ; their common prudence, which 
preferred the easy terms offered by the English command- 
er to the consequences of an unavailing resistance and a 
capture by storm ; their reasonable dread of being plun- 
dered by the English colonial volunteers from the east; 
the inevitable capitulation of the metropolis, and the con- 
sequent surrender of the whole Dutch province. There 
was, indeed — as Stuyvesant reluctantly confessed — "■ an ab- The Dutch 
solute impossibility of defending the fort, much less the defense- 
city of New Amsterdam, and still less the country."f 

On the part of England this conquest of New Nether- 
land was an act of peculiar national baseness. It was a 
scandalous outrage. It was planned in secret, and was ac- Tiie con- 

, quest a 

complished with deliberate deceit toward a friendly gov- scandalous 
ernment. None but Englishmen had the impudence to do °" '^^°' 
so vile a wrong. Its true motive was carefully concealed 

• Col. Doc, ii , 414, 415; Alb. Eec, xviii., 323, 324, 326 ; Col. MSS., xv., 145; Gen. Ent., 
i., 31, 32 ; avte, vol. i., 763. Smith, i., 32, errs in stating that Stuyvesant refused, for two 
days, to ratify the articles, because they were "very disagreeable" to liira. The true rea- 
son was that a Sunday intervened, and the articles themselves provided for their due exe- • 
cution on Monday. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 366. Tlie first dispatches which Nicolls sent home, containing an account 
of his transactions with the New England colonies and the surrender of New Netherland, 
were lost at s a in the Elias frigate, as will be stated hereafter: see OoU Doc, iii.,C8, 92, 
103 ; Pepys, ii., 185 ; post^ p. 50, note. 


cuAP. L in all the diplomatic statements which attempted to justify 
"777! the deed. The nayis-ation laws of Enojland, which were 
■ chiefly meant to cripple the commerce of her great mari- 
time rival, could not be enforced in America as long as 
that rival possessed so important a province there. The 
intensely selfish spirit of those laws eagerly employed the 
most unjustifiable means to maintain them. Because En- 
gland coveted New Netherland, and not because she had 
any rightful claim, she treacherously seized it as a prize. 
The whole transaction was eminently characteristic of an 
insolent and overbearing nation. On no other principle 
than that which frequently afterward governed the preda- 
tory aggressions of England in India and elsewhere can 
her conquest of the Dutch province be defended. 

Nevertheless, unjustifiable as was the deed, the tempta- 
tion to commit it 'was irresistible. Its actual execution was 
The event probably only a question of time. The event itself could 
uievi a e. ]-^^j.^i-^y havc bccu avoidcd by the Dutch government, unless 
all their previous policy had been reversed, and the holding 
of New Netherland at all hazards against any enemies been 
made an indispensable obligation. But this could not have 
been expected. Neither the West India Company — now on 
the brink of banki-uptcy — nor the States General adequate- 
ly valued their American province. It was not until toward 
the end of their rule that the importance of New Nether- 
land and the necessity of securing it seriously engaged the 
attention of the authorities in Holland. Even then their ap- 
parent indifference encouraged the mousing designs of En- 
gland. Charles the Second decreed that the United Neth- 
erlands should no longer have a foothold in North America. 
The decree was executed ; and the Dutch province became 
the easy prey of undeclared enemies, who sneaked, in time 
of peace, into her chief harbor. New York replaced New 
Netherland on the map of the world. Although wars in 
Europe followed, the result in America was the same. 
Holland retired from the unequal strife, lea\'ing France 
and Spain to contend for a season with England for ulti- 
mate supremacy in North America. 
What En- By the conquest of New Netherland England became 
ed. the mistress of all the Atlantic coast between Acadia and 

Florida. On the north and west her colonies were now 


bounded by the French possessions, on the south by those chap. i. 
of SjDain, on the east by the ocean. Yet, although the 
British American dominions thus became geographically 
united, they were neither homogeneous in character nor 
sympathetic in feeling. The Puritan colonies, while they 
rejoiced in the subjection of their "noxious neighbors" to 
the crown of England, had themselves no respect for their 
own ungodly sovereign. The aid which they had given to 
the royal commissioners was a fatal political mistake, if 
any purpose of independence was really cherished. They 
thus lost the best opportunity they ever had of securing 
their local governments, because the king was now master 
of the most advantageous position on the continent, from 
which he could, if necessary, direct military and naval op- 
erations for their reduction in case of revolt. Maryland, 
equally removed from Puritan severity and Cavalier license, 
was content that its territorial dispute should at all events 
be adjourned. Virginia, perhaps, felt less interest in the 
event, although the prompt loyalty of her people, who had 
hastened to proclaim their restored sovereign, was natural- 
ly gratified at the extension of his dominion over all the 
neighboring coast between Cape Henlopen and Montauk 

In the progress of years, a common allegiance and com- 
mon dangers produced greater sympathy among the Anglo- 
American plantations. JSTevertheless, although incorpora- 
ted into the British colonial empire, New York never lost Prevaiiins 
her social and political identity and her salutary moral in- New York. 
fluence. It was her lot to sustain fiercer trials, and gain a 
more varied experience, than any other American state. 
It was equally her destiny to temper the narrow character- 
istics of her English sister colonies with the larger ideas 
which slie had herself derived from Holland. Midway be- 
tween ]^ew England and Virginia, she stood for nearly a 
century guarding her long frontier against the attacks of 
Canada ; and at length she became the Prvox Peovestce, 
on which hinged the most important movements of that 
sublime revolt against the oppression of England, the only 
parallel to which was the successful struggle that the fore- 
fathers of her first settlers maintained against the gigan- 
tic despotism of Spain. 


Chap. I. TliG terms of capitulation offered by Nicolls and accept- 
ed by Stnyvesant were, perhaps, the most favorable ever 
Liberal poi- g^^^nted by a conqueror. In theory, the king only resumed 
Duklof^ his rightful authority over a province which had been in- 
York. trusively occupied and improved by the Dutch. Once re- 
duced under his own proprietary rule, the Duke of York 
hoped that it would become not only profitable to himself, 
but a valuable accession to the colonial dominions of the 
crown, to which he was the presumptive heir. His policy, 
therefore, was to obtain peaceful possession of the territory, 
and at the same time induce its Dutch inhabitants to re- 
main there and become loyal English subjects. Indeed, the 
duke's patent authorized him to govern British subjects 
only. The most liberal inducements were accordingly of- 
fered to the people of New i!^etherland, with ostentatious 
benevolence. On the other hand, the Dutch colonists, cha- 
grined at the imbecility and seeming indifference of the 
authorities in the fatherland, and having many causes of 
complaint against their own provincial government, accept- 
ed the change of rulers calmly and hopefully, if not with 
positive satisfaction. 

Yet, by becoming British subjects, the Dutch inhabitants 
The people of E"ew Nctlierland did not gain politi(;al freedom. Fresh 
fngby the uamcs and laws, they found, did not secure fresh liberties. 
^ ■"°°' Amsterdam was changed to York, and Orange to Albany. 
But these changes only commemorated the titles of a con- 
queror. It was nearly twenty years before that conqueror 
allowed for a brief period to the people of ISTew York 
even that faint degree of representative government which 
they had enjoyed when the three-colored ensign of Hol- 
land was hauled down from the flag-staff of Fort Amster- 
dam. New Netherland exchanged Stnyvesant, and the 
"West India Company, and a I'epublican sovereignty, for 
Nicolls, and a royal proprietor, and a hereditary king. 
The province was not represented in Parliament ; nor could 
the voice of its people reach the chapel of Saint Stephen 
at Westminster as readily as it had reached the chambers 
of the Binnenhof at tlie Hao-ue. 

Nevertheless, to all the changes which befell them, the 

Loyalty of Dutcli colouists of Ncw York submitted with cliaracteristic 

' good faith. No more loyal subjects than they were ever 


brouglit under the British crown. Yet it was not pleasant cuap. i. 
for them to watch the red cross of England waving where 
the emblems of the Netherlands had floated for fifty years. 
To Holland they felt a deep, nnalterable, hereditary attach- 
ment. Nor have the yicissitndes of time extinguished that 
sentiment in their descendants. Two centuries have scarce- 
ly weakened the Teneration which citizens of New York of 
Dutch lineage proudly cherish toward the fatherland of 
their ancestors. Year by year the glorious and the genial 
memories of Holland are renewed by those whom long 
generations have separated from the country of their fore- 
fathers. But colonists usually retain more affection to- 
ward their fatherland than those who remain at home ever 
feel toward the emigrants who leave its shores. As years 
roll on, the contrast becomes more marked. Two centu- Holland 
ries have almost wiped out of the recollection of Holland -sll^ ^ 
the once familiar name of New Netherland. A few of the Ztd^^' 
more curious of her scholars and her statesmen may some- 
times, by careful search, discover the meagre paragraphs in 
which her ponderous histories dismiss the &torj of her an- 
cient trans- Atlantic province. But the people of the Low 
Countries scarcely know that New York was once their 
own New Netherland, or that they* have any right to the 
glory of lla^ing laid the foundations of the mightiest state 
in the American Union, and the metropolis of the Western 




cuAP. II. On Monday morning, the twenty-nintli of August, six- 
;; ~" teen hundred and sixty-four, Peter Stuyvesant, having per- 
29 A^igust foi'ii'^sd his last official act as Director General of New 
s septem. jN^etlierlajid by ratifying the articles of capitulation, placed 
The Dutch himself at the head of his garrison, and marched out of 
of Fort Fort Amsterdam with arms fixed, colors flying, drums 
dam. " beating, and matches lighted. Wheeling to the left, the 
veteran led his sullen troops down the Beaver Street to the 
North River. From there they were hurried on board the 
"West India Company's ship Gideon, which v/as preparing 
to sail for Holland. This was so arranged because the 
Dutch soldiers were enraged at not being allowed to strike 
a bloAV, and the British infantry were prudently kept out 
of sight until they were safely embarked. In the mean 
time the English regulars had taken post near the old mill. 
The Long Island and Noav England auxiliaries, by previous 
agreement between Stuyvesant and Nicolls, were kept to- 
gether on the Brooklyn side of the river, and were not al- 
lowed to enter the city, because the burghers " were more 
apprehensive of being plundered by them than by the oth- 
ers." As the Dutch garrison marched out, the ensign of 
the United ProATinces was hauled down, and an English 
The En- coi'poral's guard took possession of the fort and hoisted the 
houted?^ British flag, which NicoUs liad borrowed from the frigate 
Guinea. Leaving Colonel Cartwright with his company, 
which was stationed at the ferry, to occupy the city gates 
and the City Hall, Nicolls advanced at the head of his own 
and Sir Robert Carr's companies, and, accompanied by the 
burgomasters, marched into the fort. After being formal- 
ly inducted by the civic authorities, wlio " gave him a wel- 
come reception," the Englisli governor performed his first 


official act by directing that the citj of New Amsterdam chap. ii. 
should thenceforth be called " New York," and Fort Am- 
sterdam " Fort James."* ^g^ York 

The surrender being thus accomplished without blood- j"^^"""' 
shed, NicoUs at once dismissed the Long Island and New named. 
England volunteers. The Massachusetts delegates were 
sent back, with the thanks of the royal commissioners to 29 August. 
her General Court. The governor also addressed a letter and°and' 
to Captain John Younge, of Southold, who commanded gw vJi- 
the Long Island militia, desiring him to make out a listdSmiKcd. 
of those who had taken up arms " for their king and coun- 
try," so that they might be suitably rewarded, and promis- 
ing that deputies from the several towns should, " in con- 
venient time and place, be summoned, to propose and give 
their advice in all matters tending to the peace and benefit 
of Long Island."t 

The new provincial government was now organized. 
The governor's subordinate. Captain Matthias NicoUs, of Nicoiia'a 
Ishp, in Northamptonshire, who had accompanied him emmeat' 
fi'om England, and was a lawyer, was appointed secretary 
of the province. Captains Robert Needham and Thomas 
Delavall, also from England, together with Secretary 
NicoUs, Thomas Topping, of Southampton, and William 
Wells, of Southold, were named counseloi'S. On extraor- 
dinary occasions, Stuyvesant's late secretary, Cornehs van 
Euys'en, and Schepen Johannes van Brugh, were some- 
times called on to assist. Delavall was also appointed col- 
lector and receiver general of New York and its neighbor- 

The Dutch municipal officers were continued in their 
places by virtue of the articles of capitulation. The day 
after the sm'render, the Court of Burgomasters and Sche- 
pens of the city of New York assembled to transact their 3q August. 
ordinary business, and proceeded to administer justice as if ^ ^^p^^'"*- 

* Alb. Rec.jXvjii., 32G; Col. MSS., xr., 145; Gen. Ent.,i., 32, 55; Hazard's Reg. PeuD., 
iv., 50; NewAmst. Eec, v., 50T-5TO; Val. Man., 18G0, 592, 593; Col. Doc, ii., 250-253, 41.5, 
422, 440, 44.5, 440, 501, 502, 509, 7^ ; Bushwick Eec. ; Thompson, ii., 1G5; (uitc, vol. i., 742, 
743, 7G3. As the old style was used in England, it was now introduced into New York. I 
shall therefore follow that supputation, adding, whenever necessary, the corresponding 
date in the new style in a line under the old. The historical, and not the English legal 
year, will, however, be used between 1 January and 25 March. 

t Gen. Ent.,i.,29, 30; Thompson, i., 127; Smith, i.,S2, 

t Patents, i., 3; Deeds, ii,. 24; S. Wood,144; Thompson, ii., 390; Val. Man., 1847, 351, 
360; 1S52, SSI; 1853, 3S0, 3S3. 


Chap. II. nothiiig uiiusual had occurred. A few days afterward 
they wrote to the West India Company, by the ship Gid- 
-fi-se tem ^°^^' "^^^^^ch, with a pass from Nicolls, took home the late 
tjityoffi- sjarrison, under the command of Ensign Nyssen, describ- 
ued. ing the surrender, and adding that, " since we have no lon- 
ger to depend upon your honor's promises or protection, we, 
with all the poor, sorrowing, and abandoned commonalty 
here, must fly for refuge to the Almighty God, not doubt- 
ing but He will stand by us in this sorely afflicting con- 
juncture." By the same vessel Stuyvesant and his late coun- 
f^ septem. cil also scut the company an official account of the capitu- 
liouand. lation, and declared " that they would prefer to suffer ship- 
wreck in the empty praise and esteem of the world, than, 
waiting to the last moment without hope of relief, subject 
every thing to bloodshed, or at least to the danger of being 
jDlundered."* Domine Samuel Drisius, one of the coUegi- 
15 Septem. ate ministers of the Dutch Church, also wrote an interest- 
ing letter to the Classis of Amsterdam, detailing the circum- 
stances of the surrender, f 

For the first time, the Enghsh Episcopal service was 
English now celebrated in ISTew York. The articles of capitula- 
wmrer/ tioii oxprcssly declared that all public buildings should 
eemce. continue in their previous uses, and that the Dutch should 
enjoy their accustomed divine worship and church disci- 
11 October, phue. Pro\asion was accordingly made by the burgomas- 
ters and schepens for the due support of the Domines 
Megapolensis and Drisius, until the governor should make 
farther arrangements. The chaplain of the English forces 
had, however, no proper place in which to celebrate divine 
service, except in the Dutch Church in the fort. It was 
very cordially arranged that after the Dutch had ended 
their own morning worship in their church, the British 
chaplain should read the Church of England service there 
to the governor and the garrison. This Avas all the footing 
that the English Episcopal Church had in New York for 
more than thirty years.:]: 

* Gen. Ent., i., 34, 35, 141 ; New Amst. Eec, v., 555, E60-5T0 ; Val. Man., 1S60, 592, 5D3 ; 
Col. Doc , ii, 422, 504, 744; Mass. Hist. Soc , Tnimbull Tap., xx., 73 ; Col. MSS., x. (iii), 323. 

t A translation of this letter, which pves several details heretofore unknown, was pnh- 
li^hed for the first time in the Appendix to Brodhead's Oration on the Conquest of New 
Netherland, delivered before the New York Historical Society on 12 Oclober, 1SG4. 

X Doc. Hist. N. Y., iii., 265; Col. Doc, iil, 262, 415; iv., 325, 526 ; New Amst. Eec, v., 
539; Hist. Mag., \. (U.), 322; Benson's Mem.,ii. N. Y. II. S. Col], (ii.), 103; Humphreys's 


Meanwhile, Fort Orange and Esopus, altliougli included chap. ii. 
in the capitulation, remained to be reduced under the 
duke's authority. Accordingly, as soon as the Gideon had 9 ggpte^ 
sailed for Holland with the Dutch garrison, and the safety 
of the capital was thus assin*ed, Ils^icoUs commissioned his 
colleague. Colonel Cartwright, to go up the river with his ^|Septem. 
company and occupy those places. The authorities and to Foit 
inhabitants of Fort Orange were required to aid him in "^^"^"^ 
obtaining quiet possession, and to obey him according to 
the governor's instructions, especially "in case the Mo- 
hawks or other Indians shall attempt any thing against the 
lives, goods, or chattels of those who are now imder the 
protection of his majesty of Great Britain." Yan Kensse- 
laer was also directed to bring the title j^apers respecting 
Kensselaerswyck down to New York for the governor's in- 
spection, and, in the mean time, to obey Cartwright's or- 
ders. In order to secure the transfer to the English of the 
fi'iendship which the Iroquois had cherished toward the 
Dutch, Nicolls requested some persons who had experience 
in dealing with the savages to accompany the military offi- 
cers of the expedition. One of these was "Willett, of Plym- 
outh, and the other was Captain Thomas Breedon, of Bos- 
ton, formerly governor of Nova Scotia, who had visited 
Fort Orange in 1662. Cartwi'ight's cliief mihtary subor- 
dinates were Captain John Manning and Captain Daniel 
Brodhead. Manning seems to have formerly commanded 
a trading vessel between New Haven and Manhattan, but 
was now in the regular service. Brodhead was a zealous 
Koyalist, of Yorkshire, England, where his family had lived 
" in the credit and reputation of gentlemen," and who, hav- 
ing a captain's commission from the king, embarked with 
liis household for America in the expedition of NicoUs.* 

When Cart^vi-ight reached Fort Orange, he found that septemter. 
De Decker, one of Stuyvesant's late plenipotentiaries at 
the capitulation, had hurried up thither from New York, 

Hist. Ace. 201 ; Thompson, ii., 205; Christian Journal, quoted in Dr. Benian's sketch of 
Trinity Church, 11. The names of the earliest chaplains of the English forces in New York 
are not knonn. The fir.^t that has come down to us is that of the Rev. Charles Wolley, a 
graduate of Cambridge, who officiated from Aug., 16TS, to July, IGSO: Hist. Mag , v., 153, ISO. 
* Gen. Ent.,i., 34, 35, Ul; Kenss. JISS. ; Col. Doc, i., 490; ii., 422, 502; iii., 80-41, 65, 
S^, 140, 270; ix.,75; Munsell's Ann., vii., 07; Morton's Mem , 311, no(e ; Hutch. Mass., i., 
2l.\ 220, 224, 225; Mass. Kec, iv. (ii), 69, 75; Hazard, ii., 432, 463; Palfrey, i., 163; ii., 
405, 525, 575; New Haven Rec, ii., 6S-75; Josselyn's Voyages, 153; ii. N. Y. H. S. Coll , 
i., 334; (1869), IG, 37, 57, 337, ante, vol. i, 519, 525, 579, 5S5, 704, 730, 743. 


Chap. II. aiid was endeavoring " to alienate tlie minds of his majes- 

ties' Dutch subjects from that happy reconcilement with- 

Fortor ^^^^ bloodshcd upon articles so lately made." But the 

ange sub- counsclor's efforts were vain. La Montas-ne and the masr- 

mits. ... . -r • 

istrates had no disposition to resist. Little change was 
made except in the name of the place, which was thence- 
Named ai- forth to be called "Albany," after the Scotch title of the 
^^°^' Duke of York. All the inferior officers and civil magis- 
trates were continued in their places. An English garri- 
Manning son occupiod the little fortress, which was named " Fort 
com an - j^^^^^jV ^^^ placcd iu chargo of Captain Manning. Soon 
eptem. j^fj.gj.^g^j.j^ several Mohawk and Seneca sachems appeared 
First En- at the fort, and signed with Cartwright the first treaty be- 
with the**^ tween the Iroquois and the English. It was covenanted 
Iroquois, ^j^^^ ^-^^ Indians should have all the commodities from the 
English which they formerly had from the Dutch; that 
offenses should be reciprocally punished ; and that the Riv- 
er Indians, and those below Manhattan, should be included 
25 septem. in the treaty. The next day it was farther agreed that 
the English should not assist the hostile Eastern tribes, that 
they should make peace for the Iroquois with the nations 
down the river, that the Iroquois should have free trade, 
and " be lodged in houses" as formerly, and that, if they 
should be beaten by the Eastern tribes, they should " re- 
ceive accommodation" from the English. The friendship 
thus established continued to be maintained with remark- 
able fidelity on both sides for more than a century, until 
the American Revolutionary War. 

On his return from Albany Cartwright landed at Eso- 
pus. As at Albany, care was taken to conciliate the in- 
habitants. William Beekman was retained in his place as 
schout, or sheriff, while Thomas Chambers remained com- 
missary, and Matthys Capito secretary of the village of 
urodhead Wildwyck. A 2:arrison of regular soldiers occupied the 

ID com- 1- o cj 1 

mand at foi't, uudcr the command of Captain Brodhead. The only 

Esopus. .. -I • ^ /-^ ' 1 • T -< • 1 ' 

opposition which Cartwright experienced during his expe- 
dition was from De Decker, at Albany ; and Nicolls, on 

30 Septem. learning his conduct, ordered the too patriotic Hollander to 
leave the government within ten days. The deputies who 

10 October, accompanied Cartwright from Albany agreed to written 
articles with JSTicolls that the inhabitants there " should en- 


joy all the articles of surrender" made at New York, and cnAP.ii. 
that former local arrangements were generally to remain ~ 

in force. Jeremias van Rensselaer was also confirmed in jg October, 
his authority, on condition that a new patent should be ob- ^y"^^^^''^''" 
tained from the duke, and the inhabitants of Eensselaer- 
wyck should take the oath of allegiance.* 

By the articles of capitulation, the Dutch, who were 
three fourths of the inhabitants, were at liberty to sell 
their lands, and remove with their families and personal 
effects t*o Holland. But NicoUs, fi'om the first, had been 
anxious to retain them all in their present homes, and in- 
duce them to become British subjects. He therefore went 
to the meeting of the metropolitan burgomasters and sche- u October, 
pens, and having sent for Stuyvesant, Van Euyven, and 
the Dutch ministers, invited them to take an oath to be oath of ai- 
true subjects of the King of Great Britain, and to obey all required. 
commands from his majesty, the Duke of Tork, or his gov- 
ernors and ofiicers, while they lived in any of his majesty's 
territories. This obligation did not involve any permanent 
renunciation of allegiance to the Dutch government. Nev- 
ertheless, great reluctance to take it was shown, as the ar- 
ticles of surrender, while they declared that " all people 
shall still continue free denizens," did not provide for their 
swearing to a new allegiance. After much debate, "all 
the meeting roundly declared" that they could not take 
such an oath unless the governor should add to it " con- 
formable to the articles concluded on the sm-render of this 
place." Their reason for insisting was that otherwise they 
might " nullify or render void the articles." Domine Mega- 
polensis and Secretary Yan Euyven, however, " saw no im- 
pediment" to taking the proposed oath. 

A few days afterward the burgomasters called upon is October. 
NicoUs, with whom, in the presence of Cartwright and 
Willett, the matter of swearing was again discussed. To 
put an end to the "false and injurious aspersion" regarding 
it by which the minds of the inhabitants were by this time 
distracted, Nicolls declared in writing " that the articles of 
surrender are not in the least broken, or intended to be bro- 
ken, by any words or expressions in the said oath." This 20 October. 

• Gen. Ent, 1, 36-50 ; Col. Doc, iii., 67, 6S, P4 ; Colden (ed. 1755), i., 34 ; Smith, i., 33 ; ii. 
N". Y. H. S. Coll., i., 384; Slunsell, vii., 97, 98 ; Val. Man., 1847, p. 370 ; Esopiis Records ; 
O'CaU., ii., 305, 431, 552 ; ante, vol. i., 714, 72D, 732, 744, T61. 


Chap. II. answer satisfied all. Tonneman, the schout, altliough in- 
tending to return to Holland in the next ship, did not re- 

21 October ^^^^® ^^ ^^^^® ^^® obligatioii. Ill the course of the next five 
26 October ^^J^' upward of two hundred and fifty of the Dutch iiiliab- 
AUegiance itauts, includiiiar Stuyvesant, Yan Ruvven, the Domines 

Bwoin by ' '-' "^ " ' 

the Dutch. Megapolensis and Drisius, Beekman, Yan Kensselaer, and 
others from New York, Esopus, and Albany, swore allegi- 
ance to Charles the Second and the Duke of York.* 

The governor's statesmanship was quickly vindicated. 
The " Yroedschap," or great council of the city, having been 

22 Novem. called togctlicr to elect a successor to Tonneman, chose Al- 
12 Decern, lard Aiitlioiiy ; and NicoUs, confirming their choice, gave 

the new sheriff a commission and instructions for liis guid- 
ance. As the soldiers had already become unruly, NicoUs 

21 Novem. appointed Anthony Wharton to be provost-marshal, to keep 

them fi-om interfering with the citizens, and to punish of- 

22 Novem. f eudei's. Tlic city authorities testified their good will in a 
city'a let- letter to the Duke of York, drawn up by Burgomaster 
Duke of Steenwyck, praising Nicolls as a " gentle, wise, and intelli- 
gent" governor, under whose wings they hoped to " bloom 
and grow like the cedar on Lebanon." To this end they 
prayed that the city of ISTew York might have the same 
commercial privileges as the king's subjects in England, or 
even be as free from burdens as Boston ; in which case, 
in a few years, the duke would derive great revenues from 
a province which would be " then peopled with thousands 
of families, and having great trade by sea with ISTew En- 
gland, and other places in Europe, Africa, and America."t 

Thus was an imperial territory added to the dominions 
of England. Specific names were now given to the acqui- 
sition, so as to " comprehend all the titles" of the Duke of 
Yorkshire York. The province itself was called " New York." Long 
nndAiba. ^^^^^^^ ^^^^g designated as " Yorksliire." The region be- 
tween the Hudson and the Delaware, of which httle was 
known beyond the few hamlets near Manhattan, was 
named " Albania." 

Of all the territory of New York, Albania offered the 
greatest attractions to emigrants. It was considered the 

• Gen. Eiit., i., 4% 50; New Amsterdam Pef., v., G14-G1S; Val. Man., 1S61, GOS-GOT ; Col. 
Doc, ill., 74-T7 ; II. B. Dawson's " Sons of I.iljerty in \cw York," 14-lG 

t New Amat. Rec, v., G43-Gi6 ; Patents, 1 , 161-1&5; Val. -Man., ISGI, GOT, G08; Valen- 
tine's City of New York, 161-163. 



most " improveable part" of the province "in respect not 
only to tlie quantity of the land, but to the sea-coast and ~~ 
Delaware River, the fertility of the soil, the neighborhood " 

to Hudson's Eiver, and, lastly, the fair hopes of rich mines." 
Communipaw, Bergen, and Staten Island, already settled settle- 
by the Dutch, were now to gain new neighbors. John Albania. 
Bailey, Daniel Denton, and others, of Jamaica, on Long Isl- 
and, asked leave to buy and settle a tract of land on the 26 Sept. 
After Cull River,* which they had formerly intended to 
do, but had been " obstructed by the then ruling Dutch." 
McoUs, wishing to give the Long Island people some " re- 
ward for their fidelity" previous to the surrender, cheer- 
fully assented, and promised the petitioners " all due en- so Sept. 
couragement in so good a work." Bailey and Denton, 
with their associates, soon bought from the savages the 28 October. 
land between the jRaritan River and Newark Bay, which 
had been purchased thirteen years before by Augustine ^^ 
Heermans. The English pm'chase, however, was confirmed 2 Dec. • ' 
by NicoUs to Captain John Baker and John Ogden, who 
had bought out Denton's interest, and to Bailey and their 
associates, upon condition of their "doing and performing / ■, 
such acts and things as shall be appointed by his royal 
highness the Duke of York or his deputy." Before long, , ' / 
four famihes from Jamaica began the settlement of what , 
was soon afterward known as Elizabethtown.f 

The mihtary and naval ofiScers who accompanied McoUs 
from England also became large landliolders. Captain ; 
James BoUen, the commissary of ammunition at Fort Grants of 
James, and others, received a grant on Staten Island. A 24 Dec. 
tract at Hackensack was granted to Captain Edward Grove, 3 October. 
of the Martin. To Captain William Hill, Lieutenant Hmn- y^^ \ 
phrey Fox, and Master Coleman, of the Elias, were sever- ''\'' 
ally allotted parcels of land on Staten Island. The naval 
grantees, however, had scarcely time to take possession of 
their domains ; for their ships, being no longer required for ., „ 
service at New York, were sent back to England with dis- •''"[ 

* This was an English corruption of the Dutch name " Achter Cul" (now called Newark 
Bay), which was given because it was achter^ or " behind" the bay of New York. The pas- 
sage leading to this cul was called the "Kil van Cul," and is now known as " the Kills." 
See ante, vol. i, 313, note. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 105; Chalmers, i., 615, 624, 655; Patents, i., 20; Elizabethtown Bill in 
Chanceiy (174T), 25-28 ; Learning and Spicer, 66S-6T3 ; Smith's N. Jersey, 62 ; Gordon, 27 ; 
Whitehead's E. J., 1!), 36-39 ; Index N. J. Col. Doc, 4T ; Thompson's L. I., ii., 103 ; Den- 
ton's N. Y., 13, 15 : ante., vol. :., 53T, 707, 70S, 724. 

IL— D 



Chap. II. patcliGS fi'oni NicoUs amiouiicing the success of the expe- 
dition, and the establishment of the duke's government in 
^^^^- what was lately I^ew ^N'etherland.* 

An important question had been meanwhile presented 
for the action of the royal commissioners. The Duke of 
^* Ten-i- York's patent included only the territory lying east of the 
Delaware, and the authority of Mcolls as governor extend- 
ed no farther. Yet the commissioners were instructed by 
the king to reduce to his obedience the Dutch wherever 
seated within his claimed dominions in IsTorth America. 
Nicolls soon learned that the Maryland people were " in 
some sort overawed" by the city of Amsterdam, to which 
the Delaware settlements belonged, and that, unless those 
possessions were acquired, the gaining of New York would 
be " of small advantage to his majesty." Without regard- 
ing Lord Baltimore's pretensions, the commissionei*s de- 
termined " to reduce the Delaware, thereby to assure this 
place for liis royal liighness." 
... . Five days after the capitulation of Is^ew Amsterdam, 

... NicoUs, with Cartwi'ight and Maverick, accordingly com- 
^-j-s&j)t. missioned their colleague. Sir Robert Carr, to go with the 
tQ^^v^^°° Gruinea, Captain Hyde, and the William and Nicholas, Cap- 
ori^th "cei- *^i^^ Morley, and " all the soldiers which are not in the fort," 
astixic. ajj(j reduce the Delaware settlements. Carr was instructed 
to promise the Dutch the possession of all their property 
and all their present privileges, " only that they change 
their masters." To the Swedes he was to " remonstrate 
their happy return under a monarchical government, and 
his majesty's good inclination to that nation." To Lord 
Baltimore's officers in Maryland he was to declare that 
^ their proprietor's pretended right to the Delaware being 
"a doubtful case," possession would be kept for the king 
" till his majesty is informed and satisfied otherwise."t 
Carr's expedition sailed fi'om New York just before Cart- 

* Patents, i., 5, 7-9, 22 ; Col. Doc, ii., 470 ; iii,, GS, 02, 103. The Eliiis was wrecked near 
the Lizard, and all the letters in her sent by NicolU wore lost. For this reason, among 
others, th3 early records rchiting to New York in the State Paper Office are so defective. 
Captain Hill and a few men were saved. Hill afterward obtained another ship, was at the 
battle of Lowostoffa the next June, then at Barbadoes, and in the autumn of 1CG7 returned 
to Englaud from France, where he had been a prisoner. Captain Grove arrived safely with 
the .Martin, and behaved like a cowsird at Lowestoffe. He was "•reckoned a prating cox- 
comb and nf no courage," and was certainly an adept in the business of bribing for office : 
Pcpys, i., 401, 402 : iii., 294 ; Mass. II. S. Coll., xxxvii., 190. 

t Gen. Knt, i., 53, 53, 59 ; Hazard's Reg. Penn., 36, 37 ; Col. Doc, ii., 296 ; iii., 52, 57, 63, 
G9,70; Col. MSS.,.xx.,l. 


Wright's went up to Fort Orange. After a tedious voyage, chap. u. 
prolonged by the ignorance of the pilots and the shoaliness 
of the Delaware, the ships anchored above New Amstel. g^ g^p^ ' 
The Swedes were soon made fiuends. But the Dutch at lo octobei-. 
first were obstinate for a defense. After a long parley, 
Fob Oothout and five others, on behalf of the burghers, 
signed articles of capitulation as favorable as those which ix o='- 
had been agreed to by Stuyvesant. But Hinnoyossa, the 
city's governor, with less than fifty soldiers, resolved to de- 
fend the fort. The next Sunday morning the ships drop- -^^ oct. 
ped down, and fired two broadsides each, while a company of°°^e oei- 
of foot, under the command of Lieutenant John Carr, a son ^^'■^»'°- 
of Sir Robert, with Ensign Arthur Stock, stormed the works. 
The Dutch fired three volleys of musketry, but none of 
their ordnance, on their assailants, who did not lose a man ; 
while three of the garrison were killed and ten wounded. 
Carr now landed from the Guinea, and claimed the pillage 
for himself as " won by the sword." Assuming an author- 
ity independent of Nicolls, he claimed to be " sole and chief 
commander and disposer" of all affairs on the Delaware. 
With quick rapacity, he appropriated Hinnoyossa's farm to Kapacity cf 
himself, Schout Yan Sweringen's to his son John, and Peter 
Alricks's to Ensign Stock. To Captains Hyde and Morley 
he granted a tract of land in the upper part of the river, J-^ Oct 
called by the Indians " Chipussen," which he erected into a 
manor by the name of " Grimstead." The Dutch soldiers 
were sent into Virginia to be sold as slaves. The property 
of the city of Amsterdam, as well as that of the inliabitants 
about New Amstel, was remorselessl}^ seized. To complete 
the work of Carr — in such disgraceful contrast to that of 
Nicolls at Manliattan — a boat was sent down to the Hoar- 
kill, where all the city's effects were plundered, and even 
the inoffensive Mennonists, who formed " the Quaking So- 
ciety of Plocklioy," were stripped " to a very naile." 

The ships were quickly sent back to New York with a M Oct. 
report from Carr of his proceedings, and of the hostile at- 
titude of the Susquehanna Indians, who were then at war 
with the Iroquois Senecas. But Carr himself, instead of 
returning to assist in executing the royal commission, 
would not leave the Delaware. His colleagues thought 

~ Cn,rr re- 

his conduct there presumptuous and disgraceful. Theytuked. 


caAr. II. peremptorily required him to return to New York ; and 
Cartwright S,nd Maverick commissioned Mcolls to proceed 

24 Oct ^^ Delaware Bay, " there to take special care for the good 

a Movem. government of the said place, and to depute such offi- 
cer or officers therein as he shall think fit, for the man- 
agement of his majestie's affairs, both civil and military, 
until his majestie's pleasure be further known." In ^vl'it- 

rNwem. ^^S ^0 Secretary Bennet, Nicolls rebuked Carr's conduct, 
and added that because of his absence, "his majestie's com- 
mission can not be pursued in the several colonies of New 

Nicous'3 England unless I should leave New York, and thereby put 

Secretary to hazard the security of all at once, contrary to the opin- 
ions of Colonel Cartwright, Mr. Maverick, and all the rea- 
son which God hath given me. For we do concur that we 
came to serve his majesty and not our own ends." Mcolls 
farther urged that merchandise for the Indian trade and 
the necessities of the inhabitants should be promptly sent 
out. By the loss of the former Dutch trade, thousands in 
Virginia, Maryland, and New England were deprived of 
their accustomed necessaries, and would not laiow how to 
live " without speedy care be taken from England." If 
Lord Baltimore should solicit the grant of Delaware to 
himself, the king ought to look upon his patent as forfeit- 
ed, for trading with the Dutch contrary to the Navigation 
Act. NicoUs also submitted that if the Dutch should at- 
tempt to recover either New York or Delaware, the king 
should " enjoin all his colonies, none excepted, under severe 
penalties, to resist and expel all such foreigners out of these 
his majesty's territories." With these dispatches the Guinea 

26 Oct. was ordered to follow the Elias and the Martin to England. 
But her departure was delayed by a mutiny wliich broke 
out among the soldiers in the garrison of Fort James, and 

22 Novem. she did not sail until nearly a month afterward. Captain 
Harry Norwood, whom Nicolls not long afterward recom- 
mended as his own successor, returned in her to England. 
In pursuance of the commission of his two colleagues, 

NicoUs Nicolls visited the Delaware, accompanied by Captain Rob- 

gosB to the • 

Delaware, ert. Nccdham, whom he proposed to leave there as his dep- 
uty in command. Carr was severely rebuked, and obhged 
to give up much of his ill-gotten spoil. Nevertheless, he 
could not be persuaded to leave the place for some time. 



The name of New Amstel was now changed to New Castle, cuap. ii. 
and an infantry garrison established there. As Needham's " 
presence at Fort James, to act as first counselor, was desir- 
able, Captain John Carr was appointed commander of the 
Delaware, in subordination to the government of New 
York, to which it was annexed " as an appendage ;" and 
thus affairs remained for several years.* 

Upon the return of Nicolls to New York, the royal com- 
missioners proceeded to execute a very delicate duty. The 
Connecticut Charter of 1662 covered not only the entire 
territory of New Haven, but also a large part of New Boundaiy 
Netherland. The Dutch rejected the claims of the Hart- necucut. 
ford Court, and New Haven stoutly refused to yield to Con- 
necticut, because her charter had been surreptitiously ob- 
tained " contrary to righteousness, amity, and peace." The 
Duke of York's patent, however, not only comprehended 
Long Island and other neighboring islands, but the whole 
of New Haven, and the greater part of Connecticut, includ- 
ing Hartford itself. When this became known, both the 
wrangling Puritan colonies were seriously troubled at a 
specimen of majestic usurpation which outdid their own 
encroachments on the Dutch territory. Yet Connecticut 
was in no condition to oppose so powerful an antagonist 
as the presumptive heir to the crown. New Haven was 
still more helpless. Her only alternative was submission 
to Connecticut, or annexation to New York. After a sor- 
rowful debate, her General Court determined to submit to,^}^"si"'- 

■ ^ 14 Septem. 

Connecticut ; yet final action was postponed until it could 
no longer be avoided. 

In this dilemma it was important to conciliate the royal 
commissioners. At their first meeting after the surrender 
of New Netherland, the Connecticut Court voted a present isoctoter. 
of five hundred bushels of com to NicoUs and his col- 
leagues. They also appointed Mathew AUyn, Nathan Gold, Agents 
James Richards, and Captain John Winthrop to go with New York. 
Governor Winthrop to New York and congratulate the 
commissioners, "and, if an opportunity offer itself, that 
they can issue the bounds between the duke's patent and 

* Gen. Eut, i., 53, 55, 56, 5T, 60, 61, 62, 67 ; Coll. MSS., xx., 1 ; Col. Doc, ii., 369, 411, 421, 
434, 438 ; iii., 68-74, 83, 103, 104, 109, 113, 115, 345, 346 ; Mass. II. S. Coll., xxxvii., 309-311 ; 
Chalmers, i., 634 ; Hazard's Reg. Penn., i., 37; iv., 56 ; Ann. Penn., 355-369 ; S. Smith's N. 
J., 40-50 ; Proud, i., 122-124 ; N. Y. H. S. Coll. (1869), SI ; antc^ vol. i., 717, 744. 



Chap. II. oui's (so Rs ill tlieii' judgments may be to tlie satisfaction of 
the court), they are impowered to attend the same." John 
Howell and Captain John Younge, of Long Island, were 
desired " to attend the same service." Horses were like- 
wise presented by Winthrop to the royal commissioners.* 

The Connecticut delegates accordingly ^dsitedl^ew York, 
where they were received by NicoUs, Cartwright, and Mav- 

soNovem. erick. Both patents were produced, and all that could 
be said on each side was fully considered. The question 
about Long Island was soon decided. The duke's patent ex- 
pressly included it by name ; that of Connecticut did not. 
Moreover, Governor Winthrop, at Gravesend, a few days 
before the surrender, had declared that the jurisdiction 
formerly exercised by Connecticut over Long Island " ceased 
and became null." The commissioners, therefore, at once 
determined that the southern boundary of Connecticut 

Loag i3i. should be the Sound, and that Long Island should be un- 

judged to der the government of the Duke of York, " as is so ex- 
■ pressed by plain words in the said patents respectively." 
But Connecticut claimed that, under her charter, her 
territory extended across the continent to the Pacific Ocean. 
On the other hand, the Duke of York's patent covered all 
her territory west of the Connecticut River, and left her 
only the narrow strip between the east side of that river 
and Rhode Island. Moreover, she had not yet obtained 
possession of ITew Haven. Her charter had been granted 
only upon Winthrop's promise of submission " to any alter- 
ation" in her boundaries which might be made by the 
king's commissioners. Their authority to declare Hart- 
ford itself within the jurisdiction of 'New York, as it had 
once been within the jurisdiction of New Netherland, 
could not be disputed. The original Indian deed of 8 
June, 1633, to Commissary Yan Curler, of the land around 
Hartford, was appealed to in proof. But the commission- 
ers were supplicated not to enforce the duke's patent to its 
full extent, which would deprive Connecticut of her " very 
bowels and principal parts." In the judgment of JSTicoUs, 
such a decision would " cast dishonor upon his majesty," 

* Col. Rec. Conn., i.,415, 42T, 4."n, i?,',: iii., 480 ; New Haven Rec, ii., 4G7-4S3, 491-54S; 
Mass. II. S. Coll., xxxvii., .^11 ; Col. Doc, iii., 184 ; Clialmers, i., 293-200 ; Doc. Hist. N. Y., 
i., .'304; Tnimbull, i., 249-2T2, 515-521; Palfrey, ii., 545-r)5G, 53:'-595; iii., 23G; ante, vol. 
i.,51!>, 702, 733. 


and be "to the utter ruin of that colony, and a manifest chap. n. 
breach of their late patent." Besides, in the delicate rela- 
tions in which the commissioners were placed respecting 
all the I^ew England colonies, it was important this should 
be made " a leading case of equal justice." They there- 
fore determined that five towns, which "had been pur- Five town > 
chased, possessed, or gained" by Hartford, or by Newuonnecti- 
Haven, should be " rehnquished to Connecticut by virtue 
of their precedent grant from his majesty." Such a settle- 
ment, they " were assured, would be an acceptable service" 
to the Duke of York, although to the diminution of his 
patented bounds. 

At the same time, it was distinctly understood on both 
sides that the dividing line should run "' about twenty miles 
from any part of Hudson's River." An agreement to this 
effect was drawn up between NicoUs and Winthrop and so Kovem. 
his colleagues. To define the starting-point and the com- 
pass direction of this boundary, an amendment was insert- Boundary- 
ed, describing it as running from the head of Mamaroneck main laua^ 
Creek to the north-north-west, until it reaches the Massa- 
chusetts line. The amendment seems to have been pro- 
posed by the Connecticut delegates, who assured NicoUs 
that the boundary thus described would be " twenty miles 
every where from Hudson's River." 

Upon this basis the roj'al commissioners the next day i Deccm. 
signed an instrument, in which, after declaring Long Island 
to be under the government of the Duke of York, they or- 
dered " that the creek or river called Mamaroneck, which 
is rej)orted to be about thirteen miles to the east of West- 
chester, and a line drawn from the east point or side, where 
the fresh water falls into the salt at high-water-mark, north- Boundaries 
north-west to the line of the Massachusetts, be the western ed. 
bounds of the said colony of Connecticut ; and all planta- 
tions lying westward of that creek and line so drawn to be 
under his royal highness's government ; and all plantations 
lying eastward of that creek and line to be under the gov- 
ernment of Connecticut." Winthrop and his colleagues at 
the same time gave their " consent to the limit and bounds 
above mentioned."* 

* Gen. Ent., i., TO, 71 ; N. Y. Col. MSS., xxii., 5 ; lxi.x., 1-6 ; N. Y. Senate Doc, 185T, No. 
165, p. 7, 39, 41, 42, 100-104; Col. Doc, ii., 130, 140 ; iii., 55, 106, 23S; vii., 5G4, 507; Col. 



13 Decern. 

CHAP.n. For the moment, this settlement of the dispute seemed 
to be satisfactory to both parties. The submission of 'New 
Haven to Connecticut was soon completed. But NicoUs 
and his colleagues were strangers, and ignorant of the ge- 
ography of the country. They supposed that they had 
adopted substantially the same boundary agreed to by the 
Dutch and English colonies in 1650. Unfortunately, they 
Trickeiy of " relied upon" the assurances of the Connecticut delegates, 
cut. and were deceived by " wrong information" which no hon- 

est or intelligent adviser could have given. The line as- 
sented to and intended by Nicolls — twenty miles every 
where from the Hudson River — instead of starting at 
Mamaroneck, should have started several miles farther to 
the east, neal" Stamford ; and, instead of running north- 
north-west, it should have run due north. But the duped 
commissioners established a line, the starting-point of 
which was about ten miles from the Hudson, and which, 
crossing that river near Peekskill, intersected the prolong- 
ed southern boundary of Massachusetts near the north- 
west corner of the present New York county of Ulster. 
All the territory north and east of this line was thus ap- 
parently assigned to Connecticut and Massachusetts. Tlie 
absurd error was soon detected, and the boundary was nev- 
er ratified by the Duke of York or by the crown. But the 
pertinacity with which Connecticut clung to what looked 
very much like a mean deception on her part was after- 
ward the cause of great controversy.'^" 

Long Island being now settled under the Duke of York's 
Long isi- authority, NicoUs, to conciliate its inhabitants, addressed a 
1 Decern. " letter to Howell and Younge, who acted as tlieir represent- 
atives at New York. Referring to his promise when he 
dismissed the troops in August, after the surrender, he in- 
formed all persons that Long Island was declared to be 
under the duke's government ; that, as it was now winter, 
he would not trouble the inhabitants to send deputies to an 
Assembly in relation to the affairs of the island ; but that, 

Rec. Conn., ii., 341, 570-573 ; iii., 330 ; New Haven Rec, ii., 555, 55G ; Smith, i., 3G-3S, 297; 
ii., 305, 300 ; Trumbull, 1., 273, 523, 525; Wood's Long Island, 28, 170, 173; Thompson, i., 
126 ; ii., 323; Dunlap, ii., App. ccvi. ; ante, vol. i., P6, 1S9, 234, 235, 519. 

* Col. Rec. Conn., i., 441; ii., 341, .572, 573; iii., 3.30; Neiy Haven Rec, ii, 551-5,57; Col. 
Doc, iii., 04, 230, 231,235, 23S, 247, 257, .3,33, 356, 406, 7G1; iv.,C25; v.,69S; vi., 125, 776, 
8S5; vii.,5G3, 564,5:!6, 597; viii., 345; Hutch. Coll., 412; Smith, i.,SS; Chalmers, i., 296, 
576; Trumbull, L, 274 ; N. Y. H. S. Coll. (1SC9), 76. 


as soon as tlie weather should permit, he would notify cnAP.n. 
them of the time and place of meeting. In the mean time, 
the existing magistrates should remain in their places un- 
der the duke's government. 'No new taxes had yet been, 
thought of ; those laid by Connecticut should continue for 
a time ; but the people might " assure themselves of equal 
(if not greater) freedoms and immunities than any of his 
majesty's colonies in New England." Upon the return of 
Howell and Younge, a town meeting was held at East 21 uecem. 
Hampton, at which, " understanding that we are oE from 
Connecticut, and the magistrates not willing to act further 
on that account, that we may not be without laws and gov- 
ernment, it is agreed the former laws shall stand in force 
till we have further order from New Tork."* 

In the mean time, the "West India Company had informed ki 0'=*- 
the States General of the English conquest of New Nether- 
land, by which the republic had " lost a pro^dnce, the ap- 
pearance whereof was wonderful to behold." The States 
at once directed Yan Grogh, their ambassador at London, |i oct. 
to expostulate with the king, and demand " prompt restitu- 
tion and reparation." Yan Gogh, in an audience with 
Charles, denounced the capture as " an erroneous proceed- g Novem" 
ing, opposed to all right and reason, contrary to mutual '""^^^g^^"''''* 
correspondence and ffood neighborhood, and a notorious i^^ent de- 

J- o o 7 nounce the 

infraction of the treaty lately concluded." Finding that conquest of 

. , T • 1 1 NewNeth- 

lie could no longer dissimulate, the king replied with the eriand and , 

(iGins.iid its 

audacious falsehood that his " dependency" New Nether- restitution. 
land " had been settled and occupied before this by the 
English, who only permitted the Dutch nation at the outset 
to settle there, without an}'- authority having been thereby 
conferred upon the Dutch West India Company." The 
next day Clarendon wrote to Downing that the Dutch need f^^^°^^' 
not expect the king to restore his conquests ; " for they have 
no color of «-ight to pretend to New Netherland, nor is our 
possessing that the least violation of the treaty." Downing 
accordingly told De Witt that the king was not account- ^5 Novem. 
able to the Dutch government for what he had done in 
America, " no more than he should think himself obliged 
to let them know his mind, or to have their consent, in case 

* Gen. Ent., 1., 29, 65, 66; Thompson's L. I., i., 127, 311, 382, 383; ii., 323, 324, 32T; 
Wood, 177 ; Dunlap, ii., App. xxxvii. ; Col. Doc, iii., 86 ; Doc. Hist., i., 452 ; ante, p. 43. 


cuAP. II. lie should tbiiik fit to proceed against any Dutcli that live 
in the fens in England, or in any other part of his domin- 
■ ions." Without stopping to demonstrate the transparent 
absurdity of this comparison, the Grand Pensionary peremp- 
torily replied that New ISTetherland " must be restored." ■•' 

5 Decern. '^'^^ loug afterward Downing presented an insolent me- 
morial to the States General, in which any reference to 
Is^ew Ketherland was avoided. It was now clear that no 
redress was to be expected fi-om England. Secret orders 

j3_ Decern. Were therefore sent to De Ruyter, who commanded the 

De Euyter. Dutch squadrou on the coast of Afiica, to reduce the En- 
glish possessions there, after which he was to proceed on 
his voyage home, " and inflict, by way of reprisal, as much 
damage and. injury as possible on said nation, either at 
Barbadoes, IsTew IS^etherland, Newfoundland, or other isl- 
ands and places imder their obedience." 

C4 Novem. j^^ |.|^g opeuiiio; of Parliament, the kins: laid g-reat stress 

4 Decern. . 7 o & 

upon the proceedings of the Dutch in Africa and the East 
Indies, but did not allude to his own treacherous conquest 

f- Decern, of New York. A few days afterward Yan Gogh had un- 
satisfactory interviews with the king and the Duke of 
York, both of whom were evidently disposed to hostilities. 
With his report, the ambassador communicated to the States 
General, for the first time, a copy of the Idng's grant of New 
Netherland to the Duke of York. 

1^- Decern. It was uot long before Downing informed the British 
government of the secret orders which the States General 
had sent to De Ruyter. Bennet and Coventry warmly 
urged hostilities against the Dutch. The Yriyj Council 

Hostilities immediately directed letters of reprisal to be issued against 

England. " tlic sliips, goods, and servants" of the United Provinces. 
According to British custom, without any formal declara- 
tion of war, one hundred and thirty Dutch merchant ves- 
sels were seized in the English ports.f 

* Col. Doc, ii., 272-285 ; iii.,77-Sl; Aitzema, v., 193 ; Sec. Kes. IIoll., ii., 445; DeWitt, 
iv., 3S6, 387, 390, 391, 393 ; IIoll. Merc, 1G04, 178 ; D'Estrndes, ii., 530, 538 ; Lister's Clar- 
endon, ii., 209 ; iii., 3415-351 ; Hume, vi., 3S5. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 235-298; iii., 85; Pari. Hist., iv., 2P6-303 ; Cl.arke'aJnmps II., i., 401-404; 
Aitzema, v., 93, 94; De AVitt, iv., 413; Sec Eos. IIoll., ii., 4,59 ; 1 1 oil. Merc, 16G4, 185,186; 
Lister, ii, 270 ; iii., 352-355; Basnage, i., 714; Davics, iii., 27, 28; rcp)v,ii., 18(3, 192; Mar- 
tin, i., 2C9. Downing stopped at nothing to gain his objects. He told I'epys "that he had 
BO good ppics tliat he hath had the keys taken out of DeWitt'.^ pocket when he was a-bed, 
and his cIoi?Gt opened, and papers l)ronght to him and left in his hands for an hour;" .and 
"•that he huth always had their most private debates that have boon but between two or 


Intelligence of the threatening aspect of affairs in Eu- cnAP.ii. 
rope had meanwhile reached NicoUs by way of Boston. -< (^^ i 
As a measure of precaution, he ordered all the estate of 13 oecem. 
the "West India Company in the hands of Stuy\'esant and " ^'*™' 
Yan Ruyven to be put under arrest. A few days after- 2t Decem. 
ward all persons were directed to report what they knew acUoh of 
about the property thus sequestrated to the benefit of the 
Duke of York.^- 

The "West India Directors, on their part, felt the loss of 
ISTew ISTetherland very keenly. Stuyvesant's official report 
was unsatisfactory. The "licentious prating" of the sol- 
diers who had returned in the Gideon from New York only 
increased their annoyance. They determined to " disavow 
all the articles and capitulations" made with the English 
by the governor and council, and endeavor to regain New 
Netherland. Accordingly, they sent one of their ships to i| Novem. 
New York, with a dispatch to Stuy^^esant, requiring him to indiatkmi- 
come home and give " by word of mouth more comfort" stuyve!'^"" 
than his letters had afforded. They also desired Yan Ruy- ^°'^^- 
ven to save what he could of their property. 

When these letters were received at New York, NicoUs, 1665. 
anxious for news, required Stuyvesant and Yan Ruyven to '^ ^^^' 
bring them to him. As the West India Company appeared 
determined to annul the capitulation and retake the j)rov- 
ince, he felt himself " obliged so far to abide their displeas- g^jj^^^''^.^^ 
m-e as to seize upon their effects, and to remit the decision Nicoiis 

11 p 11 1 1 seizes the 

to his majesty, whether, after such a letter, they ought to company-s 
claim any benefit by articles which in so contemptuous a 
manner they have disavowed." 

Stuy\"esant, however, could not avoid going to Holland 
to defend his action ; and NicoUs granted him a passport x May. ' 
to go and return, with his son and his servants. Consider- 
ing the need of supplies to New York, Nicolls also licensed 
the West India Company's ship " Crossed Heart" to go to 
and return from Holland with merchandise. By her Yan 
Ruyven wrote to the Amsterdam directors that it was gMay"' "" 
" impossible to keep" New Netherland against the " vast, 
overwhelming force of the assailants ;" and that, if their 

three of the chief of them brought to him in an hour after, and an liour after that hatli sent 
word thereof to the king." — Pepys, iv., 72, 73; see also Temple's Work', i., 307. 
* Col. Doc, iii., 84 ; Gen. Ent., i., 70, 78, 79 ; Col. MSS., x.xii., 1 ; Smith, L, 33. 


Chap, il honors had been personally present, they would, " without 
doubt, have considered it better and more Christian-like to 
agree to some conditions, than be obliged to look upon the 
ruin of the place and the murder of the poor people, 
women and children, without being able to do any thing 

^2- May. to prevent it." A few days afterward Stuyvesant appear- 

retm^Tto cd, f or tlio last time, in the - Court of Burgomasters and 
Schepens, to take his leave, and asked of them a certificate 
of his deportment while their governor. The city author- 
ities declared " that his honor hath, during eighteen years' 
administration, conducted and demeaned himself not only 
as a director general, as according to the best of our knowl- 
edge he ought to do, on all occasions for the best interest 
of the West India Company, but besides as an honest pro- 
prietor and patriot of this province, and as a supporter of 
the Reformed rehgion."* 

Notwithstanding all the changes which had occurred in 
the province, the city magistrates of whom Stuyvesant thus 
took leave still exercised the same powers which he had 
himself conferred on them twelve years before. When 
their term of service expired, the burgomastei's and sche- 
pens named their successors, as they had done under the 

2 Feb'iy. Dutch govcmment. This they did on the usual day, and 
in pursuance of the sixteenth article of the capitulation. 

New city The ucw officcrs were confirmed by NicoUs, and announced 
to the commonalty after the usual ringing of the bell. 
They were Cornelis Steenwyck and Oloff Stevensen van 
Cortlandt, burgomasters ; Timotheus Gabry, Johannes van 
Brugh, Johannes De Peyster, Jacob Kip, and Jacques Cous- 
seau, schepens; and Allard Anthony, schout. An oath, 

6 Feb'ry. drawu up by Nicolls, was taken by them, to do right and 
justice to all persons, and demean themselves in their 
places " according to the good and wholesome laws which 
are or shall be ordained by virtue of liis majesty's commis- 
sion to his Royal Highness the Duke of York, within this 
government and city of New York." A controversy soon 
arose between the pro^^ncial and the city authorities. 

• Col. Doc, ii., 361, 365, 369, 37T, 420, 4T0, 744; iu., 164; TrumbuU Papers, Mass. Hist. 
Soc, XX., 73 ; Hutch. Mass., i., 231, note; Gen. Ent., i., 16S, 169, 170; New Amst. Rec, v., 
755; Val. Man., 1S61, 620, 621. Stuyvesant, accompanied by ^gidius Luyck, the late prin- 
cipal of the grammar-school at New Amsterdam (who now returned to study theology in 
Holland), landed from the " Crossed Heart" at Bergen, in Norway. From there they pro- 
ceeded to Amsterdam, in July, 1665, in the company's yacht the Musch. 



By the capitulation, the burgomasters were bound to pro- chap.ii. 
Yide quarters for the soldiers who could not be lodged in 
the fort. NicoUs therefore proposed that one hundred gg March 
of them should be quartered amons; the inhabitants, who sowiers 

-, -, ^ . ' quartered, 

were to be compensated ; and that, in consideration of 
this, the city should have, in addition to the great excise, 
the income of the scales and of the ferry. The municipal 
authorities endeavored to comj)ly with the governor's req- 
uisition ; but they were so unsuccessful that he accused e Apru. 
them, aj^parently without justice, of sloth. The English 
soldiers were quarrelsome and insolent, and the Dutch 
burghers were unwilling to receive them into their houses. 
Most of the citizens preferred to pay an assessment in 
money ; and the matter was finally arranged in this way, i9 April, 
to the satisfaction of all parties, under the supervision of 
Captains Delavall and Sahsbmy.* 

The provincial revenue had, up to this time, been left Provincial 
unsettled. Two months after the surrender, ISTicolls had ''^^®"*'®- 
directed that the customs rates, " according to English 
law," should be paid to Delavall, the collector. lie now 
enacted that, mitil farther order, imported liquore should 2t FebTy. 
be taxed ten per cent., Indian goods ten, other goods eight, 
and English manufactm-es five per cent. These duties 
were to be paid in beavers, at eight guilders, or thirteen 
shillings and four pence each. Export duties were also 
laid on beaver and tobacco.f 

McoUs, however, was a friend of colonial enterprise. 
Paulus Richards, one of the burghers at New York, in- 
tending to establish a vineyard at the " Little Fief" on vineyanis. 
Long Island, and manufacture wine, the governor granted lo jan'ry. 
him several special privileges. All the produce of Rich- * 
ards's "vdnes, if sold in gross, was to be forever free from 
any imposts ; if sold in retail by him in any one house in 
New York, his wines were to be free for thirty years ; and 

* N. Y. City Rec, v., CSO, CS2, T18-T25, T37-T43 ; vi., 86, ST ; Gen. Ent., i., 83, 84 ; Col. 
Doc, iii., 117 ; Val. Man., 1S4S, 1'25; 1850,190; 1801,008-620; a»ite, vol. i., 548, 578,613, 
640, 674, 762. Among the burghers thus assessed, Jeronimus Ebbinck, Frederick Phillipse, 
Peter Stuyvesant, Cornelia van Ruyven, Paulus Leendertsen van der Grist, Johannes van 
Brugh, and Oloff Stevensen van Cortlandt paid four guilders a week ; Allard Anthony, Jo- 
hannes de Peyster, Jacob Kip, Simon Jansen Koraeyn, and Carel van Brugh, tliree guilders; 
Jan Evertsen Bout, Evert Duyckinck, Johannes De Witt, Hans Kierstede, Jacob Leisler, and 
Paulus Richards, two guilders ; Isaac Bedlow, Augustine Heermans, .^Egidius Luyck, and 
many others, one guilder. The Dutch domines wei^e not assessed. 

t Gen. Ent., i., 63, 112, 113; Thompson, i., 144. 



Chap. II. 


Uoyal com- 
in New En- 

4 Feli'ry. 

Policy of 


Court of 

any person who, during that time, should plant vines in 
any part of the proyince, should pay five shillings for each 
acre so planted to Richards, " as an acknowledgment of 
his being the first undertaker and planter of vines in these 

Soon after the arrangement of the Connecticut bound- 
ary, Cartwright and Maverick went to Boston to prosecute 
their duties as royal commissioners. But they could do 
nothing- without the presence of ISTicoUs or Carr. The 
governor of ISTew York was too much occupied to leave 
his post. Carr could not be persuaded, for some time, to 
quit the Delaware and follow the king's commission. At 
length he came to JSTew York, and went on to join his col- 
leagues at Boston. The commissioners, finding much op- 
position there, detennined to visit the other colonies, and 
wait imtil the next Aj)ril before opening their business 
with Massachusetts, when they hoped that NicoUs would 
be able to join them. They were not deceived. Connecti- 
cut answered their inquiries with prudent facility. Their 
stumbling-block was to be Massachusetts.f 

Meanwhile, the details of the system upon which he was 
to administer his government in IsTew York had seriously 
occupied the attention of McoUs. The policy of the Dulce 
of York was to win the Dutch, who were three quarters of 
the population, to become contented Enghsh subjects. To 
this end, as little alteration as possible was to be made in 
the form of administration to which they had been accus- 
tomed. The director general and his council had been the 
executive authority in IsTew I^etherland. Thq. deputy gov- 
ernor of the proprietary and his coifncil were now the ex- 
ecutive authority of New York. XicoUs accordingly " cop- 
ied," or rather " continued," with some modification, " what 
had been already established by the Dutch." He erected 
a " Court of Assizes," which, like its New ISTetherland proto- 
type, was the supreme tribunal of the province, lia^dug both 
common law and equity, as well as original and appellate 

* Deedg, ii., ST ; Hist. Mag.,Tii., 30. New Netherland was famous for its native wines 
before 1C50: Col. Doc., i., 277. Lord Bellomont, in 1700, ivrote enthusiastically about the 
"fair clusters of grapes" which he saw about Albany; Col. Doc, iv., 7S7. Dentou, 1-1, 
speaks of "grapes great and small" as natural to Long Island. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 64, 83, 84, 87-S9, 93 ; JIass. H. S. Coll., xx.wi., 532 ; Jlass. Rec, iv. (ii ), 
141 ; Plymouth Kec, iv., 85 ; K. L Rec, ii, 60, SC-S9, 91, 93 ; Palfrey, ii., 597-606 ; Barry, i., 
396 ; Arnold's Rhode Island, i., 314. 



jurisdiction. In this court, the governor and his counsel- chap. ii. 
ors possessed the same powers that had formerly been 
exercised by the Dutch director and his counselors. But 
the peculiar condition of New Yoi'k required that other 
members should be added to the Court of Assizes. York- 
shire, or Long Island, peopled chiefly by Englishmen, with 
Westchester and Staten Island, was erected into a shire, Ridings of 
and, like its English namesake, was divided into three dis- 
tricts or ridings. What is now Suffolk County formed the 
East Riding ; Staten Island, King's County, and the town 
of Newtown, in Queen's, the West Riding ; and the remain- 
der of Queen's County, with Westchester, the North Riding. 
The governor and council were to appoint a high - sheriff uigh-sher- 
every year over the whole of Yorkshire, and also justices uce" ^"'' 
of the peace, who were to continue in office during the 
governor's pleasure in each of the ridings. These justices 
were to hold a " Court of Sessions" in each riding three coun of 
times a year, in which the go^'ernor or any counselor might " 
preside. Besides their local duties, the high sheriff and 
the justices were to sit with the governor and his council 
in the Court of Assizes, which was to meet at New York 
once a year, on the last Thursday in September. This 
court was invested with " the supreme power of making, 
altering, and abolishing any laws" in the government of 
New York.* 

The Court of Assizes thus established by Nicolls was no 
advance toward democracy. It was not, in any popular 
sense, a Legislature. It had not even the representative 
character .enjoyed by Stuyvesant's " Landt-dag," or Assem- The court 
bly. Its members were wholly dependent on the govern- not a^lt 
or's will, and they were expected to perform their legisla- ^®™'^^^' 
five function with the usual docility of a French " bed of 
justice." The governor and his council remained the real 
law-makers, as well as the interpreters of the laws they 
made. Before long, it is true, the Court of Assizes delib- 

* Chalmers's Pol. Ann., i., 575, 596; Rev. Col., i., 117; Col. Doc, iii., ISS; N. Y. H. S. 
Coll., i., 321, 336, 342, 259, 374, 3S5, 391 ; aiite^ vol. i., 163, 247, 276, 277, 327, 405, 414, 431, 
467, 540, 548, 570-575, 729. Chalmers, in Pol. Ann., i., 575, says that NicoUs •■'■ erected," and 
in Rev. Col., i., 117, that he " continued," the Court of Assizes, one of " the prior customs 
of the Dutch." The crronpons statements of Smith, i. , 41, 47, on this point, are corrected by 
Chalmers, Pol. Ann., i., 536, and by Wood, 90, note. I can not doubt that the Court of As- 
sizes was establi.shed, if it v/as not completely organized, before March, 1665, tlie period 
Btated by Wood ; compare II. B. Dawson, and N. Y. ]I. S. Coll. (1869), 76. 


Chap. ii. eiated with closed doors upon the general concerns of the 
province, and made such changes in the laws as were 
• thought proper. But the Duke of York, who, by his pat- 
ent, had " full and absolute power," disapproved of legis- 
lative assemblies as inconsistent with the form of govern- 
ment which he had established in his province. Yet he 
supposed that no harm and much good might result from 
the justices being allowed once a year to meet with the 
governor and his council, and make desirable changes in 
the laws, which, after all, were subject to liis own approval. 
These justices, he complacently assumed, would be chosen 
by the people themselves as " their representatives, if an- 
purposc of other constitution were allowed," Moreover, the Court of 
of Assizes. Assizes was the most convenient place for the publication 
of any new laws, or of any business of general concern. 
In estabhshing that court, the duke's deputy did not con- 
cede any political privileges to the people. All its officers 
were his own subordinates ; none of them his colleagues, 
NicoUs was, and he continued to be, a provincial autocrat, 
who exercised, indeed, his delegated powers with the pru- 
dence and moderation which belonged to his character, but 
who, in adroitly allowing his official dependents apparently 
to share with himself the responsibility of .legislation, did 
not in the least cm-tail his own vast authority,* 

The governor and liis council, who at present were the 
only members of the Court of Assizes, were early called 
upon to frame a body of laws for the province. Its con- 
dition was more anomalous than that of any other Ameri- 
can plantation. It had no charter hke the jSTew England 
colonies. It was not a royal province like Virginia. As 
a proprietary government, it resembled Maryland in some 
respects ; yet Lord Baltimore's charter was very different 
from the despotic patent of the Duke of York. When 
Charles the Second granted New Ketherland to his broth- 
er, he affected to consider it a resumption of British terri- 
tory, the possession of which England had never enjoyed, 
ugai effect and Holland had maintained for half a century. In re- 
giish con- ality, he obtained possession only by a conquest from the 
ques . Dntch, and upon articles of capitulation. Excepting Aca- 

* Col. Doc, ii., 29C; iii., 230; Chalmers's Ann., i., 5S1, GOO; Court of Assizes, ii., 320, 
325, 414; Wood, 90, 91 ; Thompson, i., 141, 142 ; post, p. 293. 


dia and Jamaica, New York was the first colony which the chap. n. 
Enghsh arms ever gained. The rights wliich the king~~~ 
thus acquired over the Dutch territory were those of a 
conqueror, limited, however, by the terms agreed upon at 
the surrender. This principle did not affect that part of 
Long Island wliich was actually British territory before the 
capitulation, and where, of course, the English law prevail- 
ed. But with respect to the Dutch possessions, the right 
of conquest governed; which was, that where a country- 
was conquered by or ceded to England, the sovereign might 
establish such government and laws as he should think 
proper, but that the ancient laws of such conquered or 
ceded country were to remain in force, if not contrary to 
the law of God, until the king should change them. Ac- 
cordingly, Charles authorized the Duke of York " to make. The Duke 
ordain, and establish all manner of orders, laws, directions, powe/^ 
instructions, forms and ceremonies of government and '^^ ^ '^^^' 
magistracy fit and necessary for and concerning the gov- 
ernment of the territories and islands aforesaid, so always 
as the same be not contrary to the laws and statutes of this 
our realm of England, but as near as may be agreeable 
thereunto, and the same at all times hereafter to put in 
execution, or abrogate, revoke, or change, not only within 
the precincts of the said territories or islands, but also upon 
the seas in going and coming to and from the same." The 
duke thereupon commissioned Mcolls as his deputy, " to 
perform and execute all and every the powers which are 
by the said letters patent granted." But, before he could 
obtain peaceable possession of New Netherland, Nicolls 
was obliged to concede special privileges to its inhabitants, 
which placed them in many respects upon a better foot- 
ing than the king's own English subjects on Long Island. 
Among other things, the Dutch were to enjoy their own 
church disciphne and customs concerning inheritances. 
Besides these guaranteed rights, they were, as a conquered 
people, entitled to be governed according to their ancient 
laws, which were to remain in force until changed by the 
actual authorities in the province.* 

• Chalmers's Pol. Ann., i., 674; Rev. Col., i., 116, 117 ; Calvin's Case, 7 Coke's Bep., 17; 
Show. Pari. C, 31; Cowper, 204; Blackstone's Comm. ; Jacob, v., 159; Col. Doc, iL, 296; 
Learning and Spicer, 666 ; ante, vol. i., p. 762 ; pnsf, App. A and B. I venture, with much 
deference, to express my opinion that Mr. Barnard, in hia sketch of Rensselaerwyck, 136, and 

II.— E 


Chap. II. It was nevertheless generally understood that " English 
~~ lawes" were to be estabhshed in New York at the end of 
six months after the surrender. In writing from Boston, 
4 Feb. Cartwright advised NicoUs that the Dutch "will rather 
take that for oppression which shall be imposed on them 
afterward, than for the present acknowledge your indul- 
gence in letting them for a while longer use their own 
lawes." But, if the governor hesitated at following his 
colleagues' advice with i*espect to the Dutch portion of the 
province, he had no doubt in regard to Yorkshire. Before 
Kngiish the surrender, in explaining at Gravesend the phrase of 
estebiuii-^ the proclamation that all persons submitting to the royal 
government were to enjoy "all other privileges with his 
majesty's English subjects," he had promised the people of 
Long Island that at a convention of delegates from their 
towns, " laws were to be enacted and civil officers estab- 
lished." A few days afterward, he told them that they 
should be summoned " to propose and give their advice in 
all matters tending to the peace and benefit" of the island. 
Again he assured them " of equal (if not greater) freedoms 
and immunities than any of his majestie's colonies in New 
England." These expressions appear to have been differ- 
ently understood by Nicolls and by the Long Island people. 
The latter supposed that the New England system was to 
be transplanted into New York, with all the machinery of 
royal corporations to perpetuate their benefits or abuses: 
Power of The governor, on the other hand, was the deputy of a pro- 
make Lws. pirietor who centred in himself all the delegated authority 
of the king possessed by any of the New England ohgarch- 
ies. It was his function under a royal patent, as it was 
theirs under royal charters, to make laws. NicoUs, how- 
ever, was desirous to adopt in New York all that he might 
find good or expedient in the several codes of the New En- 
gland colonies. For this purpose he aj^pears to have ob- 
tained copies of those of Massachusetts and of New Haven, 
the latter of which had been printed at London in 1656. 
He also applied to Winthrop for a copy of that of Connec- 
ticut, ^vhich existed only in manuscript ; but a transcript 

Chancellor Walworth, in IT Wendell, 5S7, and Mr. Butler in ii. N. Y. H. S. Coll., ii., 4n, 
have not ncciirntely stated tlie condition of the law in Xew York immediately after the sur- 
render. Certainly Long Island waa differently situated from the rest of the province. 


could not be made for him in time to be of use. With the chap. ii. 
assistance of members of the Court of Assizes, he made it 
his " whole business to prepare a body of lawes" to be sub- ^^^^ p^.^;. 
mitted to the general meeting proposed to be held on Long "^^Ifi^^ 
Island. These laws were largely borrowed from those " in 
practice in his majesty's other colonies in New England," 
but with a relaxation of their severity against those who 
differed '' in matters of conscience and religion."* 

To fulfill his promises, Mcolls ad^lressed a letter to each s Feb. 
of the towns on Long Island, announcing that in discharge 
of his "trust and duty to settle good and known lawes 
within this government for the future," and receive their 
" best advice and information in a general meetino-," he Meeting 

called at 

had appointed such a meeting to be held at Hempstead on Hemp- 
the last day of February, to which he invited each to"\ra to ^ 
send two deputies chosen by a majority of the tax-payers. 
These deputies were to be " the most sober, able, and dis- 
creet persons ;" and were to produce at the meeting the doc- 
uments showing the boundaries of their respective towns, 
notify the Indian sachems whose presence there might be 
necessary, and bring with them certificates of their due 
election, " with full powers to conclude any cause or mat- 
ter relating to their several towns." A similar letter was 
sent to Westchester. But no deputies were summoned 
fi'om New York, Esopus, Bergen, or any other town in the 

At the appointed day the Convention met at Hempstead. 28 Feb. 
It consisted of thirty-four delegates — two from each of the 
English and Dutch towns on Long Island, and two from 
Westchester. Some of them had been members of Stuy- 
vesant's last General Assembly of New Netherland a year 
before. New Utrecht sent Jacques Cortelyou and Younger Delegates. 
Fosse ; Gravesend, James Hubbard and John Bowne ; Flat- 
lands, Elbert Elbertsen and Roeloff Martense ; Flatbush, 
John Stryker and Hendrick Jorassen ; Bushwick, John 
Stealman and Guisbert Tennis ; BrookljTi, Frederick Lub- 
bertsen and John Evertsen ; Newtown, Richard Betts and 

* Gen. Ent.,i., 23, 29, 60; Deeds, ii., 43 ; Col. Doc, ii., 251; iii, 80, 88, 114; iv., 1154; 
Thompson, i., 1-26, 127, 382; ii , 323, 824, 327; Dunlap, ii., App. xxxvii. ; Smith, i., 3SS; 
Hist. Mag., viii., 211 ; Trumbull MSS., xx., 74 ; ante, p. 25, 33, 43, 57. 

t Gen. Ent., i., 93-85; Wood, 87, SS ; Thompson, i., 131, 132 ; Bolton, ii., ISO ; Journ. Leg. 
Council of N. Y., i.. Int., iv. 


Chap, il J oliii Coe ; riiisliing, Elias Doughty and Richard Cornhill ; 
Jamaica, Daniel Denton and Thomas Benedict ; Hempstead, 
• John Hicks and Robert Jackson ; Oyster Bay, John Under- 
hill and Matthias Harvey ; Huntington, Jonas Wood and 
John Ketcham; Setalcott (or Brookhaven), Daniel Lane 
and Roger Barton; Southold, Wilham Wells and John 
Younge ; Southampton, Thomas Topping and John How- 
ell ; Easthampton, Thomas Baker and John Stratton ; and 
Westchester, Edward Jessop and John Quinby.* 

28 Feb. The governor opened the meeting by reading the duke's 

patent and his own commission; and told the delegates 
that their fii'st business should be to decide some of their 
local differences about boundaries, which were afloat before 
he came to the government ; but that " he had prepared a 
body of general laws hereafter to be observed." These 

Nicoiis's were delivered to the delegates, who, upon perusal, found 

posed. ' them to be chiefly compiled from the laws then in force in 
New England, " with abatement of the severity against 
such as differ in matters of conscience and rehgion." The 
delegates, however, were not satisfled. Most of them rep- 
resented towns which had recently been under the juris- 
diction of Connecticut ; and they supposed that in promis- 
ing them " equal, if not greater fi-eedoms and immimities 
than any of his majestie's colonies in New England," NicoUs 
meant to establish in New York a government resembling 
those of his Puritan neighbors. The inhabitants of South- 
old especially had signifled their desire that all civil ofiicers 
should be annually elected by the freemen, that all military 
ofiicers should be chosen by the soldiers, that no magistrate 
should have "any yearly maintenance," and that taxes 
should be levied only by consent of a majority of the dep- 
uties at a General Court. But the code prepared by the 
governor recognized none of these points. The delegates 

Objected therefore objected against some of its clauses, and proposed 
others. Several of their amendments were accepted by 
NicoUs, who moreover promised that when any realsonable 
alterations should be afterward offered by any town to the 

* Gen. Ent.,i., 9C ; Joum. N. Y. Leg. Council, Int., v. It will be obsei-ved tliat the names 
of several of these towns are different from those which they had borne under the Dutch 
authority. Flatlands was formerly Amersfoort ; Flatbush, Midwout ; Bu.shwick, Boswyck ; 
Brooklyn, Breuckelen; Newtown, Middleburgh or Hastings; Flushing, Vlissingen or Ncw- 
arke ; Jamaica, Eustdorp or Crafford ; and Oyster Bay, Folestone : see ante, vol. i., 610, 
723, T29. 


Sessions, the justices should tender them at the next Assizes, chap. n. 
" and receive satisfaction therein." He further declared 
that "he expected no benefit for his labours out of the 
purses of the inhabitants," but that it was absolutely neces- 
sary to estabhsh a system of county rates to support the 
public charges. The delegates accordingly " pitched upon 
the form and rule" then observed in Connecticut, with 
which most of them were famiHar. But when they asked 
to be allowed, " according to the custom of the other colo- 
nies," to choose their own magistrates, Nicolls exhibited his 
instructions from the Duke of York, " wherein the choice 
of all the ofiicers of justice was solely to be made by the 
governor." Upon this point the delegates were pacified by 
the consideration " that a Parhament of England can nei- 
ther make a judge nor justice of the peace." To stop fur- 
ther debate, Nicolls told them that they had seen and read 
his commission and instructions, and that if they would 
have a greater share in the government than he could allow, 
they " must go to the king for it." This was decisive. The 
delegates found that instead of being popular representa- 
tives to make laws, they were merely agents to accept those 
already prepared for them. Nicolls's code, as amended, i March. 
was now formally promulgated at the " General Meeting." code pro- 
During its session, which lasted ten days, several orders '""'s'^'®'^- 
were made respecting the boundaries of some of the towns. 
The only act which the delegates really performed was 
to adopt a loyal address to the Duke of York, in which, i March. 

. Address to 

after acknowledging their dependence, they declared their the Duke 
" cheerful submission to all such laws, statutes, and ordi- ° 
nances which are or shall be made by virtue of authority 
from" his royal highness ; whose rights under the king's 
patent they would forever maintain, and whom they be- 
sought " to accept of this address, as the first-fruits of this 
General Meeting, for a memorial and record against us, 
our heirs and successors, when we or any of them shall fail 
in our duties."* 

The I^ew York code thus promulgated at the Hemp- 

• Deeds, ii , 1-15, 43, 4S; Col. Doc, iii., 91, 260; N. Y. H. S. Coll., i., 307; ii. (ii.), 32; 
Journ. Leg. Council of N. Y., i., Int., v. ; Thompson, i., 132, 13G, 3S2; ii., 324, 325, 327; 
Wood, 87, 8S, 171-175; Dunlap,ii., App. xxxvi. ; Bolton, ii., ISO; Smith, i., 41; Chalmers, 
i., 577, 578, 598. The duke's instructions, which NicoUs exhibited at Hempstead, were not 
recorded in the New York provincial archives, as was his commission : ante, p. 18, note. 


cuAp. II. stead meeting is generally known as " The Duke's Laws." 
It was arranged in an alphabetical order of subjects, like 
"The * ^^^ New England codes. A very general analysis of its 
Law!" pro\'isions is all that can now be attempted. 

The Com-t of Assizes — as an existing; institution — was 


to meet in the city of New York once a year, on the last 

Courts. Thursday in September. But, in pressing capital cases, the 
governor and council might issue commissions of Oyer and 
Terminer. Inferior courts of Sessions, composed of the 
justices of the peace, and in which any counselor might 
preside, were to be held three times a year in each rid- 

jurymen. ing of Yorkshire. Trials by jurymen, who were not to 
exceed seven, except in capital cases, were provided for. 
Arbitrators might be appointed in small causes between 
neighbors. Whenever the law was silent in any case, the 
Sessions were to remit it to the next Assizes, where mat- 
ters of equity were to be decided and punishments award- 
ed " according to the discretion of the bench, and not con- 
trary to the known laws of England." 

Each town had a local court for the trial of small causes 
under five pounds, which was to be held by the constable 
and six overseers, and from which there was an appeal to 
the Sessions. Eight " men of good fame and life" were to 

Overseers, be choson as overseers for each town by a majority of the 
freeholders. Four of these overseers retired at the end of 

Constable, eacli year, and from them a constable was to be annually 
chosen, on the first or second of April, by the freeholders, 
who was to be confirmed by the justices at the next ses- 
sions. The constable and overseers had power to make 
local ordinances in the several to^s^ms. 

Sheriffs. A high -sheriff over Yorkshire was to be annually ap- 
pointed by the governor from each riding in rotation, and 
also an under-sheriff or high-constable in each riding. Jus- 
tices of the peace were to continue in ofiice during the gov- 
ernor's pleasure. But the governor and council might, by 
special warrant, displace any ofiicer within the government 
" for neglecting of his ofiice, or other notorious misdemean- 
or and misbehavior." 

Eatc?. Each inhabitant was to contribute to public charges in 

Church and State according to his estate. Assessments 
were to be made every year, after the first of June, by the 


officers in each town. Provision was made for the en- chap. ir. 
f orcement of the rates imposed ; and all the plantations ~ 
within the government were " fully comprehended in tliis " 


The tenure of lands was to be from the Duke of York. 
All persons were required to bring in their old grants and 
take out new patents fi-om the governor, upon the seal- 
ing of wliich a fee was to be paid. After the first of 
March, 1665, no purchase of lands from the Indians was Lands. 
to be valid unless the governor's leave was obtained, and 
the savage owner acknowledged satisfaction before liim, 
upon which a grant was to be made by the governor and 
recorded in the secretary's office. All conveyances in the 
several ridings were also to be recorded in New York. 

I*s^o barter with the savages m ammunition, fire-arms, Indians, 
strong liquors, or furs, was allowed without the governor's 
license. All harm done by the English to them, or their 
cattle, or corn-lands, was to be promptly and justly satis- 
fied, as fully " as if the case had been betwixt Christian and 
Christian." But no Indian was to " be suffered to Powow, 
or perform outward worship to the devil, in any towm with- 
in this government." 

There was no particular Protestant denomination more Religion, 
favored than any otlier in the province. The English 
Episcopal Church was not established. The Reformed 
Dutch Church, by the articles of capitulation, preserved its 
ancient ecclesiastical system. But in every parish a church churches, 
was required to be built, the expense of which, and of the 
maintenance of its minister, was to be provided for by the 
chnrch-wardens, appointed yearly by the overseers and con- 
stables. No minister was to officiate vvdthin the govern- 
ment but such as should produce testimonials to the gov- 
ernor of his having " received ordination, either from some 
Protestant bishop or minister within some part of his maj- Ministers. 
esty's dominions, or the dominions of any foreign prince 
of the Reformed religion." Thereupon tlie governor was 
to induct such minister "into the parish that shall make 
presentation of him as duly elected by the major part of 
the inhabitants householders." Each minister was to 
preach every Sunday ; and on the fifth of November, the Sundays 
anniversary of the gunpowder treason ; on the thirtieth of days. 


Chap. u. January, when King Charles the First was beheaded ; and 
on the twenty-ninth of May, when King Charles the Sec- 
ond was born and restored to the throne. He was also to 
pray for the king, queen, Duke of York, and the royal 
family, baptize the children of Christian parents, and mar- 
ry persons " after legal publication or sufficient license." 
No congregations were to be disturbed during divine serv- 
Freedom ice ; " uor sliall any person be molested, fined, or imprison- 
re gion. ^^ ^^^ differing in judgment in matters of religion who 

profess Christianity." 
Negro Negro slavcry was recognized ; but servants were pro- 

■" ^''^^' tected from tyranny and abuse. No Christians were to be 
kept in bond slavery except those sentenced thereto by 
authority, "or such as willingly have sold or shall sell 
themselves." All servants were prohibited from trading 
or trucking " any commodity whatsoever." If servants ran 
away, justices and constables were authorized to press men, 
horses, and boats, at the public charge, and bring them 
back by force. 

Ail males above sixteen years old, except certain exempt 
MiHtia. persons, were subject to military duty. Enrollments, the 
supply of arms, the appointment of officers, and the pun- 
ishment of offenders were provided for. In each town 
there were to be four days of training every year ; and in 
each riding a general training of all the towns once a year. 
Once in every two years there was to be general training 
of all the soldiers within the province. No person was 
obliged to bear arms beyond the limits of the government ; 
but volunteers might be raised by beat of drum to assist 
the neighboring English colonies. All defensive or vin- 
dictive wars against the Indians were to be maintained by 
a general assessment on each town. 
Capital In many respects the duke's capital laws followed those 

eaeei. ^^ ^-^^ Ncw England colonies. Denying the true God, 
murder, treason, kidnapping, the strildng of parents, and 
some other offenses, were punishable with death. But 
witchcraft and blasphemy were not included. There were 
other reg- numcrous regulations respecting the administration of es- 
tates, boundaries of towns, brewers, births and burials, con- 
veyances of lands, surgeons and midwives, children and 
servants, marriages, laborers, orphans, pipe-staves and casks, 


sailors, weights and measures, the destruction of wolves on chap. n. 
Long Island, and wrecks and whales. Inn-keepers were 
not allowed to charge " above eight pence a meal, vdth 
small beer," and were always to have a supply of " strong 
and wholesome" malted liquor. No mares were to be car- 
ried out of the government to other plantations without 
special license. Cattle and horses were to be marked with 
a letter which distinguished each town on Long Island and 
Westchester. Every town was to provide a pair of stocks 
and a pound ; and a pillory was to be erected in each place 
where the Courts of Sessions were held. 

The code was intended to be ultimately the law of the operation 

IT . T T n ', •• , ' , of the code- 

whole province, and several oi its provisions went into gen- 
eral operation at once ; but many of them were evidently 
apphcable only to Long Island and its neighborhood. The 
inhabitants of the Yalley of the Hudson, most of whom 
were Dutch, hardly understood the yet strange English 
tongue. Only by degrees could the institutions which they 
derived from Holland, and under which they had lived so 
long, be safely altered. ISTicolls, therefore, prudently ab- 
stained from enforcing the new code in New York, Esopus, 
Albany, and Schenectady. From the original manuscript 
deposited in the office of the Provincial Secretary at Fort 
James, copies and translations were made for the several 
towns on Long Island and Westchester. It was not until 
more than a century after the "Duke's Laws" had be- 
come obsolete that they were first printed as historical 

Upon the adjournment of the Hempstead meeting. Coun- 
selor William Wells, of Southold, in the East Riding, was 
commissioned by the governor to be high-sheriff of York- ii March. 
shire. Captain John Underbill, of Oyster Bay, who had points".*^ 
been so prominent in the affairs of New Netherland, was 
appointed high - constable and under-sheriff of the North is March. 
Riding ; and similar appointments were made for the oth- 

• Col. Doc, Hi., 104, 1S8, 230; Chalmers, i., 506; Wood, 8S-90; Thompson, i., 13S-150; 
Butler, in ii. N. Y. H. S. Coll., ii., 33; Daly's Introduction, 21-25; Dankers's and Sluy- 
ter's Journal, 106. The Duke's Laws, copied from the transcript in the Easthampton 
town-clerk's office, deposited there on 24 June, 1065, are printed in the first volume of N. 
Y. Hist. Soc. Coll., 305-428, published in 1811. There is a copy in the Secretary of State's 
office at Albany, approved by the Duke of York, and certified by his secretary, Matthew 
Wren, which was probably brought over by Governor Lovelace in IOCS. A much-needed 
compilation of all the laws of New York previou-i to 1001 has been, for several years, prom- 
ised by Mr. George H. Moore. 



er . ridings. Daniel Denton, of Jamaica ; John Hicks, of 
Hempstead ; Jonas Wood, of Huntington ; and James Hub- 
bard, of Gravesend, were appointed justices. Underbill 

22 April, was also made surveyor general of Long Island. All these 
appointees had been delegates to the Hempstead meeting, 
and, by thus promptly favoring them, the governor expect- 
ed to silence their murmurs.* 

NicoUs's visit to Hempstead was the immediate cause 
of the establishment of a race-com"se on Long Island. To 
improve the provincial Dutch or Flemish breed, which was 
better adapted to slow labor than to fleetness or display, 
the governor directed that a plate should be run for every 

May. year. The ground selected for the course was in the town 


course at of Hcmpstcad, ou a part of the great plain, about sixteen 
stead. miles long and four broad, which was covered with fine 
grass like the English downs, and where could be found 
"neither stick nor stone to hinder the horse heels, or en- 
danger them in their races." For many years this remark- 
able tract was known as " Salisbury Plains." The race- 
course itself was named " l^ewmarket," after the famous 
English sporting ground, and it long continued to be the 
favorite annual resort of the governors of New York and 
the farmers of Long Island, f 

Captain John Manning, the commander of the garrison 
6 April, at Albany, was now commissioned as schout, with instruc- 
affairs. tious similar to those of the schout of New York. Not- 
withstanding the Duke's Laws, the municipal affairs of Al- 
bany continued to be managed as they had been under the 
Dutch, by commissaries elected by the people, and con- 
fii'ined by the governor. Excepting some differences be- 
tween the townspeople and the soldiers there and at Esopus, 
there was little to disturb their tranquillity.:]: . 

Thus occupied in arranging his government, Nicolls had 
been imable to act as a fourth commissioner to the New 
England colonies. His colleague, Cartwright — while con- 
is April, ceding that the duke's deputy had work enough at New 
York, where " the bare hearing of impertinences, without 

* Deeds, ii., 16, 17, 19, 2f); Gen. Ent., i., 115; Punlnp, ii., App. xxxv.; Wood, 150; 
Tliompson, i., 130; ii., 157, 35D ; lUker's Newtown, 70; Bolton, ii., 170, ISO; ante, vol. i., 
550, 671, 7-2S ; N. Y. II. S. Coll. (1S69), 70. 

t Thompson, i., 271, 272 ; ii., 63 ; Dunlap, i., 110 ; rrime's L. I., 71 ; Denton's Now York 
(Gowan's cd), C, Dl, 35 ; Burnaby, in Pinkerton, xiii., 739; Oldmixon, L, 275. 

t Patent?, i., 155; Col. Doc, iii.,94, 117, 143. 


the framing of laws, tlie ordering of the soldiers, the gain- chap. ii. 
ing of the Dutch, the governing of the Enghsh, the regu- 
latiug of the trade, and the providing of necessaries, is 
more than enough to trie one" — urged that the chief busi- 
ness of the commissioners was now at Boston, where, 
" though they should refuse us all three, having a preju- 
dice against us, you, whom they respect and honor, might 
be prevalent with them, because acceptable to them." 
Finding that his presence was indispensable at Boston, 
NicoUs appointed Captain Eobert ITeedliam to command 20 April. 
in Kew York during his absence. As the new code had Boston. 
just gone into operation. Captain Topping, High-sheriff 
Wells, and Secretary NicoUs, all members of the Court of 
Assizes, were appointed to sit with the justices of the East, 2iApra. 
North, and "West Ridings of Yorkshire at their approaching 
sessions, and explain the laws to them,* 

The visit of xS icolls to Boston was unavailing. Massa- May. 
chusetts, " presmnptuous and ref ractoiy," repelled the royal The royai 
commissioners, who " could obtain nothing that might be sionei-s're- 
satisfactory to his majesty's desires." Finding that their ^'^ 
time and labor were lost upon men " misled by the spirit 
of independency," Carr, Cartwright, and Maverick went 
eastward to Maine, and NicoUs hastened back to New York, 26 May. 
at any rate with a better reputation for prudence and dis- 
cretion than was accorded to either of his coUeagues.f 

The first care of the governor, after his return, was, in 
obedience to the duke's instruction, to make the city gov- city gov- 
ernment, which had remained unaltered for nearly ten New York 
months since the capitulation, " conformable to the custom ^ "'^^^ ' 
of England." To do this in the most conciliatory manner, 
he selected, as the first mayor of New York, Captain Thomas 
Willett, of Plymouth, who, while he was an Englishman, 
was highly esteemed by the Dutch. Tie had been one of 
Stuyvesant's negotiators at Hartford in 1650, and had acted 
with discreet friendship at the surrender. So much did his 
prudence on the Albany expedition impress Cartwright, that 
he wrote to Nicolls from Boston, " I believe him both a 4 Feb. 

* Deeds, ii., 23, 24; Gen. Ent., i., 116-119 ; Dunlap, ii., App. xxxvL ; Col. Doc., iii., 93, 
94 ; Val. Man., ISCl, C13 ; N. Y. II. S. Coll. (1369), 75. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 95-103; Mass. Eec, iv. (ii ), 141, 143, 177-215; Hutch. Mass.,!., 234-250; 
Coll., 417-422; Chalmers's Ann., i., 3SS, 3S0, 502-504; Rev. Col., i., 114; Bancroft, ii., 
S4-S6 ; Barry, i., 39S-400 ; Palfiey, ii., 60T-61S ; Williamson, i., 411. 



Chap. u. veiy honest and an able gentleman, and that he will serve 
you both for a mayor and a counsellor." At Nicolls's re- 
quest, Carr, while on his way to Boston, visited Willett at 
Eehoboth, and obtained for him from Governor Prence 
leave of absence from Plymouth, to assist in remodeling the 
city government in New York, as he was " more acquainted 
with the manners and customs of the Dutch than any En- 
ghshman in the country, and his conversation was very ac- 
ceptable to them." No better choice could have been 
12 June. NicoUs, by a proclamation, now revoked " the form and 
ceremony of government of this his majesty's town of New 
York, under the name of Schout, Bm'gomasters, and Sche- 
pens," and declared that its future government should be 
administered by persons who should be known by "the 
jiayor, name and style of Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriff, according 
andsiTeriff. to tlic custom of England in other his majesty's corpora- 
12 June. tions."t By a separate instrument of the same date, he 
ordained that " the inhabitants of New York, New Harlem, 
with all other his majesty's subjects, inhabitants upon this 
island commonly called and known by the name of the 
Manhattan's Island, are and shall be forever accounted, 
nominated, and estabhshed as one body politic and corpo- 
rate, under the government of a mayor, aldermen, and sher- 
iff ;" and he appointed Thomas Willett to be mayor ; Thom- 
as Delavall, Oloff Stevensen van Cortlandt, Johannes van 
Brugh, Comelis van Ruyven, and John Lawrence, to be 
aldermen, and AUard Anthony to be sheriff. These oflEicers 
were to hold their places for a year, and any four of them, 
of whom the mayor or his deputy was always one, 
were to have full authority to govern the city according to 
the general laws, " and such peculiar laws as are or shall be 
thought convenient and necessary." Of the new corporate 

• CoL Doc., iii., 6S, 8T, 94 ; Morton's Memorial, 251, 304, 311 ; Mass. H. S. Coll., xiv., 100, 
293; xxxvi., 532; Aniold's Rhode Island, i., 314; Deane's Bradford's Plymouth, 260; Sav- 
age's Winthrop, i., 022 ; Palfrey, 1., 163 ; Thompson, i., 130; Val. Man., 1S53, 379, 380; ante, 
vol. i., 519, 525, 585, 736, 743. After serving as mayor of New York in 1665 and 1667, Wil- 
lett remained tliere acting as a counselor until the Dutch conquest, when he returned to his 
farm at Rehoboth, in Seekonk, Bristol county, Massachusetts, where he died on the 4th of 
August, 1074. A rough stone with an inscription still marks the place of his burial. His 
son Thomas remained in New York, where he became prominent; and his great - gi-eat - 
grandson. Colonel Marinus Willett, was mayor of the city in 1807 — Munsell, iv., 22; Col. 
Doc, ii., 617,647; Val. Man., 1861, 563; Val. Hist. City of N. Y., 246, 247. 

t Ogilby, in his America, 169, remarks that in New England the only municipal officer 
retaining his Old-country name was "constable." 



authorities three were Englishmen — Willett, Delavall, and chap. ii. 
Lawrence; and four were Hollanders — Yan Cortlandt, Yan 
Brugh, Yan Ruyven, and Anthony. The latter had been 
prominent in the late government, and eminently repre- 
sented the Dutch element ; while Anthony, the old schout, 
only assumed a new title when he became sheriff. 

Nevertheless there was much dissatisfaction shown when 
the governor appeared in the Court of Burgomasters and i4 June. 

The Dutch 

Schepens to install the new officers. Burgomaster Yan dissatis- 
Cortlandt, who had been selected to be alderman, objected 
that the new charter violated the sixteenth article of the 
capitulation ; but Mcolls quietly showed him that the old 
officers had been continued, and new ones elected in Feb- 
ruary, who had been retained until now. Yet " divers de- 
bates occurred," because the magistrates wished the Dutch 
system to be retained, under which they nominated their 
own successors, while under that established by the English 
governor they were to be chosen by himself without any 
restraint. NicoUs, however, told them that he had received 
letters from the Duke of York " to make the government 
of this city conformable to the custom of England," and 
that, while he acknowledged the good conduct of the for- 
mer magistrates, he had qualified some Englishmen for 
office, " on purpose that parties may be better aided on 
both sides, as well English as Dutch, who go to law, and the 
better to strengthen the peace and quiet of the inhabitants 
of this place." The new magistrates were then sworn and The new- 
installed, and were proclaimed to the commonalty after installed. 
" the customary ringing of the bell three times." 

Thus were inaugurated the first mayor and aldermen of Mayor-s 
the city of New York. The new court was organized the 
next day, and Johannes Nevius was retained as secretary, 15 June, 
assisted by Nicholas Bayard to translate his Dutch minutes. 
Soon afterward Nevius resigned, and Bayard was appoint- is juiy. 
ed secretaiy in his place. Little change was made in the 
mode of judicial proceedings, except the substitution of the 
English tongue for the Dutch. Jury trials, as provided for 
in the code, were ordered to be held on the first Tuesday 
of each month. But suitors generally preferred to have 
their causes disposed of in the summary manner to which 
they had been accustomed ; and many forms peculiar to 


Chap. II. the Dutcli jurisprudence continued for half a century to 
be recognized in " The Mayor's Court of the City of New 




Meanwhile important events had happened in Europe. 

1664. The States General represented to the King of Finance the 

feoiunT™ "^'I'oi^g which the King of England had done them in cap- 

appesis to turing ISTew Netherland, and asked for the aid guaranteed 

1 ranee ~ ; ^ o ^ 

against jj-y the trcatv of 1662. This appeal embarrassed Louis, 
whom Charles had tried to persuade that he was the ag- 
grieved instead of the aggressor. D'Estrades, writing from 
15 i^ecem. the Haguc, urged his sovereign " to prefer England to the 
States," because he could thereby " procure the restitution 
of Acadia from Penobscot to Cape Breton, being eighty 
leagues of coast, where there are fine harbors, and oblige 
the King of England, by the same treaty^ to declare war 
against the Iroquois, whom the Hollanders, who have their 
plantations adjoining, have always assisted with arms and 
munitions against us. By this means your majesty Avould 
free Canada from the only enemies which she has in that 
country ; and by attacking them on the Canada side, and 
on that which the English occupy, they would all be de- 
stroyed in a year." Finding that the designs of Louis on 
■jrpr the Spanish ^Netherlands controlled his action, the States 
8 January. General informed him that they were ready to adjust their 
Theresto- differences with King Charles, by restoring every thing 
New Ne°th- tlicy had taken from him, if he would " bind himself to re- 
mami'ed!^' *store Ncw Nethcrlaud," and other prizes.f 

1664. In reply to the Dutch statements. Downing insisted that 
s§ Decern. ]vj"ew Nctherlaud was within the New England patent ; that 
memorial, tlic treaty of 1654 had not cut off the English claim ; and 

even if it did, that the New England colonies had ^'•jui^a 
helli within tliemselves, without appealing first into Eu- 

1665. rope." A committee of the States General soon published 
9 Febr'y. ^ a demolition" of Downing's memorial. " The English," 

it was conclusively argued, " have no other title to the pos- 

* Gen. Ent., i., 120-124; N. Y. City I!ec., v., 7S0-TS4 ; vi., 3, 4T; Col. Doc., ii., 37.% 407, 
445, 473; Doc. Hist., i., 3S9, 390; Val. Man., 1S52, 3S1, 383, 339, 391, 3r5, 473, 476, 402; 
1S53, 380, 3S3, 3S:> ; ISCO. COl, C02, COS; Thompson, ii., 303; Daly's Introductory Sketch, 
14, 25, 20 ; Ilofiman's Treatise, i., 19 ; ii., 3-5 ; ante, vol. i., 388, 410, 548, 040, 089, 703, 720, 
728, 738. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 280-291, 305, 300; De Witt, ii., 2, 4, 14-17 ; D'E.=tradei=, ii., 550, 555-50-1, 
.507, 5(18, 5T0, 575-577 ; iii., 5, 10, 11, 13 ; Eapin, ii., 039 ; Aitzema, v., 93, 288-294 ; Listers 
Clarendon, iii., 352 ; Basnage, i., 718, 719, 737 ; Martin, i., 209 ; ante, vol. i., 580. 


session of what they hold, namely, New England, than chap.ii. 
those of this nation have to New Netherland, to wit, the 
right of occupation ; because all those countries being des- j,^^^ ^^^^^^ 
ert, uninhabited, and waste, as if belonging to nobody, be- tuei^ri-ht. 
came the property of those who have been the first occu- 
pants of them. It is thus the English have occupied, and 
this is the title by which they possess New England, as 
those of this nation New Netherland. The right which 
the English found on the letters patent wherein their king 
grants such a vast extent to the limits of the English, so as 
to include also all the possessions of this nation, is as ridic- 
ulous as if your high mightinesses bethought yourselves of 
including all New England in the patent you would grant 
to the West India Company; therefore a continued pos- 
session for such a long series of years must confer on this 
nation a title which can not be questioned with any ap- 
pearance of reason."" 

Affairs now approached a crisis. The West India Com- 
pany was authorized " to attack, conquer, and ruin the En- c Febr'y. 
glish every where, both in and out of Em^ope, on land and 
water." The East India Company equipped twenty shij)S. The Dutch 
The herring and whale fisheries were suspended, in order fleet? ^ 
to man the war vessels of the nation. Fourteen millions 
of guilders were voted for the fleet and the fortifications. 
The Dutch, who lived by commerce, resolved that they 
must fight to deliver themselves fi-om the English yoke; 
and all the cities broke out in cries of joy at the hope of 
triumph. As De Ruyter was far away in the West Indies, 
Wassenaar of Opdam was made admiral, with the yoim- 
ger Tromp and other renowned commanders mider him.f 

The English Parliament granted two millions and a half English 
of pounds sterling ; and Holmes was sent to the Tower, so tikfnr"'" 
that if the Dutch should be successful, he might be made 
" a sacrifice, as Sir Walter Ealeigh was." The Duke of 
York prepared to take command of the fleet. At length 22 rebr-y. 
the king, without the concurrence of Clarendon or South- t\^r de'- 
ampton, issued a declaration of war, full of bitterness *^^^'^®'^- 
against the Dutch.:}: 

• Col. Dnc, ii., 203-304, 30T-331 ; Aitzema, v., S56-06S. 

t Col. Coc, ii., 306, SOT; D'Estrades, iii., 32, 42, G3; Aitzema, v., 413-443 ; Basnage, i., 
736; Davies, iii.,29, SO; Pepys, il, 205; Lister, iii., 301. 
t Pepys, ii., 187, 190,199, 215; Kennett, iii., 252 ; Lister, ii., 271-276 ; Aitzema, v., r6S ; 


Chap, il Cbarles also wrote to Nicolls and liis colleagues, inf orm- 
ing them of De Ruyter's expedition, and enjoining them 
28jan'y' " ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ possible diligence for their security." They 
T Feb'y. wcre, moreovcr, directed to observe all ordei-s from the 
thecoio- Duke of York, whom the king had authorized to grant 
letters of marque against Dutch ships, and condemn them 
in Admiralty. Clarendon likewise warned NicoUs that he 
"must expect all the mischief the Dutch can do him." 
jiFebr'y. The Dukc of York directed that his province should be 
put " into a posture of defense against the Dutch." He 
2SFebr'y. also appointed Nicolls and Captain Philip Carteret sub- 
commissioners in Admiralty, to dispose of all prizes in any 
of the ports or harbors of New England." 

These dispatches were brought by Carteret to Yirginia, 
and forwarded thence to New York, As soon as he re- 
22 June, ccivcd them, NicoUs issued a proclamation for the confisca- 
xicoirs."^ tion of the "West India Company's estate, which had al- 
24 June, ready been attached. Letters were also sent to the several 
New England governments inclosing copies of the king's 
orders, and instructing them how to treat Dutch prizes in 
any of their ports. The inliabitants of Long Island were 
30 June, especially warned to be ready against Dutch invasion. The 
2s June, comuioualty of New York were called together to consult 
about fortifying the city on the river side. The governor 
offered to contribute palisades and wampum, and promised 
" not to constrain any inhabitant to fight against his own 
nation." Steenwj^ck, the deposed burgomaster, declared 
Feeling in that he wouM always be a faithful subject. But the burgh- 
ers generally were not zealous to prepare defenses against 
an expedition which might restore the authority of their 
fatherland. " Some of the people answering said that the 
to^vn was sufficient enough; others that they could not 
work before they had their arms restored to them again ; 
and many other excuses; but no categorical answer was 
given."f "*- 

Basnage, i., 736 ; Lingard, xii., 170 ; Davies, iii., 30 ; Rapin, ii., C3S, 639 ; Pari. Hist., iv., 
303-309. There is an interesting account of the origin of tliis war in Temple's Works, i., 

• Col. Doc., iii., S5, 86, 92, 104; Val. Man., 1S47, 353 ; N. Y. Surrogate's Rec. Wills,!, 9. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 67, 92, 103; N. Y. City Rec, vi., 19, 29; Col. MSS.,xxii.,l; Val. Man., 1852, 
4S0, 484 ; 1853, 381 ; Gen. Ent., i., 76, 125-132 ; Ord. Warr. and Lett., ii., 2 ; Col. Rec Conn., 
ii., 21 ; Mass. IT. .S. Coll., xxx., 52; Trumbull, i., 278; Thompson, i., 140 ; Smith, i., 38, 41. 
De Ruytcr was actually on his way from the West Indies to Newfoundland in May, 1665. 
If he had visited New York, as he intended, he would easily have reconquered the prov- 


The condition of the metropolis was told in a letter from cuap. ii. 
Nicolls to Lord Arlington : " We have had no ship or the 
least supplies directly out of England since the surrender, 3^ j^,^ * 
which hath brought the soldiers and planters into very ^j°^j^g"'°" 
great wants of meane necessaries, though I will still have metropoiL-. 
hopes that a place of this importance will fall into due con- 
sideration with his majesty and royal highness." The col- 
onies had less cause to apprehend De Ruyter than the pri- 
vateers, " and this place doth not apprehend either or both ; 
for we have no sliips to lose, no goods to plunder, but a 
ragged sort of a fort, put into the best posture of defence 
possible, well fitted with cannon, no want of ammunition 
for the present, and as many soldiers as will not lose liis 
majestie's interest but with their own lives." Fort James, 
indeed, with its low ramparts, greatly needed strengthen- 
ing. But Cartwright thought that it could not be kept 
" two hours by having its walls raised higher," and ad\dsed 
that " a battery upon the point would be of greater advan- 
tage, and more considerable than the fort itself, if ever the 
town be fortified."* 

While Nicolls was thus securing his government, annoy- 
ing orders came to him from England. The Duke of York 
had dismembered his province, and had laid the foundation 
of another American state. James was fond of naval af- 
fairs, and a degree of intimacy existed between him and 
his assistants in the Admiralty Board. One of them, John, 
Lord Berkeley of Stratton, a brother of the Governor of Berkeley. 
Virginia, had been the duke's own governor in his youth, 
and afterward was made treasurer of his household. At 
the request of James, the king, two years before his restora- 
tion, had raised Berkeley to the peerage. Berkeley wa^a 
" bold and insolent" man, weak, popishly inclined, " not in- 
corrupt," and very arbitrary. The Treasurer of the Ad- 
miralty, Sir George Carteret, " the most passionate man in carterct. 
the world," had been Governor of the Channel Island of 
Jersey, where he received Charles while Prince of Wales, 
and which he afterward gallantly defended against Crom- 

ince. But, being short of provisions, lie was obliged to hasten homevrard. See Aitzema, v. , 
409, 477; Le Clerc, iii., 79, 80; Basnage, i., 744, 745; Davies, iii., S3; Kennett, iil., 253, 
257; Col. Doc.,ii., 2S9, 422; Mas.s. Eec^ iv. (ii.), 154, 276,280; N.Y.H.S. Coll. (1869), 74,75. 
* CoL Doc., iii., 87, 101, 103 ; Val: Man., 1S59, 548-552, and the map of 1661 appended, 
showing the situation of the fort. 

IL— F 


Chap. II. "well's forces. At the Restoration, Carteret rode with the 
king triumphantly into London, and was made chamberlain 
iobo. ^£ i^^g household. Both Berkeley and Carteret were mem- 
bers of the Council for Plantations, and in the spring of 
1663 had, with Clarendon, Albemarle, Ashley, and other 
courtiers, obtained a grant of Carolina.* 

The two royal favorites early prevailed on the Duke of 
York to convey to them a part of his splendid American 
domain. They seem to have been prompted by Captain 
John Scott, " who was born to work mischief, as far as he 
is credited or his parts serve him." Disappointed in his 
own aim to get a part of Xew Netherland, and well know- 
ing its geography, which the duke did not, Scott contrived 
to make Berkeley and Carteret the instruments of his mal- 
ice by inducing them to prociu-e from its proprietor the 
cession of one of the most valuable parts of his province. 
James, not yet in possession, was easily cajoled. Nicolls's 
1664. expedition was yet on the Atlantic, when the duke, by 
24 June." dceds of lease and release, in consideration of " a compe- 
wnteys'^a tcut sum of moncy," conveyed to Berkeley and Carteret, 
YoriTt^^^ and their heirs and assigns, the portion of his territory 
Tnd^^irte- "^hich he described as "that tract of land adjacent to Kew 
ret. England, and lying and being to the westward of Long Isl- 

and and Manhitas Island, and bomided on the east, part by 
the main sea and part by Hudson's River, and hath upon 
the west Delaware Bay or River, and extendeth southward 
to the main ocean as far as Cape May, at the mouth of 
Delaware Bay, and to the northward as far as the north- 
ermost branch of the said Bay or River of Delaware, which 
is forty-one degrees and forty minutes of latitude, and 
crosseth over thence in a strait line to Hudson's River 
in forty-one degrees of latitude." In memory of Carteret's 
gallant defense of the island of Jersey, this " tract of land" 
was " hereafter to be called by the name or names of New 
Called CaBsarea or New Jersey." Thus the name of New Jersey 
sey.'-^ ^ " was given in London to a part of New Netherland before 
it had been conquered from the Dutch, 

The Duke of York's release of New Jersey was in the 

• Pepys, i., 31, S8 ; ii., 271 ; Clarke's James II., i., 54 ; Burnet's Hist., i., 207, 61S, 619 ; 
Chalmers, i., 517; Lister's Clarendon, i., 296, 307, 341, 36S, 372 ; iii., 7, 419; "SVhitehead's 
East Jersey, 30, 31 ; Col. Doc., iu, 410, 699; CoUins's Peerage, iv.,lG7, 212. 


ordinary form of conveyances of land. It merely con- chap, ii. 
firmed to his grantees a part of liis province, which, he de- 
scribed as "that tract of land" between the Hudson and j-j^^^^^j.* 
the Delaware, and the " royalties" and " hereditaments" be- ^f yq^]^^® 
longing to the same, with their " appurtenances." This comey- 
land and its appurtenances was conveyed " in as full and 
ample manner as the same is granted to the said Duke of 
York" in his patent from the king. By that patent the 
king granted New Netherland to his brother in free and 
common socage, subject to the yearly rent of forty beaver- 
skins. In the same " full and ample manner" James now 
released to Berkeley and Cai-teret a " tract" of this terri- 
tory, subject to the rent of twenty nobles a year. This 
was the legal scope of the instrument, which, in words 
usual in deeds of real estate, conveyed a tract of land and 
its appurtenances to Berkeley and Carteret as amply as the 
same had been granted to the Duke of York by the king ; 
namely, in socage, subject to an annual rent. The king, 
however, besides his gift of territory, had intrusted to his 
brother and his assigns " full and absolute" authority to 
govern all English subjects inhabiting witliin the same. 
This jurisdiction the duke did not convey. Nevertheless, Powers of 
as he did not reserve it, his grantees assumed that he had ment not 
transferred to them " every right, every royalty, and all the 
powers of government which he himself possessed." It 
was not until many years afterward that this interesting 
question was settled.'^ 

As soon as news of the reduction of New Netherland 
reached England, Berkeley and Carteret hastened to avail 
themselves of their grant, by procuring from James a let- 2s Novem. 
ter to Nicolls, " signifying the same to him, and requiring letter to 
him and all others therein concerned to yield their best 
assistance in the quiet possession and enjoyment of the 
premises to all such persons as my said grantees should at 
any time appoint and authorize to negotiate their affairs in 
those parts." Soon afterward they signed and published ... 
an instrument which, under the title of " The Concessions New jei-sey 
and Agreement of the Lords Proprietors of the Province of sions." 

• Col. Doc, ii., 243 ; iii., 46, 4S, 105, 229, 240, 285 ; Pepys, ii., 103 ; Learning and Spicer, 
8-11 ; S. Smith's New Jersey, 60, 61, 567-5T0 ; Gordon, 20, 23, 24, 43, 43 ; Chalmers, i., 613, 
614, 624, 625 ; Grahame,i.,462, 463 ; Bancroft, il, 315; Whitehead, 31, 32 ; ante, vol. 1, T25, 
736; ii., 14,21. 


Chap, il New CsBsarea or IS^ew Jersey," formed its liberal eonstitu- 
tion. At the same time, Captain Philip Carteret, a cousin 
Ph«i Car- ^^ ^"' George, was commissioned as governor, and received 
teret gov- i^g instructions from the Proprietors.* 

ernor. i 

With about tliirty emigrants, several of whom were 
Frenchmen skilled in making salt — which was apparently 
intended to be the staple of Xew Jersey — Carteret sailed 
for New York in the sliip Phihp, belonging to Sir George. 
Carteret in The vcsscl was drivcu into the Chesapeake, and anchored 
13 jlin'e^' at ISTe^vport ISTews. From there Carteret transmitted to ISTic- 
oUs some of the dispatches intrusted to his care. He also 
forwarded several letters to Captain James BoUen, the com- 
missary at Fort James, among which was one fi'om Berke- 
ley and Carteret, containing a copy of the duke's grant of 
22 June. Ncw Jcrscy. As soon as he received them, Bollen showed 
these interesting documents to his chief .f 

This was the fii'st intimation to ISTicoUs of the dismem- 
berment of ]iis government of K^ew York. The duke's own 
dispatch to him had not yet been delivered by Carteret ; but 
he could not doubt the news which Bollen communicated. 
Surprise of EQs surprisc was grievous. For ten months he had exer- 
Nicous. gjgg(j dominion, as the deputy of James, over ancient New 
8 April. Netherland. Only a few weeks before, he had confirmed 
to Goulding, Bowne, and others, from Long Island, the 
lands between Sandy Hook and the mouth of the Earitan, 
upon which the towns of Middletown and Shrewsbury 
were afterward settled. He had looked upon " Albania," 
within which thi-ee new towns were ah-eady begun, as the 
most " improveable part" of the pro^dnce of New York. 
And now the mortified governor was warned to give up 

* ElizabethtOTvn Bill in Chancery (1747), 12-lG, 35; Learning and Ppirer, 12-,"! ; Smitli's 
N. J., 512-521; CoUins's Peerage, iv., 208; Whitehead's ICast Jer.sey, 32-G6 ; Gordon, 2-t-27 ; 
Bancroft, ii.,315-31G; Chalnier3'3Ann.,l.,G14, 015; N. J.ll. S. Proc, i. (ii.),23, 30, 31; Masa. 
II. S. Coll., xxxvii., 319. The New Jersey "Concessions," among other things, provided 
that the inhaliitaiits should eveiy year elect representatives to a General Assembly, and 
that there was to be imposed no " tax, custom, subsidy, tallage, assessment, or any other 
duty whatsoever, upon any colour or pretence, upon the said province and inhabitants there- 
of, other than what shall be imposed by the authority and consent of the said General As- 
sembly, and then only in manner as aforesaid." Tliese memorable words— whicli were bor- 
rowed from the Petition of Right assented to by Charles the First in 1628, and recognized by 
him in his charter of Maryland in 1032 — were adopted by the Assembly of New York in 1083 
and 1001, and by that of Massachusetts in 1602. See Chalmers, i., 204, 205; Pvapin, ii., 
270, 271 ; Kennett, iii., 42 ; Lingard, ix., 317-321 ; Gordon's American Revolution, i., 47, 
G6, 97, 99. 

t Mass, n. S. Coll., xxTc., 49-53 ; Eliz.abethtown Bill in Clianceo', 28 ; Smitli's New Jersey, 
C7; Whitehead's East Jersey, 36 ; Col. Doc., ii., 470; iii., 103, 105; Rhode Island Kec.,ii.,8J. 


that desirable region. Thenceforth " New Jersey" was to chap. ir. 
take the place of " Albania" on the map of America. Too 
good an officer to disobey, NicoUs could not refrain from a ju,y 
manly remonstrance against his master's improvident grant, ^'^«=°"8 ""f 

'' ~ J: o 7 monstrates 

" to the utter disconraa;ement" of any that mio-ht desire to t" t^e 

T 1 . . -r^ "^ ° duke. 

hve under his protection. " For my boldness," he added, 
" I can at last but beg pardon. ISTeither can I suppose 
that my Lord Berkeley or Sir George Carteret knew how 
prejudicial such a grant would prove to your roj^al high- 
ness ; but I must charge it upon Captain Scott, who was born 
to work mischief as far as he is credited or his parts serve 
him."* Hoping that he might yet induce the duke . and 
his grantees to make other arrangements, NicoUs urged that 
the latter should give up New Jersey, and receive " a better 
and a more entire tract of land, worthy of great considera- 
tion to my Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, wliich 
is that part of Delaware Biver which is reduced fi-om the 
Dutch, if it is not already disposed ; if so, then that my 
Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret may have a hun- 
dred thousand acres all along the sea-coast, which is a most 
noble tract of land, but it will cost them twenty thousand 
pounds before it will yield a penny, and their children's 
children may reap the profit."t 

This letter may have caused the duke to repent liis pre- 
cipitate grant ; but it reached him too late. Toward the 
end of July, Carteret arrived at New York. After exhib- 29 juiy. 
iting his authority to Nicolls — with whom he had been now York, 
joined as a sub-commissioner in Admiralty — he received 
from him, according to the duke's orders, quiet possession 
of New Jersey, whither he proceeded with his ship. Early 
in August, Philip Carteret landed at the head of his fol- August 
lowers, carrying a hoe on his shoulder, " thereby intimating lamis'fn 
his intention of becoming a planter with them." He chose ^yT'^'^'^" 
for the seat of his government a spot on the north bank of 

* Nicolls, on his return to London in IOCS, told the king, the queen, and the duke enough 
about Scott to make the latter " forsake Whitehall :" see Mass. 11. S. Coll., xxxvji., 315, 31G. 

t Col. MSS., xxiv., 1 ; Hist. Mag., ii., 293 ; Learning and Spicer, 061-663 ; Smith's N. J., 
C2-G7 ; Whitehead, 39, 40, 57, ISO ; N. J. H. S. Proc, i., 165; Col. Doc, iii., 105, 174. Chal- 
mor.", i,, 614, 615, 624, 625, erroneously states the date of this letter of Nicolls — of which 
only a fragment exists in the State Paper Office— as November, 16S5. It was evidently 
written before Carteret arrived at New York from Virginia (on 29 July, Col. Doc, iii., 103), 
and about ten days after Bollen showed the governor the letter he had received from the pro- 
prietaries of New Jers-v. which was on th3 20th or 22d of June (>Lass. H. S. Coll , xxx., 52 ; 
Col. Doc, iii., 1C5) ; N. Y. IL S. Coll. (1869), 74. Its date, therefore, must have been about 
the beginning of July, 1605. 


Chap. II. " the Kills," wliere four families had already been settled 

mider the authority of Nicolls, but which, in compliment 

looD. ^Q g^j. George's wife, he named " Elizabethtown." Captain 
James BoUen, who seems to have been a favorite of the 
proprietaries, was soon afterward appointed secretary of 
New Jersey ; the annals of which, from this time forward, 
assume a distinct place in American history.* 
TheDeia- The Delaware territory, which NicoUs had proposed 
wave tern- g-j^^^^j^j |^g taken by Berkeley and Carteret in exchange for 
'New Jersey, had meanwhile been governed as an append- 
age to New York, but without any special orders from En- 
gland. In consideration of the good service of Captain 
20 June. John Carr, its commander, a grant was made to him of the 
confiscated estate of the former Schout Yan Sweringen, 
who emigrated to Maryland. Hinoyossa having also gone 
there, his property was given to Sir Robert Carr, and Al- 
ricks's to Ensign Arthur Stock. But the trade of the place 
languished for want of supplies ; and Nicolls besought Ar- 
lington to send him orders at once, as the garrison there 
was now maintained at his own private cost.f 

After their failure at Boston, the three royal commis- 
sioners visited the other New England colonies, leaving 
Nicolls at New York "to attend De Ruyter's attempt." 
At their colleague's request, they organized a government 
remaquid. witliiu the duke's territory of Pemaquid, the few colonists 
of which, chiefly fishermen, appeared to be " the worst of 
men." Cartwright, weary of his unprofitable labors, and 
suffering fi-om the gout, now determined to return to En- 
gland. The command of his company of foot at New 
26 June. Yoi'k was accordingly assigned by NicoUs to Captain Rob- 
ert Needham. "With full dispatches prepared by the com- 
Aiiguat. missioners, Cartwright sailed from Boston, intending to ex- 
wrigiit. plain in person to the home government the condition of 
affairs in New England ; but he was captured at sea by a 
Dutch privateer, who took all his papers and carried him 
to Spain. Massachusetts was well pleased at the misliap 
which delayed injurious reports from reaching the king. 
Carr and Maverick, however, before returning to New 

* Col. Doc.., ii., 60T ; iii., 103 ; Smith's N. J., 6T ; Whitehead, 30, 84, 85 ; Val. Man., 1S52. 
4S.S, 4')2, 495; lilizabethtown Bill in Chancery, p. 28 ; ante, p. 4!>. 

t Col. Doc., iii., 82, 10^, 109, 113, 115, 340; I'atents, i., 15; S. Hazard's Reg. Penn., iv., 
74 ; Ann., 369 ; David's " Day Star," 79. 


York, wrote to the secretary of state, inclosing fresh docu- chap. ii. 
ments, amona; which was a " narrative" of the condition of 
the several New England colonies. Strong prejudice was 20 Novem 
shown against Massachusetts, where some dared to say, ^t^^.^ '° 
" Who knows what the event of this Dutch war will be ?" si^"*^- 
Carr also urged Secretary Morrice and Lord Lauderdale to 5 Deceiu. 
have Delaware, Rhode Island, and all the territory as far 
west as the Connecticut River annexed to the Narragan- 
set country or the " King's Province," and then make him 
governor over the whole, where he promised to serve liis 
majesty " as faithfully as any he shall set over them."^^ 

The war with the Dutch obliged Nicolls to erect a prize 
court at New York. He accordingly appointed Captains 23 August 
Needham, Willett, and Topping, with Secretary Nicolls and coi^rtta*^ 
Alderman Lawrence, to be Commissioners of Admiralty for ^^"^^''"■*^ 
the province, and R. Charlton to be clerk of the court. 
The organization of this tribunal was, however, several 
times altered ; and the Mayor's Court of New York fi'e- 
quently acted as a Court of Admiralty, f 

Fresh troubles had meanwhile broken out between the 
Mohawks and Mahicans, and some of the Dutch near Al- 
bany were killed. Two of the savages were arrested and 
imprisoned for the murder. Willett, the new mayor of 
New York, was sent thither to advise; and, on his return, 4 juiy. 
the Albany magistrates were directed to hang one of the 27 juiy. 
Indians, and send the other in chains to Fort James. 
Winthrop was also asked to aid in making peace between 2 August. 
the Mahicans and the Mohawks. Having taken precau- 
tions for the safety of New York dm-ing his absence, Nic-Nicoiuvis- 
olls went up to Albany. Manning, who was needed at 23 August 
Fort James, was relieved; and the command of Fort Al- 
bany, with its nine cannon, and its garrison of sixty men, 
was given to Captain John Baker, who was commissioned 25 septem. 
to be " chief military officer" of the place. Baker was in- made com. 
structed to keep constant guard and good discipline, and Albany.^ 
to avoid all disputes with the inhabitants, with whom he 

* Col. Doc, iii., 101-113, 160; Pntentp, i., 156; Morton's Mem., 315, note; Hutch., i., 250; 
Coll., 412-425 ; Chalmers, i , 27T, 206, 389, 4S3, 504 ; Maine H. S. Coll., i., 110-116 ; v., 232, 
236; Williamson, i., 415-425; Rhode Islnnd Rec, ii., 93-95, 102, 110-114, 118, 12T, 132-13S, 
15T, 257 ; Mass. II. S. Proc, 1858-1860, 2T4 , Palfrey, ii., 619-624. 

t Court of Assizes, ii., 34.5, 346 ; N. Y. Surrogate's Ree. Wills, i., 5-10, S5-4T ; Val. Man., 
1847,352,3.53,362-367; Col. Doc, i;., 296, 297; iii., 67, 239, 260, COS; Daly's Sketch, 30, M ; 
post, notes A and B. NicoUs's Admiralty power in New York came from the duke. 


cnAr.ii. was to live "as brothers together." In capital cases or 
~ treaties witli the Indians he was to sit in the fort, with the 
schout and commissioners of Albany ; but he was to have 
no concern with the ordinary civil courts. He was also to 
act as deputy collector, and send the entries of goods by 
each sloop to Van Kuyven, the collector at New York. 
Ti octoter. Jolin Sliuttc, one of Baker's soldiers, was also licensed to 
be the " only English school-master at Albany," upon con- 
dition that he should not " demand any more wages from 
each scholar than is given by the Dutch to their Dutch 
Nieoiis at Nicolls also visited Esopus, where troubles had occurred 
.sopu:=. (j^pjijjg |-]^g previous winter between the soldiers and the 
townsmen. Beekman and the other officers of Wildwyck 
iiseptem. wcrc coutiuued, and Chambers was appointed captain of 
the local militia company. As it was necessary that the 
commander of the regular soldiers who formed the garri- 
son should have general military authority, Captain Daniel 
11 septem. Brodhcad was commissioned to be " chief officer of the 
command, militia iu the Esopes," and all inferior officers and soldiers 
vua. ^ ' were required to obey him as such. Like Baker at Al- 
bany, Brodhead was instructed to keep constant guard, 
23 October, causc the village authorities to be respected, and prevent 
his soldiers fi*om abusing the Indians or quarreling with 
the burghers. In general, he was to use his best discretion, 
but to " avoid harshness of words and heat of passion on 
all occasions ; seeking rather to reconcile differences than 
to be head of a party. Preserve yourself," said the pru- 
dent governor, " single and indifferent as to justice between 
Nicoiis'3 soldiers and burghers. Give not too easy an ear to private 
tious to whisperers and insinuators, which may overrule your judg- 
ment and beget a prejudice in your mind against the Dutch. 
For, though I am not apt to believe they have a natural af- 
fection to the English, yet, without ill usage, I do not find 
them so malicious as some will seek to persuade you they 

One of NicoUs's chief objects in his visit to Esopus was 

• Patents, i., 20, 155, 15T, 15S, 161-164 ; Orders, Warrants, etc., ii., 3-5, 9, IT, 229 ; Col. 
Doc, iii., 104, 117,119, 143; Chalmers, i., 5T6; Munaell's Ann. Alb., iii., 32T; iv., 16; vii., 
9.S-101 ; Viil. Jlan., 1S47, 354, 356, 357 ; 1S52, 484, 49n ; Mass. II. S. Coll., xxx., 54, 55; MSS. 
Trumbull Papers, xxii., 74; ante, vol. i., 530, 533, 535, 733. 

t Patents, i., 15S, 159, 167-169 ; Col. Doc., iii., 94; Esopus Records; Ulster II. S. Coll., 
i., 49, 52-54, 98. 


to purchase from the savages fresh lands on wliich to settle cuap. ii. 
colonists. This was the more important since the separa- 
tion of New Jersey from liis government. A treaty was 
accordingly executed at Fort James between Nicolls and t October, 
the Esopus sachems, by which a large tract of land to the Esopus^ ° 
west and southwest of the " Kahanksen" Creek, in the 
present towns of Rochester and Wawarsing, was conveyed 
to the Duke of York. All past injuries were bm^ied on 
both sides, and the sachems engaged " to come once every 
year and bring some of their young people to acknowledge 
every part of this agreement in the Sopes, to the end that 
it may be kept in perpetual memory."* 

This treaty with the Esopus Indians enabled McoUs to 
offer new inducements to planters, of which the province New offers 
was in great need. While at Boston in the previous May, °p''°'^'^ 
he had caused to be printed by Samuel Green, at the Cam- 
bridge press — then the only printing-j)ress in the British 
American colonies — on a half sheet of foolscap paper, " The 
conditions for new planters in the territories of his Royal 
Highness the Duke of York." In this document the terms 
upon which lands could be purchased and held were stated, 
in conformity to the "Duke's Laws," Avhich had just been 
promulgated at Hempstead. " Liberty of conscience" was 
prominently allowed. " The lands which I intend shall be 
first planted," said Nicolls, " are those upon the west side 
of Hudson's Rive"r, at or adjoining to the Sopes." In this 
form numbers of copies had been distributed. As soon as 
he had made the treaty, Nicolls added, in his own hand- 
writing, to the copies not yet issued, " The governor hath 
purchased all the Sopes land, which is now ready for plant- 
ers to put the plough into, it being clear ground."t 

* Col. JISS., xxii., 4; Deed?, iii., 7-10; E.=opus Records; Ul- ter H. S. Coll., i., 53-62, 97; 
Ponton's N. V., 14 ; ayite, vol. i., C75, 678. This purchase of NicoUs was beyond the " new 
village," now known as Hurley, v/hicli Stuyvesant had caused to be laid out after his treaty 
with the Ksopus sachems in 16G0 : ante, vol. i., 678, 690, 710-714 ; Ulster H. S. Coll., i., 71, 72. 

t Thomas's History of Printing, i., 226, 253 ; ii., 80; Ulster H. S. Coll., i , 07, PS. An 
original of these "conditions" is in the library of the N. Y. Hist. Society ; and there is a re- 
print of them in Leamins and Spicer, 667, 66S. Another original, with NicoUn's manuscript 
addition (formerly beloniriiig to Ebtnezer Hazard), is in the Force Library at Washiugton; 
and one of these amended copies Smith reprinted in his revised edition (1830). i., 33, 40. 

It is interestinc; to note that a censorship nf the press was established by Massachusetts 
on 8 October, 1662, and repealed on 27 .May, 1663. But when the royal commissioners, on 
24 May, 1665, desired that certain papers should be printed, the General Court, three days 
afterward, to prevent " abuse to the authority of this country by the printing- presse," again 
ordered "that there shall be no printing-presse allowed in any towne within this juris- 
diction but in Cambridge, nor shall any person or persons presume to print any copie but 


Chap. II. According to the requirements of the code, the Court of 
Assizes was now held at New York. It was attended by 
28 septM^ the governor, liis counselors, and the justices of Yorkshire. 
4 October ^^^^^I'^l amendments to the laws were adopted and promul- 
courtof gated. Amona; other thino;s, all wills were required to be 

Assizes. ~ "^ ~ ' ^ ■"■ 

deposited in the Record Ofiice at New York, and all land 
patents to be recorded there. To enforce the provision in 
the code, it was ordered that " all persons whatsoever who 
have any grants or patents of townships, lands or houses 
within this government, shall bring in the said grants or 
patents to the governor, and shall have them renewed by 
authority from his Royal Highness the Duke of York, be- 
fore the beginning of the next Court of Assizes."* 

At this court some of the sachems of the Long Island 
3 October. Indians appeared before the governor, and agreed to sub- 
andlffairs. mit to his authority. A few days afterward Nicolls issued 
a patent to David Gardiner, confirming to him the grant 
of the Isle of Wight, or Gardiner's Island, which had been 
originally made to his father in 1640, by Farrett, as agent 
of the Earl of Stirling. This was the promptest comph- 
ance of any considerable landowner with the requirement 
of the code.f 

An interesting criminal case was also decided at NicoUs's 
first Court of Assizes. Ralph Hall and his wife Mary 
having been presented by the authorities of Brookhaven 
for practicing " some detestable and wicked arts, common- 
ly called witchcraft and sorcery," which, it was alleged, had 
2 October, causcd two dcatlis, were arraigned before the Court of As- 
witchcraft. sizcs. As the Now England penalties against that delusion 
had been left out of the New York code, the prisoners were 
indicted, not for witchcraft, but for murder by means of 
witchcraft. Twelve jurymen, one of whom Avas Jacob 
Leisler, afterward so prominent in provincial affairs, tried 
the case. They found that there were "some suspicions 
by the evidence of what the woman is charged with, but 

by the allowance first had and obtained under the hands of such as this court shall from 
time to time impower." Mass. Rec, iv. (ii.), 62, 73, 141, 211 ; Hutch. Mass., i., 248. Thom- 
as, Hist. Print., i., 247, gives the date of this order eiToneously as of 19 October, 1664, in- 
stead of 27 May, 1665. 

• N. Y. II. S. Coll., i., 402-411 ; Col. MSS., xxii., 7, 107; Wood, 90; Hoffman's Treatise, 
i., 96, 97. 

t Deeds, ii., 127; Patents, i., 30; Thompson, i., 311; Doc. Hist., i., 463; Dunlap, ii., App. 
cxix. ; ante, vol. i., 297, 298. 


nothing' considerable of value to take away her life." As chap. ir. 

to the man, there was "nothing considerable to charge him 
with." The com*t thereupon sentenced Hall to give a re- 
cognizance for his wife's appearance from Sessions to Ses- 
sions, and be of good behavior while they remained within 
the government.* 

Li consequence of the war between* the United Prov- 
inces and England, JSTicolls now ordered in council that all lo October, 
the lands and property within the territories of the Duke of Dutch 
of York, belonging to Dutch subjects who had not taken confis'l'^ 
the oath of allegiance to the king, should be confiscated to '^^^'^^' 
his majesty's use. This decree was entered on the records ; 
yet while, " for reasons and considerations" satisfactory to 
the governor, it was not made public, it was to stand as 
firm and effectual " as if the same had been publicly de- 
clared and manifested."! 

Nicolls, however, did not dislike the Dutch, Wlien it 
was found that the salary of their ministers at New York 
had fallen into arrear, the governor directed the mayor 26 Decem. 
and aldermen to enforce a contribution of twelve hundred cimrcii 
guilders for their support. As Megapolensis and Drisius 
also preached in some of the parishes on Long Island, the 
people of Bushwick were directed to raise a proportion of 
the sum.ij: 

To the duke Nicolls modestly reported : " My endeavors November. 
have not been wanting to put the whole government into 
one frame and policy, and now the most refractory Repub- 
licans can not but acknowledge themselves fully satisfied 
with the method and way they are in. '-^ '^' * I have been 

* Court of Assizes, ii., 39-42; Doc. Hist. N. Y., iv., 85, 86; Yates's note to Smith, ed. 
1814; Wood, 24; N. Y. H. S. Coll., i., 326; Col. Kec. Conn., i., TT; Kew Haven Col. Rec, 
ii., 516. One of the last acts of Governor Nicolls, just before he left New York, was to re- 
lease Hall and his wife from their bonds, on 21 August, 1C6S : Ord., Wan-., etc., ii., 216, 217 ; 
Doc. Hist , iv., 86. By the statutes of England (33 Hen. VIII., cap^ 8, and 1 Jac. I., cap. 
12), witchcraft, sorcery, and the invocation of evil spirits were felony, without benefit of 
clergy. These English laws were not repealed until 1736. It is worthy of remark, that ou 
the 10th of March, 1665, a few months before Hall and his wife were acquitted in New York, 
" two wrinkled old women" were convicted of bewitching, before Sir Matthew Hale, chief 
baron of the English Court of Excheqiier, at Bury Siiint P'dmonds, and were hung, protest- 
ing their innocence: Howell's State Trials, vi., 647-702; Campbell's Chief Justices, !., 

t New York Surrogate's I!ec. Wills, i., 1, 2; Val. Man., 1847, 351. By virtue of this de- 
cree. Hog Island in Hellgate, afterward c;illed Manning's, and Blackwell's Island, was, 
among other property, confiscated : Patents, i., 129. The earlier volumes of records in the 
New York SuiTogate'a Office are full of documents of general interest to the state, copies 
of whicli, at all events, ought to be preserved in the Secretary's Office at Albany. 

t Ord., Warr., and Lett., ii.,24; Dunlap, i.,120; N. Y. City Rec.,vi., 73, 105; Thomp- 
Bon, iL, 153, 159 ; Hist. Mag., i. (ii.), 322. 



cuAP. II. more industrious than in all the other actions of my life to 
this day ; and what I have done towards the settlement of 
laws in the government, Mr. Coventry will show to your 
royal highness." At the same time the governor sent over 

Laws sub- " a copy of the laws as they now stand, with the alterations 

the duke, made at the last General Assizes, which," he added, if the 
duke should " be pleased to confirm, and cause them to be 
printed at London, the whole country will be infinitely 

Condition The condition of the metropolis Nicolls told in feeline: 

of Nei7 ^ '-' 

Yoi-k. terms. Its whole trade, " both inwards and outwards, is 
lost for want of shipping." The people of Long Island 
were very poor, and labored only to get bread and cloth- 
ing. From the city of New York alone " is the great hopes 
of all the benefit which can arise to your royal highness ; 
and, if my former proposals of encouragement meet with a 
good answer, I may, without boasting, assure your royal 
highness that within five years the staple of America will 
be drawn hither, of which the brethren of Boston are very 

This prophetic remark was made by Nicolls after he had 
visited the capital of Massachusetts in the previous spring. 
Yet ISTew York, at that day, sadly wanted those comforts 
to which even English private soldiers were accustomed. 
" Such is the mean condition of this town, which I am sure 
is the best of all his majesty's towns in America, that not 
one soldier hath to this day, since I brought them out of 
England, been in a pair of sheets, or upon any sort of bed 

Want of but canvass and straw." Owing to the want of supplies, 
the whole charge of four garrisons had fallen upon the 
governor, which had nearly ruined his private fortune. 
Cartwright's capture was very unluck}'^, because, among 
other things, it had prevented the duke from receiving a 
full detail of the condition of his province. Oppressed by 
these considerations, ISTicolls asked to be relieved from his 
government, and proposed as his successor " Harry Nor- 
wood," who had returned to England in the Guinea, after 
the conquest, and " whose temper would be acceptable both 
to the soldiers and country."* 

• Col. Doc, iii., 104, 100 ; Chalmers, i., 5T5, 5TC, 59T, 599 ; Gen. Ent., i., C2 ; N. Y. City 
Rec, vi,, 86, 87. Norwood appears to have been governor of Dunkirk and deputy governor 


Yet gloom was relieved by news that the English had ciiAr.n. 
gained a great naval victory over the Dutch in the Korth ~ 

Sea, and that the Duke of York, " to whose wisdom and -*-""^- 
com*age" the result was attributed, had escaped unhurt. 
Tliis event was celebrated in l!^ew York with " a general 
joy and thanksgiving ;" and McoUs assured his chief that Thank^- 
" it hath revived our spirits, and is antidote both against ^^^^' 
hunger and cold, until such time as yom- royal highness 
shall think us worthy of a nearer consideration,"* 

Before war opened between England and the United Affaire in 
Provinces, De Witt and D'Estrades had many conferences ^""^"p^' 
about the interference of France. The States General, 
while insisting upon a reciprocal restitution of conquests, 
were willing to adopt the French suggestion that hostihties 
should be confined to Xew Netherland in America and 
Guinea in Afi-ica, without affecting Europe. Charles hav- 
ing accepted the mediation of Louis, the French king24Aprii. 
proposed tliat New Netherland should be exchanged for 28 May. 
Poleron, one of the Banda or Nutmeg Islands, which the 
Hollanders had retaken from the English. But this was 
declined by the Dutch, who maintained that if conquests 27 May. 
were mutually restored, they would only receive back what 
had been '' ravished fi-om them in full peace," and which 
the Enghsh " could not appropriate by any just title, nor 
retain under any probable pretext."f 

Hostilities now began vigorously. Off Lowestoft'e, on the ^^ June. 
coast of Suffolk, the Duke of York, with a large English f^^een li!; 
fleet, fought the Dutch under Admiral Opdam, whose ship Kngi'sh nt 
blew up. After an obstinate combat the Dutch retired to LowestoSe. 
their ports, and the English remained, for a short time, 
masters of the sea. James retm-ned in triumph to London. 
An English medal was struck bearing the words " Quatuor 
maria vindico" — I claim the four seas. But the bonfij-es 
in London which celebrated the victory glared over a 
doomed city. The plague broke out. The appalled court Novemiicr. 
fled from Whitehall. During the next five months the Lon^ol!'^ 
metropohs was almost a desert. Thoroughfares were over- 

of Tangier, and in 1G71 to have been granted the quit-rents of Virginia : Pepys, i., 46, 355; 
iv.,GT, 91,130; Chalmers, i., 32S ; Evelyn, ii., S7 ; Campbell, 215, 272 ; awfe, p. 52. 

• Col. Doc, iii., 104. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 33C-339 ; iii., 104 ; D'Estrades, iii., SI, 85, 89, 92,93, 1G4, 168, 179, 188-102; 
Aitzema, v., 373-376 ; Rapin, ii., C89 ; De Witt, ii., 6S, 70, 93 ; iv., 463 ; Basnage, i., 737-740, 
8 6; Anderson on Commerce, ii., 426, 482, 433; Pinkerton, viii., 457 ; xi.,198; o«fc, p. 78. 


Chap. II. growii with grass, and the awful silence was broken only 
by the nightly round of the pest-cart.* 

In Holland, naval defeat almost produced a revolution. 
The people began to murmur against De Witt, and all 
anxiously looked for the return of De Ruyter from Amer- 
ica. Louis, annoyed at the growing haughtiness of Charles, 
pressed De Witt to exchange New Netherland for Poleron; 
and the Pensionary, avowing that the sacrifice would be 
23 July, great, agreed that the French kina: miffht, " as of his own 

New Neth- '-''"-' o o :' 

eriand accord," propose it to the King of England. This step 

ron. ° ^' was kept secret from the States General, for both Louis 
and De Witt feared that the people might declare for 
the young Prince of Orange. The French ambassadors at 
London were directed to make the proposed offer " as from 

16 August, themselves," and Louis promised to break with Charles if 
it was not accepted. The States General were urged to 
sustain De Witt's secret agreement ; but they only directed 

20 August, the East and West India Companies, which were chiefly 
interested, to give their opinions upon the proposition.f 

August. The Englisli answer to the French overture was, that the 

Dutch had usurped New JSTetherland, to which they had no 

n.aupiity right, and that the king was surprised at a proposal to cede 

ciafms.' Poleron " in compensation for a country already his own." 
With headstrong subserviency. Clarendon reiterated the 
falsehood that King James had granted the country, " aft- 
erwards named New Netherland," to Lord Stirling ; that 
" the Scotch had begun to cultivate it a long time before 
the Hollanders were received there ;" and that, as the Duke 
of York had bought the rights of Stirling's heirs, the Dutch 
province legitimately belonged to the English, Yet the 
chancellor well knew that Lord Stirling's claim affected 
Long Island only, and not the rest of New Netherland. 

• Aitzema, v., 37T-3S4, 443-4C0 ; Basnagc, i., 741-743; Pepys, ii., 243-330; Evelyn, i., 
417-422 ; Kennett, iii., 255, 250; Burnet, i., 218, 219; Rapin, ii„ 039, 040; CIarke'3 James 
II., i., 405-422; Lister's ClarendoD, ii., 333-.335; iii., 380-384 ; Courtenay's Temple, i., 80; 
Martin, 1., 270. Tlie Guinea and the Martin, two of the ships which liad assisted in the re- 
duction of New Netherland, were in the British fleet in the battle of June, 1065, hut under 
other commanders. Three of the captains who returned from New York were also in that 
hattle with other ships. Hyde, of the Guinea, commanded the Jersey, 48 ; Grove, of the 
Martin, the Success, 30; and Ilill, of the Eli.a3, -which foundered on her voyage home, the 

Coventry, 22 Allen's Battles of the British Navy, i., 40 ; Aitzema, v., 444, 445; Pepys, ii., 

185,249; iii., 249; ante, i>. 50, 7iote. 

t D'Estrades, iii., 197, 215, 219, 221, 242, 249, 250, 2G2, 205. 278, 295-301, 318; Aitzemn, 
v., 348-388, 393 ; Col. Doc, ii., 341-353 ; Basnage, i., 743, 750-754 ; Lister, iii., 381, 387, 38S, 
393 ; LambrechtBcn, 78, note. 


The Hollanders, he argued, had only been tolerated there chap. ii. 
as they would have been had they established themselves ~~ 
in England or elsewhere, where they would not, for that •^""^• 
reason, acquire any right of sovereignty for their republic. 
The ambassadors of Louis answered this burlesque of rea- Answer of 
soning by showing its utter want of analogy. But they 
saw that " the interest of the Duke of York prevailed," and 
that Clarendon did not believe that the Dutch would break 
off on the point of New ISTetherland, especially as the King • 
of France himself had offered to cede it for Poleron. 

This answer of Charles was justly considered by Louis as 
rather " hard, dry, and haughty." He wrote at once to M August. 
D'Estrades, at the Hague, " I will say to you that, having ciar^ the 
examined what the Enghsh and the Hollanders have writ- Sutch 10"^° 
ten upon the subject of New Netherland, it appears to me «irnd!^*" 
that the right of the Hollanders is the best founded ; for it 
is a species of mockery to make believe that those who 
have built and peopled a city without any one saying a 
word to hinder them would have been tolerated as stran- 
gers in France or in England ; and habitation, joined to a 
long possession, are, in my judgment, two sufficiently good 
titles to destroy all the reasons of the English." At the 
same time, Louis thought, that as the Dutch had already 
lost their American province, they should be willing to 
abandon it for the sake of peace.""' 

But the States of Holland were too much interested in 
the preservation of New Netherland to consent to its sur- 
render. The city of Amsterdam likewise insisted upon re- 3 septem. 
covering what had cost it so much. The States General 
would not treat with England unless Charles receded from 
his position ; and De Witt's private agreement with Louis 
was repudiated. The French mediators — who thought ^iseptem. 
that while the Duke of York would not give up New 
Netherland, the Dutch made its restitution rather " a point 
of honor" — made farther propositions to the English gov- 
ernment. Charles haughtily replied that they were "not 25 October. 
adapted to secure a firm peace." The West India Com- 
pany, not yet satisfied with Stuy vesant's behavior, resolved 27 October. 
that their own province in America should not be ex- co.Vuinot 
changed for Poleron, because they had " no partnership" Ne"^ N^etii- 

• D'Estrades, iii., 324, 330-354; Aitzema, v., 393; Col. Doc, u., 354, 355; Basnage, i., T54. 


Chap. II. witli the East India Company, which had an entire mo- 
nopoly in the Eastern seas, while not only were private 
• persons largely concerned in New ISTetherland, but also 
great public interests were involved which would be ruin- 
ed by its loss/'^ 

Meanwhile Downing had left Holland, after having sent 
to the States General a reply to their answer of the ninth 

^^ April, of February, in which he insisted upon the English title to 
Kew JSTetherland, and mendaciously affirmed that it had 
not been " taken by any order" of the king. This having 

10 septem. been published in London, the Dutch government ordered 

their rejoinder to be printed. The absurdity of the En- 
31 Decern, glisli claiui was demonstrated ; because, while James the 
maintain First might iuscrt in a patent such clauses as he chose, he 
toN^ew^^ could not thereby prejudice the rights of others; and, 
land.^'^" moreover, he had expressly excepted territory in the pos- 
session of other states. The " imaginary subterfuge" that 
Charles had not directed the capture of New Netherland 
was exposed by quoting his own orders to NicoUs of the 
23d April, 1664. Full* appendices completed this able 
state paper, which fitly closed the long correspondence be- 
tween Holland and England about the conquest of New 

The answer of Charles to the propositions of Louis ended 

any hopes of a peaceable adjustment. All the cities of 

3 Decern. HoUaiid thanked God that he had not accepted them. 

atTaad! Tlioy determined to bear increased taxation for war rather 

than submit to dishonorable terms of peace. Yan Gogh 

11 Decern, was recalled fi-om London by a letter, in which the States 

General set forth their offers of reciprocal restitution, and 
the British haughty repulse of them. Charles, on his part, 
16 Decern, iusistod that the Provincial States of Holland were " the 
real authors" of a war which seemed to "prejudice the 
Protestant religion.":}; And as this eventful year closed, 
the two great champions of the Peformation prepared for 
a fiercer struggle. 

• D'Estrades, iii., 360, 365, 371, 3S2, S95, 435, 4-14, 4T2; Aitzema, v., 395; Basnage, i., 
755; Col. Doc, li., 35T, 353. 3;il, 417-419; Courtenay's Temple, i., 75; MSS. N. Y. H. Soc., 
commimicated by M. F. A. G. Campbell, of tlie Hague. 

t D'Estrades iii., 36D; Aitzema, v., 394; Col. Doc, ii., 331-335, 379-415; rtwic, p. 19. 

t Aitzema, v., 394, 396, 397; D'Estrades, ill., 565, 560, 577, 531 ; Baanage, 1., 756. 




A FEEsn element now entered into the history of New cuap. ni. 

York. Louis, reluctantly fulfilling his engagement to as- 

sist Holland against England, issued a declaration of W9,r 29 j^^ * 

ao-ainst Charles the Second. It was very moderate in its ^^^^■^'^e de- 
cs •/ Clares war 

tone ; for the French king secretly sympathized with his gp\°^^^ 
English brother, and was really hostile to the Republic of 
heretics and merchants. " This is a great step I have 
taken," wrote Louis to D'Estrades at the Hague, " for the 
sole interest of the States, and in almost every thing con- 
trary to my own." The next month England declared war jl Feb. 
against France. Charles immediately directed his Ameri- 22 Feb. 
can colonies to be on their guard against the enemy, and to colonial 
reduce " all islands and plantations in those parts belonging 
to the French or Dutch nation, and especially that of Can- 
ada." These orders, however, did not reach New York until 
the following summer. But they foreshadowed an aggress- 
ive colonial policy, which, culminating in the conquest of 
New France by England a century afterward, prepared the 
way for the American Revolution.* 

Interesting events had meanwhile happened on the 
northern frontier of New York. The treaty which Nic- 
oUs had so promptly caused to be made with the native 
Indians at Albany, and his subsequent behavior toward 
them, were meant to make them firm friends of the En- 
glish, as they had been of the Dutch. The territory of the 
Mohawks and Oneidas was within the Duke of York's pat- 
ent ; and even at that early day the time was perhaps an- 
ticipated when the five confederated nations, instead of 

• Aitzema, v., 693, 695, 912; D'Estrades, iv., 47, 65, 76 ; Kennett, iii., 258; Rapin, ii., 
641, 642 ; Basnage, i., 770 ; Lavallee, iii., 212 ; Martin, i., 272 ; Coiirtenay's Temple, i., 82 ; 
Col. Doc, iii., 120, 137; Col. Conn., ii., 514; Sliea's note to Miller's N.Y., 113, 114. 

IL— C 


cbap. ni. being treated as equals, would be claimed as Englisb sub- 

jects, and used as barriers against tbe neighboring French 

-,".,; in Canada. Between E^ew France and New Netherland 

New iork 

and cana- there had been little if any disagreement, while many acts 
of kindness shown by the Dutch were long remembered by 
the French authorities. But now, instead of placid Hol- 
land, aggressive England was sovereign of New York. 
"Wliere there had been friendship was soon to be discord ; 
and national antipathies, wliich could not be repressed in 
Europe, were destined to begin, in the country of the Iro- 
quois, an eventful struggle for ultimate su^^remacy in North 
Trench It had bccu the policy of France to obtain a spiritual as 

o!aada^ Well as temporal dominion over the savages who encom- 
passed her colonists in the New World. Wherever the 
lilies were planted, there was set up the cross. With he- 
roic devotion the missionaries of Christianity pushed on 
their labors among the tribes south of the Saint Lawrence 
and " the beautiful lake" which the Iroquois called " Onta- 
rio."* Of all these confederated tribes the Onondagas were 
the most friendly to the French, This was chiefly owing 
to their greatest orator, Garakontie, " the sun that advan- 
' ces," who had nothing savage in him " except birth and 
education." A nephew of the " Atotarho," or great sachem 
of the Iroquois, but himself neither sachem nor chief, Gara- 
kontie had acquired immense power over his countrymen 
by his eloquence and his political wisdom. He had pro- 
tected the Jesuit father Simon le Moyne at Onondaga, and 
had induced the remote Cayugas and Senecas to join his 
own nation in releasing their French prisoners, with whom 
the missionary returned to Canada in the summer of 1662.f 
But the nearer Oneidas and Mohawks cherished enmity, 
and even threatened Montreal. Tliis aroused the Canadian 
government. The Baron Pierre du Bois d'Avaugour, who 
had succeeded D'Argenson in 1661, was a soldier, who 

• " Ontario" signifies in Indian " the beautiful lake :" Col. Doc, ix., 10 ; Hennepin's Lou- 
isiana, 5. The note in Col. Doc, ix., 76, which renders Ontario "the Great Lake," is con- 
tradictory, and seems to be eiToneous. 

t Col. Doc., ix., 13, 16, 76 ; Relation (ed. Quebec, 185S), 16G1, 32-33 ; 1662, 10-12 ; Henne- 
pin, Desc. de la Louisiane, 5; Charlevoix (ed. 12mo), ii., SS, lOS-119, 144; Shea's Catholic 
Jlissions, 242, 24S ; Ferland, Histoire du Canada, i., 470-477 ; Faillon, Hist, de la Col. Fran- 
chise en Canada, ii , 450 ; iii., 2,92; Sparks's Life of La Salle, 71; Bancroft, iii., 120-162; 
ante, vol. i., S4, 704. Le Moyne died at the Cap de la Madeleine, 24 November, 1665: Col. 
Doc, iii., 123 ; ix., 3S ; Shea's Missions, 248. 


thought it his chief duty "to plant effectually ihefieur de cnAP.m. 
lys'^ in New France. He recommended to Louis a scheme 
of fortifications by which Quebec would be made impreg- 4 August! 
nable, and the king " master of America, where all the her- go^/^dl 
etics would remain only so long as might please him." The destruction 
Iroquois he considered a rabble to be destroyed. To this °\^¥ ^^'^ 
end forts should be built on the Richelieu River, and at the 
upper part of the Hudson, near Fort Orange. Three thou- 
sand men should be sent to Canada to rout the Iroquois, 
hinder the progress of the heretics, and open a direct com- 
munication with the sea through the more genial region of 
Kew Netherland. Should his bold plan be vigorously pros- 
ecuted, D'Avaugour prophesied that his ambitious sover- 
eign would be " master of the finest and greatest empire in 
the world." 

On the other hand, the Jesuit missionaries insisted that The Jesuits 
their c-reatest obstacle was the drunkenness of the Indians, uqiwr 


who were supplied with liquors by the Europeans, and es- 
pecially by the Dutch at Fort Orange. The French colo- 
nists had been forbidden by severe edicts from engaging 
in this traflic. But D'Avaugour would not enforce the 
prohibition ; and a quarrel broke out between him and the 
ecclesiastics, headed by Laval de Montmorency, the titular 
Bishop of Petrde, in jpartihus infidelium, who had come 
out to Quebec in 1659 as Vicar Apostolic of New France. 
Laval complained to the king, who, at his suggestion, ap- 
pointed the Chevalier Augustin de Mez}^, an apostate Cal- 1 May. 
vinist, to succeed D'Avaugour as Governor of Canada. De Govemo'^' 
Mezy arrived at Quebec in the summer of 1663, accompa- ° 
nied by the Royal Commissary Du Pont Gaudais, who or- 
ganized the colonial government which Louis had estab- 
lished after the surrender to him of all their rights by the 
old Canada Company.^' 

The administration of De Mezy was short and troubled, -iqqa 
Its most-iiliportant event was an embassy sent by the Iro- Iroquois 
quois to Montreal, in the summer of 1664, to treat for AtaitreL*'' 
peace. The Mohawks had been weakened and their pride 
humbled by their war with the Mahicans, or " Loups."-]- 

* CoLDoc.,ix.,7-lT, 25, 59, 783, 784; Eelation, 1661,10; Quebec MSS.,ii. (ii.)lTO; Gar- 
neau, Hist, du Canada, i., 140-146, 155; Ferland, i., 447, 448, 476-4S3, 494-500 ; Faillon, ii., 
322 ; iii., 30-09 ; Charlevoix, ii., 88, 105, 120-123, 135, 137, 140, 145 ; ante, vol. i., 705. 

t The Mahicans or Mohegans were originally settled on the Hudson River, and were 


cuAP. in. The far-off Senecas were in arms as-ainst their fierce neigh 

bors, the Andastes, or Conestogues, or Susquehannas, who 
' inhabited the region west of the Swedes on the Delaware, 
near what is now Lancaster in Pennsylvania, and were 
thought " the most capable of all others to exterminate the 
Iroquois."* The confederate nations therefore desired 
that the French should live among them and supply them 
18 septem. with Europcau weapons. De Mezy was assm*ed by the 
upper tribes that all except the Oneidas desired peace ; and 
the fi'iendly disposition of the Mohawks was vouched for 
by a letter from " one of the notables of New Nether- 
land." But the governor let the Iroquois see that the 
French were resolved to rid themselves of such treacherous 
enemies, f 

De Mezy, however, quarreled with the Jesuits, as his 
predecessor had, and was recalled by Colbert. The Chev- 
1665 ^^^^^ Daniel de Eemy de Courcelles, a brave ofiicer of 
23 March, merit and experience, was commissioned to succeed him as 
Rovemor of governor of Canada. The Sieur Jean Talon, formerly of 
Md T-nion Hainault, a man of large views and enterprising mind, was 
also appointed intendant of justice, police, and finance. 
D'Avaugour's plans of fortification, which he had ex- 
plained more fully on his return to France, and the ad- 
vice of D'Estrades to destroy the Iroquois in a year, were 
now favorably considered. The king's instructions to Ta- 
2T March, lou declared the five nations to be " perpetual and irrecon- 
cilable enemies of the colony," and ordered that war should 
be carried " even to their firesides, in order totally to ex- 
terminate them." A thousand veterans of the Carignan 
regiment, which had just distinguished itself against the 
Turks in Hungary, were detached, under the command of 

therefore often called the " River Indians." Their Indian name " Mahigan" was the Algon- 
quin word for "wolf," which the French translated into " Loup :" Relation, 1660, 31 ; 1661, 
39; 1664, 33 ; Charlevoix, v., ITS ; Col. Doc, is., 38, 66 ; ante, vol. i., 72, 1S3, 232, 733. 

* Relation, 1060, 6; 1061,31; 1663,10; 1664,33; Charlevoix, i., 134; Col. Doc, iii., 74,125, 
417,797; v.,4S0; ix.,45, 66, S4, 227, 605; Doc Hist., i., 259; Shea, 24, 249, ^91. Mr. Gal- 
latin erroneously places the Andastes on the Alleghany and Ohio Rivers, and calls them 
Guyandots. The Mengwe, Minquas, or Mingoes were the Andastes, or Gandastogues, or 
Conestogag, who lived on the Conestoga Creek, which empties into the Susquehanna. Upon 
their reduction hy the Five Iroquois Nations in 1675, the Andastes were to a great ex- 
tent mingled with their conquerors ; and a party removing to the Ohio, commonly called 
Mingoes, was thus made up of Iroquois and Mingoes. Tlie celebrated Logan was a real 
Andaste: Golden, i. ; Shea's note on Washington's Ohio Diary, p. 224; Historical Maga- 
zine, ii., 294-297. 

t Relation, 1663,11; 1064, 20,32-30; Charlevoix, ii., 134, 141, 142; Garncau, i.,156; Shea, 
250, 251 ; Faillon, iii., 83-100 ; a7ite, vol. L, 733. 


the Sieur de Salieres, and Coiircelles set sail with his ex- chap. hi. 
pedition for Canada.* . 

In the mean time, Louis had commissioned Alexander jg ^^^^^^ 
de Prouville, Marquis de Tracy, to be his lieutenant gen- Jj^^yj^^'^^; 
eral in America, in the absence of the Count D'Estrades, France. 
whom he had appointed viceroy, but who was now his am- 
bassador in Holland. Tracy embarked with four com- 
panies of infantry, and, after visiting the West Indies, sail- 
ed for the Saint Lawrence, Among other things, the act- -\qqa. 
ing viceroy was instructed to avoid quarreling with thei5Novem. 
Jesuits, but not let them encroach too much. Their inter- 
diction of the liquor trade had injured Canada, because the 
savages carried all their peltries to the Dutch, who sup- 
plied them with brandy in exchange. Another conse- 
quence followed : the Iroquois allowed themselves " to be 
catechized by the Dutch ministers, who instruct them in 
heresy." In the opinion of Lyonne, the Jesuits should 
have " closed the eye to one evil to avoid a greater." 1665 

Soon after Tracy reached Quebec, he was joined by so June. 
Courcelles and Talon. The squadron in which they came 
brought over, besides the Carignan regiment, a number of i4 septem. 
mechanics and cattle, and the first horses that had been 
seen in Canada ; " in a word, a more considerable colony 
than that which it came to re-inforce." No time was lost 
in executing the vigorous policy which Louis had adopted. 
The viceroy, with all his soldiers, went up to the mouth of 23 juiy. 
the Richelieu, when the fort which Montmagny had estab- on "the " 
lished in 1642 was at once rebuilt by the able engineer or sorei"' 
Saurel, or Sorel, whose name is commemorated in that*''^^'"' 
which the river now bears. A second fort was erected by 
Chambly at the foot of the rapids, about half way to Lake 
Champlain, which at first was called Saint Louis, but was 
soon known as Fort Chambly. Three leagues farther south 
a tliird fort was built, called Sainte Ther^se, because it was 
finished on the fifteenth day of October. Here Salieres 
took his post as colonel ; and the way to Lake Champlain 15 October. 
was now commanded by the French, f 

• Col. Doc, ix., 20-29, T85; raillon, iii., 100-110; Charlevoix, ii., 145-147, 150; D'Es- 
trades, ii., 576, 577; Garneau, i., 1S8, ISO; ante, p. 78. De Mezy died at Quebec on the 
5th of May, 1665, a short time before Courcelles arrived there. 

t Col. Doc, ix., 18, 19, 22 ; Relation, 16C5, 3, 4, 7, 10-13, 25; La Potherie, i., 319 ; ii., 82, 
83; Charlevoix, i., 357; ii., 151, 152; v., 221; Doc. Hist., i., 43-45; Warburton, i., 373; 
Garneau, i., 190; Ferland, i., 320; Faillon, iii., 117-126; Shea, 251. On the map in the 


cnAP. ni. These vigorous measures impressed the savages. Depu- 

ties from the Onondagas, who also represented the Cayu- 

Decem^r S^^ ^^^ Seuecas, hastened to Tracy at Quebec, led by Gara- 

The West- Jjontie, " the father of the Frenchmen." An Oneida chief 

ern Iro- ' -i ^ r i • • 

quois visit ioined the Western ambassadors, and spoke for his nation. 

" Onnon- •> ' ^ ^ , , 

tio." Presents were interchanged between the Iroquois plenipo- 
tentiaries and " Onnontio,"* by which name they distin- 
j'^ Decern, guishcd the governor of Canada. A treaty was made, by 
made? wliich Louis was declared the protector and sovereign of 
the four Iroquois nations, and they his vassals and allies. 
French families and missionaries were to be settled among 
the savages, and farms near Montreal, Three Rivers, and 
Quebec assigned to emigrants from the four Iroquois na- 
tions. Thus these nations would " hold the French, not 
merely by the hem and fringe of the garment, but clasp 
The Mo- them cordially around the waist." The Mohawks were not 
included, iiicluded ill tlic treaty. The representatives of the other 
confederates promised to return to Quebec " within four 
moons," and ratify this acknowledgment of their vassalage 
to France, f 
Canada ig- Up to this time the French in Canada were ignorant of 
uie filigiish the political changes in New York. They supposed that 
New Neth- it was Still a Dutcli province. The boundaries between 
eiiand. ]N^ew FraucB and the neighboring English colonies were in- 
definite ; but while tlie Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and 
Senecas had just given to Louis a nominal sovereignty over 
much of the territory south of Lake Ontario, the Mohawks 
had never acknowledged their subjection to any European 
master. Tracy therefore resolved to treat them as enemies. 
16G6. An expedition into the Mohawk coimtry was organized, 
and Courcelles was directed to take the command. In the 
9 January, depth of wiutcr lie bcgaii his march with three hundred 
regular soldiers and two hundred Canadians. The Father 

Kelation of 1065, the name of Sorel is ppelled "Saurel," which seems to be the true orthog- 
raphy according to Col. Doc, ix., 5'2, 53, 130. 

* This word, derived from "Onnonta," a mountain, signifies, in the Iroquois tongue, 
" Great mountain." It was a literal translation of the name of Montmagny, who was gov- 
ernor of Canada from 1G3G to 164S ; and the savages, having become familiar with the word, 
applied it to his successors in office. By the same rule they called the King of France 
"Grand Onnontio." The English, who did not understand its etymology, wrote the word 
"Yonnondio:" Relation, 1G41, £2 ; 1G5S, S ; Doc. Hist., 1., 32, 33, 35; Col. Doc, iii., 4S9, 733, 
735; iv., 893; ix., 37; La Potherie, i., 303, 348; Charlevoix, i., 350; Colden, i., 29, 62, 70; 
ante, vol. i., 591, note. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 121-125; ix., 37, 38; Relation, 16G1, SS; 1GG4, 32; 1GG5, 5; Charlevoi.x, 
li., 154, 155; Doc Hist., i., 40; Garneau, 1., 193; Shea, 251 ; Faillon, iii., 127, 128. 


Pierre Kaffeix went along as chaplain. Snow four feet cuat. hi. 
deep covered the ground, so that no horses could be used. 
Light sledges, drawn by mastiffs, were the only mode of ^.g,,,. ' 
conveying provisions. Each officer and soldier was also pe^ft-.'^n ^' 
obliged to carry a weight of thirty pounds, and to walk on jf^"i"'*J]''' 
large Canadian snow-shoes, to the use of which the heroes 
from Hungary were not accustomed. It required " a 
French courage" to sustain their long and difficult march 
through American forests, over deep snow, and across 
frozen lakes and rivers, and to sleep in the woods, where 
the cold was more severe than the rudest winters in Eu- 
rope. From Fort Sainte Therese they passed southward, so jan'y. 
over Lake Champlain, toward the Mohawk villages. But, 
in the absence of their expected Algonquin guides, they 
missed their way, and wandered in the wilderness until, 
without knowing where they were, they encamped about 1% Febi-y. 
two miles from Schenectady, or Corlaer.* A party of Mo- French 
hawks appearing, a detachment of f usileers was sent against tady. 
them, which, falling into an ambuscade, lost several killed 
and wounded. The Mohawks reported their victory at 
Schenectady, and exhibited the heads of four Frenchmen 
as trophies. The news was dispatched to Albany, and the 
next day three of the " principal inliabitants" came to in- M rebr-y. 
quire why the French commander had brought " such a 
body of armed men into the dominions of his majesty of 
Great Britain without acquainting the governor of these 
parts with his designs ?" Courcelles replied that he had 
come to attack and destroy his enemies, the Mohawks, but 
not to molest the English ; and that he " had not heard of 
the reducing those parts to his majesty's obedience." See- 
ing that the English, instead of the Dutch, were masters, he 
was " disturbed in mind," and prophetically remarked " that 
the King of England did grasp at all America." As it was 
reported that France and Holland had united against En- 
gland, Courcelles inquired particularly about the force at 
Albany, thinking that he might take the place by a rapid 
movement. But, learning that the fort was garrisoned by 
sixty English soldiers with nine cannon, and that Baker 

* The French called this place "Corlaer," after Arendt Van Curler, who had begun a set- 
tlement there in 1661 : see ante, vol. i., C45, 659, 031, 732; Colden, i., 31 ; Charlevoix, ii., 
156; Col. Doc, ix., 467. 


Chap. III. had seiit down to Brodhead at Esopus for a re-enf orce- 
ment, he abandoned the project. At his request, seven of 
The • 1^^^ wounded were taken to Albany for medical aid. Wine 
kindf^ and provisions were cheerfully supplied, through the influ- 
treated. euce of Yau Curler ; but Courcelles declined the offers of 
accommodation for his troops in Schenectady, lest his half- 
starved followers, who had camped imder the cold blue 
heavens for six weeks, might desert if brought " within the 
smell of a chimney-corner." Learning that most of the 
Mohawks and Oneidas had gone to attack the " wampum 
makers," while the rest had retired to their castles, and 
fearing that a sudden thaw might break up the ice, Cour- 
celles " found it reasonable to return home, nothing effect- 
The ed." He began his retreat with a show of marching to- 
letieat. w^ard the Mohawk villages, but soon faced northward, and 
pushed rapidly for Canada. The savages pursued their 
enemies to Lake Champlain, and made some prisoners. 
The French supposed that they had terrified the Mohawks, 
who only took fresh courage because their vainglorious 
adversaries had " vanished like false fire."* 

When the news of Courcelles's expedition reached Nic- 
olls, he was " surprised" at such an invasion of " these His 
Majesty's dominions" in time of peace, which was " not 
conformable to the practice in Em-ope." Yet he com- 
mended the friendly conduct of the Albany oflicers, whose 
Action of predecessors had " in all former times been very affection- 
ate with Christian charity to ransom or by any other means 
to convey divers French prisoners out of the hands of their 
barbarous enemies." The wounded Frenchmen who had 
been left there were carefully attended by Surgeon D'Hinse, 
who spoke their own tongue. With Nicolls's approbation, 
the officers at Albany exerted themselves so that the Mo- 
hawks " w^ere at last wrought upon to treat of peace" with 
the French ; and a letter from Baker and his colleagues, 
announcing the event to Tracy, was handed to the Oneidas 
to carry to Quebec. In consequence of the supplies which 
had been furnished to Courcelles, and of an anticipated 
short crop, the governor was obliged to prohibit the ex- 

* Relation, 16G6, 6, 7; Col. Doc., US, 119, 120, 12T, 1.^3, 15?. 395; Doc. Hist., i., 46, 47, 50, 
61, 5,5, ion ; Charlevoix, ii., 144, 156, 157 ; Colden, i., 31, 32 ; Mass. H. S. Coll., i., 161 ; Fail- 
Ion, iii., 129-134. 



portation of wheat from New York, except by special li- coap. hi. 

(jense. ^ 

By this time apprehension of an attack by De Kuyter 
had ceased ; but the want of trade, caused by the war and 
the English na^dgation laws, was grievous to l\e\y York. 
In letters to the Duke of York, and Clarendon and Coven- 
try, Nicolls described the sad condition of the province. 
To Arlington he wrote, "In regard the inhabitants (at 9 April, 
least three parts of four) being Dutch, though now His Maj- of nicouT 
esty's subjects as native English, have been seated here 
divers years as a factory, and their estates as well as rela- 
tions interwoven with their correspondents and friends in 
Holland, unless His Majesty pleaseth to grant them some 
extraordinary enfranchisement, the sudden interruption of 
their factory with Holland will absolutely destroy all the 
present inhabitants ; who, setting aside the innate love to 
their country in this time of war after so sudden a change, 
will prove better subjects than we have found in some of 
the other colonies ; and, with a moderate permission, both 
for time and trade, will support this government better 
than can be reasonably expected fi'om new comers of our 
own nation, who at first, as we find by experience, are 
blown up with large designs, but not knowing the knack 
of trading here to differ from most other places, they meet 
with discouragements, and stay not to become wiser." After 
alluding to the action of the royal commissioners, and the 
" sophistry" and " pride" of Massachusetts, NicoUs remarked 
that New York " will withdraw, in short time, most of their 
trade hither, where I have begun to set up a school of bet- 
ter religion and obedience to God and the king." Again he 
urged that " a speedy consideration be taken of the neces- 
sities both of the soldiers and country. For myself," he 
added, " I am utterly ruined in my small estate and credit ; 
and, which is worse, without very great supplies I shall not 
be able to secure or make an honest defence of his maj- 
esty's interest should we be attacked by a foreign force." 
The English soldiers, upon whom alone he could rely, were 
now dispersed into four garrisons, at New York, Esopus, Al- 

* Col. Doc., iii., 126-134; Ord., Warr., Lett., ii., 30, 78, 157. Nicolls appears to have 
thought of sending Van Curler to Canada, but the latter did not go until the next year : Col. 
Doc., iii., 12S, 156 ; 2}ost, 121. 


Chap. III. h&uj, and the Delaware. "My ignorance," he modestly 
suggested, '"' made me bold to undertake so great a charge, 
which will become a much wiser man and of a more plen- 
tiful fortune."* 

TheDeia- TliB Delaware territory had meanwhile been governed 

ware erii- -^^ ^{qqWq ou his owu responsibility, without any directions 

20 March, fi'om England. To encourage its trade, he directed that no 
duties should be levied on any merchandise carried between 
it and ]!^ew York. By Ensign Arthur Stock, who had acted 

April, as commissary there, NicoUs wrote to Arlington, exposing 
the fallacy of Lord Baltimore's pretensions to the Delaware 
country, and urging that it might be granted to Berkeley 
and Carteret in place of New Jersey. " If some course be 
not taken to rectify these great mistakes," he added, " New 
York, Delaware, and the Lord Berkeley's interest will de- 
stroy each other." Sir Robert Carr, who was now at New 

9 April. York, also renewed his suggestion that Delaware should be 
united with some of the Eastern colonies, and himself made 
the governor, which he thought would be " both useful and 
beneficial." Nevertheless Delaware long remained an in- 
convenient appendage to New York.f 

In spite of the admonitions of Nicolls, few patents for 
lands Avere yet issued. An important one, however, was 

18 May. granted to tlie inhabitants of Haerlem, or "Lancaster," 

patent. wliicli Confirmed their former privileges, but in subordina- 
tion to the city of New York, " as being within the liber- 
ties thereof.":}: 

Following the example of Gardiner, the owners of Shel- 

sheiter isi- ter Island obtained a confirmation of their title. This 
' beautiful spot, formerly known as " Farret's Island," had 
come into the possession of Thomas Middleton, and Con- 
stant and Nathaniel Sylvester, of Barbadoes. The latter, 
who professed to be a Quaker, settled himself at Shelter 
Island. In consideration of one hundred and fifty pounds, 
paid " one half in beef and the other half in pork," toward 

25 May. the support of the New York government, Nicolls released 

* Col. Doc, iii., 114, 115. This letter, being addressed to Lord Arlington as Secretary of 
State, is preserved in the British State Paper Office. Those of the same date, which Nicolls 
wrote to the Duke of York, Lord Clarendon, and Secretaiy Coventry, were not deposited 
there : see N. Y. H. P. Coll. (ISCO), 113-120. 

t Ord., Warr., Lptt., ii., 43; S. Hazard, SCO, 3T0 ; Col. Doc, iii , 105, lO."*, 113-115; R. I. 
Col. Ecc, ii., 13T, 13S ; Chalmers, i., 0.^4. 

t Patents, i , 5T-60 ; Uofifraan, i., 131 ; antr, p. 7fi ; vol. i., G74, 6T5. 


the island forever from all taxes and all military duty. A coAr. iii. 
patent was also issued confirming it to the Sylvesters as an 
'• entii'e enfi*anchised to^vnship, manor, and place of itself," ^^^^ 
with eqnal privileges with any other town in the province.* 

Visiting Hempstead again at the time of the annual 
races, NicoUs made a treaty with Tackapausha, the chief ii June, 
sachem of the Marsapeagues, and other Long Island tribes, 
by which they covenanted to be at peace with the Enghsh 
and submit to their government, f 

In the mean time there was great discontent on Long Ducontent 
Island, especially in its eastern towns, which were vexed Sam"" 
at being no longer under the government of Connecti- 
cut. Southampton, Southold, and Easthampton refused to i» apiil 
choose the local officers required by the duke's laws, and 
would not pay their rates. NicoUs therefore warned them 21 Apni. 
against sedition, and that the duke's authority would be 
enforced. The oath required from the overseers seemed 
to be the chief stumbling-block, and this the governor pru- 
dently waived. The authors of the trouble were Howell, 3 Jiay. 
of Southampton, and Younge, of Southold, whose rival and 
colleague at the Hempstead meeting, William Wells, had 
been made high-sheriff of Yorkshire. In the judgment of t May. 
Kicolls, Younge was " a bad instrument," but had no brains 
" to carry on such a business." Underhill, the high-consta- 
ble of the North Riding, whose " reall hart" inclined to Con- 
necticut, likewise wrote from Oyster Bay representing " the 20 Apra. 
distempers of the people against the present form of govern- 
ment, by wliich they are inslaved under an arbitrary pow- 
er," and intimated that there were some who would " hazard 
both life and estate in a mutiny and rebellion rather than 
bear the burden of the public charge." Nicolls peremp- NicoHs 
torily denounced the complainants as calumniators or trai- ^dufoS.^ 
tors, and made known his purpose to act vigorously, but ^ ^^^^- 
justly, in every case.:}: 

Much of this ill feeling arose from the discontent of the canse of 
eastern Long Island to"svns with the result of the Hemp- tent. ^^'^°°' 
stead meeting. They disliked various provisions in Nicolls's 

* New Haven Col. Rec, ii., 51, 89, 92, i:2, 190-104, 304, SSO, 412 ; Col. Rec. Conn.,i., £86, 
390,400,427; Cldmixon, ii., 28; Fox's Journal (Philad. ed), 4?.8, 442, 453 ; Patents, i., 05, 
133; Thompson, i., 304-307, 392 ; Wood, 6, 9 ; ante, p. 90 ; vol. i, 292, 300, SOI. 

t Wood, 79; Thompson, i, 94; ii.,8. 

t Ord , Warr., Lett., ii., 40, 47, 50, 54, 55, 58, 59, 60, 61 ; Maas. U. S. Co'.l., xxxvii., 192. 


Chap. III. code, aiid pined for a legislative assembly after the manner 
of New England. Above all, tliey were mortified by what 
• they thought was servile language in the address of their 
delegates to the Duke of York. This feeling grew when it 
was seen that several of those delegates had been appointed 
to office by the governor. Censures were so fi-eely uttered 
by the disaffected, that the delegates, to justify themselves, 
21 June, drew up a " Narrative and Kemonstrance," in which they 
tive"'of the detailed what had occurred at Hempstead, and declared 
dd^at^* that their address to the duke could not " bear any other 
natural sense and construction than our obedience and sub- 
mission to His Majesty's letters patent, according to our 
duty and allegiance." This narrative they published and 
recorded in each town, " that future ages may not be season- 
ed with the sour malice of such unreasonable and ground- 
less aspersions."* 

Yet this did not satisfy the people. Disaffection became 
60 general that the governor was obliged to interfere. At 
September, the autumu scssiou of the Court of Assizes, it was accord- 
the Court iugly dccrccd " that whosoever shall reproach or defame 
.against se- any pcrsou or persons who have or shall act in any public 
employment, either in court or otherwise, or shall \dlify 
their proceedings who serve the pubhc in this Government 
by authority under His Royal Highness the Duke of York, 
or whoever hereafter shall any ways detract or speak 
against any of the deputies signing the Address to His 
Royal Highness at the General Meeting at Hempstead, 
they shall be presented at the next Court of Sessions, and 
if the Justices shall see cause, they shall from thence be 
bound over to the Assizes, there to answer for the slander 
upon plaint or information." Sedition was most violent 
at Setalcott, or Brookhaven. Arthur Smith, of that place, 
was convicted at the Assizes of saying that " the King was 
none of his King, and the Governor none of his Governor," 
29 septem. and Sentenced to be put in the stocks. Richard Wood- 
hull was also fined five pounds, and required to make 
1 October, a public acknowledgment. The same punishment was 
awarded to William Lawrence, of Flushing.f 

* Deeds, ii.,4.0-4S; Wood, 87, 173, 175; Thompson, i., 137 ; ii., 323-32(3. 
t Court of Assizer, ii., 82, 83, 84, 94; Col. MSS., xxii., 107; N. Y. II. S. Coll., i , 417; 
Thompson, i., 137, 409, 410 ; ii., 3C4, 398. 


Several amendments of the code were made at this ses- chap. hi. 
sion of the Assizes. Public rates were required to be paid ~~ 
every year in wheat and other produce, at certain fixed 27 septem 
prices, " and no other payment shall be allowed of." As ^ Qg*°ber 
the law ao;ainst selling liquor to the savac^es was disreo-ard- Amend- 

^ ~ . . ments to 

ed, owing to the difiiculty of proof, it was ordered " that al- ti^e code. 
though the testimony of heathens against Christians may 
not altogether be allowed, yet, when it meets with other 
apparent, circumstances, such as may be sufficient to con- 
vince a jury, in such cases the Indian testimonies shall be 
admitted as good proofs against the persons accused." Per- 
haps the most important decree related to land patents. 
" The Court having taken notice of the defects and failings 
of both towns and persons in particular of not bringing in 
their grants or patents to receive a confirmation of them, 
or not coming to take out new grants where they are de- 
fective, or where there are none at all, according to former 
directions in the Law, As also taking it into their serious con- 
siderations that several towns and persons within this Gov- 
ernment, as well English as Dutch, do hold their lands and 
houses upon the conditions of being subjects to the States 
of the United Belgic Provinces, which is contrary to the 
allegiance due to his Majesty, They do therefore Order that 
all grants or patents whatsoever formerly made, shall be 
brought in, to be confirmed or renewed by authority of his Land pat- 
Koyal Highness the Diike of York, and all such as have renewed." 
not patents shall likewise be supplied therewith by the first 
day of April next after the date hereof ; after which time 
neither town nor private person, whether English or Dutch, 
shall have liberty to plead any such old grants, patents, or 
deeds of purchase in law, but they shall be looked upon as 
invalid to all intents and purposes."* 

This stringent ordinance made great commotion. It was 
vigorously enforced, because the quit-rents and fees on 
renewals were necessary for the support of the govern- 
ment. In the course of the next few months, Neperhaem, 
Pelham, Westchester, Eastchester, Huntington, Flushing, New pat- 
Brookhaven, Easthampton, New Utrecht, Gravesend, Ja- ed.^ ^'^""'^ 
maica, Hempstead, Newtown, Flatlands, Bushwick, Flat- 

* Court of As3izea, ii., 80; Col. MSS., xxii., 107; N. Y. Hist. See. Coll., i., 414-419 ; Hoff- 
man's Treatise, i., 97. 


ouAP.iii. busli, and Brooklyn, paid new fees and obtained new 
charters which generally confirmed to each of them their 
* old boundaries, and " all the rights and privileges belong- 
ing to a town within this government," But Southold and 
Southampton refused to comply with this law ; and it was 
not until several years afterward that they were finally 
obhged to yield.* 

Nicolls, however, made allowances in special cases. In 
the city of Kew York, where all land titles were derived 
cfrlnd^ from the Dutch West India Company, the payments for 
"^itent^ new patents were greatly eased. The magistrates of Al- 
f^jXovem. bany were granted a month's delay, "in regard 'tis uncer- 
tain whether the river will be open before the time prefix- 
ed by the Court of Assizes for bringing in jonr ground- 
briefs under a penalty." They were also desired to keep 
a strict hand upon the authors or reporters of strange news, 
" that amongst yourselves no quarrels or disputes may arise, 
and to the end that English and Dutch may live as broth- 
ers." At the same time Nicolls advised Jeremias van 
Rensselaer, who claimed Albany as a part of Rensselaer- 
wyck, " not to grasp at too much autliority," as the ques- 
tion was to be settled by the Duke of York, to whom it had 
been referred. " If you imagine," he added, " there is 
pleasure in titles of Government, I wish that I could serve 
your appetite, for I have found only trouble."! 

The roguery of some of the soldiers gave ISTicolls much 
annoyance. Thomas Weall and two others of the garrison 
Novem. at Ncw York were convicted of having stolen some goods 
eoidiJrs. " out of Captain Carteret's cellar," and it was determined 
that one of them should die. The fatal lot fell to Weall. 
But on the Sunday evening before he was to be executed, 
" a company of the chief women of the city, both English 
11 Novem. and Dutch," earnestly besought the governor to spare his 
life. The next morning they again interceded, accom- 
panied by " many others of the better sort, and a greater 

* Col. Doc, ii., 473 ; viiL, 441 ; Patents, i., 8S, 91, 99, 102, 105, 108, 111 ; iv., 50, 51, 50, 
54,56,58; Bolton's Westchester, i., 125, 3T5, 517; ii., 171, 412; Faker's Newtown, 74,75; 
Tliompson's L. I., i., 311, 312, 834, 335, .384, 385, 411, 467 ; ii., 81, 159, 171, 177, 1S3, 201, 220 ; 
Stiles's Brooklyn, 1., 154-156 ; ante^ vol. i., 762. 

t Court of Assizes, ii., 443, 444; Col. Doc, iii., 143, 144. Jeremias van Eensselaer seem- 
ed to claim a right to succeed his brother John Baptist as proprietor, but NicoUa advised 
him to apply the line of Ovid — FiliuH ante diem patrios iiiquirit in annos — and not to in- 
quire prematurely, like a grasping son, how long his fatlier was to live. See Barn'ird's . 
Sketch of Kensselaerwyck, 131-133. 


number of the ordinary Dutcli women." All the privates chap. in. 
in the garrison, headed by Sergeant Thomas Exton, joined 
in a petition for their comrade's release. Yielding to these 
influences, Nicolls drew up the soldiers on parade, andi2Noveni. 
pardoned the prisoners.* 

The governor's prudence was generally appreciated, and 
his influence grew stronger every day. " Many old mat- 
ters are ripped up and misinterpreted," wrote Yan Ruyven /y^""'- 
to Stuyvesant in Holland, " but they are wisely disregard- of Nicou;^. 
ed by Governor Nicolls, so that a man remarked to me that 
it was the Governor's policy to follow the same course you 
had observed in the case of Governor Kieft."t 

On reaching London after his captivity, Cartwright had 
explained the condition of affairs in IS^ew York, and the 
duke had licensed two ships to sail thither with necessary 
supplies ; but Mcolls could not yet be spared from his gov- 
ernment. In very friendly terms Clarendon intimated to is Apru. 


him that he might before long expect to return to England, commend- 
" and then I hope some others will receive encouragement gund. 
by your example to look a little abroad, and imploy them- 
selves in doing good for their country." Secretary Mor- 
rice also wrote him a flattering letter on behalf of the king, 12 Apni. 
and enclosed a present of two hundred pounds, which Nic- 
oUs gratefully received as given " at a time when money 
can be least spared.":}: 

Finding that it was useless to continue them in New En- 
gland, the king, in gracious words, recalled his commission- 10 Apru. 
ers with " considerable gratuities." Letters expressing the mXioneS" 
royal approbation were Hkewise addressed to the submis- ^^'^ ^ ' 
sive colonies of Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Plymouth ; 
but Massachusetts was ordered to send over Bellingham, 
Hathorne, and others, to answer for her to the king. Mav- 
erick and Carr, one, or both, were also directed to return 
as witnesses. These letters were sent under cover to the c August. 
commissioners at Boston, where they were received by Mav- 
erick early in August. By order of Secretary Morrice, a 
duplicate of the one to Massachusetts, " signed and sealed," 

• N. Y. Surrogate's Rec. Wills, i., 13-lS ; Val. Man., 1S4T, 354, 355, 356. 

t Col. Doc, iL, 473. Stuyvesant'a policy had been to sustain the acts of liis predecessor 
Kieft : see ante, vol. i., 468, 469,472. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 116, 136 ; Chalmers, i., 57S ; Ord., Warr, Lett., ii , S7 ; Alass. H. S. Coll., 
xxxvii., 312. 


CHAP. III. was delivered the next month by Maverick to Governor 
Bellingham. But the General Court, " with an uncom- 
c septera! ^^^ Strain of dissimulation," affected" to doubt its genuine- 
tiono?Mi'. ■'^^^^? notwithstanding a copy had been " surreptitiously con- 
sachusetts. yeycd over to them by some unknov^ni hand before the 
11 septem. Original came to Boston." An answer was addressed to 
Secretary Morrice, " in all humility" refusing to obey the 
royal directions ; but, to avert the king's displeasure, a 
present of "two very large masts" for his navy was pre- 
pared at great expense, and sent to England, which it was 
hoped would prove " as a cloud of latter rain." The dis- 
3 Novem. obedieiice of the Puritan colony was rebuked by NicoUs, 

Carr, and Maverick, but without effect.^'' 
24 October. In Writing to Secretary Morrice, NicoUs sharply review- 
tioS'^of ed the " false sophistry" of Massachusetts, and suggested 
the En- ** that tlic king might " easily chastise their undutif ulness, 
frnmfnr ^ot by forcc, which might frighten the innocent as well as 
nocent, but by a temporary embargo upon their trade, 'till 
such and such persons are delivered into the hands of jus- 
tice. The nmnerous well-affected people in that and oth- 
er colonies would soon give up the ringleaders at His Maj- 
esty's disposal. Neither would BQs Majesty lose any of liis 
customs by that embargo ; for if strict care were taken to 
send a convenient number of ships with goods suitable to 
this port, all the trade of Boston would be brought hither, 
and from thence carried into England; in which case, a 
frigate of countenance for convoy or any emergent occa- 
sion would be necessary, if possibly to be supplied out of 
His Majesty's more immediate service. Indeed, in the 
posture we are, every small picaroon of the enemy's is 
master of all om* harbors and rivers, from the Capes of 
Virginia to Piscatawa3\"t 
6 Novem. At tlic saiiie time, Nicolls sent to the British government 
report^n au interesting autograph report of the condition of New 
York, in the form of " Answers to the several queries re- 
lating to the planters in the Territories of His Eoyal High- 
ness the Duke of York in America." Among other things, 

• Col. Doc, iii., IIG, 13G, 140, 141, 142, ICO, 173 ; Mass. II. S. Coll., xx.xvii., 312-314 ; 
mera, i., 149, 277, 390; Hutch., i., 253, 257, 546-54S ; Coll., 408-410; Mass. Kec, iv. (ii.), 
314-318, 327 ; Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 514 ; R. I. Rec, ii., 149 ; Pepys, iii., 24 ; Bancroft, ii , 87- 
89 ; B.irry, i., 400-403 ; Palfrey, ii., 006, G24-630. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 473; iii.,13G, 137; Ord., Wan-., Lett., ii., 85; Chalmers, i., 578, 509; N. Y. 
II. S. Coll. (1S09), 125-131, 157-159. 

New York. 


he explained that the governor and council, with the high- chap.iii. 
sheriff and justices in the Court of Assizes, " have the su- 
preme power of making, altering, and abolishing any laws 
in this Government ;" that " the tenure of lands is derived 
from His Koyal Highness," who would grant them at rents 
of one penny an acre, when purchased by liimself from the 
Indians, and of two shillings and sixpence for a hundred 
acres when so bought by the planters ; that " liberty of 
conscience is granted and assured," provided the peace of 
the government be not disturbed ; that the rate for public 
charges had been agreed to " in a General Assembly, and 
is now managed by the Governor, his Council, and the Jus- 
tices in the Court of Assizes ;" and that " the obtaining all 
these pri^dleges is long since recommended to His Royal 
Highness as the most necessary encouragement to these his 
territories, whereof a good answer is expected."* 

In the mean time, the war in Europe between England 
and Holland and France seriously affected the American 
colonies. Suspicious of the Canadians, Nicolls engaged june. 
Winthrop and the Connecticut magistrates to mediate with 
the Mahicans for a peace between them and the Mohawks. 
The king's letters of the 22d of February, directing hostili- 
ties against Canada, being now received, measures were 
taken to stir up tlie Mohawks to war with the French. In- 
formation soon afterward reached NicoUs that a large force 5 juiy. 
was marching from Canada " towards Albany." The gar- 
rison at Esopus was at once ordered to strengthen that 
place. The governor also urged the authorities of Connec- 6 juiy. 
ticut and Massachusetts to raise a cavalry expedition, which attack of 
could " cut off the whole strength of Canada at once." Con- ^^^ ^' 
necticut pleaded that all her hands were occupied in theiuuiy. 
harvest ; and suggested that as she wished to promote peace cut refuses. 
between the Mohawks and the Mahicans, it would be well 
" to let the French and Mohawks try it out a while," by 

* Col. Doc.,lii.,lS8; Chalmers, i., 596, 507; WHiitehead'a Index N. J. Col.Doc, 4. Chal- 
mers says that Nicolls transmitted these answers in July, 16(:5. They are not dated, but 
they appear to have been sent by him in November, 1666, as they are placed in the volume 
in the State Paper Office next to his letter to the commissioners at Albany of 6 November, 
1666 : Col. Doc, iii., 130, 143, 188; New York Papers, i., 28, 30, 31. It was firet intended 
that Sir Kobert Carr should convey these papers to England, and then that Maverick should, 
as one or both had been ordered home. But both were " taken sick," and neither could go. 
(Jarr, however, sailed from Boston on 20 March, 1667, for Bristol, where he arrived on the 
first of June foUowinjr, and died the next day : Col. Doc, iii., 160, 161 ; Hutch. Mass., i , 
i50 ; Morton's Mem., 315, note ; Smith, i., 33 ; Mass. 11. S. Coll., xxxvii., 312, 313. 



Chap. m. wbich both would be weakened. Wintbrop, bowever, learn- 
ins: from Baker at Albany tbat the Frencb were endeavor- 

1 AAA 

26jui "^§ ^^ S^i^^ t^^® Mabicans, interfered so seasonably as to 
prevent tbe going over of " many bundred" expected auxil- 
iaries. Horsemen were likewise sent out from Hartford 
and Springfield, wlio penetrated with great difficulty one 
bundred and twenty miles tbrougb tbe wilderness as far as 
Lake Cbamplain, " to discover tbe way toward Canada," 
September, and procure intelligence. Wintbrop also went to Boston to 
consult witb tbe Massachusetts authorities and Sir Thomas 
Temple, the Governor of ISTova Scotia. It was there unan- 
imously agreed "tbat at present there could be nothing 
done by these colonies in reducing those places at or about 
24 October. Canada." The General Court of Massachusetts notified 
ieusTe-"' Lord Arlington that the reduction of Canada was " not at 
'"'^'' present feazable, as well in respect of tbe difficulty, if not 
impossibility, of a land march over the rocky mountains and 
bowling desarts about four bundred miles, as the strength 
of tbe Frencb there, according to reports." Wintbrop also 
g.-ioctober. wrote to the same effect. Privateers, bowever, were com- 
com'^u!'^^ missioned at Boston, which made prize of several Frencb 
fishing vessels."^ 

On their side the Frencb bad not been idle. As soon as 
tbe Saint Lawrence was clear of ice, ten Seneca sachems 
came down to Quebec to ratify the treaty which the Onon- 
dagas bad made in their behalf with Tracy the previous 
13 May. Deccmbcr. They now promised to send some of their f am- 
of th""ves° ilies to settle in Canada as hostages, and to aclniowledge 
qlwil'^tothe the King of France " henceforth as their sovereign." Tracy, 
French ^^^ j^jg part, agreed to send Frencb colonists and Jesuit mis- 
sionaries to the Senecas, who stipulated to build cabins for 
their shelter and forts to protect them from " tbe common 
enemy tbe Andastes and others."t 

Thus the Upper Iroquois confirmed their vassalage to 
France. But no overtures came from tbe Mohawks. Tracy 
now resolved to extend bis permanent military occupation 
further to the south, and directed Captain La Motte to 
buikl a new fort on an island in tbe upper part of Lake 

• Col. Doc, iii., IIT, 120, 121, 13T, 138, 141; Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 40, 43, 45, 514; Masa. Rep., 
jv. (it.), 316, 317, 328, 329 ; Mass. H. S. Coll., xviii., 101-109 ; xxx., 63 ; Hutch. Mass., 1., 250, 
2.57; Coll., 407: Bancroft, ii., 88; Palfrey, ii., 630; iii., 114-116; ante,-p.01. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 125; ix.,44,45; Doc. Ui8t.,L,47; Faillon, iii.,134; anie, p. 100, no/e. 


Champlain. This post, which was the first one possessed cnAP.iii. 
by the French within the ancient Kmits of New York, was 
named Fort Sainte Anne, but was afterward better known ^^j.^ g^^'^^ 
as Fort La Motte. Intended to command the Mohawk ^^^^^^^^ 
country, it soon caused uneasiness to the neighboring En- 
ghsh colonies."'^ 

Soon afterward Oneida envoys came to Quebec, tardily ^ j ™^" -• 
bringing the letter of the Albany officers assuring Tracy 
that the Mohawks wished peace with the French. Two 
detachments of two hundred men each had meanwhile 
been ordered to march, under Courcelles and Sorel, from 
the forts on the Eicheheu, against that nation. Under- 
standing the Albany letter as a guarantee for the good 
faith of the Mohawks, Tracy countermanded the expedi- 
tions, and signed a treaty covenanting peace between the A July. 
French and the Oneidas and Mohawks. Prisoners were to das^and" 
be mutually restored, and trade with Canada by way of agrerio" 
Lake Saint Sacrement was to be open to the Oneidas, who tueFrench. 
now ratified the treaty made two months before by the 
Western Iroquois, and, like them, acknowledged the King 
of France " from this time as their sovereign." It was also 
agreed that Jesuit missionaries should be sent " to make 
known to them the God of the French, whom they prom- 
ise to love and adore." Hostages were left with Tracy for 
the faithful performance of these conditions. At the re- 
quest of the Oneidas, the Father Thierry Bechefer, with 
Hertel and two other Frenchmen, were sent, under their i4Juiy. 
escort, to visit the soldiers whom Courcelles had left at Al- 
bany, and treat with the Mohawks there, or assure them 
that they might safely come to Quebec at any time within 
forty days. The letter of the Albany authorities was also 
published at the several French garrisons ; and all felt con- 
fident that peace between Canada and the Iroquois was 

But scarcely had Bechefer and his companions gone 
three days' journey from Quebec, when news came that 
several French officers, who had gone out a hunting from 

* Relation, 1665, 10; 1666, T,8; Doc. Hist, i., 43, 4S; ii.,162; Col. Doc, iii., 141, 145, 146, 
155, 803 ; iv., 195, 404 ; ix., 601, 1050 ; Faillon, iii., 126, 13.5. Fort Sainte Anne, or La Motte, 
appears to have been built on Isle La Motte, which, being east of the present boundary-line 
between New York and Vermont, belongs to the latter state: N. Y. Revised Statutes, i., 64. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 126-132, 153; i.K., 45,46, 52, 169, 786; Doc. Hist., i., 47, 51, 52; Relation, 
1661, 34; 1666, 7 ; 1670, 45; Charlevoix, ii., 110, 111, 155; Shea, 262, 500 ; ante, p. 104. 


cuAP.iii. the new Fort Sainte Anne, had been waylaid and murder- 
ed by the Mohawks, and some others taken prisoners. One 

French offi- ^^ ^^^^ chief victims was a nephew of the Adceroy, the Sieur 

cew killed, (jg Chazy, whose name is yet commemorated in that of one 
of the towns in the county of Clinton. Bechefer and the 
other Frenchmen on their way to Albany were at once re- 
called, and the Oneidas who escorted them were imprison- 
ed. Sorel quickly collected three hundred men, with whom 
he pushed on toward the Mohawk country, intending to lay 
"a heavy hand every where." But when he had come 
within twenty leagues of their villages he met a party of 
Mohawks, who declared that they were on their way to 
Quebec to restore the Frenchmen captured near Fort Sainte 
Anne, and offer satisfaction for those who had been slain, 
as well as new guarantees for peace. The party was led 
by a half-breed known among the Indians as " Smits Jan," 
and among the French as " the Dutch Bastard."^ Believ- 
ing their statement, Sorel turned about, and conducted 
Smits Jan and his followers to the viceroy, by whom they 
were well received. A few days afterwai'd, Agariata, a 
Mohawk chief, came to Quebec and announced himself as 
also a delegate from his nation. Negotiations for peace 
went on prosperously^, until one day, Tracy having invited 
the two pretended ambassadors to his table, the talk fell 
upon the death of De Chazy. The Mohawk chief, lifting 
up his arm, exclaimed, " It was this which broke the head 
of that young officer !" All present were filled with indig- 

Tiacy's uatiou. " You shall kill no more," said the viceroy to 
' Agariata, who was at once hung in the sight of his com- 
rades, and Smits Jan was committed to prison. 

23 July. Tracy now sent William Coutm-e, who had been a pris- 
oner with Jogues among the Mohawks, with a letter to the 
Albany officers, complaining that they had deceived him as 
to the peaceful disposition of that nation. Learning that 

Nicoiis at a courier had come from Quebec, Nicolls voyaged up the 
river, which was " pleasant enough at that season of the 
year," to meet him. But before the governor reached Al- 
bany, Couture had returned to Canada. Nicolls, however, 

* This " Smits Jan" was the son of a Hollander and a Mohawk squaw, and had been 
brouglit up among the savages, lie was one of the witnesses to Cartwright's treaty at Al- 
bany in September, 1GG4, and was in the English interest : Col. Doc, iii., OS, 146, 148, 151, 
435; Charlevoix, ii., 54, CS), 155, 101 ; delation, 1054, 10, 11. 



wrote courteously to Tracy, expressing his surprise at 
Courcelles's inroad into ]N"ew York the last winter, but 
declaring his purpose to promote "the European inter- ^g^^^^"^ 
est amidst the heathen in America, as becomes a good Answers to 

. . Tracy. 

Christian, provided that the bounds and limits of these 
His Majesty's of England's dominions be not invaded, or 
the peace and safety of his subjects interrupted." Baker 
and the Albany magistrates also wrote to the viceroy, 
justifjnng their conduct respecting the Mohawks, and stat- 
ing that they would not intermeddle with French affairs in 

Ambassadors from all the nations but the Mohawks 
having met Tracy and Courcelles in the Park of thef^August. 
Jesuits at Quebec, the Cayugas renewed their request 
for missionaries, and the Fathers Jacques Fremin and Jesuit mis- 
Pierre Raffeix were chosen to go to them. Seeing j^^q "°"'^"^^" 
reason to hope for peace with the Mohawks, the viceroy 
determined to chastise them effectually. Colbert had 
insisted upon a prudent administration "in the present 5 Apru. 
conjuncture, when His Majesty is obliged to maintain a 
heavy war against the English, whom none of his pre- 
decessors had ever before attacked on the sea." Talon 
accordingly submitted to Tracy and Courcelles various 1 septem.- 
considerations for war and for peace. It was argued, 
among other things, that a successful attack on the Mo- 
hawks would open the door for the seizm-e of Albany, 
where the Dutch might be found inclined to aid the French 
against the English, upon whom they wished " to avenge 
the usurpation unjustly committed upon them," and of 
whose "insupportable dominion" they were weary. An 
expedition against the Mohawks was ordered, and six hun- French ex- 
dred soldiers of the Carignan regiment, with an equal num- ngalnTtuo 
ber of militia, and one hundred Hurons and Algonquins, ^^°'^'^^''''''- 
were soon collected. Notwithstanding he was more than 
seventy years old, Tracy set out from Quebec to leadi4Septeni. 
his forces in person. The Jesuit Fathers Charles Al- 
banel and Pierre Raffeix, and two secular priests, Du 

• Col. Doc, iii., 68, 131-134, 14G, 151, 153, 157 ; ix., 52 ; Doc. Hist., 1., 47, 4S, 55 ; Rela- 
tion, 1G45, 28 ; 1647, 19, 24 ; 1C4S, 11 ; 16GC, 7, 8 ; La Potherie, il., 85 ; Charlevoix, i., 409 ; 
ii., 54, G9, 155, 15G ; Golden, i., 33, 34 ; Garaeau, i., 193 ; Ferland, i., 317 ; Faillon, iii., 135- 
137 ; ante, vol. i., 34G, 347, 373. The Albany letters of 20 August, 16G6, did not reach Tracy 
nntU April, 16G7 : Col. Doc, iii., 146, 147, 14S, 151, 152. 

118 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK. Bois D'Esgriselles, and Dollier de Casson, accompanied 
the expedition. 

The general rendezvous was Fort Sainte Anne, on Lake 

3 October. Champlain, It was October before the main body of 
troops was ready to advance ; but Courcelles, with charac- 
teristic impatience, pushed forward with four hundred men. 

Tracy's ad- The rcar-guard followed four days after the main column, 
under Tracy. Three hundred light bateaux and bark ca- 
noes were prepared, each of which could convey five or six 
persons ; and two pieces of artillery were carried along 
with great labor. The viceroy endeavored to advance 
cautiously, so as to surprise the Mohawk castles ; but the 
watchful Iroquois scouts on the mountain tops saw the 
French flotilla afar off, as it swept southward over Lake 
Champlain, and the alarm was quickly spread. As the 
troops debarked the savages whooped on the hill-sides, and 
fired random shots at the invaders. Expecting to find 
abimdance of corn in the Mohawk villages, the French 
carried only small supphes of provisions. These were 
soon exhausted, and the army was on the point of disband- 
ing to seek food, when it fortunately entered a forest of 
chestnut-trees, the just ripening fruit of which relieved the 
famishing troops. 

After marching thirty or forty leagues from the lake, 
the French reached the first Mohawk village, which they 
found abandoned. Entering it in order of battle, with 
flags flying and drums beating, the hungry army discover- 
ed abundance of corn buried in the earth. A second and 
a third village farther west were found deserted like the 
first. At length, guided by an Algonquin, who had long 
been a prisoner in the canton, the French reached the fourth 
Mohawk \dllage. Here the savages were observed in great 

Mohawk force, and, by their hea^^ fii'e, appeared disposed to defend 

Btroyed. ' their fortress with desperation. The invaders prepared to 
attack it in regular form ; but, as their van came on to at- 
tack, the Mohawks fled in terror into the forest, whither 
the French could not pm-sue them. An old man and two 
old women, too infirm to escape, and the half-roasted re- 
mains of two or three prisoners, were found in the desert- 
ed stronghold. It was surrounded by a triple palisade 
twenty feet high, flanked by four bastions, and abundantly 


supplied with water in bark tanks to extinguish fibre. Pro- chap. hi 
digious quantities of provisions had been stored. Some of 
the cabins, which were one hundred and twenty feet long, 
and proportionably wide, and were planked on the inside, 
moved the admiration of the Frenchmen. 

The cross was planted, mass said, a Te Deum sung, and it octobe; . 
formal possession was taken for the King of France of sessioaor 
" The Fort of Andaraque," as well as all the other con- tak^"°''^ 
quered Iroquois strong-holds, " and of all the lands in the 
neighborhood as far and in as great a quantity as they may 
extend." A post, with the king's arms afiixed, was erect- 
ed, amid the shouts of " Vive le Roi P'' The palisades and 
cabins, with vast stores of corn, beans, and other provisions, 
were then burned. On its retm-n, the expedition completed 
the devastation of the other villages ; and grain " enough to 
sustain the whole colony for two years" was destroyed. 

Supposing that famine and the terror of the French arms 
would overawe the Mohawks and keep them peaceful, 
Tracy judged it unnecessary to establish a fort in their 
country. Those on the Richelieu River were thought suf- 
ficient to maintain the sovereignty of France. Colbert's 
policy was against extending the Canadian settlements too 
far from each other. For the present, the Jesuit mission- 
aries were to form the advanced guard of the French 
among the Mohawks. The ^aceroy would nevertheless 
have pushed on westward, and humbled the Oneidas also, 
if the approach of November had not warned him to re- Tracy re- 
turn. The paths were now much more difiBcult to travel, Canada. 
and the swollen rivers hindered the march of the troops. 
On Lake Cham23lain two canoes and several soldiers were 
lost in a storm. Throughout the whole march of three 
hundred leagues, and during fifty-three days, Tracy, who 
was a very large man, shared all the fatigues of his army, 
submitting to be borne in a litter for two days only, when 
crippled by the gout. Courcelles, attacked by a nervous 
disease, had to be carried in the same mamier. On reach- 
ing Quebec, the viceroy hung two or three of his prisoners November 
by way of example, and sent the rest back to their cantons, 
with Smits Jan, the Dutch bastard, after having shown 
them many kindnesses. The returning Iroquois carried 
the terms of peace which Tracy offered to the Mohawks, 


cuAP. III. and which they were expected to accept before the end of 

the next June.* 
IboD. After their severe humiliation by the French, the Mo- 
hawks came to confer with the Albany officers. It was 
now supposed that Tracy, wearied with his " two fruitless 
1667. voyages," would hardly attempt another expedition. Yet 
I'recau- no prccautiou was neglected. NicoUs had ^dsited the gar- 
Kiwul risons on the North River the previous autumn, and had 
given the Albany magistrates full directions in case the 
French should attempt to do them harm. Captain Brod- 
7 January, head was uow Ordered to be " ready, upon an hour's warn- 
ing," with all his soldiers at Esopus, and as many of the 
burghers as possible, to assist Albany in case of need, 
because it was, " impossible" to send any from New York 
during the winter. Van Curler was also desired to pre- 
pare a map of Lake Champlain, with the French forts, 
showing " how it borders upon the Maquas's E,iver."f 
When Nicolls received the news from Canada brought 
11 Jan. by Smits Jan, he directed that the Mohawks should be coun- 
seled to insist that the French must demolish all their new 
advanced forts on Lake Champlain. Baker was specially 
Nicoua's instructed to advise tlie Mohawks to " make a good peace, 
tions re- Or uonc, witli the French, such as may bring in beaver to 
thrMo-^ Albany, and leave them without fear or Jealousy of the 
French ;" and also that they " should declare to the French 
that the King of England is the great Idng of all their 
country and parts adjacent, and unto him they are subor- 
dinate, living in peace and trading with all his subjects ; 
and now they are wilhng to make peace with the French, 
and will resolve to keep it, if the French will demolish 
their forts, and bring no more troops of soldiers into the 
King of England's country or their Plantation.";}: 

On receiving the letters of Nicolls and the Albany offi- 
cers written the pre^'iou8 August, Tracy explained the in- 
road of Courcelles into the Mohawk country, and declared 

♦ Relation, 1066, 8, 9 ; Charlevoix, ii., 157-161 ; La Potherie, ii., 123 ; iii., 55; Col. Doc, 
iii., 135, 146, 151 ; iv., 352 ; ix., 41, 52-57, 786 ; Doc. Hist., i., 48, 49, 68, 51 ; Colden, i., 33 ; 
Shea, 252 ; Fuillon, iii., 13S-1.'S5. Tlie map of Tracy's route is in the Library of Parliament 
at Quebec: see Catalogue (1S5S), p. 1614. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 143, 144, 145; Col. MSs:.,xxii., 22. The letters of NicoUs to V.nn Curler 
and the Albany magistrates were translated into Dutch, at the governor's request, by Coun- 
selor Van Ruyven. 

t Col. Doc , iii., 140-143. Coldcn says nothing of this. 



that until then he did not know that New Netherland was chap. iil 
not under the dominion of the United Provinces, " The 
French nation," he added, "is too much inclined to ac-go^p^' 
knowledsre courtesies not to confess that the Dutch have 31^^^ , 

O _ writes to 

had very much charity for the French who have been pris- NicoUs. 
oners with the Mohawks, and that they have redeemed 
divers, who had been burned without their succour. They 
ought also to be assured of our gratitude towards them, 
and to any others who shall exercise such Christian deeds 
as they have done." The viceroy also absolved the Albany 
officers from blame in regard to the murder of his officers 
by the Mohawks near Fort Sainte Anne, and invited Yan 
Curler to visit him the next summer at Quebec* 

Van Curler, accompanied by La Fontaine, a young French- 
man whom he had rescued fi*om the savages, now went to 23 May. 
Canada, with passports from NicoUs, who wrote a kind let- go^e^ to"'^ ^^ 
ter to Tracy. Embarking in a canoe on Lake Champlain, Tda. 
he had a prosperous voyage as far as " a great bay" on its 
western side, opposite the " Isles des quatres vents." Wliile 
crossing this bay the canoe was upset by a tempest, and pro^vTied 
Van Curler was drowned. The memory of this estimable cham- 
HoUander was long preserved by the Iroquois, who insisted ^ '""' 
upon calling the successive governors of NewYork "Cor- "Coriaer." 
laer." For years Lake Champlain was known among the 
Enghsh as " Corlaer's Lake." The bay in which he was 
drowned — long called by the French "Baye Corlar" — is 
now known as " Peru Bay," in Essex county, New York.f 

Soon after Nicolls left Esopus, in the previous autumn, 
the ill feeling which had been growing between its inhab- 
itants and the garrison broke out into open hostility. The 
soldiers, who, as well as their officers, were all Englishmen, 
did nothing to conciliate and much to offend the Dutch 
burghers. Disturbances occurred both at the village of Disturb- 
Wild wj-ck and at the redoubt on the creek. When, in obe- Esopus. 
dience to Nicolls's orders, Captain Brodhead was " gather- 
ing some of the young burghers together" to go to Albany, 
Antonio d'Elba, a French refugee, openly said, " Shall we 
go and fight our friends, and leave our enemies at home ?" 

* Col. Doc.,iii., 133,134, 1.50-1.54; Doc. Hist.,!., 55; ante^vol. i.,402. 
t Map in Charlevoix, i., 226 ; Rel., 166S, 5 ; Ord., Warr., etc., ii., 150, 160 ; Col. Doc., ui., 
128,156,157,322,395,553,553,815,817; Golden, i., 32 ; O'Call., i., 323 ; Smith, i., 65. 


Chap. ui. Mucli of tliG ill feeling was due to tlie overbearing conduct 

~ of Brodliead, who did not hesitate to commit to the euard 

Brodhead's ^^J ^^'^^^ offcudcd him. lie imprisoned a burgher who 

overbear- -^ould keep Chi'istmas accordino; to the Dutch and not the 

jng con- ■•■ "-J 

duct. English style. He quarreled with and arrested Cornelis 
^^ ' Barentsen Slegt, the village brewer, and a sergeant of its 
militia. Slegt's wife and children thereupon ran crying 
through Wildwyck. The excited villagers rushed to arms. 
Finding some sixty of them drawn up before their lieuten- 
ant's door, Captain Brodhead marched thither with a few 
of his soldiers, and ordered them to disperse. The local 
magistrates asked Brodhead to release his prisoner and 
have him tried before them, which he refused, and threat- 
ened to resist any attempt at a rescue. The people would 
not disperse until late at night, and then only with the un- 
derstanding that the whole matter should be laid before 
the governor. What added to the bitterness was that Hen- 
drick Cornelissen, the village ropemaker, was killed by Wil- 
ham Fisher, one of Brodhead's soldiers.^ 
iG April. Eeports were sent down to Nicolls, who issued a special 
commis- commissiou empowering Counselors ISTeedham and Dela- 
Sop^s° " vail and Justice Yan Ruyven to go to Esopus, and " hear, 
receive, and determine such and so many complaints as 
they shall judge necessary or of moment, and to pass sen- 
tence of imprisonment, fuie, correction, or suspension of of- 
fice against such who shall be found guilty." At the same 
time the governor guided the action of his commissioners 
Nicoiis's by private instructions. They were to be attended by a file 
rSuctioM" of soldiers, and were to admit but " very few" into the room 
in which they might sit. The case of Fisher was " to be 
the first tried, because a man is killed." But he could only 
be convicted of manslaughter ; and it might turn out that 
he had acted in self-defense. In regard to the " first occa- 
sion" of the mutiny, as Slegt, the brewer, had first assaulted 
Captain Brodhead, they were " to declare that the king's 
ofiicer is not of so mean a quality as to be struck by a 
burgher," and were to enlarge their discourse on this point 
as they should " find fit." But as the captain had broken 
his instructions several times, they were to suspend him 

* Col. M.SS.,xxU.,14, 21-,T2; Alb. nec,XTiii., 32T-330, 470; Esopus Records; Col. Doc., 
iii.,l«, 149. 


from his command for " that only fault" of keeping the cuap. in. 
brewer in prison after the schout and commissaries had~77~r~ 
asked for his release. A few of the " most notorious" in- 
surgents were to be found guilty of " a treasonable and 
malicious Riot," and were to be brought to I^ew York for 
" final sentence of punishment" by the governor. " Dis- 
courage not the soldiers too much in public," added NicoUs, 
" lest the boors insult over them ; appear favorable to the 
most of the boors, but severe against the principal incen- 
diaries ; and, in general, you may tell them freely that I 
will proceed against every man that shall lift arms against 
His Majestie's garrison, as rebellious subjects and common 

The commissioners sat three days at Esopus. Captain 25 Apni. 

. . 26 April 

Brodhead fi-ankly admitted the charges against him, and 27 April! 
was suspended from his command, which was intrusted to suTpend- 
Sergeant Beresf ord. The burghers excused their being in ^ ' 
arms because the soldiers had threatened to burn the town, 
and because Brodhead had imprisoned their sergeant. Four 
of the movers of the insurrection, Antonio d'Elba, Albert 
Heymans, Arent Albertsen, his son, and Cornelius Barent- 
sen, were found guilty of a " rebellious and mutinous Biot," 
and were carried down to New York for sentence by the 
governor. Nicolls was of opinion that tliey deserved death. 
But, on the petition of the inhabitants and by the ad%'ice of 
his council, he sentenced Heymans to be banished for hfesMay. 
out of the government, and the others, for shorter terms, ers^en- 
out of Esopus, Albany, and New York. These sentences ^'^^^ ' 
were afterward modified ; and Heymans, the chief offend- 
er, became a prominent oflicer at Esopus.f 

The soldiers at Albany also gave the governor much soidiers at 
trouble. Several of them were convicted of stealing wam- ^^^' 
pum from the inhabitants, and, upon Captain Baker's re- 
port, NicoUs, with the advice of his council, decreed prompt 

» Patents, i., 145 ; Col. Doc, iii., 149, 150. 

+ Col. MSS., xxii., 24, 28. 31, 32, 99 ; N. Y. Siirr. Eec. Wills, i., 22-25; Val. Man., 184T, 
35T, 358 ; Col. Doc, ii., 627 ; iii., 150 ; Ulster Hist. Coll., i., 50, 51 ; Esopus Records. Fisher, 
the soldier who killed Cornelissen, appears to have been acquitted, and afterward obtained 
a lot of land at Marbletown: Val. Man., 1847, 361 ; Patents, iii., 43. Captain Brodhead died 
at Esopus on the 14th of July, 1C67, about two months after his suspension from command, 
leaving his widow, Ann, and three sons, Daniel, Charles, and Richard. 

t The details of these cases are given in N. Y. Sun-ogate's Records, Wills, i., 19, 20, 21, 32 ; 
Val. Man., 1S4T, 356, 357, 361. 


Chap. ih. DiScontent was still manifested in Long Island. While 
~~ the governor was attending " a public meeting" at Flush- 
3 July ^o5 ^® offered to fm-nish the people with powder for their 
wafd ^^^ ^^^^' ^^^ receive pay for it in fii-ewood. Tliis friend- 
ly proposition was covertly represented by William Bishop 
9 July. as " another cunning trick." It was accordingly ordered 
isishop in Council at New York, that for his " seditious words" 
f "r'^edf- Bishop should " be made fast to the whipping-post, there to 
stand, with rods fastened to his back during the sitting of 
the Court of Mayor and Aldermen, and from thence to be 
removed into the common Gaol, till further orders." This 
sentence seems to have effectually quelled sedition during 
the rest of Mcolls's administration." 

Meanwhile England had been at open war with Hoi- . 
land and France. But before France engaged in hostilities 
IQQQ she made another attempt to pacify England and Holland. 
^ April. A conference was held at Paris between Lord Hollis, De 
fere to En- Lionne, and Van Beuningen, in which the latter offered, on 
gland. ^YiQ part of the States General, " either to restore all things 
to the same state they were in before the war, or to take 
them as they now stand, and every one keep what he hath." 
But neither of these alternatives suited Charles, who di- 
rected his ambassador to leave Paris, f 
^june. Another naval engagement followed off the mouth of 
hveenthe thc Tliamcs, bctweeu the English fleet under Prince Ru- 
Engiish"'^ pert and the Duke of Albemarle, in place of the Duke of 
York, who refused to command, and the Dutch under De 
Ruyter, Evertsen, and Tromp. The contest lasted four 
days, and the English Vice- Admiral Sir John Berkeley and 
other officers were Idlled. Both sides fought with prover- 
cTiain- bial courage ; but the chain-shot which De Witt is said to 
have invented, and now introduced, cut to pieces the rig- 
The Dutch ging of the English, and the Dutch remained conquerors. 
They had never gained such a triumph since the founda- 
tion of the republic. In London, '' orders were given for 

• N. Y. Purr. Itec. AVills, i., 2S, 29 ; Val. JIan., 1S4T, 359. 3G1. On the third of July, 1G6T, 
the mayor and aldermen of the city of New York, with the approbation of NicoUs, sold to 
Johannes Vei-veshe, of Ilarlaem, for five years, the ferry thence to Bronck side, provided he 
maintained proper ferry houses, and carried over free "all men going or coming with a pack- 
ett from our Governor of New Yorke, or coming from the Governor of Connecticott :" Val. 
Man., 1849, 3G2 ; N. Y. City Rec. 

t D'Ketrades, iv., 167, 253, 25T, 263, 270, 524; Lister's Clarendon, iii., 431-434; De Witt, 
ii., 253, 255. 


bonfires and bells," But even Charles became " melau- chap. hi. 
cboly," wrote Pepys in his cipher diary, " under the ~ 
thoughts of this last overthrow, for so it is, instead of a -'-"""• 
victory." A month afterward the fleets ena;aafed again. ^^ ''^"'y- 

. . 0004 August. 

On this occasion the English were victorious. Evertsen Another ' 
and other Dutch admirals were killed, and De Euyter and The En- 
Tromp became bitter enemies. The next week Sir Robert ftoua.^' 
Holmes made a piratical descent on the island of Schelling, Holmes at 
on the coast of Friesland, which was chiefly inhabited by ^''''®"'°°- 
unwarlike Mennonists, and, after burning several Dutch 
merchantmen, destroyed nearly a thousand houses in the un- 
fortified town of Brandaris. The Tower guns at London 
were fired for this " late good success." But the English 
government could send no supplies to the American Plan- 
tations, and especially to the Carribee Islands, which were 
exposed to great danger from the French. Arlington 
therefore urged the New England colonies to fit out, if 28 August, 
possible, an expedition for the relief of those threatened 
places, which would be considered by the Idng as a mark- 
ed expression of their " good affection and loyalty." 

In Holland, the conduct of Holmes at Schelling embit- 
tered the national resentment against England. De Witt, 
who felt the unpopularity which threatened to overthrow 
his administration, vowed that he would never sheathe the 
sword until he had obtained revenge. But before his vow 
was fulfilled, London was visited by a calamity scarcely 
less appalling than the pestilence by which she had been 
desolated the year before. A great fire, which lasted for septemiier. 
three days, consumed every house, church, and hall in London, 
ninety parishes, between the Tower and Temple Bar. This 
" marvellous year" was commemorated by Dryden in mag- Dryden-s 
nificent verses, full of bitterness against the Dutch, wliich mirabuia." 
before long won for him the laurel crown.* 

When the news tardily reached the North American 1667. 
colonies by way of Barbadoes, Massachusetts set the ex- J*""*'?, 
ample in contributing for the relief of the sufferers. Not 

* Aitzema, v., G97-731; Basnage, i. , 7T2-TS4 ; Kennett,iii., 259-202 ; Clarke's James II., 
i.. 423, 424; Burnet, 1., 22S-2.02; Rapin, ii., 042, 643; I'epys, il., 391, 431, 435, 439^448; 
Evelyn, ii., 6, 11-17 ; D'Estrades, iv., 322, 402, 432; Davies, iii., 45-54; Martin, i., 273, 274; 
Dryden's Annus mirabilis ; Lister, ii., 360-305; Knight, iv., 279-290; Col. Doc, ii., 601; iii., 
147,154; M.1SS. H. S. Coll., XXX., 66; Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 515, 516. Dryden'a patent as Poet 
Laureate was dated 1 8 August, 1670, but his salary began immediately after the death of Sir 
William Davenant, his predecessor, in IOCS. 


Chap. III. loiig afterward, upon the receipt of Arlington's letters, 

""■ Wiuthrop went from Connecticut, and Maverick from New 

Mardi York, to consult with the authorities at Boston in regard to 

Colonial sending aid to the Carribee Islands. But there was too 

apprehen- o 

sions. much danger to be apprehended near home, both from 
Canada, and from the Dutch and French ships at sea, to 
justify an expedition for the relief of the " dear country- 
men" in the West Indies. This was communicated by 

7 May. "Wiuthrop to ArHugtou in a very loyal letter excusing the 
apparent indifference of the New England colonies. Mav- 

June. erick also informed the secretary that such were the straits 
to which NicoUs had been reduced for want of supplies in 
New York, that he had been obliged to pledge his personal 
credit for more than a thousand pounds, to carry on his 

The apprehensions of the English that the Dutch and 
French might attack their West India colonies were well 
founded. Commander Abraham KrjTissen, sailing from 

6 March. Flushing with three ships, surprised the English colony of 

takes suri- Surinam, in Guiana, and left a military force to secure it, 
under the command of Maurice de Rame, and Ensign 
Colve. Not long afterward, a frigate belonging to the 
Duke of York, coming from Guinea with a cargo of ivory 
and negroes, was captured by the Dutch at Surinam. 
Krynssen had meanwhile joined the French squadron 
commanded by Lefebvre de la Barre, and assisted in de- 
feating the English off the island of Nevis. Thence the 

jnne. Dutch commaudcr sailed to Virginia, where he captured, 

in virgi- in the James Eiver, twenty-six English vessels, one of which 
was a man-of-war. After scuttling most of them, Kryns- 
sen returned to Flushing, bringing along with him eleven 
prizes laden with tobacco.f 

This daring exploit so near home alarmed and mortified 
Nicolls, who attributed it to the " negligence and ill con- 
duct" of the officers in Yirginia. Every precaution was 
therefore taken for the defense of New York. The mag- 
istrates of Southampton, Easthampton, and the other towns 

• Col. Doc, iii.,154-15G, 161 ; Hutch. Mass., i., 250, 257; Coll., 411, 412; Mass. Eec, iv. 
(ii.), 310, 311, 335, 345, 347 ; 547; Palfrey, ii., 631. 

t Wageniiar, xiii., 406-408; Richesse de la Ilnllando, i., 213; Basnage, i., S09 ; D'Es- 
tradep, v., 83, 250, 261, 262; lie Witt, iv., 642, 677; Ailzema, vi., 123, 426-428, 438, 440; 
Burk, ii., 149; Campbell, 267: Pinkcrton, xii., 292 ; Col. Doc, ii., 518-622 ; iii., 155,161,107; 
ix., 167 ; N. Y. Senate Doc, 1S44, No. 42, p. 5. 



at the east end of Long Island were ordered to turn one cuap. hi. 
third of their militia into cavalry, and to be ready at an 
hour's notice ; while the other two thirds were to remain at ^^ j^j^ ' 
their homes for the security of their estates. Connecticut, ^^^^^^i 
fearing a French incursion from Canada, did the like. But ^icoua. 
" the grandees of Boston were too proud to be dealt with," 
alleging that the king was well satisfied of. their loyalty, and 
had recalled and disgraced his commissioners. Nicolls, 
however, anxious to harass the enemy, commissioned Ser- so juiy. 
geant Thomas Exton, of the garrison at Fort James, to be priTOte°eV 
captain of the privateer Cedar, of New York, and sent her ^ *^ "*■ 
under his command to act against the French and Dutch. 
Exton soon captured and burnt two French forts, Saint 
Mary and Du Coudray, in Acadia, and came to Boston with i4 October. 
" as many guns and other plunder" as his ship could carry. 
On reaching New York, Exton reported his proceedings, 4 Novem. 
and the spoil he had taken was condemned as good prize.* 
In their war against the Mahicans during the summer, 
the Mohawks had committed some depredations at Had- 
ley and Northampton, in Massachusetts, and had murdered 00 August. 
a young savage, whose scalp they exliibited at Albany. 
The victim " was servant to an Englishman at Northamp- 
ton." On learninoj this outrage, Nicolls went to Albany to 10 October. 

1 . 1 . .IT . 1 n. mi Nicolls at 

mterpose his authority with the native belhgerents. ihe Albany. 
General Court of Massachusetts, however, conceiving that 
they could treat independently with the New York Iro- 
quois, wrote to " the chief sachem of the Mohawks" that 
such doings were contrary to their promise not to molest 
any Indians " that woare Enghsh cloakes, or that had their 
haire cutt short;" and hoping for satisfaction and better 
behavior in future.f 

The war in Europe had meanwhile obliged Louis to 
recall Tracy to France, with several companies of the Tracy 
Carignan regiment. These orders surprised the viceroy, Canada. 
who was expecting Yan Curler to visit him at Quebec, and 
was obliged to embark just as his coming guest was meet- May. 
ing his death on Lake Champlain. Courcelles was nowcourceiies 
left in command as governor general of Canada. The 

• Col. Doc, iu., 15T, 15S, 161, 162, 167 ; Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 63, 81 ; Val. Man., 184T, 355, 
362 ; N. Y. Surr. Rec. WUla, i., 16, 35 ; Patents, i., 171, IT'2 ; Court of Assizes, ii., 154, 155. I 
do not find any reference in the French authorities to Kxton's exploits in Acadia. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 162 ; Relations, 1667, 28 ; 1668, 4 ; Mass. Rec, It. (ii.), 359-361. 


cu-vp.iii. king had approved the treaties made with the Western 
Iroquois the year before, because he expected thereby " to 
acquire a possession adverse to the actual or future preten- 
sions of the European nations." But, as the Mohawks had 
shown no disposition to submit to the French, Colbert di- 
6 April, rected Courcelles to undertake a new expedition against 
that nation during the next summer, "for the purpose of 
utterly destroying them if possible, or at least of increas- 
ing the terror they entertain of ILis Majesty's forces, and 
placing them in a position not to trouble the country." 

Courcelles had " a sufficiently strong inclination to return 
to the charge." But, a few days after the viceroy's depart- 
june. ure, Mohawk and Oneida deputies came to Quebec to de- 
and onei- claro tlicir submission to the French, and solicit tliat mis- 
Quebec, sionaries might be sent to their cantons. The Canadian 
expeditions the year before had so awed these proud na- 
tions that, in spite of the efforts of Nicolls and his officers 
at Albany, they showed their sincerity by bringing several 
of their famihes to Canada as hostages. Talon, suspecting 
that the Mohawks had " yielded considerably to existing cir- 
cumstances, and to the war witli the Mahicans, fi'om which 
they were suffering," thought that they had not brought 
hostages enough. But, as Colbert desired to " Frenchify" 
the savages, a treaty was concluded to the apparent satis- 
Miasion- faction of botli parties. Jesuit missionaries were at once 
si^nedto selected to go among the several Iroquois nations. The 
Father Jacques Fremin, who had been with Dablon at 
Onondaga in 1656, and the Father Jean Pierron,'who had 
just arrived from France, were assigned to the Mohawks. 
Father Jacques Bruyas, who had been about a year in Can- 
ada, and had already gi\'en proof of that talent which was 
to make him so distinguished as an Indian philologist, was 
appointed to go to the Oneidas. Three other Jesuit fathers 
held themselves ready to work among the Onondagas, Cay- 
ugas, and Senecas.* 
14 July. The next month the Mohawk and Oneida envoys set out 
Pierron, witli Fremiu, Pierrou, and Bruyas for their mission grounds, 
yas. '"' On reaching Fort Sainte Anne, at the foot of Lake Cham- 

• delation, 165T, 9 ; 1GG7, 2, 2S ; 1668, 3 ; Charlevoix, ii., IGl, 163, 164, 1T6, ITS ; Col. Doc., 
Hi., 151, 152; ix., 53, 59, 60, 130, 720, 7ST; Doc. Hi.-^t., iv.,190; Shea, 254, 274, 294, 500; Gar- 
neau, i., 195 ; Faillon, iii., 156-158 ; ante, vol. i., 044. 

the Iro- 


plain, tliey were delayed a month by apprehension of a chap. ui. 
Mahican ambuscade. At length, on the eve of Saint Bar- 
tholomew's day, finding that the Mahicans had retreated, 23 wmV*; 
the party embarked, and followed the north coast of the 
lake. From morning to night, the fathers, unused to the 
toil, rowed " like poor galley-slaves," for efV-ery hand in the 
light birch-bark canoes was obhged to work. In this man- 
ner they "traversed gaily the w^hole of this great lake, 
already too renowned by the shipwreck of several of our 
Frenchmen, and quite recently by that of the Sieur Cor- 
laer." On reaching the outlet of Saint Sacrement* they 
crossed the portage, and at the head of the lake met fom-- 
teen Mohawk warriors, who were stationed there as senti- 
nels to watch for a new army of Frenchmen. But, on 
learning the peaceful errand of the missionaries, they 
" made themselves their valets," and joyfully carried their 
luggage. A few days of pleasant journeying brought the 
party near the first palisaded village of the Tortoise tribe 
of the Mohawks, on the north bank of the river, " called 
Gandaouague,f which is that which the late Father Jogues Gandaou- 
moistened with his blood, and where he was so badly treat- cighnaw.i- 
ed during eighteen months of captivity." The missionaries ^^' 
were received with all honor by the savages, who were de- 
lighted to see among them peaceful Frenchmen in place 
of those who so recently appeared " as furies, setting every 
thing on fire." Two leagues further to the west they came 
to the village called " Gandagaro," or " Kanagaro," belong- 
ing to the Bear tribe.:}: Thence they proceeded four leagues 
more, passing beyond Canajoharie,to the 'sdllage of the Wolf 
tribe, and the capital of all the Mohawk' country, called 
" Tionnontoguen,"§ which that nation "had rebuilt at a'^'°°''™'°- 

• Tliis was called by the Indiana " Tionderoga," meaning in their language "the place 
where two rivers meet." The French called it " Carillon," on account of the noise of the 
waterfall in the outlet : see Benson's Mem., 06. The English called it " Ticonderoga :" see 
Col. Doc., vii., 399, 795, 9S4; x., 721 ; ante, vol. i., p. 18, note. 

t Kelation, 1668, 6 ; 1670, 23. This village, called '■'■Oiieugioure" by Jogues, and '■'•Kagh- 
7iewage" by the Dutch, was the site of tlie modem village of " Caghnawaga," in the county 
of Montgomery : Relation, 1640, 15; Col. Doc, ii., 712. Want of taste has recently belittled 
this sonorous, significant, and historical name into " Fortda:" see Hist. Mag., ix., 371, 872; 
X., 20, 115, 321, 322. The word "Caghnawaga" (which was afterward transferred to the 
Catholic " Reduction" on the Saint Lawrence, near Montreal) means, in tlie Mohawk lan- 
guage, " the Rapids," or " a carrying place:" Col. Doc, ii., 712 ; iii., 250, note; Index, 282^-' 
Doc Hist., iii., 074 ; N. Y. H. S. Coll., iiL (u.), 159, 171 ; Shea's Catholic Missions, 256, 304 ; 
ante, vol. i., 423, 659. t Col. Doc, ii., 712 ; iii., 250. 

5 This village seems to have been not far from Fort Plain, or Palatine. It was removed, 
in 1689. " an English mile higher up," and was again burned by the French in 1093 : Doc. 

tt!— I 


Chap. III. quarter of a league from that which the French had burn- 
ed the year before." It was situated on a hill, about a 
" ' • bowshot from the north bank of the Mohawk Eiver. Like 
Caghnawaga, the capital was " double - stockaded round ;" 
and it contained about thirty cabins. Here the missiona- 
ries were received with a grand fusillade, " each one firing 
from his cabin, and two swivels going off at the extremi- 
ties of the village." 
u septem. On the day of the exaltation of the Holy Cross, the six 
Mohawk villages assembled at Tionnontoguen, and were 
Mission of harangued by Fremin, after the Veni Creator had been 
of the Mo- chanted. Having reproached them for their cruelties to 
the French, the father declared that their Great Onnontio 
would receive them as his subjects. To enforce his speech, 
Fremin planted a tall pole, at the top of which was a 
wampum belt, and explained that the first Iroquois who 
should kill a Frenchman would be thus hung. The awed 
savages offered a place for a chapel ; mass was soon cele- 
brated in the rude building, at which all had worked with 
zeal ; and the Mission of Saint Mary of the Mohawks was 

Leaving Fremin and Pierron among the Mohawks, Bru- 
Brnyas at yas now wcut thirty leagues farther west to found a new 
ipra'Lcis mission among the Oneidas, who were esteemed " of all the 
fhrcTnet Iroquois the least numerous in fact, but the most proud 
^'^^' and insolent." A small chapel, quickly built by the sav- 
29 Septem. agcs, was consccratcd on the feast of Saint Michael the 
Archangel. Here Bruyas labored diligently ; but the Mis- 
sion of Saint Francis Xavier of the Oneidas never answer- 
ed French hopes.f 

The Jesuits soon found that the strong liquors wliich 

were sold to the savages by their European neighbors 

greatly hindered conversions. Pierron therefore asked an 

13 Septem. interview with the English authorities. Nicolls, who was 

Hist., ii., 50, 8S; Col. Doc, iv., IG, 82. A note in Col. Doc, ix., 762, erroneously states that 
Tionnontoguen (which was on the north side of the Mohawlc, and several leagues 70fst of 
Caghnawaga) was the site of Fort Hunter, which was built in 1712, on the south side of the 
river, east of Caghnawaga, at the mouth of the Scoharie Creek. The note appears to con- 
found "Tionnontoguen" with " Tiononderoge," the castle of the "Praying Maqitas," which 
was built in 1G90, and was the site of Fort Hunter : compare Col. Doc, iii., 1C3, 250, 483, 
559,565,771,772; iv., 16, 64, SI, 82,391; v., 279, 280, 349, 372, 960; vi., 15, 16; vii.,577; 
ix, 550, 558; x.,677; Doc Hist., i., 340; ii., 50,88; iii., 543,631 ; Munsell's Annals, ii., 67, 
93, 99, 108 ; post, 583. 

• Relation, 1667, 28; 1668,4-13; 1070,23; N. Y. H. S. Coll., iii. (ii.), 159 ; Col. Doc, ii., 
712 ; iii., 163, 250 ; Shea, 254^258. t Relation, 1C68, 13-10 ; Shea, 259, 275. 



then at Albany, invited the father to meet him at Sche- chap. hi. 
neetady, and a pleasant conference followed. The French 
missionary did not fail to acknowledge that the kindness ^^ Q^to^'r 
he had received amona: the Dutch at Schenectady had Perron 

O V IQe6t3 Nlc- 

kindled a friendship which " diversity of reHgion should oiis at 
not quench." Leaving Fremin alone at Tionnontoguen, dy. 
Pierron then returned to Quebec, which he did not reach 
until early the next year.* 

Meanwhile there had been little direct intercourse be- 
tween England and her North American colonies. The 
only vessel that had reached New York for many months 7 May. 
was Sir William Davison's ship, the " Orange Tree," wliich 
came from Hamburg under the king's special license. 
Necessaries of all kinds grew very scarce; and, although want of 
rumors came by way of Bilboa and Fayal that peace had New York. 
been concluded between England and France, it was fear- 
ed that "some extraordinary disaster" had befallen the 
kins;. In writing to Lord Arhngton, NicoUs reported the 12 Novem. 

o o O 7^ ± Nicolls's 

mihtary precautions he had taken during the summer, and report to 
with just pride in New York, observed that "when His 
Majesty is truly informed how advantageously we are post- 
ed by situation to bridle his enemies and secure all his 
good subjects, I humbly presume to think that His Maj- 
esty would afford much of countenance and regard unto 
us, notwithstanding that His Majesty hath granted the * 

whole tract to His Eoyal Highness."t 

There was, indeed, reason to apprehend that some great 
disaster had happened to the King of England. He had 1666. 
expressed his desire to make peace with the Dutch, and jfe septem. 
the States General had renewed their offers of reciprocal 
restitution or retention of all that either had taken before or , ^ „ ' ; 

n r^^ ^ i • 2ff March. 

during the war. At the suggestion of Charles, plempoten- Plenipoten- 
tiaries were appointed on each side to negotiate at Breda.:}: Breda. 

In the mean time Stuyvesant had reached the Hague, 
and presented to the States General his report of the sur- iqq^ 
render of New Netherland. This having been referred to 19 October. 

• Relation, 1G6S, 12, 13, 62; Col. Doc, iii., 162, 163; Rensa. MSS. in O'CaU., i., 33T, 33S ; 
Shea, 258, 259. t Col. Doc., iii., 162, 167 ; Ord., Warr., Lett., ii., 165, 166. 

t Aitzema, v., T24, T32, 750-766; vi., 4, 9, 12, 236-239 ; D'Estrades, iv., 391, 469, 515, 609 ; 
v., 8, 26, 63, 109 ; Basnage, i., 790, 801 ; Lister's Clarendon, ii., 36S-374 ; iii., 443, 453 ; Ra- 
pin,ii., 644; Courtenays Temple, i., 99, 112; Martin, i,276 ; Pepys, iii., 66, 67, 72, 82, 94; 
arUe, 78, 93, 96, 124. 


Chap. III. the "West India Company, they insisted that their late di- 
rector had not done his duty, and prayed the States to dis- 
iijan'y.' ^PP^^^"^ ^f "the scandalous surrender of the aforesaid 
s^'^J^e^^' country, and consider such example detrimental to the 
2 A°ra state." Stuyvesant urged that his case should be prompt- 
ly decided, so that he might return to New Netherland, and 
bring back to Holland " his sorrowful wife and family, with 
his property." The States General, however, required 
17 ApiiL him to answer the objections of the West India Company. 
After six months' delay, in order to procure additional tes- 
29 October, timouv f roui Ncw York, Stuyvesant submitted an able vin- 
snnfs re- dlcatiou of liis conduct, supported by proofs. Among oth- 
^^" ers was a letter from his former subordinate, Yan Ruyven, 
" still the Company's resident and agent" in New York, 
and, at the same time, high in the confidence of NicoUs. 
IT August. " I can not mj^self imagine," wrote the late secretary of 
New Netherland to his old chief, " on what pretext the loss 
of the country can be laid to your charge. Was not every 
possible effort used for its preservation % And was not its 
dangerous and ruinous condition notified, and assistaijce 
for redress solicited % and was it not protested that other- 
wise every thing would be lost % Certainly yes ; not once, 
nor one year, but for several years, and by almost every 
ship. What more can be demanded from a Governor ?"* 
166T. In a long and petulant rejoinder, the West India Com- 
The w.'^i." pany labored to shift the responsibility for the loss of New 
u^Ser.'^ Netherland from themselves to Stuyvesant. But it was 
now useless to prolong discussion. The States General had 
offered to Charles the alternative of reciprocal restitution 
or retention of conquests as the basis of a treaty. They 
had triumphantly established the Dutch title to New Neth- 
erland against the asserted claims of England, but they 
could not make its restitution the only condition of peace. 
Finding how the case stood, the West India Directors 
26 March, represented to their High Mightinesses that they had rear- 

The impor- " o */ 

tance of cd Ncw Netherland " like a foster child " at an " excessive 

New Neth- 

eriand. expeusc," for forty-six years, and urged that its restitution 
by England should be insisted upon. To this was append- 
ed a memorial from many prominent merchants of Hol- 
land, setting forth the importance of regaining New Neth- 

* Col. Doc, i J., 361-37P, 419-425,427-483; ante, p. 60, JWtfi. 


erland, possessed by. the Dutch for nearly half a century chap. m. 
" by a just and indisputable title," and " inhabited by more 
than eight thousand souls, consisting of about fifteen hun- 
dred families, all natives and subjects of this state, who 
went thither formerly to gain a livelihood and to settle, on 
a promise of being sustained and protected." Its restora- 
tion by treaty was urged, " the rather that in case the afore- 
said country be left to and remain in the power and hands 
of the English nation, it could gain and obtain therefrom, 
in time of war, considerable advantages over this state and 
its inhabitants, as well because it will be able to draw and 
receive thence, and therefore from its own lands and colo- 
nies, almost all the wares which, being necessary for its 
equipments, it has hitherto been obliged to obtain from the 
Baltic, as that, whenever it shall possess and be master of 
nearly the entire northern part of America (for the French 
will be illy able to hold Canada against that nation), it can, 
without people here in Europe having the least knowledge 
of the circumstance, fit out a considerable fleet of large and 
small ships there, * * -• whereby said English nation then 
would found, and extend considerably, its pretended do- 
minion over the sea."* 

But these statesmanlike arguments were now too late. 
Charles accepted the alternative which he pretended the Jg Aprii. 
States General had proposed, " namely, that each party 
should remain in the possession of all things which had 
been acquired on one side or the other during this war." 
On the other hand, the States instructed their ambassadors s May. 
at Breda to adhere to their oifer actually made on theuonsat 
sixteenth of the previous September, namely, " that it be 
left to His Majesty's choice to make peace by a reciprocal 
restitution, on both sides, of what is seized by force of arms 
or detained from the other, either before or after the com- 
mencement of the war; or else that the one party retain 
what it hath taken by force of arms, or otherwise seized 
from the other, as well before as after the commencement 
of the war." The plenipotentiaries were also directed to 
procure, if possible, from the King of France, the cession 
to the republic of some of the colonies which he had taken 
from the EngHsh, as some equivalent for the relinquish- 

' Col. Doc, iL, 401-515 ; Ees. HoU., 1C6T, 120, 133. 


onAP.m. ment of New ISTetherland by the Dutch, which sacrifice 
~ ~~ Louis had fii'st suggested.* 

By this time the real importance of New York had be- 
come better appreciated by the European powers which 
1666 ^^^'^ chiefly interested in its fate. From Quebec, Talon 
13 Novem. had suggcstcd to Colbert that Louis should, after an ar- 
wLhes rangement with the Dutch government, procure the cession 
gSa^ew from England of New Netherland to himself, by which 
ilnd.^"^' means he "would .have two entrances into Canada, and 
would thereby give the French all the peltries of the North 
— of which the English have now partly the advantage, by 
means of the communication with the L-oquois which they 
possess by Manatte and Orange — and would place those 
barbarous tribes at His Majesty's discretion ; who could, 
moreover, approach New Sweden when he pleased, and 
^ggY ^^^^ ^e^ England confined within its limits." This idea 
27 October. Talou reiterated the next year ; but Colbert was obliged to 
6 April, content himself with directing the subjugation of the Iro- 
quois by the French. Louis, now engaged in active hos- 
tilities in the Spanish Netherlands, could do nothing to ob- 
tain the cession of New York either fi'om Holland or En- 
gland, and liixiited his efforts to regaining Acadia, which 
Cromwell had wrested from France.f 
20 May. A difficult poiut soou occurrod at Breda. The Dutch 
offer was craftily misstated by Charles, and the negotiations 
were delayed. Observing this, De Witt, who could not for- 
get his vow to avenge the outrage which the English had 
perpetrated the year before at Schelling, thought that the 
time had come for a memorable retaliation. The large 
sums voted by Parliament for the fleet had been squander- 
ed by the Idng on his unworthy favorites, and most of the 
Enghsh ships were laid up in ordinary. The Grand Pen- 
The Dutch sionary accordingly dispatched De Ru}i;er and Cornelis de 
Th*^e3. Witt to the Thames. Sheerness and the dock-yard at Chat- 
ham were surprised ; several of the finest vessels in the En- 
1 1 June, glish nsiYj were burned ; and the " Eoyal Charles," which 
liad brought back the restored king in triumph from Sche- 
veningen, was carried off as the chief prize of the Dutch 

* IVEstrades, v., 175, 2ni ; Aitzema, vi., 27-31 ; Sec. Res. IIoll., ii., 62S-552; Col. Doc, 
ii., 516, 517; Rapin,ii., 645; Martin, i., 275; Courtcn.iy'a Temple, i., 100 ; oji^c, p. 131. 
t Col. Doc, ix., 56, 57, 53, 60 ; D'Estrades, v., ISl, 20S, 250, 333, 344. 


avengers.* London was deprived of its supplies, and cnAP.m. 
threatened for several weeks by the blockading Holland- 
ers, who, had they been better informed of the condition of p^jgi^^ ^^ 
the capital, and acted with prompt -^dgor, might from the London. 
White Tower have dictated their own terms of peace to 
the fugitive sovereign at Windsor. While his sliips were 
burning at Chatham, Charles was gayly supping with his 
parasites at Whitehall, and all were " mad in hunting of a 
poor moth." But the nation felt, with Evelyn, that En- 
glishmen had suffered " a dishonor never to be wiped off." 
Well might Nicolls, at New York, after waiting the whole 
summer for a ship from England, apprehend that " some 12 Novem. 
extraordinary disaster" had befallen his majesty .f 

De Witt's galling success in the Thames had a marvel- 
ous effect at Breda. The English ambassadors agreed to Effect at 
the principle that each party should retain the places it had 30 June, 
occupied, and Charles was obliged to recede from his posi- 
tion and accept the terms insisted upon by the Dutch. A 
treaty between England and Holland was soon concluded, f i J"iy- 

, Treaty 

By tlie third article it was stipulated that " each of the said made. 
parties shall hold and possess in future, in perfect right of 
sovereignty, propriety, and possession, all such countries, 
islands, towns, forts, places, and colonies, and so many as 
each, whether during this war or before, in whatever time 
it may have been, shall have taken and retained from the 
other, by force and by arms, or in whatever manner it may 
have been, and that in the same manner as they shall have 
occupied and possessed them on the -l-^th of May last, none 
of the said places excepted." The same day another treaty 
was signed between France and England, by which Acadia Acadia ro- 

stored to 

was restored to Louis, in exchange for Antigua, Montserrat, France. 
and a part of Saint Christopher's.:}: 

By the treaty of Breda the Dutch West India Company New Netu- 
lost New Netherland, while the East India Company gained en up by"" 

the treaty 
of Breda. 

* A part of the stern of the Eoyal Charles ia still preserved aa a trophy in the dock-yard at 

t Aitzema,vi., 35-46,109-120; D'Estrades, v., 240-361,332, 390; Kennett, iii., 205; Lis- 
ter's Clarendon, ii., 3TG-3S1 ; iii., 454-463; Basnage, i., 803, 804; Evelyn, ii., 27, 28; iii., 
214; Pepys, iii., 142-155, 164; Rapin, ii., C45; Burnet, i., 250; Clarke's Jamea II., i., 425, 
426 ; Martin, i., 286 ; Col. Doc, iii., 16T ; ante, p. 125, 131. 

t Dumont, vii., 45; Aitzema, vi., 55; D'Estrades, v., 303, GS4, 385, 462, 464, 4T6 ; Bas- 
nage, i., 806, 807 ; Temple, i., 4S1 ; Courtenay's Temple, i., 112 ; Li-^ter'a Clarendon, ii., 881 ; 
DeWitt,ii.,537; Charlevoix, ii., 204; Hume, vi., 400-402; I.ingard, xii., 211-215; Hazard's 
Eeg. Penn.,iv.,120; Kapiii, ii.,045, 646; Anderson, ii., 4' 2, 403; Martin, i., 2ST. 


cuAP.iii. Poleroii. Surinam, having been conquered before the 10th 
of May, was also confirmed to the United ProAdnces. Its 
acquisition somewhat reconciled the Dutch people to the 
loss of New Netherland ; and all, except the West India 
shareholders and the regents of the city of Amsterdam, 

-21 August, seemed to be content when the peace was proclaimed at 
the Hague. 

Feeling in But iu Loudou the feeling was very different. The 
church-bells rang out merry peals. Yet no bonfires show- 
ed the national joy — "partly," wrote Pepys, "from the 
dearness of firing, but principally from the little content 
most people have in the peace." They lamented " the giv- 
ing away Poleron and Surinam, and Nova Scotia, which 
hath a river 300 miles up the country, wdth copper-mines, 
more than Swedeland, and Newcastle coals, the only place 
in America that hath coals that we know of; and that 
Cromwell did A^alue those places, and would forever have 
made much of them." In this feeling Massachusetts 
shared when it became known that England had parted 
with " a place so profitable to them, from whence they 
drew great quantities of beaver and other peltry, besides 
the fishing for cod." Public sentiment, both in and out of 
Parliament, strongly condemned the king. A scape-goat 

Fnii of became liecessary at Whitehall ; and Clarendon, who had 
' served his sovereign with austere fidelity, was meanly de- 

so August, prived of the great seal, which, at the very moment it was 
demanded from him, he was aflixing to the proclamation 
of the Peace of Breda. This was followed by a quarrel 
between the Duke of York and his secretary. Sir William 

-2 septem. Coventry, who gave up his place, and was succeeded in it 

the duke's by Mattlicw Wren, a son of the Bishop of Ely, and secreta- 
r}'- to the fallen chancellor, upon whose recommendation 
James made him his OA\ai most confidential ofiicer.* 

The Peace of Breda finished the controversy between the 
West India Company and Stuyvesant. As the fatherland 
had relinquished its ancient province to England, the vete- 
ran felt no scruple about ending his days under a govern- 

* Lambreclitgen, SO; Aitzeraa, vi.,54; Basnage, i., 803, 810; Lingard, xii., 215-220; 
Hume, vi., 402-400; Lister, ii., 3S3-4U; Chalmer?, Ann., i., r.OO, 57S; Itev. (Jol., i., 118; 
I'epys, ii , 301 ; iii., 22T, 233-23C, 240, 242, 24-t, 24T ; Evelyn, i., 335, 409 ; CanipbeH's Clian- 
cellora, iii., 232 ; Clarke's James II., i , 420-433 ; Col. Doc, iii., 241 ; llutcli. Coll., 480 ; Life 
of Clarendon, Cont. (l)xf.), ii!., t92, 293, 294. 



ment to which he had already sworn a temporary alle- chap.iii. 
ffiance. But, before returninsr to America, lie tried to obtain ~" 

a relaxation of the English na\dgation laws in favor of New 
York by allowing it a direct commerce with Holland ; urg- stuyvesant 
ing to the Duke of York that the capitulation should be free trade, 
ratified, and that its sixth article especially — which allowed 
a free trade with the Netherlands in Dutch vessels — should 
be " observed, or in some measure indulged." This was 
very necessary, because the Indians, in trading their bea- 
vers, especially prized Holland duffels and Utrecht iron- 
ware, and, for want of them, would traffic with the French 
of Canada, " who are now incroached to be too neare neigh- 
bom-s unto us ;" and because, as no shij)s were to go to New 
York from England this season, there would be destitution 
unless it should be relieved from Holland. Stuyvesant 
therefore asked permission to dispatch two Dutch vessels 
from Holland to New York, that so " the inhabitants, being 
plentifully supplied, may cheerfully follow their vocations, 
and bless God for the opportunity of enjoyment of all peace 
and plenty under the auspicious wings of your Royal High- 
ness's paternal care and protection."- 

As the Duke of York could not grant such a request, 
Stuyvesant petitioned the king in council. On the report 
of a special committee, without reference to the Council of it cct. 
Trade, Charles ordered that " a temporary permission for 23 oct. 
seven years, with three ships only," be granted to the Dutch givS!^""" 
" freely to trade" with New York ; and the duke was author- 
ized to grant his license to Stuyvesant pursuant to Nic- 
olls's passport. The capitulation of New Netherland was 
not formally ratified, but it was recognized as obligatory. 
Having gained for his countrymen- this concession in their stuyve- 
f aver, Stu}wesant returned to spend the remnant of his days tum to '^' 
calmly in New York. f iew\or . 

The Peace of Breda brought welcome relief to Nicolls. xicoiis ra- 
The duke yielded to his many requests to be recalled from 
an administration which he had conducted so well. It was 
diflScult to find a proper successor in a court thronged with 
needy place-hunters, few of whom were qualified to govern 
an American province. James selected Colonel Francis 

' Col. Doc, ii., 251 ; iii., 1G3, 1G4 ; ante, vol. i., p. T62. 

t CoL Doc, iii., 164-16T, 1T5-1T9, 23T ; v., 496 ; vii., 5S6 ; Val. Man., 1S4T, 3T0. 



Chap. IIL 




1 January. 
I'eace pro- 
claimed in 
New York. 

cial enter- 

Grants of 
3 Febr'y. 

and Nan- 

Lovelace, a brother of John, Lord Lovelace of Hurley, and 
a favorite of the king, of whose " honorable privy cham- 
ber" he was one of the gentlemen. It seems to have been 
Lovelace's chief " affliction" that at his departure from En- 
gland he was unable to see Secretary Arlington.* 

At length official intelligence of the Peace of Breda 
reached NicoUs, whose pleasant duty it was, at the open- 
ing of the new year, to amiounce the good news in his gov- 
ernment. This was done by warrants addressed to each 
justice, requiring a general publication of the proclama- 
tions announcing the auspicious event.f 

A new order of things at once opened. The success of 
Stuyvesant at London aroused the repressed commercial 
enterprise of the Dutch merchants; of whomYan Cort- 
landt, Cousseau, Ebbing, and others set sail for Holland 
during the summer, to settle old accounts and prepare for 
increasing trade.:]: 

The peace also enabled NicoUs to reward some of his 
English subordinates. Among the effects of Dutch sub- 
jects which had been confiscated by the decree of 10th of 
October, 1665, were Hog Island, and the two " Barent's" 
Islands in the East River. Hog Island was now granted 
to Captain John Manning, whom the governor had just 
before appointed sheriff of Xew York. The Barent's Isl- 
ands were at the same time patented to Collector Thomas 

A question respecting the jurisdiction of New York was 
now settled by Nicolls. The islands of Martha's Yineyard 
and Nantucket, although contiguous to the coast of New 
Plymouth, were included by name in the Duke of York's 
patent. In 1641 they had been conveyed by Stirbng and 
Gorges to Thomas Mayhew and his son, who, after 1654, 
finding that they were out of the jurisdiction of Massa- 

* Chalmers, i., 578, follows the error of Smith, i., 42, in stating that Lovelace assumed the 
administration of New York in May, 1GC7. lie appears to have arrived at New York in the 
spring of IGCS, and did not relieve Nicolls until August of that year. See N. Y. Surrogate's 
Records, Wills, l.,D5; Val. Man., 1847, 3G2 ; Col. Doc, ii., 5S0; iii.,174. 

t Ord., Warr., etc., ii., 193 ; Col. Doc, ii., 522. t Col. Doc, iii., 17S. 

} Patents, i., 129, 131; Ord., Warr., Lett., ii., 177; Col. Doc, ii., 654; Val. Man., 1S47, 
351; 1853, 330; 1855, 493-497; Smith, i., 299 ; IIofTman's Treatise, i., 147, 148; Benson's 
Mem., 90; C. WoUey, 00; ante. p. 9\. Hog Island was known as Manning's Island, and 
afterward as Blackwell's Island. The "Barent's Islands" became Englished into Great 
and Little "Barn" Islands, one of which is now known as AVard's Island, and the other »s 
Randall's Island. All the three now belong to the city of New York. See the " Nicolls 
Map,"Val. Man., 1803. 


chusetts and New Plymouth, exercised a kind of independ- chap. in. 
ent government in their remote habitations. An English 
vessel having been driven ashore on one of the neighboring 
Elizabeth Islands, and seized by the Indians, the matter was 
reported to Nicolls, who sent a special commission to May- s January, 
hew, and instructed him to summon the offending sachems 
before him at " Martin's Yineyard," and also to request 
Governor Prince, of New Plymouth, to reprove the disor- 
derly savages within his jurisdiction. " I have not been 
forward," he added, " in trivial cases, to contest for my * 
master's bounds ; knowing, however, that all the islands, 
except Block Island, from Cape Cod to Cape May, are in- 
cluded in my master's patent. The first scruples will be 
soon removed ; however, in cases of this consequence, 1 . 
must declare myself both in point of power and readiness 
to protect and defend my master's honor and interest.* 

Another case of "scruple" was decided without diffi- 
culty. A few miles from Stonington, in Connecticut, 
is an island, about nine miles long and one broad, which 
the Dutch discovered in 1614, and named the " Visscher's" Fisher's 
or Fisher's Island. As it was near the mouth of the Mys- granted to 
tic, John Winthrop obtained a grant of it in 1640 from ™ "^°^' 
Massachusetts, and in the following year the assent of the 
Hartford Court; and in 1644 he bought it from the sav- 
ages. But, as it was included in the Duke of York's patent, 
Winthrop procured fi-om Nicolls a confirmation to himself 28 March. 
of Fisher's Island " as an entire enfranchised township, 
manor, and place of itself ; and to have, hold, and enjoy 
equal privileges and immmiities with any other town, en- 
franchised place, or manor, within the government of New 
York ; and to be in nowise subordinate or belonging unto, 
or dependent upon any riding, township, place, or jurisdic- 
tion whatsoever." In vain Connecticut afterward attempted 
to assert her authority over Fisher's Island. It still forms 
part of Suffolk County, in the State of New York, and was, 
until recently, owned by Winthrop's descendants.f 

For some time after his arrival at New York, Lovelace 

• Col. Doc, ill., 168-170; Hough's "Nantucket Papers," x.-xv., 1-22, 70; Mass. Rec, Iv. 
(i.),199; Palfrey, ii., 196, 339; Hutch. Mass., i., 161; Mather's Mag., ii., 424, 427. 

t Patents, iii., 5; Col. Eec. Conn., i, 64, 65; iii., 64,283; Mass. Kec, i., S04; Mass. 11. S. 
Coll., XXX., 54, 78 ; xxxvi., 368 ; xxxvii,, 83 ; Palfrey, ii., 234, 624; Thompson, i., 388-390 , 
N. Y. Bev. Stat., ill, 2 ; ante, vol. i., 57. 


Chap. 111. occupied liimself in becoming familiar with the govern- 
~~~ ment he was soon to administer. One of his duties was to 
13 April ' pi'Gside in the Admiralty Com-t ; and a case having been 
cou'?tTn"^ removed from the Mayor's Court to that tribimal, Lovelace 
j^ewYgrk. took his Seat with Kicolls on the bench. A controversy 
had arisen between the owner of the ship Cedar and the 
privateers who went in her to Acadia the year before, and 
who had taken a Spanish prize which they brought into 
New York. After several hearings the court pronounced 
IS April, a sentence, a remarkable feature of which was, that an 
Indian man, who had been taken " as part of their prize," 
should be sold, to defi-ay the charges on both sides.'^^ 
DeLware Affairs ou tlio Delaware had meanwhile gone smooth- 
ly along. A new church had been built by the Swedes in 
1667 at Crane Hook, near Fort Christina or Altona, now 
known as Wilmington, in which Lokenius, the Lutheran 
clergjTnan, who appears to have led rather a godless life, 
continued to minister. By an order of Nicolls, the local 
21 April, government of the Delaware territory was now regulated 
more clearly. Captain John Carr was to remain as com- 
mander-in-chief at Newcastle, assisted by Alricks and oth- 
ers as counselors, and the Duke's laws were to be publish- 
ed and observed. Li all cases of difficulty the directions 
of the governor and council at New York were to be sought 
and followed. Not long afterward, the Mantes, or Eed 
Hook Lidians, having committed several murders, Nicolls 
s June, and Lovelace, in a joint letter, directed Carr and his coun- 
selors to make all necessary rules for .the government of 
both Christians and Indians, and report them to New York 
for confirmation.f 

The military establishment of the whole province was 
Military uow scttlcd. The garrison at Newcastle was to have a 
ments^fn Heuteuant, a corporal, and eighteen men ; that at Esopus, 
ince^"^" a sergeant and twenty-one men ; and that at Albany, a lieu- 
tenant, a sergeant, a gunner, a drummer, and twenty men. 
At Fort James, in New York, there were to be a lieutenant, 

♦ N.V.Surr. Rec. Wills, i., 25-51; Val. Man., 1S47,3G2-3G9; Col. MSS.,xxii., 40-49; Onl., 
Warr., Lett., ii, 191; ante, p. 127. Captain Richard Morri?, formerly of liarbadoes, first ap- 
pears as a New Yorker in connection with this matter of the ship Cedar: compare Dunlap, 
i., 2T2 ; Bolton's Westchester, ii., 2S4, 286; Col. Doc, ii., 595, C19. 

t Ord., Warr.. Lett., ii., 207, 2flS; S. Smith, 51, 52; S. Hazard, Ann. Penn.. 140, 332, 348, 
371, 372 ; Kepr. Penn., i., 37, 38 ; iv., 74 ; Proud, i., 124 ; Upland Records, 24, 25 ; ante, voL 
L, 225, 248, 511, 610, 031, 734. 


an ensign, a gunner, a marslial, a surgeon, four sergeants, 
four corporals, and eighty men. As a special encourage- 
ment to the settlement of the newly-purchased country 
back of Esopus, NicoUs granted thirty lots of thirty acres 6 April. •. 
each to the soldiers in the garrison there.* 

After the recall of the royal commissioners, Massachu- 
setts extended her authority over Maine, which drew fi'om 
NicoUs a strong remonstrance. But this was unheeded. In 12 June. 
a farewell letter the Governor of New York sharply admon- so juiy. 
ished the Boston Court, avowing himself "concerned dm*- letter to 
ing life in the affairs of New England ;" adding, " You know settT'' "' 
that my station hath been a frontier place towards the In- 
dians, who had too much influence upon the spirits of the 
Dutch in former times, but are now in a competent meas- 
ure reduced to a better compliance in their behavioui-s to- 
wards us, and have given me some testimonies of their de- 
sires to Hve in peace with our nation ; for they have made 
me a present of two youths which have been their prison- 
ers a few yeai-s : they were taken in Maryland. Also they 
have promised to bring me another young man remaining 
with them. So that though they have a warr with the En- 
glish in Maryland, because the English there do take part 
with their Indians, yett you may guesse these heathens are 
yet desirous of peace with the English, of which I have long 
since advertised the Governour of Maryland."t 

In company with his successor, Nicolls made a last visit 7 Jni7. 
to Albany, against the monopoly of the Indian trade at 
which place the magistrates of New York had protested. 
While there, the two governors jointly issued new instruc- August, 
tions to Captain Baker for the regulation of the garrison fairs. 
and in regard to transactions with the Indians, and other 
matters growing out of the treaty of Breda. There -was 
now to be a general amnesty and oblivion of all " seeds of 
distrust and jealousy ;" and, in future, no complaints were 
to be brought before the governor at New York " but such 
as are of high nature, and the proofs grounded upon suffi- 
cient testimonies.":}; 

• Col. MSS., xxii., 50 ; Ord., Warr., etc., ii., 206 ; Coll. Ulster H. Soc, i., 50, T2 ; ante, 89. 

t Col. Doc, lii., 170-173; Hutch.,!., 260-267; Coll., 427, 428 ; Mass. Kec, ir. (ii.), 370-373, 
400,404; Chalmers, i., 484; Palfrey, ii., 632-634 ; Williamson, 1., 431-438. 

t Ord., Warr., etc., ii., 229-233 ; Col. MSS., xxii., 10 ; Munsell, vii., 100, 101 ; New York 
City Eec, vi., 387 ; ante, p. 83. 


On his return to New York, McoUs prepared to take leave 


of liis government. His predecessor Stuyvesant, having ir- 
regularly sealed some patents after the surrender of New 

8 August. Netherland, received a formal pardon for himself and liis 
secretary Van Ruyven. A new patent was also given to 

15 August. De Sille, Cortelyou, and others, confirming the town privi- 
leges of New Utrecht. At the same time, Samuel Edsall 
received a patent for Bronck's land, opposite Haerlem. As 

21 August, a crowning act of grace and justice, Nicolls released Ralph 

Hall. Hall and his wife from the recognizances which they had 
been required to give when charged with witchcraft in 
1665," there having been no direct proofs nor further pros- 
ecution of them, or either of them, since."* 

17 August. The authorities of the city of New York now sisrned a 

NicoUs '' ~ 

leaves loval addrcss, which they asked Nicolls to deliver to the 

New York. ^j :> j 

duke, near whose person he was to resume liis service. All 
the freemen of the metropolis were divided into two com- 
panies, and ordered to appear in arms at the governor's de- 
parture. A few days afterward, Nicolls, having transferred 
28 August, his functions to Lovelace, embarked for England, with every 
demonstration of respect and regret from those who, receiv- 
ing him as a conqueror, bade him farewell as a friend. In- 
vested with extraordinary powers, he had used them with 
the moderation and integrity of a true gentleman ; and the 
people, whose prejudices he had avoided wounding, " loved 
the man whose orders they disliked." His former colleague, 
25 August. Maverick, thus wrote to Lord Arlington : "After liis abode 
letterabout here f OUT years (where he hath lived with screat reputation 

Nicolls. t/ \ o jr 

and honour), he is now returning home. I must needs ac- 
company him with this character — that he hath done His 
Majesty and His Royal Highness very considerable service 
in these parts, having, by his prudent management of affairs, 
kept persons of different judgments and of diverse nations 
in peace and quietness, during a time when a great part of 
the world was in warrs. And as to the several nations of 
the Indians, they were never brought into such a peaceable 
posture and f aire correspondence as by his means they now 

• Ord., Warr., etc., iL, 216, 21T, 220 ; Patei;b>, iv., 54 ; Thompson, ii., 191 ; Bolton, ii., 283, 
284; Doc. Hist., iv.,8G; a»if(',p. 91; vol. i., p. 2GS. 

t X. Y. City Rec, vi., 397, 480 ; Col. Doc., iii., 174, 175 : Chalmers, i., 578 ; Smith, i., 42 ; 
Hutch. Coll., 428. 




About thirty miles west of London, on the Berkshire cnAr.n^ 
side of the Thames, in the parish of Hurley, there stood, ;t~ 
until a few years ago, a large country house, built in the 
Elizabethan style, and called " Lady Place." Covering the Lady piaco 
site of an ancient Benedictine monastery, from which it'' ^^^^' 
was named, it had been erected by Sir Richard Lovelace, a 
lucky comrade of Drake. With the rich Spanish spoil he 
had won, the retired adventurer had laid out terraced gar- 
dens around his Tudor mansion, the wide hall of which 
opened on the placid river, and had adorned its stately gal- 
lery with beautiful Italian landscapes. The heir of the old 
knight greatly improved this place, and was created, by 
Charles the First, Baron Lovelace, of Hurley. His sons, 
John, the second Lord Lovelace, and Francis, a colonel in 
the army, adhered to the royal cause. Francis Lovelace coionei 
appears to have visited "Long Island" in 1650, under a Lovelace, 
pass from Cromwell's Council of State, and to have gone 
thence to Virginia. At its surrender to the Common- 
wealth forces in 1652, he was chosen by Sir William Berke- 
ley to convey the tidings " to the late King of Scots." The 
zeal of Lovelace in the interest of Charles the Second led 
to his being committed a prisoner to the Tower by Richard 
Cromwell, on a charge of high treason. This only in- 
creased his favor with the king at the Restoration. He 
was enrolled as one of the knights of the " Royal Oak," an 
order which Charles proposed to institute as a reward to 
his faithful followers in adversity, but was more substan- 
tially recompensed by being made " one of the gentlemen 
of His Majesty's Honorable Privy Chamber." In due 
time, the king's favor induced his appointment by the Duke Appointed 
of York as the successor of Nicolls in his government.* Ne^York! 

" LyBon's Magna Britiji., 299; Burke's Dormant Peerage, iii., 498, 499 ; Salnsbury'a Cal- 


cuAr.iv. Lovelace was in many respects unlike his predecessor. 

He was phlegmatic rather than enterprising, and lacked 

Character *^^ energy and decision so necessary in a provincial gov- 

ofLove- ernor far removed from the observation of his superiors. 

lace. ^ . ^ ^ 

Yet he was of " a generous mind, and noble ;" upright and 
good-natured, and by the very moderation of his character 
unwilling to disturb the policy by which NicoUs had ad- 
ministered the government of New York with such suc- 
cess. For several months he had enjoyed the opportunity 
of studying his predecessor's conduct. With a commission 
similar to that of Xicolls, Lovelace also brought with him 
to New York a formal confirmation by the duke of the 
code of laws established at Hempstead. Lovelace's in- 
structions, among other things, required him " to make no 
alterations in the Laws of the government settled before 
his arrival."* 

Having received from IsicoUs the cipher in which lie 

was to correspond with the secretary of state in case of 

•2s August, necessity, Lovelace announced to Lord Arlington his in- 

inataiied. stallatiou iu the government of New York, " being the 

middle position of the two distinct factions, the Papist and 

Puritan," and asked " some instructions" how he might 

steer his course, so as most to advance the interest of the 

king and the duke.f 

•2 septem, Lovclacc's couucil, at A'arious periods, consisted of Cor- 

coilnctr nelis Steenwyck, the mayor of New York ; Thomas Willett 

and Thomas Delavall, former mayors; Ralph Whitfield, 

Isaac Bedlow, Francis Boone, and Cornells van Ruy^^en, 

aldermen ; Captain John Manning, the sheriff of the city ; 

Dudley and Thomas Lovelace, the governor's brothers; and 

Matthias Nicolls, the provincial secretary. Van Puyven 

24Xovcm. was also appointed to succeed Delavall, who went on a 

endar, i., 339, 3G1, 376, 379 ; Clialmers, i., 124 ; Hevcrly (erl. 1^55\ t,\ 51 ; Rurk, ii., Sl-91 ; 
Thurloe, vi.,151; vii., 55S, 538, 6-22 ; Col. lloc, ii., 580; M.icnulay, ii.," 494; Kniglit's En- 
gland, iv., 430; Lond. Quart. Kev., July, 1S59. The nephew of Governor Francis Lovelace 
was John, the third lord, who was prominent in the Kevolution of lOSS. Upon his death 
without issue, the barony descended to his second cousin, John, the grandson of Francis, 
who became the fourth Lord Lovelace, and was appointed by Queen Anne governor of New 
York, where lie died in May, 1700. 

• Court of Assizes, ii., 231 ; M8S., Secretary's Office, Albany; Journals I.«g. Council, i.. 
Int., v., vii. ; Col. Doc, iii., 104, 218,220, 2G0; Mass. H. S. Coll., x.\x., TS; Smith, i.,42, 4C; 
S. Smitli, V3 ; K Y. H. S. Coll. (1SC9), 32: ante, IS, 73. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 174, 175. The erroneous statements of Smith, i., 42, and Chalmers, i., 
57S, which have been so generally copied, that Lovelace began his administration in 1G07, 
have been already noticed, a7iti\ p. 138, note. 


visit to England, as collector of the duke's revenue at New cdap. iv. 
York ; and Bedlow was made comptroller or naval officer, 
and Nicholas Bayard surveyor. The customs' rates were jg jj^^j^' 
regulated by a new order from the governor. '^^ 

Affairs at Esopus required Lovelace's earliest attention. 
Conflicting claims were made for the lands in the " New 5 septem 
Dorp ;" and the governor, finding it necessary to go thither fain."^ 
in person, left Captain Manning in charge of Fort James, lo septom. 
with full instructions. At Esopus, Sergeant Beresford was 
directed to disband the garrison, and cause their duty to be 25Septem. 
performed by the burghers ; but, to induce the soldiers to 
remain, liberal grants of land were assured to them, and 
arrangements made to found two new villages farther in- 
land along the fertile borders of the Esopus Creek. Soon 
afterward, Henry Pawling was appointed to lay out lots at 9 Novem. 
the new " furthest dorp."f 

A severe epidemic — fever and ague, and fluxes — visited 21 Novem. 
New York this autumn, which caused the governor to pro- in^Ne ™^*' 
claim a day of humiliation and prayer. In his proclama- ^°^^ 
tion, Lovelace reproved the swearing, intemperance, and 
impiety which he observed to prevail throughout the prov- 

The want of a printing-press in New York was now a printing- 
much felt, and, as the only one in the English colonies was H^^^"''"-^ ' 
at Cambridge, Lovelace sent to obtain a printer from there. 
But he did not succeed ; and it was a quarter of a century 
before the " master art" began to be practiced in New 
York. This was not, however, owing to the duke, who 
never instructed any of his governors to restrain printing. 
The immediate cause of Lovelace's enlightened effort was 
his desire to have published a catechism which the Rever- 
end Thomas James, the first minister at Easthampton, en- 
couraged by the friendship of NicoUs, had prepared for the 
use of the Indians, and translated into their tongue, with 
some chapters of the Bible. For this and other labors 19 NoTem. 
James was warmly thanked by the governor.§ 

* Council Min.,iii.,l; Court of Assizes, ii., 203, 293, 619, C35; Ord., Warn, etc., ii.,29T, 
298, 322 ; Col. MSS., xxii., 51-53, ICS, 109 ; Val. Man., 1S53, 32S, 379-383 ; Munsell, iv., 22. 

+ Ord., Warr., etc., ii., 206, 241-258, 279; Esopus Records; Ulster H. S. Coll., i., 50, T2. 

t Ord., Warr., etc., ii., 294, 295; Col. Doc, iii., 185; Val. Man., 1856, 514. 

§ Ord., Warr., etc., ii., 290-293; Mass. H. S. Coll., xxxvii., 485; Wood, 41 ; Thompson, 
i., 317 ; Dunlap, i., 120 ; Thomas's Hist. Print, i., 275 ; ii., 90, 286. The Duke of York has 
been unjustly charged with discouraging printing in his province. The fact is, that neither 

II.— K 


cuAP. IV. The Jesuit " Mission of the Martyrs," now named Saint 
Mary of the Mohawks, had meanwhile prospered greatly, 
jepuit mi's- ^ft^r visiting Quebec, Fremin's colleague, Pierron, return- 
thTM^-*'"^ ed to Tionnontoguen, and resumed the care of the mission, 
-''^^';, He soon acquired the Mohawk lano-uao-e well enouorh to be 
understood, and, by means of little pictures which he paint- 
ed himself, explained more readily the Christian doctrines. 
Every week he visited seven Mohawk villages, which ex- 
tended over a distance of seven leagues and a half. But 
the war now raging between the Iroquois and " the nine 
nations of Mahicans who were scattered between Manhat- 
tan and the environs of Quebec," hindered the progress of 
religion. Hostilities were carried to the neighborhood of 
Albany, and prisoners taken on either side were burned or 
eaten. Being more numerous, the Mahicans had the ad- 
vantage. One of Pierron's chief encouragements was that 
the savages themselves observed that they had among them 
a " foreign Demon" who was more to be feared than those 
which they adored in their dreams. This demon was in- 
toxicating drink, which came to them from Albany,* hin- 
dered religion, and ruined their youth. At Pierron's sug- 
gestion, several sachems came to New York with a petition 
to the governor, accompanied by a letter from the father, 
asking him to arrest the evil. Lovelace at once directed 
12 Novem. the officcrs at Albany to execute the laws against selling 
IS Novem. liquors to the Indians. He also wrote to Pierron : " I 
have taken all the care possible, and will continue it under 
the most severe penalties, to restrain and hinder the fur- 
nishing of any excess to the Indians. And I am very glad 
to learn that such virtuous thoughts proceed from infidels, 
to the shame of many Christians. But this must be at- 
tributed to your i^ious instructions ; you who, being well 
versed in a strict discipline, have shown them the way of 
mortification, as well by your precepts as your practice."t 

Andros nor Dnngan, the succesaora of Lovelace, were at all restricted on thia subject : see 
Col. Doc, iii., 21G-219, 331-334. It was not until 1GS6 that James the Second restrained 
the liberty of printing in New York ; and the instruction then given to Dongan followed the 
precedents (■f the Plantation Committee i-e?pecting other royal governors: Ool. Doc, iii., 
375. The rcstriclive policy of Massachusetts has been adverted to, ante, p. SO, note. 

* The French furnished the Indians with brandy distilled at Rochelle; the English and 
Dutch -with rum imported into New York from the West Indies, which the savages prefer- 
red, as " more wholesome :" Col. Doc, iii., 403, 797; i.K., 36, 979, 1073; Doc. Hist., i., 140. 

t Ord.,\Varr.,Lett., ii.,2Sl ; Col. Doc.,ix., SS3; Relation, 16G9, 1-G ; Charlevoix, ii., ISS; 
Shea, 2G3, 2G4. 


At Saint Francis Xavier, among the Oneidas, Bruyas chap.iv. 
suffered many discouragements. He was obliged to live 
upon dried frogs and herbs, while few baptisms rewarded jj^.^y^^ .,; 
his zeal. Of all the Iroquois, the Oneidas were the most dal^""" 
intractable. The hostile Mahicans, and the Andastes or 
Conestogues, however, filled the canton with continual 

Early in the summer, Bruyas was joined by the youthful June. 
father Juhan Garnier, the first Jesuit ordained at Quebec. 
After remaining a short time at Oneida, Garnier set out 
for Onondaga, a day's journey farther to the west, to the 
old mission of Saint Mary of Gennentaha, from which the 
French had been expelled ten years before. Received with 
every mark of good will, Garnier was constrained by " a camier 
gentle violence" to remain among the Onondagas. At his at onmL. 
request, Garakontie caused a chapel to be built, and with ^''' 
four others then visited Quebec. His request for another 20 Auguet. 
"black robe" to be sent as a companion to Garnier was 
granted by Courcelles, who did not fail to impress upon 27 August. 
the savages the power and glory of the " Great Onnontio 
Louis." Loaded with presents, Garakontie and liis col- 
leagues returned to Onondaga, escorting the Fathers Eti- October. 
enne de Carheil and Pierre Millet, and the Mission of Saint 
John the Baptist was happily established.f 

Carheil, however, did not remain long at Onondaga with 
Garnier and Millet. During the first mission of the French 
there, the Father Ren^ Menard had founded a church at 
Cayuga, about thirty leagues farther west, and delegates 
now came from there to ask a renewal of missionary serv- 
ice. Conducted by Garnier, Carheil accordingly visited 6 Novem. 
Cayuga. A chapel was soon completed and dedicated to 9 Novera. 
Saint Joseph. Besides the village of Guyoguen, or Cayuga, 
which was the seat of the mission, there were two othei*s a 
few leagues apart, Kiohero or Tiohero, and Onnontare. 
These villages were near the Lake Tiohero — now known 
as Cayuga Lake — upon the banks of which David le Moyne 
had died in 1657. In this most beautiful region of West- 
ern New York Carheil began a laborious service among cayuga.' 

* Relntinn, 1669, 7,8; Charlevoix-, ii., 1S5 ; Shea, 275. 

t Relation, 16.58, .■!, 4; 1C62, 8-13; 166S, 6-19; 1669, 10; Ch.irlevoix, ii., 170, 177; Col. 
Doc, ix., 227, 665; Shea, 259, 260, 277, 287, 289, 294; ante, vol. i., 643, 646, 704. 


cuAP. IV. the docile but supei'stitious Cayugas, and Gamier returned 
to assist Millet at Onondao:a.* 

Twelve years before, Cllaumonot had proclaimed the 
faith to the Senecas at their principal village of Gandagare. 
The most numerous of all the confederates, the Senecas, 
whom the French called " the Ujpper Iroquois," were the 
most gentle and tractable. They were rather laborers and 
traders than warriors, and many Christian Hurons had been 
adoj)ted by them after 1649. Fremin, who was now the 
superior of all the Iroquois missions, thought that the time 
had come to "begin a new church" among the Senecas. 

10 October. Leaving Pierron in charge of the Mohawks at Tionnonto- 

guen, the superior accordingly passed westward, visiting 
the other missionary stations. After twenty days' travel 
1 Novem. he rcachcd the Senecas, who received him with the honors 
iimrag the which the savages show to ambassadors. The chiefs quick- 
ly built him a chapel, and many converts, especially among 
the domiciled Hurons, rewarded his labors. The mission 
was named in honor of Saint Michael. Thus in 1668 the 
Jesuits had established five stations among the Iroquois. 
Fremin, the superior, however, found his labors among the 
Senecas hindered by a projected war against the Ottawas. 
But this he was able to prevent, aided by the opportune ar- 
rival, the next spring, of the Father AUouez from Canada, 
with some restored prisoners ; and it was hoped that the 
Iroquois, who had now both " the Maliicans and the An- 
dastes on their hands, would fear more than ever the arms 
of France."f 
iroquoi.^ A colony of the Cayue-as, which had been formed on the 

colony at •/ o / 

Quint6 northern shore of Lake Ontario, at Kente or Quints Bay, 
^' was placed in 1666, for a short time, under the care of Fre- 
min and some other fathers of his order ; but, on the con- 
clusion of the peace with the Iroquois the next year, the 
Jesuits, who were to occupy the more important field south 
of the lake, resigned the Quinte mission to the Sulpitians 
of Montreal. Two young " Levites" of that order, Francis 
Salignac de Fenelon and Claude Trouvd, had recently ar- 

11 June, rived in Canada, the latter of whom was ordained a priest 

* Relation, 1G5T, 19, 43 ; 1GG8, 20 ; 1000,12-10 ; IGTO, 03, 09 ; 1072, 22 ; Map in Rcl., 1005 ; 
Col. Doc, m.,irA ; Charlevoix, ii., 80, 81, 185 ; Shea, 232-234, 201, 2ST, 356 : ante,xo\. i.. (-44. 

t Relation, 1049,3-453; 1057,43,45; 1008.32; 1009,17; 1070,09,77; Cli.ivlcvoix, ii., S , 
183; Shea, 191, 192, 198, 220, 232, 234, 203, 290; aiHr^ vol. i., 0J4. 


by Bishop Laval ; and in tlie autumn of this year they went cuap.iv. 

to Quints, where they began their missionaiy labors. In 

this station they were succeeded by Francis Lascaris D'Urfe, „A ^' 

T\ r^- 11 IP 1 'SSOctobct. 

JJe Cice, and others ; who lor several years struggled with 
many difficulties, until the Sulpitians at length resigned 
their enterprise to the EecoUets.* 

New Jersey, imder the government of Phihp Carteret, Newjeracy 
had now for three years been quietly growing. But it was **^'*'"' 
a constant eyesore to the authorities of New York ; and, al- 
though Nicolls had ceased to allude to its dismemberment, 
Maverick could not refi-ain fi'om writing by him to Lord 25 August. 
Ai'lington that the duke's grant to Berkeley and Carteret 
had " proved very prejudicial to this place and government. 
Their bounds reach from the east side of Delaware River 
to the west side of Hudson's Eiver, including a vast tract 
of the most improveablest land within his Royal Highness 
his patent. It hath taken away some Dutch villages for- 
merly belonging to this place, and not above three or f om* 
miles fi'om it. The Duke hath left of his patent nothing 
to the west of New York, and to the east upon the main 
about sixteen miles only fi-om Hudson's River, whereon is 
but one poor village. Long Island is very poore and in- 
considerable ; and beside the city there are but two Dutch 
towns more, Sopus and Albany, which lie up north on Hud- 
son's River. I suppose when the Lord Berkeley had that 
grant, it was not thought he should come so neare this place, 
nor were the inconveniences of it known or considered."f 

This letter of Maverick, in connection with NicoUs's per- 
sonal representations on reaching London, caused the duke 
to try to regain New Jersey. One point was promptly set- 
tled. As NicoUs had confiscated to his royal highness, in 
1665, the estate of the West India Company in Staten Isl- staten isl- 
and, and as one of the outlets of the Hudson River ran judged to 
around the island, it was " adjudged to belong to New York." ^^^ ^°'^' 
Philip Carteret, the Governor of New Jersey, had probably 

* Relation, 1668, 4, 20, 31 ; Col. Doc, ix., 91, 97, 101, 102, 112, 132 ; Faillon, iil., lTl-173, 
189-198; LaPotherie, iii.,216; Doc. Hist , i., 283; Charlevoix, ii., 177, 256; Shea, 254, 2S3, 
309; N. Y. II. S. Proc.,184.S, 199-209; 1849, 12; Sparks's Life of La Salle, 16, 17; Shea's 
note in N. E. Hist, and Gen., xvii., 24G, 247. Fonelon, of Quinte, has been confound- 
ed by Hennepin and other later writers with his younger half-brother, the famoua author 
of Telemachus, the Arclibishop of Cambray. Another blunder places the scene of the Quinte 
Fenelon's labors among the parent tribe of the Cayugas, Instead of among their colonists oa 
the northern shore of Lake Ontario. 

t Col. Doc , iii., 174; ante, p. 85. 


Chap. IV. anticipated this decision when he took title from NicoUs, 
in 1667, for land on that island. Lord Berkeley, one of the 
commissioners of the Duke of York's estate, having been 
detected in " the basest" corruption, was now " under a clond, 

i5eikciey and out of all his ofiices." Berkeley therefore offered to 

ret agree to surroudor to Jamcs his patent for New Jersey. Carteret, 

jer'^y to^''' lately made Treasurer of Ireland, agreed to do the like ; 

ofYo"^^ and it was arranged that the two proprietors should, in ex- 
change for New Jersey, " retm-ned to his Royal Highness," 
receive the territory on the Delaware which NicoUs had so 
shrewdly and earnestly recommended. This determination 
was promptly notified by Carteret to his cousin at EKza- 
bethtown. Had it been carried out it would have relieved 
the duke of much future anxiety.* 

ri.npro- But, owing probably to Lord Baltimore's claim to the 

ti'.'n?tio:r" west side of the Delaware, the proposed arrangement fell 
through, and New York was not " inlarged" by the restora- 
tion of her old territory. In the spring of this year Carteret 

May. . called an assembly, in which each town in New Jersey was 
represented, while Staten Island, being conceded to New 

November. York, was not. But in the next autumn dissensions grew 
so strong that the governor was obliged to adjourn the As- 
sembly without day.f 

The order of the king in council, which allowed three 
Dutch ships " fi'eely to trade" with New York for seven 
years, had meanwhile caused jealous complaints; and the 

>foveniber. Couucil for Trade rejDorted that English merchants were 
" altogether discouraged and withdrawing their respective 
estates" from New York, and that the sixth and seventh ar- 
ticles of the capitulation bound the king to grant freedom 
of trade no longer than for " the first six months after the 
rendition of the place." They therefore advised that, as 
there had been " a mistake in the drawing" of the order, it 
should be revoked, and that all persons trading to New 

• Mass. II. S. Coll., XXX vii., 31.5, 319 ; N. J. II. S. Proc, i. (ii.), 32-SG ; Pcpys, iii., ICT, 172, 
331; iv.,28; Col. Doc, iii., 105,114; Yonkers Gazette, No. OSC, for 8 Jiily,lSG5; Newark 
Town Kecords, 21, 22 ; ante, p. 59, 71, 85. 

t Col. Doc., iii, 113, 180, 340; Penn. Archivea, i.,70; Le.iminp; and Spicer, 77-93; Gor- 
don, 28 ; Whitehead, 42-48, 51-53, 188-190 ; Newark Town Rec., 21 ; Chalmers, i., 526, 528, 
634; Yonkers Gazette, 8 July, 1SG5. Lord UerUeley was made Lieutenant of Ireland in 
1670, when, on tlie death of tlie Duke of Albemarle, he also became Palatine of Carolina; 
and doubtlcB.i he .and Carteret thought that their interests would be better seiTed by retain- 
ing New Jersey than by taking the Delaware territory, and wilh it a controversy witli ?o 
important an Iri.^h p er as Ixird Baltimore, who could be easier dealt with by the king'a 


York contrary to tlie navigation acts should be prosecuted, cuai-. iv. 
Tliis was the more necessary because the trade of England ' 
was " now in great measure upheld" by the American plant- '^ ' 
ations. The king in council therefore ordered that allisNove..:. 
passes granted under the order of 23d October, 1667, be re-iishreftfw 
called and annulled ; yet, out of regard to those who had to^Ne™ ' 
relied on it, the Duke of York might license one of the ^°^^' 
ships now preparing in Holland to make one voyage to 
New York. 

Sir AVilHam Temple was directed to notify this decision 
to the interested parties in Holland. Relying on the pre- 
vious order, Van Cortlandt, Cousseau, and several other " loy- 
al subjects now residing in New York," had dispatched one 24 October, 
ship from Amsterdam, with the duke's pass, and were pre- 
paring another, which was nearly ready to sail. Upon their 
representing this to the king, backed by the personal efforts 
of Nicolls, an order in council was obtained, " with much ii Decem. 
difficulty," allowing the second " permissionated ship" '" to ship"p(> 
make one voyage and no more ;" and the Duke of York mutedr'^ 
was at the same time directed not to grant " any other 
Passe or Passes to any Dutch sliipp or sliipps whatsoever 
to trade to ISew Yorke." Lovelace proclaimed the royal 1669. 
pleasure on the arrival of what was understood to be the^*^^''' 
last Dutch ship that would " ever come on that account" to 

This ending of the old commercial intercourse between 
New York and Holland followed one of the best acts of 
Charles the Second. Soon after the peace of Breda, the 
ablest English statesmen saw that the only way to curb the 
arroo-ance of France was to form an alliance between Great 
Britain and the Dutch Pepublic. Sir William Temple — 
in many respects the opposite of Downing — was accord- 
ingly sent with special powers to the Hague. He had al- IQQS. 
ready won the confidence of De Witt, and in a few days a If Jan-y. 
treaty was made which bound Great Britain and the United pie aiu" 
Provinces to act, if necessary, in concert against France. ^°'^^' 
The accession of Sweden shortly afterward gave to this 
famous coalition the name of the " Triple Alliance." 

* Col. Doc, iii., 175-179; Chalmers's Rev. Col., i., 117; Mass. H. S. Coll., xxx.,77, 78; 
xxxvii., G15; Hist. Mag., viii., 230; ante, 137. Lovelace, at the fame time, "gi-anted free 
trade to the merchants at Xew York, and took off the wonted recognition." 


Chap. IV. Foiled and mortified, Louis was obliged to suspend his 
conquests and make peace with Spain. In England, the 
Triple Alliance became very popular. The two great 
Protestant states of the world were now close friends, and 
outspoken members of Parliament declared that the king 
had done his only good act. " It was certainly," says 
Principle of Burnet, " the master-piece of King Charles's life ; and if he 
Ainan"e.^ had stuck to it, it would have been both the strength and 
the glory of his reign. This disposed his people to forgive 
all that was passed, and to renew their confidence in him, 
which was much shaken by the whole conduct of the 
Dutch war." The real merit of Temple's diplomacy was 
iTFebi'7. the ratification of the commercial stipulations in the treaty 
of Breda, by which England recognized the great principle 
so earnestly contended for by the Dutch, that " free ships 
make free goods."* 
1669. New York was now prosperous, and Lovelace was sin- 
KshS' cerely anxious to aid its progress. Under his encourage- 
cove^re^d'off i^^^i^j ^ fishiug-bank — now the favorite sporting-ground of 
san^ the metropolis — was discovered, about two or three leagues 
from Sandy Hook, on which, in a few hours, some twelve 
hundred " excellent good cod" were taken. At the east 
end of Long Island the whale fisheries promised great re- 
sults, and even in the harbor of j^ew York several whales 
were struck. More than twenty of them were taken dur- 
ing the spring. In partnership with some others, Lovelace 
Ship-build- built a ship, " by Thomas Hall's liouse,"t on the East River, 
York^ ^^ and a smaller one was launched at Gravesend. The gov- 
ernor's was " a very stronge and handsome vessell, but 
costly," named " the Good Fame, of New York," and was 
sent to Virginia, and afterward to Europe. It was noticed 
that there were at one time nine vessels in port whicli 
brought tobacco from Yirginia, and others were employed 
in carr}^ng more than ten thousand schepels of New York 
wheat to Boston. Several people in and about Boston 

• Aitzema, vi., 383-39S; Sylvius, i., 2-6; De Witt's Letters, iv., G09-651 ; Basnage, ii., 
8-13 ; D'Estrades, vi., 222, 229, 233, 24S-253, 267, 2S6, 291 ; Eapin, ii., 650, 651 ; Kennett, 
iii.,2T0; Anderson, ii., 405-497; Dali-ymple, i., 37; Burnet, i., 254; Temple, i., 312-3S4; 
Courtenay'9 Temple, i., 117-201, 433 ; ii., 440, 452 ; Davies, iii., 07-71 ; Hume, vi., 411-413; 
Uiigard, xii., 22S-232 ; Macaulay, i., 202, 203 ; Campbell's Chancellor.", iii., 304; Bancroft, 
ii., S25. 

t Hall's house was near the present Beekman Street, so named after William, 
of ICsopus, who purchased Hall's property in 1670 : see Valentine's New York, 72, 123 ; VaL 
Man., ISCO, 539, 540 ; Benson's Memoir, 129 ; ante, vol. i., 517. 


showed inclination to come and live in New York, one of chap. iv. 
tliem having bought five houses. Many others, attracted 
by the reports of Sylvester and Morris, and the earnest 
recommendations of Maverick, prepared to remove from 
Bermuda and Barbadoes, and bought houses and planta- 
tions. The genial hospitahty which had hitherto distin- 
guished New York seems to have beeij encouraged by 
Lovelace. " There is good correspondence," wrote Maver- 
ick to NicoUs, " kept between the English and Dutch ; and April. 
to keep it the closer, sixteen (ten Dutch and six English) m°the me-^ 
have had a constant meeting at each other's houses in '°p°'*- 
turns, twice every week in winter, and now in summer 
once. They meet at six at night, and part about eight 
or nine." Generous Madeira wine, and rum and bran- 
dy punch, "not compounded and adulterated as in En- 
gland," were the usual beverages of the colonial me- 

The city itself was described by Daniel Denton, of Ja- Aspect of 
maica, in the earliest separate account of New York ever New York. 
published, as " built most of brick and stone, and covered 
with red and black tile ; and the land being high, it gives 
at a distance a pleasing aspect to the spectators." The 
king's cosmographer, John Ogilby, more elaborately pic- 
tured it as " placed upon the neck of the Island Manhat- 
ans, looking towards the sea, encompassed with Hudson's 
River, which is six miles broad : the Town is compact and 
oval, with very fair streets and several good houses ; the 
rest are built much after the manner of Holland, to the 
number of about four hundred houses, which in those 
parts are held considerable : Upon one side of the town is 
James'-Fort, capable to lodge three hundred souldiers and 
Officers : It hath four bastions, forty pieces of cannon 
mounted ; the walls of stone, lined with a thick rampart 
of Earth; well accommodated with a spring of fresh wa- 
ter, always furnished with arms and ammunition against 
accidents : Distant fi'om the sea seven leagues, it affords a 
safe entrance, even to unskilful pilots: Under the town 
side, ships of any burthen may ride secure against any 
storms, the current of tha Biver being broken by the inter- 

• Col. Doc, iii., 182-1S5; Gen. Knt., iv., 140 ; Court of Apsizes, ii., 455, 561 ; Mass. H. S. 
ColL, XXX., SO ; xxxvii., 316-31!) ; Wolley'g New York, fS, 55. 


tHAi-. IV. position of a small Island, wliicli lies a mile distant from 

the Town."* 

April. "^ ' The " small island," just below the city, known as Nut- 

Governor-^s *®^^' ^^ *^^ Govemor's Island, " by the making of a garden. 

Island. and planting of several walks of fruit-trees on it," wrote 
Maverick to Xicolls, " is made a very pleasant place." The 
metropolis was admirably protected by nature. About ten 

Hell Gate, miles to the northeast was " a place called Hell Gate, which 
being a narrow passage, there runneth a violent stream, 
both upon flood and ebb, and in the middle lieth some Isl- 
ands of rocks, which the current sets so violently upon that 
it threatens present shipwreck; and upon the flood is a 
large Whirlpool, which continually sends forth a hideous 
roaring, enough to affright any stranger from passing any 
further, and to wait for some Charon to conduct him 
through ; yet to those that are well acquainted, little or no 
danger; yet a place of great defence against any enemy 
coming in that way, wliich a small fortification would ab- 
solutely pre^•ent, and necessitate them to come in at the 
west end of Long Island, by Sandy Hook, where Nutten 
Island doth force them witliin command of the Fort at New 
York, wliich is one of the best pieces of defence in the 
North parts of America."! 

Long isi- Long Island, although tliought by Maverick to be " very 
poore and inconsiderable," was described by Denton, of Ja- 
maica, as almost a paradise. Crops of all kinds came up 

* Daniel Denton'a "Brief Description of Kew York," London, IGTO (republished by W. 
Gowans, New York, 1S45), p. 2; Ogilby's America, 1G71, 169, 170. Ogilby'a account ia 
compiled chiefly from Denton and from Montanu?, who seems to have described the Dutch 
engraving of New Amsterdam, rather than the reality of New York, as follows : " On the 
Manhattan's Island stands New Amsterdam, five [Dutch] miles from the ocean. Ships run 
up to the harbour there in one tide from the ocean. The city has an earthen fort. Witliin 
the fort, upon the outermost bastion towards the river, stand a wind-mill and a very high 
* staff, ou wliich a flag is hoisted whenever any vessel is seen in Godyn's [the lower] Bay. 
The church rises with a lofty doubled roof, between which a square tower looms up. On 
the one side is the prison, and on the other side of the church is the Governor's house. Out- 
side of the walls are the houses, mostly built by Amsterdammers. At the waterside stand 
the gallows and the whip. A handsome city tavern adorns the furthest' point. Between 
the fort and this taveiTi is a row of proper dwelling-houses, among which are conspicuous 
the warehouses of the West India Company." Jlontanus, 123 ; N. Y. Doc. Hist, iv., 75. I 
do not quote the description of Edward Melton, Amsterdam, IGSl, who was in New York 
from 2 July, 1CG8, to C July, 1CG9 — (and, being an Oxfurd scholar, ought to have written an 
original account) — because he merely copies Montanus. John Josselyn, Gent., who publish- 
ed his two voy.ages to New England in 1G74, describes New York as "built with Dutch 
brick, alla-7noderna, the meanest house therein being valued at one hundred pounds. To 
the landward it is compassed with a wall of good thickness. At the entrance of the River 
is an isl.and well fortified, and hath command of any ship that shall attempt to pass without 
leave:" see extract in X. Y. II. S. Coll. (ii.), i., "M ; also Oldmixon, i., 239, 271. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 1S3; Denton, 2 ; Benson's Mew., f4, 07; cntc, vol. i., 5C, 267. 


ill plenty. Many fruits grew spontaneously, especially cnAr.iv. 
strawberries ; of which there was " such abundance in 
June, that the fields and woods are died red : AVTiich the 
country-people perceiving, instantly arm themselves with 
bottles of wine, cream, and sugar, and, instead of a coat of 
Male, every one takes a Female upon his horse behind him, 
and so rushing ^dolently into the fields, never leave 'till stniwhcr- 
they have disrob'd them of their red colours, and tiu*ned trout, 
them into the old habit." Trout and other delicious fish 
abounded in the crystal streams which " keep their course 
throughout the year ;" and multitudes of seals, producing 
" an excellent oyle," sported on the beaches. The vast 
smooth plains on the island encouraged the breeding of 
swift horses ; and upon that at Hempstead, Nicolls had al- 
ready estabhshed a race-course, and directed that a yearly 
plate should be run for. Lovelace now ordered that trials i Apiii. 
of speed should take place every May ; and the justices of 
Hempstead were directed to receive subscriptions from all 
disposed to run " for a crown of silver, or the value thereof 
in good wheat." The swiftest horse was to be rewarded 
by a silver cup. The general training being ordered for is May. 
the same time, the governor attended it himself.* 

An extraordinary panic now occurred at the eastern end panic on 
of Long Island, The Indians of " Meontawket" or Mon- andf ^''" 
tank, who were tributary to Ninigret, the liarragansett 
sachem, being in arrear, collected a quantity of wampum, 
which, with an old gun-barrel, they sent over to the chief, 
who received the messengers graciously, and pardoned the 
defaulters. This at once excited suspicions of a great In- 
dian plot. The constable of Easthampton required the 
Montauks to give up their arms, which they reluctantly 
did. The clergyman James, with several of the inhabit- 
ants of Southold, wrote to Major John Mason, of Connecti- 29 jnne. 
cut, one of the Pequod war heroes, and to Lovelace, charg- 
ing Ninigret with organizing an extensive conspiracy to 
cut off all the English. The governor at once communi- 5 juiy. 
cated with the Rhode Island authorities, who directed that 
Ninigret should be brought before them at Newport. But 

' Col. Doe., iii., 1T4; Denton'.s N. Y., 2-0: Thompson, i., 271, 272; ii., 63; Dunlap, i , 
110; Ord., Wan-., etc., ii., 416; Farmer imd Moore's Coll., iii., 183; Oldmixon, i., 275; 
Mite, p. 7i. 


Chap. IV. the sachem explained eveiy thing so satisfactorily that the 
court " saw no iiist ^rounds of iealoiisy as to his inten- 

23 July tions." The whole story was evidently a " panic fear of 

24 August some over-credulous persons." In order, however, to pre- 
sxovem. veut future jealousy, the Montauk chiefs soon afterward 

acknowledged the governor of New York as " their cliief- 
est sachem."* 

As the Navigation Laws prevented direct trade between 
Holland and New York, the Duke of York asked of his 
brother that " such of His Majesty's subjects in Scotland 
as shall be induced to take conditions as planters at New 
Scotch York" might be allowed to go there and trade in Scotch 
"'"^^' vessels to the West Indies and other plantations. The 
r> April, king accordingly authorized two Scotch ships to trade be- 
tween Scotland and New York. The farmers of the cus- 
23 April, toms objected that this would be a breach of the Naviga- 
tion Laws. It was replied that the duke's design was for 
the general good of the king's " late acquired dominions," 
and that natural-lDorn British subjects should be encour- 
aged to emigrate to New York and its dependencies, so as 
to counterbalance its " forraigne" population, which con- 
xot allow- sisted of Dutch, Swedes, and Finns. The objections of the 
to Nfiw farmers of the English revenue seem to have defeated the 
enterprise. In expectation of their arrival, Lovelace made 

25 July, arrangements to settle two hundred Scotch families at 

Esopus ; but no ship came from Scotland this year.f 
septem. Lovclacc uow ordcrcd that " the garrison at the Esopus 
toa.'" '^ ' shall be henceforth disbanded and dismissed of their milita- 
ry employment, they being a needless charge to the Duke." 
n Septem. A commissiou and instructions were likewise issued to 
Counselor Kalph Wliitfield, Captain John Manning, Captain 
Thomas Chambers, William Beekman, Christopher Beres- 
f ord, and Henry Pawling, to regulate affairs at Esopus and 
the new villages adjoining. The commissioners accord- 
17 Pcptem. ingly went to Esopus and organized two new villages, the 
Marble- farthest of which they named " Marbletown," from the 
blue limestone which abounds there ; the nearer one they 
Hurley. Called " Hurley," after Lovelace's ancestral home on the 

• Ord.,AVaiT.,Lett., ii.,461, 51!>; Court of Assizes, ii., 431 ; R. I. Rec, ii., 2G3-2GS ; Col. 
Rcc. Conn., li.,54S-551; Thompson, i., !)2, 298-300; Wood, 05, 00, T9 ; Hough's Pliilip's 
War, 33-37 ; Arnold's R. I., i., 338, 339 ; ante, vol. i., 271, 550-554. 

t Col. Doc, iii., ISO, ISl, 182. ISC ; Ord., Warr., etc., ii., 4S2-4S4. . 


Thames. A few days afterward, " the town formerly call- chap. iv. 
ed Sopes was named Kingston" by the commissioners, in 
farther compliment to the governor, whose mother's family 55 ggptem. 
had a seat at Kingston, I'Isle, near Wantage, in Berkshire. ^'°s*"°°- 
Beresford was appointed chief magistrate of Hurley and 
Marbletown, and Pawhng officer over the Indians. Lewis 
du Bois and Albert Heymans, who was now restored to New offi- 
f a^'or, were made overseers for Hurley ; John Biggs and '^ 
Frederick Hussey for Marbletown ; and Thomas Chambers 
and William Beekman for Kingston. The " Duke's Laws" 
were directed to be enforced, and instructions were given 
to the new officers respecting their conduct toward the In- 
dians. Separate lots in the two new villages were parcel- Lands 
ed out to the disbanded soldiers. The governor having l^opiL ^ 
specially directed that " a very good provision at the fur- 
thest dorp" be made for Mrs. Ann Brodhead, " in regard of 
her great charge, and of her being a commissioned offi- 
cer's widow," a tract at Marbletown was allotted to her.* 

In the mean time, Lovelace, sorely troubled that no in- 
structions had come to him from England, in the absence 
of which he conceived " the whole fi-ame of government at 
this time standing still," prorogued the Assizes from Oc-23Septem. 
tober to N^ovember. His reasons were that " new Instruc- prorogued, 
tions and dii'ections from His Eoyal Highness" were daily 
expected from England, " and the Generall Com-t of As- 
sizes being thought the most proper place for the publish- 
ing of business of such publique concern."f 

Not long afterward Delavall returned from England, 
bringing the expected dispatches. NicoUs having explain- 
ed the condition of New York, the duke caused a seal to be 
engraved for the province, and another for the city, whioli 4 jniy. 
he directed should be used for all public pui-poses. James and^lty 
also presented to the city authorities a silver mace, and ^^^^' 

* Council Min.,iii., 11; Ord., Warr.,etc.,ii., 530-53G; Col. MS?., xxii., 09, 1-2T; Ulster 
II. S. Coll., i., 50, 51 ; ojite, p. 123, note. Descendants of Captain Brodhead have continued 
to reside at Marbletown, where, in 1770, his great-grandson, Captain Charles W. Brodhead, 
raised a company of grenadiers, in command of whicli he was present at the surrender of Gen- 
eral Burgoyne at Saratoga, in October, 1777 : American Archives, v.,13S2; Journals of N. 
Y. Prov. Congress, i., 295, 374 ; ii., 130, 150 ; ante^ S9 ; X. Y. H. S. ColL (1S6S), 1S5. 

t Ord., Warr., etc., ii., 504; Court of Assizes, ii., 414, 415; S. Hazard's Ann. Penn., 37C ; 
CouncilJoumals, i.. Int., vi. It seems that Alderman John Lawrence, while in London in 
the spring of 1C69, had been asked by Nicolls to take letters from Jiim to New York ; but on 
Ills calling for them, " Coll. Nicolls being not out of bed, and his man unwilling to awake 
him, he came away without them." So New York, through a valet's scruples, h.'id no letters 
by Lawrence : Col. Doc, iii., 1S3 ; Mass. II. S. Coll., xxxvii., 319. 


Chap. IV. sevGii gowns f 01* the mayor, aldermen, and sheriff, and sent 
them a letter acknowledo-ing the satisfaction which their 
10 July ' loyal address had given him. Lovelace presented these to 
a October. ii^Q corporation in behalf of the duke, who, " although he 
esteems some of these but as the gaiety and circumstantial 
part of Government, yet, you may be assured as to what is 
more essential and substantial, it shall receive all encour- 
agement and hearty assistance from him."* 
The city Thus eucouragcd, the corporation petitioned the duke 
for for that — as the limited permission for Dutch ships to trade 
between Holland and New York had been withdrawn — a 
free commerce might be allowed to the province, accord- 
ing to the Navigation Acts, by vessels " touching in some 
port in England as they came from Holland, and paying 
His Majesty's customs there ; as also toucliing in England 
as they go for Holland." This was indispensable if the 
Indian trade was to be retained, which required " Dutch 
duffels and blancoates," not made in England, and whicli, 
if prohibited, would be procured through Canada, to the 
injury of New York.f 

Since the departure of Nicolls, Maverick had lived in 
5 July. New York, whence he wrote that he liad never received any 
thing " to the value of sixpence, one horse excepted, whicli 
Mr. Winthrop presented me witli, among the rest. And 
what I had by His Majesty's order, I have spent as much, 
since I came over, and four hundred pounds besides in En- 
gland, in prosecution of this design." Nicolls now obtain- 
12 .Inly, ed for his former associate the gift, from the Duke of York, 
of a " house in the Broadway" of the city. In acknowl- 
Liootober. edging this favor, Maverick urged Nicolls and Cartwright 
onN.™' t» do all they could for the relief of their "poor friends in 
England, j^^^ England," whose spirits were drooping in the " bond- 
age they live," and who were " now in a far worse condi- 
tion" than that in wliich the royal commissioners had 
found them. The king, in truth, had, b}^ this time, be- 
come "very intent about settelment of his coUonies" in 

* \. Y. City Tioc, vi , 4SS-490; Mass. U. S. Coll., xxxvii., 316, 310; Vnl. Man., IS^O, 
3-13 ; 18,50, 490 ; 1853, 380 ; Doc. Hist., iii., 241 ; iv., 1, * ; ante, p. 142. The seiil of the inov- 
ince of New York, thug aythorized by the Duke of York's warrant of 4 July, 16C9, to be UFCd 
for all public instrumentp, was so ufed until replaced by the new Beal which James the ?cr- 
ond substituted for it on 14 Angus^t, 1(!RT : Col. Doc, iii., 42T. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 1ST; Val. Man., 1850, 423. 


America, and a select council was appointed to consider coAr. iv. 
their affairs.* TfificT 

The Duke of York, by conviction a Roman Catliolic, 
felt a sympathy with all who dissented from the Establish- 
ed Church of England. This feeling led him, in apparent 
contradiction to the arbitrary impulses of his nature, to be- 
come the friend of religious toleration. Soon after NicoUs 
came to New York, he allowed the Lutherans in the prov- 
ince to send to Germany for a minister. The Reverend 
Jacobus Fabricius accordingly came over, and Lovelace 20 Febr'y. 
gave him leave to exercise his office as long as he and his mtheran 
people should behave themselves orderly. At first Fabri- ^'"'^ "' 
cius labored at Albany ; but his conduct was so offensive to 19 Api-n. 
the magistrates and the Dutch congregation that the gov- 
ernor was obliged to suspend him from his functions there, 2s iiay. 
allowing him, nevertheless, to preach at New York. On 
receiving his dispatches fi'om England, Lovelace wrote to 13 October, 
the Albany magistrates "that Ilis Roj'al Highness doth 
appro^'e of the toleration given to the Lutheran Church Religious 
in tliese parts. I do therefore expect that you will live " ®'^ '""^ 
friendly and peaceably with those of that profession, giv- 
ing them no disturbance in the exercise of their religion ; 
as they shall receive no countenance in, but, on the con- 
trar}^, strictly answer anj'- disturbance they shall presume 
to give unto any of you, in your divine worship."! 

The provincial ministers of the Reformed Dutch Church Ministers 
at this time were the Domines Schaats at Albany, Polhe-form'ed'^' 
mus at Elatbush and Brooklyn, and Megapolensis and church. 
Drisius, colleagues at New York. Blom's place at Esopus 
remained vacant. Samuel Megapolensis had returned to 9 avvh 
Holland in the spring, under a pass from the governor. 
The following winter, Domine Johannes Megapolensis was December. 
" snatched away by death," after twenty-seven years' minis- 
terial service in the pro^dnce ; and the metropolitan church 
was left in care of Drisius, whose declining health almost 
prevented his doing active duty. Privileged by the articles 
of capitulation, the Dutch churches in New York maintain- 
ed their former discipline, and remained for a century in 

* Col. Doc, iii., 1S4, 1S5; Mas?. H. S. Coll., xxxvii., 311, 31C; ante, p. 54. 
t Gen. Knt., i., 71 ; Ord., AVarr., etc., ii., 335, 394, 423 ; Court of As.sizes, ii., 424 ; S. Haz- 
ard, 373; Dunlaii,i.,120, 12G, 4S4; Munsell,lv., 24; ciJife, vol. i., p. C34, 642, 65C, 6S1. 


Chap. IV. direct subordination to tlie mother Classis of Amsterdam, 

in Holland.* 

4 Kovem." ^* ^^^® Court of Assizes it was ordered that uniformity 
wleAisles. ^^ Weights and measures should be enforced throughout 
the province. But as there were not enough English stand- 
IQ^Q ard weights and measures in the country, the governor was 
1 January. obHged to suspcud the execution of the law by his procla- 
mation, " sealed with the seal of the colon}^"! 
1669. At the same Assizes petitions from East and "West 
mltioM Chester, Hempstead, Oyster Bay, Flushing, Jamaica, New- 
isi^d"""^ town, and Gravesend, against several grievances, were pre- 
towus. sented. These grievances were " that what was promised 
upon our submission by Governor Nicolls and the rest of 
His Majesty's Commissioners should be made good to us : 
— Namely, That we should l)e protected by His Majesty's 
lawes, and enjoy all such priviledges as other, His Majes- 
ty's subjects in America, do injoj^e ; — which pri-sdiedges 
consist in ad\'ising about and approving of all such lawes 
with the Governor and his council as may be for the good 
and benefit of the common-wealth, not repugnant to the 
Lawes of England, by such deputies as shall be yearly 
chosen hj tlie freeholders of every Towne or parish ; and 
likewise to be informed w^hat is required of us His Majes- 
ty's subjects by virtue of the Commission granted from His 
Royal Highness the Duke of York." Some of the smaller 
grievances complained of were remedied. But Lovelace 
had no power to grant the demand for an Assembly to 
make laws with the governor and council. Indeed, Nic- 
oUs had distinctly refused it at the Hempstead meeting in 
the spring of 1665. To the statement of the petitioners 
Answer of tlic Court of Assizcs replied : " It doth not appear that 
of Assizes. Coloucl NicoUs made any such promise; and the Govern- 
or's Instructions directing him to make no alterations in 
the Lawes of the Government settled before his arrivall, 
they cannot expect his Honor can comply with them there- 
in ; — And for their desire to know what is required of them, 
there is nothing required of them but obedience and sub- 
mission to the Lawes of the Government, as apj)ears by His 

* Ord., Wan-., etc., ii., 3S1 ; Corr. CI. Amst. ; Col. Poc , ii., 251 ; iii., \S0 ; vii., 5SG ; X. 
Y. H. S. Coll., iii. (ii.), 144, 145 ; ante, vol. i., G14. 724, 702. 

t Court of Assizes, ii., 22C; Col. MSS., xxii., SS, 00, 9S; Munscll, iv., S, 0, 11 ; N. V. II. 
S. Coll., i., 421. 


Royal Highness's Commission, which hath often been read cuap, iv. 
mito them."* 

In the spring of this year a Mohawk embassy asked The mo 
Courcelles, at Quebec, that other missionaries mie-ht beV'^'^^'^- 

. -r-, , o sion. 

sent to assist Pierron, and that their nation might be pro- 
tected from the Mahicans by the King of France, to whom 
their country now belonged " by the force of arms." Fa- 
ther Francis Boniface was accordingly selected to help in 
the mission, the prosperity of which, piously attributed to 
the death of Jogues at Caghnawaga, seemed to verify the 
words of TertuUian, that " the blood of martyrs is the seed 
of Christians."! ^ 

But the Mohawk country was a battle-ground. At day- is August. 
break, toward the end of summer, three hundred Mahican ^^a^'rlvkh 
warriors attacked the palisaded village of Caghnawaga, hawks!" 
which the Mohawks bravely defended, while their squaws 
made balls for their firelocks. The news was quickly car- 
ried to Tionnontoguen, and at eight o'clock a large force, 
accompanied by Pierron, set out to relieve their beleaguer- 
ed friends. The enemy had retired, however, after two 
hours' fighting ; and the Mohawks, descending the river in 
canoes, hid themselves below the Mahicans in an ambus- 
cade which commanded the road to Schenectady, at a place 
called " Kinaquariones." A conflict followed, in which the 
Mohawks put the Mahicans to flight. Tlie Mohawks then 19 August 
induced the Oneidas, Onondagas, and Cayugas to make 
common cause; and four hundred confederate warriors 
went to surprise a Mahican fort "situated near Manhat- 
tan." But this enterprise failed, and the Iroquois came 
home with two wounded. They quickly appealed to Love- 21 October. 
lace, who — anxious that they should hunt beaver rather and wiL 
than fight — endeavored, in concert with Winthrop, to make mlke*'^*° 
peace between them and the Mahicans.:): ^®^'^' 

Fremin, the New York Jesuit superior, now summoned 
his missionaiy brethren to meet him at Onondaga. Pier- 
ron from the Mohawks, Bruyas from Oneida, Garnier and 

* Court of Assizes iL, 52S-234; Journals Leg Council, i., Introd., vi., vii. ; Wood, 91; 
Thompson, 1., 145, 146 ; Dunlap, i., 120; ante, p. 33, 60, 09. 

t Relation, 1GG9, 2-6 ; S'.iea, 2G4; rmfc, 129 ; i.,423. 

t Relation, ICTn, 23-27; 1671, IT; Col. MSS., xxii., 132 ; Court of Assizes, ii., 420; Ord., 
Warr.,etc.,li.,4S5; Munsell, iv., 10, 20 ; Mass. II. S. Coll., i., 166, 16T; xxx., 79 ; Holmes, 
i., 352 ; Col. Kcc. Conn , ii., 549. 

IL— L 



Chap. IV. 


29 August. 
council at 
G Septem. 
27 Septem. 
with Fre- 
mln among 
the Sene- 

1.% M.iy. 
Talon in 

Jesuit ex- 
in the 

Millet of Onondaga, and Carheil from Cayuga, accordingly 
met Fremin, from the Senecas, in council. After deliber- 
ating for a week, the superior detached Gamier to assist 
him among the distant Senecas, leaving Millet alone in 
charge of the Onondagas. On- reaching their remote sta- 
tion, Fremin assigned Garnier to the village of Gandachi- 
ragou, himself remaining in charge of the mission of " Saint 
Michael," at Gandagarae. This village was composed of 
refugees fi'om three different nations, the Neutres or Atti- 
wandaronk, and the Hurons, which had been conquered by 
the Iroquois.* 

Talon now went for a short vjsit to France, where he in- 
duced Colbert to instruct Courcelles to visit the Iroquois 
country at least once in two years, with all his forces, so as 
to impress the savages with respect for the French. Six 
companies of the Carignan regiment, which had returned 
with Tracy, were also ordered back to Canada.f 

Meanwhile Talon's energy had aroused enterprise in 
Canada. The Jesuit Father Claude AUouez had, in 1665, 
visited Lakes Huron and Superior, or Tracy, by way of the 
Ottawa River, and had heard of "the great River called 
Messipi." In 1667 he was again on his way to the "West 
with Father Louis IS^icolas. The next year Nicolas return- 
ed ; and Allouez, after a short visit to Quebec in 1669, 
went back to the Falls of Saint Mary, accompanied by Fa- 
ther Claude Dablon, where, with Father James Marquette, 
who had meanwhile arrived there from the Ottawas, they 
established a mission among the Chippewas.:}: 

Up to this time the disciples of Loyola had been the pi- 
oneers of western exploration in New France, Their hon- 
ors were now to be shared by others. A young man of a 
good family at Rouen, Robert Cavelier de la Salle, after 
studying with the Jesuits, had emigrated to Canada in 
1667, and had established liimself on a fief granted to him, 

• Relation, 1641, 72 ; 1G51, 4 ; 1 f>70, 26, 45, 46, 69, 72-77 ; Shea, 270, 200, 291. In Barber 
and Howe's N. Y. Hi't. Coll., 393, and Clark's Onondaga, i., 194, is an extract from Governor 
Clinton's Memoir, giving an account of the massacre of a French and Spanish party at the 
Butternut Creek, near the present village of Jaraesville, on the first of November, 16G9. 
The story rests on the traditionary statements of some Onondaga sachems, and is not al- 
luded to in the contemporary relations of the Jesuits. 

t Col. Doc, ix., 62, 83, 7S7 ; Cliarlevoix, ii., 166, ISS, ISO ; flarnrau, i., 19S-201. 

t Relation, 1G67, 2-26; 1668,21; 1GC9, 17-20; Charlevoix, ii., lOT-176, ISO, 1S7; La Po- 
therie, ii., 124; Bancroft, iii , 149-152; Shea's .Missions, 357-3G1 ; Discovery of the Mi??., 
xxiv., xlvii., 67, 6S, 63 ; Sparks's Life of I>a Salle, 2, 3. 


which he named Saint Sulpice, at the head of the Rapids of chap. iv. 
Saint Louis, just above Montreal.* Enterprising, medita- 
tive, and abounding in courage and resources, La Salle 
thought that there must be a route to China and Japan 
through the Saint Lawrence and the unknown countries to 
the south and west of the great lakes. He talked so much 
about discovering it, that his home on the Saint Lawrence 
got the derisive name of " La Chine," which it bears to this Lasaiie 
day. Champlain had early heard of a great dividing cat- chine'/' 
aract; and in 1641 the Jesuit missionaries had argued that 
if the French were once the masters of the shore of Lake 
Ontario nearest to the Iroquois, they could easily go up 
by the Saint Lawrence beyond " Onguiahra" to the farther 
savage tribes. The information which La Salle gained 
from " many savages of different nations" satisfied him 
that " by means of a great River, which the Iroquois call 
Ilohio, emptying into the Meschasipi (which in the Illinois The "Mes. 
tongue signifies Great River), one could penetrate even to Greauuv^-'^ 
the sea." In the summer of 1669, La Salle, encouraged '^^' 
by Courcelles, joined the Sulpitian fathers Fran9ois Dol- 
lier de Casson and Rene de Galinee, of Montreal — whose 
brethren had already established a mission at Quinte, on 
the northern shore of Lake Ontario — " in an expedition to c juiy. 
explore a passage which they expected to discover, com- Doiiier,"' 
municating with Japan and China." They proposed to nL explore 
visit " divers Indian nations situated along a great River, t^t^o^a^a " 
called by the Iroquois, Ohio, and by the Ottawas, Missis- ^"°" 
sippi." Ascending the Saint Lawrence in canoes, they 
coasted along the southern shore of Lake Ontario, and vis- 
ited the Seneca village just at the time Fr^min was absent Auguct. 
at Onondaga. After observing the Falls of Niagara, La 
Salle was seized with a violent fever, which obliged him to septem. 
return to Montreal. Dollier and Galinee, hoAvever, con- 
tinued their explorations, and visited the country between 
Lakes Ontario and Erie, of all of which they took possession Possession 
in the name of the king. The royal arms were erected, the^"^ ^ 
and a map was prepared showing the new discoveries. '^^^'^ ' 

* La. Salle does not appear to have aetually entered the Society of Jesus. Mr. Shea in- 
forms mo that Father F. ;\Iartin, of Quebec, could not find La S.alle'a name in the Catalogues 
of the Order, all of wliicli lie examined. See also Shea's note to liis " Early Voyages," etc.: 
Munsell, 1S61. Faillou, iii., 22S, says that La Salle was a "novice," by becoming which he 
lost his patrimony. 



(jhap. IV. These events occurred while Talon was yet in France. 
But the act of possession, drawn up by the Montreal Sul- 
pitians, was held to be good evidence of the French title 
to the countries around Lakes Ontario and Erie.''^ 

Intercourse overland with the Delaware had become so 
constant, that a grant was obtained in 1668 from Governor 
jegow'sinn Cartcrct by Peter Jegow, who had been a member of the 
jpointfoii 'New Jersey Assembly of that year, to take up the land at 
wai "^^^' " Lazy Point," now known as Burlington, opposite Mattine- 
cunk, or " Chygoes" Island, and keep a house there for the 
21 May. entertainment of travelers. Lovelace now ordered that all 
the inhabitants on the Delaware should take out new pat- 
ents from himself. WilUam Tom, who had come over 
with Nicolls, and who had served as commissary tliere, 
3 August, was appointed collector, and families from Maryland were 
affairs. eucouraged to settle on the creek near Apoquinimy. This, 
however, excited the jealousy of the Maryland authorities, 
and Wliite, their surveyor general, coming to I^ewcastle, 
Lord Baiti- laid claim " to all the west side of Delaware River, as be- 
ciaim." longing to the Lord Baltimore." Maryland also sent per- 
sons to exercise jurisdiction at the Hoarkill, but none of 
the inhabitants would submit to it until the matter should 
be decided in England. ISTicolls had written that the ques- 
tion about the Delaware territory, which was to be trans- 
ferred to Berkeley and Carteret in exchange for New Jer- 
sey, would be settled " in some short time ;" and Lovelace 
15 October. now dispatclied to the duke "the original claim" made by 
White in behalf of Lord Baltimore by a ship " bound away 
for London."f 

Disaffection had meanwhile appeared among the people 
on the Delaware. A Swede, whose real name was Marcus 

* Faillon, Hi., 151, 189, 228, 229, 284-30T, 312-314; Col. Doc, ix., 66, SO, 81, 138, 305, 335, 
382,706,787,789; Champlain's Map, 1602 ; Eelation, 1041,71,72; 16G8, 4; Hennepin's Deac. 
de la Louiaiane, 2, 3 ; Charlevoix, ii., 263, 264; Catalogue of Library of Tarliament, Canada, p. 
1615; Eaynal,viii,,145; Kalm,in Pinkerton,xiii., 699; Bancroft, iii., 122,129, 162; Sparlcs'a 
Life of La Salle, 5-7; Shea'a De.?c. Miss., 83, 84, 100; note on Washington's Diary, 1753, 
320; ante, p. IIS ; vol. i., p. 344. The statement in Col. Doc, ix., 335, and Doc. Hist., i., 
150, that La Salle visited Niagara, and " established quarters and some settlers there," in 
1GG8, seems to be a clerical error for 1678. 

t Records of Upland Court, 140, 141; Elizabethtown Bill, 4; Ord., Warr., etc., ii., 234, 
267,208,269; Col. Doc, iii., 185, 186; Col. MSS.,xx., 2,3; S. Hazard, 373, 374, 396 402, 44?, 
466 ; Gordon, 22 ; Gazetteer, 112, 113 ; S. Smith, 69, 74, 93 ; ante, p. 150 ; vol. i., 18.3. It ap- 
pears that New Jersey was understood to be restored to New York, from Newark Town Kec- 
ords, p. 21, that ou 2Sth July, 1669, the town appointed Crane and Treat " to goe over to 
York, to advise with Col. Lovelace concerning our standing, wliether we are designed to be 
part of the Duke's colony or not :" compare Mass. H. S. Coll., xxxvii., 319. 


Jacobsen, but who pretended to be a son of the famous chap. iv. 
Count Konigsmark,'"* went about uttering seditious speech- 
es, and with Henry Coleman, a Finn, endeavored to excite pg^^n ^^ 
an insurrection against the English authority, " They pre- ^^?kiror 
tended an expectation of some Swedish ships to come and g *|g^°° 
reduce that place." The news reaching New York, Love- 
lace ordered the arrest of the ringleaders, and the confis- 2 August. 
cation of Coleman's estate if he should abscond among the 
Indians. Jacobsen, or " the long Swede," was soon taken, 15 septem. 
and kept in custody until he and his associates could be 
tried by special commission from New York. " For the 
rest of the poor, deluded sort," added the governor in his Loveiace-s 
directions to Carr, " I think the advice of their own coun- 
trymen is not to be despised, who, knowing their temper, 
could prescribe a method for keeping them in order, which 
is severity, and laying such taxes on them as may not give 
them liberty to entertain any other thoughts but how to 
discharge them."t "I perceive the little ■ Domine'!^. hath 
played the trumpeter to this disorder. I refer the quality 
of his punishment to your discretion." 

The council at New York ordered that although " the is October. 
long Swede" deserved to die as a rebel, yet, as others were 
involved with him, he should be whipped, branded, and 
sold at Barbadoes. Secretary Nicolls and some others 
were commissioned to go to the Delaware and' try the22Novem. 
insurgents. This they did, and brought back to New York e Decem. 
Jacobsen, the ringleader, in irons, who was temporarily 20 Decem. 
imprisoned in the City Hall. The next month " the long 1670. 
Swede" was sent to Barbadoes and sold as a slave. Cole- ThelnsuV- 
man, his accessary, lived for several years among the In- fenced^^"' 
dians, and afterward became a landholder in Delaware.§ 

Another troublesome person, William Douglas, was sent ^^i^^'a"^ 


• Evelyn, ii., 163, 174; Reresby, 139-143 ; Kennett, ill, 402; Eapin, iL, 72C ; Hargrave's 
State Trials, iii., 460. 

t It appears from this that the Swedes themselves advised severity and heavy taxes as a 
means of preserving order on the Delaware. Yet Wood (95), Thompson (i., 149), Dunlap 
(i., 121), and Bancroft (ii., 321) give Lovelace the credit of the idea, and seem to make the 
apeciiic instructions which he gave to Carr at Newcastle his general principle of government 
in New York. « 

t " The little Domine" here referred to was Laurentius Carolus Lokenius, the Lutheran 
minister of the Swedish Church at Crane Hook, near Wilmington: ante, p. 140; vol. L, p. 
5T7, 606, 616, 734, 

§ Council Minutes, iii., 13-10; Ord., Warr., etc., ii., 500, 503-506; Court of Assizes, ii., 
440,460, 464: Col. MS.>., xx., 4-^ ; xxviii., 163; Col. Doc., iii., ISO, 343; S. Smith, 53, 64; 
S. Hazard, 375-379 ; Dunlap, ii., App. cxvii. ; G. Smith's Del. Co., 93. 


cnAp. IV. to K ew York, whence lie was banished to New England, 

and warned not to come ao-ain within the duke's territories. 
1 fiYO 
'>G Feb'y " "^ court was also established at the Hoarkill, and Martin 

?5Mareh' Ki'^gi^r appointed collector of the customs there, which 
Customs at wcrc fixcd at ten per cent. This duty, however, was soon 
%v-arc. ^ *" abolished, upon condition that liquors were to be sold to 
..CO er. ^j^^ Indians very cautiously, and no prejudice be done to 
10 Noveiu. the trade at Newcastle, where Carr was directed to be vig- 
ilant, and send at once to New York for assistance in case 
of need." 

Lovelace now accomplished " the most memorable act" 
of his administration. After the return of Nicolls to Lon- 
don in the autumn of 1668, Staten Island having been " ad- 
judged to belong to New York," Lovelace took measures 
for its settlement, as it was considered " the most commo- 
diosest seate and richest land" in America. Its chief sach- 
em, in the summer of 1669, had solemnly renewed the cov- 
enant between its aborigines and the English and the Iro- 
T Aoiii. quois. Several of its sachems, however, insisted that they 
were " the very true, lawful, and sole Indian owners" of the 
island, who were told that their predecessors had sold it to 
sfntenisi- the Dutcli. To quict their claims, satisfactory presents 

And Dur- •/ -L 

chused were promised ; and they accordingly executed a deed by 
Indiana for which, for a quantity of wampum, coats, kettles, guns, 
KApTn.' powder, lead, axes, hoes, and knives, they conveyed to 
Lovelace, in behalf of the Duke of York, " all that Island 
lying and being in the Hudson's Riverf — commonly call- 
ed Staten Island, and by the Indians Aquehonga Manack- 
nong — ha\dng on the south the Bay and Sandy Point, on the 
north the River and the City of New York on Manhattan's 
Island, on the east Long Island, and on the west the main- 
land of After Coll, or New Jersey." Possession was for- 
mally given " by turf and twigg ;" and it was covenanted that 
on the first of May in each year the Indians should go to 
Fort James and acknowledge their sale ; which was done.:]: 

* Council Minutes, iii., 17, 32 ; Court of Assizes, ii., 475, 611 ; S. Smith, 55, 56 ; Hazard's 
Keg. Penn., i.,7G; Ann. Penn., 379, 3S0, 3S2; Proud, L, 130; Whitehead, 60, ^lo/e. Itseerai 
that Douglas, not liking bis banishment into New England, returned to Newcastle in 1673, 
whence he was sent to New York, and from there was shipped in February, 1673, to Barba- 
docp, to be sold : Gen. Ent., iv., 244; Council Minutes, iii., 131; S. Hazard, 403. 

t By this it appears that the New York Hudson was then understood to encircle Staten 
Inland : in other words, that "the Kills" north of that island were a part of the great Hud- 
Hon River. 

t Mus^'. H. S. Coll , xxxv;i., 315, 317 ; MunscU, iv., 9 ; Chalmer.Vs Ann , i., 5:9 ; Council 


As soon as the river opened, Captain Dudley Lovelace, chap.iv. 
with Cortelyou, Beekman, Beresford, and Pawling, met at 
Kingston, under a commission of the governor, and grant- ^^ jj^,^,,' 
ed lands at Hurley and Marbletown, chiefly to the dis- jP,^^,^^*'''- 
charged soldiers, who were required not to sell them for *ff^"""- 
three years. Town boundaries were established, local reg- 
ulations were made, and Beresford was sworn chief ofRcer 
of Hurley and Marbletown. At the adjournment of the ii Apni. 
commission the laws were read, and an artillery salute was 
tired " when the president took horse to depart for New 

Captain Baker had meanwhile behaved so badly that he 
was bound over to answer at the Assizes ; but the govern- 
or, finding it " not only difficult, but too tedious" to decide 
the case at ISTew York, referred it to the Albany masris- commis- 

, , sionera 

trates, with Delavall and Lovelace as commissioners. The sent to ai- 
latter were instructed, among other things, to make a peace ii April. 
between the Mohawks and Mahicans, arrange the garrison, 
the excise, and the Indian trade, and inform the magis- 
trates that the governor looked upon the Dutch Churcli 
and ministry, which was " found established" by Nicolls 
and himself, as the parochial church of Alban}-, which was 
to be maintained at their discretion, by .tax or otherwise, 
" and that no inhabitant, of what opinion soever, be ex- 
empt, but bear his proportion." 

The result of Baker's case was his dismissal from mill- u May. 
tary employment " at Albany and elsewhere." As his 
place was one of the most important in the province, the 
governor promoted Ensign Sylvester Salisbury to fill the is Juiy. 
vacancy, with a commission as lieutenant of infantry ; and ceeded by 
Dudley Lovelace naturally succeeded to Salisbury's en- ''*° "'^' 
signcy on the duke's establishment, f 

Minute.'!, iii., 10-25; Court of Assize'', ii., 51S; Land Papers, i.,S4; Patents, iv., 62; Val. 
Man., 1S5T, 544-547 ; Hist. M,ig., x., 375-3TT: Diinlap, ii., App. cxviii. ; Wliitehead, 17,19, 
•216; N. Y. II. S. CoU.,ii., 41; Col. Doc. ii., 70G: iii., 304, S52, S54; n?i<c, p. 149, 150 ; vol. 
i., 73, 202, 203, 525, C4], 642, 692. It does not stem that there could have been a better Eu- 
ropean title to Staten I^•lanll than that now held by the duke as proprietor of New York. 
Yet Carteret's heirs afterward .«uKge-ted that it belonged to New Jersey. 

* Court of Assizes, ii., 47(i, 4S1, 4S2, 5S1 ; Col. Mass., xxii., 99, 100; Patents, iii., 43; Ul- 
ster H. S. Coll., i., 51, 72 ; N. Y. II. S. Coll. (1S6S), 1S5. 

t Ord., Warr., Lett., ii., 514-510; Court of Assize?, ii., 418, 4S9, 490, 500 ; Council Min., 
iii., 27; Col. MSS., xxii., 7S-94, 104 ; S. Hazard, 373; Munsell, iv., 9, 12, 13, 14; vii., 101 ; 
Hist. Mag., iv., 50; i. (ii.), 323 ; Val. Man., 1S47, 354, 361. After his di?gi-ace Baker appears 
to have sought a refugR at Klizabethto^vn, New Jersey, in which he had a joint interest: 
Col. Doc, ii., 571 ; ante, p. 49. 


CHAP.rv. The Corporation of New York, jealous of any infringe- 

ment of the ancient " staple right" of Manhattan, now rep- 

2T June I'esented that many vessels not belonging to the province 
Trading " (Jq frequently go up Hudson's River to Esopus and Al- 

vessela on t. »/ o x i ^ 

the Hud- bany, there to trade and traffic, contrary to former consti- 
tutions and customs." Lovelace accordingly ordered " that 
no stranger or strange vessel shall be permitted, from and 
after the date hereof, to pass up the said River to either of 
the places aforesaid, there to trade or traffic, upon any pre- 
tence whatsoever. However, such vessels, unloading their 
goods in this city, and paying the duties required, the own- 
ers of such goods have liberty to transport them into these 
parts in any other vessels belonging to this port, and may 
go up themselves, with leave to negotiate there, having 
first obtained the privilege of being free Burghers of this 

There was, at this time, no exchange or place of meeting 
for the merchants of New York. Lovelace therefore di- 

24 March, rccted that they should come together every Friday, be- 

iixchange. twccu clcven aud twelve of the clock, at the bridge which 
crossed the canal.f The governor also gave by patent, to 

10 Feb. Adriaen and Christofell van Laer, the exclusive pri^^lege 
of maintaining a rasp mill to grind the bark used in tan- 
ning leather in the city.:}: Another order of Lovelace di- 

19 August, rected that " Love Island," in the bay, owned by Isaac Bed- 
low, alderman, counselor and comptroller of the revenue, 
should be a pri^dleged place, where persons were fi'ee from 
warrants of arrest.§ 

Their war with the Mahicans prevented the Mohawks 
from reaping all the advantage expected fi-om the pres- 
ence of Pierron and Boniface. Yet many converts were 

* Court of Assizes, ii., 559 ; Munsell, ir., IS, 19 ; ante, vol. i., 213, 62S. 

t Court of Assizes, ii., ITS, 4T9; Dunlap, ii., App. cxvii. ; Hist. Mag., x., 381. This 
place was at the corner of the present Bridge and Broad Streets : see Val. Man., 1S62, 515, 
555. The canal or creek at that time ran up from tide-water through Broad Street as far 
as "Verletten Berg," or "hindering hill," which the unknowing English, who caught the 
sound, but not the meaning, nonsensically called " Flattenbarrack Hill," and which is now 
known as " Exchange Place." It was a favorite sport of Xew York boys to " coast" on their 
sledges from Broadway down the steep descent of Verletten Berg. 

t Court of Assizes, ii., 471-4T4; Val. Man., 1S51, 401, 402. 

§ Court of Assizes, ii., 57G ; Dunlap, ii., App. cxvii. Governor Nicolls granted this isl- 
and to ( 'nptain Needham on the 2:!d of Decembfc;r, 1067, and he sold it to Bedlow, after whom 
it was named. Bedlow's widow sold it to James Carteret on 20 April, 1676. In ISOO the 
State ceded to the United States jurisdiction over it, and Ellis or Oyster, and Governor's 
Islands in the bay, provided that New York process, civil or criminal, should still continue 
to be executed on them : Benson's Mem., 121 ; 1 R. L., 1S18, ISO, 190; Col. MSS., xxv., 102. 



made ; and even the worship of Aireskoue, their great dse- chap. iv. 
mon, was renounced when Pierron threatened to leave 
them, after witnessing one of their solemn " feasts of the 
dead" at Caghnawaga. So zealous were some of the pros- 
elytes that they took pride in displaying their crucifixes at 
Albany, and in arguing with the " heretics." A converted 
squaw went into the church while Domine Schaats was Mohawk 
preaching, and recited her chaplet during the whole of di- Albany. 
\dne service. The Mohawk mission promised so well that 
the Fathers Bechefer and Nicolas were assigned to assist 
Pierron and Boniface.* 

Bruyas had little success among the intractable Oneidas ; 
but he edified himself by keeping Easter and Pentecost 
with Millet at Onondaga, where Carheil came from Cayu- 
ga to meet them. The little bell which, fourteen years be- 
fore, had called the faithful to prayer, was begged back oneida and 
from the Onondagas and used again for Christianity. m?s°sions^'' 
Many new converts were made, chiefly by the influence of 
Garakontid who had declared himself a Christian at a Mo- 25 March. 
hawk council on his way back from Albany. About mid- 
summer, an Iroquois embassy, headed by him, set out for 15 June. 
Canada with a letter from Millet, in which Garakontie was 
described as an " incomparable man," who might justly be 
called " the protector of the French crown in this country." 
A council was held at Quebec with all the Iroquois except juiy. 
tlie Senecas, and Fremin was directed to leave his mission August. 
if the Senecas did not come and give satisfaction. At this 
visit Garakontie was baptized by Bishop Laval, and took Baptism of 
the name of " Daniel," from Courcelles, who acted as Iiistil."^ °"' 

Talon now returned from France, where he had inform- 
ed Colbert that there was a copper mine:}: near Lake Hu- 
ron, which, in connection with "the communication sup- 
posed to exist between Canada and the South Sea," it was 
desirable to explore. The Intendant was accompanied by 
several ilecollet§ or Franciscan fathers, among whom was 

• Kelation, 16T0, 27-45; Charlevoix, 11., 223-226; N. Y. II. S. Coll., iii. (ii.), 15S; Shea, 

t Relation, 1670, 4-7, 43, 47-63 ; 1671, 3 ; 1673-9, 186 ; Charlevoi.x, ii., 220, 221. 227, 230 ; 
FaUlon, Iii., 227-230; Col. Doc, i.x., 783, 7S9; Shea, 278, 280 ; an V, vol. i., 047. 

t Col. Doc, ix., 63, 787. Allouez, in the Relation for 1667, p. S, spoke of the masses of 
copper reported by the savages in Lake Superior. 

§ The RecoUets, or Gray Friars, were a branch of the Order of Saint Francis, and were so 


Chap. IV. Gabriel de la Riboiirde, and by some companies of the 
~ Carignan regiment. Delighted with the progress of West- 
Frenchex- ^^'^^ discovorj during his absence, Talon dispatched two 
pioratioDs. " persons of resolution," La Salle, to explore farther in the 
southwest, and his own deputy. Saint Lusson, to the north- 
west. They were encouraged by the promise of the king 
to reward nobly him who should reach the Pacific. Saint 
3 septem. Lussou was instructed to go to Lake Superior, and " make 
mines on sGarch and discovery there for all sorts of mines, particu- 
perior. ' larly that of copper ;"* take possession of all the countries 
through which he might pass, and plant the cross, with the 
escutcheon of France, in confirmation of the king's domin- 
ion. The Intendant's deputy was accompanied by the ex- 
perienced interpreter Nicholas Perrot, who was directed to 
visit the Northern nations, and invite them to meet, tlie 
next spring, at the Falls of Saint Mary, the delegate of the 
10 October. Great Onnontio. Talon also sent to Paris the maps and 
rronclf"' records made by Dollier and Galinee, as evidences of the 
Lakes On" Frcncli title to the regions round Lakes Ontario and Erie, 
Ed" ^^ and proposed that a galley should be maintained on Onta- 
rio to secure the fur trade, as the English at Boston, and 
the Dutch at New York, now drew to themselves more 
than twelve thousand livres of beaver " trapped by the In- 
dians in the countries subject to the King."f 

The movements of the French among the Iroquois were 
n October, reported to Lovelace, who wrote to Secretary Williamson 
ixiveiace." that f our Jesuits, with their servants, in all eleven, had " set- 
tled themselves on this side the Lake of Irecoies. They 
pretend it is no more but to advance the kingdom of 
Christ, when it is to be suspected it is rather the kingdom 
of his most Christian Majesty." The "legionary soldiers" 
whom Louis was sending over might be dangerous to tlie 
English Plantations, and should be looked after in Europe. 

called because they were first instituted in solitary convents devoted to recollection : Col. 
Doc, ix., 8S, note; ante, i., p. GT. 

* In the Relation of ICTO, 83-SC, in a very interesting account of the copper mines on 
Lake Superior, particularly that at "Nantonnagan," or Ontonagon, sent by Dablon from 
the Falls of Saint Mary to Le JVIercier at Quebec, and by him communicated to Talon before 
the dispatch of Saint Lusson. 

t Col. Doc, ix., 63-^7, 70, 7C, 88, 97, 382, 6'2G, 78T, 78!), 803, 804; delation, IGTO, 2 ; 1071, 
2G ; Faillon, iii., Q.'w, 256, S05-307 ; Golden, i., 35 ; Charlevoix, ii., 21G, '/IT, 234, 2.37 ; Hen- 
nepin, New. Disc, 32 ; La Potherie, ii., 8!) ; Uist. Mag., ix., 20G ; Shfa's V:ah. Miss., 412 ; 
Disc. Miss., 79, 80, 89, 1.50; Garneau, i., 204. The maps and description of Lake Ontario, 
prepared by Dollier and Galinop, are in the Tarliament Librarj- at Quebec : see Catalogue, 
p. 1GI5; also in Faillon, iii., o05. 


111 consequence of a letter fi'om Pierron, orders were sent cn.vr. iv. 

to Salisbury, at Albany, to keep a vigilant watcli over liim, 

and report all bis actions. 22 October. 

Lovelace, at tbe same time, expecting leave to retm-n 
borne, went, witb several of bis council, as far as Milf ord Lovelace 
to meet Wintbrop, " and discourse all affairs tbat may tend necticut!" 
to tbe mutual convenience of eacb otber." Among tbese 
was tbe settlement of tbe boundary -line between ISTew 
York and Connecticut, wbicb tbe Hartford Court bad pro- 
posed sbould be run by a joint committee from eacb gov- 13 October, 
ernment. But "Wintbrop, intending to visit England, bad 
vainly endeavored to resign bis office of governor, and was 
unable to meet Lovelace, wbose winter journey was tbusoDeccm. 
made fruitless.* 

At tbe Court of Assizes another case of reputed witcb- 
craf t was disposed of. Katberine Harrison, a widow, of icatherine 
Wetbersfield, in Connecticut, baving been convicted of wstchcrrit 
witcbcraft, was obliged to leave tbat town, and came to May. 
AVestcbester, tbe Pm-itan inbabitants of wbicb complained t juiy. 
to Lovelace, wlio warned lier to return to Connecticut. 
Upon ber refusal sbe was cited before tbe governor, wlio 
referred ber case to tbe Court of Assizes, upon ber giving 25 August, 
security for good bebavior. Tbe court, finding notliing 
against ber, directed ber release, and gave ber liberty to October. 
reside wbere sbe cbose in tbe government. But tlie peo- 
ple of Westcbester became so " uneasy" at ber remaining ordered 
amongst tliem, tbat Lovelace was obliged to order tbe poor wettcucs- 
widow to leave tbat infatuated town.f ^^^' 

An interesting political event now occurred. Tbe pali- 
sades around Fort James being decayed, tbe Court of As- 
sizes ordered tbat a levy, or contribution for tbeir repair, s October. 
sbould be made in tbe several towns of Long Island, and tion for"' 
tbe justices in eacb riding were directed to find ways and Ifron' 
means at tbe next courts of Sessions. But tbe rejection dcred!*''" 
of tbe petitions wbicb some of tbe Western towns bad pre- 
sented for redress tbe last autumn, left tbe people in no 
mood to comply witb tbis extraordinary demand. Tbey 

* Col. Doc, iii., 190; Court of Asisize?, ii., 445; Council Min., iii., 27, 32, 34; Col. Kec. 
Conn., ii., 145 ; Maes. H. S. Coll., xxx., 80-82. 

t Council Min., iii., 23-31 ; Court of Assize-s, ii., 255, 503, 5V7, .5S4, 5S5; Doc. Iliat., iv., 
87,88; Col. Kec. Conn., ii., 118,132; Dimlap, ii., App. cxviii. ; Bolton, ii., 181,182; ante, 
91, 143. 


Chap. IV. Were persuaded that the principle of " Taxation only by 
■ '^ consent" — which Holland had maintained since 1477, and 
l^^O- England had adopted in her Petition of Eight in 1628— 
was their own birthright as British subjects. They had, 
for several years, paid a direct tax of a penny in the pound 
to defi'ay their town charges. They had also submitted to 
the duke's customs' duties for the support of his govern- 
ment. But this last order of the Court of Assizes, where 
they were not represented, would, if yielded to, become a 
dangerous precedent : they might next be required to main- 
tain the garrison, and they knew not what else. Southold, 
Action of Southampton, and Easthampton, in a joint meeting of 
lEitnd"^ their delegates, agreed to contribute, provided that they 
miglit have the privileges which the king's other subjects 
in New England enjoyed. Huntington refused, because 
her people " were deprived of the liberties of Englishmen." 
Those of Jamaica declared that the order of the Assizes 
was inconsistent with the British Constitution; but if it 
was the king's absolute pleasure to " disprivilege" them, 
they would bear their burthens with patience until they 
could address him for relief. Flushing and Hempstead 
concurred with Jamaica ; and the constables of the three 
iG Decern, towus laid their votes before the Court of Sessions of the 
before 'the Nortli Riding, which was held at Jamaica ; where, howev- 
sessions. ^^^ ^^ actiou was taken. They were again presented the 
21 Decern, following wcck, at the Sessions of the West Riding, which 
met at Gravesend. At that court Secretary Nicolls j)re- 
sided, and Counselors Van Ruyven, Manning, and Thomas 
Lovelace were present as justices. It was there unani- 
Adjudged mously adjudged "that the said papers are in themselves 
uous.^^'^'' false, scandalous, illegal, and seditious, tending only to 
disaffect all the peaceable and well-meaning subjects of 
His Majesty in these His Royal Highness's Territories and 
dominions ;" and they were referred to the governor and 
his council for such action as should " best tend to the sup- 
pression of such mischief as may arise by the impression of 
false suggestions and jealousies." Upon this reference, 
2D Decern. Lovclacc and his council ordered that these " scandalous. 
Ordered to illegal, and seditious" papers should " be openly and pub- 
iaNew° licly bumcd" before the Town Hall of the city of New 
^°'^' York, at the next Mayor's Court, and that " the principal 


contriver thereof be inquired into, and proceeded against chap-iv. 
according to their demerits, and the laws of the land ~ 
established."* ^^^^• 

It was easier to burn " seditious" votes than to subdue 
opinion. Most of the Long Island towns had, as we have 
seen, taken out new patents, in conformity with the law of 
1666. But Southampton and Southold refused to comply. 
The latter claimed that their title from the Indians and 
fi'om New Haven was sufficient. Southampton relied 
upon theirs from Lord Stirling. The Court of Assizes 
therefore declared invahd the titles to lands in Southamp- s October, 
ton, unless a patent from the duke's government should be 
obtained for them within a certain time. This produced a 1671. 
spirited remonstrance from fifty of the inhabitants of that l^ Febr'y. 

r •/ ^ Sontnamp- 

town, in which, among other things, they set forth that a tonRemoa- 
new patent would be a grievance, and might make them 
and their posterity " groan like Israel in Egypt ;" that they 
could not acknowledge the Duke of York to be the " sole 
Proprietor of the whole Island ;" that, although Nicolls had 
promised them as great privileges as any colony in New 
England, they had no deputies at the courts, and were 
" forced to pay customs for goods imported, for which cus- 
tom hath before been paid to His Majesty's use in En- 
gland ;" and that the royal commissioners, in August, 
1664, had proclaimed that all should enjoy "whatsoever 
God's blessing and their o"\vn industry had furnished them 
withal." Lovelace, expecting leave to run over to En- 
gland, replied that, to avoid " prolix debates," he would o March. 

., .. , /> • ,^ l^ T KefeiTed to 

appoint commissioners to conier with them, and mean- commis- 
while recommended that they should observe the " golden ^^''°®''^' 
rule of the Apostle, which is — be not high-minded, but 
fear." Counselors Delavall, Nicolls, and Bedlow were ac- 
cordingly deputed to examine the cases of the recusant 
towns ; but no other steps to enforce a compliance with the 
law were taken until several years afterward. f 

The isolated inhabitants of Martha's Yineyard and Nan- 
tucket, however, were more tractable, NicoUs had ap- 

« Court of Assizes, ii., 050, 051, 052, 053 ; Col. Doc, iii., 303 ; Wood, 90-^5, 151 ; Thomp- 
son, i., 140-149, 2S4; Dunlap, i, 121; ii., App. cxvii. ; Bancroft, i., 021 ; Council JonmalM, 
i.. Int., vii., viii. ; ant?, p. 100 ; vol. i., 43", 442. 

t Court of Assizes, ii., 591, 001-064; Wood, 01, 92, 1T5-1TT; Tliompson,i., 14(5,334,384; 
ii., 326-328 ; ante, 25, 110 ; vol. i , 300, 301. 


<juA.p. IV. pointed Thomas Mayhew to superintend affairs tliere ; but 

~ as the relations between those islands and New York were 

■ vague, the governor notified their landholders to take out 

June. fresh patents. Mayhew accordingly came to New York in 

behalf of Martha's Yineyard, and Tristram Coffin, with 

2sjune. Thomas Macy, represented Nantucket. Lovelace readily 

and Mar- made Nautucket a township, and commissioned Coffin its 

yardinJor- cliief magistrate, in subordination to New York. A simi- 

6 July. " lar patent was granted to Martha's Yineyard, of which the 

venerable Mayhew was appointed governor during his life. 

His grandson, Matthew Mayhew, was also commissioned as 

collector of the duke's customs for the several islands.* 

Lovelace proved himself no bigot. John Booth, of 
Southold, whose children had been refused baptism by the 
Puritan minister, John Younge, declined to pay his tax for 
Younge's salary, and his cattle were distrained. Booth pe- 
sjuiy. titioned the governor and council for relief. Lovelace 
10 July, could not lawfully interfere ; yet he wrote to Younge, re- 
Tebukcs proving his want of Christian charity, reminding him that 
Jo°uthofd°^ the indulgence granted by Nicolls and himself was not in- 
erance?'^"^' tcudcd to justify sucli Severity toward others " of a differ- 
ent persuasion ;" and adding, " I desire you not to insist on 
such rigorous courses against those who desire to live un- 
der the known and established laws of His Majesty's do- 
minions, lest I be forced to represent to His Itoyal Higli- 
ness the great inconveniences that may arise by it, and you 
be interrupted in the exercise of that Christian f:^nction 
you now so peaceably enjoy. "f 
Luthtrans. The Lutlieraus in the province gave Lovelace the great- 
est trouble. He had been obliged to suspend their minis- 
ter, Fabricius, from preaching at Albany, but allowed liim 
to exercise his function in New York. A quarrel broke out 
before long between Fabricius and his congregation, who 
10 July, were building a church " on ground without the gate," and 
j.ndAren- Lovclacc was obliged to interfere. Another Lntheran 
clergyman, Bernardus Arensius, " a gentle personage and 
of a A'ery agreeable behaviour," fortunately arrived about 

* Council Min., iii , 20, C7, 6S; fourt of Assize?, iii., .^33, 5.18; Deeds, iii., OS-G.% 70-7.';: 
Ilougli's Nantucket I'.iper.", 20-41, 70, 71, 129-131 ; Mass. 11. S. Coll., xiii., 85; xx.xvii., 30 ; 
ante, p. 139. 

t Court of Assizes, ii., 735^737; Doc.JIist., iii., 200; Tliompson, i., 383,305; Wood, 34 ; 
Fanner and Moore's Coll., iii., ISO. 



this time at New York. Fabricius, having already received chap. iv. 
the governor's passport to go to' the Delaware, was allowed, 
as his last clerical act, " to give liis congregation a valedic- jj August 
tory sermon, and to install the new-come minister, accord- 
ing to the custom used by those of their religion."* 

The Eeformed Dutch Church in the city had meanwhile 
wanted a colleague for Drisius, whose ill health prevented 
liis doing much duty. Polhemus, of Flatbush, preached 
occasionally ; and ^gidius Luyck, the former teacher of 
the grammar-school in ISTew Amsterdam, who had returned Refonned 
fi'om Holland, after studying divinity for a time, assisted cimrch ia 
by the foresinger Evert Pietersen, conducted divine serv-^^''^^^^^' 
ice on Sundays. The Consistory, in January, 1670, had 
called Selyns, who formerly preached in Brooklyn, and 
was now settled at Wavereen, in Holland, to supply the 
place of Megapolensis, but he had declined their invitation. 
At the joint request of " the Elders and Deacons of the 
Church," and of the mayor and aldermen of the city, who 
desired that " some care may be taken for the supply of 
this place with an able and orthodox minister, of which 
they are at present wholly destitute," Lovelace, in June, 
1670, declared, under his hand and the seal of the prov- 
ince, " that whensoever sucli a minister shall come over to 
this city, and undertake the charge aforementioned, I shall 
take care that there shall be duly and justly paid unto the 
said minister, or to his order, the value of One Thousand 
Guilders Holland's money, each year, and likewise that he 
shall have the accommodation of a convenient dwelling- 
house, rent free, together with his provision of firewood 
gratis." This being sent to Holland, Domine Wilhelmus van Nieu- 
van ISTieuwenhuysen, an accomplished scholar and divine, caiied. 
was induced by his relative Seljms to accept the call, which 
was approved by the Classis of Amsterdam. On his arri- 
val at New York he was installed as a colleague with Dris- 24 August. 

* Court of Assizes, ii., 500, 503, T02, T25; Gen. Ent., iv., 15-17, 19, 304; Doc. Hist., iii., 
242,245,525; Col. Doc, iii., 41.5, Jiofe,- Munsell, iv., 14, 22, 23; S. Hazard, 3S1,3S5, 388; C. 
Wolley's Two Years in New York, 57 ; Dunlap, i., 127 ; ante, 153. On the IStli of October, 
1072, Arensius had a pas3 from the governor to go to Albany for the winter. The "Aans- 
preker," or Sexton of the Dutch Church there, had claimed the right enjoyed by such offi- 
cials in Holland to conduct the funerals of all decedents in his parish; but on the 10th of 
June, 1672, it was ordered in Council that, as the Lutherans have a toleration for their reli.;:- 
ion, they may bury their own dead ; and Delavall, in the following November, declared in 
open court at Albany, " Let the dead bury their dead:" Gen. Ent, iv., 228; Council Min., 
iii., 103; Doc. Hist, iii., 525 ; Dunlap, ii., App. cxix. 


Chap. iv. ius, to the " liigliest acceptance" of the people. The Con- 
sistory of the Dntcli Church were soon afterward anthor- 
26Septem. ^^^^ ^J ^^^ ordcr in council to lay taxes on the congrega- 
tion for the support of the ministers and of the poor. Dris- 
5 Decern, ius was also allowcd one hundred pounds out of the public 
revenue for the partial services he had rendered during 
the last two years. By these various measures the Re- 
formed Dutch Church was virtually " established" in New 
York by its English rulers.* 

Although the Dutch inhabitants of New York had little 
cause for complaint, the inducements offered by the pro- 
prietaries of Carolina, where Sir John Yeamans had just 
arrived with slaves from Barbadoes, attracted some to em- 
Port Royal, igrate thither. Two ships were accordingly sent by the 
Una. " proprietaries to convey them to Port Royal. But Love- 
lace, disliking the "fair and specious pretences" which 
were robbing his own government of its population, order- 
9 Novem. ed that all persons resident in New York for more than six 
months should notify the secretary of their intended de- 
parture, and procure passports. Captains of vessels were 
13 xovem. also directed not to receive passengers on board unless 
duly authorized. Notwithstanding these restraints, nine- 
20 Xovem. tccu licads of families obtained the necessary passports and 
ironT New cmbarkcd for Carolina, wliere they settled themselves on 
Carolina, the Aslilcy Rivcr, and were afterward joined by others of 

their countrymen fi'om New York and HoUand.f 
New jer- In Ncw Jcrscy, the proposed restoration of which to the 
^^^" Duke of York had not been executed, Carteret's govern- 
ment went well, until the first payment of quit-rents to the 
proprietors became due on "Lady-day," or the 25th of 
March, 1670 — the Old Style New-year's day. Open oppo- 
sition was then shown, especially by those who held their 
lands under patents fi'om Nicolls, or direct purchases from 
the savages. The governor could not prevail on them to 

* Corr. Classis of Amst. ; Records of Collegiate R. D. C, N. Y. ; X. Y. City Rec, vi., 5G2, 
503, 653, 0G5, CT9-CS1, 750 ; Gen. Ent, iv., -47 ; Council Mia., iii., S2 ; Col. Doc, ii., 470, 475; 
iii., ISO ; Uist. Mag., i. (ii.), 023, 324: Dunlap, i., 127; ii., App. cxix. ; C. Wolley, 56, 93; 
Murphy's Anthology of N. X., 140, 17S; ante,15f); vol. i., 633, 094, 734. The elders and 
deacons of the " Reformed Christian Church in New York," who wrote to the Claseis of Am- 
sterdam on 5 June, 1070, were Petrus Stuyvesant, Olofif Stevensen van Cortlandt, Paulus 
Leendertsen van de Grist, 13oeIe Roelofsen, Jacob Teunissen Kay, and Jacob Lei?ler. 

t Gen. Ent.,iv.,02, 69, 72; Chalmers, i., .530, 531, 557; Oldmixon, i., 404; Hewat, i.,5", 
73; Holmes, i., 357, .367; Graliame,i.,300, 361, 420, 422; Bancroft, ii., 170, 171 ; Smith, i., 
47; Riker's Xewtown, 100, 101 ; Gentleman's Mcgazine, 1740, p. 104. 


recognize the rights of the proprietors, and anarchy began, chap.iv. 

Ehzabethtown became the focus of disaffection, while Ber- 

gen and "Woodbridge alone remained loyal.* lo71. 

About this time a young man, destined to cause great 
trouble in the province — Captain James Carteret, the weak captain 
and dissolute second son of Sir George, and who, with ter'^r ^'"^" 
John Locke, Sir John Yeamans, and others, had been cre- 
ated a landgrave of Carolina — stopped, on his way thither, 
at New Jersey. Some mm-ders having been committed 
by the Indians on the Delaware, near Mattinicunk Island, 
Lovelace ordered Governor Carteret and his kinsman to 
advise w^ith the council at Kew York. Carteret at once 
promised to call an extraordinary Assembly at Elizabeth- 25 septem. 
town, and ascertain how far the people of New Jersey were 
willing to contribute for a general war with the savages. 
It was also agreed that a good correspondence should be Agreement 
kept up between the two governments, and nothing be New York 
done without a mutual understanding. At the appointed jeree^!''' 
day Lovelace met Carteret at Elizabethto^vn ; but the sea- t October, 
son being too far advanced for an effectual campaign, the 
officers on the Delaware were directed to enrol their mili- 
tia, and engage the Susquehannas on their side. On this 
occasion Carteret was " ready with a handsome party to 
have stepped into the work ;" and Lovelace was obliged to 
reprove his own subordinate, Carr, because " the backward- 9 Novem. 
ness of the inhabitants on the Delaware has put a stop to 
the forwardness of those in New Jersey."t 

This autumn, Thomas Batts, with several Englishmen 1 septem. 
and Indians, under a commission from the authorities of 1 October. 
Virginia, made an interesting tour " behind the Apuleian Sn d^t 
Mountains." The party appear to have gone from the *'°''""^^'" 
Appomattox to the head waters of the Great Kenhawa ; 
and, as the first European explorers, they took possession 
of the whole country in the name of their king.;}: 

The movements of the French now caused much excite- French 
ment in New York. Courcelles's imperious message to the mlltl. 

* Eliz. Bill, 35; Chalmers, 1., 616; Gordon, 29; Grahame, i.,466; Bancroft, ii., 319; 
Whitehead, 54, 55; Mass. H. S. Coll., x.xxvii., 319 ; ante, 150, 164. 

t Gen. Ent., iv., 35, 42, 45, 50, 67 ; Council Min., iii., Tl-73, 77-81 ; S. Smith, 69, 70, 71 ; 
S. Hazard, 3SS-392; Col. MSS., xx., 24, 25; Whitehead, 55, 59; Oldmixon, i., 464; Eliz. 
Bill, 35; DongIa.s, ii.,272; Collins, iv., 213; Chalmers, i., 528, 530, 616; anie, 164. 

t Beverly, 58, 60 ; Burk, ii., 149-151; and Campbell, 268, 269, refer briefly to this expe- 
dition. The original journal of Batts was first published in N. Y. Col. Doc, iii., 193-197. 



Chap. IV. Senccas determined them to restore some of their Algon- 
~ quin prisoners, whom they intrusted to the great Cayuga 
' chief, Saonchiogoiia, to convey to Canada. On reaching 
Quebec, the Cayuga mediator arranged every thing satis- 
factorily with Courcelles ; and, having declared himself a 
Christian, was baptized by Bishop Laval, receiving fi-om 
Talon, his sponsor, the name of " Louis."* 

Li 1669 the Jesuits had founded a " residence" at their 

Prairie de Prairie de la Madeleine, on the south bank of the Saint 

leine? Lawrcuce, a little below the Rapids of Saint Louis, and 
nearly opposite Montreal. It was intended as a place of 
repose for their missionaries, and Father Pierre Paifeix 
was appointed its first superintendent. Converts from the 
Oneidas, Mohawks, Mahicans, and other nations, on their 
way to the Huron colony of Notre Dame de Lorette, near 
Quebec, soon began to stop at the nearer Prairie; and 
Courcelles, observing the political importance of the " Re- 
duction," it was established as a mission, under the name 
of " Saint Francis Xavier, des Pres." In 1671 Raffeix was 
sent to Cayuga, and Fremin was recalled fi'om the Senecas 
to take charge of the new mission, wliich soon became very 
important, both to the Jesuits and the civil authorities of 

On the recall of Fremin, Bruyas became superior of the 

iroquoia Iroquois missious, and, leaving Oneida, he went to the Mo- 
hawks to take the place of Pierron at Tionnontoguen, who 
now returned to Quebec. Millet, at Onondaga, encour- 
aged by Garakontie, labored with such zeal that the sav- 
ages, who always gave descriptive names, called him, as 
they had formerly called Le Mercier, Teharonliiagannra, 
or " the looker up to heaven." Bruyas, however, transfer- 
red him to his own former mission at Oneida ; and John 
de Lamberville, who had come out to Canada in 1668, suc- 
ceeded Millet at Onondaga. Carheil, forced by a nervous 
disease to leave Cayuga, was replaced by Raffeix, who came 
from the Prairie de la Madeleine. After the departure of 
Fremin from the Senecas, Garnier was left in sole charge 
of the three stations of Conception, or Totiakto, Saint 

• Relation, 1071,3, 4; Cliarlevoix, ii., 230, 231 ; Shea, 2S9; ajife, 109. 

t Tielation, 1671, 12, 13, 15; 1072, 10, 18; Doiiniol's Mission dii Canada (Paris, 1S61), i., 
179, ISO ; ii., 49 ; Charievoix, ii., 233, 257 ; v., 201 ; Col. Doc, ix., 110, 130 ; Shea, 2SS, 296- 
20S; Faillon, iii., 316, 317 ; Colden, i., 53,54; Smith, i., 69 ; Garneau, i., 203. 



Michael, or Gandagarae, and Saint James, or Gannagaro. chap. iv. 
In the spring of this year the village of Saint Michael, or 
Gandagarae, was burned, and the chapel, with all Gar- 
nier's effects, were destroyed. But the greatest grief of the 
lonely missionary was the drunkenness " caused by the liq- 
uors which the savages brought from the Hollanders for 
more than eighty leagues over land."* 

In writing to Talon, Colbert recommended that a good ii March, 
correspondence should be kept up with the English, and a orders to 
mutual trade established. The dispatch of La Salle to the 
South, and of Saint Lusson to the North, was approved ; 
" but the principal thing to which you ought to apply your- 
self in discoveries of this nature, is to look for the copper 
mine. Were this mine once discovered, and its utility evi- 
dent, it would be an assured means to attract several 
Frenchmen fi'om Old to New France."t 

Meanwhile Perrot, after visiting the copper mine in 
Lake Superior, had summoned the Western Indians to 
meet at the Falls of Saint Mary ; and Saint Lusson, who 
had wintered on Lake Huron, went thither to join the Fa- May. 
thers Dablon, Drnillettes, AUouez, and Andre. Soon four- 
teen different savage nations were represented in an assem- 
bly. The arms of France were placed on a cross on the 14 June. 
top of a hill; the "Yexilla" and the "Exaudiat" were 
chanted, the " Te Deum" was sung, and possession was 1 

taken, in the name of the king, " with all the pomp and 
eclat the country could afford." Talon exulting-ly prophe- 2 Novem. 

. o •/ J- X The French 

sied to Louis that this part of his monarchy would " be- in the 
come something grand." The foreign colonies, " so long 
settled on the sea-board, already tremble with affright in 
view of M^hat His Majesty has accomplished here in the 
interior within seven years." * * * " They are already 
aware that the King's name is spread so far abroad among 
the savages throughout all those countries, that he alone 
is there regarded by them as the arbiter of Peace and 
War. All detach themselves insensibly from the other 
Europeans ; and, with the exception of the Iroquois, of 
whom I am not yet assured, we may safely promise our- 

• Relation, 1671,14-24; 1672,12,21; Col. MSS., xxxv., 160; Col. Doc, iii., 251, 252; ix., 
171, 366, 367, 665; Shea, 268, 276, 277, 2S1, 2S2, 2SS, 291 ; ante, 14S, 162. Mr. Shea's note 
(56) to his edition of Colden, p. 135, is evidently erronsous. 

t Col. Doc., ix., 63, C4, 70, 787, 789 ; ante, 170. 


cuAP.iv. selves to make the others take up arms whenever we 

,Ar V AVhen he wrote to Talon, Colbert also mstructed Cour- 

11 March. ' 

Colbert's coUes that he need not visit the Iroquois, and, as troops 

orders to i t i x i • i 

courceues. could uot be Sent fi'om France, he and the Intendant might 
do as they thought best on Lake Ontario. This piqued 
the governor, whom Talon had represented as being slug- 
gish. He therefore determined to make a show}^ voyage 
up the Saint Lawrence ; to strike terror into the Senecas 
and other remote tribes ; to establish a post which would 
prevent the L'oquois — who had exhausted the country 
south of Lake Ontario, and were now hunting elk and 
beaver among the Hurons and Ottawas — from taking their 
peltries to the Dutch and English ; and to ascertain wheth- 
er a colony near the foot of Lake Ontario would not aid fu- 
ture explorations of his countrymen toward the Mississippi. 
A large plank bateau was accordingly built at Montreal, 
in which Courcelles proposed to ascend the Eapids of the 
Saint Lawrence, to convince the savages — who thought 
that their own light bark canoes could alone perform the 
feat — "that the French could accomplish something they 
were incapable of." In spite of all sneers, a flat-boat of 
two or three tons burthen was loaded with provisions, and 
thirteen Indian canoes carried the rest of the expedition, 
3 June, which was fifty-six men in all. Courcelles embarked at 
ceiies's La Chine, accompanied by Perrot, the governor of Mon- 
Lake^on- trcal, and other French officers, and by the Sulpitian Fa- 
ther DoUier — who had already visited Ontario with La 
Salle — as chaplain. "With great labor the heavy bateau 

10 June, was dragged up the several rapids as far as " Otondiata," 

now called Grenadier Island, a few leagues above Ogdens- 
burg. There it was left under a guard, while Courcelles 

11 June, went in his bark canoe through " beautiful tranquil waters 

almost without a ripple," past the " Thousand Islands," to 
the mouth of Lake Ontario, which appeared " like an open 
sea without any bounds." Charles le Moyne, the inter- 

• Col. Doc, ix., 72, 73, 97, 304, 3S3, 626, 790,803,804; EeMion, 1671, 26-28,31, 35, 42, 43; 
La Pothericii., 124-130; Charlevoix, ii., 234-23S; Hist. Mag., ix., 200; Bancroft, iii., 154, 
155; Faillon, iii.,307, 308; Shea's Missions, 361-305 ; Disc, of Miss., 69. On this visit, Tcr- 
rot appears to have discovered the long-talked of Ontonagon copper mines near Keewcna 
Point, on L.ake Superior, which Colbert and Talon were so anxious to find out, and which 
have fincc developed such wonderful riches : see Kelation, 10C7, S; 1670, S3-S6 ; 1071, 25 ; 
1072,2; a>i«<>,170. 


preter, soothed by judicious presents the jealousy of some chap.iv. 
Iroquois who were catching eels, which abounded there ; 
and letters were sent by them to the missionaries, direct- ^^ j^^^ ' 
ing that the reasons of Com'celles's voyage should be pub- 
lished in the several villages. After enjo}ang the aston- 
ishment of the savages at the sight of his heavy bateau tri- 13 June. 
umphantly reposing at Otondiata, the governor safely de- 
scended the rapids ; and in three days reached Montreal it June. 
without the loss of a man. The flat-boat of Courcelles 
was the first European-built vessel which ever accomphsh- 
ed the adventure, now safely performed every summer's 
day in vast steamers, guided by the confidence of prac- 
ticed skill. The effect of the expedition was at once ap- Effect of 
parent. Several of the missionaries, on their return from ceiieV's ex. 
the Iroquois country, reported that it had alarmed the the iX "" 
cantons so much that they recalled their warriors from an ^'^°^^' 
expedition against the Andastes, and resolved to send an 
embassy the next spring to learn from Onnontio the rea- 
sons of his voyage, and what they must now expect." 

The influence of Courcelles's expedition was not con- Effect of 
fined to the savages. Exaggerated accounts of it were ceiies-s ex. 
sent to N^ew York, where a panic broke out, and some pre- New York! 
pared to move away before the French could reach them. 
Lovelace, returning in haste from Staten Island, where he 
was looking for a mill-seat on his farm, wrote to Delavall c juiy. 
at Albany that, as there was peace in Europe, Courcelles 
would not dare to " commence a warr on his own head." 
A fortnight afterward, the governor, ha^dng appointed 
Steenwyck to act in his absence, left the fort in charge of 19 Juiy. 
Manning, and went up to Albany. Yarious arrangements 
were made for its better government. Deputies from the 2 August. 
several L-oquois nations having arrived there, peace wastweenthe 
made between them and the Mahicans ; which, however, In°d MaUi- 
proved to be as annoying to the French as it was welcome '^^^' 
to the English.f 

* Col. Doc., ix., TO, 71, 75-S5, 96 ; x., 349 : Eelation, ICTl, 2 ; Charlevoix, ii., ISS, 190, 191 ; 
v., 280; Gent. Mag., xxvii., 74; Sauthier's Map in Doc. Hist., i. ; ante,162. Charlevoix 
erroneously dates Courcelles's voyage in 1670 instead of 1671. It was my good fortune to 
discover, in the Royal Libraiy at Paris, the original and very interesting account of this 
voyage, by Dollier, of which a translation is printed in N. Y. Col. Doc, ix., T5-S5: see also 
Faillon, iii., 331-336. 

t Court of Assizes, ii.. 733 ; Gen. Ent.. iv., 10, 282-284; Munscll, iv., 21, 24-26 ; Relation, 
1671, 17 ; 1672, 21 ; Faillon, iii., .036 ; Douniol, i., 4, 5 ; Shea, C81 ; Mass. H. S. Coll., i., 169 ; 


cdap. TV. Notwithstanding the orders of the previous year, vessels 

not belonging to the city of ISTew York continually went up 

* the North Eiver to trade at Esopus and Albany ; and the 
March, govemor, on the complaint of the metropolitan burghers, 
er°ve3seir renewed the prohibition, with directions to the custom- 
house officers to take a strict account. As a special favor. 
Counselor Willett's sloop was declared a privileged vessel, 
although it had not been built in the province. Isaac 
Grevenraet, who had just been appointed to succeed Beek- 

12 juir. man, as sheriff of Esopus, was directed to keep an account 

of all vessels coming there.* 

According to the Duke's laws, the high-sheriff of York- 
shire w^as to be appointed every year from each of the rid- 
ings in turn. Warned by the recent exhibitions of the 
temper of the Long Island people, Lovelace thought that 
this office should now be held by one of his own immedi- 
TSeptem. atc dependents. He accordingly commissioned Captain 
iiigii.sher- John Manning in place of Robert Coe. The captain, who 
shire. °^ ' had been sheriif of the metropolis since 1667, was succeed- 
ed in that office by Allard Anthony.f 

John Archer, of Westchester, having purchased a part 
of the old estate of Van der Donck, built a new village 
" near unto the passage commonly called Spiting Devil ;" 
the place being " the road for passengers to go to and fro 
fi'om the main, as well as for mutual intercourse with the 
neighboring colony" of Connecticut. Lovelace therefore 

13 Novem. made Archer's property an enfi-ancliised township, with the 
patent*"" usual immunities, by the name of the Manor of Fordham, 
chesti?." upon condition that its inhabitants should always send for- 
ward to the next town all public packets and letters com- 
ing to New York, or going thence to any of Ilis Majestie's 

The Peace of Breda brought ad\antage to the banished 
New Netherland Counselor, John de Decker, whom the 

Coldcn, i., 35 ; Col. Doc., li., 580. It is a hardly excusable blunder in Dunlap, i., 125, 120, 
to make Lovelace go to Albany in 16T1, to meet Kendall and Littleton, of Virginia, who did 
not visit that place until September, 16T9 : Golden, i., 42, 43. 

* Court of Assizes, ii., 559, 657, 6.59, 060; Gen. Ent., iv., 3; Val. Man., ISCO, 540; Val. N. 
Y., 72, 133 ; Munsell, iv., IS, 21, 22; ante, 108. 

t Court of Assizes, ii., 554 ; Gen. Ent., iv., 20, 201 ; Council Min., iii., 143 ; C. Wolley, 
89; Val. Man., 1S53, 32S, D29; N. Y. IL S. Coll., i., 385; Wood, 150; Thompson, i., 2S4; 
ayitr, 70, 1.^S. 

t Patents, iv., 79-82; Bolton, ii., 179,320-322; Col. Doc, iii., 303 ; a7if<', vol. i., 421, 501 ; 
i}., 124, note. 


Duke of York referred to Lovelace for the redress of any chap. iv. 
grievances he might have suffered. De Decker's case was 
accordingly considered by the governor, who gave him, as 9 januai^. 
a peace-offering, a tract of land on Staten Island. The ^^^^^^' 
settlement of Deckertown, in Sussex County, New Jersey, 
perpetuates the name of Stuyvesant's honest, and perhaps 
too patriotic commissioner.* 

Perhaps the most interesting domestic transaction of 
this year was the purchase by Lovelace of the greater part 
of " the Domine's Bouwery," or about sixty-two acres of 
land, between the present Warren and Christopher Streets, 
in the city of New York, which had formerly been in thes 
possession of the Dutch Domine Everardus Bogardus and 
his widow. This property had been confirmed to their 
heirs, by NicoUs, in 1667. It adjoined the old West India 
Company's farm, which the duke now held by virtue of its 
confiscation by Mcolls. But in the spring of 1671 several 9 March, 
of the heirs of Bogardus and his wife sold the old domine's ouhe ''^ 
estate to Lovelace, who appears to have held it for some Bouwe^" ' 
time in his own right. It was afterward vested in thciMe^^"^^ 
Duke of York, and then in the crown ; and, by a curious 
train of events, the original Bouwery of the Dutch clergy- 
man of Manhattan at length made part of the estate now 
enjoyed by the corporation of Trinity Church.f 

The new year was marked by an impressive local event. 1672. 
Since his return from Holland, Stuyvesant had remained 
for four years quietly at his " Bouwery," taking no part in 
public affairs. Having made his will, the veteran calmly 
died at the age of eighty years, and was buried in a vault February. 
under the little chapel he had built near his country house, sufyve- 
Crowded thoroughfares now surround the spot where his^*'*'' 
ashes rest ; and a pear-tree from the fatherland, planted by 
his o-wn hands, until recently put forth its annual foliage, 
amid the hum of busy multitudes.:}: 

• Court of Assizes, ii., 635, 6.CC ; N. Y. Surr. Rec. Will?, i., 52, 53 ; Val. Man., IS-IT, 369, 
3T0; 0'CalI.,ii., 305; Gordon's Gaz. of N. J., 127; ante, i6. 

t Rec. Clerk's Off., City and County of N. Y. ; Val. Man., 1S55, 531, 532 ; 1S:0, 54S ; Val- 
entine's N. Y., 132; Sandford's Chancery Eep., iv., 633, 726; Paige, iv., 178; Hoffman's 
Treatise, i., 116, 117 ; ii., 1S0-1S9 ; Col. Doc, iii., 226 ; ante, vol. i., 266 ; ii., 80. 

t N. Y. II. S. Coll. i. (ii.), 399, 400, 454; N. Y. Surr. Rec. Wills, i. ; Smith, i., 33 ; Dunlap, 
i., lis ; Thompson, i., 129, note ; Val. Man., 1852, 413 ; 1S61, 532 ; Barber and Uoive's N. Y. 
Coll., 339. The pear-tree, surrounded by an iron railing, stood at the corner of Third Ave- 
nue and Thirteenth Street, until it was destroyed in Febru.-iry, 1S67. The inscription on 
the tablet in the wall of Saint Jlark's Church, over the vault in which Stuyvesant wag 


Chap. IV. Affairs on the Delaware requiring his personal attention, 

Lovelace set out overland, with an escort of horse, under 

sMM^h * *^^^ command of Captain Nicolls. Passing in great state 

Lovelace from l^eversiuk throuo-h New Jersey, he crossed the Dela- 

visita the ~ -, . . 

Delaware, -^vare at Je2:ow's new house, near Mattinicunk Island, and 

12 March. ~ ' _^ ■ 

reached Newcastle. On his return to New York, New- 
i; May. castle was incorporated as a bailiwick ; English laws were 
established on the Delaware ; and the officers at the Hoar- 
Idll were directed to oppose all pretenses of the Maryland 
authorities, and obey only the orders of the Duke of York's 
governor, " until His Majesty's or His Royal Highness's 
pleasure be signified to the contrary."* 

Rumors of a new war in Europe now made Lovelace 

take special care for the defense of New York. A third 

26 Febr'y. compauy of f oot was oro;anized in the city, Avhich Martin 

arrange- Jlregicr was commissioucd to command. A volmiteer 

New York, troop of liorsc was also raised, of which Cornelis Steen- 

24 April . . 

wyck was appointed captain, Dudley Lovelace lieutenant, 
and Gabriel Minvielle cornet ; and the new forces were 
ordered to be ready for the next General Training in May.f 
There was need of precaution. Charles the Second dis- 
liked the Triple Alliance ; he hated the Dutch, who had 
burned his sliips at Chatham ; he wanted money for his 
pleasures, and was restive mider the restraint of the House 
of Commons. The Duke of York, M'ho had become a Ro- 
man Catholic, encouraged his brother to carry on a clan- 
destine negotiation with Louis, and a secret treaty was 
signed between them in May, 1670, by which, among other 
things, the Iving of England agreed to profess the Roman 
faith, and join the King of France in making war against 
the Protestant Dutch Republic. Li return for this, Charles 
England was to rcccive enough money from Louis to make him in- 
unite dependent of Parliament. Another treaty was openly ne- 
dIucT. '^ gotiated in January, 1671, by which it was stipulated that 
England was to annex Zealand, and France all the other 
Dutch provinces except Holland, which was to be the 

buried, erroneonsiy states that he died in '■'■ Atirjit^t, A.D. 1GS2," instead of February, 1CT2. 
An epitaph on Stuyvcsant, written by Domine Selyns, is in Murphy's Anthology of New 
Xethcrland, 160. 

• Council Min.,iii., 02, 9.1,94, 9T; Gen. Ent., iv., 110-114, 184 ; Col. MSS., xx., 26-35; S. 
Hazard, 395-:!97, 400 ; Eliz. Bill, 4 ; Bancroft, ii., 319 ; ante, 164. 

t Gen. Ent., iv., 105, 12S ; Mas.'. U. S. Coll., x.\.x., 80 ; ante, vol. i., 631, 665, 712, 724. 


share of the Prince of Orange if he would come into the chap.iv. 

arrangement. William — who had been declared entitled 
to precedence next after the Duke of York, " as nephew to wiiuanT 
His Majesty, and a grandchild of England" — was invited qj.!^"^®/* 
to London, where his birthday was celebrated with extra- 
ordinary pomp, A marriage between him and his beauti- 
ful cousin Mary was projected. But the Dutch prince was 
not to be bought. " The King of England," wrote Colbert 
de Croissi from London, to Louis, in December, 1670, "is 
much satisfied with the parts of the Prince of Orange. 
But he finds him so passionate a Dutchman and Protest- 
ant, that even although your Majesty had not disapproved 
of his trusting him with any part of the secret, those two 
reasons would have hindered him." Temple was now re- 
called from the Hague, and in July, 1671, was replaced by 
Downing, the mean-spirited enemy of Holland. It was 
agreed that the Dutch should mainly be fought by England 
at sea, and by France on land. To obtain money for equip- 
ping his fleet, Charles adopted the iniquitous expedient, 2 Jan'y. 
foreseen by Ashley, suggested by Clifford, and recommend- Exchequer 
ed by the " Cabal," of closing the English Exchequer, and 
seizing the moneys loaned to the nation by its confiding 

With characteristic perfidy, the English captured the 
Dutch Smyrna fleet, which was coming home, unconscious 
of danger, "l^o clap of thunder on a fair day," wrote 
Temple, " could more astonish the world." But the cap- 
tors received " little save blows, and a worthy reproach." 3 March. 
A few days afterward Charles declared war against the n March. 
Dutch ; and Louis soon followed. The young Prince of 7 April. 
Orange was made captain general of the Dutch army ; but and France 
their navy was intrusted to the veteran sldll of De Ruyter. i,gain.=t 
James, Duke of York, and Lord High Admiral of England, 

• Temple, i., 463 ; ii., 173, 173, ISO, 181, 251 ; Eeresby, 18 ; Dalrymple, i., 42-47, 9G-129 ; 
Clarke's James H., i., 440-457; Courtenay's Temple, 1., 271, 33S-352, 415; il., 481; Bas- 
nage, ii., 59, CO, 98-107, 110, 116-118, 133-141, 1S2-192; Kennett, iii., 279, 284; Burnet, i., 
300-308; Rapin, ii., 655, 656, G60-662; Anderson, ii., 522; Evel>Ti, ii., 76 : Da vies, iii., 71- 
83 ; Lavallee, iii., 219, 220 ; Martin, i., 306-319 ; Lingard, xii., 239-278, 369-380 ; Hume, vi., 
433-440, 445-448; Mackintosh, 314-319; Macaulay, i., 204-216; King's Life of Locke, 35, 
36 ; Campbell's Chancellors, iii., 305. It has been commonly supposed that the word " Ca- 
bal" was derived from the initials of Clifford, Ashley, Buckingham, Ailington, and Lauder- 
dale, who were the ministers of Charles the Second in 1672, But that term was used in En- 
gland as early as 1665, to signify v/hat is generally called " the Cabinet :" Pepys, ii., 312 ; 
iii, 328; ante, 5. 


cuAP. IV. commanded its fleet, wMle the Frencli ships were led by 

D'Estrees. De Euyter quickly attacked the combined En- 

23 Ma glish and French fleet lying in Southwold Bay, or Solebay, 
fj^^i: on the coast of Suffolk, A bloody, but indecisive action 
soiebtyf foUovred. The Duke of York was attended on board his 
flag-ship by Colonel Richard Nicolls, his late governor of 
Death of New York, who was killed by an avenging Dutch cannon 
wren^"""^ ball. The duke's secretary, Matthew Wren, was mortally 
wounded at his side. The Dutch had the advantage ; and 
the French prudently looked on while the naval rivals de- 
stroyed each other. Yet all this carnage was caused, said 
the calm and candid English Evelyn, " for no provocation 
but that the Hollanders exceeded us in industry, and in all 
things but en^^\"* 

Li the mean time, Charles, " very intent" about the set- 
1670. tlement of his American colonies, had appointed a new 
30 July- Council for Foreign Plantations, and made the Duke of 
4 April York and others, of whom one was John Evelyn, addition- 
26 May. eI membcrs. The first inquiry of the council was into the 
tlti^n^""' condition of the "peevish and touchy" colonies in New 
England!" England. Colonel Cartwright, Nicolls's old colleague, gave 
21 June, the council " a considerable relation of that country ;" and 
it was determined to send new commissioners, with secret 
3 August, instructions, to ascertain whether those colonies were able 
12 Augu.=.t. to resist the king and " declare for themselves as independ- 
ent of the crown." 
1672. The Dutch war, however, postponed action on this point ; 
although orders were sent to the plantations that none of 
their sliips should venture home without convoys ; and it 
i2FeVy. was Considered who would be fit commissioners to go to 
Kew England. The affairs of New York were also no- 
ticed. Dissatisfied with Lovelace's government, Easthamp- 
3 July. ton, Southampton, and Southold represented to the king 
that they were more heavily taxed than his subjects in 
New England, were not represented by " deputys in Court," 

* Basnage, ii., 192-209; Sylvius, i., 191-20S, 2-13-249; Clarke's James II., i., 45G^S1; 
Evelyn, i., 335, 409 ; ii., 75,76,80,82; Pcpys, ii., 361 ; iv.,235; Kennett, iii., 285, 2S7, 2SS; 
Rapin,ii.,662-6G4; Lyson'a Mag. Britt., i., 39; Davies, iii., 90-104 ; Lingard, xii., 265-283 ; 
Hume, vi., 449-456; Anderson, ii., 522; Martin, i., 327, 328. In the Ampthill Church, 
Bedfordshire, England, is a mural monument to Rich.ird Nicolls, on which is represented a 
cannon ball, with the in.scrlption '■'■ Instruwcntit.m ninrtis et immortalitatiK." A copy of 
Nicolls's epitaph is in N. V.llist. Soc. Proc. for 1844, p. 117. It is a curious coincidence that 
, the conqueror, Nicolls, ehould have followed Stuyvesant to the grave within a few months. 


and were obliged to obey laws imposed by others, who in- chap. iv. 
suited over them, and threatened to cut down their timber. ~ 
As they had purchased their lands from Lord Stirling's ^^^ ^^ng 
deputy, and had formerly been under Connecticut, they J^^''^°^gjj^^_ 
prayed that they might " be continued under the Govern- tion disre- 
ment and Patent of Mr. Winthrop, or else that they may England. 
be a free corporation as His Majesties subjects." The Idng 
referred the petition to the Plantation Council for a report, 
and directed that notice should be given to the Duke of 
York's commissioners that they might attend when it 
should be considered. The council accordingly read Lord 19 juiy. 
Stirhng's conveyances, on which the petitioners relied ; but 
as the whole of Long Island was clearly within the Duke 
of York's patent, no farther action appears to have been 

The next autumn the supervision of trade and com- 27 septem. 
merce was added to the former functions of the Plantation 
Council. Of this new council the versatile Ashley, recent- 
ly created Earl of Shaftesbury, was made president ; and, 
through his influence, John Locke, " an excellent learned 24 October, 
gentleman and student of Christ Church," at Oxford, was Evei^hi 
appointed its secretary, while John Evelyn continued to be gUsh pian- 
a member. The first business of the council was to warn coundi. 
the governor of Jamaica of a design of the Dutch against 
that island.f 

Meanwhile the king had directed Lovelace to take care 10 March. 
that all ships bound for Europe should sail in company, in tionsTntue 
March, June, and September, that an additional battery American 
should be made at New York, and that the whole govern- dereT^ *"^' 
ment should be put in a condition of defense. As soon as 
war was declared, the several colonies were warned against 3 Api-ii. 
the private men-of-war which were being prepared in Hol- 
land and Zealand, and were directed to take effectual pre- 
cautions for their own safety, as well as to seize all Dutch 
ships and property within their territories.:}: 

When the king's letter reached Lovelace, prompt meas- 

* Col. Doc, iii., 21, 22, 100-193, 197, lOS ; Sainsbury, i., 298 ; Evelyn, ii., 60, 62-66, 74 ; 
Palfrey, ui. , 33, 273, 274 ; Mass. II. S. Coll., xxxli., 285 ; xxxvii., 316 ; aiite^ 153. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 228; Evelyn, ii., S3, 85, 86; Anderson, ii., 522, 523; Palfrey, iii., 33. 
Locke gave up his aeci'etaryship when his patron, Shaftesbury, qiiarreled with the court in 
November, 1 073. King' s Life of Locke (Bohn' s ed. ), 34 ; Evelyn, ii. , 74, 94 95 ; 2MSt, p. 249. 

i Evelyn, ii., 74 ; Council Min., iii., 99, 100 ; Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 559, 560. 


Chap. IV. ures Were taken for defense. Younge, at Soutliold, was 
~ warned to be on his guard. Instead of a compulsory tax, 
24May.'^* ^ Contribution, or "benevolence" from each town, was 
Love^M's ^sked by the governor for the repair of Fort James. 
New°York Thomas Lovelace, High-sheriff Manning, AUard Anthon}", 
24 June. Captain Richard Morris * Thomas Gibbs, and Francis 

3 July. ■"■ . •' , ' 

iijuiy. Kombouts were appointed commissioners to receive and 
expend the moneys collected. On the king's declaration 
c July. of war coming to hand, it was proclaimed at the Fort Gate 
and the City Hall, and the fortifications vigorously pushed 
forward. Counselors Delavall and Steenwy^ck were dis- 
is July, patched to put Albany in a state of defense. Already the 
commerce of New York suffered ; and Lovelace's own ship, 
the " Good Fame," with three others belonging to the port, 
were seized in Holland.f 

The restriction of the navigation of the Hudson to New 
York vessels brought up an interesting question. Massa- 
chusetts had insisted, in 1659, that her territory extended 
as far as the Hudson, and Stuyvesant had distinctly reject- 
ed her claim. But the Massachusetts governor now wrote 
13 Maicii. to Lovelace, desiring that her boundary might be settled, 
questio™ and free passage up and down the Hudson be allowed to 
Ne^w yiTrk her people. This letter was brought to New York by John 
chusetts."^" Paine, of Boston, who was interested in the Massachusetts 
s August, grant of 1659. Lovelace, however, dechned to recognize 
any rights claimed by Massachusetts, which ought to have 
been settled by the royal commissioners ; and he referred 
the whole subject to the Dulvc of York. On his re- 
23 October, tum to Bostou, Paiue obtained the grant of a tract of 
land ten miles square, "at or near Hudson's River," 
and free trade with the Indians forever. But, as Massa- 
1G73. chusetts vessels could not navigate that I'iver, and "be- 
7 May- cause a liill of a vast extent impedes the passage to that 

* Captain riiclian! Morris died soon after this, leaving an only son, Lewis; and adminis- 
tration of Ilia estate was granted to Secretary Nicolls and others, by whom word was sent to 
Lewis Morris, of Barbadoes, an elder brother of the deceased : N. Y. Surr. Eec. Wills, i., 173 ; 
Colton, ii., 2ST, 2SS ; Col. Doc, ii., 595, G17 ; ante^ 140, note. 

t Council Min., iii., tlO, 100, 108, 114, 115; Gen. Ent., iv., 57, IGO, 14S, 149, 150, 161, 105, 
170; Col. MSS., xxii., 130, 134; Thomp.-on, i., 150; Col. Doc, iii., 185; anU'^ 152. The 
declaration of war .igainst the Dutch was proclaimed at Boston on the 2Sth of May, 1072, 
the first instance of such a measure ; Connecticut called a special court for 20 June, and 
Rhode Island took similar precautions : Mass. Rec, iv. (ii.), 517 ; Hutch., i., 283, 284; Coll., 
441; Palfrey, iii., 120; Col. Rec Conn., ii., 180-183, 559-561; Mass. H. S. Coll., xxx., 82, 
63; R.L Rec, ii., 461-404. 


place," Paine was allowed to take up another tract, " into chap. iv, 
which j)assage may be found for transportation overland."* 

The ^isit of Paine to New York, however, gave rise to Question* 
another claim of territory. He had bought Prudence Isl- ^gncoM- 
and, in Narragansett Bay, fi'om the representatives of Wil- ^^^^ 
liams and Winthrop, and was astonished to find that Love- Mand. 
lace claimed it as belonging to ISTew York under the duke's 
patent. The pretension was as absurd as that of Massa- 
chusetts to any part of the Yalley of the Hudson. Never- 
theless, Paine thought it best to take a patent for his isl- 
and from Lovelace, who readily gave it, in consideration 
of liberal contributions to the repair of Fort James. By 
Lovelace's patent, Prudence Island was made a free town-25juiy. 
ship, under the name of " Sophy Manor," of which Paine 
was ajDpointed governor for his life, subordinate to the TAugust. 
jurisdiction of New York. But Phode Island, very prop- 
erly resenting Lovelace's usurpation, arrested the unf ortu- c septem. 
nate Paine ; who, not long afterward, was convicted of at- 23 octXe'r. 
tempting to introduce a foreign jurisdiction.f 29 October. 

In New Jersey, disaffection had meanwhile grown so 
strong that those who desired to escape paying the pro- 
prietors' quit-rents sent deputies to an anarchical assembly 
at Elizabethtown, which dejDOsed Governor Philip Carte- 14 May. 
ret, and appointed in his place his newly-arrived cousin, te'^rTL-"'^' 
Captain James Carteret, the " weak and dissolute," but le- govSn-''^ 
gitimate younger son of Sir George. Lovelace and hisN|°V/r- 
council did their best to reconcile the dispute ; but the i^june. 
usm-per rejected the friendly oifices of New York, and 
claimed that he was justified by the instructions of thei4juae. 
proprietors of New Jersey. Philip Carteret therefore ap- 1 juiy. 
pointed Captain John Berry to be his deputy, and sailed for 20 juiy. 
Guernsey under a passport from Lovelace, accompanied by is septem. 
Secretary James BoUen, to state the case at London. Aft- 
er Philip Carteret's departm-e, James, who usurped his of- 12 October. 
fice, corresponded with Lovelace ; but without any result.:]: 13 October. 

• Ante, 168, 182 ; vol. i., 655, C71, 672; Col. Doc, vi., 143, 159; rii., 224, 334, 563, 564, 
596, 597 ; viiL, 371, 439 ; Hutch., i., 159, 160 ; Gen. Ent., iv., 177, 178, 179 ; Col. MSS., xxii., 
137, 149; Mass. Rec, iv. (i.), S95, 396 (ii.), 548, 558, 570; Mass. H. S. Coll., xxxvii., 512. 
The Western Railroad from Springfield to Albany now triumphantly surmounts this " hill 
of a vast extent." 

t Patents, iv., 86-90 ; Col. MSS., xxii., 138, 139 ; R. I. Col. Rec, i., 45, 46 ; Arnold, i.. 87, 
105, 362, 363 ; Palfrey, iiL , 109. 

t Council Min., iii., 101; Gen. Knt., iv., 142-14 ',171, 207, 203, 213; Eliz. Bill in Chan- 



Chap. IV. 


1 July. 

12 August. 
rebuked by 
New York, 

7 Oetober. 


Fresh troubles now occurred on the Delaware. A party 
of Marylanders came to the Hoarkill, and, assisted by 
Daniel Brown, a planter, assaulted the magistrates, and 
carried off all the plunder they could. Brown was after- 
ward sent a prisoner to New York, where he was tried and 
convicted, but was released on promise of amendment. 
Lovelace quickly rebuked Calvert for allowing his people 
to commit, for a second time, such outrages in the Duke 
of Tork's territories " in these portending troublous times, 
wherein all true-hearted Englishmen are buckling on their 
armour," and required him to punish the offenders. The 
New York governor's prompt intervention saved Delaware 
from " the imminent peril of being absorbed in Maryland." 
The Duke of York was soon advised of the truculence of 
Lord Baltimore's agents ; and Carr was directed to guard 
against the Maryland people, who, following up "their 
former violent action" in 1669, had again invaded a de- 
pendency of New York, " after so long quiet possession of 
those parts by His Royal Highness's deputies under His 
Majesty's obedience, and by other nations before that, sev- 
eral years before the date of the Lord Baltimore's patent, 
whom they never disturbed by arms, and whose right is 
now devolved upon the Duke."* 

A memorable event of this year was the visit of the En- 
glish Quaker, George Fox, to America. Sailing to Barba- 
does, he spent several months there with Lewis Morris and 
other " Friends." Early in 1672 he went to Jamaica, and 
thence to Maryland. Passing through Newcastle, Fox 
traversed the wilderness of New Jersey to Middletown, 

eery, 35 ; N. J. H. S. Proc, i. (ii.), 23, SO ; Douglas, ii., 269, 2T1, 272 ; Clialmei's, i., 610 ; S. 
Smith, OS; Gordon, 29; Bancroft, ii., 319 ; Whitehead, 55-57 ; CoUins's Peerage, iv., 213; 
ante, 177. James Carteret seems to have enjoyed the genial society of New York during the 
winter, as he was married, by license from Lovelace, on 15 April, 1673, to Frances, daughter 
of Counselor Thomas Delavall : Gen. Ent., iv., 277 ; N. Y. Marriages (1S60), 68, 105. lie 
appears to have been a sad rake, and "a very profligate person," but of "a good under- 
standing." lie was afterward separated from his wife and allowed an annuity by his fa- 
ther, who would not " acknowledge him as his son, as before :" see Dankcrs's and Sluyter's 
Journal (1867), 137, 13S. See also Hist. Mag., x., 157, for a notice of the descendants of 
James Carteret and Frances Delavall. There is no reason for the brand of illefiitimacn 
which Whitehead, 55, and Mulford, 162, have endeavored to stamp on James Carteret : 
compare Eliz. Bill, 35 ; CoUins's Peerage, iv., 213; Douglas, ii., 272; Chalmers, i.,C16, 625. 
"Natural," as used by (Chalmers, does not mean " illegitimate ;" Hist. Mng.,ii. (iii.),110. 

• Council Min., iii., 110; Gen. Ent., iv., 188, 199, 211-213; S. Smith, 72-76; Hazard's 
Ann. Penn., 307-402, 4C5 ; Bancroft, ii., 238, 310, 320 ; Proud, i., 131, 132 ; Col. MSS., xx., 
37. .^S; Col. Doc, iii., 186; ante, 164. Yet Chalmers, i., 301, 634, affirms that Calvert 
took possession of the country around Cape llenlopen, which the Dutch "had relinquish- 
ed;" and Grahame repeats Chalmers's falsehood. 


and went from there to Gravesend, on Long Island. At cuap.iv. 
Oyster Bay he calmed the quarrels of the " Friends." At 
Ehode Island he met several Connecticut Quakers. From j^„g 
there he crossed over to Shelter Island, accompanied by 1^^°^ 
several " Friends," one of whom was " John Jay, a j)lanter j^^J^^^ 
in Barbadoes." He visited Oyster Bay, Flushing, and Ja- August 
maica again, and held several "precious meetings." On 
his return through New Jersey, Fox came near losing his 
companion, Jay, who was thrown from his horse, but was 
restored by the skill of the Quaker apostle. At Newcastle, 
Fox was lodged by Carr in his o-svn house, where the first 
Quaker meeting in Delaware was held. After revisiting 
Maryland, Fox passed on to Virginia and North Carolina, septem. 
and in the spring of the following year sailed from the 
Chesapeake for England.* 

There were, at this time, seven Jesuit missionaries among Jesuit mis- 
the five Iroquois nations. Bruyas, the superior, remamed among the 
with Boniface among the Mohawks, who still kept on their 
guard against their old enemies, the Mahicans. At Oneida, 
Millet found the savages as obdurate as the rock from 
which they derived their name. John de Lamberville, 
at Onondaga, aided by the active zeal of Garakontie, had 
better hopes.f 

Carheil, now cured of his disease, returned to the Cayu- 
gas, and Eaffeix was transferred to assist Gamier among 
the Senecas. In a letter to Dablon, Eaffeix described Ca- 24 June. 
yuga as " the most beautiful country I have seen in Ameri- description 
ca. It is situated in latitude 42 degrees and a half, and ° ^^y"^*- 
the needle dips there scarcely more than ten degrees. It 
lies between two lakes, and is not more than four leagues 
wide, with almost continuous plains, while the woods which 
border them are very beautiful. Mohawk is a narrow val- 
ley, often very stony, and always covered with fogs. The 
mountains which enclose it seem to me to be of very poor 
soil. Oneida and Onondaga appear to be a very rugged 
country, and little adapted to hunting. The same is true 
of Seneca. Every year they kill more than a thousand 

* Fox's Journal (Phil, ed.), 435-464; Sewell, 509-512 ; Col. Doc, ii., 619; Arnold, i, 360, 
361; Thompson, ii., 82, 83; Hazard's Keg. Penn., vi., 181; Palfrey, iii., 106-lOS; Mass. II. 
S. Coll., xxxvii., 288 ; ante^ vol. i., 635. Fox returned to Bristol on the 28th of June, 16T3. 

+ Relation, 1613, 18-22; 16T2-3, 33-39; Douniol, i., 4-8; Charlevoix, iL, 223, 231, 232; 
Shea, 198, 268, 281-283 ; ante, 181. 


ciiAP. IV. deer in the neighborhood of Caynga. Fishing is as abun- 
dant here as at Onondao-a, as well for salmon as for eels 
and other fishes. Four leagues fi'om here I saw, on the 
brink of a River, within quite a small space, eight or ten 
very tine salt springs. It is there that they spread num- 
bers of nets to catch pigeons, of which they often take 
seven or eight hundred at one haul. The Lake of Tiohero 
[Cayuga], one of the two which border on our -sillage, is 
fourteen leagues long, by one or two wide. Swans and 
bustards abound there all the winter ; and, in the spring, 
one sees nothing but continual clouds of all sorts of game. 
The River of Ochoueguen [Oswego], which flows out of 
this Lake, divides itself at its beginning into several chan- 
nels surrounded by prairies, with here and there very 
pleasant and pretty deep bays, where the wild fowl resort. 
I find the inhabitants of Cayuga more tractable and less 
fierce than the Onondagas and Oneidas ; and, if God had 
humiliated them as much as the Mohawks, I believe that 
the faith would be established there more easily than in 
any one of the Iroquois nations. They reckon more than 
three hundred warriors among them, and a prodigious 
multitude of small children."* 

From Seneca, Garnier sent his superior a discouraging 

20 July, account of the three missions of Conception, Saint Michael, 

account of and Saint James. The expedition of Courcelles to Lake 

Ontario, which at first had been thought to be an intended 

invasion, retarded conversions ; and an ill feeling arose 

against the " black robes," who were charged with being 

sorcerers and spies to report every thing to Onnontio. 

sijuiy. With great joy, Gamier welcomed Raffeix to assist him 

among the Senecas, who now numbered fi'om twelve to 

thirteen thousand souls.f 

The war against the Andastes was still carried on, chief- 
ly by the Cayugas and the Senecas. During the summer, 

* Relation, 1G72, 23, 23 ; Col. Doc, iii., 251. The salt springs which Raffeix describes arc 
those at Montezuma. 

t Relation, 1GT2, IS, 24-2G; 1072-3, lOS; Col. Doc, ix., 97, note; Shea, 392; ante, 179. 
The Annual Relations of the Jesuits were not printed later than this year at Paris, owing 
to the riciucst of Courcelles: Faillon, iii., 312. Dablon, however, who remained superior 
general, at Qutbec, until 1G03, compiled several others. Two of tliese, fnr 1672-1C73, and 
1G73-16T9, have been publislied from the originals at Quebec, bj' Mr. John G. Shea. Mr. 
James Lenox has likewise printed the Relation for 1070-1677. (Jlmrles Douniol, of Paris, 
also published two volumes in ISGl, entitled "Mission du Canada," containing the Rela- 
tions from 1072 to 1079, copied from the originals at Quebec and at Rome. 


an Iroquois party descending the Susquehanna River were chap. rv. 
attacked and routed by sixty young Susquehannas. The ~r~~ 
sympathies of the French missionaries were with the latter, xhe war' 
" God preserve the Andastes, who have only three hundred ^■^I'^^l^ 
warriors, and bless their arms to humiliate the Iroquois and 1"°^ ^°^ 

' . . ^ ^ Andastes. 

preserve to us peace and our missions," wrote Raffeix to 
Dablon, his superior general, at Quebec* 

Courcelles's expedition the last year to Lake Ontario 
so affected his health that he asked to be reKeved ; and 
the king appointed in his place Louis de Buade, Count 6 April. 
of Frontenac, a veteran lieutenant general in the French recalled,''^ 
army. Frontenac was quick, firm, penetrating, domineer- tenac^ap'-" 
ing, and a scholar. He was instructed, among other gov°erm.r of 
things, to keep his government prepared to repel, and, if 7 April!" 
necessary, to attack the Iroquois ; to favor " contiguous 
clearances" rather than scattered settlements ; and to coun- 
terbalance the influence of the Jesuits by encouraging the 
Sulpitians and EecoUets.f 

The summer before Frontenac reached Canada, a con- 
gress was held at Montreal, to which more than five him- July, 
dred red men came in one hundred and fifty canoes. A 
new treaty of peace was confirmed in the presence of Cour- August. 
celles. At the same time, the governor invited the princi- 
pal Iroquois chiefs to meet him at Cataracouy, on the north- courceiiea 
em shore of Lake Ontario. Having assembled there, Cour- fort at ca- 
celles flattered them by presents, and got their consent to or xlngsl 
build a fort at that place, where they might come to trade 
with the French. They did not perceive that the object of 
the Canadian governor was really " to hold them in check," 
after they should have ended their war with the Susque- 
hannas, and provide an entrepot for himself. The work 
was at once projected by Courcelles ; but its completion 
was left to other hands.:}: 

On his return to Quebec, Courcelles met Frontenac, who septem. 
had just arrived, and easily convinced him of the impor- 
tance of the enterprise he had begun on Lake Ontario. 

• Relation, 1G72, 20, 24. It has been supposed by Charlevoix, ii., 244, that the Susque- 
hannas, or Andastes, were subjugated by the Iroquois in 1672. But this event does not 
seem to have happened until 1075: see Douniol, L, 267; ii., 44, 99; Hist. Mag., ii., 297; 
Col. Doc., ix., 110, 111, 227; ante, 100, note. 

t Col. Doc, ix., 85-88,791; Charlevoix, iL, 191, 247 ; Gameau,i., 201, 205, 207; Sparks's 
La Salle, 15, 16 ; Faillon, iii., 416-418; ante, ISl. 

t Relation, 1672, 21 ; Charlevoix, ii., 244, 245; Shea, 282; Ganieau, i., 200. 

II.— N 


cuAr.iv. Frontenac's first act was to publish his king's declaration 
~ of war against the Dutch. In his dispatches to France, he 
iTSeptem approvcd of CourccUes's projected fort at Cataracouy "to 
FronteDac prevent the Iroquois carrying to the Dutch the peltries, for 
of Canada, -\vhich thcv go to tlic Ottawas ;" and as it mio-ht strengthen 

2 Jiovem. . . . 

the mission at Quinte Bay, he promised to go there him- 
self the next spring.* 

Courcelles soon afterward returned to France, accom- 
panied by Talon, in a new shij) of five hundred tons bur- 
then, which had been built at Quebec. As the Mississippi 
was supposed to empty into the Gulf of California, Talon 
recommended to Frontenac that its exploration should be 
.Toiiiet sent iutrustcd to Louis Jollict, of Quebcc, an " aspirant to the 
the*Mis?is- Ministry," who had accompanied Saint Lusson the year be- 
Ma^qlette. f orc to Lake Superior, and who had " already been almost 
at that great river, the mouth of which he promises to see." 
JoUiet "was accordingly dispatched to Michilimackinac, with 
orders to Marquette to join the expedition. On the feast 
8 Decern, of the Immaculate Conception he reached the Jesuit mis- 
sionary, who longed to visit the Mississippi ; and the win- 
ter was spent in preparations for their joumey.f 

"While Lovelace was at Albany the last year, he regu- 
lated the Indian trade at Schenectady as the frontier. 
13 July. The people of that town now bought from the Mohawks 
d^^'affai^ the land on both sides of the river, as far as " Kinaquari- 
ones," where the last battle was fought between the Mo- 
hawks and Mahicans in 1669. A separate court was soon 
c septem. afterward established at Schenectady.:}: 

Under the new arrangements at Esopus, its three villages 
Prosperity prospcrcd abundantly, and twenty-five thousand " schepels" 
•sopus. ^^ ^^^^^ were raised there this year. Isot far from the vil- 
lage of Kingston, the land owned by Captain Chambers 
Fox Hall. ' was erected into a manor, with the usual privileges, and 

• Col. Doc, Lx., 90-94, 791; Quebec MSS., ii. (ii.), IIG; Charlevoix, u.,2-15; Gamoan, i., 
20T-210 ; Faillon, iii., 450, 457; a7ite, 148, 140. 

t Relation, 1072, 1, 2, 30; 1072-3, 140; Col. Dec, ix., 89, 92, 121, CCS, 793, S04; Charle- 
voix, ii., 245, 240, 24S, 254, 255 ; Bancroft, iii., 153, 155, 150 ; Garneau, i., 205-207, 231, 232 ; 
La Potherie, ii., 130 ; Shea'a Disc. Mis?., xxvii., xxviii., Ixv., Ixxix., 4, 5, C ; Hist. Mag., v., 
2.'i7 ; Douniol, i., 193, 194; Faillon, iii., 200, 312, 417-421 ; ante, 170, 179. 

t Gen. Ent.,iv.,90; Council Min., iii., 110; Col. MSS., xxii., 132 ; ante, 161. On tlie 27th 
of January, 1073, Antlionia van Curler, in consideration of her Iiouse and barns being de- 
stroyed, and of her husband, Arendt van Curler, being lost in the public service (ante, 121), 
was allowed to sell rum and lead, but not powder, to the Indians, for a year and two month.';: 
Council Min., iii., 120 ; Col. Doc, ii., 052. 


named " Fox Hall." Soon afterward Counselor Delavall chap. hi. 
was authorized to build a store-liouse adjoining the redoubt ^^^^ 
at the Strand, near Kingston.* 

The provincial law, in cases of divorce, was now settled, ipjiarc^^.^ 
Daniel Denton, of Jamaica, who had gone to London to ^ijorce^^!^ 
publish his work on New York, found, on his return, that 
his wife, Abigail, had been unfaithful during his absence. 
He applied to the Court of Sessions for a divorce ; but 
that tribunal having no jurisdiction, he laid his case before 
the governor and council. Lovelace, obser^^ng that it was 
" conformable to the Laws of this Government, as well as 
to the practice of the civil law, and the laws of our nation 
of England," granted Denton a divorce from his wife. But 25 June. 
in this decision the governor seems to have followed the 
Dutch rather than the English law.f 

At the autumn session of the Court of Assizes an inter- 2 October.^ 
esting case was heard on appeal from the court on the appeaUn 
Delaware. Amigart Pappegoya, the daughter of the for- of Assizes. 
mer Swedish Governor Printz, brought an action in eject- 
ment against Andrew Carr, to recover her patrimonial es- 
tate in the island of Tinicum. The plaintiff's attorney 
was John Sharpe, assisted by Samuel Edsall, and Jacob 
Milborne, who was specially admitted to plead. John Ki- 3 October. 
der appeared for the defendant. Tlie writings in German 
were translated for the court by the Lutheran " Domine" 
Arensius, and those in Low Dutch by Nicholas Bayard. 
After a full hearing the case went to the jury, who brought 
in a verdict for the plaintiff, and judgment was given in 4 October. 
her favor.:|: 

• Col. Doc., ii., 526; Lambrechtsen, 115; Gen. Ent., iv., 216, 273; O'Call., ii., 394, 395; 
Val. Man.,lS53, 3S1. 

t Gen. Ent., iv., 153; Dunlap, ii., App. cxviii. ; Daly's Intrcd., 27. The Court of As- 
sizes, however, in the following October, allowed the divorced Abigail Denton to maiTy 
again : Court of Assizes, ii., 317. In October, 1670, the Court of Assizes divorced Rebecca 
Leveridge from her husband, Eleazer, on account of his alleged impotence : Council Min., 
iii., 27 ; Court of Assizes, ii., 4S6, 519-522, 607, 608 ; Thompson, i., 256. The governor and 
council, in October, 1672, divorced Thomas Petitt, of Newtown, from hw wife Sarah, because 
of her adultei7 ; and Mary Cole from Daniel Sutton, because of his bigamy : Gen. Ent., iv., 
213, 214, 215. The law, however, was afterward settled otherwise. Chancellor Kent ob- 
serves that " for more than one hundred yeara preceding the Revolution, no divorce took 
place in the colony of New York ;" and that there was no way of dissolving a marriage in 
the lifetime of the parties but by a special act of the Legislature. The Court of Chancery 
was not authorized to grant divorces d vinculo untU 17S7, and then only for adultery: 
Kent's Commentaries, ii., 97, 98. 

t Court of Assizes, ii., 293-300; Gen. Ent., iv., 260-262; Col Mi=S., xx.,26; S. Hazard's 
Ann Penn 400, 401, 404 : ante, vol. i., 397, 557. Sharpe and Rider appear to have been 
re-ular practitioners : Col. Doc, ii., 617, 709, 718; iii., 202 ; Doc. Hist., iii., 58, 60; Mass. 


cuAP. IV. Several important public measures were adopted at the 
same session of the Com-t of Assizes. As servants fre- 
aoctobei- C[uently ran away from their masters into other govern- 
T October ^^uts, it was Ordered that all strangers without passports 
New laws should be liable to arrest. Ene-lish weights and measures 

enacted at , . 

t^e Court only were to be used throughout the province before the 
next Old Style T^ew-year day, on the 25th of March. The 
laws as to parochial churches were to be duly observed, 
and " although divers persons may be of different judg- 
ments, yet all shall contribute to the minister established 
and allowed of, which is no way judged to be an infringe- 
ment of the liberty of conscience to the which they may 
pretend." The contributions for the renovation of the 
fort were to be sent to I^ew York, or to " the Ferry," be- 
fore the next Christmas. It was also ordered that a Bos- 
ton shilhng should pass for one shilling, and a good 
Spanish piece of eight, whether of Mexico, Seville, or 
a pillar piece, should be valued at six shillings in all 
New York transactions.^' 
10 Decern. Lovclacc uow issucd a proclamation that, conformably 
po3t toNew to the king's commands to promote correspondence, and 
^fbifshed the advancement of commerce and general intelligence 
iTce!°''^" between his colonies, a monthly post should be establish- 
ed to go fi'om New York to Boston ; and that, according- 
ly, a sworn messenger would be dispatched on the first 
of the next January, to convey letters or small packets to 
Hartford, Boston, and other places on his way. All letters 
were to be deposited in the secretary's ofiice, and the post- 
age to be prepaid before the bag was closed. In a private 
27 Decern, letter which Lovelace intended to dispatch by his pioneer 
post, he wrote to Winthrop : " I here present you with two 
rarities, a pacquett of the latest intelligence I could meet 
withal, and a Post. By the first, you will see what has 

H. S. Coll., XXX., 108. Edsall aftenvard became quite prominent in colonial affairs: Col. 
Doc., ii., 57G, 720 ; iii., 75, 5S9, 683, 789. Jacob Milborno, who became still more prominent, 
was a young Englishman, who had been convicted of clipping the king's coin, and sold as a 
servant in Barbadoos. lie was afterward bought by a Hartford man ; but because of his 
stubbornness and disobedience, was transferred several times from one master to another. 
Having finally got his liberty, he came to New York in IGGS, being then twenty years old, 
and was employed by Counselor Thomas Delavall to keep his books and manage his affairs ; 
in which service he remained until tliis year: Col. Doc., iii., 301, 621, 674, 727, 755, 7S0; 
Doc. Hist., ii., 28, 42 ; Col. MSS., xsvi., 139 ; Gen. Ent., xxxii., 19. 

• Court of Assizes, ii., 323 ; Col. MSS., xxii., 9, 142 ; N. Y. H. S. Coll., i., 420-424 ; Thomp- 
son, i., 150. Frequent cases of the prohibition of the export of grain, either by order of the 
governor and council, or of the Court of Assizes, occurred from time to time in New York. 


been acted on the stage of Em-ope ; by the latter you will chap. iv. 
meet with a monthly fresh supply ; so that if it receive "^but 
the same ardent inclinations from you as first it hath from Loveiace'8 
myself, by our monthly advisoes all pubhque occurrences ^^yoQ^' 
may be transmitted between us, together with several! oth- 
er great conveniencys of pubhque importance, consonant 
to the commands laid upon us by His sacred Majestic, who 
strictly injoins all his American subjects to enter into a 
close correspondency with each other. This I look upon 
as the most compendious means to beget a mutual under- 
standing ; and that it may receive all the countenance from 
you for its future duration, I shall acquaint you with the 
modell I have proposed ; and if you please but to make an 
addition to it, or substraction, or any other alteration, I 
shall be ready to comply with you. This person that has 
undertaken the imployment I conceaved most proper, be- 
ing both active, stout, and indefatigable. He is sworne as 
to his fidelity. I have afiixt an annuall sallery on him, 
which, together with the advantage of liis letters and other 
small portable packes, may afford him a handsome lively- 
hood. Hartford is the fii'st stage I have designed him to 
change his horse, where constantly I expect he should have 
a fresh one lye, leger. All the letters outward shall be de- 
livered gratis, with a signification of Post Payd on the 
superscription ; and reciprocally, we expect all to us free. 
Each first Monday of the month he sets out fi-om Kew 
York, and is to return within the month from Boston to us 
againe. The maile has divers baggs, according to the 
townes the letters are designed to, which are all sealed up 
'till their arrivement, with the scale of the Secretarie's Of- 
fice, whose care it is on Saturday night to seale them up. 
Only by-letters are in an open bag, to dispense by the 
wayes. Thus you see the scheme I have drawne to pro- 
mote a happy correspondence. I shall only beg of you 
your furtherance to so universall a good work ; that is to 
afford him directions where, and to whom to make his ap- 
plication to upon his arrival at Boston ; as likewise to afford 
him what letters you can to estabhsh him in that imploy- 
ment there. It would be much advantagious to om' de- 
signe, if in the intervall you discoursed with some of the 
most able woodmen, to make out the best and most facile 


Chap. IV. way for a Post, whicli, in processe of tjme would be the 
King's best highway ; as likewise passages and accommo- 
' dation at Rivers, fords, or other necessary places."* 

Lovelace is certainly entitled to the credit of having 
established the first post between ISTew York and New En- 
gland. But the pioneer whom he intended to dispatch on 
New-year's day was kept back until the Albany news reach- 
1673. ed the capital. He was then sworn, and instructed to be- 
?iratpo3t ^^^'^ civilly; to inquire of Winthrop "how to form the 
Ivom^Nlw ^^^^ post-road ;" to mark trees " that shall direct passen- 
York. gej^.g ii^Q ijggi; -^yay ;" and " to detect, and cause to be appre- 
hended all fugitive soldiers and servants" who might run 
away from New York. By him the governor wrote again 
22 Jan. to Wiuthrop that the last ships from England to Maryland 
wrnthrop." and Virginia brought " little tidings save the despair of a 
peace between the Protestant nations. Presses, both by 
sea and land, are very vigorously prosecuted. The Hol- 
lander has absolutely lost three of their Provinces. They 
have disposed of all their men-of-war, and given liberty to 
all that will venture on pri^-ateering ; in so much that forty 
saile, well fitted, are dispatched towards the West Indies. 
If so, it will be high time for us to beginnato buckle on our 
armom*, and to put ourselves into such a posture of defence 
as is most suitable to our severall conditions. However, it 
will be absolutely necessary that in the first place, a good 
understanding be made and preserved amongst us, conform- 
able to His Majestie's gracious care and good pleasure ; to 
which end I have erected a constant post, which shall 
monthly pass betwixt us, or oftener, if occasion requires. 
I desire of you to favour the undertaking by your best 
skill and countenance. I have writt to you my more par- 
ticular desires in a former letter which this bearer brings 
Murder The delayed messenger from Albany brought news of 
Sfny^ ' the murder of a soldier there by two " North Indians," who 
were promptly arrested by Pynchon, at Springfield. Love- 
lace at once commissioned Salisbury to try them at a spe- 

* Gen. Ent., iv., 243, 244; IJarber and Ilowe'.s N. Y. Coll., 200; Val. Man., 1S5T, 042; 
Bolton, i., 13!) ; ii., 321, 322 ; Mass. II. S., Trumbull Papers, MSS. xx., 110 ; ante, 1S2. 

t Gen. Knt., iv., 252, 253; Val. Man., 1S57, 543, 544; Mass. H. S., Trumbull Papers, MSS. 
XX., 109 ; Ilist. Mag., iv., 50. Massacliusetts docs not appear to have taken any steps re- 
specting a post until 1G7T : see Mass. Eec, v., 147, 14S ; Palfrey, iii., 30C, 51S. 

27 Jan. 


cial court at Albany. The murderers were conyicted and chap. iv. 
executed ; and the savages retained a lasting memory of 
the sm-e and swift justice of the English.* 

Lovelace had given no attention to the duke's territory 
at Pemaquid. Massachusetts, however, had claimed juris- 
diction over that region ; and after the Peace of Breda, 
tlie French insisted that Acadia extended as far west as 
the Kennebec River. Saint Lusson had visited Pemaquid 
after his return fi'om the West, and found the colonists 
there apparently glad to come under French authority. 
Lovelace therefore wrote to them to send to K^ew York " a le Febi'y. 
modell of such a government as shall be most conducing to orders 
the happiness of that colony, both to its safety, traffic, and pemaquid. 
increase of inhabitants ; promising, upon the reception of 
that scheme, not only to invest you with ample power to 
exercise your authority both to ecclesiastick as ci^dll af- 
fairs, but will be ready on all occasions to be assisting to 
you in the preservation of all yom- rights and interest 
against any sinister obstructions."! 

At Martha's Yineyard affairs went quietly on under the 
government of Mayhew, and a code of laws was passed at 15 April. 
a General Court held at Edgartown. Nantucket, however, vineyani 
" would not proceed" in the same way ; and Lovelace ap- tucket!" 
pointed Richard Gardner its chief magistrate, in place of 
Coffin, with instructions. One of these was that the island 
should thereafter be known as the town of Sherborne.:]: 

Meanwhile, Philip Carteret had succeeded in England. }^^^- 

'J- ® 25 Novem. 

At the reciuest of the proprietors of N^ew Jersey, the Duke The duke-s 

orders to 

of York wrote to Lovelace that the grants of N icolls to Loveiace 
Baker and others being made after his own conveyance to Jersey. 

* Gen. Ent., iv., 248-251; Col. Doc, iv., 994; Hist. Mag., iv., 50, 51. On the 28lh of 
January, 1GT3, "Jo. Clarke," who appears to have belonged to the garrison of Fort James, 
wrote by the same post to Salisbury, among other things, the following city news : "The 
other day we had like to have lost our hangman, Ben. Johnson; for he, being taken in 
divers thefts and robberies, convicted and found guilty, 'scaped his neck through want of 
another hangman to truss him up ; so that all the punishment he receaved for his 3 yeareb' 
roguery in thieving and stealing (which was never found out 'till now) was only thirty-nine 
stripes at the whipping-post, loss of an ear, and banishment. Capt. Manning had likewise 
two servants that he employed at his Island, taken with him in their villainy ; but they 
being not found so guilty as he, came off with whipping and banishment. All this happen- 
ed about a fortnight since, but 'tis two months since they were apprehended." 

t Gen. Ent., iv., 253, 259 ; Maine H. S. Coll., i., 130, 131 ; v., 6-8, 247, 243 ; Col. Doc, ix., 
74, 75, 119, 265, 379, 433 ; Mass. Rec, iv. (ii.), 519 ; Charlevoix, ii., 256 ; La Potherie, ii., 130; 
Williamson, i., 440-442; Hutch. Mass., i., 325; anff, 141, 179. 

t Deeds, i., 78; iii., 57, 85-S3 ; Col. MSS., xxiv., 92 ; Hough's Nantucket Papers, 42-59, 
71; ani€, 174. 


Chap. IV. Berkeley and Carteret, were void ; and as the latter had 
~ promised to instruct their agents to assist the governor of 
' New York, " I do desire you," he added, " and all others 
herein concerned, in like manner effectually to assist them 
in furthering the settlement and maintaining the quiet of 
9 Decern, thcsc parts." The king also directed Berry, the acting gov- 
ernor, to notify all the inhabitants of New Jersey to yield 
obedience to the proprietors, who had " the sole power" un- 
der him.* 
1673. When these documents were published by Berry, the in- 
5 May. surgcuts Submitted. James Carteret retired with his young 
bride to New York, whence he soon afterward sailed for 
15 May. Virginia. Lovelace read in council the duke's orders about 
teret re- Ncw Jcrscy, and supported the proprietors' authority there. 
Newjer- Willis and Winthrop also wrote to Berry and Sir George 
•f July. Carteret in favor of emigrants fi'om Connecticut to New 
" ^' Jersey, and recommended convenient townships as " best 
conducing to safety and the advancing of civil societies."t 
March. While Lovclacc was at Anne Hook's Neck, or Hutchin- 

New Yo°rk sou's Bay, on postal business, news came to New York that 
Dutch at- a Dutch squadron was coming from the West Indies to 
*ack. Yirginia, and thence northward ; and the governor was 
summoned back to the capital by express from Manning. 
Seeing no enemy, Lovelace " slited" his subordinate's care, 
and said " this is one of Manning's 'larrums." He did not 
even prepare the fort to withstand an enemy, although he 
had received the contribution money. Soldiers were, how- 
1 May. ever, summoned from Albany, Esopus, and Delaware, and 
nearly one hundred and thirty enlisted men were muster- 
•-'9 May. ed. At the general training the volunteer and regular 
force amounted to three hundred and thirty. But soon 
July. afterward, Salisbury, with his men, were sent back to Al- 
bany, and the whole number left in garrison at Fort James 
■ did not exceed eighty.:}: 
•24 June. The cxportatiou of wheat, however, was prohibited, ow- 
ing to " these times of trouble." On account of the scar- 
city of wampum, it was directed that six white and three 

• Col. MS.S., xxii., 144 ; Eliz. Bill, 35, 36, 37 ; Learning and Spicer, 31-41 ; Whitehead, 57, 
5S ; Hatfield, 149-154 ; ante, 49, 84, 189. 

t Coun. Min.,i.(ii.), 147; Gen. Ent., lv.,277; Eliz. Bill, 37, App. 31 ; Whitehead, 5S, 59 ; 
Col. Doc, iii., 200, 214 ; Mass. H. S. Coll., xxx., 84, 85; ante, 190, note. 

t Doc. Hist., iii., 54, 57, 59 ; Bolton, i., 518 ; ante, vol. i., 334, 3C6, 595. 

tions and 
war oidcK 


black beads should pass for a stuyver or penny, instead of cuAr.n 
eight white and four black, as formerly. The Duke's Laws ^^^^ 
were also ordered to be enforced in Esopus.* 12 june. 

Lovelace for some time intended to visit Winthrop, who 15 May. 
had recently lost his wife ; and now, " having urgent occa- 
sions," he set out for Connecticut, leaving Manning, as 20 j«iy 

usual, in charge of Fort James ; but " without any order to viX win- 
repair the same for to make defence against an enemy." connecti- 
Bef ore the governor saw that fortress again, events occur- 
red which he does not appear to have appreliended.f 

The "Cabal" of Charles the Second had, meanwhile, 
been the only gainers by his war with the Dutch. Parlia- 
ment was asked by the king for assistance. Shaftesbury, 4 F^eWy. 
his chancellor, bitterly denounced the Dutch, whose com- anf ^° 
merce he described, in glowing rhetoric, as leading them bu^on the 
to " an universal Empire, as great as Eome." Following 
the key-note which Dryden had sounded ten years before, 
he compared Holland to Carthage, which England, like 
Eome, must destroy — " Z>eZm<?a est Carthago^ Both 
Charles and Shaftesbury spoke to little purpose.^ Parlia- 
ment suspected the orthodoxy of the Duke of York, and ^ 
disliked the king's meretricious alliance with Roman Cath- 
oKc France no less than his unjustifiable war with Protest- 
ant Holland. A supply was voted, but it was coupled with 
a condition to which Charles was obliged to give his reluc- 
tant assent. This was the " Test Act," which continued to 29jiarch. 
be an English law until the reign of George the Fourth. giis^h"Tc^t 
It required all persons holding any civil or mihtary oflaces ed. 
in England, Wales, Berwick, Jersey, or Guernsey, to take 
the oaths of allegiance and supremacy ; publicly receive 
the sacrament of the Lord's Supper according to the usage 
of the Church of England ; and subscribe a declaration 
against the Eomish doctrine of Transubstantiation. In 
consequence of this law, the Duke of York, who for some 
time had secretly been a Eoman Cathohc, candidly de- Effect of 
clared his rehgious faith, and m a flood of tears resigned Acton^the 
all the offices which he held under the crown, including York. ° 
that of lord high admiral of England. But as the Test 

• Council Min., iii., 129, 145, 146, 153-157 ; S. Hazard, 405 ; Proud, i., 133, 134. 
t Council Min., iii., UT ; Trumbull Papers, xx., 104, 109 ; Mass. H. S. MSS. ; Col. Doc, 
iii , 198 ; Doc. Hist., iii, 5T, 59 ; Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 242 ; Eliz. Bill, G. 



Chap. IV. Act did not extend to Scotland and L-eland, nor to the 
British Plantations, the duke's admiralty jurisdiction over 
them remained unimpaired.* 

Parliament again turned its attention to the American 
colonies. Their commerce had already been restrained by 
the Navigation Laws ; but " the avarice of English shop- 
keepers" now required that commerce to be taxed. It was 
observed that the British Plantations enjoyed a profitable 
intercolonial traffic, and sold their commodities to foreign 
nations, " to the diminution of the customs and the naviga- 
29 iiarch. tiou of tlic kiugdom." Parliament therefore enacted that 
po°iicy of sugars, tobacco, ginger, and certain other productions, 
plTrur-"''''' when exported from any English colony, should pay the 
"'™*' same duties to the crown as if they were landed in En- 
gland ; and that these duties were to be collected at such 
places and by such officers as the commissioners of the 
customs in England should appoint. This selfish measure 
" formed the seed-plot on wliich was raised the subsequent 
system of colonial revenue."f 

During the first year of the war the United Provinces 
IQ^i) suffered terrible calamities. Although the Dutch had, a 
The Dutch ccntury before, proved themselves the first soldiers in the 
gaii'aT world, they had, through a long interval of peace and pros- 
perity, become unused to military service on land. Their 
whole energies had been directed to commercial and naval 
enterprise. Holland seemed almost like a rich galleon, 
with De Ruyter for captain, and De Witt for pilot. One 
of the Pensionary's maxims had always been to foster the 
re Witt, sea rather than the land forces of the republic. The 
and wa^^' young Prince of Orange, on the other hand, chafed at his 
ham of Or- j-j^j.g^^ Jqjj^^ ^^(J lougcd to bc at the head of armies. It is 

• statute 25 Ch. 11., cap. ii. ; Pari. Hist., iv., 495, 502-5S5; Kennett, iii., 2S9-294; Clarke's 
James II., i., 4S3; Burnet, i., 346-352; Kapin, ii., 6G5-C71 ; Uasnage, ii., 395-399; King's 
Locke, 34 ; Evelyn, ii., S8, S9 ; Anderson, ii., 527 ; Hume, vi., 46S-472 ; Lingard, xii., 289- 
298,303; CampbeH'a Chancellors, iii., 314-317; Col. Doc, iii., 239; Learning and Spicer, 
46 ; ante, 3. The Test Act did not extend to the English Plantations of its own force, be- 
cause they were not particularly named, or intended to be embraced in the statute: Col. 
Doc, iii., 357; Chalmers's Ann., i., 240; Kev. Col., i., 173, 236; P.lackstone,i., 108, 109; Ja- 
cob, iv.,401; v., 15, 160. It was first extended to the American Plantations by William 
III., in 1089, of his own will, by clauses in the Koyal Commissions and Instractiona to the 
several Governors : Col. Doc, iii., 623, 685 ; post, p. 264. 

t 25 Charles II., cap. vii. ; Anderson, ii., 521, 522 ; Chalmers's Ann., i., 317, 320; Kev. 
CoL, i., 125, 126, 152, 172; Kennett, iii., 205; Holmes, 1., 360 ; Bancroft, ii.,44; Grahame, 
i., 93 ; Palfrey, iii., 33, 34, 279. Chalmers, and those who follow him, using the Old Style, 
erroneously date this act in 1672. The 25th year of Charles the Second was from 30 Janu- 
ary, 1673, to 29 January, 1674. 



not surprising that while the Dutch fleets gloriously main- cu.vr. iv. 
tained the honor of their flao; against England, their militia, ~ 
officered by incapable favorites, recoiled before the disci- •^"*"' 
plined veterans of France, led by Conde, and Luxembourg, 
and Turenne. Before Holland knew it, the Gallic Hanni- 
bal was at her gates. Louis established his court atjuiy. 
Utrecht. Almost in despair, De Witt opened negotiations utrechl 
with France and England. But the humiliating terms 
they offered could not be accepted ; and spasmodic popular 
indignation broke out against the Pensionary and his broth- 
er. Oranje Boven, De Witten onder ! " Up with Orange bovot""" 
— down with the De Witts" — was the cry.* 

William Henry, Prince of Orange, was now in the wniiam, 
twenty-second year of his age. " A young man without ora"nge! 
youth," he concealed under a cold exterior a dauntless 
soul. But he had been deprived of the stadtholderate en- 
joyed by his ancestors, and its duties were performed by 
the Grand Pensionary of Holland, John de Witt, who ad- 
ministered the government with great success until the 
war with France. The people then began to murmur that 
their soldiers did not fight well because they were badly 
officered, and demanded that the Prince of Orange should 
be made captain general. This was done ; and, at the Made cap- 
popular cry of "Oranie Boven" William was appointed ai and 

\ 1^1 1 1 A 111 stadthold- 

stadtnoider. An army to protect the hearth was nower. 
more important than a navy to keep open the port. John 
de Witt resigned his office of Pensionary, and his brother 

* Sylvius, i , 34G; Hollandtsche Mercurius, 16T2, 89-91; Basnage, ii., 1S3, lOG, 211-260, 
283, 284 ; Le Clerc, iil., 290 ; Wagenaar, xiv., 26-165 ; Davies, iii., 91-108 ; Hume, vi., 454 ; 
Lavallte, iii., 220 ; Martin, i., 345-852 ; an?e, p. 185. On tlie 29th of June, 1672, tlie parti- 
sans of the prince welcomed him at Dordrecht, in Holland, with the old national song, 
"Wilhelmus van Nassauwen" (a«?c, vol. i., p. 442), and by hoisting an Orange flag above a 
white flag, the upper one bearing the inscription in Dutch : 
"Oranje boven, de Witten onder ; 

Die 7 anders meend, die slaat den Bonder.^'' 
Which may be rendered in English : 

" Orange above, the AVhites under ; 

Who thinks not so, be struck by thunder." 
The Dutch word Wit signifies " AVhite." De Witten^ or the De Witts, therefore means "the 
Whites ;" and thus the Dordrecht flags, with their inscription, formed a popular double pun. 
Although the words '■'■Oranje Doven" were thus adopted as a popular cry by the partisans 
of William the Third in 1672, they were known and used long before by the Dutch people, 
who applied them to their national flag, of which the upper stripe was orange, the middle 
one white, and the lower one blue («?!<?, vol. i., 19, note). These words were also shouted 
on the 15th of January, 1651, when the young prince was baptized at the Great Church in 
the Hague: ante, p. 2; Aitzema, iii., 551, 552; Basnage, i., 181; Le Clerc, ii., 292; J. C. 
de Jonge, Oorsprong (1831), 52; Key's Histoire du Drapeau (1837), ii., 518, 519; J. Ter 
Gouw, Oorsprong (1863), 44, 45 ; De Navorscher for 1854, iv., 62, 63 ; and for 1857, vii., 371. 


Chap. IV. Comelis WRS imprisoned. The Orangeists attributed the 
~ disasters of their country to the party which had lately 
The De govemed it ; and a band of ruffians, bursting into the pris- 
witta mur- q^ wlierc Johu de Witt was visiting his brother, butchered 
20 August, them both on the "Plaats" before the Buitenhof at the 

In almost uncontrolled authority, William now showed 

the grandeur of his soul. To the desponding States he 

spoke encouragement. To the proposals of Louis and 

William's Charles he answered that, " rather than sign the ruin of 

magnamm- ^^^ Republic and receive the sovereignty from the hand 

of its enemies, he would embark with his friends for Ba- 

tavia." To the suggestion that Holland was lost if he did 

not accept the terms of France and England, he replied, 

" There is a sure way never to see it lost, and that is, I will 

die in the last ditch !"f 

The Dutch The spirit of William roused his drooping countrymen. 

aged!"^" The Dutch remembered what their -ancestors had done a 

century before. The sluices were opened, and the low 

lands became a vast lake, studded with cities and villages, 

rising here and there above the waters which washed their 

ramparts. Again the invaders were forced to retreat, and 

Holland was saved.:}: 

The Dutch navy was now commanded by De Kuyter 

1673. and Tromp, who had been reconciled by the Prince of 

Orange. Prince Rupert took the place of the Duke of 

York in command of the English fleet, which, being joined 

28 May. by the French, attacked the weaker Dutch oif the coast of 


.actions. Zealand. Tromp's division was almost overpowered by the 
French, when De Ruyter, who was conquering the English, 
magnanimously checked his own career and hastened to 
rescue liis former rival. The battle was indecisive. An- 

4 June, other engagement followed the next week, and the English 
retreated to the Thames. Two months afterward, one 
hundred and fifty English and French ships were encoun- 
tered by seventy-five Dutch off the Helder. A terrible 

* Basnagp, ii.,2S4-322; Temple, ii, C5T, 2.5S ; Wagenaar, xiv., 166-193; Davies, ill., 43, 
lOT-llS ; Martin, i., 352-35T ; Sylvius, i., 34C-409 ; D'Estrades, iv., 223, 242 ; Macaulay, ii., 
ISO ; ante^ 2. 

t Buraet, i., 327, 331, 3.^2 ; Kennett, iii., 292; Dalrymple, i., 53; Eapin, ii., 664; Basnage, 
ii., 256 ; Temple, ii., 259 ; lliime, vi., 465-467 ; Davies, iii., 121-123 ; Mackintosh, 320 ; Ma- 
caulay, i., 218, 219 ; ii., 182. 

t Burnet, i., 335-337 ; Temple, ii., 260, 261 ; Davies, iii., 123 ; ante, vol. i., 442, 443. 


conflict followed, in which, as a last exhibition of courage, cuap. iil 
Hollanders and Englishmen rivaled each other in stubborn " 
valor. From morning until night the chm'ches were filled nAuiist 
with praying Dutch Protestants, while the sound of rapid between"^ 
p-uns boomed over the low coast of Holland. At length *i»e Dutch 

o o and En- 

the English retreated, and De Ruyter and Tromp shared gii^i^- 
with William of Orange the gratitude of their rescued 

While the countrymen of Grotius were thus fighting for 
their hearths, a former province of the Netherlands was un- 
expectedly annexed to the Dutch Republic. Cornells Evert- 
sen, a son of the famous admiral, had been sent out from 1672. 
Zealand with fifteen ships to harass the enemy in the West ^x^e^Sn 
Indies, which was effectually done. At Martinico he fell °l^ll^' 
in vtdth four ships dispatched from Amsterdam, under the Binckea. 
command of Jacob Binckes. Joining their forces, the two 1673. 
commodores followed Krjmssen's track to the Chesapeake, 
where they took eight, and burned five Virginia tobacco Ji July, 
ships, in spite of the gallantry of the frigates which were 
to convoy them to England. As they were going out of 
the James Kiver, the Dutch commodores met a sloop from At viigin- 
New York, conveying Captain James Carteret, with his'''' 
bride, and Samuel Hopkins, of Elizabethtown, to Virginia. 
The master of the sloop, Samuel Davis, on being question- 
ed, stoutly insisted that New York was in a good condition 
of defense, with one hundred and fifty mounted guns, and 
five thousand men ready to answer the call of Governor 
Lovelace in three hours. But Hopkins bluntly told the 
truth. Davis's story was " altogether false ;" there were 
only sixty or eighty men in the fort, and thirty to thirty-six 
cannon on its walls ; three or four hundred men might be 
raised in three or four days, and Lovelace was absent on a 
visit to Governor Winthrop in Connecticut, Upon Hop- 
kins's information, " all the cry was for New York." Car- Resolve to 
teret and his young wife were set ashore in Virginia; but New York. 
Hopkins, with Da^ds and his sloop, were detained. In a 
few days the Dutch fleet, which, with three ships of war ^^ '^"'^" — 
from Amsterdam, and four from Zealand, was now swelled The Dutch 
by prizes to twenty-three vessels, carrying sixteen hundred island. 

* Basnage, ii., 410-422; Sylvius, vili., 607-612; Lt.,64T-649; Davies, iiL, 127-132; Ken- 
nett,iii.,295,296; Eapin, ii., 671 ; Hume, vi., 473-476; Bancroft, ii., 324; Martin, i., 375, 370. 


cnAP.iii. men, arrived off Sandy Hook. The next morning they 

anchored under Staten Island.* 
28 July. ' "^^^ tidings of their approach were soon brought to 
7 August. Manning, at Fort James, who, finding that the wolf was 
action. this time really at the door, hurried off an express to meet 
Lovelace at New Haven. Volunteers were sought by beat 
of drum, provisions were seized, and the arms in the fort 
repaired. Orders were sent to the nearest Long Island 
towns to forward re-enforcements, but none came. The 
The Dutch Dutch inhabitants, rejoicing at the approach of their coun- 
their trymcu, had already begun to make " threatening speeches." 
Le'n. ^ The fleet was soon crowded with s^anpathizing visitors from 
ISTew Utrecht and Flatbush. Learning fi-om them how 
weak Fort James really was, the Dutch commanders came 
fAi"'uat ^^P *^^® ^^^'' ^^^ anchored above the Narrows, in sight of 
the city. Lovelace's sheep and cattle on Staten Island af- 
forded them an acceptable "breakfast." Already New 
York was substantially restored to the Dutch. In vain did 
Manning continue beating the drums for volunteers. Few 
appeared, and those that did only spiked the guns at the 
City HalLf 

The situation of the capital now resembled that of New 
Amsterdam nine years before. All that Manning could 
think of was to procrastinate, in hope that the governor 
might return, or aid come fi'om Long Island. Captain 
John Carr, of the Delaware, who was now in New York, 
^"'^"^^' - was accordingly dispatched, with Counselor Thomas Love- 
Answer of lace and Attorney John Sharpe, to demand why the fleet 

the Dutch '^ 

commo- had come " in such a hostile manner to disturb His Majes- 
Manning'a ty's subjccts iu tliis placc ?" The Dutch commodores re- 
plied that they had come to take the place, " which was 
their own, and their own they would have." Meanwhile 
Evertsen and Bin ekes had sent a trumpeter with their joint 
summons from the flag-ship " Swanenburgh," requiring the 
surrender of the fort. To this Manning promised a reply 
on the return of his own messengers. When they did re- 

• Basnago, ii., 45G, 7S1, 7S2, 832, S34 ; Sylvius, ix., C60, 005 ; x., 23 ; xiv., 355; xv., 38, 
94; Kok, vi.,5a2; xiv.,5e4; Davies, iii., 60,132; Col. Doc, ii., 518, 527,572,571); iii., 109, 
200, 201, 204, 205, 213, 214 ; lliat. Mag., i. (ii.), 297, 298 ; Hutch. Mass., i., 284; Mass. H. S., 
Tiumbull Papers, xx., 103 ; Lambrechtsen, 82 ; Grahamc, i., 420 ; ante, 126, 200. There is 
a portrait of Evertsen in Wagenaar, xv., 394. See also N. V. II. S. Coll. (ISGS), 184. 

t Doc. lliat., iii., 57, 59,60,05; Col. Doc, iii., 198, 199; iv.,n51; Hist. Mag., i. (ii.), 2PS; 
a/lfe, 200. 



turn, Carr declared that the Dutch were too strong to be cuap. iv. 
withstood, and that they would only allow half an hour's de- 
lay. The fleet had meanwhile quietly tided up and anchor- 
ed within musket-shot of the fort, without a gun being 
fired. Sharpe was sent on board a second time, to ask a 
stay of hostilities until the next morning, so that Manning 
might obtain the advice of the mayor and aldermen. But 
the Dutch commander, Evertsen, had already "vmtten to 
the city authorities, " promising to all men their estates and 
liberties," and this had been communicated to the burghers 
at the City Hall. On Sharpe's return, he reported that the 
commodores would give only a half an hour more, " and 
accordingly they turned up the glass." At the end of that 
time the ships fired their broadsides at the fort, which kill- The Dutch 
ed and wounded some of its garrison ; " whereupon the james, °' 
fort fired upon them again, and shot the General's ship Tums^a^" 
through and through." Six hundred men were now land- ^'^°'" 
ed above " the Governor's Orchard," at " the new burial- 
place" on the shore of the Hudson, just north of the fort, 
and back of the present Trinity Church. The Dutch 
burghers, all armed, and about four hundred strong, en- 
couraged their countrymen to storm the fort, promising 
that not one of its garrison would " look over their works," 
At Carr's instigation. Manning ordered a parley to be 
beaten, and a flag of truce exliibited ; but Carr, exceeding 
his orders, struck the king's flag at the same time. Carr, 
Lovelace, and Gibbs were now dispatched to "make the 
best conditions they could." They met the Dutch "for- 
lorn" storming-party advancing. Carr was sent back to 
inform Manning that the garrison must surrender as pris- 
oners of war, while Lovelace and Gibbs were kept in cus- 
tody under the Dutch standard. But Carr, never coming 
near the fort, fled away from the city. Manning then dis- 
patched Sharpe with articles for the Dutch to agree to, 
who met their column marching down Broadway toward 
the fort. It was now about seven o'clock in the evening:. 
Captain Anthony Colve, who commanded the Dutch forces, 
readily accepted the proposed articles, which merely sur- Fort james 
rendered the fort and garrison with the honors of war. ed"^° ^■' 
Manning himself had meanwhile caused the fort gates to 
be opened, and the Dutch marched in, while the garrison 


CHAP. IV. marched out with colors flying and drums beating, and 


30 July. 

grounded their arms. The English soldiers were now or- 
dered back into the fort, and committed to prison in the 
church. Before the sun went down, at the end of that 
9 August eventful summer's day, the three-colored ensign of the 
wn'^uered I^^itch Republic rose to its old place on the flag-staff of 
rfutch ^^^ ancient fort, and New York reposed again under the 
dominion of her former lords.* Stuyvesant was avenged. 
The Dutch had taken New Yoek. 

» Col. Doc, il, 59T, C50 ; iu., 199-206, 234 ; iv., 1151 ; Doc. Hist, iii., 53-65; Council Min., 
iii. (ii.), IS ; Col. MSS., xxiv., 36-53, 97 ; Hist. Mag., i. (ii.), 29S ; N. Y. City Rec. ; Dunlap, 
i., 129. Smith, i., 43, carelessly asserts that Manning "treacherously made his peace with 
the enemy," and that the Dutch "landed their men and entered the garrison mtliout giv- 
ing or receiving a shot." Smith's statement has been credulously adopted. The weight 
of authority, which I liave followed, seems to be that the fort did actually return the fire 
of the Dutch fleet : compare Col. Doc, iii., 199, 201, 206 ; iv., 1151 ; Hist. Mag., i. (ii.), 29S ; 
Doc. Hist., iii., 62. Manning's real fault was that he allowed the ships to anchor before the 
fort without firing on them : see Doc. Hist., iii., 55, 56, 5S. But, after all, he was as badly 
oflfas Stuyvesant, nine years before : see ante, 34. Compare Cadwallader Colden, in the Col- 
lections of the New York Historical Society for the year ISOS, p. 1S4. 



The recovery of New York by the Dutch was an abso- chap. v. 

lute conquest by an open enemy in time of war. All its 

circumstances differed fi-om those which had disgraced the ^^*^- 
capture of New JSTetherland by the English nine 'years be- 
fore. Then, while the mother-countries were at peace, a 
treacherous expedition, deliberately prepared, had seized character 
the territory of an unsuspecting ally : yet the British com- Duteh re- 
mander felt it necessary to grant the most liberal articles n^w Yolk! 
of capitulation. But now, after proclaimed hostilities, and 
distinct warnings for more than a year, the ships of the 
Batavian Republic came boldly to recover what had been 
robbed from an insulted fatherland ; and the English en- 
sign fell beneath the Dutch avengers, who, welcomed by 
their countrymen, marched triumphantly into the old for- 
tress, which surrendered to their discretion. 

" Not the smallest" article of capitulation, except mih- 
tary honors to the garrison, was granted by the victors. 
They had unexpectedly captured a prize from the aggress- 
ive enemy of their nation. Their reconquest annihilated British sov- 
British sovereignty over ancient New Netherland, and ex- extllguLh- 
tinguished the duke's proprietary government in New^ ' 
York, with that of his grantees in New Jersey. Evertsen Evertsen 
and Binckes for the time represented the Dutch Republic, ^nckea. 
under the dominion of which its recovered American prov- 
ince instantly passed, by right of successful war. The ef- 
fete West India Company was in no way connected with 
the transaction.* 

Never had the Bay of New York held so majestic a fleet 

* Col. Doc, ii., 536, 611 ; iii,, 202 ; Doc. Hist, iii., 55, 56, 61, 62 ; Eliz. Bill, 6, 7, 3T. The 
old West India Company went into liquidation soon after the conquest of New Netherland 
in 1664, and the ne^y corporation took no interest in its recapture : Murphy's Steendam, 12, 
13; Col. Doc, ii., 564, 565. 

II.— o 


cnAP. V. as that now anchored in its beautiful waters. Two ships 
loading for England were added as prizes to the force of 
TheDutch *^^ conquerors. The condition of the province, thus inar- 
n*'y k ^'slously restored to the republican Netherlands, was far 
different fi-om what it was when the English aj)propriated 
it to themselves. New York, including New Jersey and 
Condition Delaware, now contained three chief towns and thirty vil- 
tnce.^ ^"*^ lages, and its Dutch population was estimated at between 
six and seven thousand. The event which brought its Ba- 
tavian inhabitants once more under the authority of the 
States General and the Prince of Orange, " their lav^ul 
and native Sovereigns," was hailed' by them with boundless 
joy. It more than atoned for the bitterness witli which 
they had endured " the insolent injustice of England's 
original acquisition." Once more, " The Fatherland" be- 
came a household word. The cry of " Oranje Boven" was 
soon as familiar in Manhattan as in that fatherland.^^ 
The prov- The uamc of " New Netherland" was of course restored 
n°TOed'"° to the reconquered territory, which was held to embrace 
OTirnd.^'''" not only all that the Dutch possessed according to the 
Hartford agreement of 1650, but also the whole of Long 
Island east of Oyster Bay, which originally belonged to 
the province, and which the king had granted to the Dul^e 
Fort James of York. Fort Jamcs was named " "Willem Ilendrick," in 
wuiem honor of the Prince of Orange. It was, first of all, neces- 
sary to extemporize a provisional goveiiiment. No orders 
had been given to Evertsen or Binckes about New Neth- 
erland. Its recovery was a lucky accident, wholly due to 
the enterprise of the two commodores ; upon whom fell the 
responsibility of governing their conquest imtil directions 
should come from the Hague. As commanders of sepa- 
Kvertsen, rate Dutch squadrons, Evertsen, of Zealand, and Binckes, 
wnckes, of Holland, alternately wore the admiral's flag for a week, 
cuofwrr Associating with themselves Captains Anthony Colve, Nic- 
m power, ^j^^ Bocs, and Abram Ferdinandus van Zyll, as an advis- 
ory Council of War, they held regular sessions, first at the 
City Hall, and afterward at the fort. Their most impor- 
tant duty was to appoint " a fit and able person as Gov- 
ernor General, to hold the supreme command over tliis con- 

• Col. Doc, ii., 520, 50S; iii.,COO; Doc. Hist., i., 407 ; Lambrcchtscn, S4-SG ; Graham.', 
i., 422; ante,WZ. 


quest of New Netlierland." Anthony Colve, of Zealand, CHi.p.v. 
who appears to have served as an ensign at the capture of 
Surinam in 1667, and was now a captain in the Dutch in- „ . * 

-, . 12 August. 

f antry, was chosen for the office. To him Evertsen and Anthony 
Binckes gave a commission "to be Governor General of pointed 
this Country and Forts thereunto belonging, with all the nTw Neth- 
appendencies and dependencies thereof, to govern, rule, and 
protect them fi'om all invasions of enemies, as he, to the 
best of his ability, shall judge most necessary." Colve's 
commission described his government as extending from Extent of 
fifteen miles south of Cape Ilenlopen to the east end of govlrn- 
Long Island and Shelter Island, thence through the middle ^'^^ ' 
of the Sound to Greenwich, and so northerly, according to 
the boundary made in 1650, including Delaware Bay and 
all the intermediate territory, as possessed by the English 
under the Duke of York. But Pemaquid, Martha's Vine- 
yard, and Nantucket, not having been under Stuy^'esant's ju- 
risdiction when New Netherland was taken from him, were 
not comprehended in the Dutch province now organized.* 
Colve was "a man of resolute spirit, and passionate," 
whose arbitrary nature had not been improved by military 
service. He did not, however, assume the administration 
at once ; for the naval commanders prudently determined 
to keep their ships in harbor until tho new government 

should be fu'mly established. In the mean time they re- council of 

... . War re- 

tained supreme authority in their own hands, assisted bytaintem- 

tlie three captains whom they had adjoined, as a " Council llwlJ. 
of War." Matthias Nicolls, ousted fi'om his office of pro- 
vincial secretary, was replaced by Nicholas Bayard, the ex- ^-^ August. 
perienced clerk of the city, whom the Dutch commodores secretary of 
appointed to act as their own secretary, and as secretary eriand.^ 
and register of New Netherland mider Colve.f 

The name of the city of New York was, at the same AAuguEt. 
time, changed to "New Orange," in compliment to the New York 
prince stadtholder, and its magistrates w^ere released from New or- 
their oaths to the late English government. At the re-^°^^' 
quest of the commanders, six burghers were appointed to ^^ August. 

* Col. Doc, ii., 52S, 529, 5T1, GOO, GIO ; iii., 201 ; Smith, L, 44-46 ; Wagen-iar, xiii., 407 ; 
De Witt's Letters, iv , 677 ; ante, 126; vol. i., 519, 520. 

t Col. Eec. Conn., ii., 5G5; Col. Doc, il., 571, 573. 57S, 612; Mass. H. S. Coll., xxx.,99, 
lOS. Among other changes, the Dutch introduced again into New Netherland the New 
Style, which had so long heen used in Holland : see ante, vol. i., 443, note. 


cuAP. V. confer with them respecting the restoration of the old mu- 
~ nicipal goyernment, who were directed to convoke the 
}, commonalty and nominate persons "fi'om the wealthiest 
^^ inhabitants, and those only wlio are of the Reformed Chris- 

tian Religion," out of whom the Council might select the 
magistrates for the city. From the nominations thus made, 
/^August. Johannes van Brugh, Johannes de Peyster, and iEgidius 
ttrefsche!" Luyck wcrc chosen as burgomasters, and "William Beek- 
bchour.^'^ man, Jeronimus Ebbing, Jacob Ivip, Laurens van der Spie- 
gel, and Gelyn ver Planck as schepens. In place of Al- 
lard Anthony, the late sheriff, Anthony de Milt was ap- 
pointed schout. The new magistrates were sworn to ad- 
minister "good law and justice;" promote the welfare of 
the city; maintain "the upright and true Christian Relig- 
ion agreeably to the Word of God and the order of the 
Synod of Dordrecht;" uphold the supreme authority of 
the States General and the Prince of Orange; and were 
empowered to govern for one year, "both burghers and 
strangers, conformably to the laws and statutes of our Fa- 
j8g August, therland." The next day John Lawrence, the displaced 
ignia fur°-' mayor, surrendered the gowns, mace, and seal which the 
rendered. j)^^]jg ^f York had presented to the city ; all of which were 

carefully deposited in Fort Willem Hendrick.* 
-8 August. Evertsen and Binckes now issued a proclamation seizing 
McfFiencii ^^^ property and debts belonging to the kings of France 
lliiei^^' ^^' England, or their subjects, and requiring every person to 
report such property to Secretary Bayard, Under this 
edict — which only retaliated that of NicoUs against the 
Dutch in 1665 — the estates of Thomas Delavall, the duke's 
auditor, and of William Dervall, his son-in-law, were espe- 
cially attached. The houses of Lovelace and Manning had 
abeady been plundered by the Dutch troops in the heat of 
conquest ; but Manning himself had been courteously al- 
lowed to wear his sword. Mayor Lawrence's house had 
been spared, at the request of the Dutch burghers. Yan 
Ruyven, the receiver of the Duke of York's revenues, al- 
Ji August, though an old Dutchman, was, nevertheless, required to 
render a strict account.f 

• Col. Doc, ii., 571-575; Doc. Hist., i., 3P0, 391 ; New York Citj- Rec, vii. ; Val. Man., 
1850,487-401); Valentine's New York, 173, 174; Mottlton'.s New Orangi^C, 7; mite^lSS. 

t Col. Doc.,ii.,67S, 5S0, .'')91,603, COS, G43; iii., ^00, 200; Hutch. Coll., 4GS; Court of As- 
sizes, ii., 5S9 ; Val. Man., 1853, 381, G84 ; ante, E9, SO, 91. 


The metropolis being secured, two hundred men were cnAp.v. 
sent up the river, in several vessels, to reduce Esopus and ~~ 
Albany. No opposition was shown. Salisbury at once ^ * 
surrendered Fort Albany " upon the same terms with New ifbany 
Tork, namely, at mercy," and all the English soldiers were reduced. 
brought down to New York as prisoners of war. As the 
number of these prisoners was now embarrassing, they ^^ August. 
were embarked for Em-ope, with Manning, Sahsbury, Dud- prifonere 
ley Lovelace, and other subordinate officers, in three ships rope. ° 
from Binckes's squadron, and one of Evertsen's, under the 
command of Captains Boes and Van Zyll. A small prize, 
taken in the "West Indies, was also j^laced in charge of An- 
dries Michielsen, and dispatched to Amsterdam with let- 1^9 August, 
ters from Binckes, detailing the captm-e of New York.* 

Meanwhile Lovelace, after enjoying Winthrop's liospi- 
tahty at Hartford, and arranging his favorite post-office 
project, had met, on his return to New Haven, Manning's 
"unwelcome news" of the Dutch approach before New 
York. On reaching Mamaroneck, he learned that they had ^i J"^y- 
taken the fort. Hoping to retrieve the calamity, the gov- LovelS'e 
ernor hastened over to Long Island to raise its militia. At uund^ 
Justice Corn well's, near Flushing, he met Secretary Mat- 
thias Nicolls, who agreed to go over to the fort on the next 
Saturday, while the governor was to keep himself "out of iV August, 
the enemy's hand," and raise the country to reduce the 
place again. But, being " collogued with" by one of the 
Dutch domines, Lovelace weakly consented to revisit his 
old quarters in the fort "for three days." On the after- 
noon of Satm-day, the third day after the smTender, one of ^August. 

iT-\,i -I Ti • 1 ' 1 Enticed 

the Dutch commanders accordingly went m his barffe, over to 

New York 

with Orange flag and trumpet, over to Long Island; and and arrest- 
Lovelace and Nicolls returned with him to the fort. The 
English governor was " peaceably and respectfully" enter- 
tained by his conquerors. But, before the three days were 
out, Lovelace's creditors arrested him for debt. The proc- 
lamation of Evertsen and Binckes soon afterward stripped is August 

« Col. Doc.,ii., 53", 5T6; iii., 202, 203, 205, 206 ; Iliat. Mag,iy., 50; i. (ii.), 298; Sylvius, 
ix.,665; x., 23; Doc. Hist., iii., 54, 5X Michielsen was captured in the Channel, oflfBeachy 
Head, and obliged to throw his dispatches overboard. He got to Amsterdam on 24 October, 
1673; but the Admiralty there found him "a man of so little curiosity that he had no par- 
ticulars to report" about the reconquest of New York: (Jol. Doc, ii., 52T, 528, 529. The 
original dispatches of Nicolls, detailing hi.s capture of New York in 1004, were also lost at 
sea : ante, .50, note. 


cuAP.v. him of all his property; but the commandei'S told him 
that, on papng his debts, he might leave the country with- 
j, ^ * in six weeks. "With touching simplicity the ruined Love- 
i^oveiace's lacc wrote to Winthrop : " I am now intending for England, 
vvinthrop. with all the conveniency I may, unlesse prevented. Al- 
bany is sm-rendered on the same termes this did, which was 
too lean and poor for persons of Honom*. However, they 
would willingly frame some excuses, and shoulder the blame 
and burthen from one to the other. Some shelter them- 
selves under the shields of my absence, which, though (it is 
confes't) it proved unfortunate, yet the means that were 
afforded them to a handsomer resistance and prudent man- 
agery can plead no excuse. To be brief — it was digitus 
Dei, who exalts and depresses as he pleases, and to whom 
we must all submit. Would you be curious to know what 
my losses might amount to — I can in short resolve you. It 
was my all which ever I had been collecting ; too greate to 
misse in this wildernesse.""' 

No sooner had the Dutch commanders established them- 
selves in the metropolis than the nearest six Long Island 
Longisi- towns — Midwout, Amersfoort, Brooklyn, New Utrecht, 
Itatenisi- Bushwick, and Gravesend, together with Staten Island, 
nud towns. g|^j]h,initted to their authority. These towns were chiefly 
settled by rejoicing Hollanders. Upon their nomination, 
^ August. Jacob Strycker, of Brookl^m, was appointed schout, and 
Francis de Bruyn, of New Utrecht, secretary of the dis- 
trict; from each of the six towns, of which four persons 
14 August, named by them were made schepens. Peter Biljou was ap- 
pointed schout, and two others schepens of Staten Island.f 
But the other towns of Long Island and Westchester 
showed no disposition to submit to the Dutch. They were 
fg August, therefore summoned to send deputies to New Orange, with 
their constables' staves and English flags, in place of wliich 
they would be furnished with the prince's colors as soon as 
-4j August, possible. The commanders, in a proclamation, declared 
tiOT oT"'" that although the fort and city on Manhattan Island had 
KTCitdcn a sm'rendered themselves without any Capitulation or Arti- 
cles," yet that no harm would be done to any of the in- 

• Col. Doc, ii., 5TS, 5S3, 587, GO.^, CSS; iii., 108, 200, 201, 202, 203, 203. 20C; Mass. II. S. 
Coll., XXX., 86, 87 ; MS*. TninibuU I'apei-s, xx., 104, 108; Hist. Mag., i. (iL), 298; antc^ iOfi. 
t Col. Doc, ii., 573, ()77. 5S0, 5SG, 010. 





habitants of New Ketherland who should submit to the chap.v. 
Dutch government. Each town was required to send two ~~ 

delegates to the fort, authorized to take the oath of allegi- 
ance, and bring with them their English colors and con- 
stables' staves, " whereupon they shall be considered and 
governed, without respect of nations, as good and faithful 
subjects ;" but, if they refused, they would be forcibly 

The fact that Lovelace was in the hands of the Dutch 
commanders added emphasis to their summons. West- 
chester, Eastchester, and Mamaroneck promptly sent dele- f§ August, 
gates, and magistrates were selected from their nomina- pointed on 
tions. The five Long Island towns — Flushing, Jamaica, and.^ ^' 
Middelburg, Oyster Bay, and Hempstead — npon the peti- 
tion of their delegates, were granted the usual privileges, 
but with a warning not to take np arms against the pres- 
ent Dutch government, as some of them had " formerly 
done, contrary to honor and oath," against that of Stuyve- 
sant. From their nominations, William Lawrence, of Flush- 
ing, was chosen to be schout, and Carel van Brugge secre-§^ August. 
tary of the district, and three schepens were selected for 
each of the five towns. At the same time Captain William 
Knyff and Lieutenant Jeronymus de Hubert were sent m August. 
with Ephraim Llermann, a clerk in Secretary Bayard's of- 
fice, to administer the oath of allegiance to the inhabitants 
of the neighboring towns, which was readily taken by all 
except the Quakers.f 

But the five towns in the East Riding were not disposed 
to submit to the Dutch commanders. On receiving their 
proclamation, Southampton, " struck with amazement," sent 
to Hartford " for their advice or help." Connecticut, how- 
ever, would not encourage the " poore towne" to stand out The Eaat- 
alone. She was about to send messengers to New Or- on\,o°n'^"'' 
ange on her own affairs, which had suddenly come to a no^submu 
critical point. John Selleck, of Stamford, going in a put'ch au- 
ketch to Long Island, was captured by a Dutch cruiser. *'^°'"'*y- 
Another sloop was taken, but, being neglected by her cap- 
tors, was retaken on the " Sabbath day following." The j% August. 

* Col. Doc.,i!.,5T2, 5T3; iii.,202; Mass. H. S. Coll., xxx., 87; Wood, 00. 
+ C il. Doc, ii,, 5S0, 5S1, 5S2, 580, 501, 502, 596; Val. Man., 1850,520, 521; ante, vol. L, 
710, 723, 724, 726, 730, 733. 


cuAT. V. General Court met at Hartford ; a military committee was 

organized ; and troops were ordered to be ready. James 

^1673. ]5^chards and William Kosewell were also sent with a let- 
connecti- ' tor to the Dutch commanders, wliich, with " amazing ab- 
totoe"^" sm-dity," lectured them for treating "His Majesty's sub- 
Mmmand- jccts" iu time of War, as Charles the Second had treated 
^^' the colonists of Holland in time of peace, nine years be- 

fore ; inquired their " further intentions ;" and declared that 
the United Colonies of New England would defend tlieir 
sovereign's authority "in these parts." The Connecticut 
14 August, delegates dehvered this letter to the Council of War at 
New Orange, and explained verbally that their colony 
would not molest the Dutch province if nothing hostile 
was done against her by New Netherland. They were 
com-teously asked to put in writing what they had to say ; 
but they declined to do this, because " such written nego- 
tiations might be turned to the worst use by any disaffect- 
ed person of their colony." The Connecticut messengers 
Answer of woro thcu handed a reply, with which they returned to 
command^ Hartford. In soldier-like style, the Dutch commanders 
"'"■ answered that it was " very strange" that their enemies 

should object to the results of war ; that the Eepublic of 
the Netherlands had commissioned them to do all manner 
of damage to its enemies, in consequence of which the 
neighborhood of the Hudson River had been reduced to 
obey Dutch authority ; and they declared that, as the vil- 
lages east of Oyster Bay " did belong to this Government," 
they would be likewise subjected, and prompt punishment 
would be visited on all " those that shall seek to maintain 
the said villages in their injustice."* 

In the mean time, deputies from Southampton, East- 
hampton, Southold, Brooldiaven, and Huntington had met 
i| August, at Jamaica, and drawn up a paper, in whicli, after stating 
that they had not heard from their governor, Lovelace, 
who was " peaceably and respectfully entertained" in the 
fort, they asked the Dutch commanders to allow them, 
upon their submission, to retain their ecclesiastical privi- 
leges, and enjoy several other particular liberties. On 

• Mass. ir. S. Coll., XXX., S7; xxxvii., 5T0, 5T1 ; Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 1S1-1S3, 204, 20S, 561. 
562 ; Plymouth Col. Rec, x., 3S7, 3SS ; Col. Doc, ii., ri84, 5S6, 602, 606; iii., 201, 203 ; Trum- 
bull, i., 323, 324 ; Grahame, i., 421 ; Thompson, i., 153, 154 ; Palfrey, iii., 120 ; ante, 24, 25. 


reaching New Orange, the deputies met tlie Connecticut chap.v. 
messengers, whom they found were " shy and cautious" 
about giving advice. But Captain Nathaniel Sylvester, of ^ono. Li-" 
Shelter Island, who had come fi'om Hartford with Rich- ""^^gg^ft^" 
ards and Rosewell, advised his Long Island neighbors " by ^^'^ or- 
all means" to submit to the Dutch government. The del- 
egates accordingly " declared to submit themselves to the 
obedience of their High Mightinesses the Lords States 
General of the United Netherlands, and his Serene High- 
ness the Prince of Orange." Upon this their petition was 
granted in all pomts, except that in regard to appointing 
oflHcers and sending deputies they should have the same 
privileges enjoyed by the Dutch towns, and that their re- 
quest to buy whaling tools in New England could not " in 
this conjuncture of time be allowed." The next day they if August. 
were directed to nominate for approbation a schout and a 
secretary for the district, and four magistrates for each 
town, who should be " only such as are of the Reformed 
Christian Religion, or at least well affected to it."* 

Nathaniel Sylvester now asked for a conlii-mation of the |§A»sust. 
privileges which NicoUs had granted to Shelter Island in 
1666. It was found, however, that the heirs of his de- 
ceased brother Constant, of Barbadoes, and Colonel Thomas 
Middleton, who lived in England, were part owners. Their 
share was accordingly confiscated, and Sylvester bought it ^| August,, 
of the Dutch authorities for five hundred pounds " in this and. 
country's provisions." Upon his giving a bond for this 
payment, Shelter Island was duly conveyed to Sylvester, Jf August. 
with all the usual privileges. David Gardiner, who had 
early offered his submission, was likewise, on his personal 
promise of obedience, confirmed in the possession of his 20 septem. 

.,,.,.,, .., 1 . ,1, 1 October. 

island, with " the same privileges and pre-eminences tliat Gardinevs 
may be granted to the other subjects of this Government."f 
Upon the return of their deputies fi'om New Orange, the 
five eastern towns of Long Island, having " duly weighed" 
their, circumstances, and found that they must follow their 
"neighbour townes in submitting to the Dutch Govern- ^^ August. 
ment," nominated magistrates, and sent their discarded En- submission 
glish flags and constables' staves to Fort Willem Ilendrick. em townl 

• Col. Poc, ii., 5S3, 5S4, .586 ; Mass. H. S. Coll., xxx., 87. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 5S7-590, 022 ; Thompson, i., 1S5, 3G7 ; Wood, ; ante, 90, 107. 


Chap. V. Froiii tliese nominations the Council of War cliose Isaac 
~ Arnold, of Southold, to be sellout, and Henry Pierson, of 
29 ili^us't Southampton, to be secretary of the five towns, and two 
8 septem. froui cach town to be magistrates. A petition for a modi- 
poinTed."^' ficatiou of the oath from some of the more scBupulous in- 
habitants was at the same time presented, which the coun- 
cil promptly granted, and instructed Schout Arnold to give 
notice that it would be administered by commissioners to 
be sent for that purpose. Nevertheless, the five towns 
were veiy reluctant to acknowledge the Dutch authority ; 
29 August, and Southampton felt constrained to address a declaration 
so^uUiamp. to all liis British majesty's subjects in Massachusetts, Con- 
dress. " necticut, Plymouth, or elsewhere, " to take off an aspersion 
cast upon us, as though we should freely submit to this 
foreign government.""' 
22 August. Delegates from Albany and Esopus had meanwhile ap- 
kfn^ton' peared at the fort, and received prompt satisfaction. The 
swTnen. iiamc of Kiugstou was changed to " Swanenburg," after 
biug. Evertsen's flag-ship ; but the names of Hurley and Mar- 
Aibany blctowu wcrc uot altered. Albany was ordered to be call- 
wiuem- ed "Willemstadt," and its fort was named "Nassau." A 
'""^'' garrison was directed to be maintained, and presents made 
to the five Iroquois nations, " in order to prevent the de- 
signs and undertakings of our enemies the French." Sche- 
nectady was to observe the regulations established by 
25 August. Stuyvesant and Nicolls. Jeremias van Kensselaer was al- 
4 Septem." lowcd to cujoy liis prcvious privileges for a year, upon con- 
laenvyck. tributiug thrcc hundred schepels of wlieat; but was re- 
quired to obtain a new grant from the States General.f 
Dutch authority was quietly re-established over New 
NcwJcrsey Jersey, the name of which was changed to "Achter Col." 
"Aditer The very day that Evertsen and Binckes began their ses- 
^3° August, sions at Fort Willem Ilendrick, delegates came to them 
fi'om Elizabethtown, Newark, Woodbridge, and Piscata- 
way, to treat for a surrender. They were partisans of 
James Carteret, and opponents of Berry, the acting gov- 

• Col. Doc, ii., GOl, C02 ; Mass. II. S. Coll., xxx., 8G-S8 ; Iliat. Mag., 1. (ii.), 29S ; Col. Rec. 
Conn., ii., 212, 563 ; Wood, 9G. 

t Col. Doc, it, 559, 592-597; Doc Hist, iii., CO; Val. Man., 1852, 431. Van Rensselaer 

was ordered to account to Joanna de Laet, wife of Schepen Jeronymus Ebbing, for the tenth 

part of the colony, which she had inherited from her fatlier, John de Laet. The next year 

.she sold her interest to Van Rensselaer: Col. Doc, 1., 406, 407, 519, 53-1 ; ii., 549-561, 590, 

• 097 ; Val. Man., 1S55, 521 ; Barnard's Sketch, 109, 132 ; ante, vol. L, 204, 535. 


ernor. A few days afterward delegates from these towns, cdap. v. 
and from Middletown and Shrewsbury, came to the fort, 
and were granted the usual privileges. Berry and his_^^J J^. 
fi-iends were treated with the same liberality. Bergen, of ^^ 
which the population was chiefly Dutch, nominated offi- JiAuguat. 
cers, who were promptly confirmed ; and every one of her 
seventy-eight burghers who were present when the com- 
manders visited the town the next Sunday, " after the ser- JfAugust. 
mon," took the oath. John Ogden was appointed schout, 
and Samuel Hopkins, whose timely information had ^ ggp"^. 
brought the Dutch fleet from Virginia, was made secre-'^^®'j.gj''P' 
tary of the other six towns ; fi-om each of which three 
magistrates were likewise chosen, among whom was Daniel 
Denton, of Piscataway, the author of the recently publish- 
ed " Brief Description of New York." Bollen, the late 
secretary of New Jersey, was directed to deliver his papers ^^ ^"g"^^. 
to Hopkins ; but, as he was charged with " having made 
away with some of them," the records were ordered to be i^septem. 
deposited with the provincial secretary Bayard, in Fort 
Will em Hendrick.* 

Deputies from the Delaware were promised freedom of j^aSeptem. 
trade and commerce, and equal privileges to all the in- affarrr"^** 
habitants who should take the oath of allegiance. Courts 
of justice were also established at New Amstel, Upland, 
and the Hoarkill ; and the usual nominations of magistrates 
were ordered to be sent by the schout, Peter Alrichs, to 
New Orange, for approval, f 

The affairs of the metropolis went on with great regu- 
larity. Measures were taken to improve the fortifications ; 
and, as these were made chiefly of earth, owners of hogs M''^"^st. 
were directed to prevent them from roaming in the streets angere^- 
south of the " Fresh Water," or Kolck, lest they should ''"°°'- 
damage the works. The Dutch Church having again be- The Dutch 
come the establishment in New Netherland, its service agfu.n%; 
was conducted by Domine van Nieuwenhuysen, to the 


» Col. Doc, ii., 5TI, 5T2, 57C-5S0, .'582, 5ST, 595, 53S, GOO, C02, COS, COO, 607; iii., 201, 203, 
213, 214; Smith, i., 44; Whitehead, GO, 61, 62; ante, 15i. The estate of Governor Philip 
Carteret was ordered to be inventoried ; and Robert la Prairie, or Vanquellen, and Jona- 
than Singletary, who had tried to secrete some of it, were brought to the fort, where the lat- 
ter was fined, and Vanquellen sentenced to banishment for publicly declnring " that the 
DnkR of York had Ftill an interest in Fort James, and that there would be another clian"-e 
within half a year." t Col, Doc, ii., 004, C05; S. Hazard, 40T, 40S.° 


cnAP.v. great acceptance of Reformed Protestant Dutch people, in 
Kieft's old church in the fort.* 

20 August. y^T^ Euyven now intending to return to Holland, the 
8 septem. schout, burgomastcrs, and schepens of New Orange intrust- 
themunici- cd to him a letter to the States General, in which — after 
N^w Or- thanking them for reducing the inhabitants of New Neth- 
stltes Geu^ erland again under the obedience of "their lawful and 
native Sovereigns, fi'om whose protection they were cut 
off, about nine years ago, in time of peace" — they repre- 
sented how advantageous the province, which now consist- 
ed of three cities and thirty villages, miglit be made to the 
fatherland. Many private families there, ruined by the 
French invasion, could live easily in New Netherland, 
which, with a larger farming population, would soon be- 
come " a granary and magazine of many necessaries" 
which Holland ordinarily imported from the Baltic. Eso- 
pus alone, wliich the last year had produced twenty-five 
thousand schepels of grain, could supply the Dutch colo- 
nies of Curagoa and Surinam. New Netherland could also, 
by its peltries, maintain the Dutch commerce with Mus- 
covy ; and the tobacco trade, besides many other interest- 
ing details, would be personally explained on his arrival by 
Yan Ruyven, who had filled " divers respectable offices 
here." But, above all, the province would be especially 
Import- imiDortant as a naval station, and as a watch-tower, from 


New Neth- wliich a coustaut eye could be kept on the King of En- 
HoUand. gland, " who, in case he only came to be Lord and Master 
of this northern part of America, would be able to equip 
ships here, unknown to any Prince or Potentate in EurojDe, 
and thus, most unexpectedly, fall on our state or its allies." 
Yet, without speedy re-enforcements from the fatherland, 
its " good Dutch inhabitants," who were not more than six 
or seven thousand, and scattered over a vast country, could 
not resist " its numerous neighboring English and French 
enemies, by whom it is encompassed around on all sides." 
The States General were therefore urged to dispatch such 
aid as might, after the departure of the Dutch fleet, defend 
" this newly-recovered Province." This statesmanlike let- 

• New Orange Bee, vil., 16-20 ; Val. Man., 1S50, 490-498; Corr. Classia of Amsterdam ; 
letter of Van NMeiiwcnhiiysen, 2G July, 1G74; Col. Doc, ii., 705, 730. The other Dutch cler- 
p^mcn in New Netheiland were Polliemus on Long Island, and Scliaats at Albany, or Wil- 
lem.stadt: lilom hiving left lisopus in 1(JC7, and Drisius having died on IS April, 10T3, 


ter could hardly have failed to produce a decisive effect in cuap. v. 
Holland. But a remarkable fatality prevented its dehvery 
in time to advance " the Dutch interest."* 

This appeal of the corporation of I^ew Orange was 
quickened by the determination of Evertsen and Binckes 
to depart with all their ships of war, leaving New Nether- 
land unprotected. Hearing of this, the city authorities 
represented the exposed condition of the country, surround- ^t August. 
ed by Enghsh and French colonies, and its scattered Dutch The corpo- 
population of six thousand outnumbered, fifteen to one, by New or- 
that of New England. These English and French sub-si^f^shtps 
jects had now become enemies, and would endeavor to L'^rote^c. 
gain New Netherland as soon as it should be left to its*'°°' 
own resources for defense. The Duke of York, and Berke- 
ley, and Carteret were all alike interested in its recovery. 
" This, without doubt, renders some so bold as to say al- 
ready that something else will be seen before Christmas, 
and that the King of England will never suffer the Dutch 
to remain and sit down here, in the centre of all his do- 
minions, to his serious prejudice in many respects ; so that 
we are inevitably to expect a visit from our malevolent 
neighbors of old, now our bitter enemies, unless tliey be 
prevented, under God, by your valiant prowess and accom- 
panjdng force." Two ships of war, under the command 
of one of the superior officers, should therefore winter in the 
province, and not leave its inhabitants "a prey to be de- 
stroyed or to be sold as slaves to the English Plantations."! 

The commanders replied that the garrison in the fort J^^^^^^*' 
could protect the place sufficiently against all enemies ; but, ^^^1°^' 
as the petitioners were so urgent, the f rio-ate SuHnain. of su^rd the 

^ , '^ ' Til metropolis. 

forty guns. Captain Evert Evertsen, and the sloop or snow 
Zeehond (or Seal), Captain Cornells Ewoutsen, would be 
left under the command of Governor Colve until the 
province should be " furnished with other help, either fi'om 
Fatherland, or by the ships already sailed hence." As these 
vessels belonged to Evertsen's Zealand squadron, Binckes 

* Col. Doc, ii., 520, 527,532, 538; Lambrechtsen, S3-SC ; N. Y.H.S. Coll., i. (ii.), 115, 116. 
Van Euyven embarked in the snow " Expectatie," Captain Martin Vonck, which, having 
lost her mast and sails in a .stonn, managed to get into Nantucket, whence Van Ruyven re- 
turned to New York in the following November : Col. Doc, ii., 532, 658, 662, G63 ; Col. Rec. 
Conn., ii., 565; Mass. Rec, iv. (ii.), 573, 574; M.nss. II. S. Coll., xxx., 103. Vonck sailed 
again in the ketch "•Hope" in January, 1674: Col. Doc, ii., 677; j>ost^ p, 258. 

t CoL Doc, u., 598-600; Doc Hist., i., 467. 


cdap. V. agreed that the Admiralty of Amsterdam should bear its 
just proportion of all expenses and damages which might 
•u .uJu't liappsn to them during their special service in New Neth- 
10 septem. erlaud.* 

Some necessary police regulations were now adopted. 
!) Septem. Ecsolved Waldrou was directed " to forbid the ferry peo- 
uiations!"" plc at Hacrlem and Spytenduyvel to put across any stran- 
gers from this Island, unless they first exhibit a pass to that 
effect." As many strangers were passing in and out of the 
j\ Septem. mctropolis, it was ordered that all persons who had not 
taken the oath of allegiance should leave New Orange 
within twenty-four hours, and that none but Dutch sub- 
jects should visit it without license ; and all the inhabitants ■ 
were forbidden to harbor strangers without reporting them 
to the schout.f 
inseptem. Attracted by the fleet in the harbor, the Hackensack 
dian sach- saclicms Came to the fort with se\'eral of their people, and 
New Or- dcclarcd their desire to live as before, in peace with the 
°'°° ' Dutch. The commanders made them presents, and prom- 
ised that they should be considered " good friends" as 
heretofore. A few days afterward, the sachems of the 
y^g Septem. Mohawks, who had come "to see the naval force and make 
a report," were likewise dismissed with satisfactory pres- 
ents. The people of Schenectady were also confirmed in 
the privileges formerly granted by Stuyvesant, and the 
local officers nominated by them were approved.:]: 

Colve's commission as governor general was now enter- 
ed on the records of the province. The experienced Cor- 
j% Septem. nclis Stccuwyck was appointed counselor of New Nether- 
coMBdor land, " to assist in the direction of all cases relative to jus- 
mnato offi- tice and police, and further in all such military concerns 
'^"'■'^ both by water and by land, in which the Governor shall 
deem proper to ask his advice and assistance." Cornells 
Ewoutsen, the commander of the snow Zeehond, was made 
superintendent of gunners and ammunition. Nicholas 
Bayard, who had been commissioned as secretary and reg- 
^5 Septem. istcr of Now Nethcrlaud, was also appointed receiver gen- 
eral of the provincial revenue. All these appointments 

« Col. Doc, ii., COO, Gil, C12, 649, 054, 65?, CG2, 064, CS2, 703, 707, 71.'>, 720; Val. Man., 
1S50, .V22. t Col. Doc. ii., 003, 004. 

t Col. Doc , ii., COC, COS, 000. 


were made subject to the approval of the "Lords Princi- chap. v. 

pals" in the fatherland.* ^ „^„ 

The commanders now issued a proclamation, referring ^q^^' 

to their former one of the eighteenth of Ausjust, and de- oonfisca- 

-. . -, .r ■, ^^ • 1 • 11 tionofEn- 

clarmsr that, as "not the smallest capitulation was en- giish and 


tered into at the surrender of the fort and province to the property. 
States General and the Prince of Orange, all the property 
belonging to the kings of England and France, and their 
subjects, was liable to confiscation and forfeiture. They 
therefore confiscated all such property, especially that of 
the Duke of York, his governors, officers, and agents, to 
the benefit of the Dutch government. Nevertheless, they 
excepted the effects of " the actual inhabitants of the neigh- Exceptions 
boring colonies of Xew England, Virginia, and Maryland," 
which, " for sufiicieut reasons," were for the present ex- 
empted fi-om this confiscation.! 

Under this act, the property of Lovelace, Delavall, Car- Loveiace-s^ 
teret, Manning, Willett, and others was placed in the hands property 
of commissioners. Lovelace was also required forthwith 
to leave the province, and go either to New England or to 
Holland in one of the returning vessels. His request to 
go to Em'ope in Commander Binckes's ship was promptly 
granted. Delavall accompanied Lovelace. The Dutch The Dutch 
commodores soon afterward sailed — Binckes directly to dorea sau 
Holland ; and Evertsen by way of the West Indies, Fayal, "^ "'^°^^' 
and Cadiz, to Zealand.:}: 

Anthony Colve now assumed the government of New coive as- 
Netherland. To give greater state to his office, he set up govera- 
a coach drawn by three horses. In all ordinary business New xeth- 
he was assisted by Counselor Steenwyck and Secretary ^'"'''°^' 
Bayard. On important occasions, the authorities of the 

* Col. Doc, ii., G09-G14; ante, p. 211. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 57S, 611, 013, 710; S. Hazard, 409 ; ante, p. 212. Palfrey, iii., 120, note, 
suggests that this forbearance on the part of the Dutch commanders may have arisen from 
the hope of the States General that New England would ally itself with them. But Vir- 
ginian and Maryland property was at the same time exempted from forfeiture by tlie act cf 
Evertsen and Binckes ; and, moreover, the States General knew nothing about the matter. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 5S0, 5ST, 591. 595, 597, COS, COS, 617, 63S, C43, 644, G45, C47, 651, 667,672, 
CS7, CSS, 720, 721 ; iii., 205, 206 ; Smith, i , 44 Binckes aftenvard commanded a squadron 
against the French in the West Indies, and was killed at Tobago in December, 1077. Ev- 
ertsen rose to the rank of admiral, and, in November, 16S3, commanded a division of the 
fleet which conveyed the Prince of Orange to England. He died in November, 1706, and 
was buried at Middelburgh, in Zealand : Sylvius, ix., C65; x., 23; Wagenaar, xiv., 376, 401, 
443, 444; xv., 395; Lambrechtsen, S2, 86, 87, SS;'Kok, vi., 502; xiv., .^4; Col. Doc, ii., 
572, 579 ; Col. MSS., xxv., 171 ; Doc Hist, iii, 54, 59. 



Chap. V. citj of New Orange were consulted. When questions 
arose about the treatment of foreigners or their property, 
Captains Wilham Knyff and Carel Epestejm, of the Dutch 
infantry, were added as a Council of War.* 
j9y septem. Colve's first official act was to commission Peter Alrichs 
commander commander and schout "on the South River, in New 
soutirpav- Netherland, lately called Delaware," where he was to 
*'• maintain the Established Dutch Church, keep his soldiers 

in discipline, the Indians in good temper, and obey all or- 
ders from New Orange. Walter Wharton was also com- 
if Septem. missioned to be surveyor of all the Dutch territory on the 

South E.iver.t 
J I Septem. Lieutouaut Andries Draeyer was appointed commander 


Draeyer of Fort Nassau, and schout of the town of Willemstadt and 
erat'wii" the colonie of Rensselaerwyck. Draeyer was instructed, 
among other things, to maintain " the pure true Christian 
Religion agreeably to the Synod of Dort ;" and, as much as 
he could, " keep the natives and Indians devoted to him, 
and, according to his ability, render the Dutch government 
agreeable to them, and obtain from them all the informa- 
tion he can respecting the trade and doings of the French, 
and present all correspondence they may carry on with the 
inhabitants of Willemstadt.":}: 
Lutherang Tlic Luthcraus at Willemstadt, who had enjoyed much 
stadt. liberty under the Duke of York's government, petitioned 
Colve at the same time for the " free exercise of their re- 
ligious worship, without let or hindrance, to the end that 
they may live in peace with their fellow burghers." Their 
-i-| Septem. request was granted, "on condition of comporting them- 
selves peaceably and quietly, without giving any offence to 
the Congregation of the Reformed Religion, which is the 
State Church."§ 

* Col. Doc, ii., 0.30, G42, 644, 002, 004, 005, 710, 715 ; Doc. Hist., iii., 48. 

t Col. Doc, 11., 014, 015, 018, 619 ; S. Hazard, 408, 409. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 503, 590, 608, 618, 027, 659, 60-2, 670. On tlie 23d of January, 1074, Com- 
mander Draeyer was married in the Dutch Cluirch to Gerritje, a dauRhter of Gosen GeiTit- 
sen van Schaick, and a sister of Levinus van Schaick : Holgate, 1'29, 144, 145, 140 ; Munsell's 
Collections, i., 301 ; MSS. of Matthew Clarkson, Ksq., communicated to nie. Draeyer after- 
ward entered the Danish service, in which he became a rear-admiral; and in March, 1099, 
his widow, having returned to New York, was received, "with attestation from Copenhagen," 
into the membership of the Dutch Church. Her son. Captain Andries Draeyer, returned 
to Denmark in April, 1700: see Kecords of the Collegiate R. P. D. Church of New York, 
Liber A. The Widow Draeyer's daughter, Anna Dorothea, afterward married the Kevcrcnd 
Thomas Parclay, of Albany : Holgate, 129, 144. 

§ Col. Doc, ii., 017 ; ante, 175. It appears, however, that tho " Aanapreker," or sexton 


To assure the safety of the metropolis, the magistrates at chap. v. 
" the Nevesings," near Sandy Hook, were ordered to send 
the earliest information to the governor of the arrival oi ^^^^^^^^ 
anv ships from sea. Martial law was also necessary to Military 

TIT I'lii precau- 

check the unruly troops who had so recently spoiled the tions. 
West Indies. Ensign Jan Sol, the major of the garrison 
in Fort Willem Hendrick, was accordingly directed to en- 21 septem. 
force it severely within the citadel; and the burghers 1 October, 
were prohibited from selhng liquors or giving credits to 
the soldiers.*- 

The fort itself was miserably insecure. Its condition, as 
described by Stuy^^esant, had been very little strengthened 
by NicoUs and Lovelace, neither of whom seem to have 
apprehended its being again occupied by a foreign force, insecurity 
and certainly not by its old masters. Houses, gardens, and wiuem 
orchards were clustered thickly under its earthen walls. '^^"'^"^ 
" The newly-begun fortification of New Orange" was in 
the same case. Obstructions were ordered to be demohsh- 28 septem. 
ed, and their owners summoned before the governor. At ^ t)ctober. 
the same time, an extraordinary duty was laid to indemni- incumber- 
fy those whose property was to be taken. Several of the demoush- 
owners accordingly appeared ; other lots were assigned to 
most of them ; and all were promised satisfaction out of 
the new duties. Counselor Steenwyck, with Burgomasters 
Van Brugh, De Peyster, and Luyck, were directed to esti- fi o<=t. 
mate the damages, and report to the governor. The dem- 
olition of the doomed houses was effected ; and each own- fg Oct. 
er was recompensed for the property which the public 
safety required should be taken. Among the buildings 
thus destroyed was the Lutheran Church, which had just 
been built " without the gate."t 

To establish a general system for the government of the 
towns in ISTew Netherland, Colve drew up a " Provisional 1 October. 
Instruction," some of the articles of which were annoying 

of the Dutch Church at Willemstadt required the Lutherans to pay fees to himself, as was 
the custom in Holland, notwithstanding they employed their owu sexton ; which produced 
a remonstrance to Colve from Arensius, their minister, and others: Doc. Hist., iii., 525; 
Col. MSS., xxiii., 296, 313, 408. * Col. Doc, ii., 619, 622-625, 650. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 440, 629-631, 633-63T, 685, 688, 69T, 699, 700, 710, 716 ; iii., 87 ; Val. Man., 
1850, 511, 512, 521, 525, 530 ; 1851, 435, 447, 448 ; New Orange Eec, vii., 42 ; Moulton's New 
Orange, 11, 12 ; Valentine's New York, 175 ; ante^ 26, 81. 200. The Lutherans were allowed 
another lot, " No. 5 in the Company's garden," within the gate, on which they built a new 
church. It was at the corner of Broadway and Rector Street, where Grace Church was aft- 
erward built: Col. Doc, ii., 636; Doc. Hist., iii., 245; ante, 114. 

II.— P 


Chap. V. to the English inhabitants. The local magistrates were, 

~ above all things, to " take care that the Reformed Christian 

Provisional Keligion be maintained in conformity to the Synod of Dor- 

u^^'^ovem- di'scht, without permitting any other sects attempting any- 

mentof thing Contrary thereto." Local ordinances must be con- 
towns. *-" '' 

formable to the laws of Holland, and be approved by the 
governor. All officers must acknowledge the authority of 
the States General and the Prince of Orange, and " main- 
tain their sovereign jurisdiction right and domain over this 
country." The magistrates were to nominate as their suc- 
cessors " a double number of the best qualified, the hon- 
estest, most intelligent and wealthiest inliabitants, exclu- 
sively of the Reformed Christian Religion, or at least well 
affected thereunto, to be presented to the Governor, who 
shall then make his election therefrom, with continuation 
of some of the old ones, in case his Honor may deem it 

Colve's municipal system was substantially a revival of 
that of Stuyvesant. The " Instruction" was ordered to be 
enforced in every tovni of the province except New Orange 
and Willemstadt, where some modifications were neces- 
sary. But the eastern towns of Long Island showed great 
disaffection, although their nominations of magistrates had 
24 septetn. becu promptly confirmed. Colve therefore commissioned 
4 October. Captain William Knyff, Lieutenant Anthony Malypart, and 
sionera the clcrk, Abram Varlett, to visit all the towns east of Oys- 

pent to 

Long isi- ter Bay, and administer the oath to their inhabitants ; and 
also directed their magistrates to publish his Instructions, 
with the proclamation for the seizm-e of the property of 
English and French subjects.f 
^% Oct. The commissioners reported that Oyster Bay had taken 
t^iTTing" the oath, while Huntington desired to be excused, upon 
town^. promising in writing to be faithful to the government of 
New Netherland. Setauket, or Brookhaven, apologized, 
and asked a suspension of censure, because her people 
wished to preserve their English allegiance, and yet to live 
in peace with the Dutch government. Easthampton ac- 
knowledged the " Christian and moderate" dealing of the 

• Col. Doc., ii., C20-62'2, C53, 654, CTS-C80. 

t Col. Doc., ii., 576, 586, 591, 001, €02, 616, 620, 622, 620, 02S ; Whitehead, 01 ; fr7i£c,212; 
vol. i., 510, 54S, 574, 613, 619, 640. 


Dutch ; but asked to be left as she was, as her letters had cuap. v. 
been opened and read at Southampton, where threats 
against her submission had been uttered by " several disaf- -•■" ' ^" 
fected persons." Southold objected to several clauses in 
the "Instruction," but was "wilHng to submit" to the 
Dutch government, if the articles first promised should be 
performed, and the town be protected " from the invasion 
of those which daily threaten us." Knowing that E vert- 
sen and Binckes had left New ISTetherland, Southampton 
declared that Colve's " Instructions" overthrew what had 
been previously agreed upon ; that the town could not ab- 
jure its king, and swear allegiance to a foreign power ; yet, 
that it would not disturb the Dutch, unless molested by 
them, or " called thereunto by His Majesty's power of En- 

On receiving this report, Colve called the burgomasters 
and schepens of New Orange to. advise with the council, m oct. 
and was disposed to send the frigate Surinam, with a "con- frails from 
siderable force," to the Eastern towns, and " punish them theTeclf. 
as rebels, in case they persist in refusing to swear obedi- ^''°"°''"''' 
ence." The majority thought " that, in this conjuncture of 
war, it was not advisable to attack them by force of arms, 
as we should thereby be affording them, and the neighbor- 
ing Colonies, occasion again to take up arms against us; 
but they judged it better to send a second delegation."! 

It was gratifying, however, that Midwout, Bushwick, M o<='- * 
New Utrecht, Amersfoort, Brooklyn, and Gravesend, in towns sub- 
Schout Jacob Strycker's district, declared that " the entire ™'^"^®' 
of the people" would observe their oaths, and, in case of 
attack, would assist New Orange in resisting the enemy. 
These loyal Dutch towns were accordingly allowed to se- M o<='- 
lect their own military officers.:}: 

Lewis Morris,§ and Nathaniel Sylvester, with whom he 

• Col. Doc, il., 632, 638-642 ; Wood, 96. t Col. Doc, ii., 642, 643. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 577, 643, 645, 646 ; ante, 214. 

§ Lewis Morris was a AVelshman, a brother of Richard Morris, of Westchester, and a 
Cromwellian officer, who was sent to the West Indies, and settled himself at Barbadoes, where 
he became a Quaker, and entertained George Fox. After the death of his brother Richard ia 
1672, he was allowed by Colve to come to New Netherland, " on condition that he attempt 
nothing to its prejudice during his sojourn." Morris was accordingly granted the guardian- 
ship of his infant nephew, and custody of his brother Richard's effects, under the directiou 
of the " Orphan Chamber" of New Orange, although his own estate was confiscated as be- 
longing to a then Barbadian : Col. Doc, ii., 595, 617, 619, 631, 632, 645, 650, 664 ; Besae, ii., 
2SS, 313, 314, 315; Fox's Journal, 442; Smith, i., 209 ; Bolton, ii., 2S0-300; Whitehead'a 
Memoir of L. Jlorris, 1-5 ; ante, 140, 188, 190. 


Chap. V. Tvas Staying at Shelter Island, now asked the governor to 

send " a second embassy to the east end of Long Island, so 

lo7o. ^-^g^^ ^i^g innocent may not be punished with the guilty." 
If Oct. Colve therefore dispatched Captain Knj-ff and Ensign 
mtnistef-' Nicholas Yos to administer the oath to such as might " be 
**■ fi-ee to take the same." Huntington and Setauket were 

accordingly visited ; and their inhabitants and officei-s read- 
ily swore fidelity to the Dutch government.* 

By advice of his council, which agreed with that of Mor- 
ris and Sylvester, Governor Colve, instead of sending the 
f g Oct. frigate Surinam, directed Counselor Steenwyck, with Cap- 
tain Charles Epesteyn and Lieutenant Charles Quirynsen, 
to visit Easthampton, Southold, and Southampton, and " ad- 
The East- mouish the inhabitants of then* duty and true submission, 
admonX and also to establish the elected magistrates in their respect- 
^^' ive offices, and to administer the oath, as well unto them 

as the rest of the inhabitants there." If any New England 
vessels were met, they were not to be molested. If the 
people of the towns objected to swear, they were to be al- 
lowed to promise obedience; but their magistrates must 
take the oath, as the Schout Arnold had already done. 
Concessions were promised regarding trade with the New 
England colonies, the nomination of local officers, and what- 
ever the people might " ask in fairness." But, if they should 
be obstinate, the chief mutineers were to be reported at 
New Orange. Steenwy^ck, with his colleagues, accordingly 
f 1 Oct. embarked in the " Zeehond," under the command of Cap- 
tain CorneHs Ewoutsen.f 

In the mean time, Rhode Island, which did not belong 
i^ Aug. to the New England confederation, had passed laws for the 
Khodeisi- (jgfeQge Qf ^i^Q colony, in case it should be attacked by the 
Dutch. On recei\dng the answer of Evertsen and Binckes, 
27 August. Connecticut summoned a meeting of the commissioners of 
coane^- ^he United Colonies at Hartford. A " remonstrance" was 
*'"'• there adopted, recommending each confederate to take care 
for its own defense, and to aid any other which might be 
J5 Sept. fii-st invaded. Plymouth did not see satisfactory grounds 
Plymouth. ^^^, ^ ^^^ ^^p^^^ ^j^^ Dutch at Ncw York " without express 

command" of the king, or the actual invasion of a New 

• Col. Doc, ii., G45, 61T ; Wood, 9G, 9T; Thompaon, i., 154, 155; fl»ifc, 21T. 
t Col. Doc, ii., 64S, 641, G54 ; Vroo3, 97 ; ante, 21S. 


England colony. Massachusetts, cliaracteristically selfish, chap. y. 
notwithstanding the appeal of Southampton, " did not judge ^ 
it expedient to engage" in the matter fm-ther than to pro- ^p ^^^J 
vide for her own safety. This was owing, not to love of kassachu- 
the Dutch, or hatred of the Duke of York, but to an ever- 
controlling tliirst for individual aggrandizement. At this 
very time, Captain Cleyborne, of the Enghsh fi'igate Gar- 
land, being at Boston, offered to retake New York with his 
own ship, if Massachusetts would assist him with some sail- 
ors, soldiers, and provisions. But the General Court would 
do so only on condition that " the conquest might be added 
to Massachusetts ; and if that were refused, it would rather 
that Manliattan remamed in possession of the Dutch than 
that it should be put into the hands of Colonel Lovelace, 
the former governor." At the same time, upon the petition 
of John Payne, to whom a large tract had been granted, 
the Court ordered " the running of their southern line to |f Oct. 

_ , , . , Boundary 

Hudson's Eiver." But this attitude of Massachusetts did to be run. 
her no good at Whitehall.* 

Connecticut, however, yearned after Long Island. How- 
ell, Younge, and James, as representatives of the three east- 
em towns, petitioned for "protection and government" ^| Oct. 
against the Dutch, and were received with great favor at 
Hartford. Letters were sent to Plymouth and Massachu- Jl Oct. 
setts, asking their concurrence ; upon favorable answers to 
which, the governor and some other magistrates of Connec- 
ticut were authorized " to protect the people of the east hs 0'=t- 
end of Lena; Island, and to estabUsh government amongst 

o „ -r^ J- £ . t24 October. 

them." But the reply from Boston was unsatisfactory, in 3 j^^^^m. 
cloudy words it intimated that Massachusetts was " igno- f^^"-^^^,], 
rant of the extent" of the Connecticut patent, yet admitted connecti- 
an obligation to aid the Long Island people, as EngHshmen, 
against the Dutch, as a national enemy ; while the Hart- 
ford " claim of jurisdiction over them" was testily rejected. 22 October. 
Connecticut, nevertheless, commissioned Samuel Willys and i.^o^^em.^ 
Captain Fitz John Winthrop to go to Long Island with cut^B^ds 
"necessary attendants:" treat with such Dutch forces assionerato 

T 1 j1 i -J.' Long Isl- 

they might find there ; and warn them that opposition and. 

» Col. Eec. Conn., ii., 562, 503; iii., 486, 4ST; R. I.,u.,4S8-500; Plymouth Col. Rec, 
V , 134 •' X , 3S7 ; Mass. Rec, iv. (ii.), 54S, 558, 501, 5T0 ; Arnold, i., 366, 3GT ; Chalmers, i., 
433, 434; Hutch. Coll., 413; Mass. II. S. CoIL, xxx., 86-88, P6; Palfrey, ill, 121, 122, 304; 
ante, ISS, 216. 


ciiAr. V. would provoke the Hartford authoiities to consider what 
they were " nextly obliged to do."* 

The Connecticut magistrates also lectured "the corn- 
el Oct. mander of the Dutch forces at Kew York" for ui'^ino^ his 
cutTec^'" majesty's subjects on Long Island to swear allegiance 
oXe. against the King of England, and threatened that if he 
persisted, the Xew England colonies would attack him at 
" headquarters." These " animadversions" were sent to 
New Orange " by Mi*. John Bankes," who was instructed 
to inform Colve how tender Connecticut was of the " effu- 
sion of Christian blood," yet how interested for her " dear 
neighbours, his Majestie's good subjects" on Long Island. 
26 October. Sui'prised at the insolent tone of this letter, Colve arrested 

5 Novem. 
Oolve's an- 

5 Novem. ^|.g Nearer, and replied to Winthrop that he could not be 


lieve such an " impertinent and absurd writing" came from 
winthrop'3 him. Wiuthrop, in answer, complained of Bankes's deten- 
tion at New Orange, and declared that the letter he bore 
contained " very pertinent and needful premonitions for the 
preventing a confluence of evill consequences."! 

Unappalled by this peculiar rhetoric, Colve denied the 
jPg Novem. right of Connccticut to question his proceedings on Long Isl- 
pungent and, whcro the people would have peaceably taken the oaths 
to the Dutch " had not some evil-disposed persons gone from 
you and dissuaded them." He was in New Netherland, he 
added, " to maintain the right of their High Mightinesses 
and his Serene Highness the Prince of Orange ;" and he 
would do it. The Dutch had always treated their enemies 
more humanely than the English, who had so barbarously 
used the " poor fishermen and farmers" on the island of 
Ter-Schelhng. On his return to Hartford with this letter. 
Report of Baukes reported that Colve was " a man of resolute spirit 
about and passionate, that manageth the affaires now under his 
NeiY Neth- powcr SO as is not satisf actor}' to the people nor soldiers ; 
and that he is in expectation of strength from foreign 
parts, upon whose arrival he seems to be resolved to sub- 
due under his obedience what he can, not only on the isl- 
and, but he sayth he knowes not but he may have Hart- 
ford ere long.":}: 

• Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 212-210, 503,501; Col. Doc, ii., 056; Col. MSS., xxiii.,2Sl; Wood's 
I.ODg Island, 90; Palfrey, iii., 121, 122. 
+ Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 210, 504, 505 ; Col. Doc, ii , 051, 052, OGO. 
t Col. Uoc, ii., 600, GOI ; Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 565 ; an'e, 125. On the ISth of May, IGTj, 



After a boisterous voyage through the Sound, Colve's chap.v. 
commissioners meanwhile met, near Plum Gut, the vessel 
conveying Willys and Winthrop to Long Island, which gfoctobeV 
struck its colors to the Dutch. The Connecticut officers, 6 Novem. 

T -1 T •\ • J_^ • • • New Neth- 

on coming on board and producing their commissions, eriand 
were courteously treated, and the Dutch, on their side, sfo^^^at 
showed them their own papers. Both parties then landed ^°'^'^°^'^- 
on Long Island, Steenwyck and his colleagues spending the 
night with Sylvester. The next morning the commission- ^^ October. 
ers on both sides rowed up to Southold. A large force 
was in arms. Steenwyck desired the inhabitants to be 
summoned ; but the Connecticut officers urged the people FoUed by 
to remain faithful to the King of England. Upon this, necticrt' 
Moore, who had been named a magistrate of Southold, 
declined the Dutch appointment ; and Arnold, although 
abeady sworn as sellout, declared that he had resigned 
his office, because his neighbors threatened to plunder his 
house. Seeing that they could now do nothing at South- 
old, Colve's commissioners left the village, intending to go to s" October. 
Southampton. But, finding that they would " be unable to Ketum to 
effect any thing, and rather do more harm than good," they an^. '" 
came back to New Orange with an unsatisfactory report.* 

On the return of Willys and Winthrop, Connecticut, con- 
sidering the condition of her " dear countrymen upon Long 
Island, their further motion for assistance, and the late at- 
tempts of their enemy the Dutch upon them," determined 
to send them help ; and commissioned Captain Fitz John if Novem. 
Winthrop " to be sergeant major over the military forces of cuTforces 
his majesty's subjects on Long Island." Accordingly, ad- soulhoid. 
venturers were raised at Stonington and New London, and 
hurried across the Sound to Southold.f 

Meanwhile " the Dutch interest" in New Netherland was 
hoping that Van Euyven would do much for them in the van Kuy- 
f atherland. But Yan Ruyven returned unexpectedly to Wrecked'' 
New Orange, reporting that the snow " Expectatie," in ^e^o *" 
which he embarked, had been wrecked near Nantucket, "^^e. 
Ewoutsen was dispatched thither with the Zeehond, to bring fewoutsen ' 
back the disabled vessel, but not to damage any New En- Nrntu°kct. 

the Connecticut General Court granted Bankes " forty shillinga towards his expences, when 
he was detained in Yorke, in the year seventy three:" Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 253. 

* Col. Doc, ii., 654-65S ; Wood, 9T ; Tliorapson, i., 155; Palfrey, iii., 124; ante, 21T, 213. 

t Ma.s3. H. S. Coll.,x.tx.,S:), 91; Palfrey, iii., 125; Col. Bee. Conn., ii., 216. 


Chap. V. glancl craf t, unless the Expeetatie liad been captured ; in 

which case he was to take or destroy all English vessels, 

J.D < o. a -vvhencesoever they may be." Ewoutsen reported that the 

A^ Nov em. i/ */ j. 

New En- Expcctatle had been taken by an English privateer, com- 
fefa^cap-^' mandcd by Joseph Dudson, and carried to Boston ; and 
that, according to his orders, he had brought into New Or- 
ange four New England trading ketches. These vessels 
were detained " provisionally under arrest," and their mas- 
l^ Novem. ters were sent to Rhode Island with a letter from Colve to 
Leverett, asking that the crew of the Expeetatie might be 
allowed to return unmolested from Boston, Upon further 
Condemn- Consideration, the New England prizes were confiscated as 
^ft Novem. belonging to "subjects of England actually in open war 

against our state."* 

^/d^TI"'' These spirited Dutch reprisals waked up New England. 

Threats of Massachusctts demanded the release of its coasters, aftd 

setts. threatened, otherwise, " a full reparation by force of arms." 

^T^ Decern. Colvc replied that Massachusetts had seized a Dutch vessel 

piyj^ s re- ^^^ carried it to Boston, before any thing had been done 

by New Netherland to her prejudice; and that, in future, 

Massachusetts should employ as messengers "honorable 

people, and no spies."t 

Connecticut now proposed to Massachusetts a " prevent- 
iD^cIm'" ^^'® expedition" against New Netherland, offering a " pro- 
portionable conjunction and compliance." Massachusetts 
JJ5 Decem. determined " that God doth call them to do something in 
a hostile way for their own defence," fitted out a ship and 
Action of a ketch, and impressed soldiers. But, as Dudson had seized 
ciXand^ the Dutch vessel at Nantucket, which was " without the ju- 
slttT''^"' risdiction of this court," and had acted under a letter of 
marque from the king, and not from Massachusetts, it was 
thought "not convenient to proceed to a judication" of the 
If Decern, prize. Plymouth resolved that there was "just ground of 
a war," and that she should do her utmost against the 
Dutch in New Netherland. But Rhode Island, not belong- 
ing to the New England Confederation, took no action.:}: 

This state of war obliged Colve to adopt more severe 
measures toward strangers, especially English. Francis 

• Col. Doc, ii., 526, 532, 65S, 662, 663, 664; Col. Kec. Conn., ii., 565; "Mass. Rcc, iv. (ii.), 
5T3, 5T4; Mass. II. S. Coll., xxx., KB ; ante, 221. t Col. Doc, ii., 6GT, 66S. 

t ( :ol. Hec. Conn., ii., 216-220, 5.55, 556 ; Mass. Rec, iv. (ii), 572, 5T3, 674 ; riymoiitli Rcc, 
v., 135, 130; N. Y. Col. Doc.,ii.,6C.T; Palfrey, iii., OS, 122, 125; R. I. Kec, iii., 50S-515. 


Beado, an Englishman, had been convicted, on his own con- cu.vr. v. 
f ession, of designina; to burn the villaa^e of Fordham, and ~~ 
had been sentenced to be branded and banished from New gg T^otmi 
ISTetherland for twenty-five years. In addition to the pre- sDecem. 
vious order of 11th September, a proclamation was now is- vigorous 
sued requiring all strangers who had not taken the oath of mV^ure.?. 
allegiance to leave the province at once, and forbidding all ^^ oeccm. 
persons, not inhabitants and subjects, to come within the 
government without proper passports. The inhabitants 
were also forbidden to harbor such strangers, or hold any 
correspondence with the people of New England and all 
other actual enemies ; and all letters to or fi'om such per- 
sons were to be sent to the provincial secretary's office for 

Colve also appointed Captain William Knyff, of the in- A ^«cem. 
fantry in Fort Willem Hendrick, to be "Fiscal and Con-calofNe^v 

. Nether- 

servator of the Laws" in New Netherland. It was a re\dval land. 
of the office, held last by De Sille, under Stuyvesant ; the 
duties of which were to promote the peace and prosperity 
of the province, maintain the jurisdiction of the home gov- 
ernment, prosecute all offenders, and to take care " that good 
law and justice be administered, without respect of persons, 
in all courts of justice within this province, according to the 
laudable custom, laws, and ordinances of our Fatherland."t 

Colve now visited Midwout, where he had invited the xg oecem. 
magistrates of the Dutch towns on Long Island to meet rLtbusii, 
him. He informed them of the preparations making in °vout'. " 
New England, and recommended the towns to send grain 
to New Orange, repair thither whenever summoned, keep 
a good watch, and send horsemen occasionally to observe 
what was doing in the English towns. Steenwyck, Yan 
Ruyven, and Yan Brugh were directed to examine the 
houses in the city, and report what accommodation could 
be given to " outside people" seeking refuge from the ene- 
my. The towns in Schout Lawrence's district, and Bergen, 
Haerlem, and Fordham, were also enjoined fidehty and vig- y- Deecm. 

* Col. Doc, ii., CG5, 6G6 ; aiite^ 222. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 6GS, 609 ; ante, vol. i., 1C4, 414, 532, 622. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 609, 670, 672, 673. The burgomasters of the city, anxious for its safety, 
were alarmed that the frigate Surinam had left the harbor on the 2d of December, contrary to 
the promise of Evertsen and Binckes, a»i<e, 221, and, on calling on Colve, were informed 
that ha could not and would not explain his reason.-^, but that "with or without the ship 


CiiAP. V. The city fortifications being nearly completed, at " exces- 

~ sive expense, trouble, and labor of the burghery and inhab- 

, , itants," rea:ulations were made to secm-e the place. At sun- 

1^ Decern. ' o ^ 

New oi-- down the gates were to be closed, and the burgher watch 
lations." ' sct ; and no other person was to approach the batteries un- 
til sunrise. No one could enter or depart, except through 
vandewa- the city gate, on pain of death. Jacobus van de Water was 
m^]m.^ appointed town major of New Orange and auditor of its 
court-martial. The commissioned officers of the city mili- 
tia were Captains Cornells Steenwyck, Martin Kregier, 
Militia offi- Johannes van Brugh, and ^gidius Luyck, Lieutenants Wil- 
liam Beekman, Jacob Kip, Christopher Hooghland, and 
Nicholas Bayard, and Ensigns Gabriel Minvielle, Stephanus 
van Cortlandt, and Gelyn Yerplanck. They were thanked 
by tlie governor for the zeal they had shown in fortifying 
New Orange, and assured that the States General would 
not fail to " take tlie greatest interest in the preservation 
and prosperity of the city." But the event did not justify 
Colve's too ready words.* 

Following the laudable practice of the fatherland, the 
5=^ Novcm. governor issued a proclamation that, as the province was 
and "'° now blessed with " the fi'ee and pure worship of God," and 
iQg°da5?r" other mercies, the fii'st Wednesday in each month should 
oideied. 1^^ observed in New Netherland as " an universal day" of 
fasting, humiliation, and thanksgiving, on which all labor, 
gaming, or excess in drinking was strictly prohibited.f 

On the Delaware the Provincial Instruction was readily 
enforced by Sellout Alrichs, and magistrates were estab- 
lished at the Iloarkill. Captain John Carr, who had gone 
to Maryland, was allowed to settle himself in New Nether- 
land, if he took the oath of allegiance ; but if he refused, 
his estate was to be seized. As several Marylanders had 
f g xovem. lately committed aggressions on the Delaware settlers, 
affairs. Colvc iuvitcd the sufferers to New Orange, and directed 
all the inhabitants there to obey the orders of Alrichs.:}: 

aforesaid, he ehould not undertake nor execute any thing except wliat his Ilonnr should con- 
sider serviceable and expedient for the fort, tlie city, and the burghery :" New Orange Rec, 
vii., 72; Val. Man., 1S50, 522. Tlie Surinam was back again in harbor in January, 1GT4: 
Col. Doc,iL,6S2. 

* Col. Doc, ii., C70, CTl, CT4, 675, C77, 67S ; Val. Man., 1S50, 523. Moulton, 7, 8, 11, 12, 21, 
mistakes the office of Van de Water for mayor, instead of major, of New Orange. The mus- 
ter-roll of Captain Steenwyck'a com;)any, of which Bayard lieutenant and Minvielle en- 
sign, i.-( in Val. Man., 1850, 42 1, 425." t Col. Poc, ii., G5S ; Val. Man., 1S50, 621. 

t Col.Doc.,ii., 537,022,632, G59,6G3, 072, C73,C7Si Col.MSS.,xxiv.,9T; S. llazard,409,410. 

T% Novem. 


In Achter Col, or New Jersey, Colve's instraction was cuap. v. 
cheerfully obeyed. Bergen enacted some local regulations. 
At an assembly called by Schout Ogden at Elizabethtown, ^g ^^^*^' 
several ordinances were adopted, mucb milder than the En- AchterCoi, 

or Ngw jGr- 

glish laws. Before approving them, Colve had them trans- sey. 
lated into the Dutch language. Weary of their distractions ^® ''" 
under the government of Berkeley and Carteret, the people 
of New Jersey welcomed the regained authority of the 
Repubhcan Netherlands.* 

The Esopus officers were confirmed by the governor ; 6 October, 
among whom were Cornells Wjmkoop, Boeloff Kierstede, fairs. 
Wessel Tenbroeck, an^ Jan Burhans, of Swanenburg, or 
Kingston ; and Louis du Bois, Roeloff Hendricksen, Jan 
Joosten, and Jan Broersen, of Hurley and Marbletown ; 
and Captain Albert Heymans, who had been prominent in 
the riot of 1667. William la Montague was made secreta- 
ry of the three towns, and Isaac Grevem'aet their schout, in 
place of William Beekman, who had removed to New Or- 
ange. Two brass guns, useless at Swanenburg, were order- jg oct. 
ed to be sent down to the metropolis, " as the same are re- 
quired here."t 

Schenectady was made subordinate to Willemstadt ; and s'^^^yem'' 
Anthonia van Cm*ler was allowed an extension of the priv- wmem- 

■■■ stadt and 

liege which had been granted by Lovelace. As New France schenecta- 
was now hostile to New Netherland, Commander Draeyer 
was directed to " stop all correspondence with the Jesuit, f ^ Novem. 
and Frenchmen from Canada, whether runaways or oth- 
ers." He was again instructed to observe all military pre- if Novem. 
cautions at Fort Nassau ; not to confide in any French from ^TeT'^'' 
Canada; and "to break off all correspondence with the 
Jesuit, but to excuse himself in a courteous manner.";}: 

The Jesuit missionaries had meanwhile been active 
among the Iroquois. Bruyas, at Tionnontoguen, or Saint Bruyasand 
Mary's, and Boniface, at Caghnawaga, or Saint Peter's, among the 
labored among the Mohawks. Although the smallest of ' ° ^''^ 
the Iroquois villages, Caghnawaga was esteemed by the 
Jesuits, like ancient Judah by the Israelites, as the greatest 
of all their stations. Prayer was offered there as constantly 

• Col. Doc, ii., 621, 633, 643, 65S, GS.3, 700, T14, 726 ; T\Tiitehead, 61, 62. 
t Col. Doc, ii.,622, 626, 627, 629, 630, 644, 646, 649, 650; Esopus Records; Warr., Ord., 
Passes, ill., 147 ; ante, 123, 1.'57, 218. 
+ Col. Doc, ii., 652, 653, 654, 659, G62, 673; Council Minutes, iiL, 120 ; ante, 218, 224 


cuAP. V. " as in the best regulated families of France." Yet, while 
~ zealous Mohawk converts paraded their chaplets in the 
' Dutch church at Albany, the Jesuit missionaries mistrusted 
their frequent visits to the " heretics," and lamented their 
"wretched peace" with the Mahicans, which, by making 
the paths safe, enabled the Iroquois to get brandy to their 
hearts' content. The most interesting incident was the de- 
parture of a number of Mohawks to the mission at the 
Prairie de la Madeleine, near Montreal. This settlement 

}:migia- had received its first Iroquois accessions from Oneida, 

adafrom wliosc chlcf, Garonhiaguc, or '"'•La cendre chaude^^ became 
""^ ■ a catechist. "While on a visit there, Kryn, or " the Great 
Mohawk," had become converted by Fremin ; and, on his 
return to Caghnawaga, so nioved the village that forty Mo- 
hawks, with their squaws and children, went back with him 
to the Prairie. Their brethren at Tionnontoguen, " who 
were not yet disposed to embrace the faith," complained to 
Bruyas of the " black robes, wdio seemed to wish to make 
their country a desert and ruin their villages." The health 
of Boniface, however, soon failed ; and he returned to Que- 

i2june. bee to die — conducting "a great party" of converts, and 
leaving Bruyas alone, in charge of both the Mohawk sta- 
tions. The intervals of missionary labor were employed 
by the Iroquois superior in preparing his immortal dic- 
tionary of the Indian tongue.* 

Millet became so popular at Oneida that he persuaded 

Millet at many proselytes to renounce the invocation of Agreskoue. 
But he was much embarrassed by the efforts of the Hol- 
landers against the Jesuits, " since they had retaken Man- 
hattan and Orange, and driven out the English." In an 
interesting letter to Dablon, at Quebec, Millet described 
an eclipse of the moon on the 21st of January, 1674, which 
he had foretold, much to the amazement of the savages. f 

T.nmber- At Ououdaga, Johu de Lamberville was cheered by some 

Onondaga, ucw couvcrts. But liis flock was diminished by several 

* Relation, 1072-3,33-55; 1GT3-0, 1-10, 142, 143-151, 175, 17T; Poiiniol's Miss. Can., i., 4-21, 
179-lS;t, 23.5-239, 279-293, 345, 34G ; ii.,10; Shea, 2G9-272, 29S, 299; Charlevoix, ii., 233, 
2.57, 854, 357 ; Col. Doc, ix., 352, 474 ; ante, 190-192. I find no autlionty for the statement 
in the note in Col. Doc, ix., 720 (repeated in N. Y. Senate Doc, 115, April 16, 1SG3), that 
Uniyas was among the Senecas in 1073. He certainly wrote from Tionnontoguen, by Boni- 
face, to Frontenac, on 12th June of that year : Col. Doc, ix., 792 ; Douniol, i., 34.5. 

+ Uplatinn,lfi-2-.'i,. 55-05; lG7.'!-9, 140 ; Douniol, i., 22-30, 175-177, 239-250; Charlevoix, 
ii.,25S; Shea, 270, 2S2 ; anfc, 17S,1S1, 191. 


proselytes from tlieir native " Babylon," who went to live chap. v. 
at the more attractive Prairie de la Madeleine. Carheil, 
at Cayuga, had little to break the monotony of his station ^^^^J^^ J^ 
except the baptism of three Andaste prisoners before they ^ayus"- 
were bm-ned'by tlieir Iroquois conquerors."^ 

Amonff the Senecas, Garnier had charge of Saint Michael Gamier 
and Saint James, while Eafteix labored at Conception, at the sen- 
Wanting assistance, the lonely Jesuits apphed to Dablon, ^''^^' 
and Pierron was sent to their aid, who took care of Saint 
James. After leaving the Mohawks in 1671, Pierron re-Pierronin 
tui-ned to Quebec, and from there went to Acadia, where New ik- 
he spent the winter of 1673. Thence he wandered over fia"7iand. 
l^ew England, Maryland, and Yirginia, finding nothing 
"but desolation and abomination among those heretics." 
At Boston he was " much esteemed," although suspected 
of Jesuitism, because of " the uncommon knowledge which 
he exhibited." Pierron offered to estabhsh a mission 
among the Maryland savages, " whose language he knew." 
But Dablon, scrupulous not to allow a Canadian mission- 
ary to interfere with the " English Fathers" in Maryland, 
ordered Pierron to assist Garnier and Kaffeix among the sene^l ^^ 

During the winter the Jesuit missionaries had reported 
to Frontenac that the Iroquois were not well disposed to- 
ward the French. The new Onnontio therefore resolved Fronte- 
to make a pompous visit to Lake Ontario, and impress tlie to Lake 
savages with the power of Canada. He built two ba- 
teaux similar to that of Com-celles, but of a peculiar model, 
each carrying sixteen men with their provisions, and each 
mounted with small cannon, and painted "in a fashion 
unhke any thing seen before in the whole country.":}: 

To disarm the suspicions of the Iroquois, Frontenac dis- 
patched La Salle, who was well acquainted with them, and 
had just returned from the West, to invite the five nations 
to meet him at Quinte Bay toward the end of June. On 
his way from Quebec to Montreal, as he was passing the ^^ ^^^^ 
Cap de la Madeleine, the governor is stated to have met a June. 

* Relation, 1C72-3, 65-108 ; 1C73-0, 143-146, 152 ; Douniol, i., 30-62, 256-2GS, 317 ; U., 11 ; 
Shea, 283, 289. 

t Relation, 1672-3, 108-114 ; 1673-9, 140 ; Donniol, i., G3-68, 26^-278 ; ii., 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 
44; Shea, 268, 292 ; ante, 178, 192. 

t Col. Doc, ix., 91, 95, 96 ; Faillon, iii., 450-470 ; ante, ISO, 193. 



Chap. V. Dablon, the superior of the Jesuits, who informed him that 
he had learned from the Indians that some Dutch ships 
had captured Manliattan ; and that it was to be feared that 
they might blockade the Saint Lawrence, or even attack 
Quebec. But Frontenac, " seeing no foundation for this 
intelligence," continued his route, requesting Dablon not to 
di\^ilge the news ; at the same time taking precautions for 
the safety of Quebec and Tadoussac* 
June. Frontenac started from La Chine with one hundred and 
twenty canoes and four hundred men, and ascended the 
Saint Lawrence with "incredible labor," fifty men being 
required to drag each heavy bateau up the rapids. On 
his way he saw " the most delightful country in the world." 
At length he arrived at " a point at the head of all the 

29 June. 


ij.Gaiette, rapids," called "La Galette"t which the Sieur laYalterie 

cr Pz'escott 

' had previously chosen for a magazine of provisions. Here 
the governor received letters from La Salle, informing him 
that two hundred leading Iroquois had gone to meet him 
at Quints. This obliged him to send the Sulpitian Abbes 
Fenelon and D'Urfe thither, to ask them to come twenty 
leagues nearer, at Cataracouy, which he judged to be the 
best place for the establishment which Courcelles had pro- 
j)osed. Passing Otondiata and the " vast group of Islands 
with which the river is studded," Frontenac reached the 
opening of Lake Ontario, and arranged his flotilla in order 
^^juiy. of battle. Here he met D'Urfe, who had overtaken the 
Iroquois on their way to Quinte, and caused them to turn 
back. The French flotilla followed them " to the mouth 
Frontenac of the Rivcr Cataracouy, into a bay about a cannon shot 
louy. fi'om the entrance, which forms one of the most beautiful 
and agreeable harbors in the world ;" and Frontenac was 

* Col. Doc, ix., 97, 9S; ante, 179. Tliis is a palpable anaclironisra. New York was re- 
captured by the Dutch on the 30th of July, or 9th of August, 1073 {ante, 20S), which was 
eight or nine weeks after Dablon is said to have reported it to the governor at the Cap de 
la Madeleine! It seems that Frontenac got his first information in a letter from Laniber- 
ville, dated at Oswego, on the 30th of August, or 9th of September, 1073, .and dispatched by 
La Salle, who, he states, was "in haste to depart, to carry the news of the reconquest of 
Manhattan and Orange by the Hollanders, and of the current rumour that they have twen- 
ty ships of war about to sail for Quebec :" Douniol, i., 347, 343 ; post, 239, 240. 

t "La Galette" (the meaning of which French word is a flat cake, familiar to Parisian?) 
seems to have been what is now called Wind-mill Point, a little below Prescott, in Canada 
West, the scene of one of the " patriot" movements in 1S3S : compare Col. Doc, ix., 77, 101, 
114, 195, 241, 3S1 ; Charlevoix, v., 2S1-2SG, and Map ; Gent. Mag., xxvii., 74, .Map ; Hough's 
Saint Lawrence, 41, 46; Barber and Howe's N. Y. Coll., 4SS. The name, however, was aft- 
erward transferred to Fort Presentation at Oswegatchie or Ogilensburg: sec Smith, i.,C9, 
note; Col. Doc, vii., 130,573; x.,349; Doc. Hist., L, 2S1, and Sauthicr'a Map anne.xed. 


"enraptured at finding a spot so well adapted for liis cuap.v. 

The next day Frontenac received the Iroquois with jt_j ' 
great pomp in front of his tent, called them his " children," ^^ 
and named a day for solemn conference. In the mean 
time the Sieur Rendin traced out a fort, and the troops Fort traced 
worked at it with good will. At the appointed time Fron- ^y^'juiy. 
tenac told the Five Nations that the Jesuits labored only to ^iuf'h "'^ 
teach them, and should be respected ; that Onnontio had ^■■'^"'''® 
proved his power by coming up all the rapids with ba- 
teaux carrying cannon; that he now ratified the treaties 
made by liis predecessors ; and he urged his " children" to 
let tlieir youth learn the French tongue, promising to com- 
municate with them either through the missionaries, or by 
some " person of character" like La Salle. The Iroquois The iro- 
" appeared highly gratified that Onnontio had, at the first ed°^chii-" 
and second audience, addressed them as Children, and 
thereby had bound himself to act towards them as a Fa- 
ther; the other Onnontios not having made use of that 
mark of authority, and they having never consented to be 
addressed otherwise than as Brothers." They expressed ts J"'y 

•^ -"- J oy of the 

their joy at the establishment of a French fort at Catara- I'oquois. 
couy ; yet they lamented the conquests of the French in 
Holland, and the ruin of the Dutch, who " had been friend- 
ly with them."f At the same time, they wished Frontenac 
to assist them against the Andastes, " the sole enemies re- 
maining on their hands." This, however, the governor 
waived ; and the Five Nations proinised to consider his 
propositioii in regard to their children learning French. 

The fort was soon completed ; and, after settling its gar- 
rison, Frontenac returned to Montreal, delighted that he i auIu^. " 
had accomplished his enterprise without any accident, and 
by the resources of Canada alone, without any aid from 
the court. Not long afterward La Salle came back fi-om 9 sept^em!' 
Oswego with a letter from Lamberville, reporting the re- 

* Col. Doc., ix., 01, 9S-103, T92 ; x., 349 ; Douniol, i., 172, 240, 250, 343 ; Charlevoix, ii, 
245; antf, ISO, 193. The admirable situation of KiDgiton, in Canada West, well deserves 
the praise bestowed by i's founder, Frontenac. But in 1T03, D'Aigremont reported to 
Pontchartrain that La Galette would be a much better place for the fort than Frontenac: 
Col. Doc, ix.,S22; and Charlevoix adopted this opinion when he vicited Cataracouy in 
1721 : Charlevoix, v., 281, 2S2. 

t Col. Doc, ix., 110. It is clear from this that Frontenac could not yet have heard the 
news of the recapture of Xew York by the Dutch, referred to on the previous page. 


ciixv. V. capture of Kew York by tlie Dutcli, and their proposed at- 

tack of Quebec. La Salle was immediately appointed gov- 

La saiif ' 6rnor of " Fort Frontenac," at Cataracouy, an interesting 

"^"i^^^°l detail of the establishment of which was sent to Colbert.* 

of " Fort 

Frontc- In his letters home, Frontenac dwelt upon the inter- 
f J xovem. meddling of the Jesuits with the Recollets. Colbert, in 
reply, instructed him to form towns and villages in Cana- 
1674. da, rather than prosecute distant discoveries, unless they 
j^May. should opcu a nearer way to France than through the 
Saint Lawrence. At the same time, he expressed surprise 
Population that the population of Canada was only six thousand seven 
^- Novem. lii^ndred souls.f Frontenac answered that his expedition 
to Lake Ontario had made the Iroquois friendly, and in- 
sured the safety of the Jesuit missionaries among them. 
But the only way to build up Canada was to follow the 
example of her neighbors at Manliattan and Orange. The 
Jesuits only endeavored " to instruct the Indians, or rather 
to get beavers, and not to be parish priests to the French." 
But the Franciscans or Becollets, who, under the Father 
TheRecoi- Gabriel de la Eibourde, were now transferred fi'om 
taiacouj-?' Quinte to Cataracouy, were laboring with great zeal, and, 
if more numerous, "would assuredly do wonders in the 

In the mean time the exploration of the Mississippi had 

been partially accomplished. After spending the winter 

at Mackinaw, Jolliet and Marquette left Green Bay in 

1G73, June, 1673, ascended the Fox River, crossed the portage 

to the Wisconsin, down which they drifted in their birch 

^j June, canoes until they reached the Great River, which the f a- 

Ma'i^uette tlicr Called " the Conception," while his fellow-adventurer 

up£ Miv wished to name it " the Colbert." Following its current, 

sisaippu ^j^gy. pagsg(j i\-^Q mouth of the muddy " Pekitanoui," or 

Missouri, and then that of the limpid " Ohio," which Bru- 

yas — who literally translated its Mohawk name — called 

"The Beautiful River." Having reached the mouth of 

* Col. Doc, ix., 103-114, 122, 211, 793; Quebec MSS.,ii. (ii.), 291; Douniol, i., 347, 34S; 
Gameau, i.,112; Hennepin's Louisiana, 5, 6 ; Sliea, 283; Discovery of the Mississippi, xxxiv. 

t Col. Doc, ix., SS, 95, 115, 116, 792 ; Quebec MSS., ii. (ii.), 291 ; ante, vol. i., C7. The 
population of New Netherland at this time was estimated to be from six to seven tliousand, 
and that of New England about one hundred and twenty thousand : Col. Doc, ii., 526, 59S ; 
Chalmers, i., 434. 

t Col. Doc, ix., 95, 120, 121, 7^3; Quebec M.SS., ii. (ii.), 57; Charlevoix, ii., 257; Sparks's 
La Salle, 16; Shea's Missions, 412; Discovery of the Mississippi, S5, S9, 169; ante, 149, 169, 
170, 194. 


the Ai-kan&'as, and satisfied themselves that the Mississippi chap. v. 
emptied into the Gulf of Mexico, the explorers retmiied by 
way of the Illinois River to Chicago, and thence to Green ^ 
Bay, having traveled nearly tln-ee thousand miles. Leav- ^' 
ing Marquette at Green Bay, Jolliet went homeward as far septem. 
as Mackinaw, accompanied by a young savage, who had 
been given him by the chief of the IlHnois, and spent the 
mnter there. Early the next spring he came down to Fort 16Y4. 
Frontenac, where he communicated his discoveries to La 
Salle, who was in command of the post. Li descending 
the Saint Lawrence, Jolliet safely passed all the rapids un- 
til he reached the Sault Saint Louis, just above Montreal, 
where his canoe was overturned, all his papers lost, his July, 
young Illinois companion drowned, and his own life barely 
saved after a four hours' struggle with the waters. 

N^evertheless, Jolliet was able to prepare from memory a Jouiefs 
map and a narrative of his marvelous journey. From these narrative. 
materials Dablon compiled a "Relation," wliich he dis- ^ August 
patched to the superior general of the Jesuits at Paris. 
Not long afterward Jolliet was rewarded by a grant of the 
island of Anticosti. By the Ottawa flotilla Dablon re- 
ceived copies of Marquette's journal and map, which he Jiar- 
f orwarded to France, Frontenac also sent to Colbert the joumar 
map and narrative of JolKet, who had discovered an inland S^N^vein. 
navigation from Lake Ontario to the Gulf of Mexico, with frontenac 

~ 1 recom- 

only a short portage; and therefore he suggested that a^^^^^'j^* 
French settlement should be made at Niag-ara, and a bark po^' '^'^ ^'i- 

~ ' agara. 

be built on Lake Erie. This idea was no doubt originated 
by La Salle, who had seen Jolliet at Cataracouy, fresh 
from his Mississippi voyage, and who was now out of em- 
ployment. La Salle therefore resolved to return to France Lasauere. 
to plead his own cause with the king ; and Frontenac cheer- France. 
fully recommended him as " the most capable for all the 
enterprises of discovery."* 

* Col. Doc, vi., 532, 545, 610 ; ix, 118, 119, 121, 122, 211, 216, 383, COS, 706, 787, TE3, 886 ; 
Quebec MSS., ii. (ii.), 57; La Potherie, ii., 131: Douniol's Miss. Can., i., 193-204; li., 5, 6, 241- 
330; Famon,ia, 312-315, 472; Charlevoix, 11., 248-250; Hist. Mag., v., 237-239; Henne- 
pin's Louisiana, 6, 13 ; New Discovery, 303-306 ; Sparks's La Salle, and Marquette; Ban- 
croft, iii., 155-161; Garneau, 1., 232-237; Shea's Disc, of the Mississippi, x.xvii.-x.xxlv., 
Ix.xv., Ixxx., 4-52, S3, 84; and Catholic Missions, 405, 406, 435-437; anle^ 163, 194. The 
copy of Marquette's Journal which Dablon sent to Paris -was published by Thevenot, with 
curtailments, in 1681. An English translation was Issued in 1698, annexed to Hennepin's 
"New Discovery," 306-349; and another in Dutch is contained in vol. xxviii. of Van der 
Aa's Collection of 1707. Another copy of Marquette's Journal was prepared for publication 

II.— Q 



Chap. V. 


15 Jan. 
New Or- 
iinge af- 

IC Jan. 

1 Febr'y. 

19 Febr'y. 
Tax for the 
eity fortifi- 

17 Marcli. 

21 March. 

13 March. 

10 March. 

"VVliile the dominion of France was tlius indefinitely ex- 
tended by her adventurous sons over the interior of North 
America, that of Holland over a modest space of its sea- 
board was firmly maintained by her patriotic children. 

The metropolis of New Netherland was brought more 
directly under the governor's authority by a " Provisional 
Instruction," which, among other things, authorized the 
Fiscal KnyfE to preside over the court of Schout, Burgo- 
masters, and Schepens. The city magistrates rebelled at 
this ; but, upon Colve's threat to dismiss them and convoke 
the burghers to nominate others, they yielded, under a 

To provide for the " excessive expenses" of the city for- 
tifications, Colve levied a tax on the estate of each citizen 
of New Orange worth over one thousand guilders. Com- 
missioners were accordingly appointed, and lists made out 
of the property of " the most affluent inhabitants ;" which 
amounted to upwards of five hundred and twenty thousand 
guilders. But as it would take time to collect this tax, 
each burgher assessed more than four thousand guilders 
was ordered to " advance, by way of loan," the hundredth 
penny of his capital, " for such is deemed to be necessary 
for the public good." Of this forced loan Major Jacobus 
van de Water was appointed receiver.f 

The city of New Orange being now "capable (imder 
God) of resisting all attacks of any enemies," the " out 
people" of the neighboring villages were directed to hasten 
there with proper arms on the first notice of the coming of 
any hostile ships. The citizens were also forbidden to 
leave town without the consent of their magistrates. The 
sloops sailing up the North River to Esopus and Willem- 
stadt, and to the Delaware, were required to go in rota- 

by Dnblon, which, however, was long buried, along with the original map, in the archives ' 
of the Jesuit College at Quebec. In 1844 they came into the hands of Father Felix Martin, 
by whom they were intrusted to Mr. John G. Shea, who published a fac-simile of the map 
and a translation of the Journal in 1S53. The originals were privately printed, with great 
rfegance, in 1S55, by Mr. James Lenox. They were also reprinted at Paris in ISGl, by Dou- 
niol, in his "• Mission du Canada," ii., 241-331. Copies of Jolliet's m.ip and letter to Fronte- 
nac, made from the originals at Paris, are in the Library of the Canadian Parliament at 
Quebec: see Catalogue (ed. 1858), p. 1015. Henri Martin, i., 491, insists that La Salle di:?- 
covered the Mississippi before JoUiet and Marquette : compare Garneau, i., 236, 7iote; and 
Douniol, ii., 3T5; Faillon, iii., 313. 
* Col. Doc, ii., 078-681 ; Val. Man., 1850, 523-527 ; anU, 212, 226, 233. 
t Col. Doc, ii., 685, 688, 607, 609, 700, 701; Val. Man., IS.'iO, 525, 5.30; 1851, 435; Moul- 

ton, 14, 15, 16 ; V.ilentine's N. York, 319-330; ante, p. 234. The rate list is in Col. Doc, ii., 

039, 700. 


tion, so as not to weaken the capital. In case an enemy chap. v. 
should arrive, all vessels were to haul behind the frigate 
Surinam, " near the circular battery."* 2t March^ 

The towns on Long Island, with Bergen and Haerlem, 22 March. 
were also directed to send each a militia officer and magis- tionatNcw 
trate to a Convention in New Orange. Francis Bloodgood, ^"^^"s®- 
one of the schepens of Flushing, was at the same time* ap- 
pointed " chief officer" of the Dutch people of Flushing, 
Heemstede, Jamaica, and ISTewtovni, and charged with their 
military police. The Convention met accordingly, and ev- 26 siarch. 
ery precaution was taken to provide sufficient defense for 
the capital in case it should be attacked.f 

The governor's attention had meanwhile been drawn to 
affairs at the eastern end of Long Island. Provisions be- 
ing needed at the fort, Ewoutsen was ordered to receive Febr'y. 
them at Shelter Island from Sylvester, whose bond was 
now due. Some soldiers were sent along, in hope that the Dutch ex- 
refractory towns might be reduced to subjection. Mean- sueiter isu 
while Fitz John Winthrop had reached Southold with his 
Connecticut auxiliaries. On learning the approach of 
Colve's expedition, forces were hurried from Southamp- 
ton and Easthampton ; and it was determined not to hin- 
der the Dutch from obtainino; what they wanted at Shelter 
Island, but only to defend Southold. Sylvester promptly ^ j^^^^^'_ 
delivered his stipulated proA'isions to Ewoutsen. The next 
morning the Dutch flotilla ranged itself before Southold, 
and Sylvester was sent to demand the surrender of the En- 
glish, who were promised the same pri^dleges with other l^J^^^^^ - 
towns in Xew Netherland, but were threatened, in case of f^^^f^f ^° 
their refusal, " with fire and sword." He was answered soutuoid 
that the Dutch commander would be received " as a per- 
son that disturbs His Majesty's subjects." Ewoutsen now 
ordered his boats to land, and a gun to be fired from his 
snow, the Zeehond, which did no harm. The fire was re- 
turned without effect. As the English were evidently too 
overpowering, it was thought absurd to attempt any tiling 
farther ; and the Dutch flotilla quietly returned to New 
Orange with the provisions for which it had come to Shel- 
ter Island safely on board.:]: 

* Col. Doc, ii., 695, 696, 69T, T02 ; Val. Man., 1S50, 536, 537 ; 1S51, 439, 440, 441 ; Moul- 

ton, 12 ; Wood, 97 ; Thompson, i., 156. t Col. Doc., ii., 103, 591, TOl, 702 ; ante, 215. 

t Col.Doc.,ii.,58S-590; Mass. H. S. Coll., xxx., 91-94; Col. Bee. Conn., ii., 566, 537; Wood, 


€uAP. V. Wintlii'op's conduct at Southold was applauded by Con- 
necticut, which directed him to continue " to assist and de- 

^ ' fend the people there 'till at least these present motions of 

oonnecti-' the Dutcli bc over," Application was also made to Massa- 
chusetts for a man-of-war " to cleare the coasts." But 

^ Marck Governor Leverett replied that " the generall voague of the 

settT'^ "' avefseness of the people to ingage in any acts of hostility 
against the Dutch, occasions retardment of comeing to any 
conclusion tending thereto." The General Court, however, 
" after much and serious consideration of the condition of 

11 March, thcsc colouics," rcsolvcd to send out a vessel or two " to re- 
press the insolence of the Dutcli in the Sound, who are, 
with an inconsiderable force there, triumphing to the 
amazement and affrightment of our friends." Connecti- 

i| March, cut was adviscd of this determination ; but no cruisers ap- 
pear to have been dispatched from Boston.^^ 

14 March. It was uow rumorcd that the King of England was 
about to retake New Netherland. Some vessels having 

If April, arrived at Sandy Hook, Ewoutsen was dispatched to learn 
what they were, but " not to imperil his snow." Soon aft- 
erward it was reported that peace had been made between 
Holland and England. Is^evertheless, the property of in- 

3% May. habitants of New England, Virginia, and Maryland found 

lonfaipro^- witliin Ncw Netlierlaud, which had been excepted, was 

caied!°° ^' now confiscatcd. The Zeehond was also ordered to cruise 
in Long Island Sound, where Ewoutsen captured two Mas- 
sachusetts craft, and in ISTarragansett Bay a Plymouth 

15, May. sloop. The prizes were brought to New Orange and con- 
demned. But this was the last act of hostility between 
the Dutch and English colonies in North America.f 
1G73. The first intelligence of the reconquest of New York 

^oct. came to Holland by way of England. Michielsen, who 
had been sent home with dispatches from Binckes, was 

9,97; Thompson, i., 155, 3GT,36S; Trumbull, i., 324, 325; Palfrey, ill., 125, 126 ; anlc,217, 
231. The Dutch Records (Col. Doc, ii., 6SS-T07) do not jnention this expedition, of which 
the reducing the towns at the east end of Long Island seems to have been " the chiefe part 
of their errand :" Mass. U. S. Coll., xxx., 99, 100. 

• Mass. H. S. Coll., xxx., 95-98; Mass. Etc., iv. (ii.), 576, 577; Palfiey, iii., 122, 126; 
ante, 229, 232. The vessels ordered by Massachusetts for seixice in the Sound were the 
" Swallow," of 12 guns. Captain Richard Sprague, and the " Salisbury," of S guns, Captaiu 
Samuel Moseley : Mass. II. S. Coll., xxx., 100-102, 104. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 611, 707, 710, 715, 716, 719, 725, 726, 727 ; iii., 208-212 ; Col. MS9., xxiii , 
325; Mass. II. S. Coll., xxx., 93, 104, 107; <JoI. Rec. Conn., ii., 222; Moulton, 13; Palfrey, 
iii., 127 ; ante, 223. 

antho:ny colve, governor of new NETHERLAND. 245 

captured off Beachy Head, and threw them overboard to chap.v, 
prevent their being read by the English. The States Gen- 
eral dehberated " what further ought to be done for the ^ ^^ 
protection and preservation of the Colony of Xew Nether- Mws of the 
land." Upon the petition of merchants interested in the of New 
colonial trade, the secret committee on foreign affairs was in^Hoiiand. 
directed "to dispose of the matter as they shall think ||^?^*-^f 
proper." Six weeks afterward, on the receipt of dispatch- Qg^JJ^f^^ 
es from Binckes, the States General resolved " that the su- 
perintendence of New Netherland, and whatsoever apper- 
tains thereto, shall be committed, as it is hereby commit- 
ted, provisionally and until further order, to the Board of 
Admiralty at Amsterdam ; Ordering and commanding the xs Decern, 
inhabitants of New Netherland aforesaid, and the military 
who shall be sent thither, absolutely, and without any re- 
serve, to obey the orders which will be issued by or on be- 
half of the said Board, in their High Mightinesses' name : 
— That by Commission of their High Mightinesses, a prop- 
er person shall be sent thither, with the title of Governor 
or Commander, in order to clothe him with greater respect : 
— That the aforesaid Governor or Commander shall be 
chief and Supreme Ruler, both in civil and in military af- 
fairs ; and that he shall by the aforesaid Commission, be 
instructed to obey the orders of said Board of Admiralty 
at Amsterdam : — That Joeis Andeinga, actually Secretary Jons An- 
of the Provincial fleet, shall be appointed and commission- pointed 
ed to said government or command, and that the necessary New Neth- 
commission shall be expedited to him : — That the Captain 
and officers of the Companies to be sent thither shall be 
given in charge, as they are hereby enjoined, precisely and 
punctually, to obey all orders that will be given them by 
said Board of Admiralty at Amsterdam."* 

By this action of the States General a regular govern- 
ment was established over New Netherland, and Joris An- 
dringa took his place in her annals as the successor of An- 
thony Colve. The Amsterdam Board of Admiralty, after J- ^2, 
considering Binckes's dispatches, determined that, as the Further ae- 
entire province had been surrendered at discretion, all the land! 

* CoL Doc, ii., 527-531; Sylvius, ix., CGO, 6G5; Mass. H. S. Coll., xxx., 103; ante, 213. 
Joris is the Dutch for George. Andringa had formerly been secretary to De Euyter, and 
had written interesting accounts of the battle of June, ICGC, and of tlie Chatham expedition 
of June, 1CG7 : Basnage, i., "SI, 805; ante, 124, 134. 


cuAP.v. property of the Duke of York, or his officers, was good 
~ ]3i'i2:e, and should be applied to the benefit of the state ; 
' and that the governor of New IS'etherland should be au- 
thorized to "maintain some neutrality" with the English 
colonies north and south of him, and even to make a treaty 
of commerce with them. These points were approved by 
the Prince of Orange and the States General, and were or- 
f i jan'y. dcrcd to be carried into effect by " Joris Andringa, Gov- 
ernor of New Netherland aforesaid."* 
Extraordi- Extraordinary vicissitudes have always marked the colo- 
situdeVin" nial life of New York. Another epoch appeared to be 
iiiTtoiy?'^ now opening in her history ; and many in her Dutch fa- 
therland looked forward to the establishment of their na- 
tion's power over the most important region in North Amer- 
ica. That region, they knew, had formerly languished 
under the selfish rule of the West India Company. Now 
they hoped it would flourish as the rose under the more 
Holland genial administration of the Dutch Republic itself. Mid- 
tain New way between the Royalist and the Puritan colonies of En 
land!^"^' gland might grow up a valiant empire, to teach the world 
sublime lessons in civil liberty, religious fi'eedom, and pa- 
triotic endurance. The descendants of the men who had 
first proclaimed the doctrine of "taxation only by con- 
sent;" who had banished the Inquisition, and established 
in its place liberty of conscience ; and who were even 
now breasting the ruthless cohorts of France, could main- 
tain and extend in the Columbian world the principles and 
the virtues which distinguished the grandest " United" na- 
tion in Christendom. Instead of emigrating to Batavia, 
the children of Holland might follow the sun toward the 
west, and on the great " River of the Mountains" which 
their fatherland had discovered, could build up " the Ex- 
change of a wealthier Amsterdam, and the schools of a 
more learned Leyden."t 
1073. But these things were not to be. England must take 
decre&s'^En'l tlic placc of Holland in America. The Dutch Republic 
sicceed" could uot, single-haudcd, cope with France and Britain. 
Amor?cl'° Pcacc witli tlic latter had become a necessity, William of 
Orange felt that, to secure the rei)ublic, Louis must be ef- 

• Col. Dor.,ii.,r>n5-5n7; anfr, 212, 223. 

t .171^', vol. i., '.".'4, 40.^, 43G, 43T, 441 , 449, 4n, 445, 740 ; ii., C04 ; Macaulay, i , 219. 


fectually crippled. Alliances against France and England chap. v. 
were accordingly made between the United Provinces on 
the one hand, and the Emperor of Germany and the King finance ' 
of Spain on the other. Europe wondered at the extraordi- ^'^fud, 
nary spectacle of the Roman Catholic dynasty which had ^^^"p°^ 
employed Alva to crush the young Protestant Dutch Re- 
public, now hastening to support it against both the pow- 
ers which had watched the cradle of its independence. 
Spain, however, made it a condition that the Netherlands f§ August, 
should consent to a peace with England, upon the basis of imposedby 
a mutual restoration of conquests, the yielding to her of ^^^'°' 
the honor of the flag, and the payment of an indemnity for 
the expenses of the war. Political necessity alone could 
bend the States General to these hard terms. They yield- Dutch ne- 
ed: — just two months before they knew the reconquest of yiewa. 
N'ew K^etherland, and just one month after that event hap- 
pened. Had they known it they would hardly have given 
up their American acquisition. But when the news reach- 
ed them they were too deeply committed to recede. The 
day it came to the Hague they sent a trumpeter to Charles y oct. 
the Second, with a firm but conciliatory letter, which offer- 
ed him every reasonable satisfaction."'^ 

This letter reached London just as the news came thatxewsm 
the Dutch had reconquered New York. Memorials were the Dntcii 
quickly presented to the Plantation Council for the recov- of xeiv ' • 
ery of the pro\dnce, where the Dutch, it was said, were 22°october. 
about to send men-of-war and soldiers " to fortify them- ^"^ °'^°''^''- 
selves in those parts." William Dyer, of Rhode Island, 
urged that " New York, being the centre of His Majesty's 
western Dominions, and furnished with so excellent a har- 
bour to secure shipping, also a pleasant town and beautiful 
country round about," should be retaken at once. For this its recov. 
purpose fi'igates and fire-ships should be sent to New En- by Dyer 
gland, where they could be maimed ; and a militia force Knight. 
from there could then besiege the town, while the vessels 
blockaded the harbor. Sir John Knight, of Bristol, which 
was at that time largely interested in colonial commerce, 
also explained to Lord Shaftesbury the defenseless condi- sa October. 

* Basnage, ii., 410, 441, 45S-4C0 ; Sylvius, ix., 6B2, C33, G54-C5S, CG5, G34, 6S5 ; Col. Doc, 
ii., 529; Dumont, vii., 240-243; D.avies, iii., 133, 134; Ling.ird, xii., 306, 31S ; Macaulay, 
ii.,lSl-lS5; Temple, ii., 230, 240; Martin's Louis XIV., i., 37T; ante,24x 


Chap. V. tion of Yirginia, where the planters " doe generally desire 
a trade with the Dutch and all other nations," and coun- 
■ seled the recovery of New York as the best means of pre- 
serving " the rest of the plantations." The Council report- 
15 Novem. cd to tlic king that New York was " the only fortified har- 
pifmauon bor in all the JSTorthern Plantations of America," which, if 
fovor'^.^f re- tho Dutcli wcro allowcd to retain, would be ruinous to the 
fTew YOTk. English. Yirginia and Maryland would suffer the most ; 
but " the inhabitants of New England, being more intent 
upon the advancement of their own private trade than the 
pubhque interest of your Majesty's crowne and govern- 
ment, may, if the Dutch continue a quiet possession there, 
enter into commerce with them, whereby it is to be feared 
they will at present divert a great part of the trade of En- 
gland into those countries, and lay a foundation for such 
an union hereafter, between them and Holland, as will be 
very prejudiciall to all your Majesty's Plantations, if not 
terrible to England itself." Its speedy reduction by an 
overwhelming combined force was therefore recommend- 
ed, as well as the removal of its Dutch colonists " farther 
up into the country from the sea-side, at least as far as Al- 
bany; their inhabiting the town of New York being a 
great cause of the loss of both Town and castle now, and 
as long as they shall stay there, there will be the like dan- 
ger upon any occasion for the future."* 

But never was the British government less able to act 

with vigor. Charles was anxious to continue the war with 

the Dutch. On the other hand, he desired the friendship 

of Louis, their most determined foe. Through the inilu- 

30 septem. eucc of the Frcuch king, who gave the bride a sj^lendid 

maiTiage dowry, thc Duke of York had just been married to the 

ofYorkto^ Roman Catholic Princess Mary of Modena, a niece of 

Modlnf. Mazarin. James, who had been deprived of his English 

offices only in the spring before, by the Test Act, was 

doubly mortified at the loss of his American province, the 

prompt regaining of which was even more important than 

wedding festivities at Whitehall.f 

Charles's treasury, however, was exliausted. It was dif- 

• Col. Doc, iii., 20T-213; Hist. Mag., i. (ii.), 299, 300; Index N. J. Col. Doo., 5; ICvilyii, 
ii,05; IVpyr-, iii.,404; Macaulay, i., 335; iv., 4S6 ; Valentine's N. Y., S.IS, 234; 1!. I. CoL 
llec, i., 2CG; ii., 108,390; P.-vlfrey, ii., 300, 558 ; iii., 34; onfc, vol. i., 6r)T. 

t Clarke's James II., i., 484, 4S5, 480; Martin's Louis XIV., i., 380; ante, 201. 


ficiilt for him to procure the ships and men necessary for chap. v. 
an expedition against New Netherland. Tlie war with the ~ 
United Provinces had become very unpopular in England. -'-"''^• 
Its real statesmen were disgusted with a strife in which 
the English and Dutch fleets had been made " gladiators 
for French spectators ;" while its merchants Avere almost 
ruined by the privateers of Holland and Zealand, which 
had captured twenty-seven hundred British ships. Ap- 
prehending a change in the national religion, which the 
recent marriage of the presumptive heir to the crown ren- 20 October. 
dered more probable than ever, Parliament saw with cha- oppo's*e™ to 
grin the league of Charles and Louis against the republic, the Dutch. 
which it regarded as the " Bulwark of the Reformation ;" 
and it insisted that the king should break away fi-om 
France, and make a separate treaty with the Netherlands. 
• In vain did Charles and Shaftesbury demand a new sub- 27 October. 
sidy. The House of Commons absolutely refused to grant 31 October. 
any more supplies, " unless it shall appear that the obsti- 
nacy of the Dutch shall render it necessary; nor before 
this kingdom be effectually secured from the dangers of 
Popery and Popish Counsels and Counsellors, and the otlier 
present grievances be redressed."'^ 

In great displeasure, the king prorogued his fractious 4 Novcm. 
ParHament, and dismissed his versatile chancellor, Shaf tes- tmy %- 
bury, who, up to this time, had been the most rhetorical "'^"'^ ' 
enemy of the " Carthage" of England. In reply to the 
Dutch overture, Charles captiously questioned its sincer- xf ^'ovem. 
ity. The States General repelled this imputation, and dis- 
tinctly offered to renew the treaty made at Breda in 1667; 
adding that, "in order to manifest to your Majesty thei^Decem. 
special esteem which we entertain for your fi-iendship, we states aln! 
hereby also offer the restitution of New Netherland, and of "ore New 
all the other places and colonies which we have won by ^oEn^iind! 
our arms during the present war ; being fully persuaded 
that your Majesty will be mi willing to refuse a reciprocal 
engagement to restore to us such lands and forts as your 
subjects may have taken from us."f 

* Basnage, ii., 460, 4G1, 4S3; Sylvius, ix., G4T, 6S7-GS3; Kennett, iii., 29G ; Burnet, i., 
3C6 ; Eapin, ii., 672 ; Pari. Hist., iv., 5S5, £S6, 593, .597, 602 ; Lingard, xii., 308; Davies, iii., 
137 ; Clarke's James II., i., 4S.5; Martin, i., 380, 38.1. 

t Sylvius, ix., 690-692, 70S, 709 ; Basn.nge, ii., 460, 463-467; Col. Doc, ii., 529, 531; Pari. 
Hist., iv., 610 ; Campbell's Chancellors, iii., 320. One of the consequences of Shaftesbury's 
dismissal was Locke's resignation of his place as Secretary of the Council for Plantations, 


cuAr. V. This offer to restore New Netherland to England — made 
only four days "after the States General had appointed An- 
dringa governor of their reconquered province — was ex- 
torted from the necessities of the republic, and its engage- 
ment with Spain. With the consent of the States General, 

Ag Decern, the Spanish ambassador offered advantageous articles to 

offeH.'^ the British government. Charles, finding that Louis re- 
fused him further supplies, and that he could not expect 

^& Decern, any from Parliament, replied that he was willing to accept 

reasonable conditions.* 
1674. But when Parliament met, a few days afterward, the 

j'y jan'y. i^{i^g again charged the Dutch with insincerity, and begged 
for means to continue his war. Finch, who had succeeded 
Shaftesbury, harangued for a supply, which might save 
England from being found, "like Archimedes, drawing 
lines in the dust while the enemy is entering into om* 

The House ports." But Fiuch's pedantry had no effect. The House 

mons re- of Commous would grant no money to Cliarles unless the 

piiesf"^" Dutch should reject a peace."t 

Negotiations, under the mediation of Sweden, had mean- 
while been going on at Cologne. The Dutch plenipoten- 

^g'y. tiaries there were instructed to explain the importance of 
New Netherland, which, " although it be their own do- 
main," the States General were to relinquish to England. 
At this critical moment the king's speech to Parliament 
was received at the Hague. The States General refuted 

i* Jan'y. his charge of insincerity, and sent him the draft of a treaty 
which they were ready to sign. One of its articles, they 
explained, " demonstrates sufficiently to what a degree we 
wish to deserve your Majesty's affection; since we offer 
you the restitution of so considerable a conquest as New 

New Neth- Nctherlaud is, without the hope of receiving any thina; in 

crland to o ^ o 

be restored excliauge for it." Nothing but the murder of John de 
' "Witt, and the paramount influence of William of Orange, 
could have brought the Dutch government to write this 

in which lie was succeeded by Benjamin Woraley : King's Life of Locke, 34 ; Col. Doft., iii., 
22S ; ante, 1S7, 201. 

* Dalrymple, i., 137; Baanage, ii., 46T, 4CS; Sylvius, i.K., 709, 710; Col. Doc, ii., r>:'',l ; 
ante, 245. 

t Biisnase, ii., 403-495 ; Sylvius, x., 4-12; Burnet, i., 3G5; Unpin, ii., 073, G74; Konnett, 
iii., 2^7; Pari. Iliat., iv., C11-G18. 

t .«ylviu8, X., 12-14; Busnage, ii., 402; Col. Doc, ii., 533-535, 537, 53S; Temple, ii , 210, 
247 ; tJl;irke'3 J.imea 11., i., 489. 


Charles instantly laid it before Parliament, and asked chap. v. 
their " speedy ad\dce." He was answered that he ought ~ 
to make a treaty, Louis, apprehending the consequences g^ j^^; 
of a separate peace between England and Holland, has- 3 i-eb-y. 
tened to offer Charles fiye millions and a half of money 
and forty ships of war if he would break off his negotia- 
tions. The Duke of York strongly opposed a peace. Eut 
Charles could not now recede. Sir William Temple was 
summoned from his retirement, and instructed to confer A Feb'y. 
with the Spanish ambassador at London, the Marquis del 
Fresno, to whom the States General had sent full powers. 
Ln three days all the points were arranged, and a treaty 
was signed at Westminster by Arlington and four other 19 Feb-y- 
commissioners on the part of Great Britain, and by Fresno s^ipre'/at 
on the part of the United Netherlands. The honor of the sten ^"^' 
flag, which had been refused by De Witt, was yielded to 
England ; the Treaty of Breda was revived ; the rights of 
neutrals guaranteed ; and the commercial principles of the 
Triple Alliance renewed. By the sixth article it was cov- 
enanted that " all lands, islands, cities, havens, castles and 
fortresses, which have been or shall be taken by one party 
from the other, during the time of tliis last unhappy war, 
whether in Europe or elsewhere, and before the expiration 
of the times above limited for the duration of hostilities, 
shall be restored to the former Lord and Proprietor in the 
same condition they shall be in at the time that this peace 
shall be proclaimed." This article restored New Nether- Restora- 
land to the King of Great Britain. The Treaty of Breda Neuieriand 
had ceded it to him on the principle of " uti possidetis^ ° °s ^^"^ • 
The Treaty of Westminster gave it back to him on the 
principle of reciprocal restitution.* 

Peace was soon proclaimed at London and at the Hague. 2s Feb'y. 
The Treaty of Westminster delivered the Dutch from fear peacrpro- 
of Charles, and cut off the right arm of Louis, their more twem^En!' 
dreaded foe. England, on her part, slipped out of a disas- HouamL'^ 
trous war. But Charles told Rouvigny, the ambassador of 
France, that in making peace with the Netherlands " he 

• Sylvius, -v., 14-19 ; Basnage, ii.,43G, 438 ; Temple, ii., 24T-250 ; iv., 10-20; Courtenay's 
Temple, i., 154, 419-421, 433 ; il., 4G0, 4G1 ; Rurnet, i., 860, CGT ; Pari. Hist., iv., 6G0, 6G5 ; 
Dalrj-mple, i., 137 ; Kennett, iii., 297; Kapln, ii. , G74, 675; Anderson, ii., 529, 530 ; Wage- 
naar, xiv., 29S-300; Lingard, xii., 318, 319; Martin, i., 383; Smith, i., 4G; Mass. H. S. Call., 
XX.X., 104, lf5; Bancroft, ii., 325; Col. Doc, vii., 5S0; Eliz. Bill, 7; ante^ 135, 152. , 


Chap. V. had beeii doing a thing that went more against his heart 
than the losing of his rie;ht hand." The war had been be- 
gun by " the Cabal" of England, as Temple acknowledged, 
"with two unusual strains to the honour of the crown;" 
and, instead of maldng her king " great," had made " only 
four great subjects." During the course of it Holland 
had lost her ablest statesman, and in his place had raised 
to her highest post of authority the young representative 
of the Silent founder of the republic. She had recover- 
ed, and had resigned, her ancient trans- Atlantic province. 
Holland, For a season she retired from prominence in American 
r°an hkt^' history. But it was only to return, in the fullness of time, 
^^' as the fatherland of a sovereign appointed by Providence 

to maintain civil and religious liberty on both shores of 
the Atlantic, and once more to govern the countrymen who 
never forgot their own Batavian prince.* 

Wlien rumors of these events reached New Orange, 

Colve was still strengthening it " against the coming of the 

New England army." This was done so thoroughly that 

one hundred and ninety guns, some of which came from 

Esopus, were mounted on Fort William Henry and about 

^^ Jane, the towu. The dilatory victims of the forced loan ordered 

anjeaf- in March were compelled to pay their assessments. This 

was the more hard, because the expense which had been 

devoted to the fortifications was now of no avail. John 

28 April. Sharpe, having come from New England with Isaac Melyn, 

8 May. in violation of the edict of December, news of the peace and 

of the surrender of the province was soon noised through 

the city. Melyn taunted its Dutch burghers with having 

" slaved and wrought too hard and too long for the King 

of England." This threw them "into such a distracted 

rage and passion that they cried, ' "We'll fire the town, 

pluck down the fortifications, and tear out the governors' 

throats' who had compelled them to slave so, contrary to 

their native privileges." Having no official information of 

what had happened in Europe, Colve determined to pun- 

2 j^j^ ish the "fomeuters of mutiny and disturbance." Melyn 

Cases of was accordingly sentenced to " come personally every day, 

Melyn and . , , ^ , . i i ^ ".i -^ j: 

Sharpe. wlicn the burghor compames are employed at the city lor- 

* Rapin,ii.,GT5; Pylvius, x., 20, 21 ; (Jol. Doc, ii., 720; Basnagc, ii.,-199; Burnet, i., 3C7; 
Temple, ii., 251 ; (Jlarke'B Jaiues II., i., 4S0 ; post, 03G. 


tifications, and work with them until said fortifications are cuap. v. 
completed." Sharpe was banished out of the pro^dnce for " 

ten years. On reaching Milford, he reported that the 13 ^^j^ 
Dutch in New Netherland were so enraged that they de- 
clared they would not, " on demand and by authority of ^^3^^°^ °^ 
the States or Prince, sm-render, but keep it by fighting, so ^^New 
long as they can stand with one leg and fight with one land, 

Authentic intelhgence of peace was soon received from i^ J'^'^e. 
Massachusetts and Connecticut. A few days afterward 
the Treaty of Westminster was proclaimed at the CityiiJuiy- 
Hall of New Orange. Connecticut, however, after news 
of the restoration of New Netherland to the king had 
reached Hartford, resolved that, as Southampton, East- 29^?[^^j 
hampton, and Southold had asked it, they should continue ^^°°^„t 
under her government. John Howell, John Younge, and ^ong isi- 
John Mulf ord were accordingly appointed commissioners f § May. 
for the three to"\vns, and were "invested with magistrati- 
call power" by the Hartford Court. Samuel Willys, John 
Talcott, and Secretary Allyn were also empowered to go to 
Long Island, " to order and settle the affairs of those peo- 22 May. 
pie, and to establish such military officers amongst them as ^ J»"e! 
they shall see reason and judge necessary." Easthampton, 
on her part, appointed a committee, in conjunction withMJ"'^- 
Southampton and Southold, to petition the king to allow 
them to continue under the jurisdiction of Connecticut. 
Thinking it was now a good opportunity to extend their 
bounds westward on the main land, the Hartford Court, at 
their autumn session, appointed commissioners " forthwith A cx^*- 
to run the fine between this colony and the colony of New with New 
York from Momoronock River to Hudson's Kiver." At 
the same time, it was well known that it had been settled 
in 1664 that the boundary should be " twenty miles every 
where from Hudson's E,iver."t 

The Jesuit missionaries, Bruyas and Millet, were now 
apprehensive of being driven away by the savages, who 
declared themselves the friends of the Dutch. Several 

* Col. Doc, ii., 61T, G6G, 697, 70T-711, 710; Col. MSS., xxiii, 334, .S3S, 340, 397; Mass. 
II. S. Coll., XXX., lOS-110 ; Moulton, 14 ; Palfrey, iii., 126, 127 ; ante, 206, 233. 

t Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 222, 226, 229, 242; Mass. H. S. Coll., xxx., 104-106; Trumbull, i , 
325; Wood,9S: Thompson, 1, 156, 335, 367,383; Col. MSS, xxiii.,376; Col. Doc., ii., 710, 
723, 726; iiL, 231, 235 ; New Orange Eec, vii., 201 ; ante, 56, 222. 


Chap. V. emissaries were sent by Draeyer to engage the Iroquois 

against the French ; and some Canadian prisoners were 

A carried down to New Orange. Mohawk chiefs from 

1 ■> April *— ^ 

^^ Caghnawaga and Gandagaro, accompanied by Jan Jansen 

Bleecker and Henry Lansing as interpreters, also visited 

j% May. Colve. They had come, they said, " as to their brethren ; 

^fefs^'t for the Dutch, both at Nassau and here [New Orange], 

^Dse!^^' have been always one flesh with them." The new bond of 
peace, made at the " last harvest," was confii^med, and the 
chiefs declared that if the French should come to injure 
their brethren, then they would " side with the Dutch, and 
live and die with them." After visiting some of the neigli- 

l^^^""^- , borino^ tribes, the Mohawk sachems were conveyed back to ' 

5 June. » ? 1 T 1 1 

Fort Nassau, loaded with presents, and assured that they 
would be shown all possible favor, "as brethren of the 

The Treaty of Westminster, leaving the Dutch at war 
with the French, really made them more bitter enemies. 
Colve, of course, held all the subjects of Louis in America 
to be hostile to the government of his fatherland. Some 
5 June. Frenchmen at Hurley, having refused to swear allegiance, 
uuriey.* wcro Ordered to be sent away unless they took the oath, and 
promised " to remain quiet in case of any attack by their 

Not long afterward, a Dutch privateer, " The Flying 
Horse," Captain Juriaen Aernouts, commissioned by the 
Prince of Orange, came from Curagoa and Saint Domingo 
to Boston, where she obtained a pilot, and then sailed to 
10 August. Acadia. There Aernouts attacked and captured the French 
thjf Dutch' forts of Penobscot, commanded by Chambly, and " Gem- 
foririo^ sec," on the Saint John's, commanded by Marson. Posses- 
sion was taken, in the name of the Dutch government, of 
the coasts and country of Acadia, and the plunder was 
poptem. brought to Boston. Frontenac complained of this to Gov- 
ernor Leverett, but seems to have obtained no satisfaction ; 
because Massachusetts coveted Maine, and wished the Dutch 
conquest of it to inure to her own benefit.:}: 

* Col. Doc, ii., .594, COS, CIS, C59, CC2, 712, 713, 71C, 717 ; iii., 250 ; ix., 97, 110, 117 ; Char- 
levoix, ii., 25S, 259 : Bancroft, ii., 322. t Col. Doc, ii., C4C, GTC, 71S ; Esopua Records. 

t Col. Doc, iv., 47C ; ix., 119, 120, 547, 793 ; Charlevoix, ii., 2.^5, '25G, .^CO ; Quebec MSS., 
ii. (ii.), 57; Williamson, i., ."iSO; Hutchinson, i., 311, vote. Coll, 4C4; Mass. II. P. Coll.. 
x.\xii., 28G; Mass. Rcc, v., IIC, IIS; DepeysteVs "Dutch in Maine," 45, 73-70; jjo.s/, 290. 



Colve and his council were meanwhile occupied in de- chap. v. 
ciding important cases affecting lands in Achter Col, Long 
Island, and elsewhere. Order and decorum were enforced 
occasionally by severe penalties. Samuel Forman, of Oys- case of 
ter Bay, having made a great uproar in the streets of New FormaQ. 
Orange, and even come into the Dutch Church during di- 
vine service on Sunday, " abusing with great levity the lo April. 
word of God, and blaspheming his holy name," was con- 
demned to be whipped, and banished out of the pro"sance. 
Daniel Lane, of Setalcot, or Brookhaven, charged with in- case of 
cest, having escaped fi'om prison before trial, his estate was Lane, 
seized, and half of it allowed to his wife, to whom a di- 
vorce was promised if the accused did not appear within 12 April. 
six months and purge himself from the crime.* 

The Lutheran Domine Fabricius, who had gone to the 
Delaware territory, coming back to New Orange, irregu- 5 Feb-y. 
larly and without authority married Ralph Doxy, of New- 
town, on Long Island, to Mary Harris. The court, aware 
of his " previous ill conduct," but unwilling, " out of re- 
spect for his old age and the office he last filled," to pro- 
ceed rigorously, suspended Fabricius from the ministry for 1 March. 
one year. The marriage of Doxy was declared unlawfid, Fabricius. 
but the parties were allowed to marry again " according to 
the laws of the Government." The domine petitioned that is Apni. 
liis sentence should be modified so far as to allow him " at 
least to baptize ;" but the court declined his request.f 

The Dutch churches, fostered by Colve, foresaw that 
they would not be so comfortable under the Enghsh, who 
were soon to repossess the province. To guard themselves 
as much as possible, the Consistory of New Orange asked t juiy. 
that their old church in Fort William Heniy, which, at the forced' 
surrender in 1664, had been stipulated should continue in church, 
its then use, might be confirmed to them ; and the govern- 
or promptly ordered "a Deed in form" to be granted, 
which was accordingly duly executed. As Yan Ruyven 23 juiy. 

* Col. MSS., xxit, 147; xxiii., 330, 331 ; Col. Doc, ii., 600. GCl, CCS, 694,704-728; White- 
head, 61; Moulton, 13. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 686, 689, 691, 692, 6:3, 706; S. Hazard's Ann. Penn., 410, 411, 412; Moul- 
ton, 8 ; aJite, 175. Fabriciua appears to have behaved very badly to his wife, and was fined 
by the Court of Burgomasters and Schepens of New Orange: see Col. MSS, xxiii., 311,814, 
315; N. O. City Rec, vii., 201, 202; Doc. Hist., iii., 242, 243; Val. Man., 1850, 528 ; 1851, 
428, 431, 432, 435, 441-450 ; 1853, 497. lie then went back to the Delaware, where he again 
got into trouble : S. Hazard, 419, 420. 


Chap. V. was aboiit to retuTii to Holland with liis mother-in-law, the 
~ widow of Domine Megapolensis, the aiTeare of salary due 
to that clergyman were recommended to be paid to her. 
26 July. In writing to the Classis of Amsterdam, Domine Yan 
^e D°u1ch ISTieuwenhuysen expressed the general feeling of the Dutch : 
re°torauon " We are greatly pleased at the peace arranged between 
NetiiMiand our couutry and the kingdom of England, but we should 
gland." have been the more touched if we were not apprehensive 
that this country is included in the scope of the sixth arti- 
cle of the sealed Treaty, and must be restored back to that 
cro^vn. It is not less agreeable to us to understand how 
God Almighty has been pleased to put a hook in the nose 
of the haughty French Sennecherib, and thus far to stay 
the wasting of his dearly-bought Church in our various 
cities particularly, and in our Fatherland generally."* 
The city government had now been in office for nearly 
11 August, a year, and it was necessary to make new appointments. 
From the nominations submitted. Van Brugh and Beek- 
13 August, man were accordingly selected as burgomasters, and Kip, 
go^vern!^ Ycrplanck, Rombouts, Hoogland, and Stephanus van Cort- 
NeTor- landt, as schepens of New Orange. Knyff was continued 
'"'°®" as schout-fiscal. Yery little, however, was left the mu- 
7 septem. uicipal officcrs to do. They obtained an order from Colve 
for the produce of the scales and tapster's excises, to pay 
the city debt of upward of six thousand guilders for work 
done on the fortifications. New " church-wardens" were 
3 October, nominated by the metropolitan authorities and confirmed 
by the governor, f 

While the Treaty of Westminster was yet in suspense, 

Manning reached London in great distress from Fayal, 

where he and his soldiers had been landed, and was sum- 

11 Jan'y. moucd bcf orc the Dulce of York, who, after hearing his 

story, at first censured him. At Lord Ai-lington's office he 

isjan'y.. was again closely examined by the king and the duke. 

Lo^nd°on.^"' " Brother," said Charles to James, " the ground could not 

' Col. Doc, ii., 721, 7-22, 7.50 ; Col. MSS., xxiii., 209, 433-44G ; N. Y. II. S. Coll. (ii.), iii., 142 ; 
CoiT. CI. Amsterdam. Van Iluy ven, who never returned to New York, was living at Am- 
eterdam in 1G98 : Col. Doc, iv., 3.53. 

+ Cc.l. MS.S., xxiii., 371; New Orange (.'ity Kcc, vii., 20S, 211, 212, 21S; Vnl. 5Ian.,lS50, 
538 ; 1853, 472, 473, 470, 477, 487, 488, 492 ; Moulton, 14 ; ante, 212, 233, 242. Among the 
rules adopted by the burgomasters and schepens of New Orange was one that whoever 
should smoke tobacco in the court while it was engaged in business should forfeit two and 
a half guilders: Val. Man., 1S53, 483. 


be maintained by so few men ;" and Manning was dis- cqap. v. 
missed without reprimand. For more than two months he 
waited the pleasm-e of the duke, who at length paid his ex- ' * 
penses from Fayal.* 

But who should be sent to receive and govern Ke w York ? 
was the question. Lovelace was unfit ; Nicolls was dead ; 
a new man must be named. The person selected was Ed- 
mund Andros, a major in a dragoon regiment, disbanded Major Ed- 
after the Westminster Treaty. Charles accordingly com- dl-'^. 
missioned Andros to receive New Netherland from the?i^^!^I£^ 
Dutch ; and he asked the States General to direct their commu- 
" Governor or Commandant of the place called Xew York, receive ° 
in the West Indies," to surrender it to Andros, whom he eriaVaf 
had appointed to go there and take possession in his name.f 

Thinking that the re-establishment of the duke's au- 
thority over his former province would be hurtful to Massa- 
chusetts, John Collins, its agent at London, wrote to Gov- 
ernor Leverett tliat " New York being restored by the M ^pf''- 
peace, one JMr. Andrews is appointed governor, a man i setts and 
know not ; and some rumour is maliciously spread at court 
that you have made peace with the Dutch there, which is 
obviated by the readiness of some persons to show the false- 
hood of it. I hope nothing wdll for this year further dis- 
turb you ; and if any thing do arise, it will be from New 
York and the Government there. I have therefore greatly 
encouraged some gentlemen, your friends, Avho would pur- 
chase it of His Royal Highness, as thinking it will be much 
for your peace, who are about it ; but how it will issue, I 
know not." This project, however, if seriously entertained. New York 
came to naught. The king was now the only English pro- bought. 
prietor of New York under the Treaty of Westminster ; 
and while Charles was offended at the insubordination of 
his subjects in Massachusetts, he had " little time to mind 
such minute things" as theirs.:}: 

Meanwhile the delayed letter of the municipality of New 
Orange reached the States General only the day before the 8 March. 

* Col. MS?., xxiv., 3C-51 ; Doc. Uist., iii., 53, 54, 53; Sylvius, x., 23 ; ante, 213. It is dif- 
ficult to understand how Dunlap (i.,130) could venture the preposterous conjecture that 
'■'■the needy and profli irate Charles wan 2Mcified by receiving part of the bribe Manning hnd 
ialcenfrom the Dutch:" compare ante, 200-208. 

t Col. Doc, ii., 544, T40, 741 ; ix., 403 ; Col. Eec. Conn., iii., 37G; Temple, ii., TS. 

t llutchinssn's Coil., 443, 444; Mass. II. S. Coll., xxx., 100; Palfrev, iii., 2-2, .11?. 

n.— R 


cnAP.v. Peace of Westminster was proclaimed — too late for any 
~ effect. The several Boards of Admiralty had been asked 
' to advise what should be done in favor of the relinquished 
20 March, province. The Rotterdam Board thought that the King 
of England should consider the Dutch in New Netherland 
not as " a conquered people, but as men who have passed by 
conveyance' and convention under another sovereignty." 
Ativice That at Amsterdam submitted a memorial from the mer- 
niiraity " chauts trading to New Netherland that the province shoi^ld 
about New bc repurchased ; but, if that could not be done, the King of 
land.^"^' England should be required not to molest its inhabitants 
for what they had done during the war ; that their rights 
should be respected, and a free trade be established ; and 
that the old articles of capitulation in 1664 should "re- 
main valid and be faithfully executed." The Zealand 
Jl March. Board at Middleburg knew " no fitter means than to fur- 
nish said inhabitants with ships and craft for their convey- 
ance, either to this country, or Surinam, or some other 
colony dependent on the jurisdiction of this State."* 
j% April. The States General promptly complied with Charles's 
the'^state'f rcqucst to order the suiTcnder of New Netherland to An- 
fbo^New dros, but desired the king to leave the people of the prov- 
Nether- jj^gg a J.JJ f^^ii r^^^ entire possession of the lands, property, 
and rights they possess in those parts, in the same manner 
i& April, they held them before the rupture." Charles assured their 
chTies!" high mightinesses "that all the inhabitants there should 
enjoy all their rights and privileges, of which they were in 
the enjoyment before the war." This declaration substan- 
tially gave new effect to the articles of capitulation in 1664. 
:5 May. The Dutch ambassadors at London were also instructed to 
KMsse- do ^11 they could in aiding the proprietors of Rensselaer- 
laerwyck. -^yd^ ^q obtaiu fi'om tlic king a confirmation of their an- 
cient privileges.f 

At the request of Secretary Coventry, the "West India 
^^jjune. Company also wi'ote to Colve to surrender New Nether- 
land, although the matter was " wholly beyond their con- 
troul." The ship " Muyll Tromp" [Jews' Harp], Captain 
Hendrick Toll, being now reported ready to take out or- 
ders for the evacuation, and bring home the Dutch soldiers 

• Col. Doc, ii., 52C, 502, 538-544, C5S, 6C2,CG4, CT7; Col. Rcc. Conn., ii., 605; Mass. TI. S. 
Coll., XXX., 103 ; -avtc, 220, 221. t Col. Doc, ii., 545-548, 543-501 ; aiUe, 21S. 


in tlie province, the States General directed Colve " to re- coap. t. 
store and surrender the aforesaid New Netherland to Ed- 
mund Andros, or such other person as the King of Great 27 j^ne. ' 
Britain shall have deputed for that purpose ; that, in case 7 juiy. 

Orders of 

the above-named Edmund Andros should not have as yet tue states 
arrived yonder, and no one have order from the King of to coive 
Great Britain to i-eceive the aforesaid country, the above- surrecder 
named Governor Colve shall, pursuant to the last Treaty NetheT- 
concluded with the said King in February last, and agree- ^^^^' 
ably to their High Mightinesses' aforesaid Besolution of 
the Sixteenth of last April, vacate said New Netherland, 
and place it — having made an inventory and obtained a 
receipt — ^in the hands of the political Government there, 
to the end that thus possession may be taken for the be- 
hoof of the King of Great Britain." The Dutch ambas- 
sadors at London, having communciated these orders, were 
informed that Andros was authorized to receive NewNeth-t'^ July. 
erland, and would proceed thither at once, with " a number 
of new colonists" from England. 

In due time the Dutcli frigate reached New Orange ; and i% oct. 
Colve announced his orders to the burgomasters and sche- derlre-'"^" 
pens, who voted him two hundred and fifty florins " for his '^^^''^' 
last year's services." A few days afterward he requested Jf Oct. 
the court to name ten persons, from whom he would select 
five, " who, after his departure, shall exercise and possess 
the executive authority until the arrival of the expected 
ships and the Governor of His Majesty of England, who 
shall be also authorized to surrender the country to whom- 
soever exhibits His Majesty's Commission." Steenwyck, -|| oct. 
Bayard, Yan Brugh, Beekman, Luyck, Kregier, De Pey- provSonai 
ster, Yan Cortlandt, Kip, and Bombouts were accordingly me^nt'^of 
nominated. But the proposed provisional government was eiiaad.^"^' 
not organized. Before Colve was ready to embark the ex- 
pected British frigates anchored at Staten Island ; and An- ^^ October. 

J- ~ ' \ Novem. 

dros notified him that, pursuant to the late treaty of peace, Amvai of 
he was ready to receive possession for the King of England 
of " the New Netherland and dependances, now under" the 
Dutch governor's command.* 

• Col. MSS., xxiii., 412, 413 ; Col. Doc, ii., 544, 564-5CS, 730-733 ; New Orange Eec, vli., 
237, 244-247 ; VaL Man. , 1S53, 489, 493, 494 ; Doc. Hist. , iii., 45 ; ante., 25T. 




cuAP VI. By the Treaty of Westminster the United Provinces re- 
^. linqnished their conquest of New Netherland to the King 
r.iVcctof' of England. The sovereign Dutch States General had 
ofu'e^t^'^ treated directly with Charles ^s sovereign. A question at 
i.iins'er. ^^^q arosc at "Wliitehall about the subordinate interest of 
the Duke of York. It was claimed by some that James's 
former American proprietorship was revived, Tet, while 
the Treaty of Westminster re-established the Articles of 
Capitulation agreed to by NicoUs and Stu}wesant, who rep- 
resented their sovereigns in 1664, it did not cure the im- 
perfections subject to which the duke had for nine years 
governed his American province. James's patent had been 
sealed while the Dutch were in quiet possession of New 
Netherland ; and no new grant was made to him after the 
Treaty of Breda, which confirmed to the Enghsh king his 
conquest of the Dutch province. Eminent law^^ers " very 
justly questioned" the duke's pretension to the territory 
Defects in wliicli England had recently recovered ; because its cession 
mT " to her sovereign by the Dutch government " had given no 
strength to original defects." James was now obhged to 
give up the claim of English right which he and his broth- 
er had formerly maintained. Moreover, the duke wished 
to regain New Jersey, which he had so foolishly squander- 
ed on Berkeley and Carteret. Besides this, the boundary 
agreement with Connecticut, which had never been ratified 
by the crown or by himself, was a sore point. The opinion 
of counsel having been taken, they advised that the duke's 
proprietorship had been extinguished by the Dutch con- 
quest, and that the king was now alone seized of New 
No j»s Netherland, by virtue of the Treaty of Westminster. The 
^f ""• ^^Jus Postliminii'^ did not obtain in New York.* 

• Col. roc, ii., 735; iii., 16G, 176, 235, 23G, 2S7; v.,r>:'G; yii., 530, 50G, OrT; Hliz. Bill, 7, 


A new patent to the Duke of York was therefore sealed. cnAr. vi. 
By it the king again conveyed to his brother the territories 
lie had held before, and grantBd liim anew the absolute 29 j„iie. * 
powers of government he had formerly enjoyed over Brit- J|^^^i^^'*^°* 
ish subjects, with the like additional authority over' " any ^^'^j^ °^ 
other person or persons" inhabiting his province. Under 
the same description of boundaries, New Jersey, and all the 
territory west of the Connecticut River, together with Long 
Island and the adjacent islands, and the region of Pema- 
quid, were again included in the grant. The new patent 
did not, as has been commonly, but erroneously stated, 
" recite and confirm the former." It did not in any way 
allude to that instrument. It read as if no previous En- 
glish patent had ever existed. It was a second grant ; in 
almost the same terms with the first ; and it conveyed to 
the duke, ostensibly for the fii'st time, a territory which 
the Dutch government, after conquering and holding, had 
by treaty " restored to His Majesty."* 

Thus James again became the proprietor of a vast Amer- 
ican province, over which he was to domineer, until his 
delegated authority from the king was merged in his in- 
herited right as successor to the crown. His private reve- 
nue continued to be managed by a board of commissioners, 
of which his brother-in-law, Lawrence Hyde, was one ; Sir James's " 
Allen Apsley was his treasurer and receiver general, Sirsion^fand 
Thomas Wynnington his attorney general, and Sir John^®*^^^^' 
Churchill his solicitor general. In place of Matthew 
"Wren, who had been killed at his side in 1672, the duke's 
secretary was Sir John Werden ; although James frequent- ^l^^^^^\, 
ly wrote letters to liis governors with his own hand.f secretary. 

As his colonial lieutenant and deputy, the duke, almost 

37; Learning and Spicer, 50; Vattel, 212, 3C2 ; Kent, i., lOS-111; Douglas, ii., 224, 20S; 
Smith,!., 48; Chalmers's Ann., i., 5T9-5S1, 61T; Kev. Col.,i., 143; Proud, i., 282 ; Grahanie, 
i., 422, 467 ; Spectator, Ko. xx. ; ante, vol. i., 4, 141, 143, 144 ; ii., 36, 56, 135, 209, 251, 25S. 

* Col. MSS., xxiii., 362; Ellz. Bill, 7; Deeds, i., 1 ; Learning and Spicer, 3-S, 41-45, 50; 
Col. Doc, ii., 295-298, 539; iii., 215, 234, 235; vii., 597; Chalmers's Ann., i., 5T9, 5S0; 
Whitehead's E. J., 63, 264; Yonkers Gaz.,4 Nov., 1SC5; Hist. Mag., i. (ii.), 89-91; aiite^lG. 

t Wcrden was a son of Colonel Robert Werden, of Chester, one of the duke's commission- 
ers, and, before he became his secretary, had been charge d'affaires at Madrid in 1667;' 
special messenger to Temple at the Hague in 1669; at Stockholm in 1670; was made a 
baronet in 1672 ; and in 1G73 was appointed a commissioner of the navy : Temple's Works, ' 
i.,487; ii., 195, 190; Courtenay's Temple, ii., 400; Pepys, iii., 167, 231, 235; iv.,25; Beat- 
son, i. , 203, 350 ; ante, 4, 136, 186. The first regular Entiy Books relating to New York, in the 
State Paper Office at London, begin in 1674. None of the duke's letters before date 
Becm to be preserved there; and the few documents of an earlier period which I found are 
chiefly those sent by NicoUs and Lovelace to the English secretaries of state. 


CHAP. VL necessarily, appointed Major Edmund Andros, whom tlie 
~ king had directed in the previous March to receive New 

MajorEd- ^etherlaud from the Dutch. Born in London in 1637, 

urof'^'^^' Andros had been brought up in the royal household, of 
which his father was lieutenant of the ceremonies. Dur- 
ing the exile of the couri, Andros began his military life 
in Holland, under Prince Henry of Nassau. After the 
Restoration he was favored by Charles ; distinguished him- 
self in the first Dutch war ; and in 1669 was commission- 
ed major in Prince Rupert's regiment of di'agoons. In 
1672 Andros commanded the English forces in Barbadoes, 
w^here he got reputation for skill in American affairs. The 
proprietors of Carolina made him a landgrave, and grant- 
ed him four baronies in their province. Andros was mar- 
ried, in 1671, to Mary, daughter of Sir Thomas Craven. 
On the death of his father in April, 1674, he succeeded to 
the oflice of bailiff of Guernsey, and became hereditary 
seigneur of the fief of Sausmarez. Like his predecessors, 
Nicolls and Lovelace, Andros was an English Episcopahan, 
but no bigot. Moreover, he was a good Dutch and French 
scholar. Of unblemished private character ; with talents, 
energy, and zeal in his master's service, he was as fitting an 
instrument as the Duke of York could have chosen to con- 
firm arbitrary government in his regained province. An- 

iJuiy. dros was accordinojly commissioned by James to be his 

Andro3 o w %i 

commis- " Lieutenant and Governor" within the territories covered 
ernw of °'^' by liis patent ; to hold office during his pleasure, and to 
obey all orders that he might give. Andros's commission 
was almost exactly similar to those of Nicolls and Lovelace.* 
1 July. The duke's Instructions to Andros, minute and specific, 

instruc- formed the temporary political constitution of New York. 
tim dukT The governor was to satisfy the inliabitants that his com- 
ing was " for their protection and benefit, for the encour- 
agement of planters and plantations, and the improvement 
of trade and commerce, and for the preservation of relig- 
ion, justice, and equity among them." Strict discipline 
was to be maintained among the soldiers, so as to avoid all 

• Col. Dot, ii., 544, 740, T41 ; Hi., 215, 234, 201, SOS; ix., 403; Letter of Selyns to 01. 
Amst., 10 Oct., IGSS ; Mem. of Pcnn. H. S., vii., 30, 3T ; Col. Rec. Conn., iii., 370; Temple, 
ii.,"3; rcpys,i..C9; ii., 1C7, 231, 331; Chalmers's Ann., i., 5S0; aiifc, IS, 144; post, not'- \i. 
A memoir of Andros, and an engraved portrait of him, fiom an original in England, has been 
published by the rrince Society at iJoaton, in Massachusetts. 


causes of complaint. None of the inhabitants were to be chap. vi. » 
molested for assisting Evertsen in taking the fort, except in ~~~ 
the case of Englishmen, whose estates might be forfeited ; -*-"'*• 
but the Dutch who had been active were to be observed 
" more circumspectly" thereafter, and to be removed from 
l^laces of strength. Special care was to be taken of the 
forts at New York and New Albany, "upon which, in a 
manner, wholly depend the safety and trade of the whole 
country." Planters of all nations, but especially English- Planters to 
men, were to be offered " all manner of encouragement" to agad. 
settle in New York, by assigning them lands according to 
the rules observed " by those of New England and Mary- 
land," so that the province should, in that respect, be at 
least equal to " any other neighboring colony." The quit- 
rent reserved to the duke was left to the discretion of the 
governor, who was directed " to settle a good correspond- 
ence with the neighboring English Plantations, as well 
those of New England as those of Maryland." As it was 
" necessary to make some abatement in the customs," James 
established a new "tariff," or declaration of the duties on Tariff of 
imports. All goods brought into New York were to pay 
two per cent, if shipped from England or any English 
plantation, and ten per cent, if coming from a foreign 
country. All imports, except farmers' tools going up the 
Hudson River, were to be charged three per cent, in 
addition. Wines were to pay ten shillings a pipe, and 
brandy or other European spirits fifteen shillings a hogs- 
head; while rum — which came from the West Indies — 
was favored by the lower rate of six shillings a hogshead. 
All liquors sent up the Hudson River were charged double 
these rates. Exported beavers were to pay fifteen pence 
on each skin, and other peltry in proportion ; while New 
York tobacco was charged two shillings a hogshead if sent 
to England, and a penny a hundred weight if sent else- 
where. The same regulations were to apply " in Delaware 
River as in Hudson's River." These rates were " to hold Rates to 
good for three years, to commence from the arrival and three years 
publication of them at New York." Excise and other in- ucatlo^n" ' 
ternal taxes, which had been imposed by Nicolls and Love- 
lace, were to be temporarily continued until farther orders 
from the duke. All these duties were calmly laid by 


.cuAP. VI. J allies, at Windsor Castle, on the people of ]^ew York. 
~ At the same time, he directed his provincial governor to 
lessen the charge of government there as much as pos- 
sible, " that so, by degrees, I may reap from thence some 
advantages, in return for the great expence and trouble I 
icquai ad- liavc becii at in protecting that colony." Justice was to be 
ti'on'of'juV administered " with all possible equality, without regard to 
'"'^" Dutch or English," so that all might see " their just rights 
preserved to them inviolably." The laws and orders es- 
tablished by Nicolls and Lovelace were not to be varied 
from " but upon emergent necessities," and with the advice 
of the council and the gravest and most experienced in- 
habitants ; and no alteration was to be valid -unless con- 
firmed by the duke within a year. All writs were to run 
Mogis- in the king's name. Magistrates were to be chosen "for 
officer*" their abilities and integrity," and no ofiicers were to be ap- 
pointed "for above one year, or otherwise than during 
pleasure." The governor was to choose a council, not ex- 
counsei- ceeding ten, out of "the most prudent inhabitants," with 
whom he was to "consult upon all extraordinary occasions" 
relating to the public service. They were to hold their 
places during the duke's pleasure ; and they, as well as all 
other officers, were to take oaths of allegiance to the king, 
and of fidelity to the proprietor, as also one peculiar to the 
office. Freedom of conscience was secured. " You shall," 
were James's orders to Andros, " permit all persons, of 
rieedom wliat Rcligioii soever, quietly to inhabit -svithin the pre- 
in xew"*^ cincts of your jurisdiction, without giving them any dis- 
^ "''^" turbance or disquiet whatsoever, for or by reason of their 
differing opinions in matter of Religion: Provided they 
give no disturbance to the public peace, nor do molest or 
disquiet others in the free exercise of their religion." 
In case of the death of Andros, Lieutenant Anthony 
lirockhoiia Brockliolls was to succeed him in his government. Brock- 
>in<ioi- An- liolls was of a Roman Catholic family in Lancashire, En- 
gland, and was himself " a prof est Papist." The " Test 
Act" of 29 March, 1673, would have excluded him fi-om 
holding office in England. But, as that statute did not ex- 
tend to the British American Plantations, the duke, him- 
self a victim of Protestant intolerance, was able to illus- 
trate his own idea of " Freedom to worship God," by ap- 


pointing a member of the Church of Eome to be his sec- cuap. vi. 
ond colonial officer in New York.* ^(\7a. 

By the king's special permission, the Duke of York raised 
a company of infantry, consisting of one hundred men, be- 
sides officers, to serve in his province. Of this company 
he commissioned Andros to be captain, and Brockholls i Jujy- 
lieutenant. Christopher Billop, who had " served the Regular 


kins:," and whose father was an importunate office-seeker, officers in 

O' NeviT York. 

was appointed second lieutenant, and Caesar Knapton en- 
sign. A surgeon and a chaplain were likewise established 
for the forces in New York.f 

James also chose William Dyer, or Dyre, formerly of 
Rhode Island, and who, the autumn before, had planned 
reconquest, to be the collector of his provincial customs. 
Dyer was instructed to receive all the customs' duties ac- 2 Juiy. 

•^ , 1 1 • 1 Dyer col- 

cruine: to the duke within the territory granted to him by lector of 

,. , ■■ All j?i_ij- ^'ew York. 

the king, and pay them over to Andros, whose lartiier di- 
rections he was to follow, and to whom he was to report 
from time to time. No trust was to be allowed to any 
one, and all duties were to be paid in money or goods. 
The collector was not to trade as a merchant ; and all rev- 
enue differences with importers were to be determined by 
"the ordinary magistrates of the place, or otherwise, as 
hath been liitherto accustomed.":]: 

One of the motives to the Duke of York's second patent 
was the peculiar condition of New Jersey. James con- 
sidered that his former release of that region to Berkeley New Jersey 

. affairs 

and Carteret was annulled b}^ the Dutch conquest — just as 
his own grant from the king had been. But both his 
grantees were old courtiers, and more than his match, 
where their own interests were at stake. They played 

* Col. Doc, iii., 216-219, G5T, C74; iv,, ICC; Burke's Commoners, ir., 411; ante, 202. 
Brockholls, although a Roman Catholic, was married to Susanna Maria, daughter of Paulus • 

Schrick, of New York, and a member of the Reformed Dutch Church, in which their childrea 
were all baptized. One of these children, Susanna Brockholls, married Philip French, Jun., 
and their daughter Susanna married William Livingston, governor of New Jersey, by whom 
she had Judge Henry Brockholst Livingston, and others: N. Y'. H. S. Coll. (ii), i., 395; 
Col. Doc., iv., 604 ; Val. Man., 1863, 748, 809 : Sedgwick's Livingston, 59, 60, 236, 239. The 
usual English spelling of the name' was "Brockholes;" but the major's autographs in the 
Secretary's Office at Albany are written " Brockholls." The Dutch Church Records make 
the name "Brockholst," and this appears to have been preferred by his descendants. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 219-221, 230, 276, 284; Pepys, iv., 53. It is not known what chaplain 
accompanied Andros to New York in 1C74 : Hist. Mag., v., 153, 156, 189 ; Col. Doc, iii., 415, 
note; Gen. Ent, xxxii., 93 ; N. Y. H. S. Coll. (IS09), 157 : ante, 45, note. 

t Chalmers, i., 580; CoL Doc, ii., 721; iii., 207, 221-223, 318; lv.,353; R. L CoL Rec, i., 
266 ; ii., IDS, 396 ; Val. Man., 1SD3, 3S7 ; ante, 247, 203 ; vol. i., 557. 


cuAP. VI. their own separate games with skill, and eventually they 
Z beat the duke. 

Af ter returning from his lieutenancy of Ireland, Berke- 
ley was appointed ambassador in France. He had found 
John Lord that his American proprietorship verified the prediction of 
^^ '^ ''y- I^icolls, that its profit, if any, would only benefit his grand- 
children. Berkeley, therefore, shortly after the Treaty of 
Westminster, in consideration of one thousand pounds, 
conveyed to John Fenwick, an old Cromwellian soldier, 
in trust for Edward Byllinge, a broken-down London 
IS March, brcwer, his undivided half of New Jersey, together with 
hiTundi- such " franchises, liberties, governments, and powers" as 
ofNewjer-had been granted to him by the Duke of York in 1664. 
Hnye°and' Both of Berkeley's grantees were Quaker disciples of 
Fenwick. Yox, who had just returned from America. They 
probably calculated that they had secured a bargain. Yet 
Berkeley's conveyance to Fenwick was a very doubtful 
parchment. If, by reason of the Dutch reconquest of New 
York and New Jersey, tlie Duke of York was obliged to 
procure a new patent from the king, it was much more 
necessary for Berkeley to obtain a new release from 
his own grantor. Nevertheless, the bargain stood as 
it was thus concluded, just three months before Charles 
made his second grant to his brother ; and Berkeley re- 
joiced that he had touched his thousand pounds, and was 
rid of any concern in New Jersey.* 

But Berkeley's old copartner, Sir George Carteret, was 
differently situated. He had no motive to part with his 
Sir George interest in New Jersey. He had come back from Dublin 
to resume his place near the person of his sovereign. It 
was not difficult for the domineering courtier to warp his 
easy king. Charles, accordingly — a fortnight before his 
own second patent to his brother for New York and New 
Jersey had passed the great seal — was prevailed upon to 
13 June. ^ sign a letter declaring that Sir George was " seized of the 
iltter\'n^^ Provincc of New Csesarea or New Jersey, in America, and 
favor.'"''''' of the jurisdiction thereof," and commanding its inhabit- 
ants to obey his government, " who hath the sole power, 

• Learning and Spicer, C4, 65, 413 ; Chalmers, !., 617 ; S. Smith, T9, 89, 5G7 ; Gordon, 34 ; 
Buriiot, i., 207; Col. Doc, iii., 105; Fox's Journal, 465; Sewell, 512; Bancroft, ii , ;if)5; 
Gralmme, i., 4G7, 4T3, 4T4; Wliiteliead, 6r>, G7 ; Dixon's Life of Penn (ed. Philad., 1-51), 
136 ; Dankcrs's and SUiyter'.s Journal, 241-243 ; ante, S5, 150, 200, 201. 


under us, to settle and dispose of the said country, upon 
such terms and conditions as he shall think fit."* 

Yet, when this letter was written, the king knew that pauacy oV 
the only way in which Carteret could be " seized" of New {;tt*Jr1n^ 
Jersey was by tlie duke's release in 1664, which made him ^^1°^^"^^ 
a joint owner with Berkeley, who had just sold his undi- 
vided interest to Fen wick. How, then, could Carteret 
have " the sole power" which Charles's letter attributed to 
him ? Moreover, at that very time the king had ordered a 
new patent, which he afterward sealed, granting to his 
brother " full and absolute power and authority" over all 
the territory between the Connecticut and the Delaware 
which had been relinquished to him by the Dutch in the 
Treaty of Westminster. New Jersey was a part of that 
territory ; and after James's patent was sealed, he stood, in 
place of the king, as its only proprietor. Carteret, there- 
fore, had no "power" at all in Kew Jersey. Whatever 
equitable claims Berkeley and Carteret, or their assigns 
might have had to the personal favor of James, they had 
no legal rights whatever to New Jersey after its conquest 
by the Dutch, and its second grant by King Charles to 
the Duke of York. 

What followed is less clear. All that we know is, that 
the Duke of York — three weeks after he had commissioned 
Andros to be governor of the whole of his American ter- 
ritory — was induced to direct his attorney general and his 23 juiy, 
solicitor general to prepare a grant to Sir George Carteret, 
i?i severalty, of a part of the portion which, ten years be- 
fore, he had conveyed to Berkeley and Carteret jointly. 
Accordingly, James — referring to the king's second patent 23 juiy. 
to him of 29 June, 1674 — granted to Carteret and his heii'S the Duke 
the tract of land " westward of Long Island and Manhattas Ne^v jersey 
Island, and bounded on the east, part by the main sea and in sevemf- 
part by Hudson's River, and extends southward as far as a *^" 
certain creek called Barnegat, being about the middle be- 
tween Sandy Point and Cape May ; and bounded, on the 
west in a strait line from the said creek called Barnegat to 
a certain creek in Delaware River next adjoining to and 
below a certain creek in Delaware River called Rankokus 
Kill ; and from thence up the said Delaware River to the 

* Col. MS3., xxii., lOG; IZliz. BiU, 38; Learning and Spicer, 49; Whitehead, 64. 



cuAr. VI. northermost branch thereof, which is in forty-one degrees 

and forty minutes of latitude ; and on the north crosseth 

over thence in a strait hne to Hudson's River in forty-one 

degrees of latitude : v^^hich said tract of land is hereafter to 

be called by the name or names of JVew CcBsarea, or JV^ew 

Jersey P But — as in the case of the duke's original release 

No powers of 24 Jimc, 1664 — his second grant did not convey to Car- 

ment tcrct any of the " full and absolute power and authority to 

^''^ ' govern," which the king had intrusted to his brother.* 

Whatever may have been the scope of this instrument, 
its history is remarkable. Before he granted it, James is 
said to have " hesitated long, and at length sacrificed his 
personal interest, as well as the prosperity of New York, to 
his fatal esteem for Carteret." The duke himself after- 
ward declared that the grant was obtained from him " by 
surprise." The probability is that James found that he 
could not safely thwart his brother's imperious vice-cham- 
berlain, for whom, besides, he cherished "much esteem 
and regard." So, to make things easy at Whitehall, he 
gave away to Carteret the largest half of New Jersey, 
which that experienced courtier flattered him he chose 
" because near unto his government of New Tork ;" while 
it was really preferred " on the account of its being well 
settled with a sober and industrious people, which would 
invite others to come there, whereas the other was a desart." 
Kffect of ^ Yet James did not intend to " let go any part of his pre- 
Kiant to rogative ;" for he made no alteration in the commission he 
had given to Andros. Berkeley's conveyance of his undi- 
vided interest to Fenwick M^as disregarded ; because, if the 
duke had been evicted by the Dutch conquest, much more 
so were his grantees in 1664. Carteret, however, took liis 
new title, in severalty, knowing that in 1668 Staten Island 
had been " adjudged to belong to New York," and that it 
had been purchased for James in 16T0.f 
sijiiiy.^ Esteeming himself, nevertheless, the sole proprietor of 
newconces- New Jersey, Carteret drew up some explanations of the 
n"w jcr- former " concessions" of himself and Berkeley. In this in- 
'*''■ strument Sir George distinctly recognized the annihilation 

• Col. Doc, iii., 223, 224; Eliz. Bill, 7; Lc.iming and Spicer, 42, 40, 4T, 4S; ante, S2, 83. 
t Clmlmcrs, i., 017 ; Col. Doc, iii., 220, 240; S. Smith, ■'iJS ; Whitehead, 05, 07 ; Mass. U. 
S. Coll., x.xxvii., 815 ; Yonkers Gazette of 8 .July and 5 August, 1806 ; ante^ 149, 150, 100. 


of his old rights by the Dutch conquest, and the recent 
fresh errant from the duke to himself. At the same time ~~~ 
he commissioned his cousin Philip to be his provincial gov- ' 

ernor, and procured for him a passage in the frigate which 
was to convey Andros to JSTew York.* 

It was necessary for the duke to do another act before he 
could feel at ease about his title to Long Island and Pem- 
aquid. The consideration which he had promised to Lord 
Stirling in 1664 had never been paid. To obtain a release 
from the earl of " all his pretence of right and title," James 
granted to him for life a pension of three hundred pounds so jniy. 
a year, " out of the surplusage of the neat profits of the ung's pen- 
revenue arising out of the said colony, all manner of charges, ^^°^ 
be it civil or military, first deducted and allowed." At the 
same time, Lord Stirling agreed that, if the duke should 
procure for him " any employment or other satisfaction to 
the like value," he would release the grant of his annuity .f 

James now gave several final directions to Andros. As fj, Aug. 
soon as he should arrive at New York, the governor was to st'ractiras 
seize the estate of Lovelace, who was charged with being from°thr 
about seven thousand pounds in debt to the proprietor. '^"''^ 
Andros was also furnished with a copy of the " Duke's 
Laws," as established in New York by Nicolls and Love- 
lace, which, it was thought upon consideration, might be 
amended " in some particular clauses thereof." His origi- 
nal instructions were therefore modified so as to require 
him "to put in execution the said laws, except such as 
shall have apparent inconveniences in them ;" and, after 
his settlement in ISTew York, he was, with the advice of his 
council, to make such amendments as might be found nec- 
essary " for the ease and benefit of the people," and the 
good of the proprietor's service. These alterations were to 
be at once reported to the duke for his authority to put 
them in execution. Shortly afterward James's new govern- 
or set sail, accompanied by his staff and military forces, and 
by '• a number of new colonists." They were conveyed by 

* Eliz. Bill, T, 33-40 ; Learning and Spicer, 50-CO ; Doe. Hist., iii., 45 ; TVliitehcad, 65, 
CO; ante, S3-S6, 1S9, 199, 200. Carteret was a kinsman of Andros: Hatfield, ITS. 

t It seems that there never was any "surplusage of the neat profits" arising out of the 
revenue of New York, and that the duke neither got any office for Lord Stirling, nor paid 
him any part of his stipulated annuity: see Col. Doc., iii., 42, 225,606, 60T; v., 330, 331; 
vii., 430-132 ; Duer's Life of Stirling, 3T-49 ; aji??, 15, 10. 


Chap. VI. the frigates Diamond, Captain Richard Griffith, and Castle, 

~ Captain Cassibelan Burton. Besides Philip Carteret, the 

governor of New Jersey, Captain John Manning, who had 

been waiting for some months in England, returned to 

New York in the Diamond with Andros.* 

22 October. In due time the British frigates anchored at Staten Island ; 

1 Novem. and Andros sent Governor Carteret with Ensign Knapton 

Andros no- . p 

tifiescoiveto notifv Colvc that he was ready to receive from him 


session of " The Now Netherland and dependances," now under his 

New Neth- 

eriand. commaud. The Dutch governor, however, declined yield- 
ing possession at once, and required eight days to complete 
the necessary preliminaries. These were not mere formal- 
ities. They touched what the Dutch considered their es- 
sential rights, chiefly affecting religion and property. The 
24 October, burgomasters and schepens of the metropolis appointed 
3 Novem. Stccnwyck, Van Brugh, and Beekman to welcome the En- 
glish governor on board the Diamond, and request fi*ora 
The city him some privileges " for the advantage of the common- 
requeJt '^* alty." Audros desired them to " assure the inhabitants of 
forlhe^^* the Dutch nation that they should participate in the same 
Dutch. privileges as those of the English nation, and that his Hon- 
or would, as far as possible, promote their interests ; refer- 
ring himself further to the Instructions given him by His 
Koyal Majesty and Highness the Duke of York." "VVish- 
27 October, i^g more certainty, Colve sent Steenwyck and Captain 
6 Novem. Eppstcvn to Audros with several articles, to which he de- 

Colve'sde- ,^^ "^ r , • p • p ^ -r\ i 

mands. Sired answcrs for the satisiaction or the Dutch government, 
and for " the greater tranquillity of the good People of 
this Province." These articles related chiefly to the set- 
tlement of debts; the validity of judgments during the 
Dutch administration, and the maintenance of owners in 
the possession of property ; " that the inhabitants of the 
Dutch nation may be allowed to retain their customary 
The Dutch Church privileges in Divine service and Church discipline, 
NewYork. bcsidcs their Fathers' laws and customs in the division of 
their inheritances ;" that they might not be forced to serve 
" against their own nation ;" that each congregation might 
support its ovni poor; besides several other particulars. 

• Col. Doc, ii., 733; iii.,2'2G.227; Doc. lIi^it ,iii.,45, 54; CouncilMin., iii. (:i.),C; Warr., 
Ord., Tasi?., etc., iii., TA ; nnti; '2T>G. There is a copy of "the Duke's laws" in thj State Pa- 
per Office, London : Board of Trade, N. V., No. UO, 15 >. 


Andros replied the next day by a general assurance that 
he would give satisfactory answers to most of the points, 
being ordered to observe the articles of peace " in the best 53 October. 
and most friendly manner" toward the Dutch inhabitants, t Novem. 
and that he had directed Captain Matthias NicoUs person- reply, 
ally to confer with Colve on the subject. At this confer- 
ence Nicolls satisfied Colve that Andros would give the 29 October. 
desired answers as soon as he had assumed the govern- s Novem. 
ment. This assurance was honorably fulfilled.* 

All preliminaries being now satisfactorily arranged, 
Colve assembled the burgomasters and schepens, with the 9 Novem!'^ 
burgher court-martial, at the City Hall, and announced coive'^s^ ^^ 
that on the morrow he would surrender the fort and prov- New Neth- 

-_^ , , erland. 

ince to Andros on behalf of the King of Great Britam ; 
and, after thanking them for their past services, absolved 
them from their oaths of allegiance to the States Gener- 
al and the Prince of Orange. The banners of the " Out 
people," and the cushions and table-cloth in the City 
Hall, were intrusted to Burgomaster Yan Brugh until they 
should be claimed by " superior authority ;" and Colve then 
took his " farewell of the Assembly." The next day, be- 3^ October, 
ing Saturday, the tenth of November, according to theWNOTimT 
]^ew Style, " The Province of New Netherland was sur- eriand re- 
rendered by Governor Colve to Governor Major Edmund England, 
Andros on behalf of His Britannic Majesty."f 

Thus England once more became predominant over 
North America. From Carolina to Acadia its Atlantic 
coast obeyed the servants of her king. On taking posses- 
sion ' of his government, Andros's first ofiicial act was to 10 Novenh' 
swear in Captain Matthias NicoUs as one of his council, ^^g^^he' 
and appoint him to be again secretary of the province of g'J^™- 
" New York." The e-overnor's other counselors, from time New York, 

'-' , , ' and ap- 

to time, were BrockhoUs, Dyer, Phillipse, and the several points ofs- 
mayors of the metropolis, Lawrence, Dervall, De Meyer, 
Yan Cortlandt, and others. A proclamation was imme- 
diately issued, charging all persons to be peaceable.:}: 

* Col. MSS.,xxiii., 412-420; New Orange Records, vii., 253; Doc. Hist., iii.,4'3-51; Val. 
JIan., 1S52, 41.5-421 ; 1S53, 498; ante, 259. See Appendix, Note C, for the documents illus- 
trating this negotiation between Colve and Andros. 

t New Orange Rec. , vii. , 254, 255 ; Val. Man., 1852, 421, 422 ; 1853, 498, 409 ; Doc. Hist., 
i;i., 51, 52 ; Col. MS^., xxiii., 423. 

t Council Min., iii. (ii.), 1; Gen. Ent., iv., 295; Warr., Ord., Pas SC3, iii. , 1 ; P. Hazard's 
Ann. Penn., 413; Mass. H. S. Coll., xxx., 112; rt?ir, 211. 


ciiAi-. VI. A quiet Sunday followed. Whoever was British chap- 
lain at the fort, it especially interested Domine Yan Nieu- 
Domine ' weuhuyseu to learn that the Reverend Nicolaus van Rens- 
?'!n°nen3- ^elaer, a younger son of the first patroon of Rensselaer- 
seiacr. wyck, and an ordained clergyman in both the Dutch and 
the English churches, had come over with Andros, recom- 
mended by the Duke of York to be made " minister of 
one of the Dutch churches in New York or New Albany, 
when a vacancy shall happen,"^' 
j^gNovera. Early on Monday morning Andros wrote a courteous 
And?os°to letter to Colve, acknowledging his " generosity in all his 
proceedings" since the arrival of the English frigates; not 
the least touching mark of which seems to have been the 
coive'a gift by the Dutch governor to his successor of his coach 

co.ich and o "^ _ *-' 

iiorsesgiv- aud three horses. Andros likewise returned to Colve the 
dios. ' articles proposed before the surrender ; almost all of which 
were agreed to, and certified by Secretary NicoUs, "pur- 
suant to the assurance given by those emplo3-ed."f 
x-i ^'o'^em- At the same time Andros notified the governors of the 
tifics the neighboi'ing English colonies of his arrival, and of his as- 
of the En- sumptiou of the government of New York. Dyer was in- 
Hiel'*^°°' stalled as collector, and the duke's customs' rates publish- 
ed. Yarious local ofiicers were also appointed. But, as 
^j xovem. these could not all be selected at once, the governor, by 
tiontocou- proclamation, authorized the English magistrates who were 
giishoffi- in ofiice in the several towns at the time of the Dutch con- 
quest, to act for six months, as before.:}: 

The most important point to be regained was Albany. 

3 Novem. Eusigu Csesar Knapton was accordingly sent thither,' with 

Sergeant Thomas Sharpe and eighteen men, to take com- 

* VanNieuwenhuysen'sLetter toCl. Amst., 30May,lG7G: Col. Doc, iii., 225; Doc. Hist., 
iii., 52G; O'Call., i., 122, 212; ii.,552; llolgate, 42; Smith, i., 49, 3SS; N. Y. Clirist. Int., 
2 Nov., 1SC5; Hist. Mag., ix., 352. It appears that Van Rensselaer had luckily prophesied 
to Charles the Second, at Brussels, that he would be restored to his throne. When that 
event occurred tlie Domine accompanied the Dutch ambassador, Van Gogh, to London, as 
chaplain to the embassy ; and the king, recollecting his prediction, gave Van Rensselaer a 
gold snuff-box, with his likeness in tlie lid, which is still preserved by the family at Albany. 
After Van Gogh left London because of the Dutch war in 106.5, Domine Van Rensselaer re- 
ceived Charles's license to preacii to the Dutch congregation at Westminster; was ordained 
a deacon in the English Church by the Bishop of Salisbury ; and was appointed lecturer at 
Saint Margaret's Lothbury. 

t Col. MSS., xxiii., 419, 420, 421; Doc. Hist., iii., 48, 49, 50; Val. Man., 1852, 418-421. 
Andros appears to have been the first English governor who used a coach and lioi-scs in 
New York, and they were a present from Colve : see Col. Doc, iv., 221, 275; ante, 223. 

t Gen. Knt., iv., 290-299 ; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 2, 3 ; Warr., Ord., etc, iii., 2, 3 ; Rikc-.'s 
Newtown, 90 ; (;ol. Rec Conn., ii., 509 ; Col. Doc, iii., 217, 240 ; atilc, 203, 205. 


mand of the fort. Michael Siston was appointed schout, 
or sheriff, and Richard Pretty collector of the excise. 
George Hall was made schout of Esopus. Andros also 4 j^-^^g^" 
wrote to the Dutch commissaries at both places, inclosing ^^^°^_ 
Colve's orders for their surrender. Domine Bernardus 
Arensius, the Lutheran minister, was at the same time U- 6 Novem. 
censed to go to Albany in the sloop which conveyed the 
new officers, and officiate there "as formerly under the 
English Government." The surrender was happily accom- 
plished ; and the reinstated Albany commissaries expressed 19 Novem. 
their satisfaction at being settled again under the Duke 
of York's authority.* 

To quiet any controversy about the "e/tis PostliTninii^'' 
Andros now issued a proclamation that '• all former grants, 9 Novem. 
privileges, or concessions heretofore granted, and all estates tion of ah- 
legally possessed by any under His Royal Highness before firming°aii 
the late Dutch Government, as also all legal judicial pro- g°r™t'! 
ceedings during that Government to my arrival in these 
parts, are hereby confirmed, and the possessors by virtue 
thereof to remain in quiet possession of their rights : It is 
hereby further declared that the known Book of Laws 
formerly established and in force under His Royal High- 
ness's government, is now again confirmed by His Royal 
Highness, the which are to be observed and practiced, to- 
gether with the manner and time of holding Courts there- 
in mentioned, as heretofore." The next week, to settle 
some farther doubts, the governor declared that his procla- le Novem. 
mation of the ninth of November was " to be understood 
with due regard of the Articles of Peace in every par- 

The city of New York being the metropolis, Andros, by 10 Novem. 
a special commission, appointed Secretary Matthias NicoUs ceraofNew 
to be mayor, John Lawrence deputy mayor, and William 
Dervall, Frederick Phillipse, Gabriel Minvielle, and John 
Winder aldermen, who were to hold their offices until the 

• Council Min., iii. (ii.), 2, 3; Gen. Ent., iv., 300-304; Warr., Ord., Passe?, iii., 2-S, 3S, 
39 ; Doc. Hist., iii., 51, 525. It appears that Arensius afterward spent his summers in New 
York, and his winters at Albany, ministering alternately to the Lutherans in each place : 
Letter of Selyns to 01. Amst., 26 October, 16S2 ; Murphy's Anthology, 94 ; C. WoUey, 57. 
Captain Knyff, on his departure for Holland, made several donations to the Lutheran 
Church: Col. MS.=!., xxiii., 424. 

t Warr., Ord., Pass., iii., 13, 19 ; Col. MSS., xxiv., S; Col. Doc, iii., 22T; Doc. Hiat, iii., 
52 ; Min. of N. Y. Com. Council, i. , 12, 13 ; Val. Man., 1815, 1846, 330, 331 ; ante, 260. 

II.— s 



Chap. VI. 


13 Novem. 
Court of 
New York. 

12 Novem. 
seized for 
the Duke 
of York. 

towns on 
Ix)ng Isl- 

13 Novem. 

4 Decern. 
Action of 

next October. Thomas Gibbs, who had been one of Love- 
lace's counselors, was also commissioned as sheriff. Yet 
care was taken that the English element should prevail.* 

A few days afterward the " Mayor's Court" pf the city 
of New York was convened. Its records were ordered to 
be thereafter kept in Englisli, and every paper offered to 
the court to be in that tongue, except in the case of poor 
people who could not afford the cost of translation. This 
introduced more of the English form in legal proceedings. 
But it was several years before the system was settled.f 

Pursuant to the duke's order, Andros seized the estate 
of Lovelace, and required all persons having any of it in 
their hands to render accounts. The governor thus ob- 
tained possession of the "Bouwery," which some of the 
heirs of Domine Bogardus and his widow conveyed to 
Lovelace in 1671. It formed a part of " the Duke's farm," 
then esteemed to be one of the least valuable perquisites of 
the actual governor ; but which has since become the sub- 
ject of much avaricious strife.:}: 

When the governor's proclamation of the fourth of ISTo- 
vember, reinstating the old oflBcers imder Lovelace, was re- 
ceived at Southampton, Easthampton, and Southold, these 
towns held meetings, and directed Mulford, Howell, and 
Younge, the magistrates appointed by Connecticut, to sign 
a memorial to Andros, stating that, by the aid of that col- 
ony, they had repelled the Dutch ; that they were now un- 
der her government, and that they could not secede with- 
out her consent. It was at once ordered in council that 
the three towns should reinstate their former officers, ac- 
cording to the proclamation, " under the penalty of being 
declared rebels." Andros also -wrote to Governor Win- 
throp, of Connecticut, counseling him to disabuse his would- 
be subordinates of their "notion" that they could exercise 

• Council Min., iii. (ii.), 3 ; Warr., Ord., Pass., iii., 12. These particulars are not stated 
in Valentine's Manual. While the provincial seal was saved, the city's seal and mace had 
disappeared, and Andros " bespoke" new ones : Col. Doc, iii., 230 ; ante, 157, 15S, 212. 

t liecords of the Mayor's Court, ii. ; Daly's Int., 28, 29 ; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 143; C. 
Wolley, 57. In May, 1677, it was ordered that "pleading attornies" be no longer allowed 
to practice their profession in New York, "but for the depending causes." 

t Col. Doc, ilL, 226, 291 ; iv., 327, 893, 44S ; Warr., Ord., I'asses, iii., 15, 16; Col. MSS., 
XX., 14, 15, 72 ; Hoffman's Treatise, ii , 182, 183 ; Val. Man., 1860, 548 ; ante, 183, 269. Trin- 
ity Church, in the city of New York, now enjoys thebenefit of this action of Governor Andros 
in 1674. Lovelace died before 21 January, 1679, on which day the accounts of his estate 
were exhibited : CoL MSS., xxvi., 43; 3LXviii.,50. 


power in any part of New York. Sylvester Salisbury, who chap. vi. 
had returned from England with the governor, was ac- 
cordingly dispatched to execute the orders of the council. 5 oecem * 
To give him more dignity, Salisbury was also commissioned saimbury 
to be high-sheriff of Long Island.* sherk 

Andros himself appears to have visited the eastern towns 
of Long Island, which prudently avoided any farther oppo- 
sition to his authority. They soon learned that Winthrop connecti- 
had sent his son, with Mr. Willys, to explain the proceed- sengers to 
ings of Connecticut at New York, where they arrived dur- 
ing the governor's absence. The recusant towns seem to 10 Decem. 
have been soothed by Sahsbury's declaration that he ac- siou of re- 
cepted their return to New York " from under the colony townl 
of Connecticut, by whose help and protection they have 
been secured from the Dutch invasion unto the obedience 
of His Eoyal Highness." On his return to the capital, An- 
dros wrote to Winthrop that every thing was satisfactorily 28 Decem. 
arranged at the eastern end of Long Island ; and that Con- wites ^ 
necticut, by her interference against the Dutch in the pre- ^*°*^°p- 
vious February, had done well for the restoration of his 
master's royal authority.f 

By direction of the people of Newtown, their clerk, John le Novcm. 
Burroughs, replied to the governor's proclamation, speak- Newtown 
ing very plainly of the grievances they had suffered under 
Lovelace, and reflecting on the authority of the Court of 
Assizes. Andros at once demanded whether Burroughs 27 Novem. 
had expressed the voice of the town, and an unsatisfactory 
answer was returned. The offending; clerk was brou2:ht 5 Decem. 
before the council at New York, and sentenced to stand an J^" ' ^■ 

15 Jan'y. 

hour on the whipping-post before the City Hall, with a pa- its cieik, 
per on his breast, setting forth that he had signed seditious punished. ' 
letters against the government ; and Burroughs was far- 
ther declared incapable of holding any public trust in the 
province. This sentence was executed under the direc- 
tion of Sheriff Gibbs, at the metropolis.:}: 

* Council Min., iii. (il), G-9; Warr., Ord., Passes, etc., ili., 4, 28, 29, 30, 31,41, 42, 53; 
Gen. ICnt, iv., 299; Wood, 98, 99 ; Thompson, i., 15S, .335, 3S3; ante^ 253, 272. 

t Mass. H. S. Coll., xxx., 113, 114, 117; ^yaIT., Ord., Passes, iii., 48 ; Thompson, i., 383 ; 
Dunlap, ii., App. xxxviii. ; ante, 243. 

X Warr., Ord., Passes, iii., 25; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 14, 15; Riker's Newtown, 90-92. 
Several interesting details respecting Jamaica, Francis Bloodgood, of Flushing, and Thomas 
and Mary Case, Samuel Scudder, and Samuel Furman, or Foraian, may be found in Col. 
MSS., xxiv., 25, 171; xxv., 2; Warr., Ord., Passes, iii., 52; Paker, 92-95; anfe, 243, 255. 

276 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK. The council was now directed to meet for the transac- 
tion of business every Friday morning at nine o'clock, A 
8 jan'y charter was also passed, authorizing a joint-stock company 
meeun^' " ^^^ Settling a fishery in these parts" for cod. It is sup- 
^ brT°d ^ posed that this was the fii'st commercial corporation ever 
created within the province of New York.''^ 

Among those who had lost heavily by the surrender to 
the Dutch was Alderman Dervall, who attributed it di- 
rectly to tlie " treachery" of Manning. This charge against 
16 Jan'y. au Englishman made it necessary for the governor " to 
proceed against him," according to the duke's instruction. 
2 Feij'y. MauninsT was brought before a court-martial, composed of 

Manning o o •' x 

arraigned the Couucil, Captaius Griifith, Burton, and Salisbury, and 
court-mar- tlic uiayor and aldermen of the city ; and six charges were 
exhibited against him, involving neglect of duty, cowardice, 
4Feb'y. and treachery. A number of witnesses testified strongly 
against the prisoner. Manning endeavored to explain his 
5 Feb'y. couduct ; at the same time, acknowledging himself '' blame- 
worthy to all" the charges except those of treachery and 
cowardice ; and, pleading that his errors had been occa- 
sioned by his " poor broken head and disquieted spirit," he 
threw himself on the mercy of the court. His judges ac- 
quitted him of treachery, but found him guilty of the oth- 
er charges. It was agreed that he deserved death ; but as 
he had been in England since the surrender, and had seen 
the king and the duke, he was allowed the benefit of the 
proverb, '•'■King's face hrings graced Manning was tliere- 
sentence of f ore Sentenced "to be carried back to prison, and from 
anmng. ^j^gj^^^g brouglit out to tlic pubHck placc before the City 
Hall, there to have his sword broken over his head, and 
from that time be rendered uncapable of wearing a sword 
or serving His Majesty in any publick employ or place of 
benefitt and trust within this Government."t 
Vessels to To sccurc the dukc's customs' duties a proclamation was 
the New issued requiring all vessels trading within the govern- 
tom-hou3e. mcut of tlic province to enter at the custom-liouse in New 

• Col. JISS., xxlv., 6T; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 10 ; Col. Doc, iii., 234, note. 

t Col. Doc, ii., CSS, C43; iii., 20C, 21G; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 15, IS, 20-24; Col. M.'?.^., 
xxiv., 36-53, 97; Doc. Hist., iii., 53-65; Smith, i., 4S, 49; Thompson, i., 151; Dunlap, i., 
130; Val. Man., 1S53, 3S4; C. Wolley, 47, S9, 90; ante, 208, 257, 203, 270. After this sen- 
tence Manning retired to his island in the F.ast River, now known as Blackwell's Island 
(ante., 138), where he entertained his friends with bowls of excellent rum punch, accordin,^ 
to the testimony of Chaplain Wolley, in 1079. 


York. Dyer, the collector, accordingly executed liis office caip. vi. 
so stringently as to give occasion, not long afterward, to 
serious complaints.* 

Andros now issued a proclamation requiring " all such 13 March. 
persons as doe intend to continue under His Majesty's obe- legiance 
dience within His Royal Highness's government, that they ''^'i"''"^*'- 
appear at such times and places as the magistrates within 
the respective towns and places where they live shall ap- 
point, to take the usual oaths of allegiance and fidelity." 
The mayor and aldermen of the city of New York accord- 
ingly appointed the next Monday for the purpose. Early 
on that morning many of the citizens appeared at the May- 15 March. 
or's Court, and were directed to take the same oath which 
Nicolls required from the Dutch residents in 1664. Sev- 
eral of the leading burghersf readily agreed to do this, objections 
provided Andros would confirm what his predecessor had the°Dutch. 
declared, namely, that the capitulation of August, 1664, 
was " not in the least broken or intended to be broken by 
any words or expressions in the said oath." This capitula- 
tion they thought was confirmed by the sixth article of the 
Treaty of Westminster in 1674 ; and such was the opinion 
of the duke and his officers. Mayor I^icolls, however, was 
"ignorant of any such declaration," and was quite sur- 
prised when a copy of it was produced. The burghers in- 
sisted that they only wished Andros's confirmation of their 
"freedom of religion and from being pressed in time of 
war." But the governor refused to make any explanation, 
and required them to take the oath without qualification, 
charging the recusants with being mutinous. According- 
ly, Steenwyck and his associates petitioned Andros either is March. 
to be satisfied with the oath as accepted by Nicolls, or to AndrM^ 
allow them to dispose of their estates and remove else- 
where with their families. This petition was "not only ill 
received, but peremptorily rejected;" and its eight signers, 
Steenwyck, Yan Brugb, De Peyster, Bayard, Luyck, Beek- 
man, Kip, and De Milt, were imprisoned on a charge of is March. 
disturbing the government and endeavoring a rebellion. 

« Warr., Ord., Passes, iii., 63; Col. Doc, iii., 220, 233, 239, 240, 316; Col. MSS., xxiv., 
132; anfc, 263, 272. 

t These were, Cornells Steenwyck, Johannes van Bnijrh, Johannes de Peyster, and Jacob 
Kip, who had objected in 1664, .ind Nicholas Bnyard, ^Egidius Luyck, William Beekman, 
and Anthony de Milt, who had not : ante, 47, 4S. 



CUAT. \^. 


18 March. 

19 March. 
The peti- 
tioners or- 
dered to be 

20 March. 

and Man- 


7 Novem. 


12 April. 

29 April. 


3 Novem. 

The governor at the same time issued a proclamation warn- 
ing all against like practices. The prisoners having been 
examined before the comicil, where Governor Carteret, of 
New Jersey, and Captains Griffith and Bm-ton, of the En- 
glish frigates, were present, were ordered to be tried at the 
next Court of Assizes ; and were released fi'om close con- 
finement only upon giving heavy bonds.* 

Although Pemaquid, Martha's Yineyard, and l^antucket 
had been included in- the Duke of York's patent, and had 
been governed by Nicolls and Lovelace, they were not com- 
prehended in Colve's commission. This produced a sort 
of interregnum in those secluded regions, and many disor- 
ders occurred. Some of the "opposition" inhabitants of 
Martha's Yineyard and Nantucket riotously endeavored to 
" transfer" them under the government of Massachusetts ; 
but, through the firmness of the venerable Thomas Mayhew, 
they were held for the dul^e — the arrival of whose new 
governor was patiently waited for, " as in time of great 
drouth, for the latter raine." Mayhew was accordingly 
reinstated in liis "first right;" and the ringleaders in the 
late disorders were directed to be punished. Nantucket 
soon afterward declared that the coming of the duke's gov- 
ernor was to them " as the rising sun after a dark and 
stormy night." It was therefore ordered that the two isl- 
ands should continue to enjoy their former privileges in 
subordination to the government of New York, and that 
the old magistrates should remain in their places.f 

On the Delaware, Captain Edmund Cantwell, the sheriff, 
and all the other magistrates in office at the time of the 
Dutch conquest, were reinstated, except Alrichs, who had 
offered them liis friendship on their first coming, and had 
acted violently as their chief officer. Captain Carr, the 
former English commander, had now gone to Maryland, 
and his estate was seized. Andros also informed Governor 
Calvert that he had directed his oiiJcers on the Delaware 
to prevent any injuries to the neighboring colonies, and did 
" not doubt the like on the Governor of Maryland's part." 

• Warr., Ord., Passes, iii., C5, GO, 67, 74, 75; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 27-^1 ; Col. MSS., 
xxiv., 73, 7G, 77-S4; Col. Doc., ii., 738-744; iii., 237 ; v., 496; vii., 5S6; Val. Man., 1845, 
331, 3.S2 ; ISGl, 60.5-607 ; Minutes of C. C, vol. i., 9-11 ; ante, 46, 47, 260. 

t Warr., Ord., Passes, iii., 19, 21, 77, 84; Council Min., iii. (ii), 3G-3S; Col. MSS., xxiv., 
6, 18_1S, 92, 93, 100-102 ; Hough's Nantucket Papers, CO-SS ; anir, ITO, 211. 


The murder of Doctor Roades by the Indians, and other 
important matters, requiring his own presence on the Del- 
aware, the governor went thither, through New Jersey ; 3 ^^^^^ 
thirty horses being furnished for his journey by Govern- 
or Carteret. After settling matters there, and writing 
to Lord Baltimore, Andros returned to New York, where i5 May. 
Brockholls had acted for him during his absence.* 

The Diamond and the Castle frigates were sent back to 1 April. 
England, the latter with a load of timber for the king's Timber 
dock-yard. Its value was allowed to the duke ; who never- giand. 
theless found himself more than two thousand pounds ont 
of pocket on account of the expedition " for the repossess- 
ing New York." Andros soon afterward received James's e Apru. 
•autograph reply to his letters of the previous November letter to ^^ 
and December. His conduct was approved, especially in 
reducing to obedience the three "factious towns at the 
east end of Long Island," which he was to treat so that 
their people should " be without apprehensions of any in- 
justice towards them." In regard to " General Assem- 
blies, which the people there seeme desirous of, in imita- 
tion of their neighbour Colonies, I thinke," wrote the duke, a 
" you have done well to discourage any motion of that disV 
kind; both as being not at all comprehended in your In-james. ' 
structions, nor indeed consistent with the forme of govern- 
ment already established, nor necessary for the ease or re- 
dresse of any grievance that may happen ; since that may 
be as easily obtained by any petition or other addresse to 
you, at their Generall Assizes, (which is once a yeare,) 
where the same persons (as Justices) are usually present, 
who in all probability would be their representatives if an- 
other constitution were allowed." The question of an As- 
sembly had been raised under NicoUs and Lovelace : — but 
James now clearly announced his disapprobation.f 

Respectine; the boundary arrangement with Connecticut 6 April. 
in 1664, the duke thought it best " only to make accommo- of York 


dations of this kind temporary, if possible, to preserve the the con- 
utmost limitts for me that my Patent gives me a title to." boundary. 

• Council Min., iii. (ii.), i., 35 ; Gen. Ent., iv., 305, 306 ; Warn, Ord., Passes, iii., 34, 69, 
80,81,89-92; Col. MSS., xx., 50-65; xxiv.,97, 105; xxv., 54; Col. Doc, ii., 69T, 659 ; iii., 
203, 233, 254; Hazardl's Reg. Penn., i., 93; iv., 56; Ann. Penn., 398, 413-418; ante, 190, 
2-24, 234. 

t Warr., Ord., PuFses, iii., 51, 60, 70, 72; Col. Doc, iii., 2.')0, 231, 232, 237; Chalmers's 
Annals, i., 5S1 ; Mass. II. S. Coll., -xxx., 115 ; mite, 64, 68, 69, 100. 


Chap. VI. But Aiidros had already acted on that subject. Connecti- 
~ cut had recently appointed commissioners " to runn the lyne 
" * • between this Colony and the Colony of New York, from 
Momoronock Eiver to Hudson's River;" — which she had 
done in violation of the clear understanding that she was 
not to approach that river nearer than twenty miles. See- 
ing that the king, in 1674, had again granted to the Duke 
of York the territory as far east as the Connecticut River, 
1 May. Andros sent to the General Court at Hartford copies of 
the duke's patent and of his own commission, and request- 
ed them to give orders for his receiving that part of his 
royal highuess's territories as yet under their jurisdiction.* 
17 .May. The Counccticut Court, in answer, set up their charter 
from the king, and the boundary arrangement of 1664. 
':5 May. Audros replied that the award by the royal commissioners 
mainteins " was au cvidcut surprisc," and " never confirmed ;" and 
of New ^ * that whatever pretenses Connecticut had made before 1674 
were " sufficiently cleared by His Majesty's reiterated Let- 
ters Patents." He therefore again demanded possession, 
and protested against all wdio might thus disobey their 
ic June, king's commands. Connecticut rejoined, denying any " un- 
due surprise" in the boundary determination, and insisting 
on her own charter. The New York Council thereupon re- 
2s June, solved that such disobedience to the king's pleasure as ex- 
pressed in his patent to the duke was " rebelHon."f 
30 June. Atidros now sent Captain Salisbury with dispatches to 
Salisbury thc dulvC aud Sir John Werden, and directed him to in- 
toKngiand. form them fully of every thing relating to New York ; 
especially about its people, their trade, the French in Can- 
ada; the "Bostoners' trading - house at Springfield," and 
their claiming " to Albany itself ;" and of the recent con- 
tempt of the duke's authority in " that part of His Royal 
BUghnesses' territories as yet under Connecticut, their many 
harbors, and plenty of corn and provisions." By the same 
vessel, Steenwyck and his associates, who had been bound 
over for trial, sent a memorial to the Dutch States Gener- 
al, setting forth their own hard case.:}: 

• W.arr., Ord., Passes, iii., 2, 3, 112-114; Col. Doc, iii., 21.'5, 231, 235; vli., 507; Col. Eec. 
Conn., ii., 242, 5G9 ; Mass. H. S. Coll., xxx., 116; ante, 55, 56, 2.53. 

t Council Min., iii. (ii.), 30, 41, 42 ; Warr., Ord., Passes, iii., 104, 115, 116; Col. Rec. Conn., 
ii., 252, .570-574. 5S1 ; Col. Doc, iii., 2.^5, 230, 23S ; Col. MSS., xxiv., 121. 

t Warr., Ord., Passe-s, iii., 106, 116 ; Col. Doc, ii., 739, 744 ; iii., 234, 235, 236, 237, 415. 


In this posture of affairs, intelligence reached 'New York chap. vi. 
that the Wampanoags and Narragansetts, who owned most ^ 
of the territory of Ehode Island, had revolted against the * 

Em-opeans. The Narragansett sachem, JSTinigret, had been 
suspected, in 1669, of plotting against the English colonists. 
Two yeare afterward, Metacomet, or Philip, the sachem of pinUp of 
the Wampanoags, who inhabited the region of Pokanoket, ket.^^^" 
around the eastern and northern shores of Xarragansett 
Bay, was obhged to give up most of his guns and acknowl- 
edge his subjection to the Plymouth government. This 
galled the soul of the American chief. He was the youn- 
gest son of Massasoit, who had made the first treaty with 
the English " Pilgrims." Massasoit's eldest son, Wamsut- 
ta, or Alexander, succeeded to the sachemship ; but he 
soon followed his father to the grave, broken-hearted, at 
being dragged a prisoner to answer before the European 
new-comers at Plymouth. Philip was a youth when he 
became sachem in place of Wamsutta. Tet he had heard 
of the prompt kindness of his father, Massasoit, to the for- 
lorn English Pilgrims, and naturally contrasted it with the 
characteristic arrogance which repaid savage hospitality 
with British truculence. He saw that the Europeans had 
crowded his people into narrow necks of land, where they 
were jealously watched. In vain had Eliot and Mayhew 
solicited the Wampanoags to become Christians. The 
well-remembered injunctions of Massasoit kept the tribe 
firm in heathenism. A few savages were nevertheless con- 
verted. Among these was John Sausaman, who, after be- 
ing partially educated at Cambridge, relapsed from Chris- 
tianity, and was employed by Philip as his secretary. The 
Pm-itan colonists had generally disregarded the feelings of 
the Americans. Instead of adopting the conciliatory policy 
of New Netherland and New York toward the natives, tliey New En- 
followed — without any warrant fi'om the God of Israel — fy!° ^° '' 
the aggressive method of that peculiar host which went 
out of Egypt to possess the promised land. As Puritan- 
ism had already exterminated or sold the Pequods, so it 
now doomed the other native owners of New England to 
destruction or bondage. The pride of the aborigines was 
wounded without remorse ; for the white English Pharisee, 
holding the imported black African in slavery, would not 





Philip pre- 
pares for 

29 Jan'y. 
John Sau- 

S June. 
tried and 
at Plym- 

Rhode Isl- 
and magia- 
trates visit 

brook the equality of the noble red American, whose lands 
he covetously appropriated. While at Albany the autoch- 
thones of America were addressed as "Brothers," every 
where in New England, except in Rhode Island, they were 
offensively reminded of their inferiority. These memo- 
ries stirred the mind of Phihp. Cautiously visiting the 
neighboring tribes, he urged them to drive out the de- 
stroyers of their race. The Narragansetts were won by 
his eloquence ; and secret preparations were made for a 
rising of the native Americans against their British foes 
in the spring of 1676.* 

An unexpected event precipitated the crisis. Sausaman, 
reclaimed from his apostasy by Ehot, revealed Philip's plot 
to the Plymouth governor. Not long afterward the in- 
former's body was found under the ice in Assawomsett 
Pond, midway between Plymouth and Rhode Island. It 
was suspected by the English that the savages had punish- 
ed, after their own laws, a renegade and a traitor. Thi-ee 
of Philip's subjects were accordingly tried at Plymouth; 
convicted of the murder of Sausaman ; and executed. The 
Wampanoag chief now remained on guard within his 
strong-hold at Mount Hope, near Bristol, in Rhode Island. 
There he soon gathered seven hundred warriors, the yomi- 
ger of whom were eager to avenge the death of their three 
countrymen by the forms of Puritan law, which they did 
not recognize. They were restrained from attacking by a 
behef that the side which shed the first blood in the strife 
would be conquered.f Hoping to prevent hostilities, John 
Easton, " Deputy Governor," and several magistrates of 
Rhode Island — which colony had always been friendly 
with the Indians — ^dsited Philij) at the Ferry. " We sat," 
wrote the honest Quaker, " very friendly together. We 
told him our business was to endeavour that they might 
not receive or do wrong. They said that was well: they 

* Bradford's Plymouth, 94-97; Hutch. Mass., i. ,275-285; Golden, 1,40; Mather's Mag- 
nalia (ed. 1S53), ii., 429, 430, 434, 55S, 559; Mather's History of New England (ed. 1SG4), 
220-234 ; Easton's Narrative of Philip's Indian War (ed. 1S5S), viii.-xii., 3. 6, 12-14, 33-39 ; 
Court of Assizes, ii.,C7S; Holmes, i., 325, 309, 3S3 ; Belknap, i, 102-107 ; B.incroft, ii., 92- 
100 ; Palfrey, iii., 141-151, 218, 221, 298; Arnold's Rhode I?land, i., 23, 87, 212, 3.39, 387-395; 
Plymouth Col. Rec., v., 76-80 ; Hazai-d, ii., 531-534; Moore's Notes on Slavery in Mass., 
passim; ante, i., 171 ; ii., 155, 150, 254. 

t Hutchinson, i., 280, note, calls this "a whimsical opinion." It certainly was the con- 
verse of the augury prevailing in the Highlands of Scotland : 
"Which spills tlic foremost foeman's life. 
That party comiuers in the strife."— Z/ddy o/ the Lake, Canto iv., vi. 


had done no wrong ; the English wronged them. We said, cuap. vi. 
we knew the English said the Indians wronged them and 
the Indians said the English wronged them; but our de- 
sire was the quarrel might rightly be decided in the best 
way, and not as dogs decided their quarrels." The Indians 
then asked "how right might take place?" The Rhode 
Islanders proposed arbitration. The Americans rephed 
that all the English were " agreed against them," and 
would insist upon English arbitrators, by whom they al- 
ready had much wrong. The Rhode Island men suggest- 
ed that they might choose an Indian king, and the English 
the governor of New York, both of whom would be indif- 
ferent. This pleased the savages ; and " if that way had 
been tendered, they would have accepted." Philip then 
told the grievances of his people. When the first colonists 
came, his father, Massasoit, " was as a great man, and the 
English as a little child," to whom he freely did good ; but 
now the Americans were insulted and cheated in bargains, 
until " they had no hopes left to keep any land." Again 
the Rhode Island men m-ged the Indians to accept the ar- 
bitration of Andros and a native king ; to which they did ArMtra- 
not object. Easton and his fi'iends then endeavored tOpo3^d!^°' 
persuade them " to lay down the war ; for the English were 
too strong for them." With logic as keen as it was just, 
Philip replied, " then the Enghsh should do to them as Philip's 
they did when they were too strong for the English." So '^^ ^' 
ended this memorable interview. It was a virtual protest, 
by Rhode Island and Philip, against the doctrine of the 
Puritan colonists of New England, that they were the sole 
judges between themselves and Americans. If those colo- 
nies had accepted the arbitration of Andros and a native 
chief, justice might have been done, and war avoided.* 

Philip's young men could not be restrained. Some of 
them plundered a house at Swansey, within the Plymouth 20 June, 
government, and one of the marauders was killed by an begin. 

* Plymouth Col. Kec., v., 1GT-1T4; Mather's Early Histoiy, 535-237 ; Mather's War, 4S:; 
53; Magnalia, ii., 553,500; Hutch., i., 284-2SG; Baylcy'a Plymouth, ii., 2T ; Easton' s Nar- 
rative, by Hough, 1-15; "Atrue Eelation,"etc.,in N.Y.Col. MSS.,xxv., 29. This Rhode 
Island negotiation with Philip is not noticed by most New England writere. Mr. Palfrey, 
iii., ISO, note, pronounces that Easton's Narrative adds " nothing of importance" to our his- 
torical knowledge ; and in a note to page 227, he says of the speech of Philip to John IJor- 
den, given in Arnold, i., 304, 395, " I have made no account of it. It is no m.nterial for his- 
tory." Perhaps a New Yorker may venture to dissent from this Massachusetts judgment. 



cuAP. \^. 

24 June. 

29 June. 

1 July. 

4 July. 
Action of 
New York. 

4 July. 
letter to 

7 July. 
Action of 

8 July. 
Andros at 

Englishman. This made the savages hope that they would 
triumph in the end, because the English had shed the first 
blood. Swansey was attacked, and several of its inhabit- 
ants killed. Massachusetts and Plymouth called out large 
forces. An express was sent to Hartford for aid, and Win- 
throp dispatched the news to Andros at New York.* 

The Metropolitan Council thought " that Connecticut 
doth not expect nor desire assistance from us in relation to 
the Indian disturbances at this time." But it was "Re- 
solved that the Governor do proceed on his intended voy- 
age to Connecticut forthwith, and do take a force with him 
to be in a capacity to protect that part of His Royal High- 
ness's Government, as there may be occasions." So, An- 
dros wrote to "Winthrop : — " I am very much troubled at 
the Christians' misfortunes and hard disasters in those 
parts, being so overpowered by such heathen. Hereupon, 
I have hastened my coming to your parts, and added a 
force to be ready to take such resolutions as may be fit for 
me upon this extraordinary occasion, with which I intend, 
God willing, to set out this evening, and to make the best 
of my way to Connecticut River, His Royall Highnesses 
bounds there."t 

Andros's letter made great trouble at Hartford. The 
Council of War hastened Captain Thomas Bull to Say- 
brook, and recalled the forces sent forward to fight against 
Philip. Bull's instructions were cunningly drawn. He 
was to keep Saybrook and its neighborhood from any ene- 
my, " by force of arms," if necessary ; and while his or- 
ders appeared to require him to repel the savages only, 
they really meant that the ofiicers of the Duke of York 
were to be treated as the special foes of Connecticut.:}: 

The next morning, Andros, with three sloops, appeared 
off Saybrook, and desired a " direct and effectual answer" 
to his former letters. Meanwhile the Hartford authorities 
had ordered their subordinates at Saybrook to " carry it 
warily and prudently" with Andros, forbid his landing, 
and advise him to send his forces eastward and assist the 

* Mather's History, 53-58 ; Magnali.a, ii., 561 ; Hutch., i., 2S0, 2S7; Hough's Easton, 16- 
21, 40-43 ; Bany, i., 410, 411 ; Mass. II. S. Coll., xxx., IIT, 118 ; R. I. II. S. Coll., iv., 127 ; 
Col. MSS., xxiv., 110, 121 ; Col. Kec. Conn., ii., 332, 579 ; Palfrey, iii., 129, 155. 

t Council Min.. iii. (ii.), 44 ; Warr., Ord., Paeses, iii., 117 ; Col. MSS., xxiv., 121 ; Hough's 
Easton, 44-48 ; ( Uec. Conn., ii., 579 ; Col. Doc, iii., 254, 264 ; Palfrey, iii., 129. 

t Col. Rcc. Conn., ii., 333, 579. 


" good people" at Seaconk or Swansey. The next day they chap. vi. 
wrote to Andros himself, resenting his " hypotheticall ex- 
pressions and injurious imputations," and desiring him notgj^j^ ' 
to " molest" the king's good subjects in Connecticut, or put c^^pjo"' 
them " into a discomposure, at such a time as this." They *tahist 
also drew up " a Protest," denouncing the governor of N^ew diacompM- 

^ _ 7 o o ^ ure by An- 

York as a disturber of the king's peace, and appealing to ^ros. 
the Connecticut charter as their warrant for refusing obe- 
dience to the duke's representative.* 

Andros had meanwhile remained quietly at Saybrook, 
anxious about his suffering countrymen at the East, to 
whom he sent forward a sloop with supplies ; and wonder- 
ing that the Connecticut forces did not move to their re- 
lief. When the dispatches from Hartford were communi- is jniy. 
cated to him, the governor landed, with his attendants, and laSd^'^t 
was received by the Connecticut officials, who desired " to ^^^^^^ 
tender him a treaty." This Andros declined ; but he or- 
dered the Duke of York's patent and liis own commission 
to be read ; which was accomphshed, while the Connecti- His com- 
cut officials " withdrew a little," declaring that they " had read! 
nothing to doe to attend it." Andros then told them that 
he had now done, and would sail immediately unless they 
desired him to stay. The Connecticut officers answered 
that they were not ordered to ask liim to remain ; and they 
then read the protest of the Hartford authorities. This The Hart- 
Andros at once denounced as "a slander, and so an ill^asian- 
requital for his kindness ;" and being refused a copy of it, 
he went on board his sloop again, and sailed to Long Isl- 
and, whence he intended to send a force to Martin's Vine- 
yard, and then to return to New York. As he passed be- 
low the fort, salutes were fired on both sides.f 

The Hartford authorities regretted that their subordi- 14 juiy. 
nates at Saybrook had not interrupted Andros " in com- connTc u- 
manding there so usurpingly ;" which " might have been 
done by shouts, or soimd of drum, etc., without vio- 

• Col. M3S., xxiv., 121 ; Warr., Ord., Passes, iii., US, 119 ; Hough's Easton, 49-50 ; Col. 
Rec. Conn., ii., 260-263, 334, 335, 5T9, 5S0, 581 ; Trumbull, i., 329, 330; I'alfrey, iii., 129, 
130; ante, iSO. 

t Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 5S2, 583, 584; Col. Doc, iii., 254, 264, 415; Warr., Ord., Passes, 
iii., 119, 120; Hough's Easton, 56-60; Mass. H. S. Coll., xxxvii., 13T; Palfrey, iii., 130,131. 
The romantic account of this transaction, which the Reverend Doctor Trumbull has dressed 
up in his History of (Jonnecticut, i., 328-330, is so en-oneous that Mr. Palfrey is " obliged to 
omit some striliing circumstances in the sketch by that usually cautious historian :" Hist. 
N. R,iii.,131, note. 



Chap. VL leiicG."* An elaborate "narrative" of the Connecticut 
~ version was sent to Major Robert Thompson, of Newing- 

24 July ' ^*^^ Grreen, near London, with a request for liis help against 
Andros, who, it was thought, " must be necessitated to mis- 
represent" the colony.f 

14 July. Andros, meanwhile, went over to Southold, wlience he 

New York 

soldiers dispatched a sloop, with some soldiers and ammunition, to 
Martha's Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket. " To satisfy the great 
anrNan- jcalousy" of liis ncighbors, the governor came through 
Long Island to New York, disarming the Indians every 
where, and reviewing all the militia. On his reporting 
24 July, "the several passages of his voyao-e," the council resolved 

Lone Isl- i. ^ «/ o ^^ 

and In- that the several towns on Long Island should maintain a 
good watch, and take care that the disarmed Indians " be 
not any wise injured, but assisted, upon any occasion re- 
quiring it.":]: 
23 July. The governor also sent for all the Indian sachems of 

Indians. Ncw Jcrscy aud other parts, most of whom had been with 
him before, and they all " again renewed their submissions 
and eno'a2rements."§ 

At the same time, Andros did not neglect the immediate 
interests of the pro^dnce. Accordingly, the coimcil, " upon 
a proposal to give pubhc notice what encouragement will 
be given to persons that shall come out of Europe hither, 
to inhabite and plant in this His Royal Highness's Prov- 
.5 Aufrust. ince. Resolved that every freeman shall have for himself 
lands ofifer- the proportiou of sixty acres of land of inheritance, and 
grants^'"'' for his wifc and every child fifty acres per head ; and ev- 
rop& " ery working servant that shall be brought over shall have 
each of them fifty acres after the exj)iration of their serv- 
ice, according to the custom of the country." A copy of 
this order was sent to England by the ship Good Hope, 

* Col. Kec. Conn., ii., 335, 5S4. It would seem that this hint was remembered in 1093, 
when Fletcher, one of the successors of Andro.=, vi.sited Hartford ; although the "•tradition" 
related by Doctor Trumbull, i., 393, does not agree with the ofUcial account in Col. Doc, iv., 

t Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 96, 103, 203, 264, 338-344; iii., 201 ; Trumbull, i., 331 ; Mass. Rec, 
v., 408, 409, 426, 467 ; Hutch. Coll., 449, 403, 469, 473 ; Col. Doc, iii., 355. Winthrop, who 
intended to take the Connecticut "• Narrative" to England, died at Boston on the 5th of 
April, 1070: Col. Rec Conn., ii., 273; Palfrey, iii., 233-238. 

t Warr., Ord., Passes, iii., 119, 120, 121 ; (Council Min., iii. (ii.), 44 ; Hough's Easton, 54- 
04; Col. Doc, iii., 254, 204. On the 21st of July, Governor Coddington, of Rhode Island, 
complained to Andros of the invasion of its territoi-y by Massachusetts and Connecticut : 
Col. MSS.,xxiv.,128. 

§ Col. MSS., xxiv., 117, 130 ; Council Min , iii. (ii.), 44 ; Dunlnp, ii., App., cxxii. : Col. Doc, 
iii., 251 ; Hough's Easton, 76. 


Captain George Heatlicote, a Quaker, who had been im- ciiap. vi. 
prisoned at Boston by Governor Bellingham " for deliver- 
ing him a letter, and not putting off his hat."* 

The intrigues of the French missionaries, Bruyas and 
Lamberville, among the Iroquois, having caused com- 
plaints, the council resolved that the Mohawks should be le April. 
encouraged to friendship, and the Jesuits be sent for, to 
explain themselves at Albany. Leaving Brockholls in 
charge at New York, Andros now went up the river. Aft- 
er regulating affairs at Schenectady, he visited the " most so August. 
warlike Indians near one hundred miles beyond ;" and at its the mo-' 
Tionnontoguen, the third castle of the Mohawks, he ac- redives'" 
cepted the name of " Corlaer," who, they told him, was " a of "'co"--^ 
man that was of good dispositions and esteemed deare ^^®^""" 
amongst us."f On his return to Albany, the Five Iro- 
quois nations applied to Andros " declaring their former 
alliance, and now submitted in an extraordinary manner, 
with reiterated promises." Perhaps the governor's most 
important measure at this time was to organize a local 
board of commissioners for Indian affairs, composed of Indian 
some of the Albany officers.:}: Of this board he appointed sioneis at 
as secretary the town clerk of Albany, Robert Livingston, r. LivLg- 
a shrewd young Scotchman, who had come over f rom letaryr" 
Rotterdam the year before, and who was destined to be- 
come prominent in colonial affairs.§ 

The Council now " Resolved that we ought not to break lo septem. 
with our Indians upon account of the war between our ders?" ^^' 
neighbors and their Indians." The selling of powder to 

* Council Min., iii. (ii.), 45, 4C ; Col. MSS., xxiv., 127 ; xxv., 25-t2, 221, 235-241 ; Farmer 
and Moore's Coll., iii., 190 ; Besae, ii., 259 ; C. WoUey, 12, 9T ; Holmes, i., 3T7. 

t This name " Corlaer" was given by the Iroquois to the governora of New York, until, in 
1693, they made a special one for Fletcher : compare Col. Doc, iii., 254, 322, 327, iJ95, 559 ; 
iv.,22, 85; Colden, i., 32, 41 ; ante, 121. 

t Warr., Ord., Passes, iii., 77, 122, 125, 12G, 129, 224, 225 ; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 34 ; Col. 
Doc, iii., 254, 323, 559 ; Hist. Mag., ii. (i.), 301. Regular minutes were kept of the transac- 
tions of the Albany commissioners, beginning with 1675, which in 1751 were bound up in 
four large folio volumes. But they have disappeared from our State Archives : see Colden, 
i.. Preface, ix., 94 ; Smith, i., 251, note ; Col. Doc, 1, Gen. Introd., viii., xxxi. ; v., 983, note; 
vi., 439, 731, 739. 

§ Col. MSS., xxiv., 140. Robert Livingston was born on 13 December, 1654, at Ancram, 
in Roxburghshire, Scotland, where his father, the Rev. John Livingston, was the Presbyte- 
rian minister. After the Restoration the father went to Rotterdam, where he died on 9th of 
August, 1672. After his father's death, Robert, who had learned the Dutch language, came 
to Albany, probably accompanying Domine Van Rensselaer thither in the autumn of 1674 : 
ante, 272. There is a biographical sketch of him in Doc. Hist., iii., 434: see also Col. Doc, 
iii., 315, 401, 699 ; iv., 203,251, 2.58, 720; v., 196; Smith, i., 142, wofe ,- Sedgwick's Life of 
W. Livingston ; Hunt's Life of E. Livingston. 


Chap. VI. the savages was " regulated as formerly ;" each town was 
to provide a block-house as a refuge for women and chil- 
leseptem. ^rcn ; and all New York Indians were to be "friendly 
treated, and have equall justice according to law." A 
New York sloop was also Ordered to cruise in the Sound ; and, as the 
souSd° ^natives were very strong near Martha's Vineyard and 
Gun?se^t" Nantuckct, great guns were sent to each of those islands. 
viMyard ^ Tlicsc mcasurcs, however, made Connecticut fear that An- 
tucket" dros would again threaten Saybrook.* 

Domine Nicolaus van Rensselaer, who had come from 
London under the special patronage of the Duke of York, 
was soon afterward inducted by Andros to minister in the 
Reformed Dutch Church at Albany, as a colleague of 
Case of Domine Schaats. This was done without regard to the 
Nicoiaus Classis of Amsterdam,' which governed the Reformed 
seiaer. Dutch cliurclies in New York, under the eighth article of 
the capitulation of 1604, confirmed by Andros's stipula- 
tion with Colve. It occasioned much ill feeling, and Yan 
Rensselaer was forbidden to baptize children in the me- 
tropolitan Reformed Dutcli Church by Domine Yan Nieu- 
wenhuysen, who denied the lawfulness of his induction at 
Albany. Instead of showing that he had been ordained as 
a minister in Holland, Yan Rensselaer complained to An- 
dros that the Church of England and the Duke of York's 
recommendation had been contemned. Yan Nieuwen- 
25 septem. huyscn was summoned to explain himself before the Coun- 
soseptem. cil. He admitted the validity of English Episcopal ordi- 

1 October, uation, but insisted that every minister serving any Re- 

formed Dutch congregation in the king's dominions must 
promise conformity to the Holland Church. Tliis explana- 
tion was accepted ; and Yan Rensselaer, having solemnly 

2 October, promised to conduct liis ministry " conformably to the pub- ' 

lie Church service and discipline of the Reformed Church 
of Holland," the question was satisfactorily adjusted.f 

• Coimcil Min.,iii. (ii.), 50, 51, 52,57; Warr., Ord., Passes, iii., 132, 133, 134; Col. MSS., 
xxiv., 138, 139, 141 ; Hough's Philip's War, 71-S2 ; Nantucket Piipers, 8.^, SO ; Eec. Conn., 
iL, 369-371; C.Wolley,95; (lofr, 2TS. 

t Corr. CI. Amst. , Le'ter of Van Nieuwenhnyscn of 30 May, 1C76, and Inclosiires ; Council 
Min , iii. (ii ), 51-59; Doc. Hist., iii., 52(>, 527; Col. Doc, iii., 225; Col. MSS., xxiv., 153; 
Yonkers Gazette, 21 October, 1SC5; Hist. Mag., ix., 352, 353; N. Y. Christ. Int., 2 Novem- 
ber, 1865 ; ante, 270, 272. The account of tliis matter in Smith, i., 49, 50, is very erroneous. 
Domine Van Rensselaer improved liis visit to New York by procuring Andros to appoint hira 
director of Rensselaerwyck in place of his deceased brother, Jeremins : Col. MSS., xxiv., 158; 
XXV., 145. The domine married Alida, daughter of Philip Pietersen Schuyler, of Albany, and 
died there in November, 1G7S : O'Call., i., 212; ii.,552; llolgate, 40, 42,103; aofc, i., 533. 


At the fii'st regular session of the Court of Assizes un- chap. vi. 
der Andros, the ease of Steenwyck and his Dutch associ- 
ates, who had been bound over for " sedition," was taken g October 
up, and De Peyster was acquitted on his taking the oath. i?2^[^^*gj. 
The other seven were convicted of " not beina; obedient to ^f ^^ °^ , 

. '-' , steenwyck 

His Maiesty's laws," in having traded without taking; the a°<?hi3■13- 
•' , '' •' ^ ~ sociates. 

oath, in violation of the act of Parhament. Their goods 
were accordingly forfeited; but eventually all penalties 
were remitted upon the prisoners taking the required oaths. 3 xovem. 
Thus ended the question ; and on the proclamation of the so October. 
new mayor, William Dervall, the inhabitants of the me- 
tropolis who had hitherto refused, came forward and swore 
allegiance to Enghsh authority.* 

Among other things, the Court of Assizes — upon the pe- 13 October. 
tition of the coopers of South and East Hampton, on Long setts coop- 
Island, that, owing to their " great deceipt," stranger coop- iiked°on 
ers should not come from Boston and work there in the ^^ ^*'' 
winter — Ordered "that noe cooper shall be admitted to 
make casks without the consent of the magistrates" of the 
respective towns. A yearly fair for grain, cattle, or other Fair at 
produce, was established "at Breucklyn, neare the ferry." "^^ ^"' 
By reason of its separation by water, it was ordered that 
" Staten Island shall have a jurisdiction of itself, and tostateni^i- 
have noe farther dependence on the courts of Long Island ;" john 
and John Palmer was appointed its "Ranger." Palmer ran^n 
was an English lawyer, who had recently come to New 
York from Barbadoes. A double rate was also levied church 
" upon all those townes that have not already a sufficient 
maintenance for a minister."! 

The New York Court ordered all canoes east of Hell e-ii oct. 
Gate to be laid up, because the savages were said to be thTs^und 
plotting to attack the English as far west as Greenwich, up. ^ """ 
BrockhoUs was also sent to Albany with " reiterated or- 10 octobei-. 
ders" for the advantage of Connecticut. The burning of sent to ai- 
Hadley, Deerfield, Northiield, and Springfield induced An- 19 tfctober. 

• Col. MSS., xxiv., 172-178, 1S6, 196 ; xxv., 1, 2, 5-14 ; Warr., Ord., Passes, iii., 142, 157 ; 
Min. of Common Council,!., 9-11; Col. Doc, iii., 233, 237, 23r!; an<#, 277, 27S. Derv-allnow 
succeeded Nicolls as mayor of New York, and John Sharpe was made sheriff; Samuel Leete 
was appointed clerk of the city and of the Court of Assizes : Min. of C. C, i., 1, 2, 9 ; Val. 
Man., 1845, 309, 331, 332 ; ante, 252, 253. 

t Col. MSS., xxiv., 164, 185; xxv., 70; xxvi., 155; xxvii., 35, 36, 57, 59; W.arr , Ord., 
Passes, iii., 196; N. Y.H. S. Coll., i., 425-42S : V:il. Man., 1S44-5, 310, 311; Yonkers Ga- 
zette, 25 Nov., 1*65; Stiles's Brookljii, i., 158. Palmer afterward rose to distinction in 
New York and New England, in both of which he was made a judge. 

II.— T 


Chap. VI. dros to think of encouraging the Iroquois to attack the 
~" Eastern savages. But, as the Mohawks had renewed their 
' former peace with the Mahicans "without leave," it was 
24 October, ordered to be kept. It was farther directed "that there 
abouT be at this juncture a prohibition of selHng powder and 
powder, j^^^ ^^ ^^^ Indians whatsoever at Albany, unless it be to 
the Maquas and Senecas." The commander there might, 
however, allow a small quantity to be sold to any well 
known Mahican beaver - hunter. As the magistrates at 
Esopus had shown great apprehension of the Indians, they 
were reproved "for their needlesse feares." But they 
Esopus were required to explain what was* meant by the savages 
offering to deliver up the articles made between ISTicolls 
and them in 1665, and which had "been renewed with 
those Indians this very spring."* 
2 Novem. The Confederated colonies having declared war against 
^nd3^°up- the Narragansetts, Andros spontaneously sent six barrels of 
i{hoVe''isi- powder and other ammunition to Rhode Island, " which 
^^^' they thankfully accepted, and afterwards lent part of it to 
New England forces in want, at their fight in Narragansett 
19 Decern, couutry." lu this engagement nearly a thousand savages 
sett'fight.' and two hundred English colonists were killed and wound- 
ed. The Rhode Island Quakers still desired the arbitra- 
tion of the governor of New York ; thinking that Puri- 
tanic New England ministers had urged on hostilities, " and 
1676. that the war had not been, if there had not been a hire- 
Rhode'isi ^^^^5 ^^^^5 ^^^' ^^^ money, giving, what he calleth the Gos- 
bukeTiias P®^' ^y violence." Governor Coddington, of Rhode Island, 
sachuset'ts. accordiugly rebuked Massachusetts for having " departed 

from the Lord."t 

1675. Nehemiah Pierce and James Pennyman, charged with 

piwc^rnd " writing false storeys to Boston," were sent down from Al- 

^^°^' bany to New York, and bound over. Massachusetts, on 

7 Decern, similar information, published a declaration that Philip had 

been " supplied with ammunition from Albany, whereby 

• Warr., Ord., PaPse?, iii., 139, 141, 142, 143, 145, 14f>, 147, 148, 151, 155, 150; Council 
Min., iii. (ii.), 65, 66 ; Col. MSS., xxiv., 157, 172; N. Y. H. S. Coll., i., 425-42S; Col. Eec. 
Conn., ii., 3T2-37S ; Col. Doc, iii., 254, 264; Wood'.? L. I., SO; Ilough'g Philip, 83-119; 
Hutch. Mass., i., 294, 295; Trumbull, i., 333-335; Holland's Western Mass., 1., 95, 105; 
ante, 89, 181, 192. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 254, 2C5 ; Col. Rec Conn., ii., 383-391 ; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 74 ; Warr., 
Ord., Passe?, iii., 169 ; Hough's Philip's War, 26-31, 125, 129-135; Hutch. Mass., i., 297-301 ; 
Trumbull, i., 337-342; Arnold, i., 401^00 ; Col. MSS., xxv., 07. 


be was enabled to prosecute bis bloody design against tlie chap. vi. 
Englisb." Tliis was sucb an " aspersion" tbat Andi'os sent 
an express to Boston to vindicate tbe duke's government. ^^ j^j^.^ ' 
Tbe Puiitan Bostonians cleared tbe magistrates of I^ew ^g^^jj^^^l^. 
York, yet continued to asperse ber people " witbout any ^f^^gsto' 
known cause, complaint, or notice." Tbe metropolitan ^^^p^«'^ 
council tbereupon resolved " Tbat for tbe present no f urtber 24 Febr-y. 
application be made to tbe Government of Boston." An- 
dros's action was " very well looked on" in London.^ 

Pbilip being now reported witbin forty or fifty miles of 
Albany, Andros sent fresb orders to Brockbolls, and again 6 jan'y. 
notified tbe Hartford autborities. Tbey prudently sug- 
gested tbat tbe Mobawks sbould be employed to " utterly 13 jan'y. 
extirpate" tbe natives in New England, and binted tbatcuTand'' 
Albany bad supplied tbe " common enemy" witb arms or 
ammunition. Andros satirically repelled tbis " great re- 20 jan'y. 
flection on tbe Dutcb," and demanded explanations, Tbe 
Connecticut Council could only give rumors. Tbe gov- 
ernor tben demanded wbetber Connecticut would allow 4 Febr'y. 
tbe New York Iroquois to pursue tbeir enemies in ber ter- about 
ritory? Tbis sbe declined, but suggested tbat tbe Mo-io'rib'y. 
hawks bad better attack Pbilip " near Albany."! 

Good correspondence, bowever, was maintained between 
New York and Pbode Island, tbe people of wbicb were in- 
formed " tbat any in tbeir parts driven by tbe Indians from it jan'y. 
tbeir habitations or plantations sball be welcome bere, and between 
have land assigned tbem upon tbis. Long Island, or Staten and Rhode 
Island." But Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Plymouth, 
having shown no desire for tbe friendship of New York, 
the council resolved " to continue om- endeavors as Chris- 26 FeVy. 
tians and the King's subjects, for tbe good of tbis Govern- "chris- 
ment, witbout further ajtplication to the said Coloneys." prove New 
Tbe governor was also advised to " go forthwith to Al- puritaM. 
bany, to settle matters there, it being of very great im- 
port ;" as news bad just come of the Mohawks " being 
moved in a warlike manner against tbe North Indians.":}: 

Tbe Hudson having opened unexpectedly soon, Andros 

• Council Min., iii. (ii.), 68, 69, TO, 81, 85; Col. Doc, iii., 238, 242, 254, 25S, 266, 26T; 
Hough's Philip's War, 120-142 ; Hutch. Coll., 4T6-490 ; Mather's War, 117, 129, 254. 

t Col. Doc, iiL, 255, 265; Col. Rec Conn., u.,397, 398, 404, 406,407; Hutch. Mass., i., 
305 ; Palfrey, iii., 229. 

t Council Min., iii. (ii.), 81, 85, 86, 9T; Col. MSS., xxv., 81 ; Hough's Philip's War, 136, 
13T, 143-147, 160, 164. 

292 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK. went up to Albany with six sloops and additional men. 
He found that some three hundred Mohawks had just re- 

Andioa turned from the pursuit of Philip, and had brought back 

ijbiny* several scalps. The}'- had been supplied with arms and 
ammunition by BrockhoUs, who had also received their old 
sachems, squaws, and children within Albany. Lieutenant 

4 March. Tcunise was at once dispatched "to the farthest part of 
the Government, or as far as Connecticut River," to de- 
mand from Philip any Christian prisoners. The governor 

11 March, also directed William Loveridge to be arrested for having 

arre!te/for slanderously affirmed that the Dutch inhabitants of Al- 
bany had supplied the North Indians with arms and am- 

27 March, mmiition. Sergeant Sharpe was left in command of the 

Ai)rii. garrison, as BrockhoUs was needed at New York.* 

7 March. Connccticut had meanwhile asked to be allowed to talk 

19 March, with tlic Iroquois at Albany, and threatened that, if her 

cut agents " historiaus" should report to England, the conduct of An- 

York."^ dros " would look dark, and be displeasing both to His 

Majesty and all true Englishmen; yea. His Highness would 

take no pleasure in the consequences of such services by 

his ministers." Samuel Willys and William Pitkin came 

1 Apru. on her behalf to ask the desired permission. After full 

explanations before the council, the Connecticut agents 
10 April, were told that New York had already " taken fitting or- 
NewYork. dcrs" with regard to its own Indians, and that it was 
"strange" that their colony, which had been so jealous 
about all their own concerns, should " ask to treat with any 
branch of this Government apart." Andros also wrote 
10 April, that he was ready to do all he could to procure a peace be- 
tween the Connecticut authorities and their savage ene- 
mies, " and wholly to remove all manner of jealousys, shall 
suspend all further demands of that part of your colony 
claimed by His Poyal Highness, (to remain as it is,) 'till a 
determination from England."! 
5 May. To caiTy out his humane intentions toward Rhode Isl- 

and, the governor sent his sloop there to bring back as 

* Col. Doc, iii., 255, 2C5, 708 ; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 87, 101 ; Warr., Ord., Passes, iii., 
14G, 223 ; Col. MSS., x.^v., 88, 90, 184; Hough's Philip's War, 103, 148-163, 167. 

t Council Min., iii. (ii.), 90-93 ; Col. Rec. Conn., ii , 414, 419, 420, 426, 435, 436, 437 ; Col. 
Doc., iii., 255, 265; Hough's Philip's War, 155-159. The Connecticut correspondence was 
now conducted by lier new governor, William I,eetc, who succeeded the deceased Winthrop : 
Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 273; Trumbull, i., 345, 340 ; Palfray, iii., 233-238; Arnold, i., 411,412; 
JJ. Y. n. S. Coll. (1869), 374-3TG ; ante, 2S0, 7iote. 


many of her people as wished to come to JSTew York. At 
the same time, it was " Ordered that upon this extraordi- ^ 
nary occasion of the warre, and other late intelligences, p^enaiy' 
the severall townes upon Long Island be sent to, to repre- ^ew York 
sent the same unto the inhabitants, in order to a levy, and R^o^g^jgi. 
to know what they will give towards a supply." Collector ^°'^- 
Dyer was accordingly dispatched to urge each town to s May. 
grant "such a suitable supply as may be proper." But 
this appeal was poorly answered. The contribution, like 
that proposed by Lovelace in 1672, was viewed as " a kind is May. 
of benevolence — the badge of bad times."* 

On Salisbury's return, Andros received fresh instructions 
from the Duke of York. Referring to his former direc- 
tions of the 6th of April, 1675, concerning Assemblies, 
James added, " I have since observed what several of your 28 jan'y. 
latest letters hint about that matter. But unless you had of York 
offered what qualifications are usual and proper to such approve's' 
Assemblyes, I cannot but suspect they would be of dan- tues!^^"*" 
gerous consequence ; nothing being more knowne than the 
aptness of such bodyes to assume to themselves many priv- 
iledges which prove destructive to, or very oft disturbe the 
peace of the government wherein they are allowed. Nei- 
ther do I see any use of them, which is not as well pro- 
vided for, whilst you and your council govern according to 
the laws established (thereby preserving every man's prop- 
erty inviolate), and whilst all things that need redresse may 
be sm^e of finding it, either at the Quarter Sessions or by 
other legall and ordinary wayes ; or lastly by appeal to my- 
selfe. But, howsoever, if you continue of the same opin- 
ion, I shall be ready to consider of any proposalls you shall 
send to that purpose." 

At the same time the duke approved of Andres's demand 2s jan-y. 
" of all the land on the west side of Connecticut River." sustains 
" But," he added, " at the present, for other reasons, I am acuon* * 
not willing you should proceed further, in regard I hope nectlcut?"* 
for hereafter more convenient means of adjusting the 
boundaries in those parts ; and in the interim, though the 
agreement by the Commissioners in 1664 were never con- 
firmed by me, I soe far approve of the prudence of Colonel 

* Council Min.,iii. (ii.), 94,95; Warr., Ord., Pastes, iii., 193; Hough's Philip, 137, 160- 
1C3 ; Smitli, L, 51 ; ante, 171, ISS. 



Chap. VI. 



31 Jao'y- 
" Boston- 
era" on tlie 

28 May. 

30 May. 
The Iro- 
quois sum. 
moned to 
meet An- 
dros at 

Fort and 
officer.? at 

Andros at 
cook, or 

NicoUs, at that time, as to admitt by no means of any near- 
er access of those of Connecticut than to the mouth of 
Marinac (or Mamaronocke) River, and along the edge of 
it; provided they come to noe place within twenty miles 
distance of Hudsons' Eiver. But this I hint to you only 
for the present, not intending thereby to conclude myself 
as to the right of the case." Secretary Werden wrote 
more fully that the duke was " willing things should rest 
as they are at present ; but he is not sorry you have re- 
vived this claim, because possibly some good use may be 
hereafter made of it." Werden also called Andros to ac- 
count for permitting "the Bostoners and other strangei^s 
to go up in theic small vessells to Esopus and Albany and 
elsewhere, as freely as the very natural subjects of his 
Boyal Highness's Colony," which was "a new thing," for- 
bidden by Lovelace, and to the disadvantage of the me- 

News having come that Massachusetts was making a 
separate peace with the North Indians, the Council re- 
solved that the Mohawks should be restrained from far- 
ther prosecuting them, and that arms be restored to the 
Long Island savages. As Connecticut was advising with 
TJncas about sending a present to the Mohawks, they were 
summoned to meet the governor at Albany. The Mahi- 
can and other eastward Indians were also invited to come 
in, and " live under the protection of the Government," as 
both Canada and Connecticut had solicited them.f 

At Albany the governor built a new stockaded fort, 
with four bastions, and mounted twelve guns, so as to de- 
fend and command the whole town. Salisbury, who was 
a favorite of the duke, was now reinstated in his old place 
of commander. Sergeant Sharpe remaining under his or- 
ders. The local militia was put under Captain Goosen 
Gen-itsen van Schaick, and Lieutenants Martin Gerritsen 
and Jan Jansen Bleecker. 

On this occasion Andros went up to Schaghticook, a 
pleasant place, in the present county of Kensselaer, near 
the confluence of the Hoosic with the Hudson Eiver, where 

• Col. Doc, iii., 230, 235-238, 241 ; Council Min., lii. (ii.), 99 ; Chalmers, i., 5S1, GOO ; Ban- 
croft, ii., 40G; ante, 55, .56, 108, 182, 188, 260, 279. 

t Council Min., iii. (ii.),90, 100, 101; Col. Kec. Conn., ii., 443; Col. MSS., xxv., IIG, 121, 
124; IlouglVs I'hilip'.-? War, 1C4-1GS; Nantucket rapes, 89-103. 


he " planted a tree of welfare," and invited all the North- chap, vl 
eiTi and River Indians to come and hve.* ^ 

Ha\dng informed the Hartford authorities of the " very 5 j^j^ 
great execution" done by the Mohawks on their savage en-^^^°^^^^'*' 
emies, Andros desired to know whether the New York In- 
dians would he admitted into their towns. This, however, 
was declined ; while Connecticut sent word that some of s juiy. 
Philip's warriors were about to cross the Hudson Eiver2ojuiy. 
near Esopus, " to seek for 'complices of their straine," and, 
if they should escape southward, " it may be a great occa- New York, 
sion to animate the Yirginia Indians." Convinced of " the 
improbability" of this suggestion, Andros replied that as 26 juiy. 
Connecticut declined the assistance of the Mohawks, he 
dared not " presume f m-ther, than as formerly, by encour- 
agements and gifts, to assure their constant fidelity." f 

Not long afterward a large party of savages were sur- 
prised at Stockbridge, on the Housatonic, and the surviv- Indiana 
ors were reported to be attempting their escape " over stock- 
Hudson's River to a place called Paquiage." The Con- " ^^' 
necticut Council asked Andros either to grant " liberty to 19 August. 
pass up your river, with some vessels from hence and the 
Bay, with men and provision, to pursue and destroy those 
of the enemies that are in those parts, or doe something 
effectual yom-self for the utter suppression of the enemy 
in those parts." The governor replied that he would dis- 25 August. 
patch proper orders to Albany, but he would not allow connecti- ' 
Connecticut to send forces up the Hudson, or her agents to taik with 
treat with the Mohawks, " as it would breed distraction.":}: quois."' 

In the mean time, Philip was slain in a swamp near 12 August. 
Mount Hope, whither he retreated after having defended nearMount 
'* what he imagined to be his own, and the just rights of his 
countrymen, to the last extremity." War was now ended. 
" A handsome penny" was turned by exhibiting the man- 

* Council Mln., iii. (ii.), 140 ; Warr., Ord., Passes, iii , 175, 223 ; Col. Doc, iii., 235, 255, 
260, 5G5, Tl3; iv., 24S, 576, T44, 902, 991; v., 3SS; Hutcli. Mass., i., 348; Colden, i., 101; 
Hist. Mag., iv., 50. Plans of Albany at this time, and of its fort, which stood near the pres- 
ent St. Peter's Church in State Street, are given in Miller's N. y.,and in Munsell's Ann. 
Alb., iii., 89; iv., 200. 

+ Col. Rec. Conn., ii, 461, 462, 466, 467 ; Council Min., iii (ii), 104, 105; Hougli's Philip's 
War, 171. 

t Trumbull, i., 34S, 349, 350; Col. Kec. Conn., ii, 469, 471, 472, 4TT, 478, 480; Council 
Min., iii (ii), 12S, 129. About two hundred of the fugitives from Stockbridge fled to the 
Mahicans on the Hudson River, and became incorporated with them : Coi Doc, iv., 744, 
902, 991 ; Trumbull, i, 350. Hutch. Mass., i, 348, calls them " Scatacook Indians." 


296 HISTORY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK. gled right hand of the son of Massasoit to 'New English 
" curiosity ;" and the able-bodied native American captives 
Fate of tiie ^'^^ cscapcd the tender mercies of " the women at Marble- 
AmlT'^ head," or the gibbets of Pl^nnouth and Massachusetts, were 
cans- exported to the West Indies and sold into slavery. Even 
the heir of the King of Pokanoket, and the grandson of the 
early friend of the sliivering " Pilgrims" from Holland, 
was made a victim of Puritan avarice ; and the latest his- 
torian of New England pronounces that there was no " pe- 
culiar aggravation in the circumstance that one of the suf- 
ferers was Philip's son."* 
August. The Duke of York's eastern territory did not escape the 
buSed"' consequences of Philip's war. Pemaquid was burned by 
the savages, who drove many of its colonists westward to 
Massachusetts. Hearing of this, the New York govern- 
ment voted land to the sufferers, and Andros dispatched 
8 septem. his sloop to Bostou, " offering fi-ee passage and relief to 
humanity, any drivcu from His Poyal Highness's territories about 
12 October. Pcmaquid." But Massachusetts, not relishing the humani- 
jSchu-'^ ty of New York, thought it better that all his Majesty's sub- 
jects should join in hunting the aborigines out of Maine, 
and that every effort should be made " to engage the Mo- 
hawks or other Indians, friends o'f the English, for their 
help and assistance therein."t 

Massachusetts, indeed, always coveted Maine. After the 
Dutch had conquered from the French the region east of 
the Penobscot, they were driven off by Boston vessels, the 
crews of which, nevertheless, " kept no possession." The 
States' ambassador at London, however, complained of 
this aggression, and charged that the Bostoners "would 
not suffer any Hollanders there." Charles accordingly or- 
iiFeVy. dered the Massachusetts magistrates "to return their an- 
swer to the said complaint, that so his Majesty, under- 
standing the nature of the fact, may give such order as is 
agreeable to justice therein.":}: 

• Hutch. Mass., i., 306, 307 ; Trumbull's Conn., i., 34S, 349; Mather, 18S, 194, 195 ; Davis's 
Morton, 453-455; Everett's Bloody Brook Address, 1835; Arnold's K. 1., i., 416, 417,418; 
Plymouth Col. Rec.,v., 174, 210; Hough's Philip's War, 21, 25, ISS; Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 
471 ; Palfrey, iii, 2(15, 20G, 216-221 ; Moore's Notes on Slavery in Massachusetts, 35-4S. 

t Council Min., iii. (ii.), 117 ; Col. Doc, iii., 241, 2.'>5, 205; Mass. Rec, v., 123 ; William- 
son's Maine, i., 515-537 ; Maine H. S. Coll., v., 8, 0, 2.^5, 25l> ; Palfrey, iii., 208-211. 

t Williamson's Maine, i., 580; Hutch. Mi^ss., i., 311 ; Coll., 464, 489; Mass. H. S. Coll., 
xxxii.,280, 287; Mass. Rec, v., 114, 116, US; Palfrey, iii., 205; n/ifc, 2.')4. On the 27th of 
October, 1676, the Dutch West India Company commissioned Coknelis Stee.nwtck, of New 


After the Peace of Westminster, the British king gave chap. vi. 
more thought to his American colonies. His former Conn- 
oil of Trade and Plantations was dissolved, and its records 21 Decem. 
were transferred to the Privy Council, a committee of 1675. 
which Charles directed to oversee "matters relating tONewcoml 
trade and his foreign plantations." Thus American af-^"j*gand 
fairs were restored to the immediate control of the crown, p}*"^'*- 
The strict enforcement in her colonies of the Navigation 11 August. 
and the Customs' laws of England was the motive. So 
the Plantation Committee addressed a circular letter to the 
several North American colonies requiring answers to va- 
rious questions. A royal proclamation followed, which 24 Novem. 
prohibited the importation into the plantations " of any tioa to en- 
merchandize but what should be laden in England, and Navigation 
for putting other branches of those acts into strict execu- 
tion relating to America." This appears to have been 
drawn by Attorney General Sir WiUiam Jones, and was 1676. 

20 March. 

communicated to the colonial governors. At the same no Medi-' 
time it was determined "that no Mediterranean passes passes for 
should be granted to New England, to protect its vessels giand. ''" 
against the Turks, until it is seen what dependence it will 
acknowledge on his Majesty, or whether his custom-house 
officers are received as in other colonies."* 

Edward Randolph — a kinsman of Robert Mason, one of so March. 
the claimants of Maine, a servant of the Duke of York, Randolph 
shrewd, active, and intensely devoted to his king — was sent Massachu- 
with these dispatches to Massachusetts, which was thought ^^ 
to be the most " prejudicial plantation." On reaching Bos- 
ton, Randolph was treated with coarse incivility by Lever- 10 June, 
ett, its governor, who seems to have supposed that goodinsuuedat 
•breeding was inconsistent with Puritanism. Relying on^°^'°"' 
its royal charter, the Corporation of Massachusetts — a 
creature of Charles the First — assumed that it could settle 
" all matters in difference" with Charles the Second by its 

York, to take possession, in its behalf, of the conquered territory east of the Penobscot, and 
govern it as captain. This project, however, was never executed : see J. W. de Peyster'a 
pamphlet, " The Dutch in Maine," 45, T3-77 ; Append., 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 ; Valentine's Manual, 
1S53, 352 ; 18G4, 661 ; Col. MSS., xxvii,, 125; Pemaquid Papers, 29,30. 

* Col. Doc, iii., 228, 229, 230, 231, 232; Evelyn, ii., 86, ("5 ; Anderson on Commerce, ii., 
531 ; Mass. H. S. Coll., xxvii., 136, 137 ; Chalmers's Ann., i., 319, 323, 324, 400, 402 ; Rev. 
Col., i., 128, 129 ; Hutchinson's Coll., 444, 463, 503 ; Barry, i., 453 ; Palfrey, iii., 33, 275, 279- 
283. Chalmers, in the Pieface to his Annals, erroneously states that Locke was Secretary 
of the Committee for Trade of March, 1675. Sir Robert Southwell, the Clerk of the Privy 
Council, was fecretary of tlint committee, .and afterward William Blathwayt: Col. Doc, iii., 
228, 230, 271 ; Evelyn, ii., 101, 279 ; King's Locke, 34 ; ante, 187, 249. 


Chap. VI. own " final determination." Governor Winslow, of Plym- 

~~ outh, reproved the absurdity of liis neighboring fellow-sub- 

jiiy ' JGcts, and told Randolph that New England would never 

Opinion of floui'ish Until its several colonies were reduced under his 


ouu?^'" majesty's "immediate government." Randolph returned 
30 July, to London, satisfied that most of the inhabitants of Massa- 

Kandolph 3 ' 

report on chusctts abhorrcd the " arbitrary government and oppres- 

his I'stum 

to En- sion of their magistrates," and hoped that the king would 
free them "from this bondage" by establishing his direct 
authority among them. The Navigation Laws, however, 
were so faithfully executed by Andros and Dyer as to 
cause a stoppage of trade between New York and Massa- 
chusetts. No European goods were allowed to be import- 
ed from Boston into New York unless they had paid cus- 
toms in England, and this caused a " misunderstanding" 
between those colonies. Plymouth and Connecticut " duly 
observed" the laws."" 
t2 Oct. Concerning the Indian war, Randolph testified that the 

sifstains Massachusetts complaints that Philip and his countrymen 
had been encouraged and supplied by the people of Al- 
bany were "without any just cause or ground, but rather 
a report raised out of malice and envy." Governor An- 
dros had proved liimself " very friendly and serviceable" to 
Massachusetts. Had his advice been taken, the war would 
have been less destructive, for he would have overpowered 
Philip by the New York Indians ; " but his friendship, ad- 
vice, and offers were slighted."f 
9 August. Having consulted her " reverend elders," Massachusetts 
setts sends scnt William Stoughton and Peter Bulkley after Randolph 
aaiBuik- to England. They were instructed to evade all " clamors 
gland. °" and accusations," and to promise "a full answer" to the* 
complaint of the Dutch government that the Hollanders 
had been driven out of Maine. This " answer," however, 
does not appear to have been given.ij; 
1675. Meanwhile La Salle had obtained from Louis a grant of 
13 May. Pqj,^ Froutcnac and its neighborhood, with the monopoly 
of hunting and fishing on Lake Ontario, on condition that 

• Chalmers, i., 403 ; Hutch. Mass., i., 311, 319 ; Coll., 4T7-513, 534, 5G4; Col. Doc., iii., 
230-244; Bancroft, ii.. Ill ; Bany, i., 454-45S; Palfrey, iii., 2S4-2S9 ; Col. Rec. Conn., li., 
484; Hist. Mag.,ii. (iii.), TO, Tl ; ante, 294. 

t Riindolph'g " Narrative" of 12 October, 167G, in Hutch. Coll., 490 ; Col. Doc, iii., C42. 

i Mum. Kcc, v., 99-110 ; Hutchinson, i , 311, 312 ; Palfrey, iii., 291-295. 

16 Septem. 


he should pay its cost, maintain a garrison, build a clmrclj, chap. vi. 
and support Franciscan missionaries. Tli-e king also made 
him a French nobleman. La Salle hastened back to Cana- ^^ g^^j^ * 
da in company with Laval de Montmorency, who had been ^y°Lolt^ 
created Bishop of Quebec, and Jacques Duchesnau, who ^^ May. 
succeeded Talon as intendant, as well as with the Francis- Franciscan 

f 1 T • • /^ • • mission- 

can fathers Louis Hennepin, Christian Le Clercq, and Ze- ^"^3. 
nobius Membre. A new stone fort, with four bastions, 1676. 
was quickly built by La Salle around the old palisades at oatera-' ^' 
Cataracouy ; a chapel was prepared ; and the fathers Hen- *'°"^- 
nepin and Luke Buisset were installed as assistants of Ri- 
bourde in the mission.* 

After establishing the Franciscans at Cataracouy, Fron- Jesuit mia- 
tenac took little interest in the French missions south of amongThe 
Lake Ontario. Bruyas remained at Tionnontoguen, and ^°^^°^^- 
James de Lamberville, who had just come over from Paris, 
replaced Boniface at Caghnawaga. The large secession to 
the Prairie de la Madeleine nevertheless troubled the Mo- 
hawk missionaries. Millet labored among the Oneidas 
with tolerable success. At Onondaga, John de Lamberville 
was comforted by the steadfast faith of Garakontie imtil 
the death of that eminent proselyte early in 1676. Car- 
heil's chapel at Cayuga was burned by drunken savages. 
Among the Seuecas, Pierron, Raffeix, and Garnier labored 
diligentlv. But that distant tribe, having; subdued the An- The An- 

1 11T1C i-ni Pastes con- 

dastes, now talked only of war, " even against the h rench, quered. 
and to begin by the destruction of the fort of Cataracouy ."f 

The "Residence" of the Prairie de la Madeleine had Prairie de 
prospered, and Bishop Laval visited it in great state. But, leine. 
as the land was not fertile, the mission was, in 1676, re- 
moved farther up the St. Lawrence, near to the rapids of 
St. Louis. There a new village was founded, which the 
French named "St. Francis Xavier du Sault;" while the 
Iroquois proselytes, remembering their old home on the 

Mohawk, called it " Casjhnawaga," which in their lano-uae-e ga, on the 

^ " St Law- 
means " the rapids," or " a carrying-place." A stone church rence. 

• Col. Doc., ix., lis, 119, 120, 122-125, 126, 213, 216, T94; Charlevoix, ii., 256, 265 ; Faillon, 
iii., 472, 473, 474, 537 ; Hennepin's Louisiana, 2, 3, 7-14; New Discovery, 7-16 ; Hist. Coll. 
Louisiana, i., 195, 196 ; Sparks'a La Salle, 8-17, ISl ; Shea's Disc. Miss., 7S, 84, 85, 89, 103, 
147,150,265,266; Missions, 309,412; Bancroft, iii., 162; Garneau, i., 237; a7i<f, 99, 241. 

t Relation, 1673-9, 140, 194, 195, 204 ; Douniol, ii., 10, 35-45, 99, 106-114, 197 ; Shea, 272, 
274, 277, 285, 289, 292, 293; Hist. M.-ig., ii., 29T; Col. Doc, ix., 227, note; ante, 100, 193, 




13 August. 
van Rens- 

23 Septem. 

28 Septem. 

23 October. 
Leisler and 

10 Novem. 
New dock 
in New 

was soon built at this Residence, wliicli was put in charge 
of the fathers Fr^min and Cholenec* 

This year marked the domestic annals of New York. 
Domine Nicolans van Rensselaer, whom Andros had in- 
stalled as colleague of Schaats in the Reformed Dutch 
Church at Albany, was accused of " false preaching" by 
Jacob Leisler, one of the deacons in the Dutch Chm-ch in 
New York, and Jacob Milborne, a young Englishman, who 
had formerly been the book-keeper of Thomas Delavall. 
On their complaint the Albany magistrates imprisoned Yan 
Rensselaer for having uttered " some dubious w^rds." An 
appeal was taken to New York, where the case was heard 
before the governor and council, the mayor and aldermen, 
and the " ministers of the city," and sent back for the au- 
thorities at Albany to determine. Domine Schaats ac- 
cordingly proved his colleague's heterodoxy. Yet the Al- 
bany court thought it best that all differences " should be 
consumed in the fii'e of love," and enjoined perpetual for- 
bearance on both sides, " for edification to the Reformed 
Religion." Their action was confii-med by the governor, 
council, aldermen, and " ministers of New York," who or- 
dered Leisler and Milborne to pay all costs, " as giving the 
first occasion of the difference." f 

The increasing commerce of the metropolis requiring 
larger accommodation, a mole or dock was built under the 
encouragement of Andros. Its expense was paid by a city 
tax levied on the residents, and timber was furnished by 
the North and West Ridings of Long Island. The " Heere 
Gracht," or canal in Broad Street, was also filled up and 
leveled, and a market-house was established at the " plaine 
afore the fort.":j: 

• Relation, 1073-9, 231-240; 1070-7,122-145; Douniol,ii., 49-70, 107-179, 217-227; Shea, 
29S-304, 307, 308 ; Col. Doc, iii., 251 ; Lx., 95, 110, 130; Index, 282; Golden, i., 54; Smith, 
i., 09 ; Charlevoix, i., 352 ; ii., 258 ; v., 261 ; Hist. Mag., x., 322, 323 ; ante, vol. i, 423, 659 ; 
ii., 129, 178. 

t Council Min., iii. (ii.), 118-125, 131, 132; Doc. Hist., ii., 42; iii., 527-530; Smith, i., 50; 
Col. MSS.,xxv., 106; xxvi.,139; Col. Doc, iii., 301, 6S0, 727, 755; N.Y. Christ. Int., 2 Nov., 
1865 ; ante, 196, note, 272. Domine Van Rens.selaer acted as one of the managers of Rens- 
selaerwyck after the death of his brother Jeremias in 1674. In 1677 Andros deposed him 
from his ministry "on account of his bad and scandalous life." The domine died the next 
year; and his widow, Alida Schuyler, married, in 1683, Robert Livingston, the astute young 
Scotch town clerk of Albany : Cor. CI. Amst., Letter of Domine Van Zuuren, 30 Sept., 1077 ; 
Ilolgjite, 42, 103;O'CalI.,i.,122,212; ii., 177,552; Col. MSS., x.xiv., 158; xxv., 145; xxxi., 
90; xxxii., 175; an«c, 287, 288. 

t C0I.MSS., XXV., 98, 155 ; Col. Doc, iii., 303, 309, 313, 314, 412 ; Min. of N. Y. C. C, i., 01 ; 
VaL N. Y., 181 ; Dunlap, ii., App. cxxv.-cxxvii. ; Hoffman's Treatise, iL,5. 


At the Court of Assizes, William Loveridge, who had chap. vi. 
been arrested for slandering the Dutch at Albany, was ~ 
fined twenty beavers, and allowed six months to make ^ q^ J^g^; 
good his charge against Ai-nout Cornelissen Yiele, the in- Loveridge. 
terpreter. Several of the inhabitants of Hempstead, hav- 25 October, 
ing entered into an unlawful combination, were tried, con- steadr 
victed of riot, and variously sentenced. George Heath- 
cote, the Quaker ship-captain, being charged with talking ueathcote. 
seditiously, was also heavily fined.* 

Southampton and Southold, which for ten years had re- 
fused to take out new patents according to the Duke's 
Laws, were now obhged to submit. They sent up various 28 septem. 
reasons for their contumacy, which Andros treated more 
cavalierly than Lovelace. The Court of Assizes gave judg- 
ment that Southampton and Southold "for their disobedi-r October. 
ence have forfeited all their titles, rights and privileges totoTanT^' 
the lands in said township ;" but a fortnight was allowed ^°""^°^^- 
them to acknowledge their faults and obey. This was de- g^ October 
cisive, and the towns prudently obtained new patents.f ^ Novem. 

The Delaware territory, after the governor's \dsit in the ceiaTrare 
spring of 16T5, had been disturbed by Ogle and the Lu- 
theran minister Fabricius. They were cited to appear be- 
fore Andros at New York, and it was ordered that Fabri- 15 septem. 
cius, " in respect of his being guilty, and his former irregu- ^"^""^-'• 
lar life, be suspended from exercising his functions as a 
minister, or preaching any more within this government, 
either in public or private." This sentence appears to 
have been modified, and the Lutheran clergyman preached 
for several years in the church which Andros directed to 
be built at " Wickegkoo.":}: 

In the mean time, Fen wick, to whom Lord Berkeley 1675. 
conveyed his undivided interest in New Jersey, had quar- je'r^ey. 
reled with Byllinge, for whom he was trustee, and this 
Quaker dispute had been arranged by William Penn. 10 Feb'y 
Berkeley's grantees assigned then* estate in North America Pena. 

• Col. MSS., XXV., 90, 1S4, 1S5, 211, 220, 226-241 ; ante^ 2ST, 292. On the 25th of Sept., 
1676, Andros wrote (in French) to Commander Binckes that he had supplied one of his ships 
with provisions, and thanked him for having reported favorably of him to the Prince of Or- 
ange : Col. MSS., XXV., 171 ; ante, 223, note. 

t Col. MSS., XXV., 173-176, 222; Patents, iv., 103, 105; Thompson, i., 146, .334, .335, 384, 
3S5; Dunlap, ii., App. xxxviii. ; ante^ 110, 173, 275. 

t Council Min. (iii.), ii., 53 ; S. Hazard, 417, 419, 420, 438 ; G. .Smith's Delaware County, 
102, 115, 124; ante., 255, 279. 


cuAP. VI. to William Penn, Gawen Laurie, and Nicholas Lucas, all 


25 June. 

of whom were Quakers. Under their auspices Fenwick 
sailed for the Delaware with his family and some colonists, 
faTtfthe ^^^ landed at the old " Varcken's Kill" of the Dutch and 
Delaware. " Elsiugburg'' of the Swcdcs, which he named " Salem." 
Cantwell, the New York sheriff at ISTewcastle, reported this 
5 Decern, iutrusiou to Audros, who directed that as Fenwick had not 
produced any authority, he "was not to be received as 
owner or proprietor of any land whatever in Delaware, 
but to be used civilly, paying all duties as others His Maj- 
esty's subjects;" and that, "as to any privilege or freedom 
of Customs, or trading on the Eastern Shore, none to he 
allowed in any case to the smallest vessel, boat, or person." 
10 Decern. The samc duties levied at New York were to be exacted on 

the Delaware.* 

1676. Captain John Collier was not long afterward commis- 

coufe^r*™' sioned as the New York commander and sub-collector on 

erTiTDeil- Delaware Bay, and carefully instructed as to his duties. 

£5Sept. Three subordinate local courts were also established at 

Newcastle, at Upland, and at Hoarkill. The Duke's Laws, 

with certain exceptions, were directed to be enforced, and 

Cantwell was made high sheriff.f 

25 Sept. In spite of Andros's warning, Fenwick, " a litigious and 

coTtuma- troublesome person," continued to act as proprietor at Sa- 

cioiw. Iqjxi^ and was summoned to answer at New York, but he 

3 Decern, ref uscd to oboy. ColHer was then directed to send him to 

Fort James ; and he accordingly visited Fenwick, who de- 

7 Decern, uicd that the governor of New York had any thing to do 

8 Decern, with him. The recusant was brought to Newcastle, whence 
!■> Jan- ^^® ^^^ conveyed a prisoner to New York. At a special 
Fenwick Court of Assizes Fenwick was fined, and ordered to give 
in New security for his good behavior. Refusing to do this, he 

was kept in custody.:}: 

* Council Min., iii. (ii.), Tl, 72 ; Warr., Ord., Passes, iii., 163 ; Dankers and Sluyter, 242, 
243; Learning and Spicer, 65; S. Smith, 79, 89; Hazard's Rec. Penn., vi., 182; Proud, i., 
136, 137; Dixon, 137; S. Hazard, 410, 419, 421, 422; N. J. H. S. Proc, ii., 8, 9; ante, vol. 
i., 322, 338, 380 ; ii., 2G6, 278. 

t Warr.,Ord.,Passes, iii., 115, 116, 211-213; Col.MSS., x.':., S4-0S; Hazard's Reg. Penn., 
iv., 57; Ann. Penn., 425-429 ; G. Smith's Del. Co., 105-107; Upland Records, ,"5-43. This 
last book was published by tlie Pennsylvania Historical Society. Scholars must regret that 
its editor, Mr. Edward Armstrong, has so carelessly repeated the stale errors that De Vries 
visited the Delaw.Tre in 1630, whereas it was Heyes ; and that Lovelace succeeded NicoUs ia 
May, 1GC7, wliereas it was in August, 1668. 

t Ord, Warr., Passes, iii., 231; Col. MSS., xx., 102, 103 ; xxv., 242; xxvi., 11, 12, 14; S. 
Smith, 94 ; Haz. Ann., 429-434, 453 ; N. J. Proc, 11., 9-11, 17 ; Dixon, 136 ; Eliz. Bill, 8. 


Meanwhile Philip Carteret had quietly governed that cnAP. "^^. 
part of New Jersey north of Barnegat and the Eenkokns 
Creek, which the Duke of York had conveyed, in severalty, carterefs 
to Sir George Carteret. James, however, did not suppose |j°e^n™; 
that his new deed of lands transferred to his ■ grantee the '^^^^^^.^ 
" full and absolute power and authority" which the king 
had vested in him personally. The most important sov- 
ereign prerogative which Charles had delegated to his 
brother was that of taxing the inhabitants of a British- 
American province for the support of its government. To 
this end the duke's governor had ordered that all vessels 
trading within his original territory should enter at the 
New York Custom-house. After Andros reached New 1675. 
York, James's secretary wrote him that nothing had been cuftw 
done in England toward "adjusting Sir George Carteret's fg'^^'-'g®! i^y 
pretensions in New Jersey, where, I presume, you will take o^ n^°'''' 
care to keep all things in the same posture (as to the Duke's portauonV. 
prerogatives and profits) as they were in your predecessors' 
time, until you shall hear of some alterations agreed to 
here." This led to a " bickering" between Collector Dyer 
and Governor Carteret, who was made to pay duties to the 
duke on " a present" sent to New Jersey, and was " ob- 
structed" by Andros fi'om clearing a sloop from Elizabeth- 
town to Carolina.* 

The subordinate title to New Jersey, however, had now 
become so doubtful that its various claimants found it nec- 
essaiy to make a compromise. This was accomplished 
" after no little labour, trouble, and cost ;" and, as is said, 
through the interposition of the Duke of York, who in- 
duced Sir George Carteret to relinquish his separate own- \QnQ 
ership. A " Quintipartite" deed, in partition, was accord- 1 Juiy. 
ingly made between Carteret, and Penn, Laurie, Lucas, and partite 
Bylhnge, by which it was agreed that their division line East and 
should run from Little Egg Harbor to the northernmost jerley. ^^ 
branch of the Delaware River, in forty-one degrees and 
foi-ty minutes of latitude. All the territory north and east 
of this line, called " East New Jersey," was vested in Carte- 
ret. All the remainder, to the south and west of it, named 
" "West New Jersey," was conveyed to Penn and his associ- 

* Learning and Spicer, 91-111; Eliz. Bill, 8; Col. Doc, iii., 229, 240, 316 : iv., eS2 ; Clial- 
mers's Annals, i., 617, 618; Graharae,i., 468; S. Smith, 68; Whitehead's East Jersey, 60, 
69, 70, 190, 191 ; ante, 2CT, 268, 277. 


Chap. VI. atcs. Yet this famous instrument was based wholly on 
the Idng's effete patent to the Duke of York in March, 
1676. ^QQ^^ j^ ^.^ ^^^ allude to the Dutch reconquest in 1673 ; 
nor to the Dutch reconveyance of New Netherland to 
Charles the Second, by the Treaty of Westminster, in Feb- 
ruary, 1674 ; nor to Charles's second patent to his brother 
in the next June ; nor to the Duke of York's release of 
a part of New Jersey to Sir George Carteret, indi^ddually, 
in the following July. In these respects the " Quintipar- 
tite" New Jersey deed of 1676 is perhaps the most faulty 
English secondary parchment in American annals.* 
31 August. Two months afterward Secretary Werden vrrote to An- 
of York ^ dros that the duke was not " at all inclined to let go any 
hirprerog- part of his prerogative, which you and your predecessors 


have all along constantly asserted in his behalf; and so, 
though at present, in respect to Sir George, we soften things 
all we may, not to disturb his choler (for in truth the pas- 
sion of liis inferior officers so far infects him as puts liim 
on demands which he hatli no colour of right to), I verily 
believe, should his foot chance to slip, those wlio succeed 
him must be content with less civihty than we show him 
in this point; since then we should exercise that just au- 
thority His Royal Highness hath without such reserves as, 
though intended but as favours now, may, if confirmed, re- 
dound too much to the prejudice of your Colony." 

Indeed, James now contemplated obtaining a new pat- 
ent, " either for the better ascertaining the boundaries, or 
for any other cause," which should confirm to him Dela- 
ware, as well as the region eastward as far as the Connecti- 
cut. But the duke's political situation in England did not 
permit him to move in the matter at this time; although 
' 1677. his secretary informed Andros that " a time may come, 
jam^'con- either upon a regulation of matters in New England, when 
.^Tew'^'^^ His Majesty shall please to take that into his consideration, 
patent. qj. gome otlicr way, when His Koyal Highness may without 
scruple tliinke it convenient to insist on all those riglits 
that were intended him by his Patent from the Crowne."t 
The Quintipartite deed, however, induced Governor 
Carteret to claim a distinct port and custom-house in New 

• Learning and Spicer, Gl-72 ; Eliz. Bill, p. 8 ; Answer to Bill, p. IS; S. Smith, 80, S9, 5J6, 
C4S; Gordon, SS; Proud, i., 142; Dixon's Penn., 13S; Wliitehead, 67, 68 ; rT?i«e, 260, 261, 
265-268. t CoL Doc., iiL, 237, 239, 240, 247 ; Chalmers, i., 618. 



Jersey. The ISTew York authorities resolved " That they chap. vi. 
find no port or harbour granted to Sir George Carteret ~ 
(distinct or independent from this) ; but all ships or vessels, ^{'jj 
as hitherto, to enter and clear at the Custom-house here, or ^'^5 ^°^^ 

^ _ ' refuses 

subordinate officers thereof, with due regard to Governor New^jcr?ey 

p, a separate 

Carteret s or others authority, for the duties on tobacco port. 
and other produce of America, according to acts of Par- 
liament and orders thereupon."* 

Penn and his co-proprietors of West Jersey, having pre- 3 Marcfi. 
pared some " Concessions and Agreements," dispatched i^antstr 
commissioners to organize its government and arrange jereey. ^^ 
matters with Fenwick. As the ship Kent, in which they 
were embarked, was lying in the Tliames, King Charles 
came alongside in his pleasure barge, and seeing a great 
many passengers, and learning where they were bound, 
" asked if they were all Quakers, and gave them his bless- 
ing." After a tedious voyage the Kent anchored at Sandy 
Hook, and the commissioners went up to New York to 
wait on Andros. "He treated them civilly, but asked August. 
them if they had any thing from the Duke, his Master ? treatment 
They replied, Nothing particularly ; but that he had con- ^ 
veyed that part of his country to Lord Berkeley, and he to 
Byllinge, etc., in which the Government was as much con- 
veyed as the soil. The Governor replied: All that will 
not clear 7ne ; if I should surrender without the DuJce^s 
order, it is as much as iny head is worth y hut if you 
had hilt a line or two from the Duke, I should he as ready 
to surrender it to you, as you, woxdd he to ash it. Upon 
which, the commissioners, instead of excusing their impru- 
dence in not bringing such an order, began to insist upon 
their right, and strenuously to assert their independency. 
But Andros, clapping his hand on his sword, told them, that 
should defend the government from them, till he received 
orders from the duke, his master, to surrender it. He, 
however, softened, and told them he would do what was in 
his power to make them easy till they could send home to 
get redress ; and in order thereto, would commissionate the 
same persons mentioned in the commission they produced. 
This they accepted, and undertook to act as magistrates un- 7 August. 
der him, till further orders came from England, and pro- 

* Warrants, Crd., Passes, iii., G3, 103, 254 ; ante^ 2T6, 277. 

II.— u 


Chap. VI. ceed in relation to their land affairs according to the metli- 
~~ ods prescribed by the proprietors." The Kent then went 
16 August. 0° ^o Newcastle. A site for a new town was chosen near 
14 Novem. " Jegow's Island," or Mattiniconk, which was leased to 
Robert Stacey, and a village soon arose, at first called 
Burlington " Ncw Bevcrlcy," and then " Bridhngton," or " Burling- 
ton," after the town in Yorkshire from which some of the 
emigrants came. Fenwick was at the same time released 
» from his imprisonment and allowed to return to Salem 
upon promising to appear again at ITew York in the fol- 
lowing October. This he honestly did, and Andros then 
14 August, set him free. The governor also appointed one of his 
mander°^' lieutenants, Christopher Billop, now of Staten Island, to 
wa^ra^^*' succeed Collier as commander and sub-collector for New 
. York, on Delaware Bay and Biver.* 

Among other reasons for a new patent, the Duke of 
York desired more definite limits for his province, which 
he considered as having always been bounded northward 
by Canada, " the Dutch having ever claimed and never 
lost the possession of the same." "As for the northern 
T May. bouuds," wrotc Wcrdcu to Andros, more explicitly, " there 
bet"^een^ is uo qucstion but they have always been esteemed to ex- 
and Una- tcud as far as the Lake (or Biver of Canada), and the 
^"" French have no colour to pretend right of conquest from 

any of their invasions there, unless they had such posses- 
sion before the Dutch were settled in Albany, which I 
believe is nothing soe."t 

Knowing the duke's views as to territory, Andros was 
sorely annoyed at the presence of the Jesuit missionaries 
among the Iroquois, of whom John de Lamberville at 
Onondaga had now become superior, in place of Bruyas at 
Tionnontoguen. Indeed, the French fathers were all jeal- 
ously watched as intruders within the province of New 
An^rorag- ^ork. Salisbury, the commander at Albany, was instrnct- 
sertaEn- q^ "that the MaQuas Indians and associates on this side 

glish sover- J. 

^jg°*y o^er the Lake (having been always under a part of this gov- 
(luois. ernment) have nothing to do with the French, only as 

* Warrants, Ord., Passes, iii., 259, 2G3; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 16G-16S; Col. MSS., xx., 
136,140; .xxi.,35, 112; xxvii., G; Col. Doc, iii., 221, 239, 240, 27G ; Danlsevs and Sluyter, 
1T4, 235; Learning and Spicer, 3S2-409 ; S. Smith, 60, SO-94, !19, 521-53S ; Proud, i., 144; 
Gordon, 22, 33, 39; Gaz., 112, 113; Hazard's Keg. Penn., iv., 57, 73 ; Ann. Penn., 373, 374, 
39G, 443, 444, 453, 466; Thomas's We.-^t Jersey, 14, 15; N. J. H. S. Coll., ii., 17; Upland Rec , 
140, 141 ; ante, 104, 1S4, 205, vol. i., 1S3. t Col. Doc, iii., 333, 237, 247 ; v., 531 ; ix., 305. 


thej are friends, but in no case are to be commanded by chap. vi. 
them. And that the Commissaries do send for the Ma- 
quas Sachems and Father Bruyas, and signify this to the ■'-"''• 
said Sachems before him, and to the said Father that the 
Governor desires, and does not doubt, his comport accord- 
ingly, for the quiet of these parts, pursuant to the friend- 
ship of our Engs at home."* 

Andres's messengers found Bruyas entertaining as his 
guest the Franciscan Father Hennepin, who had walked 
over the snow fi-om Fort Frontenac, and tarried to copy 
" a little Iroquois Dictionary" which the Jesuit had com- 
piled. When the Dutch envoys heard Hennepin, who was 
a native of Hainault, speak Flemish, they showed him 
much friendship, and invited him to return with them to Api-a. 
Albany, where they wished liim to settle, " for the spiritual Sonfthe 
consolation of several Catholics" from the Netherlands ^^°'''''''^^* 
who lived there. They even alighted from their horses 
to induce the father and his companions to mount in their 
places and go back Avith them. Hennepin Avould willing- 
ly have yielded to their urgency had he not feared giving 
umbrage to the Jesuits and injuring the Canadian fm- 
trade. He therefore " thanked these estimable Hollanders," 
and, bidding farewell to Bruyas, returned to Cataracouy.f 

The territorial pretensions of ISTew York were not, liow- 
ever, recognized by Louis, who insisted that the expedi- 
tions of Champlain, Courcelles, and Tracy, followed by 
the submission of the savages and the settlement of Jesuit 
missionaries among them, had given him the sovereignty 
over the Iroquois, But it was not the time to bring this M ^p"'- 
question to an issue, Louis, still at war with the Dutch, denre?En- 
and anxious for the friendship of Charles, directed Fronte- fignty wm 
nac " to cultivate a good understanding with the Enghsh, 

the Iro- 
^5 quois. 

* Council Min., iii. (ii.), 135; Col. Doc, ix:., 171, 720; Douniol, ii., 19&-205; Shea, 274 
286 ; ante^ 294 Mr. Shea, in a note to the reprint of the first edition of Colden's Five Na- 
tions, 139, erroneously attributes to Dongan the assumption of English sovereignty over the 
Iroquois which was due to Andros : compare Hist. Mag., x., 26S, note. 

t Hennepin's Nouvelle Decouverte, 10, 25-30; New Discovery, 10-20 ; CoL Doc, iv.,CS9; 
i.^.,720; Shea's Discovery, 104 ; Catholic Missions, 274 ; Sparks's La Salle, 17; ante, 200. 
Bruyas's Dictionary, or " Racines Agnieres," was published in the Appendix to the Report 
of the Regents of the University of New York of 15 April, 1863 : Senate Document, 1S63, No. 
115. The general opinion, derived from the English translation (169S) of the "Nouvelle 
Decouverte," is that Hennepin visited Albany: Sparks's La Salle, 17; Shea's Discovery, 
104. A careful examination of the French original, however, convinces me that Hennepin 
did not go to Albany, but returned from Bruyas's cabin at Tionnontoguen directly to Fort 
Frontenac: see Hist. Mag., x., 268. 


Chap. VI. and to be careful not to give them any cause of complaint ; 
~~ without, however, permitting any thing contrary to the 
' treaties I have concluded with the king their master."* 

La Salle La Sallc had meanwhile built at Cataracouy three barks 

barks on with dccks, the first ever seen above the rapids of the Saint 

Ontario. Lawrcuce, intending to use them for trading on Lake On- 
tario. But Jolhet's accounts of the vast buffalo countries 
in the West convinced him that a more lucrative and di- 
rect traffic with France than that through Canada could be 
opened by way of the Gulf of Mexico, into which it was 
supposed the Mississippi emptied. La Salle had already 
attempted to reach that river by way of the Ohio in 1669, 
and he now burned to demonstrate the truth of De Soto's 
early discovery, and extend actual French exploration from 
the mouth of the Arkansas down to the open sea. But 
IQ^Q, Louis having declared himself against " new discoveries," 

^^ April, and instructed Frontenac not to comitenance them " with- 
out urgent necessity and very great advantage," La Salle 
determined to revisit France and impress his own views on 
1677. the court. The jealous policy of Andros in prohibiting 

ic May. J'rench traffic with the Iroquois south of Lake Ontario was 

November, auotlier rcasou. As soon as his fort at Cataracouy was 

riTtOTns^o walled up, La Salle retm-ned to France, carrying the warm- 

Francc. ^^^ lettcrs from Frontenac.f 

Li the mean time, Massachusetts and Connecticut had 
engaged some Mohawk warriors to help them fight the 
Eastern Lidians, who were ravaging Maine. The Con- 

19 March, nccticut Couucil rcncwcd their request for leave to .treat 
directly with the Iroquois at Albany. Andros at once di- 

23 March, rcctcd the Mohawks to recall their parties from the East, 
and notify his officers if any Christians or Indians should 

3 April, tamper with them. lie also informed Governor Leete that 
he was going to Albany, where, " if you please to depute 
and send a fitt person, he may be present and say any 
thing [that] may be proper from yourselfe or colony to 
our Indyans, Maquas, etc." Pynchon and Eichards were 

10 April, accordingly appointed to make a treaty with the Mohawks 

* Col. Doc, ix., 120, 2GT, 304, 305, 3S0-3S2, 702, T03, 7S3-S03. 

t Hennepin's Louisiana, 2, 3, 8-15; New Discovery, 15-25, 40, 41, 44; Faillon, iii.,473, 
474; I.aPotherie, ii.,135; Col. Doc, ix., 12G, 213,216; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 14S; Chnrlp- 
voix, ii., 2fi4, 205 ; Sparks's La Salle, 10, 11 ; Shea's Di.-civery, S4, 85, SS ; Bancroft, iii., 163 ; 
a»«r, ion, 241,200. 


on the part of Massachusetts and Connecticut, under the 
advice of the governor of Xew York, or, if he should " ob- 
struct," to take " v^^hat opportunity" they could to gain their 05 Aprii.' 
end. Andros received the Kew England agents* kindly at ggt^t's and"" 
Albany ; allowed them all fi-eedom to speak " to v^^hat In- ^„°°a^ntg 
dians they pleased;" and informed Leete that they had *' -"^i^^^y- 
been " denied nothing here to their content." A handsome 
present was made by Pynchon, on behalf of Massachusetts, 
to the Mohawks, who covenanted peace with her friendly . 
Indians. For the first time, 'New York permitted her Iro- 
quois to treat with a l^ew England colony. The League 
was sealed with the characteristic gift of " a fish painted on 
paper" to the savages, who, according to their custom, dis- conference 
tinguished their new Eastern friends, whom Pynchon rep- iroquoi?. 
resented, by the descriptive name of " Kinshon."* 

The subjugation of the Andastes or Susquehannas by 
the Senecas led to a correspondence between Andros and 
Governor Calvert of Maryland, in which the friendship of New York 
New York toward her sister English colonies at the South land, 
was fully manifested ; although Yirginian historians have 
somewhat blamed her for the " rebellion" which broke out 
in the Old Dominion under the lead of Nathaniel Bacon. 
In their warfare the Iroquois did not always discriminate 
between their savage enemies and the English colonists 
around the Chesapeake, among whom they dwelt ; and both 
Yirginia and Maryland felt the necessity of a peace with 
the Five Nations of New York.f 

Charles Calvert, now Lord Baltimore, having returned to 
England, Notley, his lieutenant governor of Maryland, ac- 
cordingly commissioned one of her council. Colonel Henry so April, 
Coursey — who, in 1659, had hospitably treated the envoys 
of New Netherland — to go to Albany and " make a league 

* Council Min., iii. (ii.), 140, 141, 144, 145; Col. MSS., xxvi., 4G, 52; Col. Doc., iii., 323; 
Col. Rec. Conn., ii., 483, 4SS, 4S9, 491-496, 507 ; Mass. Rec, v., 1G5, 167 : Hutch. Mass., i., 
348 ; Williamson's Maine, L, 548 ; Golden, L, 116, 180 ; ante, 290, 298. As the Iroquois had 
no labials in their language, they were obliged to say "Quider" instead of "Peter :" Hen- 
nepin's New Discovery, 24; Colden, i., 16, 116. For this reason, I think it probable that 
"Kinshon" was tlie nearest they could come to "Pynchon." Being great generalizers of 
names, they used that of " Pynchon" to denote New England, just as they substituted " On- 
nontio" for Canada, and " Corlaer" for New York; ante, 102, 28T. Father Millet, in his let- 
ter of 6 July. 1691, p. 48, wrongly applies the n.ime "Le Poisson," or '■'■Kinshon,'' to New 
York instead of New England. 

t Warn, Ord., Passes, iii., 152, 163, 164, 214; Col. MSS., xxv., 124; CoL Doc, iii., 245; 
Hough's Philip'aWar, 124, 125; S. Hazard, 421-426 ; Beverley. 62, 63 ; Burk, ii., 156, 157 ; 
Force's Tracts, i., viii., ix. ; Douniol, ii., 4t, 45, 9!>, 197 ; Hifit. Mag., i., 05-73 ; iL, 297 ; Camp- 
bell's Virginia, 284-3:3; ante, 100, 193, 299. 


Chap. VI. of f riendsliip" with the New York L'oquois. After enter- 
~~ tainment at I*^ewcastle, Coursey was cordially received at 
23 May ^ovt James. Li anticipation of his coming, Andros dis- 
^enil7 patched "two Christians," one of whom was Wentworth 
New York. Greenhalo;h, to summon the Senecas and their confeder- 

16 JIay. o y 

hash's ^^^^ ^^ meet Coursey at Albany, and announce the gov- 
tourin ernor's intention to be there in Auo-ust. "Wlien Coursey 

AVestern ° •' 

New York, readied New York, another message was sent to hasten the 

C June. . " 

2iJuiy. interview. This was accordinsrly held, and the a^ent of 

Coursey at o •/ •' o 

Albany. Maryland and Virginia, in several conferences with the 
Iroquois sachems, " had answers to his satisfaction."* 
The savages in Maine were meanwhile doing great 
9 June, mischief. Andros therefore resolved "to take possession, 
and assert the Duke's interest at Pemaquid, and parts ad- 
jacent Eastward;" and that if New York should make 
peace with the Indians there, "the Massachusetts to be 
comprized, if they please." BrocldioUs, Ivnapton, and Sec- 
16 June, retary Nicolls were accordingly commissioned to go to 
takes pes- Pcmaquid with fom- sloops, one hundred men, and a 
Pemaquid. framed redoubt, to be set up in the most convenient place. 
They were directed to make peace with such Indians as 
delivered up their prisoners, and to include the ISTew En- 
gland colonies if they so desired. Any Mohawks who 
might come to them were to be received and used kindly, 
July. " as at Albany." The redoubt, which was named " Fort 
Charleses- Charlcs," was quickly built at Pemaquid, mounted with 
^^ ^"^ ^ seven guns, and placed under the command of Knapton, 
the brother-in-law of Andros, with a garrison of fifty men. 
Peace was arranged with the Indians, and several Chris- 
2 August, tian captives rescued. Stringent orders were adopted in 
New York for the government of Pemaquid. None could 
treat with its aborigines except through the governor at 
22Septem. the mctropolis. The trading -place was to be at Fort 
tionsfor Charles, where alone Christians were allowed to inhabit; 
cmaquid. ^^^ ^u entries were to be made in the New York Custom- 

* Council Jlin., iii. (ii.), 142, 14T, 14S, 151, 152, 160, 161, 164; Deeds, vi., 2S; Col. MSS., 
xxvi., 66, 69 ; Col. Doe., ii., 94 ; iii., 250-252, 256, 321 ; ix., 227 ; Golden, i., 3S; first ed., p. 
31, 46; Chalmers, i., 364, 365, 366, 606-609; S. Hazard, 437,438; Upland Kec, 49; Clinton, 
in N. Y. II. S. Coll.,ii.. SO; D.ivis's Day Star, 113; a?i/f, i., 660. I am indebted to Mr. 
Brantz Mayer, of Baltimore, for the communication of interesting memoranda from the 
State Paper Office relating to Coursey's mission. Greenhalgli's Journal of his visit to the 
Five Nations, from 28 May to 14 July, 1077 (in Col. Doc, iii., 250-2.52, and Chalmers, i.. 6(1(5- 
C09), is the earliest English account we have of the strength and condition of the Iroquois. 


house. Fish might be cured upon the islands, "but not 

upon the Maine, except at Pemaquid, near the fort." This 

regulation mortified Massachusetts, which claimed that its J'octleT 
people should be allowed their ancient privilege "to im- ^^j'g"''^^^'"»-" 
prove themselves and estates in the honest and industri- funded, 
ous labour of fishing."* 

Andros now wpnt up to Albany and held another confer- 2s August. 
ence with the Iroquois. The Oneidas had been " diverted Irba^r' 
from the southward ;" but they and the Mohawks still sus- 
pected the Mahicans. On his return to the metropolis 
Andros indignantly rebuked Connecticut for " falsely and 24 septem. 
unchristianly" censuring his Indian policy. Not long aft- 
erward Massachusetts undertook to reprove the New York 12 October, 
savages for breaking the treaty which Pynchon had made uon?"" 
with them in April, and suggested that they would do "an ?few"ED!'"' 
acceptable service" if they should destroy " a parsell of In- s''^°'^"s. 
dians who came lately from Canada," and attacked Hat- 
field on the Connecticut. A similar lecture was addressed 
to the New York commander at Albany. Andros accord- 
ingly instructed Salisbury to send any interfering stran- so octobei-. 
gers who might come there, down to New York for ex- 

This year witnessed fi'esh discoveries in the interior of 
New York. While Greenhalgh was exploring the West, 
nearer regions were not neglected. The search led by 
Louis du Bois after the prisoners captured at Wyldwyck 
in 1663 had revealed the beauty of the rich valley of the 
Wallkill, and a second exploration was made through the 
more rugged neighborhood of the river. A large tract of 
land was purchased from the Indians by Dubois, Has- 
brouck, and other French and German Protestants, to 
whom the governor gave a patent. The grant extended 29 septem. 
along the Shawangunk Mountains from " Mohunk" to nw Paitl 
" Tower-a-tauch," and along the Hudson River from " Ra- 
poos" down to " Jeffrouw's Hook." Several of the grant- 
ees settled themselves at once on the tract, which was 

* Col. Doc, iii., 248, 240, 256, 265; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 153, 1G3, ICO ; Warrants, Ord., 
Passes, iii., 251 ; Col. MSS., xxvii., 130 ; Maine H. S. Coll., v., 1^1-23, 30, 259 ; Mass. Eec, 
v., 1C2, 164, 168, 169 ; Hutch. Mass., i., 325, 347 ; WUliamson's Maine, 1., 552 ; Belknap, i., 
129; Palfrey, iii., 213; ante, -p. 308. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 250; Col. MSS., xxvi., 135, 136, 141; Col. Rec Conn.,ii., 502,503,506, 
.'iOT, 508; Council Mln., liL (ii.), 170; Mass. Rec., v., 165-168; Uutch., i., 848 ; Ti-umbull, 


Chap. VI. named the " New Paltz," in memory of their former home 
~~ in the Palatinate, which had just been so awfully ravaged 
by Turenne. The fii'st settlement was made near an an- 
cient Indian mound on the Wallkill, where Dubois and his 
2 Novem. associates were required to build a redoubt " for a place of 
retreat and safeguard."* 

The provincial customs' rates, wdiich had been establish- 
ed in November, 1674, were now renewed for three years, 
November, by a proclamation from the governor, under the duke's 
rates re- spccial iustructions to '"continue the same rates and other 
duties for three years longer, to commence from the end 
of these now running."f 
TMay. Mcanwhilo Andros had received permission to spend 

lowed to ' the winter in England, " to look after his own concerns," 
England, provided he took care to settle every thing during his ab- 
sence " in the best and safest manner." After advising with 
TNovem. his couucil, the governor commissioned Brockholls to be 


command- commander-iu-chief, and Secretary Nicolls next in author- 

' ity, with instructions to consult the council and the metro- 

pohtan mayor, Stephanus van Cortlandt, on extraordinary 

i6Novem. occasious. IIg also gave his wife a power of attorney to 

manage his private affairs during his absence. Having 

17 Novem. visitcd Carteret at Elizabethtown, Andros embarked from 

sails for Staten Island for England, accompanied b}^ Wilham Nic- 

°^ ""^ ■ oils, son of the provincial secretary.:}: 

After the governor's departure the affairs of New York 
were quietly administered by Brockholls, who was chiefly 
eno;aged in strengthenino; Fort James and remounting its 
i?rock- guns. Correspondence with Frontenac in Canada, Lever- 
p'jrary ad- ctt iu Massachusctts, Knapton at Pemaquid, Bruyas in the 
tion'of New Moliawk couutry, and Salisbury at Albany, also taxed the 
fairs. ^ ' attention of the Duke of York's temporary commander-in- 
chief during the next winter and spring.§ 

* Patents, iv., 234; Warr., Ord., Passes, iii., 283; N. Y. H. S. Proceedings for 1S4S, SI; 
Ulster H. S. Coll., 1., 34, 35, 41-48, 80, lST-191; Martin's Louis XIV., i., 394; ante, vol. i., 
712, 713. The New Paltz Academy, in Ulster County, now stands on the site of this old In- 
dian mound. 

+ Col. Doc, iii., 217, 240,283,292; Col. M.??., xxiv.,1; xxvi.,5; Ord., Warr., etc.; sxxii;^, 
43,44,45; CouncilJournals, i., Introd., viii. ; ante, 2GB. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 240, 250, 257, 709 ; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 175, 170 ; Warr., Ord., Passes, 
iii., 2S6, 287 ; Col. MS3., xxvi., 151 ; Col. Pvec Conn., ii., 508 ; Hazard's Reg. Penn., iv., 73, 
74 ; Thompson, ii., 391 ; Whitmore's Memoir of Andros, xix. 

§ Col. Doc, iii., 307, 311; Col. MSS.,x.xvi., 149, 150, l.'i2, 101, 102; xxvii., 1-178; Council 
Min., iii. (ii.), 176, 177; Maine II. S. Coll., v., 9-18, 23-32; Col. Kec Conn., iii., 258; Mass. 
Kec, v., 300. 


Kew York, as described by Andros in London the next cuap. vi. 
April, contained twenty-four towns, villages, or parishes, ^ 
in six precincts, or Courts of Sessions. Its population ^p,.y 
had increased of late, consisting of old inhabitants, chiefly ^^"^J"'^ 
Dutch, with colonists from England, and " some few of all l^^^^^^ 
nations." Servants were much wanted, there being " but 
very few slaves," most of whom were brought from Bar- 
badoes, and were worth from thirty to thirty-five pounds 
each. A merchant having fi^-e hundred or a thousand 
poimds was thought substantial, and a planter Avorth half 
that "in moveables" was accounted rich. The value of vaiueof 
all the estates in the pro^dnce was about 150,000 pounds. ^'""^'' 
From ten to fifteen vessels, of one hundred tons each, 
traded to the province each year fi'om Old and New En- 
gland. Five small ships and a ketch belonged to New 
York, of which four were built there. The exports were m^ipgand 
chiefly provisions, furs, tar, and lumber ; and the imports commerce. 
of English manufactures amomited to 50,000 pounds year- 
ly. The customs, excises, and quit-rents were all applied 
to the public charges ; but they did not suflfice " by a 
greate deale." The chief trading-places were New York 
and Southampton for foreign commerce, and Albany for 
the Indian traflic. There were about two thousand males Muuia. 
able to bear arms, of whom one hundred and forty were 
horsemen, in three troops. Fort James was a square of Forts 
stone, with four bastions, and mounting forty-six guns. Albany, 
Fort Albany was a small stockade, with four bastions and charies. 
twelve guns, " sufiicient against Indians." Fort Charles, 
at Pemaquid, was a " wooden redoubt," with seven guns. 
These forts were garrisoned by regular English soldiers. 
Ministers " were scarce, and religions many," so that there 
w^ere no records of marriages or births in New York. The 
duke maintained an Episcopalian chaplain, which was " all 
the certain allowance or Church of England." There 
were about twenty churches in the province, most of which Religions 
were Presbyterians and Independents, with Quakers, Ana- and "noe 
baptists, and Jews ; and all were supported by " free gifts ^^^^^°' 
to the ministry." In New York there were " noe beg- 
gars, but all poore cared for."* 

• Col. Doc, iii., C45, 2.6, 26^-202; Doc. Hist., i, CO-62; Chalmers's Pol. Ann., i., COO-601. 




Chap. VII. DuEiNG tlie foiir jeai's which followed the Treaty of 
~ "Westminster, England reaped the fruits of her peace with 
En lemd ^^^ Dutch RepuMic in the growth of her own trade, and 
fhe'xreat ^^ ^ higher consideration by other nations. As a neutral 
of West- between France and the United Netherland States, she 


engrossed nearly all the commerce of the world. Yet 
French cruisers would capture English trading ships, and 
Charles Avas forced to ask Parliament for supplies to re- 
pair his neglected navy. But English commoners were 
too jealous of the influence of Louis over Charles to in- 
trust their sovereign with a power wliich he miglit prosti- 
tute for the benefit of France. The British House of Com- 
mons represented then — as it generally represents — the 
temporary sentiment of insular England. On the broader 
continent, the Dutch, seeing their commerce languish while 
that of England flourished, were naturally anxious for a 
peace with France. So negotiations were opened at Nime- 
wiuiam of guen, on the Rhine ; and the Prince of Orange, deter- 
^uuTeu-^' mined to engage his uncle as a mediator or an ally, revisit- 
^'''°'^" ed England. A marriage between William and his cousin 
Mary, the eldest daughter of his uncle James, of York, had 
long been contemplated. Before the Dutch w^ar of 1672, 
when the princess was only twelve years old, Charles sug- 
gested the match to his brother, who bitterly opposed such 
a heretical alliance. After the Peace of Westminster the 
king again spoke to the duke in favor of the project, which 
was approved by his own ministers. At their first audience 
Charles told the ambassadors of the Republic that he loved 
liis Dutch nephew " like a son." But the Duke of York 
w^as ambitious to give his daughter to the Dauphin of 
Franco, while Louis wished her to accept his inferior sub- 


ject, the Prince of Conty. Kouvigny, the French ambas- chap. vii. 
sador at London, warned James to dread the proposed mar- ^ 
riage "as death ;" to regard the Prince of Orange as "the 
idol of England ;" and he predicted to the duke that " such 
a son-in-law would inevitably be liis ruin." Wilham at 
first rejected his uncle Charles's overture. Pohtical and 
personal interests now combined to make him anxious for 
the splendid alliance. The Stuart cousins understood each 
other at once ; Charles's command compelled James's re- 
luctant consent ; and the Reformed Protestant Dutch cham- 1677. 
pion espoused the future heiress of the British crown. ^jj^j°^^"j 
Little did Charles or James foresee the momentous conse- orange 

. T'l married to 

Quences of these Dutch and British nuptials. Louis ob- Mary of 

TIT r t • • -I England. 

served the advancement oi ins greatest enemy vvatli pro- 
phetic vexation. But England rejoiced in growing sym- 
pathy with Holland ; and Parliament, while voting liberal 1678. 
supplies for an expected war with France, resolved that all ^Ig^j*^'!" 
Enghsli soldiei"s and sailors should be recalled fi-om duty wmiam-s 

O •/ marriage. 

under Louis. A struggle was at hand between the Protest- 
ant convictions of England and the Popish inclinatix)ns of 
its anointed sovereign.* 

After the marriage of William and Mary, the limping 
conferences at Nimeguen sprung briskly. The English 
auxiliaries of Louis were mustered out of his service ; but 
his parsimonious treatment of them caused just complaints, 
and disgusted the king and the Duke of York. At length 5J^^"°"^'' 
peace was covenanted between France and the Protestant Nimeguen 

-I- between 

Dutch Republic, which, at the end of the long struggle, the Dutch 
found herself far better off than she was when her Popish French, 
ad^'ersary began his ruthless attack.f 

Andros had meanwhile landed in Ireland, whence he 5 jan-y. 
hastened over to London. On reaching court he was London, 
knighted by the king, and allowed a short holiday to look Lighted, 
after his private affairs at Guernsey ; where, however, he 

* Col. Doc, ii., 5G3 ; Rouvigny to Louis XIV., 2.T April, 1674, in Mignet's ^Negotiations, 
iv., 23-2; Martin's Louis XIV., i., 409, 410, 45C, 4r>T; Temple, ii., 252-400; Daliymple, i., 
143,155-164; Clarice's James II., i., 500-502, 503, 510; Burnet, i.', 36T-412; Kennett, iii., 
29T-362; Macpherson, i., 202, 211, 224-231; Courtenay's Temple, i., 424-510; Rapin, ii., 
C75-6S3 ; Pari. Hist., iv., 90T, 925 ; Basnage, ii., 499-STO, 902-90T; Sylvius, x.-xvi. ; Daviei?, 
iii., 138-16^; Hume, vii,, 1-34; Lingard, xiii., 1-43 ; Macaulay, i., 224-229 ; an/e, 1S5. 

+ Pari. Hist., iv.,943, 952, 964, 983, 1005; Martin's Louis XIV., i., 462-468; Dumont,vii., 
350; Temple, ii., 430-455; Courtenay's Temple, ii., 13 ; Dalrymple, i., 164-169; Macpher- 
son, i., 233-235, 244; Clarlie's James IL, i., 51],. 512; Kennett, iii., 303; Burnet, i., 422, 423 ; 
Basnage, ii., 907-937 ; Anderson, ii., 537, 548, 549 ; Col. Doc, iii., 423, 450, 460, 402, 463. 


oiAP. VII. did not tarry long, because the duke required him to return 

^^ quickly to his government.* 

Massachu- '^^^ ucw-made knight found the Massachusetts agents, 

tatroubk' Stoughton and Bulkley, in tribulation because of the ill 
favor of their colony at Whitehall. They could not an- 
swer the telling testimony of Randolph, which, in the opin- 
ion of Jones and Winnington, the king's attorney and so- 
hcitor general, contained " sufficient matter to avoid the 
patent" of Massachusetts by a writ of "Quo Warranto.''^ 

8 April By the Dukc of York's order, Andros attended the Plan- 

Andros s , ^~ . 

account of tatiou Committee, where he ffave an account of his cov- 
ins govern- ^ i.p -r-< t-*- 

ment. emmeiit, and exposed the behavior of the Eastern Puritan 
colonies toward New York about the Indian War. In an- 

9 April, swer to particular inquiries, he suggested that the various 
suggests a sub-gOA'crnmeuts in New England should be made " as one 
tionoftiie pcoplc and country" by the king's "asserting and regulat- 
giand coio- ing" tlieir militia forces, otherwise " every colony may be 
thrking.*^' a prey to an invader." From his information, Andros 

thought that " the generality of the magistrates and people 
are wjell affected to the king and kingdom ; but most, 
knowing noe other government than their owne, think it 
best, and are wedded to, and opiniate for it. And the 
magistrates and others in place, chosen by the people, think 
that they are obliged to assert and maintaine said govern- 
ment all they can, and are church members, and like so to 
be ; chosen, and to continue without any considerable al- 
teration and change there, and depend upon the people to 
justifie them in tlieir actings."f 
iG April. Andros also submitted to the committee full replies 
report^" about Ncw Yoi'k, to the specific inquiries which each royal 
Yo°rL ' ^^ governor in the Plantations was required to answer. For 
the first time since McoUs's report in 1666, the internal 
administration of the duke's province came directly under 
the observation of the king's PriA'y Council.:}: 

There was an unsettled account between New York and 

* Col. 5ISS., xxvii., 124; Maine 11. S. Coll., v., 20 ; Whitmoro's Andro.=, xix. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 254-258, 262-204, 5TS; Mass. II. S. Coll., xxxii., 287; Hutch. Mass., i., 
312-322 ; Chalmers, i., 403, 404, 405, 430-447 ; Palfrey, ill., 803-817 ; Hist. Mag., ii. (iii.), 70, 
71; ante,20S. , 

t Col. Doc, iii., ISS, 200-262 ; Chalmers, i., C00-C04 ; Doc Hist., i., 60-02 ; ante, 113, 2r8. 
The twenty-seven official ''Heads of Inquiry," which were sent to the several colonial gov- 
ernors, are in Col. Kec. Conn., iii., 292-294 ; see also Arnold's Rhode Island, i., 460, 4SS-491. 
The substance of Andros's answers has already been given ; ante, 313. 


Massaclmsetts wliicli Andros did not fail to adjust. InCHAP.vii. 

America, the "aspersions" of Boston could not be correct- iQ'rg 
ed, because tbe Puritan press, which uttered the falsehood, 9 Apru. 
had not the manliness to publish the truth. But now both sires the 
colonies stood face to face before a supreme tribimal. An- Masfadm- 
dros accordingly petitioned for an inquiry into the truth of prove'd.'^*' 
the charges of Massachusetts while her agents were yet in 
London to answer. This was granted at once. Stoughton 
and Bulkley, after meditation, evasively replied that they 24 Apiu. 
had no proofs to offer, and hoped that New York had not 
been "prejudiced" by the libel against those who were 
"never discovered" to "your Majesty's Government of the 
Massacliusetts." This acknowledgment was fatal to the 
would-be independence of the royal corporators in Boston. 
The king declared that he found " no cause to beheve that 24 April, 
any of his subjects from the parts of Albany did supply absolve"" 
any powder or other materials for war to Philip or other from the 
Indian enemies in those parts, neither could he perceive tio™^of^* 
any cause or ground for the imputation laid upon his said getS'*''^^"' 
subjects of Albany by the Massachusetts ;" and he there- 
fore ordered that no Albanian should be liable to such " im- 
putation," unless the authorities in Massachusetts should 
prosecute him within a year. It does not appear that any 
prosecution was instituted, nor any apology or retraction 
offered by the Boston court, whose printers were now more 
rigorously fettered by colonial censors than any of the craft 
were restrained in Old England by Sir Roger L'Estrange.* 

Ha\nng been absent from his government as long as the 
duke thought prudent, Andros prepared to return. Hith- 
erto he had exercised Admiralty powers in New York only 
under his " general commission." The Duke of York, who 
was yet Lord High Admiral of England in its Plantations, 20 May, 
now gave Andros a special commission as Yice- Admiral commis- 
throughout his colonial government, and authorized him to miraity. 
appoint a Judge, Register, and Marshal in Admiralty, to 
hold their oflBces during his pleasure.f 

The next week Andros sailed for Sandy Hook, accom- 2: May. 

* Col. Doc, iii., 258, 259, 26G, 26T ; Mass. U. S. Coll., xxxii., 2ST, 2S8 ; Whitmore's Andros, 
IS, 20; Macaulay,i., 248,390,580; iv.,349; njifc, 89, 290-292. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 215, 239, 260, 268 ; ante, 87, 202. Tlie first part of the Duke of York's 
Admiralty Commission to Andros (in Latin) is recorded in N. Y. Patents, iv., 146-153. The 
record is not complete, nor does the date .appear ; hut it is entered next after a local patent, 
dated 20th October, 16TS. 


cnAr. VII. panied by several residents of New York, among whom 

were William Pinliorne, James Graham, and John West, 

Andiosr^ all of whom became prominent in the affairs of the prov- 

Ne^'vork. ^^^^- The Reverend Charles WoUey, a recent graduate 

of Cambridge University, whom the duke had appointed 

chaplain to the forces in New York, also came out with 

7 August, the governor. After a nine weeks' voyage Andros reach- 

8 August, ed port, and the next day landed in the metropolis.* 

8 August. The first business of Andros, on resuming his govern- 
trade^ mcut, was to Order that none but New Yorkers should 
trade at Albany. The commissioners for Indian affairs 
there, having complained of the French intrigues among 
22 August, the Mohawks, were also directed to do every thing to en- 
courage the New York savages.f 

Another measure, necessary to help the provincial trade, 

was met by remonstrances from Albany, Esopus, and other 

inland towns. The previous direction that all flour ex- 

Bouing of ported from the city of New York should be bolted fine, 

and the barrels branded, appears to have been evaded, and 

the reputation of its great staple was jeoparded in foreign 

24 August, ports. The Council therefore ordered that no inland 

towns should " trade over sea," and that no flour should be 

inspected within the province except in the metropolis. 

Honest manufacture was thus secured ; and, for some 

Condition years, " no bad commodity was suffered to go out." At 

tropoiis?*'' this time the city contained three hundred and forty-three 

houses, each of which, on the average, had ten inhabitants, 

making its whole population three thousand four hundred 

rnrsS-'' and thirty. There belonged to the metropolis three ships, 

^'°^' seven boats, and eight sloops. Four hundred beeves were 

killed for its yearly supply. The whole rcA^enue of the 

province was about two thousand pounds. But, from the 

time of the metropolitan flour-law, the revenue of the city, 

as well as that of the proprietor, began to improve.:}: 

An interesting incident now occurred. After his theo- 
logical defeat in 1676, Leisler went to trade in Dela- 

• C. Wolley's Journal (Gowans's ed., ISOO), 10, 21, 65, G8, G9, TO; Dankers and Sluyter, 
148; Col. Doc, iii., 271, 303, 657, 716 ; iv., 847; General Entries, xxxii., 1 ; ante, 45, note. 

t Col. MSS., xxvii., 175, 1S7; Council Min.,iii. (ii.), 170,180; Col. Doc, iii., 315. 

t Warrants, Ord., Passes, iii., 40, 287; Col. MSS., xxvi., 147; xxviii., 3, 78, S3, 95, 99; 
xxix., 20, 32; Col. Doc, iii., 315, 338,797; iv., 333, 375,461, 1103; v., 57; Minutes of Com- 
mon Council, i., 143, ii. ; Dnnlap, ii., App., cxlvii. ; Chalmers's Ann., i., .507, 598; Val- 
entine's New York, ISO : compare Andros, in Col. Doc, iii., 2G0-26-2, and ante, 313. 


ware, Maryland, and Yirginia, and afterward sailed in his chap. vn. 
" Pincke" for Europe, Avith several other JSlew Yorkers. 
On their way they were taken by the Turks, whose cor- 
sairs commanded the ocean, and Andros at once ordered n August, 
"that a brief be granted for the Church officers (and favor of 
recommended by the ministers) to collect the benevolence tiie Turks, 
of well-disposed persons in this Government toward the 
redemption of these captives." This was an imitation of 
the familiar practice in England, where such letters ar&- 
usually issued by the sovereign. The appeal was effectual, 
and the captives were soon redeemed ; Leisler paying two 
thousand pieces of eight (or Spanish dollars) for his own 

Pursuant to his new commission and the dulse's special 
warrant, Andros now appointed the mayor, Stephanus van 5 October. 
Cortlandt, to be judge, and the aldermen of the city of court in 
IS'ew York to be assistants of the Provincial Court of Ad- 
miralty. Samuel Leete, the cit}^ clerk, was likewise ap- 
pointed register, and Sheriff Thomas Ashton the marshal 
of the court. This organization substantially existed for 
several years, the mayor of the city, for the time being, al- 
ways receiving a commission as judge in Admiralty. f 

Affairs in Pemaquid seemed now to require the govern- Peraaquid 
or's presence ; but, by the advice of his Council, Andi-os 
deferred going thither until the spring. Knapton, his 
commandant at Fort Charles, had diligently executed his 
instructions, to the discontent of Massachusetts ; a vessel 
belonging to which had been seized for illegally trading 
within the duke's territories. It was accordingly ordered 23 August. 
in Council that the former regulations should continue in 
force, and that " no Indian trade be admitted at Pemaquid 
but from and to this place, to prevent inconvenience.":}: 

On the Delaware, Billop, the commandant, had miscon- 
ducted himself, so that Andros was obliged to order him 3 septem. 

* Ord., Warr., Pa?ses, iii., 210 ; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 178 ; Gen. Ent., xxxii., 65; Col. 
MSS., xxvu.,lT9, ISS; xxviii., 26, 2T, 30; xlix., IBS; Mass. Rec, v., 2SD; Col. Doc, iii., 717; 
Doc. Hist, ii., 2 ; iii., 253 ; Laws of Maryland, IGSl. A surplus of this collection remained 
after the captives were redeemed, and this Andros directed to be applied toward the build- 
ing of a new Dutch Church in IVew York : Col. Doc, iii., 717. 

t Minutes of Common Council, i., 122, 124 ; Gen. Ent., xxxii, 4; Col. Doc, iii., 2GS; Dun- 
lap, ii., App., cxxviii. ; Daly's Sketch, 30, 51. Delavall having succeeded Van Cortlandt as 
mayor on 14 October, 167S, was commissioned judge in Admiralty in his place. 

t Col. Doc., iii., 272; Council Min., iii (ii.), ISO, ISl; Col. MSS.. xxvii., 2, 5,C3,G4,12D, 
126, 143 ; Mass. II. S. Coll., xxvili., 338; Pemaquid Papers, 9-14, 15, 16, 23-33; ante, 310. 


ciLvp. VII. back to New York, leaving Alricks in charge. On Lis re- 
^ turn to the capital, Billop was dismissed his military em- 

Deiaware plojment, f or " extravagant speeches in public," at the Cus- 

•2#septem. tom-housc. This action of Andros was approved by the 
1679. duke, who ordered the vacant commission of heutenant in 

10 March. ^|^g regular service to be given to Salisbury ; and Billop re- 
tired to his plantation on Staten Island to nurse his anger 
against the governor.* 
1678. - Notwithstanding his experience at New York, Fen wick, 
on his return to Salem, persisted in acting as an independ- 
ent proprietor. He was complained of to the Council, who 

2" May. dircctcd " that, according to his parole, he forbear the as- 

caTe!^''' ^ suming any power of government to himself on the east 
side of Delaware River, or any w^here else in those parts." 

3 June. This lic rcfused to do, alleging that he was answerable 

24 July, only to the king, and w^as again arrested and sent to New 

York. His case was considered by the Council, which de- 

22 August, nied his appeal to the king, but referred him to the judg- 
ment of the Court of Assizes. This being adverse, the 

October, govcmor appointed six commissioners to act at Elsingburg, 
or Salem, in subordination to the court at Newcastle. The 

2« October. Ncwcastlc court was also instructed to take care that the 
inhabitants of the east side of Delaware River " be not dis- 
turbed in their possession upon any pretence whatsoever by 
the said Major Fen wick, or others."t 

The governor's attention was quickly called to the rela- 
tions between New York and New England. The commis- 
sioners of the three Eastern United Colonies, meeting at 

5 Sept. Hartford, complained to him of the " frivolous answers" 
which their agents, Ely and Wayte, had received from the 
Mohawks at their recent visit to Albany. Andros re- 

25 Sept. proved them for treating surreptitiously with the New 
anTNew York ludiaus, but offered to give full liberty to talk with 
M"ont°3^ the savages "through the government," and proposed a 

meeting at New Haven " to advise on the matter," if it be 

" necessary for the public good of these colonies." Leete 

October, and Allyn, on belialf of Connecticut, thought the proposed 

• Col. Doc, iii., 2T6, 284, 350, 350 ; Col. MSS., xxvii., 0, 11 ; xxviii., 13 ; Council Min . iii. 
(ii.),lS5; S. Hazard, 448-458; Newcastle Kec. ; Upland Rec. ; Chalmers, i., 303, 875; An- 
derson's Col. Ch., ii., 305; ante^ 300. 

t Council Min., iii. (ii.), ISO ; S. Hazard, 452-45!) ; N. J. Hist. Soc. Proc, ii., 12-21 ; Col. 
MSS., XX., 145, 14C, 147, 148, 149, 1.50, 155, 150; xxvii., 100 ; xxviii., 1 ; nnV, 002, 300. 


meeting " will little avail," and that the conferences at Al- chap. vir. 
bany, if not known to Andros, had been with the " privity 
and allowance" of Salisbury, his subordinate there.* 

In his letters to Secretary Blathwayt, Andros dwelt on 
the relations between the duke's province and its eastern 
neighbors, and insisted that troubles with the savages must 
be expected " so long as each petty colony hath, or as- ic Sept. 
sumes, absolute power of peace and warr, which cannot be 
managed by such popular governments ; as was evident by 
the late Indian wars in New England." He charged the 
Puritan colonies with making the New York Indians " lie, 12 October. 
if not insolent, which they never were afore ; nor did I plaints of 
ever make treaty with, but dealt with them as being un- EDgiand. 
der, or part of the Government." All his hope now was, 
" regulations and orders from the Idng, as the only means 
to keep us well in peace, and preserve or defend us of 
wars." These opinions had much effect in England, where 
measures for the reform of the Massachusetts corporation 
were at this moment under consideration.f 

Jacob Milborne, who, after his theological trouble in 
1676, had left the province in November, 1677, now re- 
turned, on his way to Boston, where his brother William 
was an Anabaptist preacher. Behaving himself " scandal- 
ously and reproachfully in relation to the Government," he 
was desired to attend the governor, " to give an account of 20 Decem. 
his coming," as was the usual custom. But Milborne re- Jacob jiii- 
fused, saying that " he had nothing to do with the Govern- 
or or Government." Mayor Delavall accordingly brought 
him before the Council, who, finding him to be " a trouble- 
some and mutinous person," committed him to the sheriff. 27 Decern. 
The next day Milborne was set at liberty, and soon after- 
ward returned to London, where he annoyed Andi'os.:}: 

* Gen. Ent., xxxii., 1 ; Col. Doc., iii., 273-276 ; Col. MSS., xxvii., 154, 155, 160, 107, IGS; 
Col. Eec. Conn., iiL, 25S, 259, 490, 491, 494, 495, 503 ; Mass. Kec, v., 209, 300 ; ante, 312. 

t Col. Doc, ill., 272, 276. Blathwayt, who had been secretaiy to Sir William Temple in 
Holland, raised himself from humble circumstances, and was "a veiy proper, handsome 
person, very dexterous in business :" Temple, ii., 140, 176, 201 ; Evelyn, ii., 279. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 277, 300, 301, 5S2, 621, 08J; Doc Hist., ii., 42; Col. MSS., xxvi., 139; 
Gen. Ent., xx.xii., 19; ante, 196, note, 300. Andres's warrant of 27 December, 1678, di- 
rected Sheriff Ashton to take into his custody Jacob Milborne, " for clamoring and writing 
Bcurrilously against the magistracy and government of this place, particularly at his going 
off in November, 1077, and afore and since, without any complaint or known cause given, 
and now being arrived in the Beaver as a passenger to Boston, and upon examination by 
and before the Governor concerning tlie above, showing no cause or reason for hia so doing, 
but giving further O3casion by his comport." 

II.— X 



Chap. vii. The English claim of sovereignty over the Iroquois, 
which Andros had asserted in the spring of 1677, roused 
Louis. In the unsettled condition of European politics, 
the French king could not take a decided stand about his 
interests in America. Nevertheless, he wrote to Fronte- 
12 May. uac, " I am well pleased to learn that you have always 
uffairs. maintained my authority in the different treaties you have 
made with the Iroquois and other Indian tribes ; — and in 
regard to the pretension of the English Major General 
[Andros], my intention is that you always contribute what- 
ever lies in your power to maintain peace between the two 
nations, Avithout, however, allowing any thing to be under- 
taken against the countries under my dominion." In the 
15 May. samo Spirit, Colbert instructed Duchesnau that French ex- 
liay.^ plorations toward Hudson's Bay were advantageous for 
the king's service, " in order to be able to contest the title 
thereto of the English, who pretend to take possession of 
it, although it lies within the limits of the countries apper- 
taining to the Crown.""" 

La Salle had meanwhile satisfied Colbert tliat a great 
trade might be established for the benefit of France in 
i.vSaiie buffalo skins — called by the Spaniards " Cibola," after the 
lark' town of that name on the Gila — one of which he brought 
to Paris as a sample, and from which hats were soon made 
" as beautiful as those from beaver." The only difficulty 
was that of transportation, for these skins were too bulky 
to be profitably carried in canoes through the Ottawa and 
the Saint Lawrence to Quebec. They must be shipped to 
Rochelle by a more direct route. La Salle therefore peti- 
tioned the king to let him " go and discover the mouth of 
the great River Meschasipi, on which vessels might be built 
to come to France." As he had been at great expense in 
maintaining Fort Frontenac, he also asked the exclusive 
55 Ma^•. privilege of trading in buffalo skins. Colbert gladly coun- 
autiiorized tcrsigucd the decree of Louis, which authorized La Salle 
the Missis- " to labour in the discovery of the western part of New 
^'''^'" France," and build necessary forts ; and likewise granted 
him the monopoly of the buffalo fur trade.f 

* Col. Doc, ix., 128, 2CS, 794; La Potherie, i , 140, 143; Charlevoix, ii., 290-208; Old- 
mixon, i., 544, 545; ft»i/c, 3flT. 
t Col. Doc, ix., 13T, 795; Hennepin's Louisiana., 14, 15; Sparks's La Salle, 12,13, 181- 


At the request of the Prince of Conty, who had be- cuap. vn. 
friended him at court, La Salle took into his enterprise 
Henry de Tonty, a son of the famous Italian author of the 
system called " Tontine," and who had served in the 
French army until its reduction at the Peace of Nime- 
guen. Embarking at Rochelle with Tonty, and La Motte A J"ir- 
as his lieutenant, and with abundant means of equipping embarks 
vessels on the lakes. La Salle safely reached Quebec. andYa°'' ^ 
His arrival startled the l^ew York authorities, who heard s August. 
that he had brought over five ships and two thousand 
men. Materials and artisans were quickly sent up to Fort 
Frontenac, where the Franciscans Hennepin, Membre, and 
Watteau now joined Eibourde and Buisset. An advanced 
party was dispatched to Michilimackinac, and one of La 
Salle's barks was sent with Tonty, La Motte, and Henne- ts ^'o^- 
pin to iJs^iagara. Sailing along the north shore of Lake 
Ontario — which the Iroquois called ^'- SJcannadaricP — 
they entered the JS^iagara River on Saint Ts icholas's Day, c Decem. 
when a Te Demn was sung, and thanks were offered to French at 
God. The Senecas, who inhabited a little village on the "^^'^'*' 
shore of the green, deep river below the cataract, wonder- 
ed at the " great wooden canoe" in which the strangers had 
come, and gave them tliree hundred delicious whitefish 
just taken fi'om the lake. La Salle's vessel was secured ii Decem. 
from the floating ice ; the first mass was said by Hennepin ; 
and a bark cabin was built near the present dllage of Lew- lo Decem. 
iston, under the awful roar of the falls.* 

In executing his combined scheme of discovery and 
trade. La Salle now made the decisive mistake which pro- La saiie-s 
duced most of the troubles he afterward suffered, and in- wa route. 
fluenced, perhaps unhappily, the colonization of Western 
Kew France. A fort or magazine at Niagara was, of 
course, necessary. But the exploration of the Mississippi 
down to its mouth would have been most readily effected 
by descending the Alleghany from its near head-waters, 
and then the Ohio, which it was long ago kno^vn emptied 

IS.T: Louisiana Hist. Coll., L, 35, 3G ; Shea's Discoveiy, 18, 88 ; ante, 30S. The account in 
Charlevoix, il, 205, is full of errors. 

* Hennepin's Louisiana, 15-30 ; Nouvelle Decouverte, C2-7T ; New Discovery, 40-51, C3 ; 
Col. MSS., xxvii., ITT, ITS : Shea's Discovery, S9, 90 ; N. Y. H. S. Coll., ii., 219-230 ; Louisi- 
ana Hist. Coll., i., 52, 53, 79, 19C; Charlevoix, iii., 381, 3S5; Sparks's La Salle, 13-19, 203, 
204; a«<c, i.,C12; ii.,299. 


Chap. VII. into the Great River. Instead of this, La Salle adopted 
Jolliet's roundabout plan, and resolved to build a vessel 
* above Niagara, to traverse the upper lakes, and bring back 
thither cargoes of fui-s from the neighborhood of Chicago.* 
27 Dec. To quiet the jealousy of the savages. La Motte and 
and Heu- Hennepin, with seven men, visited the Senecas. After five 
among the dajs' inarcli over the snow and through forests, they reach- 
ed the great village of " Totiakto," or " Tegarondies."t 
1679. On New-year's day Hennepin preached in the bark chapel 

1 jan'y. ^^ ^Y\e Jesuits in presence of the fathers Garnier and Kaf- 
conference fcix. A Conference was then held with the great Seneca 
Senecas. Couucil, whicli, in its gravity, resembled the Yenetian Sen- 
ate. Before any thing was said. La Motte declared that 
he would enter into no particulars in presence of Garnier, 
"whom he suspected." The Jesuit was ordered to with- 
draw, and Hennepin went out at the same time, " to bear 
part of the affront put upon him." After handsome pres- 
ents, the Senecas were told that the French intended to 
build " a great wooden canoe" above the falls, by means 
of which they could be supplied with European commodi- 
ties cheaper than by Boston and New York. A blacksmith 
and a gunsmith would also be settled at the mouth of the 

2 Jan'y. Niagara River. The Senecas replied, apparently approv- 

ing the French proposals. But they really had a greater 

inclination for the Dutch and English, who afforded them 

European goods at cheaper rates. After witnessing the 

torture of a prisoner, whom one of the Seneca war-parties 

had taken " towards Yirginia," La Motte and Hennepin re- 

14 Jan'y. traccd their way through the woods to the Niagara River.;}: 

20 Jan'y La Motte now returned to Canada, and soon afterward 

Niagara. La Sallc's checrf ul voice was heard again at Niagara. He 

* Hennepin's Louisiana, 2; Nouvelle Dccouverte, 25 ; Col. Doc, ix.,60, SO, S1,7S9; Sliea's 
Discovery, xxxv., xxxvi. ; ante, 163, 241. 

t Nouvelle Docouverte, 81 ; New Discovery, 53, and Map ; Pow-nair.s Map of 1776. La 
llontan, i., 101, calls the village "Thegaronhies." I think it must be another name for 
the chief Seneca village of Todehaeckto or Totiakto, ov Conception, near Mendon, in Monroe 
County; although Mr. Marshall refers it to Gannagaro, or Saint James, near Victor, in On- 
tario County: see N. Y.II. S. Coll., ii. (ii ), 160, 1(53, ISO, 191; Marshall's "Niagara Fron- 
tier," 14 ; Col. Doc, ix., 334, 364-307 ; Col. M.'^S., xxxv., 160 ; ante, 179. 

} Hennepin's Louisiana, 31-40; Nouvelle Dc'-couverte, 78-92; New Discovery, 29-61; 
Lou. Hist. Coll., i , 197-199. With his constitutional tendency to falsehood, Hennepin rep- 
resents the Falls of Niagara to be "• more than iive hundred feet," and "above six hundred 
foot high." The exaggeration is copied in the spurious work atti-ibuted to Tonty, in N. Y. 
H. S. Coll., ii., 228. The Jesuit Relation of 1048, p. 46, described it, thirty years before, as 
" line chcutc d'eaux (Vune cffroijabU hauteur." The actual average height of the cataract 
is one hundred and sixty feet. 


had come from Fort Frontenac in one of his barks with cuap. vii. 
supplies for his projected vessel on Lake Erie, but he had 
been wrecked by his pilots within two leagues of the mouth 
of the river, at a place which his sailors named the " Mad 
Cape." On his way La Salle revisited the Senecas, and 
gained them so that they consented to his designs. Yet 
"cei-tain persons" made it their business to thwart him, 
and filled the savages with such jealousy of a fort, that La 
Salle was obliged to content himself with " a habitation 
encompassed with palisades." With a fine harbor and ex- Fort 
cellent fishing, it commanded the New York side of the ^''°*^' 
Niagara Kiver mouth, and was named Fort Conty. La 
Salle then went two leagues above the cataract, and laid 
out a dock in which to build liis vessel, upon a stream flow- 22 jan'y. 
ing into the river on its west side, now known as Cayuga 
Creek. The keel was quickly laid by La Salle, who, leav- 26^Jatfy. 
ins- Tonty in command, hurried back over the snow to Fort vessel laid 

T-^. 1 CI •, 1 • ^ i. above Ni- 

Frontenac. Dunng the rest of the wmter, which was not agaia. 
half as severe as that in Canada, bark cabins were built by 
Mahican savages who had accompanied Hennepin. One of 
these was used as a chapel, in which, for the first time on chapei. 
the western border of ISTew York, Gregorian music was 
given by practiced European tenors, with the tremendous 
bass of Niagara.* 

The Senecas, who had faithfully reported La Salle's Enmity of 
movements to Andros, now refused to sell corn to thecas. 
French, and threatened to biu-n their little ship in her 
dock. This quickened Canadian work ; and, under Hen- 
nepin's blessing, the singing of "'Te Deum Laudamus^^ yi^y. 
and the firing of guns, the first European vessel built in 
Western New York was launched on the upper Niagara. Launch of 
It could carry sixty tons, and it was named the "Grif- 
fin," to compliment Frontenac, whose armorial supporters 
were two grifiins. Amazed to see this brigantine afloat, 
the savages pronounced its French builders " Otkon," 
which meant, in their tongue, most ])enetrating wits. 
Pictorially they described the vessel as " a mo^dng fort." 

» Hennepin's Louisiana, 25, 31, 32, 41, 42 ; Xouvelle Di'couverte, 93-96 ; New Discovery, 
50, Gl-63 ; Lou. Hist. Coll., i., 198 ; N. Y. H. S. Coll., ii., 230; Col. Doc, iiL, 510 ; v., G33 ; 
ix.,335, 381, 382; Doc. Hist., iii., 726 ; Marshall's Niagara Frontier, 28, 29 ; Bancroft, iii., 
163 ; Sparks's La Salle, 20, 21, 22 ; ante, 163, 164. The name of La Salle is commemorated 
in that of the village at the month of the Cayuga Creek, in the County of Niagara ; and the 
dock which he built there is still known as " the old ship-yard." 


cdap. VII. Hennepin now hastened to Cataracouy to bring some of 

his Franciscan brethren ; and Riboui'de, Membr6, and Wat- 

27 May ^^^^^ accompanied him to Niagara. La Salle followed them 

La SiUie j^ ^ canoo alonff the southern shore of Ontario. On his 

among the o 

senecas. "vyay he visited the Seneca villages again, where he met 
Gamier and Kaffeix, and learned that the Miamis and Fa- 
ther AUouez were endeavoring to rouse the Iroquois to war 
with the Illinois. This purpose was checked by the timely 
s July. presents of La Salle. On reaching the Niagara River, he 
stationed the Father Melithon "Watteau at the magazine 
there. Meanwhile the Griffin — completely equipped, and 
armed vath. five small guns — had been towed up to the 
outlet of "the beautiful Lake Erie," where the savages 
" cried several times Gannoron^ to signify their admiration." 
News of the event was quickly sent by them to Andros at 
T August. New York. At length, all things being ready. La SaUe 
embarks wcut ou board with Hennepin, Ribourde, and Membre, and 
Eriefor thirty othcrs ; and tlie Griffin set sail with a favorable wind 
^*'"'^" up Lake Erie, which was now named " Conty," in honor of 
the great French subject who had befriended the enter- 
prise at Paris.* 
25 April. Louis uow directed Frontenac again to " constantly main- 
tain peace, friendship, and good correspondence with the 
English and Dutch, without, however, foregoing any of the 
rights and advantages appertaining either to my crown or 
GNovem. mv subiccts in that country." In liis reply, the governor 

Frontenac </ J _ 'i j. ./ ^ o ^ 

complains complaiucd of the intrigues of Andros among the Iroquois 
to make them " break" with the French, and of his efforts 
to thwart La Salle. At the same time, he urged that a 
French garrison should be maintained at Chambly, through 
which almost all the communication was carried on be- 
tween Canada and the English colonies. As there were 
now rumors of fresh hostilities in Europe, Duchesnau, the 

14 Nov. intendant, sent an interesting dispatch to Seignelay, who 
had succeeded Colbert, his father, in the ministry of the 
colonies, showing that a war with New York and New En- 
gland would be to the advantage of Canada.f 

* Hennepin's Louisiana, 43-.';0 ; Nouvelle Ducouverte, 9T-121 ; New Discovery, C3-TS, 314 ; 
Lou. Hist. Coll., i., 190, 200 ; La Potherie, ii., 136 ; Col. Doc, iii., 278 ; i.\., 118, 1G7, 204, 214, 
210, 382; Shea's Discovery, 69, 90, 91, 154; Jlissions, 411, 412; N. Y. II. S. Coll., ii., 22S- 
231 ; Spaiks'a La S.iUe, 22-26; Bancroft, iii., 104 ; Hist. Map;., v., 198. 

t Col. Doc., ix., 128-139, 149, 411, 795; Martin's Louis XIV., i., 121, 400; ii., 1. 


The Jesuit missionaries among the Iroquois were now chap. vii. 
somewhat changed. Bruyas, to whom Andros had always 
been ci\dl, left Tionnontoguen, where he was replaced by jesuus 
the Father Yaillaut de Gueslis, and took charge of the Kes- 1^°°!;*'''' 
idence at the Sault Saint Louis, in place of Fremin, who 
returned to France. James de Lamberville remained at 
Caghnawaga. Millet continued in charge of the Oneida 
mission. John de Lamberville, the superior of the Iro- 
quois missions, labored at Onondaga. Carheil ministered 
quietly to the Cayugas. Pierron having left the Senecas, 
Garnier and Raffeix remained in charge of all the villages 
of that nation. At this period the " Relations" close, and 
we miss hereafter their interesting details.* 

The Governor of Mar^dand had meanwhile written to 
ISTew York that " strange Indians" had again done mischief 
along the Susquehanna ; and Sir Edmund had assured him 1678. 
that the Senecas and Mohawks, " having been always very ^^o^gfp"^: 
good and faithf ull to this Government," could not have tf'V''^} 

o ■ Maryland 

been the offenders. Colonel Herbert Jeffreys, the actinsr »^?'\^'"'- 
governor of Virginia, also complained of the mischiefs 
done to that colony and Maryland by " unknown Indians," 
in breach of Coursey's treaty ; and Andros sent the two In- 
dian interpreters, Arnout and Daniel, in the depth of win- 
ter, to invite the Iroquois to Albany. Swerise, one of the 1679. 
sachems of the Oneidas, accordingly came there, and ex- iroq,tois^'at 
cused his nation by laying the blame on the people of '^^^'^^'• 
Schenectady, who, they said, had misrepresented the de- 
signs of the English. Some captives were restored, and 
Andros received the thanks of Virginia and Maryland. 
A few months afterward the Oneidas again visited Al-24May. 
bany, and Swerise, as their spokesman, declared to Sir 
Edmund's commissioners, " Corlaer governs the whole land " coriaer 
from New York to Albany, and from thence to the Sene- the whole 
ca's land ; we, who are his subjects, shall faithfully keep 
the covenant chain." " * * * " Corker's limits, as we 
have said, stretch so far even to Jacob my Friend, or Jacob 
Young." But, as the Onondagas and Cayugas claimed the 
land lying on the Susquehanna River by right of conquest 

* Col. Doc, iv., GO" ; ix., 120, 130, 171, i:i4, 233, 720, 763, S3S; Kel., 1673-0. 140, 204, 283 ; 
DotinioVs Missions, ii., 106, lOT, 359; Shea's Missions, 274, 277, 2S6, 2S9, 293, 294; ante, 290, 
307. Golden, i., 44, errs in stating that in 1670 there were French priests among tlio Onei- 
das, Onondagas, and Cayugas only, and none among the Mohawks and Senecas. 


Chap. vii. from the Andastes or Conestogas, they now transferred it 
to the government of New York " to rule over it," so that 
' it could not be sold " without Corlaer's order."* 

Virginia, being still troubled, sent Colonels William Ken- 
dall and Southley Littleton to confer with the New York 
31 July. Indians. They were courteously received by Andros and 
8 August, his Council, and then went up to Albany, where Salisbury 
iigef^Tt!* was instructed to aid them all he could. The Iroquois 
avAAi-^ were accordingly summoned to a conference; but they 
^^^^' were delayed by the small-pox, which desolated their vil- 
lages, and Littleton died at Albany before the savages ar- 
rived. Kendall, however, renewed a peace with the Onei- 
sNovem. das, Mohawks, and Senecas, The Onondagas came later, 
and Kendall addressed them as he had done their breth- 
ren. Yet, in spite of all promises, the young Iroquois 
braves could not be restrained from new incursions to- 
ward the South.f 
August. By advice of his Council, Andros meanwhile visited 
p^maquld. Pemaquid to " take order about the settlement of planters 
or inhabitants, trade, and all other matters." On his re- 
turn to the metropolis, after attending to local affairs, and 
the autumn session of the Court of Assizes, the governor 
October, wcnt up to Albany, where Iroquois complications and the 
'^°^' regulation of the fi'ontier towns of the province demanded 
his personal presence.:}: 
13 septem. In the autmnn of this year two Dutch " Labadists," Jas- 
and siuy- per Daukors and Peter Sluyter, came from Wiewerd, in 
York. ^^^ Friesland, to view the New World, and select a place to es- 
tablish a colony of their religious community. These Lab- 
Labadiats. adists wcro disciples of Jean de Labadie, a French enthu- 
siast, holding the doctrines of the Reformed Dutch Church, 
but adopting other opinions and practices not recognized 
by that Church. The travelers were shrewd and observ- 
ing men, and the narrative of their journey is an interest- 

* Col. Doc, iii., 2T1, 277, 278, 322, 417 ; Council Min., iii. (ii.), 182 ; Col. MSS., xxviii., 2 ; 
Colden, i., 3S-42, 55; first edit., 82-42, 64; Doc. Hist., i., 261; Hennepin, Nouv. Dec, 90; 
Chalmers, i., 330, 351 ; anfe, 103, 287, 309. Jacob Young was an Indian interpreter who 
lived at the head of the Chesapeake Bay, back of Newcastle: Col. Doc, iii., 322,325, 344; 
S. Hazard, Ann., 473. 

t Col. Doc, ix., 120, 131 ; Col. MSS., xxviii., 120-122, 125, 131 ; Colden, i., 42, 43, 44; first 
ed., 42-48. Neither Beverley nor Burk notice this mission from Virginia. 

t Council Min., iii. (ii.), 180; Pemaquid Papers, 32, 33; Col. Doc, iii., 272; Col. M8S., 
xxviii., 2, 123, 131-134; K. I. Kec, iii., 54; Arnold, L, 455; Dankers and Sluyter's Journ., 
111,167,258; n?Uc, 319. 


ing contemporaneous account of the condition of New chap. yii. 
Tork and its neighborhood.* ~rZZZ~ 

The four Dutch ministers in the province were now call- 
ed on to perform a veiy important office. Before the ar- 
rival of Yan Gaasbeeck, the church at Kingston had been 
supplied by Petrus Tesschenmaeker, a young " Proponent," petms 
or licensed Bachelor in Divinity, who had recently been meeker. " 
graduated from the University of Utrecht, and had come 
from Guiana to New Tork in the spring of 1678. The 
following autumn Tesschenmaeker went to Newcastle, 
where the congregation called him to be their minister, al- 
though he had never been ordained. To remedy this, the 
delegates from that church asked the provincial Dutch 
clergymen to form themselves into a " Classis" and ordain 
the candidate, without obliging him to go to Holland for 
holy orders. This was a novel question. Up to this time 
the Classis of Amsterdam alone had sent over Dutch min- 
isters to New York, and those now settled there did not as- 
sume the power of ordaining others. Andros, who was 
anxious to have a Dutch clergyman settled on the Dela- 
ware, relieved the New York domines from responsibility 
by an official direction to Yan Nieuwenhuysen, and " any so septem. 
three or more of the Ministers or Pastors within this Gov- rects the 
emment," to examine Tesschenmaeker, and, if they sliould tfon°T^". 
find him qualified, to ordain him " into the ministry of the maeker."^" 
Protestant Reformed Church." Accordingly, the Dutch 
clergymen, Schaats of Albany, Yan Nieuwenhuysen of New 9 October. 
York, Yan Zuuren of Long; Island, and Yan Gaasbeeck of ministers 


Esopus, met at New York, with their elders ; formed them- Tesschen- 
selves into a Classis ; and, after examining Tesschenmaeker, 
ordained him as a minister of the Gospel, according to the 
ritual of the Reformed Dutch Church. None of the other 
provincial clergymen assisted; neither the English chap- 
lain Wolley, nor the Lutherans Arensius and Lokenius, nor 
the Presbyterians on Long Island. It was wholly a Classis 
of the Reformed Church of Holland — the first ever held in 
America — and its proceedings, which had been originated 
by the Episcopalian governor of New York, were approved 

• The Journal of Dankers and Sluyter, in 16T9 and IGSO, was published in 1S67 by the 
Long Island Historical Society, under the supervision of llr. Henry C. Murphy, wlio procured 
the original manuscript in Holland, and translated and annotated this precious memorial 
with excellent scholarship. 


GuAF. VII. by the supreme ecclesiastical judicature at Amsterdam 
charged with the affairs of colonial Dutch chm-ches.* 
The law of Isew York was now settled on an important 
17 Decern, point. Twentj-one metropolitan coopers signed an agree- 
ment to charge certain prices for their labor ; and that, if 
any of them should sell his work under their own arbitrary 
prices, he should be fined fifty shillings " for the use of the 
1680. poor." For this agreement the conspiring laborers were 
coop^eTs summoned before the governor and council, and Mayor 
unlawful Rombouts, who adjudged them guilty of an unlawful com- 
ti'o"'^^"*'" filiation, and sentenced each signer to pay a fine of fifty 
shillings "to the cliurch, or pious uses." This decision 
was founded on the laws of England, which declared such 
confederating modern " strikers" to be " infamous," and 
punished them by fine and imprisonment.f 

The pre^^ious legislation in regard to the bolting and in- 
s]3ection of fiour having been ineffectual, and complaints 
17 jan'y. bcino; made of the loss which trade suffered, it was ordered 
New regix- ill couiicil that f Or the future no mills be allowed to bolt, 
.about bolt- nor fiour to be packed for exportation, but at the city of 
porting ^'New York; and that all bolting or exporting that com- 
modity must be freemen or burghers. This new regula- 
tion was strictly enforced. For fourteen years the me- 
tropolis enjoyed a monopoly w^hich helped her inevitable 
growth, and especially advantaged her coopers, who had just 
been punished for " striking." But her shoemakers w^ere 
24 Jan'y. forbiddcu to tan hides: and it was proposed to require all 

Shoemak- i jr u. 

era not to leather to be imported. Happily, this restriction — intend- 
ed to benefit the merchant at the expense of the producer 
— was not carried into effect.:}: 

An important measure in regard to Indian slaves was 
now adopted. It had been the practice to discriminate be- 

• CoiT. Class. Amst., Letters of 25 October, 1679, 2 April, 16S0 ; Bankers and Sliiyter'g 
Jour., Ill, 222 ; Col. M3S., xxviii., 132 ; Gen. Ent., xxxii., 61 ; Doc. Hist., iii., 5S3, note; 
Murphy's Selyns, 82, 101 ; Demarest's Hist. Kef. D. C, 183, 181 ; N. Y. Christ. Int., 19 Oct., 
1S65; Hist. Mag., Nov., 1865. Laurentius van Gaasbeeck came to Kingston as the success- 
or of 151om in September, 1678, at the request of the elders and deacons of the Dutch Cluirch 
there, witli the approbation of Andros, and under the authority of the Classis of Amster- 
dam : Cor. CI. Amst., MSS. ; O'Call., ii., 432. Van Gaasbeeck died in February, IGSO, and 
was succeeded by Johannes Weecksteen, from llarlaem, in 1651 : Col. JI3., xxix., 205 ; Doc. 
Hist., iii., 583 ; Cor. CI. Amst. ; Bankers and SUiyter's Journal, 270 ; Hist. Mag. (ii.),' i., 333. 

t Col. MSS., xxi.x:., 2, 3, 19 ; Val. Man., 18.50, 425, 420 ; Statutes 2 and 3 Edw. VI., cap. 15, 
22 and 2.". Charles II., cap. 19 ; Saint Paul's I.pistle to Timothy 1, iii., 3, and toTilus, i., 7. 

i Col. MS.^., xxix., 2, 19, 29,32,39,84,187; Minutes of Com. Council,!., 143; Col. Doc, 
iii., 315, 33S, 351, 797 ; v., !57, 58; Dankers and Sluyter's Jour., 354-357; Dunlap, ii., App., 
cxxvi, ; ante, SIS. 


tween the free natives of Kew York and others, especially chap.vii. 
those of the Spanish West Indies, many of whom were 
held in bondage. It was now resolved in council that all^pg^gnj' 
Indians are free and not slaves, and can not be forced to 
be servants, unless those formerly brought from the Bay of 
Campeachy or other foreign parts. This was followed by a 
formal order " That all Indians here have always been and 1680. 
are free, and not slaves, except such as have been formerly imported 
brought fi'om the bay or other foreign parts. But if any gjaveTde- 
shall be brought hereafter into the government, within the "^'■'^^^ ^'^^• 
space of six months, they are to be disposed of, as soon as 
may be, out of the government. But after the expiration 
of the said six months, all that shall be brought here from 
those parts and landed, to be as other free Indians."* 

The Dutch Church in the fort had now become too 
small to accommodate its congregation, and its present , 
condition was not convenient either for the people or for 
the government. At the suggestion of Andros, a meeting so June, 
was held to consider the best means to build a new one, mentaV 
which was attended by several members of the council and new Dutcu 
other leading citizens, besides Domine van Nieuwenhuy- *" 
sen and the Episcopalian chaplain Wolley. It was deter- 
mined, by a vote of ten to three, to raise money by " free 
will or gift," and not by a public tax ; but, if that should 
fail, to appeal to the governor. It was agreed that the 
new church should be a quarter larger than that in the 
fort, which was fifty-four feet wide. Andros, warmly ap- 
proving the project, directed that the surplus moneys raised 
under his letter of August, 16Y8, for the redemption of the 
captives in Turkey, should be applied toward the new 
church, and contributed fifty pounds himself. The mayor 
and aldermen also appropriated certain fines, and a plot of 
ground was selected on which to build the church as soon 
as possible.! 

Wolley, the duke's Episcopalian chaplain, soon after- 
ward went home to seek preferment in England, with a 

* Col. MSS., xxviii., IGl, 1T3 ; xxix., 86 ; Min. of N. Y. Com. Council, i., 142 ; Dunlap, ii., 
App., cxxix. ; ante, 140. Notwithstanding this order, foreign Indians were for a long time 
held as slaves in New York, as they were in Massachusetts and other English dependencies. 

t Doc. Hist., iii., 244, 2G5; Col. MSS., xxviii., 26, 27; xxix., 141 ; Gen. Ent., xsxii., 65; 
Col. Doc, iii., 315, 415, 717 ; Letter of Selyns to Classis, 28 Octoher, 16S2 ; ante, 310. Dr. 
De Witt, in his sermon (.\iigust, 1S5G, p. 26), erroneously places " the iirst steps" in 16S7: 
see Records of the Collegiate Dutch Churcli, Liber A., p. 101, 103. 


cuAP. vir. certificate from Andros that lie had " comported himself mi- 
"~ blameable in his life and conversation." After his return 
15 July. * ^^olley prepared "A two years' Journal in New York," 
woXy'^e- ^^^-J w^ich was published in London in ITOl. Encumbered 
Kl^and, ^^^^^ pedantry, and fuller of detail about the native savages 
than the European colonists, Wolley's Journal, nevertheless, 
gives valuable information concerning the province in 1680. 
In respect to the metropolis, where he lived for two years, 
the lately returned chaplain declared New York to be " a 
place of as sweet and agreeable air as ever I breathed in, 
and the inhabitants, both English and Dutch, very civil and 
courteous, as I may speak by experience, amongst whom I 
have often wished myself and familj^, to whose tables I 
was frequently invited, and alwaj's concluded with a gen- 
erous bottle of Madeira."* 

1679. The Duke of York's customs' regulations had mean- 
while proved so annoying to East Jersey, that its Assembly 

3 April, passed an act to indemnify any vessel which, coming into 
tween New that provincc by way of Sandy Hook, and entering and 
New jer- clearing at Elizabethtown, might be seized by the govern- 
^^^' ment of New York. Carteret accordingly proclaimed that 

all bottoms coming to East Jersey should be free. Upon 
this, one Mr. Hooper ordered a ketch from Barbadoes to 
go thither ; but Andros made her enter and pay duties in 
New York before he w^ould allow her to proceed to Jersey 
and land her cargo of rum. Sir Edmund also sent Collector 
- Dyer to England to answer any complaints. The Duke of 
York being absent in Flanders, Secretary Werden appears 
to have given directions to Dyer, with which he returned 
to New York in the following December. Andros soon 
afterward went over to Staten Island, and invited Carte- 
ret to meet him there, " to negotiate in peace and friend- 

1680. ship." The Jersey governor having declined this over- 
Androf*" '^^^^5 ^^^ Edmund sent him copies of Charles's patent to 
notifies James, and of the duke's commission to himself; and he 

Carteret. ' ..,..„ 

directed Carteret to forbear exercising " any jurisdiction" 

* Gen. Ent, xxxii., 93, 94 ; Hist. Mag., i., 371 ; ante, 31S. A reprint of Wolley's Journal 
was published by W. Gowans (who misprints the name "• Wooley") in 1S60. It does not equal 
in interest the contemporaneous observations of Dankers and Sluyter; but, in connection 
with that book, and Secretary Nicolls's account in Scot's "Model" (128-144), it leaves little 
unknown about New York and New Jersey in IGSO. I regret that the limits of this volume 
do not allow me to quote some interesting descriptions of the metropolis, and of Esopus, Al- 
bany, and Long Island, tlieir people, magistrates, and otiiers. 


in any part of the territory thus granted by the king to the chap. vn. 
duke, without due authority recorded in New York. More- 
over, Andros added, " it being necessary for the Idng's serv- ^ndros 
ice, and welfare of his Majesty's subjects U^dng or trading Pg°P°^f 
in these parts, that beacons for land or sea marks for ship- ^"Irndy' 
ping saihng in and out, and a fortification, be erected at ^°°^ 
Sandy Point, I have resolved it accordingly ; — but, having 
due regard to all rights or proprieties of land or soil, shall 
be ready to pay or give just satisfaction."* 

This letter made a hubbub at Elizabethtown, After ad- 
vising with his comicil, Carteret informed Andros that if 20 Mareii. 
he attempted to build a fort at Sandy Hook he would be reply to * 
resisted until the proprietor's pleasure be known, " he hav- 
ing reserved that for a fortification, when the king shall 
command it." In the mean time. Sir Edmund had sent is March. 
Secretary Mcolls with a proclamation forbidding Carteret prociama- 
from exercising any jurisdiction within the duke's prov- ' 
ince, and commanding aU persons to submit " to the king's 
lawful authority" as established in New York, On receiv- 
ing this, Carteret protested, and appealed to the king, " who 20 March. 
only can determine this matter."t 

Andros soon went over to New Jersey. The rumor of 
liis coming went before him, and Carteret gathered a large 
force to oppose the Governor of New York. But, as he 
came without soldiers, Andros was invited ashore with his t Aprn. 
attendants, and went up to Carteret's house. Patents and EUzXtu- 
commissions were produced on each side, and long argu- **'"°' 
ments followed, without result. After dinner, Carteret ac- 
companied Sir Edmund Andros back to his sloop. Three 
weeks afterward, having tried various devices. Governor so April. 
Andros ordered some soldiers to EKzabethtown, who broke 
open Carteret's house in the dead of night ; " hailed" him 
out of his bed ; and brought him a naked prisoner to 

• Learning and Spicer, 112-13T, 673 ; Col. MSS., xxix., 55 ; Col. Doc, iii., 26S, 392 ; iv., 
3S2; Warn, Ord., Passes, iii., 63, 254; Chalmers, Ann., i., 618; Index N. J. Col. Doc.,T; 
Whitehead's E. J., TO, 7T-T9, 82 ; Hatfield's Eliz., ISO, 190 ; Evelyn, ii., 136; Dankera and 
Sluyter, 196, 255, 201, 34i ; ante, 261-2T0, 303, 30&, 312. It is stated, in Collins'a Peerage, 
iv., 212 (2d ed., 1741), that the king's vice-chamherlain. Sir George Carteret, died on the 
13th of Januaiy, 1679, in the eightieth year of his age. There seem to be some writers who 
do not yet apprehend that the '■^old style" prevailed in England until 1753; so that the 
English year 1679 ended on 24 March, 1680, ''■iiew style," and that consequently Sir George ., 

Carteret died 13 January, 16S0, according to our present reckoning. 

t Gen. Ent., xxxii., 72, 73 ; Col. MSS., xxix., 61-64, 63, 69 ; Min. of N. Y. Common Coun- 
cil, i., 137, 138; Learning and Spicer, 674-677 ; Whitehead, 71,72; Newark Town Eec, 78; 
Dankers and Sluyter, 277, 347. 


ciiAP. VII. Kew York. There, ill and forlorn, Carteret was committed 
to the custody of Sheriff Colljer, on a charge of unlawful- 

1 May. ' ^J assuming jurisdiction over the king's subjects. A spe- 
prk'cfnerfn ^^^^ Court of Assizes was ordered; before which Carteret 
ifjily'^^' ^^^ arraigned for trial, on an indictment for riotously pre- 
28 May. smniug " to cxercisc jm'isdiction and government over his 

Majesty's subjects within the bounds of his Majesty's letters 
Patents granted to His Royal Highness." Sir Edmund 
was conducted by trumpeters to the tribunal, over which 
he presided on a higher seat than usual. Carteret protest- 
ed against the jm-isdiction of the New York court. Being 
overruled, he averred his conduct as Governor of New Jer- 
sey " to be legal, and by virtue of power derived from the 
King." His commission and other documents were sub- 
carteret mittcd to tlic jur}^, wliich brouglit in a verdict of "Not 
uwfuiucd. Guilty." This did not satisfy Andros, who sent the jm'ors 
out twice and thrice ; each time with new charges.* At 
length a verdict of acquittal was recorded. Nevertheless, 
Carteret was obliged to gi\-e secm-ity that, if he went to 
New Jersey, he would not " assume any authority or juris- 
diction there, ci\al or military."! 

2 June. Sir Edmmid, accompanied by Lady Andros, now escort- 
again'^fu ed Cartcrct back to Elizabethtown with great pomp, and 
jeTIey. endcavorcd to induce the Assembly to confiirm his proceed- 
ings, and adopt the Duke's Laws, in force in New Y'ork, 
Avith such amendments as might be desirable. The Jersey 
Assembly, however, adhered to their OAvn laws, which they 

11 June, presented to Andros for his approval. Y^et the authority 

t'o°vem-^ of the Governor of New Y^ork was not disputed, and ciAdl 

™june. and military officers were commissioned by liiin to act in 

25 July. ]v^ewark, Elizabethtown, Woodbridge, Bm-lington, and else- 

E July. where. An account of these transactions was sent by the 

deposed governor to Lady Carteret ; and BoUen, who Avas 

now in London, was desired to move the Commissioners of 

Customs and others in favor of East Jersey, and watch 

Dyer, who was intending to return to England, " that he 

* It was said that "one Jackson, a juryman, occasionally speaking to the Governor, said 
that he hoped they had the same privileges .is the other Plantations. Tlie Governor an- 
swered that their privileges hung on a slender thread, and that he was chidden for giving 
them such liberties." But Andros afterward denied that he " ever spoke any such words ;"' 
and NicoUs and Dyer, who were present in court all the time, heard nothing from the gov- 
ernor to any such purpose : Col. Doc, iii., 315. 

t Learning and Spicer, CT8-CS4; Gen. Ent., xxxii., 77, "S ; Col. MSS., xxi.x., 78, 93, 1^2- 
104; ^Yhitohead, 73, 74; Uaukers and Sluyter, 347-351. 


doth not swear and romance against ns, as he did the time ch\p. vii. 

The spring of this year was marked by an attempt of -'-"'^''• 
Connecticut to include Fisher's Island within her jurisdic- 
tion. Andros at once wrote to Leete that the island had 29 March. 
been granted by Mcolls to the late Governor Winthrop, wlZ' 
and that any proceedings "intrenching" on the authority 
of New York must be forborne, " to prevent greater incon- 
veniences." The Connecticut court resolved that theysoiiay. 
would exercise government over the island, and prohibited 
obedience to Sir Edmimd. This bluster ended the matter. 
The son of Winthrop was obliged to recognize the juris- 24 june. 
diction of New York, under which the island has ever since 
remained without question.f 

The affairs of Pemaquid requiring attention, Knapton, 26 June, 
the late commander, and John West, were commissioned as fndwe°t 
special justices of the peace, and Henry Jocelyn and others quid!""*" 
appointed a Court of Sessions. The commissioners were 
also directed to visit Fisher's Island, Martha's Vineyard, 
and Nantucket, and see that proper officers were estabhsh- 
ed there. On their return, Knapton and West reported 14 septem, 
their proceedings ; and Ensign Thomas Sharpe, the pres- 
ent commander at Pemaquid, and the justices there, w^ere 
ordered to inform the Eastern savages that the governor 15 septem. 
had forbidden the Mohawks to make incursions, and that 
there must be no more " warring" between the Indians 
subject to New York.:}: 

At the Court of Assizes this autumn, besides the usual c October, 
members, justices attended from New Jersey, Nantucket, Asskel 
and Pemaquid. There were thirty members present, in- 
cluding Sir Edmund Andros, " who was a good lawyer." 
John West was now appointed clerk of the court, as well 

* Learning and Spicer, CS0-GS5 ; Col. M?S., xxix., 98-101, lOG-124, 12T, 144, 153, 154, 169, 
1T5,1T9, 1S4, 194, 199; Gen. Knt., xxxii., 94, 95, 9T; Whitehead, T4, 75; NewarliTown Kec, 
79; Bankers and Sluyter, 346, 351. It appears that when Carteret was seized at Elizabeth- 
town, Bollea and Vauquellen secured his most important papers, and hastened to England, 
the former by way of Boston, and tlie latter by Maryland : Dankers and Sluyter, 349 ; Hat- 
field, 193. 

t Gen. Ent., xxxii., 75, 90; Col. MSS., xxix., 136; Pemaquid Papers, 35; Col. Rec. Conn., 
iii.,64, 2S3; Bankers and Sluyter, 370; Trumbull, i., 375; Thompson, i., 3S9, 390; N. Y. 
Revised Statutes, iii., 2; ante, 139. 

t Gen. Ent., xxxii., 92, 93; Col. MSS., xxix., 99, 136, 137, 213; Ord., Warr., etc., xxxii^^, 
1-4; Pemaquid Papers, 33-44; Nantucket Pap., 116-123. West had been a lawyer at New 
York, deputy clerk of the Mayor's Court, and clerk of Sessions on Long Island, and had re- 
turned from England with Andros in 1678 : C. WoUey, 5, 70; ante, 319. 




8 Kovein. 

13 October. 
Andl'os at 

9 N'ovem. 

10 Xovem. 

from En- 
28 Jau'y. 

8 April. 

as clerk of the council, and also provincial secretary in 
place of Nicolls, who was about going to England. At 
the request of the metropohtan mayor and aldermen, West 
was soon afterward ajDpointed clerk of the City and Coun- 
ty of New York.* 

As soon as the Court of Assizes adjourned, Sir Edmund 
hastened to Boston, by invitation of Lord Culpepper, the 
Governor of Virginia, who was there on his way back to 
England. The General Court of Massachusetts was then 
in session ; and Pynchon, who had written to Andros for 
leave to treat with the Mohawks at Albany, was directed 
to go thither, and, with the advice of the New York au- 
thorities there, procure a renewal of the covenant made in 
April, 1677. An interview was accordingly held, in the 
presence of BrocklioUs and the Albany officers, at which 
the Mohawks, whom Andros had forbidden to send parties 
eastward, agreed to lay down the axe, and be at peace with 
the iSTew England Indians, f 

After the return of Andros, Randolph remained in Lon- 
don more than a year, occupied by the affairs of Massachu- 
setts. The intended alterations in the government of that 
colony were, however, avoided by the skill of her agents, 
Stoughton and Bulkley, in disposing of her bribes " to per- 
sons then in a great station at Court." Having been ap- 
pointed collector of the customs in Xew England, Ean- 
dolph returned with Dyer to New York, whence he went 
to Boston. There he was so obstructed in executing his 
office, that he sent home bitter complaints. As the best 
remedy, Randolph recommended the abrogation of the 

' Ord.,AVarr.,etc., xxxiii^, C, 7; Col. MSS., xxix.,234; Col. Doc, iii., 303, 314, 315, C57; 
Wood, 149 ; Val. Man., 1S53, 330, 331 ; Bancroft, ii., 42S ; C. Wolley, 70. Besides Governor 
Andros, the members of the Court of Assizes, in October, 16S0, were Secretary Nicolls, Coun- 
sellors Dyer, Phillipse, Dervall, and Van Cortlandt, Mayor Rombout, and the metropolitan 
aldermen Beekraan, Van Erugli, Lewis, Mariiis, Verplanck, and Wilson ; Richard Bctts, 
high-sheriff of Long Island, or Yorkshire ; Justices Topping, Arnold, WoodhuU, and Wood, 
of the East Riding, Willett, of the North Riding, and Hubbard, Elbertsen, and Palmer, of 
the West Riding of Long Island; Teller and Van Dyck, of Albany; Delavall, of Esopus; 
Spaswill, Browne, and Parker, of New Jersey ; Gardiner, of Nantucket ; and Knaplon and 
West, of Pemaquid. Salisbury, the commandant at Albany, having died in the winter, was 
succeeded by BrockhoUs in the spring of 1G30 : Hist. Mag., iv., 50 ; ofife, 312, 328. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 244, 302. 30S; ix., 140-145, 795, 706; Chalmers, i., 344,438; Hutchinson, 
i., 332 ; Burk, ii., 226 ; Palfrey, iii., 343 ; Mass. H. S. Coll., xxxv., 52 ; Mass. Rec, v., 109, 
300, 319, 320; Col. MSS., xxix., 196 ; ante, 309. Golden does not mention this conference. 
As Robert Livingston was then in New York, asking leave to buy lands on Roeloff Jansen's 
kill, his duties as secretary were performed by Richard Pretty : Ord., AVarr., etc.. xxxii^*;', 
13, 14 ; Doc. Hist., iii., 367. An account of Culpepper's visit to Boston is in Campbell's Vir- 
ginia, 312, 329, 330, 349-355 : see also Mass. IL S. Coll., v., 124. 


Massachusetts charter by a writ of Qioo Warranto. 
result, indeed, could scarcely have been averted, except by 
the submission of the recusant corporation. Yet it obsti- 
nately disobeyed the king's orders to send over new agents; 
and, while it could afford to buy territory in Maine, and 
bribe venal courtiers in London, pleaded poverty to excuse ii juao. 
contumacy. This policy was neither manly nor wise. The Poricy of 


local rulers of Massachusetts knew that they were the crea- setti'. 
tures of the I^ing of England. Nevertheless, they affected 
a braggart independence of him. Neither ready nor will- 
ing to renounce subjection to England, the Puritan cor- 
poration clung to her royal charter as "the ark of her 
safety." If the inhabitants of Massachusetts had then 
been allowed to make a Constitution for themselves, they 
would hardly have intrusted to a sectarian oligarchy the 
power which had been abused by the grantees of " Charles 
the Martyr." Yet, as an En^-lish corporation, the ruling 
power in Massachusetts tried to maintain the inconsistent 
attitude of loyalty and rebellion ; and, professing to be 
"humbly bold," demonstrated absurd weakness. Brad- 
street, the governor of the corporation, however, sent a is iMy- 
dutiful reply to the inquiries of the Plantation Committee street's 
at London. Li this interesting paper he complained that ^^'^'°' ' 
Andros had laid heavy duties on the Pemaquid fishermen 
for the benefit of the Duke of York ; and, at the same 
time, reported that a Boston vessel brought from Africa 
" betwixt forty and fifty negroes, most women and children, 
sold here for ten, fifteen, and twenty pounds apiece, which 
stood the merchants in near forty pounds apiece, one with 
another. Now and then, two or three negroes are brought Negro 
hither from Barbadoes, and other of his Majesty's Planta- Masaachu- 
tions, and sold here for about twenty pounds apiece ; so '*^ 
that there may be within our government about one hun- 
dred, or one hundred and twenty." At this time a good 
negro was worth about thirty-five pounds in New York; 
but, as the climate of Massachusetts was less genial to the 
African, he did not sell for . quite so much there, when 
freshly imported into slavery.* 

* Mass. H.S. Coll., xxviii.,S30-340; XXX., 256; xxxii., 288-292 ; Mhs.i. Uec, v., 2T0-2S9; 
Hutch. Mass., i., 324-332; Coll., 485, 49.5, 519-52G; Chalmers, i., 4')5-41f», 438-440, 509; 
Eavry, 1., 462-4G4 ; Palfrey, iii., 314-340, 3G7, 3G8 ; Col. Doc, iii., 2C1, 2G3 ; Story's Mi.scel- 
lanies, 60; Moore's Notes on Slavery in Mass., 49 ; anLf, 313, 319. 

II.— Y 


Chap. VII. Rliode Island reported to tlie Plantation Committee that 

tliere were " only a few blacks imported" into that colo- 

8 May. ' ^^J' Plj^outli represented that " slaves we have very few, 

.30 June, except Indian women and boys taken in the late war." 

15 July. Connecticut answered that since Sir Edmund Andros came 

Rhode isi- to New York, her correspondence with him was not " like 

outh,and what it was with his predecessors in that government;" 

^ onnec i- ^^^^ ^^^ chief trade was with Boston ; that she had about 

thirty slaves ; and that sometimes three or f om* blacks a 

year were imported from Barbadoes, who were usually sold 

at the rate of twenty-two pounds apiece.* 

In the mean time, England had been convulsed by Titus 
Oates's story of a " Popish Plot," and its Protestantism 
was whipped into violent excess. In the height of this 
1679. fanaticism the king prorogued Parliament, after assenting 
uah^L' to what is familiarly known as the " Habeas Corpus" Act 
A^un^En- — chicfly due to Shaftesbury, and which may be considered 
gland. ^Q i^g^ perhaps, the most meritorious work of his life. This 
statute, however, did not extend to the English Colonies 
or Plantations ; just as the Test Act of 1673 did not af- 
fect them, as has been already explained. The same day 
Freedom of the ccusorship of the English press expired with the law 
8 press, .^j^-gj-^ authorized the abomination,f 

These events gave rise to two remarkable party appella- 
tives, which have ever since been familiar in England. 
The friends of the king and his brother were nick-named 
^^ Tories ^^ as were the Roman Catholic Irish Robbers, 
Tories and kuowu as " Rapparccs" and " Wliite Boys ;" while those 
'^" who desired a Protestant English sovereign were desig- 
nated " Whiffs" as the persecuted Scotch Covenanters were 
then called. These political epithets — at first given in de- 
rision and accepted in bravado — have continued to distin- 
guish the conservative and the progressive parties in En- 
glish local strifes, 
iiie Duke The Duke of York, threatened by the House of Com- 
mons with exclusion from the throne on account of his 

' Chalmei-.'-'s Ann., i., 2S2-2S4, 30T-310 ; Arnold, i., 48S-491 ; It I. llec, iii., 73, 8G ; Col. 
Tec. Conn., iii., 290-303 ; Mass. H. S. Coll., xxxv., 52; Palfrey, iiL, 420-12S; Jlooie's Notes 
on Slaveiy in Mass., 41 ; ante, 296. 

+ Statute 31 Charles II., cap. ii. ; Pari. Hist,, iv.. 661, 1148; Kcnnelt, iii., 377; Rapin, 
ii.,07.'),707; Lingard,xiii., 133, 134, 16.5; Macaulay, i., 24S; Burnet, i.,4S5; ii.,103; Jacob., 
iii., 227 ; Chalmers's Ann., i , 56, 74 ; ii., 72, 113 ; Rev. Col., i., 230, 308, 395, 412; N. Y. II. S. 
Coll., 1808, 72, 113 ; Coll. Doc, iii., 357 : iv., 264; an^c, 201, 202, note. 


Eomau faith, was obliged to withdraw from England ; first cuap. vn. 
to Brussels, and then to Scotland, where he remained until ^^^^ 
rd)ruary, 1680, when he returned to London. During 
these exciting movements James had little time for the af- 
fairs of his American province. But he was now com- 
pelled to look anxiously into them.* 

The complaints which the Quakers settled in West Jer- 
sey had sent home of their treatment by Andros were so 1679. 
strongly supported, that Sir John Werden inquired official- New Jersey 
ly of the English Secretary of State whether they were ''^^""• 
empowered, as grantees of the duke, to set up a distinct 
government, and whether they were not still liable to the 
laws established in New York. The king's secretary, how- 
ever, does not appear to have answered these legal ques- 
tions. Wishing to know the right of the matter, the duke 
ordered his commissioners " to hear and make report to 
him concerning the customs demanded in Kew West Jersey 
in America, by his governor of New York." This was ac- 
cordingly done. The Quakers' case was elaborately ar- 
gued by Penn and others, who insisted that, in Berkeley's Penn'e ar- 
conveyance to them," powers or gOA^ernment are expressly for the 
granted ;" that the Duke of York had no authority to levy 
duties on the colonists in West Jersey, or exclude them of 
their " English right of common assent to taxes ;" and then, 
adroitly alluding to " the Duke's circumstances and the 
people's jealousies," they submitted that as he had now the 
opportunity to free that country with his own hand, " so 
will Englishmen here know what to hope for, by the jus- 
tice and kindness he shows to Englishmen there, and all 
men to see the just model of his government in New York 
to be the scheme and draft in little, of his administration 
in Old England at large, if the crown should ever devolve 
upon his head."t 

This bold and able, but very sophistical argument, which 
BO skillfully touched the duke's present " circumstances," 
would have been unanswerable, if its material allegation 
had been true, that powers of government were " expressly 
granted" in Berkeley's conveyance to Fenwick, But the 

* Clarke's James 11., i., 512-6S8; Temple, ii , 42G-479 ; Conrtenay's Temple, ii., 13-82; 
Bumet, i., 422-4G9 ; Dalrymple, i., 16S-177, 261-2T4, 292, 327, 332, 335; N. Luttrell, 1., 10, 
2;l-22 ; Macaulay, i., 229-257; Martin, i., 503-506. 

t Index N. J. Col. Doc, 7; S. Smith, 111-124; Gordon, 40-42 ; etnic, 266, 305, 320. 



Fallacy of 

CiiAr. VII. facts were not what Penii and bis friends asserted. Berke- 
ley could only convey what the duke had granted to him ; 
and the duke had never granted to Berkeley express pOw- 

penn's ar- gj-g q^ sfovemment. Moreover, the Quaker argument dis- 
ingenuously avoided any reference to the duke's second 
patent from the king in 1674, wliile it maintained that the 
Peace of Westminster had reinvested Berkeley with his 
annihilated rights. By that treaty, however, as has been 
seen, the Dutch conquerors relinquished ISTew Isetherland 
to the king ; and Charles after^vard granted the whole of 
it to his brother.'"^ 

oppoituni- If the Duke of York had now" been fi'ee from political 

uiike of anxiety, he might have settled this New Jersey question on 
the grounds afterward taken by the ministers of William 
the Third, and declared that his secondary releases neither 
did nor could transfer rights of government to his grant- 
ees ; because such sovereign authority, having been intrust- 
ed to him personally by the king, was " inalienable from 
the person to whom it is granted."! 

But James had again to seek refuge in Scotland from 
the furious malice of his enemies. In this strait the duke 

Tim Duke'3 resolved to refer "the whole matter" of his right to cus- 
toms' duties from West Jersey to the decision of " the 
greatest lawyer of England," Sir William Jones, who had, 
just before, resigned his place as attorney general, and was 
now a vehement opponent of the king. When it had been 
proposed to govern Jamaica without any Assembly, Jones 

Sir wii- advised his sovereign " that he could no more grant a com- 
mission to levy money on his subjects there without their 
consent by an Assembly, than they could discharge them- 
selves from their allegiance to the English Crown." Yet 
Jones held it to be incontrovertible " that tlie Parliament 
might rightfully impose taxes on every dominion of the 
Crown." This fallacy was the " universal opinion" of En- 
glish jurists at that time. An English Parliament might 
tax an unrepresented colony of England when her sover- 
eign might not. Jones had been retained by Stoughton 
and Bulkley, the agents of Massachusetts, as their counsel, 

' S. Smith, 117, 121; Learning and Spicer, 10, 41-45, 04, 413; Gordon, 4'2; rafe, S3, 200, 
201, 267. 

t nrprosientation of the Lords of Trade, 21 Octobor, 1701, in Learning and Spicor, CO", COS, 
C13 ; S. Smith, CCO, 070 ; Gordon, 23, 54 ; Bancroft, iii, 47. 

liam Jones. 


and aided them in preventing the change which the king cuap. vn. 
meant to make in its government. And now, tliis " wary" 
and " timorous" ParHamentarian advocate nttered a can- ^^ j^j^ " 
tious opinion: "I am not satisfied (by any thing that I^"^"^'^^^ 
have yet heard) that the Duke can legally demand that or f'^°y°^^ 
any other duty from the inhabitants of those lands. And 
that which makes the case the stronger against his Royal 
Highness is, that these inhabitants claim under a grant 
from his Royal Higlmess to the Lord Berkeley and Sir 
George Carteret, in which grant there is no reservation of 
any profit, or so much as of jurisdiction."* 

This was a model report for a referee wishing to evade 
a decision or becloud the truth. Avoiding several mate- 
rial facts in the case, Jones cited only the duke's first grant Jones's 
to Berkeley and Carteret in 1664, and ignored both the fallacious. 
Dutch conquest of 1673 (which annihilated that grant), 
and the king's second patent to his brother in 1674. Sir 
William must have meant either that James never had any 
"jurisdiction" under his first patent from the king (wliich 
was not suggested), or else that the duke had released — be- 
cause he had not reserved — that jurisdiction. Yet Jones 
was too good a lawyer to afiu*m that a mere release of a 
" tract of land" with its " appurtenances," in " as full and 
ample manner" as they had been originally granted, could 
convey powers of government from one English subject to 
another. This fallacy would have been too transparent. 

The Duke of York, however, had neither time nor inch- 
nation to contest the matter. Easily as he might have con- 
futed its fallacies, he determined to give liberal effect to 
the late attorney general's cloudy opinion. Without wait- 
ing for his own counsel — Churchill and Jeffreys — to ap- 
prove it, James executed a deed tendered by Byllinge, "the cAupast. 

r. -, 1 . T -rrr Tv-r X \. 1 • The Duke 

more firmly to convey the said West JNew Jersey to mm of York's 
and the rest of the Proprietors, and plainly to extinguish to west 
the demand of any customs or other duties from them, *''"^^' 
save the rent as reserved at the first." By this instru- 

• Clarke's Jiimesir., 5., 5SS-600; Col. Doc, iiL,2S4, 285; Force's Tracts, iv., No. ix., 45, 
4C; Mathers Magnalia, i., ITS; Chalmers's Ann., i., 240,619,026; Rev. Coll., i., 150, 173; 
ante, 316. Jones succeeded North as attorney general in 1674 ; resigned in October, 1679 ; 
and was succeeded first by Sir Cresswell Levins, and then by Sir Robert Sawyer : N. Lut- 
trell, i., 24 ; Bpat?on, i., 410, 433; Kennett, iii., 300, 370, ?,01 ; Burnet, i., 396, 433, 455, 532 ; 
Temple, ii., 5r,2 ; Evelyn, ii., 159; Pari. Hist., iv., 120S. Af to Jones's private employment 
as counsel for the Massachusetts ng?nts, see Palfrey, iii., 320, 307, 308 ; ante, 310, 336. 


cuAf. VII. ment — which carefully recited the reconquest by the 
"T7~~" Dutch, and the several conveyances of the territory — the 
The duke ^ukc transferred to Byllinge, Penn, Laurie, and their as- 
wwt^New sociates, all the authority and power of government which 
Jersey, j^ ^hc king's two patents to him '' were granted or intend- 
ed to be granted to be exercised by his said Koyal High- 
ness, his heirs, assigns, deputies, officers, or agents in, upon, 
or in relation unto the said premises hereby confirmed."* 
September. The accounts whicli Philip Carteret sent over of his 
treatment by Andros soon afterward reached London, and 
loseptem. Lady Carteret, Sir George's widow, complained to the duke, 
who at once said that " the Lord Proprietor should have all 
right done him in the enjoyment of the Province and the 
Government thereof ; and that his Royal Highness would 
not in the least derogate from what he had granted to Sir 
George Carteret, and doth wholly disown and declare that 
Sir Edmund Andros had never any such order or authori- 
ty from him for the doing thereof." As he had just re- 
leased all claim over West Jersey to Byllinge and liis 
friends, he determined to do the same to the claimants of 
6 septem.^ East Jcrscy. James therefore directed his counsel to jTi'e- 
reiease of pare a deed confirming to Sir George Carteret, the grand- 
sey! "' son and heir of the original grantee, his moiety of I^ew 
ic October. Jersey. The next month, a few days before he returned to 
Edinburgh, the duke executed an instrument by which he 
relinquished all his claims to East Jersey. These meas- 
6 Novem. ures were notified by Werden to Andros, to prevent any 
doubt of the validity of the deeds when they should be 
produced in Js^ew York.f 
Complaints The enemics of Sir Edmund had meanwhile not been 
Anaro3. idle. Complaints were made to the duke not only by the 
Quakers, but by Billop, and various otlier ''' private men ;" 
and " suggestions" were insinuated that the governor 

* Col. Doc, iii., 2S5; Learning and Spicer, 415-419; Ch.ilmcrs's Ann., i., CIO, C2G ; Kev. 
Col., i., 150, 1T3 ; S. Smith, 1'25, 56T ; anf?„ S3, 260-268, 303-306. 

t Learning .lud Spicer, 6S5, 6S6; Col. Doc, iii., 2S.5, 2SC; Chalmers's Ann., i., 019, G2G, 
C27; Commisc'ion.s, i., 19; Ord., Warr., etc., xxxii^^, 41; Gordon, 42 ; AVliitehead's E. J., 
81, 82, 102 ; Index N. J. Col. Doc, 8 ; Eliz. Bill, 8 ; ante, 333, 33-1. The duke's release of 
16 October, 1680, to the youthful Sir George Carteret, seems to have been made without 
knowing that the trustees under the will of the deceased baronet had, on the Cth of March, 
ICSO, conveyed E.ast Jersey to Thomas Cremer and Thomas Pocock: Eliz. Bill, S ; Learning 
and Spicer, 73, 145. When that became known, the release was probably revoked, or, at 
all events, considered inoperative. It is not alluded to in the duke's siilisenuent grant of 
14 March, 16S3, to the twenty-four proprietors : Learning and Spicer, 145, 604; Wliitehead'd 
East Jersey, 82, S3 ; Eastern Boundaiy of N. J., 4:>, 5 i ; N. J. II. S. I'loc, x., 134-139. 


favored Dutchmen in trade, made laws hm'tf ul to the chap. vii. 
English, detained ships imduly for private reasons, admit- 
ted Dutch vessels to a direct trade, or traded himself in "^ ' 
the names of others. Moreover, James had received of- 
fers to farm his revenue in New York, which differed " so 
vastly" from the accounts rendered by his governor, that 
he resolved to send out an agent to make "a strict en- 
quiry" on the spot. As the duke and his officers had " hut 
loose and scattered notions" respecting the government of 
Andros, he was directed to return " by the first conven- 
ience" to England ; " that I may have," wrote James, " the 24 May. 
better opportunity to be informed in all those particulars called, 
from yourselfe, and that you may also have the satisfaction 
to obviate such matters as, if unanswered, might leave 
some blemish upon you, how little soever you may (in 
truth) have deserved any." Sir Edmund was farther di- 
rected to commit his government to Brockholls, and to 
give such instructions for the public safety as circum- 
stances might require.* 

John Lewin, supposed to be " a person wholly uncon- 24 May. 
cerned," was at the same time commissioned by the duke commis-^'" 
as his "Agent and servant" in New York, Albany, and his agent. ""^ 
other territories in America, to inquire into all his revenue 
accounts, examine records, and ascertain whether trade 
had been obstructed, and if so, how it might be encour- 
aged. Lewin was minutely instructed as to his duties, 24 May. 
which were, to make such diligent inquiries as might in-i'ngtru&- • 
form the duke " of the true state and condition of all those *'°°^' 
places, in relation to the trade thereof, and of all the parts 
and branches of the Kevenue and other profits, as well cer- 
tain, as accidental or casual, which doe properly and justly 
belong unto me, as I am the Proprietor of the said places, 
or otherwise. And alsoe, that I may have a true, full, and 
just information and knowledge, of the reall, constant, and 
necessary charge and expense, which must be laid out and 
issued, for the maintenance and support of the government 
of those places." Andros was farther directed to enable 1 juiy. 
Lewin to take such examinations as he might desire, under 
oath, within the government of New York.f 

* Col. Doc.,iii.,283, 2S4; Chalmers i., 5S2 ; Bankers and Sluyter, 380. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 379-284; S. Hazard, 470, 471, 472. Lewin appears to liave been a Lon- 


cuAP. vii. The duke's agent reached New York while Sir Edmund 

was absent at Boston, whither he had gone to meet Lord 

iG October Culpopper, the governor of Virginia, who was on his way 

29 October, to England. When Andros returned, Lewin exhibited his . 
obey-shis commissiou, but not his instructions from James. This 

sudden recall surprised the Governor of JSTew York, who 
could not anticipate what had occurred about New Jersey 
after Lewin had left England. But Sir Edmund was too 
good a soldier not to know that his first duty was obedi- 
ence. He therefore summoned his council to meet "the 
same morning ;" ordered Lewin's commission to be re- 
corded ; and directed it to be communicated to the " other 
jurisdictions of the government," and published at New 
York "by ring of bell." Andros also proposed to "go 
home" at once. To this the council objected that much 
must be done before the government could be properly 

30 October, scttlcd. The ucxt day Brockholls was ordered down from 
.ip^inted^ Albany to take chief command of the province. All its 
cMn^cMe'f. justiccs wcrc sumuioned to meet at the metropolitan hall. 
iTNovem. On tlic appointed day, the justices who could be had "in 
thtfprolin- so sliort a time, and at that season of the year," were pres- 
tlcll"^^' ent. Each of them certified to the " good state" of their 

several precincts ; and, with the advice of his council, 
which Lewin attended, Sir Edmund ordered " the continu- 
ing all as then settled."* 

By some accident, an important enactment was neg- 
lected. The customs' rates, which, under James's instruc- 
tions, had been renewed for three years by his governor in 
November, 1677, now ceased, by the expiration of their 
limited term. No order to continue them had been re- 
ceived from the duke ; and, in the hurry of preparing to 
The duke's return to England, Sir Edmund either forgot the matter, 
dutie3"not or supposed it to be settled by his recent general order 
re^wcd. in council, that every thing was to remain " as then set- 
tled." Could Andros have foreseen the trouble which this 
technical or formal omission produced, he would hardly 

don attorney, find was at this very time appointed by tlie Narragnnsett proprietors to Tjo 
one of tlieir ngenta to represent them before the council: Arnold's Khode Island, i.,46:(. 
He seems to have felt aggrieved by some lig:il proceedings in the Mayor's Omrt of New 
York, in a suit to which ho was a party ; Col. MSS., xxiii., 174; x.xi.x., 2, S, IS. 

« Col. Doc, iii., 244, 29-2, 302, 308, 300, ;n3; Col. MSS., xxix.,25S; Ord., Warrant.-', etc., 
xx.xiiX, 8, 0, 14; Hazard's Ann., 4S1 ; l!cg. Penn., iil., 32, 33 ; iv., 81 ; ante, 330. 


liave neglected to renew the duke's customs' duties by a chap. vii. 
temporary order, which his governor was always empow- 
ered to make, " with the advice of the council."* 

The end of this year was marked by the appearance of 
a " blazing star" of extraordinary brilliancy. A few days 
a:^er Brockholls left Albany, the commissaries there re- 
ported that "" a dreadful comet" had appeared in the south- o oecsm. 
west, about two o'clock in the afternoon, and asked for a cometof 
day of fasting and humiliation to avert the " dreadful pun- served in 
ishments" supposed to be threatened. This pious request a^'^Su! 
was granted. The comet was also observed in New Jer- ^''"^^^ 
sey, the New England colonies, and the metropolis. In 
Europe the brilliant apparition caused as much terror as in 
America ; and Evelyn, in London, prayed God to " avert 
his judgments." But the grander Newton, by careful 
study, made the phenomenon a useful servant of astrono- 
my, by demonstrating that comets revolve around the sun 
in parabolic orbits and in regular j^eriods.f 

With the new year Andros made his last arrangements 1681. 
for his return to England, supposing it would be short, in 
spite of Lewin's declarations to the contrary. Sir Edmund 
therefore left his wife in New York. By a special com- 
mission he appointed Brockholls to be " Commander-in- c janv. 
Chief of the Militia in this City, Government, and de- leaver . 
pendencies, during my absence, or 'till further orders ; and ' '''^ °^ ' 
in any civil matter requiring the same, with the Council to 
act for the continued welfare of His Majesty's subjects, as 
a Commander, or Chief Officer may, and ought to do, ac- 
cording to law and practice." The next day the governor 
left the metropolis, and soon afterward sailed from Sandy ii Jan'y. 

Not long after Andros was recalled from the govern- December. 
ment of the duke's province, he described it as follows : de'^cripuon 
"At my first comeing to NewYorke, I found the place poore, YorkTn 
unsettled, and ^vithout trade, except a few small coasters ; ^'^^^' 

* Col. Doc, iii., 217, 21S, 246, 289, 292; Col. MSS., xxvi., 5; Ord., Warr.,etc., xxxii;.^, 4?., 
44, 45 ; Council Journ., i., Introd., viil. ; ante, 312. 

t Ord., Warr., etc., xxxiii^, 31; Doc. Hist., ill., 532; Hutch., i , 348; Holmes, i., 399; 
S. Smith's New Jereey, 13G, note; Evelyn, ii., 163 ; Grahame, i., 243. See also Sir J. W. F. 
Herschel's masterly account of this "magnificent" comet in his "Familiar Lectures" (Lon- 
don, 1S66), 108-111. 

t Col. Doc, iii., 286, 309 ; Ord., Wan-., etc., xxxiii<f, 2T, 31, 55, 74 ; Hazard's Reg. Penn., 
iv., 82; Annals, 4S5; Doc. Hist., iii., 532. Secretary NicoUs appears to have accompanied 
or soon followed Andros to England : Col. Doc, 314, 315 ; Wood, 150 ; Col. JI.SS., xxx., 14. 


Chap. VII. hardly any went or came fi-om beyond seas ; and severall 
parts of the government never before well subjected under 
' his Koyall Highness ; since which, by his Royall H.'s fa- 
vour, greatly increased in people, trade, buildings, and oth- 
er improvements ; new townes and settlements lately built, 
and the Colony improved in all other advantages beyond 
any of our neighbom-s. A mold or harbour made to the 
city, of general! advantage as aforesaid. A market house 
(the only one in all those parts), and now constantly well 
supplied ; and the navigation increased at least ten times 
to what it was, and plenty of money (liardly seen there be- 
fore) and of all sorts of goods at reasonable rates for our 
owne and neighbom-s supplies ; and noe disaster happened 
in any part of the government during my command there, 
though constantly serviceable to our English neighbom-s 
both east and west, who suffered much by the Indian war ; 
in the composing whereof, I was a principal instrument ; 
and also freed neare one hundred of their captives, &c. I 
doe not know that any have been discouraged from going 
to trade or settle at New Yorke ; but many hundreds (I 
may say thousands) have actually come traded and settled ; 
and very few (if any) have quitted the place during my be- 
ing there."* 

While Andros was on his way back to England, a British 
4 March, royal parchment founded a new American state. As one 
tion of'' of the owners of West Jersey, William Penn had looked 
^ennsy va- ^j^ggj^ -j^^^ ^|^g conditioii of its ueigliborliood. He saw 
that there was a "sast forest, west of the Delaware River, 
unoccupied by Europeans, and which, although it had been 
a part of the ancient Dutch "New Netherland," had not 
been included within the patent of Charles the Second to 
the Duke of York. To enterprising British subjects this 
region was. yet a vacant domicile. Nevertheless, the sav- 
age owTiere of the Susquehanna country had recently, as 
has been stated, transferred it to the government of New 
York. Moreover, James claimed the Delaware territory 
adjoining Maryland as an appendage to his own jDrovince. 
wiuiam ]3^^(; William Penn was one of the most adroit Englishmen 

Penn. " 

of his time. Next to George Fox, he had become the ablest 
minister of Quakerism. Next to Robert Barclay, Penn was 

• New York Colonial Documents, iii.,313 ; compare «»(<■, 313. 


its most learned and ingenious champion. His principles chap vil 
of passive obedience commended him not less to the grace- 
ful and perfidious Charles than to the more arbitrary yet 
honest James. Besides this, Penn had a special clutch on 
both. His father, Sir William Penn, " the greatest hypo- 
crite in the world," had been an admiral of England, first 
under its Protector, and then under its King ; and he had 
been wise enough to secure for himself and his son the 
friendsliip of the ever-constant Duke of York. At the ad- 
miral's death, the king owed his estate some sixteen thou- 
sand pounds. Of both these circumstances Sir William '*' 
Penn's cunning heir took advantage. Charles had no mon- 
ey ; but he claimed much wild land in North America, 
which he could give away to a favorite, or assign in dis- 
charge of a debt. So, while the younger Penn was argu- 
ing his case as a proprietor of West Jersey before the duke's 
commissioners, he petitioned the king to pay off his dead May. 
admiral by granting to that admiral's son the vast region for much 
" lying north of Maryland ; on the east, bounded with Del- gr™u"r" 
aware River ; on the west, limited as Maryland ; and north- 
ward, to extend as far as plantable."* 

These were vague and startling boundaries for a royal 
grant in North America. By the king's order. Lord Sun- 
derland referred this petition to the Plantation Committee, i June. , 
who summoned Penn before them, and asked " what extent i4 June. 
of land he will be contented with northerly ?" Penn de- what wui 
clared himself " satisfied with three degrees to the north- him. 
ward ; and that he is willing, in lieu of such a grant, to re- 
mit his debt due to him from his Majesty, or some part of 
it." This was ordered to be communicated to the agents 23 June. 
of the Duke of York and of Lord Baltimore, both of whom 
were concerned. On the part of James, Sir John Werden Maryland 
objected to any interference with the Delaware territory, York con- 
which was " an appendix" to New York ; and Lord Balti- 
more's agents prayed that there should be no encroachment 
on Maryland. Penn, however, represented " his case and 
circumstances" so skillfully that the duke, who had just re- 
signed all claim over New Jersey, recommended the king ic October. 
to grant him the land north of Newcastle, on the west side 

* Pepy?, ii.,CO; Ilnzard's Kcr. Penn., i.. 200, 341-343; Annals, 4T4; Proud,!., 167-170; 
Chalmers, i.,G35; Dixon, 173, 174; Grahame, i., 492-499; Bancroft, ii.,330-3G2; Macanlay, 
i., 502 ; ante, 4, 32S, 389. 


cuAP. VII. of the Delaware, " beginning about the latitude of forty 
degrees, and extending northwards and westwards as far 
^^^^- as his Majesty pleaseth."* 

The draft of a patent, which Penn had himself modeled 
iiNovem. after Lord Baltimore's Maryland charter, was re^^sed by 
Sir Robert Sawyer, the new attorney general, and its 
1681. boundaries were adjusted. Chief Justice North added 
januaiy. gjg^^^ggg ^q secure the king's sovereignty and the power of 
Parliament ; and at the request of Bishop Compton, of Lon- 
don, the interests of the Church of England were specially 
24 Febi'y^ guarded. At length the charter was submitted to the king, 
charter for that he might name his fresh American province. Penn 
inlt"''' suggested "New Wales." This was objected to by the 
Welsh secretary, Blathwayt. Penn then proposed "Syl- 
vania," because of the magnificent forests of the region. 
But Charles, out of respect to his deceased admiral, " would 
give it" his name ; and tlie new province was accordingly 
called " Pennsylvania."f 
4 March. The chartcr of Pennsylvania, as it passed the English 
gu^h char- great seal, granted to William Penn, and his heirs and as- 
Pennsyiva- signs, " all that tract or part of land in America, with all 
""■ the islands therein contained, as the same is bounded on 

the east by Delaware River, from twelve miles distance 
northward of Newcastle Town unto the three and fortieth 
degree of northern latitude, if the said river doth extend 
so far northwards ; but if the said river shall not extend so 
far northward, then, by the said river so far as it doth ex- 
tend, and from the head of the said river the eastern 
bounds are to be determined by a meridian line to be 
drawn from the head of the said river unto the said three 
and fortieth degree ; Tlie said lands to extend westwards 
five degrees in longitude, to be computed from the said 
eastern bounds ; and the said lands to be bounded on the 
north by the beginning of tlie three and fortieth degree of 
northern latitude, and on the south by a circle drawn at 
twelve miles distance from Newcastle, northwards and 
westwards unto the beginning of the fortieth degree of 
northern latitude ; and then by a straight line westwards 

* Hazard's Rpg. Penn., i., 209, 270; Annal.«, 475-lSO ; Chalmcr?, i., C35, C3G, G55-G57; 
Proud, i. , 170, 269. 

t Hazard's Reg., i., 209, 270,273, 274, 297; Annals, 4S0-500; Chalmer.s, i., C30, 057, 059 ; 
Di.xon, 182; Sewel, 570; Hist. Mag., viii., 180, ISl; Penn. Arch., 1., 141, 


to the limit of longitude above mentioned." Of this terri- cn.vr. vii. 
toiy Penn was made the absolute proprietor, with power to 
ordain laws, appoint officers, and enjoy the general author- 
ity of a feudal chief. But all laws were to be assented to 
by the freemen of his province, and to be subject to the 
king's approval ; and no taxes were to be laid nor revenue 
raised unless by a Provincial Assembly ; reserving, always, 
the supreme power of the Parliament of England to regu- 
late commercial duties. Episcopalian clergymen, approved Episcopacy 
by the Bishop of London, were also to "reside within the forinPcnn- 
said Province, without any denial or molestation whatso-'^^ ^'^°'^' 

After procuring a letter fi'om the king declaring his pat- 2 April. 
ent, Penn appointed his kinsman, William Markham, to be 10 Aprii. 
his deputy governor, and dispatched him to take possession Markham 

r T . . AT 1 "Xi 1 comes to 

01 his province. Andros, who was now m London, was also America. 
directed by Werden to notify his subordinates in New York 12 May. 
of the Pennsylvania charter. Marldiam sailed at once to 
Boston, and, on reaching ISTew York, received from Brocli- 21 June. 
lioUs instructions to the duke's officers within the limits of reiinquisi^ 
Pennsylvania to obey the government of its actual owner, ^im^rto^ 
The surrender was accordingly completed ; preliminary 
covenants were made with the savages ; and Markham, in septoiaber, 
an interview with Lord Baltimore, found that a vexatious 
question of boundaries was to be settled between the pro- 
prietors of Maryland and Pennsylvania.f 

Meanwhile, Philip Carteret, informed of the Duke of 
York's action in regard to East Jersey, had issued a proc- 2 March. 
lamation disowning the authority of the Governor of New 
York. A few weeks afterward Brockholls sent to Carteret 14 Apni. 
a copy of Warden's notification, and promised that when and East 
the duke's deeds were produced lie would respect them. '^'^'■^^^• 
Until then he required Carteret to desist from meddling is Apia. 
mth the government.:}: 

* Tlie Charter of Tcnnsylvania is printed at length in Colden, ii., 164-1S2; Proud,!, 
ITl-lST; Hazard's Register, i., 293-29T; Annals, 48S-499; Colonial Kec. Penn., L, 17-26; 
Chalmers, i.,636-C39. 

t Hazard's Register, i., 305; iii., 33; Annals, 501-51C, 524, 533; Upland Records, 195, 
19C; Chalmers, i., 640, 641; Proud, i., 1S9-196; Dixon, 191; Colonial Doc, iii., 2S6, 290; 
Col. MSS<., xxi., 143, 144; Ord., Warr., etc., xxxii^, 49, 50. Andros reached Portsmouth 
from New York on 1 March. 16S1 : Ord., Warr., etc., xxxiij^, 46. 

t Learning and Ppicer, 6S5, 6S6 ; Ord.,Warr., etc., xxxii>tf, 41,42, 43; Whitehead's Ea?t 
Jersey, T5, T6 ; ante, 342. Philip Carteret now followed the example of his kinsman, Jame?, 
in 16T3 (anff, 190, note), by wedding a New York wife. On the 36th of March. ICSl, lie ob- 
tained a license from Brockholls to marry Maiy Elizabeth Smith, widow of Williain Uiw- 


cuAP.vii. About the middle of July Secretary Bollen returned 
from London with the desired papers, and with orders 

Carteret ' ^'^^^^ Lady Carteret " to lay claim to Staten Island, as be- 

Steten isi- longing to us, according to His Eoyal Highness's grant." 

^"d. This was an ill-founded pretense. As early as 1669 Staten 
Island had been " adjudged to belong to New York." This 
judgment had been respected by all parties; and in 1670 
Lovelace had bought the island for the Duke of York from 
its savage claimants. "With a knowledge of these facts. Sir 
George had obtained from the duke, in 1674, a new grant 
of New Jersey to himself, in severalty. Yet now his widow, 
seeing that James was exiled in Scotland, thought that she 
might win Staten Island if she made a bold push. Accord- 

21 July, ingl}', Bollen, in behalf of the dowager, submitted various 
papers to Brockliolls ; claimed Staten Island for her as a 
part of East Jersey, and demanded its surrender. No no- 
tice being taken of this demand, Bollen was sent again to 
Fort James with more documents. These, being examined 

£c July, in the New York Council, were found insufficient to enable 
Carteret " to act in or assume the government of New Jer- 
sey," and Brockliolls required him to desist until he should, 
agreeably to his parole, " produce and show a sufficient au- 
thority." No allusion was made to the claim of Staten 
Island on the part of its deceased proprietor's dowager; 

21 July, but in writing to Andros and to Werden, Brockliolls de- 

30 July, clared that he would not part with that island unless by 
special orders from the duke.*' 

28 July. Carteret naturally complained of Brockholls's " uncivil 

answer," and acquainted the grasping widow that the New 
York authorities would not surrender to her Staten Island, 
which, he pronounced, " is as much your Honor's due as 

30 July, any other part of this Province." Brockliolls, however, 
while denying Carteret's authority, did not disturb his local 

23 July, government. An East Jersey Assembly was quietly held 
at Elizabethtown, which voted the proceedings of Andros 

19 October illegal. Nevertheless, the old spirit