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Full text of "The history of the state of Maine; from its first discovery, A. D. 1602, to the separation, A. D. 1820, inclusive. With an appendix and general index"

HISTORY 



STATE OF MAINE; 

FROM 

ITS FIRST DISCOVERY, A. D. 1602, 

TO 

THE SEPARATION, A. D. 1820, INCLUSIVE. 
With an Appendix and General Index. 



By WILI^TAM D. WILLIAMSON, 

Corresponding Member of the Mass. Historical Society; 
and Member of Hist. Soc. in Maine. 



A NEW IMPRESSION. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 



VOIi. II, 



GLAZIER, MASTERS & SMITH. 

1839. 



r; 



1 



.V/7. 



'^^u^^<^ 



^ 






CONTENTS OF VOL. II. 



A. D. CHAPTER I. Page 9 to 37. 

169x. Oct. 7, Provincial Charter of William and Mary granted; em- 
bracing' Massachusetts, New-Plj'mouth, Maine and Sajadahock. 
1692-3. The first administration. 
1694. Feb. Death of Sir William Phips, first Royal Governor. 

1696. Nova Scotia conceded by Massachusetts to the British Crown. 

Distress of Yorkshire. 

1697. Sept. 11. Treaty of Ryswick. Nova Scotia resigned to France. 

1698. Villebon, the French Governor, claims westward to Kennebeck. 

1699. May 26, Lord Bellamont arrives, Provincial Governor. J. 

Bridges, first surveyor in the King's woods. 

1700. Resettlement of Maine promoted. A Committee of Claims. 
1701-2. Deaths of Lord Bellamont, Lieut. Gov. Stougliton, James II. and 

William IIL 

1702. Joseph Dudley, Provincial Governor. Population in Maine. 

CHAPTER IL p. 38—70. 

1703. Queen Anne's war. The French draw the broken tribes to St. 

Francois. Several eastern towns attacked by the Indians. 

1704. Church's 5th eastern expedition. Colonial suiferers in this war. 

1706. The Indians consider the war a burthen. 

1707. All the remaining eastern settlements assailed. 

1709-10. Expeditions against Port-Royal. Nova Scotia subdued by Col. 

Nicholson; — an event important to Maine and Sagadahock. 
1711-12. The war. Last skirmish at Wells. 

1712. Oct. 27, Hostilities cease. 

1713. March 30, Treaty of Utrecht ; and July 11, of Portsmouth. No- 
va Scotia resigned to England and made a British Province. 
Castine the younger. 

CHAPTER III. p. 80— no. 

1713. The administration and prudentials of Maine. Three towns sur- 
vive the war. Ecclesiastical affairs. Order for the resettle- 
ment of several towns. 

1711. Five towns revived. Paper money floods the countrj'. Samuel 
Siiute commissioned Governor. 

1715. A road ordered from Berwick to Pejepscot. Three townships 

projected in the Pejepscot purchase. Georgetown resettled. 

1716. Settlement of Kennebeck attempted. Yorkshire extended to 

St. Croix. 

1717. Treaty with the Indians confirmed at Arrowsick. Timber trees 

protected. 

1718. Armstrong's project to settle Sagadahock. 

1719. Settlements between Kennebeck and St. Georges revived. Fort 

Richmond built. Th(! Governor and House differ. 

1720. Coram's project to settle Sagadahock. Affairs of Nova Scotia. 

Rale's character and conduct. Notaries Public. 

1721. P. Dudley's case as a Councillor. Mast trees protected. The 

Indians denounced as rebels. Castine the younger seized. 
Rale escapes. 

1722. North-Yarmouth resettled. 

CHAPTER IV. p. Ill— 15L 

Lovewell's war. The first reprizals and attacks by the Indians. 
Brunswick burnt. July 25, war proclaimed. Events of the 
war. Part of Georgetown burnt. 

1723. Oldtown destroyed by Col. Westbrook. Attacks of the Indians. 

1724. Col. Moulton's attempt to take Rale. Successes of the Indians. 

Nor*i-lgewock taken and Rale killed. Lovewell's excursions. 



IV CONTENTS. 

A. D. 

1725, The battle of Pegwacket. The Indian villag'e at Fort Hill d 
stroyed. Dmnmer's treaty, Dec. 15, at Boston. Its ratific 
lion. Sag-ainores' sentiments, 

CHAPTER V, p. 152—17^ 

Dmnmer's adiilinistration, Tliree trading* houses established. 

1727. A mission sent to recover captives. Earthquake. A back tier 

towns proposed. 

1728. July 13, Governor Burnet arrives. Councillors. His dispute 

with the House. Death. 

1729. Political clianiif-es in Sagadahock. David Dunbar, surveyor 

the woods, takes possession of that Province ; rebuilds the foj 
at Pcmaquid and surveys lots. 

1730. Gov. Belcher's administration commences. Officers in YorJ 

shire. Complaints ag-ainst Dunbar. He is appointed Lt. Go 
of New-Hampshire. 
1732-3. His removal effected. 

CHAPTER VI. p. 179— 19J 

173.3. Terms on which new townships were g"ranted. Grants made. 

1734. Paper money overflows the country. Salary question put tores 

1735. Falmouth made half-shire with York. Coimty officers. A ne^ 

valuation finished. Census. Throat-distemper rag'es. 

1736. Trade extended. Right to the woods discussed. Natives coni 

plain of encroachments by Mr. Waldo. Dormant claims revivee 

1737. Great dearth of provisions. 

CHAPTER Vn. p. 194—214 

1737-8. Dispute with New-Hampshire as to dividing- lines, referred, dii 
cussed, settled. 

1739. William Peppercll and Samuel Waldo command the two Yorl' 

shire regiments. 

1740. News of the Spanish war received. Specie scarce. Land-bam 
■ formed — dissolved. 

1741. Governor Belcher removed from office; and appointment 

Governor Shirley, George Whitefield. New tenor bills issueq 
First instance of impressment. 

1742. Ship-building, trade and fisheries flourish. Settlements promoted 

New valuation. 

1743. Fears of war and measures of defence. 

CHAPTER Vni. p. 215—233 

1744. The Spanish war. The French join against England. War del 

clared against the Indians, from Passamaquuddy eastward! 
Eight eastern scouts. Defensible men in Maine, 2,85;'). Lou! 
isbourg described. ExjK'dition against it. 

1745. The officers, the t^eet, and the army. Assistance of a Britis 

squadron. The siege. Ijouisbourg capitulates. Its grea 
strength. Expenses of the expedition repaid by Great Britain 

CHAPTER IX. p. 234— 25C 

Fifth Indian ivar. A defensive force of 450 men raised. Depre 

dations by the savages. 
174G. A French fleet of 70 sail, under Duke d\4nvilie, arrives at Hali 

fax. Its disasters. A force of 470 men from this Provinc 

capitulates at Minas. 
1747. A naval victory achieved by two English Admirals, Anson an 

Warren. Defence of the eastern people provided. News c 

peace arrives. 
174S. Oct. 'J'reatv of Aix-Ia-Chapelle. In tliis war, the Province los 

3,000 etfeclive men. 
1749. Treaty with the eastern tribes at Falmouth. 

CHAPTER X. p. 2G0— 273 

1749-50. Claim of the French westward to Kennebeck. Governor Shii 
ley goes a Commissioner to Paris, on the subject of boundaries 
Money due received from England, and the paper money a 



CONTENTS. 

A. D. 

redeemed. The Fi-ench Neutrals join the troops from Canada 
at the Isthmiis of Nova Scotia. Haliftxx settled. 

1750. Cornwallis attacks the French belov7 tlic Isthmus. The homi- 

cide of Albee and accomplices, at Wiscassct. The Indians from 
the north, commit mischief. 

1751. Aug-ust, Treaty with the Natives confirmed. 

CHAPTER XI. p. 274—303. 

1750-2. The people — conspicuous for. their merits, and tolerant in their 
sentiments. The ministr}^ of the gospel is able and pious. The 
British American s^'stem enforced,, by acts of Parliament, 
Settlement of the eastern country encoijraged. 

1752. Nevf valuation. New Style adopted. Petition for a new County. 

1753. The Indians disturbed by encroachments, and by fires in the 

Wfxjds. Obstacles to settlement were the fears of savag-e hos- 
tilities and the question as to land-titles. Vassal's project. 
Governor Shirley's return. The claims of the English and 
French to the eastern country specified. Frenchline of north- 
ern forts, and aggressions. 

1754. Defensive measures enlarged. General Union of the colonics 

projected. Fort Halifax at Kennebeck erected. Measures of 
defence. War inevitable. 

CHAPTER XII. p. 304—345 

French war and Gth Indian war. The French forts built. The 
eastern fortifications. 
1765. Four expeditions against the French,— three being unsuccessful. 
The French driven from Nova Scotia, and the French Neu- 
trals removed. War declared against all the eastern tribes, 
except the Tarratines. The people jealous. Cargill's aflair 
War upon the Tarratines. An Earthquake. 

1756. Four expeditions against the French. Public burthens great. 

War declared against France, Governor Shirley leaves the 
Province. The Indians attack the eastern towns and settle- 
ments. The expeditions all unsuccessful. 

1757. The Indian war. Governor Pownal arrives. William Pitt put 

at the head of the British ministry, 

1758. Three expeditions— all crowned with success — Louisbour<r and 

other places taken. The last efforts of the Indians against the 
English, at St. Georges. 

1759. A general attack upon the French. General Wolfe proceeds 

against Quebec, A fortress built at Penobscot, and named 
Fort Pownal. Death of General Waldo. Sept. 1;}, Quebec 
capitulates. Major Rogers destroys the Indian village of St. 
Francois. Death of Generals Peppercll and Waldo. 
17C0. Peace with the eastern tribes. Canada finally conquered. 

CHAPTER Xni. p. 346-36S. 

Limits of the Eastern Patents and great Tracts reviewed. Gov 

Pownal leaves the Province. Members of tlie Council for the 

last 30 years. Cumberland and Lincoln Counties established. 

Francis Bernard arrives, Provincial Governor. George III! 
1761. New valuation completed. Political parties noticed. Disputes 

between the Governor and House. York bridge erected. 
17G2. Twelve townships granted at Union river. Line between Maine 

and Nova Scotia, considered. Drought, fires and scarcity. 

Three new towns established. 
1763. Feb. 10, Treaty of Paris,— Canada, resigned to Great Britain. 

Quebec Province established. 

CHAPTER XIV. p. 3G9-407, 

Measures to raise a revenue in America. 

Governor's view of the eastern tribes. Census of Maine. 

Jan. 10, Stamp-act passed. The first Continental Cono-ress, 
btamp-act repealed. Crown lands and timber, considered 
A Hurricane. Parliament lay duties on tea, glass, paper, &c 
and regulate salaries. 



VI CONTENTS. 

A. D. 

]7C0. Colonial circulars offenJ the British ministry. A Provinci; 

(convention. British troops stationed in Boston. 
17o9. Gov. Bernard leaves the Province. Duties repealed, except on tea 

1770. Boston Massacre. Public lands and incchanica! arts, in g^rcat repute 

1771. 'J'hoinas Hutchinson cornniission.ed Governor. He opposes th 

settlements in Hag-adahock. They inci'easc on the Kennebecl'; 
Govcinor disputes ^vith the Flouse. Judges' salaries. 

1773. About 300 families leave Waldoborough. i?ymptomsof revolutio 

noticed. Ministers and lawyers opposed to Bi'itish taxation 
The dispute well understood by the parties. 

1774. Dec. 16, Teas destroyed in Boston. 

CHAPTER XV. p. 40S— 420( 

1774. Acts passed by Parliament, to close the port of Boston, alter thf, 
charter of .Massachusetts, and make other changes. Gen. Gag«i 
appointed Governor. He dissolves the General Court. A Proi 
viiicial Congress meets. Second Continental Congress convenes: 
County Conventions. Committees of Safety and Supplies. Af 
fairs of Coidson and Mowett. 

177.5. April 19. Battle of Lexington. Gen. Gage denounced. 

CHAPTER XVI. p. 421—448 

The war of the Revolution commenced. Capt. Mowett seized at 
Falmouth. First Bills of Continental money issued. George 
Washington coirimands the American Army. June 17th, Bunk'< 
er Hill battle. Eastern afiairs. Provincial charter resnmedJ 
Members of the Assemblies. Massachusetts issues paper-money/ 
Falmouth burnt by Mowett. Arnold's expedition througlil 
Kennebeck to Quebec. Repulse. General Post-office estab 
lished. New appointment of Civil officers. Militia reorganizedj: 

1776. Defence of Maine. Declaration of Independence. 

CHAPTER XVII. p. 449— 485.il 

The amit}' of the eastern Indians confirmed. Measures of de-i; 
fence. Eddy's retreat to Machias. A Continental Army raised. 1. 
Firearms arrive from France. Battle ot Trenton. 

1777. A garrison established at Machias. The enemy there repulsed.!' 

Capture of Gen. Burgoyns's army. 

1778. New Constitution rejected. Estates of Absentees confiscated.! 

Paper^money depreciated, 30 to one. Arrival of a French fleet. . 
Maine and Sagadahock formed into a District. 

1779. The British seize upon Penobscot and occupy 'Biguyduce. The! 

American fleet and troops sent to remove the enemy — defeated, 
The losses. Saltonstall cashiered. 

1780. Troubles in Maine : — GOO men raised for the eastern service 

Gen. Wadsworth commands the Eastern Department. Arnold's i 
treason. Constitution of the Commonwealth adopted. Mem- 
bers of the Council for the past 20 years. 

CHAPTER XVIli. p. 486—505. 

1781. Administration under the State-constitution. Gen. Wadsworth 

carried a prisoner to 'Biguyduce. Maj. Burton made prisoner 
also. Tiiey escape. Defence of the eastern inhabitants. Gen. 
McCobb succeeds to the command of Gen. Wadsworth. Pub- 
lic credit low, and public burdens great. First Commissioners 
of Eastern Lands. October 27, surrender of Cornwallis and 
his army. 

1782. Cessation of hostilities. Judicial and militia systems new modelled, 

1783. Sept. 3. Definitive treaty of Paris, The American army dis- 

banded. Losses. 

CHAPTER XIX. p. 506—520. 

1784. Great and immediate increase of settlements and population in 

Maine. Committees of Eastern Lands appointed. Lumber and 
other articles of export. Disputes between the borderers on 
the river St. Croix. 



CONTENTS. 



vu 



A. D. 



niyo. Body of Statute-law revised. Expenses of the Penobscot expe- 
dition considered. Governor Hancock resig-ns, and J. Bomloin 
elected Governor. Demand fur eastern lands. Twelve town 
ships conarmed. Provision made for qiiietin"- the Ishnders 
Treaty with the Tarratines. Towns and plantations revived 
Great freshet. 

CHAPTER XX. p 5-^ 1—547 

1785-6. Sq^aration of Maine, from Massachusetts, discussed. Falmouth 
Gazette, tirst publisiied. Address to the people. Kosuit of 
measures taken for Separation. Three new towns. Shav's in- 
surrection. Land lottery instituted. 

]lol' I^ancock re-elected Gov. Economy and industry encourao-ed 

1788. Federal Constitution adopted. FirstRepresentatiVcs to Con^o-res^ 

and Hectors. Slavery abolished. A Colle-e in Maine project- 
ed. Twenty new towns. ^ ■' 

1789. George Washington, first President of the U. Stales, inaugurated 

CHAPTER XXI. p 54S— 557 

1790. Counties of Hancock and Washington established. Maine a Dis- 

trict, A Census taken. Officers of the District Court Dis- 
putes between the eastern borderers and British provincials qui- 
etetl. A law to preserve game. 
1791-2. Wine new towns. Objects of eastern enterprise. 

1793. Death of Governor Hancock. Two new towns incorporated. 

CHAPTER XXII. n 55^— ^.9fi 

1794. Political parties-Federalists and Anti-federalists. ^T^ie French 

revolu ion The Americans take sides. Mr. Jay's t rertv 

Samuel Adams elected Governor. Three Ren -csCuativcs To 

.r.. . Congress elected. Bowdoin College established ^^^'^"^o 

1794-5. INineteen new towns incorporated. 3,500,00j acres of eastern 

lands sold since the peace i-asiern 

1795. Emigrant Society formed. Metalic coins regulated-ea-les dol- 

lars and cents, adopted in compulation ^-^a'cs, aoi 

1796. A 3d Mihtia Division formed. Law as to Shell-fish. By a treaty 

witn he Tarratines, 9 townships relinquished by th2 Seven 
new towns. Academies endowed ^ 

1797. Records of Supreme Judicial Court removed from Boston to their 

respective counties. 1. Sumner elected Governor Partie 

1798. The tru. St. Croix determtnet ^fe^ht'^e-w Towns"" W^rmeas 
17QQ "res-Land- ax, sedition law and alien bill. Envoys to France" 

mon rvVo',?"^'- 1 ^^^""'^b^-k County established Vdvul 
rnnerll^GemVIX^^tn^^^^'"'^'''^^^^^'- ^^^^^ °^ «-• 

1800. The Supreme jlid^cfafy^^^isei^'c'Jieb S^on.'^^^^' 

ernor. Electors of President and Vice-Pre"sidenf nl.n.r 
Opposition of the Democrats to the meas.irfs oflhe n. Z"; 
administration. Treaty negociated with France The FpH 

jSe.tfa7d' A^'r- "73^^-^^ "^ ^« -^"dges establil led. T 

Jetleisonand A. Lurr, President and Vice-President A 9,4* 

1801 T r*!?- ^^T^i'"^"°°- Six new towns. '''''•^"°^- A2d 

1801. J. Read and P. Coffin, Land-a"-ents HtIp^ nf «v.-. 

i«n, "M i^liecp imporlej. New towns. ""'«'"^« »J°l>'e<i. Me- 

moft TK ^""""-J <-siaDiisned. Ihc era of incornoratinnc 

1S06. Though Governor Strong was re-elected, eaci'l^eglslaUve branch 



Vlll 

A. D. 



CONTEN'1'tf. 



was democratical. The British insult our flag. Non-importa- 
tion Act j)assed. Berlin and Milan decrees. 
1807. British impressments. Embarg-o laid. Twenty-four new towns 
incorporated. 

CHAPTER XXIV. p. 605—027. 

1807. J. Sullivan elected Governor. His administration — County- At- 
torneys, Courts of Sessions and Jury act. 

1803. Betterment Law. A 4th militia division. Sullivan's death. Six- 
teen new towns. 

1809. C Gore elected Governor. Somerset Ccunty established. Mr. 
Gorc's administration. J. Madison, President of the United 
States. Erskine's arrangement. Rambouillet Decree. The 
affair of Chad wick. Vaccination recommended. Maine Bible 
Society established. 

]S1U. E. GerrV elected Governor. TheSd Census. Exports, tonnage, 
valuation, and lishery. 

ISU. Religious freedom-bill. Measures of Mr. Gerry's administra- 
tion. Skirmish between the Little Belt and the President. 
Two new militia divisions established. 

1812. Mr. Strong re-elected Governor. Tax on banks. Corporeal 
punishment abolished. Land controversies in Lincoln settled. 

CHAPTER XXV. p. 628—638. 

1812. The European belligerents. Embargo, and measures of defence. 
June IS, war declared against G. Britain. Events of the war. 

1G13. Politics. New towns and Banks. Washington Benevolent Socie- 
ties. Direct tax imposed. 

1S14. March, all restrictive laws repealed. Factories established. 
American successes in the war. 

CHAPTER XXVI. p. 639—657. 

1S14. The war in Maine. The enemy seize upon Eastport, Castine, 
and Machias. The government instituted there by the British. 
Their other measures. Trade at Castine and Hampden. Clos- 
ing events and incidents of the war. Battle of N. Orleans. 
Measures of the Hartford Convention. Castine and the eastern 
coast evacuated by the British, as far eastwardly as Eastport. 

CHAPTER XXVII. p. 658—679. 

1815. Feb. 11, news of peace arrives. Trade and Commerce. The 

condition of the cod-tishery. Public morals. 

1816. New towns. County of Penobscot incorporated. A land office 

established. J. Brooks elected Governor. Measures resumed 
to separate Maine from Massachusetts. Brunswick Conven- 
tion. Parties. Emigration westward. 

IS 17. Cold Seasons. Emigrations partiallv checked. Moose Island 
decided to belong to Maine. Our northern boundary discussed. 

1S18. Treaty with the Tarratines. Probate Code revised. Sea-Serpent. 

1819-20. Maine separated from Massachusetts. Its Constitution framed 
and adopted. It is admitted into the Union. Its political ad- 
ministration. 

SUPPLEMENTAL.— CHAPTER XXVIII. p. 680—705. 

1623 to The periods of our history. The Militia. Expenditure and 
1820. revenue. Taxation. Coins. Education, arts, studies and pro- 

fessions. The religious denominations and their ecclesiastical 
polity. Industry, trade and manufactures. The various insti- 
tutions, established. Domestic life reviewed. 

APPENDIX. 

No. 1.— List of Councillors under the Provincial Charter. Page 707. 

2. — List of Councillors and Senators, under the Constitution. 708. 

3. — List of Members of Congress from Maine. 709. 

4. — The Rulers and Governors of Maine from its first settlement. 710. 
5. — List of Counties and corporate towns. 712. 



CHAPTER I. 

Provincial Charter — Governor and other Public Officers — Legista- 
ture--Council— House oj Representatives — Voters — Statute enact- 
ments — Judicial Courts — Justices of the Peace — Appeals to the 
Crown — Militia — Ecclesiastical affairs — Education — Land-titles 
— Rights— Laws— Crimes and Punishments — Witchcraft — Death 
nf Gov. Phips — Nelson, Governor of Nova Scotia, seized by Vil" 
lebon, the French Governor — Massachusetts resigns the Govern." 
mcnt of that Province to the Croicn of England — Her measures 
protective of Maine — Restrictive acts of PciTliamcnt — Board of 
Trade and Plantations — Treaty of Ryswick-^Nova Scotia re* 
signed to the French-^-They and Massachusetts both c'aim Saga- 
dahoclc — Conduct of Villcbon, the French Govemor-^-Dispute 
about the jurisdiction of Sogadahock-^J^ord Bcllamont succeeds 
Governor Phips-— His Speech — John Bridges, Surveyor-Gtueral 
of the woods — The eastern towns revived — Rumors of war and 
measures of defence — Great Island to be fortified — Committee of 
Claims — Fears of tear — Deaths of Lord Bcllamont, William 
Stoughton, James IT. and William III. — Measures of the French 
—Governor Dudley succeeds Lord Bellamont — Meets the Indians 
at Casco — The conference and its incidents. 

The celebrated Charter of William and Mary, dated Octo- ^ . d. ic92. 
ber 7th, 1691, was brought hither from England by Sir Wil- f'|^^j:,pr of 
LiAM Phips, the first royal Governor, and went into operation jj'"',^""*^ 
on the 14th of May, 1692. It embraced the whole territory of 
this State, in two great divisions; — one, extending from Piscata- 
qua to Kennebeck, was called the Province of Maine; the other, Maine nnd 
including all between Kennebeck and the St. Croix, was usually ?''^j?''''" 
denominated Sagadahock* — As the political connexion between 

* See \stvoL chap. xxii. Ji. D. 1691.— Thoug-h Nova Scotia was embraced; 
Massachusetts resigned the government of it to the crown, A. D. 1696, 
about a year before the peace ; and it became a British Province. — The 
Vol. II, 2 



eriior. 



10 THE HISTORY [VoL. II, 

A. I). 1692. Massachusetts proper and the present State of Maine continued 
about 130 years; it becomes important to give a general outline 
of the Province government under the new Charter. 
TheExccn- Its features bore a resemblance to tlie government of England, 
and its departments were nearly as distinct. The Governor, 
Lieutenant-Governor and Secretary of State were appointed and 
commissioned by the crown, — to hold their respective offices dur- 
ing their sovereign's pleasure. The two first officers primarily 
took their oaths before each other ; — afterwards, they and the 
Secretary, also other officers, were severally sworn by two of the 
Council. 
The Gov- The Governor was chief magistrate, and invested with supreme 
executive authority. He had power to convene, adjourn, and 
even dissolve the Legislature, and to nominate, and with advice 
of Council, appoint all judges, sheriffs, justices of the peace, 
and other civil officers ; — their names being first placed seven 
days upon a nomination-book. To him and the Council, was 
given jurisdiction of all probate matters, and the right of drawing 
by warrant from the Provincial treasury, all appropriated public 
monies. As Captain-General, he was empowered to organize 
the militia, and appoint and commission all military officers ; also 
to erect and demolish fortifications ; — but he could not march 
any inhabitant out of the Province without his own consent, or 
that of the Legislature previously obtained. He could negative as 
many as thirteen of the Councillors chosen, and also the Speaker 
of the House, if they were displeasing to him ; — a prerogative 
often exercised by him in high party-times. The two Legislative 
branches, after organizing themselves in the spring, were usually 
addressed by him in a speech ; at other sessions, his communica- 
tions were by written message. He presided at the Council- 
board,* and no law or order passed by the two houses, or by 
either, was valid till approved by him. 

The .Lieutenant-Governor always filled the executive chair, 
when the chief magistrate was absent ; but at other times, during 
a series of years, he sat and voted with the Council. 



charier also included the five northerly Isles of Shoals ns embraced in 
Gorges' charter: viz. IJog Island- 1 lay let/ s, or Smutty-nose Island— Luck, 
Cedar, and JIalaga Islands.— See 1st vol. chap. v\. A. B. 1639. 

* He pi-esided during' executive, not legislative debates; — though Lord 
Bellamont did in both — 2 Hutchinson's History, p. 107.— The places of 
Councillors negatived, were not filled that year. 



Chap, i.] of maine. 1 1 

The Legislative power was vested in two distinct branches — A. d. i692 
each having a negative upon the other. Ihe upper House was .j.j^^ ^^ .^_ 
called the Council, or Board of Assistants, consisting of 28 laiure. 
members ; — the other was the House of Representatives. 

By the charter, three of the Council were always to be taken 
from the Province of Maine, and. one from Sagadahock ; — who cii. 
must at the time, " be inhabitants or proprietors of land within 
*'the territory," which they were chosen to represent. The 
whole number of Councillors were, at first, by name inserted in 
the charter, who were to hold their places till the election in 
May, 1693. Those in Maine were Job Alcot,^ Samuel Donnell, 
and Samuel Hexjman ; and for Sagadahock, Sylvanus Davis. 

Mr. Alcot and Mr. Donnell both resided at York, and both 
of them were afterwards sometime Justices of the Inferior Court 
or Common Pleas. — Mr. Alcot was one of the ancient, most ^i^,,, 
substantial and wealthy inhabitants of his town, and had been 
commander of the militia company twenty years before ; never- 
theless, being somewhat advanced in years he was never rechosen 

into the Council. But Mr. Donnell was elected the next year 

1 1 " 1 TT 1 11- Dounell. 

and once subsequently. He also represented his town two years 

in the House. JMr. Heyman, having an oversight and interest in Heyman. 
the public affairs, at Berwick, received this mark of distinguish- 
ed respect on account of his personal worth ; yet, owing proba- 
bly to his short life, or to his bhort residence in Maine, he is not 
known to have been a member of the Board after his charter- 
term expired, nor to have filled any other public ofiice in Maine. 
Mr. Davis was a gentleman of good capacity and great fidehty. Davis. 
He had been an inhabitant of Arrowsick : and in superintending 
the interests and affairs of Clark and Lake upon that Island and 
in the vicinity, he acquired an eminent character for integrity, 
business, and prudence. When that Island was laid waste, he 
removed to Falmouth. No other man was more thoroughly ac- 
quainted with this eastern country,f or with the Indians, and while 
a prisoner at Quebec, his reputation commanded particular re- 
spect. He was a worthy magistrate, and the next year, was elect- 
ed a member of the Council. 

To fill the places of Messrs. Alcot and Heyman at the Coun- 

* Written, or spelt sometimes, " Alcock," and sometimes "Alcot."— See 
;inte— the burning of York, 1692. t Sullivan, p. 390. 



J 2 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A.D. 1592 cil-board, ia 1693, Francis Hook and Charles Frost were 

to 1693. 

elected. They had been members of President Danforth's 

Messrs. _ 

Hook, Council, and were two of the most popular and useful men in 
Wheel- the Province of Maine. In the first Inferior Court, or Com- 

wrighi, and _ i i t i i m tt i 

Lyude. mon rleas, they were both Judges ; and Mr. Hook was two 
''years Judge of Probate. In 1694, they were re-elected. The 
same year, the places of Mr. Donncll and Mr. Davis were filled 
by Mr. Samuel Wheelwright, of Wells, son of the Rev. John 
Wheelwright, the original and principal proprietary settler of that 
town ; and by IMr. Joseph Lynde, who was a non-resident proprie- 
tor of lands, within Sagadahock. He lived in Boston and was 
Province treasurer. Indeed, the Sagadahock territory was rep- 
resented in the Council by a non-resident landholder, with a 
few exceptions, through a period of sixty or seventy years. 
When elected, and before taking the qualifying oath, he usually 
made affidavit at the Board, that he was such proprietor. 

Anmini The Council were annually chosen on the day of the general 

tiircoundi election in May, by the members of the old Board and the new 
House of Representatives, assembled in convention ; and if any 
vacancies happened, during the political year, they might be 
filled in the same way by the two branches united. Seven form- 
ed a quorum for transacting business ; the Board being both a co- 
ordinate branch of the General Court, and an advisatory Coun- 
cil of the Governor. Nay, when the offices of both the Gov- 
ernor and Lieutenant-Governor were vacant, all acts of executive 
power were exercised by a majority of the whole Council; and 
there have been many instances, especially in the Revolution, 
. when commissions were signed by fifteen Councillors. 

Hifiisft of 'pj^g other branch of the General Court, called the House. 

aiives, V7as constituted of deputies, or representatives elected by towns- 
corporate. Governor Phips, for the first time, issued warrants, 
May 20, 1692, unto every town, to choose 'two and no more;' 
and appointed a session on the 8th of June, when 153* were 

MfmhRrs returned. In this Legislature, eight appeared from Maine ; Kittery, 

f.om .Maine, y^^j^^ Wells, and the Isles of Shoals, [Appledore,] severally re- 
turning two representatives. f Subsequent to the first year, how- 



* That is to say, from Plymouth 12; Essex .^0; Middlesex 35; Suffolk 
25; Hampshire 12 ; Barnstable 11 ; Bristol 16 ; Martha's Vineyard 2 ; Nan- 
tucket 2; and Maine 3;==15J. 

t In 1692, from Kitle.ry, James Emery and Benjamin Ilodsdon ; fronj 



Chap, i.] OF MAINE. 13 

ever, those Isles were never represented in the General Court : a.d. ig92 

' , . tolL-93. 

nor did any town in Maine, afterwards, for sixty years, return at 
the same time, more than a single member to the House. Some 
of its towns were always represented, during that period, except 
in 1 697 ; though the whole delegation from this Province, in 
ttny single year, never exceeded ten or eleven.* The entire 
number in the House for the first ten years, was usually between 
60 and 80; never till 1735, exceeding 100 members. Forty 
constituted a quorum for doing business ; and every one was 
entitled to a daily compensation of 3s. for his attendance, but was 
finable 5s. if absent a day without leave. 

To be entitled to the right of suffrage, a man must be 21 years ^"'^""^ ^"'* 



ratio ol 

seiita- 



of age, own an estate, worth £40 sterling, or a freehold, which J.'^i^^'-' 
would yield an annual income of 40 shillings. In the first leg- 
islature, the ratio of representation by towns was graduated to 
the number ot their respective voters ; every town having 120 
might return two ; — 40 and upwards, one ; — 30 and less than 
40, one, or in the latter case the town might elect one or none 
at pleasure : — having less than 30 voters, it might unite with the 
next adjoining town in the election of a representative. 

To the General Court, was given full power to establish Powers of 
with or without penalties, all manner of wholesome and reasona- coun. 
ble laws, statutes, ordinances and orders, not repugnant to those 
of England, — to name and settle annually, all civil officers, whose 
appointment was not otherwise prescribed, — and to levy taxes 
needful for the support of government, and the protection of the 
people. But all " orders, laws, statutes and ordinances'''' were Lnws to be 
to be transmitted by the first opportunity after enactment, to the i.v Uje king. 
king for his approval, under the royal signature. f If, however, 



York, Jeremiah Moiiltoii and M. Turfrej' ; from Wells, 'EAizb Hutchinson 
and John Wheelwright ; and from the Isles of Shoals, Roger Kcllej' and 
William Lakeman. In 1693, from Killery^ James Emer}'. In 1694, from 
the same town, William Screven; and from York and Wells united, Eze- 
kiel Rogers, Jr. In 1G95, from hiltery, James Emery, and in 1G96, John 

Shapleigh. In 1 097, . In lG9b', from Eillery, Richard Cutts, and 

from. York, Abraham Preble. 

* The non-resident act was passed in 1691, by which no man might " serve 
" in the House for any town, unless where he did at that time live and 
dwell."— 2 HiUch. Hist. p. 78. 

f Hence these were denominated the Slatiiles of the reigning monarch 
jffho approved them, as ' ike Statutes nf William and J^Iary /' ' Anne, SfcJ' 



14 THE HISTORY [VoL. II, 

A. I). 1GD2 any one of them were not expressly disallowed by him in privy 
council, within three years, from the day it reached the Board, 
it had, after that period, full force and effect by lapse of time. 
Manifest inconveniences attended this process and requirement, 
though not witliout some beneficial effects. For great pains 
were taken to render the enacted bills perfect ; — besides, a 
needless multiplication of them, so reprehensible in later times, 
was greatly prevented. In legislation, the General Court soon 
became more parliamentary than formerly, — each house sending 
bills to the other for concurrence, amendment or rejection. How- 
ever, to avoid transmitting every minor legislative measure across 

Rcioives. the Atlantic, the General Court often acted by '■'■ Resolves f^ and 
in this way, introduced an anomaly into legislation, still exten- 
sively practiced, though the reason has long since ceased. 

ar.^ " "^'* The General Court, being authorized by charter to erect Courts 
of Justice, for the trial of all cases, criminal and civil, arising 
within the Province, immediately effected a thorough revision of 
the judiciary department. Some of the first legislative enact- 
ments provided for the erection and establishment of five judicial 
tribunals ; a Supreme Court, Common Pleas, Quarter Sessions, 
and Justice's Courts j— «-and afterwards, Probate, Chancery, and 
Admiralty Courts. 

The Su- 1- The '• Supe)-ior Court''^ consisted of one Chief Justice and four 

Co'ilru ' puisne,' or Side Judges,— any three of whom formed a quorum. 
It was a tribunal of law and justice in all civil and criminal cases, 
through the Province, and of assize and general gaol-delivery in 
each county. But the statute establishing it, was not approved 
by the crown, till three years had nearly elapsed, subsequent to 
its passage by the General Court ; so that none of the judges, 
except the chief justice, was permanently commissioned, till 1695, 
nor before Governor Phips' return to England. In the meantime, 
the jurisdictional powers of this tribunal were exercised by special 
commissions of Oyer and Terminer,* one of which, for instance, 
was issued by the Governor, June 2d, 1692, to try witches. But 
after the statute took effect, it was found in its practical operation 
not to be sufficiently broad and explicit ; and another was passed 



* One special commission was filled with Lieut, Gov. Stoughton, Major 
Saltonstall, Major Richards, Major B. Gedney, Mr. Wait Winlhrop, Capt. 
Samuel Sewall, and Mr. Sargent. — 1 Doug. Summ. p. 450. 



Chap, r.] OF Maine. 15 

in 1699, which gave to the Court a jurisdiction of all matters, A. t). 1G92 
civil and criminal, — including appeals from the lower courts, re- 
views and wriis of error, as fully to every intent, as the courts of 
king's bench, conmion pleas and exchequer had within the king- 
dom of England. The judges were appointed in 1695,* and 
held terms in most of the counties, twice in every year. June 
was the month for the sessions of the Court in Yorkshire ; and 
the shire town, till the close of the present Indian war, was Kit- 
tery — subsequently York. 

2. An " Inferior Court;' or [Common Pleas] was established prJaT" 
in each county, consisting of four Judges, who had cognizance of 

all civil actions, arising within its limits, " triable at the common 
law." The statute constituting this Court was also revised in 
1699, but not essentially altered. The first bench of Judges^ 
commissioned in Yorkshire, now more commonly called ' the 
county of York,' were Job Alcot, Francis Hook, Charles Frost V'" ^",'^s^^ 
and Samuel Wheelwright. The high sheriff was Joseph Curtis, 'y of York". 
The terms in this county, were holden at York, on the first Tues- 
days of April and July ; and at Wells on the first Tuesdays of 
January and October. Appeals lay from the decision of this 
Court, to the next Superior Court sitting in the same county. 

3. The Court of General Quarter Sessions of the peace, wasTheQunr' 
holden by the Justices of the Peace within the county, at the"" 



fs tjessioii*. 



*1. The Chief Justice was William SlovghUm, lorn at Dcrchcs(cr, A. D. 
IG32, graduated at Harvard Colleg-c 1650, and was appointed the first 
Lieut. Governor under the charier of William and Mary. Thougli he was 
in tiie executive cjiair alter Governor Phips left it, he was appointed 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in 1695; wiiich office he held till 
1700, when lie ag-ain took the chair on the death of Lord Bellamont. He 
died 1702.— 2. Thomas Banforlh, late President of Maine, was a man of 
great probity and stern political virtues— the idol of republicans. His 
name ^vas not inserted among the chai ter Councillors, though expressly 
desired by the agents. '• The people received the intelligence with sur- 
prise and grief," He held the office of Judge till his death, 1699.— 3. Eli. 
sha Cook, a physician of Boston. H3 was a " high liberty man," and a 
popular leader in (he General Court near 40 years. He was an assistant 
in 1681 ; and appointed Judge in 1695 ; left the bench 1702 ; and died 1715, 
—aged 78.— 4, Samuel Scu-all of iS'ewbury, a graduate of Harvard College, 
1671, was put into the special commission in 1692; appointed Judge, 1695; 
and Chief Justice, 1718: and left the bench, 1728.— 5. Wait Winihrop, 
appointed, 169S ; left the bench, 1717. Each Judges' pay was a grant of 
£40 a year, till 1700, when it was raised to £50.— Jlass. Rec. p. S91. 



16 



THE HISTORY 



[Vol. II. 



Justices of 
Uie Peace. 



A.D. IG92 same times and places, the Court of Common Pleas held their 
terms ; having authority to " hear and determine all matters re- 
lating to the conservation of the peace, and punishment of of- 
fenders, cognizable by them according to law." But it being a 
needless expense for all the Justices of the county to attend 
court, four times in the year, merely for the trial of a few minor 
offences; they were made by the revising statute of 1699, to 
consist OTily of those designated for the purpose, in the commis- 
sion itself Still, though the list of Justices was not large, it was 
a ninnerous and expensive court, till the Revolution. Appeals 
were allowed from this tribunal, to the Superior Court — the ap- 
pellant being put under recognizance to prosecute the cause, to 
file his reasons, and produce copies of the process, and of the 
evidence adduced at the trial. 

4. Justices of the Peace were civil officers known under the 
charter of Gorges, — never hitherto in the Colony of Massachu- 
setts ; the Assistants acting as Justices through the jurisdiction. 
An indefinite number, though not great, was now appointed and 
commissioned for each county by the Governor with advice of 
Council ; — to hold their offices during good behavior. Each 
one had jurisdiction of all civil causes to the amount of 40s. and 
of all crimes, so far as to commit or recognize to a higher tribu- 
nal, if they were heinous, and to punish such offences, as assaults 
and batteries — violation of the Sabbath — gaming — drunkenness — 
profanity — and breaches of the peace, — either by the stocks, 
cage, a fine of 20s. and even stripes not exceeding ten. 

5. Probate business, until the colony charter was vacated, 
was transacted in the County Court. But in 1 687, amidst the 
changes of government, Joshua Scottow* of Scarborough, was 
commissioned Judge, and his son Thomas, a young graduate of 
Harvard College, was appointed recorder for Yorkshire. — Now, 
under the new Province-charter, a Judge and Register were 
commissioned by the Executive, during good behavior, for each 
County; and in Yorkshire, 1693, Francis Hook was appointed 
Judge, and John Wincoln, Register. Any appeal made from 
this Court, went directly to the Governor and Council. 

6. A Court of Chancery was established with power, " to hear 



* Previously, under President Danforth's administration, Mr. Scottow 
had been one of the Provincial Council of Maine. 



Chap, i.] OF MAINE. 17 

all matters of equity, not relievable at common law." It was A, D. 1692 
holden in Boston, by three Commissioners, assisted by five 
Masters in Cliancery, — all of whom were appointed by the Gov- Chancery, 
ernor and Council. 

7. There was likewise an American Vice-Admiralty Court ; '^'^^'^^^^^^ 
and Wait JVinthroj)* was appointed, May 22, 1699, by the crown, 
or by the high admiral of England, the Judge for New-England 
and New- York. Besides this, there was a Provincial Justiciary 
Court of Admirahy, holden by the Governor and Council, sit- 
ting with that Judge and the Secretary of State, — for the trial of 
piracies and other crimes, committed on the high seas. 

From any decision of the Provincial judicatories or courts, in Appeals to 
any personal action, wherein the matter in difference exceeded ^''^ '^'■°^'"' 
£300 sterling, an appeal was allowed, by the charter, to the 
king in council. 

To revise and regulate the Militia, a statute was passed, in The Miliiia. 
1693, which directed all the male inhabitants, between 16 and 
60, other tiian specified exempts, f to be enrolled and to do 
military duty four days in a year ; who were all to be well armed 
and equipped wiih a firelock, and its appendages, furnished at 
their own expense. They were organized by the Captain-Geti- 
eral and Commander-in-Chief, into companies, severally of 60 
men, and classed into regiments, whose musters were directed 
to be triennial. All military officers of and above an ensign's 
rank, he himself without the advice of Council, appointed and 
commissioned ; and all under that rank were appointed by the 
captains. On any alarm given, which was understood to be — a 
discharge of three guns in succession at measured intervals, — all 
the soldiers in the same town were required, under heavy pen- 
alties, to convene in arms at the usual place of rendezvous, and 
await the orders of iheir officers. But no officer could quarter 
or billet a soldier upon any other inhabitant than an innholder 
without his consent. 

All christians, except papists, were expressly allowed by the 



* The successive Jiidg'es of tljis Court were Messrs. Atwood, Mempes- 
son, Nathaniel Byfielri, John Menzis, Robert Achmiity, and, in 1747, 
Chambers Riissel. — 1 Doug. Summ. p. 494. 

f These exempts were many — extending' not onlj' to all members of 
the leg^islature, ministers, deacons, and all judicial and executive officers ; 
but to Masters of Arts, herdsmen, and sea captains. 
Vol. II 3 



Educailon 



18 tftl: history [Vol. ii. 

A D KiB-i charter, " liberty of conscience in the worship of God." No at- 
tempt to legalize the old platiorm ot church government, met 
caiaffairv With any success ; nor would the General Court, after this period, 
be persuaded to interfere in any ecclesiastical disputes, otherwise 
than to recommend an arbitrament or compromise.* To every 
church, however, was given and secured, by a new law, all its 
former rights and privileges in worship and discipline — also the 
power of electing its own niinister. But if the choice was non- 
concurred by the town voters, a council, consisting of three or 
five neighboring elders, or delegates from their respective 
churches, was to be called, — whose decision was by the statute 
of 1695, to be conclusive. One great and important duty was 
still enjoined upon towns by law, — which required them to be 
constantly provided widi an able, learned and orthodox ministry. 

In defence of government, justice, liberty and religion, the 
corner-pillars of the community, there were now provided with 
no less assiduity than formerly, what were esteemed their indis- 
pensable safeguard and panoply, viz. — schools and early educa- 
tion ; the ardor for mental culture and improvement having no- 
where undergone any abatement. Nay, such was still the public 
zeal for learning, that every town of 50 householders was by a 
new law finable, that failed to employ a schoolmaster constantly ; 
and when the town embraced twice that number of families, the 
instructor must be capable of teaching the sciences and learned 
languages. 

Land-titles were a subject of great importance and early con- 
sideration. By a colony ordinance of 1652, confirmed by stat- 
ute in 1692, peaceable possession, five years, acquired a title in 
fee-simple. As the limitation, however, was very short, the law 
provided, that the owner should not lose his riglit, if he pursued his 
claim, within that length of time, after the close of the present or 
second Indian war. This provision was intended for the particular 
benefit of the settlers in Maine. But no territorial purchases of 
the Indians were considered valid, unless they were sanctioned 
by the laws and usages, extant within the constituent sections of 
the Province, where the lands lay. 
g;„ ^j. In short, the political axioms of this period, drawn into a stat- 

ute bill of rights, and passed in 1692, shew in a more peculiar 



t.and-i'tlej. 



ri;;!!!*. 



* Nor lias any SynoJ since been called. — 2 Hutch. Hist, p 18. 



Chap, i.] of Maine. 19 

manner the sentiment, sense and intelHsence of the federative a, D. 1692 

• r 1 • ri '" 1<j93. 

community. By these, no one might be despoiled of his hber- 
ties, or rights, except by the judgment of his peers or the laws 
of the land. Justice shall never be sold, denied nor deferred ; 
nor shall any one be twice tried, or sentenced for the same of- 
fence. All trials shall be by juries of twelve men, or by prior 
established law. Bail shall always be allowed, except in cases 
of treason, and in capital felonies ; wherein reasonable ch'illenges 
shall be granted at the trials. Writs of habeas corpus shall never [l^^^l'^^J'^* 
be prohibited, — 'nor shall any tax be levied or laid upon the Taxes, 
people, without an act of the legislature.'* 

Former laws were perpetuated for a period, by a special statute, ^ , , 

' ' _ ' "^ _ ' Oilipr Laws 

till opportunity was given, either to amend, to revise or re-enact and usages. 
them ; — all usages retained and practices approved — as the legal 
expletives of such legislative acts as remained unrevived, if not 
inconsistent with the charter, becoming in after time the accredit- 
ed parts of our ' common law.' For the furtherance of justice, 
any judgment rendered in the courts of Yorkshire, since 1686, 
might, by a provisional law, be reviewed in the new court of Com- 
mon Pleas. Judicial process and legal remedies became as- 
similated, by degrees, to the free principles of the English com- 
mon law ; — a code, in most of its parts, too sacred in the peo- 
ples' view, ever to be touched by a despotic hand. Inheritances 
were made divisible or partible, equally among heirs, excepting 
to the oldest son a double portion. Every justice of the peace 
was authorized to solemnize marriages within his county ; and 
every settled minister within his town. But all questions of di- 
vorce and alimony, were committed to the decision of the Gov- 
ernor and Council. Rules were given to counties for the man- 
agement of their prudential affairs ; also particular duties and re- 
strictions were prescribed to licensed houses. The powers and 
obligations of towns were revised in the choice and number of 
town officers ; in the support of their poor ; in the repairs of their 
highways ; and in the regulation of public ferries, and even of 
fences between man and man. Nay, almost every object of con- 
siderable importance, or public utility, received the particular 



* But the Crown refused to approve this Bill, for the ministry foresaw 
that if the act was approved, it would be a security against parliamentary 
taxation. 



20 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D 1692 attention of the General Court, within its first three or four years 
of legislation, under the province charter. Nor will the writer 

Remarks, be charged with a needless multiplication of remarks upon the 
form of government, and the general administration of affairs — 
when their importance is realized, and when it is further consid- 
ered, many of the most prominent laws and regulations, occasion- 
ally revised and amended, were not only continued in operation 
till the American revolution, but are the foundation of the " acts" 
that fill our present statute books. 

In no department, it is said by able civilians, do the lights and 

Criminal , t r i ? i i- i 

Laws. shades oi a people s ])ublic cliaracter appear more conspicuous, 
than in their code of ' crinunal law,'' — in the scale and species 
of penalties and punishments. If European governments, in 
their progress, tarnish its pages with more and more blood, it is a 
happy consideration, that with us, practical experience and im- 
proved policy, have taken a juster view of crimes, and pursued 
them with a correspondent moderation as to penalties. By ed- 
ucating the mind, and deepening the moral sense, crimes may be 
prevented — not by aggravating the forfeitures, or sliarpening the 
punishments. According to a classification in the code at that 

offences^'"' ^^'^^ enacted, — murder, treason, piracy, rape, robbery on a sec- 
ond conviction, bestiality, arson, polygamy, and witchcraft were all 
capital crimes : Burglary, forgery, blasphemy, perjury, adultery 
and larceny were public offences of the second class : and the 
third embraced assaults and batteries, gambling, drunkenness, 
frauds, usury, sabbath-breaking, and ail breaches of the peace. 

Though among the penalties and punishments, torture no lon- 
ger makes its appearance, ingenuity seems to have been not a 
little exerted in the work of inventing new and various kinds and 
modes ; — some of which were cruel if not barbarous. In truth, 
that age, mistaken as it was, appeared determined to try by tests 
of experiment, what indelible marks of disgiace upon the body 
could effect, towards preventing crimes, and reforming the heart 
and habits of the offender. For, besides a confinement in the 
pillory, stocks or cage, and sitting on the gallows, convicts were 
whipped ; their foreheads branded ; their ears cut off or nailed 
to a post ; and the tongue of a convicted blasphemer, perforated 
with a redhot iron. Even ten stripes might be hiflicted by a 
constable, in execution of a sentence awarded by a justice of the 
peace. 



Chap, i.] of Maine. 21 

Idolatry and heresy, which had been capital, were no longer A. D. 1692 
considered offences punishable by law ; and it is greatly to be re- 
gretted, that a page of the statute book should be again sullied, by 
a re-enactment recorded against witchcraft, — more especially since 
the penalty affixed was death.* If such a crime were ever com- 
mitted, the difficulty of proving it, necessarily borders on utter 
impossibility. The trials of the accused were principally in Sa- 
lem (Massachusetts); and the height of t!ie delusion was in 1692, 
when the country was involved in a bloody v/ar with the eastern 
Indians. Of the whole number, convicted of witchcraft, 19 were. 

Witchcrart. 

executed ; and fifty others were prisoners in close confinement, 
when the spell was dissolved, and this master spirit of delusion, 
became effectually expelled from distempered and credulous 
minds, by force of good sense and sound principles in religion 
and reason. 

Though we have no record of a conviction for this crime in 

Ciieor*^e 

Maine ; a single case of one, formerly an inhabitant, may without Hurmughs' 
impropriety be mentioned. George Burroughs, a native of Essex 
county, and a worthy minister of the gospel, who preached at 
Falmouth between 1(385 and 90, was arrested at Danvers, and 
tried for whchcraftf at Salem, in 1692, on three indictments ; and 



* To encounter a ' demoniacal spirit of delusion,' a colony ordinance was 
passed against ivilchcrafl in 1646. The first execution under it, was at 
Charlcstovvn in 1650. There were several otlier cases in different parts of 
New-Eng-land before ]68S, when the infatuation became more dreadful; 
and in the course of three or four successive years, fdied Massachusetts 
with misery and alarm. The sufferers said tliey were pinched, pressed and 
otherwise tortured by an invisible hand— accusing- some one, who was 
hence soon arrested and tried. — See2 Hutch. Hist. p. 22-62. 

t The Indictment alleged— ' that the said Burroughs, late of Falmoiilh, 
' Clerk, on the 9th day of May current, and divers days and times before 
' and since at Salem, certain detestable acts, called witchcrafts and sorce- 
' ries, wickedly and feloniously hatli nsed, practised and exercised, in and 
' upon one Mary Walcot of Salem village, singlewoman ; by which said 

* wicked acts— she is tortured, afflicted, wasted and tormented against 

' the peace, and contrary to the form of (he statute in such case made and 

'provided.' He pleaded, that he was '■'■ not guilty.'" — On the trial the 

evidence was such as follows : — One witness said, upon oath, ' I have seen 
' Burrougtis put his finger into the muzzle of a gun and hold it out straight: 
' and though he said an Indian present did the same, none of us could re- 
' collect an Indian was present, and we supposed the being must have been 
'the blackman, or the devil, who' (they swore they had no doubt) ' looks 
'like an Indian.' 



22 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A.D. 1693. though the evidence was of a most extraordinary and incredible 
character, the jury returned verdicts of Guilty on each of them ; 
— and he was executed.* Fortunately, however, for the honor 
of humanity, he was among the last suiferers. The doors were 
soon thrown open to the wretched prisoners ; and all witcl;craft, 
with the prosecutions ceased. 
Gnv. piiips The administration of Sir William Phips continued only about 
letaiied ^^^^ years and a half. To answer for some personal violence 
done to Brenton, the collector of the customs, and to Short, cap- 
tain of the Nonesuch frigate in Boston-harbor, both of whom had 
refused to obey the Governor's orders, he was required to make 
ii's4 '^■' his appearance at Court. He embarked for London Nov. 17, 
H.sdeaih. i(394^-j- vvlicre he died the ensuing February. He was a man of 
benevolent disposition and accredited piety, though sometimes 
unable to repress the ebullitions of temper. He was not only 

Samuel Webber testified (hat he, while living- at Casco bay, conversed 
with Burroughs about his g-reat strength, when he said — " I have put my 
" fingers into the bunghole of a barrel of molasses, and lifted it up, and 

" carried it around me and set it down again." Susannah Shelden swore, 

that ' Mr. Burroughs'' apparition came and told her, he had killed both his 

' wives, two of his own and three of his neighbors' children.' Jlercy 

Lewis testified thus — " Mr. Burroughs took me up on a high mountain 
" and shewed me all tiie kingdoms of the earth, and offered them to me if 
" I would write in his book;" — declaring, lic'd '• throw me down and break 
" my neck, if I would not." ' I keep, (said he) the devil, a servant in my 

» shop.' Ann Pulman stated on the stand, to this purport. — ' On the 8th 

» of May instant, I saw the apparition of Burroughs; it grievously tortured 
' me and urged me to write in his book. Presently the forms of two women 
» appeared to me in winding sheets with napkins about their heads. They 
' looked very red and angry on Burroughs, and said tlieir blood cried for 
>■ vengeance against him ; — and thetj should be clothed in heaven with while 
' robes, and he would be cast down to hell. His spectre then vanished away ; 
' and they told me they xcere Burroughs'' (wo wives — he had murdered them : 
'And Jhs. Lnioson and her daughter told me this morning, he had murder- 
'ed them.'— Sec 6 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. 265— 271.— Also trials (f witches 

VI Suffolk [En g.) published A. D. 1684 Mr. Burroughs was graduated at 

Harvard College, A. D. 1670, late in life for a man to close a classical 
course: — yet it seems his object was to qualify himself for the ministry. 

* J^eaVs JVew-England.—2 Hutch. Hist. b8-G\.—Sull. 208-12.— One ac- 
count says he was 80 years old. — [6 Coll. JIass. His. Soc. 26S ;] but this 
must be a mistake. — 1 Doug. Sum. 450-1. 

f Governor Phips was at Pemaquid in May, 1694, and there obtained 
from Madockawando, a deed of the lands at St. Georges' River. — 2 Hutch. 
fJiif. p. 72 



Chap, t.] of maixe. 23 

energetic and exceedingly persevering in his purposes; but he A. D. 1C94. 
possessed good abilities, unsullied integrity and strong attachments. 
His unremitting assiduities to promote the best interests of Maine, 
the Province of his nativity, and to enforce measures devised 
for its defence and relief, are evidences, monumental of his pat- 
riotism and his high sense of obligation and duly. 

After his conquest of Nova Scotia, in 1690, Massachusetts NWa Sco- 
assumed the government of that Province ; appointed John Nel- j ^^]^^„^ 
son, Governor ; and gave commissions to judges, justices and <^o^- 
other officers. But the Acadian Provincials consisted of a mixed ^j^^ ^^^^j^ 
race, some born in the country, — some French emigrants — some «"*• 
resident traders — some half breeds of Indian extraction, with a 
few English ; and the most of them were lamentably ignorant, 
poor and miserable. Naturally attached to the French interests, 
and bigoted to the Romish religion, they were under the des- 
potic influence of the Jesuit missionaries ; and though they took 
the oath of allegiance to the English crown, they had changed 
masters so many times, that no confidence could be placed in 
their fidelity. Required by both to obey and yet protected by 
neither ; they became dispirited, — and tamely obsequious to 
any power, that would permit them and their families to live. 
Even they had in a partial degree, corrupted their language with 
half-English words.* 

Villebon, appointed Governor of the country, established him-^. 
self at St. John,t seized Nelson and sent him to Quebec;! or- Cov.aiSi. 

John. 

dering the English flag to be struck at Port-Royal, Nov. 26, 
1691, and the French flag hoisted. He then opened a lucrative 
trade with the Indians ; supplying them with arms, provisions and 
warlike stores, without which they could not have continued the 
war. In 1692 and 5, unsuccessful attempts were made to re- ^ ^ jg^^ 
move Villebon ; as Massachusetts considered herself in virtual 
possession of the Province, especially the great peninsula. The 
people chose deputies, and in some places, selectmen — being 
officers borrowed from the New-England colonies ; yet there was 
no regular system of government. In case of a general disturb- 
ance, or any affair of public interest ; a village or district was 
convened, a consultation had, and a messenger sent with prayers 
or complaints to their Governors. 



* 2 Hutch. Hist. p. 13-37-93. f Called' Naxoat.— 2 Hutch. Hist. p. 98. 
1 1 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. p. 136, 3d Series. 



24 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A.D. 1G95. But after the capture of Fort William Henry, and a nominal 
Massac-iui- repossession of Nova-Scotia, in 1696, by the French ; Massachu- 
Nova Sco- setts was convinced of her inability to recover or protect the 

tin 10 the _ ■' 

Crown. country, though within her charter ; and therefore she suppli- 
cated the crown, to be relieved from any further expense in de- 
fending it; praying that Port-Royal and St. John's might be gar- 
risoned at the national charge.* This was equivalent to a resig- 
nation of her jurisdictional rights to JVova-Scotia, which were 
never afterwards reclaimed by her. She permitted an inter- 
course with Port-Royal and other places, till she found, that ves- 
sels, under color of carrying provisions and necessaries to the 
suffering inhabitants, were actually freighted with military sup- 
plies, — when she forbade all trade whatever to that Province. f 

Protects On the contrary, Maine and Sagadahock, not only united with 

Massachusetts by the charter, but by the stronger ties of com- 
munity and attachment, were objects of her unremitting care and 
protection. Though she was herself in a distressed condition,^ 
her treasury exhausted, her public credit low, and her expendi- 
ture great ; and though perplexed with an uncommon maledic- 
tion, produced by the inftituations of witchcraft mentioned, she 
constantly exercised a provident liberality towards this eastern 
country. In the new and equal administration, she extended to 
it and its inhabitants, where any remained, all the favors of a 
good, a protective and a watchful government. Troops were sent 
hither from year to year, whose support and supplies incurred 
great expense. Besides the erection of Fort William Henry, 
Major Converse, in 1693, built a strong stone fort at Saco falls, J 
in which a small garrison was kept till the close of the war. The 
next year, the zeal of Gov. Phips carried him too far for his own 
reputation, in his endeavors to urge Short, captain of the None- 
such frigate, to cruise upon the eastern coast, in search of pica- 
roons and privateers. Every expedient was adopted to preserve 
and defend the country. A bounty of £50 was offered in 1695-6, 
for every Indian woman or child under 14 years, taken prisoner, 
or for an older Indian's scalp, produced at the board of vvar.§ 
For three years or more, the portion of the public or Province 
taxes assigned to Yorkshire were wholly remitted. Special en- 



* 5 Mass. Rec. p. 579, | 1 Halliburton's N. Scotia, p. 79. 
I Fort Mary. ^ 5 Mas.s. Rcc. p. 437 2 Hoi. A. Ann. p. 10. 



Chap, i.] OF Maine. 25 

couragements, in the midst of the war, were offered the people to a. d. ifi9G. 
abide in their habitations and defend their remaining possessions. 
The plantation of Newichavvannock was revived in the very 
heart of the war. To encourage the pious settlers, so struggling 
with war and want, the General Court made them a gratuity 
towards the support of a gospel ministry ; — religion being pat- 
ronized as indispensable to the welfare of every new settlement. 
The emigration also of French protestants was much favored ; 
who, fleeing from the sword of persecution, were received with 
open arms ; while those of that nation who were " of a contra- 
ry religion," had been, in 1692, forbidden by a legislative statute, 
to reside or be in any of the seaports or frontier towns i.n the 
Province, without license from the Governor and Council. 

A few facts will show the indigence and distress of the re- indigence 
maining inhabitants in Yorkshire towards the close of the war. gj^ii^e'"^'' 
They were even unable to pay their county taxes. Nor could 
they so much as repair their gaol, and render it sufficiently strong 
and secure to hold culprits, till the General Court had given or- 
ders to Joseph Curtis, the sheriff of the county, to expend the 
fine-money in his hands for that purpose. So feeble and strait- 
ened were the people of York, two or three years after the town 
was ravaged and despoiled by the enemy, that they, in their cor- 
porate capacity, contracted with a gentleman from Portsmouth, to 
erect a mill for grinding their corn ; giving him, as a reward, the 
site itself, the use of the stream, and a lot of land, with some 
peculiar privileges in cutting timber, and agreeing, that they and 
the inhabitants would always afterwards carry their corn and 
grain to that mill, so long as it were kept in repair.* A similar 
enterprize was undertaken, in 1693, by John Wheelwright of 
Wells, upon Cape-Porpoise river. He proposed to erect a saw- 
mill there, and the General Court thought it expedient to encour- 
age him, by permitting him to take board-logs, from the public 
lands. f To persuade the people of Wells, either to rebuild or 
repair their principal garrison, all their taxes were remitted to 
them, in 1 696 — beside the supplies actually furnished for their 
support and defence. 

The great interests which Massachusetts possessed in Maine, 



* .3 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. p. S. f 5 Mass. Rec. p. 287. 

Vol. II. 4 



26 TFIE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A.D. ifi'JG. were not only affected by the war, — they were indirectly, though 
Actsof Par- sensibly touched by Parliament. For that legislature enacted, 
iriandsand (in 1 G96) that no charter proprietor of lands in America, should 
nav.fjaiion. ^^jj ^j^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^j^^^ ^^^^^ natural born subjects, without a license 

from the crown.* Another act of equal importance, though of a 
different character, renewedly required, that all ships in the plan- 
tation trade, should be English or plantation built, and their car- 
goes registered as English or plantation property. About the 
Hnarii of ^j^^^g ^1-,^ < ]\j-g^ Board of trade,' styled " The Lords Com- 

irade ami ' •' t-« i i 

piaiiiaiions. missioners for trade a7id plantations,^'' was estahWshed in England 
consisting of seven members. To these the Provincial Governors 
were to make all their communications, and from them receive 
their instructions. 
A.D. IC97. These colonial regulations were followed by the treaty of Rys- 
Treatjnf wick, Sept. 11, 1697, before mentioned, which happily put a 
Rvswick. gpggjy period to the war in America. — By the 7th article, it 
Nova SCO- was stipulated, that mutual restitution should be made of all the 
tiamiceded ^^j^^j^,. "^^^ colonies and forts, taken by either party during the 
'''■'""'''• 7var; in virtue of which, unfortunately, Acadia or Nova Scotia, 
without any definite boundaries, returned once more to the undis- 
puted possession of the French. Neither in the war, nor in the 
treaty, was any thing effectually done towards determining the 
western limits of that Province. Only in this, as in the treaty of 
Breda, provision was merely made for the appointment of com- 
missioners to setde that question. Meanwhile, the state of the 
Boll, they case spontaneously revived the controversy j—JPmnce, by treaty, and 
chuseur""' Massachusetts, by charter, both strenuously claiming the Sagada- 
dahock^"'" hock jrrovince, or country between Kennebeck and St. Croix. 
Moreover the French, not content with their territorial posses- 
sions eastward, presently undertook to make themselves sole pro- 
prietors of the eastern fisheries, and even proceeded to take pos- 
session of Louisiana. f 
A.D. 1693. In the summer of 1698, a frigate on her passage from France 
to Port-Royal, meeting with an English colonial fishing vessel, 
near Cape Sable, gave the master a translated order from the 
French king, authorizing the seizure of all English vessels found 

* 2 Holmes' A. Ann. p. 32. 

•i- Origin of the French claim to the river JVlississippi. Counfry pur- 
chased by the United States, A. D. 1803. 



Chap, i.] of Maine. 27 

fishing on the coast. He was also told, to give all other vessels \. D. )698. 
notice of the order ; Bonaventure, in the Enviux, soon afterwards 
boarding several and sending them to their homes, with a similar 
errand. 

' Governor Villebon was more definite. In his letter, Sept. 5, yXbon 
from St John,* to Lieutenant-Governor Stoughton, he stated, g^™^^,|°^^ 
that he was directed by his royal master, to maintain his claim j;;;j^jj,'g^'g*;' 
to the country, as far westward as Kennebeck river from its 
source to its mouth — leaving the course of the river free to both 
nations ; that the Indians dwelling upon its banks, must no longer 
be considered subjects of the English crown but free natives ; 
and that all American fishermen, on the coast, or traders to the 
French ports, eastward of that river, will be seized : For, said he, 
you cannot be ignorant how plainly " it is prohibited by the treaty 
" between the two crowns, which you yourself sent to me." To 
strengthen the claim and secure the alliance of the Canibas 
tribe, the French this year built at Norridgework, a catholic chap- 
el ; and this was followed by a frequent epistolary correspondence, 
between Ralle, the ' resident missionary, and the Governors of 
Canada and Nova Scotia. 

When complaints of these encroachments were presented to Pemaquid 
the Lords of Trade and Plantations, they replied, that they should 
always insist " on the English right as far as the river St Croix ;" 
and strongly urged the government of Massachusetts " to rebuild 
" the fort at Pemaquid ;" — a work, they said, " which ought 
" long before to have been done." 

The controversy was renewed — proceeding upon the former Therio-lu to 
grounds taken by the disputants. The French still insisted, that j^o^k Indis- 
" Acadia'^ was expressly conceded to them by the treaties of P"*^' 
St. GermainSjf of Breda, J and now of Ryswick — a country 
which in fact extended much farther westward than Kennebeck ; 
and that they had always claimed, and frequently occupied, as far 
as that river. But the English contended, that ^^ JVova Scotia*^ 
was the Province resigned, and no more ; and that when the two 
crowns were in alliance, and Andros was Provincial Governor 
under James II, he established a garrison at Pemaquid, and took 
possession of Penobscot. It is true, the question was somewhat 



* In 1700, the entire garrison and settlement removed to Port-Royal, 
t Ante, A. D. 1632. f Ante, A. D. 1668. 



28 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1699. embarrassed by Lord Cromwell's charter of the country, granted 
forty-two years before, to Sir Thomas Temple ;* by which the 
western limits were fixed at St. Georges' river, or perhaps Mus- 
congus. Even John Nelson, before mentioned, when a prisoner 
in Paris, wrote, January 26, 1G98, that though the French and 
Indians should claim to Kennebeck, they might, without much 
difficulty, be restrained to the river St. Georges, " for," added 
he, " this was always the ancient boundary in my late uncle 
Thomas Temple's patent. "f 
i\iny 26. RicHARD fiff?'/ Bellamont arrived at Boston, May 26, 1699, 

„;„[,', ^„^..^' from New-York, of which he was the Governor, and now also 
Piiips^ '^' ^^^^ successor of Sir William Phips. Thoroughly acquainted 
with the nature and extent of the eastern claim, as pursued by 
the officers of the French, and knowing the intrigues of that cab- 
inet widi the Stuart succession of kings, he in his speeches to 
the General Court expressed himself with warmth upon those 
subjects ; not failing at the same time to exalt his royal master. 
Divine Providence, (said the Governor,) in bringing to pass tiie 
late happy and wonderful revolution in England, has been pleased 
to make king William, the glorious instrument of our deliverance, 
from the odious fetters and chains of popery and despotism, 
which had been artfully used to enslave our consciences and 
subvert all our civil rights. It is too well known what nation 
that king favored, of what religion he died, and no less, what 
must have been the execrable treachery of him, who parted with 
Acadia or Nova Scotia and the noble fishery on that coast. But 
his present Majesty, a true English king, entirely in the interest 
of his people, has restored to our nation the character of valor 
and greatness, exposing his royal person, in the fronts of our 
batdes. 
J. Bridges, In tlic short administration of Lord Bellamont, the public atten- 
vcyor Gen- tion was particularly turned towards the Provinces of Maine and 
Sagadahock. By the charter, all timber trees upon the crown 
lands, two feet in diameter 12 inches from the ground, were re- 
served for the use of the royal navy ; and any person felling a 
tree of that size, without license, incurred a penalty of £100 



* Ante, A. D. 1656-7, p. .-503. 

1 1 Coll. k'^Iuss. Ilisl. Soc. \}. 136, 3d scries.— 3 Charlevoix's JV. F. \\ 348-9. — 
He says Villieuand a British envoy, agreed upon St. Georg^es as the boun- 
<lary. But quere ? 



Chap, t.] of imaine. 29 

sterling. The first surveyor-general was JoAn ^riofg-es. He was A. i). if/J9. 
commissioned by the king, and came over with Lord Bellamoiit. 
His jurisdiction embraced New-England. He usually had four 
deputy surveyors; and in a few years, the annual charge was 
about £800 sterling.* Often called in the course of their duties, 
to deal with wood cutters and rough men, they found the respon- 
sibilities of their trust creat, and its performance sometimes diffi- 
cult. 

But it was among the greatest anxieties prevailing on the re- 
turn of peace, to revive the wasted and weakened towns and set- 
tlements of this eastern country. Destitute of homes, yet attach- 
ed to the places of their birth, hundreds of freeholders, or the 
heirs of deserted realties, returned, during the season, and visit- 
ed former abodes, or half wilderness lands ; many repaired their 
dilapidated cottages, and more perhaps constructed new habita- 
tions. Men with their families removed to the peninsula of Cas- Falmomh, 
CO, Purpooduck and Spurwink, in Falmouth; to Black-point and .sa'co and' 
Blue-point in Scarborough ; to Winter-Harbor and the Falls vived.^ 
in Saco ; to Cape-Porpoise ; and to Cape-Neddock ; — and 
during the present and succeeding summer, those places were re- 
peopled with several abiding families. To assist York, Wells, y^^.,^ ^^|j_ 
and Kittery, " including the precinct of Berwick," — towns which \y^'iu"^ 
had survived the war, and were struggling with embarrassments ; s's'^d. 
the General Court, within the period of three or four years, grant- 
ed them more than £100, out of the public treasury, towards the 
support of a gospel ministry. Besides these encouragements, 
Wells in particular, was aided in building a meeting-liouse by a 
generous public donation. Settlements were also undertaken on 
both sides of Pejepscot Lower Falls, f by gentlemen of energy I'cjepsrot. 
and pecuniary ability ; and those, as well as the preceding towns, 
might have risen and flourished, had not some adventitious cir- 
cumstances soon prevented. 

A false and malicious report was fabricated and sent into cir- xheindans 
culation among the Indians, representing, that though they, by foi^eTeiwru 
the late treaty, were the king's subjects, and had a pledge of his 
protection ; his Majesty's colonists were preparing to fall upon 
the tribes and utterly extirpate them. So much were they pro- 

* 1 Dou<v. Sum. p. 484. 

t 3 JJass. Hist. Soc. p. 141. — F]speciall\' To^jsliarri. 



30 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A. D. 1699. voked and incensed by this story, that many of them strove to 
excite a general insurrection. The rumor probably originated 
among the French.* Callieres, successor of Count Frontenac,f 
now engaged in establishing a treaty with the Five Nations, or 
Mohawks, was determined to destroy, if possible, the subsisting 
harmony and peace between the English colonists and the eastern 
natives. These he intended to make his own steadfast and per- 
petual allies ; and his emissaries, more malevolent than himself, 
were the authors and heralds of the false and mischievous story. 
The (jov- As it could not be foreseen to what height this excitement 
ciamaiioii. might rise, the Governor issued his proclamation, cautioning the 
people, and requiring them to give the Indians no just provoca- 
tion ; to watch their motions and behavior ; and to adopt all prac- 
ticable means for their own safety and defence, if any injury 
should be offered. J Town-watches were also required, by stat- 
ute, to be kept from nine in the evening till morning. The pub- 
lic, however, being disturbed, nothing could fully allay their fears. 
They entertained strong suspicions, though without cause, that 
the frontiers were actually infested with hostile savages. 
\ \) 1700 1" March, 1700, there was a special meeting of the General 
Marci). Court, whcn provision was made for a levy of soldiers, and for 

1 ippara- ' ' j ' 

lions lor de- holdins: the militia in constant readiness. Eliakim Hutchinson^ 

fence. ^ _ -^ 

was appointed purveyor of supplies, — 30 soldiers were posted at 
York, 15 at Kittery, and 15 at Wells ; and the legislature allowed 
to 12 or 13 men in the county of York, £137 for their indefati- 
gable services during the late alarm. To terrify or remove the 
popish missionaries from the eastern parts, who were, by report, 
seducing the Indians from their allegiance to the king, and exciting 
them to a rupture ; a legislative act was passed, which required 
them to depart the Province, before the 10th of the ensuing Sep- 
tember, otherwise they would, if taken, be the subjects of exem- 
plary punishment, 
moludiecks -LiOi'd Bellamont, after a year's tarry in the Province, returned 
piracy. iq New-York : and what rendered his administration memorable, 



* 2 Hutch. Hist. p. 113. 

f Frontenac died in 169S, aged 78. | 6 Mass. Rec. p. 57. 

5 Eliakim was tlie son of William Hutchinson, who came over to Boston 
in 1636, and who, in 1673, purchased of William Pliiliips, a large tract of 
land on the westerly side of the Saco, and owned mills at Newichawannock. 
In 1750, Kiiakim sold the Saco estate fo Mr. Allen, for £l.2O0. 



Chap, i.] of maine. 31 

were his judicious measures and uncommon successes against the A. I). 1700. 
pirates and bucaneers. Tliey had infested the coasts for thirty 
years, and now became bold, since the late war, to a fearful de- 
gree. The chief freebooters, Kidd and Bradish, also several 
other desperadoes, were seized, sent to England, and executed ; 
and happy it was for the eastern coasters and fishing vessels, that 
they were, at length, delivered from such a pestiferous annoyance. 
It was another proposition of the Governor's enlightened policy, to 
fortify Great Island in the mouth of the river Piscataqua. For Proposes to 
either if piracy were not wholly subdued, or war should be the Great isi- 
alternative ; or if there were a desideratum for a military depos- 
itory upon the eastern coast, or for a place of naval resort in 
peace ; he thought the Island when strongly fortified, would be of 
great public importance, especially a defence to New-Hampshire. 
But the latter considered it an enterprize of equal interest to 
Maine ; and as she had been impoverished by the late war, she 
felt herself inadequate to the undertaking, without the assistance 
of Massachusetts.* 

The apprehensions of a rupture with the Indians gradually sub- Kesettle- 
sided ; and the hopes of a contmued peace gave encouragement, country. 
and even an impulse to those engaged in the resettlement of 
Maine. But an undertaking so broad and difficult, after the deso- 
lations ol ten years war, was attended with every discouragement. 
No mills, no inclosures, no roads ; but on the contrary, dilapidat- 
ed habitations, wide wasted fields, and melancholy ruins : — These 
were the dark shades with which to portray a map of this ill-fated 
country, at the present period. Deeds and the muniments of 
land-titles were either mutilated or destroyed ; and therefore to 
remedy, as far as possible, this singular evil, and prevent contro- 
versies, the General Court established a Committee of Claims, ^,??!,'".'*"^^ 
consisting of seven members,f some of whom were acquainted 
with the law^, and all of them were men of intelligence and repu- 
tation. They appointed times and places for their regular ses- 
sions ; and after receiving and examining all titles and claims to 



■* 1 Belk. jV. //. 245.— Great Island, however, was fortified not long after 
this period, and became a strong fortress. It was called " Fort TVilliam 
and Mary.'"' 

t The committee, were Samuel Sewall, John U'ajley. Eliakim Iliitchin- 
son, JXalhaniel Bjfield, Timothy Clark, Samuel Phips, and Israel Tay.— 6 
JSlais. Rcc. p. 15S. 



32 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1701. lands in these eastern provinces, they, in obedience to their di- 
rections, reported their proceedings with facts, to the legislature. 
i^iay. But the aspect of affairs, the next spring, 1701, being more 

apprehends dark and portentous, gave new and fresh damps to the ardor 
and fortitude of settlers. The peace in Europe appeared not to 
be settled. On the contrary, Lieut. Governor Stoughton, in his 
address to the two branches of the legislature, at their May ses- 
sion, told them, that from intelligence received, the clouds gath- 
ering over the eastern continent, seemed to forebode a returning 
storm ; and that extensive hostilities among the nations were se- 
riously apprehended. In such an alternative, it was foreseen, 
he said, that this country must be a large and suffering partaker j 
and it would be gaining a great point " to fix the natives in his 
" Majesty's interest, and to prevent them from joining with the 
" French." 
the^eas'ein ^°^ ^'^'^ purpose, several gentlemen, early in the season, visited 
tribes. j]^e eastern tribes ; and in the important labors of reconciliation, 
met with considerable success. It was believed, much might be 
effected by sending protestant missionaries among them ; and in 
aid of this policy, king Wilham established " A Society in Eng- 
land for propagating the Gospel in foreign parts.'''' 
Jeaiou.sy of Never had the American French looked with a more invidious 

the French. , • mi t ,. 

eye than at present, upon this eastern region. Ihe Indians were 
tranquil ; settlements were reviving ; and the English people, en- 
gaged in the Newfoundland fisheries, were making great voyages. 
About 2,700 fishermen, and 220 vessels were employed this sin- 
gle year ; and they took and cured 200,000 quintals of fish, 
besides 4,000 hogsheads of train and liver oil. Old jealousies 
were not only awakened but increased ; and while the English 
colonies deprecated a war, the French seemed to desire it. 
Wd Bella- ^^^^^ added peculiar interest to this important crisis, were 
GoveiMr ^"^^ deaths of several distinguished persons; — happening with- 
stoughton, in a period, short of thirteen months. Earl Bellamont died at 

James II, ' 

and Wii- New-York, March 5, 1701 ;— the Governor of that Colony, Mas- 

liam HI. 1 TVT TT 

sachusetts, New-Hampshire and Maine. Always " condescend- 
ing, affable and courteous ;" and professing to be " of the most 
moderate principles in religion and government," he rendered 
himself universally popular. His death was followed by that of 
Lieutenant-Governor William Stoughton, who deceased July 7th, 
leaving a character justly ornamental of the various important 



Chap, i.] OF maine. 83 

offices he had so honorably filled. These events committed the A.D. 17C2. 
executive reins and management, for the first time, to the Coun- 
cil, acting by majorities of members present, never less than a 
quorum. Also at St. Germains, Sept. 16, died Jnmes II. having 
now more than twelve years since abdicated the British realm. 
His son, surnamed in England, the " Pretender,'''' immediately 
aspired to the throne of his father ; and the French monarch by 
declaring in Jiis favor, enkindled anew the flames of war. For, 
as the Pretender was a catholic, the English nation had resolved 
to limit the crown to the protestants of the royal line, and finally 
concluded to settle it upon Anne, princess of Denmark, another 
daughter of. James, and sister to Mary, the late wife of William, 
— whenever there should be need of a successor. The event was 
at hand, as king William died March 8, 1702; a monarch deeply 
lamented by his American, as well as British and Dutch subjects. 
As Anne immediately ascended the throne, she only delayed till 
the 4th of May, to publish a declaration of war against France, ''^'^y •* 

• 1 • • Queen 

Her ministry persisted in asserting an exclusive ownership of the Aimcswar 
Sagadahock Province, and a common right with the French, to Franco 
the navigation and fisheries of the Acadian seas. 

This doctrine so much disrelished by Villebon, was utterly con- rvo; ,.• 
temned by Brouillon, his successor. Countenanced by him, the '''""''^ 

•^ _ •' ' easlern 

son of le Bourgne revived an ancestral claim to the easterly sec- f''it;iitii. 
tion of the great Acadian peninsula ; and as soon as he heard of 
war, he exacted of every English vessel, 50 crowns, for license 
to trade on that coast.* The New-Englanders were so highly 
affronted by this and other aggressions of a similar character, 
that they sent out vessels, with orders to make a general sweep 
over these waters. Consequently some of the wrongdoers they 
seized — some they drove into the woods, — nor were they hardly 
restrained from hanging up one Capt. Baptiste as a pirate. f Even 
the Nova Scotia Indians, on the rumor of war, seized three fish- 
ing vessels, belonging to Massachusetts ; and if they, through the 
interposition of Brouillon, were restored, Callieres fully justified 
himself for exciting the Indians to hostilities. — By his treaty with 
the Five Nations, three years before, he had acquired great credit 

*= 40 Univ. Hist. p. 135. 

t Univ. Hist. p. 148.— Brouillon, declared, ' if they did not desist, ho 
' would amply avenge himself by reprisals.' 
Vol. il. 5 



34 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1702. as a negotiator ; and he said, the Indians, who were proprietors 
of the eastern country, had long since committed themselves to 
the French as their protectors ; while the English were intruders 
upon their property, and invaders of the French jurisdictional 
rights. 
i*e'/s" arriVal Qucen Anne commissioned Joseph Dudley, Esq,. Governor 
at Boston. ^^ ]Massachusetts, Maine and New-Hampshire, and Thomas 
Povey, Lieutenant-Governor ; both of whom arrived at Boston on 
the 11th of June. Mr. Dudley, a native inhabitant of Massa- 
chusetts, had been as well her agent at the British court, as a 
colonial assistant, and the president of New-England. He was 
one of the mandamus Council in Andros' administration, who 
was seized in the revolution of 1689, and confined twenty weeks. 
He was afterwards Chief Justice of New-York ; and returning 
to England, was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of the Isle of 
Wight, and elected member of Parliament for Newtown, before 
he received his present commission. 
TiieGn-. Govemor Dudley, according to instructions from the crown, 
meiiHs re- yerv strondv ursed the Genera] Court, in his first speech, to 

huildiiifr (he .' . . . . . 

fort nt I'em- make appropriations for rebuilding the fort at Pemaquid. The 
foundations (he said) were entire. — most of the walls were stand- 
ing, — lime in great plenty could be made in the vicinity ; — the 
entrenchments remained, and if a garrison were established there, 
it would be the means of keeping possession of the country, and 
affording relief in emergency. Besides all this, he expected, the 
Queen would probably, at the expense of the crown, man it with 
a hundred soldiers. He wished to see the eastern provinces in 
a flourishing and safe condition ; and he did not hesitate to say, 
that in his opinion, Port-Royal itself might be captured, by two 
ships and a thousand men. But the House of Representatives 
opposed building the fort. They thought the Province unable to 
bear the expense ; and if the establishment were renewed, it must 
be maintained, and a wider seaboard defended ; Falmouth being 
the remotest eastern settlement yet revived since the last war. 
May, 1703. At the general election in May, 1703, the Governor gave his 
b Council- negative to five of the new elected Council \ who were men of 
talents, popularity and influence. But he remembered the part 
they acted in his arrest and imprisonment, fourteen years before, 
and he was not disposed to repress his resentments. In other re- 
spects, he manfully applied his splendid abilities, his courtly man- 



Chap, i.] of MAINE. 36 

ners, and his extensive knowledge, to render all the acts of his a.d. 1703. 
administration acceptable to every class of people. 

As hostilities between the Enslish and French crowns had ^ rumor of 

, , , _ Indian lios- 

commenced in Europe ; a war with the Indians appeared inevit- tiiities. 
able. The first intelligence he received of a meditated attack, 
was from Lord Cornbury, Governor of New- York. He stated, 
that if the stories of the christian natives were worthy of credit, 
a mixed army of French and Indians, were preparing to make a 
descent upon Deerfield, and perhaps upon some other frontier 
settlements in Massachusetts, or possibly in Maine. 

Full of solicitude to know the temper and disposition of the Gov. Dud- 
eastern Sagamores, Gov. Dudley sent them messages, by which wfiiMhe*^" 
he requested them to meet him on the 20th of June, upon Casco junJ* JiOih"' 
peninsula in Falmouth. Attended by a considerable retinue, ^' ^"'^o- 
consisting of gentlemen belonging to the legislatures of Massa- 
chusetts and New-Hampshire, and many other respectable indi- 
viduals, he had the pleasure of a conference with a large delega- 
tion from the Penacooks, the Sokokis, the Anasagunticooks, the 
Canibas, and the Tarratines.* All the Indians appeared to great 
advantage. They were well armed, — handsomely clad, — some 
of them fancifully decorated — and the most of their faces so 
painted, as to give them looks truly terrific. Probably no one 
tribe was so fully represented as the Anasagunticooks ; for about 
250 of them arrived, in a flotilla of 65 canoes. A tent was 
spread, large enough to enclose and accommodate the Governor 
and his attendants, with the principal Sagamores and Sachems. 
Among these, when seated, the English promiscuously dispersed 
themselves ; being not wholly without apprehensions for their 
own safety. 

The Governor, arising;, addressed the Indian assemblage to this ^, 

■^ _ ° The confer- 

purport : — / have come to you, commissioned by the great and «"«. 
good queen of England. I would esteem, you all as brothers 
and friends. Yes, it is even my wish to reconcile every difficulty, 

whatever, that has happened since the last treaty. After a 

short interval, Capt. Simmo, the chief speaker, gravely replied ; 

* The Sagamores were Adiwando and Hegen, Penacooks ; Waltanum- 
mon, of Pegwacket [Saco] ; Jlesambomett and Wcxar^ from Androscog-gin ; 
Moxus and (another) Hopehoud, of Norridgewock ; Bomuseen and Capt. 
Samuel, of Kennebeck ; and Warrungunt and Wanadvgunhuent, from 
Penobscot— PenAaWow'* Indian Wart.— l Coll. Jf. H. Hitt. Soc. p. 20. 



36 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. u. 1703 — TVe thank you, good brother, for coming so far to talk with 
us. It is a great favor. The clouds fly and darken — hut xve 
still sing with love the songs of peace. Believe my words. — 
So far as the sun is above the earth; — are our thoughts from 
war, or the least rupture between us. They then presented the 
Governor with a belt of wampam, — the usual token of sincerity 
and good faith ; and received at his hands several flattering pres- 
ents, with much apparent satisfaction. The parties then repaired 
to two stone pillars or heaps of portable rocks, pitched at a former 
treaty, called by the significant name Two Brothers, where the 
solemn professions of friendship were further ratified by the addi- 
tion of other stones. 

The parley had evidently been commenced by the Sagamores, 
with some degree of reluctance. Wattanuramon said, their 
council was incomplete. Consequently, washing to have the 
treaty embrace as many tribes as could be drawn into it, the Gov- 
ernor submitted to some delays in the negotiation, which was in 
progress two or three days, before it was finished. Several sub- 
jects were discussed ; and it was finally agreed, that trading 
houses should be established, the price of commodities stated and 
settled, and an armorer provided at the public charge. Boma- 
seen and Captain Samuel, frankly acknowledged, tliat " several 
" missionaries from the friars, lately among them, had endeav- 
" ored to break the union and seduce them from their allegiance 
" to the crown of England, but had made no impressions on them, 
" for they were, (he said) as firm as the great rocks, and should 
" continue so as long as the sun and moon endured." 

Theconciu- The happy conclusion of this interview was confirmed by 

sion. i-i Ti- iij- 

firing a grand roimd on each side. In tins ceremony, the Jndians 
were requested to take the lead. They admitted the compliment 
and fired first. Their treachery was now abundantly manifest ; 
for it was perceived that their guns had all been loaded with bul- 
lets : — so charged, probably with intent to have made the En- 
glish the victims of the negotiation, had they not been promiscu- 
ously seated in the general meeting, among the Sagamores. Ac- 
cessions of 200 French and Indians, three days afterwards, con- 
firmed the suspicions, that in the delays requested, the Sagamores 
only awaited their arrival, when, with their aid, they would have 
probably seized the Governor and his attendants, and sacrificed 



Chap, i.] of Maine. 37 

the inhabitants at pleasure. If these circumstances, however, A. u. 1703. 
cast no just imputations upon the fidelity of the Indians, " every 
" thing assumed the promising aspect of a settled peace." As 
usual on such occasions, they made themselves merry with sing- 
ing, dancing, and raising loud shouts, or acclamations of joy. 

The result of the conference on the whole, greatly revived the ^^ppj ^f 
desponding hearts of the people, and enlivened their hopes, that ["^^y^lc""^' 
this country might escape the awful destiny of another Indian war. 
" The eastern inhabitants, says Mr. Penhallow,* who before had 
'= thoughts of removing, were now encouraged to stand their 
" ground ; several more were also preparing to settle among them, 
" partly from the fertility of the soil, the plenty of timber, the 
" advantage of fishery, and several other inducements ;"f as well 
as from encouragements offered them by proprietors and by gov- 
ernment. But all these prospects were mere illusions, which 
subsequent events speedily dissipated. 

* riis " History of the wars of iNew-Eagland with the eastern Indians." 
-p. 5. 

I The population of New-England has been variously estimated : — In 
1692, at 200,000.-39 U7iiv. Hist. p. 323.— In 1G96, at 100,000, and in 1701, 
at 120,000.-2 Holmes' A. Ann. p. 81-54.— In 1750, at;35-l,000.— 2 Doug. 
Surnm. p. 180. These cannot all be correct. The quotas of men to be fur- 
nished in 1701, [1 -Be/A-. J\''. H. 246, Note *] to assist New- York ag-ainst 
the Indians, were thus : — Mass. and Maine, 350 ; Connecticut, 120 ; Rhode 
Island, 48 ; New-Hampshire, 40; New- York, 200 ; East and West Jersey, 
120 ; Pennsylvania, 80; Maryland, 160, and Virginia, 240. — But tlie popu- 
lation of Massachusetts, in 1742, was 104,000; of Rhode-Island, in 1738, 
15,000; — the towns of New-Hampshire, A. D. 1699, were only five. Hence 
the probable population in JS'ew-England, A. D. 1703, was at least 150,000 : 
' — viz. 

Massachusetts, 70,000 Rhode-Island, 12,000 

New-Plymouth, 15,030 New-Hampshire, 12,000 

Connecticut, 35,000 Maine, 5 or C,0U0 



120,000 _|- - . - - 30,000=150,000. 



38 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 



CHAPTER If. 

The third Indian war — The French drato some of the Eastern 
Tribes to St. Francois and Becanconrt — The Colonists and In- 
dians — Mischief done by the latter ; and the former despoil the 
habitation of Castine the younger — The Indians attack at once, 
5 of the eastern towns — The enemy repulsed at Casco — Blach- 
poifit, York and Berioick attacked — Bounties for scalps — Pe- 
qvods stationed at Berwick— Col. Church's 5th E. Expedition — 
Saco fort dfensible — Hilton's scout — Exchange of prisoners — 
Illicit trade to Nova Scotia suspected — Gov. Dudley urges the 
rebuilding of the fort at Pemaquid — Mischiefs done at York and 
Kittcry — Indians tired of the war — Hilton's feats at Black-point 
— Col. March' s expedition against Port-Royal — Attacks on the re- 
maining totans in Maine — A smart skirmish at Saco — Also at 
Berioick — 3Jis('rirs of Blaine — Rumors of a contemplated attack 
from Canada — Niclwlson's proposed expedition against Port-Roy- 
al — Gov. Dudley's remarks — Port-Royal captured, changed to 
Annapolis, and Vetch appointed Governor — 3Iissio7i of Living- 
ston and the younger Castine to Quebec — Attacks by the Indians 
— Chiefs go to England — Expedition against Canada fruitless — 
2G persons killed in Blaine — Skirmish at Wells — Treaty of 
Utrecht — Peace negotiated with the Indians at Portsmouth — 
Incidents of the war — Character of Bomaseen, Assacombuit and 
Castine the younger. 

A.D. 1703. An Indian war always has associations, which strike the mind 
The Indian with pain. So sliocking to the attributes of humanity, are the cir- 
^^"' cumstances, which frequently attend its progress, that were ca- 
lamities, cruelties, carnage and suffering, or even personal exploits 
and hardships, its only characteristics, it might justly be consider- 
ed a burden to history. But every war with the natives, devel- 
opes facts and peculiarities, worthy of the notice it claims. It 
has its own features and own cast of character. 
isi.orking The first one would have been a fair sample of savage war- 
Pinjip's ^gj.g^ j^^^ j^Q^ j.jjg iiitJian warriors used firearms, instead of the 

bow and arrow. Skulk, ambush, surprize and massacre, were 
its traits and footsteps, from beginning to end. They fought 
single-handed, without the arts or aid of Europeans. Their 



war 



Chap, ii.] of Maine 39 

numbers were respectable, and their motives comparatively noble, a. d. 1703. 
For though their design was partly to avenge themselves of in- 
juries ; it was principally to disperse the obtrusive settlers, and 
recover their entire native country. King Philip's war was short, 
continuing only about three years. By a long one, they are al- 
ways tired and exhausted. The time chosen by them for closing 
it, was in the height of their successes, when they could com- 
mand for themselves an honorable peace. 

The next war was in a irreat degree instigated and managed -[•,-, 7.'"'^ '»S 

o ^ b o Vv'illiam'3 

by the French ; who had made themselves thoroughly acquaint- wm-. 
ed with the disposition and habitudes of the Indians, and the 
springs by which their subserviency could be completely control- 
led. The Jesuits had strongly infected their superstition and pre- 
judices, with papal fanaticism. The Canadian French had en- 
titled themselves to great merit, in the estimation of the Indians, 
by furnishing them with arms and ammunition, — leading them to 
war, — fighting by their side, — and helping them to achieve vic- 
tories. Campaign, siege, undermining, and other arts of war- 
fare, were taught and promoted j captives and scalps were con- 
sidered the greatest trophies ; premiums being offered and paid 
for them by the French. — Tlie latter was a long war, lasting 
about ten years ; for after they had sued for peace and entered 
into treaties, French artifice was able to give the savages an 
effectual impulse to acts of treachery, their vengeance was re- 
kindled, and their minds inflated with new-formed expeditions. 

Another, called ^ueen Anne's war, now opened under circum- 3fi, or 
stances differing from either of those preceding. A short inter- .Anne's wai. 
val of peace had, in no considerable degree, recruited the 
strength of the Indians. They saw that their tribes were thinned ; 
and that they had gained nothing permanent by former wars. 
Every hope of enjoying their native land, freed of white men, 
was full of despondency. Their fathers had conveyed extensive 
territories, and what was recovered in war, if any thing, was 
presently lost in peace, if not actually resigned by treaty. They 
agreed with the French, in their aversion to the English, and in 
a hatred of their free politics and religious sentiments ; and when 
such passions, in minds undisciplined, are inflamed by fanaticism, 
they know neither restraint nor limits. All their acquaintance 
with the arts of civilized life, seemed rather to abase, than ele- 
vate their character. They made no advancements in mental 



40 THE HISTORY [VoL. II, 

A. D. 1703. culture, moral sense, honest industry, or manly enterprize. In- 
fatuated with the notion of catholic indulgences, they grew bolder 
in animosity, insolence and crime ; their enmity was more im- 
placable ; their habits more depraved ; and a keener appetite was 
given for ardent spirits, for rapine, and for blood. Dupes to 
the French, they lost all regard to the sanctity of treaty obliga- 
tions ; and Indian J aith among the English, became as proverbi- 
ally bad, as the Punic, among the ancient Romans. Their natu- 
ral love of country had degenerated, and their fire of patriotism 
was evidently abating. 

t-'r^i, Aware of the fact, and observins; the Indians averse to wars, 

which reduced their numbers, without any other considerable 
emoluments or rewards, than the few spoils taken, Callieres,* 
the Canadian Governor, adopted a new expedient, which was 
ardently prosecuted by M. de Vaudreuil, his successor. They 
persuaded the shattered tribes to collect and settle at Becancourt 

Eecancourt 

and «i and St. Francois in Canada; — two small rivers, which empty 

Francois. 

into the St. Lawrence on the southerly side, — the one formerly 
the Perante, about SO, and the other 90 miles above Quebec. 
The Indian village of Becancourt is situated at a small dis- 
tance above the mouth of the river ; consisting of several wig- 
wams in a cluster, favored with a chapel, and accommodated 
with a ferry over the St. Lawrence to Trois Revieres on the op- 
posite shore. That of St Francois on the eastern side of the 
same river, six miles from its mouth, is " a most eligible sit- 
" nation." It soon became a large hamlet of wigwams, adorn- 
ed with a chapel and parsonage-house, and furnished with a mis- 
Yiie sionary and interpreter.! 

dr^awMic To these places, the French had the address to draw the wan- 

tnbericf dering Wawenocks, the Sokokis, the Anasagunticooks, and also 
that place, ^j^g Algonquins, from Trois Revieres ; who, intermingling, formed 
what have since been called " the St. Frangois Indians.''^ At 
these places, designed to be the rendezvous of the natives, the 
French intended to command their trade and plunder ; to plan 
their excursions, and direct their motions against the English fron- 

* Me died, May 26, 1703. Vaudreuil, late Governor of Montreal, was a 
man of abilities supcricjr to anj' of liis predecessors. — 40 Univ. Hist. p. 
136. 

f Jeffreys, p. 9-11. — T. Hutchinson's Topog-raph. Description, p. 67. — 
Bouchett's Canada, p. 33S. 



Chap, ii.] of maine. 41 

tiers ; and likewise to make them a defence against the Mohawks, a.d. I'os. 
in case of war with that people.* At present the latter were in 
a state of neutrality with the French, who were determined, in 
tlie opening war, to avail themselves of this and every other ad- 
vantage. Their remarkable successes, in the late one, were, in 
the eagerness of anticipation, only preludes to complete victories. 

In these savage wars, the English settlers and their assistants THr English 
fought altogether on the defensive. All parts of the country hold- 
en under charter or purchase, or broken from a wilderness into 
fields of partial cultivation or clearing, were considered by the 
men of this generation, as rightfully belonging to them in fee. — 
Here were their only homes, and even the birth-places of many, 
whose attachments to the country were enlivened by natal patriot- 
ic ardor. Duty as well as inclination impelled them to defend it, 
at every hazard and every sacrifice. Though torn or driven away 
from it in the late war, they had determined not to abandon it; — 
their spirits were not fatally broken, nor their courage subdued. 
Personal exertion, intrepidity and exploits had often reflected im- 
perishable honor even upon their defeats. ^ alor is in truth fre- 
quently more genuine when personal ; and human nature shines 
with brighter lustre, when the merit is individual. Many of the 
dead were mantled in glory, and the living, though anxious for a 
continuance of peace, were not backward to put on armor, when- 
ever duty or country might require. They believed, however, if 
the Indians were left to themselves, they would not recommence 
hostilities. 

But no measures, neither courtesies, presents, nor the sacred The indinns 
renewal of treaty-engagements, could keep them quiet. When n^Kpn'.e'-^' 
there was war between the English and French crowns, it was l^e tny'i'ish 
impossible for their colonies to be at rest. A plan of operations, pi""''e'- iiie 
contrived by the French, was now evidently maturing in Canada, p^iine's 
In the meantime, the impatient Indians were guilty of some mis- 
chief at Kennebeck, and a small party of Englishmen, unadvised, 
rashly committed an outrage at Penobscot, the late residence of 
Baron de Castine. — He had himself, since the last war, gone 
whh his accumulated riches to France, never to return ; leaving 
a son by a Tarratine wife, before mentioned, known by the name 



* 1 Doug. Summ. p, 12.— 2 Hutch. Hist, p. 131 5 Charlevoix's N, F. p. 

164-177. 

Vol. II. 6 



42 THE HISTORY [VoL. II, 

A. 1). 1703. of ' Castine the younger.' Under llie mask of pretended friend- 
ship, the foolish and wicked men visited his house, at 'Biguyduce 
[Castine], and besides perpetrating " great spoil," plundered it 
of all its most valuable articles. Every one looked upon the 
transaction as a base treachery ; and when he complained to the 
government, he was assured, that ample restitution should be 
made and the offenders severely punished. This act of violence 
occasioned much deeper regrets, because there were daily appre- 
hensions of hostilities from the Indians, and a general resolution 
to give them no provocation. Outrageous, however, as it was, 
the well-minded sufferer only complained and expostulated, with- 
out avenging himself; for in policy and sentiment he was the 
friend of tranquillity. 
The Indians The tribes, on the contrary, were induced to join the war ; and 
^gjj|[ in fifty days after renewing the treaty of Casco, mentioned,* a 
Cupe-Por- j^^ Qf fjyg hundred men, mostly Indians under French leaders, 
Scarhom', fg|} ^v^Qy-y the castcm frontiers. They divided themselves into six 

anr! I-'al- ^ • / a i \ i i 

mouih. or seven parties, and at the same lane, (August 10th,) attacked 
Wells, Cape-Porpoise, Saco, Scarborough, Spurwink, Purpooduck 
and Casco, being the principal settlements which had revived 
since the close of the last war. Wells, which had defended itself 
with so much bravery and success, in the two former wars, was 
now assailed with such violence, that in a short time it sustained 
a loss of thirty-nine killed and taken, besides the wounded- — 
Cape-Porpoise, inhabited principally by unshielded fishermen, 
was wholly desolated. The garrison at Winter-harbor, and the 
fort at the head of the tide, in Saco, fought the assailants with 
great spirit, till at last, tiie former, overpowered by numbers alto- 
gether superior, was compelled to submit to terms of capitula- 
tion ;f and the latter was barely able to make good its defence ; 
having several killed and wounded. The people of Scarborough 
happened to be mostly in garrison ; and the enemy, fearful or 
unwilling to encounter it, sent in a captive with a flag of truce. 
Fully acquainted with their perfidy and intrigues, and conse- 
quently paying no regard to the message, the commanding ofHcer 
kept the captive and vigorously resisted a long siege — till he and 
his men were extremely exhausted, and on the verge of capture ; 

* 2 British Empire, p. C7. 

t In the assault of this fort, 11 were killed, 24 taken prisoners and car- 
ried into captivity. — Fohom, p. 198. 



Chap, ii.] of Maine. 43 

when happily a reenforcement arrived and administered seasona- A. D. 1703. 
ble relief. But none of the settlenaents suffered so severely as 
Spurwink and Purpooduck, in Falmouth ; these were entirely 
destroyed. In Spurwink. principally inhabited by the Messrs. 
Jordans and their families, twenty-two were killed and taken cap- 
tive. Purpooduck, containing nine families, unprotected by any 
fortification, was attacked when there was not a man at home. 
Here the savage enemy butchered twenty-five and carried away 
eight prisoners. Among other horrid spectacles, was the body of 
Michael Webber's wife, near confinement, who was mangled and 
exposed in a manner too shocking to be described. 

The garrison at Casco, still the remotest eastern frontier, was a decoy 
under the command of Major March. The first knowledge he Casco fort, 
had of the enemy's approach, was in the appearance of a small 
party, under Moxus, Wanongonet and Assacombuit, who exhib- 
ited themselves unarmed, and sent him a message under a flag of 
truce; pretending they had some important matter to communi- 
cate. Apprehending no immediate danger, he proceeded with a 
guard of only two or three men, to hold a parley. With the 
first words uttered, each of the Indians drew from his mantle, 
a hidden hatchet, and struck at March with great violence — at 
the same instant, an ambush rising, shot one of his attendants 
to the groimd. March, being a man of great personal courage 
and strength, wrested a hatchet from one of the assailants ; and 
while he was parrying the blows aimed at his head, Hook, his 
sergeant, with a file of ten men from the fort, rescued him 
from immediate death. In this affray, two of his companions, 
Phippenny and Kent, were slain. They were worthy men, yet 
unfitted by age and debility, to act as champions. Disheartened 
by this bold and unexpected rebuff, the enemy withdrew, and 
for a week, lurked around, upon the peninsula ; setting fire to 
the slender houses and cottages in the vicinity, and committing 
still baser acts of mischief But when the main body of the en- 
emy, not less than 500 in number, had collected, they proceeiled 
to Casco, under the command of Mons. Bobasser, to renew 
the work of destruction. They first took a sloop, two shallops 
and considerable plunder ; and encouraged by success, they 
strove two days and nights, to undermine the fort from the water 
side, as had been done in the labt war. Soon the English must 



44 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A.D. 1703 have submitted to a capitulation or to death, had not the fortunate 
arrival of Capt. Southwick in the province galley prevented. 
He raised the siege, retook the shallops, and scattering the ene- 

Abniit 500 njv's floiilla of about 200 canoes, put him to flisiht. There 

of itic c::.-- •' , ' ^ . . 

my repuis- were at least one hundred and fi!ty-five of the English killed and 

p(i. 

Our !o:--s ic5 taken in these several attacks; which, with others in different 

places, r.larmed the whole frontier settlements from Casco to 

Connecticut river. '^ 

The countrv bcins: thus thrown into fearful confusion ; the wo- 

r>vo troops . o 

of iior.c. men and children retired to the garrisons. The men went armed 
to their work, and posted sentinels in the fields. A troop of horse 
was quartered at Porismouth, and another under Capt. Wadley, 
at Wells. Three hundred and sixty men were marched by or- 

Sepi. 26. der of Governor Dudley, Sept 26, towards Pegwacket, one of 

the enemy's principal head-quarters, and another paily, under 

Capt. Davis, went to Ossipee ponds, but made no discoveries. 

ivnpici'.t The enemy still infested the eastern seaboard, determined to 
niflck-pciiit ■ i /-^ 

Mi.Mi.-.nri desolate eveiy settlement and reduce every garrison. As Cap- 

iiilnmiomNi. tain Hunncwell and ]9of his neighbors, at Black-point, were 
going to work in the meadows, Oct. 6, ihey were waylaid by 
200 Indians, and all except one were killed or taken captive. 
The fort there, left under the command of Lieut. Wyatt, and 
manned by only eight men, was the next object of attack. En- 
couraged and supported by Captains Willard and Wells, two 
shipmasters, then in ilie harbor with their vessels and crews, 
the fort made a bold resistance, till nearly exhausted ; when 
the brave defendants, influenced by the dictates of discretion, 
retired on board one of the vessels. With a great shout, the 
triumphant enemy now set the deserted garrison on fire. Anoth- 
er party led on by one Sampson, against York, slew the family of 

York nnd Arthur Bra2;don, consistino; of his wife and five children; and 

Berwic-k a'- ^ ' O ' 

incked. carried Mrs. Haimah Parsons, a widow woman, and her young 
daughter into captivity. f At Berwick, five fell into an ambush ; — 
one w^as killed, one wounded, and the other three made prison- 



* Charlevoix [3d vol. JS". J'', p. 423-0] says, 250 men were sent out tliis 
year under Hci tel, to assist llie Abcnaqiics, who made 150 prisoners — be- 
sides lliosc slain. 

■f This is supposed (o be tlie g-irl, whom the ^ava^es on their marcb, in 
17(J6, bring unsnccessfnl in limiting", prepared " a fire to roast, wlien a dog-, 
falling in their way, s;ii>r)!icd (he child's place."— 2 Hvich. Hist. p. 1-19. 



Chap, ii.] of maine. 45 

ers. Also, two houses were burned, and a descent made upon a.u. 1703. 
Andrew Neale's garrison of the same place, wl)ich was under the 
command of Capt. Brown. In this, the assailants were quite 
unsuccessful, being repulsed with a loss of nine killed upon the 
spot, and as many wounded. Unable otherwise to retaliate, they 
fastened Joseph Ring, a captive, to a stake, and burnt him to 
death ; raising hideous shouts at his agonies and groans. Indians 
were still strolling about Casco ; and as a store-ship, intended for 
the relief of the garrison, was entering the harbor, they killed 
the master and three men at the first shot, and wounded two 
others in the boat. 

The enemy then retiring to the woods, were pursued by Maj. Tiiepiu-my 
March, of Casco, at the head of 300 men, as far as Pegwacket. '^l"'j','"■'' ''^ 
At this place he killed six, and made prisoners of six more — the ''^''"'■''• 
first reprisals in the war ; — returning laden with considerable 
plunder. Hence, the Legislatures of Massachusetts and New- 
Hampshire were encouraged to offer a bounty of £20, for every 
Indian prisoner under ten years ; and twice that sum for every noumips of- 

|pi p( I for 

one older or for his scalp. Moved by so liberal a premium, scalps. 
Capt. Tyng of Falmouth,* and others, made excursions in the 
depth ot winter, upon snow-shoes, though without success ; the 
enemy being engaged in an expedition against Deerfieldf and 
other western settlements. The government was determined, if 
possible, to keep possession of Saco, and therefore at the expense ^^^^ j-^,^j 
of £164, repaired the garrison near the falls. J repaired. 

The returning spring was a season of distressing melancholy — ^^.d. 1704. 
aggravated bv an early renewal of hostilities or alarms : — and as ''''■'^"""'* 
Berwick was an important pass, Major Mason was posted there, ^^'^'""■'tk. 
with 95 Pequods and 'Mohegans, from Connecticut; who were 
at first a great terror to the enemy. Nevertheless, they did not 
cover the settlement ; for on the 25th of April, Nathaniel Mea- 
dar was shot dead, when at work in his field, and his body most 
barbarously mangled ; and about the same time, two men were 
killed, and one taken on the road in Wells. Afterwards, a par- 
ty fell on York, where they slew Matthew Austin near the garri- 
son, without being able to do any more mischief in this visit. 



* Son of Col. Edward Tyng-. 

t On the last daj-of Feb. 1701, 250 Indians, under Mens. Artel or " Her- 
tel" destroyed Deerfield, carrying' away Rev. Mr. Williams, and many 
others. — .Sec his '■'■ Redeemed Captive" S(C. t Mass. Rcc. p. 2-3. 



46 rm: history [Vol. ii. 

A. I). 1701, The bold and persevering; incursions of the enemy into Maine, 
5ti'i "(•nsirr n ^"^ ^'^^ towns wcstward ; and the appearance of French priva- 
expeiiitioii. teers upon the coast, induced the government to adopt wider plans 
and more efficient measures. The truth was, an attempt to de- 
fend and secure a frontier, open and exposed in a hundred places, 
was utterly vain. Policy required, that the war should to be car- 
ried into the enemy's country, and the conquest of Canada and 
Nova Scotia achieved, whence all our evils flowed ; such being 
evidently the only means of acquiring a permanent and lasting 
peace. In furtherance of this plan, it was deemed expedient 
first, to scour the eastern coast, and if practicable, discover and 
break up the head-quarters of the Indians, in the interior, also to 
carry retaliation and dismay, among the Acadian provincials. 
Hence, a force of 550 men besides officers was raised, and the 
command given to the celebrated Church.^ now holding a Col- 
onel's commission. Furnished with 14 transports, 36 whale- 
boats, and a scout-shallop, he sailed from Boston, May 21, under 
convoy of the Jersey and Gosportf ships of war, attended by 
the Province galley. The particular places of destination ap- 
pointed him, were Mctinicus, Penobscot, JMount Desert, Machias, 
Passamaquoddy, and the settlements upon the bay of Fundy ; 
likewise Norridgewock on his return, if there were a lodgment 
of the enemy at that place. His sick and wounded, he was di- 
rected to send either to the garrison at Casco, or to Pepperell's 
fort at Kittery-point. 
., . . The little fleet came to anchor at the Island Metinicus, out of 

tic visits ' 

reuobscot Penobscot bay ; from which Col. Church sent out two boats to 

bay. -^ ' 

one of the Green Islands, where three French residents, a father 
and two sons, by the name of Lafavre, and also a Canadian In- 
dian, were all taken into custody. The prisoners were sullen 
and obstinate, unwilling to answer enquiries or act as pilots, till 
they were terrified by threats, or softened by promises ; when 
they became submissive, and stated, that there were several fami- 
lies of French and Indians, living about the margin of the Penob- 
scot ; and that Mons. Gourdon and Sharkee, French officers, who 



* John Gorliam was his Lieut. Col. and Winthrop Hilton his Major. His 
captains were John Brown, Constant Church, James Cole, John Dyer, 
John Cooke, Caleb Williamson, Edward Church, Joshua Lamb, Isaac 
Mirick, John Harradon. — Lhurcli's 5t!i Expedition, p. 165. 

t One of 48 ^uns, Capt. ^mith; the other of 32 guns, Capt. Rogers. 



Chap, ii.] of .malxe. 47 

had lately furnished them and the informants with ammunition a. D. 1704. 
and other necessaries, were then engaged in building a fort at 
Passarnaquoddy. 

Ciiurch, under pilotage of the prisoners and one Young, taken '''"'^■'■5 "p- 
out of Boston gaol for the purpose, proceeded with several of 
his transports and whale-boats, into the bay and river of Penob- 
scot. In this excursion, " he killed and took a considerable num- 
ber both of French and Indians;" and among the captives were 
baron de Castine's daughter, and her cliildren. She represented, 
that her husband had gone to visit her father in France, where 
he, since leaving this country, was living on a large estate. 

At Mount Desert, Col. Church ioined the three ships of war, Ganges the 
and takinsf a fresh supply of provisions, hastened into the waters I'assama- 

r ■ -,11 fjuodrly. A 

of the Passarnaquoddy, at the head of his men, m whale boats, skirmish 
Through fear of alarming the enemy, he rowed by night and rest- 
ed by day ; never permitting a gun to be discharged, even at an 
Indian, provided he could be otherwise killed or taken. Church 
and his men went ashore upon an Island, June 7th, probably 
Moose Island, where they made prisoners of a French woman and 
her children ; and from the main, near her abode, they took M. 
Lotriell and his family. In ascending the river, they seized 
upon Gourdon and his family, and Sharkee and his domestics, 
both lately commissioned from Canada, to form an expedition 
against the English. They were at the time dwelling in tempo- 
rary cottages ; and that of Sharkee was plundered of some valuable 
articles. Churcli, observing his men hover around the dwelling 
of Gourdon, demanded the reason : — Because, as one replied, 
some of the people within will not come out. In a fit of passion 
or haste. Church exclaimed, then kill them. Instantly the in- 
habitants received a discharge from the soldiers, and several fell. 
The faults and blemishes of eminent men, are often too severely 
censured. Church was highly provoked, to observe so much 
insubordination and exposure of his men, occasioned by the obsti- 
nacy of those who ought to submit without resistance ; yet he 
could frame no excuses entirely sufficient, to satisfy a sensitive 
public. He then proceeded as far as the falls of the river, in 
the work of capture and destruction ; Chartiers, a French offi- 
cer and resident, being the only one who escaped.* 



I Coll. N, ri. Hist. 80c. p. 32-35.-2 Hutch Hist, p 133. 



48 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A D. 1704. Next tliR armament sailed into the bay of Fundy, and there 
Chiirch vis- divided ; — the ships of war proceedina; attalnst Port-Royal, and 
ofFiimiy. the whale-boats aganist the remoter settlements. Aher destroy- 
ing Minas [Horton] and two other " populous villages," and mak- 
ing several prisoners, Church rejoined the ships in the harbor oi 
Port-Royal. But a council of war, called July 4, misappre- 
hending the strength of the fortress, determined not to attack it; 
and the ships sailed for Boston.* Church then laid waste the 
„. . , ,. counti'v about Chie2:necto : and visiting Passamaquoddy, Mount 
Stiiexpeiii- Desert, Penobscot and Casco on his return, finished his fifth and 

Hull. ' . . 

last eastern expe(htion, about three months after its commence- 
ment j receiving from the legislature, as a reward for his services, 
a vote of public thanks. Gov. Dudley in his next speech to the 
General Court represented, that ' Col. Church had destroyed all 
'the settlements in the vicinity of Port-Royal, and taken 100 
' prisoners and a large amount of plunder, with the loss of on])'' 
' six men.' 

This expedition, while it in a great degree averted from 
Maine, the hostilities of the enemy through the season, f was a 
most destructive one to the ill-fated Acadians.J Church was an 
officer who made thorough work, and carried retaliation in this 
instance far enough : For their condition, in view of winter, was 
truly wretched ; they, until now, having never experienced the 
direful distresses so often brought, by their French and savage 
coadjutors, upon the English settlements. 

The principal sufferers in this war, were the people of Mas- 
Riassndiu- sachusctts, Ncw-Hampshirc and Maine. Their frontier was a 

sells, Now- 

Haiilp^iiire shelter to the rest of New-England, — or it was defended at their 

nnH Maine i i /■ i- i m' r tvt 

ihesufTcr- cxpcnse, botli OI lives and means. ine government ot New- 
wlr." '"' York had entered into a treaty with the Six Nations^ or Mo- 
hawks ; who had engaged to observe strict neutrality both towards 
the English and the French. Nothing surely could be more 
grateful to the inhc\bitants of that Province ; as it favored a lu- 
crative trade with the Indians, which the Provincials would, by 



* According- to one account, [40 Univ. Hist. p. 152.] Port-Royal owed 
its deliverance to 60 Canadians and St. Castine the 3'onng-er, who had 
thrown themselves into the fort the day before the English appeared io 
the basin. f The enemy " killed a lad near Casco fort." — Penhallow. 

I Church's 5th Expedition, p. 158-193. 

J Sometimes called the " Five ?3ations." 



Chap, n.] of maine. 49 

no means, have disturbed. It however occasioned great conn- a. n 1705. 
plaint in Massachusetts ; for the plunder, taken from the frontier 
settlements eastward of Connecticut river, was often merchandize 
in Albany. On the contrary, the French, who had suffered so 
much in the wars with that fierce and savage people, soon saw 
and realized the great benefits of the neutrality ; and therefore, 
permitted no hostile movements to proceed against any pari of 
New- York. 

Massachusetts, in her provident care of Maine, being still de- defence of 

* -Z , yat'o, and 

termined to keep possession of Saco, ordered, that the fort stand- scout lo 

-,11111 • JNorridge- 

ing at the head of the tide be dismantled and abandoned, as itwock. 
was originally erected only to cover the Indian trade ; and that 
the one at Winter-Harbor be strengthened and put in the best 
posture of defence. Moreover, in the winter, when the snow 
was four feet deep, Col. Hilton, who had been a Major in the late 
expedition under Church, was sent by government with two hun- 
dred and seventy men, including twenty Indians, to Norridge- 
wock, on snow-shoes. They took twenty days' provision with 
them; the season for their march was favorable ; and seldom, if 
ever, were the fatigues of a winter campaign undertaken and en- 
dured with more fortitude and patriotism ; the oflicers themselves 
having only the pay of soldiers. Arriving, they were, after all, 
disappointed, for they found none of the enemy ; — nothing but 
" a large chapel with a vestry" and deserted wigwams, all which 
they reduced to ashes. This and the successful enterprizes of 
Church and others the last year, had greatly provoked the French ; 
and in January, Subercase, late ruler of Placentia, having sue- gubercase 
ceeded Brouillon in the government of Nova Scotia, made a bold J^^^\^f^^„j, 
descent upon the Islands, Newfoundland and St. John's, at the 'an''- 
head of 550 men, collected in Canada and about Port-Royal 5 in 
which he was assisted by a body of savages under the noted 
chief Assacombuit. Great ravages were made among the settle- 
ments, many of the English were killed, and 140 taken prisoners. 
By this time the belligerents felt their respective prisoners to 

. Exchange 

be a burthen ; and in May, Gov. Vaudreuil despatched from Can- of prisoners 
ada to Boston, Capt. Hill, who had been taken captive the last" 
year in Wells, and directed him to negotiate an exchange. On 
his arrival, he was able to communicate to mourning friends the 
intelligence, that there were of their countrymen, about 117 in 
Vol.. II 7 



50 THE HISTORY [\ OL. II, 

A. D. 1705. charge of the government, and 70 with the Indians. William 
Dudley, a son of the Governor, and several other gentlemen were 
appointed commissioners to Quebec ; and with them were sent 
70 prisoners, and yet only 60 were obtained in retnrn. Guilty 
of detestable hypocrisy, Vaudreuil pretended, that " the Indians 
'• were an independent and freeborn people ; and that he had no 
" right nor power to demand their captives ;" whereas they were, 
in fact, well known to be entire dupes or vassals to his will. How- 
ever, the mission of the Governor's son was protracted several 
months, under pretence either of effecting a farther exchange of 
prisoners, or of negotiating a neutrality ; — though his continu- 
ance there, was in truth a matter of policy, to delay excursions 
or sallies against the English frontiers. 
Vetch and Afterwards, William Rowse was sent twice with a vessel and 
cuse'roMi- flag of truce to Nova Scotia ; but returned with only 24 deliver- 
licii trade. ^^ ^^^^^^ Captivity. As deep suspicions shaded his conduct, he, 
as principal, his friend Samuel Vetch, subsequently Governor of 
Nova Scotia, and two merchants of Boston, as accomplices, were 
charged with carrying on thither an illicit trade, whereby the en- 
emy was furnished with military stores ; and consequently they 
were thrown into prison. Yet they finally escaped heavy penal- 
ties, only because the queen refused to sign the legislative acts, 
passed for their punishment. 
Gov. Dud- There were furthermore whispers, that the Governor himself, 
ipy uiip..|Hi- ^vas concerned in tliis disgraceful traffic ; and he found it difficult 
to wipe off the unjust aspersion, deepened as it was by popular 
prejudice. His notions of government, it is true, had too much 
of an aristocratic tincture ; and he was far from having the gen- 
eral love and esteem of the people. Nay, it was expected, at 
one time, that he would be removed, and Sir Charles Hobby 
appointed to the executive chair. The Governor's influence was 
certainly limited, and his unpopularity, a check to public meas- 
ures, if not an embarrassment to the prosecution of the war. 
Urges the According to the instructions of the ministry, he again urged 
onvm"." "P"n '^lie General Court, to rebuild the fort at Pemaquid, and to 
^[11}''.^''^,. contribute towards the repairs and support o{ fort William and 
\Vm"and '^"'"y?* ^n Great Island opposite Kittery. But the House thought 
Mary. Pemaquid to be ' out of the usual road traversed by the Indians ; 



* S-c arjtr, A. D. 17 JO. 



Chap, ii.] of Maine. 52 

^ and being an hundred miles distant from any English planta- a. u. 1706. 
' tion, it was merely a place of occasional anchorage for coasters 
'' or fishing boats, and could be of no great benefit — no " bridle 
" to the enemy — no barrier to our frontier." The original ex- 
' pense of erecting it was great — not less than £20,000 ; and 
' the charge of rebuilding and supporting it, Avould be greater 
• than the Province could possibly sustain.' — In excuse for not 
complying with the other proposition, the House replied, that the 
fort was originally built at the charge of New-Hampshire, and to 
her it properly belonged ; that the whole expense of the repairs 
was only about £500 — a sum not equal to the quota of several 
single towns in JMassachuseits, for one year's charge of the pres- 
ent war ; that all the trade and navigation on the northern as 
well as southern side of the river Piscataqua, paid an excise 
towards the maintenance of the fortification ; and that Massachu- 
setts had been at great expense in the protection of New-Hamp- 
shire, and of the parties employed in procuring timber and masts 
for the crown ; while the latter Province had done nothing 
towards the support of the garrisons, the land-forces, and sea- 
fencibles, though as truly protective of her as of Maine or Mas- 
sachusetts. Equally unsuccessful was the Governor in urging 
upon the Legislature another proposition, which was the estab- Governor's 
lishment of settled salaries, for the two first executive officers of 
the Province ; the Governor being usually allowed an annual sti- 
pend of only £500. 

Through the summer and autumn, our cruisers were continu- „ , 

~ ' Oiirvpssels 

ally on the eastern coast; nevertheless, the French privateers "'^'^^^ .''"d 

•' ' _ ^ (artied to 

took seven of our vessels and carried them into Port-Royal. Fon-Royal. 
Nor could the remaining towns and plantations in Maine prevent ,^. 

<-> L I Kiiteryand 

or escape attacks and losses, though they had regular sentries, ^"'"'^ ^^' 
nightwatches and videttes perpetually in service ; for they lost, 
during the season, as many as twenty-one or two of their inhab- 
itants, killed or carried into captivity. In Kittery, at Spruce- 
Creek, five were slain and as many made captives. Among the 
former was Mrs. Hoel, a gentlewoman of very respectable connex- 
ions and fine accomplishments. Enoch Hutchins lost his wife and 
children ; John Rogers, three weeks after, was dangerously 
wounded ; and James Toby was shot. Another party of eighteen 
Indians, rushing from the woods, October 1 5th, seized Mr. Sto- 
ver's four children, near the garrison at Cape-Neddock, in York. 



52 THE FIISTORY [VoL. U. 

A.D. 1705. One, being too young to travel, they knocked on the head, and 
another they afterwards killed, probably amid torture, out of re- 
taliatory revenge, according to savage usage ; because one of 
the assailants was shot down on his retreat. 
A. I). 170G. There were some apprehensions of an attack upon the frontier 
in the subsequent winter ; owing principally to intelligence receiv- 
ed from Col. Schuyler of Albany, that a force of 2T0 men was 
preparing to march from Canada to some place unknown. There- 
fore Governor Dudley, ever watchful of the enemy, gave orders 
for a circular scouting march, once a month, round the head of 
the towns, from Kingston, N. H. to Salmon Falls. — The enemy 
Cruclinsof first appeared in Maine, at Kittery, April 29, where a party of 
orKiue'rv!'' them rising from an ambush, upon Mr. Shapleigh and his son, as 
they were travelling through the town, killed the father and car- 
ried the son to Canada. On their march, the savages exhibited 
a specimen of their barbarous disposition ; for they bit off the 
ends of their young prisoner's fingers, and to prevent their bleed- 
ing, seared them with burning-hot tobacco-pipes. There were 
likewise other instances of cruelty. One Sampson, an overgrown 
savage, undertook to hang Rebecca Taylor, his prisoner, with his 
girdle tied around her neck and drawn over the limb of a tree. 
But, unexpectedly, his girdle broke, and she, half suspended, fell. 
This so exasperated tlie monster, that he was about to plunge his 
hatchet into her head, when the noted Bomaseen, passing that 
way, humanely rescued the fair sufferer from her pains and perils. 
Hnva^esiii Much mischief was perpetrated, this summer, by the Indians, 
.«;eurand"N. at Dover, Exeter, and Dunstable, in New-Hampshire; and at 
jiampsiiiie. Qj-Qton, Clielmsford, and Sudbury, in Massachusetts ; and hence 
the government resolved upon a more vigorous prosecution of the 
war. In a new tariff of bounties, for every Indian scalp, a regu- 
lar soldier was offered £10; a volunteer, without w^ages, £20, 
and without being furnished with rations or supplies, £50 ; yet, 
so shy and seldom seen were the savages, that it is said, every 
Indian scalped, killed or taken, cost the Province £1000. 
Tho Indians But, fortunately, the tribes considered the war a burden, and 

tired of the , . . . . _, , 

war. were heartily tired ol it, as was conceded by the T rench them- 

selves. Usually, a war of three years' continuance is long enough 
for Indians. In the present war, they may have gratified their 
revenge, — certainly they had acquired no permanent advantage, 
no considerable booty, or other emolument. They had not utter- 



Chap, ii.] of mai.nx. 53 

ly destroyed a single town or plantation in Massachusetts or New- A. D. J706. 
Hampshire ; and those they had laid waste in Maine, yielded 
nothing to the destroyers. The white men of this age were well 
acquainted with the manner of savage warfare, and were more 
than a match for their foes. The unhappy natives saw their 
tribes wasted and distressed, liable to be utterly extirpated from 
the beloved land of their fathers ; and yet unable elsewhere to 
obtain a support for themselves and for their needy families. 

A neutrality was proposed by the Canadian French, which is F<rcpscie. 
supposed to have been rejected. Charlevoix* says, that Gov. iik:''"i-i H. 
Dudley in this dilemma was 'much affected with the cries ofcJiinda. ' 

* the inhabitants, no longer able to improve their lands, which 
' were continually ravaged by the Indians ; and he thought the 

* only way to put an end to their distress, was to remove the 
' French from Acadia.' It is true, the Governor had great rea- 
son to expect, that a complete conquest both of that country and 
Canada would soon be atten)pted ; since the promise of an arma- 
ment from England, the cui'rent year, remained unperformed, 
only because of some changes in the political affairs of the realm. 
He was exceedingly anxious to see Port-Royal reduced ; as 
such an event would complete the entire conquest of Nova Sco- 
tia, and convert it into an English Province. It would also 
serve to shew, that, though it were falsely said, the Governor's 
impolitic management of affairs towards that Province had cost 
Massachusetts £30,000, he was successful as well as indefatiga- 
ble in his labors and plans for the public good. 

Another excursion eastward, was undertaken by the estimable 
Colonel Hilton, in January, 1707; and a shallop was sent to ^'"'- "''- 

/-I • , , • • /- I • ^ tnii's success 

L.asco With stores and provisions for his forces, consisting of 220 "t Biack- 
men. So mild and unsettled was the weather, however, and ^°'" ' 
open the winter, that they were unable to prosecute their march 
to the extent intended ; yet in pursuing an Indian track upon 
which they struck, near Black-point, they surprised and killed 
four savages, and took captive a middle aged squaw with a pap- 
poose. To save her life, she conducted them to a party of 
eighteen, lying asleep on a neck of land not far distant and un- 
guarded ; all of whom except one, they killed about break of 



2 Charlevoix's N. F. p, 313. 



54 i'HE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A,u. 1707. day, and took the other a prisoner,* This occasioned the great- 
er jov and triumph, because of the difficulty, at this period, of 
coming across the Indians or finding their haunts. 

Col i\Tarrii-s Earlv in the sprine;, the Governor raised two regiments for 

a-.-irisi 1'. the eastern service ; and gave the command ot them to Uols. 
"^"'' Wainwright and Hilton. The officers embarked with the troops, 
at Nantasket, IMay 13, in 23 transports, convoyed by the Dept- 
ford man of war and the Province galley, and furnished with a 
competent number of whale-boats. The chief command of the 
expedition was given to Col. March ; who was well beloved by 
the soldiers, and had behaved bravely in several scouts, and ren- 
counters with the enemy, though never tried in service difficult 
"'' '^' like the present. Arriving at Port-Royal, on the 26th, about 
1000 men were disembarked ; and a skirmish ensued, in which 
Subercase had his horse shot under him and retired ; while the 
inhabitants took shelter in the fort. Misapprehending its force 
and condition, a council of war supposed it "was more than a 
match for our raw undisciplined army ;" and the forces all re- 
embarked, June 7, in a disorderly manner. f Several of the 
officers went to Boston for further orders ; and some of the 
transports put in at Casco, and one at Portsmouth. The Gov- 
ernor at Boston, being thrown off his guard by the inciting influ- 
ences of passion and chagrin, declared if another vessel arrived, 
not a man should come ashore "on pain of death." He was de- 
termined, and at last by dint of effort, was able to effect a rally 
and return to the siege of Port-Royal. Yet thinking it inexpe- 
dient actually to supersede Col. March in the command, the 
Governor appointed three gentlemen of the Council, supervisors 
of the enterprize now so boldly renewed. The troops relanded 

Au-. 10, before the town, August 10; — but the spirits of March were 
crippled and his health affected, — the men were sickly, and dis- 
heartened, — the enemy's forces were increasing ; and no means 
could inspire an union, firmness and skill equal to the emergency. 
In ten days the whole affair was at an end ; yet the army though 
sufficiently mortified, really sustained no greater loss than sixteen 
killed and as manv wounded. 



*The rcDort of this affair with little variation from the trnth, was in cir- 
culation at Portsinc.ith, on the morning- if happened, though 60 miles i]h- 
tant.—PcnhaUov}''s InfUnn War, p. 40. 
t 2 Charlevoix, p. 318-321, 



Chap, ii.] of Maine. 56 

111 consequence of this unfortunate expedition, the French a. d. 1707. 
were much more able to arouse the Indians to a renewal of their Ail theeas- 

,. • -r^ • • 11 r r -, ,~r,Y- 1 • 1 '^'"" settle- 

spoliations. Beginnmg the last oi June, 1 <0/, they, in the course moms as- 
of three months, made bold advances against Kittery, Berwick, 
York, Wells, Casco and Winter-Harbor, being all the surviving 
towns and garrisons in ]\raine. As if actuated by personal malevo- 
lence towards William Carpenter, a party pushed forward to his 
dwellinghouse, in Kittery, and slew liiin and all his family. Four Kiuery. 
men, riding in company with Mrs. Littlefield, on the road between 
York and Wells, were waylaid, August 10th, and all slain except a nf?. lo. 

Wells. 

one, who hardly escaped nn equally expected fate. Mrs. Little- 
field had money to the amount of |-200 about her person, of all 
which, it is said, the same bloody hands plundered her. After- 
wards ]Mr. Littlefield, Lieutenant of the latter town, was taken 
and carried to Canada. The savages seemed both to hate and 
fear all men of military titles, rank, or character. But fishermen 
were mere playthings in their clutclies. Lurking about Casco, Casco. 
they intercepted a fishing smack, sailing among the Islands, and, 
as in like cases, they made an easy conquest of her and her crew, 
killing three of them and taking the other two prisoners. 

Yet much the boldest movement made this year, was on the a severe 
21st of September, by a party of 150 Indians, coming in 50 ca- saco. 
noes"^ to Winter-Harbor. Here they attempted to take possession 
of two shallops lying at anchor, while Capt. Austin, Mr. Har- 
mon, John Cole, sergeant of the garrison, and five others were 
on board. By waiting till the enemy was near, and then all fir- 
ing at once, they threw the savage flotilla into great confusion. 
Recovering themselves, (as the narrator says,) the Indians re- 
turned a discharge of musquetry, with so much spirit, that our 
men were forced to abandon one of the shallops ; and entering 
the other, we cut her cables, endeavored to spread the sails, and 
put to sea. The Indians, instantly taking possession of the little 
prize, had up the mainsail, before ours was half mast; and plied 
their oars and paddles so dexterously on each side, as to render 
their pursuit fearful. Their bark however, was a dull sailor, 
and themselves unskilful mariners ; and when they saw they were 
falling astern of their competitors, a number of them, in a dozen 
canoes, by means of fishlines, undertook to tow her ahead. In 

* They iisiKilly appeared " threejn a canoe.'" 



56 THE HISTORY [VoL. II, 

A. D. 1707 the chase, a brealli of air breezed up, and by hauling her too 
near the wind, she came several times to stays, — which greatly 
retarded her progress. A perpetual firing was kept up by the 
parties on each other ; and so near together were they at times, 
— so smart was the skirmish, — and so daring the Indians, that 
they attempted to seize the blades of the oars, as our men were 
rowing. The engagement lasted about three hours ; and when 
the chase ceased, our men had scarcely five charges of pow- 
der left. Our loss was only one man, Benjamin Daniel, fatally 
wounded in his bowels ; who exclaimed, I am a dead man, but 
give me a gun to kill one more lefore I go : — ^Yet the brave man 
had not strength to fire. About nine of the enemy were killed 
in this well-fought skirmish, and twice as many wounded. 

The last outrage of the Indians this season, in Maine, was at 

Rnrvvick Berwick ; where a small scoutins; party of them killed two, as 

Bgain beset. ' o I j ' 

they were returning from public worship. This aroused the in- 
habitants, and a band of them, acquainted with their paths, laid 
in wait for them, and thus by having the first fire, threw them' 
into such consternation, that they dropped their packs, contain- 
ing three scalps and some articles of value, and fled to the 
woods. 
rr. This was a most trying year to the remaining people of this 

Tho misery J o J o i i 

of Maine." Pi-ovince. They could not even stir abroad, though well armed, 
without imminent hazard of their lives. They were under the ne- 
cessity of crowding their families into garrisoned houses, and 
tilling lands, only where they were situated within call from the 
sentry-boxes. The lumber trade and fishery were wholly at 
an end ;* the means of a livelihood were extremely slender y 
and all anticipations of speedy relief appeared truly desperate, 
as the fifth summer had now closed, without any prospect of 
peace. 
A.D. 1703. But happily for the Province, it lost only two of its inhabitants 
Aye;.rof ,'„ the next year, 1708; — these were Robert Read and David 

JO me res- / ' ' 

P'^«- Hutchins, who were killed at Kittery. In the succeeding year, 

the people suffered comparatively nothing from the enemy's in- 
cursions ; and therefore hopes began to be entertained, that the 
days of extreme darkness and distress were passed. 

Various rumors however, during the current season continually 



* Gov. Dudley's speech, 1709. 



Chap, ii.] of aiaine. 57 

agitated the public; and scouts were all the time in service, a, D. 1708. 
Spy-boats were also kept out along the coast between Piscataqua Alarming 
and Winter-Harbor. At length, a story was sent into circulation, 
by way of Albany, that there was a great army collecting in 
the north, which consisted of Canadian volunteers and Indian 
warriors from different tribes, — such as the Algonquins, the Hu- 
rons, the Mohawks, and the St. Francois Indians — to be joined 
by the Abenaques and Tarratines; and that the whole force was 
preparing to attack suddenly some part of the New-England 
frontiers. This was a French manoeuvre to unite all these na- 
tives, and bring them, if possible, to act in concert against the 
common enemy. The Hurons commenced their march, July, . ,^ 
16; when one of them accidentally killed his companion; — an 
event, which all considering an ill omen to the expedition, they 
turned back. The Mohawks said their men were affected with 
a contagious distemper, and refused to proceed. Nevertheless, 
Vaudreuil, nowise discouraged, sent to his officers fresh orders, 
— directing them to prosecute the enterprise, even if " the Al- 
gonquins and St. Francois Indians themselves should leave him 
also." Therefore two hundred of them or more proceeded on ; 
and, though disappointed, in not receiving a re-enforcement at 
the place appointed, from the Abenaques and Tarratines, they 
surprised Haverhill, in the night of August 29, and made it a Havcriiiii 
heap of ruins. But they proceeded no farther ; — for the eas- August*29. 
tern Indians were quite needy, and heartily desirous of peace. 
If we may credit a letter of Subercase to a friend, ' the Mick- 
' maks were naked ; and the Indians on the Kennebeck and Pe- 
' nobscot would be so too, had they not carried on a trade with 
' the English, through the medium of the natives about Hudson 
' river, where a pound of beaver was worth a crown, and goods 
' were sold at a reasonable price.' " Thus," says Charlevoix, 
" our own enemies relieved our most faithful Indian allies in their 
" necessities ; while they were daily hazarding their lives in our 
" service."* 

To weaken the enemy, or hold him more effectually in check, j(^.- ^Y'^*?^' 
and to retrieve the political character of the government, in some e-^pedition 

^ ^ o ' against N. 

measure sullied by former expeditions against Port-Royal ; anoth- Scoiia. 



* 4 Charlevoix, p. 100-20, 3d vol. p. 452-65, 
Vol. II. 8 



58 ^ TME HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1709. er was about to be undertaken.* Of this, Francis Nicholson, 
late Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia, was appointed Commander- 
in-Chief, and Samuel Vetch, before mentioned, a late trader to 
Nova Scotia, well acquainted with the Acadian settlements, was 
Adjutant-General. In England, they had obtained the queen's 
promise, to send over several ships of war to aid in the enter- 
prise. But none arriving, the whole project failed. — The Mo- 
Treachery hawks, though they had lately joined the English, were both jeal- 
h'awks.'^^° ous and treacherous. One of their speakers in a great assembly 
previously holden, said with boldness, — ' You know the English 
' and French are each a great people ; if one of them should 
' destroy the other, the conqueror will strive to make us slaves.' 
Besides this, there was a report, that these Indians threw skins 
into the stream, where the English soldiery had lately encamped, 
near lake Champlain, which gave the water poisonous qualities.f 
Governor's In February, the Governor says, ' twenty days since, accord- 
' ing to my former usage, I marched a scout of 150 men from 
' Casco bay to all the old settlements or lodgements of the In- 
* dians in the Province of Maine, in order to keep them from 
' their dwelling-places, and convince them their new masters, the 
' French, were unable to defend them ; though they have suppli- 
' ed them with ammunition, and assisted them to carry on the war 
' against us, about thirty years. — So bigoted,' adds he, ' are the 
' French to the Romish religion, so inveterate against all protes- 
' tants, and such their colonial contiguity to New-England, that 
' we shall never be long at rest, until Canada and Nova Scotia 
' shall constitute a part of the British Empire.' The Indians 
themseh^es might be easily rendered tranquil, were they removed 
from French influence ; — lor they were, this year, actually suing 
su^for '^"^ for peace ; a delegation being sent from Kennebeck to Boston, 
P^^'^^- with a flag of truce. Nor were the eastern tribes generally en- 
gaged with the French in their movements, either the last or 
present year. They had been told of some disagreeable things, 
stated of them in Canada, which had given affront; and at the 
instance of their delegates, the government sent Mr. Lewis Bane, 
of York, to Sagadahock, clothed with authority to make arrange- 
ments for negotiating a treaty. 

* To meet the expense, £15,000 were eiriitted in bills ; and July 17, the 
Govenor says, 1,200 men are raised, and 17 transports provided. — 7 
JIass. Rec. p. 426. t Penhallow. 



Chap, ii.] of maine. 59 

But the conquest of Port-Royal, in the spring of 1710, wasA.D. nio. 
the ereat and absorbins; topic. Nicholson had been several New expe- 
months in Endand, pressing; upon the ministry the most weighty asainstPort 
arguments and solicitations in favor of the enterprise ; and on the July 13. 
15th of July, the fleet arrived in Boston, himself being on board. 
In conformity to the queen's command, four regiments were im- 
mediately raised in New-England, commanded by Charles Hob- 
by and Col. Tailer of Massachusetts, Col. Whiting of Con- 
necticut, and Col. Walton of New-Hampshire. There were 
besides, a royal regiment of marines, commanded by Col. Red- 
ding. Nicholson, as before, was Commander-in-Chief, and Vetch, 
Adjutant-General ; — the officers being commissioned by the 
queen. The fleet consisted of the Dragon, Chester, and Martin, 
4th rates ; the LeostafFe, and Feversham, 5th rates ; the Star, a 
bomb-ketch ; the Province galley ; a tender, and four transports 
from England, and 24 colony transports,*— in all, 36 sail, besides 
hospital and store ships, and open floats, carrying boards and 
necessaries for the cannon. 

They sailed September 18th, and all arrived safely before Port- sept. 24. 
Royal, on the 24th, except one transport, commanded by Capt. tio,',",!" |u. 
Taye, which, rmining ashore at the mouth of the river, was lost, p.^Royaf"'* 
and 26 men in her, drowned. The forces were landed without 
opposition. Subercase, the Governor, had only 260 effective 
men with him ; and the most of these he was afraid to employ 
beyond the limits of his out-works, through fear of their desertion. 
As the army was marching towards the fort, several men were 
killed by particular aim of the inhabitants, cowering behind houses 
and fences. Our engineers had three batteries open, Oct. 1, 
within 100 yards of the fort, from which a heavy cannonading 
was commenced, and continued without intermission. Suber- 
case, in the evening was summoned to surrender, when he agreed 
upon a cessation of arms, and the next day, signed articles of 
capitulation. f By these, the fortress, munitions of war and 
other effects of the French crown, were transferred to the Queen 
of England ; the inhabitants within a league of the fort, J with 



* That is, 14 were in the pay of Massachusetts — 5 of Connecticut — 3 of 
Rhode-Island, and 2 of New-Hampshire, — 2 Hutchinson's History, \>. l&^. 

t See particulars, PenhaUow''s Indian Wars. — 1 Coll. JV. H. Hist. Soc. p. 
63-67. 

I The number of souls within these limits was 481. — 2 Hutch. Hist. p. 167. 



60 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. u. 1710. their property, were, upon taking the oath of allegiance, to be 
protected, two years ; and the prisoners were to be transported to 
France or be permitted to remove to Canada or Placentia, at 
their election.* 

Col, Vptch, The Englisii lost only 14 or 15 men, besides those who miser- . 
ovcuiori ^jj|y perished in the transport. The place and the people within 

the protective privileges of the article, was called by General I 

Annapolis. Nicholson, Annapolis Roval, in compliment to the queen. 
Leaving Col. Vetch, appointed Governor of the country, in com- 
mand of the garrison, and with him 200 marines, and 250 vol- 
unteers, he returned safely to Boston, Oct. 26, attended by the 
fleet and army. The expedition cost New-England £23,000, 
which were afterwards reimbursed by parliament.f ^ 

Levin<?.ston It was agreed before Nicholson embarked from Annapolis, to 

and Castiiie i »» • t • • • rr r i i r^ 

sent to Can- Send Major Levmgston, a meritorious officer of the army, and Cas- 
tine the younger, who was among the French in the garrison, 
with despatches to Governor Vaudreuil in Canada ; informing 
him, that Acadia had fallen into the hands of the English ; that 
all its inhabitants, except those within the pale of Port-Royal, 
were prisoners at discretion ; and that if the barbarities, practised 
upon the frontiers of New-England by the savages, under his 
control, were not discontinued, reprisals would be made, or re- 
taliation inflicted, u])on the French of Nova Scotia. J 

noy. ■ The messengers with three Indian guides, proceeded to Pe- 

nobscot, where Castine spent a few days with his family, at 
'Biguyduce ; Levingston in the mean time receiving from him 
every mark of hospitality and attention. They then paddled up 
the river in their canoes " to the Island of Lett, where they met 
"with fifty canoes, and twice, as many Indians, besides women 
" and children. "§ This was probably Oldtown. Here the In- 
dians detained them, several days ; in which time, a prisoner 
taken shortly before at Winter-Harbor, had, in hunting with his 
master on a neighboring Island, effected his escape, carrying oflT ■ 
both the Indian's canoe and gun. This so exasperated the native, 

* Articles entile, /6. p. 166-7. — Subcrcasc styled himself "Daniel Aii- 
"ger of Stibcrcase, Governor of L'Accada, of Cape Breton Island and of 
" land fi'om Cape l\osier, as far west as Kennebeck River." — .Masx, Ltl. 
Book, p. 104-5. I" 1 Halliburton's N. S. p. 88. 

I 2 Charlevoix's N. F. p. :> 12-C —39 Univ. Hist. p. 257-S. 

\ Pcnhallow's Indian Wars. — 1 Col. N. H. Hist. Sec. p. C7. 



Chap, ii.] of Maine. 61 

that he determined to kill the first white man he saw ; and there- a.d. 1710. 
fore the moment he again met with Levingston, he seized him by the 
throat, and drawing back his hatchet, would have despatched him 
with a single stroke, had not the noble-spirited Castine thrust 
himself between them, and rescued his companion from instant 
death. They left Oldtown, or Lett, Nov, 4, and were 42 days in 
the woods, before they arrived at Quebec. The day after they 
started, Levingston's canoe was overset, his gun and all he had 
were sunk, and one of the guides drowned. The other canoe, 
when the ice made, became leaky and entirely unsafe ; and hence 
they were obliged to leave it and perform the rest of their tedi- 
ous journey on land. They travelled by their compass ; and 
much of the weather was so stormy or foggy, that for nineteen 
days in succession, they never saw the sun. They travelled 
over some mountains, through dismal deserts, and around ponds 
and heads of rivers ; oftentimes fording streams unknown and 
dangerous, traversing swamps thick with spruces and cedars, 
and some days wading in snow knee-deep. To aggravate their 
sufferings and their fears of perishing, — six days before they 
could reach a human habitation, they had consumed all their 
provisions ; subsisting afterwards upon the leaves of wild vege- 
tables, the inner rinds of trees, and a few dried berries, they oc- 
casionally found. 

They arrived at Quebec, December 16th, and reached Albany Their inter- 

y-, , rtrtJ 1 • • 1 1 • • '11 view will) 

J^ ebruary 23a, on then- journey homeward ; brmgmg with them, the Gov. at 
as the fruits of their most fatiguing and hazardous mission, only 
a letter from Vaudreuil, in which he says, ' never have the 

* French, and seldom have the Indians, treated their English cap- 
' lives with inhumanity ; nor were the French, in any event, ac- 
' countable for the behavior of Indians. But,' added he, ' a truce, 
' and even a neutrality, if the English had desired it, might 
' long since have terminated the miseries of war ; and should 
' any retaliatory measures be adopted by the English, they will 

* be amply revenged by the French.' 

The conquest of Nova Scotia, which has ever since been a Nova Sco- 

B. • 1 y, . , . , , . , . . tia n British 

ntisn rrovmce, was an event highly important and interesting Province. 

to the Provinces of Maine and Sagadahock. For it laid the 

long controverted question asleep, about boundaries ; the royal 

charter of William and Mary being definite enough upon that 

subject, as it respected the dividing lines between territories of 



62 

A I). 1710. 



The Indians 
at York and 
Saco ; and 
scout under 
Walton. 



Nicholson 
solicits a 
force 
against 
Canada. 



THE HLSTORY [VoL. II. 

the same crown. Likewise the eastern country and coast, after 
this, hecame far less exposed to the depredations of the Indians, 
inasmuch as a contiguous Province could no longer be their 
hiding place. 

Till this period, as it will be readily perceived, the history of 
the Sagadahock Province has been so intimately blended ivith oc- 
currences in JVova Scotia, that a narrative of events and affairs 
in the Jormer, could not be wider stood, without tracing also the 
chain of events which have transpired in the latter* 

But neither the conquest of the Acadian Province, nor yet 
the desires of the Sagamores to negotiate a peace as proposed 
by them more than a year since, did wholly deter the Indians 
from committing mischief and even taking life. For early in the 
spring, they killed Benjamin Preble of York ; and, August 2, a 
party of 50 French and Indians, slew a woman at Winter-Har- 
bor, and took two men prisoners — one of them, Pendleton Fletch- 
er, whom the garrison redeemed, had been three times before 
taken captive. A week after this, a larger company visited the 
Saco, killed three, and carried away six. To amuse themselves, 
they actually took the skin from one of the slain and made girdles. 
Still later, about the time they visit their " clam banks," Col. 
Walton, having returned from Port-Royal, proceeded at the head 
of 170 men to reconnoiter the eastern shores. At Sagadahock, 
he took a Sagamore of Norridgewock, his wife, and a number 
of their companions, decoyed or drawn to him by the smoke of 
the soldiers' fires. The Sagamore was so surly, and so deaf to 
every inquiry, that the friendly Indians were permitted to dis- 
patch him. Farther east the scout came across three, and made 
them prisoners ; and on their return to the Saco, either killed or 
took five more. On the other hand, the Indians, seizing one 
Ayres, presently dismissed him, and sent him to the garrison, 
at fort Mary, with a flag of truce, requesting a pacification. 

But nothing at this time was desired with half so much ardor 
and avidity, as the entire conquest of Canada. Such an event 
would secure to New-England perpetual quiet; and Col. Nich- 
olson after his return from Port-Royal, proceeded to England, 
and again urgently besought the crown for assistance. To pro- 



* For while jNova Scotia was subject to the French, thej claimed pos- 
session as far westward as to Kennebeck, and actually occupied as far as 
Penobscot. 



Chap, ii.] of MAINE. 63 

mote his purpose, he took with him five Mohawk Sagamores ; A. U. nil. 
who, when arriving in the kingdom, attracted universal attention. 
The higher orders of the people were anxious to see them, and 
the mob ? flocked in ' crowds after them, wherever they went. 
Even little portraits of their^faces, were stricken off, — hundreds 
of which found a ready sale in the streets. As the court were 
then in mourning,* the Chiefs were clad in black at the royal 
charge ; and in lieu of blankets they were mantled with scar- 
let cloaks, edged with gold tinsel. In this costume, they were 
conducted in two coaches to the palace of St. James, by the 
Lord Chamberlain, who ititroduced them to her Majesty. In 
the few remarks made, one expressed himself to this effect : — 
Should you taJce the Canada country, and put the French under 
your feet, it woidd give us great advantage in hunting and ivar. 
Let yoxLr princely face shine upon us. We are your allies. We 
will never turn our hacks — never leave our ivell beloved country. 
We all stand firm — nothing shall move us. 

To the surprise and joy of the colonists, Nicholson returned june and 
to Boston, June 8, 1711, followed by a fleet consisting of 1 5 (a^o^rfthe^ 
ships of war, 43 transports, and 6 store ships, under Admiral C'^P"''"""- 
Walker ; bringing seven veteran regiments of the Duke of Marl- 
borough's army, and a battalion of marines. These troops and 
two New-England regiments of 650 recruits, formed the army, 
which was provided with a fine train of artillery. The arma- 
ment left Boston, July 30 ; but unfortunately, eight transports 
were wrecked in the St. Lawrence, upon Egg-Island, where 
about 1 ,000 men perished. The officers were so disheartened 
by this disaster, that they abandoned the expedition and return- 
ed, full of disappointment and chagrin, f and yet obnoxious to 
the severest stricture and obloquy. It was a most disastrous 
event. It even emboldened the Acadians to revolt ; nor would 
any consideration probably have induced them to lay down their 
arms, had they been able to find an experienced and skilful com- 
mander to lead them against Port-Royal, and into fields of 
victory. 

But the conquest of Nova-Scotia, and the '€;reat expedition ^,'^.'"^1^^^°^^ 
against Canada gave a turn to the views and movements of the |h"'pa°"rn 



* For rrince George, the liusbantl of Queen Anne. — Hume. 
\ 2 Charlevoix's N. F. p. 355-361.-2 Brit. Ivmp. p. 273-G. 



64 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 17) I.Indians, highly favorable to the frontiers. For though in the 
winter of 1710-11, three sloops in the pay of Massachusetts, 
carrying 180 men, ranged the eastern coast, — they saw neither 
a Frenchman nor an Indian. The same number was led by Col. 
Col. Wai- Walton, during the autumn, as far eastward as Penobscot ; yet 
ilri'se ^"^'^'^ ^^® °"'y made a small number of Indians his prisoners, and burnt 
two or three vessels, designed for cruisers or privateers. There 
were however, a few renegado Indians still strolling over the 
country, and three or four men were killed in Maine, this season. 
Two of these fell in Wells, while at work in the field ; and one 
in York, who was fishing in a pond, his companion at the same 
time being severely wounded. Reviving and returning to the 
garrison, he told how he and his deceased friend were waylaid 
by five Indians ; one of whom, running at him with great fury, 
knocked him down, scalped him, cut him deep in the neck, and 
evidently thought him expiring. But, said he, / retained my 
senses perfectly ; I neither struggled nor moved ; and in this way 
escaped death. 
A.D. 1712. The next year, 1712, was much more calamitous and event- 
killed, ful to the distressed inhabitants of Maine °, about twenty-six be- 
ing killed, wounded or taken captive in York, Kittery, and Wells. 
The enemy first appeared at York ; and, in April or May, shot 
Samuel Webber, between that village and Cape-Neddock. Anoth- 
er party fell upon several men with teams, in Wells ; when three 
were killed and as many wounded. Among those who fell, was 
Lieut. Littlefield, a brave and valuable man, whose death was 
deeply lamented.* He had for a long time commanded the 
militia company of his town. He was an ingenious, useful citi- 
zen and a skilful engineer, especially in waterworks. He had 
been taken a prisoner four years before, carried to Canada, and 
lately ransomed from his captivity. The Indians soon after were 
bold and daring enough to penetrate into the heart of the town, 
where they caught and hurried away two of its inhabitants with 
shouts ot triumph. The repetition of these desperate adven- 
tures, was enough to wither every hope, and fill every heart 
with despair. No age, no condition, no place, could enjoy the 
least rest or security. One boy was killed and another taken 
about this time at Spruce-creek, in Kittery. 

■♦'Supposed to be the same Josiah LitUcfielcl, who represented Wells in 
the General Court, A. U. 1710. 



Chap, ii.] OF waine. q§, 

As a scouting party was marching from the garrison at York, a.d. 1712. 
towards Cape-Neddock, May 14, it was assailed by a body of fliay. 
30 French and Indians ; when Nahon, the sergeant, was shot, York, Kit- 
and seven others seized and confined. The commander and the Henvk'k. 
survivors fought on a retreat, till they arrived at a great rock. 
This sheltered them from the fire and fury of their pursuers, and 
enabled them to keep their ground, till relieved by Capt. Willard 
and a flying guard from the fort. Every motion and movement 
of the inhabitants seemed to lie under the inspection of a lurking 
malignant foe. John Pickernell, at Spruce-creek, was shot June 
1, as he was locking his door, on the way with his family to the 
garrison. His wife, also, was wounded, and a child scalped, 
that ultimately recovered. Seven weeks after this, a man was 
killed at Berwick, another at Wells, and a negro taken captive. 
The black soon escaped, probably by the Indians' consent, for 
they always had a mortal aversion to negroes. 

But the last memorable skirmish with the enemy, which oc- Skirmish nt 
curred in Maine, before the close of this tedious predatory war, \vedciin°"oc- 
happened in the autumn, at Wells. It was on the wedding day '^^^'"°"' 
of Capt. Wheelwright's daughter. To witness the nuptials, a 
considerable number of guests were present, some of whom had 
attended Mr. Plaisted, the bridegroom, from Portsmouth. When 
the marriage was consummated, and the attendants were piepar- 
ing to depart, they were informed that two of their horses were 
missing and could not be found. Several proceeded immedi- 
ately in search of them, two of whom were shot down at a short 
distance from the house, and others seized by savages. Alarm- 
ed at the report of guns, Captains Lane, Robinson, and Heard, 
despatched twelve men from the garrison, across lots, to meet or 
intercept the assailants ; while they themselves, in company with 
Mr. Plaisted and his friends, mounted the bridled horses, and 
gave them whip and rein in pursuit. But in a few minutes, these 
all fell into an ambush ; Robinson was killed on the spot — the 
rest were dismounted, and yet every one of them, except Plais- 
ted, effected an escape. As this event was in degree afflictive 
to the guests and the br'de, so much the more triumphant was 
the savage party in the possession of their valuable prize. How- 
VoL. II. 9 



65 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1713. ever, in a few days lie was redeemed by his father, though the 
extravagant ransom demanded and paid, exceeded £300.* 

The cessation of hostilities, being the next news from England, 
was published in Boston, Oct. 27, and followed by the celebrated 
treaty of Utrecht, signed March 30, 1713. By the 12th article, 

March 30 u ^\\ Nova-Scotia, or Acadia, with its ancient boundaries, also 

J rcaty ol ' ' ' 

Utrecht. «< the city of Port-Royal, now Annapolis Royal, and all other 

" things in these parts," ' belonging to the crown of France, or 

N. Scotia ' '^"y subjects thereof, and also the inhabitants of the same, are 

t-onceded to i resigned and made over to the crown of Great Britain forever :' 

the English. '-' 

and in May, the whole of the country was actually and formally 
surrendered to the English, having ever since been under the 
government of that nation. 
The Indians ^^^^^ closed the sccuc of blood. The Indians had long been 
ileacc impatient for peace. Some of them visited Casco fort, as soon 

as the joyful tidings of a pacification arrived, and requested an 
armistice. At the winter session, the General Court concluded 
to receive the eastern tribes into favor, upon their humble acknowl- 
edgement of the offences they had committed, a renewal of 
their allegiance, and a subscription by their chiefs to such arti- 
cles of treaty as the Governor and Council might dictate or re- 
quire. High ground was now manifestly taken by Massachu- 
setts ; for she even demanded hostages of the Indians, for the 
faithful performance of their stipulations, and required them to 
be supported at their own charge. These were, it is true, rigid 
terms, but it was thought their treachery deserved severity. 
, I jj By a request of the Sagamores, presented through Capt. 

The treaty Moody, at Casco garrison, to the Governor, he appointed a con- 
mouth, ference to be holden, July 11, at Portsmouth. Accordingly, his 
Excellency and 20 Councillors, viz. 9 from Massachusetts, 9 
from New-Hampshire, and 2 from Maine,f accompanied by 
other gentlemen, met the sagamores and delegates from the 
rivers St. John, Penobscot and Kennebeck, at the time and place 
appointed, and entered upon a negotiation. Though the Indians 
upon the Saco, Merrimack and Androscoggin, were not express- 
ly represented by tribes, being mixed with the motley clan at St. 

* 3 Coll Mass. Hist. Soc. p. 140. 

t These were John Wheelwright and Ichabod Plaisted. 



Chap, ir.] of Maine. 67 

Francois ; they were nevertheless all declared by the delegation A. D. nis. 
present, to be included. 

In this treaty, they acknowledged their offences, renewed 
their allegiance, and made fair promises. They conceded to 
the English all their territorial settlements, possessions and rights 
in the eastern country, free of every claim, — with a reserve of 
nothing, except the Indians' own grounds, and the " liberty of 
" hunting, fishing and fowling, and all other lawful liberties and 
" privileges, as enjoyed on the 11th of August, 1693," when 
the treaty was made with Gov. Phips. Trade was to be regu- 
lated by government, truck houses established, and the Indians 
never to be allowed a traffic at any other place. All future 
controversies were to be settled according to a due course of 
law and justice. — Eight Sagamores,* then casting themselves 
upon her Majesty's mercy, prayed for her pardon and favor, and 
signed the treaty, July 13th, in solemn form ; each making con- 
nected marks, descriptive of the fish, bird or animal,f claimed 
as the insignia of their respective families. 

To give the ti'eaty a more extensive ratification, several gen- -^1,^ ^,„|(;, 
tlemen proceeded to Casco, where they found a large body of"', 
Indians, waiting the result of the negotiation. Upon hearing the 
articles distinctly read and explained, by sworn interpreters, they 
expressed their united satisfaction " by loud huzzas, or acclama- 
" tions of joy." 

Moxus was present, who pretended he was Sagamore of " all 
" the eastern parts, tliough he did not sign the treaty." Valua- 
ble presents were distributed to all the tribes represented, and 
also to him. The next day, however, he complained to the 
English, that the young Indians, for some reason, unknown to 
him, had purloined the articles given him, and he hoped the 
English gentlemen would in their generosity, be free to make 
him other gifts. He was a chief of native subtlety, and his rep- 
resentation improbable 5 for the Indians, especially those that are 



:ition at 
.'n.sfo. 



* Those who signed, were Kirebenuit, Ileansis, and Jackoid, Tarratine 
chiefs of Penobscot ; Joseph and Aeneas, Marachite chiefs of St. John ; 
Warraeensit, Wadacanaquin and Bomaseen, Canibas chiefs of Kenne- 
beck.— Sec articles entire, 1 Coll. JV. H. Hist. Soc. p. 82-86. 

f Joseph's mark was a picture of a Jish ; that of Kirebenuit, a raven. 
This, Capt. Francis says, is the mark of his family. 



68 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A. D. 1713. young, always treat their Sagamores and seniors with the utmost 

civility and respect. 
^, ,. In this distresbing war of ten years, JVlaine lost more than a 

Tlie condi- "_ •' ' 

tioiiof fourth, perhaps a third, part of her inhabitants.* Numbers of 

Maine. , . 

them, full of discouragements, left the country, to see it no more. 
Some families had become entirely extinct; — and all the others 
were in mourning for friends, either dead or in captivity. The 
slender habitations of survivors, if not utterly destroyed, had de- 
cayed and become miserable. Their outer fields wholly laid 
waste, or neglected, were overgrown and full of wild shrubbery. 
There was now remaining scarcely a vestige of the fur trade, the 
lumber business, or the fisheries. What men call enterprise ex- 
cited no emulation. The virtues of the people in these times, 
were of another and higher order ; — courage, fortitude, and broth- 
erly kindness. Tliese appeared in nameless exploits, and in 
thousands of occurrences every year. When the men, ever care- 
worn, were exhausted with toil and war, the duties of sentinels 
were performed by females, and the products of the field were 
frequently the fruits of their labor. Now the war was over, 
nothing so wrung the hearts of survivors, night and day, as their 
anxiety to embrace from captivity, their long-lost kindred and 
friends. Nor was there a lapse of many months, before a ship 

Exci)anf,'e was despatched to Quebec, to exchange and redeem prisoners.f 

oi^^piison- rpj^^ ecstacy of those on meeting, can only be painted by the im- 
agination, not drawn by the pen nor pencil. 

'j'hf, The French were prominent in the war when it opened. It 

'*'"''■ then assumed something of campaign, siege, and battle; and sev- 
eral French ofticers appeared among the Indians, as leaders or 
commanders. But they were never able to form the Indians into 
regular companies, nor biing them to military discipline or order. 
Unrewarded, neglected and ill fed, they would have abandoned 
the French two years before the close of the war, had not the 
attractives and ties of catholic superstition prevented. 

Tiip los^ps The Indians, on the whole, were the principal sufl^erers by the 
war. More than a third part of their fighters, had within ten 



of (lie Lii- 
glisli. 



* Maine lost, in liiUeJ and taken captive, 282. " From 1G7.5 to 171.3, 
" 5 or GlOO of the youth of the country perished by (he enemy, or by dis- 
tempers contracted in the service." — 2 Hutch, [list. p. 183. 

I It was not till the next year, when Messrs. Williams and Stoddard 
spent fonr months in colicctinf^ the Kiigli'^ii captives. Sonic never re- 
turned. 



Chap, ii.] of j!Atne. 69 

years, wasted away or been killed; and probably an equal orA.D. ni3. 
greater proportion of their women and children : So that among 
the remaining tribes of the Abenaques and Etechemins, the fight- 
ing men by estimation did not now exceed 300. Three tribes, 
the Wawenocks, Sokokis, and Anasagunticooks, had lost their 
distinction or provincial character, by a gradual decline and an 
association at St. Francois, with the Algonquins and others ; and 
hence they are not by tribes so much as named in the treaty. 
Hunted from their native country by foes, and allured away by 
pretended friends, they might justly bewail their cruel destiny. 
To the humiliating terms of the late treaty, they would never 
have submitted, had they not, through a consciousness of their 
poverty and distress, been ready to perish. Their strength and 
importance were broken, never to be repaired. In this war, the 
Indians manifested less malice, and were guilty of less cruelty, 
than in the two, which preceded. Nor did they exhibit charac- 
ters of equal notoriety and fame, with those in former wars. 

Three of their most distinguished men were, Bomaseen, Assa- 
combuit, and Castine the younger ; though in the commencement 
of the war, Wagungonet and Capt. Tome are mentioned as 
leading Sagamores, 

Bomaseen, now advanced in years, was a man of good sense Homaseen. 
and humane disposition. In the last war, he was seized at Saco 
A. D. 1694, and carried a prisoner to Boston, where he was 
made acquainted with the principles of the protestant religion. 
He was a Canibas chief, and signed the late treaty. 

The character of Assacombuit was peculiarly remarkable for Assacombu 
its turpitude and ferocity. According to Mr. Penhallow, who was ''• 
his cotemporary, none of " all the Indians that were ever known 
" since King Philip, have appeared so inhuman and cruel as As- 
" sacombuit." He was a " monster ;" or, as another says, " a 
" noted chief," ' always dreaded by the English upon the fron- 
' tiers, from the report of his demoniac cruelties.' He is sup- 
posed to have belonged to the Anasagunticook tribe. In 1705, 
Vaudreuil, to encourage the Indians in the war, sent him to 
France, and caused him to be introduced to the royal presence. 
He was an object of curiosity ; and when appearing at Court, he 
lifted up his hand and exclaimed, — this hand has slain 150 of 
your Majesty^ enemies within the territories of JVew-England. 



70 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1713; This SO pleased the unfeeling monarch, that he forthwith knighted 
him, and ordered a pension of eight livres a day to be paid him, 
during life. On his return home, he undertook to exercise a des- 
potic sway over his brethren, in which he murdered one and 
stabbed another, and thus exasperated their relations to such a 
degree, that they sought to take his life, and would have killed 
him, had he not fled and forever abandoned his country. 
('astine the Tiiere was never a greater contrast, than between him and Cas- 
younger. ^j^jg ^j^g younger.* This man possessed a very mild and gener- 
ous disposition. His birthplace and home were at Penobscot, 
upon the peninsula of 'Biguyduce, the former residence of his 
father. Though a half-breed, the son of Baron de Castine by a 
Tarratine wife, he appeared to be entirely free from the bigoted 
malevolence of the French, and the barbarous revengeful spirit 
of the savages. He was a Chief Sagamore of the Tarratine 
tribe, and also held a commission from the French king. By 
his sweetness of temper, magnanimity, and other valuable prop- 
erties, he was holden in high estimation by both people. Nor 
were the English insensible of his uncommon merit. He had an 
elegant French uniform, which he sometimes wore ; yet on all 
occasions, he preferred to appear dressed in the habit of his 
tribe. f It was in him both policy and pleasure to promote 
peace with the English ; and in several instances where they 
had treated him with abuse, he gave proof of forbearance wor- 
thy of a philosopher's or christian's imitation. The great con- 
fidence they reposed in his honor and fidelity, as the com- 
panion of Major Levingston through the wilderness from Port- 
Royal to Quebec, was in every respect well placed and fully 
confirmed. He was a man of foresight and good sense. Per- 
ceiving how these wars wasted away the Indians, he was hu- 
mane as well as wise, when he bade earliest welcome to "the 
" songs of peace." These immediately drew home fathers and 
brothers, and " wiped away the tears" of their families. He 
, thought his tribe happy only, when they enjoyed the dews and 
shades of tranquillity. In 1721, he was improperly seized, at 
'Biguyduce, his dwelling-place, by the English, and carried to 
Boston, where he was detained several months. The next year, 

* See ante, A. D. 1703. f 40 Univ. Hist. p. 180. 



Chap, ii.] of maine. 71 

according to Charlevoix,* he visited Bearne in France, — to in- 
herit his father's property, honors, fortune and senioral rights ; 
from which country, we have no account of his return. 



* Charlevoix [JV. F, 4th vol. p. 117,] expresses himself thus ; '• II repas- 
sa pen de leinps aprc's en France, et uUa recuciller la siiccession de son 
pere en Beam d'oii 11 n'est point sortie clepuis." 

Note.— Capt. Francis says, the yonng-er Castine"s residence, was at 
.Marchibigaducc, [3.a he pronounces the word,) and farther states, that he 
had a son, whom he called by a Frencii name Robardee, whose dauglitcr's 
son, Capt. Sokes, is now one of the captains of the Tarratine or Penob- 
scot tribe. Francis mentions some traditional particulars of Baron Cas- 
tine ; siatinsf tliat " he lived at the same place ;"— " was a ^rcat trader ;" 
— "sold the Indians ^uns and powder," «SfC. 



80 Tin: HISTORY [Vol, ii. 



CHAPTER in. 

The late war — A good administration — Councillors — York, Kittr- 
ry and Wells, survive the war — Bertcick incorporated — Their ec- 
clesiastics — Committee of claims — Orders to resettle 5 towns — 
Saco, called Biddeford— Scarborough — Falmouth — and Arundel — 
Money — George I. — Gov. Shute — Claims — A road ordered from 

Berwick to Pejepscot Kittery, a port of entry — Pejcpscot- 

Pur chase — Fort-George — Georgetown — Offers to settlers — Cush- 
noc-fort — Resettlement of Kenncbeck — Sturgeon-Jishery — York- 
shire extended to St. Croix — Gov. Shute arrives — Natives rest- 
less — Gov. meets them — Treaty renewed icith them — Timber-trees 
— Bridger, Survey or Gen. — Disputes with him — Armstrong' s pro- 
ject — Settlements revived east of Kenncbeck — St. George's fort 
— Fort Richmond — Timber — Gov. and House disagree — Guards 
sent into Maine — Coram' s project — Nova Scotia — Indians plun- 
der Canseau — Rale — Indians at Penobscot — Notaries public — 
Paul Dudley's case — People begin to remove from Maine — TJie 
Canibas — Rkle — Parley at Arrowsick — Castine the younger — 
North-Yarmouth — Gov. Shute returns to England. 

A. D. 1702 A more promising prospect, at length, opens to these eastern 
to 17 2. Provinces, — presenting a revival and gradual advancement of 
the late wan their settlements, and political importance.* The force of the 
natives appeared to be in some measure broken, and the tribes 
greatly disheartened. As conquest or achievement is a great 
point with them, the reverses of fortune attending the French 
arms, in the late war, had filled the tribes both with disappoint- 
ment and distrust. For instead of recovering from the English 
colonists any part of their territories, so eagerly coveted by the 
French, and claimed so strongly by the Sagamores ; the former 
had actually lost, and the English acquired, the whole of Nova 
Scotia. The event was important to both nations ; and in the 
estimation of Massachusetts and Maine, it ought, in no small de- 
gree, to enhance the joys and advantages of peace. 

* For nearly 30 jears past, few records of town-meetings were to be 
found in any part of Maine. 



Chap, hi.] oi" maine. 73 

Tlie benefits of good government, in the Province, enjoyed a u. 1702 
now for more than twenty years, were extensively felt and duly 

■' •' ...... Benefits of 

appreciated. The evils of sectional conflicting jurisdictions, and a ^:ooci ad- 

^ ' f 1^ 1 • miiiistia- 

the discrepances of anomalous rulers, formerly so perplexmg to iion. 
the people of Maine and Sagadahock, were all lost in the unity 
of a settled and vigilant administration. The affairs of the war 
had been managed with care and adroitness, and the minuter in- 
terests of the community were treated with particular attention. 
When a system of jurisprudence was fully established, trials ; ap- 
peals ; the process of forcible entry and detainer ; the manner of 
assigning dower ; the admission of town inhabitants; the relief 
of the poor and insane ; the appointment of watches and fire- 
wards ; the limitation of real actions ; the term set for redeem- 
ing lands mortgaged or taken by extent of execution, and other 
legal proceedings, received from the hand of the legislature an 
original form, or evident improvements. 

In 1700, the office of Coroner was first introduced. He was imptove- 

, , , . , r 1 • J .• ments in the 

appomted by the executive, and a summary ot ins duties pre- smiuie code. 
scribed by statute. Another law provided originally for the 
choice of Town treasurer. A third, passed the year following, 
regulated the professional practice of Attorneys, and the rights 
of parties in courts of law. To every one was expressly secured 
the privilege of pleading or defending his own cause, or employ- 
ing whom he chose. Upon taking a statute-oath prescribed, 
which has never since been altered, practitioners at the bar were 
admitted officers of the Courts, and authorized to tax an attorney's 
fee in every suit. Mills were uniformly considered as being oi 
public utility, and their owners, the objects of particular favor. 
There were two evils, frequently attending this species of prop- 
erty, which arose from the number of individual proprietors, and 
the back water occasioned by dams. In both, a remedy was pro- 
vided by committing the management of all mills to the major 
voice of the partners ; and by prescribing a summary process, 
to setde all questions of damage caused by a reflow of water. 

Common schools and an orthodox ministry, which had gone Schools and 
hand in hand since the first settlement of the country, were still 
high in popular estimation and legislative support. Time and 
change had rather increased than abated the ardor. Besides 
sharpening the penalties against towns, remiss and negligent, in 
Vol. II. 10 



74 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A.D. 1702 support of schools as required by law, they were rendered liable 
to be indicted by the grand jury ; and in such towns as failed to 
raise the monies requisite for the support of the ministry, the 
Courts of Quarter Sessions were empowered to appoint assessors 
for that purpose. In the zeal of the times for the purity of morals, 

Laws to r 1 

preveni im- — lotteries Were denounced as pernicious to the public ; and in 

moralities. ' i n • • 

1712, a memorable act was passed, which forbade all singmg and 
dancing at taverns or in the streets, after dark ; all walking 
abroad during public worship on the Sabbath; and all sporting 
in the evening of that day. Nay, an obscene song or pamphlet, 
or a " mock sermon," incurred a fine of £20 or the pillory, — the 
culprit having at the same time the name of his crime placed in 
capital letters over his forehead. 
Blacks and Colored people, increasing in numbers, had become exceed- 

liicliaiis. 1 I ■- o 

ingly obnoxious and despicable. A duty of £4, therefore, was 
exacted and paid for every negro imported ; and so depraved, 
ignorant and shiftless were slaves, that not one of them, even in 
this age of freedom and equality, might be manumitted, unless 
security was first given for his maintenance. All negroes and 
mulaltoes were expressly excluded from watches and military 
duty, as well in war as in peace ; and whoever presumed to join 
one of them in marriage with a whhe person, incurred a heavy 
penalty. Equally great was the general antipathy towards In- 
dians. They were heathens, ignorant, lazy and revengeful ; — 
the authors of accumulated evils to New-England. By law, it 
was strictly forbidden to bring into the Province any of this race, 
either for slaves or servants.* 
Coins; At this period, several acts of parliament were passed concern- 

and timber- ing the Colonics. These prescribed the value at which foreign 
"^^^*' coins should pass current within them ;f established a general 

Post-Office ;J and provided for the preservation of white pine and 
other timber-trees. The latter, enacted in 1710, had evidently 
in view the Sagadahock forests, which were extensive and be- 
longed principally to the crown. 

In the upper House of the General Court, the eastern Provin- 



* Province Law, A. D. 1712. f Passed, A. D. 1707. 

I Post-Office first attempted, A. D. 1692, in Virginia and failed ; estab- 
lished b}' Parliament, A. D 1710, in America. A g-eneral letter office was 
opened in London ; another in New- York ; and others in each colony. A 
single letter from London to New- York, 1*. — thence, 60 miles, 4c?. 



Chap. III.] OF MAINE. 75 

ces, Maine and Sagadahock, were uniformly represented by the A. D 1702 
number of Councillors prescribed in the charter; and some of j^,^^^ j^^,.^ ^^ 
them were men of considerable eminence. Those, during the '^i^ Council, 
late war, were, for Maine, Elisha and Eliakim Hutchinson, Ben- 
jamin Brown, Joseph Hammond, Ichnhod Plaisted, and John 
Wheelwright :— For Sagadahock, John Leverett and Joseph Lynde. 
The Messrs. Hutchinsons resided in Boston. Elisha, a gentle- Elisha and 
man of military distinction, was chief commander of the Massa- Hmdi 



uison. 



chusetts militia, in 1692, and was one of the Council, sent in 
1707, to revive and prosecute the enterprise against Port-Royal. 
Eliakim sustained an excellent character, though less eminent. 
The former was senior Councillor for Maine two, and the latter a 
member, twenty-one years.* Mr. Broivn,\ who was member of g j.-j-yv^n 
the Board six years, is supposed to have been a son of the benev- 
olent William Brown, whose residence was in Salem, and whose 
daughter was the wife of Wait Winthrop. Mr. Hammond was j. Hain- 
an inhabitant of Kittery, where he died, February 24th, 1709,'"°"*^' 
after having been a Councillor nine years. He was also one of 
the Judges of the Common Pleas — a man of great integrity and 
worth, whom the people held in high estimation. He left a son 
of the same name, the worthy heir of his virtues, who first rep- 
resented his town in the legislature in 1711 ; and in 1718 was 
chosen into the Council, of which he was a member twelve years. 
Mr, Plaisted lived at Berwick, where he died, November 16th, j, piaisi^a. 
1715, in the 52d year of his age, deeply lamented. He was a 
member of the Council, from his first election in 1706, to his 
death. He was also several years a Judge upon the bench of 
the Common Pleas. No other name at this period, in the Pro- 
vince of Maine, was more distinguished for military intrepidity, 
than that of Plaisted. t Mr. Wheelwright resided in Wells, •' ^^'l^'' 

* They both died in 1718— Elisha ajed 78, and Eliakim 77 ; the latter, 
and probably the former, being son of William Hutchinson, of Boston, who 
settled there in 1636 ; and in 1673 purchased a large tract of land at Saco, 
of William Phillips, which Eliakim sold in 1750. — Elisha married Mrs. 
Phillips' daughter by her Sandford husband, and had an interest in Phillips' 
great Indian purchase, made in 1661, embracing mostly Sandford, Alfred, 
and Waterborough. Elisha's son Thomas, v/as father of the Governor. 

t The widow of Capt. Roger Plaisted, who was killed by the Indians in 
1675, married Mr. Brown, of Salem ; after whose death she returned to 
Salmon Falls, where she died. 

J Ante, A. D. 1675. Ichabod Plaisted was the grandson of Capt. Roger 
Plaisted, and the father of Samuel Plaisted, who died March 20th, 1731, 
aged 36. 



76 THE HISTORV [VoL. 11. 

A.D, 1702 probably upon the patrimonial estate of his grandfather, Rev. 
John Wheelwright,* who was one of the original settlers of the 
town, in ] 643, and of his father, Samuel Wheelwright, the min- 
ister's son, who was a member of the Council six years, from 
1694. He died in 1700. John, the grandson, was first elected 
into the Council in 1708, and continued a member twenty-five 
years. His death was in 1745. He was also a Judge of the 
Common Pleas many years, — a gentleman of talents, merit and 

J. Leverett. distinction. Messrs. Levereit and Lynde were both non-resi- 
dents. The former, a son of the colonial Governor Leverett, 
was a member of the Council, only in 1706, being the next year 
elected President of Harvard College. He had previously been 

J. Lynde. a Judge of the Superior Court five years. Mr. Lynde was one 
of the Charter Councillors for Massachusetts, and resided in Bos- 
ton. At the first election, in 1693, he was omitted ; but the 
next year he w^as chosen for Sagadahock, and afterwards had an 
annual re-election until 1716, inclusive, except the year Mr. 
Leverett was Councillor. 

Terms of On the memorial of the councillors and representatives from 

tlie bup. 

Couitre- the Province of Maine, the General Court, June 5, 1711, re- 

vived, . /-I -111 

vived the annual term of the Superior Court appomted by law, to 
be holden at Kittery for the county of York, — which for six or 
seven years prior, had, by reason of the war, been entirely sus- 
pended. This was followed, the next year, by a settlement of 
the county treasurer's accounts, a speedy return of order, and 
the regular administration of law and justice. 
YoricKit- The late treaty closed a period of eight and thirty years' al- 
Weiis"'^ ternate warfare and peace with the natives — a period, in which 
very little more than a third part of the time could be consider- 
ed tranquil. Amid those uncommon wastes, occasioned by 
French and savage hostilities, three towns, York, Kittery and 
Wells, maintained their ground with a fortitude and persever- 
ance, which redounded highly to their credit. Every year dur- 
ing the last war, the two former were represented in the General 
Court, — and Wells, five years, including that of peace. But be- 
sides their own meritorious exertions, and the liberal supplies 
furnished them by government, they were otherwise frequently 
aided and encouraged. In 1706-7, £257 of their taxes were 



* Edward Rishworth married Rev. John Wheelwright's daughter. 



Chap, hi.] of Maine. 77 

remitted, and there were granted out of the public treasury toA.D. 1713. 
York, £65, and to Wells, £56, for the support of their respec- 
tive ministers. 

The northern settlements of Kittery, denominated " the parish Rerwick in- 

•' '■ corpoiated. 

of Unity,"* and the " precinct of Berwick," having been success- 
fully defended through the late war, the inhabitants renewed their 
application to be incorporated. Disposed to gratify their wishes, 
the General Court, by an order of 1711, caused a survey to be 
made of the township, or rather of its northern limits ; and on 
the 9th of June, 1713, by another orderf erected all above 
Thompson brook, into a town by the name of Berwick. J It 
was subsequently quite flourishing; the soil being good, and the 
inhabitants a respectable well-informed people. The heart of 
the elder parish was at Quampeagan, where a church was gath- 

=*" This was incorporated the parish of Unity, in \Q13. — Sullivan, p. 243- 
246. t 8 Mass. Rcc. p. 251.— Sullivan's Hist. p. 245-253.— MS. Letter. 

\ This had been called the plantation of J^ewichawannock, and is the 
ninth town established in the present State of Maine. [The other 8 are 
Kittery, Yo'k, Wells, Cape- Porpoise, Saco, Scarborough, Falmouth, and. 
JV'urth-Yarmouth.^ Tlie original settlement of Berwick, was at Qiiampea- 
g-an Falls, and Great-works river, by men whose surnames were Frost, 
Heard, Sbapleigh, Chadbourn, Spencer, Broug-hton, Leader, Plaistcd, and 
Wincoln. In 1720, the town was extended eig-ht miles above Quampeagan 
to Stair Falls, thence from the river, N. E. by E. 8 miles and 298 rods, to 
Bonnebeag pond, thence S. E. to Baker's spring and a rock — being the 
boimds between York and Kittery. At that time there was not a house 
standing " between Quampeagan and Canada." All, which were built 
here, between 1690 and 1745, were of hewed logs, sufficient to oppose the 
force of small arms. There was a block house on the western side of Sal- 
mon Fall brook, a mile above Quampeagan, where William Gerrish lived ; 
a mile liigher, was Key's garrison ; — next were Wentworth's and Good- 
win's block houses. The fort on Pine Hill, called Hamilton's garrison, 
•was standing in 1750. It was made of poles 20 feet high, and picketed at 
the upper end.— As to land-titles of the settlers, Mr. Spencer, A. D. 1643, 
purchased of Sagamore Bowles or Knowles, a tract on the banks of New- 
ichawannock and Great^vvorks rivers. George Broughtqn, the same 
year, obtained lands of the Sagamores, between Spencer's and Salmon 
Falls; where Broughlon and Wincoln had lands granted by the town of 
Kittery, on condition of erecting a mill. Lands above, are holden under 
proprietary grants. — Berwick was first represented in tlie General Court, 
in 1714, by Elisha Plaisted. In 1751, the town was divided into two par- 
ishes ; and the first parish was made a town, in IS 14, by the name of Sowf/i 
Berwick. In 1790, Berwick contained 3,894 inhabitants. Since the divis- 
ion, upper or Old Berwick contains 30,000 acres ; — had within it ten mills, 
in ]820, 6 of them being at Doughty Falls on Great-works river. 



'^^ Tui: HISTORY [Vol. ir. 

A.D. nis.ered, and Mr. John Wade, settled in 1702. Dying the next 
year, he was succeeded in Nov. 1 707, by the Rev. Jeremiah 
Wise^' ^^'''' ^""^^ ^""^^ ^^^^'^' minister upwards of 48 years ;— a man of 
learning, « eminent piety and goodness." But the learning, in 
which he made so much proficiency, exhibited, according to'' the 
taste and passion of the age, the efforts of deep and scholastic 
investigation, rather than the beauties of rhetoric, or the solids 
of philosophy. Five years before his death, a new or northern 
parish was formed, over which, John Morse was first settled, 
who was soon succeeded by Rev. Matthew Miriam. 
mSwo ^^^ '^""^ ^^^"^ Berwick was incorporated, the residue of Kit- 
parishes, tery was divided into two parishes. The new one was at Stur- 
Rev. J. S^^''-<''-^'^<^^ [Eliot] where a church was gathered, and Rev. John 
Rogers. Rogers, settled in 1715; whose ministry was continued during 
the uncommon period of 52 years.*— In the old parish at Kitte- 
ry-point, a parsonage, provided as early as 1669, and subsequent- 
ly improved, was occupied, and an annual stipend received, by 
Rev. J. I^ev. John jYewmarch,j- in consideration of ministerial services 
lNew,.arch. for 1 5 years, prior to 1714; when a church of 43 members 
was formed, and himself ordained. He was afterwards, more 
than 35 years, the faithful minister of an affectionate people ; re- 
ceiving the late Doct. Benjamin Stevens, May 1, 1751, his col- 
league ; whose pastoral connexion was dissolved by death at the 
end of forty years.J It was at Kittery-point, near the residence 
of the celebrated William Pepperell, that the courts of judica- 
ture were holden several years. 
Kov.s. ^" York, the successor of the beloved and lamented Dummer 

^oo6y. vvas the Rev. Samuel Moody. He was a graduate of Harvard,' 
m 1697; and in 1700, received his ordination. He declined a 
settlement upon a stipulated salary ; choosing rather to live through 
faith, dependant upon his Divine Master, and the voluntary con- 
tributions o f his people. He continued in the ministry 47 years ; 

* Rev. Mr. Spring: was ordained his colleag-ue, June 29, 1768, and died 
m 1791. He was succeeded the next year by Rev. Samuel Chandler. 

t He was graduated at Harv. Col. in 1690, married at Kittery-point, and 
lived on the westerly side of Spruce-creek, near the ferry. 

I Another church was or-anized at Spruce-creek, in 1750, where Rev. 
Josiah Chase was a settled minister, till Dec. 1778. He was succeeded, in 
1782, by Rev. Joseph Uttle^eld.- Greenleafs Ecclesiastical Sketches, p. 83. 
See ante, A. D. 1647, and 1652. 



Chap, hi.] of Maine. 79 

when he died, — greatly endeared to his charge, and highly re- A. D. 1713. 
spected by his country. His praise is in all the churches of this 
region, as a godly minister and useful man. Amidst his pastoral 
zeal, many of his eccentricities afford curious anecdotes, which 
will be related in story to a succession of listening generations.* 

Seventeen years before his death, he had the pleasure of see- Scotland 

. . 1 • 1 I • r "V 1 parish form- 

mg a religious society formed m the north-west section oi xorK ; ed. 
and of assisting, in 1732, at the ordination of his only son, the 
Rev. Joseph Moody. A Harvard graduate, at the age of 18, Rev. j. 
this gentleman lived m his native town 14 years, and held the 
offices of Town Clerk, County Register of Deeds, and a Judge 
of the Common Pleas, before he was ordained. f He was a man 
of talents, piety, and peculiar sensibilities of mind. This, the 
second parish in York, was settled in Cromwell's time, by Scotch 
people, and has been since called Scotland. The Protector, 
having obtained a victory over a body of Scottish royalists, thought 
transportation to be the best disposition he could make of the 
prisoners ; and therefore he sent them to America. Acquainted 
with Gorges, who had taken arms in the civil wars on the same 
side, they settled upon a section of his patent. 

Few towns, not wholly destroyed, ever experienced greater priva- Wells, 
tions and severities in the Indian wars, than Wells. After the Rev. 
Mr. Wheelwright finally left the place, the inhabitants were favor- 
ed only with the pastoral services of unlocated or itinerant 
preachers, during that century. J But on the return of munici- 



* HLs wife was Uic daughter of John bewail of ISewbiiry. He had two 
children, Joseph r.nJ Mary. The latter married Rev. Mr. Emerson of 
Maiden. Mr. Moouy died, Nov. 13, 1747, iEt. 72. An ingenious epitaph 
on his gravestone, near his meeling-hoiise, shews where his relics are de- 
posited. In 1749, he was succeeded by Rev. Isaac Lyman, a graduate at 
Yale, in 1747, who died, 1810. 

t After six years he fell into a gloomy state of mind, and died in March, 
1753. His successors were, in 1742, Rev. Samuel Chandler, and in 1754, 
Rev. Mr. J^ankton, who died in 1794. — Greenleaf's Ecc. Sketches, p. 13, 

\ Rev. Joseph Emerson of York, was employed in 1664, for 2 or 3 years ; 
Rev. Robert Payne, 1667, for 5 years, with a salary of j£45 ; Rev. John 
Buss, Sept. 2, 1672, 10 years, having a salary of £60, and " a parsonage 
house and land ;" Rev. Percival Greene, in 16S3, 5 or 6 years ;— and in 
1689, Mr. Richard Marten, a schoolmaster in town, became the people's 
minister. — They voted him £50, besides (he parsonage, to be paid thus ; — 

wheat at 4* rye at 2s. 6cZ,— peas at 4*. per bushel ; pork at 2^fZ. jper lb. ; 

boards at 19*. and staves at 17s fer thousand. — Messrs. Greene and Mar- 



80 Tin: HISTORY [Vol. ii. 

A. D. 1713. pal order, subsequent to the close of the second Indian war, 
the inhabitants became anxious to enjoy the stated ministrations 
of the gospel ; and hence, twelve professors of religion entered 
into an ecclesiastical covenant ; — and in October, 1701, by the 
Rev. s. concurrent voice of them and the people, Mr. SamH Emery receiv- 
f "jefferds^ ed the rites of ordination over the whole town.* His ministry of 
24 years, was succeeded by that of Rev. Samuel Jefferds, a 
graduate at Harvard, in 1722, and a spiritual teacher, who in the 
course of his professional labors and untiring zeal, through a pe- 
riod of 26 years, had the high satisfaction of witnessing the re- 
peated effusion of divine influences, upon the people of his 
X. , , charge.! — Nor was it till 1750, that the second or Kennebunk 
^y'fMl''''' parish was established, and the Rev. Daniel Little setded ;J — 
before which time, the town formed a single religious society, 
containing at no period more than a thousand inhabitants.^ 

These cotemporary and successive ministers of the altar, had 
no small influence in forming the moral taste and general charac- 
ter of a rising community ; and they acquitted themselves of the 
high trust, in a manner which entitles their names to the particu- 
lar notices of history. Their emoluments were small, though 
their labors and privations were great ; being eminent examples 
of fortitude, and worthy patterns of disinterestedness. 
Condition of fpjjQ eastern Provinces, at the close of the late war exhibited a 

the casiern 

countiy. melancholy aspect. More than 1 00 miles of coast, once mterspers- 
ed and adorned with flourishing setUements, improved estates, and 
comfortable habitations, lay unpeopled and desolate. Tide-deeds, 
records and other papers of value, were either burnt or lost ; 
and so many years had succeeded the wastes of several places, 
jhat they had resumed the appearance of their original solitude. 



ten were both Harvard graduates, in 1680.— 1 Coll. Jlaine Hist. Soc. p. 
2.63-5. 

* The meeting-hoiiscliad been burnt by the Indians, but " the settlemenL 
was advancing."—! Coll. Maine Hid. Sue. p. 265 — Mr. Emery was grad- 
uated at Harvard, 1691. 

t Mr, Jeffcrds died, Feb. 1752, ML 48. In 1754, Rev. Gideon Richard- 
son succeeded Mr. .Teflerds. After his death. Rev. Moses Hemmenway, 
Aug. 8, 1759, was ordained; and in Feb. 1811, Rev. Mr. White was settled 
with him as colleague pastor. — See Wells, ante, A. D. 1G53. 

\ Rov. Mr. N, II. r'letcher was associated as a colleague with Mr. Lit- 
tle, in August 1800, who died Oct. 1801. 

\ Number in Wells, 1790, 3,070.— See 3 J\lass. Hist. Coll. p, 138-140. 



Chap, in.] of maim:. 81 

Yet the government, the landholders, and the former inhahitanls A. D. 1713. 
or their descendants, appeared ready to engage with courage and Commiiiee 

_, . of claims 

spirit in a resettlement of the country. Hence, " a Comnuttee aud seiUe- 
of eastern claims and settlements"* was appointed, in 1713, by the 
General Court, consisting of nine gentlemen, f four from the 
Council, and five from the House ; and after appointing clerks, 
and notifying by printed circulars, the times and places of their 
meetings, they were directed to receive and examine all exhibited 
claims to lands in Maine or Sagadahock, to sanction the titles of 
such as appeared sound and clear, and report the residue. — In 
reviving the wasted towns, it was thought to be more conducive 
to the people's safety and quiet, if they were to replant them- 
selves in neighborhoods of 20 or 30 families, — near the seaside, 
— upon lots of three or four acres to a family, — united in a close 
and defensible manner, and possessed of out-lands in quantities 
equal to their necessities or wishes. Accordingly the General c),-der of 
Court authorized the resettlement of five towns ; — these were counu) 
Saco, Scarborough, at Black-point ; Falmouth, at Casco-penin- h\!ari)oro°' 
sula ; JS'orth-Yarmouth,\ and one at the mouth of Sagadahock J^"|.'"j^'*Yar. 
includine; Arrowsick Island. In no other than these and the sur- "P""'*^ '*"** 
viving towns previously mentioned, were people allowed to re- 
plant or resume habitances, without licenses from the Govern- 
or and Council ; till the proper designations and plans, through 
the medium of the Committee, could be matured. 

The next year, 1714, these towns became inhabited by sever- . .^j 
al returnine; families ; to which accessions were annually made, Saco rtsei- 
until they were enabled to resume their municipal privileges, named liid- 
The settlement of Saco was so rapid, that the inhabitants, in 
1717, settled Mr. Short as their minister, and exhibited at Win- 
ter-harbor a compact hamlet. To encourage their pious zeal, 
£40 were annually granted out of the Provincial treasury, for 

* A Committee of this sort was first appointed in 1700. 

f Of the Council, Elisha Hutchinson, Isaac Addington, John Phillips and 
Paul Dudley [Attorney General] ; — of the House, John Clark, Edward 
Qnimhy, Thomas Oliver, William Dennison and the Clerk of the House. — 
8 Mass. Rec. p. 288. — The General Court said " the settling of the eastern 
" parts and frontiers will be of great benefit to this Province." — Preamble 
Statute, 1715. 

f But North-Yarmouth was not resettled till about 1721—2. The Inr 
dians were peculiarly hostile towards the settlement of this place. 
Vol. II. 11 



82 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1714. four or five years, in aid of his support. The General Court 
also confirmed the ancient bounds of the town, lying on both 
sides of the river ; and the next year, ordered, that 50 families 
at least, be admitted and settled in a defensible manner, according 
to the directions of the Committee, and that alter the 18th of Nov. 
1718, the name of the town be changed to that of Biddeford.* 

Scarboro' SCARBOROUGH, prior to 1714, had been without inhabitant 
about ten years. The settlement of the town was recommenced 
at Black-point, and was immediately followed by another at 
Blue-point and Dunstan. Though the government had found it im- 
practicable to protect the people at their homes from the ravages 
of a savage enemy, it had provided for their retreat to places of 
safety, and was now active and generous in aiding their return to 
their wasted abodes. In December, 1719, a town meeting was 



* Biddfford [or Saco] was settled about 90 years before its present re- 
vival. It had been a seat of government, and always a noted place. The 
Buffering's of the settlers were great in each of the three first Indian 
wars, being twice destroyed ; tho;igh a garrison was maintained there 
through the whole of the last war. In 1718, the town agreed to erect a 
meeting-house at Winter-harbor, 35 feet by 30. Here, Sept. 30, 1730, Rev. 
Mr. Willard, the father of the late President Willard of Harv. College, 
was ordained pastor of a Congregational Church, organized at the same 
time. He was succeeded by Rev. Mr. Morrell; and he, in 1779, by Rev. 
Mr, Webster. — Saco was a territorial corporation as early as 1643-4 ; 
made a town, in 1653 ; divided in 1772, and all on the eastern side of the 
river incorporated into a town by the name of Pcppercllborovgh ; — chang- 
ed to Saco, in 1SJ5. Between 1730 and 40, the settlement at Saco village 
was made. But from the first Indian war, to 1715, a period of 40 years, 
there is a chasm in the records of the town. Biddeford was first repre- 
sented in the General Court, in 1719, by Humphrey Scammou ; who lived 
two miles below the Falls. Benjamin Blackrnan, a graduate of Harvard 
College, 1668 ; and B. Pendleton, Deputy-President of Maine, in 1680, 
both lived in Saco. — Ou the west side of the river, lived Richard Vines, 
about 20 years, till he sold, Oct. 20, 1640, to Doct. Robert Child, and re- 
moved to Barbadoc:^. The most of his patent was purchased, in 165G and 
in 1659, by Major TFilliam Phillips, who resided there, and also purchased 
of different Sagamores, in 1661, the great tract between the rivers Mou- 
6um and Little Ossipee, and in 1664, the country- between Saco and Ken- 
nebunk rivers, and most of Hollis and Limington. Phillips removed to Bos- 
ton, in 1675, and the next year made partitions of his estate. He died, 1683. 
— John Sandford, Secretary of Rhode-Island, was the first husband of his 
wife, whose son Peleg, was Governor of that colony, 1680-3. — On the west 
side of Saco river, resided several years James Sullivan, Gov. ; George 
Thatcher, Judge of S. J. Court, Mass. ; P. Mellen, 1st Chief Justice of 
Maine.— See 1st vol. A. D. 1653. 



Chap, hi.] of maine. g3 

holden, and the next year, the records, which had been preserved A. D. 17U. 
in Boston, were safely returned ; the number of famih'es resettled 
at that time, being about thirty. No minister was ordained over 
this people, till 1727; when a Congregational Church was form- 
ed, and in September, Rev. William Thompson inducted into 
the pastoral office. His weekly ministrations were alternately at 
the two settlements, until the second parish was formed at Dun- 
stan, about 1743, or perhaps until a short time before the Rev. 
Richard Elvins was settled there, in 1744. Both ministers were 
paid by the town, during the life of Mr. Thompson, without dis- 
tinction of parishes.* 

None of the desolated towns, however, were resettled earlier Faimouih 
than ancient Falmouth. A strong garrison was maintained 
through the last war at Fort Loyal ; and one account states, that 
some of the former inhabitants were, as early as 1708-9, making 
preparations to return. f Within a short period, several dilapi- 
dated cottages upon the Neck were so far repaired, as to be ren- 



* The town records were preserved by the Governor and Council ; and 
transmitted to Lieut. Gov. Wcntworth of New-Hampshire, who had an in- 
terest in the town, and who swore the bearer William Cotton, ' that this 
book of records was the whole he had received from the Gov. and Coun- 
cil ;' and also swore James Jeffries ' to make a fair copy of them.' The 
successors of Mr. Thompson, were Rev. Thomas Prince, in 17G2 ; and 
Rev. Thomas Lancaster, in 1775. In 2d Parish, Rev. Mr. Elvins was suc- 
ceeded, in 1776, by Rev. Bc7i atnin Chaduic/c ; in 1800, by Rev. J\''a(han 
Tilton. One account says, the 2d parish was established in 1758. — Thom- 
as Cammock settled in Scarborough, 1633, and died, 1643.— Henry Josce- 
lyn removed hither, about 1635, and resided at Black-point and Front's 
neck, 33 years. He married Cammock's widow. He sold his estate to 
Joshua Scottow, who removed hither, about 16S0, and died in Boston, 1698, 
—Rev. John Thompson, born here, was settled in South-Berwick. — Rev. 
Joseph Willard, though born in Saco, " was reared from a child in Scarbo- 
rough"— and afterwards, President of Harvard College This town was 

the native place of Rufus KrNO,— (New- York) ; William King, first 
Gov. of Maine, and Cyrus King, member of Congress— all brothers. 
Most of the land-titles are derived from Gorges through Cammock and 
others; but a tract between the hamlets was purchased by Andrew and 
Arthur Algier, of Jane alias Uphannan's, an Indian woman, and descended 
to Andrew's grand-daughter who married John Milliken,— and hence the 
"Milliken claim."— The town was represented in the General Court, in 
1728, by Arthur Bragdon,— JJ/S. Letter Rev. JV, Tilton, tee anie,vol. 1. A. 
D. 1658. 

i JUr. Sullivan, [Hist. p. 197,) says, » the inhabitants began to return 
'• again about the year 1708." 



34 THE HISTORY [VoL. IT. 

A. D. 1711. dered habitable ; the first new framed house being built by Mr. 
Ingersol,* about the year 1714. To encourage the people in 
support of the ministry, while they were building a meeting-house, 
in 1715-16, the General Court granted them £20 ; there being 
at this time upon the peninsula, about 20 families. The territory 
of the town was extensive, and settlements were begun at differ- 
ent places, — especially at Purpooduck, Spurwink, and later at 
New-Casco, near the mouth of the river Presumpscot, In those 
places there had been fortifications ; and the Legislature, in 1714, 
consented to have the two former [now Cape-Elizabetlif] estab- 
lished as a township. But this was delayed ; the ancient boun- 
daries of the town as reported by the Committee of claims, in 
1718, were sanctioned by the General Court ; and Nov. 1 1, of the 
same year, Falmouth was restored to all its corporate povi^ers 
and privileges. It was represented in the House, the next year, 
by William Scales; and on the Sth of iNIarch, 1727, a Congre- 
gational Church was formed, and the inhabitants settled the Rev. 
Thomas Smith. For several years, his ministerial services were 
performed alternately at the meeting-house upon the peninsula, 
the block house upon Purpooduck-point, and the fort at Spur- 
wink ; — and sometimes at New-Casco, [now Falmouth.] 

The resettlement of North-Yarmouth was delayed five or six 
years ; and Cape-Porpoise became the town which had a simul- 
taneous revival with those just mentioned. Though it had never 
before its destruction compared with its neighbors in wealth or 
population, it had been inhabited by a bold and spirited people ; 
and in 1716, they and the proprietors joined in a prayer to the 
Legislature for a restoration of town privileges. The subject was 
referred to Mr. John Wheelwright, and orders given him to take 
the records into possession wherever he could find them. It seems 



* For this cause called " Governor Inijersoi." 

•^Cape-Elizabeth was incorporated, Nov. 1, 1765; Portland, July 4, 
1786 ; Westbrook [Stroudwaler,] in 1814 ;— all being parts of ancient Fal- 
mouth. Mr. Smith was the son of Thomas Smith, Esq. Boston ;— a gradu- 
ate of Harvard CoUef^e, 1720; and when he was ordained, the churches 
of York, Kittery, Berwick and Wells assisted, being all there were then 
in the Province of Maine. In town and proprietor's meetings, there was 
no distinction till 1730. when all settlers were admitted ou paying a sum 
of money — or shewing a continued possession ; others were excluded. — 
Anlt vo!. I. A. D. ]GbH —Sullimn, p. 197. 



Chap, hi.] of MArNn. 85 

their town officers were chosen the next year ; and June 5th, AD. 1714. 
1718,* the town was re-established by the name of Arundel. f 
In 1723, it was represented in the General Court by Alanson , 
Brown, its first deputy in that Body. 

Besides the resettlement of the eastern country ; another sub- p^ ^^^^^ 
ject of much importance arrested the public attention. This was*"-^" 
the paper money which had flooded New-England, and now, 
since the war, exliibited the many and complicated evils of a fickle 
depreciating currency, connected with every pecuniary transac- 
tion of life. All agreed, that improvement was indispensible, 
while different projects excited unhappy divisions. One party 
was in favor of wholly substituting specie for the bills ; another 
advcjated the establishment of a banking company, whose capital 
stock was to be real estate ; and the third, and predominant party, 
induced the Legislature to authorize a public loan of bills to any New loans 
one lor a hmited tmie, upon notes witii uiterest, secured by mort- 
gage of real estate ; — the interest to be applied towards the sup- 
port of the government. So universal and so warm was this con- 
troversy, that it " divided towns, parishes and particular fami- 
*' lies ;" and, unfortunately, the respective parties for the bank 
and the loan were nearly balanced. 

In this rage of party-spirit among the people, it was impossible ^^^^^ ^ . 
for rulers to be neutral. But a change in the administration being; a«'edes to 

'-' " ihe throne 

expected, upon the accession of king George, who was proclaim- «•" Engiandx 
cd in Boston, September 17th, 1714, Governor Dudley demean- 

* One account says it was in 1719. But 9 Mass. Rec. p. 207, says 1718. 

t Arundel, [Kcnnebunk-porl, since 1820,] was made a town, A. D. 
1653, by the Massachusetts' Commissioners, and named' Cape-Porpus.\a) — 
The lands were originally granted by Gorg-es, and also by Rigby. The 
agent of the latter conveyed to Morgan Howell 100 acres, in 1648; and in 
1661, to John Bush 400, to Gregory Jeffery 200, and Richard Moore 400, 
all " within the village of Cape-Porpoise, and Province of Lygonia ;" re- 
serving " to Col. Alexander Rigby, Esq. President of the Province of Ly- 
gonia," a yearly quitrent of 10*. per 100 acres. — Sulliva?!, 229. This place 
was settled as early as A. D. 1632, probably earlier. — Wint.hrop\^ Journal, 
p. 43. There are a few fragments of the town's doings between 1678 and 
1689. — x\bout 1719, Rev. John Eveleth was preaching at Cape-Porpoise, 
and afterwards, for a period, his ministerial labors were alternate at this 
place and Saco, till 1726; and at tlie former, till 1729, with a salary of £20. 
That year, Rev. Thomas Prentiss was settled ; succeeded, September, 1741, 
by Rev. John Hovey ; in 1771, by Rev. Silas Moody ; and in 1816, by Rev. 
George Payson. (a) As then spelt. 



86 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A, D. 1714. ed himself with the wisdom and prudence best calculated to 
smooth his path to retirement. He was not actually displaced, 
however, till about two years* after this, and was then succeeded 

Gov. shute. by Col. Samuel Shute,! — and Mr. Tailer, by Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor William Dummer.J The Governor's commission embrac- 
ed New-Hampshire as well as Massachusetts and Maine ; and 
the appointment met with general acceptance. 

A.n. 1715. The Committee of claims and settlements, in 1715, consisted 

orcildilir of two Councillors, Messrs. John Wheelwright and Ichabod 
Plaisted, of Maine ; and six members of the House.§ They 
were able and influential men, and at their suggestion, the General 
Court perceived the inability of the people and proprietors, who 
owned lands and real estate eastward of Piscataqua, to recover 

Limitaiion 

of real nc- them by legal process within the five years limited by a former 
statute, because of the late war ; and therefore allowed them the 
same period after July 31st, of the present year, to resume and 
establish their claims to houses, lands or other real estate, within 
the territories of Maine or Sagadahock. This gave to all inter- 
ested, additional and fresh encouragement. The General Court, 
dcrechoTe ^^^^i ''^''tb the further advice of the Committee, ordered the sur- 
fT'^iw ^'^y °f ^ ^'"^^ f^"°'^ Berwick to Pejepscot lower falls, and ap- 
xvick to Pe- propriated £50 to be disbursed from the public treasury towards 

jepscot. I r i .» 

opening it. 

Another subject, though of a difierent nature, which excited 

madra the public attention at this time, was the improper duties exacted 

porio en- ^^ New-Hampshire from the merchants and fishermen trading at 

Piscataqua. To obviate the difficulty, our government made the 

harbor at Kittery-point a port of entry, and adopted measures to 

* The delay was occasioned by the appointment, in the first place, of 
Col. Eiiesus Biirg-es, who was anxious for the office. But it being- thoug-ht 
by our agents and friends in England, that he could not be an acceptable 
person to the people of these Provinces ; he was induced to accept from 
them £1000, and resign his commission. 

I Col. Shute belong^ed to a good family. His father was a dissenter, and 
an eminent citizen of London, and his mother was the daughter of a noted 
dissenting minister ;— his brother, Lord Barrington, was in Parliament, at 
the head of the dissenting interest. The new Governor had served under 
the Duke of Marlborough, in Flanders, where he acquired great military 
reputation. 

I Mr. Dummer was a native of Massachusetts, and lived in Boston. 

5 These were, Oliver Haynes, Edward Hutchinson, Adam Winthrop, 
Samuel Phips, Lewis Bane, and John Leighton. 



Chap, hi.] of maine. 87 

make its authority respected. A breastwork was erected north- A. u. 1715. 
erly of the point ; a platform laid sufficient for six guns ; a naval 
officer and a public notary appointed ; and all sea-captains and 
persons trading at the river, were required to pay imposts, powder- 
money, and other duties, as stipulated by law. 

The enthusiastic ardor, manifested the last year in the enter- p.-jepscoi 
prise of reviving the eastern settlements and claims, still appeared c!Ia'„le!r 
rather to increase than to abate. The Indians were generally ""'"''"*• 
tranquil ; and in a great number of places, the return of the in- 
habitants is dated at the present period. Richard Wharton, dying 
insolvent, his Pegypscot [or Pejepscot] purchase* was sold, in 
1714, by his administrator, to Messrs. Winthrop, T. Hutchinson, 
Ruck, Noyes, Watts, Minot, Mountford, and two others, for only 
£100. 

The new owners, June 1 0th, in the present year, spread their Cruiiswick, 
interest before the General Court, with a request, that the pur- ai^tHial^s. 
chase, as they bounded it,f and the title, as stated, might be con- '^''^" 
firmed to them ; and tliat the government, by its sanction, would 
encourage them in the settlement and defence of three new town- 
ships, which they proposed to have called Brunswicic, Tops- 
ham, and Harpswell. The first was to extend " from Pejepscot 
Falls to Maquoit on Casco bay — equal to six miles square ;" the 
second was to be surveyed of the same size on the easterly side 
of the river, adjoining and fronting Merry-meeting bay ; and the 
third to include Merryconeag peninsula, the two Sebascodegan 
Islands and others. It is said their prayer was granted ; when 
it was agreed, that if the government would exempt these towns 
from taxes, five years, and advance £400 towards the erection of 
a " good stone fort" at some place within their limits, they would 



* Sec ante, A. D. 1G84. 

f They supposed it run "• from 5 miles above the uppermost Falls of An- 
" droscog-gin river, on a north-east line, over to Kennebeck river, incliid- 
" ing what land lies to the southward of that line, down to Merry-meeting' 
"bay:" — And " from said Falls, 4 miles west, and so southerly down to 
" Maquoit ; — takint^ in the lands lying four miles west of said river. — Like- 
" wise the lands lying- southward of Merry-meeting bay, on the westerly 
" side, running down to Small-point harbor, and including Merryconeag- 
" neck and the Island Sebascodegan, with the pther Islands interjacent ; 
" and on the easterly side, running round VVinnegancc-point, so down Sag- 
" adahock river, along by Arrowsick Island, down to Atkins' bay." — SlaU- 
ment of Kennehtck Claims, p. 11. — 1 Doug. Siimm. p. 390. 



88 



THE HISTORV 



[Vol. 



A.D, 1715, 



Fort 

George 

erected. 



Itcseltle- 
ineiit of 
Aiuiroscog- 
giii. 



<ii"Oi ;;f-- 
lowii scllled 
nnd incor- 
porated. 



engage not only to support a minister of the gospel, and school- 
master, but maintain a sergeant's guard of 15 men, and faithfully 
build and render defensible such a fortress. The public disburse- 
ment was accordingly made, and a fortification erected on the 
western side of the Androscoggin, opposite to the Lower Falls, 
and called " Fort George^ It was constructed with two bas- 
tions, two half bastions with flankers on the top, sufficient for 
cannon.* When finished it was furnished with munitions of war ; 
and a garrison was supported there the greater part of the time, 
till the reduction of Quebec. f These Falls were a key which 
opened the western parts of the Province to the Indians. At 
this place the tribes from Canada, from Penobscot, and from Nor- 
ridgewock had meetings with the Anasagunticooks, to advise on 
their intended expeditions against the white people. There had 
been a slight fort here of ancient date ; but while the country lay 
desolate, it had fallen into ruins. 

But these towns were not very speedily settled. In Brunswick, 
which was incorporated the earhest of the three, J there were, 
in 1718, no dwelling-places for families, except within the walls of 
the fort, and in the block house, near Maquoit bay, where Lieut. 
Woodside kept a guard to protect the stores while landing and pas- 
sing to the fort. A little before that time, three families settled in 
Topsham ; all of whom were afterwards destroyed in Lovewell's 
war.§ The settlement of Harpswell, commenced about the year 
1720, was for many years only a precinct of North-Yarmouth. || 

In conformity with the Legislative order of 1713, several 
persons early the next spring, resumed a habitancy upon lands 
at the mouth of the river Sagadahock. On the margin of Arrow- 
sick Island at Baker's Cove, John Watts of Boston, who had 
married a grand-daughter of Major Clark, built of bricks, trans- 
ported by him from Medford, in Massachusetts, a large dwelling- 
house with two flankers, — which stood 56 years. Another was 
erected about the same time by Mr. Preble at the head of the 



* 8 Mass. Rec. p. 3S9-415. t Sullivan, p. 181. 

I Brunswick was incorporated in 173S ; Harpswell in 1758, and Topsliam 
in 1764. In 173S, the line, as settled between Pejepscot and Plymouth 
companies, bej^an at the mouth of Cathancc river, and ran W. N. VV. to 
the VV. line of the pitent, or claim. 

\ Coll. Mass. His. Soc. p. 141-2. 

II MS. letter of Rev. Samuel Eaton. 



Chap, hi.] of Maine. <^ 

Island. In the spring of 1715, these two men, Edward Hutch- a.D. niG. 
Inson, Esq. and twenty-three others, heing the whole number in 
the Island, petitioned the General Court to be incorporated into 
a town. It was a frontier, more remote than any other place at- 
tempted to be resettled, and might be a barrier in the emergency 
of war ; — therefore an object of the government's special favor. 
An accession of 15 families was immediately made to the set- 
tlement ; the Governor despatched from Fort Loyal a sergeant's 
guard of 20 men, to be protectors of the inhabitants six months ; 
and on the 13th of June, 1716, Parker's Island, and Arrowsick* 
were made a town or municipal corporation by the name of 
Georgetown.! 



* Parker's IslancJ, Ncquasset or Nauseag, [now Woolwicli] Stage Island 
and some others were treated and taxed as j)recincts of tljc town, accord- 
ing to the law and usage of the day, and made a part of the town itself. 
The inhabitants of Small point [now Bath and Phipsbnrgh,] were upon pe- 
tition set off from North-Yarmouth, in 1741, and united to Georgetown. 
One account states, that Wiscassetand Siiccpscot were taxed witli George- 
town several years, adjaccnts or precincts. The name " Arrowsick" is so 
spelt by Penhallow. The titles to the lands are holdcn " principally under 
" the Plymouth company ; part under Salter's right ; part under Sir Biby 
" Lake ; and a few by GO years peaceable possession." — Set ante, vol. ], p. 
5.'}. 

f Gcor^-itoivn, (the lOtli corporate town in this State,) took its namo 
from " fort St. George" — (Popham's fort,) built by the colonists, in 1607; 
and is sometimes called " The ancient Dominions" of Maine. The census, 
in 1764, was 1,329. The ecclesiastical affairs of the town, were in an un- 
settled state, more than half a century. The clergymen, employed sue- 
cessiv^ely, were Messrs. William McClanathan, Robert Rutherford. Dan- 
iel Mitchell, and Alexander Boyd. The principal part of the people, 
especially the ])rofessors, were Presbyterians. In 1739, 14 of the latter 
associated into a church ; and in July, 1765, Rev. Ezekiel Emerson was 
ordained. In the course of a year, his church were united into a " Cove- 
nant engagement," and contained 45 members. This excellent man died, 
Nov. 9, 1S15, aged 80. A meeting-house was built on Arrowsick Island, 
in 1761 ; and one on Parker's Island, in 1809, for the Freewill Baptists. 
A second Parish, now Bath, was formed in 1762. The town has been di- 
vided. — Wool v/ich was incorporated in 1759; Bath, in 1781; and Phips- 
burgh, in 1814. The present Georgetown is bounded, S. by the ocean ; 
W. by Kennebcck river ; N. by Monsweag bay ; and E. by great Sheep- 
scot bay ; and embraces Arrowsick, of 4,000, and Parker's, of 10,000 acres. 
About half of the town is of a good soil, which grows apples, wheat, bar- 
ley and corn. The people, in 1820, owned 1,000 tons shipping: annually 
cured 4,000 quintals of cod and hake ; 40,000 lbs. salmon ; 500 bis. pickled 
fish, and 6,000 boxes smoked herrings. The town records begin in 1738, 
Vol,. II. 12 



90 THE HISTORY [VoL. H. 

A D. 1716. This is a place of more celebrity than any other, except York 
A place of and Falniouth, upon the eastern coast. It was colonized in 1607; 

trreni rosorl. 

visited in 1614, by the famous Capt. John Smith, who sketciicd 
a chart of the coast ; and settled between the years 1624 and 6. 
At the latter date, Plymouth colony had a trading house at the 
site of Popham's fort, near Spring-point ; and the settlement had 
a gradual increase fifty years, until there were on the Islands and 
both sides of the river, more than sixty families. The place was 
ravaged and laid waste by the savages, in 1676, and in 1688; 
and from the latter year remained desolate till its late revival. 
Georgetown has had a gradual rise ; — has been a place of great 
resort ; and in 1721, it was represented in the General Court by 
John Penhallow. 

These movements, especially the resetdement of Georgetown, 

sealers. encouraged the proprietors of the Plymouth [or Kennebeck] pa- 
tent to enter upon the improvement or occupancy of their terri- 
tory. United in project with the Pejepscot proprietors, they 
both offered to families severally, 100 acres of good land, and 
the removal of them and their effects, free of expense to them, 
if they would become settlers, within their respective proprie- 
torships ; promising them also contributions towards supporting a 
minister of the gospel. For the protection of the people in case 
of a rupture with the Indians, and for tlie promotion of trade, 

Ciisht'iioc Doct. Noyes of Boston, one of the Plymouth proprietors, built a 
fort of stone, at Cushenoc, on the bank of Kennebeck river near 

Setiiemonts the head of the tide, which is said to have been the best fortifi- 

beck. cation in the eastern country. Here a garrison was, for a period, 
maintained at the public expense ; and according to Mr. Pen- 
hallow, so great was the encouragement given " that several 
"towns, as Brunswick, Topsham, Georgetown and Cushenoc 
" began to be setded ; a great many fine buildings with saw mills 
" were erected ; husbandry began to thrive ; and great stocks of 
" cattle were raised."* 



A bridge of 300 feet connects the two Islands — 9 Jia,?*. Rec. p. 7o. — JIS. 
Letter of Benjamin Ri^gs, Esq. p. 132. 

* Penhallow [Indian fVars printed, in 1726,) says, Noyes " built a stone 
garrison in " Aiigunia'''' at iiis own charge" Ilo was a Representative in the 
General Court, and died, March IC, 1721-2. After this tlie fort was neg- 
lected ; and in Lovewell's war, the inhabitants withdrew, and the Indians 
burnt it ; — with several houses.— 1 Coll. A". //. Hist. Soc. p. 88 :— and in 7 
or 8 ve;;rs tlie fishery censed.— 2 Dniiy;. Siirnm. p. 538. — Ken. Claims, p. 1."). 



Chap. III.] of Maine. 91 

Noyes being also patronized by some fishmongers In London, a.D; 1716. 
entered largely into the sturgeon-fishery, which he carried on Sturgeon 

fishcrv* 

"in the several branches of the Sagadahock," seven or eight 
years. In some seasons, twenty vessels were taken into employ- 
ment ; and " many thousand kegs" were filled, which were esteem- 
ed equal " to any that ever came from Hamburgh or Norway." 
Also vast quantities of pine boards, plank, — hogshead, pipe and 
barrel staves, and all sorts of timber, were annually transported "'" *""■ 
from the river, as well to foreign places as to Boston. 

The field for setdement was wide ; the territory between the 
rivers Sagadahock and St. George, which had lain waste ever 
since it was depopulated by the savages in 1689, presented to 
setders many attractions ; and various projects were devised and 
motives urged, to induce their return to the places formerly inhab- 
ited. Hitherto the county of Yorkshire had embraced only the 
old Province of Maine; therefore, the General Court, in 1716, 
to render the administration of justice commensurate with its 
jurisdiction, ordered, that " all the lands, families and setdements extended to 
eastward of Sagadahock" within the limits of the Provincial 
Charter be annexed to Yorkshire ; and that York be the shire 
town for holding all the courts, and for keeping the registry of 
deeds.* 

Governor Shute, who arrived, Oct. 4, 1716, took the reins at 
a critical period of public affairs. The Province was emerging .^rrrvea''"*^ 
from a long Indian war, which had oppressed the people with 
debt ; a depreciating paper currency had almost expelled specie 
from the country, and greatly embarrassed the trade ; and the 
royal prerogative, as managed by the Governors under the char- 
ter, had wrought up the public jealousy to such a pitch, as would 
render the chair unpleasant to any one appointed to fill it. — The 
settlement of the eastern Provinces he found to be a popular and 
interesting topic ; and in the ensuing winter or spring, an order 
was passed for the repair of the fort and the re-establishment of 
a garrison at Pemaquid. 

But the new settlements, the mills, and especially the forts. The natives 
had surprisingly awakened the animosity of the Indians, whom '■*^''^**' 
the French missionaries eagerly inflamed, by telling them the 

* 9 Mass. Rec. p. 95-262.— The treaty of Utiecht had now extinguished 
the French claim to Sagadahock wholly. 



92 THE HISTORY [VoL. II, 

A. u. 1717. English had invaded their rights. What at the same time helped 
to fan and feed the fire, was a rumour, that there were apprehen- 
sions of a war between England and France. 

As the best way to pacify the tribes, and keep them tranquil, 
it was determined to provide immediate and effectual means for 
instructing the older Indians in the christian religion, and the 
younger, in the elements of education, according to the practice 
of the fathers. The General Court therefore offered to pay any 
minister £150 annually, who would reside at fort George, learn 
the dialect of the tribe, and become their instructer. A young 
scholar was to be associated with him as a schoolmaster, and £10 
placed in his hands to procure books and curiosities, which he 
was to distribute among the ))upils according to their merits.* 
In xVii^ust, I'l the mean time, the Governor, attended by members of the 
sick/iil^e'^ Council from his several Provinces, met in August, according to 
thriiidialls. previous appointment, " a great number of Indians with the 
Chiefs of every tribe," and conferred with them at Arrowsick. The 
Canibas Sagamores believing themselves the most aggrieved, took 
the lead in the conference. The Governor presented them with 
an English and Indian Bible, and told them it contained the true 
religion ; and Mr. Baxter, a missionary who had attended him, 
would explain its principles to them. All people, said they, love 
their own ministers. Your bibles, we do not care to keep ; — 
God has given us teaching, and should we go from that, we should 
offend God. 
The confer- It being found they were immoveably attached to the Catholic 
creed, the rest of the parley was upon the respective rights of the 
parties. The Sagamores complained of encroachments. They 
thought, that though the lands westward of the Kennebeck might 
belong to the English ; surely no sale had been made of the 
country eastward of that river. But, replied the Governor, ' we 
' shall never part with an inch of our lands in that quarter.' 
Thinking this to imply more than was expressed or intended, 
they instantly rose and departed without ceremony to their 
canoes, paddling away to another Island, the place of their head- 
quarters, and leaving their English flag upon the ground. 
Rale's let- In ti^c evening they returned, bringing a letter from Sebastian 
Rale, the aposde of Norridgewock, addressed to the Governor, and 

* 9 Mass. Rec. p. 120- 



eiice 



ler. 



Chap, hi.] of Maine. 93 

stating, ' that the French king had never by any treaty, conced- A. D. 1717. 
' ed to the English the lands of the Indians, and that he would 
' protect them against every encroachment.' The Governor then 
let them know how highly he resented the insolent interference of 
the Jesuit ; and the next morning, he made preparations to re- 
embark. The Indians were by no means ripe for war. The 
older men were loath to quit their villages at Norridgewock and 
Penobscot, where they were living at ease ; and dreaded to become 
dependent upon the French, by whom, as they often said, they 
were treated like dogs, when there was no immediate want of their 
services. Full of apparent regrets for the incivilities offered the 
day before, two messengers came and solicited the English colors 
they had slighted — also, a furtlier interview with the Governor. 
At night the conference was renewed. Pretending to be dis-^ 

° . . ^ Treaty con- 

satisfied with the words and conduct of their speaker yesterday, fumedi 
they appointed another. He confessed that some of their incon- 
siderate young men had been guilty of wrongs towards the English 
and were blameworthy.* But it is our wish, he said, ' to live in 
' peace, and to be supplied at fair prices with necessaries in the 
' way of trade ; and without talking at this time about lines and 
' limits, we declare ourselves willing, that the English should set- 
' tie and occupy where their fathers did ; though we very much 



* A part of the dialog-ue on the first daj of the parley, follows : 

Wiwurna. — We are willing- to cut off our lands as far as the niills and 
the coasts of Peinaijuid. 

Governor. — Tell them we desire onlj' what is our own, and that wc will 
have. We will not wrong- them, but will be masters of our own. 

Wiwurna. — It was said at Casco treaty, that no more forts should be 
made. 

Governor. — Tell Ihcm the forts are not made for their hurt ; they are 
for the securitj' of both — we being- all subjects of king- George. 

Wiwurna. — We cannot understand how our lands have been purchased : 
— what has been alienated was by our g-ift. [The deed to Wharton signed 
by six Sagamores was then read to them.] 

Wivmrnn. — But surcl}' nothing- has been sold on the east side of Kenne- 
beck river. 

Governor. — We expect the English will be quiet in the possession of all 
the lands they have purchased and what they own. 

Wiwurna, — We arc a little uneasy concerning these lands ; but are wil- 
ling the English shall possess all they have, excepting- forts. We must have 
fishing and fowling where we will. 

Governor, — It is freely assented to and allowed. — 2 Hutch. Hisl. p. 199. 



94 THE HISTORY [VoL. II, 

A.D. 1717.' dislike their forts.' At length, the treaty of Portsmouth, signed 
in 1713, was, with their former allegiance, renewed ; and the 
Sagamores in accepting the presents made to them, returned a 
belt of wampum, a lot of beaver, and a toast to the king's health.* 

Timber- Next the timber-trees, and especially the white pines, in these 

trees. eastern forests, were made a subject of great consideration ; and 

being connected with the king's prerogative, it soon drew the Gov- 
ernor into an unhappy controversy with the House. By the last 
paragraph in the Provincial Charter, " all trees of the diameter 
" of 24 inches — upwards of 12 inches from the ground, growing 
" upon any soil or tract of land within our said Province or terri- 
" tory not heretofore granted to any private persons''' — ' were re- 
' served for masting the royal navy : — And all persons were for- 
' bidden to fell, cut, or destroy any such trees without the royal 
' license, first had and obtained, upon penalty of forfeiting £100 
' sterling, for every tree so felled, cut, or destroyed without such 
' license.' 

In consequence of some mismanagement by the surveyor-gen- 

Surveyor- eral of the woods, John Brideer, Esq. ;+ the extent both of his 

General nc- ' . . 

cused. power and of the reservation in the charter, became the subject 
of discussion and scrutiny. It was contended that the original 
Province of Maine, which was purchased of Gorges by the Col- 
ony of Massachusetts, had never reverted to the crown ; and 
every part of it, which was not granted to individuals, was now 
the public property of the Province. J At any rate, all the trees 
within any township were either private property, or what was 
equivalent, according to another clause in the charter, they were 
owned by the townsmen collectively, as a " body politic" or cor- 
poration. With neither, had the king's surveyor any concern. 
Nay it was believed, he was commissioned only to survey the for- 
ests and preserve the mast pines and other timber ; whereas he 
was accused of granting tacit permits to cut trees, and even of 
conniving at trespasses — then of making enormous exactions for 
the logs ; pursuing the wrong-doers with vindictive violence, and 
sometimes encroaching upon the rights of others. 

Pursued by Mr. Elisha Cook of Boston, who was the Councillor for Saga- 
*"■ °^ ■ dahock this year, a man of good abilities and great influence 

* Penhallow's Ind. war 1 Coll. N. H. Hist. Soc. p. 89. 

f His deputy for Maine, was first, Mr. Frazer; afterwards, Mr. Plaisted, 
a more popular man. \ 2 Hutch. Hist, p. 229. — Ed. 1795. 



Chap. m.J of maine. 95 

among the people, entered warmly into this discussion. He said a.i>. 1718 
Bridger had no authority to grant any such licenses; nor to com- 
pound with trespassers, for he had seen his commission.* He 
even went so far as to delineate to the House the malversation of 
that officer, and to charge him with betraying the trust committed 
to him.f In that body, Mr. Cook met with all the success he de- 
sired ; for his course was approved, and the proceedings of the 
surveyor-general were condemned. 

On the other hand, Bridger presented a counter memorial to prid'-er's 
the Council in justification of his measures ; when the Governor, '^*'^^"^^' 
who made a merit of being a vigilant guardian of the royal in- 
terests, espoused his cause with great zeal, and transmitted the 
papers to the Lords of trade. The House, being thus indirectly 
censured by the Board, took an affront, and accused the Gov- 
ernor of sending home a partial statement of the facts ; and 
Cook, being quite censorious, had, by some unguarded expres- 
sion, so deeply wounded the Governor, that when the Councillors 
elect were, in the ensuing spring, presented to him, lie by his 
negative, struck Mr. Cook's name from the list. 

The surveyor-general also, among his duties, was instructed to 
inform the king's Navy Board, what oak timber suitable for ship dmics. 
building, — what trees yielding tar, pitch or turpentine — and what 
land fit to rear hemp, could be found, which might be rendered 
useful to the fleet. In the discharge of this trust, as well as that 
of preserving the mast pines and ship-timber, he had the patron- 
age and aid of the Governor; who said, he had a general super- 
inten dance of the whole, given him in charge by the Lords of 
trade. The Governor likewise represented to the House, that 
the pitch and tar, made and exported in great quantities, were tar. 
adulterated with sand, and that an act of Parliament had lately 
been passed, requiring more strict examination into their qualities. f 
This evil, the General Court had no objection to rectify, if it had 
become an evil worthy of notice. But the House were in tem- 
per to assume at once the whole oversight of the eastern forests ; 



* 9 Jlass. Rcc. p. 280,— Committees' Report, Nov. 1718, against Bridg-er. 
—9 Mass. Ree. p. 367, 

T It was said Bridger had received of one nan £5() for masts by liim cut 
and sent to England ; and told the people they could cut, without incurring 
ihe penalty mentioned in the charter. — 9 Jlass. Rcc. p. 2S0. 

t Governor's Speech, A. D, 1719. 



96 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A. D. 1718 and accordingly appointed a committee of seven to that trust; 
A Coniir.ii- empowering them to take into possession all the logs found there- 
see iheeasi- in, and to direct the Attorney-General, when to institute or pur- 
sue legal process, either for cutting trees, bleeding them for tur- 
pentine, or other trespasses.* This course deeply entrenched 
upon the authority of the Governor and the Surveyor-General j 
and at the same time so sensibly touched the royal prerogative, 
as to occasion, the next year, an interposing act of Parliament. 
Trespasses By tliis, the penalties for trespasses in the royal woods, were re- 
Admiraity covcrablc in a court of admiralty,! where there is no jury, 
Courts. ^^^ ^jjg judge only holds his oiFice during the pleasure of the 

crown. 
Soil of Sa?- By other paragraphs in the charter,! no grants of any lands 
the'crown? lying eastward of Kennebeck river within the limits of the 
Province, which the Governor and Legislature might make or 
pass, should have any force or effect, until approved by the crown. 
But prior grants and all other estates, which were holden or ought 
to be enjoyed within the Province, under any act of the former 
governments, or by any other lawful right or title whatsoever, 
would be holden by the respective grantees and their heirs, ac- 
cording to the intent and interest of the grantors. Perceiving 
the fee of the ungranted lands in the Province of Sagadahock, 
to be in the sovereign, and the jurisdiction in the Provincial gov- 
Armsuoiig's emmcnt, William Armstrong and others, who had been officers 
^'^"■' "^ and soldiers in the army, presented a petition to the board of 
trade and plantations, for a grant of those lands. The subject 
underwent several discussions before their Lordships, the petition- 
ers being strenuously opposed by the provincial agent. It was 
proposed, that if Massachusetts would resign her jurisdiction to 
the country eastward of the Penobscot, she should have the 
property in the soil westward of that river confirmed to her by 
the crown ; by which means her interest would be enlarged, and 
she would be enabled to effectuate more extensive settlements. 
But acquainted as she was entirely, with the value of her rights and 



* 9 JIass. Rec. p. 510.— In 1721, the Deputy or Surveyor-General g'ave 
license to cut the trees of the woods as belonging to the kin^ ; and a Com- 
mittee was ordered to secure the logs cut under the license, for the use of 
the Province. 

t See ante, " Courts," Chap. 1, vol. II, A. D. 1692-3-4. 

I Ancient Charters, p. '2G, 34. 



Chap, hi.] of maine. 97 

the importance of this eastern region to her, she instructed herA.D. 1719. 
agent to make no concessions ; — and consequently the project 
altogether failed. 

Efforts were unabating through the vear 1719, towards the ^'''"'""'•'nts 
enlargement of tie towns and settlements already begun, and the i^ef'fbeck 
establishment of others, especially eastward of Kennebeck river ; (Jeorgc's 

' •' . river. 

also some preparations were made for removals ; as proprietors 
were anxious to repossess themselves of their lands, through lear 
of being barred by the statute of limitations. Hence in the 
present and succeeding summer, two or three persons settled at 
Damariscotta, under the '• Tnppan Right,^' and made improve- 
ments. Within the patent to Elbridge and Aldsworth, or " Drown 
Right^^^ repairs were undertaken upon the fort at Pemaquid. 
William Hilton and John Brown were now residents at New- 
Harbor upon the '■'•Brown Right •'^ and in 1724, "a survey 
" was made of the lands granted to John Brown the elder, ac- 
" cording to the limits and boundaries of the Indian deeds."* — ■ 
For the purposes of settlement, the Waldo Patent was divided, 
in 1719, into ten shares, — and the "ten proprietors" assigned 
two thirds to the " twenty associates" formed, — and retained the 
rest. 'At this period, there was not a house between George- 

* town and Annapolis, except a fish-house on Damariscove Isl- 

* and, nor " until the time that St, George^s fort was built,"f fort. ^* 
in 1719-20. Here were erected a capacious and defensible 
building, on an elevation near the easterly edge of St. George's 

river, at the elbow, and a blockhouse at a short distance, having 
a large area between them enclosed by pallisades, and capable of 
receiving 250 men. J Another fortress, called Fort Richmond^ p^^t rj^j,, 
was built about this time on the west bank of Kennebeck river, "*'"^* 
opposite to Swan Island. § 

* See ante, A. B. 1650 ; and post, A. D. 1729.— Fort William Henry 
built at Pemaqnid, 1692, destroj'ed, 1696. — See in Commissioners'' Reports, 
A. D. 1811, p. 15-18. — GatchelVs Deposition, p. 95. — Brown's Deposition, p. 
109-115.— Pre.?co«'s anrf Pearce's Deposition, Tp. 116-118.— In 1730, there 
were, in what is now Bristol and the adjacent towns, "at least 150 set- 
tlers." — Col. W. Jones'' testimony, ib. p. 144. 

t P. Roger''s Deposition, taken 1773, ib. p. 60. — Probably the fort was 
finished in 1721.— 10 Mass. Rec. p. 379. 

X Memorial of J. Leverett and others 10 Mass. Rec. p. 380. The fort 

was in Thomaston, in front of the mansion-house of the late General Knox. 

\ The Fort, situate near the water, was not large, nor very firmly con-^ 
Vol. II. 13 



98 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A. D. 1719. The grateful expressions with which the Governor was saluted, 
Duty on OH account of the share he had in obtainins; a late Parliamentary 

lumber re- " ■' 

pealed. repeal of the duty exacted on lumber imported from America, 
were almost the only political consolations he experienced this 
year. His approval of an impost, a twelve month before, was 
censured by the Lords-Justices, in the king's absence, be- 
cause English vessels and manufactures were not excepted ; — 
still the House were hardly induced to revise it. — To preserve 
the forest-trees, the surveyor-general sent out his deputies, who 
marked. marked an immense number of them with a capital R. and other- 
wise made a new display of his authority. This marking scheme 
was a novel expedient, as it was also unfortunate at this time, for 
upon no other subject than the timber, was the House more sen- 
sitive. Yet the Governor, with a full knowledge of the public 
feeling, had the imprudence to declare to that body, his deter- 
minate purpose, conformably to a late instruction from home, to 
support the surveyor, at all lengths, in the discharge of his offi- 
cial duty. This opened the half-smothered embers, and the 
House sent in a protest, which so severely charged Bridger with 
mal-conduct, that the Governor declared it should not be printed ; 
adding with extreme indiscretion, " remember, I have the power 
of the press." 
of'uieGov* So sacred and well understood were the sentiments of liberty 
and House. Jn this age, that no royal Governor, however able and wise, could 
by possibility maintain his master's prerogative, and at the same 
time satisfy the people and their representatives. Suffice it to 
say, that during the residue of Gov. Shute's administration, 
through a period of three years, the dissensions between him and 
the House were continually increasing, till they rose to a lament- 
able height. In return for his negation of Councillors and 
Speaker of the House, and other arbitrary acts ; he was allowed 
a smaller salary than his predecessors ; agents were appointed to 
inspect the garrisons, though he by the charter was Commander- 
in-Chief j a dupHcate of the records was taken ; and as though 

structed. It was dismantled in 1754. — It was in the present town of 
Richmond ; — ten miles below the mouth of Cobbisecontee. The site of 
Richmond Fort was not far from the marg-in of tlie river, on ground, 12 or 
15 feet above the water; from which the land gradually ascends; and 
thereabouts, there was, in 1820, a hamlet of 15 or 20 houses, a few stores, 
and 2 or 3 wharves. 



Chap. hi. J of aiaine. 99 

his integrity was suspected, a motion was made to withdraw from a. d. 1719. 
him and the Council, the keys of the public chest. 

Another perplexity of much ereater moment, in fact, to the Indians in- 
community, was the insolence of the Abenaquis Indians, every 
where noticeable since their return from the winter hunting.* Peo- 
ple acquainted with their character, thought their behavior was a 
strong indication of some hostile attack ; and therefore the Govern- 
or, soon after the spring session of the General Court, despatched 
forty men into Maine, to guard the frontiers, and watch the mo- 
tions of the savages. These were distributed, 15 to Falmouth, 
1 to Scarborough, 10 to Arundel, and 5 to North-Yarmouth 
fort, though the reseitlement of the latter place had not been un- 
dertaken in a regular defensible manner. The summer rather 
deepened than allayed the people's fears ; and at the November 
session, the General Court appointed three commissioners, Wil- Guards sem 
ham Tailer, Edmund Quincy and William Dudley, with instruc- 
tions to meet the chiefs of the Canibas Indians at Brunswick or 
some other convenient place ; to ascertain if possible, the grounds 
of complaint and difficulty ; to demand a reparation for the in- 
juries done, — and to propose a revision of the trade, — a hmited 
occupancy of our own lands, — and an offer, that some of the 
chiefs, according to their desire, take a voyage to England ; as- 
suring the tribe at Penobscot, that the spirit of peace, which tlieir 
letter breathed, had received a most acceptable welcome. 

It being late in the season, the commissioners had no interview 
with the Sagamores, till the succeeding June ; when it seemed, June. 

T 1 T7- . /-i • '^'heir re- 

by their report, that if the Kennebeck proprietors and the Cani- pon. 
has Indians could agree upon boundaries, the fearful difficul- 
ties might be reconciled. f A committee was then raised to con- 
sider the subject of boundaries; £223,15^. were appropriated 
towards the support of a garrison at fort George, on the Andros- 
coggin ; and 50 soldiers were continued in public pay till the au- Soldiers in 
tumn ; twenty of whom being stationed at Richmond fort, and 
Swan-Island. 

* See letter, dated Merry-meeting bay, May 1, 1719, from Joseph Heath 
and John Minot, to Governor Shute. They say, the Indians called a coun- 
cil,- and said the Jesuit spoke his mind, not theirs ; that they did not employ 
him to write for them, &c. — 8 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. p. 265, JVew Series. 

f The conduct of the commissioners did not please the House ; they did 
not get any pay for their services. 



service. 



100 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A.D. 1720, In this critical posture of eastern affairs, Capt. Thomas Coram, 
projm'for ^ visionary theorist, promulgated a project for settling the Saga- 
Saealfa, ^^^liock Province, and raising upon the lands a quantity of hemp 
liock- and flax, sufficient for supplying the royal navy with cordage. It 

was proposed, that a large number of men should be incorporated 
with a capital of £100,000 sterling, and with a charter of privi- 
leges suited to the enterprize ; that the territory be granted by 
the crown to the corporation in fee ; and that the whole direction 
be entrusted to a board of seventeen managers. To remunerate 
Massachusetts for a surrender of her jurisdiction, she was to have 
the privilege of subscribing £20,000, and owning a fifth part of 
the interest. As the scheme, wild as it may appear, was not 
without its advocates, it was thought that the preferable way to 
frustrate it, would be to inflate the vain conceit of the projector. 
Hence he was induced to withdraw, in anticipation of something 
greater, or more entirely acceptable to all. But when he found 
, the region between Kennebeck and Penobscot was not to be in- 
cluded, he fell into a (it of passion, exclaiming, " it is all a trick 
to save that fine country, for the villainous people of New-Eng- 
land."* The bubble burst ; the fever for speculation in Ameri- 
can wilds about this time was greatly cooled by the severe ani- 
madversions of Parliament ; and Coram's project was laid aside 
for ten years. 
AfTairiof An experiment of the same character, previously proposed by 
jia. him in Nova-Scotia, met with no better fate.f That country, 

rendered interesting to us by its contiguity, had only in a small 
degree increased in numbers and wealth, since it had become a 
British province. During the administration of Samuel Vetch, 
four years from 17] 0, and of Francis Nicholson, five years from 
1714, these Governors had been able to do nothing more, than 
bring the inhabitants into a state of nominal obedience. Nor did 
the country in any respect have a flourishing growth, even after 
Colonel Richard Phillips was appointed Governor in 1719. For 
though tlie executive Council, consisting of twelve members, 
were a respectable body ; yet the twenty-four deputies, chosen by 
the twelve districts into which the Province was divided, were of 
a nondescript character, being merely distributors of orders, and 
messengers of the people's wants and wishes ; as they never 



"* Dumracr's letter, September, 1720. fS Hutch. Hist. p. 203. 



Chap, in.] of Maine. 101 

acted collectively as legislators, nor as judges. The inhabitants A. L>. mo. 
were mostly Frenchmen, who could not understand English ; ig- 
norant, not one in an hundred able to write or even read ; and 
dupes to their priests, as they would rather die than renounce 
the catholic religion. They were also miserable husbandmen 
and mechanics. Nay, the deep-rooted and habitual antipathies 
between the French and English, created colHsions which neces- 
sarily rendered society unhappy, during the extended period of 
thirty years, in which Governor Phillips was in the chair. 

The Acadians having strongly attached the natives to them by .^^..^^^ ^^ 
an assimilation of manners, an unity of worship, and an inter- ^--^pe Rre. 

' •' ' Ion and 

course in trade, were now prepared to make Cape Breton*' the Canseau. 
depot for their future fishery and trade. On the other hand, the 
English had formed a fishing establishment at Canseau, which 
was freqnented, especially in the summer months, by many traders -pi^^ ,,-,^ 
from Massachusetts. Instigated by the French, the Indians in i's''pi""der- 
sreat numbers, attacked the vjlace, August 7, and plundered it of ''"'''"'^• 

o ' I ' o ' r August?. 

<ish and merchandize, to the amount of £20,000. 

The news of this rapine, though evidently committed by the ,,,, , 

1 ' " •' .' I lie people 

Mickmaks alone, sreatly emboldened their western neighbors, and «i"'nif;! 'v 

^ o J . , . ''"^ Indiana, 

in a still greater degree, alarmed the apprehensions of the inhab- 
itants. To allay their fears. Governor Shute despatched east- 
ward a small re-enforcement, giving the command of the whole to 
Colonel Shadrach Walton ; and when he met the General Court, 
November 2, he declared, he "had certain information, that the Nov. 2. 
" Indians were committing great outrages on our eastern settle- 
" ments, by killing cattle, and by threatening and insulting his 
" Majesty's subjects. "f 

Rale, the famous Jesuit, was deemed the principal instigator of „ ,, . 
these insults. He was a man of talents and learnins; ; and by ^^""r '"^'"^ 

- _ _ _ . conduct. 

his condescending manners, religious zeal, and untiring persever- 
ance, he had greatly endeared himself to the tribe. He had re- 

* Ca^t Breton was an Island still claimed by the French ; who contended 
that it did not pass to tlie English when the French resig-ned to them " all 
Nova-Scotia and Acadia, with its ancient boundaries." The French took 
possession of it in August, 1713, and called it Ide- Royal. -'See ante, trtaty 
of Uliacht, SOth March, 1713.— 2 flolmny Am. Ann. p. 0.5-6. 

t According to Charlevoix, (he Indians sang the war-song in 1720; and 
the place of genera] rendezvous was at " Narantsouate," as he spells Nor 
ndgcwock. — 4 JVew-Francc, p. 120. 



102 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A.D. 1720. sided with them and been their tutelar father, thirty years; and 
many of them he had taught to read and write. To render their 
devotion an incentive to violence, it is said, he kept a banner fig- 
ured with a cross, which was encircled by bows and arrows ; and 
while he was giving them absolution before they proceeded to 
war, or upon any hostile expedition, he was in the habit of sus- 
pending the flag from a tall standard at the door of his chapel ;* 
aware of the advantages gained, if he could give every bold sally 
of the Indians, the character of a crusade. Fond of epistolary cor- 
respondence, he kept up a constant intercourse with Vaudreuil, the 
Governor of Canada ; giving him an account of every settlement, 
fort, or other enterprise, commenced by the English ; and receiv- 
ing in return, advices how to incite and direct the Indians against 
the settlers. He sent Governor Shute a very bold letter, filled 
with curious logic, to prove the exclusive rights of the Indians 
to the country they inhabited. f 
Measures ^^^ different branches of the government were not agreed 
proposed to j^^^ course was best to be pursued against him. The House 

.seize nun. ' '^ 

resolved to send a warrant to John Leighton, sheriff of York- 
shire, and orders unto Col. Walton, to attend him with a military 
guard of 150 men, and directed them to proceed to Norridge- 
wock, seize the Jesuit, and bring him to Boston dead or alive ; — 
offering them a reward of £500 for his body, besides the usual 
wages. If he could not be found, or if the tribe refused to pro- 
duce him, it was ordered, that several of the principal Indians be 
seized and conveyed to Boston. But the Council non-concurred 
the resolve, thinking a reward of £200, large enough ; and at 
the same time, believing, in view of the present posture of our 
affairs with this tribe, that it was inexpedient to send any armed 
force. The Board were extremely anxious to perpetuate peace ; 
while the Governor considered the resolve equivalent to a declar- 
ation of war, and a direct " invasion of the prerogative.''^ It 



*2Belk. ]N. H. p. 41. 

j- See appendix to John Pickering's Essay on the Orthography of the 
Indian Languages in J^Turth-America, p. 40-2 : who having' examined the 
Jesuit's MS. Dictionary of the "Abnaki" languajjc, 8:ives him the name 
RaLE, as the orthoepy, though often spelt Rasles and Rallc. Mr. Picker- 
ing says, that Dictionary is divided into two parts— 1st, 205 leaves are 
French and Indian ; 2d, 25 leaves are Indian and French or Latin. 

1 2 Hutch, Hist. p. 219. 



Chap, hi.] of Maine. 2Q3 

would necessarily prevent a negotiation, which was still devoutly A. D. 1720. 
anticipated ; and hence, the proposition of the House was post- 
poned. 

To the Indians at Penobscot, who as a tribe had not been con- The tribe at 
cerned in the late mischiefs, there was given the value of £40 fdreS. 
in presents ; also a courteous letter was addressed to them, — in 
hopes to perpetuate their forbearance. At the same time, it was 
represented to the General Court, by a memorial from the rep- 
resentatives of York, Kittery, Berwick, and Wells, that more 
than 100 men had volunteered or been detailed from these towns ^"'i^'ers in 
to join CoL Walton, leaving the places weak and exposed. The 
House therefore resolved, that they be relieved by substitutes 
from other counties, and that not another soldier be detached nor 
enlisted in Yorkshire. As to the propriety of these measures, 
and the expediency of attempting another conference with the 
Indians and sending them a missionary, all parties were well 
agreed : — in other respects there was no political concord be- 
tween the Governor and House. 

It being at length discovered, that JVotaries public, hitherto j^^,^^; ^ 
appointed by the Archbishop of Canterbury, were such civil offi- P"'^'''^- 
cers as ought to be chosen by the Legislature ; the House at 
once on their part made the election, and sent the list to the 
Council for their concurrence : — they being ever afterwards 
elected by the General Court. In the present instance, all the 
House intended, was to shew an independence of the Execu- 
tive ; and the most the Governor could do, was to raise doubts, 
if they ought by the charter to be sworn, — protesting against 
this fresh encroachment upon his prerogative. 

An election, in the ensuing May, 1721, was made a subject^- i^ j^g, 
of still greater scrutiny. This was the choice of Paul Dudlev.,'^^^ '"''*'«'' 
now the tlnrd tune elected into the Council for Sagadahock. '^y- t^oun- 
He was a son of the late Governor, and a Judge upon the su-Sa?ada- 
preme bench ; a man equally distinguished for his talents, learn- 
ing and integrity. But he was the successor of Mr. Cooke, late 
Councillor for that Province ; and a supporter of Gov. Shute's 
administration. His residence was in Roxbury ; and it was 
surmised, that he was not the proprietor of any lands within the 
territory for which he was elected. In the discussion before a 
Committee of the House, appointed to investigate the subject, 
the judge supposed the enquiry into his qualifications was loo 



liock. 



104 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A.D. 1721. late ; it should have been made, if ever, before the election, or 
certainly before he was sworn. He said he was willing to exhib- 
it his deed to any individual member, desirous to see it; but 
must decline to lay it upon the speaker's table, as required ; for 
it was well known, there were various claimants to tracts in Sag- 
adahock, and the House might vote his own deed insufficient, 
and prejudice the title. Dissatisfied entirely with this answer, 
the House voted it to be an affront, and his refusal to produce 
his deed, abundant evidence of his being a non-proprietor; and 
resolved, that his election was void. But in consequence of the 
Council's non-concurrence, he held his seat through the year ; and 
it is said, that afterwards every non-resident Councillor elect, 
made affidavit that he was a proprietor, before he took his seat 
and official oath at the Board. 

Party-spirit was yet only one of the many causes, which ren- 
dered the current spring gloomy. So many were the fears of a 
rupture with the Indians, that few or no new settlements were un- 
dertaken ; and some of those which had been revived, were des- 

Pecplc be- pondinsT : while several families had already submittted to an 

gill !o re- ' ~ ' _ 

move. abandonment of their homes.* Nothing could present a greater 
^ ,„ . discouragement ; — and the Governor about midsummer issued 

Gov.feliute s ~ ' 

prociama- ^ Proclamation, requiring ' the inhabitants to remain upon their 

lion. 5 r> I ij 

' estates and keep possession of the country. But who could 
expect obedience to a mandate so extraordinary ^ If their own 
property and habitations had no allurements sufficient to prevent 
removals, it were unreasonable to expect, they would tarry mere- 
ly to form a barrier against the hostile natives. 
Loans of Trade was again declining ; and the large loans of paper money, 
^'"*' made by statute orders of the Legislature on a pledge of lands, 

were oppressive to debtors, though the government had been the 
gainer by a gradual depreciation. More than a year before this, 
it was ascertained, for instance, by the Commissioners of York- 
shire, Messrs. Preble, Leighton, Came and Plaisted, that this 
county had received loans to the amount of £1 00,000. f As 
enterprise declined, and the prospect of a continued tranquillity 
receded, trespasses in the woods were less frequent ; and the 



* Mr. Hufchinson' [2 Hist. p. 209,) says,, settlements were deserted, in 
1720.— /6. p. 236. 

t Yet they were to bo discharged, if they would pay a balance in specie 
of £50, 19s. 9d. [9 JIasf. Rcc. 1719,] — a considerable sum at this period. 



ftlie 

MS. 



Chap, hi.] of Maine. 105 

Legislature with great coolness, declared it an encroachment upon a.d 1721 
his Majesty's rights, to fell trees fit for masts ; and then resolved, '^'''^'-'•'^es 

, . ' ;nid logs. 

that whenever they were cut mto logs, these should be taken into 
custody for the use of the Province. 

There was evidently a numerous peace-party among the In- views o 
dians themselves; and some believed the tribes in general to be as '"'''-'"*■ 
averse to war as the colonists. The chiefs had frequent parleys 
with the inhab.tants, and officers at the forts, in which they ex- 
hibited good sense and a just regard for their rights. " We have, 
" (said they,) fought for our lands three times, and if there be 
" need we are ready to fight for them again :" still ' we love the 
'songs and " calumet" of peace, and are ready to give an &arn- 
' est of our sincerity.' 

About this time, there was a great meeting of them at Nor- ti,^ (^a^i. 
ridgewock, for the choice of a chief to succeed Toxus, lately I'"' ''"'"' "^ 

J ^ J lioslai;CS u 

deceased, llie old men and those averse to war, actin"- con- ''"-''^"'• 
trary to the wishes of Rale, selected Oui-kou-i-rou-menit, a well 
known advocate for pacific measures. It was a joyfid occasion ; 
and it would seem, there were English emissaries present. In 
the subsequent conference, the Sagamores agreed to inquire 
into the injuries committed by the Indians, and as a pledge of 
their fidelity, presented the English a lot of beaver skins, with 
a promise of 200 in all ; consenting to send also, four hostages 
to Boston, as sureties for the good behavior of the tribe, as well 
ns jor a reparation of the damages sustained by the inhabitants, *'^^ '^• 
Rale was extremely displeased with these transactions, and im- 
mediately despatched a runner, with a letter of particulars to the 
Governor of Canada. 

When Vaudreuil received the intelligence, he pronounced the Vaudreuiis 
Sagamores, deluded dupes, who had basely betrayed the interests '^'"''" 
of their tribe into the hands of the English. Nay, in his reply 
to Rale, he says, the faint hearts of your Indians in giving hos- 
tages for damages done those, who would drive them, from their 
native country, have convinced me, that the present is a crisis in 
which a moment is not to be lost. Therefore I have applied to 
the villages of St. Francois and Becancourt, and prevailed upon 
them to support with vigor their brethren at JVorridgewock, and 
send a deputation to the place appointed Jor negotiating the 
proposed treaty, who dare let the English know, they will have 
Vol. II. 14 



106 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1721. to deal with other tribes than the one at Korridgewock, if they 
continue their encroachments. 

To keep the Indians in a state of irritability, and inspire them 

Ralp and _ ' "' ' 

tiie unlives, vvilh courage and Qrmness, the Governor and Intendant of Cana- 
da, sent Father de la Chase, and Lieut, de Croisel to Norridge- 
wock, with instructions to visit Penobscot, and engage their chiefs 
to be present at the anticipated negotiation, and strengthen their 
brethren ; — also to assure them, that if the French should not 
in fact join them, they will assist them with as much ammunition 
as may be needed. At this time the Indians had chapels at St. 
Francois, at Norridgewock, and at Penobscot,* lately built ; in 
all which they were usually supplied with the instructions of cath- 
olic priests. Having received from these apostles, lectures 
strongly tinctured with Romish fanaticism, the Indians oftentimes 
left home, resolved to persist in their demands, and in their first 
talk with the Colonists, accordingly appeared obstinate and inso- 
lent. But either through a consciousness of the fair conveyances 
actually made to the English, or an ardent desire of quietude ; 
they presently softened to a better temper, and frequently gave 
the proprietors and settlers, fresh assurances of enjoying their 
lands without molestation. These favorable symptoms lasted till 
they saw Rale ; and so often had his malignity, pride and offi- 
cious interference awakened among the Indians new complaints, 
that the people of the Province, for good reasons, ranked him 
'• among the most infamous villains," and would have given more 
for his head, than for an hundred scalps of the natives. 
August 4. About the first of August, a body of 200 Indians, borne in 90 
visit Arrow- canoes, and attended by Rale, la ChasC; Croisel, and Castine the 
^'*' ■ younger, arrived at Padeshal's Island, in Georgetown. They 

were well armed, well clad, and appeared under French colors. 
The leaders proceeded to Arrowsick Island, and in the course of 
their interview with Captain Penhallow, the commander of the 
garrison, they presented him with a letter addressed to Governor 
Shute, purporting to be in the name of several tribes, and posi- 
tively declaring, that if the settlers did not remove in three weeks, 
thread. ^^^ Indians ivould come and kill them all, destroy their cattle and 
burn their houses: tor, added they, 'you Englishmen have taken 



*' Father Laiiverjat was the missionary to the Penobscot tribe.' — Cor- 
respondence between him and Rale. 



Chap, m.] of Maine. 107 

* away the lands which the Great God has given our fathers and a. d. 172i. 
'us.' 

The escape of the hostages from their residence upon an Isl- ^^j^^.^j^^^^^ 
and near Boston, soon afterwards, induced strong fears that a ^2;«s escape, 
storm was gathering, which would fall upon some unsuspecting, 
or unguarded part of the frontiers. Expresses were forthwith 
despatched into the eastern Provinces, to inibrm the soldiery, gar- 
risons, and people, of the escape, and caution them against sur- 
prise ; also to make reprizals of all Indians seen armed, and de- 
tain them, till the hostages either surrendered themselves or were 
recovered. 

The General Court, heing specially convened, resolved, Aug. Tiieimiinns 
23d, upon a course of measures against the Indians, which they '^1. 'rebels 
termed, a prosecution for rebellion. Besides ordering 300 men 
to be raised for the eastern service, the legislature issued a man- 
datory proclamation, requiring the tribes to surrender Rale, and 
every Jesuit priest, and all rebels, and to make ample satisfaction 
for all injuries past ; or else the Indians, whereever found, would 
be seized and sent to Boston. If there were opposition, force 
must be repelled by force. 

Some supposed this procedure rash ; and many good people 
remembered with pain, how many of the government's stipula- 
tions, made or renewed in the treaty of Arrowsick and at other 
times, had never been performed. No trading houses had been 
erected ; no smiths or armorers had been provided at the public 
charge lor the accommodation of the Indians ; no places had 
been publicly established, where in a fair barter they could ex- 
change their furs and skins for provisions, ammunition, clothing 
and other articles. Perhaps traders had defrauded them, and 
hunters provoked them ; and the veins of war when once opened, 
could not be easily closed. 

Though the hostages were taken and returned to the castle, Hostaspj 
and consequently the war measures relaxed ; the quota of 300 jei'soo'm'en 
men were raised, and put under Col. Thaxter, and Lieut. Col. "''^''^' 
GofFe ; and the violence of prejudice against Rale, ran to such a 
height, that it was determined by the House, to have him brought 
to Boston a prisoner or a corpse, without farther delay. But 
the Governor scrupled, if any of these rash measures against the 



108 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 17^:1. tribes were expedient or prudent ; and the process to take the 

Jesuit was again postponed.* 
„, ,,,,,- As Castine the Youngerf was with the party that lately ap- 
(:<i>,i!iie ihe peared in array at Arrowsick Island : some of our eastern soldie- 
ry, under the general order to seize such Indians as were seen 
in arms, took him into cusiody and sent him to Boston. To in- 
dict and try him for rebellion, or treachery, before the Superior 
Court in Suffolk, as the House were ready to order, would be 
putting him on trial in one county, contrary to law, for an of- 
fence committed in another; and therefore a committee was ap- 
pointed to examine him. Castine was a cautious sensible man, 
favored with the 2:ift of address; and in the investigation, he 
professed as he had uniformly done, the highest friendship and 
respect for the English. He affirmed, that he had lately return- 
ed from a tour abroad, — to prevent his tribe from doing mischief; 
and solemnly promised, that he would use his utmost endeavors to 
keep tlie Indians in a state of peace. It would have been diffi- 
cult, in fact, even to describe his offence, and it was unjust to de- 
tain him. His induence was great among the Sagamores; his 
representations were plausible and apparently sincere; and at last 
he was discharged. The arrest of him was in itself cruel ; and 
any punishment inflicted upon him would have been a disgrace to 
the government. I 
Aiieirpis to Early in the November session, the General Court resolved, 
tj e a e. ^^^^ there were reasons still existing, sufficient to prosecute " the 

* 2 Hiilch. Hist. p. 214. 

i See ante, A. B. 1713. Charlevoix [Alh vol. JV. F. p. 115-17,] says the 
English despatched a vessel to his residence which was on the borders of 
the sea ; where Castine came on board, and thej'' carried him to Boston. 
He was then brought to the bar, and interrogated : — ' wliy did you attend 
' the conference t — in what capacity ? — Did not V^aiidreuil send you there .'' 
* — What means your French uniform ?' — Answer by Castine — 1 have al- 
ivays Hoed with my kindred and jjeople ; my mother ivas one nf them ; J had 
the command isf them ; and I would not fail to attend a meeting where thtif 
interests were at stake. But I received no orders from Vaudreuil to attend. 
,l\ly habit is only an uniform suited to my birth and condition ; for 1 have the 
honor of being an officer under the French king. — Charlevoix adds, that he 
was set at liberty after five montlis. 

I Castine tiie younger, eldest son of Baron de St. Castine. lived with his 
maternal relations ; and in 1721, became acknowledged chief of the In- 
dians ; his muster roll imports him to be a chieftain, and " his coronet de- 
signates his claim to nobility." — S Coll. Jilass. Hist. Soc. p. 256, ncio^scries. 



Chap, in.] of maiise. 109 

*' Eastern Indians for their many breaches of covenant;" and in ad. 172i. 
December, a party was ordered to Norridgevvock, under Col. 
Thomas Westbrook, to seize the notorious Rale. They arrived at 
the village undiscovered, but before they could surround his 
house, he escaped into the woods, leaving his books and papers, 
in his chest or " strong box," which they brought off without 
doing any other damage. Among the papers were his letters of 
correspondence with the Governor of Canada, by which it ap- 
peared, that he was deeply engaged in exciting the Indians to a 
rupture, and had promised to assist them.* 

Since, however, there had not hitherto been in all these collis- 
ions any blood shed ; the government suddenly changed its 
more vigorous or violent measures, to schemes calculated to sof- 
ten the asperities of the Indians ; and sent a valuable present to 
Bomaseen, an old influential sachem of Norridgevvock, in hopes 
to enlist his influence on the side of reconciliation. f 

At the ensuing session, in May, a petition was presented to the a.d. 1722. 
Legislature by John Smith and other proprietors of JVorth-Yar- Noiii-Ynr- 
mouth,\ praying that the township might be re-established, and scuioii. 
suitable persons appointed to revive and manage the resettlement, 
in lieu of the trustees designated under President Danforth ; and 
proposing to have the proprietary settlers augmented to sixty. 
Accordingly, William Tailer, Elisha Cooke, William Dudley, 
John Smith and John Powell were appointed trustees, who held 
their meetings in Boston, five years ; but afterwards within the 
township. The heirs or assigns of Gendell, Royall, Lane, Shep- 
perd, and a few others, held their " old farms ;" otherwise no re- 
gard was paid to the original allotments, nor to quitrents. About 
i06 compact, or contiguous house-lots, severally of ten acres, 

*■ » Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc, p. 252, 2d series. — One book was a Dictionary 
of tlie Abeuaqiies language ; — deposited in tlje library of Harv. CoUeg-e. 

t 2 Hutch. Hist. p. 247. 

I See ante, A. D. 1680.— North-Yarmouth had laid waste, since it was 
<iestroyed by the Indians, A. D. 1688.— The Rev. Ammi R. Cutter settled, 
Sept. 1730, and dying- in 1763, was succeeded the next year, by Rev. Ed- 
ward Brooks ; and he by Rev. T. Gilman, in 1769, who died in 1809. The 
next minister was Rev. F. Brown ;— afterwards, President of Dartmouth 
College. The town has been divided. Freeport was incorporated in 
1789; Pownell, in 1808; Cumberland, in 1821.— North-Yarmouth was first 
represented in the General Court in 1759 ; and in 1760, by Jeremiah 
Powell. — Jforth-Yarmo^dh Records. 



1 ] THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D.. 1T22. were laid out; to which were annexed marsh-flats, each of four 
acres, and portions of the whole township, equal to 500 acres to 
each individual, hesides [siand-rishts. Lots were also appropri- 
ated for the use of the ministry, the first settled clergyman, and 
schools ; and it seems, the fort was finished, being now occupied 
bv a small garrison. The progress of settlement was slow ; yet 
within the succeeding eight years, a meeting-house, fifty feet by 
forty, was erected, and the Rev. Mr. Cutter, ordained. North- 
Yarmouth was an iniportant township, forming a connecting link 
between Georgetown and the towns westward uj)on the seaboard. 

Fx-riinii<! lo This was the last effort made for several years, to effectuate 

revive new "_ 

SI tiiemeiiis any new settlements. Our relations with the Indians were assum- 

saspuKec. .^^ ^ ^^^ posture; and unhappily for the Province, the Governor 
and House were far from entire concord, in a single measure. 
He had expected an established salary of £1,000 by the year, 
whereas he was allowed only an annual stipend of £500 in de- 
preciating currency, less in fact that £200 sterling. There had 
been a late instance, when he could not so much as obtain a vote 
of the House to give an Indian tribe £10, though it were for the 
purpose of perpetuating a peace. At length, tired of controversy, 
without popularity, pleasure, or emolument, he suddenly formed 
the resolution of leaving the chair, which he had filled six years 

^„,. gi„„^. and two months ; and in December he embarked lor England. 

.giuni' to Hqj-q Ijq jivred upon a liberal pension, to the advanced age of four- 
score years. If he were not endowed with great abilities for 
government, and if he sometimes indulged in amusements incon- 
sistent with his official station, he was a true lover of liberty ; and 
had it been his lot to rule in times when the waves of party-spirit 
had not run so high, his administration would not have been un- 
popular. 



Chap, iv.] of aial\e. 1 1 



CHAPTER IV. 

LovcwcU's vjar — 3Iotivcs of the Frtmcfi — Condition of the Indians 

— Th:ir political relations to the English — Their rcpri^ah — 
Their attack upon St. George^ <: fort — Brunswick burnt — Heath's 
exploit — War proclaimed against the eastern tribes — force raised 

— Officers — Part of Georgetown burnt — Indian village at Penob- 
scot burnt — Siclcncss and losses of the English — Mohawks urged 
io join them — St. George's fort beseigcd — Troops in pay — The 
enennfs attacks vpnn the towns — Battle at the river St. George — 
Capi. Winslow killed — The Indians seize vpon the eastern vessels 
— Pursued, theij abandon them — Norridgewock taken — Rale kil- 
led — Commissioners sent to Canada — LoveweU's successes — Coch- 
ran's exploit — LoveicclVs 2d Expedition — His celebrated fght at 
Pegwackct [Fnjeburgh] — The war — Thoughts of peace — Indian 
village at Fort Hill [Bangor] destroyed — Affray with Casiinc 

the younger — A negotiation — Peace French displeased ^4?? 

outrage by the northern Indians at Kennebunk — Letters from the 
Indians — Losses in this war. 

The fourth Indian war, beeun in 1722, and since denominated a.d. nrt? 

. .to 1722. 

the Three years'' or LovexvtWs icar, was carried on by the natives 
themselves, principally, against the provincials of New-Hamp- ^ar. 
shire, Maine, and Nova-Scotia. As there was at this period a 
well settled peace, between the English and French crowns, the 
Canadians durst not take any open part in the controversy, 
throudi fear of beins; charsied with violating the treaty. But, they '"^'"tives and 
affected to represent the Indians as an independent people, and '''e French, 
secretly incited them to drive the English settlers from the frontiers 
and the reviving plantations. By acts and pleas of exclusive friend- 
ship, they had enchained the confidence of the savages, in bonds not 
easily broken ; while the basest passions still lay at the bottom. 
Stript of the disguise, the dark designs appeared in bold relief and 
deformity. Old prejudices and ill-will towards the English, were 
only sleeping embers, even in the calms of peace. The French, 
having been in possession of the country eastward of the Pe- 
nobscot, were fully determined either to recover it, or to keep the 



112 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11, 

A n I7i20 settlements in perpetual check. By a kind of masic, the rulers 

to 1 iz2. "^ o ' 

of Canada artfully moved the springs behind the curtain ; and 
Rale, la Chase, le IMasse, and other Jesuit missionaries, gave am- 
ple proof of their skill in political intrigue, as well as that of mul- 
tiplying converts, 

tiie'iiKiuuis. The eastern tribes were manifestly in a sad dilemma. They 
were situated between the Colonies of two European nations, 
often at war with each other, and seldom under the influence of 
mutual fellowship. In their frequent negotiations, and individual 
parleys and conversations with the English, they were frank to 
open their whole hearts. They knew themselves to be ignorant 
and needy, and to be viewed as a savage race of men. But 
why, one enquired of them, ' are you so strongly attached to the 
' French, from whom you can never receive so much benefit as 
' from the English V A sachem gravely answered, " because the 
" French have taught us to pi-ny unto God, which Englishmen 
" never did." 

Their ^ summary of thoughts and expressions dropped by Indians, 

at different times, will shew their views. ' Frenchmen speak 

' and act in our behalf. They feed us with the good things we 
'need ; and they make us presents. They never take away our 
' lands. No, but their kind missionaries come and tell us how to 
' pray, and how to worship the Great Spirit. When the day is dark- 
' ened by clouds, our French brothers give us counsel. In trade 
' with them, we have good articles, full weight, and free measiire. 
' Indians and white men have one Great Father. He has given 
' every tribe of us a goodly river, which yields us fine salmon 
' arid other fish. Their borders are wide and pleaspnt. Here 
' the Indians from oldest time, have hunted the bear, the moose, 
' the beaver. It is our own country, where our fathers died, 

* where ourselves and our children were born ; — we can never 
' leave it. The Indian has rights and loves good as well as the 

* Englishman : — Yes, we have a sense, too, of what is kind and 
' great. When you first came from the morning waters, we took 
' you into our open arms ; — We thought you children of the sun ; 
' — We fed you with our best meat. — Never went a white man 

* cold and starving from the cabin of an Indian. Do we not 

* speak truth .-' 

' But you have returned us evil for good. You put the flam- 
' ing cup to our lips ; it filled our veins with poison ; it wasted 



Chap. IV.] of Maine. 113 

' the pride of our strength. Ay, and when the fit was on us, a. d. 1720 

. to 1722. 

* you took advantage — ^you made gains of us. You made our 
' beaver cheap ; then you paid us in watered rum and trifles. — 
' We shed your blood 5 — we avenged your affronts. Then you 
'promised us equal trade, and good commodities. Have chris- 
' tian Englishmen lived up to their engagements ? Never, — for 

* they asked leave of our fathers to dwell in the land, as brothers. 
' It was freely granted. The earth is for the life and range of 
' man. We are now told the country spreading far from the sea, 

* is passed away to you forever, — perhaps for nothing, — because of 
' the names and seals of our Sagamores. Such deeds be far from 
'them. They never turned their children from their homes to 
' suffer. Their hearts were too full of love and kindness — their 
' souls too great. Whither should we go ? There is no land so 
' much our own — none half so dear to us. Why flee before our 
' destroyers .'' we fear them not — sooner far, we'll sing the war 
' song, — and again light up the council-fires : So shall the great 
' spirits of our fathers own their sons. To take our lands from 
' us, the English lawmakers and rulers themselves, as some 
' folks tell us, have long ago forbidden you. All the forts and 
' mills, built again, are contrary to treaty, and must be laid low. 
' The white men shall give more place to Indians, — so shall the 
' lines and extent, we require to see established, be where we 
' please to have them.' 

The season for reconciliation was past, and the means aimed Ke<,oncilia- 
at such an end, were all fruitless. Partition lines could not be .".""/f"'"^^*^' 

' ticable. 

established : For the Indians, unable to read or write, were quite 
unacquainted with the purport or effect of the instruments, which 
their chiets had sanctioned by subscribing their marks, or family 
ensigns. They had no better records, than faint inscriptions upon 
the tablets of memory made at the time, which were soon ef- 
faced. There was a jealousy entertained also of spurious deeds. 
The Indians supposed that all the conveyance, which a Saga- 
more intended, was merely a consent given during his life, to al- 
low the applicant a right of residence, in common with his tribe. 
In attempting to do more, they thought he transcended his pow- 
ers. If therefore, the purchasers would retain the lands after 
his decease, they must pay anew the consideration. Whereas 
the English, on the contrary, believed that the Indian title wias 
Vol. II. 15 



114 THE HISTORY [VoL. tl. 

A. D- 1720 entirely extinguished to all the tracts upon the Androscoggin, 
the Kennebeck and other rivers, which the Sagamores had by 
their deeds conveyed. 

The poiiti- Still ii ^vj^g difficult to determine with precision what was the 

cal reldiions '■ 

of the toio- true relation, in which the Indians stood to our Provincial 

nists and In- _ . . . . 

dians. government. They claimed and inhabited territories, which the 
charter embraced ; yet, in all negotiations and sales, their 
rights were acknowledged. They also acted in treaty as an in- 
dependent people ; nor was there a pretext, that they could be 
justly driven away by force, while they were quiet. Oftentimes, 
they had solemnly declared themselves, subjects of the British 
crown. Hence, in war, they were called rebels, and in negotia- 
tion, they acknowledged themselves to have deserved the name, 
without having any adequate idea what it imported : while in 
peace, they had no concern with our institutions. They neither 
sought nor enjoyed any of our civil privileges, as citizens, except 
unmolested security. An Indian was never known to seek re- 
dress of an Indian, through the medium of our laws. To ask 
alms, — to trade, — or to fight, — was all the intercourse they wish- 
ed to have with the English colonists. 
Prospeei cf Determined still to prevent a rupture, if possible, the govern- 
ment in the first months of the year 1722, invited the Indians to 
another conference, where it was apprehended, the French em- 
issaries would not presume to be present ; but the message was 
treated with derision. The attempt to seize their holy Father 
had opened a deep and bleeding wound ; hostilities appeared to 
be inevitable ; and two thirds of the provisional forces, enlisted 
or detached, and put under the command of Col. Thaxter, were 
retained either in service, or as ininute-men, till spring. 
J Meanwhile, the Indians made preparations for war. Their 

First repris- first act of violence was, June 13 ; when a party of sixty, prob- 
Indians. ably from the Canibas and Anasagunticook tribes, appearing in 
2Q canoes, on the northern margin of Merry-meeting bay,* took 
nine entire families. It seems, these were seized as reprisals, for 
all the prisoners were soon dismissed, except five of the men, 
namely, Hamilton, Hanson, Trescott, Love, and Edgar, who 
were retained as indemnities for the safety and return of the four 

* Perhaps about Pleasant-poin!, and about Fulton's point, near the head 
of Muddy river. — 3 Coll. Jlass. Ilisl. Soc. p. 111. 



Chap, iv.] of maine. 115 

hostages holden by the English ; being ultimately sent to Canada, a. D. 1722, 
at which place, their friends paid an unreasonable ransom for their 
liberation. At Damariscove, a small party of six, headed by 
Capt. Samuel, boarded a fishing vessel ; and when they had pin- 
ioned Lieut. Tilton and his brother, they beat the unfortunate 
skipper and men unmercifully. At length, one getting loose, re- 
leased the other, and they and the fishermen taking weapons, 
fell suddenly upon their assailants, mortally wounding two, and 
throwing one overboard.* 

Next the Indians endeavored to surprise the fort at St. George's '^^eir nt- 

. . lacks on the 

river — continuing the attack until it was found impossible to force fort ai St. 

° ' _ Georges 

a surrender. Here also they burnt a sloop and took several pris- river, 
oners. In July, a larger body from Penobscot, renewed the 
attack ; and being spirited up by a friar, who appeared among 
them, they prosecuted the siege with unremitting perseverance, 
twelve days. But they were unable to excite any fearful appre- 
hensions, till they had made considerable progress in undermining 
one side of the fortification. However, the heavy rains caused the 
banks of the trenches to cave in upon them, and put an end to 
the enterprize. In this descent, we lost five men, and they twenty. 
John Leverett, and other proprietors of the Waldo patent, who 
had erected and manned the fortress, at their own expense, and 
" projected the settlement of several towns" within their territo- 
ries, proposed to make it a public garrison. The proposal being 
accepted, government sent thither 45 men, and the necessary 
munitions of war ;f and at length gave the command to Colonel 
Thomas Westbrook.J 

A vessel bound from Annapolis to Boston, touched at Passa- ^^ pnssa- 
maquoddy for water, having on board several passengers. Unin- '"^1"°*^ >• 
formed of the late hostilities, as soon as they and the crew were 
ash,ore, they were made prisoners by a mixed party, consisting of 
10 or 12 Indians, and about an equal number of Frenchmen. In 
making arrangements to divide the cargo, they sent the master to 
the sloop ; when the wind springing up fresh and fair, he and the 
people on board cut the cables and fled to Boston. Those left 
were afterwards released on payment of ransom.^ 



* Penhallow's Indian wars.— 2 Hutch. Hist. p. 250,-4 Charlevoix, p. 120. 

t 10 Mass. Rec. p. 380.— See ante, A, D. 1719. 

I Com. Rep. [A. D. 1811.] p. 60. 

J Some were killed in the vicinity of Pemaquid about the lime the war 



116 THi: HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1722> Every fort was particularly marked for destruction. A man 
AiCasco. was shot, July 12, on Casco neck, (if the authority be under- 
stood,) and the English driven into the garrison. But the Indians 
were pursued, at night, by a party under Captain Starman, and 
' several of them killed.* About the same time, they made a 
bold descent upon Fort George and the settlement at Brunswick ; 
buTiIT"''' setting the " village" on fire, which was reduced to ashes.f The 
enemy then withdrew to Kennebeck, where they celebrated their 
successes by a great dance. 
A feat of Capt. John Harman, then at Kennebeck, hearing of these events 
awih'is"' took a company of 34 men, from the forces posted on the fron- 
wn^^"* tier about and above Georgetown, J and proceeded with them up 
the river. Late in the night they saw fires in the woods, appar- 
ently not far from the river ; and on going ashore, they happen- 
ed to strike on the very spot, wheie the Indians had hauled up 
eleven of their canoes. Dazzled by the glare of the light, Har- 
man and his men, ere they were aware, actually stumbled over 
some of the Indians' bodies, as they lay around the fires, buried 
in sleep, and the more deadened by the fatigues of the preceding 
dance and other exercises. In ten minutes, the brave pursuers 
dispatched 15 of them, and took their guns, without the loss of a 
man. Startled by the noise, a party of the Indians, more remote, 
rose and fired thither several guns, though without effect. Har- 
man, on his return, found the body of one Moses Eaton, mangled 
in a most barbarous manner, which he removed to a convenient 
distance and gave it a decent burial. 
All ihecast- These several attacks, including the one mentioned short 
ooiice'ilrd of two ycars since at Canseau,§ gave satisfactory evidence, 
in^ihe mp. ^j,^^^ ^H ^,^^ tribes eastward of the Merrimack, uere accomplices 
in these outrages. The iniiabitants on the frontiers were panic 
struck ; and the country was generally disposed to take arms im- 
mediately. But the General Court, even to the end of their 
spring session, thought it more judicious, still to extend to the In- 
dians the cup of conciliation. Tha friends of the English cap- 
tives were importunate to have measures taken for their redemp- 

broke out. John Pierce says," I took a vessel and thirty men and broufrht 
"my father's family away" from Mnsconc^iis.— />cpo. in Report, p. 111-12. 
* Smith's Journal, p. 10. t See ante, A. I). 1715, 

I Probably at Fort Richm.iui.—Scc ante, A. D. 1719. 
\ Ante, Aug. 7, 1720. 



Chap, iv.] of Maine. II7 

tion without postponement ; and the Indian hostages were sent a, d. im. 
eastward, for the purpose of efFectins: an exchange. Both in and i^oui^sasto 

' ' ° ° the war. 

out of the lei^islature, there were men, who doubted whether a 
war upon the natives would be right, or even justifiable. ' Not 
' to mention the waste of blood and treasure, always incident to 
' this arbitrament in the last resort, — we have been (as they ex- 
' pressed themselves) derelict, both as to moral and stipulated du- 
' ties. — We have not performed our engagements towards the In- 
*dians, in the establishment of trading houses, and the prevention 
' of frauds and extortions, according to our treaty-promises. The 
* measures of strong drink dealt to them are a scandal to our re- 
^ ligion, and a reproach to our country.' 

On the contrary, it was said, if the Indians had suffered wrong, juiy^s. 
they had not sought to government for redress, as it had been cSn.pd"" 
agreed in the articles of treaty. They had chosen rather to take *'*?«'""' \^^ 

"-^ _ _ •' •' casieni In- 

vengeance into their own hands ; and therefore, after Brunswick ''''"'*• 
was burnt, the Governor and Council resolved, July 25, that the 
" eastern Indians were traitors and robbers," and declared war 
against them and their confederates ns the king's enemies. The 
declaration premised, that in return for the kindness and forbear- 
ance of government, they had lately, with the utmost treachery, 
^- proceeded to plunder, despoil, and take captive many of his 
" Majesty's good subjects ; to assault, take, burn, and destroy 
" vessels upon the seacoasts, and houses and mills upon the land ; 
*' to wound some, and in a most barbarous and cruel manner mur- 
" der others ; and in a way of open rebellion and hostility, to 
*' make an audacious and furious assault upon one of his Majes- 
" ty's forts, when the king's colors were flying." But still it sub- 
joined, that should any of those, who have not been concerned in 
these perfidious acts, be desirous to put themselves under the pro- 
tection of government, the privilege would be extended to them 
for the space of forty days. It also forbade all friendly Indians, 
to stir from their places of residence, unless attended by some 
one of the men designated for the purpose. 

The General Court, meeting August 8th, pronounced the de- August 8. 
claration of war expedient, and promised '• all necessary and moZe» 
timely assistance." It was determined to take into employ two ""''''• 
more armed vessels, and a large additional number of whale-boats ; 



118 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A.D. 172^. aad to keep constantly under pay about a thousand men.* — 
In distributing their service, 100 were stationed at York, 30 at 
Falmouth, 20 at North-Yarmouth, 10 at Maquoit, 25 at Arrow- 
sick, and 25 at Richmond fort. A large scout of 300 was ap- 
pointed to destroy the Indians' strongholds and habitations at Pe- 
nobscot ; and a body of 400, to range perpetually, by land or 
water, through the eastern country, especially upon and between 
the rivers Kennebeck and Penobscot. A bounty of £15 was of- 

Bouniies of- fered for every scalp taken from a male Indian 12 years old and 
fercdt 

upwards, and £8 for every captive woman or child. Troopers 

in suitable numbers were detached to act as videttes, and ample 
provision was made for supplies. Every company, or troop, en- 
tering into the public service, on a sudden alarm, was entitled to 
a bounty of £30, a reward for prisoners taken, and a division of 
their plunder among themselves. Afterwards the government 
offered to every volunteer, who would enter into the service with- 
out pay or rations, £100 for a scalp ; and if he only had rations, 
£60 ;f and also promised pensions to all, who should be wounded. 
The other New-England governments, not being seasonably 
consulted, afforded no assistance, and the burdens of this war 
Tiie princi- rested almost solely upon Massachusetts, New-Hampshire and 
pal officers. ^^.^^^ ^^j Shadrach Walton, and Col. Thomas Westbrook, 
had successively the senior command ; they and Captains Pen- 
hallow and Sayward, being New-Hampshire men. J Major Sam- 
uel Moody belonged to Falmouth, and Captains Jeremiah Moul- 
ton, John Harman and Lewis Bane, to York ; these several gen- 
tleman being the principal officers of all the forces raised and put 
under pay. 

There was at this time, however, some distraction or impolicy 

Nova See- in the management of the war. For while Capt. Southwick in 

the Province sloop, was sent into the waters of Canseau, (Nova 

Scotia,) against the Indians, who exhibited an uncommon bold- 

* The wages were, permdnth to a Captain, £7 ; Lieutenant, £4; Ser- 
geant, £2, 18s. ; a Corporal, £2, 5*. ; a private, £2. Tlie currency was to 
sterling, as 2^ to 1 2 Belk. J^. H. p. 45. 

f They were to have articles at the original invoice. No soldier to have 
more than his allowance in rum, nor exchange his arms. — 10 Ji'lass. Rec. p. 
419-20. 

I A small part only of the forces, was raised in that government. — 2 
Hutch. Hist. p. 256. 



Chap, iv.] of waine. 119 

ness, in seizing, or attacking vessels ; the General Court appear- A. U. 1722. 
ed liighly dissatisfied with Col. Walton — a favorite of the Com- 
mander-in-Chief. Nay, popular prejudice was ready to look 
upon the Governor, as the evil genius of the war. While he was 
advising and planning an expedition under Walton, to Penobscot, 
a large body of 4 or 500 St. Francois and Mickmak In- 
dians, fell upon Arrowsick, [Georgetown,] Sept. 10, early in the G,.org<>- 
morning, determined to reduce the garrison and destroy the vil- 
lage. Happily the purpose was in part frustrated, by a discharge 
of musquetry from a small guard, which Capt. Penhallow had 
ordered out to protect the neighboring husbandmen, while they 
gathered their corn. Three of the enemy were wounded and 
one killed ; and the inhabitants, apprized of their danger by re- 
port of the guns, effected a safe retreat with most of their sub- 
stance, into the garrison. The Indians, then falling upon the cattle, 
killed fifty head, and set twenty-six houses on fire, which were 
consumed. In a new assault upon the fort, they made no im- 
pression. Our loss was only one man, Samuel Brooking, who 
was shot through a port-hole. At night, arrived Col. Walton 
and Capt. Harman, with thirty men, who were joined by about 
forty from the garrison, under Captains Penhallow and Temple ;* 
and all proceeded to encounter the enemy. A smart skirmish 
ensued, which lasted till our forces perceived the danger of being 
outflanked and overcome by superior numbers ; when they re- 
treated to the garrison, and the Indians, after dark, retired up the 
river. On their way, they met Capt. Stratton in the Province , 

•' •' ' _ The enemy 

sloop, whom they mortally wounded ; and proceedine; to fort '<i'i <-'apt- 

TT , 1 /v 1 , • ' . . . Strattonand 

Richmond, offered the garrison a profusion ot insult, and then insult Kich- 
paddled up the river to their head-quarters at Norridgewock. 
The burning of the greater part of Georgetown, which had been 
resetded only six years, filled the inhabitants with every discour-' 
agement. — Though after this, a few individuals in different places 
were taken off by the particular aim of skulking Indians; the 
last one that fell in Maine, during the autumn, was a man at 
Berwick. 



* Capt. Robert Temple had some military command at Arrovfsick. He 
had been an officer in the Irish army ; and came over with a larg-e num- 
ber of families to settle in the country ; but this war prevented. — 2 Hutch. 
Hist. p. 268. 



120 



THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A. D. 1722. The ill success of the war, being imputed in part to laxness in 
Causes of military discipline, a committee was appointed to ascertain the 
cess! *"'^* number of effective men on our frontiers, and of those absent on 
furlough ; and to examine into the condition of our troops. Their 
report, when made, contained representations exceedingly unfa- 
vorable to the reputation of the ofiicers. It stated, that soldiers 
in great numbers were allowed to be absent on furlough 6 or 8 
weeks at a time ; that many of them were indulging intemperate 
habits ; and that the garrisons were remiss, both in their watches 
and their discipline. For ' we,' added the Committee, ' walked 
' through the town of Falmouth twice in one night, without being 
' hailed, though there were several military companies in the 

' place.* 
.K> D. 1723. ^g gQ^j^ jjs ^hg Governor left the Province, Colonel Walton 

Walton suc- 
ceeded i)v ^yas displaced : the chief command of the eastern forces given 

Weslbrook. ' ' .... j x- 

to Colonel Thomas Westbrook ; and a better disposition made ot 
all the military. J 
His expedi- The expedhion to Penobscot river was revived, and the con- 
nobscot!'"' <^"ct of it entrusted to that commander. He left Kennebeck, 
Feb. 11, at the head of 230 men, and with small vessels and 
whale-boats, ranged the coast as far eastward as Mount Desert. 
On their return, they proceeded up Penobscot river ; and, March 
4, came to anchor, probably in Marsh bay. From this place, 
they set out to find the fort ; and after five days' inarch 
through the woods, they arrived abreast of several Islands, where 
the pilot supposed the fort must be. ' Being obliged here,' says 
the Colonel, ' to make four canoes to ferry from Island to Island ;f 

* I dispatched 50 men upon discovery, who sent me word on 

* the 9th, that they had found the fort and waited my arrival. I 
' left a guard of 100 men with the provisions and tents, and pro- 
' ceeded with the rest to join the scouting party. On ferrying 
' over, the Indian fort appeared in full view ; yet we could not 
' come to it by reason of a swift river, and because the ice at the 

■*= 10 Mass. Rec. p. -126. 

f Westbrook supplied the g-arrisons at Wiiiter-liarbor, Captain Ward ; 
at Spurwink, under Lieutenant D. Jordan ; and John Brown's garrison at 
Saco Falls.— Fu/som, p. 21S. 

I Was not tliis place the lower Stillwater in Orono, 6 miles above Ken- 
duskeag? — Why were canoes wanted in February' ? — Rev. Mr. Smith says. 
"February 1, a stimmor day." — It might have been an open winter. 



Chap. IV.] of MAINE. 121 

'heads df the Islands would not permit the Canoes to come round ; A.n. imti. 
therefore, we were obliged to make two more, with whicli we 

* ferried over. We left a guard of 40 men on the west side of 
' the river, to facilitate our return, and arrived at tl'.e fort, by 6 
'of the clock in the evening. It appeared to have been deserted, 
' in the autumn preceding, when the enemy carried away every 

* article and thing, except a few papers. The fort was 70 yards* 
' in length, and 50 in breadth, walled with stockades 14 feet 
' in height, and enclosed twenty-tliree " well finished wigwams," 
*or as another calls them, "houses built regular." On the 
' south side, was their chapel, in compass 60 feet by 30, hand- 

* somely and well finished, both within and on the outside. A 
' little farther south, was the dwellinghouse of the priest, which 
' was very commodious. — We set fire to them all, and by sun- 

* rise next morning, they were in aslies. We then returned to 

* our nearest guards^ thence to our tents 5 and on our arrival at 

* our transports, we concluded we must have ascended the rivei' 

* about 32 miles. We reached the fort at St. George on the 

* 20th, with the loss of only four men, Rev. Benjamin Gibson 

* and three others, whose bodies after our arrival here, we inter- 
' red in usual form.'f 

* One author says " feel,'" — instead of " yards." — Hutchinson. 

f See letter, March 23, 1723, from Colonel U'eslbrook, [called by mis-' 
take, " Otis,"j to Lieut. Gov. W. Dummer.— 8 Coll. Jlnsi. Hist. Sac. p. 
264-5, 2d series ; also 2 Hutch. Hist. p. 273.— But an intcreiting- questiort 
has been raised,—" Where was the site of this important fortress and viU 
/age .'"' Some suppose it might liave been lliC ancient " j\>^os;" — or vil- 
lag^e on "Fori /y///," situate a lea.^iie above the mouth of Kenduskeaj 
stream : for when could that have been destroyed, unless a;t this time ? — • 
Ste ante of this Hist. vol. 1, Chap. 18. — Yet Col. Church makes no men- 
lion of tiie latter, when he and his troops, in August, 1696, scoured the riv- 
er; nor Major Levingston, who travelled up the river, in Nov. 1710^ oa 
his way to Canada. It must have been built after (he latter date, and be- 
fore or during the present war. It could not have been very ancientj be- 
cause the plough has turned out, since the American revolution, many ar- 
ticles of iron, steel, and lead, of modern form and structure ; yet if it were 
quite modern, there would be some tradition of it All we can learn is, 
that it was called by the first settlers in Bangor — ' the old French and In- 
dian settlement,'' on Fort Hill. This could not be thought 32 miles from 
the place of VVestbrook's anchorage^short as seamen's miles are over wild 
lands. Nor are there Islands here, corresponding with those he men^ 
tions. — The alternative then is, the site must have been Old-town, or the 
ancient Lett mentioned by Levingston. — See ante, A. D. 1710. — That ia 
Vol, II. 16 



122 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A.D. 1723. Another expedition was directed at the same time, untler Capt. 
Exppciii on Harman, against Norridgewock. That he might the more surely 

lo Nonid're- ,,.1 •, ii- •• r,-.^ 

wock. take the place by surprise, lie and Ins party, consistmg oi 120 
men, setting out February 6, proceeded up the Androscoggin to 
the curve nearest the sources of Sandy River ; and here tljey 
came to a lialt. January liad been very mild and rainy, the riv- 
ers were open and icy, and the lands full of water : — therefore it 
was concluded, that it would be impossible to reach the place of 
destination, either by land or water, and the soldiers, dividing into 
scouts, returned without seeing an Indian, 

Sickness. In addition to the reverses of fortune, hitherto experienced by 
us, since tlie war commenced ; we are constrained to mention 
the " great sickness," which spread and prevailed among the sol- 
diery, and gave a surprising damp to military enterprise. Proba- 
bly it was owing to this calamity, that our forces through the 
season acted only on the defensive. For, during the year 1723, 

Our losses between 20 and 30 persons were killed in Maine, or carried 

tins }edr. j^^^^ captivity, besides other mischiefs done by the enemy. — We 
begin with Falmouth, which was assailed in April ; when the In- 
dians, supposing Ciiubb, a fort sergeant, to be Captain Harman, 
all aimed their guns at him, lodging in his body eleven bullets. It 
was a lucky mistake for his companions, since they all tlvereby 

Berwick, escaped safely to the fort. In May, two were killed at Berwick, 

Wells. one at Wells, and two on the way from that town to York. On 
the 19th of April, and 2Gth of June, the garrison-house of Roger 

Scnrboro'. Dccring,* in Scarborough, was surprised ; and his wife, two of 
the inhabitants, and two soldiers, were killed ; also John Hunne- 
well, Robert Jordan, Mary Scanmnon, and Deering's three chil- 
dren, while picking berries, were, about the same tinie, seized and 
carried away captive. Five Indians, in August, entered the field 
of Dominicus Jordan, a principal inhabitant of Saco, fired at him 

situated on a beaiitii'nl Island ; and below it are fall?, and a small Island. — 
Lieut. Gov. Duminer (spaech, May 1723.] says, " we have demolislied tlie 
fort and all the buiUiino^s at Penobscot." The village at Fort Hill was 
probably destroyed by Capt. Hcatli. — See post, A. D. 1725. 

"•''This was on the Nonesuch-river, between Black and Blue-points. At 
Black-point, eight of the people were killed ; and atnong them, was " Capt. 
Hammon," (by one so called.) " a respectable leader, who died of 15 gun- 
shot wounds." The attack was sudden, but the people defended themselves 
bravely in the fort. — Sullivmi, p. 217. — Thomas Larrabce and son killed, 
April 3. 172'I. - Rev. .i^tr. TiNons loiter. 



Chap, iv.] of maine. 123 

and wounded him in three places. As he was still able to walk, a. D. i723. 
he presented his gun at them, and while they, being afraid to 
seize him, were reloading, he retreated backwards till he recov- 
ered the garrison.* The enemy next took a turn westward and 
committed outrageous acts upon the towns of Dover, Rutland, 
and Northfield. 

Massacliusetts had been long endeavoring to draw again the The Mo- 
Mohawks into the war against the eastern tribes ; and at length, 
August 21, the Lieutenant-Governor was visited at Boston by a 
delegation of no less than G3 of their chief men. After pre- 
senting him with a belt of wampum, and receiving in return 
pieces of plate curiously engraven with figures of a turtle, a bear, 
a hatchet, and a wolf, the escutcheons of their respective tribes ; 
the government gave them a fat ox, which th'^-y killed with 
bows and arrows, as in olden time, and celebrated a feast with 
songs and dances. It was a novel spectacle, but of no importance; 
for they were resolved not to take up the hatchet, unless they 
themselves were molested. They would make no other engage- 
ment, than to give their young men liberty to act as they pleased. f 

Only twf) of them entered into the public service, and these 
were sent to Fort Richmond, then under the command of Capt. ihe service. 
Heath. In a few days, the Captain ordered Colby, his Ensign, 
to take them, and three of the garrison, and go on a scout up the 
river. Scarcely had they travelled a single league, before the 
two Mohawks said they smelt fire, and were unwilling to go fur- 
ther, till they were re-enforced. The messenger, sent back to the .si^jrmi^h 
fort, soon returned with ttiirteen auxiliaries; and the whole party, ".^"li^^^'jj 
presently meeting with 30 of the enemy, killed two and drove the 
rest to their canoes in so much haste, that they left their packs. 
Colby was slain ; two of his men were wounded ; and the Mo- 
hawks, already sick of the service, immediately left it and returned 
to Boston. At tliis time, no settlement, house, nor vessel anchor- 
ed in the eastern parts, was safe. One Capt. Cogswell and his 
crew, were surprised and taken, in October, at Mount-Desert, as ;M!^,*,„"'i)e.' 
they were stepping ashore ; and about the same time. Smith and ^'|.|„"j^i, 
Bailey were killed at Cape-Porpoise, one on Vaughan's Island, 



* This was on a neck of land at Winter-Harbor. Rev. R. Jordan's pos- 
terity are among the principal people in the place, — one a Justice of iLe 
Court of Common Pleas, and another a Senator. — Sullivan, p. 227. 

i 11 Mass. Records, p. 5-1-5. 



124 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11, 

A.D. 1723. and the other on the seashore, not far from the site of the old 
meeting-house."'* 

The last attack of the Indians, this season, was December 25, 
upon the fort at St. George's river. Being fortunate enough to 
lake two prison^M'S, who gave them intelligence concerning the 
indelensible condition of the garrison, the assailants, about GO in 
number, were encouraged to prosecute the siege for tliirty days, 
with a resolution, or rather madness that was desperate. They 
seemed to be flushed with the absolute certainty of compelling a 
surrender of the fort. But Capt. Kennedy, the commanding of- 
ficer, being a man of intrepid courage, held out till Col. West- 
brook arrived and put the enemy to flight. f 

For the protection of the eastern country through the winter, 
150 men were equally divided into three ranging parlies; and 
about an equal number were distributed and assigned to the dif-^ 
ferent towns and garrisons, namely, St. George, Arrowsick, Rich- 
mond, North-Yarmouth, Maquoit, Falmouth, Purpooduck, Scar-- 
borough, Saeo,| Arundel, Kennebunk, Wells, York, Killery, and 
Berwick. v^ 

Unattended by the French, and kept in awe by the English 
ranging parlies, the Indi.ins imdertook no winter campaign ; nor 
was any thing memorable achieved by our forces till spring. But 
there was still a strong and universal desire to make Rale, a pris- 
oner, and have him brought to Boston alive. It is said " a thous- 
and livres" were the high price set upon his hsad.|| To dis- 
Moulton's patch him therefore, or rather to take him, Captain Moulton led a 
uuKaie" military party to Norridgewock in the depth of winter. But the 
cautious Jesuit and the tribe had made a seasonable and safe 
retreat ; and all the trophies of the enterprise were only a few 
books and papers found in his own dwellinghouse ; among which, 
was a letter to him from the Governor of Canada, exhorting him 
" to push on the Indians, with all imaginable zeal, against the 
English." But Captain Moulton was no less a cool and discreet 

*Sir;iv,in, p. 210. 

■f 2 llnlih. ilh'. p. 27fi, — After t!iis ()ic enemy took captive a soldier at 
Berwiclc, " as Ls was caretessly wan IltIii^ froin t!ie f^.inison.'' — 1 ColL 
J\\ [1. fliaf: Sjc. p. 102. — PenhcU!ow\i Indian Wars. 

\ Bolli at tlie Falls and Scammoa's fort, on the east si;lc of the rivcr.-^ 
3te ante, Jl. D. niA.—Biddtford. ^ 11 Mass. Rec. p. 19S. 

f! B.ale'B letter, 1721._S Coll. Jlas.f. Hit. Soe. p. 266^-7. 



Chap, iv.] OF Maine. 125 

man, than a brave and popular officer ; and when he and his men a.D. 1724, 
left the place, he permitted no injury to be done, eidier to the 
chapel or any other building : imagining probably such an ex- 
ample of forbearance and moderation might be imitated by the 
enemy. 

Early and special attention, as usual, was paid this spring, by .Mmns 
our government to the unha|)py condition ot tlie eastern rrovin- ,|,e ^ccul■'l>• 

... ... , , of MaiiiB. 

ces ; and in the present management ot the war, tliough unsuc- 
■cessful, the administration has been deservedly applauded. Sure- 
ly there was no want of vigilance. To prevent the Indians from 
fishing, fowling, and planting, an additional force of 30 men was 
sent to Kennebeck ; and to secure the inhabitants, more effectually 
from the enemy's incursions, and administer equal justice and re- 
lief to all, it was ordered, that every freeholder, and his sons and 
servants, in the public service, belonging to Yorkshire, be dis- 
charged, and other able bodied and effective men substituted ; 
and that the militia of the county be exonerated from all further 
military duty, excepting in times of alarm.'" 

This year, (1724,) the Indians shewed theinselves upon our ^^^^^^^^1,,.^ 
frontiers, and began to commit depredations in March ; and in y*-''"'- 
the course of the spring months, they either killed, carried into 
captivity, or severely wounded, more than 30 people in Maine. Atmcks 
Smith, a sergeant of the fort at Cape Porpoise, was killed on i,j"[^j,' ~ ' 
tlie 23d of that month; and on the 17th of April, William '''""''"''e- 
Mitchell was shot at Black-point, as he was at work in the field, s^-mbcro'. 
and two of his sons carried prisoners to Norridgewock. In 
Kennebunk harbor, a sloop was taken, and the whole crew Kennebunk, 
yut to death. About the same time, three men, by the names of 
Felt, Wormwood, and Lewis, were killed at a saw-mill on the 
«ame river. At Berwick, in May, Mr. Thompson met with the Ccrwick. 
same fate ; and one of his children w-as carried off, and another 
was scalped and left bleeding and gasping on the ground. But 
the sufferer being presently carried home, revived. One Stone 
was also scalped, near the same place, and his body badly man- 
gled ; yet he survived his wounds, and lived to old age. His 
life, however, was miserable. He lost the use of one hand ; — 
on his head he wore a silver caul ; nor was he ever able to walk 
jvithout crutches. He was, besides, the subject of strong con- 

* 11 Mass. Rec. p. 193. 



126 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A 1). 1721. vulsion-fits.* When the savage scout had killed one other, and 
taken a captive, they left the place. Afterwards, we hear of 
homicides and depredations, committed by them in New-Hamp- 
shire, ill Hatfield, and at other places on Connecticut river, 
r.niiimtthe ^''^^ ^'^° most memorable engagement of any hitherto since 
(■'.'''^^.f'.' the war, happened. ]\lay 1, at the St. George's river. It being 
an inviting morning, April 30, Capt. Josiah Winslow, command- 
er of the fort, selected IG of the ablest men belonging to the 
garrison, and in a couple of staunch whale-boats, proceeded down 
the river, and thence to the Green Islands in Penobscot bay, 
which at this season of the year, were frequented by the Indians 
for fowling. Though Winslow and his companions made no 
discovery, their movements were watched by the wary enemy; 
and on there return, tlx; next day, as they were ascending the 
river, they fell into a fatal ambush of the Indians, cowering under 
jeach of its banks. They permitted Winslow to pass, and then 
fired into the other boat, which was commanded by Harvey, a 
sergeant, and was nearer the shore. Harvey fell. A brisk dis- 
charge of musquetry was returned upon the assailants ; when 
Winslow, observing the imminent exposure of his companions, 
though he was himself out of danger, hastened back to their assist- 
ance. In an instant, he found himself surrounded by 30 canoes, 
and threefold that number of armed savages ; who raised a hide- 
ous whoop, and fell upon the two boat crews with desperate fury. 
The skirmish was severe and bloody ; when Winslow and his 
men perceiving inevitable death to be the only alternative, re- 
solved to sell their lives at the dearest rate. They made a most 
determined and gallant defence ; and after nearly all of them were 
dead or mortally wounded, himself having his thigh fractured 
and being extremely exhausted, — his shattered bark was set to 
the shore. Here being waylaid, he fought a savage, hand to 
hand, with the greatest personal courage, beat off the foe, and 
then resting on his knee, shot one, ere they could dispatch him. 
Thus fell the intrepid Winslow and every one of his brave com- 
pany, except three friendly Indians, who were suffered to escape 
and communicate particulars to the garrison. The Tarratines, 
who were rather a valiant, than a cruel people, composed the 
Indian party ; and their loss, though never known, is supposed 

* Sullivan, p. 252. 



Chap, iv.] of Maine. 127 

to hav^e doubled ours. In tliis action, inconsiderable as were the AD. 1724. 
numbers engaged, there was a remarkable display on boih sides, 
of boldness and good conduct. Tlie death of Captain Winslow 
was severely felt and lamented. He was a young officer of mil- 
itary talents and great worth ; a late graduate of Harvard Col- 
lege, and a descendant of one of the best families in the Prov- 
ince.* 

The Indians next aiipeared upon Arrowsick, and again beset T'"* pnemy 
the garrison, still commanded by Caj)t. 1 enliallow. — T urnmg Ancwsick. 
away suddenly, they made three of the inhabitants prisoners, as 
they were driving cows to pasture ; nor did they leave the Isl- 
and, till they had killed a great number of cattle. At Purpoo- 
duck, May 27, a party killed one man and wounded another ; and i^'"/ -"• 
about the same time, Davitl Hill, a friendly Indian, was shot at '■"'''• 
Saco. Afterwards the savages for a month or more, withdrew 
from Maine to New-Hampshire, and the frontiers lariher east- 
ward. Nevertheless, a jiarty of twenty-five fell upon the garrison 
at Spurwink, July 17, and killed Solomon Jordan, at their first .tniy it. 
approach, as he was steppmg out 01 tlic gate. 1 his was a tmiely 
alarm. The next morning the enemy retreating, were pursued by 
Lieut. Banc from the fort, attended by about thirty men, and 
overtaken, A principal Indian was killed ; and the others in 
their flight droj)ped their packs, and blankets, and some other 
articles, which were brought away ; also the scalp of the dead 
Indian was taken, which commanded a bounty of £100 to the 
pursuers. 

So well prepared this year were most of the places assailed, TiiPfincmy 
to defend themselves, that the Indians were unable to take any i-;iMciii ves- 
considerable booty h'om the frontiers ; and therefore they rushed''^' 
down upon the seacoast, and undertook to seize upon all the ves- 
sels they could find in the eastern harbors. New to them as 
this kind of enterprise was, they were in a few weeks in pos- 
session of twenty-two vessels, of various descriptions ; — two of 
which were shallops, taken at the Isles of Shoals ; eight were 
fishing vessels, found at Fox Island thorough-fare ; one was a 



* He was graduated in 1721. His great grandfiiliicr and grandfather, 
were Governors of riymoiitii colony ; his fatlier a member of tlie Prov- 
ince (.'oiincil, and his younger hiollicr, General \Vins)ovv commanded (he 
Provincial forces at Fort Edward, iu IT.jT. — Eiiol's Bioff. ariiclc •' T{'lns- 
low'' p. 199-502. 



128 THE HISTORY [VoL, 11^ 

A u. 1721. large schoonef, armed with two swivels, and the others were 
surprised and taken in different places. In these piratical seiz- 
Ki!l22incn.ures, they killed 22 men, and retained a still greater number 
prisoncis.* Generally these were the masters or skippers, and 
the best sailors ; whom they compelled to serve on board their 
prizes, or motley squadron. Assisted by the jMickmaks ironi 
Cape Sable, the savages became so bold and formidable, that 
•they were a terror to all vessels that sailed along the eastern 
* shores.' 
A,?ain ai- A part of the enemy's fleet proceeded up the river St. George,- 
<u!c-ciiie once more fully determined to lay the fort in ashes. — To effect 
<Tcor"e'.s their purpose, the savage crews now filled a couple of their shal- 
"^*^'^' lops with combustibles, which were set on fire and urged so near 

the block-house, that they would have communicated the flames, 
had not individual exertion prevented. The enemy then offer- 
ed favorable terms, provided the garrison would surrender. 
But every lisp of the kind was promptly rejected ; and as they 
were utterly unable to take or destroy the fortification, either by 
force or stratagem, they retired without doing any considerable 
injury. 

The first adventurous vessels, which were fitted out to encoun- 
ter those of the enemy, were two from New-Hampshire, sever-* 
ally carrying twenty men. They soon came up with one of theni 
— yet through fear or folly, they failed to engage the enemy and 
Pursued by i-gturncd. Still believine; a small force sufficient to cope with 

Jackson, ^ , . 

l.akpinan thcsc raw and inexperienced sailors, Lieutenant-Governor Uum- 

antl ollicis. T-. T 1 r y- J 

mer commissioned Doctor Jackson ol Kittery, a brave man, and 
Sylvanus Lakeman of Ipswich, to go in quest of them. The 
former with a schooner and twenty men, and the latter with a 
shallop and sixteen, boldly came in contact with them, and had a 
siiori engagement, in which Jackson and several of his men were' 
wounded, and his rigging badly blown to pieces by two large 
swivels and four petronels of the enemy, and his pursuit thence 
impeded. Recovering, he drove them into Penobscot, where 
they were assisted and covered by so large a body of natives, 
that he was forced to retire. At last the lieutenant, master and 



* 2 Hutch. Hist. p. 278.— He says 45 men in all, 22 of whom they killed, 
and carried £3 into captivity. — Penhallow, [Indian Wars, A, D. 1724,) 
says the enemy " made up a fleet of 50 canoes" — and proceeded to take 
the vessels eng-ag-ed in the fisheries, — and foand on the coast. 



Chap. iv.J of Maine. 129 

master's mate from the Seahorse man-of-war, then riding at an- a. i>. i7i;4. 

chor on the Boston station, took command of three vessels, hav- 

jno; severally on board about thirty men, and went in search of,,,, , ,. 

" •' . ^ "'^ Indians 

the enemy's forces. But it was too late ; — they had become "handon 
tired of maritime war, and had dispersed ; and not a particle of >^eis. 
intelligence concerning them could be obtained afterwards. 

Thus far, the events of the present war, which had now con- 
tinued two years, were so unpropitious to the English, that it is 
supposed their losses of men greatly exceeded those of the ene- 
my. Lives or captives were the trophies of almost all their attacks j 
and these were perpetually repeated. Garrisons and scouting 
parties, it was evident, could not protect the people, nor preserve 
the fishermen and coasters from injuries ; and therefore it was 
determined to enter upon more offensive war. 

Norridgewock, being still the residence of Rale, was immedi- Expedition 
ately marked for destruction. The execution of this enterprize wock."^' ° ' 
was committed to a detachment of 208 men, who were divided 
into four companies, and commanded by Captains Moulton, Har- 
man, Bourn, and Bane. They left Richmond fort, their place 
of rendezvous, on the 19th of August, and ascended the river in August 19. 
17 whale-boats, attended by three Mohawks. The next day, 
they arrived at Teconnet, where they left their whale-boats, and a 
Lieutenant with a guard of 40 men. The residue of the forces, 
on the 21st, took up their march through the woods towards Nor- 
ridgewock. The same evening, they discovered three of the na- 
tives and fired upon them. The noted Bomaseen, one of them, 
was shot in the river, as he attempted to escape, his daughter was 
fatally wounded, and his wife taken prisoner. From her, they 
obtained a full account of Rale and the Indians at Norridgewock, 
which quickened their march. 

A little after noon, on the 22d, they came in sight of the village, ^^^ust 22. 
when it was determined to divide the detachment. Capt. Har- ^^"" '"'"'rf'* 

^ approach 

man led off about 60 men towards the mouth of Sandy river, "^'^ village. 
imagining he saw smokes rising in that quarter, and supposing 
some of the Indians might be at their corn-fields. Capt. Moul- 
ton formed his men into three bands, nearly equal in numbers, 
and proceeded directly towards the village.* When near it, he 

* Where and how did Moulton's men cross the river f — as tiie village was 
on the eastern side, opposite to the mouth of Sandy river. — It might have 
been forded by them, thoug-h no mention is made of such a fact. 
Vol. XL 17 



130 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A. D. 1724. placed parties in ambush on the right and left, and led forward 
the residue to the attack, excepting ten men left to guard the bag- 
gage. He commanded his men to reserve their fire, till after 
that of the Indians ; and then boldly advanced with so quick a 
step and in such profound silence, that they were within pistol 
shot, before their approach was suspected. All the Indians were 
in their wigwams, when one happening to step out, looked round, 
and discovered the English close upon them. He instantly gave 
the war-whoop, and sprang in for his gun. The amazement and 
The skir- consternation of the whole village was indiscriminate and terrible, 
ihe fighting men, about 60 in all, seized their guns and fired at 
the assailants ; but in their tremor, they overshot them, and not a 
man was hurt. A discharge was instantly returned, which did 
effectual execution. The Indians fired a second volley, without 
breaking Moulton's ranks ; then flying to the water, fell upon the 
muzzles of the guns in ambush. Several instantly fell. Some 
undertook to wade or swim across the river, which at this season 
was only 60 feet wide, and in no place more than six feet deep. 
A few jumped into their canoes, but forgetting to take their pad- 
dles, were unable to escape ; — and all, especially the old men, 
women, and children, fled in every direction. Our soldiers shot 
About 200 them in their flight to the woods, also upon the water ; so that 
escap^e!""^^ not morc than 50 of the whole village were supposed to have 
landed on the opposite side of the river; while about 150 effected 
an escape too far into the thickets, to be overtaken. 

The pursuers then returned to the village, where they found 
the Jesuit in one of the wigwams, firing upon a few of our men, 
who had not followed the wretched fugitives. He had with him, 
in the wigwam, an Enghsli boy about 14 years of age, who had 
been a prisoner six months. " This boy he shot through the 
thigh, and afterwards stabbed him in the body"* — though he ulti- 
mately recovered. Moulton had given orders to spare the life of 
Rille ; but Jaques, a Lieutenant, finding he was firing from the 
wigwam and had wounded one of our men, stove open the door 
Rale kiliec". ^nd shot him through the head. As an excuse for the act, Jaques 
alleged, that when he entered the wigwam, Rale was loading his 
gun, and declared he would neither give nor take quarter. Moul- 



* Hutchinson, (2 Hist. p. 282) says, this act of cnielty is stated by Har- 
man, upon oath. — But still is doubted. — 8 Coll. JIass. Hist. Soc. 2d series, 
p. 257. 



Chap, iv.] of maine. ^ 131 

ton disapproved of what was done; allowing, however, that Rale a.d. 1724. 
said something to provoke Jaques, yet doubting, if the statement 
made by him was literally correct. 

Mogg, an aged and noted chief, was shut up in another wig- ^o-rg kiii- 
wam, from which he fired and killed one of the three Mohawks. *^''' 
This so enraged his brother, that he broke through the door and 
shot the old Sagamore dead ; and the soldiers despatched his 
squaw and children. 

Near night, after the action was over and the village cleared of '^i'" '"sses 
Indians, L-aptam liarman and his party arrived ; and the compa- tiians. 
nies, under a guard of 40 men, took up a lodgment in the wig- 
wams till the morning. When it was light, they counted, as two 
authors state, " twenty-seven," and a third says, " thirty" dead 
bodies, including Rale ; among whom were those of Mogg, Job, 
Carabesett, Wissememet, and Bomaseen's son-in-law, all known 
and noted warriors. They also recovered three captives and took 
four prisoners ; and it was afterwards reported, that they wounded 
fourteen Indians, who escaped. The whole " number, killed and 
drowned, was supposed to be eighty,'^ some say more. The 
plunder they brought away, consisted of the plate and furniture 
of the altar, a few guns, blankets, and kettles, and about three 
barrels of powder. After leaving the place, on their march to 
Teconnet, Christian, one of the Mohawks, either sent back or re- Aus^nstSS. 
turning of his own accord, set fire to the chapel and cottages, and wock buTnt. 
they were all burnt to ashes. 

An extract from the account given by Charlevoix,* who was 
about that time resident in Canada, is subjoined with its embel- ^'"i^'sac- 
lishments. He says — ' the thickets which surrounded the village 
' were such, that the enemy were not discovered until the very 
' instant, when they made a general discharge of their guns ; and 
' their shot had penetrated all the Indian wigwams. The noise 
' and tumult gave father Rale notice of the danger his converts 
« were in. Not intimidated, he shewed himself to the enemy in 
' hopes to draw all their attention to himself, and secure his flock, 
' at the peril of his own life. He was not disappointed. As soon 
' as he appeared, the English set up a great shout, which was 
' followed by a shower of shot ; when he fell down dead near to 



count. 



"* 4 Charlevoix, Hist, de la France JSTeuvelle, p. 120.— 2, {Paris Ed. 1744.) 
He says, some of the Indians escaped by swimming-, some by fording the 
river, and some fled to the woods : — 30 Indians were killed and 14 wounded. 



132 THE HISTORY [\ Oh. II. 

A.D. 1721. 'a cross, which he had erected in the midst of the village, — sev- 
' en Indians, who sheltered his body with their own, falling around 
' him. Thus died this kind shepherd, giving his life for the sheep, 
' after a painful mission of thirty-seven years. Moved by the 
'greatest consternation at his death, the Indians fled. The En- 
' glish finding they had nobody left to resist them, fell first to 
'pillaging and then burning the wigwams. They spared the 
' church, so long as they thought proper to profane the image of the 
' adorable Saviour, and the sacred vessels, and then they set it on 
' fire. At length, they withdrew in so great precipitation, that it 
' was rather a flight ; and they seemed to be struck with a per- 
' feet panic. The Indians immediately returned to their village, 
' when they made it their first care to weep over the body of their 
' holy missionary; wliilst their women were looking for plants and 
'herbs to heal their- wounded. They found him shot in a thous- 
' and places, scalped, his skull broke to pieces with the blows af 
'the hatchets, his mouth and eyes full of mud, the bones of his 
'legs fractured, and nil his members mangled in an hundred dif- 
' ferent ways. After his converts had raised up and oftentimes 
'kissed the precious remains, so tenderly and so justly beloved by 
' them, they buried him in the same place, where he had the even- 
' ing before, celebrated the sacred mysteries, — namely, where the 
< altar stood before the church was burnt.' 

Ourfoires On the 27th, the brave detachment arrived at Fort Richmond, 

reiiirn with- , ■, r- t i • t i 

out loss. Without the loss of a man. It was an exploit exceedmgly grati- 
fying to the community, and considered as brilliant as any other, 
in either of the Indian wars, since the fall of king Philip. Har- 
raan, who was senior in command, proceeded to Boston with the 
scalps, and received in reward for the achievement, the commis- 
sion of Lieutenant-Colonel ; — an achievement in which Moulton 
had the principal agency, though he received no distinguishing 
recompense, except the universal applause ot his country. Supe- 
rior merit has been often shaded by superior rank, in much more 
of'tlio Cani- important services. In this bloody event, the glory departed from 
broken"' ^^^^ Celebrated Canibas tribe, to return never more.* 



* In the particulars of this expedition, there are among authors seme dis- 
crepancies.— S(////wm, \\ 175, calls the senior officer " Hammond"— Ha r- 
nian is tlie name ; ho represented York in the General Court, A. D. 1727. 
Belknap, (2 vol. Hist. JS". 11. p. 50,) supposes there were only two compa- 
nies, each J 00 men ; Jiwi Hittchin8ony[2 Hi»l. p. 279) says four companies, 



Chap, iv.] of MAINE. 



132 



To turn the Indians from the frontiers, which they continually A. i). 1724 
infested during the autumnal months, Col. Westbrook was fur- ^^'»^*'-, 

• 1 1 • J . /• ~ brook's ex- 

nished with a regiment ot 300 fresh recruits, and was ordered pedition. 
to range with them through the country from Kennebeck to Pe- 
nobscot, one of the principal places of the Indians' " rendez- 
vous for planting and fishing." But in this enterprize, owing to 
the unskilfulness of the guides, he was led into a labyrinth of 
difficulties; being glad to return safely, though they had done 
nothing more than to explore a part of the country which before 
was little known. Equally fruitless was the visit to Penobscot 
of Capt. Heath and his company. The Indians were extremely 
shy and subde ; and the government assigned 300 men, for the 
defence of Maine, through the winter. These were formed into The winter 
five companies ; one was posted at Berwick and its vicinity ; '°''^'^^' 
two were rangers ; and the others were directed either to scout 
or be stationary, as the exigency of circumstances might require. 

Receiving fresh and more ample information, that the Gov-Com.nis- 
ernor of Canada was assisting the Indians, Massachusetts sent to c^'nadT 
to him three Commissioners, with instructions to protest against 
his conduct, and assure him if he did not immediately desist, his 
offence would be severely retaliated, upon the French in Aca- 
dia and other places. It was also given them in charge, to efiect 
an exchange of prisoners. — The Governor affected to repel the 
accusation, till his letters to Rixle were to his surprize shewn 
him ; and then he said the prisoners among the Indians were be- 
yond his control ; but those among the French should be restor- 
ed, upon paying " the first cost." The price or ransom, enor- 
mous as it was, effected the release only of sixteen, and obtain- 
ed the promise of ten more.* When the Commissioners shewed 
him that the Indians had conveyed their lands to the English, 
and become British subjects ; he sent for the chiefs at St. Fran- 
cois to meet him at his own house. In this interview, the Sac- 
amores told the Commissioners, ' if the English would demolish 
* all their forts, remove one mile westward of Saco river ; re- 
' build their church at Norridgewock, — and restore to them their 



and 208 men. He and Penhallow, {Indian tears, 172 4,) suppose one of the 
Captain's name was " I3can,"--vvhereas it is evidently " Bane ;" and prob- 
ably Lewis Bane, a Representative of York in General Conrt, A. D. 1708 
-17. One account says, Norridgewock was burnt August 12th ; this must 
have been old style. * 11 Mass. Rec. p. 316. 



134 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A. D. 1724. ' missionary father, — they would be brothers again.' These 
terms were too insolent to deserve a moment's consideration ; 
and they returned, attended to Crown Point, by a military guard, 
generously furnished by Vaudreuil himself.* 

It was a1)out this time, and in the course of the subsequent 
spring, that the famous Capt, John Lovewellj and his com- 
panies of volunteers so highly distinguished themselves in three 
successive expeditions against the savage enemy. In his first 
excursion, undertaken in December, which was however, far 
less important than either of the others, he proceeded with thirty 
men to the north-eastward of Winnipiseogee pond, in New-Hamp- 
shire. Here his company killed and scalped a man, and carried 
an Indian boy to Boston ; and for both, they received the bounty 
promised by law, and likewise a liberal present. 

His second His popularity, his patriotic and military ardor and his suc- 
cess, now drew around him volunteers to the number of 70, who 

Feb. u. readily joined him ; and in February, they marched off to the 
place he had lately visited. Here, through fear of short-pro- 
visions, 30 were dismissed by lot and returned home. The 
others, pursuing their march, discovered at night, near the mar- 
gin of Lovewell's pond, at the head of Salmon Fall river, on 
the New-Hampshire side of the hne, ten Indians lying around a 
fire, fast asleep ; nine of whom they shot, and the tenth wound- 

His success, ed. In the attempt of this One to escape across the pond, he 
was seized by a faithful dog, and holden till he was dispatched. 
For the scalps taken from their heads, Lovewell and his com- 
panions received from the Provincial treasury, a bounty of 
£1,000, and from the public, universal applause. 

April 13. In April, while he was preparing for a third excursion, there 

ex°pi()irfrom wcro a few occurrences, which must not be passed unnoticed. 

Aiaquojt. rp^^Q Indians took a soldier whose name was Cochran, at Ma- 
quoit, on the 13th of the month, and carried him two days into 
the woods. The first night they pinioned him, but in the next, 
left him loose. Rising softly when they were asleep, he knock- 
ed them both on the head, took their scalps and guns, and set 
out for the fort. In wading a river, he unfortunately lost one 
scalp and one gun. But when he arrived at the garrison, he told 

* The Cominissioners arrived at Albany, May 2, 1725. 
fHe belonged to Dunstable in Massachusetts. — Penhallow, Hutchinson, 
and Belknap, spell "tLovewell"— others " Lovel," 



Chap, iv.] of Maine. I35 

so good a story, that several returned with him and found theA.D. 1725j 
dead Indians as he left them. The exploit was afterwards re- 
warded by his promotion. The next Monday, William and 
Matthew Scales, two most industrious and active men were slain 
near the fort at North-Yarmouth. Another party waylaid Lieut. Nonh-Yar- 

r J J moiitli and 

Prescott and others, as they were passing the highway at Cape- ■•^.™"f'*^' 
Porpoise, and by particular aim, wounded him in several places. 

Captain Lovewell, joined at Dunstable by forty-six volunteers, ^ j.;, jg 
well supplied and armed, was prepared, April 15, for a third ex- ^"p^ ^".^'^.' 

_ ' ^ • ' '1 ' r ' vvcll s iliird 

pedition. In good spirits, tliey took up their march the next excursion. 
day, towards Ossipee ponds, and the upper branches of Saco 
river — the region and range of the remaining Sokokis tribe of 
Indians. The great bravery of these natives, and their antipa- 
thy to the English were characteristics, which were well known. 
Lovewell's Lieutenants, were Josiah Farwell, and Jonathan 
Robhins ; his ensigns, John Harwood and Seth Wyman ; his 
chaplain, Jonathan Frye ; and his chief pilot was Toby, an Indian. 
On their march, Toby fell sick and returned. A soldier becoming 
lame was dismissed though witli reluctance, who was barely able to 
get home. Another was brought down by fatigue and illness, after 
travelhng upwards of 100 miles, — when the Captain came to a The jour- 
halt on the westerly side of Great Ossipee pond, in New-Hamp-"*^^' 
shire, ten miles from the west line of JMaine. Here he built a 
small stockade fort^ principally for a place of retreat in case of A fort built 
any misfortune, and partly for the accommodation of the sick man left. 
who was now left, with the surgeon and some provisions, under 
a guard of eight wearied men. The number was thus redu- 
ced to ^AiV^i/-/oi/r,* including the Captain ; who, resuming their 'i'liim-four 
march, shaped their course north-eastward till they came to the Loveweirs 
north-westerly margin of a pond, about 22 miles distant from the ^^""' ' 
fort — since called Lovewell's, otherwise Saco pond ; which is sit- 
uated in the south-easterly part of the present town of Fryeburg.f 



* Of these, 7 belong'ed to Dunstable ; 5 to Woburn ; 7 to Concord ; 7 to 
Groton ; 2 to Haverhill ; 2 to Billcrica ; and one to each of the towns of An- 
dover, Weston and Nutfield. — See. their namr^s in J\lr. Symms'' Hist, of the 
Battle, p. 10-11. — Mr. Frye or " Frie" was graduated at Harvard Colleg-e, 
in 1723. 

f The extreme length of the pond, wliich lies north-west and south-east, 
is short of two miles ; its mean width half a mile ; tliough its north-westerly 
end, which inclines to the north-east, is about 3-4ths of a mile wide. Peg- 
^oacket, or the Indian village, was about two miles west of the pond, being- 



136 THE HISTORY [Voh. 11. 

A,D. 1725. Theyjliad passed by the bend of the Saco river, where it crosses 
the h'ne between New-Hainpshire and Maine, and turns north- 
eastward ; leaving the Indian Pegwacket village between one 
and two miles north of them, and pursuing down on the north- 
erly side of Lovewell's or Mill brook, nearly to its mouth, and 
then in direct course to the western corner of the pond. Here, 
in the heart of the enemy's country, they encamped. They 
were alarmed during the night by noises around thenij which 
they imagined were made by Indians ; and early on the 8th of 
SatuiHay, ^^Ji whilc at their morning devotions, they heard the report of 
dircmT''^^'^ a gun, and discovered a single Indian standing on a point of land, 
and kill an a mile distant, which runs into the easterly side of the pond. 

Indian. ' •' ^ 

They suspected, that he was placed there to decoy them, and 
that the body of the enemy was probably in their front. A con- 
sultation being held, they determined to march forward, and by 
encompassing the head of the pond, to gain the place where the 
Indian stood. That they might be ready for action, they dis- 
encumbered themselves of their packs when they had travelled 
about half a mile, w'hich they left without a guard at the north- 
erly end or corner of the pond, in a pitch-pine plain, where the 
trees were thin, and the brakes at that time of the year small. 
A stream, since called Battle Brook, which emptied into the pond 
at that place, was then too full of water to be forded near its 
mouth, and they crosed it above. They travelled in all nearly 
a mile from their packs, when they espied the Indian they had 
discovered at the point, returning towards the village. As he pass- 
ed, he did not see them, till he received their fire ; then instantly 
returning it, wounded Lovewell and another with a charge of 



situated several rods distant from the eastern bank of Saco river; and as 
many west of the present academy and village. Nature had given this 
place a delig-htful situation, and prospect. The Indians used to range 
round from the village, through the northern ox-bow to Lovewell's pond, 
which at its eastern end is so near the Saco, as in freshets to receive its 
waters; and to ascend the Saco to the same pond;— and then pass through 
the pond to its western corner— and thence over land, to their village. 
Hereabouts are several mounds of earth left by the natives of singulai- 
aspect. Whether they arc ancient burying grounds, fortifications, or en- 
campments, cannot now be ascertained. The circumference of one of 
these banks is 60 feet ; and in its centre is another, in which a tree of 
considerable size formerly stood. There are four others, forming eight 
angles, and running from the centre one— all evidently the work of de- 
sign. — J\IS. letter and plan from Fryeburg. 



Chap. IV,] OF MAiNir.' 137 

small shot. Ensign Wyman firing again killed him, and theyAiD. n25. 
took his scalp. Seeing no other enemy, they returned towards 
the place where they had left their knapsacks. 

But it happened, that Lovewell's march had crossed the carry- a party of 

' ' ' . . -^ 50 Indians 

mg place, between the pond and the village, through which two lii ambush. 
parties of Indians, consisting of about 03 men,* commanded 
by Paugus and Wahwa, were returning from an excursion down 
the Saco. Perceiving the new made track, they followed it, till 
they came to the packs, which they removed ; and counting them, 
found the number of Lovewell's men to be less than their own ; 
therefore they placed themselves in a well-cliosen ambush, and 
awaited their return. 

It was about ten in the morning when they arrived back, and Lovewell's 
the moment they reached the spot, the Indians rose in front and 
rear, and ran, three or four deep, towards them with guns pre- 
sented, raising a horrid yell. — Lovewell and his companions re- 
ceived the shock with entire firmness, and facing the enemy, pre- 
sented their guns and rushed forward. When they had approach- 
ed within a few yards of each other, they fired on both sides— ^ 
the Indians were shot in considerable numbers; yet the most of 
our men escaped the first fire, and drove their foes several rods. 
Turning, they renewed the charge with great spirit and bravery ; 
and at one time some of the combatants, were within twice the 
length of each other's guns, — the Indians constantly raising hid- 
eous whoopsj and the English frequent shouts and cheers. Three 
rounds were fired on each side ; in which Captain Lovewell and 
eight of his men were killed ; and Lieutenant Farwell and two 
others were wounded. Several more of the enemy fell, yet 
being superior in number, they endeavored to surround our men ; 
when, at the word given for a retreat, the English retired in great 
order, two or three rods to the pond. In this forlorn place, they 
were compelled to take their station. On their right was the 
mouth of Battle Brook ; on their left was a point of rocks, which 
extended into the water ; their front was partly sheltered by a 
few pine trees standing on a sandy beach, partly covered by a 
deep bog, and partly uncovered ; and the pond was in the rear. 
Here they maintained the fight upwards of eight hours, with he- 



* Penhallow says " seventy ;" — Hutchinson and Symms say " eighty,''' and 
Belknap says '■\forl y-nne.''^ 

Vol. II. 18 



138 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. L). 1725. roic resolution, against a much more numerous force ; being at 
frequent intervals severely engaged, in front and flank, and so 
completely in the power of the enemy, that had he made the 
best use of his advantage, the whole company must either have 
been killed, or obliged to surrender at discretion. 
inridcnisof At ouc time, a group of savages appeared by their strange ges- 
ihebaitie. j.yj.gg ^^^ j^g engaged in a poivow : when Ensign Wyman, secretly 
approaching them, shot the chief actor and dispersed them. Some 
*■ of the Indians holding up ropes or cords towards our men, ex- 
claimed, will you have quarter 'I — 'Yes, said they, at the muz- 
zles of our guns,' They were determined to meet a speedy 
and honorable death, rather than expire in torture, or in a linger- 
ing captivity. Mr. Frye, the chaplain, who was a young man 
greatly beloved for his piety and excellence, fought witii undaunt- 
ed courage, till the middle of the afternoon, when he received a 
wound which proved to be mortal, and fell ; yet was he after- 
wards heard in audible prayer several times, for the success and 
preservation of his surviving companions. As a few of them and 
of the Indians had some previous acquaintance, they bespoke 
each other several times during the engagement. John Cham- 
berlain, a soldier, and Paugus, a chief, both men of undaunted 
courage and large of stature, finding their guns too foul for proper 
use, accidentally stepped down, at the same moment, to wash 
them at the brink of the pond. Standing not far apart, they ex- 
changed a few defying words, while they without waste of time 
washed their guns ; — ^then the chief, as he forced down the bul- 
let, called out to his foe — " Quick me kill you now ;" — " may be 
not," said Chamberlain, whose gun by priming itself, gave him an 
advantage, and he sent the warrior in an instant to his long home. 
The Indians This was One of the most desperate and hard-fought battles, 
reireat. ^v^ich the English ever had with the Indians. Several discharged 
their guns more tlian 20 times.* Retreat was impracticable, and 
surrender never mentioned. The brave men fought through the 
day, without respite or a morsel of sustenance. By an unremit- 
ting aiid well-directed fire, so long a time, the number of the sav- 
ages was manifestly thinned — as their whoops and halloes became 
fainter and fainter, till just before dark, when they quitted their 
advantageous ground ; carrying off their slain and wounded, yet 



■" PcnlKillow savs, '* between 20 and oO times a piece." 



Chap, iv.] of Maine. 139 

leaving the dead bodies of Lovevvell and his men unscalped. The a.d. 172a, 
loss sustained by the Indians, has been estimated variously, and 
by some too high. Their killed and disabled, however, were 
fully equal in number, to the entire force of the English engaged 
in the action 5 Messrs. Penhallovv and Symms, two authentic wri- 
ters, representing the Indians to have lost in the battle of Peg- 
wacket, more than foity lives, possibly fifty.* 

The shattered company of Lovewell's Spartan companions, t^ossps of ^ 

11 • 1 • u • r 1 11 r ,"'« English. 

collecting together m the evening, so lar as they were able, tound 
there were ten already dead ; nine uninjured ; one missing; and 
fourteen wounded, — five of whom afterwards died. It was inex- 
pressibly painful to leave any of their dying associates behind. 
But ensign Robbins and Jacob Usher could not be removed. 
Robbins desired them to lay his gun by him charged, that he 
might be able to kill one more, if the savage foe should return 
before his death. Solomon Kies, exhausted with fatigue and 
faint through loss of blood from three wounds, told his ensign in 
the heat of the battle, he was a dying man ; yet if possible, I 
will (said he) get to a place, where the Indians shall never be 
gratified with mangling my lifeless remains. Hence with diffi- 
culty, he crept to the pond, and rolled himself into a birchen ca- 
noe, providentially found there ; and while he lay unable to pad- 
dle, and almost senseless, his slender bark drifted towards the 
side of the pond nearest the stockaded fort, to which he at last 
attained. 

After the rising of the moon, the condition of the survivors, as they .Survivors 
thought, rendered a longer delay imprudent, so much as to pay i^arai^for 
the last sad tribute of respect to the dead ; and therefore, twenty "^'°'''' 
of them leaving the fatal spot, directed their march towards the 
fort. Eight were lame or full of anguish from their wounds ; 
and all of them having lost their knapsacks and provisions in the 
morning, and taken no refreshment as mentioned, were still with- 
out food, blankets, tents or the means of dressing a wound. 
When Farwell, tlie lieutenant, Frye, the chaplain, and two sol- 
diers, Davis and Jones, had travelled about a mile and a half, 
they sunk down, unable to go another step. They however en- 
couraged the others to proceed, in hopes of uhimate relief, possi- 

* Penhallow says also, " tO were said to be killed, and 18 more died of 
theif wounds." 



140 THK HISTOKY [VoL. II. 

AiD. 1725. bly from their return and help; and after reviving, travelled to- 
gether at short stages several days. At length, Frye, reclining 
upon the ground, said to his friends, 1 shall never rise more ;-^ 
linger no longer for me ; — should you by Divine favor ever ar- 
rive home, tell my father, though 1 expect in a Jew hours to be in 
eternity, I fear not to die* Jones, there leaving them, proceeded 
down the river Saco to Biddeford, subsisting upon wild vegeta- 
bles, cranberries and the inner bark of trees ; being on his arri- 
val emaciated to a skeleton from the loss of blood, tlie want of 
food, and the putrefaction of his wounds. Farwell, who was de- 
servedly applauded in a high degree for his heroic conduct, being 
left on the tenth day by Davis, perished in the woods within a 
few miles of the fort ; Davis himself being the only one of the 
four, who reached it. Elias Barron, one of the wounded, was 
lost about Ossipee river, and nothing more heard of him. 

Tiieirsu'"- '^^ ^^' ^''^ sui'vivors, the night after they left the battle ground, 

(eraigs. ^gg altogether too dreadful to admit of an adequate description. 
Deprived of strength, rest and guides, they felt that every step 
they took along the untrodden v/ilderness, was attended by the 
echoing whoops of savages, and the shadows of death. In the 
morning, they divided into three bands, through fear of making a 
track to be traced by their inveterate enemies ; and indeed, one 
party of them was pursued a considerable distance by three In- 
dians, who occasionally showed themselves. After travelling three 
or four days, a distance of twenty miles in direct course, f six-^ 

ihe7ort. "' ^^^^ arrived at the fort ; when, to their great disappointment, 
they found it deserted. It seemed, that in the beginning of 
the action, the man missing, whose name has not been thought 
worthy to be transmitted to posterity, quitted the field, and flee- 
ing thither, gave a frightful account of the battle, stating that 
Lovewell and most of his brave companions were killed, and the 
whole company defeated. Believing the story, they made the 
best of their way home. They left, however, a quantity of bread 



* He Avas the son of Capt. James Frye of Andover, The death of this 
*' amiable and promising- young- g-entlemun," was the more lamented, be^ 
cause he had with him the journal of thcirinarch, wlijch was lost. 

f As their march was circuitous, it is slated b}' one account, that the dis- 
tance wa.s forty miles ; but by Dr. Belknap, " about twenty-two miles. "-^ 
2 Hist. JV. //. p. 53, 



Chap, iv.] of maine. 141 

and pork, which gave seasonable rehef, and renovated spu-its, to A. D. 17:25. 
the returning sufferers. 

From this place they endeavored to proceed homeward ; and a reimn of 
after enduring the most severe famine and hardships, they arrived '^'"*^' 
one after another, at the outer settlements — where they met whh 
every demonstration of joy. They were afterwards handsomely 
rewarded for their valor and sufferings ; and a generous provision 
was likewise made, for the widows and children of the slain.* 

Such were the particulars of ' Lovewell's memorable fight,' or Decline of 
'the battle of Pegwacket ;' which broke the heart and spirit ofq»es. 
the Sokokis natives. In a short time, they withdrew, and resided 
no more in those pleasant and ancient dwelling-places, till peace. 
After this event, the star of the tribe, pale and declining, gradu- 
ally settled in darkness. Their fate and tlie fall of Norridge- 
wock, struck the surviving warriors with terror ; and the broken 
Abenaques shivered on the brink of destruction. 

Col. Tyng and Capt. White, with attendants from Dunstable, The bodies 
subsequently went to the spot; and having found the bodies of "„,ihilTiaiii 
twelve, buried them at the foot of an aged pine, and carved their buHed"'°"* 
names on the trees where the battle was fought. f At a short 
distance, they found three Indian graves which they opened ; one 
of the bodies being known, as that of their great warrior Paugus. 
It was perceived that the wounded savages had been removed ; 
tracks of blood being traced on the ground to a great distance. — 
The parties contended manfully, and won imperishable glory. 
Again and again has this place, so distinguished by departed valor, 
been visited by the stranger, eager to pay deserved tribute to the 
names of those, who have so richly added to our revenue of 
honor. 

It was understood, that several of the Indians could not repress chamber- 



their resentments at the losses they had sustained j and especially '"[Jll,,' 
the son of Paugus, was determined at some future period to sate ^"'• 

* Wyman was presented with a silver hilted sword, and a captain's com- 
mission ; Lingfield was made an ensign; and the General Court granted 
£1,500,— to be distributed among tlie bereaved widows and children.— 
Fenhallow.^Stra.age as it may seem, writers have observed, that a week 
before this engagement happened, it had been reported in Portsmouth at 
the distance of 80 miles, with little variation from the truth.— 2 Belknap's 
J\/. H. p. 57. '■ 

f Bullets have been cut out of the trees within a few years. 



Pau. 



142 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1725. his vengeance on Chamberlain for killing his father. By passing 
two or three days in the neighborhood, without any apparent bu- 
siness, he was suspected ; and Chamberlain had a hint of tlie 
probable design. Acquainted with the Indian character, he 
presently saw the snare, and therefore cut a spy-hole over his 
outer door, through which early on a subsequent morning, he dis- 
covered the Indian behind his wood-pile, with his gun aimed di- 
rectly at the door. — No more was heard of the savage ; — possi- 
bly the same old fusee sent both the father and the son to their 
long account. Chamberlain said he was never to be killed by 
an Indian. He told, that once when working at night in a saw- 
mill, he suddenly stooped, and an Indian fired over him without 
effect, though so near, that he in return broke the scull of the 
savage with a crow-bar.* 
A more vig- The evcnts of this spring, and the unfavorable report of the 
cuUonofThe Commissioners, lately returned from Canada, f prompted gov- 
*^^^' ernment to a more vigorous prosecution of the war. J At the 

May session, the General Court resolved to replenish all the eas- 
tern garrisons with ammunition and provisions ; to offer volun- 
teers greater wages, — as means of ensuring a full and speedy en- 
listment ; to take into employ a larger number of friendly or chris- 
tian Indians ; and to send another expedition to Penobscot. As- 
sistance was also to be requested from the other New-England 
colonies ; and complaints spread before the king himself against 
the government of Canada, — on account of the succours and en- 
couragement afforded the Indians, and the unpardonable conduct 
of the French, in which they were allowed to purchase and 
treat English subjects, as slaves, even in times of national peace.§ 

■'I'iioughts of The mission to Canada and the determinate spirh of the peo- 
peace 

pie, were not without good and extensive effects. Both the 

French and the Indians looked upon the course they had taken, 
with deep concern. The Indian hostages, who had been de- 
tained at Boston during the war,]| were extremely impatient of 
restraint ; and one of them and a captive were allowed on their 
parole to visit their countrymen. After an absence of two 
months and upwards, they returned, and reported, that ' the los- 



* Rev. Thomas Symms' Hist, of the battle, p. 18. f Ante, A. D. 1724. 
I "This," said Lieut. Gov. Dummer, I hope with a Divine blessing, will 
bring the enemy to submission and equitable terms." 
^ 11 Mass. Rec. p. 324.-2 Belk. N. H. p. 64. || Ante, A. D. 1721. 



Chap, iv.] of maine. 1 43 

* ses the tribes met with, and the daily terror they were under, A. D. 1725. 

' made their lives miserable ; — that they were generally disposed 

' to peace ; — and that Indians, lately met at Penobscot, had agreed 

' to propose a negotiation.' Promising to return in twenty-three 

days with a delegation of chiefs, they were permitted again to 

visit their brethren. 

Three unfortunate occurrences happening at this juncture, had A viiia^jeon 

1 ••11 1 r • ^•^ T 11 I'oiioliscot 

almost extmguislied every hope ol nnmediatc peace. it would (lestmyed. 
seem, that after Col. Westbrook and his party, had destroyed '""' 
the principal Indian village at Penobscot, between two and three 
years since,* the French and natives had, with a diligence un- 
usual for them, established and built another, three leagues below^, 
on the westerly bank of the same river. It was a pleasant, ele- 
vated and well chosen site,-]- a few rods from the water, and 
easily fortified by stockades. It was easier of access from the 
salt water than the former ; and was a league above the mouth 
of the Kenduskeag stream, which an enemy could ford with con- 
venience, only in times of drought. Hearing of this village, re- 
puted to consist of six or seven cottages which had cellars and 
chimnies, a chapel, and between 40 and 50 wigwams, Capt. Jo- 
seph Heath, commanding at fort Richmond, proceeded with his 
company in May, " from Kennebeck across the country to Pe- 
nobscot, fell upon the deserted village of about 50 Indian houses," 
and committed them to the flames. The Tarratines who were 
a wary people, probably had some intimation of the expedition, 
for the party saw none of the native inhabitants.! It was a bold 
enterprize ; but it being ascertained on their return to the garrison 
at St. George's river, that a conference had been proposed by 
the Indians ;§ the particulars were never made topics of any 
considerable remark. The village destroyed, situate on ^^ Fort- 
Hill,^^ as the English have always called it, is supposed to have 

=*• Ante, A. D. 1723. 

] It is in Banjor. Being- so near Ihe head of the tide and bend of the 
river, above which is quick water, it was a resting^ place and resort of the 
Indians before the village was built. The appearance of Indian cornfields 
in the vicinity were apparent, when the ])lace was first visited by some of 
the oldest present s?ttLers, ] See 2 Hutch. Hist. p. 28G. 

§ ] 1 iMass. Rec. p. 396-8. 



\ 

144 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1725. been the ancient jVe^as.* It was never repaired; the Indians 
afterwards returning and reseating themselves at Old-town. 

The second occurrence, June 20th, reflected much dishonor 
upon the English character. This was a violent assault by a 
scout from the garrison at St. Georges', upon a party of Indians 
under a flag of truce, bound to the fort. There was for a few 
minutes a smart combat between them, in which one of the 
scout was killed and another wounded. The best excuse which 
could be rendered or framed for this error, was the honest jeal- 
ousy, excited by repeated instances of savage treachery. 

Nor does the third exhibit a better dress or appearance. As 
the story is told — Castine the younger was in a small bark, at 
anchor near Naskeag point, [viz. the south-east point of Sedg- 
wick,] and had with him on board, an Indian boy, perhaps his 
own son, and an English lad, by the name of Samuel Trask, be- 
longing to Salem, whom he " had redeemed from the Indians." 
Though he was thoughtless of evil, the moment the crew of 
an approaching English sloop were near enough, they fired upon 
him, and obliged him and the boys to quit the bark, and flee into 
the woods for the safety of their lives. The master of the sloop, 
now changing his conduct, and hoisting a w^iite flag, called unto 
him loudly to return ; offered him a safe-conduct in writing ; and 
declared, he only desired to have a free trade and intercourse 
with him. Yet shortly after he had ventured to go with the lads 
on board of the sloop, the master first threw him a bag of bis- 
cuit, and then took from him the young captive, exclaiming, — 
you?- hark and all it contains are in fact lawful prize, and your- 
self might he made a -prisoner ; — so you rnay noiv think yourself 
favored, to go without molestation or further loss. — This insult, 
which was duly felt, was presently aggravated by one of the 
crew, who after going with them ashore, suddenly seized the In- 
dian boy and held him fast. Castine, perceiving the clench to 
be violent and unprovoked, shot the sailor dead, and escaped with 
the boy into the woods. f The conduct of these mariners, was 
a great reproach to them, and in every respect, the height of im- 



* See ante, vol.1, Chap. IS, p. 472-3; also ante, J^larch, .4. I). 1723.— 
Some remains of this villag-e are still apparent. Neitlier PcnhaUov^y 
Belknap, nor SufUran mentions Heath'? expedition. 

i I'enhallow's Indian War.— 1 Coll. N. IT. Hist. Soc. p. V20, 



Chap, iv.] of Maine. 145 

policy; for the Indians were now entertaining thoughts of peace, a.d. 1725. 
and Castine, who still possessed great influence among them, had 
more than once attested his magnanimity, by instances of friend- 
ship, and a forbearing spirit towards the English." 

Although these events did indeed retard the second return of a conftr- 

7 T !• -r» • vncc al St. 

the Indian messengers to Boston, they at length arrived ; and George's 
John Stoddard, and John Wainwright, were appointed Commis- 
sioners to treat with the eastern Indians, and settle the prelimina- 
ries of peace. In about a week after their arrival at St. Georges' 
fort, July 2, they had a conference with a body of thirteen July 2. 
chiefs. The Commissioners first enquired— ^it'Ay the Indians had 
made ^var upon the settlers^ — ' Because,' said tlie Sagamores, 
'you have taken our lands even so far as Cape-Newagen, where 

* you have beaten two of our Indians to death.' — JVo, replied the 
Commissioners, we bought the lands, and have your fathers'* 
deeds, and can sheiv them. — If our men did kill yours, it was 
wrong ; yet why did you take the hatchet, and not, according to 
treaty, first tell our government ?— ' We now tell you,' added the 
chiefs, ' we are for peace, and we propose to call our young men 
'from the war.' — So pacific a temper induced the appointment 
of a meeting in Boston, at the end of forty days, to settle and 
sign the articles of a treaty. 

In the mean time, the garrison at North-Yarmouth was furi- other mis- 
ously assailed, though without any fatal effect. Also two vessels i,^i*iai/s'! ' ° 
being seized by the enemy at Damariscove, were committed to 
the flames, and the masters and crews, consisting of seven men 
and a boy, were carried to Sagadahock and barbarously beat to 
death. Fortunately, however, this was among the last efforts of ^ 

the eastern Indians ; and closed the scene of blood for the pres- 
ent year. 

Early in November, four eminent Sagamores arrived at Bos- Nov. la 
ton, in behalf of the eastern Indians ' at Penobscot, Norridge- bassy"at'"' 

• wock, St. John's, Cape Sables, and other tribes within New- ^°s'""- 
' England and Nova Scotia,' to negotiate a treaty with the gov- 
ernment of Massachusetts. In the discussion, which lasted more 



* After this we hear no more of Castine.— See ante., A. D. 1726 ; also his 
charader, A. D. 1113, ante. He was in France in 1722, [4 Charlevoix n 
JV. F. p. 117 ;] and if is supposed he did not live very many years after his 
return. 



Vol,. II. IS 



146 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1725. than a month,* the House proposed to open a trading house in 
the garrison at St. Georges', and immediately replenish it with 
articles necessary for the Indians to the amount of £700, in 
lieu of establishing an imaginary boundary line due west from 
Teconnet falls to Saco, so much insisted upon by the Sagamores. 
The delegates at last agreed to the substitute, provided the 
supplies were full and constant, and the trade fair and free. 

JhheTreat*'! ^ treaty was then concluded, in which the Indians engaged to 
abstain from all further hostilities ; to maintain a firm and invio- 
late friendship with the English, and never to combine against 
them. All captives on either side were to be set free without 
ransom and without delay ; and all the estates and possessions of 
the English in the eastern country were to be enjoyed by them 
unmolested ; — the Indians reserving to themselves the lands and 
liberties, not conveyed to the English nor possessed by them, 
together with " the privileges of fishing, hunting, and fowling, as 
formerly." The whole trade and intercourse between the par- 
ties were to be regulated by the government of Massachu- 
setts, and all wrongs sustained by either, were to be redressed in 
due course of law and justice. If any Indians, engaged in the 
late war, should refuse to accede to this treaty and ratify it, the 
chiefs from Penobscot pledged the faith of the tribe, that their 
young men should join the English, to bring the opposers into 
submission. The delegation, in behalf of the tribes named, then 
submitted to the English sovereign, in as full and ample a manner 
as their predecessors had done ; and agreed to ratify the treaty 
at Falmouth, in May ensuing. 

Signed, It was signed, December 15, 1725, by the four Sagamore 

^*^" ' delegates ;f and has since been denominated " Dummer's Trea- 
ty ;" than which, none other ever made by the parties, has been 
more celebrated or lasting. 

These encouraging indications of a settled peace, induced the 
General Court to make provision without delay, for the establish- 



* The Indians insisted, that the Eng-lish should abandon Fori Richmond 

and the block-house at St. George But the House utterly refused to leave 

either 12 Jlass. Rcc. p. S8. 

f Their names were Sauguaara7n, 7l[\r<. Loron ; Arczuft ; Francois Xa- 
vier ; and ^nieaanumba. 



Chap. iv.J of Maine. 147 

inent of trading houses at forts Richmond and St. Georges' ; and A. D. 1726. 
to discharge in January, most of the troops from public service. ^[*^''*j'^'*' 

The conference appointed at Fahnouth, for ratifying the treaty, 
owing to postponement and a refusal to meet the Sagamores at 
Pemaquid, was not opened till July 30th : and even at that late day, 
the Lieutenant-Governors of Massachusetts and New-Hampshire, 
and a delegate from the Nova Scotia government, — a great num- 
ber of Councillors and Representatives, — " a fine train of young 
gentlemen," — and a "good guard," had been in waiting at Fal- 
mouth nearly a fortnight. About forty chiefs of the Indians then 
appeared with Wenemovei, a Tarratine Sagamore, at their head ; 
who declared he had full power to act for the " Canibas [Nor- 
ridgewocks,] the Anasagunticooks, the St. Francois Indians, and 
the Wawenocks ; having received a letter and two belts of wam- 
pum, from Canada, as tokens of their wishes to be included in 
the treaty. Loron was their chief speaker, and the parleys were 
renewed daily, in which the chiefs discovered great shrewdness, 
wisdom and deliberation. On Saturday, they were reminded of 
the approaching Lord's day, when no business might be done. — 
Ay, said Loron, to-morrow is our sabbath too — we keep that 
day. — On Monday, their request was earnest, that none of our 
vessels in harbor, nor taverns ashore, be permitted to sell their 
young men liquors : — to which, Mr. Dummer assured them, 
positive orders should be given to that effect. 

When all the paragraphs of the treaty were deliberately rehears- The raiifi- 

. r o r J J cation of the 

ed and mterpreted to them, and the whole sufficiently discussed, ffaty at 

•^1-1 -1 J4A ^ !• Falmouth. 

It was ratihed m the meetmg-house,* August 6, sealed and signed 
by William Dummer, John Wentworth, Paul Mascerene, and 
several Provincial Councillors ; and by Wenemovet, " chief 
Sachem," and twenty-five others of his associates.f 

* All was " concluded with a public dinner." — Smithes Jour. p. 14. 

+ This treaty is entire in Penhallow^s Indian Wars. — 1 Coll. JV. H. Hist. 
Soc. p. 123, 132 : and liere his interesting " History of the wars of New- 
" England with the eastern Indians" — terminates. In the Secretary's office 
at Boston, the treaty itself may be seen with all the signatures, and the re- 
spective marks, or family figures of the Indians. Though it is represent- 
ed that all the chiefs or sachems present, were from Penobscot ; it is pre- 
sumed that Egeremet [or Agareemett,] one of the signers, was from Pas- 
samaquoddy, or Machias ; and that Francois Xavier, another signer, lived 



148 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A.D. 1726. At the close of the interview, Lieut. Governor Dummer put 
Closing in- tJ^gse enquiries : — Since the Abenaques are not represented, what 
measures will you take for the safety of our frontiers ? — Will 
you lay your commands on the other tribes to preserve the peace 
entire ? and should any hostile acts be committed, will you resent 
such misdemeanors ? — Loron replied, ' your people must be care- 

* ful. We shall make all the Indians know of the peace. They 
' must keep it. Let any of the tribes rise against your people or 

* ours, we shall make them set dov/n by force. We understand 
f vvhat we speak, and not one word shall fail.' 

French take '^'^^ French took great umbrage at this treaty, and determin- 
uinbiatre. g^j ^q pi-Qvent its operations. Captives taken from the h-ontiers 
had been sold to them for trifles, — then large ransom demand- 
ed and paid, and plunder was made merchandize in Canada. 
In short, the French were the only gainers by these Indian wars ; 
and the Governor of Canada, availing himself of the first op- 
portunity, met ' the chiefs of the eastern Indians' from "nine 
castles"* or encampments, and told those who stood up in favor 
of the treaty, he would call away from their habitations all the 
missionaries ;-^they never should have any more presents from 
his royal master, nor any further assistance or protection from 
his Governor, But he made the others a present of 800 lbs. of 
powder, and said, he had orders from his master to furnish 
them with what they needed to prosecute the war ; adding, that 
'^ four parties had lately gone out against New-England." 
Conriudin'' 1'^^*^ ^'^"''^^ °^' ^^^'^ poUcy Were soon manifest in different places, 
instances of Q^g j^j^i^ Baptiste, his SOU, and three Indians, undertaking, in Au- 

puiiiige. " r ' ' , . 

gust, to seize a Plymouth fisherman, in a harbor of Nova-Scotia, 
were overcome, carried to Boston, tried for piracy, condemned, 
and executed. Two families were assaulted in October, at Ken- 
nebunk river, a mile below the present post road ; where Mrs. 
Baxter and her child were killed ; and John Durrell and several 
other persons were carried into captivity. Philip Durrell and his 
son went into the field, about two hours before sunset, leaving at 
home a family of four persons. Returning at twilight, he found 



at St. John's. For the three Etechemin tj-ibes, viz. the Tarratincs, the 
Openang-os and the Mgtrechites, ajways acted in concert.-r^ee ante, r.knp. 
19, vol. I. 

* See Rev. Dr. B. Cohnan's Letter.— 6 Coll. Mass. flist. Soc. p. 112. 



Chap, iv.] of Maine. 1 49 

they were all gone, his house rifled and on fire.* It was after- A. D. 1726. 
wards ascertained, these outrages were committed by savages 
from St. Francois, and Becancourt, who were uniformly under the 
influence of the Canadian Governor. 

In the frequent correspondence, which Mr. Dummer was hold- '{ 1,^ ga^.j. 
ing with the eastern Sagamores, they gave him the fullest assur- nJo[^^^,|^g'" 
ances of their determination to preserve and perpetuate the peace. ^"^^^^- 
— Ahanquid wrote — that seven Indians had visited his tribe, to ^[,3^, ,^j , 

move them to renew the war, but, said he, we have refused. 

Egeremet told Capt. Heath, that when the chief men of his tribe Egercmet, 
returned from hunting, he would find out what Indians had been 
guilty of the late wicked actions.-— Wenunganet wrote thus from net. " 
St. George to Mr. Dummer : — "We look upon such Indians as 
" much our enemies as yours, and think ourselves as much in 
" danger from them as any of your people do. We are resolved 
" to have satisfaction, for the wrong done." — Morcus, the chief., 

^ ' ^ ' (VIoicus. 

Sagamore at Kennebeck, told Capt. Giles, he had sent by Cana^ 

vas to the Anasagunticooks and those tribes — not to hurt the En^ 

glish, for he had received from them great kindness. Yes, said 

he, and I will stand by the peace so long as God gives me breath, 

— Loron wrote to Mr. Dummer ; — ' Never let the trading houses Loron. 

' deal in much rum. It wastes the health of our young men. It 

' unfits them to attend prayers. It makes them carry ill both to 

* your people and their own brethren. This is the mind of our 

' chief men, I salute you, great Governor, and am your good 

' friend.' — Wivurna, another Sachem, who had been a brave and Wi^'T'ia'a 

letter, Oc{. 

bloody warrior, possessed a soul alive to true honor and great'- "'• 
ness ; being himself softened and charmed by a spirit of firmness 
and justice witnessed in Mr. Dunmier, His letter to the Lieut. 
Governor, October IGth, is, for its good sense and peculiar Indian 
style, worthy to be transcribed,-— i^ro^Aer — " I am fully satisfied ; 
" for all the blood, that before lay boiling in my breast, is flow- 
'' ed away. Now I much labor for peace in our land. Should 
" any windy clouds arise, I would make haste to inform you, — 
" that they might do us no harm. In three things you make my 
" heart glad. My grandson, that was dead, is alive and returned 
-" to me safe. Canavas, that was taken, comes home well ; — he 
" is encouraged to do good service. Your kindness to me and 



* Doctor Coleman's letter Sullivan, p. 230. 



150 THE HISTORV [VoL. 11. 

A.D. 1726. " my people, I am thankful for. I am now old and gray-headed ; 
" — T have seen many good gentlemen, English, French, and In- 
" dians, — and many of them are dead. But of all, I have not 
" found like Governor Dummer, for steadfastness and justice. If I 
" were a Sagamore and young, the first thing I did, should he to 
" see you. But as 1 am old and not able to travel, I heartily salute 
" you, my good friend. Farewell. Wivurna." 

The Indians The Commencement of winter closed the hostile movements of 

losses 

the Indians. Their courage, their humanity, and their other 
military virtues, had not appeared in either of the wars to better 
advantage. Their hardships and sufferings had been great and 
numerous. It is true there are many instances in which they had 
acquired to themselves glory, yet it is certain, the fortune of war, 
especially in the sequel, had greatly turned against them. Two 
villages on the Penobscot had been laid in ashes ; the fate of 
Norridgewock and Pegwacket was memorable ; and a cotem- 
porary writer of reputation, Mr. Penhallow, in his review of the 
four Abenaques tribes, supposes, " that one third of them had 
been destroyed in this war." They made no figure, nor took 
much part in the treaty ; — the Etechemin tribes, especially the 
Tarratines taking the lead, and assuming a paramount control. 

In maintaining the war, the principal pecuniary disbursements 
were made by the Province of Massachusetts bay. New-Hamp- 
shire had contributed according to her ability ; though the de- 
mands upon her were not so frequent and great ; nor did she suf- 
fer so much, as in former wars. This was owing partly to the 
more extended frontiers of Massachusetts and Maine ; and partly 
to the more successful stand everywhere made against the com- 
mon enemy. The whole charge of the war, according to Mr, 
Penhallow, has been estimated to exceed £170,000; besides 
watches and wards, the erection and repairs of garrisons and 
block-houses, which in the aggregate have been computed at 
£75,000. A disproportion of the latter sum was evidently borne 
by the people of Maine. 

In surveying the forts, the towns and the settlements, which had 
been able generally to defend themselves ; and the brilliant suc- 
cesses which attended the return of our military men from the 
field, we may well congratulate the heroic enterprize of the people 
and anticipate a lasting peace. Our militia was at this period 



Chap, iv.] of Maine. 151 

completely tfained for active service ; every man of forty, having A. D. 1726. 
seen more than twenty years of war. They had been familiar 
with firearms from their boyhood ; and a great proportion of 
them were practical marksmen, and skilful hunters. They were 
extensively acquainted with the warfare and the lurking places 
of the savages ; and they imbibed from early life a strong antip- 
athy towards them, which was strengthened by their multiplied 
acts of bloodshed and cruelty. 

The whole number in Maine, of those killed, mortally wounded, 
and carried into captivity in the course of the war, including inhab- Losses, 
itants, soldiers, and seamen, is supposed to have been about 200 ; 
though an accurate enumeration cannot be made. About a third 
part of them were at different times made prisoners ; and many 
were carried to Canada and sold to the French. By the terms 
of the treaty, they were to be released without ransom ; yet some 
died, and others found the period long, before they were permit- 
ted or enabled to return. 



152 THE HISTORY [VoL. U. 



CHAPTER V. 

Dwnmer's administration — Three truck-houses — Indian trade — ' 
Recovery of captives — An Earthquake — Committee of claims — 
New tier of towns proposed — York and Falmouth — Education — 
Brunswick resettled — Gov. Burnet arrives — Salary question re- 
vived — Eastern Councillors — Governor's death — State of the 
eastern country — Sagadahock — Its revolutions — David Dunbar 
- — Surveyor grneral of the woods — His order for possession of 
Sagadahock — Repairs the fort at Pemaquid, and calls it Fort 
Frederick- — Surveys three townships — His other measures — Gov. 
Belcher arrives — His policy, and the grants to him — Dunbar's 
arbitrary acts — Complaints and report against him — Bounda- 
ries between New-Hampshire and Maine. — Treaty tvith the In-- 
dians confirmed — Governor's view of the eastern country — Dun- 
bar's removal ordered — Jurisdiction of Sagadahock territory re- 
sumed by Massachusetts — Dunbar's employment and residence — 
Returns to England — Resigns the surveyorship of the royal 
tcoods-^Goes to St. Helena. 
A. D.1725. At the dose of the war, it was apparent, that the settlement 
Dummer's and prosperity of the eastern country, must depend essentially 
Tio™"'^'"' "PO'^ ^ perpetuation of peace with the Indians. Mr. Dummer, 
the Lieutenant-Governor, whose discreet management had ac- 
quired their confidence, was endeavoring to secure their friend- 
ship and favor, by consulting their wishes, and holding a friendly 
correspondence with their principal Sagamores. He has been 
applauded by Douglass,* as an able man, and a wise and watch- 
ful magistrate. His administration, after the departure of Gov. 
Shute, was, in general, acceptable to the people ; the General 
Court made him liberal grants for his official services, and very 
seldom shewed an aversion to his measures. Two acts, while 
he was in the chair, are worthy to be mentioned. One was a 
statute passed, in 1724, to prevent expenses at funerals; — the 



* 1 Doug. Summ. p. 479. — Dummer's '' g-ood management in the Indian' 
"war, will perpetuate his memory ^vith all true lovers of New-England." 



Chap, v.] of maine. 153 

other was the executive sanction he gave, the next j^ear, to an A. D. 1725, 
application made to the Legislature for an ecclesiastical Synod.* 
It was opposed by the episcopalians, and severely censured by 
the English ministry ; hence the proposition was never after re- 



vived. 



As soon as peace was settled, the establishment of eastern Truck 
truck or trading houses, for the accommodation 01 the natives, 
received the early attention of the Lieutenant-Governor and the 
Legislature. These were contemplated by the treaty, and might 
be the means, if judiciously managed, of confirming the peace. 
They would be places to which the Indian hunters and their fam- 
ilies would frequently resort ; and a free intercourse with them 
being opened, the temper and movements of the tribes might be 
at any time ascertained. If commodities, such as they needed, ■ 
were furnished, of a good quality, and offered at fair prices, in 
a barter for their furs and peltry, their confidence might evident- 
ly be secured, and an intimacy contracted ; by means of which, 
connected with presents, courteous language, and kind treatment, 
their malevolence and jealousies would be abated, if not en- 
tirely subdued. 

The experiment was tried. Two trading houses were imme- Established 
diately established, one at Fort St. George, and one at Fort Rich- nionci^ St. 
mond ; and in a couple of years, a third was established at fort aifcTtfaTO. 
Mary, near Winter-harbor, where it was continued for seven 
years. f The keepers of these houses, called " truck-masters," 



'^ 2 Hutch. Hist. p. 291-2. — '' Synods had been frequent under fhe first 
charier." 

f Capt. James Vv'oodside was the first truck-master, and superintendent 
of Fort Mary, and the trading house at Saco. But as, it had fallen into 
decay, the General Court, 1727-8, ordered it renewed 8 or 9 miles above 
the old stone fort, on the west side of Saco river, and a building-, 55 b}-^ 27 
feet, and 9 fi^et posts, to be erected of square pine timber, 9 inches thick, 
together with a store-house for safely keeping the goods. The spot se- 
lected was 100 rods below Union Falls in the present town of Holiis. A 
sergeant, with a guard of ten men, was stationed there for the protection 
of trade ; the treasurer of the Province was directed to supply it with 
goods to the amount of £800 ; and Capt. Thomas Smith of Boston, father 
of the minister at Falmouth, was appointed truck-master, as early as 1737, 
with an annual salary of £l20. A Chaplain was also appointed, who prob- 
ably visited other trading houses, and preached to the settlers. — FoIsmu, 
p. 223. 

Vol.. II. 20 



154 THE HISTORY [VoL. II, 

A. D. 1726. were annually chosen by the General Court,* — special regard 
being had in the selection, to men of the greatest probity, pa- 
tience and discretion ; whose characters and manners were like- 
wise acceptable to the natives. The situation was in a few years, 
so desirable, that it was sought by men of distinguished reputa- 
tion and influence. Articles, j)rincipally necessaries, with a few 
gewgaws, were, to the amount of £1,000 or £1,500, purchased 
every year in Boston, at wholesale prices, and transported to 
each trading house in proportions, correspondent to the several 

The Hade demands. These, the truck-masters were instructed to sell, at 
an advance upon the prime cost, sufficient only to cover the 
freight and waste. Nay, sometimes in the retail of molasses, su- 
gar, rum, corn, meal, bread and tobacco, the government allowed 
them ten per cent, for waste, and sustained a loss in the articles, 
whenever they fell at the trading houses, below the price of pur- 
chase. A full value was paid the Indians for their furs and 
skins ; presents were frequently made them ; and when they 
were employed to obtain information, carry intelligence, or do 
other service, they were liberally rewarded. In the absence of 
the saniips, or husbands, — whole families were sometimes kept 
from starving ; and the truck-masters were authorized by advice 
of the commanding officers at the forts, occasionally to entertain 
and treat the Indians in the name of the government and at the 
public charge. f 

Upon the whole, however, the trade was a tax upon the Pro- 

Theregiila- ^ ' . ^ . 

lions. vince J the advance upon the furs purchased, being altogether in- 

adequate to the gratuities, the stipends to the truck-masters, and 
the expenses of maintaining a small garrison at each trading house. 
Still the loss was cheerfully borne, when it was found that the 
good effects of the establishments were fully equal to anticipation. 
The tranquillity of the Indians became settled. Finding they 
could purchase commodities there, better and cheaper than in 
Canada, they were satisfied ; and hence those of the Abenaques 



* At St. Georges, — those in succession, were Thomas Smith, John Jfoyesy 
Jahcz Bradbury. At fort Richmond, Joseph Heath, Edward Shove, John 
OultQn. At Saco fort, Thomas Smith, and Ammi R. Cidter. 

f 12 Jiaw. i^cr. p. 88-197-512. — Note.— JcrcmiaA Allen, JCav/. of Bos- 
ton, was treasurer of the Indian truck-trade ; and in one year belween 
Maj', 1731, and 1732, balance in his hands due government, was £11,953 
2.V. Or/. ,' the next year, £lO,.''>56. S*. 9f/.- 4 J/rts5. Eec. p. -173. 



Chap, v.] of Maine. 155 

tribes that remained, presently returned to the former places of AD. 1726. 
their abode ; being in this way drawn from the neighborhood of 
the French, and rendered less liable to their instigations. In reg- 
ulating the soldiery at these ' truck houses and garrisons,' the 
General Court, by a statute of 1730, ordered ever)'- officer to be 
cashiered and fined, who should sign a false muster roll, or certify 
untruly a soldier's service or dues.* 

After the Indians returned from hunting in the spring of 1 727, A. Di 1727. 
the chiefs of the Canibas, Waw^enock, and Anasaeunticook tribes, '^''^"■^^'7 

' ' ~ ' connrmed. 

addressed a letter to the Lieutenant-Governor, by which they as- 
sured him of their desires to accede to the late treaty. Nothing 
could have given stronger indications of a settled peace ; and ac- 
cording to their wishes, he and a large number of gentlemen met 
about 100 Indians at Falmouth, July 11, where the treaty was 
solemnly confirmed, with an additional article, stipulating, ' that the 
'Indians should join 50 of their men with 150 of the English, or 
' in that ratio, to subdue any refractory Indians who might attempt 
' to disturb the peace.' Greater confidence was given to the force 
and effect of the treaty, by a general pacification about this time 
among the rival powers in Europe 5 the colonies and tribes on 
this side of the water having been partakers in all their later wars. 

On this joyful return of peace, there was an anxious desire to . . • , 

J •' I ' A mission to 

greet a speedy return also of the unhappy English captives scat- ^*^°^®^ 
tered, as it was said, throughout Canada. To procure their re- captives. 
lease, therefore, Mr. Joseph Kellogg and seven attendants with 
two Indian pilots, were appointed early in 1728, to visit Quebec, 
Montreal, St. Francois and Trois Revieres. It was a difficult 
duty ; and to encourage them in their mission, several Indian 
captives, the property of individuals, were ransomed at the public 
expense, and despatched in company with the agents. At this 
period, nothing was left untried, to keep the Indians quiet, and 
to secure their good will. Special presents, worth between 30 
and £40, were transmitted to the chiefs at Penobscot ; and it was 
proposed to send two well educated, prudent and exemplary men 
among the eastern tribes, to instruct their youth and strengthen 
their friendship. f 

On the 29th of October, was the shock of an earthquake, <^ct. 29. 

'■ An earth- 

which rendered the year memorable, and which we would not quake. 



* An. Charters, p. 481.— 13 Mass. Rcc. p. 280. j 13 Mass. Rec. 20. 



]56 'I'liJ^' HISTORY [Vol. ii. 

A. D. 1727. fail to notice. It commenced 40 minutes after ten at night, when 
the weather was clear, the sky serene, and the air cold. The 
first noise heard resembled the rattling of stagecoaches, driven 
speedily upon pavements, and lasted half a minute before the 
shock was actually felt. In the midst of it, the tops of chimnies 
and stone-walls were thrown down ; doors were forced open ; 
and people found it difficult to stand unsupported. Seamen upon 
the coast supposed their vessels grated over shoals of gravel. Its 
course was Irom north-west to south-east; gradual in its progress 
and egress ; and extending from the Delaware to the Kennebeck. 
Its whole duration was about two minutes. The uncommon 
alarm was not without its moral benefits, exciting in many places 
repentance and reform." 

Commiiiee I'^ ^'^^ present and tv,o succeeding years, various measures were 

oi claims, i-esumed to revive and resettle this eastern country, so often 
doomed to the fatalities of bloody and destructive wars. A new 
Committee of Claims were appointed ; who were directed to 
hold meetings at Falmouth, receive all evidences of title and 
claim to lands, which might be presented, and especially use all 
means practicable, to shew and satisfy the Indians, how far they 
had made fair and valid conveyances to the English. f 

The boundary line on each side of New-Hamp.shire was agi- 

Wcstcrn •' . 

'''"^ "'' tated ; and that Province, feeling unable to cope with IMassachu- 

IMaiiie. ' r 1 • 1 1 • 

setts in settling so important a question, referred it to the king, 
refusing to join in the appointment of commissioners upon the 
subject. Apprehensive it would be of no avail to press the 
measure, still disposed to encourage settlements, Massachusetts 
proposed to send a skilful surveyor, and ten men on a ranging tour, 
the distance of 100 milesj from Quampeagan, in direction of the 
dividing line between New-Hampshire and Maine ; and thence 
north-eastwardly to the river Kennebeck. Returning by way of 
fort Richmond, d)ey were to make report of facts and observa- 

*" A general revival of relig-ioii look place— 40 out of 121 were the 
«' fruits of it ill the Rev Mr. Emerson's parish in Portsmouth."— S»ij7/i'5 
Journal, jy. IS.— 2 Ihilchinsori's Hist. 2()5. Till this, "there had been no 
" very violent shocks of earthquakes in tlia memory of any then living-.'' 
—2 Holmes" A. Jfnn. p. 119. 

I 12 JIass. Rec. p !38. — The Commillcc were William Tailer, Jolin Tur- 
ner and 5 others. 

I 13 Jtass. Rec. p. 40. — i. c. " North-west 103 miles from Quampeagan." 



Chap, v.] of maine. 157 

tions. Mr. Haven was appointed surveyor; yet through fear A. U. 1727. 
the movement might displease New-Hampshire and disturb the 
Abenaques tribes, it was postponed.* 

Next, we find it proposed to survey a back tier, or second line a new tier 

. ol townships 

of townships from Salmon-falls river to the Androscoggm, and from i3er- 
ofler them to settlers upon most favorable terms. The soil be- sumpscot 
longed to the Province by purchase ; the inhabitants ni the new '"'"'' 
range would be a I)arrier to the old towns on the seaboard in case 
of another rupture with the Indians ; and therefore plausible 
' pretences were encouraged and even sought for, to promote 
' the claims and applications for lands.' The descendants of 
officers and soldiers employed in expeditions against the Narra- 
gansett Indians in King Philip's war, and in the campaigns against 
Canada, and Nova-Scotia, the preceding century, and also the suf- 
ferers in later wars, were all admitted to notice ; and many who had 
acquired some knowledge of the country, while in the public ser- 
vice, manifested an enthusiastic desire to make it the place of their 
future residence. f Yet the lands upon the seacoast, eastward of 
Georgetown, were either inhabited or appropriated ; and it was 
urged, that should no considerable facilities be offered to emi- 
grants and settlers, they would go to other places. So far too as 
the proposition had respect to old soldiers, or their posterity, 
it carried with it the appearance of gratitude ; and a Committee 
was directed to lay out a second tier of townships, which should 
be severally six miles square, and extend from Berwick to Pre- 
sumpscot. 

No measure could afford the older towns more gratification. The old 
For nearly a century, they had stood in single file between the 
ocean and the woods, and never were a people's prudential and 
heroic virtues put to severer test. In the late war, Kittery, York, 
Wells and Berwick, were represented every year in the General 
Court ; and Falmouth, three years, including that of peace. 
They were severally supporting settled ministers, distinguished 
for their talents, piety and learning,! besides maintaining common 



* 12 Mass. Rec. p. 2o8.— 6 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. p. 108—110. 

-f Smii:h''s Jour. p. 17. — " People are constantly flocking' down here to 

petition for lots." 

I In York, Rev. Samuel Moody, graduated, 1G97, died, 1747, iEt. 72. 
" Kittery, " John Newmarch, " 1690, " 1754. 

" Wells, « SamuelJefierds, " 1722, " 1752, " 4S. 



15S 

A.D. 1727, 
to 1728. 

York and 
Falmoutli 
chief towns 



(?oniinfrce 
and aft'airs 
of Fal- 
/noulh. 



THE HISTORY 



[Vol. II. 



The minis- 
<ry and 
•common 
■schools in 
JVlaine. 



schools and private garrisons. Tlie towns assuming a preemin- 
ence at this period, were York and Fahiiouth. One was the 
shire town and seat of Justice, where all the public records were 
kept ; and the other a place of great resort and considerable 
commerce. At a time, in 1727, thirty vessels were seen in the 
harbor of Falmouth, besides several standing upon the stocks ; 
and, within a preceding twelve month, there were enumerated in 
that town, 64 famiHes ; which in the course of two years, in- 
creased to 100 or more. Men were admitted inhabitants in 
town-meeting, on payment of £10. All the land lying on the 
water in Purpooduck, and 30 lots on the peninsula, were survey- 
ed, located and assigned ; a saw and a grist-mill in the neigh- 
borhood were in motion ; a meeting-house finished ; and March 
8th, the same year, (1727,) Rev. Thomas Smith was settled.* 
The town books having, in some of the Indian wars, been either 
destroyed or carried to Canada, the General Court, upon petition, 
ordered the counterpart or copy of the original confirmation 
made by President Danforth, July 26, 1684, to Edward Tyng 
and others in trust, to be recorded in the secretary's office of the 
Province, and in the registry of deeds at York. 

In laying the foundations of a rising community, the men of 
this age are entitled to the highest considerations for the interest 
at all times taken by them, in the settlement of a pious ministry, 
and the support of common schools. These they placed in the 
same grade with hberty, safety and the supports of life. In 
1727, Mr. William Thompson was settled at Scarborough; and 
in 1730, Mr. Samuel Willard, at Biddeford ; Mr. Thomas Pren- 
tice, at Arundel ; and U\\ Ammi R. Cutter, at North-Yarmouth. f 
All the lands in several of these towns were taxed expressly for 
the support of their schools. Even the Province itself, contributed 
towards the salary of two or three ministers ; and once, the in- 
habitants of Kittery received from the public treasury £400 to 

la Falmouth, Rev. Thomas Sinilh, graduated, 1720, died, 1795, JE.L 93. 
"2 P. York," Joseph Moody, " 1718, " ]753, " 53. 

" Berwick," Jeremiah Wise, " 170J, " 175C, " 74. 

" Biddeford," Samuel Willard, " 1723, '• 1741, 

Grecnleaps Ecclesiastical Sketches, p. 11-21-56.— 10 Coll. JL Hist. Soc. 
270. * Smith's Journal, p. 17-20. 

+ Town privileges were not fully allowed to North-Yarmouth, till Janu- 
ary, 1732. It had been only a " propriety ;"— 14 JIass. Rcc. p. 237—267, 
286, 353, 472. Mr. Prentice graduated at Harvard College, 1726. 



Chap, v.] of Maine. I59 

assist them in re-building their meeting-house ;* the former being a,d. 1727, 
laid in ashes by lightning. 

Fort George was repaired ; and Brunsivick was among the r>iiiHs\vick 
first places re-peopled after the war. In 1730, a chaplain was 
allowed at this garrison ; and it was in this place, where Sabbat- 
ist, the Anasagunticook Sagamore, requested government to keep 
some supplies : for, said he, in " cold winters and deep snows, my 
Indians, unable to go to Fort Richmond, sometimes suffer." — The 
government, always in such instances cheerfully administered 
relief; and the tribe remained quiet, though constantly viewed 
with distrust. The settlements in this section advanced slowly. 
Harpswell was a precinct of North-Yarmouth, twenty years. In 
" 1730, and not before, some ventured to set down in Topsham ;" 
yet there were, "in 1750 only eighteen families in the place — 
seventeen of whom were Scottish Hibernians, and all protes- 
tants.f In Georgetown the greater part of the people were ^^'^'^■''"' 
presbyterians ; — there were in Falmouth a few episcopalians ; 
otherwise the inhabitants in Maine were devoted to the congrega- 
tional order. 

On the accession of George II. a year since, the immediate f^eorge n. 

r r^ 111 • • 1 . . ■ crowned, 

appomtment ol a Governor had been anticipated, m the place of July 13, 
Mr. Shute. But being disposed to please his provincial subjects, Burnet!* 
the king deliberated, and then selected William Burnet ; who 
arrived at Boston, July 13th, 1728, with a commission embracing 
Massachusetts, New-Hampshire and Maine. There were many 
imposing circumstances in his favor. Born at the Hague, whither 
his parents had retired to avoid the persecution of the Stuart dy- 
nasty, he was named William, after the illustrious prince of Or- 
ange, who was his godfather, and who soon after ascended the 
British throne. His father, Gilbert Burnet, the celebrated bishop 
of Sarum, had by his ardent piety and love of civil and relig- 
ious liberty, rendered his name dear to the people of New-Eng- 
land, and secured for the son an earnest of popular affection. The 
large and handsome person, and graceful manners of the Govern- ' 
or commanded respect ; his good abilities, his taste for books, 
and his acquaintance with mankind gave him rank among the 

* This was in 1731.-14 Mass. Rec. p. 64._Thc balary of Mr. Prentice, 
was £40,— of Mr. Thompson, £lOO. TIig school tax was from a half-pen- 
ny to a p.enny per acre on improved lands. 

f 3 Coll. Mas^i. Hist. Soc. p. 14<2. 



IQQ THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A.D 1728. good and the great ; and his pleasant wit and excellent disposi- 
tion rendered him acceptable to all. Popular as Governor of 
New-York and New-Jersey, he submitted to the change with con- 
siderable reluctance. 

His first In his first speech, he told the Legislature he should insist upon 

SDGCch 1Q~ 

sistsoiia a permanent salary, agreeably to the royal instruction, which, he 
promised himself the House would not be backward to obey. 
Desirous of avoiding, "if possible, an immediate controversy with 
the Governor, the House made him some valuable presents, and 
voted to give him £1,000 sterling, in compensation for a year's 
services. This he refused to accept, because it was not perma- 
nent ; not despairing of his ability to bring the House into his 
views, during the session, till he had kept the General Court together 
five months. He then prorogued ihe Legislature, and transmitted 
particulars to the ministry.^ The House also sent instructions to 
their agents ; yet, if a calculation were to be predicated upon 
past experience, no result favorable to their wishes could be ex- 
pected. For the fact was, that in consequence of the long and 
bitter altercation with Governor Shute, the Province was forced 
at last, to take an 'Explanatory Charter ;'f which expressly 
empowered the Governpr to negative the speaker, and also for- 
bade the House to adjourn for more than two days at any one 
time. When power and privilege are at war on such unequal 
grounds, the result is obvious. 
A feature of So much supcrior to all other public topics and considerations, 
Iratron!"""" was the salary question, at the present period, that the cotempo- 
rary statute book does not exhibit one printed act, passed during 
the administration of Gov. Burnet. He was a stranger in the 
Province. Had he been well acquainted with the sentiments 
and spirit of the people at large, he never would have tried an 
experiment upon their respresentatives, with so much pertinacity. 
A majority of the Council considered it prudent to comply with 
the instruction, as the salary could be only during the life or 
the commission of the present Governor. But the members of 
that body did not emanate immediately from the people ; and 
several of them were non-residents. Their republican politics, 
though sufliciently rigid, were better tempered with true wisdom. 
Those for Maine, in the present and preceding administrations of 

* 2 HiiU,-li. Mi^t. i Tlii'^ was dated Aug. 26, 1726. 



CHAt». t.) OF MAINE. I6f 

Mr. Shute and Mr. Dummer, were Adam Winthrop, Joseph A. v. I12^. 
Hammond, Charles Frost, Edivnrd Hutchinson, and Wm. Pepper^ Countiiiors, 
ell, jr. ; — and for Sagadahock, Spencer Phips and Samuel Thax- 
ter. Messrs. Wintlirop and Hutchinson were boih non'-resident 
members, living in Boston, and belonging to distinguished fami-' 
lies. Mr. Winthrop was elected in 1716, and the two succeed- ^yi_„,^^pp 
ing years. He was a gentleman of talents, learning and influ- 
ence.* Mr. Hutchinson had two elections, and these were in Huithinson. 
1725 and 6. He was a man of more business than eminence. 
Messrs. Hammond and Frost belonged to Kittery. They were 
men of good understanding, and great usefulness. Mr. Ham- Hammond, 
mond succeeding to the honors of a father of the same name, 
and having represented his town in the General Court seven 
years, received twelve successive elections into the Council, in- 
cluding the year 1718, when he was first chosen. He was also 
a judge of the Common Pleasf about ten years. Mr. Frost was Frost, 
elected into the Council in 1719, from the House, where he was 
holding a seat as representative from his town. He received six 
elections into the Board 5 and was also on the bench of the Com-- 
mon Pleas with Mr. Hamffiond. Mr, Pepperell, whose father,J I'eppered. 
of the same name, was among the early settlers on the Isles of 
Shoals, was an inhabitant of Kittery, which he had represented 
in the General Court two or three years. He was first elected 
into the Council in 1727, where he had a seat 32 years. His 
merits and future fame will appear in their appropriate place. 
Messrs. Phips and Thaxter, were non-resident Councillors. It 
is believed they both lived in Boston. Mr. Phips, the adopted P^ip*, 
son of Sir William Phips,§ was for the first time a Councillor 
in 1722, and afterwards received nine elections. He was a 

* Mr. Winthrop was competitor for the office of Lieut, Gov. Ivith Mr. 
Phips, in 1732. He was the fatlier of John Winthrop, L. L. D. F. R. S. 
— the great mathematician. — EUoCs Biog. p. 506. f Or ' Inferior Court.' 

I The father emigrated from the west of EajIaQd ; was engag^ed largely 
in the fisheries on the Isles of Shoals, in 1695-6. After that he removed 
to Kittery-point, became wealthy^ — died, 1734. One account supposes his 
father lived at the Isles of Shoals- 

^ One daughter of Capt. Roger Spencer of SaCo mafried William [af- 
terwards Sir William] Phips; and another married Dr. David Bennet 
of Rowley, whose son, Spencer Bennet, was adopted by his uncle Sir Wil-' 
liam, and took by statute the name of Phips. He was Lieut. Gov. oi 
Mass. from 1732 to 1757, the year of his decease. 
Vol. IL 21 



162 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1723. land-holder in the Provincial territory of Sagadahock, in conse- 
quence of an original acquittance procured by Sir William from 
Madockawando, a sachem of Penobscot, to "the lands on St. 
George's river, so high as the second Falls ;"* and the proprie- 
tors' recognition of his share in forming the patent into ten parts. 
He was commissioned Lieut. Governor in 1732; — an office he 
held 25 years. He is represented as a man of more respecta- 
bility than influence ; and indebted rather to connexions and 
wealth, than to splendid abilities or eminent merits, for his pro- 
motion. As a magistrate, however, he was very discreet and up- 
right. — Some fortuitous circumstance seems to iiave brought Mr. 

Thaxter. Thaxterf into the Council lor the single year of 1724, as we 
hear nothing further of him ; Mr. Phips being the member for 
Sagadahock, in years both before and after him. 

Dispntesof In the summer of 1729, short sessions were holden at Salem 

mid Gov- and Cambridge— the places to which the Governor, being dis- 
pleased with the people of Boston, had from time to time pro- 
rogued the General Court. This gave great offence. In short, 
the House boldly informed him, that such motives and means 
would never coerce them into measures against their judgment 

His d ih ^"*-' duty. The controversy had a fatal effect upon his spirits ; 
and September 7, after a few days' sickness, he died. J 

Public af- These altercations betvi^een the king's Governors and the 

House of Representatives, so warmly and so often repeated, were 
prejudicial to the interests of the Province. Any topic prominent 
and exciting in a community, acquires the power of monopoly. 
The people uttered deep complaints under a policy, that so com- 
pelled them to receive and obey foreign rulers, wholly unac- 
quainted whh their sentiments, their habits and their country. 
The dispute appeared to be interminable ; and while the fit of 
perplexity lasted, public affairs were neglected or managed with- 
out due skill and wisdom. Owing to the late war, and the scar- 
city of money — trade and conmierce were not in a very flourish- 
ing state, and the public treasury was empty. To administer im- 
mediate relief, a new emission of paper money had been thought 
the only effectual means, and bills were issued, two years previ- 



fairs 



* 1 Douglass' Snmm. p. 3S.5, — See ante, vol. II, p. 97. 
t 1 Doug. Samm. p. 560. — Col. Thaxter, an agent to Canaiia. 
X2 Hutch. Hist. p. 326. — Governor Btirnet had a great taste for Natural 
History and Astronomy 1 Douglass, p. 4SQ. 



Chap. v.J of malnk. 163 

ous, to the amount of £60,000 ; — the interest accruuig from the a. d. i72d. 
loans being appropriated to the support of government.* Bloated 
from time to time, by this corrupt aliment, the body politic found 
itself at length laboring under a complication of diseases, destruc- 
tive both of vigor and enterprise. 

The eastern country had not, since the peace, been filling with Setiiements 
settlements, and multiplying improvements equal to expectation. 1,).^^"°. ''^' 
No projects nor propositions of the government, encouraging to 
emigrants, appeared to be matured. The wisest course was not in 
fact readily foreseen. Grants fettered with any conditions, could 
meet with no acceptance. Individuals, even with the gifts of lots, 
could not be persuaded to make a beginning in the wilderness 
without associates. Had a liberal policy prevailed, and early 
incentives been given to the importation of emigrants from abroad, 
this country might have exhibited in a few years a large popula- 
tion. But foreigners were looked upon with a jealous eye; some 
of them were bad characters ; many were without property ; and 
the Legislature, through fear they might be a burden to the com- 
munity, regulated by lawf the terms upon which all visiting 
strangers might be landed. Hence every sea-captain, before set- 
ting them ashore, was bound to save the town harmless of all 
charges 5 years, on their account ; unless the passenger himself 
could give the security, or prove he was a mechanic, mariner or 
husbandman, of unblemished reputation. It is manifest such a 
law, known and observed, would check and discourage emigration. 

Nor were the proprietors of patents, and large tracts manifest- Proprietors 
ing the activity and zeal in promoting settlements, which had re- 
dounded so much to their credit in former years. Perhaps they 
were discouraged in consequence of their losses. They knew 
perfectly the character of the Indians, and their jealousy of en- 
croachments ; and they might not be without their apprehensions 
of some sudden rupture. They found, that settlers could not be 
spared from the old towns ; and certain it is, that the generous 
enterprising spirit apparent in other times, when they built mills, 
removed emigrants iVee of charge to them, and expended lai-ge 
sums in promoting settlements, had now degenerated to mere out- 
lines of plantations, projects of sale, and land-jobbing speculations. 
Every thing was in prospect. Men sought gains by deceptive 



2 Hutch. Hist. p. 296, f Prov. Law, A. D. 1724. 



164 THE HISTOKY [VoL. U, 

A.I). 17'^P representations, and by conveyances of shadowy titles, withovit 
any active efforts to settle the lands, or to enhance their real 
value. Meetings of proprietoi's were frequent, and much time 
and money were expended in fruliless schemes and plans, where- 
by the real wealth and improvement of the country were rather 
retai'ded than promoted.'^ 

CniKiiiion of The Provliiciid territory of Sncradahock was viewed bv specu-; 

|H)t|v lators as a fit region, in which to try their skill and gratify their 

cupidity. The possession of the eastern parts, it is true, had vi^ 
brated several times in years [)ast, between the English and 
French ; yet since the country had been reseized by Phips, in-? 
eluded in the provincial charter, and solenmly conceded to the 
British crown by the treaty of Utrecht, it might be fairly expect-, 
ed, that the jurisdictional rights and claims of Massachusetts 
would be no more called in question. The contrary however was 
quite too true, Already Armstrong and Coram, j in their re-, 
quests for extensive tracts of the territory, had presented to the 
ministry such plausible schemes and reasons, that their defeat was 
not effected without persevering efforts and considerable expense, 
It was manifestly unfortunate, that the fee in the ungranted lands, 
through the whole region, and consequently the forests, should 
ren^ain iri the crown ; while IMassachusetts, being vested with 
the jurisdiction, was in duty bound to exercise a provident care 
and protection over the whole, widiout any emolument, and with- 
out the power of making grants, even for the encouragement o( 
settlers, 

The vicissi- The territory betv/een the rivers Kennebeck and St. Georges, 

ludes ill ilie , ,' . • i n 011 

couiKiy be- presented, at this tune, the most allurements, bettled a century 
adahuc'k^"' before, inhabited many years, and thus rendered more readily 
Gel)r-e3. susceptible of culture and improvement, it richly deserved con- 
sideration. But how unusual the fate of its inhabitants f Yes — ■. 
uncommon vicissitudes had been the peculiar destiny of these 
devoted plantations. At first, they v.-ere without civil govern- 
ment ; next, they paid some regard to the anomalous civil author- 
ity of the Pemaquid proprietors, or their agents ; in 1 GG4, they 
were subject to the Duke of York ; in 1676, most of the settlers 
V^rere formed by Massachusetts, ipto a county by the name of 
Devonshire ; the government of the whole Province was resumed 



* 2 Pel^. N. H. p. 72. t Ante, A. D. 1718, 1720. 



Chap, v.] of mal\e. J65 

in 1686, by a Governor, under James II ;* and in 1692, the char- a l». it2^. 
ter vested the entire jurisdiction in the provincial government, 
Not only had this iil-fated people suffered all the evils incident to 
these revolutions, but they had experienced still harder fate from 
the Indians. In the first war, the inhabitants made a iiighiy cred-- 
itable and successful defence ; but in the fore part of the second 
or king William's war, many were killed and the rest driven away 
by a merciless foe ; their plantations were laid waste ; and for 
about thirty years, there was not found a white man dwelling in 
this ruined and forsaken Province. Such is a correct though 
faint portrait of western Sagadahock. Nay, ten years since, when ^jrrs'nl^'iS 
the surviving inhabitants or their descendents, assigns and associ- '„®prf.'^,'if7 
ates began to re-settle it, they were presently threatened by the na-^ "'"'' t'""'^' 
jives ; and ere they were able to construct fencible fortifications, 
or comfortable cottages, they saw the tomahawk again lifted over 
their heads ; and kw of the families, though in the vicinity of 
Pemaquid lort, could make themselves secure enough, to outlive 
the storm. Great courage and resolution have appeared in the 
enterprize of this people since the peace ; there being at this pe- 
riod, between Georgetown and Muscongus, about "150 fami- 
lies,"f — rprobably between 900 and 1,000 inhabitants. 

But their cup of afflictions was not yet full. There was ]n,r,vuesof 
among intriguing politicians, a strong disposition, either to con- ^^''"^ ^""' 
sider the territory an appendage of Nova Scotia, or an acquisition 
by conquest ; or by some finesse, to detach it from Massachusetts 
and have it erected into a charter Province, David Dunbar, a 
native of Ireland, and a reduced colonel in the British service, 
was fitly calculated to figure in such an enterprize. He was out 
of business, proud and indigent. He first sought the b^-th of 
Bridge^, surveyor of the king's woods. This would give him ^ yj^,^^ 
immediate livelihood : and the appointment was obtained for him syvevorof 

' ^ ' the woods. 

by the recommendation of the Board of Trade, of which Colonel 
Bladen was an active member,— ^a man who was never in love 
with puritans. Possessing very peculiar arts of address, Dun^- 
bar made the ministry believe, that a large number of his pro- 
testant countrymen, and many Gernjan Palatinates also, were de- 

* Ante, chap. 22, 1686. 

t Commissioners^ Report, A. D. 1811.—" One hundred and fifty families 
«» were settled in these towns at this early period. — A. D. 1730." 



166 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A. D. 1729. sirous of emigrating to this country ; and at length he obtained a 
(jptsnnor- rojal instruction and proclamation, by which the entire Province 
possession of of Sagadahock was given into his hands, and he directed to set- 
hock, tie, superintend and govern it ; little more being required of him 

than to preserve 300,000 acres of the best pine and oak, for the 

use of the crown.* 
„ . , On his arrival in the snrina; of 1 729. it was his first business 

Ropairs fort . 

Wiiiinni to secure the good-will and co-operation of Philips, Governor of 
(■nil, ii/<W Nova Scotia. He next put the fortification at Pemaquid in tol- 
erable repair, and changed the name from William Henry, to 
Fort Frederick,^ in compliment to the new Prince of Wales. 
Here he took up his residence and began his operations. Assist- 
ed as it would seem, by a surveyor from Nova Scotia, he laid 
out the territory between the rivers Sheepscot and Muscongus 
into three townships, to which he affixed the names of three em- 
Surveys iueut uoblemen ; viz. Townshend, [now Boothbay ;] Harring- 
^hree town- ^^^^^ j-^j^^ Southern and greatest part of the present Bristol,'] and 
Wcdpoh. [now JVobhhorovgh and the upper part of Bristol.] 
Lnrs out At Pemaquid-point, near the sea, he laid out the plan of a City. 
cay lots. ^^ ^^^1^ settler or inhabitant he surveyed a city-lot of two acres, 
also 40 acres more, including his improvements, and afterwards 
an 100 acre lot, more remotely situated. J The residue of Har- 
rington and Walpole, he assigned to a couple of speculators, 
Montgomery and Campbell, which on the death of the former 
accrued to his partner. The assurances of title, he gave the 
settlers, were leasehold-indentures, whh the antiquated reservation 
of a " pepper corn" rent if demanded. Finding the people who 
resided northerly of Townshend, between Damariscotta and 
Sheepscot,§ more backward in submitting to his claim and dicta- 
tion ; he threatened to pimish their obstinacy by expelling them 
from their possessions. 
A D 1730 Inflated with successes, he determined in the spring to be 
MisoiiiiT thorou2;h in his measures. As an encouragement to emigrants, 
he offered every one, who would settle in the Province, an hun- 



■*= Tlic business, >■' was forvviirded by a roya! instniclion to Col. Pliilips, 
« Governor of Nov:i Scotia, Apiil 27, 1730, to take pcsscssion of the lauds." 
— 1 Douglass, p. 383. 

•j- Ssttlers drew for their lots.— Burn's testimony. 

\ See ante, Chap. 23cl, A. D. 1692, and 1696. \ Now New-Castle. 



Chap, v.] of Maine. 167 

dred acres of land, where he might choose; and promised to A. D. 1730. 
supply him with a year's provisions.* To invalidate and obscure 
the jurisdictional rights of Massachusetts, he procured, besides 
the king's instruction and proclamation, a royal order to the Gov- 
ernor of Nova-Scotia, for taking formal possession of the coun- 
try ; and to effectuate his plans and enforce obedience to his de- 
mands, he obtained from Annapolis or Canseau, thirty men besides 
an officer, to man the fortress at Fort P'rederick ;f pretending 
probably, that tr;is, having long been considered the principal key 
to the Province, ought to be a public garrison. Dunbar conveyed 
lands at Damariscotta, to JViUium Vaughan, and gave him the 
benefit of the river ; and here he immediately " built two double 
saw-mills, and a grist-mill," and also made a farm. The descen- 
dents of settlers introduced into Townshend, by Rogers and 
McCobb, under Dunbar, form " at the present time, most of the 
" inhabitants of Boothbay."| 

The news of Governor Burnet's death, excited in England a Airivnl <>' 
momentary resentment towards the people and the Legislature of Btkhei-. 
Massachusetts; and some thought it lime to reduce them to 'a 
'more absolute dependence on the crown.' But the indignation 
soon subsided, in the question, ' who should be appointed succes- 
sor.' Mr. Jonathan Belcher, then in London, one of the 
agents of the Province, applied for the office with all his address, 
aided by his numerous and zealous friends. A native of Boston, 
the only son of a most opulent merchant there, a graduate of 
Harvard, and well acquainted with the temper and habits of his 
countrymen, he would have, it was urged, — more influence than 
a stranger, to carry the favorite point of a permanent salary. 
There were several other considerations to be noticed in his 
favor. Besides a good mind, a graceful person and elegant man- 
ners, he had been a great traveller. Six years he had passed in 
Europe ; twice he had been at the court of Hanover, before the 
protestant succession commenced in that line ; and had received 
from the princess Sophia a valuable gold medal. He was aspir- 



* Roger's teslimony. Rep. p. 156. — "People who lived in garrisoa had 
their separate farms in town." — Fifcft's testimony. 

t 2 Hutch. Hist, p. 339. 

I But afterwards, "many people of Roothba}' took deeds under Doctor 
'' Sylvester Gardiner, who claimed under the Plymouth company." — fF. 
.^JrCotifg tettimony, p. 167. 



168 THE HISTORY [Vol. ii. 

A. D. 1730 ing, openbearted, and sincere j unsparing, it is true, in his cen-* 
sures of foes, yet unchanging in his attachments to friends. He 
had a high sense of the honor which the commission would con- 
fer ; and on the 8th of August, he arrived in Boston, the Gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts, New-Hampshire and Maine ; Mr. WiU 
linm Taihr being now the second time appointed to fill the place 
of Mr. Dummer. 

Srpt. 0. The Governor met the two Houses, Sept. 9 ; and in his first 

speech. address, he told them, he was commanded by his royal master to 
press upon their consideration, the instruction for providing him a 
permanent support ; while he endeavored to mellow their sentiments 
to a requirement so manifestly dictated, (as he conceived) by the 

qufsii'on re- most benign motives, and founded in principles of the purest 
reason and wisdom. He applauded the judicious course pursued 
with the Indians, and strongly cautioned the General Court never to 
neglect their fortifications ; — not concluding till he had declared 
his own determination, and reminded them of their mutual duty, 

^'"^^ to preserve the king's woods, as he called them " the nursery of 
the royal masts," from inroads and destruction. He also recom- 
mended a more watchful and vigorous execution of the laws 
against trespassers ; and subsequently* he issued a proclamation 
for enforcing the statutes of parliament, passed to detect and pun- 
ish them. 

Grants (o To remunerate his past services, and defray the expenses of 

DOT. ''"'^' his late journey, the General Court granted him £1 ,000 currency j 
and also £1,000 sterling for his future support, leaving the question 
of salary entirely untouched. Nor was it believed the trespass- 
laws needed sharpening. For within three or four years, they 
had been so revised,! as to authorize a sentence of twenty stripes 

Acts against ' ' _ _ -^ ' 

trespasses ypon the back of any one convicted of a trespass with the face 

and duel- ^ •' . . 

ling. painted, or disguised ; and also to direct convictions upon proba- 

ble circumstances, unless the defendant would " acquit himself 
upon oath." One of the first acts, the present Governor signed, 
was against duels ; premising that several had been fought, and 
enacting that the body of the party falling, and also the body of 
his antagonist, after execution, be buried without a coffin, and 



* This was Oct. 9, 1730 — 13 JIass. Rec. p 471. 
f Came into force August 7, 1727. 



Chap, v.] of Maine. jgg 

have a stake driven through it, as a memento of the crime.* a. d. 1730. 
Numerous laws against crimes denote a bad state of society ; 
else surely they could not with good reason be enacted or multi- 
plied. 

In reviewing the lists of prior civil appointments, he persuad- Appoint- 
ed the Council, that when a new Governor takes the chair, all ^0.'" '" °'^' 
civil commissions ought to be renewed. This had not been 
the usage ; and though it were probably his duty to make some 
removals, the advantage of the innovation would not be other- 
wise important, than to open a wider field to executive patronage. 
When engaged in settling the counties, and ere he had touched 
the incumbents in Yorkshire, he recommended to the Judges of 
the Inferior Court or Common Pleas, a gentleman for the clerk- 
ship, whom he was desirous to assist ; the law vesting in them 
the power of appointment. But considering this an improper in- 
terference, and knowing the incumbent to be a faithful and mer- 
itorious officer, they were unwilling to make the change. The 
repulse gave him displeasure ; and he let them know, that though 
he could not put a clerk into ofiice, he could a whole bench ; and 
he therefore appointed as the Judges, JVilliam PeppereU, jr. Sf elm- 
Samuel Came, Timothy Gerrish, and Josejj/i Moody; through Yorkrilre.' 
whom he found no difiiculty in bringing his favorite into place. f 

A due regard to rights is the only principle of policv. which can n u - 
render any political measures acceptable. Dunbar had from the '-"''ifary 
first presumed to act with so much vigor, and so lifle resoect for """" 
justice, that his management was already exciting universal com- 
plaint. Regardless, either of ancient grants, deeds, or actual 
possessions, he resolved to bear down all opposition, and make 
in his own name, any conveyances which could bring him 
money. Claimants of all descriptions being thus disturbed, 
spread their grievances before the General Court. Tlie proprie- Con.piaims 
tors of the Pemaquid patent, or the ''Drown right" complained, ''°''"'' *"'"' 
that Dunbar had 'intruded upon their lands— and with force and 
' arms, was holding them out of possession ; — praying for relief 

*Tfiis revised the first one ever passed on the subject of duels— viz, A. 



D. 1719, 



1 2 Hutch. Hist. p. 336.-TVVO of the Jud-es, however, did not come 
into office till 1731. At this time the smallpox raged extensively; and 
an Act was passed authorizing Courts to adjourn to towns not infected.— 
Prov. Law, p, 486-7. 

Vol. IL 22 



170 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A I D. 1730. ' and protection.' Christopher Tappan represented himself to 
be the owner of several large tracts, " at Damariscotta and ad- 
joining Sheepscot," which had been settled and improved a se- 
ries of years, till the inhabitants were killed or driven away by 
the savages ; and which had been lately repossessed by returning 
settlers, happy at their homes, till plunged into perplexities by 
the demands of Dunbar. Many others presented their memori- 
als to the Legislature, which were filled with similar representa- 
tions. Particularly, Joseph Roberts, Samuel Whittemore, and 
Jonathan Loring, living in the vicinity of Sheepscot river, stated, 
that Dunbar came " with an armed foi'ce, turned them from 
" their lands, seized their limber, burnt and destroyed their 
" houses," and even ' threatened to throw them into confine- 
' ment ;' — beseeching government to resume jurisdiction of this 
troubled Province, and speedily effectuate the tyrant's removal.* 
AiD. 1731. In the winter session, these memorials were all referred to 
Committee's g^ ^blc Committee of both Houses, of whom Mr. Dudley was 
against himi chairman ; and they, on the 27th of January, f made Report , — 
' That the lands mentioned in the petitions. — and likewise the 
' whole territory between Kennebeck and Nova Scotia, were 
' within the royal charter, granted to us about forty years since, 
' by our sovereigns William and Mary of blessed memory, and 
'have ever been from that time to the present under the care 
'and authority, and within the jurisdiction, of our provincial gov- 
' ernment : That the Legislature have from time to time, espe- 

* cially in the last war, sent military forces into those parts to de- 
' fend and secure them from the incursions of the Indians, and 
' otherwise been put to great expense in treating and trading with 
' them, and making them presents : That laws have been made 
' to extend the county of York, and the administration of justice 
' over the whole Province — to detect and punish trespasses com- 

* mitted within it — and to assist the king's surv^eyor in the pro- 
' tection of the royal woods : — That the memorialists, the pro- 
' prietors and settlers of that country, have with others, formed 
' several associations, manifested strong desires, and made great 



* 14 Mass. Rec. p. 2S4-6. 

•j- Query, if this Report was not in fact made a year later '■: — See, 14 Mass. 
Rec. p. 237. — Yet how could it be so, if the Report of the Solicitor and 
Attorney General was afterwards, in August, 1731 .'' — General Court Jour- 
nal, 1731-2, p. 87.-2 Belk. JV. //. p. Sl-2.~Sullivaii, p. 393. 



Chap, v.] of maine. ij^ 

* exertions, to enlarge the settlements, " and build" up towns " in a A. D. i73i. 
' regular and defensible manner ;" having transported thither ma- 

' terials for building, and necessaries for upholding life, and also 
' hired laborers into their service : — That their predecessors in 
' former years, had expended " vast sums of money" in bringing 
' the lands into a state of cultivation, in constructing habitations, 
' and making improvements ; and, moreover, " great numbers" 
' had lost their lives in defence of their homes and estates : 

* That Colonel Dunbar, appearing among them, declared he had 
' powers and directions from the Crown, to dispose of all the 
' lands lying eastward of Kennebeck river, upon conditions he 
*said, he well understood, and no person should setde there 

* otherwise than under him : That though he refused to exhibit 

* his commission, or an exemplification of it, he entered among 

* the inhabitants with a number of armed men, and required, nay, 
' even compelled them to take deeds of him, or quit their pos- 

* sessions : And that the government of the Province were in 
' duty bound to interpose in favor of the petitioners and other 
' similar sufferers, to lay their complaints, the facts, and documents 
« before the Lords of Trade, and obtain, if possible, the opinions of 
' the Solicitor and Attorney Generals of England upon the sub- 
«ject.'* 

Accordingly the papers and proofs were transmitted to England, Measures 
with instructions to the provincial agent, to lay them before the retovehl. 
Board of Trade. Dunbar, who was about this time in Boston, se- 
verely felt the force of the strictures, he was constrained to hear ; 
and being thwarted in his views, and resisted in his claims, he fell 
into a fit of passion, heaped illiberal reproaches upon the Governor, 
and was ready to denounce anathemas against the whole people 
of the Province. For he found the community at large disturbed 
and inclining strongly against him. Many believed, if the Prov- 
ince should be dismembered by his taking so large a share as the 
territory of Sagadahock, he might impose heavy duties upon 
lumber and fuel, or lay the trade in those articles under restric- 
tions ; in consequence of which, the people in seaport towns, 
especially the poor, would suffer long from his exactions or op- 
pression. The local sufferers themselves were exasperated ; and 
hundreds of others thought the Governor ought to remove the 

* 14 Mass. Rec. p. 235, report entire. 



1 72 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A.D. 1731. oppressor, though it be by a military force. But he considered 
it imprudent to encounter a man armed with a royal commis- 
sion-— yet was fully aware something must be done ; and he issu- 
ed a proclamation, commanding the inhabitants of this devoted 
territory, Sagadahock, to continue their obedience to the govern- 
ment and laws of the Province,* and patiently wait instructions 
from England, in relation to the course to be pursued against 
Dunbar, 

Peiitirnsio There were others vv^ho petitioned the King and Council about 

tne crown _ _ ' '^ 

for iiis re- the Same time for his removal. Samuel Waldo, a gentleman of 

niovai, . . . . 

good capacity, and great activity, having a large interest in the 
Muscongus, or Waldo Patent, v*-as chosen agent by the proprie- 
tors, and sent to London upon the important errand. He was 
there joined by Sir Biby Lake, who was deputed by the claim- 
ants of lands between the Kennebeck and the Sheepscot,f to ap- 
pear before the committee of Council ; and they united in the 
defence of their respective rights. J Shem Drown of Boston, in 
behalf of the Pemaquid proprietors, preferred also his petition to 
the crown, in conjunction with others, praying that Dunbar nn'ght 
be displaced. § 
Diirii. nr np. About thls'tiiiie, Dunbeir, principally through the influence of 
[Yo ''r,|,,,^',',! his fiieiid Col. Bradcn, who bore no good-will to Gov. Belcher, 
N ihuiip- ^y^g appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New-Hampshire ;(| and 
proceeding immediately to Portsmouth, entered upon the trust. 
The Governor perceived the advantage his enemies would derive, 
by placing such a man second to him in the executive department 
ol that government ; and he made all the efforts in his power to 
effect his removal. But the numerous letters he sent home, writ- 
ten with great spirit and freedom, and representing the character 
of his adversary in the worst light, rather in effect, induced the 



=*= Sullivan, p. 3'39.— 1 Dong-. Sumtn. p. 3S5. 

^ 1 Doiig. Summ. p. 371. — He says it was the Shecpscol purchase, or 
" Nag-wasack" or Neqii.isset, boiig-lit -\ov. 1, 1639, and lying between Sag- 
adahock and Sheepscot. 

I It seems, that one Christopher Lawson, left Exeter, N. II., with Kev. 
John Wheelwrij;;ht, in 1643 — 4 ; tliat in 1649, he procured an Indian deed 
of lands, limited north, by the north line of the present Woolwich ; that in 
1G53, Lawson assigned a i)art or all of ijis [Hii-chase to 'i'homas Clark and 
Thomas Lake, (killed in 1G76) ; and that his son, kindred, heir or assignee; 
Sir Biby Lake, was still interested. 

5 Commissioners' Report, A. D. 181!, p. 25. |1 2 Belknap's N. H. p. 81. 



Chap. T.] of maine. 173 

ministry to keep him in place, possibly as a check upon the Gov- A. o. 1731. 
ernor, and as the best means of preserving a balance of parties. Difficulties 

- . Iipiweea 

Joinins; the opposition, Dunbar had the pleasure 01 seemg a com- hi.n and 

. . I'e'clier. 

plaint drawn up, July 10, against Belcher, and signed by filteen 
persons, alleging that his government was grievous, and arbitra- 
ry, and praying the king to remove him. This was counteracted 
by an address, subscribed by an hundred names; and in the 
sequel, they neutralized each other, and nothing was accom- 
plished. 

The power and emoluments of Dunbar in New-Hampshire, Dunbar's 
were exceedingly limited ; for the Governor, though residing in 
his other Province, considered himself virtually present in New- 
Hampshire ; and therefore the Lieutenant-Governor had no right 
to the third part of the Governor's salary, as stipulated by law, 
when he was abroad or the chair vacant; nor had he any other 
authority or command, than by the Governor's orders. But Dun- 
bar had a salary of £200 sterling, as surveyor-general of the 
woods ; and a moiety of the forfeitures and perquisites, usually 
amounting by the year, to £100; which sum was divided be- 
tween him and his deputies. He was a lover of money, and he 
needed it, for he was in debt on both sides of the Atlantic. By 
the statutes passed for the preservation of the royal woods, the 
surveyor was empowered to seize all logs cut from white pine 
trees without license ; and it rested on the claimant to prove his 
property in the court of Admiralty. Dunbar attended by his 
servants went to the saw-mills, where he seized and marked large 
quantities of lumber, and with airs of vainglory plumed by a 
little brief authority, he abused the people and threatened them 
with prosecutions for the penalties, they had incurred. But this 
class of men was not easily intimidated by high words; nor would 
they very readily shrink from a ' trial by battle,' or by ' swamp- 
law,' which seemed to rest much upon the same principles. In 
this way, he sometimes suffered in his person ; yet he made his 
office on the whole a profitable one. Also the lease-hold schemes 
and other enterprizes still prosecuted by him in Sagadahock, 
brought him some money. 

When the complaints, preferred against him, came with the submission 
documents before the Board of Trade, they directed the agent of "^"^Ig^g^""' 
Massachusetts* to state in writing, the Claim of that Province, 

* This was Francis Wilkes. 



174 i'Ht: HISTORY [Vol. ii. 

A. D. 17.31. which when done, was with the papers submitted to the considera- 
tion of the king's Attorney and Sohcitor-Generals, in the form of 
these two queries ; — 

1. " Whether the inhabitants of Massachusetts-bay, if they ever 
" had any right to the government of the tract of land lying be- 
" tween St. Croix and Kennebeck, have not, by their neglect 
" and even refusal to defend it, take care of it, and improve it, 
" forfeited their supposed right to the government ; and what 
" claim they had under their charter, and now have to the lands. 

2. " Whether by the tracts being conquered by the French, 
" and afterwards reconquered by Gen. Nicholson in the late 
" Queen's time, and yielded up by France to Great Britain by 
" the treaty of Utrecht, that part of the charter relating thereto, 
" became vacated ; and whether the government ot that tract 
" and the lands thereof are not absolutely revested in the crown ; 
" and whether the crown has not thereby sufficient power to ap- 
" point Governors, and assign lands to such families as shall be 
" desirous to settle there." 

„ , The learned referees heard council, both in behalf of the crown, 

Report of _ , 

tie king's and also of the province and the proprietors, — and, August 1 1th, 

attorney '■ mi i • i 

and solicitor 1731, they made their Report : — Ihat the territory, between the 
* * rivers Kennebeck and St. Croix, was granted to the inhabitants 
of Massachusetts-bay by a royal charter to them, and they had 
the sole right to govern it; that they have heretofore erected a 
fort there, which cost them £20,000 and have otherw ise expended 
therein £80,000, yet have at no time so refused or neglected to 
defend it or its inhabitants, as to incur a forfeiture either of the 
soil* or the jurisdiction ; that the conquest by the French, ac- 
cording to the laws of nations, only suspended, never annulled 
any rights of the crown, or of the Provincials — and upon its 
being reconquered by Nicholson, all the ancient rights, both of 
the Province and of individuals, being British subjects, immedi- 
ately revived and reverted to them by postliminy ; that the char- 
ter still remained in full force and validity in relation to that whole 
part of the Province ; and that die crown had not the power either 
to appoint a Governor over it, or to make assignments of any lands 



• Yet it must be remembered, that " no grant of land within the territo- 
ry actually made by the General Court, could be valid, ' till approved by 
' the crown.' — Prov. charter, p. 34— 5.— 1 Doug. Sunujt, p. :J83. 



Chap, v.] of maine. 1 75 

within it.* — Yet this report, though accepted by the king in coun- a.d. 1731. 
cil, seems not to have been made the ground of any efficient 
measures towards the removal of Dunbar, till the next year.f 

The subject of the boundary line, on both the northerly and a. u. 1732. 
southerly sides of New-Hampshire, being in itself of considera- The dis- 

, , , ,. . , . » pules about 

ble miportance, was seized upon by the pohtical antagonists 01 the bouiuia- 

.111- .1 J riesbetv\een 

the day, and made to increase party heat to an uncommon de- [\. namj.- 
gree. It was not only under discussion before the Lords of f,]I,'j*|',^'"e. 
Trade, where the several claims were urged with great zeal and ^''^^''" 
spirit ; but the parties in the Provinces were on all occasions vilifying 
and abusing each other, in their language, in their measures, and 
in their letters to England. On the one side. Belcher incessant- 
ly represented Dunbar, as the fomenter of opposition, false, per- 
fidious, malicious and revengeful ; doing no service to the Crown 
nor to the Governor — a plague to the Provinces, and a deceiver 
of the people. Nor was he unsparing in his reflections towards 
any of his opposers. — On the other side. Belcher's foes repre- 
sented him as blind and unfriendly to the royal interest ; evading 
the settlement of the lines ; partial to Massachusetts, where his 
estate, valuable and large, was all situated ; and conniving at insub- 
ordination in the eastern Provinces, and the destruction of the 
king's timber. J 

At the court of elections in 1732, the Governor in his speech june 1. 
presented another subject. — " I have lately, he stated, received .-pgpc'h'!*"^ * 
" many messages from the several tribes of th6 eastern Indians, 
" desiring to see me in those parts — to renew and strengthen the 
" present friendship between this Province and them ; and as 
" there willj sometime in July, be the greatest number of them 
" together, I shall be pleased with the company of gentlemen 
" from both Houses, when I shall visit them at Casco." The 
proposition was considered judicious ; and the Legislature pro- 
vided for him a guard of sixty men, put £500 at his disposal, 
which, it was intended, should be distributed as presents among 
the tribes ; and afforded him every facility for his journey. At- 
tended thither by a large retinue, in which were gentlemen of the 
first respectability, he met a great number of the Indians, July J"b' 20. 
20th, on the peninsula, when he distributed presents, conferred 

* See this Report entire, — 1 vol. Jour, of the General Court, Jan 7, 1731 

-2, p. 87-103. t Sullivan, p. 394.-2 Hutch. Hist. p. 340. 

\ 2 Bclk. N. R. p. 86. 



176 THE HISTORY [VoL. lU 

A. D. 1732. with the Sagamores, and received from them assurances of their 
He meets wishes to sce the treaty preserved inviolate. Happy in being 
atWi-'""* able to inform them of a " Society for promoting christian knovvl- 
'""'"''■ edge," formed in Scotland, he told them, that three of their 
missionaries were intended for this Province ; and the General 
Court had voted to give each of them an annual salary of £100, 
provided, they would officiate as chaplains of the garrisons at 
Fort Richmond, the fort on St. George's river, and that at North- 
field, in Massachusetts,* and also become instructers to the tribes ; 
it being believed by many people, such a course would be pro- 
motive of mutual good-will and lasting friendship. 
^"'•'- 2' , After the close of the interview, the Governor visited the rivers 

His view of 

the eastern St. Georgcs, Kenuebcck, and Saco, and the intervenmg parts; 

country. ^ . t • i i ^ T 

and in a subsequent address to the Legislature, he says, — It gave 

* me surprising pleasure to see so large a part of this Province 
' accommodated with fine rivers and harbors — islands and main 
i — capable of many and great improvements. The three rivers 
' mentioned are bordered with fine lands, full of timber and 

• woods ; and 1 cannot but think this country will in time, be 
' equal in every thing to any part of New-England. Certainly it 
' is well worthy of all the support and assistance, this government 
' can possibly render, to bring forward the settlement thereof. — 
« The several forts,' he adds, ' at St. Georges, Kennebeck, and 
' Winter-Harbor, are dropping down and ought to be rebuilt and 
' enlarged — as good stone and lime are plenty in that country. 
' Fort Richmond, it rendered defensible, is so situated as to com- 
' mand the waters of the Kennebeck river ; and Saco fort, being 
' quite limited, ought to be removed four or five miles up the river, 
' and established at the Great Falls. Nay, if some ingenious 
' surveyors were also employed to delineate a map of the Eastern 
' Province, well describing the towns, rivers, and roads, I should 
' think its cost, a judicious expense.' 

Royal order About this time, news arrived, that through the persevering ex- 

b'ar"re"mo- crtions of Mr. VVilkcs, the agent of Massachusetts, and of Mr. 

'"''• Waldo, the " indefatigable agent" of the proprietors, as Douglass 

calls him, a Royal Instruction was obtained, August 10th, 1732, 

by which the commission and authority given to Dunbar, and the 

order to Governor Philips were revoked ; and the detach- 



* II Mass. Rcr. 254, 290. 



Chap, v.] of maiNE. 177 

ment sent to keep a garrison at Fort Frederick, recalled.* This A. D. 1732. 
was highly gratifying to Governor Belcher and his friends ; — and 
no less to the inhabitants and land-proprietors within that terri- 
tory, all esteeming it a just occasion of mutual congratulation and 
triumph. 

In April followino;, the Governor stated to the General Court, ^- ^^- 1733. 
that Col, Dunbar, in conformity to his Majesty's orders, was about His depar- 
removing his effects from the fort and vicinity of Femaquid ; 
that the fort ought to be made defensible for the king's honor, 
and the safety of those parts, — in return for his great goodness . 
shewn to the Province in effecting Dunbar's removal so speed- 
ily and entirely, according to the solicitations of the Legisla- 
ture, and interested individuals ; and that should any soldiers be 
ordered thither by us, they might be accommodated with house- 
room, even within the walls of the fort. The subject, he adds, is Pfoiection 
miportant; and it is the king s ' royal pleasure, as he has express- iiockrecom' 
' ly declared, that the Province and every particular proprietor of 
' the lands there, should quietly enjoy their just and lawful rights; 
' there being a great number of his good subjects on those lands, 
' in very difficult circumstances, through want of protection from 
' the government, for which they have made earnest supplica- 
' tion to me -, and I pray you to leave no longer the fort neglected, 
' nor that people distressed and desolate.' 

Listening with great interest and concern to these representa- A>i<;iisi25. 
tions, the General Court resolved, Aug. 25, that the people of sells re-'"" 
the Sagadahock territory, be protected and treated with the same d'^ciion'^of iu 
kindness and care, as if they were inhabitants within any other 
part of the Province ; also that the same law and justice be ad- 
ministered to them, through the medium of the Courts in York- 
shire, of which they were a constituent part. Afterwards, Nov, 
6, fort Mary at Winter-Harbor, was dismantled by order of gov- 
ernment ; and the officers, soldiers, artillery and stores, removed 
to Fort Frederick, where a garrison was kept, about four years. f 

To finish our memoirs of Dunbar : — It seems that he resided Duni.ar's 
at Femaquid, or in that vicinity about two years,f after his juris- SllS'bus'i" 
dictional authority whhin the territory was revoked. As Lieu-"*"^^' 
tenant-Governor of New-Hampshire, under Belcher, he had no 

* 1 Doug. Summ. p. 383-5.-2 Hutch. Hist. p. 340. 
t 14 Mass. Rec. p 351, 399, 440. I 2 Belk. N. H, p. 8S, 

Vol. II. 23 



178 THE HISTORY [VoL. II 

A. D. 1733. seal in the Council of that Province, no emoluments of office, 
few adherents, and little to do with the government. Therefore 
he preferred a residence, amidst friends introduced by him into 
that neighborhood, and at a place central and convenient for the 
discharge of his official trust as surveyor of the royal woods. 
Besides, he was the possessor of lands in that vicinity, either by 
purchase, or by appropriating them to himself, before the recall 
of his commission ; where he was making large improvements. 
Upon Belvid era-point, at the head of the bay in Walpole, he 
built a commodious dwellinghouse and a stable, and surrounded 
them with a farm and good accommodations ; — a habitation which 
he also beautified by a contiguous, well-cultivated and tasteiul 

A.D. 1731. garden. These, when he removed to Portsmouth, in 1734, he 

lo Pons- left in the care of Rev. Mr. Rutherford ; and afterwards sold 
them to David Allen.* On liis leaving Sagadahock, the prin- 
ciples of duty and truth require us to state, that though unpopu- 
lar, he was a man of activity, enterprize and spirit. He repaired 
the fort and built barracks, for which the General Court refused 
to make him the least remuneration ; and he was the means of 
introducing no small number of valuable inhabitants into this 
Province. Caressed in New-Hampshire by tiie party in oppo- 
sition to Belcher, and supposing after three years, he had friends 
and influence sufficient to obtain a commission for the government 

Returns to of that Provincc, he went, in 1737, to England. Here he was 

England. . ' . ' . . 

arrested by his old creditors and thrown into prison. Liberated, 
he renewed his suit for the office, and zealously urged it several 
years; till at length desj)airing of success, he was prevailed upon, 
in 1743, for £2,000 sterling, to resign his surveyorship of the 
woods, when he was appointed by the East India Company, Gov- 
ernor of St. Helena. f 

* Cominissicucrs' Report, 1811. p. 153-8. f 2 Btlk. ?n. I!, p. 92-145. 



Chap, vi.] of Maine. 



179 



CHAPTER VI. 

New settlements — The terms — Offers to soldiers — Four new town- 
skips granted— Narraganset No. 1 , and 7, New Marhlehead, and 
Phillipstoivn — Grants to individucds — Proprieties — Indians jeal- 
ous — Trespasses — Salary question put to rest — Paper money — 
Falmouth made a shire toicn — New vahiation — Population of 
Maine — Throat distemp.r — Netc-Gloucester — Canada townships 
— Trade and Commerce — Views of rights to the woods — Natives 
complain of encroachments at the river St. Georges — Legislative 
measures against Waldo — Indians satisfied — Forts reduced — 
Briinsivick incorporated — Duke of Hamilton's claim asserted— 
defeated — A great scarcity of provisions. 

To settle a countrj with good inhabitants, is a work equally a. d. 1733. 
difficult and important. For while men of affluence and unblem- The first 
ished lives, seldom leave their homes for a wilderness, without towns.^ "'' 
reluctance ; those in more disagreeable circumstances are not un^ 
frequently influenced by other and stronger inducements to re- 
move ; — and primary qualities are oftentimes given to the char- 
acter of a town by the first settlers, which the current of an age 
will hardly change. So whether they be friends to education 
and virtue, — or the sons of idleness, ignorance and vice, — usually 
their descendents reflect their moral image, as they themselves 
naturally attract accessions from a like class, or a similar grade 
of people. — Among the men, who settle or go to dwell in 
new townships, there are those of industry and moral worth, 
emulous to make provision in early life for rising families and the 
infirmities of age; likewise others who are subtle speculators, 
resolved in any event to improve their fortunes ; while there are 
some, who being either culprits, or bankrupts, are mere fugitives 
from justice or from debts. 

Fully sensible as the Province appeared to be, that when the New town- 
better classes lay the foundations and build the economy of so- '*''?''• 
ciety, it more generally flourishes, and the whole community is 
thereby strengthened as well in war as peace, the government 
seized upon the occasion — professing strong intentions and wishes 



ISO THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A.I). 173.". to favor settlements, begun and fonned by such a people. For 
six }'ears* it had been, at intervals, a subject of the legislative 
enquir}' — what methods would be the best ' for planting several 
' JVew Torunsliips.^ Hence the Governor, in view of the object, 
took notice of the profound peace ' abroad, and the settled Iran- 
' quillity of the Indian tribes at home, and reconnnended surveys 
• and appropriations for settlers ;' while the Legislature, in reply, 
expressed belief, that many men of industry and virtuous habits, 
unable, since " the great increase of his Majesty's good subjects," 
to obtain lands on encouraging terms, had removed in 'large 
numbers' to other ' colonies ;'f and therefore resuming the sub" 
ject, April 20, they ordered a new township to be surveyed six 
miles square, and^located on the easterly side of Salmon Fall river, 
above Berwick, agreeably to the committee's report the preceding 
year. The lots were ready for assignment in October ; and the 
(M.nnni'l plantation was long known by its Indian name, Totv-ivoh, now 
Lebanon.'^ 

In consequence of the frequent wars with the natives, the gov- 
ernment was sediiliMis to have all new settlements compact and 
defensible ; and as the genjehal terms, conditions and require- 
ments, prescribed in the location of this town, form a leading case 
to which subsequent grants with a few alterations refer; the par- 
ticulars are here stated : — In general, about CO lots of 100 acres, 
severally, were surveyed and. offered to as many settlers, — each 
one engaging to take actual possession, and ivithin three years, to 
clear from five to eight acres fit for mowing and tillage ; also 
to build a dwellinghouse at least 18 feet square, and 7 feet posts. 
Collectively, they were also required, within five, or six years, to 
build a meeting-house ; settle a learned orthodox [^or Protestant'] 
minister; and make provision for his comfortable support. Like- 
wise in the allotments and appropriations of this and other new 
townships, there toere usually reserved three lots for public uses, 
namely, the ministry, schools and the first settled minister ; — to 
which there was, at a subsequent period, added another reserva- 
tion of a lot for the Jiiture disposition of government.'^. 



* Ante, A. D. 1727. f 14 Mass. Rec. p. 367-3. 

I Post, J. I). 1767.— Lebanon vr.is incorporaled that year. It is a goo4 
township of land, and >vcll situated for lumbering; as it bordered on the 
river several miles. 

!j Compare ihs conditions prescribed, A. D. H.'JS,— in 14 JIass. Rcc. p. 



Chap. vi.J of mafne. 181 

Next the services and claims of the brave officers and sol- a. d. 1733 
diers, so often mentioned, who had fonsiht the battles of their ^)1^''^ 1" 

' 7 o Ola soldiers 

country, came before the General Court. There were 840 men, ^"'^' ''«''"'^ 
belonging to Massachusetts, who took arms in the ' Narraganset 
expedition,' as it was called, against king Philip's forces ; whose 
names and places of abode were reported by a legislative com- 
mittee ; distinguishing the few survivors from those deceased. 
To make distinctions would be an invidious, ungracious task ; 
therefore the General Court resolved to make equal provision for 
them all — or their heirs ; and ordered seven* new townships, 
six miles square, to be laid out and offered to them gratuitously 
for settlement. In the division, there would be 120 rights, or 
shares, of 175 acres each in every township, besides public lots. 
The bounties conferred and grants appropriated, were to be per- 
fected whenever associates, to the number of sixty, would unite 
and actually settle a township, according to the ' General 
Terms.' Five of these townships were laid out in Massachusetts, '^g^""^^" ^Jj, 



one 



and two in Maine : — one was called " JYarrasranset JVumhcr ami seven, 

' "^^ or Buxton 

One," [now Buxton] ; the other, " JVarraganset JViimher Seven,'''' and Gor- 
[now Gorhnni\. 

Encouraged by the liberality of the Legislature, numerous peti- A. D. 1734. 
tioners, the next year, applied for bestowments of the public boun- 
ty. The representatives from Marblehead, stated, that their towns- 
men were ' straightened in their accommodations,' and were de- 
sirous to settle a new town in Maine, if they could obtain a grant. 
Hence, a township of 25,600 acres was surveyed to them, the 
next spring, on the eastern bank of the river Presumpscot ; 
wherein 63 compact ten acre-lots were laid out to as many set- 
tlers, and subsequently to each one a lot of 1 20 acres. This {^1^"^'^^^^"^ 
plantation, called " JVeiv-Marhlehead'' [now Windham] had notW.ndha'm. 
a rapid growth ; for five years elapsed before the inhabitants put 
mills in operation, or began a meeting-house. Being then dis- 
turbed by the Indians, they erected a large block-house, whither 
they and their families might retire for safety, and defend them- 
selves, with the aid of two swivels furnished them by the pro- 

2C9-2S 1-367-8; tvith Resohies E. Lands, March, 1785, p. 27-30— At first, 
bonds of £20 were required of the settlers for performance of terms ; but 
they were of no use — they were never sued. — See 1 Doug. Summ. p. 514. 
^ IKine, were in fact granted — but only seven taken. 



182 THE HISTORY [VoL. II, 

A. 1). i:3i. prietors. Another tract, adjoining Berwick and Tovv-vvoh, was 
Piiiihps- ia[J out, about the same time and upon the general terms, to 

town, or I o 7 

Sandfoixi. other associates, and afterward called ' PhUlipstown,^ now the 
town of Sandford* 

prants lo In the present good mood of the General Court, individuals 
were equally successful in their applications. Samuel Jordan of 
Biddeford and Christopher Baker, who had been a long time 
captives in Canada jf Richard Cutts of Kittery, who was shot 
ten years before and lay twelve months sick of his wounds ; 
Ruth Lee — who had lost her husband in the attack upon Port- 
Royal ; the children of Major Converse, who had lost their 
father in the third Indian war ; and Richard Tozier of Berwick, 
who had been a great sufferer by the savages ; — all of these and 
a great number of others had lots from 150 to 200 acres given 
them, which they had a right to select from any of the unappro- 
priated lands in IMaine. Any persons severely wounded, — be- 
reaved of husband or father, — made criples or captives — were, 
upon request, sure of receiving the legislative bounty. Nay, 
there were instances, where gratuities were made in consideration 
of services rendered between forty and fifty years before ; and 
some of the poor were supported through the year, from the 
public funds. J At length, the officers and soldiers in the Cana-r 
da expedition, of 1690, preferred their memorials, which were 
committed for consideration ; and the second year, their requests 
were also granted. § All these grants were obtained through 
^^ the Committee of Lands ;^^ whose report was at this period, and 
in these instances, considered a sufficient reason for a legislative 

T, • ,- order or <ri"ant. At first the new townships were managed as 

formed. ^' jpropvietics^^ or corporate tenancies in common ; and several 
acts were passed for calling proprietors' meetings ; regulating their 
officers ; enforcing their votes ; and collecting assessments. 
But these movements in the old Province of Maine, and some 



* See Sandford, A. D. 17G8, post— incorporated. 

I Baker was a prisoner 25 years : and allowed 500 acres. 

1 2 Resolves of General Court, A. D. 1734, p. 51-S3. Perliaps this was 
the origin of state paupers. 

5 The men who were at the heads of these petitions were, Isaac Little, 
Wm. Rand ; Samuel Greaves ; Samuel Wright; Nathaniel Bowman ; Sam- 
uel Pool; Ebenezer Hunt; Stephen Hall; and Joseph Sylvester, and 
others. 



Chap. VI.] OF Maine. 183 

of a similar character in that of Sagadahockj especially upon the a.D. I73t. 
river St. Georges, began to disturb the Indians ; and their dis- J;;f,J^ 'j^^jr 
contents once excited, were always aggravated, whenever they^'"'^- 
had access to ardent spirits. For though they might fawn upon 
the man at the time, with a profusion of thanks, who would put 
the cup to their thirsty lips, they would, if they had opportunity, 
surely abuse him, while they were under the influence of the in- 
toxicating draught ; and when sober, they were apt to be jealous 
of some possible imposition, and as often meditated revenge for 
suspected as real frauds, practised upon them during the sus- 
pension of their reason. Nor would they confine their traffic 
with the white people, entirely to the truck houses. Greedy or 
travelling traders, visiting the new settlements, wickedly courted 
a barter with them ; having regard only to their own pecuniary 
gains and immediate emoluments. The Governor was moved 
upon this fearful subject — and he stated to the General Court, 
that by the " frequent complaints received from the frontiers, 
" great abuses were committed on our Indian neighbors, by in- 
" toxicating them with excessive quantities of rum ;" — and ad- 
ded, ' if there be not a speedy check given to this growing wick- 
' edness, what good can result from all the sums expended by 
' the government for their benefit, or by the Scottish society for 
' their instruction ?* — Reminding them also of the war lately 
' entered into by several of the European princes, and the great 
' preparations making for extensive campaigns,' he told them,- 
May 31, ' it was their duty to look into the state of the Province, 
' and put it into a good posture oi defence in case it should un- 
' fortunately be again visited with the scourge of war.' 

By the extension and increase of settlements, more convenient Qovehior's 
avenues were opened to the king's woods. Hence the Governor, against trcs- 
when informed of the recent trespasses committed, issued a new p^^s^'s- 
proclamation, declaring that all the laws of Parliament, and of 
the General Court, made to punish that class of offenders, w^ould 
be carried into rigorous execution. He went so far afterwards, 
as to threaten the Province with his Majesty's indignation, if the 
lorest-trees of his royal domains were not better preserved. 

To the salary question, which had so often and so highly agi- 



* The Society liad a ini^&ionarv upon tlie eastern frontiers. — I Douif. 
Suvim. ji. 231. 



]g4 THE HISTORY [VoL. IIw 

A.u. 1734. tated the people and their representatives, his wisdom and good 
Salary management gave a most favorable turn ; havins; prevailed with 

question put o D . . 

to rest. the king to relax his instruction, so far as to permit the incumbent 

Governor to accept what sums the Legislature might grant him ; 

Paper mon- and here the unhappy controversy rested. But paper money, or 

ev consider- ' ^ •' , •' . ^ f , i 

«d. bills of credit, was a subject, about which he had not the ad- 

dress or abilities to bring the General Court into his views. The 
time set was now only seven years — when all which had been 
issued would fall due ; and any made payable at a remoter dayy 
was expressly forbidden. These bills, like lava, overflowed the 
country ; nor was there a government in New-England that did 
not send out a full share of them.* " Massachusetts treasury, 
" which had been long shut, was opened, and the debts of two 
" or three years were all paid, at the same time, in this kind of 
" paper ;"f which was made by law a tender in payment of all 
debts. Still they were in effect like coin of base metal, less 
than one part fine to two of alloy; for 10 Spanish-mill'd dol- 
lars — were now worth and would bring about £10 of the bills. | 
As they were constantly depreciating, the holder would pass 
them, and hoard up his silver and gold, or send it abroad ; 
and cash or precious metals became articles of merchandize, of 
which there was a great scarcity. Nothing could be more diffi- 
cult, nay, it was impossible, to graduate justly the price of labor 
and breadstufTs to this deceptive currency ; and without some 
unchanging standard, there is no safety either in barter or trade ; 
— no man can know the worth or value of his property, much- 
less that of his debts or dues. The faith of the Province was, 
it is true, pledged to pay the bills agreeably to the nominal 
amount upon their face ; — but inability, owing to expensive wars, 
was a plausible apology or plea for not redeeming them. 
The Gover- I" ^" excursion into the eastern Provinces this summer, the 
tTe'eistern Governor visited Passamaquoddy, Machias, Pemaquid, Damaris- 
country. ^^^^^ ^^^ Shecpscot. At Pemaquid he had a talk with several 
Indians, whom he treated with great courtesy ; and from whom 
he received fresh assurances of their wishes for a continued 



* 1 Dong. Summ. p. 528. 

\2 Rutck. Hisl. \).M\ The loan to York county was £100,000.-2 

Resolves, printed July, 1735. 

I Governor's Speech, Jlay, 1734.— He says Ids. of the^e bills will not pur- 
chase bs. of lawful money. 



Chap, vi.] of Maine. 135 

peace; though there were traders on the frontiers, who had A. u. 1734. 
given some offence. In his interview with the inhabitants of 
these parts, they were able to confer with mutual satisfaction and 
interest upon Dunbar's recall, for they had all viewed his agency, 
as a public annoyance. 

At the next Court of Elections, the Legislature, June 10, ap-A.D. 1735 
pointed, for the first time, the Inferior Court, or Common Pleas, F.iimouih 
and Sessions of the Peace, to be holden alternately, in January i"a'i(.sh?re 
and October, at York and Falmouth. The Judges were Samu- "'"^' ^*"'''' 
EL Came, Timothy Gebrish, Joseph Moody and Jeremiah 
MouLTON : — The Sheriff, John Leighton ; the County Treas- 
urer, Daniel Simpson; the Collector of the excise, Joseph Hill, 
of Wells ; and the Notary-Public, Richard Cutts, jr. of Kittery. 

Tliis year, a new valuation of all the taxable property, and A newvalu 
enumeration of all the male inhabitants, sixteen years old and 
upwards, within the Province, were taken and completed, 
for the purpose of apportioning the public assessments upon 
the several towns. As it may be gratifying to have a view of 
the proportions of £1,000, set to the several counties in the 
Province,* and to the several towns in Yorkshire, they are sub- 



joined. 


To York, 






£> 8l4s.09d. 




Kittery, 






11 05 04 




Berwick, 






5 17 08 




Wells, 






4 19 00 




Falmouth, 






5 12 09 




Biddeford, 






2 04 03 




Arundel, 






2 01 03 




Scarborough, 






4 02 10 




North-Yarmouth, 




1 09 04 




£ 46 07 02. 


♦ Counties — 


-Suffolk, 17 towns. 


£ 


262 02«. 06df. tax. 


a 


Essex, 19 


(( 




200 13 02 


<i 


Middlesex, 31 


(t 


i( 


146 10 10 


a 


Hampshire, 13 


4( 


<( 


64 12 07 


it 


Worcester, 17 


i( 


i( 


52 GO 03 


a 


Plymouth, 13 


i( 


(( 


76 13 07 


ti 


Bristol, 15 


(( 


ii 


89 00 08 


it 


Barnstable, 9 


(( 


«( 


49 10 03 


« 


Dukes, 3 


<( 


(( 


11 15 00 


ti 


Nantucket, 1 


cc 


.( 


10 14 00 


«t 


York, 9 


ti 


u 


46 07 02 



147 £1,000 00 00 tax. 

Vol. H. 24 



IQQ THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1735. By this it is perceived, that no place within the territory of 

No plaiita- Sagadahock, not even Georgetown, is embraced in the vakiation ; 
and all the plantations in the old Province of Maine are omit- 
ted. Indeed the unincorporated townships, settlements and pro- 
prieties, were not at this period, required to bear any of the pub- 
lic pecuniary burthens. From the census of the taxable polls,* 
the population of the whole Province, was estimated to be about 
142,000 souls ; of which, that of Maine, in the nine towns men- 
tioned, calculated by a rule of proportion, would be about seven 
thousand. If there be added to these, the probable number in 

in°Mai'nc'." Georgetown, and in all the unincorporated places, within the 
limits of the present State of Maine, the aggregate would evi- 
dently be at the present time, (1735,) about 9,000 souls.f 

The throat Encouraging as this view of our population appears, it is pain- 
ful to trace the ravages, and note the fatal effects of a disease, 
which in its course swept from Maine about 500 of its inhabi- 
tants. This was called the Throat Distemper. It first made 
its appearance at Kingston, New-Hampshire, in May, and grad- 
ually spread through New-England. J It was very mortal, espe- 
cially among children. In Maine it spread and raged at inter- 
vals more than three years. Its general appearance was — a 
swollen throat with ash coloured specks — an efflorescence on the 
skin — distress in the head — great debility of body, — and a sU'ong 



According to 2 Hdmcs'' A. Ann. p. 129, the populatioji of the toucns in (lie 
whole Province, A. D. 1731, was 120,000, Eng-lish inhabitants. He quotes 
Political Tracts'— nnd Anderson iii, p. 172. — But the estimation is too low. 
—See ante, vol. II, p. 37, note f. 

* There were 35,427 taxable pulls in the whole Province : — The Negroes 
were 2,600 ; — Horse kind, 3 years oiU and upwards, 27,420 ; — Neat cattle, 
52,000 ;— Sheep, 130,000.— 1 Doug. p. .531.— In 1742, there were 41,000 
males, IG years of ag-e and ujiwards, in the whole Province. 

f Within the nine towns of Maine, 7,000 souls. 

In the jilantatious, and new townships, Brunswick, Tops- 
ham, Ilarpswell, Tow-woh, Narragansct Nos. 1 and 7, 
New-Marblehcad, and Phillipstown, (by estimation,) 500 

Within Sagadahock, embracing Georgetown, Sheepscot, 
Damariscotta, Tovvnshcnd, Harrington, Walpole, Broad 
Bay, and St. Gcorge-s' river, [ante, A. JD. 1729,] 1,500 

• 

9,000. 
Douglass [vol. 1, p. 384,] says, there were in Sagadahock territory, A. 
D. 1744, 370feDsible men. ;2 Ilolmcb' A. An. p. 141. 



Chap, vi.] of maine. jgy 

tendency to putrefaction. Parents trembled at its approach, for AiD. 1735. 
children when seized, were sick only a very short time, before 
death. Six, and sometimes more, were taken from single fami- 
lies ; several buried three or four in a day ; and there were 
many parents who lost their all. In the single town of Kittery, 
122 died of the distemper ; and having entered Arundel, it car- 
ried off great numbers both of young people and children.* 
It proved so fatal and alarming, that a solemn fast was kept, 
Oct. 31, to invoke relief from Almighty God. The next year 
it was neither so general nor so mortal. However, in January, 
1737, it broke out afresh in York and Wells, and laid- numbers 
in their graves. About 75 died in North-Yarmouth ; 49 in Fal- 
mouth ; and 26 in Purpooduck. So deadly was it in Scarbo- 
rough, for instance, that not a single one survived the attack ; and 
at Saco and Presumpscot Falls, it seemed, the next year, to riot 
on human life, baffling alike all medicine, skill and exertions. It 
raged at all seasons of the year ; being in general the most mor- 
tal, where blood-letting and cathartics were practiced. 

In other respects, this eastern country was exhibhing proofs of ^.d. 1736. 
considej-able prosperity, and the inhabitants appeared to be con- 
tented. Applications for new townships were pressed or re- 
newed ;f and on the 27th of May, one of usual size was granted 
to the town of Gloucester in Massachusetts ; — from which cir- 
cumstance, it acquired and has retained the name " J\ ew-Glou- iVew-Glou- 
cester.'^ It was immediately setded by inhabitants from the pa- ^^stergrant 
rent town, who built, about the same time on the beautiful declivi- 
ties of ' Harris Hill,' a dozen log-houses, and also erected a mill 
on Royall's river. The setdement increased, till interrupted by 
the Indians. 

Nine townships were granted to the officers and soldiers sur- Canada 
viving, and the heirs of those deceased, who were in the expedi- '"""'^^''P^- 
tion sent against Canada in 1690; which when surveyed and 
assigned, were called the " Canada Townships." Only two of 
them, however, or their substitutes, were located in Maine 5I the 
others were laid out on the Merrimack, or Connecticut, or between 



* Smith's Jour. p. 2G-2S. | See ante, A. D. 1 734. 

I These were called Phips' Canada, [Jay,] see A. D. 1795 ; and Sylvester 
Canada [Turner,] A. D. 17SG. It was supposed the latter was first located 
in Massachusetts, though proved to be in New-Hampshire, wiien the lines 



were run. 



188 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A. D 1736. those rivers, along the north margin of Massachusetts ; sever- 
al of which, in settling the line, in 1739, were assigned to New- 
Hampshire. The Governor strongly recommended these appro- 
priations ; for, said he, they " will form an additional barrier to 
"our frontiers,, and afford great safety to the Province, upon 
" any adventitious rupture."* 
Commerce Commerce, trade and ship-building had now considerably re- 
imd trade, yjygfi |p, d^ese eastern Provinccs. The articles of export were 
fur, fish and lumber. But the first, once so great a commodity of 
traffic, was at this period principally confined to the truck-houses. 
The business declined, according to the decrease of the Indian 
population. There were about 600 men employed in the fish- 
eries, who belonged to the Province ; and considerable quanthies 
of fish were annually taken from the rivers and coasts of Maine. 
But our forests formed the great store-house of eastern wealth. 
Lumber of different kinds bore a fair and uniform price, and 
commanded a ready market and prompt pay. The masting 
trade was confined wholly to Great Britain ; while boards, shingles, 
timber, and also fish, being principally managed by the Boston 
merchants, were exported to European ports and the Carribee 
Islands. In the winter season, small vessels were the carriers of 
English and West India goods to the southern colonies, for 
which they received corn and pork ; — articles in great demand 
among the eastern inhabitants. 
0|.ini<.ns as Upon uo suhject was there a greater diversity of opinion, than 
u,e wood"' upon the true condition and right of property in our extensive 
forests. The Governor often urged it upon the Legislature, as a 
mutual duty he and they owed their sovereign, to exert their 
utmost power in tlie preservation of these royal invaluable for- 
ests. — In reply, tlie two Houses, sensibly touched, by such re- 
peated admonitions from the Executive chair, at length told him,f 
they had passed several laws against trespassers, and revised and 
sharpened them with new penalties, authorizing even corporeal 



* six of these towiisljips r.ftcru-arJ.s were owncil or controlled bj' these 
several towns, Ipswich, !?a!eni, Rcverly, lloxbiiry. P.owley and Dorcliester . 
3 or 1 of which, when the divisional line Ixtwoen Massachusetts and New. 
Iiainpsliire WuS finally C5-tah]ished, fell within the jurisdiction of the latter 
Province. — 1 Doug. Suntm. p. 4'2 t-!59-462-5l>4— G ; — -dlso Guvemor^s Speech^ 
J\Iay, 17oC. — The Cointnittec .ippointtd to lay out these townships were 
J. Chandler, R. Hale, V. Epes, Ed. Quincy, W. Dudley, and S. TFells.—lS 
J^Iast. Rec. p. 296. T Answer of the House, 173S. 



Chap, vi.] of Maine. 189 

punishment to be inflicted upon those who offended in disguise ; A. D. 1736. 
and if the masts were not preserved, it must be owing to some neg- 
lect in the execution of the laws, or some dereliction of duty in the 
officers ; — not to any defect in the laws themselves. Unques- 
tionably the tone of popular feeling was now too low to harmon- 
ize with the high notes of government. Hundreds believed the 
forests were the gifts, as well as the growths of nature. A foreign 
right, even in the king, must be nominal ; for he had expressly 
granted the political jurisdiction of the country ; and if the soil 
were withholden, the forest trees, rendered valuable by municipal 
setdements, and individual adventure and toil, ought to be as open 
and free to the settlers' use, as elemental water, air or light. Till 
the cultivation of the country, the woods must afford the neces- 
sary means of upholding life ; and it is only by felling or re- 
moving trees, that wild lands can be converted into fields of hus- 
bandry and improvement. All this, it is true, might be plausi- 
ble, and yet be neither sound, lawful, nor safe; because what is 
in store for the common good, ought not to be plundered for pri- 
vate benefit. 

But there were much older claims to the forests, than that of Tiipindiaw 

, . , . ^ . , . 1 • 1 I • displeased 

the king, — and mnnitely more nnportant to the mhabitants. by the in- 
These were the possessory rights of the natives. Ten years they new seuie- 
had been quiet ; and it was with much pain and sorrow, that there '"^"**' 
appeared among them, any indications of restlessness or discon- 
tent. But they looked upon the new settlements with great jeal- 
ousy, and dislike ; — as the harbingers of their utter extermina- 
tion. Unfortunately an Indian woman, about this time, had her 
trial at York, for the murder of an English child ; — a circum- 
stance which might awaken the sympathy of the Indians, and 
promote some inceptive excitements. For after this, the reports 
of guns were heard in the neighboring forests, which were known 
to be discharged by the Indians ; and about the same time, the 
tongue of mischief or suspicion spread a rumor, that Biddeford 
was marked for assault.* 

Although the report was groundless, it excited an alarm, which Prppnra- 
. . , ' . lions for de- 

was judiciously improved. For according to the recommenda- fence. 

tions of the Governor, so often repeated, preparations were now 

made for repairing the public fortifications, and replenishing the 



t Smitirs Journal, Sept. 9, p. 26. 



190 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1736. public arsenals ; some new block-houses were built ; and others 
were put in a better posture of defence. In Falmouth, for in- 
stance, a private garrison was finished, which had been constructed 
on a well chosen plan for accommodations. 

Tiie nntivos On investigation, it was found, that the Tarratines were much 

complain of • , i • n 

encroach- disturbed ; and as they had at this period, the greatest influence 
Waldo and vvith the Other eastern Indians, the late defection, it was feared, 
Georges' had bccomc general and mutual. Yet the Tarratine Sagamores 
"^*^'^" appeared to be so desirous of a perpetuated peace, that several 

of them took a journey to Boston. There, according to the pro- 
visions of the treaty, they laid their complaints before the Legis- 
lature, stating that they had never consented to let Englishmen 
build houses, above the tide waters of the river St. Georges ; and 
yet Mr. Waldo and his people were encroaching upon Indians' 
lands and rights to a fearful extent ; and they could no longer 
endure the sight of such flagrant wrongs. 
Report of A joint Committee of the two branches, to whom the subject 
in'fb'vor of ^^^s referred, after a conference with the chiefs, reported in sub- 
ihe Indians, g^^j^gg ^j^^g .* — i [[^^^ ^j^g natives have possessory rights in the 
' lands of the extensive wilderness where they dwell, which have 
' been often acknowledged by the purchases made of them, and 
' prices paid them, and it is the duty of the government enjoined 
' by treaty, to do them justice ; that Madockawando, calling him- 
' self the Sagamore of that country, assigned to Sir William 
' Phips, in 1 694, the lands on both sides of the river St. Georges, 
' as far as the upper falls, and afterwards in behalf of the tribes 
' upon the Penobscot, Kennebeck, Androscoggin and Saco, he en- 
' tered into a treaty with Phips in the capacity of Governor, and 

* signed articles of submission to his royal master ; that only two 

* dwellinghouses were built on that river, prior to 1 720, when the 
' proprietors at their own expense erected there, the present for- 
' tress and block-house, which are now occupied by the govern- 
' ment ; that the chiefs acknowledge, they have consented " to 
" have settlements made as far up the river, as to the falls or the 
" flowing of the tide waters" — but that Madockawando, as they 
' positively and constantly aflirin, never was acknowledged chief 
' Sagamore of their tribe ; that when, agreeably to the petitions of 
' Sir Biby Lake and others, the crown gave an order for the re- 

* 1.5 Mass. C. Rec. p. .^O— 3.— Jour, of the Mouse, p. 91. 



Chap, vi.] of Maine. 191 

' moval of Dunbar, it derogated nothing from any rights of the A. D, i73G. 

' Indians, it only recognized and sanctioned the validity of older 

' Enghsh grants and possessions, and the claim to anterior juris- 

' diction, as vested by the charter in the government of the Prov- 

' ince ; and that neither Mr. Waldo, nor any otlier, ought to be 

' protected " in settling or improving any lands on Georges' river 

" above the falls, until the government shall be satisfied, these 

" lands have been fairly purchased of such Indians, as were the 

" rightful owners thereof." 

Though Mr. Waldo had filed a counter memorial to the repre- Renon ac- 
sentations of the Chiefs, the report was accepted by the Legisla- iTo 'General 
ture ; presents worth £100 were sent by them to the tribe ; and [[^"'ii'^iiaul 
they returned home well satisfied. — The affairs of the Indian de- P'''ci<'ed. 
partment, after this, underwent considerable reform, William 
Foice was appointed purveyor of supplies, and manager of the 
trade ; and so entirely tranquil were all the tribes, that the gov- 
ernment, early the following year, proceeded to dismantle fort The forts 
George at Brunswick, and fort Frederick at Pemaquid, and re- 
duce the forces at St. Georges' and Richmond forts, severally to 
one commissioned oflicer and ten sentinels. 

On the 24th of June, 1737, the usual powers and privileges of Brunswick 
other towns were granted by the Legislature, to Brunsivick ;* and ^'^'^^n'orat- 

* Brunswick is the 11th corporate town ; and its date is referred to Jour. 
House Rep. p. 73. It was orig-inally called " Pcg3pscot." Its first inhab- 
itant was Thomas Purchas, settled at Stevens' river, about 1625-6. — He and 
Geo. Way, A. D. 1632-3, took, as it is said, from the Plymouth Council a pa- 
tent of lands on both sides of the Androscog-gin, and also a quit-claim of the 
natives. In 1639-42, [1 Baz. Col!, p. 451— Ante 1642] Purchas put his 
plantation under Massachusetts; in 1636-8, he was one of William Gorges' 
Council; in 1654. lie submitted to the New-Plymouth g-overnment on the 
Kennebeck, and was Mr. Prince's sole assistant ; and in 1663-4, he was one of 
Archdale's justices. He was absent during' part of the first Indian war, and 
died an old man, not many years after its close. — Fort Geoj'ge was estab- 
lished near the bridge, A. D. 1713. Twice the fort has been greatly injur- 
ed by fire. In 167G, Brunswick was destroyed by the savag-es ; revived 
after the war, and again destroyed in the spring-, A. D. 1690. In 1713-14, 
the settlements were resumed ; yet in Lovcwcll's war, A. D. 1722, it was re- 
duced to ashes, and again ropeoplcd, A. D. 1727. There were in 1735, be- 
tween 30 and 40 men in town. Before it was incorporated — twenty-nine 
signed the petition. In 1790 the census was 1,387. Rev. Robert Ruther- 
ford was their first settled minister — dwelling with his people when the 
town was incorporated, and continuing with them till 1742. His successor 
waslley. Robert Dunlap, born in the province of Ulster in Ireland, Aug. 



192 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1736. from this time, the settlement called by that name assumed the 
rank of a town. It is now among the most important munici- 
palities in the State. Here is our principal seat of classic 
science and literature. The village is delightfully situated on a 
sandy plain ; the greater part of the dwellinghouses and stores, 
standing on both sides of a wide and spacious street, a mile in 
length, terminated on one end by the Androscoggin, at the Lower 
Falls and the bridge, and on the other, by the meeting-house 
and the College edifices. 

Dormant If the prosperity of a country is evinced by the multiplication 

claims iu i i j ■/ • j j • 

Sagada- of incorporated towns ; its real importance is rendered certam, 
when the worth or value of the lands make it an object to revive 
ancient and dormant titles. Such of late had been the hard 
destiny of many inhabitants, in the territory of Sagadahock. 
Overwhelmed by these and other discouragements, several fami- 
lies in the vicinity of Pemaquid had actually removed to other 
places. For the first time, a claim resting upon a title, an hun- 
dred years old, was now revived by William Sheriff of Annapolis, 
Hamilton's and prosecuted with no inconsiderable zeal. In the petition, 
ed ill taiii. which he presented to the General Court, as agent to the Duke 
ot Hamilton and Branden, he represented, that his principal was 
heir at law to James Marquis of Hamilton ; and that the old 
Plymouth Council assigned to the ancestor, April 22, 1635,* a 
tract of 10,000 acres, on the easterly side of Sagadahock, to- 
wards the mouth of the Androscoggin ; — praying that he might 
have leave to take it into possession. But the petition was dis- 
missed ; and another of like purport subsequently met with the 
same fate. 

In new countries, there are numerous events which dishearten 
a poor and scattered people. The former season had been un- 

1715, educated at the University of Edinburgh, and ordained at Boston 
1747, by a Presbytery, in consummation of his settlement at Brunswick. 
His salary was £200 old tenor. Being dismissed in Oct. 1760, he was 
succeeded Nov. 1762, by Rev. John Miller, who died in 1788, Rev. Eben- 
czer Coffin was settled in June, 1794, and preached eight years. In May, 
1811, Rev. Winthrop Bailey was settled. 

♦ See assignment of the twelve Provinces by the Plymouth Council, A. D. 
1635. AnU. The sixlth division was to the Marquis of Hamilton — after- 
wards perhaps a duke — and extended from Naumkeag (Salem) to Narra- 
ganset. These 10,000 acres, if ever granted, might have been another and 
separate grant. 



Chap, vi.] of Maine. I93 

favorable to husbandry ; and in the autumn, it was evident the a. d. 1737. 
provisions raised were altogether insufficient for the people's sup- a scarcity 
port. Owing to short crops abroad, fewer vessels were freighted ions. 
with supplies to Maine, during the winter, than in preceding 
years, and ere the spring opened there was a scarcity, which was 
little short of a famine. Some had no corn nor grain for several 
weeks ; in April, the hay was generally expended ; indeed there ^ ^^.. 
was nothing to spare of any eatable article, not even potatoes ; 
it being reported, that not a peck of them could be bought in all 
the eastern country. Till harvest there was distress for bread 
even in Boston ; and it was remarkable, if some of the destitute 
upon our eastern frontiers did not perish with hunger.* What 
gave poignancy to the distress was the deadly throat distemper 
before mentioned, which continued still to rage in many towns ; 
and several also died of a pleuretic fever. 

* In consequence of the great scarcity, the truck-masters were directed 
by the Leg-isiature, December 24, 1737, to distribute to the Indians, provis- 
ions to the amount of j^l 13, 6s. Sd. Note — The volume of Massachusetts 

Colony Records, from 1737 to Sept, 30, 1741, is missing — supposed to be 
lost. 



Vol. II. 25 



191 thl: HISTORY [Vol. II. 



CHAPTER VII. 

Dispute about the north and south hoxindaries of N etc- J I amp shire — 
Reference — Decision — Appeal — King's decree — Belcher's view of 
the eastern country — Yorkshire viilitia divided into two Regi- 
ments — Gov. meets the Indians — Suspicions of them — Yorkshire 
records — War with Spain — Defensive measures — Scarcity of 
specie — Land-bank — Public embarrassments — Boundaries partly 
surveyed — Gov. Belcher removed — His character — George TT7/?Vc- 
fcld — Laivs — Gov. Shirley takes the chair — His Speech — New 
tenor — A dearth — Impressments — SMphuilding and the fisheries 
— Indians withdraw to Canada — The Gov. meets a large body 
of them at St. Georges — His view of the eastern country — <S^e^- 
tlcment of it — Effects of the new tenor vpon society — Laws to 
prevent costs in lawsuits — Governor's view of fees — New valua- 
tion — Taxable polls — Census of 3Iaine — B. Wenticorth, Survey- 
or of the woods — Fears of war — Preparations for defence. 

A. D. 1731, As the northern and southern boundaries of New-Hampshire 
had long been a subject of dispute between that Province and 

Dispute iiT 1^ • r 1 T-» • i\T 

about ihe Massachusetts, a committee u'om the two Provinces met at New- 
andsouiiier- buiy, in 1731, for the purpose of settling the controversy. But 
ofNe"w'^ unable to agree, they soon separated; and New-Hampshire 
amps me. gp^g^jj jj^g g^gg jjefore the king, sending one agent, John Ringe, 
and employing two others, John Tomlinson and Ferdinand J. 
Parris, of the realm, to pursue her claim till it be brought to 
some determination. Francis Wilkes, the Massachusetts agent, 
appeared in behalf of that Province ; and the king referred the 
subject to the Lords of Trade and Plantations, under whose con- 
sideration it remained about six years. At length, they recom- 
mended the appointment of Commissioners to determine and set- 
tle the question. 
A. D. 1737, Accordingly, twenty Provincial Councillors were selected, in 
Reference equal numbcrs, from New-York, New-Jersey, Rhode Island and 
vinciai Nova Scotia ; unto whom a Commission was issued, under the 
" ' ""^ ■ great seal, of the following tenor : — ' You being appointed Com- 
' missioners, for settling and determining the boundary lines be- 



Chap. vh.J of jmaine. ig^ 

' tween Massachusetts and New-Hampshire, in dispute, are com- a. d. 1737. 
< manded, or any five of you, to hold your first meeting atHamp- Their com- 
' ton, (New-Hampshire,) in August next, appoint a clerk and ""'"'^'°"' 

* make entries of the various papers presented you by the par- 

* ties ; to employ skilful draftsmen in drawing plans of the con- 

* troverted boundaries ; to make up and sign your final deter- 
' mination with all convenient despatch, and send it immediately 

* to the government of the respective Provinces ; giving notice 
' of another meeting within three months from the day of ad- 
'journment, when either party aggrieved, may appeal to us in 
' council, and not afterwards. The expenses incurred are to be 
' borne by the Provinces concerned. Witness ourself at West- 

* minster, the 9th day of April, 1737. 

' By writ of Privy Council. Bisse Brat.' 
Letters were also addressed by the Board of Trade to the Insuuctions 
Governors of the four Provinces, from which the Commission- Tesilg^Ln' 
ers were selected, informing them of the appointment ; and like- 
wise to Gov. Belcher, recommending through him to the Assem- 
blies of Massachusetts and New-Hampshire, the immediate choice 
of managers and agents, and a preparation with specifications, 
documents and evidence, ready for the commencement of an in- 
vestigation, as soon as the Commissioners might convene. 

On the 1st of August, eight of them met, published their ^.^^^i^. 
Commission, and opened their Court; appointing Wilfiam Par- «'°"^''^ 
ker, clerk, and George Mitchell, surveyor and draftsman. A August isti 
Committee of eight from New-Hampshire, with the sherifl^ ap- 
peared and exhibited their claim ; when two solicitors for Mas- 
sachusetts, attended by the sheriff of Suffolk, moved for an ad- 
journment to the Sth ; alleging that the General Court of their 
Province, was prorogued to the 4th, before they had any knowl- 
edge of the Commission, and therefore they were not prepared to 
proceed. They were in this motion, severely encountered by their 
opponents, who were bold to declare that Massachusetts had* al- 
ways been backward to meet the question ; — certainly she had 
as much time as New-Hampshire, to make preparation ; and 
they prayed the Court to proceed ex parte, agreeably to their 
Commission. — Disposed to act with all due deliberation — in a 
matter of so much interest, the Court adjourned to the day re- mtr' 
quested ; and Massachusetts in the mean time despatched an ex- 



196 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1737. press to New-York and New-Jersey, for the purpose of procur- 
ing the attendance of the Commissioners from those Provinces. 

The Court convened on the 8th, pursuant to adjournment, con- 
August 8. .... ^ 
Coinmis- sisting of Philip Livingston, from New-York, who presided ; 

again meet William Skene, Erasmus James Philips, and Otho Hamilton, 
from Nova Scotia; Samuel Vernon, John Gardner, John Pot- 
ter, Ezekiel Warner, and George Cornel, from Rhode Island : — 
and now a Committee of ten, in behalf of Massachusetts, pre- 
sented a specification of their claim. 
The assem- To manage this important investigation, with greater despatch, 
Provinces"''' ^"^^ "^^''^ satisfaction to the parties ; the Governor prorogued 
meet at j.ia-^jjg ^ggg,-,^]^],, qJ Massachusetts to Salisbury, and that of New- 

ces o miles J • _ 

apart. Hampshire, to Hampton Falls, — -places within five miles of each 

other; where they accordingly convened on the lOtli ; — the two 
branches of the Massachusetts Legislature, travelling in proces- 
sion thither from Boston, on horseback, attended by the Gov- 
ernor ill his carriage, who was escorted by a troop of horse ; — 
the whole forming a cavalcade of very novel yet highly impos- 
ing appearance. The Governor presided alternately in the Coun- 
cil of each Assembly ; and in his speech to that of New-Hamp- 
shire, he told them he ' should act as a common father to both 
' Provinces.' 
Claim of As to the boundary, more particularly, between that Province 

IJi'iri.'^™'' ^"^ jMaine, the only one which concerns the present history ; the 
Committee of New-Hampshire insisted, 'that she was entitled to 
' the western moiety of the Isles of Shoals, and that her north- 
' ern boundary should begin at the entrance of Piscataqua harbor, 

* thence pass up that and the river Newichawannock to the far- 

♦ thest head thereof; and thence north less than a quarter of a 
'point ivest, so far as the British dominions extend.' 

Claim of On the other hand, the Cominittee of Massachusetts stated 

Massachu- , ^j^^^ ^^^^ boundary line began at the entrance of Piscataqua-har- 
' bor, and passed up the middle of the Piscataqua and the New- 
'ichawannock to its farthest head; and thence directly north- 
« west* till one hundred and twenty miles from the mouth of Pis- 
' cataqua harbor were finished, or ended.' — Hence the contro- 
verted questions were, 1, whether the line should run up the 



teits. 



* The expression iu the charter to Gorges, is " thence north-west- 
wards," " till 120 miles be finished."— See ante, 1639. 



Chap, vii.] of Maine. 197 

middle of the river, or, on its north-easterly shore ; and 2, A. D. 1737» 
whether the line, from the head of the river, should be a due ~ poi"»s of 

r- • ciispule. 

north-iuest course, or north less than a quarter of a point west. 

A plan acceptable to both parties being delineated and pre- 
sented by Mr. Mitchell, — they proceeded to file replications to 
each other's claims, and adduce documental and parol proofs ; — 
and after 23 days, spent in this elaborate investigation, the Com- 
missioners, Sept, 2, presented a report, under the signatures and Sept. 2. 
seals of them all, except two, Vernon and Warner, who dis- reported. 
sented from the majority. — The decision was to this effect : — 
'The divisional line shall pass from the sea through the entrance Itspanicu- 
' of Piscataqua harbor, and up the middle of the rivers men- 

* tioned, and Salmon Falls river, to the farthest head thereof, 
' and thence north two degrees westerly until 120 miles be ter- 
' minated, from the mouth of the harbor Piscataqua, or until it 

* meet with his Majesty's other governments ; and the Piscat- 

* aqua harbor shall be divided, in the middle, by a line to be ex- 
' tended through the Isles of Shoals, — assigning those to New- 
' Hampshire and to Maine which lie on their respective sides of 

* that line. 

On the day their opinion was promulgated, the Governor pro- Thf 2 as- 
rogued the New-Hampshire Assembly, to Oct. 12th ; yet kept prorogued 
the two legislative branches of Massachusetts in session, five days, 
till copies were obtained and they had agreed upon an appeal 
as provided in the commission ; and then he prorogued them to 
the same day.* The different conduct of the Governor towards 
the two Assemblies, gave the people of New-Hampshire great 
oftence. They accused him of partiality, in the discharge of 
his high official trust ; which his enemies managed much to his 
disadvantage. It was a season of party heat, and that Province 

. ... . . Boll, Prov- 

was equally with Massachusetts, dissatisfied with the decision, inces ap- 
She declared she had always been in possession of the whole river crown. 
Piscataqua, and had even built and maintained a garrison, which 
had long commanded its entrance and its waters ; — and she also 
appealed. 

The people of Massachusetts affected to be surprized, that the 
Commissioners should construe the term, " north-westward" in 
Gorges' charter, to mean " north two degrees west :" — Why not 

* Both Assemblies were again to meet at the same places. 



198 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A. D. 1737. as justly have settled it at one, or three as at two " degrees ?" — 
Her government was likewise dissatisfied with the clause in the 
report which extended the line ' till it met with his Majesty's 
other governments ;' because, as she alleged, when the line was 
extended 120 miles from the sea, in Gorges' charter, it was the 
utmost limit of any grant ever made, or pretended to be made, 
in that quarter. 
is and ^^^ prosecuting the appeal, the two Provinces were equally zeal- 
means pro- Qyg and alert. The aeents of New-Hampshire, Tomlinson and 

vided to ... 

prosecute Parris, received abundance of instructions and very liberal fees. 

the appeal. i /-» • 

Massachusetts chose a new agent, Edmund Qumcy, who taking 
with him, among other documents, the original patent of Maine,* 
was joined in England by Mr. Wilkes, and assisted by Mr. Pat- 
ridge. She also appropriated £2,000 sterling, to defray the ex- 
penses of managing this heated controversy. But it was unfor- 
tunate for Governor Belcher, that the money happened to be 
raised, the same day on which a sum of £S00f was voted by 
the House, to make good the losses he had sustained, by the de- 
preciated bills of credit paid him, from time to time, in compensa- 
tion for his official services. The justice of such a grant had 
been often urged upon the Legislature by him ; as he might with 
the utmost propriety demand it as a right. But his enemies con- 
nected it with the boundary question, and gave it a turn unfavor- 
able to his reputation. They represented the allowance to be a 
bargaining reward for his approval of the appropriation bill ; and 
endeavored to throw a lowering cloud over both transactions. 

To present in a connected manner the residue and sequel of 
this interesting dispute, now transferred to England ; it may be 
well to pursue the progress of it through two succeeding years, 
to its close, before we leave the subject. 
. „ ,_„„ At the instance of the Massachusetts' agents, the opinion of 
The dispute the learned Dr. Halley was obtained ; who very correctly certifi- 
prosecuied. ^^^ ^^^^^ ^ ^ jj^^^ north-westward,' ought to run 45 degrees west- 
ward oi the north point. This was a mathematical truth ; and it 
might have been applied with good effect, had not the New- 
Hampshire agents, with some success, touched the strings of 

* It is supposed the charter itself has never been returned, 
t 2 Hutch. Hist, p. 349, 350.— 2 Belk. JV. H. p. H7. He says, £333, 
6*. Qd, in bills of the new tenor. 



Chap, vii.] of mafne. 199 

ministerial clemency, by representing their poor, little, loyal, A. D. 1738. 
distressed Province, as in great danger of being devoured by the 
opulent and overgrown Province of Massachusetts. Whereas, 
said they, if the borders of New-Hampshire were enlarged, — 
alluding to her southern more than to her eastern limits, — her 
abilities might enable her to support a Governor, separate from 
any other Province. 

There were also in England, about this time, some occurren- 
ces particularly unpropitious to the interests of Massachusetts. 
Quincy, her ablest advocate had suddenly died. Dunbar, one of 
her bitterest enemies, had returned home filled with prejudice 
against her. The conduct of the Governor was represented to 
be so partial towards her, that the Lords of Trade were even in- 
duced to pass censure upon his manner of proroguing the Assem- 
bly of New-Hampshire, at Hampton Falls. His foes made 
many other severe strictures upon his conduct ; which, however, 
were more than counterbalanced, by the warm attachments ex- 
pressed for him by his numerous and influential friends, on both 
sides of the Atlantic. 

At last, March 5, 1739,* after the zeal of the disputants had The final 
considerably abated, the King, in Council, determined upon the ^^'^'''°''- 
appeal, and decreed, that the line, generally, should conform to 
the determination of the Commissioners, and ' pass through the Line be- 
' entrance of Piscataqua harbor, and the middle of the rivers Mah," and 
'mentioned, to the farthest head of Salmon Falls river; thence shire.^""''" 
' " north two degrees west, true course" — that is to say, north 
'eight degrees east, by the needle,f till 120 miles be ended from 
' the place of beginning.' — As to the other part of the question, Between N. 
or ' northern boundary of Massachusetts,' it was determined, andTassa- 
' that it should begin at the Atlantic ocean, and pursue the course *^ "^^"^' 
' of the Merrimack, at three miles' distance on the north side 
' thereof, and end at a point due north of Patucket Falls ; thence 
' in a straight line due west till it meets with his Majesty's other 
' governments.' — This part of the decision exceeded the utmost 
expectation of New-Hampshire ; for it thereby transferred to her 
from Massachusetts 28 new townships, — being a double row or 

* Perhaps A. D. 1740, new style. 

t 2 Belk. Jf. H. p. I37.--S0 much bein,?- allowed fur the variation of the 
needle. 



200 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1739. tier of them, extending from Merrimack to Connecticut rivers,* 

besides districts from six of her old towns, on the north side of 

the Merrimack. 

The Cover- ^" ^^^® midst of these transactions, full of perplexities as they 

nor's regard ^gj ^jggp ^q the Governor ; he was not unmindful of this east- 

for the east- ' 

ern country, ern country, its people, its interests and its safety. He visited it 
almost every year; had frequent interviews with the Indians; 
and his speeches to the General Court, afford ample evidence 
how much every portion of this region commanded his attention 
and care. Strongly impressed with the commodiousness of the 
harbor at Pemaquid, 'to which our coasting and fishing vessels, 
' said he, resorted in great number ;' and deeply concerned for 
the settlements in that vicinity, he prevailed v>rith the Legislature 
to continue a small garrison at Fort Frederick; and renewedly 
pressed upon their consideration the expediency of putting the 
whole frontier in a better state of defence. For, said he, ' 1 have 
' but too much reason to believe, the Indians intend a rupture, and 
' must recommend the adoption of methods best calculated to 
' obtain a perfect knowledge of the country, to its utmost bor-^ 
' ders.' Hence the Indian trade at the truck houses was revised, 
and orders given to the agents to post in each of them, the in- 
voice price of the articles sold ; to render a fair account upon 
oath of all the sales made, and furs purchased ; and to observe 
strictly every law passed, for regulating these establishments. 
By this course of vigilance and justice, attended by occasional 
acts of public generosity, the Tarratines might, it was believed — 
be kept tranquil ; — numerous and subtle as were the arts, which 
the Canadian French and their Indian vassals might practise to 
disturb the peace. 
Col. Pep- William Pepperell was at this time Colonel-commandant of 
maiidant of the Yorkshire regiment ; — a gentleman whose moral worth and 
regiment military talents had already given him an elevated rank in the 
confidence of the public. Impressed with the difficult and re- 
sponsible duties of the trust, and with the importance of being 



* Massachusetts claimed 14 miles higher towards Amoskeag Falls. — See 
ante, A. D. 1736.— 2 Belk. JV. H. p. 133.— 1 Doug. Summ. p. 388.-2 Hutch. 
Hist. p. 342 — 350. — 3 Jour. House Rep. J[}ass. p. 13 — 52. — Also 4 Jour, of 
House of Rep. p. 56—67. — See Resolves of Maine, A. D. 1828, p. 812-14. — 
The lines were to be run by two surveyors, — one chosen on the part of 
each Province. 



CmaP. Vll.] OF MAINE. 201 

at all times prepared for defence, he called a meeting of the A- D. ms. 
company officers at FahTiouth, with whom he consulted and made 
overtures for a better organization, equipment and discipline of 
all the militia under his command. More ardor and military 
spirit, were extensively exerted and diffused among the officers 
and soldiers, their ranks were filled and new companies estab- 
lished. The next winter, his regiment was divided, and the a. D. 1739. 

command of the eastern or new one given to Samuel Waldo of Hisre{ti• 
T^ , i , . ... ,„inein (livid- 

r almouth, whose appouitment met witli entu-e acceptance, lied; nnd 
the men of this age were not expert disciplinarians, they were maud of the 
no strangers to the use of firearms; past experience had taught "^ve°"» 
them the wisdom of vigilance, and in some of the larger towns, *''^'" ^'^ "''^°* 
night-watches were kept through a greater part of the winter 
season. 

In July, the Governor, taking passage In a man-of-war, pro*- Tn July, the 
ceeded to Falmouth, where he was joined by a retinue of gentle- mei the In- 
men from all parts of the country, among whom were several I'aimouih. 
members of both Provincial Assemblies. In a few days, he was 
met by a great body of Indians, well clad, and bold to appear 
under a French flag. To render the anticipated conference con- 
venient for all, a spacious tent was spread upon the hill, eastward 
of Long Creek, in which there were placed rows of seats sufficient 
to accommodate the whole assemblage. In the interview, the Sag- 
amores made great professions of friendship, and expressed ar- 
dent wishes for a perpetuation of peace ; receiving in return 
from the Governor every assurance of his good-will, and some 
valuable presents. Before the meeting was finally dissolved, a 
public dinner was prepared, July 29, whereof the English and 
about 200 natives were the festive partakers. They soon after 
separated and dispersed. But though the Indians might never some sus- 
before have sung a song of peace, so heartily intermingled with u'^ Indians, 
joys ; yet they had chosen, it was noticed, to appear under French 

colors, and consequently their sincerity was suspected. May, 

• rT-iTi,ri Records in 

the General Court, at the mstance of Jeremiah Moulton, a mem- York coun- 

iv feccurcd* 

ber of the Council, aided him in the construction of a fortress, 
for the safety of the public records in the town of York, and 
furnished him with three or four swivel guns for the purpose of 
defence. 

The Governor, in his speech to the Legislature, Sept. 20, says, 
Vol. II 26 



202 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A. D. 1739. « since our last meeting, I have received the king's royal orders, 
War with ' granting letters of marque and reprizal, against the subjects of 
' Spain ; and 1 trust, your loyalty and wisdom will suitably guide 
' you, in the part you may have to take in this war.' — Though 
at this time, his best friends had serious fears of his being re- 
moved, they knew he had powerful supporters, and much in- 
terest with some of the Lords high in office, and believed the 
opportunities now offered him to signalize his zeal in the service 
of his king, would be so ably improved, as to check the tongue of 
accusation and invective. In fact, the Governor himself had 
hopes, that a course of time and fidelity might efface the impres- 
sions, which had been made to his disadvantage. Accordingly, 
he issued a proclamation for the encouragement of men, who 
would join in the expedition ordered by the British Court against 
the Island of Cuba ; assuring them, they should be under the 
command of their own officers, be in the king's pay, have a sup- 
ply of arms and clothing, and a share in the booty taken, and be 
returned home, when their term of service expired. Hence there 
were recruited or raised in the Province, about 5 or COO men.* 
A. D. 1740. iVor did he delay to communicate the earliest intimations he 
Prepara- received, that there were Spanish i^rivateers probably upon the 

tions for de- . ^ . . . ^ 

fence. coast ; representing at the same tune, ui such glowing colors, 
the awful consequences, frequently, of procrastinating prepara- 

June '23. tions for defence, that the General Court, June 23, appropriated 
£3,000, to be taken from the proceeds of the Indian trade, and 
applied towards repairing Forts Frederick, St. Georges, Richmond, 
and Mary at Saco, and rendering them entirely defensible. A 
vessel, the Snow, was likewise built, for the protection of the 
coasting and truck trade ; and a fortress was erected or enlarged 
at Falmouth, in which eight or ten 12 pounders were afterwards 
mounted, and various kinds of military stores deposited, for re- 
cruiting the eastern garrisons. 

Scarcity of At this time, the preceding and every new demand upon the 
government, was fraught with no small embarrassments. The 

* 1 Doug. Summ, p. 554 — Of (lie 500 men from Massachusetts-bay in 
the Cuba expeilition, uot exceeding- 50 returned. It cost her about £37, 
500 old Tenor, equal at that lime to £7000 sterling. The few survivors 
were dismissed, Oct. 24, 1742, and allowed to keep their firelocks. 



Chap, vii.] OF Maine. 203 

treasury was empty ;* the bills of credit, issued at different A. D. 1740. 
times, still remaining unpaid, probably exceeded £200,000,-}- — 
all which were, by the royal instruction, to be redeemed the en- 
suing year, and no more emitted; there were no other means of 
paying them than by a direct tax, equal to £40,000 sterling ; and 
yet so uncommon was the scarcity of specie in the Province, 
that it was believed, a sum to that amount, could not possibly be 
collected of the people in one year. 

To administer relief, therefore, a very novel proiect was de- The Land 

' ' •' ^ -* Bank. 

vised and adopted of this character. — Between 7 and 800 men 
associated, chose ten directors and a treasurer, and agreed to 
issue in the name of the Company, £150,000 in bills, which 
should be lawful money ; and every note of £1, be equivalent 
to three ounces of silver. Each stockholder, in the outset, 
gave the Company a pledge of real estate to the amount of his 
shares ; and every borrower gave a mortgage as collateral se- 
curity for the sum loaned him, which, however, he was allowed 
to pay in Provincial produce or manufactures, at such prices as 
the directors might from time to time determine. In short such 
was the " Land Bank." — The Governor foresaw it would be 
injurious to the public, and offensive to the ministry, and he reso- 
lutely opposed it in every step of its progress ; going in the 
spring election so far, as to negative the speaker and thirteen new- 
ly elected councillors, because of their connexion with the insti- 
tution. Besides, as soon as the establishment of the Bank was its dissolu- 

lion, 

known in England, the Parliament dissolved the Company, and 
gave each possessor of their bills a right of action, for the amount 
with interest, against every individual partner. 

Next, a tax-act of £110,000 for a year's supplies, was pre- p^yjc g^. 
sented to the Governor for signature : but as its amount might be '^^rrass- 
paid in the depreciating bills, he said he could not sign it, with- 
out violating the royal instruction ; — certainly not until provision 
was made for the approaching public exigency. Nor would the 
act, if it were signed, said he, be of any avail ; for it would 
never have the approbation of the crown. So deeply depressed, 

* See anle, A. D. 1734.— Permanent debt, in 1731, £130,000.-1 Doug. 
Summ. p. 498. 

f 4 Jour. House Rep. p. 134-142-150-170. — Gov. says, £40,000 ought to 
have been brought in, at leaet, ten years before. — Also his Speech, Au- 
gust, 1741. 



204 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A.D. 1740. in fact, was the Legislature, in view of the compHcated affairs 
and perplexities of the Province, now rendered more difficult by 
reason of war, that they turned and besought the Governor to 
point out, if he were able, any way " to relieve a once flourlsh- 
" ing, now distressed and sinking Province." Pious and devout 
people considered the present embarrassments as tokens of the 
Divine displeasure ; — therefore a public fast was observed, Nov. 
29 ; and improved as a season of prayer to Almighty God, for 
blessings, and especially for his guidance of the General Court, 
to the adoption of the best measures for the relief and safety of 
the people. 
Boundary 1'^^^ ^^"^ ^"*^ troublesome business of boundaries was again 
BunVved.'^ Called up, for the purpose of making surveys in conformity to 
the royal determination. Walter Bryant being appointed, ran 
the line from the head of Salmon Falls river, and marked it about 
thirty miles ; but was prevented from proceeding farther, partly 
'by the breaking up of the rivers, which rendered travelling im- 
practicable,* and partly by a company of Indian hunters, who 
met him and took his men to be none other, than a scouting 
party. On their return, they found drawn on one of the trees, 
they had marked, the figure of a man's hand, grasping a sword, 
which they interpreted as a signal of defiance from the Indians. f 
Rpn^ovai -^ return of these lines to the Board of Trade and an address 
?f Ft'' to the General Court, August 8, were among the last acts of 
froinoifice, Governor Belcher's administration. His enemies on both sides 
of the Atlantic were untiring in their endeavors to effect his 
removal ; ' and by their incessant applications to the ministry, 
' by taking every advantage of his mistakes, by falsehood, by 
' misrepresentation, and finally by the diabolical acts of for- 
* gery and perjury, they accomplished their purposes.' After 
being in the chair ten years, ho was succeeded in the govern- 
Appoint- nient of Massachusetts and Maine bv William Shirley ; and 

mciii of _ ^ ■' 

(Jov. Shir- in New-Hampshire by Benning Wcntworth. 

*^' It is remarkable, that a Governor, of Mr. Belcher's abilities and 

Gov. Reich- - , Tj • • 1 

er's ciinrac- excellence, should meet with such treatment irom the British 
Court, in the reign of so mild and just a prince, as George the 
second. Certainly he was a man of great firmness, diligence, 

*1 Doug-. Sum. p. 3S8. — See ante, vol. I, p. 11-12. 

f Mitchell and Hazen surveyed and marked the other line between 
Massachusetts and New-Hampshire. 



ter. 



Chap, vii.] OF JIAINE. 205 

integrity and spirit ; — ever influenced by motives of honor andA.l). i74i. 
justice ; — and his schemes of policy were in general evinsive of 
his wisdom and knowledge in political affairs. But his unguard- 
ed observations provoked the resentments of his enemies, whose 
abilities and influence he graduated by far too low. His popu- 
larity and sense of duty were extremely tried in all that related 
to an established salary ; to the divisional boundaries ; to the 
land bank, and to the bills of credit. But his greatest mistake 
appeared in the manner mentioned of adjourning the New- 
Hampshire Assembly ; and even in this, it is inconsistent with 
the whole tenor of his public declarations and private correspon- 
dence, to suppose he had any intention to frustrate the commis- 
sion. The mutual opposition of Belcher and the inhabitants in 
the eastern Provinces, to Dunbar, originated a friendship, which 
was never more genuine and ardent, than when he was displaced. 
He kept a watchful eye over their interests, and often paid 
them visits ; whereby his name was so endearing to them, that 
it was with deep regrets they parted with him. When he repair- 
ed to the British Court, he was able effectually to wipe from his 
character all the aspersions of his malicious adversaries, by 
shewing the spirited course he had taken against the land bank, 
which they had carefully secreted ; and his vigilant care of the 
royal woods, and other interests of the king, which they had 
falsely and wickedly represented to be otherwise. In a word, he 
manfully exposed their plots, though but too deeply laid to de- 
stroy him. A strong current quickly turned in his favor. His 
removal, without having an opportunity of being heard in his 
defence, was condemned as a rash act ; and as the best repara- 
tion, which could then be made for his wrongs, the government 
of New-Jersey was given him, where he passed the remaining 
years of his life beloved and respected. Nor ought the religious 
part of his character, as an able writer observes, to pass unno- 
ticed. Though foes and satirists said "he appeared to greater 
advantage in Whitefield's journal, than in our political annals;" — 
all will allow he w-as both ' strict in his morals, and pious in his 
^ walk and conversation.'* 

George Whitejield was a celebrated young itinerant minister, George 
in these times, who had preached in several parts of Great 

* Eliot's Biog. p. 56.-2 Belk. N. H. p. 138-41.— 2 Hutch, Hist. p. 358. 



206 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A; D. 17H. Britain, and the Southern Colonies, with great applause and ef- 
fect. On his second visit to America, he came to Boston , where 
the first time he spake from the pulpit, Sept. 1 740, his fine tal- 
ents, and his fervent piety drew from his auditory the strongest 
expressions of praise in all the churches. His imagination w^as 
luminous and lively, his judgment solid and exact, and his 
heart full of religious sensibilities. The tones of his clear and 
musical voice, he could strikingly adapt to the sentiment, and his 
gestures, frequent and forcible, were above all rules of art ; for 
they were the true impulses and graces of nature. Though he 
spake without notes, and used plain language ; yet by a most 
happy choice of words and figures of speech, he enforced and 
illustrated his discourses widi wonderful effect. In general his 
doctrines were in conformity to the sentiments of the Episco- 
pal church ; he preached the remission of sins through the aton- 
ing merits of a Redeemer ; and in his supplications, a spirit of 
grace seemed to take possession of his whole soul, and carry him 
and all who heard him, with overflowing hearts, to the mercy seat 
and the throne. 
He preach- ^'^ 1741, he visited York, Wells and Biddeford, where he 
vv'iis^''^d' preached to crowded assemblies, that were both captivated and 
Biddeford. nicltcd with the life and copiousness of his sermons. Churches 
were refreshed, souls were converted, and the settled ministers, 
Messrs. Moody, JefFerds, Smith, Willard, and Elvens, who were 
at that period all " burning and shining lights" at the altar, par- 
took largely of the thrill and influences, with which the preacher 
himself was so animated.* He was indefatigable in the service 
of his Divine Master ; having been known to preach sixteen 
times and ride 170 miles, in the course of a single week. He 
had violent opponents, who called him a disorganizer of parishes, 
drawing after him the populace and men having " itching ears." 

On a subsequent journey from England to Maine three years 
after this time, he was in company with the Rev. Mr. Smith's 
brother of Falmouth. His visit was again received with the 
most affectionate welcome ; and in the following winter he 



■" See the " Christian Histor}'" of religious revivals in Great Britain and 
America, in 1743 and 1744. To give attestations of these " extraordinary 
divine influences" ninety ministers met in Boston, July 1743, Mr. Smith 
attended, and six ministers of Maine sent their attestation. — Smithes Jour. 
p. 35. 



Chap, vii.] of maine. 207 

preached at Scarborough, Biddeford, Falmouth and North-Yar- A. d. 1741. 
mouth, with undiminished success. 

Two important acts were passed in the late administration, i-iws pass- 
which ought to be mentioned. One limited the time, of bring- nciioas: to 
ing civil suits, after the cause of action accrued ; and so restricted costs ; and 
the costs, as never to exceed a fourth part of the damages re-ofp'wper^ 
covered, provided the action belonged to the jurisdiction of a"""*' 
single magistrate.* These statute provisions have never since 
undergone any very essential change. The other act prescribed 
how idle and dissolute persons might be set to work, or prevented 
from squandering their property ; and how their children might 
be put to trades or to labor. f 

Governor Shirley, when he received his commission, resided ^^^ gj^jp. 
in Boston. He was an English gentleman, bred to the law, who ^^^'' 
having lived in the Province, six or seven years, had become 
acquainted with the humors and habits of the people ; and been 
so fortunate as to acquire the esteem of a large and respectable 
acquaintance. His wife was at that time in London, soliciting 
a post of profit for him ; when, by the assistance of her own 
friends, and the intrigues of Mr. Belcher's enemies, the govern- 
ment of the Province was obtained. Mr. Shirley was a man of 
abilities and address, knew how to manage the several parties, 
and conducted with so much wisdom and vigor as to gain the 
affection of the people, and yet continue on the side of the pre- 
rogative. 

In his first speech to the General Court, Aus. 17, 1741, he,.. ^ 
Stated, that the war with Spain, and the unsettled affairs of Eu- speech to 

the General 

rope, seemed to threaten a speedy rupture with other powers. Court. 
He recommended the outfit of privateers, and the offer of a ° 
bounty for every one of the enemy taken upon our coasts. The 
General Court made him a very liberal grant of £1,000 sterling, 
as a compensation for a year's services ; and then presented him 
a bill for the emission of £36,000 sterling value, to be paid at 
future periods in gold and silver, or in articles of country pro- 
duce. 

This be refused to sign, partly on account of its last clause ; 
agreeing at length to approve another, ' when it was moulded to 

* Passed, A. D. 1739. — The limit was from 2 to 5 years, according to the 
different classes of actions, f Passed, May, 1736, aud Marcii 26, 1741. 



208 THE HISTORY [VoL. If. 

A. D. 1741. 'the liking of the land bank party and others,' and made gen- 
erally acceptable to all. Such an act was passed. It provided 

New tenor 

bills. that " Bills of a neiv Form" should be issued ; that every sum 

of 205. expressed upon the face of them, should be equivalent 
to three ounces of silver ; that all contracts should be understood 
payable in silver at 65. 8d. the oz. or gold in proportion ; and 
that the bills should be received in all public and private pay- 
ments accordingly :* — with this saving, however, that if they should 
depreciate in their value, an additional sum should be paid, ac- 
cording to the scale of depreciation, as agreed upon once a year, 
in a meeting consisting of the eldest Councillor in each county.f 
This was denominated New Tenor, to distinguish it from all 
prior emissions. These bills, however, gradually depreciated, till 
at last they like water, settled down to a common level with the 
Old tenor, other and older bills, which after this were called Old Tenor.^ 
In taking the reins, the Governor, being an inhabitant of the 
Province, was necessarily acquainted with what most deeply con- 
cerned the public. There had been in the preceding spring an 
cityofp^ro-' unusual scarcity of bread, especially in this eastern country; — 
visions. several families, as it was reported, having subsisted for weeks 
upon shellfish,^ wild meat, and allowances of potatoes. The 
scarcity was the more depressing, because of some incidents and 
apprehensions connected with the present war. Men were 
drawn from their ordinary occupations and enterprizes, into the 
military service, and no inspiring impulse was given to new set- 
First instan- tiemeuts. In March, there were two instances of impressment 

ces 01 im- ' 

pressment ^^^^ ^|-,g eastern coast. James Scott, captain of his Majesty's 

on the east- ^ 

ern coast, ghip Astracc, wcut with an armed force and took from a wood- 
sloop, called the " Three Friends," two men, inhabitants of the 
Province ; and the next day, he took in like manner from 
a coaster, the "Charming Betty," her captain, also several 
men from other vessels. These were acts of violence to which 
the people were wholly unused ; if they were not the first of the 

* The old tenor bills had been by law a tender from Oct. 1705, to 1741, 
and by act passed in March 1742, the new tenor bills were a tender, ex- 
cept in written contracts, 

^ Prov. Act, May, 1743.— If the bills are worth as much when the debS 
IB paid, as when contracted, they shall be so received. 

\ Prov. Law, Nov, 1744.— An. Charters, p. 270-3.— Also p. 764-7. 

^ Some subsist " wholly on the clam-banks."— Smt7/i'«t/our. p. 32, 



Chap, vii.] of maine. 209 

kind or character ever attempted within the Province. Scott a.d. I74i. 
saw there would be a great blaze, if he did not immediately re- 
tract ; and he discharged them. But the baneful impressions, 
which their impressment made upon the public mind, were deep 
and lasting. 

Ship building, trade and the fisheries were now in a flourish- a, d. i7i2. 
ing state. Forty topsail vessels had been in building at one time siiip-buiid- 
within the Province ; the single town of Marblehead had in em- fibteVies. 
ploy 50 fishing-schooners ; and a great number of vessels were 
on the stocks in Maine ; while New-England, had in all, at least 
1000 sail engaged in the fisheries. But the fur trade, now con- 
fined principally to the truck houses, was declining. 

It had been represented from good authority, that the Indians Ti.e Aben- 
belonging to the broken tribes upon the Saco, Androscoggin and \^ iihdiaw lo 
Kennebeck, had, within a couple of years, been gradually with- 
drawing from their former places of abode, to Canada. These were 
unfavorable symptoms ; and some of the remoter inhabitants be- „ 

. , , (juarcls pio- 

gan to entertain thoughts of leaving their abodes, through fear of ^"''Jed. 
danger from them. The General Court therefore put £800, at 
the Executive disposal, directing him to expend it as he might 
think proper, in the employment of scouting parties and videttes, 
upon our frontiers. In August, the Governor, attended by mem- 
bers from both legislative branches, visited this eastern country ; Governor 
and at St. Georges he met as great an assemblage of the Eteche- huHa^ns'al 
min Sagamores and people, as had convened on any former gg^ '^*"'"" 
occasion. They were prompt in their attendance, and appeared 
at this time with the British flag at the heads of their canoes. 
Besides redressing every grievance and continuing the gratuities 
and pensions lo the chiefs and the tribes, which for many years 
had annually cost the government more than £300 ; it was de- 
termined to make them still further presents, in articles, such as 
powder, shot and the necessaries of life. Gifts and supplies 
might serve to remove every pretext for applying to the French : 
and their friendship, though purchased at a dear rate, was a 
thousand times preferable to the hazards of a war. 

In his excursion, the Governor took a particular view of the „ , 

^ His admi- 

country — especially of all the eastern forts and truck houses. '■«''«"' "^ 

TT • J 1 -n 1 the eastern 

He exammed the grounds at Fahnouth, where the new battery country. 
and other public works were erecting ; and made himself ac- 
Voi,. II. 27 



210 

A. o. n45i. 



Tlie sciilf- 
ineiU of the 
erisluni 
couiilrv. 



Effects ef 
the new 
tenor. 



Tiir: HISTORY, [Vol. ii. 

quainted with the state of the eastern towns. Animated with 
his pleasing tour, he represented to the Legislature, on his return, 
that ' the inexhaustible supplies of wood and lumber, and the 
' several kinds and great quantities of naval stores, which this 

* region is capable of producing, no less than the navigable rivers, 

♦ the numerous harbors and good soil it possesses, render it highly 
' deserving the encouragement and protection of government.' 
Immediately £700 were appropriated to complete die works at 
Fort Frederick, St. George, and Saco ; also a chaplain was pro- 
vided for the garrison at the fort first mentioned, whose duty also 
it was, to preach among the inhabitants in that vicinity. 

For the purpose of promoting new settlements, it was proposed 
by the Governor, as an expedient, to offer our wild lands to 
foreign protestants, upon such terms as would encourage them 
to transplant themselves and their families into this eastern coun- 
try, and begin new plantations. Already some had emigrated 
wid] this view ; and Pennsylvania, he said, had, by pursuing this 
course a few years, increased beyond any example, within the 
American colonies. Conditional grants of townships to compa- 
nies or individuals were found by experiment, not to be the most 
expeditious mode of multiplying permanent settlers; for being 
unable to procure deeds of the fee, till the conditions were ful- 
filled, and compelled to begin without any absolute guaranty of 
title, they put at hazard their labor and improvements, and often 
sustained losses. This had become a subject of great interest ; 
for if the frontiers were filled and strengthened, and the people who 
were more scattered had the fortitude to abide at home in case of 
a rupture ; the country would derive benefit as well as security. 
Hence the General Court directed a committee to enquire into 
the condition of every township granted since 1725; also into 
the successes and discouragements attending the exertions of pro- 
prietors and tenants, and report the best probable methods of 
filling these places speedily with inhabitants.* 

The late improvement in the currency by means of the new 
tenor bills, had, according to expectation, an essential effect upon 
every interest and department of society. It operated unfavora- 
bly upon the debtors and suitors at law ; whereas none derived 
more benefit, than salary-men, monthly or daylaborers, and the 



* Jour. .Mo/^s. FJoiisc of Rpp. p. 



OHAP. VII.] OF MAINE. ^j.^ 

receivers of statute fees. Men of the latter class uau m m^.. .. D. 1742. 
been the greatest sufferers ; as the fee-bill which was passed the Price of 
fourth year of the Provincial charter, had undergone ncj) material salaries. ' 
change, though the true worth of the fees had in the meantime 
actually depreciated two thirds, and even three fourths.* By 
giving them their original or prime value, the receivers, it was prevent 
perceived, would derive the greatest advantage ; and many mur- 
murs were uttered both against the law, and against that class of 
persons, who had the most to do with fees. Acts were therefore 
passed for preventing ' unnecessary expenses in the attendance 
of jurors ;' ' unnecessary lawsuits ;' ' the multiplicity of law- 
suits ;' and ' unnecessary expenses in suits at law;' — directing 
'jurors not to attend till the second day of the term,' — per- 
mitting ' accounts in off-set to be filed in suits,' — ' abating all 
writs filled by sheriffs or their deputies,' — prohibiting ' their ap- 
pearance as attornies in any lawsuit;' — and allowing only one 
bill of cost, when several actions were brought at the same term 
on demands, which might have been embraced in one writ. Nor 
were all these sufiicient to satisfy a large and querulous part of 
the community. So long as the judges and other civil officers 
were allowed what some called exorbitant fees, it was insisted, 
that lawsuits would be multiplied and suitors ruined. 

When the party for prostrating fees, solicited the Governor to The G 
throw his weight with theirs into the scale, he told them he had of'fv 
the best of reasons for taking the opposite side. He believed, 
that any considerable reduction of fees, would have a direct ten- 
dency to multiply lawsuits ; and after taking time and acquaint- 
ing himself widi the fee-bill in five or six of the colonies, he 
was able to fortify his opinion with facts. In New- York, New- 
Jersey and Pennsylvania, says he, the fees are five or six fold 
higher, and in Rhode Island a third part higher, than in this 
Province, according to the late value of money ; in Connecticut, 
some lower ; yet in neither of the three first are there an hun- 
dred judgments by the courts of pleas in a year ; — being less by 
ten times, than in the single County Court of Hartford, and less 



ov- 

iior's \jew 



* An ounce of silver, in 1702, was 6s. lOd. ; in 1713, 8s. ; in 1717, 12s. ; 
in 1728, 18s. ; in 1730, 20s. ; in 1737, 26s. ; in 1741, 28s. ; and in 1749, 60s. ; 
old tenor.— 1 Doug. Summ. p. 494.— See old and new tenor compared, post, 
A. D. 1749. 



212 I'HE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. 0. ni'2. by five times, than In the county of Newport. Light fees and 
small costs, therefore, evidently tempt men, as he thought, to en- 
ter the lists of litigation ; disregarding the weightier burdens, such 
as the imseen wastes of time and money, which the party pre- 
vailing never recovers, and the animosities, which a lawsuit 
never heals. If the fee-bill be revised, let it give debtors an im- 
petus, through a fear of costs, promptly to pay their creditors ; 
and never be a lure to draw the poor and unwary blindfold, into 
the toils of the law. — In proof of his doctrine, he remarks to the 
House,' 5 years after, — " when I first entered upon the administra- 
" tion, 1 found the Province overwhelmed with lawsuits, occa- 
" sioned principally by the cheapness of the law ; you were in- 
" duced to pass an act making the fees double, what they had 
" been in value, and lawsuits are reduced about one half."* 
New valua- The Septennial valuation of taxable property and enumeration 
of taxable males, having been completed in the course of the 
A. D. 1743. current year, were finally sanctioned by the General Court, in 
'^oiis^uf January, 1743. Hence it appeared, that there were in the whole 
towns nnr! Pi-Qvlnce 41 ,000 rateable polls, 159 incorporated towns: — and 

popiilalioii, ' ' ' '- ' 

in .Maine, by estimation, 164,000 inhabitants ;f and by the records 109 
members in the House of Representatives. There were at this 
time in Maine and Sagadahock, about 2,300 taxable polls ; eleven 
towns, whose proportion of £1,000 tax, was £52 IT.";. \d.;\ 
a probable population of 12,000 ;§ and the corporate towns sent 
eight representatives to the Legislature. 



* Jour. Mriss. House of Rep. A. D. 1742, p. 222-5 ; ilso, A. D. 1747, p. 
254-5. 
\ 2 Holmes' A. Ann. p. 158. — 1 Brit, Dom. p. 215. — I Doug-, p. 531. 

\ To York, £9 3f. \d. Arundel, £l 19.v. Id. 

Kittcry, 12 12 1 Scarboroui^li, 3 19 11 

AVells, 4 8 3 N. Yarmouth, 1 19 

Berwick, 5 12 1 Georg-ctown, 2 

Falmouth, 7 13 10 Brunswick, 18 G 



Biddoford, 3 10 1 



Total, 52 17 01 



The whole provincial tax on Maine, in 1742, was £3.12 1.?. Id. Every 
male 16 years old, paid \2d. ;— 20s. property paid one penny of the Pro- 
vince tax ; and other taxes were in proportion. 

\ If the population of Maine bear.'; the same proportion to tiiat of the 



Chap, vn.] of MAINE. 213 

Great importance was still attached to the subject of the royal a. d. i743. 
woods. The Provincial Governors expected to recommend them- b. Went- 

. . , , . , ^ worth suc- 

seh'es to the favor of the mmistry, by the great mterest they took ceeds Dun- 
in preserving them from depredations. In the absence of Dun- ypyor oHhe 
bar, they had been in some degree neglected. On his resigna- ^"° ^' 
t'on, the office of Surveyor-General was given to Mr. Wentworth, 
Governor of New-Hampshire.'^" It was to him a welcome ap- 
pointment ; for besides some perquisites and emoluments inci- 
dental to the office, he had a salary of £800 sterling ; while he His salary, 
was under no obligation to employ and pay more than four depu- 
ties, f Upon all subjects of public interest or general emergency, 
he and Governor Shirley were instructed by the king to have free 
and friendly intercourse ; and of none other than that of the timber 
had they a more general oversight. Understanding that the Royal 
workmen employed by the agents to furnish the royal navy with^^°° ^' 
masts and spars, were obstructed in the service, and harassed 
with lawsuits, Shirley pressed the Legislature to interpose their 
authority, by the enactment of severer laws against trespassers and 
other wrongdoers ; or to pass resolves for preventing the prose- 
cutions of agents. For, said he, ' in my opinion, nothing could 
' more directly recommend this Province to the royal favor. 'f But 
the House replied to him as to his predecessor, — ' our laws are 
' sufficient ;' Legislatures have done their duty, and the officers 
must do theirs. 

But nothing at the present time, so much engrossed the public Apprehen- 
mind, as the apprehensions of a war between the crowns of Great ^v°". 
Britain and France ; which it was foreseen, would immediately 
extend to their respective Provinces in America, and enkindle 
the flames of another Indian war. During the long respite from 
hostilities, which had been enjoyed, Massachusetts had greatly 
increased in numbers and strength ; and possessing now the abil- 
ity, as well as the public spirit, she resolved to spare no expense, 

whole Trovince as the sum of £52 IT*, id. does to £1,000 ; — then is the 
population of the 11 towns about ... 8,692 

Add population of unincorporated places and that of Sagadahock, 3,308 

— [see ante, A. D. 1735.] 

12,000 

J\"ote. — The men assigned to take the valuation in Yorkshire, were 
Messrs. Clark, Haines and Mayhcw. 

* See ante, A. D. 1741. t 2 Belk. N. H. p. 146. 

I Printed Journal House of Representatives, (p. 100,) A. D. 1743. 



214 THE HISTORY LVol. II. 

A.I). 1713 to put her whole inland frontier, extensive as it was, mto a good 
Appropria- posturc of defence. As the eastern Provinces, Maine and Saga- 
fence of ihe dahock, were most exposed to incursions from the savages, in 
'°""^"'" case of a rupture ; the Legislature made an appropriation of 
about £1,280 — to be disbursed from the public treasury, and ex- 
pended among the eastern settlements for their defence,* — under 
the direction of the Governor, assisted by the advice of the York- 
shire representatives. The money was apportioned to fourteen 
places, and applied towards constructing stockade forts, building 
clock-houses, breastworks and walls of hewn timber, and forti- 
fying the more exposed dwellinghouses. Encouraged by this 
sum, though it was altogether inadequate to the expense of these 
works, the inhabitants bestowed upon them a great amount of la- 
bor, and made them places of considerable security. Fort 
George, at Brunswick, was again made a public garrison ; the 
other eastern forts received supplies ; and the military establish- 
ment seems to have been increased about 114 men, who were 
distributed to them, to Castle William, to Fort Dummer upon 
400 minute- Connecticut river, and to the Province store ship.f As a farther 
"\^"'*^^^''" precautionary measure, 400 men were ordered to be detached, 
or enlisted in the county of York, and organized into four com- 
panies, as minute-men, to be in constant readiness, with every 
equipment, and prepared to march at the shortest notice. Be- 
sides a good gun and sufficient ammunition, every one of them 
was to provide himself with a hatchet, an extra pair of shoes, or 
a pair of moccasins, and even a pair of snow-shoes. A small 
stipend was to be paid them, for these preparations, and their 
wages from the time they left home, should they be called into 
actual service. 



* To Berwick 


£ 


100 


Fort Richmond 


£ 34 


Saco (truck lioiise) 




31 


Arrowsiclc, &c. 


100 


Scarboroug-li 




100 


Sheepscot 


100 


New-Marb!ehcad - 




100 


Damariscotta 


67 


Falmouth 




134 


Pemaquid 


134 


Phillipstown 




100 


Broad Bay, &c. 


75 


Gorhamtown 




100 


St. Georges' River 


100 



Jour, of House of Rep. p. 101-2, A. D. 1743. 
•[■ Saco, (Fort INIary,) had 13 men, St. Georges' Fort, 13 men, 

Brunswick, (F. George,) 6, Castle William, 40, 

Richmond Fort, - 10, Fort Dummer, 16, 

Femaquid, - - 6, Province Sloop, 10, 

2 Brit. Dom. in America, p. 95. 



Chap, viii.] of Maine. 215 



CHAPTER VIII. 

The Spanish war — Catnrau taken by the, Frouh Annapolis 

atlacheel by tliem and the Indians — 31ra?i;rcs and forces for 
defincc — The Tarratines desire peace — War declared against 
the Natives eastivard of Passamaquoddy — Icnnties offered for 
prisoners and scalps — The 'Tarratines refoise to join the English 
— Militia — Scouts — Cape Breton — Louishourg described — Expe- 
dition against it designed — Voted — Undertalccn — Edivard Tyng, 
Commodore — Appropriation — PeppcrelJ, Waldo, and other offi- 
cers — Blotto — Great enlistment in Maine — Fleet and army — 
Arrival at Canseau — Joined by a British squadron — Attach — 
Successes — Surrender of the foi'trcss and city of Louisbourg — 
Incidc7its. 

The war, which had been kindled between Britain and Spain, a.d. 1744. 
four years since, was immediately communicated to their Ameri- Spanish 
can dominions, and gradually extended its flames over the greater "^"^^ 
part of Europe. To New-England and Nova Scotia, it assumed 
a much more dreadful aspect, the moment, the French nation 
entered into the continental system, and resolved to take sides 
against England. The contiguity of their American colonies, 
and the opposite sentiments of the inhabitants in their politics and 
religion, directly led to a rupture ; and as soon as war, declared 
by France, March 15, 1744, and retorted by England, the same j„ March, 
month, was an event known on this side of the Atlantic, the J''.*'^ ''^"'■^ 

' ■' J*''^' *^l "III. 

French colonists and the Indians in their interest began to con- 
cert plots, against their English neighbors. The scene was opened 
in Nova Scotia.* 

Duquesnel, Governor of Cape Breton, acquainted w-ith the i\jay 13. 
declaration of war, more than two months before the news ar- ,eize upon 
rived in Boston, resolved to gain -liane by an immediate attack 
upon Canseau, a small Island, situated on an excellent harbor, 



* Nova Scotia liad been in possession of the English thirty years, — since 
Ihc treaty of Ulrecht, 1713. 



216 



THE HISTORY 



[Vol. 



June 2. 
War an- 
nounced at 
Boston. 

Annapolis 
allai-kcd b}' 
ihe French. 



Tlieir re- 
pulse. 



A.D. 1744 at the south-eastern extremity of the great peninsula.* For this 
purpose, he despatched Dnvivier, with 8 or 900 men, in a few 
small armed vessels, who, seizing upon the Island, May 1 3, burn- 
ed the houses, made prisoners of the garrison and inhabitants, 
and took possession of an armed vessel lying at anchor, as a 
prize. 

The news of this attack reached Boston, when the Legislature 
was in session ; — followed by an arrival, June 2,f which iormally 
communicated to the Governor the declaration of war. Unac- 
quainted with what had transpired. Governor Mascarine, succes- 
sor of Philips, then in command at Annapolis, was first appriz- 
ed of hostihties, by an attack of 300 Indians, upon the garrison, 
May 30th, led on to the charge, by M. Luttre, a French mis- 
sionary, who boldly demanded a surrender. But the Governor 
refused to capitulate ; and forthwith sent an express to Shirley 
for assistance. Meanwhile, Duvivier, arriving with his divi- 
sion, joined Luttre, and they both invested the place, till July 
3d, when a re-enforcement of four companies Irom Massachu- 
setts,! compelled them to retire. ' During the siege, they had 
' surprized and killed as many of the English, as could be caught 
' without the fort ; also destroyed their cattle, and burnt their 
houses. '§ 

Hostilities, being commenced in this quarter with so much rash- 
ness and violence, drew the particular attention of government to 
the eastern country. It was determined to make immediate enquiry 
into the state of our frontiers, fortifications, arms, and warlike 
stores 5 and to adopt the most effectual methods, for strengthen- 
ing and quieting the inhabitants on the out-skirts, by offers or ad- 
vancements of all needed assistance to those, who would abide at 
their homes, and bravely defend themselves and their possessions. 
Likewise to the tribes on our borders, the fullest assurances were 
given, of protection and friendship, so long as they kept good 

* Canseau was 5 leag'ues from Cape Breton Island, and 60 miles from 
Louisbourg. It was a ^reat resort for New-Enjland fishermen. 

-^"May 31." — Gov. Shirlei/s Speech.— Wnr proclaimed at Boston, 
"June 2." 

X Each soldier had a bounty of jj2Q old tenor, and was to be free from 
impresses, 3 years ; and each company contained 60 men, enlisted to Oct. 
15, of this year. 

J Council LrttPr Rook, p. 78.— -Gov. Speech, July 18, 1744. 



!\leasures 
tor I he de- 
fence of 
Maine. 



Chap, viii.] of MAINE. 217 

faith with us, and had no intercourse with such Indians as were A. D. 1744. 
enemies. Some of them, so much hroken in former wars, avail- 
ed themselves of the offer. Particularly several Sokokis fami- 
lies, dwelling about Pegwacket, and acquainted with their own 
weakness, came and cast themselves upon the government for 
protection, renouncing forever the French interest. 

In providins; against surprise and the enemy's incursions, 500 A draft of 
men were drafted, of whom. 300 were for the eastern frontier, 
and the residue for the western. The eastern garrisons were 
re-enforced by 73* regular fresh recruits ; and 300 men were 
formed into scouts. f About 96 barrels of gunpowder were sent 
to the several townships, to be sold to the inhabitants at an ad- 
vance upon prime cost, sufficient only to include charges. 

To become more definitely acquainted with the temper and -Tuiy. 
determination of the Tarratine tribe at Penobscot, a delegation tines desire 
from Boston met the Sagamores at St. Georges' fort, in July ; 
and after a parley, received from them fresh assurances of their 
wishes for a continued peace. After this, the eastern people 
felt some relief; and a part of the scouting soldiery was dis- 
missed. Yet it being fully ascertained, that in the late siege of 
Annapolis, the tribe of the Marechites, on the river St. John, 
were as much concerned as the Mickmaks ; many believed, 
that some of the young warriors from Penobscot and Passama- 
quoddy, had swelled the number of the savage assailants, as the 
three Etechemin tribes were, by their own account, one people. 
Though the Indians of Nova Scotia, it is true, had not offended 
against the government of Massachusetts ; they had joined the 
common enemy, and taken arms against his Majesty's subjects ;J 
and it was thought, ' a vigorous prosecution of the war against 
*them, might be the best means of retaining the other tribes in 



* The g'arrisons were re-enforced thus : — Georg-cs' Fort, to 40 men ; Pe- 
inaquid, to 24 ; Richmond, to 25 ; Brunswick, to 12 ; and Saco, to 20. — See 
ante, 1743. 

t Smith''s Jour. p. 36. — In Falmouth, G5 were posted. Capt. Jordan com- 
manded a scouting company, piloted by three Saco Indians, ^vhose families 
were settled at Stroudwater, and provided for b}^ order of government. 
Tiiere were about 20 of the tribe, who proposed to live with the English. 

I The St. John's Indians were called " subjects cf the British crown ;" 
several through pretended friendship visited Annapolis as spies, 3 weeks 
before the attack. — Letter Book, p. 73-78. 
Vol. II. 28 



218 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A. D. J744. ' their duty and obedience.'* Therefore the Governor, with ad- 
Oct. 20. vice of Council, Oct. 20, publicly proclaimed War against the 

VVardecIar- 7-7 7/^7 r> 

ed against Several tribes eastward of the one, upon rassamaquoddy ; for- 
Pnssaina- bidding all the Indians westward of a line ' beginning at three miles 
^^° °^' « eastward of that river, and running north to St Lawrence,' ' to 

* have any correspondence with those Indian rebels. 'f 
Bounties of- To all volunteers, who would enter into the war at their own 
prisoners charge and expense, a premium in the new tenor bills wasoifered, 
am scaps. ^^ £|00 for the scalp of a male Indian 12 years old and up- 
wards ; £50 for that of a younger one, or of a woman ; and an 
additional sum of £0, in either case, for a captive. Every friend 
Indian was the more strongly solicited to enter into the service, 
as he was skilled in savage warfare. But if any of them de- 
clined, they were to be employed in making snow-shoes ; and 
their families were distributed among the white people, where 
they could fish and fowl, according to their habits of life. 
A base out' As there was open vvar with some of the tribes, every unlucky 
a party of clrcumstance alarmed the people s fears. For instance, — an In- 
dian was found dead on the eastern shore, and several others 
were wounded ;— -a most villainous outrage, committed by persons 
unknown. Every thing was now done by government to abate 
Measures |^[ie risine; indignation of the tribe; a blanket, £40 in monev, and 

taken to . 

nacifvihem. necessr.ries were given to the widow of the deceased; — the 
wounds of the others were bound up, and they themselves carried 
to Penobscot. To test anew the fidelity and friendship of the 
tribe, Col. Peppeiell went to St. Georges, in November, as a 
Commissioner, and requested of the Sagamores, their quota of 
fighting men, according to the stipulations in Dummer's treaty, 
which had been so often renewed. He told them, if they would 
enter into the public service, they should receive soldiers' pay 

The 'J'arra- and rations, and every supply ; but if they failed to comply, war 

tines refuse J rr j :' ^ j ^ 1-' 

to join the would, at the end of 40 days, be proclaimed against them. In 

Enslish "1 T 1 1 1 • -r> 

the war. January they sent, by express, their answer to rJoston, stating — 

" that their young men would not comply with the proposal of 

" taking up arms against the St. John's Indians, their brethren." 

Militia in There were at this time, in the tv/o eastern Provinces, 2,855 

easier ° able bodied or fencible men, who were organized into two regi- 

Provinces. 



* Journal H. of Rep. A. D. 1744, p. 80. t 1 Dotig-. Snrr:m. p. 320. 



Chap. vii.J of Maine. 219 

merits, one commanded by Col. William Pepperell of Kittery, A. D. 1744. 
and the other by Col. Samuel Waldo of Falmouth.* 

In the arrangements made for the winter establishment, the 8 eastern 
Captain-General, Dec. 2, ordered, that all the drafted men be 
discharged, and 1 00 effective men be enlisted out of Col. Pep- 
perell's regiment, and formed into eight guards, — to be stationed 
at suitable distances from each other, and at convenient places 
between Berwick and St. Georges, whence they were sever- 
ally to scout, as far as the next station. f Each party was put 
under a sergeant, and all under two able efficient officers in cap' 
tain's pay. 

Through the Autumn, it was a general topic, that Louisbourg r,,,^^ ^ ^.^ 
must be wrested from the enemy, or it would always be a place Br^,o|',^ ^jj. 
of the greatest possible annoyance, to the eastern colonists and to ^"ssed. 
the Enghsh fishermen. The fortress was known to be immensely 
strong, though it was thought, a sufficient force might take it. 
The English prisoners, about 90 in number, taken at Canseau, 



* In Kittery, 


450 men. 


In Scarborough, 


160 men. 


York, ' . 


350 


Falmouth, 


500 


Wells, 


250 


North- Yarmouth, 


150 


Arundel, - 


93 


Brunswick, 


50 


Biddeford, 


120 


Narrag-anset No. 1, - 


20 


Berwick, 


150 


New-Marblehead, 


40 


Phillipstown, 


150 


Georges and Broad-bay 


,270 






Pemaquid, 


50 


tst, or Pepperell's Reg't, 


1565 


Sheepscot, - 


50 



^1290 

2S55 

According to 1 Doug. Summ. p. 360. Wells contained 500. But see 2 
Brit. Emp. 910, and 1 Brit. JDom. 293. — Georgetown, though omitted, is 
supposed to have contained about 100 men able to bear arms. 

f The stations and arrangement were these, — viz : — 
12 men at Newichawannock, to scout to the block-house at Phillipstown : — 
12 " at Phillipstown, to scout at Saco truck house : — 
10 " at Saco truck house, to scout to New-Marblehead: — 
14 " at New-Marblehead, to scout to Brunswick : — 
10 " at Brunswick, to scout from Topsham to Richmond fort : — 
14 " at Wiscasset, to scout as far as Capt. Vaughan's block-house on 

Damariscotta : — 
14 " at his block-house, to scout to Broad-bay : — 
14 " at Broad-bay, to scout to the block-house at St. Georges' river. — 

100 



220 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1741. were detained some time at Louisbourg, before they were ex- 
changed and transported to Boston. They said, they had ex- 
amined the works, and believed the place might be captured. 
Governor Shirley associated to himself William V'aughan, Esq. of 
Damariscotta,* a son of Lieutenant-Governor Vaughan of New- 
Hampshire ; and they, by careful enquiry and close investigation, 
made themselves fully acquainted with the situation and strength 
of the place ; and discussed between themselves the practica- 
bility of its being taken. Vaughan was a man of good under- 
standing, but of a daring, enterprizing, and tenacious mind ; one 
who thought nothing of obstacles to the accomplishment of his 
determined purposes. He was largely concerned in the eastern 
fishery ; and from those employed in that business, and others, 
he had learned something of Louisbourg, though he had never 
seen it. A firm believer in the maxim, that good fortune de- 
pends upon boldness, bravery and exertion ; he conceived the 
design of taking the city by surprize in the winter season ; sup- 
posing it practicable to pass over the walls upon the hard and 
deep snow-drifts. The idea of a surprizal forcibly struck the 
Governor's mind ; and he wrote letters to the ministry, rep- 
resenting the dangers of an attack by the French upon Nova 
Scotia, early in the spring ; and praying for some naval assist- 
ance. These letters he sent by Capt. Ryal, an officer of the 
garrison lately captured at Canseau ; who, from his particular 
knowledge of Louisbourg, and his acquaintance with the great 
importance ol acquiring Cape Breton, and preserving Nova 
Scotia, was able to be of considerable service to the northern 
colonies, before the Boards of Trade and Lords of Admiralty.f 
of^Cape""" The Island, Cape Breton,\ is situated southerly of New- 
Lou^sbour-. foundland, and separated from Nova Scotia, by a narrow strait, 
G leagues in length, called the Gut of Canseau, which is navi- 
gable for ships of 40 guns. The Island is of a triangular form 
about 80 leagues in circuit ; its shores on the north and west 
sides are bold and steep ; but its south-eastern side is full of 
fine bays and harbors, affoiding anchorage for ships of the largest 

* Douglass [1 Vol. 248] says, "Vaughan was a whimsical wild projector— 
entirely ignorant of military affairs." — He "imagined 1,5'^0 raw militia 
« with scaling- ladders, and some small araieJ craft could reduce tne place." 
Others give a good account of his abilities. 

t 2 Belk. N. H. p. 153. t 4 Charlevoi.v's N. F. p. 124-9. 



Chap, viii.] of Maine. 221 

size. Louisbourg* is situated at the south-eastern part of the a. d. 1744. 
Island, about 20 leagues north of east from Canseau ; and covers 
r neck of land, on the south-westerly side of the harbor, which 
opens to the south-east. Its entrance is about 400 yards in 
width, between a small Island on the west, and Light-house point 
on the east, which are the outer defences of the town. In the 
harbor, the water is from 9 to 12 fathoms, and anchorage on a 
soft muddv bottom. Tlie exterior of the town was two miles Exterior 

"^ /• r T • • • 1 laiiiparl ef 

and an half in circumference. It was lortitied on the south- ihe ciiy. 
westerly side by a rampart of stone from 30 to 3G feet in height, 
and a ditch 80 feet in width ; on the south-easterly side, along 
a space of 200 yards near the sea, it was secured by a dyke and 
a line of pickets, wiiere the opposite water was shallow, and 
bordered by rocky cliffs which rendered the place inaccessible 
to sliipping. It was defended on tlie east by a high ramj)art FoHiess. 
and a wide ditch, with heavy cannon in a north and south bas- 
tion ; and on the north by a beach, between the shore and a pond, 

and also a battery and rampart. There were G bastions, and 8 '< Hasiions. 
•' '■ 8 i5dUeries. 

batteries, in all, with embrasures, for 148 cannon, (45, mounted) 

and 16 mortars. On the Island, at the entrance of the harbor, 

was planted a battery of 30 cannon, carrying 28 pound-shot, 

and on the main land at the bottom of the harbor, in front of the 

entrance, 4,800 feet from the Island battery, was the grand or 

royal battery of twenty-eight 42 pounders and two 18 pounders; 

and on a high cliff and point opposite the Island battery stood 

the light-house. A little farther north-east was a careening wharf. Light-house 

secure from all winds, and a magazine of naval stores. The 

entrance to the town from the country was at the west gate, over a West gate. 

drawbridge, near to a circular battery, mounting 16 guns of 14 

pounds shot. The streets of die town, which were wide, 

crossed each other at right angles, and the houses were well 
buih. In the centre of the chief bastion, on the west side of the 
town, was a large stone building, with a moat in the inner 
side, which was called the Citadel, within which were the citadeL 
apartments of the Governor, barracks for the soldiers, an arsenal 
and a magazine, richly furnished with military stores. There 
were also two catholic chapels, one within, and the other with- 
out the citadel. — Such was Louisbourg, which the French had 

* Lat. 45° 55. 



222 'H^ HISTORY [Vol. ii. 

A. D.31743 been engaged in building and fortifying 25 years, and which, 
though not completed, cost the Crown thirty millions of livres.''^ 

January. It was this placc, of such uncommon strength, as to be called 

capufrin^it. " the Dunkirk of America, "f that Shirley conceived the design 
of capturing, wild and impracticable as the enterprize might ap- 
pear. In the beginning of January, (1745,) orders were de- 
spatched by the ministry to Commodore Warren, then in the 
West Indies, to proceed to the northward in the spring, and em- 
ploy such a force as might be sufficient to protect the northern 
colonies in their trade and fishery, and distress the enemy ; and 
for this purpose to consult with Governor Shirley. Other orders 
of the same date were written to Shirley enclosed to Warren, 
directing him to assist the king's ships widi transports, men and 
provisions. 

Tiicexpedi- About this time, the Governor had fully determined upon the 

tionvoied. g^pedition ; and though he had received no intelligence, what tlie 
ministry had concluded to do, J he requested the members of the 
General Court, to lay themselves under an injunction of secrecy, 
while he submitted to them a proposal of very great importance. 
As might be expected, the project met with pointed opposition, 
and was at first rejected ; — but upon reconsideration, it was car- 
ried, January 26, by a majority of one vote. It was supposed 
that 4,000 land forces, in conjunction with such a fleet as might 
be prepared by the colonists, would be able to compel a sur- 
render of the place. 

Undcr'aken Although the parties on the question were so nearly balanced ; 

England no sooucr was the vote carried, than there appeared throughout 
the Province, an uncommon degree of unanimity and zeal in the 
enterprize. Circulars were immediately addressed to the colony 
governments as far south as Pennsylvania, requesting assistance ; 
nevertheless, no one took any active part in the expedition,§ ex- 
cept those of New-England. 

When the administration had determined upon the siege of 

* 1 Haliburton's J^ova Scotia, p. 98-112 ; See his ingenious charts of the 
town. — From the Island battery across the harbor to the grand battery 
was 291 rods; and from the latter to the citadel, was about a mile, in a 
S. W. direction across the westerly part of the harbor. 

t Or, " American Gibralter." 

I The intelligence was delayed, two months after this. 

5 New- York furnished ten cannon. 



Chap. vm.J of Maine. 223 

Louisbourg, Gov. Shirley, sending for Captain Edward Tyng a.d. n-io. 
requested him to procure for his immediate command, the larg- Edwani 
x^st ship he could find, and proposed to appoint him Commo- piinld^' 
dore of the fleet. His family connexions were very respectable dor"."""" 
and highly esteemed. His grandfather was one of President 
Danforth's Council, and bore the character of a worthy Magis- 
trate. His residence was in Falmouth, where he married a 
daughter of Thaddeus Clark, who was a large proprietor in the 
original township. His father was at a time appointed Governor 
of Nova Scotia ; but being on his way thither taken prisoner by 
the French, he was carried to France, where he died. 

Edward Tyng, the subject of the present notice, and third ofHischarac- 
the name, was in his first marriage united with a daughter of '^'^' 
Cyprian Southick, one of the Nova Scotia Council; — in his 
second, with a sister of Col. Samuel Waldo. Captain Tyng 
was a popular man and a skilful seaman. In the preceding sum- 
mer, he achieved a victory, which acquired him great credit ; 
and was difiusive of general joy, especially among the merchants. 
The eastern trade and fisheries having been much interrupted by 
the enemy, he was sent out in the Queen's galley, a snow, called 
the Prince of Orange, for their protection. Ranging off the 
eastern coast, he soon fell in with a French privateer, the de la A victory 
Brotz, of superior force, carrying 1 8 guns and 94 men, and hfm.*'^'^ ^ 
commanded by M. de la Bra. A sharp engagement ensued, in 
which the Frenchman, taking the Prince of Orange for one 
of a larger size, struck his colors ; and the brave Tyng brought 
the prize to Boston. Tiie victory was greatly applauded ; and 
several of the more wealthy merchants, to express their sense of 
the meritorious exploit, presented him with a silver cup, weighing 
100 ounces, and bearing this inscription: — To Edward Tyng, 
Esquire, Commander of the Snow, Prince of Orange ; as an 
acknowledgement of his good service done the trade, in taking 
the first French Privateer, on the coast, the 24th of June, 1744 ; 
this Plate is presented hy several of the merchants of Boston in 
JVew-England. * 

In presenting him with the commission of Commodore, Shirley 



* 10 Cu/l. M. His. Soc. p. iai-3.— Commodore Tyng's third son, born 
1737, was Col. William Tyng- — who was Sheriff of Cumberland county, 
after 1767, for several years. He spent the last days of his life at Gor- 
hain, where he died, 1S07. His mother was Ann Waldo. 



224 THE HISTORY [VoL. H. 

Ai D. 1745. had the approbation of an undivided pubHc. Tyng soon procur- 
Hisfiigate. ed a ship, nearly ready for launching, which he caused to be im- 
proved and fitted for carrying 24 guns, and to be named the 
Rouse aiKiAj^ss^cHusETTs Frigate. The sccond in command was Cant. 
iuuisdin Rouse, in the Shirley Galley, of 20 guns; and the third was 

command. . . -^ o / 

Capt. Snelling, in the Caesar, also of 20 guns. 
The enter- [n undertaking any thing hazardous or difficult, there is neces- 
sity for extraordmary vigor of mind, and a degree of confidence 
and fortitude, which raise us above the dread of danger, and dis- 
pose us to risque, what the maxims of over-cautious prudence 
would forbid. Such a spirit was never more manifest, and per- 
haps never more necessary, than on occasion of this expedition. 
There was something of romance in the design ; and if it were 
to be attended widi success, every motive and dictate of wisdom 
rendered it indispensable, to favor and perpetuate the popular 
ardor, till it ripened into firmness of purpose and actual move- 
ments. The money was easily raised to defray the expenses; 
for by a clause in the Instruction, bills of credit to any amount, 
might be issued in times of emergency ; and on the present oc- 
The appro- casion, an emission was ordered of £50,000 to meet the demands, 
pnaiiou. There was uncommon health among the people, and the fruitful- 

ness of the preceding season had made provisions plenty. 
Wm. Pep- To give life and cheerfulness to enlistments and the numerous 
poimed'io preparations inaking, and to ensure a popular confidence of suc- 
cimmand. ^^^^s ; there remained a most difficult duty to be performed. — 
This was the appointment of the chief officers. Gentlemen of 
military experience, as well as military talents, had they been 
easily found, would have been selected and preferred. But 
the person appointed to command the expedition, was William 
Pepperell, Esq. of Kittery, then Colonel of the western regi- 
ment of the Yorkshire militia. His new commission gave him 
the rank of Lieutenant-General.* He was a merchant of un- 
blemished reputation, and engaging manners ; extensively known 
and quite popular throughout the Provinces of Massachusetts, 
New-Hampshire and Maine. These were considered as quali- 
ties, highly desirable, in the commander of an army, formed of 
volunteers, his own countrymert, who were to quit their domestic 
connexions and employments, and engage in a hazardous enter- 



1 Doug. Summ. p. 350. — The enlistments of volunteers began, Feb. 2d 



Chap. viii.J of MAmt. 225 

prise of unmeasured extent, of uncertain issue. There was no a.d, 1745. 
sage veteran, who knew how to conduct the enthusiastic ranks to 
victory. Skill and experience in arms were out of the question. 
Had these been deemed indispensable prerequisites, the expedi- 
tion must have been laid aside ; for there was no person in this 
quarter, possessing in any eminent degree such qualifications. 
Pepperell had a martial turn of mind, which was increased, by 
living in a part of the country, the most exposed to the ravages 
of the French and Indians. His patriodsm now shone out with 
great lustre ; for nothing but a zeal for his country's good, could 
have carried him from the scenes of domestic enjoyment, and 
extensive business — from the head of the Provincial Council, 
the highest honor his fellow citizens could bestow upon him, to 
the fatigues of a camp, and the risques of uncertain victory. He 
was much beloved ; and it was necessary that the men should 
both know and love their General, or they would not cheerfully 
enlist under him, nor yield him implicit obedience. 

In giving consideration to the appointment offered him, he re- winiefield's 
quested the famous Mr. Whitefield, who was then itinerating and '^^'"^'^ ^ 
preaching in Maine, to give his opinion of the enterprize. ' The 
' scheme (said he) I think not very full of encouragement. The 
' eyes of all will be upon you ; and should you not meet with 
' success, the widows and orphans^will utter complaints and re- 
' flections ; — and if it be otherwise, numbers will look upon you 
' with envy, and endeavor J to eclipse your glory. You ought 
' therefore, in my judgment to go with " a single eye," and dien 
' you will receive strength, proportioned to your necessities.' He 
felt the sentiment ; for a deep sense of the Divine Providence 
seemed to influence all the actions of his life. Mr. Whitefield 
was likewise urged by the Commissary, another of his friends, 
to give a motto for the flag ; to which, after some hesitancy, he 
suggested this — "|Az7 desperandum, Christo, Duce ;" — which being jje suggests 
adopted, gave the expedition the air and popularity of a modern fij'"2aff '""^ 
crusade. 

The second in command was Samuel Waldo, Esquire, who „ , 

' ^ ' Samuel 

was commissioned with the rank of Brigadier-General. This Waido. 2d 

° 111 cow- 

gentleman was a native of Boston, son of Jonathan Waldo, a mand. 

rich merchant of that plac6,':and very extensively interested in 

the Muscongus patent. At that time, Samuel was Colonel-com- 

VoL. II. 29 



226 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1745. mandant of the eastern Yorkshire regiment, and the representa- 
tive of Fahiiouth in the General Court. He was in the prime 
of Wie, a man of excellent understanding and great activity. 
His knowledge of men and books was much improved by trav- 
elling ; and his undeviating integrity, his military turn of mind 
and independent manners, rendered him a highly respected com- 
mander. 
The Colo- The Colonels in the Maine and Massachusetts troops, were 
"on^Ha*!", MoultOH, Hale, WiUard, Richmond, Gorham and Dwight.* Jere- 
Uichmoiui, fniah Moulton, the third in command, was a native inhabitant of 
S^Dwi"-!)!. York — at that time, a member of the Provincial Council, a Judge 
of the Common Pleas and county treasurer of Yorkshire ; and 
it is believed, he was also a Lieutenant-colonel in the militia reg- 
iment, under the command of Pepperell. He was a man of 
good abilities, of amiable, popular and retiring manners, and true 
courage. His private character was highly estimable. He had 
been in the public service ; was acquainted with Indian warfare ; 
acquired much credit in taking Norridgewock during the last 
war ; and possessed considerable military skill and experience. 
Gorham had charge of the whale-boats ; and Gridley command- 
ed the train of artillery. To Mr. Vaughan was given a Lieut. 
Colonel's commission, without any particular command, he pre- 
ferring the trust of such special duties, as the Commander-in-chief 
might consider his adventurous genius best suited to perform. 
Lar"-e en- A selection of the chief officers and several others from Maine, 
men In'* °'^ afFords an answer to the enquiry, why enlistments, were effected 
Maine. there, so much in disproportion to the number of eastern inhab- 
itants. f The Indian wars had enured them to hardships and dan- 
ger; and now, no less the example of their ancestors, than their 
own exposed situation, inspired them with an enthusiastic ardor 
to take the field, against such confederate enemies as French 
papists and blood-thirsty savages. There was everywhere a 
concurrence of favorable circumstances ; and some of them, in 



* Samuel JJoore was Lieut. Colonel of the New-Hampshire reg-iment,— 
304 men; Simon LnlJu-op, Lieut. Colonel of Connecticut regiment,— 516 
men; and Richard Gridley, Lieut. Colonel of the train of artillerj'. 

\ « Manj' of the settlers about Georg'es' river, enlisling' under General 
« Waldo, were at the taking of Louisbourg ; where tliey continued with 
" their families several years, and some never returned." — C. Eaton s 
JIS. J^arrative, p. 10. 



Chap, viii.] of Maine. 227 

nowisei^^dependent upon human action or foresight, were greatly a, d. 1745. 
promotive of the enterprize. The winter, especially February, Events fa- 

•1 1 1 . L J • 11 vorahlc to 

was very mild ; the harbors and rivers were open ; and the ihe expedi- 
weather in general so pleasant, that out-door labor was done wuh 
unusual ease. The Indians had not molested the eastern fron- 
tiers ; and though some of them had heard of the present ex- 
pedition, and carried the news to Canada ; the French gave no 
heed to the report of so improbable an undertaking ; and not a 
lisp of it reached Nova Scotia, or Louisbourg. ' In short, — if 
' any one circumstance,' to use the language of Douglass,* ' had 
' taken a wrong turn on our side ; or if any one circumstance had 
' taken a right turn on the French side, the expedition must have 
' miscarried.' 

In less than two months, from the day the General Court re- i,, e 

•1 1 Ian 01 ep- 

solved to undertake the expedition, an army of 4,000 men were '"'^^''""^ 'T 

'^ •' army and 

prepared to embark ;f and a naval squadron, consisting of 13 ves- fleet, 
sels, besides transports and store-ships, — carrying about 200 
guns, J was ready to sail. Pepperell received his instructions 
from Shirley, March 19 ; and entering, the 24th, on board the 
Shirley, Snow, at the head of the armament, he put to sea from 
Nantasket. He was directed to proceed to Canseau, there build 
a battery and block-house, deposit his stores and leave two com- 
panies to guard them. Thence he was to sail with the fleet and 
army for Chappeaurouge-hay, easterly of Louisbourg, arrive in 

* 1 Suinm. p. 336. 

f From Massachtisetts and Maine, 3,250 men ; Connecticiit> 516 under 
General Wolcot ; and New-Hampshire, 304 under Col. Jloore, excloiive 
of commissioned ofScers. — 2 Ilulch. Hist. p. 371. — Douglass says, 3,600 
were before the town.— (^o/. 1, p. 350. 

guns. guns. 

I These were, Brig' Massa- Ship (hired of R. Island,) Capt. 

chusetts, Tyng, 24 Grifjin, 20 

Ship Caesar, Snelling, 20 Thompson and } Connec- ( 16 

" Shirley Galley, Rouse., 20 Colony Sloop, \ ticut, \ 16 

Snow, Prince of Orange, Smith- CoJony Sloop, Rhode Island, 

tirst, 16 (about) 14 

Boston Packet, Fletcher, 16 Provincial Sloop, New- 

3 Sloops, 12, 8, 8, guns, = 28 Hampshire, (do.) 14 

124 80 

William Burns of Broad-bay took a commission from government, and 
raised a company to defend the county ; and his brother had command of 
one of the transports in the siege of Louisbourg'. 



228 THE HISTORY [Vol. ii. 

A. D. 1745. the evening, come to anchor under the covert of darkness, forth- 
with land his men at Flat-point cove, E. N. E. three miles distant 
from the town, and commence an attack without delay. Should 
the General not succeed in the surprizal, he was instructed to call 
a council of war, and govern himself according to circumstances. 
Never was a plan of operations, drawn by sensible men, which 
had more tlie semblance of romance. An hundred sail of vari- 
ous sizes, was to arrive at the place of destination on a precise 
hour ; the weather and winds, even in the spring months, were 
all to be favorable ; the rocky ridges which pointed the shores, 
and, at this season, the ice and fog, which environ the Island, 
were to be avoided ; a certain harbor made, under the shadows of 
nightfall, in an unexplored bay, and in a particular manner ; a 
landing effected there immediately, amidst a violent surf ;^and 
then the soldiery take up a march in the dark, through a ravine, 
bog and woods, pass the grand battery, and after travelling three 
miles from the place of landing, commence pulling down pickets 
with grappling irons, and mount walls 30 feet high by scaling lad- 
ders ; — yes, and all in the short space of a single night. This 
part of the plan was prudently concealed from the troops ', and 
also the receipt of a letter from Commodore Peter Warren, at 
the West India station, who had considered of his orders and 
concluded to ' excuse himself from any concern in the affair ;' 
Shirley, Pepperell, and Waldo, being the only persons, who knew 
any thing of the communication, before the fleet sailed. 
April 4. The land and naval forces all arrived at Canseau, April 4, 

Canse^iu. where they were detained three weeks by the remaining ice, 
which adiiered to the shores of Cape Breton. In the meantime, 
Capture of one of our ships, on the 1 6th, captured a French brigantine from 
Briganiiiic. Martinique, having on board 224 puncheons of rum, 43 hogs- 
heads of molasses, 23 barrels of coffee, 13 loaves of sugar, and 
other articles ; and on the 23d, to the great joy of the American 
Arrival of forces, ai rived at Canseau, four war-ships from the West Indies, 
floe[.'*"" the Suhn-h, Che Eltham, the Lanchaster, and ihe Mermaid, under 
Commodore Warren. — It appeared, that subsequently to sending 
his former letter to Gov. Shirley, he received orders from home, 
Crui'io b(-- directing him to render his Majesty immediate service upon this 
bourj. north-eastern coast. On his arrival, therefore, his squadron pro- 



Chap, viii.] of mai.xf. 229 

ceedecl to cruise before Louisbourg ; being from time to time a. d. 1743. 
joined by six other ships of war — the whole carrying 490 guns.* 

The American fleet and forces made Chappeaurouge bay, ^prii so. 
April 30, early in the morning ;f and their appearance gave the ihe^fle^eUn 
first notice to the French of a design formed against them. They Jle^ar^L^ouis- 
had seen the men-of-war cruising at a distance, but took them to'"^"'"S- 
be privateers, in search of trading and fishing vessels. On the 
same and the next day, the troops were disembarked from the 
transports with little opposition, and most of the heavy artillery, 
provisions and ammunition were landed. 

The primary object of the assailants was to invest the town: May 2. 

^ •' •> The first al- 

and Lieut. Colonel Vaughan conducted the first column of 400 tack. 

men through the woods. May 2, within sight of it, and gave three 

cheers. He thence led them, in the course of the night, to the 

north-east part of the harbor ; where they burned the warehouses 

containing naval stores, and staved a large quantity of wine and 

brandy. The smoke, driven by the wind, 3-4ths of a mile, into 

the grand battery, so alarmed the French, that they abandoned 

it, spiking their guns and retiring. The next morning, Vaughan G^/ndbat- 

took possession of it, and having drilled the cannon left by the ^^'^- '^ ^"' 

enemy, which consisted chiefly of 42 pounders, turned them with 

good effect upon the city, within which almost every shot lodged, 



* Arrived April 23, the Ellham of 40 guns, convoy of mast ships to Eng. 

" " Suburb, 60 ) 

" " Lanchaster, 40 V under Commodore Warren. 

" " Mermaid, 40 ) 

Captured, May Ifi, Vigilant, 64 Taken from the French by 

Com. Tyng. 

Arrived " 22, Hector, 40 ) 

" " Princess Mary 60 > From Eng-land. 

June 10, Chester, 50 ) 

" 12, Canterbury, 60 ) 

" " Sunderland, 60 > From Newfoundland. 

" « Lark, 40 ) 

Total 490.— 2 IJidch. Hist. p. 372-5, 6.— 1 
Doug. Summ. p. 351. --One account states thus: — 

In the night time of ]\lay 18th, the Vig-ilant having- been decoyed by the 
Mermaid, and hectored by several small vessels, fell in with the Massachu- 
setts, Tynj; and mistaking- her for a much larg^er ship, struck to her; — 
an event greatly to the encourag-ement of the expedition. — 10 Coll. M. 
His. Sac, p. 183. 

t Here they anchored two miles from Flat-point Cove, and five miles 
easterly from the town. The French " immediately fired some cannon 
*' and rang their bells in the town, to alarm and call in their people living 
*' in the suburbs. 



230 

A.D, 1145. 

May. 

Green Hill 
ballery 
formrcl. 



THE HISTORY 



[Vol. 



A summons 
sent 10 sur- 
render. 



May 18. 
The Vigi- 
lant captur- 
ed. 



Titcomb's 

battery 

opened. 



May 26. 
English 
lose 176 
men. 



and several fell into the roof of the citadel. While forming a 
battery on Green Hill,* within 1,550 yards of the north-west 
bastion inclosing the castle, and another 600 yards nearer, the 
troops were engaged fourteen nights successively, in drawing can- 
non from the landing, through a morass, to the proposed en- 
campment. Unable to use wheels, owing to the softness of the 
ground, the soldiers constructed sledges, and with straps over 
their shoulders, wading in the mud to their knees, resolutely per- 
formed labor ' beyond the power of oxen.' It was work, which 
could be executed only in the night time, or during foggy days ; 
the place being within view of the town and the reach of its 
guns. Duchambon, the Governor, in the meantime, was sum- 
moned to surrender ; but refusing, the siege was pressed with 
greater vigor and spirit. At length, a third battery, planted with- 
in 440, and a fourth within 250 yards of the west gate, were so 
far advanced. May 17, as to do great execution. The next day, 
the Vigilant, a French G4, being artfully decoyed into the midst 
of danger, fell in with the frigate Massachusetts, Capt. Tyng, to 
whom, after exchanging a few shots, she struck her colors. This 
was an important victory. It gave a thrill to the whole fleet and 
army ; for she had on board 560 men, and was richly laden with 
military stores, intended for the relief of the garrison. f 

On the side of the creek opposite to Green Hill, Titcomb's 
battery, 800 yards from the west gate, mounting five 42 pound- 
ers, was opened. May 20, with great effect upon the enemy's 
circular battery and magazine ; and on the 22d, the Princess 
Mary and Hector, arriving, joined the fleet. But on the 26th, 
an unfortunate though brave attempt upon the Island battery, oc- 
casioned the English a loss of 1 76 men ; — 60 killed and drowned, 
and 116 taken prisoners. About the same time, a new battery 
was erected on the Light-house point, under the direction of 
Lieut. Col. Gridley, and brought so directly to bear upon the 
Island battery, as to silence several of its guns. The Provin- 

• This was more than 200 yards nearer the town than the grand battery 



f Warren offered Tyng the command of this valuable prize with the 
rank of post captain. But he being' considerablj' advanced in life had de- 
termined to remain on shore after the expedition ; and therefore declin- 
in'' the offer, recommended Captain Rouse, who was appointed to that 
office. 



Chap, vin.] of matne. 231 

cials had now erected five fascine batteries, mounted 16 pieces A. D 1745. 
of cannon and several mortars, entirely destroyed the western ^ f>aitenf;s 

' •' ■' against the 

gate, and made great impressions upon the enemy's other works, '^i'y- 
At length, it was concerted and concluded by Commodore War- June?. 

A strata- 

ren and General Pepperell, to attempt by stratagem what force gem. 
had hitherto failed to effect. They informed the Captain of the 
captured Vigilant, how badly the French had treated some of the 
English prisoners ; and then shewing him what care and kind- 
ness, the Frenchmen, detained on board the English fleet, were 
receiving, desired him to certify the fact to the commander of the 
garrison, and advise him to pursue as generous a course. He June 8. 
complied — and Capt. McDonald was the bearer of the letter, senr/nto the 
June 8, under a flag of truce. He was a good French linguist, afla'nr""''^"^ 
though he feigned himself a stranger to the language ; and there- 
fore, had the advantage of understanding all the French officers 
said to each other, while he was with them. Till this time, they 
had received no intelligence, that the Vigilant was a prize to 
the English, or her captain a prisoner. Notice of the event put 
them to a great nonplus ; and in connexion with the trials of a 
severe siege, occasioned apparent looks of dismay. — The west-^,^ ^.^^ , 
ern gate was not only demolished, but a fearful breach vvas ^'*'^°"'*'^'''" 
made in the adjoining walls ; the nortli-eastern and the' circular 
batteries and the west flank of the king's bastion had all receiv- 
ed great damage; and preparations, they perceived, were making 
for a general assault. They were besides, in want of some pro- 
visions and stores, which they now despaired of receiving ; and 
the garrison, prior to the siege, were so mutinous, that the Gov- 
ernor would not trust them to make a sortie, through fear of de- 
sertion. Nor could he ascertain the true strengtli of the Pro- 
vincials. The ground upon which they were entrenched was so 
uneven and the men so scattered, that he could form no estimate 
of their number ; while the prisoners, as if by mutual agreement, 
represented the English force to be greatly superior to what it 
really was. The arrival of four other large English ships of 
war, on the 10th and 12th, gave heart and spirit to the assailants, 4 other 
which the French might ])erceive, by the unabating intrepidity wa?-ships 
and vigor, every where evinced in this protracted siege. The ^'"^^" 
battery near the Light-house was now able to flank a line of 20 
guns in the enemy's Island battery, 3,400 feet distant ; and on 
the 14th, being the anniversary of his Majesty's accession to the 



232 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A.D. 1745. throne, it was " celebrated by a discbarge at 12 o'clock, of all the 
cannon in every battery." On the 1 8tli, the English determined 
' to make a grand attack upon the garrison by sea and by land.' 
As this was suspected or understood by the enemy, — Ducham- 

Frer.ch boH, June 15, wrote thus to Pepperell and Warren; — ' Gentle- 

Governor's 

letier to the ' men — Desirous of putting a stop to acts of hostility and the ef- 

Engliil) offi- /••<-iii¥ii- • c 

cers. ' lusion 01 blood ; 1 send this note to request a suspension oi 

' arms, so long as shall be needful for me to make proposals, 
'upon what conditions, I shall determine to deliver up to you the 

June 16. ' place, with which the king my master has entrusted me.' — The 

Surrenders ii, •*! ii,-i 

the place, next day, he surrendered the garrison,* and on the 1 an, posses- 
June 17. sJon was taken by the captors ; the French being allowed to 

Possession y i / •-j 

taken by marcli out " whh their arms, music and standards." 

the Knghsh. . 

In the capitulation, 650 veteran troops, 1,310 militia men, the 
crew of the Vigilant, and about 2,000 of the inhabhants being 
4,1 30f in all, engaged not to bear arms against Great Britain or 
her allies, for twelve months ; and embarking on board 14 cartel 
ships, were transported to Rochfort in France. Seventy-six 
cannon and mortars fell into the hands of the victors, besides 
other property to an immense amount ; and there were in the 
town, provisions and ammunition enough for five or six months. 
Our loss was 130 men — and that of the French 300, killed 
within the walls. The Prince of Orange was sunk in a storm, 
and her crew drowned. 
View of the Upou entering the fortress, and viewing its strength, and the 
incidems, plenty and variety of its means for defence, the stoutest hearts 
were appalled ; and the practicability of taking it by surprize, as 
contemplated by the projectors of the expedition, appeared futile to 
the last degree. As a decoy, the French flag was continued 
flying ; and the * value of all the prizes, taken during this expe- 
' dition, were not much short of a million sterling.' The weather 
which through the last 40 days of the siege, was remarkably fine 
for the season, soon changed, and an incessant rain of ten days 
succeeded. Had this happened before the surrender, hundreds 
then sick of the dysentery must have fallen victims to the disease. J 



* General Pepperell says, we gave the town about 9,000 cannon ball, 
and 600 " bombs, before the enemy surrendered." 

f 1 Doxig. Summ. p. 568. — 2,000 able to hear arms. 

I ZSo less than 1,500 were sick at one time, by reason of cold, fogg-y 
weather, fatigue in mud and water, and poor tents. 



Chap, viii.] of aiAiNE. 233 

The news of this resplendent victory filled America with joy, A. D. 1745. 
and Europe with astonishment.* It was celebrated in the prin- Cdebraiion 
cipal New-England towns by ringing of bells, by bonfires, by lory. 
festivity,! S"*^ J'^'Jy 13, by a public thanksgiving. Ch'eat glory 
was won ; yet unwearied pains were afterwards taken in England, 
to ascribe it principally to the navy and lessen the merit of the 
army. The victory gave a fresh impulse to the jealousies, en- 
tertained in the mother country, that such events would hasten 
the independence of the Colonies. Pepperell, however, receiv- Rewards to 
ed the title of Baronet; Warren was made an Admiral; and '^ ^^"' 
Pepperell and Shirley severally received Colonels' commissions to 
raise two regiments on the British establishment in America, and 
be in the pay of the crown. But none of the officers, except 
one or two, and none of the New-England troops, were ever 
allowed any part of the prizes, nor any emoluments, — their own 
wages excepted. Parliament, after repeated solicitations, through 
a period of four years, resolved at last to pay the expenses of the 
expedition ; and shipped to New-England in specie, £200,000 
sterling for that purpose. J 



* 1 Doug. Summ. p. 345-355.-2 Hutch, p. 3o4-376.— 2 Belknap's N. H. 
149-174.— 2 Trumbull's Con. p. 270-281.-1 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. p. 61.— 
Shirley's Speech, July 17,— Jour, of Mass. H. Rep. 1745, p. 10-68. 

t Smith's Journal, p. 39, July 8, we [in Falmoutiij fired our can.^iOn £ve 
times, and spent the afternoon at '" the fort, rejoicing." 

I Sum sent to Massachusetts was £183,649, mostly silver in 215 chests. 
" N. Hampshire " 16,355, 

£200,004. 
But the best account in print, of the " Siege of liouisbourg," appears in 
Governor Shirley's letter, Oct. 28, 1745, to the Duke of New castle and a 
* Journal of the siege,' in 31 octavo pages, published by order of the Gen- 
eral Court, Jan. 7, 1746: — from which, matter in the preceding pages 
has been selected. 



Vol. II, 80 



234 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 



AiD. 1743, 
January. 



CHAPTER IX. 

Spanish, and 5 years' Indian icar — Defence' — Indians desirous of 
jffar — Condition of the eastern people — First attacks of the In- 
dians — In Maine, at St. Georges' river — Eastern force — Demand 
upon the Indians fur a quota of men according to treaty — Their 
refusal — War declared against them — Skirmishes — Projects of 
England and France — Soldiers at Louishourg relieved — Defence 
— Attack on Gorhamtown, Peinaquid, St. Georges, Falmouth, 
and other places — Canada and Nova Scotia — Arrival of d'An^ 
ville's fleet — Disasters — Its return home — Ramsay's attack on the 
Massachusetts' provincials at Ilorton — Thry capitulate — The tear 
— Mischiefs of the Indians — A naval victory over the French — 
Exchange of prisoners at Canada — Attempts upon New-Marble- 
head, Fort Frederick, St. Georges — A scarcity of provisions — 
Defensive force — Service disagreeable'^ A fort proposed at Pe- 
nobscot — Base character of the savage enemy — Neics of peace — 
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle — Eastern guards — Indians propose 
peace — Visit Boston — A treaty established. 

A ffth Indian war, as a consequence of the present one with 
Spain and France, appeared now to be the inevitable destiny of 



Af/tiiln- these eastern Provinces. The refusal of the Tarratine tribe to 

diaii. or five . . , . , 

years' war. become tbe allies of the English, as communicated in January, 
to the Government, was a manifest indication of their hostile 
designs. It was known, they continued to have a controlling in- 
fluence among the eastern tribes. They had acted a wise and 
worthy part in bringing the last war to a close, and in settling a 
treaty ;* and they often expressed the strongest ' desires for a 
perpetuation of peace and amity. But the celebrated Castine 
the younger, was no more ;f and a race of young Indians had 
risen, during an interval of twenty years' tranquillity, who panted 
for war and glory. The Indians had lately estranged themselves 
from the English, and many had withdrawn to Canada. Trade 
with them was nearly at an end, and the truck-masters were not 
rechosen. It was also reported, early in the spring, that arms and 

* Dnmmer's tr«aty, A. D. 1726. + See ante, A. D. 1725. 



Chap, ix.] or Maine. 235 

ammunition had been sent by the Governor of Canada, to the A. D. 1745. 
Indians of Nova Scotia ; that he had promised to distribute pres- The French 
ents to all those who would visit him at Quebec ; and that a Uie Indians. 
body of natives was prepared to join Duvivier's forces and pro- 
ceed against Annapolis as soon as he returned from France. 

Measures and works of defence were indefati°:ably prosecuted : Measures 
II 1- 1 ,- , for defence. 

houses were enclosed by ramparts, or palisades of timber j 

watches were established ; and there were endeavors to keep up 
ranging parties constantly, between the garrisons. But the free 
enlistments into the late expedition against Louisbourg, had left 
the frontiers exceedingly open and exposed. After the capture, 
some were persuaded by an increase of wages, to abide there in 
the public service, some were detained by reason of the dysen- 
tery, and some returned home sick;* so that almost every able- 
bodied man, it is said, was, at one time, either at home or 
abroad, a soldier, a sentinel, or a minute-man. Nor were the men 
satisfied with the rewards they received in consideration of their 
perils, fatigues, and sufferings in the siege of that place. For 
they had no prize-money, no gratuity, nothing but vapid praise, — 
miserable food for a soldier, who had left his family for the camp, 
and lost the spring-season, which ought to have been improved 
in providing for their livelihood. 

As the Sagamores could not be reached by persuasives or The Indian* 
presents : Capt. Saunders was despatched in the Province Sloop wa'r and 
with expresses, to the tribes about the eastern harbors, especially '' "" ^'^' 
at Kennebeck and Penobscot; informing them of the great vic- 
tory, in the hope of overawing them, or preventing their alliance 
with the enemy. But they had resolved to be neutral no longer. 
If the fall of Louisbourg and the fate of their old friends, the 
French, had any effect upon them ; it was to hasten them into 
the war against the triumphing English. They themselves had 
little to lose ; while the settlements, now increased and extend- 
ed, offered them more allurements and greater opportunities for 
plunder. Yet a narrative of savage warfare on our frontiers, 
must be principally a recital of the sufferings, exploits, escapes, 
and deliverances, of parties, families, or individuals ; — a narrative, 



* " We have tidings [at Falmouth] daily of our people dying- at Cape 
" Breton and of many coming home and dying after arrival." — Smitk^i 
Journ. p. 41-43.— 2 Hutch. Hist. p. 379. 



236 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A.D. 1745. the Historian would cheerfully save himself the labor and pain of 
giving, did not fidelity and duty forbid. But the reiterated dis- 
tresses of the eastern inhabitants, in connexion with their forti- 
The meian-tude and Other virtues, ousiiht not to be overlooked. In an Indian 
lioM of (he war, they were necessarily watchful, or on their guard day and 
night, and when at labor in their fields, they were often obliged 
on a sudden emergency, either to repel an attack, or make a 
hazardous retreat. Their crops were not unfrequently injured or 
destroyed, either by their own cattle getting into their enclosures, 
where the Indians had broken the fences ; or because the hus- 
bandmen durst not venture out to collect and secure the harvest.* 
By reason of the danger to which they were constantly exposed, 
they were unable to cultivate their lands to any advantage ; 
though when they went to public worship, or abroad, they were 
always armed ; and usually, when at work, they posted a sentry 
in some conspicuous place, to keep watch. f So bent on mere 
mischief were the savages, that when they killed the husband- 
man's domestic animals, they would oftentimes only take a little 
of their flesh or their tongues, which they broiled and ate fresh, 
or preserved by drying in the smoke. In short, the distressed 
people were afi-aid even to milk their cows, though they were 
kept in pastures near as possible to the fortifications ; and whole 
families were not unfrequently, in these Indian wars, shut up for 
weeks together, in a state of wretched anxiety, 
j,,,^. ,p_ The first outrages of the Indians were committed, July 19, 

tal'ks'^o'ril'c ^^ St. Georges and Damariscotta [Newcastle]. Several of the 
Imiiaiis. savages from Cape Sable, St. John, and St. Francois, uniting. 
On thp forts began by attacking the fort St. George; upon which, however, 

at St. Cicor- . I 1 1 ^ • • mi 1 /- 

^ps' and they could make no nnpression. Ihey then set on fire a garri- 
cmaquK . soned house and saw-mill; burnt a few dwellinghouses in the 
vicinity ; killed a great number of the cattle ; and took captive 
one of the inhabitants. Preferring, as it was a ma.\im of Indian 
policy, to do mischief remote from their immediate neighborhood, 
and inheriting an enmity towards the public or local fortifica- 
tions, anotlier party, formed of young fighters from Penobscot 
and Norridgewock, marked fort Frederick for an assault. In 



* Gov(rnc>r''s Speech, January,, 1745. — 'Prevented as the people may be, 

• I>om cultivating- their lands.' says he, ' they must starve there, or withdraw 

♦ with their families, cattle, anJ effacts, — without timely help.' 

t Sullivran, p. 189. 



Chap, ix.] of maine. 237 

approaching it, they met a woman, about 300 yards from the a- d. 1745. 
walls, whom they wounded in the shoulder, and then one of 
them seized her. Either the report of the gun or her shrieks, 
unfortunately for them, alarmed the garrison ; and amidst the 
momentary consternation and rising smoke, or through the care- 
lessness of her keepers, she broke away from them, and under 
the fire from the fort escaped to the gate. Thus the meditated 
attack was happilv prevented.* The same month they killed a AtTopsham 

and New- 
man and scalped a boy at Topsham ; and at New-Meadows, Meadows. 

.they shot a mounted man and his horse under him.f 
- A short time previously, about 30 Indians, well armed, came At Nonh- 
to North-Yarmouth, and secreted themselves under a fence, be- 
tween the two forts, which were a mile apart. As Philip Greely 
was passing, early the next morning, from one to the other, they 
shot him and retired. Had tliey not been discovered by means 
of his dog, they would probably have let him pass unhurt. But 
since an alarm would inevitably be given, either by him if per- 
mitted to escape, or by the report of their guns, if they killed 
him, they preferred the latter alternative ; and though he lost his 
life, the garrisons were both left unmolested. "j; Not far distant, 
at Flying-point, they broke down the door, and entered the house 
of one Maine?, about break of day, before the family were out 
of bed. The good man made a brave personal resistance, in 
which he was himself slain. A young child of his was also kill- 
ed in its mother's arms by a bullet, which, at the same time, 
wounded her in the breast. Aroused by the tumult, a man, lodg- 
ing in the chamber, fired upon the assailants, shot down one of 
them, and so alarmed the rest, that they fled out of the house, 
taking with them a young daughter, panic struck and freezing 
with horror. The thoughtful woman, thus left for a moment, bar- 
red the door, and thereby escaped a cruel death, or a more cruel 
captivity. The affrighted girl, they carried captive to Canada. 
Determined, however, not to leave North-Yarmouth, till they had 
more effectually executed their purpose, they selected an ambush 
near the meeting-house, from which they fired upon three men 



* Journal House Rep. 1715, p. ."3.— Governor's Speech, in July. 

■f Smith's Jour. 40. 

I Sullivan, p. 190. — He supposes this was in May : But be is not correct 
as to dates. — Smith, p. 40, and Belk. jV. H. p. 186, say the first mischief 
was in July. 



238 THE HISTORY [Vol. ii. 

A. D. 1745. who were in company; — one of them, Ebenezer Eaton, they 
killed and scalped ; another was made prisoner ; and the third 
escaping, carried the tidings to the fort. The Indians then spread- 
ing themselves along the ridge, a little farther back, recommenced 
a discharge of their muskets upon the houses below, and upon such 
of the men, as rushed out with their arms towards the place 
where they had heard the report of guns, and continued firing, 
until fears of a rencounter induced them to retire. 
Seitlements The Settlements, begun upon the banks and in the vicinity of 
Georges' Gcorgcs' rivcr, under the patronage of Samuel Waldo, Esquire, 
lurbi'heln- sooH after the close of Lovewell's war, had been prosecuted, dur- 
ing the last ten years, with encouraging success. He built mills, 
and by advertisements offered his lands to settlers upon most 
alluring terms. Irish emigrants of the protestant religion, who 
had been sometime in America, accepted his offers, and became 
the fathers of these plantations. For under an agreement with 
him, April 18, 1T35, forty-five of them presently settled upon 
their respective lots of 100 acres, built cottages, and laid the 
Upper and foundation of the " L^/)per Tow/i" [now Warren.]* Settlements 
dower lowns. .^ ^1^^ iozt^n^Aip bclowf [now Thomaston,] and at Meduncook, 
[now Friendship,] were in a progressive condition during the 
same period ; and block-houses were erected at the " JVarrows^^ in 
the upper town, also at the moud) of the river. But no odier 
settlements in Sagadahock, so much as these, disturbed the Tar- 
ratine tribe of Indians, J as there was none so near them. 
Attacks on The inhabitants attempted to labor on their farms, under a 
* ms ofthos'e gu^rd of soldiers, though not without perpetual interruption. Da- 
piaces. yij Creighton, and his companions, venturing out a short distance 
from the garrison at St. Georges, were killed and scalped. Boyce 
Cooper, and Reuben Pitcher, proceeding down the river for rock- 
weed, fell into the hands of the enemy, and were carried to Can- 
ada. Naturally jovial, and apparently contented, Cooper made 
himself familiar with the Indians ; and as he answered all their 
questions cheerfully, about the men and cattle at the fort, — he in 
return received from them, very generous usage. He was an em- 
igrant from Ireland ; and while in Canada, his fellow prisoner, 



* See post, A. D. 1776. 

I Called the '■'■Lower <oK'n;" and by the Indians, Georgeekeag. 

I See ante, A. D. 1736. 



Chap, ix.] of maine. 239 

a native of the same country, dying, bequeathed him his violin. A.D 1745. 
Of this gift, he made good use, for like the young psalmist of 
Israel, charming the king with his harp, he often played upon the 
exhilarating instrument with such exquisite skill, before the Gov- 
ernor, as to soften the spirit of hostile asperity in him, to that of 
clemency, favorable to the prisoner's release. 

As two women were milking their cows, not far from liie gar- 
rison, one of them, Mrs. Thompson, was seized and carried to 
Canada ; while the other, JMrs. Spear, with much ado, was able 
to regain the fort-gate. Saunders, son of the ofBcer who com- 
manded the Province Sloop, was at an unfortunate moment 
caught by the savages, and carried as far as Owl's-head, where 
all encamped for the night. Before them, he afiected so much 
cheerfulness and contentment, that they all suffered themselves to 
fall into a sound sleep ; when he, softly rising, took their purse, 
containing $200, hid it, and returned safely to the fort. After 
the war, he found it, and had the pleasure of applying the con- 
tents to his own use.* 

It had been foreseen by the government, that the expedition a defensive 
against Cape Breton, would expose the eastern frontiers to in- [^en! "' ^^'** 
cursions from the enemy ; especially when it was found how 
" great a number of the inhabitants" had enlisted ; therefore, 
a Committee of safety and defence was appointed, and a pro- 
visional force of about 450 men, including the garrison soldiers, 
was put in requisition. In this draft or enlistment, no more were 
allowed to be taken from the frontiers, than were needful for 
pilots, or guides ; and all were to be under pay, till the first day 
of the ensuing November. They were to be posted at the forts 
and garrisoned houses, between which they were constantly to 
scout in ranging parties ; so as to form a line along the whole 
frontier from Berwick to St. Georges. f It was now determined 
effectually to protect or defend the inhabitants at their homes ; 
for, in the sentiments of the Governor, — ' their departure, or rc- 
' treat would be an event equally ruinous to themselves, and to 
' the eastern Provinces.' 



•■'" Eritoa's MS. Narrative. 

f Capt. Jonathan Bean, of York, and his coinpan}', scouted from Saco to 
Prcsumpscot ; and Capt. Mochus from Presumpscot to fort Georg-e in 
Brunswick. — Other parties scouted along the whole frontier. — Smithes Jour. 
p. 40. 



240 

A. D. 1745, 

Discipline 
required. 



THE HISTORY 



[Vol. 



II. 



Reform. 



A (Iprnatul 
upon ihe 
trilics (or a 
qiioi.i of 

h^liiing 
nieii. 



War de- 
clared 
against 
ihem. 



Bounties. 



Hunne- 
wcil's ex- 
ploit in 
Dcarbo- 
rough. 



As soon as news of the first attacks bj the Indians, reached 
Boston, the House addressed the Governor upon the subject of 
the eastern affairs, stating, that by report, the soldiery in that 
service had become weary and careless, and their discipline lax ; 
that the military character of their officers bore the stigma of 
gross negligence, if not the stain of dishonesty ; and that the peo- 
ple were in great dread of evils but too justly apprehended. 
Therefore, to strengthen the frontiers more fully, a re-enforcement 
of 175 men was ordered to be despatched thither without delay. 
The Governor also commanded every officer to keep a minute 
journal of his marches, and return upon oath to him or his supe- 
rior in command, an account of every week's occurrences. The 
House next voted, that all the eastern volunteers then at Louis- 
bourg, be dismissed if they chose, and be allowed to " return 
" home, in order to preserve from ruin their families and estates ;" 
and that an express demand be made upon the tribes at Penob- 
scot and Norridgewock, to deliver hostages, either for surrender- 
ing the Indians who had done the late mischief at St. Georges^ 
or for furnishing at least thirty figliting men within fourteen days, 
according to an article in Dummer's treaty : — Otherwise, they 
were assured, the Governor would be moved to declare war 
against them after that time ; and not an Indian, who did not pre- 
viously ask protection, would have it extended to him. 

But the demand was altogether in vain. The Indians turned 
a deaf ear to every proposal of conciliation ; — therefore, on the 
23d of August, the Provincial government, declared war against 
all the eastern tribes without exception, and offered for every In- 
dian captive, or scalp, taken westward of Passamaquoddy, by a 
soldier in the public service, £100, — by a person having provi- 
sions and not wages, £250, — and by a volunteer, without rations, 
pay, or ammunition, £400, as bounties.* 

Within two months after the first blow was struck, every town 
on the eastern frontier was visited by parties or stragglers, from 
some of the savage hordes, thirsting for the settlers' blood. Mr» 
Hunnewell, mowing in his meadow at Blue-point in Scarborough, 
had suspicion from a rustling remote sound, on the other side of the 
river and marsh, that there might be Indians in the adjoining 
woods. Separated, as he was, by so wide a space, he set his 



* Jour. House of Rep. p. 71-94. 



Chap, ix.] of Maine. 241 

gun well loaded, against a small tree and continued at work, sup*AiD. i'43. 
posing himself in no immediate danger. But in a returning 
swarth, when at some distance, he perceived his gun was remov- 
ed ; and knevV, therefore, it must have been taken away by some 
lurking Indian* He continued to mow as though he had made 
no discovery ; till within a few paces of the bauk, under which 
he had good reason to believe his enemy was lying secreted ; 
then giving a sudden scream and leap, he sprang upon tlie savage 
so furiously and unexpectedly, that he had no command of his 
gun and not much of himself. As he rose on his feet and step- 
ped back, he fell into a hollow, when Hunnewell instantly cut 
his body in two with the sythe. A shout at the same time, being 
raised by his comrades, watching at a distance, Hunnewell bran- 
dished the fatal weapon towards them, and bade them all so bold 
a defiance, that they fled-— too much intimidated to approach 
him. In the vicinity of St. Georges, Lieutenant Proctor and a a skirmish 
party of 19 militia men, had askirmisii with the enemy, Sept. 5 ; |l'.g''' "^^"^ 
in which they killed two of the savage leaders, Colonel Morris ^®P'' ^• 
and Captain Sam, and took Colonel Job prisoner. He Avas after- 
wards sent to Boston, where he died in confinement.-^To avoid 
the enmity of his kindred, and the ill-will of his squaw, the gov- 
ernment, after peace, made her a valuable present. Colonel 

Cushing's son was shot down about the same time, evidently by , „, 

... . . . •' -^ At Sheeps' 

particular aim ; it being a peculiar characteristic of Indian war- cot. 
fare, to waylay the inhabitants, and kill individuals, whenever 
seen alone. At Sheepscot, as three men were gathering corn, 
two of them were killed, and the other wounded, by a scout of 
thirteen Indians, firing from an ambush. Unsuccessful as the 
soldiers generally were in the pursuit of these little hordes, into 
the bordering woods ; the people were never more resolute and 
spirited. Four companies in Falmouth and the vicinity were in 
arms, and equal activity was manifest in remoter towns. But 
the retreat of these wild savages, after mischief done, was so 
sudden and fleetfooted, that it was with the utmost difficulty, 
they could be overtaken or found** 

For the better defence of the eastern towns, during the winter, 
four small fieldpieces and a swivel were sent to them ; and 

* At Long-creek, near Stroudwater, an Indian spy was seen and fired 
at, though without effect. 

Vol. TI. 31 



242 '^'''E HISTORY [Vol. ii. 

A. D. 17 16. though only 206 men, formed into two companies, were at first as- 
Fears of an signed to the public service ; ihey were re-enforced by an equal 
Canada. number, January 28, in consequence of an alarming report, that 
a body of 300 French and Indians were preparing to fall upon 
some part of the English frontiers. The two latter companies 
were put under pay till June, and ordered to scout chiefly east- 
ward of the Androscoggin, and to learn if possible the routes and 
purposes of the Indians, and their places of general resort. But 
though the late report happily proved to be groundless ; still, all 
the efforts made by government to protect the towns and planta- 
tions, from the enemy's ravages, could not fully allay the fears 
of the people more exposed. If they passed through the winter 
widi fortitude, the opening spring generally presented to their 
minds, the most direful forms of famine, danger and death. 
Plans of ihe The reduction of Louisbourg was viewed by the courts of 

English and „ , i , t-i r ^ • ^ ■ 

French. England and h ranee, as an event of such smgular uTiportance, 
as to produce in each of them a multiform plan of operations ; 
which they communicated, the ensuing April, to their respective 
Colonies. On the one hand, the English thought of nothing less 
than the conquest of Canada, and the extirpation of die French 
from the northern hemisphere ; — and on the other, as it was 
seasonably ascertained, the French meditated the recovery of 
Louisbourg, and Nova Scotia, also the destruction of Boston and 
all the principal seaports in New-England. They had made sure 
the alliance, or friendship of all the eastern tribes; and the 
English had secured the amity of the Six Nations, or Mohawks. 
Project When Governor Shirley, the preceding autumn, visited Louis- 

oln'ada. bourg, he consuhed with Warren and Pepperell, and wrote 
pressing letters to the British ministry, in favor of an expedition 
against Canada. In return, it seems, the enterprize was greatly 
encouraged by the Duke of Newcastle, Secretary of State ; and 
so popular was it in New-England, and so cheerful the enlist- 
ments, that within a few mondis, more than 8,000 colonial troops 
were raised j* and those of Massachusetts and Maine, ready to 
embark, about the middle of July.f 



"*" The number raised in trie colonies was in very unequal proportions. 
New-Hampshire, 500 ; Massachusetts, 3,500 ; Rhode-IslanJ, 300 ; Connecti- 
cut, 1000 ; New Yortc, 1 ,600 ; Neiv-Jersey, 500 ; Maryland, 300 ; I'eansylva- 
nia, 400, and Virginia, 100. 

f Though the enlistments in Maine, at first, went on but slowly — "our 



Chap, ix.] of Maine. 243 

In the meantime, the Provincial troops, despatched two years a.d. i74r.. 
since to Annapolis, returned home in good spirits; and most of Provincial 
those, (being about 1500,) retained at Louisbourg subsequent to AmiapoUs 
the conquest, through the persuasion of Governor Shirley, were four*'regi-'^ 
relieved by two regiments from Gibraltar, and those of Shirley '"""*' 
and Pepperell,* recruited under their new commissions. In May, 
Warren and Pepperell visited Boston, for the purposes of a gen- 
eral consultation, as to future measures ; when they and General 
Waldo were invited, June 24, into the Council-chamber, the Gen- 
eral Court being in session, and honored with a gratulalory address. 
Next there were raised for carrying on the war £82,000 ; and Appropria- 
to every recruit was offered, suitable bedding, a blanket, and a ^°"/ '°'" ^^^ 
bounty of £30 old tenor ; — also the Massachusetts frigate and 
Boston packet were taken into employ. But the wages and 
clothing of the soldiers were expected to be paid by the crown. 
The General Court also authorized 700 oz. of silver to be offer- Mo'iawks. 
ed unto the Sagamores of the Six Nations, provided they would 
join in the war against the French, but they declined the offer. 
At the close of the session, the Governor, in an address to the 
two Houses remarks ; — ' The contiguity of the French to our jim^ 28. 
' borders, and their influence over the Indians, have always been ^,e*^Gov*''^ 
' thought most pernicious to the interests of these colonies, and to f^ ^° ^^"^' 
' threaten their final destruction, unless some method should be 
' found, to subdue or remove such cruel and treacherous neighbors. 
* — This was the sentiment in 1712; and the cry, ever since the 
' Canadian Province was delivered to France, has been, Canada 
' est delendn. — It is a Carthage to the northern colonies, which 
' if not destroyed, will in time destroy them. For while it is the 
* enemy's, there can be neither security nor rest to New-Eng- 
'land, especially to the parts contiguous to its borders.' 

To relieve, in some measure, the eastern frontiers from the hor- Defensive 
rors of devastation and captivity, through the summer, to which 3]a'ine" 
they were constantly exposed ; 460 men were employed and dis- 
tributed in manner, not unlike that in the preceding year ; and an 
additional number assigned to the garrisons at St. Georges, at 

" people being' dispirited on account of the sickness, and their unfair ' 

" treatment at Cape Breton." — SmUh''s Jour. p. 43. 

* One had now 700, and the other 500 men. — Governor''s Speech, Jlay 
29, 174G. 



244 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1746. Brunswick, and at Saco.* But in none of the Indian wars were 
the savages more subtle and inveterate, yet in none less cruel. 
They despaired of laying waste the country and expelling the in- 
habitants. They rather sought to satiate their revenge upon par- 
ticular individuals, or families ; to take captives and scalps, for 
the sake of the price or premium paid them therefor by the 
French ; and to satisfy their wants, by the plunder of houses, or 
slaughter of cattle ; a cow or ox being frequently killed by them, 
and nothing taken but the tongue. 
April 19. The first mischief they perpetrated this spring, in Maine, was 

aua.k" Gor- on the 19th of April. A party of ten entered Gorhamtown, 
which at that time contained, besides those in the block-house, 
only four families, Bryant's, Cloutman's, Read's and M'Lellan's, 
with a design to take them all prisoners without firing a gun. For 
this purpose, the Indians formed themselves into five parties. 
One, proceeding to the field where Bryant and his son w^ere at 
work, first broke his arm and then shot him dead : a second, sur- 
prizing his family, killed and scalped four of his children in a 
most barbarous manner,^-beating out the brains of an infant two 
weeks old, against the fire-place, and taking captive the mother, 
whom they afterwards sold in Canada : a third, proceeding to 
Cloutman's house, met him on the way and made him a prisoner, 
but durst not go farther, owing to the report of the guns discharg- 
ed at Bryant : a fourth, hastening towards the dwellinghouse of 
M'Lellan, met Read, just as he left it, and after a severe strug- 
gle with him, who was an athletic man, they succeeded in bind- 
ing him : the fifth (net with no success. — The assailants finding 
they had given an alarm, fled with great perturbation, unhurt, 
though pursued immediately by the men at the block-house. 
One Thorn was afterwards taken and carried to Canada, where 
he was detained a long time, till he acquired the Indians' habits. f 
Thpy c!b- Determined entirely to destroy the settlements within the Sag- 

stroy Broad- ,• t i- • t\i i j i 

hay i.ianiH- adaliock territory, a large body of Indians, in May, attacked the 

Aiay ■ii. German plantation at Broad -bay, [Waldoborough] and reduced tho 

habitations of the people to ashes j killing some, and carrying 



* Jour, of Mouse of Re,o. 1746, p. 174, 238. 

j JiiS. Let. of H, J), jrLeUnn—T\iorn, fcr insfr.ncc, I'.ecsmr taciturn-^ 
apt when walking to look back often over one of liis shou'akrs — prone 
to start a little at every noise or rustle. 



Chap, ix.] of i\ial\e. 245 

others into captivity.* It subsequently lay waste till the close of a.d. i7!6. 
the war. The enemy then fell upon the cattle at Pemaquid, and ouimges at 
made great havoc among them. Five persons at Sheepscot, ^'*^'^"^""'- 
when returning from meeting, were waylaid by fifteen Indians, ^'t^''^'''"' 
and fired upon by particular aim, but through a remarkable in- 
terposition of Providence, one only was killed. Another, though 
mortally wounded, faced the savage, who was advancing to scalp 
him, and by a well directed fire, laid him dead at his feet. The 
other three made good their escape. At Wiscasset, they killed At Wi.scas. 
19 of the people's cattle, took Captain Jonathan Williamson ^^'' 
prisoner, and carried him to Canada, where he was kept six 
months.f Next, there was a sharp skirmish between a scouting At St. Geor- 
party and a company of the English, near the fort at St. ^^^' 
Georges ; where, after one was killed and another wounded on 
each side, the enemy withdrew. 

About thirty of the enemy, ia detached parties, appeared to be Fnimouth 
continually hovering around Falmouth and North-Yarmouth, and "^**^ 
v/atching every motion of the inhabitants. Seven of the savage 
foe, seeing a company of laborers at work near Long-creek, 
(Stroudwater) fired upon them under such circumstances of ad- 
vantage as to kill two, whom they scalped and stripped of their 
clothes. They also took three guns, and were fighting the other 
laborers from the field ; when tlie soldiers, at the fort in Falmouth, 
alarmed by the report of guns, rushed unexpectedly upon 
them, and pursued them, till they concealed themselves in the 
thickets. In no war before, had they appeared more daring and 
desperate. Coming near Frost's garrisoned house at Stroud- 
water, they manifested a design of attacking it, but were bravely 
beat off before they began the siege. Nay, one Indian, on a 
Sunday, ventured over into the heart of the village upon the pen- 
insula, as a spy ; who being seen, was fired at, and then chased 
to the woods. These, and some other daring acts of the Indians, 
induced the people without delay to erect another block-house 
for the common defence.! 

To finish what is to be related of the Indians and their depre- rUe residue 
dations this season ; — it was, we may add, ascertained, that the waS 
same party, between 30 and 40 in number, probably the rem- 



of Indian 

e this 
season. 



* Some fled to Pemaotiid, some to St. Georges, kc— Eaton's JIS. J^ar. 
P- 10. I MS. Letter, M. Davis and R. Sewall, Esqrs. 

I Smith's Jour. p. 33, 



246 TH!': HISTORY [Vol. ii. 

AiD. I7iu. nants of the Sokokis, Anasagunticook and Canibas tribes, with 
a few Frenchmen, were the perpetrators of all the mischief done 
in Falmouth and its vicinity, this summer. For they were often 
seen, and pursued, swamps were searched, and some of them 
were wounded. But they were perfectly acquainted with the 
country, its by-paths and hiding-places ; also with the abodes, 
plans and habits of the inhabitants, — easily eluding their pur- 
suers, who were always suspicious of an ambush. The places 
which the savage parties most assiduously infested were Merri- 
coneag, North-Yarmouth, Falmouth and Scarborough — where 
one of Mr. Proctor's family, young Greely, one Stubbs, a sol- 
dier, and several others were killed ; the particulars of whose 

August 13. deaths have not been preserved. On the 13th of August, two 
Frenchmen and an Indian, shot at Allen Dover, as he was trav- 
elling through the marsh at Black-point, who returned the fire, and 
by appearances, killed one of them. The last attack in the eas- 
tern Provinces, of which we have any knowledge, occurred, Aug. 

^,"?"^!^^' 26, in the vicinity of Pemaquid. John McFarland, enjoying the 

land's hahi- pleasures of rural retirement, remote from the garrison, on a 

tatioii laid ^ , , _ o ' 

wasie. plantation he had rendered flourishing and fruitful by his own 
industry, was at length assailed by the savage destroyers ; who 
killed his cattle, laid entirely waste his habitation and fields, and 
wounded him and his son, leaving them half-dead.* It was ob- 
servable, however, that very few comparatively, thus far, in this 
Indian war, bad been killed on either side. The parties well 
knew how to avoid each others' devices and attacks ; and the 
English, finding the great advantage to be derived from keen- 
scented, or furious dogs, kept great numbers of them, and were 
followed by them in their scouts, and also in chasing the enemy. 
Canada and About this lime, the attention of the Indians, as well as of the 
Nova-Sco- Pi-ovincials — seemed to be drawn towards Canada and Nova Sco- 
tia, as armaments and expeditions, of uncommon magnitude, 
were expected soon to proceed thither. Gov. Shirley, Sept. 9, rep- 
o°Nova°" resented to the General Court, that ' there were probably in Nova 
Scoiia. 4 Scotia a mixed population of 30,000,f consisting of Acadians, 

*Jour. of House Rep. 1747. 

f Query, if this estimate be not too liig^h ? — There were, however, in the 
plantations of Minas only, about 7,000 souls in 1750. — 1 Haliburtons JST. 
S. p. 152. 



Chap, ix.] of maine. 247 

'French and Natives, all Roman Catholics, who could furnish A. I). 1746. 
• 6,000 able to bear arms and take the field ; the most of whom 
' were ripe for a revolt, and only waited a favorable or safe 
' opportunity ; and great fears were entertained, if these were 
'joined by the great body of Indians at Penobscot and Kenne- 
' beck, they they would, under the auspices of the French, make 
' themselves masters of Annapolis and of the whole country of 
' Nova Scotia, — then overrun the eastern Provinces, and New- 
' Hampshire, and scarcely meet with an efiectual check, even at 
' the river Merrimack.' Orders therefore were issued for the 
troops raised in Massachusetts, Rhode-Island, and New-Hamp- 
shire, to embark for Annapolis, and " drive the enemy out of 
JVova Scotia^ What less or what else could be attempted ? — 
Since through long suspense, fearful apprehensions, inactivity 
and delays, the public at large had now been suffering most se- 
verely, two full months. The lapse of the season must itself short- 
ly frustrate the expedition to Canada ; — neither military forces, 
nor official orders arrived from England ; — therefore tl^e col- 
onists were involved in a sad dilemma and deep concern. 

At this juncture, the whole country was thrown into the utmost xyy\y^] j,, 
consternation, by the arrival, Sept. 12, of a large fleet and army [jj^j^^'"'' ^ 
at Nova Scotia, from France, under the command of the Duke Fn'iub neei 

under Duke 

D'AnvIlle, a nobleman of great experience and ability. He an- d'Anviiie. 
chored in Chehucto Harbor, \_noio Halifax.^ The fleet, when it put 
to sea from Brest, 90 days before, was the most powerful one ever 
sent to North America. It consisted of 70 sail j — of which there 
were 1 1 ships of the line, 20 frigates, 5 ships and brigs, and 34 ^ °""^' 
fireships, tenders and transports; having on board 3,150 well dis- 
ciplined troops, and immense quantities of provisions, ammunition, 
and military stores. The Duke had previously sent Constans with 
three ships of the line and a frigate, to convoy the trade at HIspan- 
iola, who, according to orders, afterwards visited Chehucto ; but 
hearing nothing of the Admiral, after waiting a long time, sailed 
for France. The Ardent and Mars, both of 64 guns, being shat- 
tered in a storm, put back for Brest, and were finally captured ; 
also the Alcide, another 64, receiving great damage, bore away 
for the West Indies. The forces from Canada, about 1,700 men, 
regular troops, militia, volunteers and Indians, all waited till the 
time had elapsed for the arrival of the fleet ; and then they com- 



248 THE HISTORY [VoL. IJ. 

Ai D. 174C. menced their returning march to Quebec. The Duke, however, 
sent expresses after them ; yet 400 only were overtaken in time 
to admit of their return. From three ships of the hne, and 6 of 
7 transports, a landing was at length effected ; when it was found, 
that they had lost 1,270 men on the voyage, and the rest were so 
sickly, as to be unable to undergo the least fatigue. These com- 
plicated misfortunes and disasters so overwiielmed the Duke, that 
on the fourth day, subsequent to his arrival, he died. In a coun- 
cil of war on the 18th, the vice-admiral proposed an immediate 
return to Brest ; but a majority joined de la Jonquiere, Govern- 
or of Canada, the third in command ; — concluding to attack 
Dnaihof Annapolis, before the fleet left the coast. Hence, the chagrin, 
Kiench offi-lhis occasioncd, in connexion with the other disappointments, 
threw the vice-admiral into the deliriums of a fever, and he fell 
on his own sword. 
Sickness of '^'^^ malady among the troops, proving to be a scorbutic fever, 
the French. ^g,.y j^^ortal. Continued to rage with such violence, that 1,130 of 
the troops died after encampment. Meanwhile the Indians, flock-- 
ing thither in great numbers for arms, ammunition and clothing, 
took the infection, which preyed upon them, till it carried off 
more than a third part of the whole Mickmak race, and extend- 
ed to the tribe at the river St. John.* 
An English It was reported, that the French fleet would be followed to 
fleet expect- ^i^gj.j^^ by E large squadron of English ships; and Shirley, 
believing it from letters received, sent an express to communicate 
the fact to Admiral Townsend at Loiiisbourg. But it was inter- 
Octoberii cepted, and opened in a council of French officers, Oct. 11, and 
found to read thus — Admiral Lesfock, with a fleet of 18 sail, has 
been ordered to JYorth-America, and may be hourly expected.—Yi'AS- 
tened by this news, a part of the French fleet, consisting of 40 sail 

French fleet J ■> i ' o 

leaves the left Chcbucto on the 13th, for Annapolis: but being overtaken 
by a most violent storm, off Cape Sable, they were so shattered, 
weakened and dispersed, that they returned singly to France. 

Remark- < Ncvcr,' savs an able and pious writer, ' was the hand of Divine 

able cleliv- . . . . 

ernnce of < Providcnce morc visible, than on this occasion, — never a dis- 

the English . , • , / i j 

colonies. ' appomtmcut more severe on the side oi the enemy, — never de- 
' liverance in favor of this country more complete without hu- 



* " A most ravaging^ sickness prevails among the Cape Sable and St, 
"John's Indians." — Governor Shirley''^ Speech, J^ov. 7, 1746. 



Chap, ix.] of Maine. 249 

*man help.'* A christian community, ascribed the praise of a. D. 1746. 
their success and salvation, the last year and the present, to that 
Almighty Being, who caused the stars in their courses to fight 
against Stsern, and ever controls the destirJes of man.— Most 
appropriately might be repeated the pious sentiment in a blessing 
craved by the good minister of York, f at a festival commemorat- 
ing the capture of Louisbourg, who w'as once concise to the ad* 
miration as well as disappointment of all present y — ' Good Lord, 

* (as he expressed himself,) we have so many things to thank thee 
' for, that time will be infinitely too short for it ; we must there- 

* fore leave it for the work of eternity. O bless our food and 
'fellowship upon this joyful occasion, for the sake of Christ Jesus 

* our Lord.' 

As soon as Ramsay, who had been sent by Jonquiere, with a A French 
small army to Minas, heard that the fleet had sailed for Annap- Ramsay 
olis, he returned to Chebucto ; — and it was afterwards thought chcb'ucto. 
by many, highly important to route him from that place, as Gov- 
ernor Mascarene, in particular, represented to Shirley, that 1,000 
men could drive the whole force from the peninsula, or compel 
a surrender. 

Hence Massachusetts was induced to vote 500, Rhode-Island Provincial 
300, and New-Hampshire 200 men, and make the attempt. cc°e"d to^iii' 
Those of Massachusetts and Maine, to the number of 470, be-"^^' 
sides officers, soon proceeded to the Bay of Fundy ; but were 
unable to reach Minas [Horton] by water, which was situated on 
the south shore, 22 leagues eastward of Annapolis, on account of 
the advanced state of the winter. Therefore, they were all land- 
ed, Dec. 4, on an uninhabited shore, some 8 or 10 leagues west 
of it, with 14 days' provisions, which each man carried on his 
back. After eight days of inconceivable fatigue, they arrived 
at Grand Pre, or Lower Horton, — 12 leagues north-westerly of 
Chebucto, where Ramsay was encamped. 

Supposing themselves secure from attack during the rigors Ramsay' 
of winter, they quartered themselves in an unguarded manner, wiih'^600 
Ramsay, soon apprized of their situation, prepared for a march ; ^^m!^ 
and after performing a tedious journey of 22 days, across the 
country, at the head of 600 men, including Indians, he arrived in 



* 2 Belk. N. H. 180. — Afflavit Deus, et dissipantur.— Shirley's Speech. 
-Jour. H. of Rep. 174C, p. 165. f Rev. Samuel Moody, 

Vol. II. 32 



250 THE HISTORY [VOL. ii. 

A. Ui 1747. sight of the town. Dividing then his men into several parties, 

January 31. he attacked the English about three of the clock in the morning;, 
Abaule. ^ , ^ • i 

January 31, under covert of a violent snow storm. An obstinate 

and bloody battle ensued, which lasted till Col. Arthur JVohle, 
the commanding officer of the English,* also four of his commis- 
sioned officers, and seventy soldiers were killed, and sixty wound- 
ed ; — a part of them being butchered hy the Indians in a barbar- 
TheEng- OLis manner. Deprived of their valiant commander, and over- 
^i^s^capitu- gQj^^g jjy superior numbers, the English capitulated on terms — 
by which they were allowed to march off, with only six days' 
provision, their arms, colors, and music, a pound of powder and 
a few musket balls ; agreeing not to bear arms in Minas nor 
Tiipyniaioh Chignecto, for six months. They then proceeded throudi the 

to Annapo- o ' ^ J i o 

lis. country to Annapolis, encountering incredible hardships. Such 

was the sequel of this batde, though fought with a valor and obsti- 
nacy which would have covered them with glory, had it terminat- 
ed successfully. It was a wild enterprize, and owed its origin 
principally to Shirley and Mascarene. 
A force vol- Another project of Shirley's, equally wild, was an expedition 
uncfer Gen- ^g^i^^st Crown Poiut, in midwinter; which througii his influence, 
*^'^' ^^^'''"" the General Court promoted, by raising a force of 1,500 men, 
who were put under the command of General Samuel Waldo. 
But the expedition was prevented by the smallpox, and other 
obstacles ; so that the troops continued inactive and under pay 
eight months longer. 
A pruden- Early and ample provision was, in 1 747, again made for the 
miitee. defence and encouragement of ihe eastern inhabitants. A com- 
mittee of five trustees were appointed in different parts, to remu- 
nerate the soldiers, who had continued in the public service ; to 
billet out on generous terms, all such as were content not to leave 
their posts, for visits on furloughs ; and to dissipate all thoughts, 
the inhabitants might entertain of abandoning their habitations, 
fered. ' A bounty of £40 was offered for every French as well as Indian 



* The town of JVoblehorongh in the county of Ijincoln, v.-as so named in 
compliment to Col. Noble, or IjIs family. His brother James j\obIe, Esq. 
was claimant of a larR-e tract in that town,; made conveyances and sur- 
veys ; and after this Vt'ar, his nepiicw, Arthur Noble, probably the son of 
the brave Col. Noble, lived in the piantation, and gave the town its name. 
•Tames Noble married the widow of William Vaiig-han, who after the cele- 
brated sieg-e of Louisbourg, died in England. — JJS. Let. of E. Rollijis, 
Esq. 



Chap, ix.] of maine. 251 

prisoner, and £38, for a scalp. This was designed as a retalia-A.Di 1747 
tion upon them, for their barbarity in killing men, women and Retaliation 
children at their homes and taking their scalps, as trophies of fVencti. 
their diabolical exploits. The government also assured the Gov- 
ernor of Canada, that if this unchristian and bloody mode of 
warfare, was not immediately and effectually checked ; the cruel- 
ties would be avenged upon the French inhabitants, wherever 
they could be found. 

It was however represented by the Governor, that there were April. 
employed in the last war, about 850 men for the protection of the ihe eastern 
frontiers, when the places to be covered or protected, were much™"""^^* 
fewer in number than at the present time ; and that the inhabit- 
ants would withdraw, unless the settlements were well guarded. 
Hence the Province-sloop was sent to range the eastern coast. 
Thirty men were assigned to the garrison at St. Georges ; 370 
appointed to scout between Berwick and Damariscotta ; and 
General Waldo was ordered to detach from his regiment, enlisted 
for the Canada expedition, 168 men to relieve 182, who had 
long been in the public service eastward. In short, 150 were 
detailed as minute-men, to take the field on the shortest notice. 
A premium, extravagant as it was, of £250 was offered, for every 
scalp taken westward of Passamaquoddy ; and £100 for every 
one elsewhere taken.* 

The first appearance of the Indians, this spring, was in small April 13. 
parties, as heretofore, intrepidly venturesome and daring. They ji,g''*i,"jj^,j^ 
began by killing young Dresser at Scarborough, April 13; by 
taking at Saccarappe, the next day, William Knight, and his two 
sons, prisoners. Within a week, Mr. Eliot, and his son were 
slain ; and Mr. Marsh carried into captivity. A body of 50 In- 
dians entered Falmouth, on the 21st, and after slaughtering sev- 
eral cattle, fell upon the family of Mr. Frost ; whom, while fighting 
them with great courage, they despatched, and then carried off 
captive, his wife and six children. They were pursued by 
several expert marksmen, though without ability to overtake them. 
Equally unsuccessful was a company of 26 young volunteers, 
under Capt. Ilsley, belonging to Falmouth ; also two scouts from 
Purpooduck, and another from North-Yarmouth, that went with 
great courage and spirit in search of the enemy. 

* 18 Mass. C. Rec. p. 312. 



252 '^HK HiSTOKY [Vol. ii. 

A.J) ni7. By the 1st of May, the whole frontier from Wells to Tops- 
May, ham, appeared to be infested by swarms of savages. It was a 
fioMii"r"iif- time wlieii the fears and distresses of the people were easily ag- 
lavr^T'' gravated, because the recruits for the summer campaign had not 
arrived, If, therefore, we except Capt. Jordan's company of 
30 men, who were posted at Topsham, the inhabitants westward 
were now left unassisted in their defence. Aware, probably, of 
this fact, the Indians shewed uncommon activity and alertness, 
Near Falmouth, they killed two women ; at New-Meadows, a 
man, Mr. Hinkley ; at Scarborough, they fired upon an inhabi- 
tant; and at Wells, they chased a man into the heart of the town. 
As three men and a woman weie crossing the Androscoggin in 
a canoe, from Brunswick to Topsham, the Indians firing upon 
them, killed two of the men and badjy wounded the third, the 
woman only escaping unhurt.* 
Attack on A large company of about 100, next made their appearance 
Pemaquid. j^^ ^^^ territory of Sagadahock ; and on the 26th of May, com- 
menced a furious attack upon the fort and people of Pemaquid, 
This was a severe encounter, in which five soldiers of the gar- 
rison, and five recruits belonging to Purpooduck, were killed, and 
three others, who were inhabitants of Falmouth, were taken pris- 
oners ; Lovell and a lad only escaping, the former three being 
dangerously wounded. About this time, they made an assault 
nrcour*' upor. a house at Damariscoita, took the owner a prisoner, and 
slew his wife and daughter, They also seized again Capt. Jon- 
Smsoi^ak- athan Williamson of Wiscasset, He was an emigrant from tiie 
en prisoner. ^^^^ ^^ England, and one of the earliest and most respectable 
settlers in his neighborhood,! It seems, that he and two others 
went out to search for their cattle ; when the party, waylaying 
them, permitted his companions, who were before him, to pass un- 
molested ; taking him into custody by main strength without of- 
fering him any injury. Suspicious of their ill-will, possibly tor 
wards him in particular, he wished to know the reason of their 
partiality. They told him, they were on an errand from the 
Governor at Quebec, who was desirous of seeing a prisoner, 
able to give intelligence of the enemy's movements or plans. 



* Smith's Journal, p. 47. 

■J Sullivan, p. 168.— He "-.lys, Wiliiamsoii was known to the ludiaiis as" a. 
man of" eminence." 



Chap, ix.] of Maine. 253 

Being exchanged the following year, he returned by way of Bos- A. d. I7i7. 
ton. He said they treated him as well as their scanty means 
would afford ; dividing to him on the route to Canada, whatever 
of subsistence they could procure. The season for the spring 
work upon farms, for putting cattle into pasturage, and for the ,|jj.'j^'y"j'^^"* 
river fishery, was extremely perilous ; till by the arrival and ar- ^- ,;'"'"P" 
rangement of re-enforcements, the destroying enemy was turned 
from our frontiers, upon those of New-Hampshire. 

Amidst these direful and discouraging scenes, news of a victory ]>],-,;■ 3. 
arrived, which gave a surprizing chill to the spirits of the French u.ry^Iuai'u' 
in Canada, the Acadians, and all their Indian allies; — a victory, ^'jji'i^^'^^'^j, 
which in equal degree, revived the droopine; couras;e and visor frmais Au- 

T o ' I o o O ;„n and 

of the eastern and northern Provinces. It appeared that France, Warren. 
to retrieve her military character from disgrace and aspersion, 
fitted out two squadrons, in all 38 sail ; the one, a convoy of six 
East Indiamen and a fleet of other ships, was put under the 
command of M. de St. George, and the other, destined for Can- 
ada and Nova Scotia, was commanded by M. de la Jonquiere. 
Forming a junction, they sailed from Rochelle, and were follow- 
ed by Admirals Anson and Warren, with 13 English ships of the 
line, and several frigates. The two fleets met. May 3d, and 
after a well fought battle, the French struck their colors.* 
Equally striking with the two former, was this interposition of 
Divine Providence in favor of the northern English colonies. 
It was a most severe blow to the French interests in America. 
Besides immense property taken, there were found on board the 
captured transports, 7,000 suits of clothes, 1,000 stands of arms, 
and numerous articles designed for the Acadians and Indians. 
M. de la Jonquiere, Governor of Canada, an old man of 70, was 
a prisoner, and the expectations of the Provincial French and 
the natives, were entirely blasted. Ramsay and his detachment 
made the best of their way to Canada ;f and agents were sent Prisoners 
in a large ship from Massachusetts to Quebec, for the purpose of gf^'anada. 
exchanging or redeeming prisoners. On their return, in August, 
they reported 361 in all; — -171 of whom took passage home ;— 



*The French lost 6 ships of the line ; 6 East Indiamen ; 700 men killed 
and wounded ; and a million and half of money and bullion ; and had be- 
tween 4 and 5,000 taken prisoners. " There were 30 ships laden with 
merchandize" — and 9 taken. f 2 Hutch. Hist. p. 385. 



254 TH- HlSTvORY [VoL. 11. 

A. D 1747. 90 were scattered ; — about 30 others were too sick to be remov- 
ed ; — and 70 had died in captivity ; almost the whole number 
having been taken from the frontiers of Massachusetts, New- 
Hampshire, and the eastern Provinces, Maine and Sagadahock. 
Overtures for peace were soon proposed by the powers at war ; 
and in September, all the troops enlisted for the expedition 
against Canada were discharged. 

The hostile hordes, that visited our frontiers in the autumn, 
appeared to be formed of Indians and a few associated French- 
men, equally savage, and more mean spirited. A party of this 
character, between 25 and 30 in number, entered the plantation 
of New-Marblehead, [Windham] probably with intent to take 
captive every one of the settlers, and furnish themselves with 
plunder, while devising the ruin of some other place. Though 
they succeeded in taking William Bolton ; — his companion, 
young Mayberry, had the adroitness to effect an immediate escape ; 
in which he seems to have been wounded by the shots he receiv- 
ed, while they followed him. By the report of guns as well as 
by tidings from him, the people had sufficient notice to secure 
themselves. 

The two remotest easterly garrisons were still looked upon by 
them, with the utmost jealousy and malevolence. These, which 
they often attacked, they had now determined with the help of 
a few Frenchmen, to destroy. Earlv in September, a mixed 

September. i i i~i t-i i • i 

company of 60, silently approached fort Frederick, about break 
of day, their usual hour of attack. They intended probably to 
take the garrison by surprize, or find an entrance by stealth, at 
some unguarded moment ; supposing all the soldiers within, did 
not exceed one half their own number. But unexpectedly to 
them, they happened to fall in with a party of five, at a short 
distance from the pickets ; and finding their approach was there- 
by discovered, they shot the five unfortunate men to the ground, 
three being instantly killed, and the other two wounded. They 
then furiously assailed the garrison, more than two hours, with a 
determinate resolution to compel a surrender. But unable to 
make the least impression, it being principally constructed of 
stone, they withdrew completely repulsed. 
Another This, or another mixed party of like character, next besieged 

(Urges' the fort at St. Georges, in a different manner. They attempted 
to open a subterraneous passage, from the bank of the river, by 



Chap, ix.] of maine. * 255 

undermining the fort on its eastern side, at a distance of ten rods. A.D. 1747. 

When they had advanced half way, the earth by reason of heavy 

rains, caved in upon the diggers, as tradition relates, and buried 

or killed several of them. Another attempt was then made a 

few rods distant, — with which they proceeded about 20 feet, and 

abandoned the undertaking and the place. The cavities are yet 

to be seen.* 

The winter was a season of anxiety and distress. The pro- Scarcity of 
duce of the country was insufficient for the support of the inhab- 
itants. A scarcity of provisions always enhances their price. 
Beset by savages, the people were no more able to convert forest- 
trees into marketable lumber, than to cultivate their fields. Yet 
what else had they to exchange for necessaries ; or to invite ves- 
sels into their waters ? Even the wages of soldiers were paid in 
a depreciating currency. The depth of snow and the severity 
of weather proved to be unusually great ; and before spring, 
corn was w^orth 30s. by the bushel, and wheat flour £10 by the 
hundred. Though there were in Maine and Sagadahock, four or 
five public garrisons ; more than twenty-five large and noted 
block-houses ; and between 1 5 and 20 towns and plantations still 
remaining ; yet only about 300 men were retained in the service. 

As the Sa2:amores had intimated no wish for a cessation of p , ., 

~ L-aslern mil- 

war, the 2:overnment adopted a more permanent svstem for the jf^o; force 

' ~ i ' -^ lor defencet 

defence of the eastern inhabitants. It was determined to enlist 
200 volunteers for the term of three years, or until the end of^'^'^'"®"* 
the war ; and to pay each one besides his wages a bounty of 
£5, in the new tenor bills on his enlistment, and at the begin- 
ning of every succeeding year ; excusing and excluding from 
this service all such as reside in the frontier towns or plantations. 
These recruits were to be formed into two companies for the 
defence of the country, and the pursuit of the enemy. Another 
corps of 533 men was to be raised, of whom 177 being the most 
expert disciplinarians and experienced soldiers, were assigned 
to the garrison and the more exposed block-houses ; and the res- 
idue employed as scoutuig parties, guards, videttes, and informants. 
If any one were impressed into the service, he was to be exchang- 
ed in one year.f But the ranks of both classes were rather 

* MS. Let. ofllez. Prince, Esq. 

t Jour. Mass H, of R. May 9, 1748, p. 243. 



256 TEiE HisToiir [Vol. ii. 

A.D. 1748. avoided than sought by brave and ambitious men. Tlie service 
Objections was perilous, fatiguing and irregular ; affording soldiers few op- 
menis and portunitics to signalize themselves, or to acquire any considerable 

the service 

military credit. It was not a field of victory or glory ; though 
it was often a field of battle and of blood ; — a skirmish, a feat, 
an exploit, a chase, being all. Hence the Governor told the 
General Court, May 27, that, ' owing to this and the depreciation 
* of the bills, several militia Colonels assure me, my impress- 
' warrants draw more fines than men out of the companies, and 
' that in some instances two of the fines will scarcely hire one 
' man into the service, especially upon the eastern frontiers.'* 
It was found to be necessary also to change the term of volunta- 
ry enlistment, from three years to one only. 
Proposition A proposition was made for the first time, of erecting a fort- 
iisiiing'^a' ress, and establishing a garrison upon the banks of Penobscot 
nobscot. ^' I'iver. Governor Shirley thought, it would in war, check the in-- 
cursions of the Indians, and keep them from fishing and fowling 
along the seaboard ; and might also in some measure secure our 
fishermen, and coasters from annoyances. In peace, it would be 
promotive of trade, and a preventive of trespasses. Indeed, a 
truck house there might command the traffic of the tribes, as far 
as Cape Sable and tlie river St. John ; and a fur trade of such 
extent must be worthy of great consideration. Believing the In- 
dians might be made to see, that their real interests and ours were 
identified ; he added, that the best judges had given their un- 
equivocal opinion in favor of the establishment. f 
Tiie base- The enemy, now partly Frenchmen, mostly Natives, were con- 

iiess of the • i i it- rni i i • i- • i 

enemy. sidercd a mere banditti. lliey were robbers, mcendiaries and 
murderers, alike disregarding all rules of honor and laws of war. 
If they were chased into the woods like beasts of prey, they 
were ready to follow the return of their pursuers, and renew 
their depredations. — In May and June, they were seen at fre- 
quent intervals, lurking around the habitations and fields of the 
people dwelling between the Androscoggin and the Saco, and 
waylaying the whole intermediate road ; shooting some, and 
making prisoners of others. To mention particulars, they killed 
at Brunswick, Capt. Burnet and his neighbor j at North-Yar- 



* Governor's Speech. 

t Jour. Mass. House of Rep. p. 66. — 16 Mass. Rec. p. 3t0. 



Chap, ix.] of Maine. 257 

mouth, shot Mr. Eaton, took a captive, and burned several A. D. 1748. 
houses; and in every place they visited, they were the perpetra- 
tors of more or less mischief. These bloody scenes returning 
every year, and the present season, rendered more gloomy by 
the appearance of the fields and the gardens, parched and with- 
ered by the early and extreme drought, filled the people with 
uncommon despondency ; for they looked upon them, " as plain 
indications of the Divine displeasure." But happily the period 
of darkness was drawing to a close. On the 2d of July, arrived J"'y 2d. 
at Falmouth the glad news, that the nations at war had agreed pe*a"e" and 
on preliminaries of peace ; and after this, we hear of no more dLuiost'ii. 
ravages by the eastern* Indians in this war. '"*''*■ 

By the treaty, signed at Aix-la- Chapelle, October 7, 1 748, Treaty of 
each crown surrendered to the other all prisoners without ransom, chapelle. 
and all territorial conquests ; and therefore, the Island Cape 
Breton again passed into the possession of the French. To 
New-England, this appeared ungracious ; and to Massachusetts 
and her eastern inhabitants a grievance. The war originated in 
unhallowed motives, and closed without any considerable advan- 
tage, either to England or France. New-England by her loyalty, 
zeal and public spirit, acquired great credit and consideration ; 
which, however, to the extent due, the mother country was never 
willing to allow. In all the colonial expeditions and public meas- 
ures, the Province of JVIassachusetts took the lead, expended in 
money nearly half a million sterling, and lost about 3,000 of her 
most able-bodied and efTective men.f 

Although troops to the number of 323, J were continued in a. D. ms. 
service, through the winter, for the defence and safety of the Guard of 
eastern inhabitants ; means were used to ascertain the wishes '^°""^''*' 
and dispositions of the Indians upon the subject of a treaty. 
Hence it was, that early in the spring, several chiefs visiting the 
fort at St. Georges, commanded by Capt. Bradbury, told him the 
Indians were tired of the war ; and if they were in Boston, they 
would agree with the Governor upon terms of peace. There- 
fore, a passage thither was given them in the Province Snow • 

* See post, A. D. 1750, ravag'cs committed by the northern Indians. 

t Preleminaries signed— April 30, 174S.— 1 Bovg. p. 565.— 1 Minod 
Hist. p. 80. 

I Namely, 45 at St. Georges ; 24 at Pemaquid ; 24 at Richm.ond ; 12 at 
fort Georg-e ; 12 at Saco ; 206 in scouts. — 16 J\last. Rec. p. 428-9. 
Vol. II, 33 



258 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1749. and on the 23cl of June, a conference was holden between the 
executive and them in the Council-chamber. They professed 
iiio.es vTmi to be a delegation from the tribes at Penobscot and Norridge- 
nego"i!ue wock, and declared, that peace was greatly desired by all the In- 
''^'*''^" dians from the river St. John* to the St. Francois, and that the 
Sachems only waited for the appointment of a time and place to 
settle a treaty ; wishing all hostile acts and measures might in 
the meantime be suspended. ' We speak from our hearts,' said 
they, ' die words of sincerity and truth ; and we have brought 
' with us other credentials than our own hearts ; these brothers pres- 
< ent know, the voice of peace makes the Indians everywhere 
' smile and rejoice. 'f They were dismissed, by being told, that 
commissioners should meet the tribes at Falmouth on the last 
days of September ; and that in the meantime, supplies should 
be transported to some of the eastern truck houses, and sold to 
them at reasonable prices, provided all of them continued tran- 
quil and friendly. 
The French The Govemor of Canada, it was sufficiently known, was doing 
Indians ^^ his utmost to fix the several tribes in Maine, and Nova Scotia, in 
the interests of the French, and to render them still dependent 
upon him, and entirely obsequious to his influence. J But the 
unfavorable turn their fortunes had taken, were quite sufficient to 
shake the confidence of the Indians. The number of men in the 
eastern service was reduced, August 10, to 70 ; — enough merely 
to man the garrisons ;§ and Sir William Pepperell, and Thomas 
.sioners ap- Hutchinson, of the Council, and John Choate, Israel Williams, 

poiiiteci. 

and James Otis, of the House, were appointed Commissioners to 
treat with the tribes. 
Onohor 14. These gentlemen, attended by a military guard of 50 York- 
Chiefs'^i '^^^"■^ militia-men, arrived at Falmouth, Sept. 28, where they 
Falmouth, waited till Oct. 14, before a single Indian appeared. It was a 
painful suspense ; but on that day, a very respectable delegation 
of chiefs from Penobscot, Nonidgewock, and St. Francois, pre- 
sented themselves to the commissioners ; immediately opened a 
parley in the meeting-house ; and on the 16th, the parties con- 
cluded and signed a treaty. The celebrated treaty of Mr. Dum- 



niakiiig 
peace. 



Commis- 



* Governor Shirley's Speech, 1740. 
t Mass. Rec. vol. 16. — Jour, of House of iicp. p. 43. 
I Gov. Maicarene's letter to Gov. Shirley, in Mny, 1749. 
5 Jour House of Represeutntives. p. 14. 



Chap, ix.] of maine. 259 

mer, (in 1726,) was its basis. It was denominated "the sub-A.D. 1749. 
mission and agreement" of the tribes just mentioned. Its stipu- Treaty, 
lations were, that all hostilities on the part of the Indians should 
cease and not be renewed ; that all their captives should be im- 
mediately restored without ransom ; that the English should enjoy 
all their possessions and places of settlement in the eastern parts 
unmolested ; that the trade between them and the Indians should 
be under the direction of the Massachusetts government ; that all 
personal wrongs should be redressed by due course of law and 
justice, without any act of personal revenge ; and that they, as 
the king's faithful subjects, would render obedience to his ordi- 
nances. But the Sagamores reserved to the Indians, all lands 
and proprieties not conveyed by them, nor possessed by the En- 
glish ; and all the privileges of fishing, hunting, and fowling, as 
in times past. 

New-Hampshire, as well as the Province of Massachusetts, 
was included in the treaty; and when the Commissioners 
had signed it, and gave the Chiefs a counterpart, and presented 
them with the usual presents, the parties separated with saluta- 
tions of mutual and cordial friendship,* 



* The treaty premised, that these Indians, and others, " inhabiting- within 
iiis Majesty's territories of Ncw-Eng-land," had carried on war against 
Massacliusetts and New-Hampshire, contrary to treaties.— This truly does 
not expressly include the Jlickmalcs, nor the JMarechites, at St. John's 
river ; yet it is thought the Indians at Passamaqnoddy were mixed with 
those of Penobscot.— The treatij itself is sig-ned by nineteen Sag-amores and 
chief captains; and it is remarkable that those of Penobscot, of Norridg-e- 
wock, and of St. Francois, [by their omgmal names, " Anasag-unticooks, 
and Wawenocks"] signed in separate columns, thus: 
^^Anasagu?iticooks and « JYorridgewocks,'" [or, *' Penobscots," [or, Tar- 
" Wawenocks," [or St. Canibas tribe.] ratines.] 

Toxus (seal) Eger-en mut (seal) 

Cneas (seal) Mag-anumba (seal) 

Magawonbee (seal) Natambouit (seal) 

(seal) Harry 

(seal) Soosephnia 

(seal) Noktoonos 

Wawawnunka (seal) Nesagumbuit 

Peereer 

Seetreatij entire, JUass. Council Records, vol. JL D. 1'734-1757, p. 108-11. 

—Alto, 9 Coll. Mast. Hist. Soc. p. 220-222. 



Francois Indians.] 
Sawwaramet (seal) 
Ausado 
Waaununga 
Sauquish 
Warcedeen 



(seal) 



(seal) Esparagoosaret (seal) 

(seal) Nesnouon (seal) 

(seal) 

(seal) 

(seal) 



260 "^"E HISTORY [Vol. ii 



CHAPTER X. 

The two eastern provinces — Governor Shirleij's embassy to Paris, 
as to the boundaries between Canada and Nova Scotia — All paper 
money redeemed — Coins regulated — Laws — Anonymoits letters — 
Recovery of captives — Truck houses — Trade — Jonquiere sends 
troops to the ncrth-casterly isthmus oj Nova Scotia — 3Iinas at- 
tacked by Indians — Jonquiere refuses to release captives — Halifax 
settled — Governor Cormcallis drives the French from Chignecto — 
They fortify at the isthrnus under la Come — The Fort of Corn- 
wallis — Peace with the Indians unsettled — Affray at Wiscasset — 
Northern Indians attack fort Richmond — Commit mischief at 
Dresden, Swan Island, and Georgetown — Priso7icrs carried off — 
Defensive measures — Indian outrages at Falmouth and New- 
Meadotvs — Treaty u'ith the Natives confirmed. 
A. D. 1749. All the occurrences in relation to these eastern Provinces, 
Maine and since they were first settled, had not given them so much import- 
hodTviewed ^"^^^ ^" ^^^^ "^^^^^ °^ foreigners, as the events in the late war. 
Willi inter- Something had been previously known of their geography, cli- 
mate, soil and natural resources ; now they were thought worthy 
of public consideration, by the politicians both of England and 
Lines be- France. The divisional line between Canada and Nova Scotia 
LXTiid^^"' ^^^ "0^ ^^^" settled by negotiation ; and therefore Governor 
iSoya Scotia ^^^Y^gj. ^^^ ^j^g Marquis VGalisionierc, late Governor of New- 

in dispute. J ^ 

France, were appointed, soon after the late treaty, to meet at 
shn\e*'^"oes P^^'^Sj ^"^ open a commission upon the subject. Shirley eni- 
to Paris, barked at Boston, Sept. 11, 1749, and left the chair to Spencer 

Phips, the Lieutenant-Governor.* 
Specie nr- '^^^® ^^"^6 month arrived at Boston the sum of £183,649, 2s. 
Eu"ia*^^d"' "^^- sterling, remitted from England to reimburse the Province of 
Massachusetts, her expenses in the Louisbourg expedition. It 
had been ascertained by the General Court since the war, that 
about £2,200,000 in bills of credit were outstanding in circula- 

* Here closes the History of Massachusetts by Jlr. Hutchinson. It is 
said be finished it in 1766. He died, June 3, 1780. Douglass' Summary 
closes in May 1749. He died in 1752. 



Chap, x.] of Maine. 261 

tion, which had at length so depreciated, that one ounce of silver A.D. 1749. 

would purchase 505. of the old tenor, or 12s. 6d. of the new 

tenor bills ;* and a Spmiish milVd dollar, 45s. of the one, and 

1 ] s. 3^. of the other. Determined to redeem the whole of them, i-'"^. "f„ 

crerlii all re- 
take them in, and substitute a specie currency, exclusively, deemed. 

the General Court laid a direct tax upon the Province of £75,000 
sterling, which they allowed to be paid in these bills, at the rate 
of 45s. old tenor, or lis. 3of. new tenor, for every Spanish 
mill'd dollar, now called 6s. lawful money, or 4s. 6f/. sterling. f 
Fully to effectuate the purpose, it was enacted by the Legislature, 
that all pecuniary contracts, made after March 31, 1750, should 
be paid in coin or specie, at the rate of Cs. 8(/. in silver by the 
ounce ; and that whoever paid or received a bill of another colony, 
should be liable to a penal prosecution. Many, especially mer- 
chants and speculators, were clamorous against the measure. 
They said the time set was too short, — silver and gold could not 
be retained in the country, — there must be a great scarcity of 
money, — and creditors, anxious to obtain the specie, would be 
tempted to oppress their debtors. But the treasury was opened, 
April 2, 1750, and so many of the bills were redeemed in the 
course of 15 months, that they were afterwards uncurrent. 
None of the evils foretold were experienced ; the principles of 
moral honesty and public confidence were extensively promoted ; 
and renovated vigor and cheerfulness were diffused, through the 
community, in all their pecuniary transactions. 

On the introduction and use of a metallic currency, statutes 

* See ante, A. D, 1742. 

+ By this mode of redemption, tlie ratio stands thus .• — 

. Sler. 

£ s- 

5 
15 
2 5 
22 10 
225 
100,000,00 9J,000 30,000 22,500 56,250 GO 00 225,000 00 00 
Money remitted £183,649, 2*. l^d.-\-ta.x £75,O0O=£258,649, 2s. l^d. 
whicli would redeem about £2,586,500 of the old tenor, or £646,625, of the 
new tenor. — In Nov. 1752, Lieutenant-Governor Phips says, ' if the out- 
' standing taxes were paid, the Province would be out of debt— a happi- 
' ness not known for 50 or 60 years.' 



■ed. mo. Uz. St/, til 


at. or l.a\ 


W. 7)10. 


JD. C. Troy W. 


£■ •"■ 


d. 


1,11^ 1 


G 


8 


3,33^ 3 


1 





10)0 9 


3 





1,C0,00 00 


30 





1,000,00 900 


300 






JVcu) Tenur. 


Old Tenor. 


£. .. d. 


£. s. d. 


12 6 


2 10 00 


1 17 6 


7 10 00 


5 12 6 


22 10 00 


5© 5 


225 00 00 


562 10 


2,250 00 00 



262 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1749. were of necessity passed to fix and settle the sum at which 
Rales of several descriptions of coin should pass ; and to preserve their 
weight and purity or fineness. A guinea was set at 285. ; a crown 
at 6s. Qd. ; an English shilling at Is. 4d. ; a Johannes of Portugal 
at 48s. ; a moidore at 3Gs. and pistole at 22s. ; and whoever took 
or passed them at a higher rate forfeited £50. At the same time, 
laws highly penal were enacted against counterfeiting, clipping or 
in any way lightening the current coins, or knowingly passing such 
as were aduherated or impaired. Within a few years, some other 
acts had passed the Legislature which ought to be noticed. In 
i.anspro- 1 743 tovvns wcre for the first time authorized bylaw, to erect 

vidiii!^ tor ' 1 1 T 1 

vvoikhouses.^^o^^.^oj(5g5 for the employment of the slothful and shiftless, — a 
provisional regulation still in force. Another, the next year, direct- 

Firewards. ed towns to choose ^reii;ar£?s ; appointed them a badge of ofiice, 
namely, ' a staff 5 feet long, painted red and headed with a bright 
' brass spire, a half foot in length ;' and assigned them great 
powers and important duties, which still belong to them in times 
of raging fires. At the commencement of the late war, the 

Against christian community, making diligent enquiry into the fearful 

pro aneness. ^^^^^^ of the Divine displeasure, detected profaneness as one; 
and induced the General Court, in 1746, to revise the law and 
sharpen the penakies against profane cursing and swearing. Nay, 
the Legislature ordered the act to be read in the court-house at 
the opening of every court, and by ministers, every year, to their 

In favor of respective congregations. It was found likewise to be necessary 

poor debt- jQ ameliorate the law in relation to Imprisonment for debt. For 
though during the century past a poor debtor might be discharged 
by a magistrate, on taking an oath that he was " not worth £5 ;'* 
yet the creditor could still keep him confined within the prison- 
walls, by paying his weekly board ; and oftentimes his companions 
were criminals. Separate apartments, therefore, were by a law of 
1748, ordered to be provided for that unfortunate class of men; 
and they were, on giving a bond to the sheriff, also allowed in the 
daytime " the liberty of the yard within any of the houses or 
" apartments belonging to such prison :" — a liberty afterwards 
extended to a limited area of their vicinity ; and finally, since the 
Separation, to the bounds of the county. In the spring of 1749, 

Anonymoui ^^^^^^^^^ i^f^^j.^ ^gre Sent to the Governor, one of the Council, 
and other wealthy gentlemen, threatening them with some fearful 
evil, if they failed to do as required. This was a new offence in 



Chap, x.] of waine. 263 

the Province, and occasioned the passage of an act, by which a. d. 1749. 
the offenders, upon conviction, were to be punished with great 
severity.* 

Our administration at this period was energetic and popular. Kecovrryof 
When Governor Shirley left the Province, the House expressed 
* an efFectionate farewell, and strong wishes for his safe leturn ;' 
and in his absence, Mr. Phips proved himself to be a worthy 
and vigilant magistrate. After a call upon the people, through 
the medium of the newspapers, to produce the names of all 
who had been carried into captivity, and the places where taken ; 
Cols. Chandler and Heath, were sent into Canada to recover 
them and bring them home. A great sum, as ransom-money, 
sometimes £100 sterling, had been demanded for an individual, 
during the war ; and in peace, where the Canadians had pur- 
chased captives, they were unwilling to surrender them without a 
remuneration. 

Great care was now taken, to keep the Indians tranquil. Tia(iin<j 
Trading houses were again opened at St. Georges and Fort ''"""^*" 
Richmond ; all private traffic with the tribes was strictly forbid- 
den ; provision was made for supporting, as paupers, all friendly 
Indians, when needy and residing among the English ; and two 
broadcloth mantles were given to a couple of Indians by the 
name of Frambegan and Lovel, as presents, for going in behalf 
■of the eastern tribes to Canada, and inviting the Indians of St. 
Francois to attend the late treaty at Falmouth. 

Although the population in Maine and Sagadahock had sus- T^ade and 
tained a loss, during the late war, of two or three thousand ; '^"^'"ess- 
there were many considerations, which still afforded encourage- 
ment to survivors and residents. Ship-building revived, and 
schooners, first known about thirty-five years previously, were a 
class of vessels, which had been built in great numbers along 
our seaboard, and were found of great use in the fisheries ; — one 
of them in the cod-fishery being worth two shallops. So hardy 
and skilful were the eastern men in that business, that they could 
afford to undersell the French before the war. Men since had 
usually found a profit in their eastern adventures. The articles 
which the country afforded, lumber, potash, pitch, called ' raw ma- 



* See these acts in An. Charters and Prov. Laws.— 17 Council Rcc. 6.— 
Jour, of H. Rep. A. D. 1749, p. 59. 



264 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1749. lerials,' furs and fish, were uniformly quick in market ; and in ex- 
changing them for pork and breadstufis brought into our liar- 
bors, the freighter acquired a profit without much risque. 

Nova Sco- The means used to enlarge and muhiply the settlements in 
Nova Scotia, and the energetic exertions of its government to 
bring the Acadians or French J\eutrah* into obedience, were 
circumstances indicative of its rising strength, and encouraging 
to its English neighbors. Yet when it was understood by the 
French, that Gov. Mascarene had ordered a Romish priest from 
Minas, on account of treasonable practices ; and that he was 
requiring the Acadian people at Beau Basin, or Bay of Minas, 
Bay Verte, and the river St. John, to take the oath of allegiance 

Jonquiere to the British crown ; M. de la Jonquiere, then in Canada, or- 

sends troops ^ 

toihenoiih- dered out a detachment to the north-easterly isthmus of the great 

isthmus of peuinsula. He pretended his men were sent there to cut fuel 

ince. for the garrison at Louisbourg ; whereas his whole design was to 

take possession of the passes, and gain some advantage, while the 

question of boundaries was before the Commissioners at Paris. 

His habitual hatred of the English had been greatly provoked 

and increased, by misfortune and defeat in the late war ; while 

years had given something like venom to his inveteracy, and 

made him a fit instrument to execute the projects of a wicked 

The Indians king and vain ministry. Emboldened by him, a body of about 

Slilh" 300 Mickmak and Marechite Indians, attended by a few villainous 

garrison at Pi-enchmen, besieged the English garrison in Minas, for three or 

Minas. ' o o o ' 

four weeks, at intervals ; in which time they killed two men and 
took sixteen prisoners. f De la Jonquiere justified their conduct, 
and affected to espouse with great sincerity and warmth the inter- 
ests of all the eastern tribes. He even took a high affront when 
he heard, that 26 of the principal Indians at Pegwacket had been 
united to the English through the war, and that several were vol- 
unteers in the siege of Louisbourg. He declared, he knew they 



* JN'cutrals being' the name assumed by the French settlers, or inhabitants 
of French extraction in Nova Scotia, who had engaged after the reduction 
of the country to the English crown, and the treaty of Utrecht, March, 
1713, — that the}' would be faithful to tlic English government, and never 
take arms or sides against it, — being excused from entering into any 
war against France. 

^J\Iass. Let. Book, p. 87-91. — Some of those who made the attack were 
" dwelling on the borders of the St. John's river." — 1 Haliburton, p. 153. — 
Also, did mischief at Cansoau, Dartmouth, and even Halifax. 



Chap, x.] ofmaixe. 265 

were holden in duress by the English ; and he would not, he said, A. D. 17-59. 
release captives, till these enslaved Indians were set at liberty. Jonquiere 

refuses to 

His suspicions, however, were not wholly unfounded ; lor some of re'.-asecap- 
the natives, probably from St. Francois, who might wish to draw 
others thither, did complain to him; and he appointed a French 
officer to go with one cf them, and visit the supposed unhappy 
mortals. The Indian emissary, on his way, being ill-treated at 
Albany, by a party of rough sailors, hurried back to his brethren, 
and told them the story in a manner most likely to arouse their 
resentments. 

About this time, there was an accession of 3,760 inhabitants to Halifax set- 
the population of Nova Scotia, who ssttled principally about 
Chebucto-bay, now Halifax. Their emigration was under the 
patronage of Parliament, — at the expense of £40,000 sterling 
to the English nation; and the administration of the Province 
was given to Edward Cornwallis, who was commissioned Gov- Comwaiiis, 
ernor, and to a Council, formed agreeably to his wishes or nom- 
ination. 

When Cornwallis was made acquainted with the outrages of the a.D. 1750. 
Indians at Minas, he resolved to chastise them as early the next 

, . ,, , He drives 

spnng, (1750,) as the weather would permit; and with all the ii,e French 

, 1 r< • r u "u fromiliedis- 

severity their miquities deserved. Suspecting some ol the tribe ,ri(t of 
at Penobscot were concerned with them in their hostilities, he "S" <^*'- 
required the government of Massachusetts to declare war against 
them without ceremony or delay. By this he gave abundant 
proof of being a total stranger, both to colonial politics and sav- 
age warfare. But the General Court, mindful of the mutual ob- 
ligations in the late treaty, considered it quite questionable, if the 
Indians had in fact, violated any of its articles ; and therefore re- 
fused to comply with the Governor's demand, till their guilt was 
ascertained. This threw him into a fit of passion ; and he forth- 
with despatched a body of 400 regulars and rangers under Major 
Lawrence, to humble the base Neutrals and dislodge the " cursed" 
Indians and French* from Chignecto [Cumberland,] — a district 
situated between the basin of Minas and Bay Verte. At their 
approach, la Corne, the French commander, drew off his forces 

* Cornwallis offered a reward of ten guineas for every Indian scalp. — 1 
Haliburton, p. 157. 

Vol. II. 34 



266 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A.D. 1750. and such inhabitants as adhered to him* with their effects; and 
after setting fire to the habitations of the remaining residents, he 
retired to the north-eastern isthmus. Here he firmly posted him- 
self — declaring that the territories on the northern side of the 

The I'rencli _. . „ i Tr i i • i i i i ■!-< i 

i.iidFr la Bay of Fundy even to Kennebeck river, belonged to the r rencn 

fv n( ihe crown ; and that he should defend the country to the last ex- 

isih.nus. trgmity. The French then erected three forts, — viz. on the 

°'^'*" neck of tlie peninsula, Fort Baye V^erie, near the eastern shore. 

Gaspereaux [since fort Monkton,'] a short distance above ; and 

Beau-se-jouv\ [fort CumberJan(l,'\ on the north side of the Mis- 

saquash, where it empties into Cumberland Basin. They also 

constructed another fortification, at the mouth of the river St. 

Comwaliis John. Cornwallis likewise fortified at Grand Pre [Hortonl ; and 

torlifies at ... u j ^ 

Horioi). complained to the king, against the insolent French, the per- 
fidious Acadians, and barbarous Indians. J 
,, , , These measures were the fruits of de la Jonquiere's nefarious 

Unsettled ^ 

ppace with policy ; in which, he perceived he was meeting with successes, 

the Indians. *^.-'' ... , 

which compared well with his wishes. The Marechites on the 
river St. John, were fully in his interest, ready to join his forces 
in any enterprize projected against the English — no matter how 
bloody or unprovoked, provided they could be the companions 
of French officers and partakers of the booty. That tribe and 
those at Passamaquoddy and Penobscot, were without doubt in 
league or in fraternity of the strongest ties. By their collective 
superiority in numbers and strength, they controlled the Abena- 
ques, of whom however, only the Canibas tribe now remained 
entire ; and none other owed the inhabitants of Maine and Saga- 
dahock more ill-will. The latter saw their people — once so pow- 
erful, — now small and feeble, and still felt jealous of their rights and 
sensitive of injuries ; on the other hand, the white people, 
having always in fresh recollection savage cruelties — and the 
loss of friends by savage hands, could wish the whole Indian race 
exterminated. In such a state of mutual dislike and irritability, 
the utmost watchfulness was necessary to avoid affrays and pre- 
vent a rupture. 

But a bloody affair happened at Wiscasset, December 2, the 



* La Corne was now at t!ie head of 1,500 ii;en ; he said lie could command 
2,500. 

t The English nlso built Fort Lawrence, on the opposite side of the 
same river. % 1 Haliburton's N. S. p. 150-9-160. 



Chap, x.] of maine. 267 

year past, which, though it was in itself of no very great mo- A. D. 1750. 
ment, filled the eastern inhabitants with fear and trembling. This The homi- 
was a violent quarrel between several white men and some of the cosset. 
Canibas tribe, in which one Indian was killed and two others 
badly wounded. So unfortunate was the affray, in point of time, 
as to occur within six weeks after the late treaty of Falmouth, 
and before peace had become fairly settled. Three of the white 
men, Obadiah Albee, Richard and Benjamin Holbrook, were 
taken into custody by Samuel Harnden, upon a charge of murder ; 
and being removed to Falmouth, were confined in the house of 
Gowen Wilson. The whole transaction was a topic in every 
one's mouth, though there was a strong current setting against 
every thing Indian ; and in a (ew weeks the prisoners effected 
their escape. Some called it a riotous rescue, others imputed 
it to the negligence and collusion of the keepers. The Lieuten- 
ant-Governor, hearing of it, offered a reward of £50 to such as 
would retake either of the fugitives, and £25 for the detection of 
any abettor. The General Court, when next in session, also took 
notice of the affair, and ordered Jabez Fox, Esq. of Falmouth, 
a justice of the peace, to examine in a legal form, into the con- 
duct of Harnden and Wilson, and deal with them according to 
law and the testimony. In the meantime the culprits, January 
11, (1750) surrendered themselves 5 and being removed to the gaol 
in York, were indicted and arraigned for murder, at a special term 
of the Superior Court, holden by resolve, the last week in Feb- 
ruary.* But there was no trial till the regular term in June j Trial ac- 
when Albee was tried and acquitted. The Court were quite dis- 3|"^J,^J;J'J''^ 
satisfied with the verdict ; and the Legislature ordered the other 
two into the county of Middlesex, to take their trial in August. 
Albee was then convicted of a felonious assault ; and at the 
trials of the others, all the relations of the deceased, the wounded 
Indians and the chiefs of the tribe, were invited to be present and 
witness the fairness of the proceedings. Accordingly, 13 of them 
proceeded as far as Boston, where they had an interview with 
Lieutenant-Governor Phips, and received the most courteous 
treatment, as well as some valuable presents : — and though they 

* The next year, tho Jiiot ac. was revised ; and the Superior Court au- 
thorized to hold special sessions, in any county, on great emerg-encies, 
wherein there was appointed by law only one term to be holden in a year. 



•268 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A. D. 1750. found there could be no trial of the offenders, at that time, they 
returned home, apparently satisfied. The prisoners were subse- 
quently remanded to Yorkshire, while the difficulties with the In- 
dians were assuming again a very gloomy aspect ; and I do not 
find, that either of the Holbrooks were ever convicted. Certain 
it is, that whenever a white person was tried for killing an Indian, 
even in times of profound peace, he was invariably acquitted ; — 
it being impossible to impannel a jury, on which there were not 
some, who had suffered by the Indians, either in their persons, 
families, or estates. 

Rumor of Touchcd On this occasion, with natural or affected sympathy 

an arrival of i • i i i • n i i t^ • • • 

the imiinns for thcu" brothcrs, and enkmdled by b rcnch emissaries mto a 
Francois Id flame of resentment towards the English, the Indians at St. Fran- 
Kiciuiiond. cois and Becancourt,* took occasion to aggravate the above men- 
tioned wrong, and magnify some supposed provocations, into 
sufficient causes for acts of retaliation and revenge. Hence, a 
company of 80, receiving supplies from Trois Revieres, proceeded 
to visit Norridgewock and Penobscot. About the time of their 
arrival, it was reported, that these northern fighters were to be 
joined by 150 Tarratines ; that a French ship of 64 guns, three 
or four brigs and 20 transports, probably full of troops, provis- 
ions and warlike stores, had been seen shaping their course 
towards St. Georges or Sagadahock river ; and that the garrison 
at Richmond had been told by an Indian — they might expect 
an attack in 48 hours. — Since the peace, the soldiers at that fort 
were only 14; at Pemaquid 6; at St. George's 15; at fort 
George 4 ; and at Saco 8, including two or three armorers; all 
of them being illy prepared to encounter, or withstand an assault 
so little expected. 
'I'heattnck But thouffh thesc rumors, so alarming to the eastern people, 

upon the _ ° _ .^ _ r r ' 

panison of were in part unfounded and incorrect ; it is true, that a body of 
mend. Indians from the north, associating with themselves probably some 
young Canibas fighters, f did, Sept. 11, fall with great lury upon 
Richmond-fort, which, notwithstanding the timely notice given it 
by the Indian, inigiit liave been easily taken, had they known its 
weakness, and made the best use of their advantage. But they 



* About this time a letter was recuivcd at Boston, from Asseramo, chief 
of the Wawcuocks, (spelt *' Worenock," in the record,) making; complaints, 
f There were about lf,0 in all. — MS. Letter. 



Chap, x.] of maine. 269 

spent the day in spoiling some habitations in the vicinity, and A. u. nso. 
killing domestic animals, probably for food ; nine great cattle 
being butchered by them, and two others barely escaped slaughter 
by running within the reach of the guns at the fort. In this crit- 
ical juncture as it truly was, Capt. Samuel Goodwin and a small 
party of his men, had the good fortune under the covert of dark- 
ness to reach the garrison in safety. When informed of this fact Other mis- 
by a prisoner, the assailants abandoned the place ; and lorming 
themselves into parties, committed acts of mischief in different 
places, on both sides of the Kennebeck river. 

A small part of those who crossed the river lurked about the Some com- 
plantation of Frankfort, [now Dresden], watching every move- Dresden, 
ment of the inhabitants. The next day about sunrise, as a Mr. 
Pomeroy was returning from milking his cows, an Indian shot him 
from an ambush, and he fell dead, just as he was entering the 
door of his house. Aroused by what had taken place, Davis, 
who dwelt in another apartment of the same house, sprang up to 
close the door, when the Indian thrust in the barrel of his gun 
to prevent its shutting. Davis seized it, and with the assistance 
of some women in the room, wrested the gun from the savage, 
^nd kept it as a trophy of his success. As the only way of ad- 
equately avenging himself, the savage caught a young child of 
Davis', in the outer kitchen or near it, and carried it away cap- 
tive. Another Indian, concealing himself in the field, fired at 
McFarland, as he went to work, and wounded him. Before they 
left the settlement, they seized two other men ; and these they 
carried to Canada.* In the same unanticipated visit, perhaps ^,5^,0^ 
the same day, another party of them was ravaging Swan Island, ^"j^" '*'' 
burning the people's houses and killing their cattle ; and when 
they left the place, they carried away with them thirteen or four- 
teen of the inhabitants prisoners. f 

But the main body proceeded down the river, and then visit Par- 
divided into scouts. One of them undertook the destruction of ^'^^ " 
Wiscasset and the settlements of Sheepscot, set several houses 
on fire, took two prisoners, and would have laid waste the neigh- 
boring country, had they met with success in surprizing the 
block-house. Another scout proceeded against Georgetown ; 
aiming their vengeance at the garrison on Parker's Island, in the 

* MS. Let. from Dresden. t See vol. I, p. 50-1. 



270 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A. D. i7:o. heart of the village. Having come to a house, Sept. 25, within 
Sept. 23. call of the fort, they were probably discovered, for they began 
their depredations by assailing it with their hatchets while the 
owner bravely fought them, without asking quarter, till they had 
literally cut their way into it through the doors. He, then leap- 
ing out of a back window, sought safety by flight. But so close- 
ly was he pursued by two savages, that he saw no possibility of 
escape otherwise, than by betaking himself to the water, and 
swimming to the Island Arrovvsick. His pursuers as nimbly 
springing into a canoe were able to gain upon him ; and when 
almost within reach of their paddles, he suddenly turned upon 
them, and with great presence of mind, overset their light bark 
and plunged them both into the water, when all three were on a 
level — equals in the same element. During the struggle of the 
Indians lor the preservation of their own Uves, he escaped tri- 
umphantly to the shore. But though he providentially saved his 
life, his house and barn with most of their contents were reduced 
to ashes.* 
Cany Boldly resisted or foiled in all their assaults, they withdrew ; 

pi^roners. carrying away with them, between 20 and 30 prisoners, and taking 
on their route, one man at Maquoit, one at New-Marblehead, 
[Windham] and one at Gorhamlown. On their return, they 
shewed themselves in the outskirts of Falmouth, and did some 
mischief in several other places. Particularly in passing through 
New-Gloucester, they met Joseph Taylor and Mr. Farewell near 
Seabody-pond ; whom they seized, and proceeded with them 
through the woods, towards the sources of the Little Androscog- 
gin, in the northerly part of the present Paris. Discovering a 
ot\Snnw?.id new track, they pursued it to the height of land, where they 
iJuuerfifki. ^^^^^^ ^j^^ ^_^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ hunters, Snow and Butterfield. At the 

moment of discovery, the Indian file-leader, hooded with a large 
hawk-skin, retaining its feathers, and hanging down upon his 
shoulders, raised a hideous yell, and quickened his pace. Snow, 
having been a captive in a former war, and conceiving a great 
antipathy to the Indians and their manner of living, had deter- 
mined to sacrifice his life, rather than be again their prisoner. 
When he heard the shout, he was in a sitting posture, pecking 
the flint of his gun, which was at the time loaded with only a 

• 1 Minot, p. 141. 



Chap, x.] of maIne. 271 

partridge-charge. Deliberately rising on his feet, and taking a.. D. iioo. 
good aim, he brought the foremost Indian to the ground, only a 
kw feel distant. He was their Chief. This so infuriated his 
companions, that they instantly fired upon him a volley, which 
pierced his body through with several bullets. To satiate their 
rage, they then cut and mangled it till tired ; leaving it above 
ground, and forbidding Butterfield, and the other prisoners, to 
bury or touch it. The body of their Chief they carried into a 
bog, where IMoose-pond empties into Little Androscoggin ; and 
after breaking the turf and forming an aperture, they crushed it 
deep into the mire, and departed ; uttering expressions of inter- 
mingled grief and respect. At Umbagog Lake, they fell in 
company with another party of Indian plunderers, when all of 
them joined in something like funeral solemnities, commemorative 
of their Sagamore's death ; — then wiping the tearful eye, re- 
hearsed to each other their adventures and feats, with the same 
good cheer, as if nothing melancholy had happened. Taylor 
was with them five years, became acquainted with both the 
French and Indian languages, and was afterwards an instructer 
of Indian youth at Dartmoutli College.* 

This sudden and unexpected incursion of the Indians, ag^^iin Tho easiprn 
filled the eastern country with fearful distress, and the government '^""""'^„ , 
with great anxiety. For if peace could not be enjoyed when "'^'^ alarm, 
there were subsisting treaties between the English and French i^efnnsive 

° " measures. 

crowns, — and between New-England colonists and the natives ; 
then surely no respite from perpetual warfare, could be expected. 
As the best way to encounter such an emergency, the Lieutenant- 
Governor ordered 150 men to be detached or drafted, from the 
eastern Regiment, now commanded | by Col. Charles Cushing 
of Falmouth, and sent to scour the woods on the frontiers be- 
tween Saco and St. Georges ; — also supplies of ammunition were 
put into the hands of Capt. Williamson of Wiscasset, and Capt. 
Nichols of Sheepscot, for the common good.f Nor did the de- 
fensive measures rest here ; for the General Court being specially 
convened, Sept. 26, voted pay and supplies to the soldiers raised, 
until the 1st of November, the succeeding year, unless sooner 



* J!S. Let. J. S. Holmes, Esq. 1721. — Mr. I'aylor lived in Claremont, N. 
11. His oldest daughter was the wife of Col. E. Rawson of Paris, Maine, 
t Jour. IT. of Rep. p. G6, A, D. 1750. 



272 THE HISTORY [Vol. n. 

A.D. 1750 discharged; and requested the Lieutenant-Governor to send de 

la Jonquiere a letter, — remonstrating in most pointed terms against 

his course with the northern Indians ; and demanding redress 

and a release of prisoners without delay. 

A.D. 1751. 'Pq f^j-iish vvhat is to be related of the Indians prior to a formal 

Indians ^^^ j-,g^y Confirmation of the late treaty; it remains to be stated, 

commit mis- •' ' 

ohiofsai that June 8th, the next year, (1751) they killed Job Burnal, in 
an-t ,\'ew- the highway at Falmouth, and shot his horse under him. About 

Meadows. ^ J ^ r tvt tit j 

a month afterwards, they carried away from JNew-IMeadows, seven 
of the inhabitants, prisoners. Purrington and Lombard were the 
names of two, and the others belonged to the families of Messrs, 
Hinkley and Whitney.* But it was manifest that since the return 
of the northern Indians the previous autumn, to St. Francois, and 
Trois Revieres, the instances of mischief were principally acts 
of mere revenge, committed by stragglers and renegadoes, unen- 
couraged probably by any tribe. The Sokokis Indians, whose 
families had been with the English, while they themselves were 
at Louisbourg, had of choice returned to their former places of 
abode and hunting grounds at Pegwacket ; satisfied with the 
treatment received, and much attached to their English friends. f 
Inieresting Indeed, an interesting Indian girl, the daughter of Capt. Sam, 
Cci?a°!giri. was so captivatcd with the idea of neatness, learning and fashion, 
that she chose to leave the tribe, and live with her well beloved 
mistress. No particular eastern tribe appeared now to be hos- 
tile. The Sagamores at Penobscot and even Norridgewock, de- 
clared they had no share in the late rupture, and expressed strong 
desires of immediately renewing their former trade and connex- 
ions with the English. J 
August. Commissioners, therefore, attended by a guard of 150 men, 

'it?n^iaus' detailed from Col. Cushing's regiment, met at St. Georges' fort, 
confirmed. August 3, the delegates from the tribes at Penobscot, Passama- 
quoddy and St. John's river, for the purpose of settling all for- 
mer difficulties. — " Long talks," were followed by re-assurances 
from the chiefs, of their wishes to live in tranquillity ; and hence 



* Smith's Jour. p. 55. f Mass. Letter Book, p. 114-15. 

\ 1 Jlinol, p. 165.— 'Tlie Norridg-ewocks have left their usual place of 
' residence, and in all probability have joined the St. Francois Indians. — I 
' was well satisfied they would not meet us at St. Georges. A further and 
' more general conference may be expected, and all difficulties accommo- 
* dated.' — Lieut. Gov. Speech, 



Chap, x.] of maine, 273 

the treaty, signed two years before, was fully and formally con- A.D. 1751 
firmed. However, as there were present no delegates from Nor- 
ridgewock or St. Francois, another and larger convention was 
agreed upon ; — the Lieut. Governor, Sept. 3, proclaimed a ces- 
sation of hostilities ; — and the General Court resolved to make 
the tribe at Penobscot a valuable present every year, as a token 
of subsisting amity, so long as the Indians observed their treaty- 
obligations.* 



* 17 C. Rec. p. 399. 

JN'ote. — List of the French Governors of Canada, from 1610, to 1711. 

Accessus. Exitus. 

1610-11 Count de Bourbon, Prince of Conde, and Montmorency 

Samuel Champlain, Deputy-Governor 1635 

1636 M. de Montmagny 

1647 M. d'Ailleboust 1651 

1651 M, de Lauson 
1657 Vicount d Argenboil 
1661 Baron d'Avangour 

1663 M. de Mesey.— Governor of " New France.'* 
1666 M. de Courcelles, recalled 1671 

1671 Count de Frontenac 

1672 M. de Courcelles, (returned) 

1682 M. le Fevre, de la Barre, Gov* Gen. New-France 

1687 M. Denonville 

1689 Count Frontenac, returned died 1698 

1698 Mons. Caillieries, 26 May, " 1703 

1703 M. de Vandreuil, Oct. " 1725 

1725 Charles, J\Iarquis de Beauharnois 1744 

1744 Marquis I'Galisioniere 1740 

1746 Marquis Jonquiere died 1751 

1752 " du Quesne Menueville 

1756 " Vandreuil de Carnegal : — who surrendered to the 
British arms, 1760-1. 



Vol. ri. 35 



274 TIIF. HISTORY [^OL. U. 



CHAPTER XI. 

The eastern country — Sentiments of the people — Happy change 
from rigid intolerance, to freedom of eomeience — Sectarians — 
Public ivorskip enjoined as a duty — A learned ministry required 
— The clergy of Maine — Congrrgationalists in general, unth 

few exceptions — British American system Navigation act 

Trespass act — Bills of credit — Iron act — West India trade 
restricted — Ncto, or enlarged eastern settlements — German emi' 
grants — Netv valuation — Excise and impost duties — New style — 
A parley with the Natives, favorable to peace — Fortifications im- 
proved — A new county desired on Kennebcck — Settlements there 
disturb the Indians — Fires in the Icing's zvoods — Reasons ivhy the 
eastern country docs not settle — Vassal's project of settlement — 
Newcastle incorporated — Shirley's return froin Europe — Dispute 
about the boundaries, stated — The Indians — Captives withholden 
by the French — An agency for them — First French aggressions 
were at Lake Erie — George Washington — Nova Scotia fortified 
by the French — Forts Halifax, Western and Shirley on Kenne- 
bcck — Plan of Colonial Union — Indians' attack at Fort Hcdifax 
— Embargo — Captives again sent for — St. Francois Indians — 
Defensive measures — Public emergency. 

A. D. 1750, '^ *^'^6 neighboring Province of Nova Scotia owed its advance- 
PioJpe'ct "^^"^ ^° *^^^ patronage and treasure of the moth::- country ; the 
prove'ment "^^ercsts of Maine and Sagadahock were nourished by the enter- 
of the east- prize and blood of their own inhabitants. Untold numbers of 

ern country. '■ 

them, the bravest and best of men, had sacrificed their lives, at 
the shrine of French and savage warfare; while numbers still 
greater, survived to see the wreck of their families and their 
estates. In a former ase, too, political changes were their un- 
happy doom ; and at all time?, it Iiad been their destiny to en- 
dure an incredible share of privation and suffering. But a more 
cheering aspect is at length given, equally to their affairs and 
their fortunes. The wars, which had so often wasted them and 
their substance, were likewise the principal means by which sev- 
eral tribes were nearly exterminated, and others greatly thinned 



Chap, xi.] ok Maine. 275 

and weakened. In the last one, there were no exploits of theA.D. 1750, 

. . ,10 1751. 

Indians, which gave them any occasion of boasting or triumph. 
No towns were sacked or overcome, not a fort nor yet a block- 
house taken by them. Our losses consisted chiefly in the many 
lives of individuals killed, and in the destruction made among 
the domestic animals ; — while the enemy's trophies were cap- 
lives, scalps, and plunder. Never had the inhabitants evinc- 
ed purer patriotism, or more determinate fortitude and res- 
olution, than in that war. Nor is there undue merit claimed in 
the reduction of Louisbourg, when we consider, that the chief 
officers, and also a soldiery entirely disproportionate to popula- 
tion, were from Maine. As soon as the war closed, the people, Merits and 
who had been driven into forts and block-houses for the preser- of ihe peo- 
vation of their lives, cheerfully returned to their habitations, and '"^' 
resumed their industry and pursuits. It seemed to be an age of 
unanimity in sentiment, of deep moral sense, and of pious confi- 
dence in the Providence of God. In times of war, drought, 
sickness, or other severe afflictions, they with great unity of 
heart, consecrated particular days to fasting, humiliation and 
prayer; and if special relief were interposed, or remarkable 
successes granted, they celebrated the occasion in a public thanks- 
giving. There was harmony too, in the government, and union 
among the people. Rigid tenets and a persecuting spirit had at 
length yielded to maxims of reason, to dictates of good sense, 
and to the more benevolent principles of the gospel. 

A century had wrought so happy a change in religious senti- Uniformity 
ment ; that we ought not to pass unnoticed the traces of its pro- "I^^^IJo^/yl.',^. 
gress. Our puritan fathers were not only educated to notions l^hu,"^ g^^i 
of royal supremacy, and to rules of dictation by prelates, in all ^'^'^• 
matters of belief and church government ; they were animated 
by an unhallowed zeal, without a consciousness of its force ; and 
in this way, they unfortunately fell into errors similar to those of 
the arbitrary religionists, from whom they had separated. These 
errors consisted summarily in two particulars ; — the supposed ne- 
cessity of uniformity in public worship ; and the connexion oj 
Church and State. The one led on to measures against relig- 
ious toleration; and the other armed the law and the magis- 
trate with the sword, in support or defence of what was believed 
to be vital religion. In England the church split and parted 



276 THE HISTORY [VoL. II, 

A.n 1750, upon the same rock; yet the puritans neither saw it nor sus-^ 

lo 1751. ^ '' ^ 

pected It. 

Theocraf'' ^ Spiritual father of Massachusetts, in 1633, preached, that 
" government ought to be considered as a Theocracy, wherein 
'<the Lord, was Lawgiver, Judge, and King, and the people as 
" God's people in covenant with him ; that none other than per- 
*' sons of approved piety and eminent gifts should be chosen 
" rulers, or appointed judges ; and that ministers should be con- 
'f suited in all matters of religion, and magistrates have a supei> 
'' intending coercive power over the churches." A test act fol- 
lowed, which excluded from civil office all who were not in com- 
munion ; but this only lasted till 1 665. Still there was a spirit of 

toleration, rigid intolerance, which nothing could effectually shake. A ven- 
erable Massachusetts' magistrate of good reputation, left, when he 
died, A. D. 1653, some doggerel poetry, in which he cau- 
tioned ' the men of God in Courts and Churches, to watch over 

* such as would hatch the cockatrice egg of toleration.'' At this 
Religious early age the opposing sects were, 1, the Gortonists, ^^ who de-^ 

'^ nied the humanity of Christ;" 2, the Familists, "who depend^^ 
<'ed upon rare revelations;" 3, the Seekers, '* who question the 
" word and ordinances ;" 4, the Antinomians, " who deny the 
*« moral law to be the rule of Christ ;" or, " who prefer faith 
^' without works ;" 5, the Baptists, " who openly condemned or 
*' opposed tlie baptising of infants and parish assessments ;"*and 
6, the Quakers who v«-ere foes to forms, fashions, oaths, parish 
taxes, wars, and the dictates of magistracy ;— ^believing the outer 
and inner man should " be yea, yea, and nay, nay." 
, .. The Cainbridsie Pluform, concluded 1648, f recognized the 

Piaiii.im! power and authority of magistrates, " so far as to help and further 
the Churches;" and aimed at uniformity as well as purity in doc- 
trine and practical discipline. This was followed by a law passed 
in 1658, which forbade the preaching of any person,— provided 

* two organic Churches, the Council, or General Court should be 
dissatisfied with his qualifications.' One of the last of these in-? 
tolerant enactments, was in 1677, which rendered a person fina- 
ble who even attended a quaker-meeting. 

* 9 Coll M. Hist. Sue. p. 49.— Called ?A tliat liine ■> Anabaptists."'— Rev. 
Dr. Chauricey lho!iL;-lit infants " shoDltl be dippi^n! in tiie w.ilcr." — 10 Co/L 
JUax.1. Hist. Soc. 31. f 2 Math. Mag-. 202. 



Chap, xi.] of Maiwe. 277 

In support of these sentiments and laws, one grave divine a. D. i750, 
insisted, that what " is contrary to the gospel, hath no right, and 
"therefore should have no liberty." Another, in 1673, who was conscience 
President of Harvard College, pronounced ' the outcry, in this 
' age, for liberty of conscience, — to be the great Diana of the 
' libertines.' Nay, said he, " I look upon toleration as the first 
" born of all abominations." A third uses this sort of language, 
' I abhor the toleration of divers religions, or of one religion in 
'segregant shapes. For surely, an untruth authorized by tolera- 
' tion of the State, is but a battlement — laid to batter the walls 
' of heaven. " He that is willing to tolerate an unsound opin- 
" ion, that his own may be tolerated, though never so sound, 
" would, if need be, hang the bible at the devil's girdle. It is said, 
" men ouglit to have liberty of conscience, and it is persecution 
"to debar them of it: — 'But to me, it is an astonishment, that 
" the brains of men should be parboiled in such impious ignor- 
"ance."* 

Influenced as the men of the asre were, by such a spirit of r, 

° j' _ • leisecution 

intolerance in life and also in laws, penned with the point of a ''"ii<'weii by 

,,.,.,,, loletation. 

diamond, dipped in blood, no wonder the government and the 
church in league turned the sword upon those hapless mortals, 
whose free opinions when merely expressed, rendered them ob- 
noxious to all the severities of persecution. The familists and 
antlnomians were banished ; the baptists whipped, and the quakers 
hanged. f It was a period of maddening zeal, which fits men 
for unrelenting animosities, and forges the weapons of civil war. 
In short, strange as it may appear to us of the present genera- 
tion, neither the benign principles of the gospel, the lights of 
reason, nor even the sympathies of our nature, — nothing, but a 
mandate from the king, July 24, 1679, J could or did dissolve 
the demoniac spell, and give to all, except papists, the freedom 
of conscience. This injunction was re-sanctioned by the crown, 
in the Provincial charter ; and hence there were no more enact- 
ments against heresy. Society became peaceful and harmonious, I'li-i'pgfs 

. . J f 5 e.NiPnd<-d to 

and sectarians ceased from troubling.^ In 1742, Episcopalians t:piscopaii- 

* lEclk. N. H. p. 72. 

t I Doug-. Sumin. p. 4n.— See Ordinances, A. D. 1646-{J ; and vol. 1, 
Chap. 12. p, 379-81. | Hutchinson's S. Papers, p. 520.— 1 Hist. p. 293.- 

q We find that in those places where the Quakers " are most of all suf- 
.*' fered to declare themselves freely and ere onl}' opposed by arguments, 



278 "^'^^^ HISTORY [Vol. II. 

A. I). 1730, were allowed to apply their taxes to pay their own minister ; 
Baptists and Quakers were exempted from ministerial or par- 

rS ^a'^'d ochial taxes, in Connecticut, A. D. 1729 ;* and by temporary laws 

Quaker.-. .^ Massachusetts, made perpetual, in 1757, the same relief was 
extended to them through this Province. Tlie next year, affirm- 
ation was allowed to Quakers, instead of an oath ; and in 1763, 
they were excused from doing military duty. 

As this happy revolution in sentiment had been in great measure 
effected, by enlightening and liberalizing the mind, educating the 
heart, and softening the affections ; it is interesting to mark the 
vigilant care, exercised by government over both the instructers 
in religion and teachers of youth. Habits of thought and closer 
investigation, being thus promoted, finally produced the best of 

Public wor- fruits. The ministry and the common schools have ever gone 

ship enjoin- . r i i- i • 

ed as a hand in hand. The privilege and pleasure ot public worship 
"'■^' were, however, in 1641, made a duty ; while all towns, in 1654, 

were required to provide themsekes meeting-houses, and give 
their ministers an " honorable support ;" also in 1692, it was en- 
joined upon them to be constantly provided with " an able, 
Liiersry jgarned, and orthodox minister." Indeed, another statute, in 
lions of mill- 17(50, disallowed assessments to pav him, unless he had been 

islers. ' . 

' educated at some university, college or public academy, where 
' the learned languages, the arts and sciences were taught ; or 
' had received a degree from some public seminary ; or could 
' show testimonials from a majority of the settled ministers in the 
' county, where he proposed to settle, that he had sufficient learn- 
' ing to qualify him for the work of the ministry.' Though min- 
isters must be orthodox [pious and evangelical,] their literary 
qualifications were in the eye of the law indispensable to their 
usefulness. 
The minis- At this period, there were fifteen Churches in these two eastern 
''>°''^^'''"^' Provinces, and fourteen settled clergymen, whose character for 
B. Stevens, abilities, learning, and piety, rendered them ornamental to their 
profession. At Kittery-point, Rev. Benjamin Stevens, ordained, 
May 1, 1751, the colleague of Mr. Newmarch, was a gentle- 
man so approved for his talents, and knowledge of science and 
theology, as to have a doctorate given him ; and so esteemed by 

" tliere thev nave least desire to comc.'^— Letter of Governor and Council 
in R. /• Oct. 13, 1657, lo General Court, Boston. 
* 1 Hoi. A. Ann. \\ 121. 



Chap, xi.] of biaine. 27^ 

his parish, as to be its minister 40 years. His cotemporary in a, d. 1730, 
the north parish of the same town, [Eliot] was the Rev. John 
Rosrers. There were two parishes in York. Rev. i^aac Z/wman. a ' / 

^ '■ •'I. Lyman. 

graduate of Yale College, 1747, succeeded the famous Mr. 
Moody, in 1749 ; and for 50 years, faithfully performed the pas- 
toral duties to his charge. He was a man of great sedateness, 
good understanding and fair fame ; there being ^q\w men whose 
characters are so entirely free of blemishes. Of the Scottish 
pai-isb, Mr. Samuel Chandler was the minister for ten years ^- ^''^"" 
prior to his dismission, in 1751. His successor was Rev. Sam- 

'■ _ _ , _ S. Lankton. 

uel Lankton^ settled, in 1754, who filled his station "with honor 
" to himself and benefit to his people, more than 40 years. He 
*' was an accurate scholar, a very close student, and an exem- 
" plary devout christian." In Berwick, Mr, Jeremiah Wise has 
been previously mentioned, as a man of learning, prudence and 
piety. He was succeeded in the ministry, September, 1756, the 
year of his death, by Mr. Jacob Foster. This gentleman was a j poster 
graduate of Harvard, in 1 754 ; a lover of learning and of pure re- 
ligion. His manners were exceedingly pleasant and engaging, 
and his discourses orthodox and well written. Finding it diffi- 
cult to support his family in the revolutionary war, he was dis- 
missed at his own request, in 1777 ; and being warmly devoted 
to whig-principles, he entered as chaplain into the army. A sec- 
ond parish was established, in 1751, at "Blackberry Hill," in 
Berwick, a church was formed, and Mr. John Morse settled, joim Morse, 
in 1755. He was a serious godly young divine, possessing a 
soul adorned with the choicest flowers of religion, and the quahfica- 
tions of a pastor, which greatly endeared him to his flock. In 
about ten years he was taken from them by death, universally 
lamented. Rev. Mr. JefFerds of Wells, dying in 1752, after a 
ministry of 27 years, was succeeded by Rev. Gideon Richard- ^•^^'^^^'^^' 
son, in 1754; and he, by Rev. Moses Hemmemvay, in 1759.3] Hem- 
At an early period in life, the latter gentleman received a doctor- '"^"^^y- 
ate from Harvard College ; and through his ministry, he was dis- 
tinguished for a patient study of the fathers, and laborious inves- 
tigation of abstruse points in polemical divinity. Mr. John 
Hovey was minister of Arundel, a period of 27 years prior to 
his dismission, in 1768, At Biddeford, Mr. Moses »^o^^«*^^» ^ M. Morrill, 
graduate of Harvard, was settled, in 1742, while quite a young 
man — scarcely 21 years of age. Endued with a spirit of peace, 



280 f^^'^ HISTORY [Vol. ii. 

A. D. 1750, he passed through a happy and useful ministry of 35 years, leaving 
a name dear to his charge for his many excellencies. Mr. Wm^ 
""''' Thompson, the minister of Scarborough, before mentioned, died 



son. 



in 1 759. He appears to have been a minister of considerable 
learning as well as gifts, also sound in the faith, if not the most 
successful preacher. Though a parish was formed in Falmouth,* 
at Purpooduck, A. D. 1734, and another at Presumpscot, [New- 

T Smith. Casco] in 1753, the Rev. Mr. Smith, was the only setded minis- 
ter in the town for many years. He was a man of brilliant tal- 
ents and ardent piety. His religious sentiments were purely 
evangelical, and his discourses fraught with pathos and sound 

N. i.oriiig. doctrine. Of North-Yarmouth, Mr. JVicholas Loring was the 
parish minister, from 1736 to 1763, the year of his death. Mr. 

R. Duniap. Robert Dunlap, a native of Ireland, educated at the University 
of Edinburgh, was ordained in Boston by the Presbytery, A. D. 
1747, to the ministry, over the people of Brunswick. Here his 
pastoral relation continued thirteen years. The inhabitants of 
Topsham plantation were a part of his charge, and contributed 
something towards his support.f 



* In 1753, there were in Falmouth, — 120 families on the neck ; 48 in 
Stroudwater, including- Long'-creek ; 21 at Back-cove ; 51 on the Islands 
and elsewhere — in all, 240 families, besides 200 families in Purpooduck, 
(Spurwink.) — Smith's Jour. p. 58. — Also in New-Casco, including three 
small Islands, 100 families. — 8 Jour. House of Rep. p. 228. 

i Mr. Stevens graduated at Harv. Coll. 1740, settled 1751, died 1791 



Mr. Rogers 


(C 




(( 


1711, 


Mr. Chandler 


(( 




(( 


1735, 


Mr. Foster 


(( 




(( 


1754, 


Mr. Morse 


(( 




(( 


1751, 


Mr. Richardson 


(( 




C( 


1749, 


Mr. Hemmenway 


(( 




(( 


1755, 


Mr. Hovey 


(( 




M 


1725, 


Mr. Lyman 


« at 


Yale 


College, 


1747, 


Mr. Smith 


« at Harv. 


College, 


, 1725, 


Mr. Morrill 


(( 




li 


1737, 


Mr. Loring 


it 




«( 


1732, 


Mr. Thompson 










Mr. Wright 










Mr. Lombard 










Mr. Lankton 











1721, 


" 


1761 


1751, 

1756, 


dis. 


'■',?? I") 


1755, 


died 1765 


1754, 


u 


1758 


1759, 


a 


1811 


1741, 


dis. 


1768 


1749, 


died 1810 


1727, 


" 


1795 


1742, 


(( 


1778 


1736, 


u 


1763 


1727, 


il 


1759 


1743, 


(( 


1754 


1750, 


(( 


1764 


1754, 


« 


1794 



(a) Mr. Chandler was installed in 1761, at Gloucester, Mass. — Mr. Fos- 
ter was installe*! in 1781, at Packersfield, N. H., and after about 10 year* 
he was dismissed and settled at Rye, N. H.— See Greenleafs Ecc. Sketchen. 
— See ante. p. 17. 



Chap, xi.] ' OF waine. 281 

Besides these ordained clergymen in the corporate towns, ad. 1750, 
there were a few plantations, which had become parishes, and had 
settled ministers, also there were several itinerant preachers in 
the eastern country. — New Marblehead, [Windham,] in 1747, 
settled Mr. John Wright, where he lived and labored in the gos- J^yrig,,^ 
pel ministry, till his death, in 1754. Rev. Solomon Lombard ^i^^,.^^^^^ 
was ordained at Gorhamtown, in 1750; and Jlierr?/coneffg-pen- [;'^;.j_^"'"' 
insula, (Harpswell,) being separated the same year from North- 
Yarmouth, and formed into a precinct or district, settled Rev. 
Elisha Eaton in 1753, who was happy with his people so long as 
he lived — being a faithful and acceptable minister eleven years. 
To enable such plantations as entered into ministerial contracts, Plantations 
to fulfil them, an act was passed in 1751, by which the Courts 
of Sessions were authorized to apportion the assessments and ap- 
point a collector. They were also now for the first time, taken 
into the general valuation, and rules prescribed by law, for their 
organization and the choice of officers. — Rev. Robert Ruther- R. Rmlier- 
ford,^ a man of a very amiable and excellent disposition, offi- 
ciated several years, in the double capacity of minister to the 
people, and chaplain in the fort at St. Georges' river, where he 
died in 1756. For 4 or 5 years. Rev. Alexander Boyd, a presby- a. Eoyd. 
terian candidate, preached with great acceptance to the people 
of Georgetown ; and from the first time of their becoming ac- 
quainted with his eloquent manner and able performances, in 
1748, they would have settled him, had not the presbytery found 
obstacles in the way of his ordination. 

Hence it is manifest, that though the devout religionists of 
Massachusetts might look with obloquy upon this Province, as 
the receptacle of scismatics and excommunicants ; or tauntingly 
say, " that when a man could find no religion to his taste, let him 
remove to Maine ;" — we find at the present period, its inhabit- 
ants, in proportion to their numbers and wealth, supporting as 
many learned and worthy ministers as any part of New-England. 
In no Province was there greater unanimity in religious sentiment 

* Mr. Rutherford came to Pemaquid with Col. Dunbar about 1729-30. 
He died at St. Georges, and was interred in the burying ground near the 
mansion of the late Gen. Knox. On his grave stone] is this inscription,— 
" Here lies buried the body of Rev. Mr. Robert Rutherford, M. A. who 
" died on the 18th of October, 1756, aged 68 years,* 
Vol. II. 36 



282 'I'HE HISTORY [Vol. ii. 

A, D. 1750, among the people ; — in none, more fellowship among the minis- 
terial brethren. The community was in general a body of con- 
muiiity, ill gregationalists,^ if a very few presbylerians and episcopalians, 
%7Jatiojmi'- and still fewer baptists and quakers, be excepted ; and even with 
"'*' them, there were now no important dissensions in sentiment. 

Biiiish Another subject, important to this, and every English Province, 

system. was the trade of the country, as connected with England. The 
same year (1696) in which die crown established the Board, called 
" The Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations;^^ par- 
liament commenced the American System :f — passing first the 
Navigation jsfavigation Act. By this it was required that all ships trading 
between the mother country and her colonies, be English, Irish, or 
American buih, and their cargoes, the property of the king's 
Trespass subjects. Another called the Trespass Act, was passed Sept. 24, 
1710. to preserve the mast-pines in the forests of New-England, 
New-York and New-Jersey, for the use of the royal navy. By 
this, every person who cut a single tree, forfeited £100 sterling, 
recoverable in a Court of Admiralty. The last provisional clause 
was deemed a grievance, because that tribunal tried cases without 
a jury. 
The system But immediately after the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, (1748,) 
attempts were made to give the system an entirely new and more 
energetic character. Upon this subject a multitude of English 
politicians were so rank and determinate, that the passage of a 
bill in parliament was hardly prevented, though it went so far as 
to give royal instructions the force of law — a power which would 
have enabled the crown, by a single blow, to sweep off every 
Colonial charter and law, in this country. — Fully sensible of what 
^'"j. "'^ bills of C7-edit Imd done, especially in the siege of Louisbourg, 
stricteti. and what they might do in other emergencies, parliament forbade 
the emission of them to any amount, except expressly to meet 
the annual public expenditure, or to repel invasion. This was 
Iron act. foUowed by the Iron Act, passed in 1750, professedly to promote 
the importation of Pig and Bar Iron from the American Colo- 
nies into England. J But in the light of its provisions, the flimsy 
guise which veiled its title, was easily seen through ; for it pro- 

* Quakers had a meeting at York, in 1662 ; and at Mr. Proctor's in Fal- 
mouth, in 1750 ; and the Baptists had a meeting- in Kittery as early as 1681. 
— Smith's Journal, p. f See post, A. D. 1763. 

I 1 Dotig. p. 540-1. 



Chap, xi.] of Maine. 283 

hibited, under severe penalties, the use of any mill for slitting or a.d. 1750, 

. .to 1732. 

rolling iron, and likewise any furnace for making steel. This 
would compel the Colonists to export their iron in pigs and bars, 
to London, the only iron market for foreign trade in the realm ; 
and to take in exchange, cutlery, woollens and other fabrics. 
Attempts were also made to restrict the colonies in their trade with ,^^ade/i"fn'*. 
the West Indies* to the Islands belonging to the English. A ^J- 
principal article exported thither from Maine was lumber; for 
which molasses was received in larse quantities. In its primitive ''umbprand 

^ i- i Molasses. 

state, this was an article of great use ; and when distilled, it was 
supposed [though erroneously] to be a needful drinkf for those 
engaged in the fisheries, in the lumbering business, in the military 
service, and in navigation — as better enabling them to endure 
hardships. Besides, rum and molasses were carried by fishing 
vessels, in the winter, to the southern Colonies, and exchanged 
for corn and pork, which were every year needed in this eastern 
country. The balance of trade at this time, was, even while un- 
restricted, against the fishermen, the ship-builders, the lumber- 
ers and the seamen ; for it was found, that all those engaged in 
such employments, could not pay the bills for their supplies and 
support, at the prices they were compelled to give for articles 
consumed j and should they be restrained to a trade with the 
English, in the single article of molasses, a fatal check must be 
given to the kinds of enterprize mentioned. J 

But what more particularly engaged again the attention of the seiiiemem 
government and the people, was the settlement and the safety of ^*[,jj^'|,^i^j"(*,.y 
this eastern country.^ In the autumn of 1750, Richard Ha- 
zen was employed at the public expense, to make surveys, and 
form a correct chart or map of the whole coast, between the 

* Tliis trade was less profitable, than in tbe reigns of William and Anne. 
—2 Hukh. Hist. p. 397. 

I " It has killed more Indians than the wars and their sicknesses ; it does 
" not spare white people, especially when made into flip." — 1 Doug. Summ. 
p. 540. 

N. B. The Sugar Act passed A. D. 1755, by which a duty of 9t/. per g-al- 
lon was laid on rum ; on molasses 6d. ; on 100 wt. sugar 5*. ; if imported from 
any other than English Islands. — 1 Minot, p. 301. | 1 Minot, p. 

\ " Every new house, new farm, new subject, adds to the consumption of 
" British manufactures ; — and nothing contributes more to speedy set- 
" tlements, than a vent for the lumber — a great help in clearing lands." — 
2 Hxdch. Hist. p. 399. 



284 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. I). 1750, Merrimack and the St. Croix. Also two new townships were, in 

consideration of military services, appropriated and ordered to 

fjrnnt'; rS bc surveycd. One was assi2;ned to Captain Pierson and his as- 

:ihI iIoMs- gociates, who were in the expedition against Liouisbourg — called 

i^uan-iisk. Piersotitown phiniaiion. The other township was appropriated 

to the benefit of Copt. Hohbs'-^ and his company, wlio were in 

the same service; each to be hiid out and settled on the general 

terms ; — both now forming the town of Standish. For several 

r.Miolisrol 

visaed years, the Islands, t!ie waters, and the banks of the Penobscot, 
had all attracted great attention ; and in July, (1750.) a large 
vessel " full of people," visited these parts. The view, as it 
was designed, afforded the passengers an opportunity to select 
j)lacts for tlieir future residence. A settlement of these lands 
had hitherto been I'etarded by the hostilities of the Indians, more 
than in consequence of their belonging to the crown ; therefore 
nothing but their opposition, jealousy, and ill-will, now prevented 
several enterprizing people from planting their habitations perma- 
nently, upon the banks of that commanding river. Every prac- 
ticable method, subsequent to peace, was used to keep the tribes 
tranquil, two trading houses were opened and well supplied ;— 
Tnu-k mas- Wihiam Litligow being appointed, in 1752, truck-master at 
Richmond fort, and Jabez Bradbury, at St. Georges; and a 
confidence began to be strongly entertained in the future safety 
of settlers, 
.'^eiii.'monts '^^^' '''•^^''^d wcre tho great and various exertions made, during 
ruiiujj.ci j|)g ]^5[ (fiirtii years, to settle this section of country, without 
cicoi-es' considerable success. -j- Emigrants had been introduced and 
planted within it, from Ireland by Dunbar and his friends; from 
Germany, by Gen. Waldo, and the ]Muscongus patentees ; and 
from some parts of New-England, by Drowne and other propri- 
etary claimants. Between 1733, and 1735-6, Irish protestants 
of Scottish descent, settled in the ' Upper and Lower towns,' on 
St. Georges' river ; also on lands towards its mouth [now Gush- 
ing ;]J and at Broad-bay ; and the English settled Medumcook, 



nvcr, 



* Jour. House of Rep. (17C0,) p. SO."),— called Ilobljitoxcn. 

f 4 Coll. Mass. His. Soc. p. 2 J. 

|JI7S. letters from St. Gorge, Cuihhi'^, and Thorn iston. — 'll.ta JIS. 
J^arrative of C. Eaton. — Samuel Waldo, son of Gen. 'Waldo, went to Ger- 
man)' in 1753, and " circulated proclamations to induce emig^rants to como 
to America." — J. Ludwig^t testimony. — Report, ISll, p. 164. 



Chap, xi.] OF MAi.\E. 285 

fnow Friendship.! Accessions were made in 1740, to the plan- a.u. 1750, 

lation at Broad-bay ;* in 1743, to those on St. Georges river, 

and on the Kennebeck ;f and a few migrated to other places 

soon afterwards. Early in 1750, Mr. Crelleus, a German gen- ^,^^^ i,^^ 

lleuian, presented a memorial to the General Court, in which he <;*''"i;'"'^ ^' 

' i ' liroeid-bay. 

proposed to remove several protestant families from his country, 
into the Province, provided they could see sufficient inducements. 
Jt seems he had made a voyage across the Atlantic, upon this 
errand. So favorable to the proposal was the Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor, that he threw his weight into tiie scale with the applicant, 
and stated to the General Court, — 'from the character and dispo- 
■'sition of that people, I apprehend it to be of great importance 
* to encourage then* settlement among us ; as they would intro- 
' duce many useful manufactures and arts.' — Four townships of 
land therefore, were appropriated for the accommodation of for- 
eign protestants 5 and the Province frigate offered to transport 
ihem, after arrival, to the places of their selection or destination. 
The Legislature also adopted provisional measures for their ac- 
commodation and comfort, for naturalizing them and their fami- 
lies, and for encouraging tiieir ministers and interpreters. The 
next year, (1751,) between 20 and 30 families arrived, with Mr. 
Etter, their interpreter :J whose necessities, in the ensuing winter, 
were relieved at the public expense, as well as by private char- 
ity ; beds, bedding and other articles being furnished them, till 
their removal to Broad-bay and other places. 

By the new valuation finished in 1751, there were exhibited npw valua 
melancholy proofs, how much war, sickness, the small-pox, and 
other adversities, had checked the progress of population ; for 
the inhabitants of the whole province of Massachusetts, within 
the last seven years, had actually increased only about 500 ; and 
no more than five added to the corporate towns in that Province. 
In Maine, the towns at that and the present time, were eleven ; 
and the proportion of £1,000 tax, assigned to her, including a few 
plantations, was merely £2 II5. od. more than in the preceding 
valuation. § Hence it would appear, that, on the whole, her pop- 

* Germans emigrated to Broad-bay. — J/S. LeAler of Jlr. Ludwig . 
j[J}S. Letter from Dresden. — New settlers planted at Frankfort, [Povvnal- 
borough.] 

X MS. Let. M. R. Ludwig, Esq 8 Jour. H. of Rep. p. 76. 

\ See ante, 1743. 



286 TUK HISTORY [Vol. n. 

A.D. 1752. Illation, during seven years, had in a small degree increased. To 
Excise mid lessen the direct taxes, however, there were excise and impost 
ties. laws still in force, which brought considerable sums into the Pro- 

vincial treasury.* The excise was laid on ardent spirits, distil- 
led ; and duties exacted on wines, rum, sugar, and molasses, 
tobacco, logwood, and West India fruits; also on most other 
articles imported, unless by law exempted. f The tonnage duty 
was " a pound of good pistol powder per ton," on every vessel 
not British, nor English colonial — which was to be paid every 
voyage. There were also, in 1750, duties exacted on lea, cof- 
fee, and arrack — also on coaches and chariots imported ; and the 
dui'ies^.'"'^ ""^same year, Jabez Fox, o( Falmouth, was chosen Collector of the 
duties or imposts, for Yorkshire ; the excise being usually farmed 
out for periods of three years. J 

A very important alteration was made at this period in the 
New sijle. . . . 

record of dates, which deservedly claims particular notice. It 

had been satisfactorily ascertained, and generally conceded through- 
out European coiuitries, that in consequence of small increments 
during a long series of years, the computation of time was in- 
correct. An act of Parliament, therefore, was passed, January 
22, 1752, extending to all the British dominions; which ordain- 
ed, that every year, including the present one, should begin Jan- 
uary 1, instead of March 25 ; and that eleven days be expunged 
from the Calendar ; and the 3d of September, in the present 
year, be called the 14th. This correction has been denominated 
the New Style. § 
Commis- To pavc the way for a conciliatory conference with the Indians, 

tiie'imiuns government transported to Fort Richmond and to St. Georges, 
ges^'' ^^°^' ^'^^ hogsheads of bread and six barrels of pork, to be distributed 
among them ; and, Oct. 20, lour commissioners were met at the 
latter place, by delegations of Sagamores from all the eastern 
tribes, except the Mickmaks and those of St. Francois. The 



* The duties on articles ad valorem were 4d. in jjl. 

f Duties by tiie Hiid. on molasses, 16d. ; ruin, jji ; sug-ar, jj2 ; tobacco, 
jF^2 ; a pipe of wine, £4, — " old tenor:" — ajg^reg-ate of excise, impost, and 
tonnag-c, in 1748, £33,480, old tenor. On every g-allon of rum distilled, 
2s. — 1 Doug. Summ. p. 521-3. 

J Farmers of the excise in i\Iaine, (1752) were "Major Cutis, Capt. 
Plaisted, and Hon. John Hill." 

\ Prov. Laws, p. 579-586 — where the act is entire. 



Chap, xi.] of maine. 287 

non-appearance of the latter was an unfavorable circumstance ; A. D. 1752. 
otherwise, as Lieutenant-Governor Phips told the General Court, 
— " we have succeeded as well as we could expect, and the 
" conference may have a good tendency to prevent any further 
" molestation of our frontiers." 

The present aspect of Indian affairs extensively encouraged Enroumire. 

. , 111111 II • mem (if the 

residents and landholders, to undertake some new miprovements |,e<ipie ami 
of their condition and estates. Settlements in what are now '""'^'^"' "'*' 
Woolwich, Edgecomb, Bath, Dresden, Bowdoinham,Topsham and 
in many other places, were found to be permanent and increas- 
ing ; and the people of Wiscasset, Sheepscot, and Merryconeag, 
were severally desirous of being incorporated into towns, or 
districts. The claim of Sir Richard Edgecomb's heirs to a tract 
between Richmond fort and Cathance river, was revived by John 
Edgecomb of New-London. He traced the title from Sir Fer- 
dinando Gorges. The proprietors of the Plymouth patent for 
the purpose of establishing their limits, took depositions in per- 
petual remembrance, made some surveys, and exhibited an 
ingenious chart of their claim. Nay, to facilitate the meetings of 
''^proprieties,''^ a law was passed giving them equal privileges, 
whether their lands were within or without a located township. 

Fortifications were repaired or enlarged, — that at St. Georges ponifica- 
river, being constructed of hewn timber, 20 inches square, with"""*","' , 

' o ' 1 ' proved, or 

walls about 16 feet in height. Its form was quadrangular, each ^"'■■^'"S<^<^- 
side being 100 feet. Within were the barracks, or apartments, 
built of timber against the walls, for the dwelling or retreat of 
the people, every one being occupied by a single family or more, si. Georges 
according to the size of the rooms or numbers in the families. 
In the centre, was a good well of water ; and from the southern 
wall, a covered way was formed by means of logs, and extended 
to a large timber block-house, 200 feet distant, at the water's 
edge. Here, 12 or 15 pieces of cannon were mounted, com- 
pletely commanding the river. This fortress was erected in 
1719-20;* improved in 1740; and since the last war, the es- 
tablishment had been enlarged at the expense of the settlers. 
They built what they called block-houses, about 100 rods west- 
ward of the fort, in two rows or ranges ; and surrounded the 
whole by a picket made of posts driven into the ground, as thick 

*See ante, A. D. 1719. 



fort. 



288 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A.D. 1752. as they could stand, and ten feet in height. Thus accommodat- 
ed and secured, they formed themselv^es into a military company 
for their mutual defence. In times of danger, either they 
or the soldiers, were continually scouting ; — such as went to labor 
in the field were well armed ; and when the signal of a general 
alarm was given at the fort by ' the discharge of a heavy cannon,' 
all who were abroad made a speedy retreat to the garrison. 
" Year after year, the inhabitants had no other way of cultivating 
their farms, and obtaining wherewithal to support their families."* 
Fnriificn- ^^^^ garrison was commanded by Jabez Bradbury. The block- 
N-'ums''^ house at the Narrows above, was garrisoned by a party of the 
111 Cushiri"- i"Ii^bitants, under Capt. Kilpatrick ; that in Gushing by another 
party of volunteers, under Capt. Benjamin Burton ; and that 
In St. j^ggj. ^i^g mouth of the river [in the present town of St. George,] 
At Broad- ^^ Others, under Capt. Henderson. f The forts at Broad-bay 
bay n lid ^j^^ Medumcook, were also rendered defensible, and the inhabi- 
cok. tants were determined never more to be driven from their homes. 

A petition siirned by Jacob Wendell, Edward Winslow, and 

A petition I o J ' ' 

for a new their associatcs, proprietors of the Plymouth patent, and a large 

coimly on 'II j i ' o 

iiie Keiine- number of settlers, was presented to the General Court, Decem- 
ber 18, 1752, complaining of the inconveniences they suffered 
in consequence of their remote situation from the shire- towns and 
the seats of justice, and praying to be erected into a 7ieiv county, 
A bill to this effect was reported in December of the following 
year ; but through the apprehensions of another rupture, it was 
never matured into a law. 
A. D. 1753. The embers of conflicting claims, which circumstances had 
Sctiiemonts only smothercd, were now in several places, either disturbed or 

there dis- 
turb tlie rekindled. Heated controversies among proprietors might have 

Indians. iici iitt r\ 

soon spread, had not a back fire been set by the Indians. Un 
seeing the English make improvements, they complained loudly, 
as heretofore of encroachments, and shewed impatience and 
some ill-temper. An able committee of seven, to whom the 
matters were all referred, after giving notice in the Boston news- 
papers to all concerned, carefully investigated the subjects of 
claim and complaint, and reported, that the lands on both sides 
of the Kennebeck, had long before been conveyed by the chiefs 

* MvS. Letter of Hez. Prince, Esq. 

+ MS. Nar. C. Eaton, Esq.— See Thomaston, A. D. 1777. 



Chap, xi.] oP mal\e. 289 

to the English : and settlements made by consent of the Indians, a.d. 17o3 
and continued " many miles," above Fort Richmond ; that they, 
within sixty years, had repeatedly engaged by solemn treaty, not 
to molest any of the English in the exercise of their rights, or 
the enjoyment of their possessions ; and that if the law, whicli Theimnting 
forbade all hunting eastward of Saco and northward of the set- ed. 
tiers' habitations, were carried into rigid execution, they believed 
the Indians would manifest no more inquietude. Copies of the 
law, therefore, w'ere distributed throughout this eastern country; 
and the commanders of the garrisons and the keepers of the 
truck houses w'ere ordered to see its provisions strictly observed. 
But when untutored Indians, dupes to designing Frenchmen, were 
under the influence of jealousy and suspicion, every incident or 
even mishap spread and faned the flames. Though all were 
forbidden to hunt, or to cut timber in the extensive forests, or to 
settle contiguous to them ; thoughtless people were, without doubt, 
careless of their preservation, and indifferent, whether the In- 
dian hunter, or the Britisii king suffered. But the Provincial Great fires 
government always conducted in respect to the crown lands, ac-^vo^Js "'"' 
cording to the principles of duty, honor, and justice ; and in 
consequence of the immense damage lately done by fires, spread 
by accident or design, actually passed a penal statute against set- 
tins; fires in or near the woods. Yet nothing could tranquillize 
an affronted or disaffected Indian. It was sufficient offence, that against set- 
these destructive fires, which alarmed and annoyed them and 
ruined their nearer hunting grounds, were the works or wrongs 
of Englishmen. 

Hence, it was correctly stated by the Lieut. Governor, in his -pi^gj^.^^^j^, 
speech, June 12, to the General Court, that ' the two principal and s|a«"'<^s '" 
' perhaps only material obstacles to the settlement of the eastern se"i'"g ''''-' 

, . . . eastern 

' country, were its exposed situation to the Indian enemy in case of country. 
* rupture ; and the great controversy about titles, by reason of 
' different claims to the same tracts of land.' As the readiest 
means to obviate these evils, he recommended the establishment 
of a special tribunal to settle land-titles ; and the adoption of all 
practicable measures, for filling the country with inhabitants. En- 
couraged by the public sentiment, Florentius Vassal, an emin- 
ent gentleman from Jamaica, proposed to the General Court, 
that if the territory between the waters of the Penobscot and 
V©L. II. 37 



290 THE HISTORY [VoL. II, 

A. D. 1753. St. Croix, were granted to him and his associates ; they would 

Vassal's settle there within a stipulated time, such number of iniiab- 

seiiiin;^ tiie itants, as would form a barrier to the French, and a check to the 

tm'eii'Pe- Indians. It was a suggestion at a favorable moment ; and the 

St.'cr'oix" legislative branches assured him, that if he would, by May, 1758, 

obtain his Majesty's approbation, introduce 5,000 settlers, and a 

proportionate number of protestant ministers, and satisfy the 

Indians as to their claim ; the emigrants should have all the lands 

they would settle, and all the Islands within three miles of the 

coast.* 

New castle jf Georgetown were within the old Province of INlaine, the 

incorporat- ^ 

eti- first municipality, established by the Provincial government with- 

in the territory of Sagadahock, was that of Sheepscot planta- 
tion, which was incorporated June 19, 1753, into a town, with 
the usual powers and privileges, by the name of Newcastle ;f — 



* 8 Jour. House of Rep. p. .50, 1G9. 

fit was so called probably ia compliment to the Duke of Newcastle, 
tlie king^'s principal secretary at that time, and a friend to the American 
Colonics. It was the same name given by the royal Duke's agents, 166-1-5, 
to another i«art of his patented territory on the Delaware. — JSi''cwcastle, 
Jirst settled about 1630-1, was for thirty-iive years, or long-er, called the 
" Sheepscot'''' plantation. Waller Phillips, an early settler, resided on the 
western side of the Damariscotta, not far from the lower or salt water 
Falls, where the Newcastle village now is. In 1661-2 and 1674, he pur- 
chased large tracts around him, of the Sagamores, — whence is deduced 
the " Tappan Right." John J\lason was a cotemporary or earlier settler, 
on the easterly side of the Sheepscot, at the " Great Neck" — a short dis- 
tance from Pliillips'. About the year 1649-50, — Mason also purchased of 
Robinhood and Jack Pudding, two Sagamores, a considerable tract about 
his residence. In 1665, the king's Commissioners sat at his house, when 
they organized a government within the Duke's patent. They called the 
plantation Dartmouth, or JVcw Darttnovih, and appointed Mr. Phillips, Re- 
corder. They both finally left the country at the commencement of the 
2d Indian war, in 16SS ; — Pliillips went to Salem, Massachusetts, where he 
was living in 1702 ; and Mason removed to New-Jersey, where he died. — 
See 1st Vol. this Hist. p. 56, 330, 408, and 536.— In August, 1676, the inhab- 
itants fled before the Indians, but returned after the Avar. However, in 
Sept. 1688, the first year of king William's war, the settlement Avas wholly 
destroyed, and lay waste thirty years. — The plantation was revived and 
resettled in 1719. It is believed the settlement was erected into a district 
or precinct, in 1751. — See 18 Council Records, p, 19-20, 51. — 8 Jour. 
House of Rep. (1753.) p. 44. — It was first represented in the General Court, 
A. D. 1774, by Benjamin Woodbridge. By the census, in 1764, there were 
then 454 people in town. Newcastle lies between the rivers Damariscot- 
ta and Sheep»cot. It is the western section of the Tappan Right ; and in 



Chap, xi.] of maine. 291 

the twelfth in the present State. According to usage, it received a,d. 1753. 

a law-book, presented at the public expense ; and in respect to 

the number, reputation and enterprize of its inhabitants, it has 

always holden an elevated rank among the towns. 

On the 6th of August, the return of Governor Shirley, was August 6 

heartily greeted by the people of the whole Province * ' It J^'"'" "'^ 
, , (jovpiiior 

* would have given us singular pleasure,' say the General Court ^'"r'*:.)"- 
to him, ' if your Excellency had succeeded in settling the boun- 

* daries with the French in America ; for which his Majesty has 

* been pleased to detain you so long fi-om us. But for a long 

* time, that nation has been famous for doing justice by compul- 
*sion, rather than by inclination.' — In reply, the Governor says, — 

* my employment as one of his Majesty's commissioners at Paris, 
' has occasioned my absence from you, three years longer than 

* I proposed to myself, when I left Boston. f Among other inter- 

* ests of the crown, which I had it in my heart to secure by this 
'negotiation, was a large portion of territory [Sagadahock,] be- sp<.ada- 

* longing to this Province claimed by France ; and the preserva- ^°''^' 

* tion of the whole of it, against her encroachments, will in a 
' great measure finally depend upon the issue of this dispute.' 

As the territory of Sagadahock was thus involved in the same 
controversy, it is important to give a short outline of its merits. 
The French contended that ancient Acadia or Nova Scotia 

1 • 1 r I • ••11 • • 1 . . ^ T'"^ clnims 

admitted 01 this territorial description — beginning at Cape St. "'' Fm.ire 
Mary's on the southerly side of the entrance into the Bay of ed.' ' ^''*^'^' ' 
Fundy, thence following the westerly and southerly shore of the 

it, arc also lands purchased of the Sagamores by John Mason, as mention- 
ed. — Sullivan, p. 166, 286. — One Randolph, many years before the Ameri- 
can revolution, came from New-Jerse}', and endeavored, in vain, to revive 
the Mason claim, in rig-ht of his mother. Mason's daug-hter. Randolph said 
his parents informed him, he was born at Sheepscot, and carried away 
while an infant, when they fled from the savag-es. — There was a fort on 
Sheepscot river, before the 2d Indian war. Rev. Alexander Boyd, was 
employed to preach in Sheepscot soon after it was made a district. He 
was ordained by the ^o«fon Presbylerij, Sept. 19, 1754, and dismissed in 
1758. After a lapse of 18 years, in which time, Messrs. Ward, Lain, Per- 
ley and Benedic, were employed as preachers, Rev. Thurston Whiting- 
was settled, in July, 1776, and a Cong-reg-ational Church formed. Rev. 
Kiah Baily was settled in 1797 — Greenleafs Ecclesiastical Hist. p. 101-6. 
— There is now a society there of Roman Catholics. 

* 1 Minot, p. 173 — He had gratulatory addresses from the College, 
Clergy, and Courts. f See ante, A. D. 1749, p. 260. 



292 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A.D. 1733. great peninsula eastward to Cape Canseau; thence by the shore 
to the head* of Chcdabucto bay j and thence westerly and diag- 
onally, through the heart of the peninsula, to Cape St. Mary's be- 
fore mentioned — on an imaginary line along the heads of the rivers, 
that run southerly and empty into the Atlantic, or northerly and 
empty into the bay of Minas, or the bay of Fundy ; and they 
clain^ed as a part of Canada or New-France, all the territories 
northerly of this imnginary line ; — embracing Annapolis and both 
the southerly and northerly coasts of those two bays, even to the 
St. Lawrence, and also extending westwardly to the river Ken- 
nebeck, 
Tiie claims On the contrary, the English insisted, that Nova Scotia or 
To Nova*"" Acadia manifestly embraced the whole country southerly of the 
'^^°""' St. Lawrence and eastwardly of St. Croix, including the great 
The ques- peuinsula.— Hcuce, the question was, hoiv much of the country 
lion staled, i^j^^g^^j ^^ England, and hoiv much to France. ? — and where 
ought the divisionnl line between Canada and JVova Scotia, to 
he drawn ?f 

The English, in support of their position, adduced certain 
nienirad- documents and facts, thought by them to be conclusive : — such 
ti"e*'Ensiisii as,— the discovery of Newfoundland, in 1497, by Cabot ;—for- 
iSdaiii. mal possession taken of the country, in 1583, by Humphrey Gil- 
bert ;— the patent of North and South Virginia between the 34th 
and 45th degrees of north lathude, granted in 1606; — that of 
New-England, in 1620, between 40° and 48° of north latitude ;— 
and that to William Alexander, Sept. 10, 1621, called JSova 
Scotia, which embraced the lands claimed, whereof commensur- 
ate possession had been taken and continued ; and though the 
Commission of Governor Temple, by extending his jurisdiction 
to the river St. Georges, seemed to imply, that Nova Scotia, as 
the French under tiie treaty of Breda, 1667, contended, must 
extend as far westward ; yet that Province, it is well known, did 
always extend northward, to the Bay Chaleur, and eastward 
to the Passamaquoddy bay only. For the Provincial charter, A. 
D. 1691, did embrace the whole territory eastward to the St, 

* A few leagues north-westerly of Cape Canseau. 

t 1 Jlinot, p. 120-130.— But Mr. Minot is in part, incorrect.— See Col- 
lection of J\le7norials, printed in Englisti, 1756 ; also the Report of the doins^s 
and arguments of Messrs. Shirley and Galissionere, the Comviissionert, in 
French and Latin. — Boston Athenceum. 



Chap, xi.] of Maine. 293 

Croix, (likewise Nova Scotia inclusive,) and northward to the St. a.d, 1753. 
Lawrence. At any rate, whatever might be the limits of Nova 
Scotia, the treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, expressly conceded to 
England, " Nova Scotia or Acadia in its full extent," — which 
must be the same country, she had resigned to France by the 
treaty of Breda, A. D. 1667; and the late treaty of Aix-la- 
Chapelle, 1748, re-establishes all things, as they were before the 
war. Nay, the commissions to the French Governors of Nova 
Scotia, gave them jurisdiction to Penobscot, and as they said, 
even to Kennebeck on the ' confines of New-England,' shewing 
that they considered the latter joined the former ; and indeed the 
French, till the treaty of Utrecht, had, or at least claimed, actual 
possession of the country to Penobscot, as a part of Acadia. 

But according to the arguments of the French,* — if prior dis- 
covery or settlement were to be considered, they could mention Ai<^'uments 
enterprizes of that character by Baron de Lcry, in 1518; hyp|.^''^[j 
James Cartier, who in 1 535 took possession of Canada ; and by 
de Monts, who had a patent of Acadia in 1 604, and made per- 
manent settlements on the coast of the Etechemins, and though 
the next year he removed over the Bay of Fundy to Port Royal, 
he did not abandon the St. Croix. Whereas the earliest English 
settlement was not till 1607, even in Virginia ; and Capt. Smith, 
when he surveyed the northern coast, in 1614, said ihe country 
-was known by French names, and " that of Canada stifled all 
the rest." The patent to William Alexander was itself a nullity, 
as the country was not ' vacant,' according to the condition it 
contained, but previously and actually occupied by the French 
under de Monts. Indeed, the charter of William and Mary 
gave the provincials no right to grant any of the lands between 
Sagadahock and St. Croix, but reserved them to the British 
crown, — a territory to which no name was ever so much as given, 
evidently because the English knew their rights to the country 
were nugatory, or at least, extremely problematical. Nor did 
France take the country by the treaty of Breda, as a cession, 
but as a restitution of what she had originally been the owner. It 



* Gov. Shirley says [S'ce his speech in Feb. 1755,] " by memorial of tbe 
" French commissioners delivered to those of Eng-land at Paris, 1750, they 
'• claim the whole country to the westward and southward of the river St. 
" Lawrence; as far as the Kennebeck, on one side of the bay of Fundy, 
*' and Annapolis Royal on the other." 



294 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1753. is true that by the treaty of Utrecht, ' Acadia or Nova Scotia in 
' its full extent, according to its ancient limits' — also ' the town of 
' Port Royal,' — and in general, " all that depend on the said 
countries and Islands belonging to them," were conceded to the 
English ; yet the very language of the treaty renders it certain, 
that ' Acadia as originally limited, and Port Royal were different 
' countries, otherwise they would not have been both mentioned, 
' the early and correct French geographers establishing the same ;* 
' — and the only question was, where to draw the line between 
' them.' 
Negotiation This negotiation, opened solely about boundaries, was through 
tiiraTne*^oftbe management of the French, protracted till their schemes 
formed from wcrc in a great degree matured. The late treaty of Aix la 
i^^NeTv "^o Chapelle was evidently treated by them as a truce ; and at length 
leans. jj- ^y^g perceived, that they had conceived the prodigious design 
of forming a line of forts from Bay Verte, along the St. Law- 
rence and the great lakes, and through the Ohio country, termin- 
ating only at New-Orleans ; and that the real question, which 
must ere long be tried by the arbiter of war, and decided by 
arms, was, who shall have the ultimate and paramount command 
and rule of this JSorthern Hemisphere ?f — Already the French 
had about 30 forts within the disputed territories, including one 
at Crown Point, and one on Sorel river. The Indians of St. 
Francois and Nova Scotia were hostile, the Acadians were 
treacherous, and the French bold and insolent. 
Se)t 21 To ascertain at this crisis the disposition and temper of the 

Tarraiines eastern Indians, Commissionerst met the Sagamores of Penob- 

quiet, ' -r o 

scot, at St. Georges, Sept. 21, and had a free conference with 
them. They acknowledged they had received a letter from a 
Jesuit missionary, by which they were advised and encouraged to 
take measures for the defence of their lands and rights ; but still 
they wished for peace, and had determined to abide by the treaty. 

* Champlain and M. Denys. — See aide, vol. I. p. 248, note J. 

f Tlie French are executing- a plan projected more than 50 years since, 
" for extending- tlieir possessions from the mouth of the Mississippi to Hud- 
" son Bay — securing- the vast body of Indians in that inland coimtry, and 
'' subjugating- the whole continent to the crown of France." — Got-. Shirley^s 
Speech. 

■\ These were, Sir IF. Peppercll, Jacob Wendell, Thomas Hubbard, 
John Wintlow, and James Boicdoin. 



Chap, xi.] of maine. 295 

Trusting to their sincerity, tlie Commissioners proceeded to Fort A, i). 1753. 
Richmond, where they had an interview with several from the 
Canibas tribe. They appeared to be disaffected because there Tiie Cani- 
were settlements begun and prosecuted above that fortress ; and pkiin"""' 
repeated what they had so often alleged, that their fathers never 
could have intended to deprive their children of their homes, or 
their hunting grounds, and leave them to starve. ' Still, if we are 
' unmolested,' said they, ' we shall be tranquil ;' and on receiving 
renewed promises of protection and justice, they engaged to use 
their endeavors to effect a release of the captives taken at 
Swan Island, Frankfort [Dresden,] and in other places, and to capiives 
preserve the peace. Benjamin Mitchell and Lazarus Noble, of |7.!"jjj°''^^'^ 
Frankfort, had taken a journey to Montreal, to recover their ^'^''^^ch. 
captive children ; and after finding them, as they informed the 
General Court, they w'ere compelled by the threats of the Cana- 
dian Governor to return without them. By this, and other base 
conduct of the French, they virtually violated both the laws of 
nations and the faith of the subsisting treaty ; — " injuries," said 
the Legislature, " to which we, who know the rights of freedom 
" and justice, can never tamely submit." Hence, Governor Shir- Messenger 
ley sent a special messenger into Canada, to demand a restoration 'hem!^"'^ 
of the children and of all other captives ; remonstrating to the 
Governor of Canada in most pointed terms, against the vile and 
cruel conduct of the Indians, his allies, and warning him against 
any further interruptions of the amity between the two crowns. 

There was considerable anxiety among the English, occasion- pj.gjjpj^ ^^^^ 
ed by the appearance of French settlements, lately rising upon '|*="'^"'^°" 
the banks of the river Chaudiere, which empties into the St. d'ere begun. 
Lawrence, a few miles above Quebec. The sources of that river 
were near those of the Kennebeck ; and the Indians of Norridge- 
wock had told at Richmond fort, that they had given the settlers 
full liberty to hunt and live in any part of that region — as an in- 
ducement for them seasonably to furnish provisions and military 
stores, whenever the Indians might be again at war with the 
English. Measures, therefore, were diligently pursued for de- defensive 

r 1 . , , . , ' measures. 

lence ; each eastern mland garrison was furnished with two co- 
horn-mortars and sixteen cannon ; and the frontiers, with 100 
stands of small arms and a suitable quantity of ammunition.* 

19 C. Reo. p. 140-1.-8 Journal H. of Rep. p. 96-100. 



296 THE HISTORY [Vol. ii. 

A>D. J733. The first acts of hostility were committed, in Oct. 1753, by 
First French the French and Indians, in the vicinity of the fort at Presque Isle, 
w^^c^at'""'* on the southerly banks of lake Erie ; three British traders being 
Lake Erie, ggj^g^j a,^(j ggnt to Montreal, their goods confiscated, and several 
settlers murdered. To effectuate the release of the prisoners, 
and to prevent a repetition of the wrongs, the Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor of Virginia despatched to the commander of the French 
forces on the Ohio, a messenger, who was afterwards the 
ingiou's illustrious George Washington.* — An answer was returned 
agen<^y- 1^^ ^|jg officer, that the country was French territory ; and he had 
taken possession of it under orders, which he was bound to 
obey. 
The French Equally violent and reprehensible, was the conduct of the 

fortify ill i J 1 '-n. , , • 

Nova Sco- French and Indians in Nova Scotia. Besides the garrisons erect- 
ed at Louisbourg, at the Isthmus, and on the river St. John,, 
'near the borders of Maine,' the French were fortifying or 
strengthening themselves in other places ; prohibiting the tribes 
from having any intercourse by treaty or trade with the English,f 
and encouraging them by rewards, to take either prisoners or 
scalps : — And when captives were carried to Canada, the ran- 
som demanded and often paid was exorbitant. The new and 
improved route between Canada and these eastern parts, by way 
of the rivers Chaudiere and Kennebeck, increased the public ap- 
prehensions, that some place on the upper branches of the one 
or the other, was to be the encampment or general rendezvous of 
the Indians, and that the present peace with them must be of 
short duration. 

In February, (1754,) a company of about 60 able-bodied In- 

A partv of , . , , , ^ , , . . 

Indians visit dians, besides several boys, made their appearance near lort 
niond. ' ' Richmond, and expressed to Capt. Lithgow, their desire of 
sending a written communication to Governor Shirley. They 
were evidently a mixture, composed of some from St. Francois, 
some from Norridgewock, and perhaps a few from Penobscot. 
Their looks and demeanor gave indications, that they were rather 
spies, than a peace-party; for after they had delivered their 
letter, which was of no great importance, they manifested un- 



* He travelled 400 miles— of which 200 were through a trackless desert. 
He arrived at the forts on the Alleghany, Dec. r2th.— 2 Holmes' A. Ann.. 
p. 194-5. "i" Gov. Shirley's speech, Nov. 1754. 



Chap, xi.] of Maine. 297 

usual insolence, and uttered low malignant threats. — ' Better for A. D. 1754, 
' Englishmen, said some of them, to leave these rivers,* else Their meu- 

SlCCS, 

' our French brothers, clad like Indians, will, soon as the ice is 

* gone, help us drive you all away. Certain they will come to 
' us from Canada in the spring, and bring us guns and powder ; 
' for a good priest tells us the truth : — Yes, and the Hurons will 

* come likewise.' 

There was other satisfactory intelligence, that the Governor of The French 
Canada was industrious in his endeavors, to persuade all the eas- t°iuies. 
tern Indians to prevent any further settlements of the English on 
the Kennebeck ; and that a French Jesuit had been making dili- 
gent enquiry after catholic families ; using persuasives to assist 
in building a chapel for worship, and a dwellinghouse for himself, 
either at Cushnoc or Teconnet, and promising favor to all those 
who would join in amity with the French. In short, vengeance 
was denounced by them against any tribe, that should undertake 
to mediate between the English and the Indians. 

It was now extensively believed to be worse than in vain to 6 compa- 
think of perpetuating the peace, and securing the friendship of poimeci for 

, 1 1 • 1 • ) 1 defence of 

savage men by presents ; — men already m league with a malev- Maine. 
olent adversary, who was waiting impatiently, for the word to 
strike our frontiers with deadly and repeated blows. Tribute 
can never long satiate the appetite of an hungry enemy, and war 
is preferable to peace purchased on such degrading terms. Per- 
ceiving the hazardous exposure of these eastern Provinces, the 
Governor ordered six companies to be enlisted or detailed from 
their militia, and to hold themselves in perfect readiness for a 
march, on the shortest notice. Should the Indians at Norridge- 
wock be guilty of any mischief, he directed the officers ' to 
' break up their village, and kill or take captive all they met with 
' of that tribe.' 

The emergency drew from the General Court, April 9, an Provision 
asseveration, that they considered it as indispensable, to prevent ("ri^o" the 
the French from making any settlements whatever upon the ^"""^ ^^ 
banks or branches of the river Kennebeck, or upon the carrying 
places at its head ; that as Richmond fort was in a decayed 
state, the House desired the Governor to order the erection of 

*" The new settlement of the Plymouth patent is the provocation." — 
Smith'' s Jour. p. 58. 

Vol. II. 38 



298 '^^^ HISTORY [Vol. ii, 

A. D. 1751. a new fort, about 100 feet square, as far above, as he might 
think it best ; and when it should be finished, to remove thither 
the garrison, artillery and military stores, and cause the fort it- 
self to be demolished.* At first, 500 men were enlisted, — soon 
augmented to 800, in consequence of some recent acts of vio- 
lence on or near the borders of " the eastern settlements." The 
goldiers received a generous bounty and were furnished with 
every sup})ly. Also, 2,500 prime firearms were ordered to be 
purchased for defence. 
jnn.-2i, Qj, {{j^ ojgt^ of Jmjc, tlic Govcmor, accompanied by Col, 

(■(.iniiiis- Paul iNlascarenc, as Commissioner from Nova Scotia, General 
iroops em- John Winslow, who had the immediate command of the forces, 
]Mr. Dummer, late Lieutenant-Governor, and other persons of 
rank, embarked at Boston in the Province frigate Massachusetts 
for Falmouth, the place of rendezvous. The troops encamped 
A paiiey at On Bangs' Island. Finding on his arrival the Commissioners 
Falmouth, r^.^^^^ New-Hampshire, and 42 of the principal Indians from Nor- 
ridgewock, the Governor, on the 28th, opened a general confer- 
ence. Upon enquiring why none of the Anasagunticooks were 
present, he was told that two of their tribe had been offensively 
killed tlie preceding year in New-Hampshire ; whereas it was 
their bloody act of revenge, which was evidently the true cause 
of tlifcir absence, 
A trraly Govcmor Shirley told the Canibas Chiefs, among other things, 

'^'""' " that lie had concluded to build a new fort at Teconnet, on the 
point of land between the rivers Kennebeck and Sebasticook, at 
their confluence, for which he had made ample preparations, 
Strongly averse as they were to the establishment of any fortress 
on the lands of their forefathers, they persisted in their objection, 
till they were shown by deeds, how the territory had been con- 
veyed away ; and then they gave their consent, signed a treaty, f 
and had their dance ;— all returning home, July 3, except three 
of their young men. Two days afterwards, fifteen principal In- 
dians arrived from Penobscot : and on the Gth, they ratified the 
same treaty, and returned, leaving two of their young men also ; 
— -and the five were sent to Boston to be educated. 

Immediately the Governor sent off the forces upon the pro-^ 

*See ante, 1719. 

f This was ncp.rly the sanie ns <* Dummcr's Treaty." 



Chap, xi.] of maine. 299 

jected enterprize, and gave orders that 500 of the troops recon- A. .D 1754. 
noiter the heads of Kennebeck river and the great carrying places i^uiiding of 
between that and the Chaudiere ; and the residue proceed to 
build the fort according to the plan and dimensions given. 

Perceivina; a war with France inevitable, and acquainted with T"^-Ty wiib 
the open and exposed condition of the northern and eastern t'ons. 
frontiers, the British ministry issued instructions unto the Ameri" 
can Governors, early in the spring, to negotiate, if possible, a 
treaty offensive and defensive with the Six Nations ; to form an 
union of the colonies for the general defence ; to resist by force 
the invasions of the French ; and, in fine, to dislodge them from 
the American territories, upon which they had so wrongfully en- 
croached. Therefore, Commissioners from seven colonies* con- 
vened at Albany, June 14, where they were met by 50 chief June 14, 
men of those Nations, with whom they concluded a treaty. 
They then proceeded to form a plan for the General Union and pian of 
DEFENCE OF THE CoLONiEs ; in which it was proposed to peti- (j',',i"n" 
tion Parliament for an act or charter, to establish a Grand Coun- 
cil of 48 members, annually elective by the colony assemblies ; 
and a President General to be appointed by the crown, with the 
right of negative upon the council ; and to vest him and them 
with power to make general laws, — ^apportion the quotas of men 
and money to each colony in time of war ; — ^establish forts, and 
direct all needful measures both for the public safety aiul common 
defence.-^Reasonable and judicious as the j)roposiiion may ap- 
pear, it met with the singular fate of being rejected both by the king 
and the colonies,— for it was thought by the former, that the 
popular assemblies thereby had two much independence, and by 
the latter, that the President-General had too much power. — 
Hence it was evident, that no project, whatever, could possibly 
meet the views of both parties. f — About this time there were Troop? 
enlistments made in Virginia — likewise in other Provinces, ouieTcoV- 
measures were adopted, to repel the invading forces of the "'®*' 
French ; while each of the two crowns out of regard to their 
respective allies, was waiting for the other, first to declare war, 

* From Massachusetts, New-Hampshire, Rhode-Island, Connecticut,- 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, and New-York. The deleg-ates took " rank m 
geographical order beginning- at the north. See the names of the Com- 
mittee appointed to draw '■'■apian of Union.'''' — 2 Belknap'' s JV. //. p. 220.- 

f 1 Minot, 191-2, where the draft is entire. 



300 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A. D. 1754. After Governor Shirley had passed several weeks in Falmouth 
Shirley re- and its vicinity, in making himself acquainted with the condition 
turns 10 os-^^ ^^^ towns and frontiers, and devising means for their defence^ 
he proceeded to Teconnet, and ascended the Kennebeck as far 
as Norridgewock. Ascertaining that no fort had been erected 
on that river by the French, nor on the carrying places between 
its sources and the Chaudiere, he returned to Boston, Sept. 9, 
where he was met widi vivid congratulations. 
Form end The Site selected for the fort was an eligible and beautiful situ- 
forrrel.^'"" ation.* Its exterior form was quadrangular; being about 100 
feet in length and 40 in breadth. It was constructed of hewn 
pine timber and raised about 20 feet in height, with flankers and 
block-housesf of the same material, the v/alls being thick enough 
to resist musquet bullets. It was sufficiently spacious to contain 
400 men. Tliere was also a strong redoubt constructed on an 
eminence to overlook the country road, fortified by two small can- 
non and a swivel. In the main fortress were mounted sev- 
eral small cannon, and a garrison was established of 100 men. 
Named fort jt ^yas finished, Sept. 3d, and called Fort Halifax ; in naming 

Halifax. '- ... 

which there was some ceremony and a comphmentary mscrip- 
tion in Latin, which admits of this literal translation ; — For the 
benefit of the Massachusetts Province, ffiUiam Shirley, her 
Governor, under the auspices of the most nolle George Mon- 
tague Duck, Earl of Halifax, the highly distinguished friend 
and patron of the British Provinces, throughout America, has 
reared this fortress. — September 3, A. D. 17 54. J 

* The Governor told the House, the fort was 3-4lhs of a mile below Te- 
connet Falls; S7 miles above Richmond Fort ; 50 from Penobscot; 31 by- 
water, and 22 by land, fi'om Norridgewock, and 18 above Cushnoc. — 18 
Coun. Rec. p. 281-7. j In 1830, one block-house was still standing. 

I The Latin : — Quad felix faustum qucsit 

PuoviNCiAE Massaciiusetensi ; 

Hunc lapidcm posuit 

GuLiELMUS Shirley, Gubernatok, 

Sub auspiciis 

Nobilissifni, Georgii Montague Duck, 

Comitis de Halifax, 

Provinciarum, 

Quotqout sunt ditionis Brittannicae ; 

Per Americam utranupir, 

Prefecti atq ; Patroni illustrissimi, 

Die 3, Septcmhris, A. D. 1754. 

[See 1 Miiiot, p. 187.— MS. Let, from TriV«/ow.] 



Chap, xi.] of Maine. 301 

Encouraged and animated by this enterprize as soon as under- 'VD. 1754. 
taken, the proprietors of the Plymoutli patent or Kennebeck 
purchase, built two forts, the same season, both on the eastern side 
of the river. One was situated at the head of sloop navigation 
near the water's edge, and just below the easterly end of the pres- 
ent (Augusta) bridge ; the place and the vicinity being anciently 
called by the Indians, Cushnoc. Some appearances of the 
circumvallation are yet to be seen. The fortress was a large 
building, in dimensions 100 feet by 32, constructed of hewn 
timber, like Fort Halifax. There was also near it a block-house, 
24 feet square, formed of the same timber. Here were mounted 
four cannon, and a garrison established of 20 men. 

It was designed especially, as a depositary of provisions and Poris West- 
military stores for the upper garrison. It was named Fort ?'^es- silideyf 
tern.* The other one, called Fort Shirley, was situated in the 
plantation of Frankfort, [now Dresden] about a mile above tlie 
northerly end of Swan Island, and hence sometimes called Fort 
Frankfort. The parade ground, was 200 feet square, enclosed 
by pickets ; the westerly side of which was on the margin of 
the river. Within were two block-houses, the projecting stories 
of which were 24 feet square. The walls, which were ten 
inches thick, were built of pine and hemlock timber, hewed on 
four sides and interlocked where they crossed at the ends. One 
block-house was in the north and the other in the south corner of 
the parade, on the tops of which were watch-boxes for senti- 
nels. The exterior pickets were of sufficient height, and within 
were barracks, for the accommodation of those belonging to the 
fort. It was afterwards under the command of Samuel Good- 
win, whose family lived with him in the garrison. f 

A road between Fort Western and Fort Halifax, was ordered communi- 
by the Governor to be cleared and made fit for the passage of f„^^\'"j5g|^J-g''^^. 
wheel carriages. He also made arrangements by means of 



* JIS. Let. of Hon. D. Cony, A. D. 1S23.— Some part of tlie fort was 
tlicn standing. Us lat. 44° 14'. — 'The patentees at a very ear]}' period, built 
♦ a trading house at Cushnoc ; and when government was instituted, A. D. 
« 1653, under Thomas Prince at Kennebeck ; it appears, that the people 
' residing at Cushnoc, or Cushenoc, were included therein and took (lie 
' oatii of fidelity, to New-Piyinonth colony.' — James Howard had command 
of Fort Western. 

t .l/S. Lrt. from Dresden, 1821. — One block-house was then standing. 



302 The history [Vol. a. 

A. D. 1754. whale-boats, and videttes, for the communication of expresses, 
^ J. between Fort HaHfax and Fahnouth, in 24 hours. The troops^ 

Troops diS' ' , ' 

charged, except thosc retained in the garrisons, were all discharged, be- 
fore Oct. 17 ; receiving from the Commander-in-Chief and the 
Monies vol- Crcneral Court, expressions of particular approbation,* Imme- 
ed and sup- djately the General Court voted £600, to defray the charges of 

plies. - . . 

the campaign, and £300 to be laid out in presents which were 
to be sent to the tribes upon the Kennebeck and Penobscot ; also- 
appropriated a sura necessary to procure provisions, shoes or 
moccasins, and other supplies, for the garrison at Fort Halifax, 
and £470 for building a small fort at the second or ten-mile 
falls in the Androscoggin, and for repairing Fort George at 
Brunswick and the block-houses or fortified habitations at Tow-- 
woh, [Lebanon] Phillipstown, Saco, Narraganset Number If 
Gorhamtown, Sebago, New-Marblehcad, Saccarappe, and Tops- 
ham.f 
Ati nitack Qn the 6th of November, an express arrived from Fort Hali-' 
soldiery of fax to the Govcmor, informing him that the Indians had fallen upon 
fax. ' a parly of the garrison, while they were engaged in hauling logs- 
for the use of the fort, killed and scalped one soldier and car-- 
ried away four others, prisoners. This outrage, committed so 
soon after solemn confirmation of former treaties, was universally 
viewed, not only as a piece of base and cruel treachery, but a 
certain precursor of another Indian war. It entirely changed 
the aspect of our eastern affairs, throwing a dark cloud over the 
whole. About the same time, an English captive, who had pur" 
chased his freedom, brought news from Canada, that 500 French 
and Indians were collecting at Quebec, and preparing to make 
a furious assault upon Fort Halifax. 
frpsents Hence, the Governor was induced to withhold the valuable 

frimTh?" presents designed for the tribes at Kennebeck and Penobscot,- 
Tribes. ^jjg^^ ^^ ^^^^.^^ qJ ^}^g Province Sloop ; but sent to Fort Halifax 
Slced'^' a re-enforcement of 100 men, with five additional cohorn-mor- 
tars ; and issued orders to the six companies of minute men in 
Maine, to be in constant readiness for marching, at the shortest 
notice. Halifax and the frontiers were put in the best possible 
state of defence for the winter ; and as there was fear, that our 
vessels might be taken by the French, who were supposed to be 



* IS Council Records, p. 297-S. t 18 Couocil Records, p. 329* 



Chap. XI.] of maink. 303 

ranging the eastern coasts, an embargo of 26 days, was laid upon a.d. 1734. 
all such as had on board, either provisions or other supplies. An embar- 
Extremely anxious to effect a release and return of captives, 

I r 1 • 1 1 /I" 1 r • 1 ''^" agency 

numbers 01 whom, it was represented by afflicted Inends, were to Canada 
still in Canada ; Massachusetts and New-Hampsliire sent Capt. iile'reiease 
Phinehas Stevens thither on that errand; hoping, no doubt, to" '^'^P"^^*- 
learn likewise, something of the measures or designs of the Ca- 
nadians. But the mission was productive of more evil than 
-good ; for by paying or even ofiering extravagant ransom, we 
actually encouraged and tempted the Indians to the savage ex- 
ploits of taking captives.* If they were redeemed, the price 
paid gave the foe fresh strength and means to carry on this dia- 
bolical kidnapping mode of warfare. 

The indignation of the public was now more especially aroused St. Francois 

^ _ ' _ I •' Indians, in- 

against the Indians of St. Francois; as it was manifest, they s"saiors to 

, . . . . war. 

were the principal instigators to a rupture. Many believed the 
time had in fact arrived, when that tribe, if none other, ought to 
be utterly exterminated. The General Court offered £100, for p.,r,||pr 
any one of their scalps, and £10 more, for any one of their In- "^"i'^^^^^^ 
dians taken alive ; and directed their agent in England to pur- 
chase for the Province 250 stands of arms, and 1 500 barrels of 
powder. The whole winter was passed in restless anxiety ; it 
being fearfully apprehended, that none of all the eastern Indians, 
except, possibly, the Tarratines, could be deterred from rushing 
into hostilities. To satisfy them and keep them tranquil, govern- 
ment made them presents, gave them the strongest assurances of 
friendship and kindness ; and finally promised them, if they would 
rest quietly under the verdant trees of peace, that a truck house 
should be established upon the Penobscot, and be well supplied 
with all the articles they needed, at fair prices. It was a period Public 
of uncommon interest and solicitude ; the public treasury was cier^'^"' 
empty ; and " the distressing circumstances of the Province" 
were laid before his Majesty, with earnest solicitations for assist- 
ance. 

"'*' Hence, " the savag-es were more desirous of taking captives and more 
tender of them when taken, than in former wars." — 2 Belk. JV. H. p. 222. 



304 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 



CHAPTER XII. 

The French war and Gth icar with the Indians — Fortijications — 
Four expeditions against the French — Thci/ arc driven from Nova 
Scotia by Winsloxo and 3JonJcton — The French Neutrals removed 
— Depredations oj the Indians — War declared against them all, 
except the tribe at Penobscot — Bounties — Defence of the eastern 
fro7itiers — Affair of Cargill — War against the tribe at Penob- 
scot — An earthquake — Four expeditions against the French — 
Public embarrassments — A loan of ^30,000 — A force of 3,500 
men raised — War declared against France — English Generals — 
Shirley leaves the Province — J. Wheelwright, Com. Gen. — At- 
tacks of the Indians — A gloomy period — Louisbourg — Skirmishes 
with the Indians — Gov. Pownal arrives — /. Bradbury — Small- 
pox — Ilarpsicell incorporated — William Pitt, prime minister — 
His plan of operations — Eastern forts — Louisbourg captured — 
Repulse of the Indians at St. Georges and Mcduncook — Their 
last efforts eastward — Possession taken of Penobscot — Fort Pow- 
nal built there — Death of Gen. Waldo — Great successes of the 
English arms — Capture of Quebec — Destruction of the Indian 
village, St. Francois — Death of Sir W. Pepperell — WoolwicJt 
incorporated — Treaties of peace with the Indians — Entire reduc- 
tion of Canada. 
A.D. 1754. The encroachments of the French, the mischiefs of their In- 
The dian allies, and some skirmishes upon our frontiers, during the 

anHiiie'6th year 1754, were considered as the commencement of hostilities 
" ""'< '''^''" in v/hat has been usually denominated the French War, and the 
certain presages of another rupture with the Indians. The war 
with them in fact began, as did the one between the two crowns, 
without being formally declared ; — this being the sixth Indian 
war. within eighty years. 
The fortifi- The French had not only forts in Nova Scotia, the Beau Se- 
the "prendi j^^^j ^"V ^cri:e, and itwo on the river St. John, built two or 
three years since ; they had also a fortress at Ticonderoga,* 



* From .Whaxij to fort Edward, on the east side of the river Hudson 
below the bend, is 36 miles, and thence IN. W. over land, 10 miles to Fort 
JVilliam Henry, at the southerly end of Lake George ;— Wood Creek 



Chap, xii.] of Maine. 3Q5 

situated on the isthmus between Lake George and Lake Cham- a. d. 1754. 
plain ; Fort Frederick at Crown Point, on the western side of 
the last mentioned lake ; Fort Frontenac, at the outlet of lake 
Ontario northwardly ; Fort Ontario at Oswego river, on the south- 
easterly margin of the same lake ; Fort JViagara, between the 
lakes Ontario and Erie, below the Falls ; and fort Du Quesne, 
at the confluence of the Alleghany^ and Monongahela rivers, which 
form the head of the river Ohio, at the present Pittsburg. 

The British minister at the court of France demanded, that Complaints 
express orders be sent to M. de la Jonquiere, the Governor of French king 
New-France, to desist from violence against the British subjects abuses! 
in this country ; that Fort Niagara be immediately razed ; that the 
English subjects who had been made prisoners, be set at liberty, 
and indemnified for the losses they had sustained ; and that the 
persons who had committed these excesses be punished in an 
exemplary manner. Meanwhile, the Indians being constantly 
assisted by the French, in Nova Scotia, and furnished as they 
wished, with boats, arms and ammunition, continued in many 
places to plunder and massacre the British subjects with impu- 
nity. Though it were true, that the Court of Versailles prom- 
ised to remove all causes of complaint ; yet the French Governor 
was, without doubt, secretly exhorted, to proceed in the work of 
bringing their ambitious and nefarious projects to perfection.* 

On the other hand, there was a line of forts and block-houses, r. . , 

' ' Eastern for- 

along our frontiers from Salmon Falls river, to the forts on the tificat'ons. 
river St. Georges. At Berwick, within two or three miles above 
Quampeagan landing, were several strongly fortified houses, called 
Gerish's, Key's, Wentvvorth's, and Goodwin's garrisons. There 
was also a picketted fort on the height of land at Pine Hill, form- 
ed of poles set in the ground, about twenty feet in height and 
sharpened at the upper end.f Similar fortifications and block- 
houses, constructed of hewn timber, enclosed by palisades, or 
other works for defence and retirement, were built or established 
in every frontier township, that was settled in Maine and Saga- 



being 11 miles N. E. of Fort Edward and at the south end of Lake Cham- 
plain. On the isthmus, between Lake George and Lake Champlain, is 
Ticonderoga. Crown Point is 15 miles north of Ticonderoga; thence 
N. to the outlet of Lake Champlain, 55 miles, at the head of Chamblaxj 
and mouth of Sordl river; thence north to Isle Aitx JVoix, 10 miles_; and 
thence to the St. Lawrence, 50 miles. * 2 Smollett, f Sullivan, p. 253. 
Vol. II. 39 



306 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. J754. dahock. The men were at all times armed, whether they went 
to public worship, to labor, or were travelling. The moment 
a lurking Indian was discovered, means were used to communi- 

Au..„„„.,o catc notice to the nearest garrison or block-house, when an alarm 
gun was fired, and all the scattered people fled within the gates.* 
Or, if the people were in possession of no larger guns than mus- 
kets, three of them were fired in succession, at short and meas- 
ured intervals, between them. There was another expedient 

Large and i i i • i • • i 

quick scent- recommended, and to some extent tried, as a security agamst the 

°' sudden and silent incursions of the savages; — this was the use 

of ' staunch hounds' and well taught dogs, which by the scent of 

footsteps, could detect skulking parties, and route or frustrate 

ambuscades. 

A.D. 1755. Early in the year 1755, four expeditions, formed without 

Fourexpe- mucli couccrt, were bravely undertaken against the several French 

clitions -^ _ ... 

against iiie forts. General Braddock arriving at Virginia, the last of Feb- 

Frencii. , . . 

ruary from Ireland, with two resiiments, conducted one expedi- 

Ist, Brad- , •' ' ... 

dock's, tion of 2,200 regulars and provincials against fort du Quesne, 
Fortdu before which he fell, July 9th, and his army were entirely defeat- 

viuGSIlC. 

ed. The second was aimed against the French, Acadians, and 

2(,1 the Act* 

dian. ' Indians, embodied and fortified upon the isthmus of Nova 
Scotia. — The third, containing 5 or 600 provincials, was com- 
sio'n's, manded by General William Johnston, of Schenectady, who 
Crown- fought a battle with the enemy near Crown Point, which 
''°"' ■ won him great applause. The fourth, conducted by Governor 

ley's," '" Shirley in person, Commander-in-Chief since the death of Gen- 
a^arTaiid' ^'"^^ Braddock, proceeded against Niagara and Fort Frontenac, 
^nac^'°" ^^'i^^^o^'t^ ^"y success. — In the midst of these expeditions, a large 
French fleet left the harbor of Brest for America ; — the news 
of which aroused the British government to despatch hither Ad- 
mirals Boscawen and Mostyn, April 27, with eleven ships of the 
line and a frigate, having on board two regiments, for Newfound- 
TwoFrpnciJ'^"^* ^^ar Cape Race, at the southernmost part of that Island, 
ships taken Boscawcn had the good fortune to capture two ships of 64 guns, 

by the Ijnt- ^^ t' I O ' 

'sh- the Alcide and the Lys ; while the residue of the French fleet, 

with much exertion, safely ascended the St. Lawrence. This 

* Tlie block-house above Fort St. Gcorg-e was'garrisoned by a party of 
the inhabitants iinrler Kilpatrick ; that at Ciishing-, built in 1753, was under 
Capt. Benjamin Burton ; and that at the month of the river, was under 
Capt. Henderson.— £«fo?i'f 3JS. JV«r, p. 12. 



Chap, xii.] of jmalne. 307 

event, followed hy letters of marque and reprizal, was deemed a. D. 1755. 
the commencement of the war bv sea. ,^^^'' '^^S"" 

•' by sea. 

But the second expedition, previously mentioned, against the Panicniars 
French in Nova Scotia, and its results, are sufficiently connected "xiledii^on 
with the History of this State, to admit of some particulars. As ^fyl'^^l '''* 
the French laid claim to the territory of Sagadahock,* as well as A'^^'''^- 
to the Bay of Fundy and northern parts of the Acadian Province ; 
the eastern tribes appeared determined to cast in their lot with that 
people, whatever might be the hazard ; hoping, that one and the 
same happy destiny for them and their friends awaited both Pro- 
vinces. Hence, Lieutenant-Governor Lawrence of Nova Scotia 
proposed to Governor Shirley, that he would, with all the Pro- 
vincials he could bring into the field, join the regular troops then 
in that Province, under Lieutenant Colonel Robert Monkton ; 
provided they could be re-enforced by 2,000 men from the Pro- 
vince of Massachusetts ; giving it as his opinion, that such a body 
of troops would be abundantly able to compel a speedy capitu- 
lation of the enemy. Governor Shirley laid the subject before 
the General Court, in February, when he assures them of his 
Majesty's particular approbation of the zeal and vigor, evinced by 
them in their late enterprizes upon the river Kennebeck ; adding, 
that the aid of Massachusetts had been required by the Earl of 
Holdress, the British Secretary of State, to dislodge the French 
from Nova Scotia, beiore the arrival of their war ships from 
France. For, said the Governor, ' should they be prevented a 
' free navigation in the bay of Fundy, they will be driven to such 
* straits for provisions and supplies, that they would not dare, 
' through fear of famine, to embody their Indian allies ; while a 
' removal of them entirely from the Province, would cut off their 
' communication between Louisbourg and Canada, across that bay 
' and the peninsula, break the principal link in the chain of forts, 
' and effectually wound the monster in the head.' 

The expedition was extensively popular, and of course duly yvinsiow 
encouraged by the Legislature. Within two months, there were ^""^ ^^nk- 

"-^ _ ' ton form a 

enlisted about 2,000 men, for one year, if their services were soJ""^''°" **«• 
long required, who were generally from Massachusetts and Lawrence. 
Maine, and who had been promised like pay and treatment in 
every respect, as the regulars in the same service. They had 

* See ante, A. D. 1753. 



308 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A, D. 1755. their own officers, and were formed into a regiment of two bat- 
talions, under Governor Shirley, as Colonel, and John Winslow, 
as Lieut. Colonel, the latter having the immediate command 
of the whole. Besides belonging to one of the most ancient and 
honorable families in Plymouth county, where he was at the 
time, a Major-General of the militia, he possessed soundness of 
judgment, amiable manners and military skill, as discovered in 
the expedition upon the Kennebeck, the year past ; which ac- 
quired him considerable reputation, and especially the love and 

May 20. confidence of the soldiery. On the 20th of May, the body of 
recruits embarked from Boston for Annapolis, where they ar- 
rived safely, after a passage of five days. The fleet, consisting 
of 41 vessels, proceeded thence through Chignecto channel, 
into Cumberland Basin, near Fort Lawrence, where they anchor- 
ed and were joined by 270 regulars with a small train of artille- 
ry, under Colonel Monkton, to whom was given the chief com- 
mand of the expedition. 

The English On the wcst side of the Missaquash river, at its mouth, there 

drive the . 

French over was a block-house of the enemy, enclosmg some small cannon 
quash river, and swivels, and secured by a breastwork, — where 450 men 
were posted judiciously, to oppose their progress. This place 
was attacked with such spirit by Winslow, at the head of 300 
Provincials, that the enemy were obliged to fly and leave them 
in possession of the works. The French then deserted the 
block-house, and opened an unobstructed passage across the 
river, having first set fire to their outer defences and the village. 
June 16. On the 12th of June, a bombardment was commenced upon fort 

Fori Beau- 

sejonr, (now Bcau-sejour, and continued four days. It then surrendered. 

Cumber- . „ j i 

land) though the French had 26 pieces of cannon mounted, and 

surrenders. , . . . _„, . t • u 

plenty of ammunition. Ihe garrison was sent to L-ouisbourg, 
on their promise not to bear arms in America for six months ; 
and 300 Acadians were pardoned, because they pretended they 
had been forced into the service. IMonkton, after stationing a 
portion of his men in this fort, and changing its name to that of 
June 17. Cumberland, proceeded the next day, to reduce the other French 
Fori Gaspe- fort, upon the river Gaspereaux, which runs into Bay Verte, 
ducey' ["^ow ^°^'^ Monkton] ; that being the chief magazine for supply- 
ing the French, Acadians and Indians, with arms and ammuni- 
tion. On entering it after a surrender, he found there, large 
quantities of provisions and stores of all kinds. — Captain Rouse 



Chap, xii.] of maine. 309: 

then sailed with three ships and a snow, to the mouth of the a. d. 1755. 
river St. John, to attack the new fort erected there by the French ; The fort at 
but they saved him that trouble, by relinquishing it upon his ap- abandoned.. 
pearance, after having burst their cannon, blown up their maga- 
zine, and destroyed, as far as they had time, all the works they 
had lately raised. The officers of the fleet were received with 
tokens of respect, by 150 of the Indian tribe residing on this 
river, — who were glad to escape chastisement, upon their prom- 
ises of friendship and obedience. During the whole of this ex- 
pedition, the English had only twenty men killed, and about the 
same number wounded ; the success of which secured the tran- 
quillity of Nova Scotia.* 

But after subduing the country and disarming about 1,500 of Tiie French 
the inhabitants ; the best course to be pursued and the most 
politic disposition to be made with them generally, were ques- 
tions which the Provincial government found it extremely difficult 
to determine. They were not prisoners of war, because under 
the treaty of Utrecht, April 11, 1713, they had been, and still 
were, permitted to retain their possessions. They were not 
' British subjects, because they had refused to take the oath of 
allegiance, till it was so modified as not to oblige them to bear 
arms against the French, even in defence of the Province. 
From these circumstances they assumed the character as well as the 
name of " JVeutraJs.^^f They dwelt principally about Annapolis, 
Chignecto, Bay Verte, the Basin of Minas, Cobaquid Bay and 
in that vicinity : — and " all together made a population of 18,000 
souls."! They were an industrious, frugal people, strongly at- 
tached to the French interest and the catholic religion. So de- 
sirous were they of throwing off the yoke, that they had secretly 
courted the visit of the French troops, and furnished them and 
the Indians with intelligence, quarter, provisions and every assist- 
ance ; and a part of them had actually taken arms in violation of 
their oath of neutrality. Nay, all of them now, as heretofore, ut- Ti.eirre/u- 

1 r 1 1 t r sal to take 

terly refused to take the oath of unqualified allegiance to the iiie oath of 

i» • • 1 II 111 1 I • allegiance. 

orilisn crown ; though such as had not appeared openly m arms. 



* 2 Smollett, p. 533-9.— 1 Minot. p. 219-20. 

\ See ante, A. D. 1749, Note. 

\ 1 Halibnrlon's, JV. 5'. p. 172, lUes Abbe Reynal. — Bnt the number is 
evident!}- estimated too high. 



310 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A.D. 1755. were assured, if they would take it, they should still be allowed 
the unmolested enjoyment of their lands and houses. 

Perceivina; the indissoluble attachment of these Acadians, or 
' French Neutrals,' to tiieir parent nation, Lieutenant-Governor 
Lawrence, and the Provincial Council, with advice of Admirals 
Boscawen and Mostyn, finally determined, that the whole of them 
be removed and dispersed among the British Colonies, where 
they, being unable to unite in any offensive measures, would be- 
come naturalized to the government and country. Without 
knowing their destiny, they were summoned to meet in their chap- 
els, Sept. 5, to hear their doom. At Grand Pre, [Minas and 
Horton,] assembled 1 ,923 persons, aged and young, whom Gen- 
eral Winslow met, and after animadverting upon their disloyal 
conduct, said to them, I now declare to you his Majesty's orders : 

K)iow then, ' that ijour lands, tenements, cattle and live stock 

' of all kinds are forfeited to the Crown, with all other effects of 
' yours, excepting your money and household goods, which you 
' will be allowed to carry ivith you ; and that yourselves and 
^families are to be removed from this Province to places suiting 
' his Majestfs pleasure ; — in the meantime, to remain in custody, 
' under the inspection and control of the troops I have the honor 
' to command.'' ' In a word, I now declare you all the kingh 
<■ prisoners.^ — Shocked and petrified at this thralling decree, some 
of them burst into tears, and some fled to the woods, whose 
houses were committed to the flames, and country laid waste, to 
prevent their subsistence. Indeed, every possible measure was 
adopted to force them back into captivity. 
TiKirremo- When the transports arrived at Annapolis, to convey away the 
'"'■ ill-fated people from that place and vicinity, the soldiers found 

the houses entirely deserted by the inhabitants, who had fled to 
the woods ; carrying with them their aged parents, their wives and 
their children. But hunger, infirmity and distress soon compelled 
the return of numbers, who surrendered themselves prisoners at 
discretion. The more athletic penetrated into the depths of the 
wilderness, and encamped with the savages ; and a (ew wander- 
ed through the woods to Chignecto, and thence escaped to 

Canada. 

In Cumberland, the summons was generally disobeyed ; and 
hence it was found necessary to resort to the most severe meas- 
ures. Here 253 of their houses were set on fire at one time, in 



Chap, xii.] of maine. 311 

which a great quantity of wheat, flax and other valuable articles A. d. 1755. 
were consumed ; — the country presenting for several days and 
several miles, a most direful scene of conflagration. As the dif- 
ferent Acadian settlements were too widely extended to admit of 
an actual subjugation at once, only 7,000 were collected at this 
time and dispersed among the several British Colonies. On Sept. 10. 
the 10th of September, 161 young men, taken from among the 
prisoners belonging to the district of Minas, were driven by a 
military guard on board of five transports, stationed in the river 
Gaspereaux. The road from the chapel to the shore, one mile 
in length, was bordered with women and children, all of whom, 
bathed in tears, knelt and uttered amid deep, heart-broken sighs 
— -farewell ! — as the dejected prisoners advanced with slow and 
reluctant steps, weeping, praying and singing hymns as they pass- 
ed. These were followed by their seniors, who passed through 
the same heart-rending scene of sorrow and distress ; and when 
other vessels arrived, they carried away also their wives and 
children. About 1,300 arrived in Massachusetts and Maine, and 
became a public charge, — principally in consequence of an irrecon- 
cilable antipathy to their situation. Also 415 were sent to 
Pennsylvania, and some were transported as far south as 
Georgia.* Such was the wretched fate of the French Neutrals.f 

During these extensive expeditions, several persons were taken Mischiefs of 
captive, and some were killed by the Indians about the frontiers 
of Maine. The first victims of the savage war, this spring, were 
at Gorhamtown, about the last of April. Two men by the name AtGorham- 

' ^ -^ . town. 

of Peales were killed ; — also Mr. Bryant and his family. In 
this plantation, which crossed the thoroughfare of the natives be- 
tween the rivers Saco and Presumpscot, there were now about 60 
inhabitants, who in seasons of the most danger, were only shel- 
tered by a small fort, and defended by ten soldiers. ' For several 
' years, whenever the men went into the fields to labor, they car- 
' ried their guns, and one was uniformly stationed as a sentry ; 



* 1 Halibnrio7i's JV. S. p. 173-198.— In the District of Minas there were 
destroyed 255 houses; 276 barns ; 155 outhouses; 11 mills and one cliurch. 
— The flocks and herds belonging- to the inhabitants of Grand Pre consist- 
ed of 5000 horned cattle ; 493 horses and 12,887 sheep and swine.— 1 Jlinot, 
p. 226. 

f Provision was made for their maintenance in Massachusetts by the 
General Court. — See Resolves, A. D. 1755. 



312 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 17.55. « for the Indians were continually skulking in every quarter, and 
' oftentimes come upon them in such numbers, as induced them 
' to fly witiiin the walls of the fort for safety :* — The Indians 

Ai (;r.-iy. next appeared in New-Boston [Gray] ; and an alarming report 
ran through the neighboring towns, that the plantation was de- 

Ai Dresden, stroyed. At Frankfort [Dresden,] May 13, two men were 
killed and a dwellinghouse laid in ashes. — As five men were en- 

AtNew- gaged in their spring-ploughing at Sheepscot [Newcastle,] a party 
of Indians rose upon them, at an unguarded moment, and made 
them all prisoners ; though two of them afterwards, adroitly ef- 

At North- fected their escape. One Snow was killed in North-Yarmouth, 

Yarmouth. . . . j i i 

May 29, and his companion was missing — supposed to be taken 
captive. About the same time, one Barret was shot at Tecon- 
net ; Mr. Wheeler was taken as he was passing from Fort West- 
ern to Fort Halifax ; John Tufts and Abner Marston were made 
prisoners not far from Fort Shirley [in Dresden,] and two men 
At New- ^vei-e seized in New-Gloucester, while at work on a stockade fort, 
and carried into captivity. One of them, Joseph Tailer, continu- 
ed absent till near the close of the war. He learned to speak 
the French language so well, during his captivity, that after his 
release, he acted as interpreter to General Amherst.f 
June 10. In consequence of these depredations, and the war in Nova 

Supplies. g^Q^i^^ ^Ijg government, June 10, sent additional supplies to the 
eastern garrisons,J especially to those upon the river Kennebeck ; 
and ordered the ' six Independent companies' of Maine, to guard 
them from the landing to the places of their destination. — The 
vvTr Ve- "^^^ ^^J' '■^^^ Governor, at the special instance of the General 
'^'^•■''^ „ Court, declared war aQ-ainst the Anasaffunticook Indians, and 

against all ' •=' '=' 

the eastern ^;/ ^^g q^Ji^j. bribes eastward of Piscataqua, excepting those upon 

tribes ex- *^ . zv i • i 

cept (hat at Penobscot rivcr. Large premiums were orrered as inducements 
to enter into this peculiarly distressing kind of warfare. Com- 
panies of volunteers, consisting of not less than 30 men, who 

Bounties, .^ygre out one month or more, were entitled to receive £200 for 
every Indian scalp, and £250 for a captive. To individuals who 
performed the same service, £100 were promised for a scalp, and 

Eastern ser- £1 10 for a CaptivC. 

vice irk- '■ • r • i i • ir 

some. To the eastern soldiery, tins species of service, though in seJt- 

* MS. Letter H. D. McLellan, Esq. f MS. Letter of J. Woodman. 
t Fort Halifax was now under the command of Wm. Litbgow, and Fort 
Western under that of .Tames Howard. 



Chap, xii.] of Maine. 313 

defence, was undesirable and irksome. A place in Colonel Pep- a. d. 1735. 
perell's regiment, or among the forces in Nova Scotia, where 
glory as well as wages, presented motives to military ambition, 
was altogether preferable to scouting on the frontiers, hunting for 
Indians in the forests, or acting the part of servile guards. Since 
the capture of Louisbourg, in the last war, there was manifest 
among the young soldiery of Maine, a glow of military ardor. 
The Independent companies, displeased with the duties of guards 
and rangers, assigned them, were slow to obey their orders; and 
drafts were made from the militia to perform the service. Yet 
Governor Shirley, though requested, was not prevailed upon to 
disband those spirited companies. 

The force provided for the defence of our frontiers, consisted Defence of 
of 300 men, besides officers, who were formed into four parties ; fro,aiers." 
— 50 scouted from Lebanon to Saco river j 60 from Saco to 
New-Boston, [Gray,] by way of Sebago pond and New-Glou- 
cester ; 90 from New-Boston to Fort Shirley, at Frankfort ; and 
100 from thence to the river St. Georges. For the two forts 
and the block-house on Kennebeck river, there were garrisoned 
80 men, who were well supplied with all needed stores. A boun- 
ty of 1 85. was offered, to every recruit who would furnish his 
own gun ; also the statute reward for captives and scalps. The 
enlistments were made for five months, from the 20th of June. 
But the recruits performed no signal exploits. Indeed, the bril- 
liant successes of Monkton and Winslow in Nova Scotia, which 
diffused so much joy through the country, seemed to strike 
the Indian tribes with dismay. They retired back, and we hear 
after this of no more mischief perpetrated by them this season, 
on our frontiers. 

The settlements between the rivers Sagadahock and St. „, ^ , 

'^ St. Georges' 

Georges, now deserved and received great attention. At Mus- «"iver. 
congus and Meduncook, [Friendship,] there were forts ; and 
at Pleasant-point, near the mouth of St. Georges river, at 
the Narrows above the garrison, and indeed in every neigh- 
borhood, there were block-houses, all of which were put in 
the best posture of defence, and were made the common re- 
ceptacles of the settlers' families and efiects. The Tarratine 
tribe professed still to be neutral ; and Capt. Bradbury, who had 
command of the garrison at St. Georges, was instructed by the 
Vol. II. 40 



314 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1765. government to cultivate peace with them, and if possible, to es- 
trange them from the French interest. If any of them were abet- 
ters of the late mischief, nothing criminal was directly laid to 
their charge by the government ; and when the submissive pro- 
fessions of the tribe at the river St. John were known, fresh en- 
couragements were entertained, that those on the Penobscot 
might continue our ally. 
Jealousies g^,t ^}ie people indulged themselves in jealousy and prejudice. 
pie Unacquainted with facts, and unaccustomed to discriminate, many 

were disposed to attribute all aggressions of the Indians to the 
savage dispositions of the race, and to avenge themselves on the 
first of these hated barbarians, they met. All friendly intercourse 
with them was looked upon as treachery. Even Capt. Bradbury 
did not escape the whispers of suspicion. It was basely rumored, 
that for tlie sake of pei'sonal gain, he traded with them and furn- 
ished them with arms and ammunition, to take the lives of his 
own countrymen. Though all such as were with him in the 
garrison, thought these rumors cruelly slanderous ; they neverthe- 
less gave him not only much pain and trouble, but actually frus- 
trated some of his plans. The people, particularly those at the 
neighboring block-houses, looked with an evil eye upon the par- 
ties of Indians, he treated with caresses and presents, and some- 
times unprincipled scouting parties plundered them of their ef- 
fects. Nor were the friendly individuals of the Indians them- 
selves always safe among us, though they were engaged, at the 
risque of their lives, in bringing intelligence to the garrison. 
Cargiii's In July a melancholy affair occurred, which filled all good 

men with grief, and greatly embarrassed the government. Gapt. 
James Cargill of Newcasde, with a commission for raising a 
scouting company, enlisted several men about the St. Georges' 
river, and led the whole on an excursion towards the margin of 
Penobscot bay. Near Owl's head [in Thomaston,] they dis- 
covered a party of Indian hunters, and without taking any trouble 
to ascertain whether they were friends or enemies, or rather 
knowing, as many believed, that they belonged to the Tarratine 
tribe of that region, they instantly shot down twelve of the num- 
ber, and took their scalps ; obliging the remainder to save them- 
selves by llight. On their return, they met with Margaret, a friend- 
Iv squaw, who had been at the garrison on one of her wonted ex- 
peditions of intelligence and kindness, whom they also fired upon 



Chap. XII.] of MAINE. 315 

and mortally wounded. In the agonies of death, she held upA.D 1755 
her infant to her murderers, and told them, ' take it to Capt. 
' Bradbury.' Unmoved by this tender though trifling request, 
one of them more barbarous than a savage, uttered a base taunt, 
and then despatched it before the eyes of its expiring mother.* 

No other equally base treatment towards the eastern Indians ^'^ result. 
can be found in history. It was a shameful violation of the rights 
of common neighborhood, and a treacherous invasion of a solita- 
ry Indian ally, at a crisis, when their amity and their aid were 
never more needed. While the transaction was universally cen- 
sured ; Margaret's fate was deplored, especially by the garrison, 
who well knew the value of her messages. All the humane and 
good among the settlers confidently predicted a verification of the 
old adage, that reckless manslayers never die quietly in their 
beds ; and so far as notice or remembrance followed them, the 
prediction was literally fulfilled. Cargill was apprehended for 
trial on a charge of murder ; a letter of condolence was sent by 
government to the suffering party ; their brethren, who had lately 
visited Boston, returned laden with presents and soothed with 
favors ; and the tribe were invited to come under a safe-conduct 
and pro.secute the offenders, — full assurance being given, that 
law and justice would be measured to them by severest rules. But 
subsequent events prevented their attendance ; and after a con- 
finement of two years, Cargill was discharged. 

Still the government was unchangeably anxious to secure their The faith 
alliance and aid against the other tribes ; and as soon as the deep of\he Tar^ 
wound lately inflicted ceased to bleed, the General Court offered e^.'"^^ '"*'" 
to all Vi?ho would enter into the public service, the same pay and 
rations as other soldiers had ; and also similar support or pen- 
sions to their invalids, women and children. Prior to the late 
unhappy occurrence, nine of their leaders had been called into St. 
Georges' fort to hear the Governor's letter upon the subject ; 
when the inhabitants and garrison rose in arms, and would not 
permit their departure, till they would signify their determination 
to enter into the service according to treaty. Seeming to com- 
ply with the requisition, they at last wrote to know when they 
must go against the Indians of Canada, who, they said, had 
struck them, as well as the English ; and sent three of their 

* Eaton's MS. Nar. p. 12-13.— See post, A. D. 1757. 



3 1 6 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1755. brethren to Boston, evincive of their sincerity and good faith. 
But they were now, both offended and aggrieved. The fresh 
injuries they had received, rankled in their bosoms, and could 
not be forgiven, nor pass unrevenged. To reconcile enraged 
Indians, or to excite enduring sympathies for them among the 
English, is a task equally difficult. 
Lieutenant- To bring the subject to an issue, the Lieutenant-Governor, 
address to October 2, addressed to the tribe a letter of this purport ; — 
' You must perceive, that it is impossible for us in the present 
' rupture, to distinguish the men of your tribe from others with 
' whom we are at war ; and should any of your people be killed 
' by our forces, when pursuing the enemy, you must impute the 
' misfortune, to your disregard of the proposals made by us, for 
' your safety. You are permitted to trade only at St. Georges' 
' fort ; and should it be found on enquiry, that any of your tribe 
' were concerned in the late mischiefs, war will be proclaimed 
' against you. If you will come in with a flag of truce, you shall 
'be protected from all wrongs and insults, and if need be, have 

* a guard to defend you. By complying with the articles of the 
' existing treaty, and sending, within eight days after demand 

* made, 20 men to join us in arms against the enemy, you are 
' assured of receiving every token of our favor ; whereas a re- 
' fusal will be considered a breach of the treaty, sufficient to au- 

* thorize our declaration of war against the tribe.' 

The deia Never was a people more sorely pressed. Desirous of keep- 
to take arms Jpg peace with the Provincial government, unwilling to separate 
enemy. from their brethren and immemorial allies, and dreading the cen- 
sures of the catholics, if they failed to take arms against the 
English, they deliberated till the cup of conciliation was exhaust- 
ed. A committee of both houses, to whom the subject was re- 
ferred, reported, that the Commander-in-Chief be desired to pro- 
claim war against them immediately ; and the report was accept- 
ed by the House, though rejected by the Council. Shortly after- 
wards the members of the House sent a message to him, stating, 
that they had taken into further consideration, the danger and 
mischiefs to which the people in the Province, especially in the 
eastern parts, were continually exposed, from the local situation of 
the Tarratines, who refused or delayed improperly to join the 
English, and perhaps were abetters of the depredations commit- 
ted by others, and therefore repeated to him their request. But 



Chap, xii.] of maine. 317 

he replied, that it was contrary to his Majesty's instructions to A. D. 1755. 
declare war without the advice of the Council : and hence the Nov. 5. 

Wardeclar- 

subiect was postponed to Nov. 5, when a Proclamation of war ed aga\nst 
was issued and published against them, and the same premiums Penobscot, 
offered for scalps and prisoners, as in other cases. Provision 
was next made for the winter establishment, in which there 
were stationed at fort Halifax, and the store-house at Cushnoc 
80 regular soldiers ; at Saco truck house 15; at fort George in 
Brunswick 5 ; at fort Frederic 20 ; and at St. Georges' 35 ; all 
the others in the eastern service being discharged.* 

These mingled scenes of civilized and savage warfare, and the Nov. is. 
gloom of the season, were rendered more direful by the shock of quake, 
an earthquake, the most violent one ever before known in this 
hemisphere. It happened, Nov. 18, at about 11 minutes after 4 
in the morning. Its direction was trom north-west to south-east, 
and it was heard and felt through the whole country, from Ches- 
apeake bay, to Halifax in Nova Scotia. It commenced with mi 
undulatory motion, and lasted at least four minutes. In Boston 
it did considerable damage to brick houses as well as chimnies ; 
and many in Falmouth were injured in like manner. According 
to the Rev. Mr. Smith, in his Journal, — "it seemed as if it would 
shake the house to pieces." Neither of the four great earth- 
quakes, f which had previously shocked this country since its 
first settlement, could compare with this. It had a surprizing 
effect upon the moral sensibilities of the comnmnity. The 
houses of public worship were frequented and filled by all or- 
ders of people ; and the 23d of December was observed as a 
day of humiliation and prayer, on account of the awful dispensa- 
tion.! 

An act passed the next day, for the distribution of the French French 
neutrals through the Province, and the support or relief of them 
in the different tDvvns, as beneficiary paupers. A number were 
assigned to Maine. The overseers of the poor were required to 
make suitable provision for them at the charge of the Province, 
unless they were remunerated by the crown or by the govern- 
ment of Nova Scotia. Bigoted to the Romish religion, necessi- 
tous, disaffected and unhappy, they entertained a settled uncon- 



* 9 Jour. H. Rep. p. 248. f Namely, A. D. 1638—1638—1663—1727. 
\2llolmes''A.Ann.ip.2}6. — Lisbon was destroyed by an earthquake, 
Nov. 1, 1755.— 2 Smollett, p. 562, 



318 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. U. 1755. querable dislike of the English, their habits and sentiments ; — 
and being exiles from their native land, which they loved and 
longed to see, they were neither enterprizing nor industrious, but 
an intolerable burthen to the government. According to a Com- 
mittee's report, Jan. 25, 17G0, there were, even at that time, 
1,017 of this miserable people within the Province.* 
A. D. 1756. A plan of operations and campaigns, for the year, 175G, was 
.Tanuaiy 17. settled in January, at New-York, in a Council of the colonial 

Four expe- •' 

diiioiispian- Governors ; Shirley being at that time, Commander-in-Chief of 
the troops on the American station. It was agreed, that 10,000 
men proceed against Crown Point ; 6,000 against Niagara ; 
3,000 against Fort du Quesne ; and 2,000 up the Kennebeck 
river, to destroy the settlements on the Chaudiere, and by rang- 
ing to the mouth of that river, keep all the neighboring parts of 
Canada in alarm. 
Embarrass- When Governor Shirley returned, and laid before the two 
rroviiice.' branches of the General Court, the quotas of men and supplies, 
to be furnished by the Province ; the House stated to him the 
reasons which rendered a compliance impracticable. They said, 
it did not then contain so many inhabitants, as it did at the 
commencement of the last war ; the people were ready to sink 
under the burden of taxes incurred by the expeditions of the 
preceding year ; and the government had stretched its credit to 
the utmost, without being able to borrow money sufficient to pay 
off their troops lately returned. Only 1 ,200 men were required 
at the opening of the last year, and yet the number had been 
augmented, in the course of the season, to 4,000 and naore, be- 
sides the eastern scouting companies. Nay, the Crown Point 
expedition itself, cost the Province more than £80,000, exclu- 
sive of charges for the support of the sick and wounded. Nor 
were the Provincial troops, by any means satisfied with the treat- 
ment they had received in the preceding campaigns ; — particu- 
larly, as they had not been permitted to return home, at the ex- 
piration of their enlistments. On the contrary, soldiers had been 
taken from their ranks, to fill up the standing regiments ; and 
even Winslow and most of his brave men were still in Nova Sco- 
tia. Another complaint was, the invidious distinctions made be- 



* 10 Jour, of House Rep. Y>. 305;— a/io 9 Jour. p. 219, 266.— In 1758, 
Nova Scotia paid £394 to Massachusetts by way of remuneration for re- 
lieving- tiiose transported neutrals. 



Chap, xii.] of maine. 319 

tween the Provincial troops and the British regulars ; the officers A. D 175G. 
commissioned by the crown, taking post and precedence of those 
from the Provinces, who had the same rank and held commis- 
sions of an older date. The wisdom too of another expedition, 
as projected against Crown Point, was boldly called in question ; 
and in short, the ill success of the war drew down upon Shirley, 
so long as he continued to be Commander-in-Chief, a crush of 
censures and invectives. 

In this dilemma, he a2;reed to loan the Province £30,000 ster- A loan of 

. ^ . . . . £30,000 ob- 

ling out of the king's money in his hands, to be repaid by direct lained. 
taxes upon the people, the two following years ; and hence, the 
Legislature voted to raise 3,500 men, who were to be command- 3,500 men 

. voted to be 

ed by Major-General Winslow, called for that purpose out of wised, lo be 

.y _, . T» • 1 • 1 • • • under Gen- 

JNova bcotia. But owing partly to an unjust detention in service erai Wius- 
of a battalion, sent the year preceding into Nova Scotia, and the 
impressment of sailors by the king's ships, from the eastern ves- 
sels and even from the fishing craft, the enlistments were so slow, 
that on the 26th of May, General Winslow had only 2,600 men ^^j^^. oq. 
upon the rolls. 

In June, the king of Great Britain published a declaration of w^r de- 
war against France ! — and the same month, General Aber- a^j^ist 
crombie, arriving with an army, took the chief command from ''■^"*^^- 
General^Shirley, which he held till he was himself superseded, Abercrom- 
late in July, by the earl of Loudoun. Recalled for the ostensi- 

Lord Lou- 

ble purpose of giving the ministry a minute account of American doun. 
affairs. Gov. Shirley embarked from Boston, Sept. 25, and was pi'i^'ey 

' •' ' I ' leaves ihe 

never afterwards in the Governor's chair. His intermarriasre with chair and 

° llie Prov- 

a catholic lady, when he was last in Europe, and his ill success i"ce. 
m managing the present war, had rendered him unpopular, and 
finally caused his removal from the government of Massachusetts 
to that of the Bahamas.* 

The force appointed in March, for the protection of the fron- j wheel- 
tiers in Maine, consisted of 300 men exclusive of officers, and ";'"'?'''. 

■ ' Lommissa- 

of the troops in service there, during the winter. These recruits '">' General, 
were divided into scouting parties, and directed to range from 
place to place, mostly according to the plan and order of the pre- 



* Gov. Sliirlej' returned to Roxbnry in 1770, and died there the follow- 
ing- year, in April, " a poor man," thoug-h verj' respectfully interred. He 
was Governor of the Province from July 1740, to Sept. 1756. Nor was a 
successor appointed till the middle of the following- vear. 



320 

AD. 1756, 



Tiie In- 
dians attack 
Burton's 
garrison. 



A general 
alarm. 



The Indians 
at Bruns- 
wick and 
New-Glou- 
cester. 



THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

ceding year. John Wheelwright of Wells, Commissary General, 
and superintendent of the Indian trade, was instructed to take 
care of the munitions of war in the eastern country '. to see that 
the forts and garrisons were in a defensible condition ; and to 
procure all extra supplies necessary for the Kennebeck expedition. 

The settlements which the Indians seemed 1o have marked 
first for destruction, this spring, were those upon the river St. 
Georges'. Benjamin Burton, had reared a commodious fortifi- 
cation around his house, near the mouth of the river, [in Gush- 
ing,] which might be well guarded by 7 or 8 men. Yet the In- 
dians commenced their outrages by an attack, March 24, upon 
that place j in which they killed two men and scalped a third, 
leaving him half-dead. The next news was the story of a young 
man by the name of Knights, who, having escaped from the 
enemy, three days after he was taken, came into North-Yarmouth 
and told that 120 Indians, divided into small parties, were pre- 
paring to fall upon the frontiers at different places, and spread 
desolation from Saco to Brunswick. Alarmed by this intelli- 
gence. Captains llsley, Milk and Skillings, with companies sud- 
denly collected, and Captain Smith with a re-enforcement from 
North-Yarmouth and New-Casco, went out in search of the sav- 
ages ; but they were too well acquainted with the woods and with 
ambush, to be discovered. Still it was certain, there were plun- 
dering parties hovering around the settlements ; for depredations 
were committed by the Indians at several different places about 
the same time. 

They appeared next at North-Yarmouth ; and at Flying-point 
they killed a man and took a woman captive. On the 3d of 
May, three men, well armed, went from Harpswell to Brunswick, 
and on their return in the afternoon, three Indians rose up among 
the trees and bushes at a place called Smith's Brook, and firing, 
wounded Young, one of the scout and took him prisoner. The 
others threw down their guns and fled. They were pursued by 
two of the assailants, about a mile ; who, when coming in sight 
of a house which was barricaded, gave up the chase. Return- 
ing, they bound Young, and carried him to Canada. In about 
a year he obtained his liberty, and took a water passage to Hali- 
fax, where he died of the smallpox.* New-Gloucester being 



* MS. Let. of Rev. S. Eaton, 



Chap, xii.] of Maine. 321 

greatly exposed to the ravages of the enemy; a large block- a.d. nss. 
house was erected there two years since, for an asylum and de- 
fence of the settlers, which had been offered to government with 
a request to make it a Provincial garrison. Indeed, so extreme- 
ly perilous was considered the condition of this people, that every 
inhabitant, in 1 756, was promised the value of £2, old tenor, in 
provisions, who would abide in the place twelve months.* 

In the morning of May 14, at 8 of the clock,f ten men, inhab- May u. 
itants of New-Marblehead [Windham,] started from the fort with ham. 
an ox team and sled, to work upon the farm of Mr. Brown, one 
of the company, a mile distant. Armed with their guns as usual, 
they proceeded the greater part of the way, when Brown and 
Winship, who were in advance taking down the bars, received 
a shot from a body of at least 20 Indians in ambush. Brown 
having two balls lodged in his heart died instantly. A ball passed 
through the eye of Winship, and another entered his arm, and 
he fell. The Indians supposing his wounds fatal, scalped him 
as well as his companion. But though he feigned himself life- 
less, he was perfectly conscious of all that transpired. Hearing 
the report of the guns, four of the others hastened back to the 
fort, and the rest advanced in sight of the spot, the Indians still 
keeping themselves concealed. Abraham Anderson and Stephen 
Manchester, crept near the place with the utmost silence, and hid 
themselves behind a large log. The latter then raised his cap 
on the muzzle of his gun behind a tree ; when Poland, a noted 
Indian warrior, believing it to be a man's head, fired and lodged 
a heavy charge in the tree. As he turned and began to load his 
gun, Manchester rose and shot him to the ground. The Indians killed. 
then raised a hideous yell and fled into the woods. The bodies 
of Brown and Winship being laid upon the sled, were returned 
to the fort. An alarm gun having been fired at that place, brought 
thither from Saccarappa,| where a company was stationed, a 
party of soldiers, who pursued the enemy till night. At a place 
called the Great Meadows, they overtook an Indian, bearing two 
packs and two guns, and shot him. On receiving the wound, he 

* Prop. Rec. of New-Gloucester— A. R. Giddings, Esq. 

t 1 Jlinot, p. 300.— He says," in the month of April" — erroneously.— 
Smith''s Journal, p. 65, says, Capt. Skillinj s killed one, and the " Indians 
left 5 packs, a bow, and bunch of arrows. 

I This wasS. W, of Presumpscot rirer, and northerly of Stroudwater. 
Vol. II. 41 



322 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A.D. 1756. was seen to fall; but he rose, relieved of his burden, and made 
good his escape. One gun and also one pack was known to be 
Poland's, by a small looking-glass and some other articles it con- 
tained. — Manchester was a man of great courage, — perfectly 
acquainted with the woods and with the Indian manner of fight- 
ing. He knew Poland to be an inveterate enemy of the settlers, 
and once, in a time of peace, he went with his brother to the 
savage's camp with intent to despatch him. But, as several Indians 
were present, — when he raised his axe to strike at Poland's 
head, the courage of his brother failed him, and nothing was 
done. — ' Before I killed Poland,' Manchester says, ' I had a 
' mind to give him a call ; but on the whole, thought it better to 
' send him a leaden message :' — and through subsequent life, he 
said he always noticed the 14th of May, as " the day he sent the 
" devil a present." — Poland claimed all the lands on both sides of 
the Presumpscot river from its sources to its mouth ; and was 
resolutely determined never to make a lasting peace with the 
English, till what he claimed as a right should be restored. He 
was shrewd, subtle and brave, — and reputed to be a chief. Mr. 
Bolton, a redeemed captive, stated, after his return from Canada, 
that when he asked some of the party, what had become of Po- 
land, they said, ' he had gone to Mississippi with an hundred 
men.' But after peace, his comrades told, how they bent a stad- 
dle, till its roots on one side were turned up, then taking off one 
arm to be deposited in some holy catholic burying-ground, they 
placed his body beneath the roots, and let the tree spring to its 
former position,* 

Indians at At the head of Arrowsick Island [in Georgetown,] a party of 
Indians killed Mr. Preble and his wife, as they were planting their 
corn, and carried their three young children into Canada. After 
the reduction of Quebec, Captain Harnden of Woolwich, their 
mother's father, went to Canada and brought them home. By 
their account, the Indians treated them with great kindness on 
their journey through the woods ; carrying them on their backs 
when they could not walk, and giving them a share in whatever 
of subsistence they could procure. So strongly attached were 
they to their Indian parents, that they never had, they said, during 
their absence, felt half so much anguish, as at the time of parting 



George- 
town. 



* MS. Let. of John Waterman, Esq. 



Chap, xii.] of maine. 323 

with them. There was a fort on the lower end of the Island, a. d. 1756. 
and though a strong party of the Indians assailing it the same 
year were unable to take it, the people within were insufficient to 
drive them off; — therefore they had an opportunity to kill the 
cattle on the Island, and to enjoy the spoil at pleasure.'^ 

Fort Halifax was viewed by the enemy, as an object of great At Fort 
affi'ont and hatred. As two of the garrison were catching fish at 
the falls, four Indians fired and wounded them mortally. One, 
however, returned the fire, and the arrival of men from the fort, 
was quick enough to prevent their being scalped. 

Finding that the scouting parties, established throughout the Andmscog- 

° OX' o gi„ explor- 

eastern country, did not prevent attacks and rapine, the govern- «'^- 
ment sent a small force in whale-boats up the river Androscoggin, 
to alarm the enemy and prevent his incursions into the eastern 
towns. But the party meeting with no Indians, carefully took 
the courses of the river, noted distances to the extent of about 85 
miles, and made observations upon the nature, appearance and 
state of the country. f 

Before the summer closed, our country was deeply shrouded Gloom of . 
in gloom. The barbarians were let loose from the wilderness 
upon our frontiers ; a great number of farms were abandoned or 
laid waste ; hundreds had lost their lives, their families or their 
property ; some places were visited with severe sickness ; and 
whole fields of corn and grain were ruined by devouring worms. 
Trade had greatly declined. Pressed with a load of debt and 
other burdens, the General Court had petitioned the king to garri- lorts. 
son the forts whhin the Province, at the national expense. But 
Mr. Bollan, its agent in London, wisely raised these queries in 
check of the proposition ; — viz. would not the surrender arm the 
prerogative with claims against charter rights } or will the Crown 
man and support garrisons at the public expense, and not claim 
jurisdiction of the country so protected ? — In a word, can it be 
good policy to fill our forts with foreigners ? — or to set any price 
upon rights or privileges .'' 

The current events extensively increased the discouragements. Coasters 

SC • 11 n ^ • ,. 1 i)luiidered, 

ome 01 our coastmg vessels, and even fishmg crait, were plun- and men 

dered while at anchor, and several of their crews killed by the 
* Sullivan, p. 176-7. f 1 Minot, p. 800-1.— Mass. Records. 



324 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1755. savages.* There was in fact no occurrence, which had the ef- 
fect to raise the drooping spirits of tlie people, or the military 
^ ^ reputation of the country. The northern campaigns were ter- 
pxpcd.-ions minating, without memorable successes or exploits. The forts at 
lui. Otsego, and the regiments of Shu-ley and repperell had surren- 

dered, August 10, to the French General, Montcalm; and the 
proposed expedition up the Kennebeck and upon the river 
Chaudiere, resulted in the mere ramble of a scouting party, that 
did nothing more than to explore the country. A succession of 
SLich reverses led the community to call in question the wisdom 
A<;p:riiof ^ jj^ ].^jj2 g j measures pursued ; and excited a spirit of mu- 
tion pro- maj recrimination amoni^ all ranks of official trust, " from the 

vails. 

prime minister to the lowest comiTiander." 

The Tarra- The Indians also were evidently in a state of despondency. 

lon'.'Iee'. The French neglected them, and they were wasted by the war, 

and more by the smallpox, which was destructive among them, 

as it was in the American camp ; having, through the autumn and 

winter, greatly checked their depredations. The Tarratine chiefs 

' ' '"" ' stated to the government, through Capt. Bradbury at St. Georges, 

that tlieir numbers were much lessened by that pestilence, and 

that the tribe wished to feed again, upon the fruits of mutual 

peace and friendship.-}- No other eastern tribe had treated the 

English with so much forbearance and honor; and the good 

man's heart must be touched with sympathy for their melancholy 

condition, when he reflects, that in the present war upon them, 

our own people were the first and principal aggressors. 

Ti.prr.ptMre The coufse of mcasurcs for the ensuing year, (lTo7,) was 

bou^""'^i',ui- coi'^certed in January, at Boston, by Lord Loudoun and the Gov- 

"'^''- — : ernors of the New-Encland Provinces and Nova Scotia. Leav- 

poslijoiied. ^ 

ing the posts on the lakes strongly garrisoned, and expecting 
6,000 Provincial troops equal to the number of regulars then in 
America, his Lordship limited his plan to a single object — the re- 
duction of Louisbourg ; and in July, he inet Admiral Holbourn 
at Halifax, who had arrived there, whh a powerful squadron 
and a re-enforcement of 5,000 British troops, under Lord Howe. 
But beins; informed, that Louisbourg, was defended by 6,000 



* Smilh's Jour, p 66-7.— Sept. 2G, at St. Georg-cs, •■• uQ'i of our .sclioon- 
" ers was burnt, two taken. 3 men killed, an;i 3 misting^. — Oct. 11, Capt. 
" Rouse put in here, [at Portland,] having: lost his lieutenant and 9 men, 
" with hi* pinnare, hy Indian'!.'" f Lieut. Gov. Speech, March, 1757. 



Chap, xii.] of maine. 325 

regulars, and " a line of 17 battle ships moored in the harbor," a.d. i757. 
and that a French fleet had lately sailed from Brest,* the Ad- 
miral and General concluded to defer the enterprize to the next 
year, and sailed on the last of August, for New-York ; when 
the Provincials were dismissed. Meanwhile, Montcalm, with an 
army of 9,000, took Fort William Henry, and made Col. Mon- 
roe and 3,000 men prisoners. 

The military force assigned for the protection of Maine the April 7. 

. . . . . ] I'lolertioii 

ensuing year, besides the soldiery in the garrisons, consisted of of i\iaiiie. 
260 men, divided into five ranging parties, who were directed to 
scout from post to post along the frontiers, between Salmon Falls 
and St. Georges. Two vessels were also employed to coast 
upon the eastern seaboard, for the purpose of protecting and re- 
lieving the people. 

The Anasagunticooks, who originally inhabited the banks of Mny is. 
the Androscoggin, still viewed the country as their own, and often 31 j-Jj^sii'^n,, 
visited it. Waylaying Capt. Lithgovv, and a party of eight men, 
they fired on them. May 18, near the fort in Topsham, and 
wounded two at the first onset. A severe skirmish ensued, in 
which the Indians, on seeing two of their number fall dead by 
tlieir side, seized their bodies, and fled. Two Englishnaen were 
killed further up the river. 

The Tarratines at Penobscot, communicated with the garrison ATarraiine 
at St. Georges by flags of truce, so frequently, as to excite some iiieionaiSt. 
apprehensions. In this manner an Indian party visiting the fort, ^^l," {l^y^ a 
on an evening, had some traffic there. When they left, the""^'""*" 
commander assured them, they had nothing to fear from his 
men ; but told them, they must beware of the sharp shooters 
at the block-house, farther up the river, under Capt. Kellock, 
for whose conduct, he felt no responsibility. The Indians turned 
and went as far as the " Gig," [In Thomaston,] and encamped ; 
leaving one pack in the path to attract the attention, and check 
the progress of suspected pursuers, till the Indian watchman 
might have time to fire an alarm gun, and the whole escape. In 
the night, when the patrol from the block-house, travelling in 
close single file, came across the pack, the leader griped the next 
man in his rear, — the passport ran through the whole file, and 



* Namely, " 17 ships of tlie line, 15 other men of war. and 64 transports" 
— said to have arrived in July. — Smith\i Jour, p. 68. 



326 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. I). 1757. they came to a dead halt. The Indian sentinel, having in all 
probability, partaken too freely of the " occapee,''^ [ardent spirits] 
was heard to snore in a deep sleep. One aimed a musket at 
the place, and pierced a bullet through his head. He gave a 
prodigious leap into the air, and falling, moved no more. The 
report aroused his companions, and the parties for a short time 
fought desperately ; levelling at the flashes of each other's guns. 
Such expert marksmen were the Indians, that one of them, for 
instance, aimed at the flash of Kellock's musket, so precisely and 
quickly as to shoot off the gun-lock without injuring him. This 
sharp contest in the dark, however, ended without harm to either 
of the English. The Indians retreated, leaving traces of blood 
in their tracks ; also several muskets, a quantity of beaver and 
other articles, — so much in amount as to divide the value of ^15 
to a man. At another time, when it was supposed that the In- 
dians, who had attacked the block-house below at Pleasant-point, 
had all withdrawn ; one Coltson, a soldier, in looking over the 
platform, was instantly shot through the head, by an Indian con- 
cealed under it, who bounded off and was soon out of sight.*" 
Cox visits Capt. Cox, cruising off the eastern coast this season, in one of 
Penobscot, ^j^^ ^rmed sloops, visited Penobscot, killed two Indians, and took 
their scalps ; also two canoes, a quantity of oil, fish, and sea- 
fowl feathers. f 

On the first of June, a party of Indians beset the dwelling- 
house of Ebenezer Hall, on the Island Matinicus, containing his 
wife and a young family of two sons, three daughters, and a son- 
in-law. He was a man of courage, and some distinction, having 
been a Lieutenant at the reduction of Cape Breton. The at- 
tacks were renewed several days, and the house resolutely de- 
fended by him and his wife, at the imminent hazard of their 
lives, until the 10th; when he was killed, his house broken up, 
rifled of its contents, and reduced to ashes. The brave Hall was 
then scalped, and his wife and children carried into captivity. At 
some place up the river Penobscot, she underwent the painful 
trial of being separated from them ; — thence compelled to take up 
a tedious journey to Quebec. The fair captive was a woman of 



* Eaton's Kar. p. 13-14.— This is the skirmish, probably, which is men- 
tioned in Jlinot, 2d vol. p. 34.— He says, 20 men were sent in the nig^ht 
time, and took a scalp, j Smith's Jour. p. 67-8. 



Chap, xii.] of maine. 327 

piety and charms, which attracted every eye. Captivated by A. D. I757i 
her uncommon abilities and beauty, Capt. Andrew Watkins, in a 
spirit of honor and generosity, paid her ransom, amounting to 
215 hvres, and finding a vessel bound to England, procured a 
passage for her thither. From that country she re-crossed the 
Atlantic, returning by the way of New- York to Falmouth, after 
an absence of 13 months. But notwithstanding her inquiries 
were pursued for her captive children, through a long life, with 
the energetic perseverance which marked her character, she 
never could gain the least knowledge of either. A son of 12 
years old, by a former husband, Mr. Greene, who was in the 
house when it was assailed, escaped and hid himself, till the sava- 
ges were gone; and after three days, he ventured with an old 
canoe into the bay, where he was taken on board of a vessel. 
Subsequent to the war, his mother and he returned to the Island, 
and dwelt there till her death.* 

On the 4th of April, six months after Governor Shirley's de- Governor 

^ . '' , Pownal ar- 

parture. Lieutenant-Governor Phips was taken from the executive rives, the 

successor of 

trust by death ; and the duties of the chair devolved upon the siiiriey. 
Council, till the arrival of his Excellency Thomas Pownal, early 
in August. — He was an Englishman by birth, possessing hand- 
some talents, and making " great pretensions to learning." But 
his manners were too light and debonair, to suit the grave and 
sober habits of New-England. f His commission was obtained 
through the influence of his brother, John Pownal, who was 
Secretary to the Board of Trade and Plantations, — a man 
thoroughly versed in all colonial affairs. The Governor's whig 
politics were an antepast of popular esteem ; and his measures 
were accommodated with happy address, to the sentiments of the 
people. He met the Legislature, on the 16th, and in his first ^^^^1,^^ jg 
speech, he says, 'the times in which I meet you are critical and '''siij^si 
' perilous. — The war is no longer about a boundary, whether the 

* French usurpations shall extend to this or that mountain, this or - 
' that river ; but whether that people shall wrest from British 

* hands the rights and power of trade, and drive us from the con- 

* tinent. If our colonies and our trade are ruined, where is our 



* He was living', A. D. 1825, aged 80, on one of the Fox Islands. His 
mother, Mary Hall, also lived to a great age. — MS. Letter. — 11 Jour. 
House of Rep. p. 236. 

t Dr. Allen's Biog. p. 483.-2 Minot, p. 16, 19. 



328 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A. D. 1757. < naval superiority ? — if second to another, where is our dominion ? 
' Nay, if our naval glory is tarnished and lost, Great Britain can 
' no longer maintain a free government, — the British Colonies are 

* no more a flourishing and happy people. They, from the be- 
' ginning, have been a country of soldiers, unused to draw the 
' sword in vain, — distinguished for their spirited support of arma- 
' meats by sea and land in defence of the British American do- 
' minions.' — The House replied, ' that they hoped his adminis- 

* tration, at this most important juncture, would meet uith such suc- 
' cess, as to free the people from the impending dangers and calam- 
' ities, and render us once more a safe and prosperous Plantation.' 

^'''^'.'r ["!"' ^" ^ ^^^^ ^'^3'^ ^^® performed the ceremony of taking posses- 
.sir William gjon of the Castle. The sarrison was then commanded by Sir 

rcpperell. _ ° •' 

William Pepperell, who presented the fortress to the Governor, 

as the key of the Province. ' Yes,' he replied, ' and therefore I 

' shall always be pleased to see the keys of it in your hands.' 

iaprnm°o?' About this time, Capt. Bradbury and Lieutenant Fletcher re- 

the fori ai gig^gf] [\^q coumiand of the fort at St. Georges' river: and were 

ill piHceofj. succeeded by John North, a surveyor of lands, a magistrate and 

Bradbury. •' _ . 

one of the first Irish settlers upon the river. One Mr. Chapeny 
was Lieutenant, and Joshua Treat, armorer.* It seems, however, 
that Bradbury and Fletcher had probably been liberal in their 
censures of James Cargill's bloody affair with the Indians ; for 
after his discharge and receipt of £600, as a premium for his 
exploit, he charged them with treasonable practices, — in trading 
with the Indians clandestinely in time of war, and giving them 
intelligence inconsistent with the duty of officers. In the tedious 
Histriai and investigation of the charges before the two Houses of the Legis- 
acquiiu . ]j^^,j.g^ there were at least twenty witnesses examined ; among 
whom were Capt. Lithgow of Fort Halifax, Capt. Howard of 
the store-house at Cushnoc, and others from Pemaquid, Bruns- 
wick, York, Newcastle and St. Georges. But though the 
disquisition was protracted, the decision exculpated the respond- 
ents ; and hence, the public confidence in the management of the 
eastern garrisons, was both confirmed and enhanced. f^ 



* Eaton^s JIS. J<ar. p. 14-15. — It is said, Justice North never tried a 
cause, making it a point to laugh or scold the parties to a settlement. 
When the law-suitors — " entered but his door, 
" Balli'd was the cause, and contest was no more." 
1 10 Jour. H. of Rep. p. 209-217-246.— Coun. Rec. p. 181.— Sec ante, 1755. 



Chap, xii.] of malxh. 329 

In Maine the people's blessings were greater and their suffer- A. D. 1757. 
ings and losses less this summer, than in either of the two former Prospects of 

■ 1 J r r Maine. 

years. The drought of springs which occasioned a day 01 last- 
ing and prayer and considerable anxiety, was succeeded by a 
profusion of Divine favor. The products of the field were 
plentiful, and the fruits were never more abundant. The health 
of the inhabitants was great and general, if we except one ca- 
lamity, the smallpox ; and this seemed to be at once a safeguard Smaiipo* 
as well as a destroyer. For the Indians, through fear of taking 
the contagion, no less than in consequence of other discourage- 
ments, abandoned the frontiers early in the season, thus affording 
the husbandmen ample opportunity to gather and secure all the 
productions of their farms. 

On the 25th of January, 1758, Harpswell was incorporated a.d. i7n3-. 
and vested with all the powers and privileges of a town, except incorporat- 
that of sending a representative to the General Court. It eni-^ " 
braces the Merryconeag peninsula, Sebascodegan, and as many 
as twenty other Islands;* being bounded ^easterly onPhipsburg; 
' northerly and westerly on Brunswick and Freeport ; and south- 
* erly upon the ocean/ It was first settled permanently about 
the year 1720.f 

* See ante, Vol. I p. 40. 

f Harpswell is the 13th incorporated town in the State. The name was 
g-iven at the pleasure of the Legislature. It was set off from North-Yar- 
mouth and made a precinct in 1750. The air of this place is so salubrious, 
that "many valetudinarians, who have visited it, have quite recovered 
their health." The soil is g-ood ; either gravel, clay, or dark mould. The 
settlers had their titles to land principally from proprietors in Boston, who 
purchased of the Plymouth Company. In 1821, there were in Harpswell 
6 stores ; 3 grist mills ; 920 tons of shipping ; one bridge 300 feet in length, 
from Sebascodegan to Brunswick ; The soil grows wheat and coi'rt. — There 
are two meeting-houses, one in the westerly part of the town on the penin- 
sula, and the other on Sebascodegan. The first settled minister was Rev. 
Elisha Eaton, ordained 1750, who died, Apiil, 1764, He was succeeded 
by his son, Rev. Samuel Eaton, Oct. 24th of the same year, a graduate of 
Harvard in 1763. His settlement was £120 ; and his salary j£66 13s. Ad. 
In 1766-7, there was a remarkable reformation ; in which between 60 and 
70 members were added to the church. Now the members of the congre- 
gational church are few ; there are some Baptists and Methodists. The 
inhabitants are farmers, mariners and fishermen, their "habits virtuous 
and hospitable." The number of inhabitants in 1790, 1,071. The tov/Td 

Vol. II. 42 



330 THE HISTORY [VoL. IK 

A.D. 1758. Other places and objects in Maine likewise received legislative 
A lottery, attention. A lottery was granted to raise £1,200 for the purpose 
of building bridges over the rivers Saco and Presumpscot. It 
was also proposed to the Legislature by the Plymouth Company, 
that they would settle 50 families in each of the two townships 
in the vicinity of Fort Halifax, provided 50 of the men could 
be employed and paid for garrison duty ; — a project, which the 
Governor and others favored. 
The war. The war on our part had, hitherto, been quite unsuccessful. 
The great expenses, the frequent disappointments, the losses of 
men, and the capture of forts and of stores, were extremely dis- 
couraging. The enemy's country was filled with prisoners and 
scalps ; with private plunder ; and no less with public stores and 
provisions, borne thither — by our people as beasts of burden, 
through the fatal reverses of the war. Hence, whatever could 
be contrasted with such a calamitous state of affairs, was inor- 
dinately appreciated. So that a law, enacted for rendering the 
militia a more efficient defence, and measures, devised to regu- 
late trade and business upon the strictest principles of industry 
and economy, were highly applauded. — As to offensive measures, 
on our part, observed the Governor, they will, at present, — be 
useless. ' Let us' said he to the General Court, ' save the 
' strength, collect the force, and treasure up the funds and means, 
'of the Province, until God shall call them out, one and all, to 
* wreak his vengeance upon the savage violators of amity and 
'peace, and the perfidious French of Canada.' 
William As soon, howcver, as the closing winter called for renewed en- 

attheiiead terprizcs, it was happy for this country, that in a change of the 
Tstry.^ '"'"' British ministry, the direction of the war had, according to the 
united wishes of the people in England and America, been put into 
the hands of that distinguished and decisive statesman, William 
Pitt. His wisdom immediately devised great and judicious 
plans ; and his active spirit was able to infuse new life into all 
those, whose province it was to execute them. In a circular 
letter to the colonial Governors, he assured them of the settled 
determination to send hither a large force, to operate by sea and 

was first represented in the General Court, A, D. 1777, by Isaac Snow. 
— */S. LcUer of Rev. Samvd Eaton, A, D. 1821.-10 Jour. House of 
Rep. p. 308. 



His plans. 



Chap, xii.] of Maine. 33] 

land against!the French; and called on them to raise as many A. D. 1758. 
men^as the number of inhabitants would allow ; leaving them to 
form the regiments and to appoint officers at their discretion. He 
told them, that provisions, arms, ammunition, tents, and boats, 
would be furnished by the Crown ; and that the colonies must 
levy, clothe, and pay their men, — for which they might expect 
a reasonable remuneration, through the wise and liberal policy of 
Parliament. Yielding now no more to despondency amidst their 
adversities, they resumed fre.sh courage, and readily made the 
preparation required. 

Three expeditions were proposed for this year, the first was .^^^^^ 
against Louisbourg : the second, ajrainst Ticonderoga and Crown P«t''io"s 

" _ . . proposed. 

Point ; and the third, against Fort du Quesne. 

In the Governor's address to the General Court, March 2d, jyjg^p,, o^g 
he says, — 'The enemy, in consequence of our unfortunate situa- ^Py*^'""°'"'' 

•' _ •' ^ address. 

' tion, is about the heads of all our waters, ready to come down 
' upon us even at our very doors. It is, therefore absolutely ne- 
' cessary to keep up a constant and vigilant defence upon our 

* frontiers. When I met the Earl of Loudoun at Hartford, Feb. 
' 24, he expressed his intention of employing the aid of our sol- 

* diers in a contemplated service at the eastward ; and I hope 

* you will make provision for suitable forces to co-operate with 

* his Majesty's regular troops, on the eastern expedition, and for 

* fitting out the provincial ship of war. King George, to cruise for 

*the protection of the trade and fishery of the Province.' — These 

. ] • r 1 TT 1 Replyofihe 

suggestions drew an expression trom the House, that many men House. 

in the Province, especially in its eastern parts, were well acquaint- 
ed with Louisbourg, having served in the expedition that effected 
its reduction ; and it m.ight have a good tendency to promote his 
Majesty's interest, if some of the regiments from this Province 
should be employed the present year, in that part of the service. 
So spirited and united were the people, and so popular the 
expedition against Louisbourg, that there was no difficulty in ob- ed 
taining a vote in the Legislature to raise 7,000 men in the Prov- 
ince ; of whom, 6,925 were actually enlisted before the close 
of May, About 600 were recruited in Maine ; — besides 300 
raised to do garrison duty and range from place to place. The 
latter were thus stationed ; — at Fort Halifax, 50 ; at Cushnoc, 
16; at Saco truck house, 12; at Fort Frederick, 15; at St. 
Georges Fort, 35 ; at Burton's garrison, near the mouth of St. 



Troops rais- 



332 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1758. Georges' river, 6 ; at Handerson's garrison-house, on the other 
The o;iMerii side of the river, 6; at Meduncook, 10; at Broad-bay, 17; 
ed* *""" "at Fort George in Brunswick, 5 ; at Lebanon, 1 1 ; at Phillips-^ 

town, 18; at Narraganset No. 1, 14; at Standisii, 15; and 63 

were assigned to New-Marblehead, New-Gloucester, Frankfort 

and Pr suinpscot Falls.* 
jst and 2d The exjiediiion against Ticonderoga and Crown Point, conr 
expe.iii.en. j^^^^^.j ^.y General Abercrombie, was unsuccessful. General 

Forbes coinmanded the one against Fort du Quesne, which he 

captured and called Pittsburg. 
„ , .. in the sie£;e of Louisbourg, Major-General Amherst, command.^ 
tion c.ip- gj. ^^ ^j^g resiular and Provincial land forces, and Admiral Bos-- 

tiires Louis- ■ • o • 

^""'■ff- cawen with a fleet oi 57 sail, mostly from England, (ormmg a 
junction, proceeded eastward, and anchored, June 2, in the bay, 
opposite the city. The French garrison in that place consisted 
of 2.500 regular troops, 300 militia and 60 or 70 Indian war- 
riors. The harbor was secured by six ships of the line, and five 
frigates. When the landing was effected, and the artillery and 
stores were brought on shore. General James Wolfe was de-. 
tached with 2,000 men, to seize a post occupied by the enemy 
at the light-house point ; from which the ships in the harbor and 
the fortifications in the town, might be greatly annoyed. On his 
approach, the post was abandoned, and strong batteries were im- 
mediately erected there by the English. In the heavy cannon- 
ade perseveringly urged,— a bomb set one of the enemy's great 
ships on fire in the harbor, and blew her up ; whence the flames 
were communicated to others, which shared the same fate. Six 
hundred men were next sent in boats to make an attempt upon 
the two ships of the line in the basin ; one being aground, was 
destroyed, and the other they towed off in triumph. The Eng- 
lish being now in complete possession of the harbor, and several 
large breaches being actually made in the works, the- place was 
f''-^'-^; deemed no longer deiensible ; — thereibre, July 26, the French 
ulateii commander capitulated. f Tue inhabitants of Cape Breton were 
sent to France ; and the garrison, sea-officers, sailors and mar- 
iners, in all 5,037, were carried prisoners, to England. The 
conquerors lost 400 men, killed and wounded ; and found in the 
fort 21 pieces of cannon, 18 mortars, and an immense quantity 



* 10 Jour. House of Rep. p. 432.— The wlio'.e number was 29 J, beside* 
officers. ' "! S^^ ante, June 17, 1745. 



Chap, xii.] of MAmE. 



333 



^f stores and ammunition. The conquest filled England as well a. d. 1758. 
as this country, with extravagant demonstrations of joy.* 

The depredations committed in Maine by the Indians, thisTi'c In- 
•year^ were few ; three years of warfare being usually sufficient 
:to satisfy them. In May, however, a man by the name of Pome- 
joy was killed at Kennebeck, and a youngster taken captive ; 
.and iu June, an inhabitant of Arrowsick Island and his wife were 
slainj and their six children and a young woman were carried 
into captivity, 

A communication was received at Boston, in August, from An aiiack. 
Brigadier General Monkton, stationed in Nova Scotia, which im-rat'S. 
stated, that a body of Frenchmen, in conjunction with the Indians river^inlt 
on the rivers St. John, Penobscot, and probably Passainaquoddy, "■'•i'"'""- 
were meditating an attempt upon the fort at St. Georges, and the 
destruction of all the settlements in that vicinity. Immediately, 
.Governor Pownal collected such a military force, as was at com- 
mand, and eir.barked with them on board the King George, and 
;the sloop Massachusetts. Arriving, he threw these auxiliaries 
.wi<h some additional warlike stores into the fort at a most for- 
tunate juncture ; for within 36 hours after his departure, the fort 
was actually assailed by a body of 400 French and Indians. 
But so well prepared was the garrison to receive them, that they 
were unable to make the least impression. Nor did any repre- 
sentations of their numbers, nor any threats, communicated to the 
fort by a captive woman, whom they purposely permitted to 
£scape thither, occasion the least alarm. Hence, the besiegers 
gave vent to their resentments and rage, by killing the neighbor- 
ing cattle, about 60 of which, they shot or butchered. 

This active and conspicuous service of the Governor, was not . 

\ 5 «»"^ ^"^ Service of 

only applauded by the General Court in terms of high considera- "'° Gover- 

I -TIT r->- 1 1 1 • • 1 1 "*"" ''ig'ily 

tion ; but Mr. Fitt also assured hmi, it had received the particular app'"^'ed. 
approbation of the king himself. The enemy afterwards made 

I r Til 1 , r-A ^■''^' efTorls 

an attempt upoa the lort at Meduncook [Friendship] without °' ''^^ ^'asi- 

bi I -1 11 1 MI 1 , <^''n Iiicliaiiii, 

eing able to carry it ; though they killed or took captive eight ''''^ ^a'- 

men.fr— These, so far as our knowledge extends, closed the 

scenes of massacre, plunder and outrage by the Indians, durin^- 

jhe present war aqd forever. 



* 9 Smo'ldl, p. 233-6.— The people in Falmouth spent the afternoon and 
piost of the night rejoicing- — Smith. ^ 2 Minot, p. 41, 



334 "THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. I). J759. The plan of operations, for the memorable year 1759, was 
rianofo[.e- nothing less than an universal attack upon the French, in every 
year."'' ""' direction ; — by so connecting all the parts, as to transfuse the 
effect of victory or success in one quarter, throughout the whole 
system ; — with a determination to bring the contest to a final and 
speedy decision. For these purposes it was agreed and deter- 
mined, that three powerful armies should enter the territories of 
the French by different routes, and make a simultaneous attack 
Against upon all their strong holds of security or defiance. The capture 
Quebec ^^ Q^jg^g^ ^^.^5 assigned to an army of 9,000 men, under General 
Wolfe, and a fleet under Admiral Saunders : — The reduction of 
Niagara. Niagara, one of the most important posts in all North America, 
was to be undertaken by General Prideaux, with a powerful body 
of Provincials and friendly Indians : — And the main army, under 
General Abercrombie the Commander-in-Chief, was to invest Ti- 

Ticoiidero- , 1 1 r • • t 

ga and condcroga and Crown Pomt, and then form a junction, if possi- 

Crown ~ 

Point. ble, with General Wolfe. 

Troops rais- The subject was laid before the General Court, when the 
Provilice. House votcd, March 10, to raise 5,000 men; believing the 
Province in its present exhausted state could do no more. Yet, 
in consequence of an urgent letter from General Amherst, then 
in Nova Scotia, the House added to the levy 1 ,500 more ; sub- 
Staicof iheJ°i""''S ^ ^"""^ though molancholy representation, — how ' surpriz- 
frovijice. t ingly the burdens, the sufferings, and exigencies, occasioned by 
' four years of warfare succeeding other long and bloody wars, 
' had prostrated public credit, and filled the Province with dis- 
' tress. The ranks of our bravest inhabitants, said the House, 
' have been thinning from year to year ; untold numbers having 
' fallen in battle, died of their wounds or of sickness, or been carried 
' into an appalling captivity ; while not a few, fired with patriotism, 
' have actually left all, for the service of their king and country. 
' The charge of our own regiments was £120,000, the last year ; 
' the amount paid in fines and contributions was at least £60,000, 
' and it cost the Province £30,000, to defend its frontiers and 
' seacoasts, and to defray the ordinary expenses of government ; — 
'which sums being all computed in money sterling. In the 
< defence of the eastern country only, we are obliged to keep 
' about 600 men in constant pay. We have lately promised a 
* bounty of ^6 to a man, being double what we have at any time 



Chap, xii.] of Maine. 335, 

'before given, to produce a voluntary enlistment of 1,500 men, A. .U 1759. 

* the additional levy.* But still we shall never be found back- 

* ward, to discharge all our duty, with the fortitude, emulation 
' and alacrity, which have ever characterized the people of this 
' Province.' 

There was another subject of great importance to the people a propos!- 
of this eastern country, which the Governor called up and sub- poss.^ssionof 
mitted to the consideration of the Legislature. This was a Jj^"".^'™' 
proposition to establish a fort at some place upon the banks of the 
Penobscot waters, and to take formal possession of the contiguous 
territories. He stated, that the undertaking had been postponed 
from time to time, on account of the present war, and the conse- 
quent burdens, with which the people were struggling ; that since 
the British forces had seized upon the river St. John, and forti- 
fied there, the enemy had no other outlet to the sea, than through 
the Penobscot river — the avenues being shut upon him in every 
other part ; that both the country and the Islands ought to be in 
our actual possession, since as long as an Indian has any claims 
to these lands, the French will espouse his title and give us 
trouble; and that General Amherst, having been consulted, has 
declared the subject to be a matter of weight and necessity, de- 
serving immediate attention ; and should tlie enterprize succeed, 
he has actually promised to furnish guns, ordnance, stores and 
other necessaries, suitable for such a fortification, and free of all 
charge to the Province. He has also stated, that the expense 
of building it will be reimbursed by the crown. Not only will 
this expedition, added the Governor, assure you the honor of hav- 
ing completed his Majesty's entire dominion on the Atlantic ; but 
the title to those lands will be forever secured to the subjects of 
this Province. f — The proposition was the more acceptable to the 
House, because it seemed to come fi-om the ministry ; satisfied 
as the Legislature had long been, that such an establishment 
would afford facilities and means, either to subdue entirely the 
Etechemin natives, or bring them to terms of perpetual peace. 

The General Court therefore resolved, March 23, that 400 Provision 
men, taken from the last levy of 1,500, be employed under the buliding'^a 
Governor's direction, to take possession of the Penobscot coun- ""^ 
fry, erect a fortification there, and cover the workmen in the en- 



2 Minot, p, 47, 52. f See Governor's Speech, Feb. 1, 17.59. 



336 THE HISTORY [VoL. IJ.- 

A. D. 1759. terpfize J that they be immediately enlisted, put under pay, andi 
furnished with provisions, blankets and camp utensils, — every 
soldier being offered six dollars by the month, if he supplied 
himself with firearms ; and that the fort, when finished, be gar- 
risoned by 100 men, from the forts at Pemaquid and St. Georges,- 
which were to be dismantled. About the same provision was 
also made for the general defence of the eastern frontiers, as- 
The foi-ce at was assigned to that service the preceding year. Next, every 
fnxdiscon- argument and method were used to persuade the troops stationed 
leoie . ^^ p^^^ Halifax and Fort Western, to continue in the service,-^ 
troops whose complaints were raised to notes of high resentment. 
The government in its emergency, it is true, had done little better 
than to break faith with them. For they had been enlisted or 
impressed into that service for only a twelve month : whereas 
the present was the third year of their detention, and still they 
could not obtain their discharge. Perceiving, however, that the 
fort must be dismantled, if they left it, the brave men sacrificed 
private considerations to the public safety, and still continued in 
the sei'vice. 
The Penoh- The enlistments for the ' Penobscot expedition,' were complet- 
scot expedi- ^^ ^vijijo^H trouble or delay. The men being arranged into four 
companies, each of 100 men, were put under the command of a 
Colonel ; and the whole embarked at Boston on board the ship 
King George, the Massachusetts sloop and a few transports j 
all touching at Falmouth, May 4, as they proceeded to the place 
of destination. In ascending the Penobscot Bay, at this pleas- 
ant season of the year, the Islands and shores exhibited a drap- 
ery of nature, which could not fail to make a deep impres- 
sion upon the beholder. Farther into land, the banks indented 
with coves, and the acclivities clothed with mast-pines, rock- 
maples, and balsam-firs, in thick forest, had power to excite the 
admiration of no one more than the Governor himself. It was 
to him, a reflection fraught with deep regret, that tliis line coun- 
try had been so long left to the savage hunter, the French ren- 
egado, and the wild beast. 
Site.dimen- Having examined sundry places, and taken formal possession 

sions and , ^ , , , • i 

form of the of the country, the Governor selected a crescent crowning eleva- 
tion on the western side of the Penobscot, [in Prospect,] 25 
rods from the waters' edge, and about a league below the foot of 



Chap, xii.] of maixe. 33? 

Orphan Island, as a site for the fortification.* It was laid out A.D. 1769. 
square, with the points of compass, the east side facing the wa^ 
ter, and at each corner were flankers. The dimensions of the 
fort, were 860 feet, or 90 feet on each inner side of the breast- 
work, which was ten feet in height. Tliis was circumvallated by 
a moat or ditch 15 feet in width at top, 5 at bottom, and 8 deep. 
Each exterior side of the ditch^ or the glacis, was 240 feet.- In 
the centre of the ditch were palisadoes quite around the fort, ex- 
cept at the portcullis, or entrance, at the east side, where a draw- 
bridge crossed the excavation or ditch. There was also a 
piquet in the dilch at the foot of the wall. The houses of the 
commander and others, were situated between the fort and the 
river. Within the breastwork or walls, was a square block-house,- 
44 feet on a side, with flankers at each corner, of diamond form^ 
33 feet on a side. The whole was constructed o( square timber 
dovetail'd at the corners, and trenailed. The height of the 
block-house, in two stories, was about twentj'-two feet, the roof 
was square or hipped, and had a sentry box upon the top. There 
were several cohorns on the rooi ; and three or four cannon were 
mounted in the area between the breastwork and Walls of the 
block-^house, which was 20 feet in width. The upper story jut-^ 
ted over the lower about three feet-' — the space being covered 
with loose plank, easily removable. The lower story was used 
as barracks ; and in the upper one, where 10 or 12 small can- 
non were mounted, garrison exercise was performed in stormy 
weather. There were two chimnies, one in the north-west and 
the other in the south-east corner of the block-house. f 



* A little above Fort-point is a bar ; between which and Sandy-point,- 
^ths of a iea:gue farlher north, is Fort-point harbor. The shore from Fort- 
point runs S. W. H leagues to Cape Jellison-point ; west of which iS Brig'- 
adier's Island of 5000 acres ; — and hctween them is Cape JelHson harbor. 

■j- After the war, there was a larg-e trade carried on many years, between 
the garrison and the Indians. An aged gentleman says, " I have seen one 
" of the flanker-rooms as fall as it could be well stowed, with the first qual- 
" ity of furs, beaver, otter, sable, &c." Soon after Majorbiguyduce was 
occupied by the British, A. D. 1779, Col. Cargill came from Newcastle, 
and burnt the block-house and curtilage ; and subsequently by order of 
government, he again appeared at the head of a party, and labored inde- 
fatigably till almost exhausted with toil and hunger, in filling the ditches 
and levelling the breastwork. Yet some of the cavities are now to be 
seen. — MS. Letter of Jos. P. JlartiuyEsq. of Prospect, with an ingcniouff 
plan of the fort. 

Vol. II. 43 



338 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A.D. 1759. As soon as the laborers had commenced work, the Governor, 
Governor attended by General Samuel Waldo, with a guard of 136 men, 
Waido"virh ascended the river, near the head of the tide-waters, below the 
ascfnd the bend -J and May 23, went ashore on the westerly side of the 
'''^®'^* river. From this place he sent a message to the Tarratine tribe, 

A message givi'ig them notice of the enterprize undertaken at Fort-point, 
Sans'*'* and assuring them, if they should fall upon the English and kill 
any of them, the whole tribe should be hunted and driven from 
the country. But, added he, though we neither fear your resent- 
ment nor seek your favor, we pity your distresses ; and if you 
will become the subjects of his Majesty and live near the fort, 
you shall have our protection, and enjoy your planting grounds, 
and your hunting berths, without molestation. 
Doath of General Waldo took great interest in this expedition, expect- 
Generai • ^j ^ ^^q Muscongus for Waldo] Patent extended to some 

v\ aide. o o u -■ 

place near the spot then visited by them ; and that he and his 
co-proprietors would derive essential advantage from the project- 
ed fortification. Withdrawing a few paces he looked round and 
exclaimed, " here is my bound" — and instantly fell dead, of an 
apoplexy. He was 63 years of age.* To commemorate the 
spot, the Governor buried a leaden plate, bearing an inscription 
of the melancholy event. General Waldo was a gentleman of 
great enterprize, and worth ; and the conspicuous part he acted 
in the first capture of Louisbourg, will be long recollected with 
intermingled pleasure and praise. His sons, Samuel and Fran- 
cis, and the husbands of his two daughters, Isaac Winslow and 
Thomas Fluker, were the testamentary executors of his large 
estate, much of which was in the last mentioned patent. 
Fort Pow- On the 28th of July, the fortification which cost about £5,000,f 
2j'/°""P'^^' was completed, and called Fort Pownal. It was afterwards 
garrisoned by 100 men, under the command of Brigadier-Gen- 

*■ Cow7ici7i2ee. 1756 <o 1767.— GoTcrnor Fownal says, 'we went up to 
' the first Falls, foKT miles and an half from the first led^-e, found cleared 
« lands on the western side of the river, where General Waldo dropt down, 
' May 23, just above tltc falls^ of an apoplexy, and expired in a few mo- 

«ments." The exact place is not known — supposed to be not far from 

Fort-hill in Bangor. — Some say, it was on the eastern side. 

t Exact amount, £4,969, 17*. 2d. ; besides the tempor;iry use of some of 
the o-overnment's property. The troops consumed 250 bbls. of pork, 390 
bushels of peas ; and 1,759 gallons of molasses. 



Chap, xii.] of waine. 339 

eral Jedediah Preble. It was the most regular and defensible a. d. 1759, 
fort in the Province ; and the expenses of building it were re- 
imbursed by Parliament. 

In a subsequent address to the General Court, the Governor to the ac- 
stated, that he had taken possession of a large and fine country, [^hrp"ov°^ 
belonging to the Province, within the dominions of the British ""^^^' 
£rown — long a den for savages, and a lurking place for renega- 
do Frenchmen ; and had established that possession by the erec- 
tion of a fort, which would command the river Penobscot, and 
the outlet at Edgemaroggan Reach, the rendezvous of the east- 
ern Indians, in their excursions against our frontiers. He said, 
the erection of it incurred a less charge to the Province by 
£1,003, than if the same troops had joined the army. Highly 
gratified with the enterprize and its speedy accomplishment, the 
General Court voted him their thanks, and granted him £200, 
in addition to his usual salary of £1,300, lawful money.* 

In each of the three northern campaigns, the British and NiH<rara 
Provincial arms met with entire success. Niagara surrender- i.l'^a",^*^'^"' 
ed, July 25, to Sir William Johnston, chief commander — •l;'""^^", 

, I omi taken. 

General Prideaux being killed. The second day afterwards, 
Ticonderoga and Crown Point were reduced by General Am- 
herst. Before that time, General Wolfe had commenced the Quebec be- 
far-famed siege of Quebec, The city, then containing 1 0,000 "'°^'^" 
souls, was built on elevated ground near the northerly bank of 
the St. Lawrence,f and just above the moudi of the St. Charles ; 
— a place more stongly fortified and better garrisoned, than any 
other in America. The plains of Abraham, above the city, 
adjoined the bank of the river, where the heights and rugged 
steepness were supposed to be a safeguard, entirely sufficient, 
without the least works of art. 

Yet the intrepid Wolfe, in the course of one night, Sept. 12-13, s^p, 13 
conducted his army from the shipping, in single file, up this uo,l"of Qug. 
appalling precipice, and commenced the attack. The battle, ^''''^• 
bloody and desperate, became general about 9 in the morning ; 
and before noon the victory of the English was decisive. Wolfe 
and Montcalm, the two opposing generals, were both slain, and 

* By advice of the Council, the General put the forces under Law Mar- 
tial, during the erection of the fort.— 3 Coun. Rec. p. 77. 
t The river opposite is a raile in width. 



340 THE HISTORY [VoL. II, 

A. D. 1759. with them fell 1 ,600 men ; the loss of the French being about 
twofold that of the English. On the fifth day, Quebec, the capi- 
tal of New-France, capitulated, and being thus reduced to the 
dominion of Great Britain, was garrisoned by about 5,000 men.* 
The eastern people partook largely in the great and general joy, 
which this event diffused over the whole country ;— in a well 
founded hope, that savage warfare and scenes of blood, would 
Great exult- shortly come to a close, throughout the land. Besides firing 
cannon and illuminating ships and houses 5— »ran assemblage, for 
instance, celebrated the occasion of their mirth and exultation in 
a festal barbecue, served up in due style on one of the Islands 
iti the harbor of Falmouth. f There was praise oftered at every 
altar; and a day of solemn thanksgiving was appointed by royal 
proclamation, through all the dominions of Great Britain. 
The In- Every great reverse of fortune experienced by the French, 

^'^"*' had a baleful effect upon the interests and affairs of the northern 
and eastern Indian tribes. Beaten in Nova Scotia, and met at 
every avenue in their late hostile attempts upon the well guarded 
frontiers of Maine, they had entered the camp of the French, to 
help them fight out their battles. They had thus changed the 
mode of warfare through necessity. Their bloody cruelties and 
devastations in the outer towns and plantations of New-England, 
were yet by no means effaced from recollection ; and a day of 
retribution had at length arrived, 
iie],L 18. General Amherst, having reduced Ticonderoga, despatched 

prs'marches thence, Sept. 13, Major Robert Rogers, with about 200 rangers 
Hgains?St. to destroy the Indian villages at St. Francois and Becancourt. 
iiaacois. ^|-jgj. g fatiguing march of twenty-'One days, he came within sight 
of the places, which he discovered from the top of a tree. Halt- 
ing his men, at the distance of three miles, he rested till twilight. 
In the evening he entered the former village in disguise with two 
of his oiFicers. The Indians being, unfortunately for them, en- 
gaged in a great dance, he passed through them undiscovered. 
Having formed his men into parties and posted them to advantage, 
he made a general assault, Oct. 4, just before day, while the In- 



Ocioher 4. 
iJesirovs it. 



* 3 Smollett, p, 475— 493.— In England " all was triumph and exultation, 
'•' mingled with tho praise of the all accomplished Wolfe, which was ex- 
M alted even to a ridiculous degree of hyperbole," 

•j- Since called, " Hog Isl.md." 



Chap, xii.] of maine. 341 

dians, fatigued by exercise, were in a sound sleep. So com-A.D. I759. 
pletely were they surprized, that Httle resistance could be made. 
Some were killed in their cottages, and others, attempting to 
flee, were shot or thrust tlu-ough by those placed at the avenues. 
Several of them actually fell upon the spot, about twenty 
were taken prisoners, and five English captives rescued from 
suffering. Daylight disclosed to the assailants a horrid spectacle. 
It was the sight of several hundred scalps torn from the heads of 
their countrymen, elevated on poles and waving in the air. 

St Francois was a village which had, through a period of many St. Fmnrois 

dt;*scnbcd» 

years, been enriched with the plunder of the English frontiers, 
and the sale of captives. The church was adorned with plate, 
and the houses were decently furnished. The apprehension of 
alarm and of pursuit did not allow much time for pillage. The 
rangers only took such things as they could most conveniently 
bring away ; among which were 200 guineas in money, a silver 
image weighing ten pounds, a large quantity of wampum, and 
some articles of clothing. Having set fire to the village, Rogers 
made his retreat up the river St. Francois ; intending that his 
men should meet in rendezvous at the upper Coos on Connecti- 
cut river. Rogers, having one man killed and six or seven {f<""ni of 

° ' ° , Ut<gers and 

wounded, was under the necessity of dismissing his prisoners on iiismen. 
their parole ; and after this, he was pursued and lost seven of 
his company. The whole party kept in a body about ten days, 
and then scattered. Some died in the woods, and all the rest 
suffered the extremes of hunger and fatigue, before they arrived 
atjany habitations of the settlers.* 

But amidst the exultation awakened by these repeated and ooathofSir 
triumphant successes, a cloud of melancholy was thrown over peppg^^u 
the eastern country, by the death of Sir William Pepperell. He 
had been a distinguished man among the most eminent of the age. 
Few others have been favored through life with such uninter- 
rupted success in their enterprizes, both public and private, as it 
was his good fortune to enjoy. He acquired a large property, 
leaving no less than 5.500 acres of valuable land in Saco. Cir- 
cumstancjes always seemed wonderfully to combine in further- 
ance of his wishes ; nay, there is a homely tradition, which had 
much of truth in it, that 'whatever he willed came to pass.' 



*2 Eclk. N. H. p. 234-5. 



342 '^^^^- HISTORY [Vol. ii. 

AD. 1759. Even the reduction of Louisbourg, the pillar of his fame, has 
been ascribed to a series of lucky incidents, or to special Divine in- 
terposition, rather than to any remarkable military skill of the 
General. His usual dress afterwards, according to the expen- 
sive style and costume of those days, was scarlet cloth, trim- 
med with gold lace. But amidst all his wealth and honors, his 
affability of manners never forsook him. He had a very deep 
sense of Divine Providence, which made him modest and hum- 
ble, and appeared to influence every action of his life. He died 
at his seat in Kittery, July 6, 1759, aged 63, — exhibiting the 
christian believer and hero, as well in his dying moments as in 
his living years. He devised a large estate to William P. Spar- 
hawk, son of Nathaniel Sparhawk, Esq. whose wife was the 
only surviving child of the Baronet.* 
Defence To protect our frontiers, during the winter, there were em- 

wmef/''^ ployed 1 GO men, who were thus distributed; — namely, at Fort 
Pownal, 84 men; at Fort Halifax, 41 ; at Cushnoc, 13; at St. 
Georges, 13; and at Saco, 9. Fort Frederick, at Pemaquid, 
which had so long been the principal eastern fortification, had 
been dismantled the preceding year ; and the fears of a further 
attack from the Indians were, since the late events, more than 
half diminished. The ship King George was likewise cruising 
off our coast through the winter, partly as a convoy of our trade 
with Louisbourg, and partly as a protector to our fishery against 
privateers, who had seized several of our vessels. 
Settlement Animated by a perspective of the Penobscot country filled 
prfposed.*^"^ with people, the Governor told the General Court, during their 
winter session, that " a great many families" stood ready to re- 
move thither and settle, provided there were no obstacles in the 
way of their obtaining a title to the lands. The subject was pop- 
ular, and he urged its importance upon their consideration, with 
earnestness ; believing that permanent settlements there would be- 
come supports essential to the strength and interests of the Pro- 
vince. 
Woolwich On the 20th of October, 1759, the plantation o^ JVequasset, or 
ed?'^''"'^' Nauseag, was erected into a town by the name of Woolwich. f 



* Allen's Biog'. p. 473. — Folsom's Hist. Saco and Biddeford, p. 257. 

f Woolwich (the 14th town) is said to have been so named after that in 
England, from the relative situations of the two, to " Fiddler's Reach" — 
in the Thames and Kennebeck, the turns and courses of the water in both 



Chap, xn.] of maine. 343 

It had been a precinct of Georgetown. The first settlers were a, D. 1759, 
Edward Bateman and John Brown. They resided here as early 
as A. D. 1638; and the next year took from Robinhood, an 
Indian Chief, a deed embracing most of the present township : 
though afterwards, a large part of it was claimed by Clark and 
Lake, and by the settlers under them, who erected mills there, 
as early as A. D. 1660. The cellars and wells of the original 
inhabitants, who were driven away or destroyed in the second 
Indian war, are yet to be seen. It is supposed, the place was 
resetded soon after Dummer's treaty was formed with the In- 
dians, in 1726, 

Early in the opening year, 1760, there were express indica- a. d. nGO.- 
tions, that the wars between the New-England provincials and The Indians, 
the eastern tribes, which at periods, within the last eighty-five peace^ 
years, had overspread the land with blood and desolation, were 
about to terminate, — probably forever. Wasted by w-ar^ famine, 
hardships, and disease, particularly the smallpox, and now left to 
their fate, by the people that had made them dupes and self-de- 



places beiDg alike. " Trott's Neck," in the southerly part of the town- 
ship, was sold in 1680, by Agamag'us, Moxiis, Egeremet, Essemenseco — a 
chief called by ench of tliese names. Woolwich is bounded northerly by 
Dresden, on the east by Monsweag- bay, and by water on nil Ihc other 
sides, containing' about 20,000 acres, in part covered b}' Nequasset pond of 
400 acres. The stream, in passing' down from the outlet, descends a fall 
and meets the tide, where arc mill-sites and an alewife fisherj'. Though 
the soil be rocky in some parts, it has borne a heavy growth o( oak, which 

has been much used in ship-building'. It is worthy of remark, that Sir 

William Piiips, the first royal Governor of the Massachusetts Province, 
was a native of this place ; — born in (he south-cast part of the present 
town on a peninsular projccfion into Monsweag bay. The first point east 
of Nequasset stream, is Hoclvomock ; thence over Tibbels' ferry, one mile 

and a half to Phips' point; thence across to Westport, half a mile. 

Rev. Josiah Winship, a graduate of Harvard, was (he first settled minister 
in this place ; and when he was ordained, June 12, 1765, there v/ere in the 
town only about twent}' families, and two framed houses. — MS^ Letter of 
i1/osf* Davis, Esq. — Sullivan, p. 75-160. — Mr. Winship continu>ed to per- 
Ibrm the pastoral and parochial duties of his trust "■ about fifty years," till 
becoming enfeebled by age, he was persuaded (o accept of a colleague. 
Rev. .Jonathan Adams, who was ordained rn February, 1817. The titles of 
the inhabitants to their lands, are either by actual settlement under the 
grantees of Robinhood's deed, or by deeds from Thomas Clark, and Sir 
Biby Lake, vvho was assignee of Roger Spencer. — Sullivan, p. 145-169.-— 
See post, A. D. 1757 to 1760. 



344 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A. D. 1760. stroyers, the eastern natives saw themselves at the shrine of ruin, 
when it was too late to avoid the sacrifice. The mixed tribe at 
St. Francois, was effectually broken and scattered, and their vil- 
lage in ashes. The brave Tarratines, that once carried terror 
even among the Sagamores of Massachusetts, were now too much 
enfeebled, either to resent the menaces of defiance, or oppose a 
seizure upon their country. 

A treaty The tribcs that first sued for peace, were those at the river St. 

fiVU.Jdm John and at Passamaquoddy. They had been forward in taking 

m;miw'ddv" the tomahawk, and probably feared the severities of the English, 
which they so richly deserved. One tribe, therefore, sent Michael 
Neptune, and the other Bellomy Glaube, to see Governor Law- 
rence at Halifax, who entered into a negotiation with them, Feb. 
23, 1760 ; by which, the treaty made in December, 1725, and 
confirmed at the river St. John, in August, 1749, by the Mickmaks- 
and Marechites, was fully recognized, and their allegiance to the 
king renewed. The Indian delegates, furthermore agreed to- 
traffic only at the truck houses ; to have this renovated treaty 
signed before the 20th of the ensuing May, by the Sagamores 
and chief men in the tribes represented by them ; and in faith of 
the engagement, to put three hostages in the meantime, into the' 
hands of the English,* 

Also wiih This news and the tranquil conduct of the Tarratine tribe, so* 

the 1 at ra- _ _ ^ _ 

tine tribe, far quieted the eastern inhabitants, that they left the garrisons 
and block-houses, early in the spring, and returned to their own 
farms or dwelling-places. f About the same time, several of the 
tribe in the vicinity of Fort Pownal told the commander. General 
Preble, that they desired nothing more than peace. They said 
they wished to dwell with their families, at some place near the 
garrison, receive its protection, and enjoy the neighborhood and 
friendship of the English ; ' living with them, as many tribes had 
' lived with the French in Canada.' To effectuate therefore, 
their purposes, four of their chief men, Kehowret, Joseph Ma- 
rie, Sockaiteon and Sockebasin, went to Boston, and, on the 29th 
of April, formed and signed articles of treaty, with the Governor 

* See this treaty entire, on 3 rolls nf parchment, Sec. office, Boston. It is 
said, even the remaining neutral French, and tlie Mickmaks [Cape Sable 
Indians,] finally joined in this treaty. The Mickmaks at this time were 
in number near 3,000 souls. — Chubb^s Sketches, p. 99, 100. 

i Eaton's MS. Nnrrative p. 15. 



Chap, xii.] of Maine. 345 

or in the Council charnbGr. As usi:a1> llie Indians Jicknowkfk'ed •^- i^- I't'O. 
themselves to be the good subjects of King George ; confessed 
their rebellion an;) the consequent ibrfciture of their lands ; re- 
linquished all allegiance to the French government. ; and prom- 
ised to deliver up future offenders for trial, according to the laws 
of the Province. T!ie tribe was reduced, as stated by the dele- 
gates themselves, to five Si'.chems, seventy-three warriors, and 
perhaps 500 souls. All they had left to them was the |)rivilege 
of hunting, and the possession of such tracts, as the Englibh might 
assign to them. So few and insignificant had become the whole 
Abenaques people, that not one tiibe of them, not even the Can- 
ibas Indians, took any leading part in settling a general peace. 

The signal advantages obtained th-e last year over the French, Cannda 

, , . . , . ... , , . . coiitinered, 

were pursued this season with an mtrepidify and determuiation, and cou- 
which aimed at nothing less than the speedy and entire conquest Eii'^iaiid l^y 
of Canada. In a train of glorious achievements and events, Mon- "'''"^'• 
treal capitulated, Sept. 8 ; a French squadron in the bay of 
Chaleurs was vanquished by Captain Byron, commander of the 
war ships, left for the protection of Louisbourg ; and at length, 
all the French subjects inhabiting the territories from the Bay of 
Fundy through the Canadian country, and all the Indian tribes in 
that region, were subdued and subjected to the English govern- 
ment. In fine, the whole acquisition so gloriously achieved, re- 
ceived a solemn confirmation to the English, at the close of the 
war, by the sanctions of a treaty, which was succeeded by a 
peace to the frontiers of New-England, firm and enduring. Cap- 
tives returned to their homes ; and friends who had long been 
separated, joyfully embraced in the fond hopes of being never 
more disturbed by the war-whoop and tomahawk of the mer- 
ciless savage.* 

* As soon as Louisbourg' surrendered, July 2G, 1758, to the British arms, 
JVoi-a Scotia resumed fresh courage and a more enlivening- aspect. The 
government was new-modeled and improved, — and a House of Representa- 
tives established 2d October ; when Governor Charles Lawrence, among 
other measures, invited people from the New-England and other Colonies 
to settle upon the lands which had become vacant by the removal of the 
Acadians, or French neutrals. He also, through an agency established in 
Boston, " declared he was ready to receive any proposals, that might be 
made to him for settling this valuable tract of country — 100,000 acres of 
which had produced wheat, rye, barley, oats, hemp, flax, &c. without failure 
for the last century ; and another 100,000 had been cleared and stocked 
Vol. II. 44 



346 THE HISTORY [VcL. II. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Eastern patents, and grants — Business and livelihood of the inhab' 
itanti — Ntio statuic-Uncs — Trustee process — Jury-boxes — Poor 
debtors — French neutrals — Gov. Pownal leaves the Province — 
Eastern members of the Council in three administrations — PoW' 
nalborough incorporated — The counties of Cumberland and Lin- 
coln established — Lievienant-Governor Hutchinson in the chair — 
Governor Bernard arrives — Trade trith the Indians — George III. 

crowned — Neio valuation PoUticcd parties — Governor and 

House at variance — Custom-house officers — Writs of assistance — 

Districts instead of towns — Public f nances York bridge — 

Twelve toicnships, eastward of Penobscot — Mount-Desert granted 

to Governor Bernard Fryeburg to J. Frye — Line beticeen 

Maine and JSuva Scotia — Calamities, drought, sickness and fires 

— Windham, Buxton and Bowdoinham incorporated — Treaty of 

peace at Paris. 

A P. 1757 -^'^ '^"^ eventful period of our history, there was particular and 

to 17C0. extensive notice taken of all tlie numerous interests, which so 

essentially concern a rising community. The larger patents, and 

proprieties, though they had for some years been dormant, were 

no longer neglected, or overlooked. 

Limits of As to the limits of the Plymouth patent, Messrs. Walcot, 

ouUi paieiit. Gridley, Pratt, Worlhingtoo and Havvley, five eminent lawyers 

with Eng-lish grass, planted witlj orciiarJs an.l embellished with gardens — 
the whole so inteniiixcd, that every individual fc^nncr might hare a pro- 
portionable quantity of ploughed land, grass land, and woodland." By a 
second Proclamation, Oct. r2, 1758, lie prescribed (he terms upon which 
lots would be granted to settlers, and guaranteed liberty of conscience and 
worship to all christians, except papists. In consideration of these flatter- 
ing encouragements, numbers of agriculturalists, emigrated from New- 
England and settled on the southerly sl-.ores and easterly borders of the 
Bay of Fundy, — 1 Ilaliburions J^'ova Scvt'ia, p. 20'' 223— 234. — From Boston 
' arrived there, six vessels carrying 2C0 settlers; from Rhode Island, 

four schooners with 100 passengers ; from New-London, 100, and Plymouth, 
180 em'grant;:=to SCO souls. In 176-1, the Acadians were permitted "to 
settle in the Province [of Nova Scotia] and hold lands upon taking the 
customary oatbs." 



Chap, xiii.] of Maine. ^ 347 

of the age, to whom the subject was referred, awarded, in 1757, A. D. 1760. 

that the southerly boundary of that patent, on the eastern side of 

the Kennebeck, be limited by the line which forms the northerly 

bound of Woolwich ; tliat fliC claimants under Clark and Lake, 

hold the lands in that town below its north line, between Mon- 

sweag bay, and the Keimebeck waters, southerly to Towasset 

bay, also all Arrowsick, and 450 acres of Parker's Island ; that 

the soullierly boundary of ihe same Plymouth patent on the 

west side of the Kennebeck be a line drawn at right angles from 

the river, through the lowest bend of Cobbeseconte river ;* that 

the northern extremity of the same patent ought not to extend 

fartlier, tiian to a line drawn east and west across the mouth of 

the river Wessarunsct ;f and that the Peiopscot Ccmnanv ouerlit '•'T^'"'"'^'''® 

' ' J I I J O Pcjepscot 

to hold the lands eastward to the mouth ol Cathaiice, and north- P"'"t''a*e. 
ward to the falls 20 miles above those at Brunswick, — also Small 
Point peninsula, [Phipsburg,] and the Islands in New-Meadow's 
river, excepting Sebascodegan and Little Damariscove.J The Tract of the 
territorv of the Wiscasset Comiiany^ was determined in 1702,^^'*"'^''*^' 

•' I ./ J 3 company, 

to lie between JMonsweag river and the water which separates 
the main from Jeremisquam, and to extend as far as the upper 
Narrows in tlie Sheepscot at Flying Point, and westward to a 
line equidistant between the Sheepscot and the Kennebeck. 
There were several plans renovated or projected at this period, 
and great exertions making, by the proprietors of these large 
tracts and of the Waldo patent, to enhance the value of their 
lands, and to settle them with enterprizing inhabitants. 

A new and most favorable impulse was given by the conquest Enterprize 
of Canada, and the prospects of a perpetual peace with the In- hood'of 'I'he 
dians, to every species of enterprize and improvement. The losses "'''^^''^''^s- 
sustained by removals and deaths, being fewer than in any forin- 

* This was afterwards, about A. D. 17C6, confirmed by the Superior 
Court of the Province. — Sullivan, p. 118.— Jeffries v. Donnel.— /ion. 
David SewaWs JIS. Let. also, see post, A. D. 1774, note to Pittslon. 

f The south line of tlie townsliipof Cornville, as located : — about half a 
leag-ue above its present southerly boundary.— Mr. Roger Walcot was 
of Connecticut, Maj. Hawley of Northampton, Col. Worthington of Spring- 
field, and Messrs. Gridley and Pratt were of Boston. They sat in Boston. 

J See Printed" Statements of Kennebeck Claims." 

5 Called the " Boston Company''' in 1734, who held meetings in the name 
of the '■'Jeremisquam or Wiscasset Proprietors ."—Ante, vol. I, p. 330-1, also 
MS. Let. of M. Davit. 



34S THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A.D. I7C3. er war, were soon repaired either by a return of fugitive settlers 
or by new emigrants. Sliip-builrling, trade and settlement, were 
even promoted, by tl)e stories of soldiers and visitors, who, hav- 
ing lately seen the country, gave extravagant representations of 
its goodness, beauties and water-privileges. A sailor's or travel- 
ler's tales about remote places, often carry with them such an air 
of romance, as to have an absolutely irresistable influence upon 
both the cuiious and the cnterprizing. If the lumber business, 
opened a captivaiing yet delusive i)i'ospect of gain ; the cultiva- 
tion of the soil and the raising of doincstic animals, being prop- 
erly esteenied the almoners of liuman life and the means of solid 
wealth, soon commanded considerable attention. But the early 
inhabitants found great difHculties in preserving their smaller cattle, 
sheep and poultry from destruction by the wild beasts. So in 
the late war, when the cattle were turned or strayed into the 
woods, to get subsistence, which a new farm or small enclosures 
did not yield, they were often killed by the savages. Yet many 
of them, more ))articularly cows, it is affirmed, had partaken so 
largely of the general and perpetual fear, or had so much in- 
stinctive knowledge of their danger, that they would flee affright- 
ed at the sight of an Indian, and run with speed to the nearest 
garrison. If they were shot, the repoit of the gun would give 
alarm, and therefore they were, to some extent, a safeguard to 
the inhabitants. A few of them, being " lost in the woods, were 
"found on the return of peace, afier an absence of three years." 
\Vii,i Though there were in the neighboring forests great numbers 

beasts. ^^^ Varieties of wild beasts, and some of them, such as bears 
and wolves, being very bold and ravenous, of;entimes killed the 
smaller domestic animals; the abundance of moose and deer, 
slain by the huntei's, was a full equivalent for the loss. Fond of 
ground juniper, of which there was a plentiful growth about the 
river St. George, a herd of moose resorted thither in 1TG2 ; 
and being obstructed in their retreat by a crust upon a deep snow, 
70 of them were killed in one winter." 



* Ealon\'i JlS.J^fir. p. 15. — It wr.s ncccssarY, in (he vicinltj' of the St. 
Georn^c's river, to rebuild (he Louses. They were nt (liis age constructed 
of logs and covered ^vitii baric ; and nine of (licni ircre raised in one day. 
The nearest mill was at the distance of 20 miles. The only road was the 
river; ana the travel from house to house was in foot paths. There wero 



Chap, xiii.] of Maine. 349 

Some statute regulations of this period are worthy of partieu- a. d. itco. 
Jar notice. One act, passed in 1758 made original provision for Siamies in- 

ice pro- 



the attachment of a debtor's property in the possession of his nusice^ 



cess. 



trustee, — requirmg a disclosure upon oath. Others, in 1760, 

1 • 1 1 r 1 • / <- Sflcrlinn of 

made it tlie duty ot towns to keep two jury-boxes, — from one Jui>iiieij. 
of which all jurors were to be drawn, except tlie petit jurors to 
the Common Pleas and Sessions, who were to be taken from the 
other box ; both being replenished with tickets, bearing the names 
of townsmen most suitable for the important service. Prior to 
this, they were chosen by the qualified voters in town meetings, 
called for the purpose." Any two justices of the quorum were „. , 
authorized to discharge jjoor debtors from imprisonment, upon orpoordt-bi- 
their taking an oath ol their inabihty to pay the debt.f The s--"''. 
support of tlie -F/-e??c/t JVeK!'/Y//5, though defrayed by the Prov- Puppnn of 
ince, was a disagreeable burden to the towns ; for they were still rsWrais. 
ignorant bigoted catholics, broken spirited, poor and indolent. 
Falmouth, for instance, received from the public chest, £141, and 
York, £30, in one year, for maintaining a part of them. 

But the people bore their burdens with fortitude, and the eov- 

,. . , ^, . Govrrnor 

ernment managed the political aftairs with wisdom. Governor I'ownal. 
Pownal, who was a watchful and economical ruler, had to a re- 
markable degree acquired the confidence and esteem of the eas- 
tern inhabitants. The repeated visits he paid them ; his regard 
for their critical and trying situation ; his energetic measures at 
Penobscot ; and his unremitting attention to their interests, in 
general, merited in their opinion all the tributes of respect and 
praise, which they were disposed so cheerfully to render him. 
His frank and facetious manners gave him great acceptability in 
Sagadahock ;f though they rendered him obnoxious to the shafts 



no carls. The wood and staves were cut near tlie river and liaiiled on 
handsIcJs, or by liorscs and cars. One Boijs brought from Boston the 
first flock of sheep, into the St. Georges, ever owned there. 

* Prov. Slat. A. D. 1C99, p. 332, 624, 633. 

t Passed A. D. 17G3, and (lie debtors oath prescribed in form, whicli lias 
ever since prevailed. The new act, however, on!y revised and improved 
former laws upon llie same snhj?ct.— Sec ante, vol. I, p. 384. 

I As an instance of his huinar, accommodate! to tlie blunt manners ff 
the Irish settlers upon the river St. Gcorg-cs, whom ho often visited, i( may 
be mentioned, that he called Captain Thomas Kilpatrick whose name was 
a terror to the Indians,— " Tojra kill the ZJmV,— and in return for his 
owa energetic measures against them, he was called, « Tom pound the 
devil.''— Eaton's MS. JSTar. p. 4. 



350 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D iTjO. of satire, — as being inconsistent with the puritan sentiments and 
iiabits of ^Massachusetts people. He solicited a recall, at a point 
of time most favorable to his honor and happiness ; it being 
before the field of battle was entered by the antagonists of right 
and prerogative, and before the tide of his own fortune had slack- 
li'e Vavos ^'''^<^- ^VlioM lie embarked. .Knie 3, both houses in a body at- 
!'"' '''"''^' tended him to b.is bar^e ; and his subsequent opposition to the 
measures of Parliament, Iramed against the colonies, while he 
was a member of that body, lully proved, they had not misplaced 
their contidence in him as a friend to equal rights and civil liber- 
ty,* according to the jnire whig principles of the age. 
Memhors of In thc thrcc administrations of Belcher, Shirley and Pownnl, 
in ihe's'i'iist a period of thirty years, f the Councillors from jNIainewere Tnno- 
adnm„..,a- ^^^ Gcfrish, Sumud Came, Jeremiah JMouhon, John HIU,Jabez 
Fox, A'athaniel SparhaivJc, and Richard Cutts ; — ibr Sagada- 
hock, John Jeffries, James Allen, John TVhechcrlght and ^7/- 
liam Brattle. 
Mr.Gerrish. JJ)-. Gcrrish resided in Kittcry and was Colonel of the wes- 
tern Yorkshire regiment. lie was tirst chosen into the Council, in 
1730, and had a seat at that board five years successively. He 
was also on the bench of the Common Pleas.Jin 1731, where he 
continued several years. But he was more distinguished for his 
Mr. Cnmo. militarv than his judicial abilities. § JMessrs. Came and Moulton 
were both inhabitants of York. The former having represented 
his town in the General Court five years, was chosen into the 
Council, in 1733, and had in all, nine successive elections into 
that Legislative branch. He was commissioned to the bench of 
the Common Pleas, in 1730, which he filled with reputation to 
Col. Moul- himself twenty years. Col. Monlton was elected into the Coun- 
*°"' cil for the first time in 1735. Though he was unassuming in 

his disposition and manners, and never a restless aspirant for 
ofiice ; few men in this age and this Province, had a greater 
share of public confidence, or were called to fill so many places 
of official trust and responsibility. He was representative of 
his town in the House two or three years j county treasurer ; a 
judge on the bench of the Common Pleas, about thirty years 

* Allen's Biog. p. 482.— Eliot, p. 3S6.— 2 Minot, p. 64. 

■f See ante, A. D, 1723. J Or " Inferior Courts." 

\ One of hi« daughters married Hon. Rishworth Jordan of Biddeford. 



CifAP. Ziri.] OF KATXr,. 351 

prior to the division of Yorkshire ; also, in 1760, he was sen- a.d iTsa 
ior justice, and the next year Jud^e of Probate. He was like- 
wise Colonel-cornmandant of the western regiment ; and in the 
reduction of Norridzewock, and also at other tirnea, the pru- 
dence, skill and bravery, which marked his conduct, gave him 
rank arnon^ the military characters of distinction. He was a 
member of the Council board 17 years in succession — a man of 
sound judgment — possessing a character of uncommon excellence. 
iiia son, of the same name, was sheriff of York county many 
years ; and also Lieutenant-Colonel of the regiment. — Mr. Hill y.r.ii:rL 
of Wells, was the grandson of Joseph Hill.* He had twenty- 
nine successive elections into the Council, first in 1742, and 
last in 1 770. He was appointed a Judge of the Common 
Pleas in 1753, — an office which he filled about 13 years. He 
was also a part of that period a Judge of Probate. »l/r. Fox y.^. For. 
had three elections into the Council, A. D. 1752-3—4. He died, 
April 7, 1755, before the political year for which he was last elect- 
ed had expired. He resided in Falmouth, and was a representa- 
tive of his town to the General Court, in 1745, and in five sub- 
sequent years. Mr. Sparhawk was an inhabitant of Kiltery. Mr. Spar- 
His Vvife was the only surviving daughter and child of Sir Wil- ' 
liam Pepperell ; and himself was first elected to the Council 
Board, in 1760, the next year after the Baronet's decease; — a 
seat which he filled 13 years in succession. He was also as 
many years a Judge of the Common Pleas. He was six years 
a representative of his town ; his first election being in 1745. 
Mr. Cults also belonged to Kiltery. Three brothers of his 
name, Robert, John, and Richard, emigrated from the west of 
England, about 1645, and settled on the Isles of Shoals. Rob- 
ert, who removed to Kiltery, was appointed a magistrate by the 
king's Commissioners, in 1665 ; and when he died, In 1672, he v 
left a large estate to his son Richard, the father of the Council- 
lor. This gentleman was chosen a representative of his native 
town in 1734, and also in seven other years, prior to his first 
election into the Council in 1755, the successor [of Mr. Fox, 

* Peter Hill of £aco, v/n.s a deputy to the \,\%omz.v. General Assembly, 
in 1C48. He died in 1667. His g^randson, Joseph Hill, whose father's 
name was I'ogcr, was born in 1671; married Hannah Bowles of Wells 
in IC89, and settled in that town, and superintended the erection of Fort 
Mary in Saco, 



352 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A.D. iTf.o. He was also ciglit years a member of the Bvoard, — a man of 

considerable talents and influence. 
., , _. For Sairadahock — Air: Jeffries was the successor of Spencer 

Mr. Jpfines. . . . 

Phips at the Council Board in 1733. He received eleven elec- 
Mr. AiicH. iiyi-|3 in succession, except in the year 1742, when James AUen 
Mr. uiiccl- ^y.^5 ciiosen, but never afterwards. John Wheel wrio-Jit of Wells, 

WIIJjlll. ' _ . . 

succeeded Jeffries, A. D. 1745; receiving in all, ten successive 
elections. He was the great-grandson of the famous minister, 
Mr. John Wheelwright. For thirty years past, he had acted as 
I. '»"'■ (^Jonimissaiy General of the whole Province. Mr. Braide, a 
man of extraordinary talents, was a Harvard graduate, in 1722, 
a minister of the gospel, a lawyer and a physician* — eminent in 
each profession. He resided in Cambridge. He was a Mnjor- 
General of the militia, and a member of the Council eleven 
years. All these Councillors for Sagadahock were non-residents, 
if we except IMr. Wheelwiight. 
I'ownni- The incorporation of Pownalborough, Feb. 13, was prob- 

^'^'i.''^'|:^|^{j'" ably the last legislative charter of a township, approved by the 
Governor, while he was in the executive chair. Its name, of 
sonorous sound, is an evident comj)liment to his chai'acter. Its 
territory was large ; embracing the three present towns of Dres- 
den!, fViscasset, and jilna ; also Swan-Islanci, four miles by 200 
rods in extent. As there was a petition pending, to divide 
Yorkshire, the bill for incorporating the town was pushed through 
the Legislature in some haste ; and preparation made to build a 
Court-house there, — it being intended, if possible, to make it a 
shire-town. Th.ere was a settlement begun at Wiscasset point, 
about 1G63, which was afterwards destroyed by the Indians. 
But on the 17th of Oct. 1754, there were in the place 64 signers 
to the petition for an incorporation. It was a shire-town thirty- 
four years till divided ; — the early residence of several distin- 
guished men.f 

* Dr. Allen's Biog-. p. 197. 

I The plantation name of Potc?iaZ6orot<^/i was Frankfort. This is the 
15th corporate town. It was divided, A. D. 1794. — See Dresden and JVew- 
J\lilford [^-i/na] ; also Wiscasset, 1802. — The Court-house built opposite 
the head of Swan-Island by the Plymouth Company, was in its dimensions, 
45 feet by 44, three stories in height. The Court Chamber was 45 by 19^ 
feet, with two fire places in it. Fort Frankfort or fort S/mley, has been 
described. — (5ee 1754.) — rownalboroug-h was first represented in the Gen- 



Chap, xiii.] of maine. 353 

The propositions for dividing the county of York, hitherto a .d. nca 
embracing the whole territory of the present State, were renewed Appiim- 
immediately after the reduction of Quebec. The petition, which new coumy. 
proceeded from Falmouth and was presented to the General 
Court, at the beginning of the January Session, enumerated the 
inconveniences arising from the establishment of the Courts and of 
the public offices in the corner of the county, where all the jury 
trials were, except a few of a minor class, which were tried at a 
single term of the Inferior Court each year, at Falmouth ; and 
prayed, that the county might be divided, a new one erected, 
and that appointed a shire-town, in which, it was said, a good 
court-house and a sufficient gaol were already finished. 

In consequence of the notice published in the Boston news- 
papers by order of the General Court, the Plymouth proprietors, 
at the May session, presented a counter-memorial, stating that 
they and 400 settlers within their patent, had petitioned the Leg- 
islature, six years before, to erect the territory and its inhabitants 
into a county ; that nothing but the late rupture of the Indians 
had deterred the memorialists Irom pursuing their application ; and 

eral Court, 1774, by Thomas Bice. — Jolm Gardiner, Esq a celebrated 
Barrister at law, represented tlie town in the General Court, for three or 
four years ])rior to Lis deatli, A. D. 1793-4. Fie was the son of Doct. S. 
Gardiner, was educated in Eng-land, and practised law first on the Island 
St. Christophers. His only daugiiter married with James Lithgow. Mr. 
Gardiner made liimself famous by his endeavors to have ' special pleading' 
abolished bj- la\v. Major Samuel Goodwin, born in Boston, 1717. and liv- 
ing- at Peir aquid, came to the assistance of Richmond fort, in 1750, when 
it was besieg-ed by the Indians. He afterwards commanded Fort Frank- 
fort, till it was dismantled. About the time the county of Lincoln was es- 
tablished, three brothers, William, Charles, and Rowland Gushing, removed 
to Pownalborough. Rowland, a very personable man, practised law at 
Wiscasset village till his death, in 17S3. William, a Harvard graduate, 
1751, was an eminent lawyer, and the first Judge of Probate for Lincoln 
county. He resided and pursued his profession a short distance from the 
Court-house, till he was appointed judge of the Supreme Court of Massa- 
chusetts, in 1772. He was chief justice in 1777, and commissioned to the 
Supreme Bench of the United States, 1789. Charles Gushing, graduate at 
Harvard, 1755, was a military man, and a Brig. General of the miliiia. 
He was the first Sheriff of the county ;— an office he filled upwards of 20 
years. He removed to Boston, about 1782, where he was appointed Clerk 
of the Supreme Judicial Court. He was succeeded ia the sheriffalty by 
Edmund Bridge, who also lived in Pownalborough. Jonathan Bowman 
was second Judge of Probate and also Clerk of the Court. 
Vor,. IL 45 



354 THE niSTORY [Vol. ii. 

A. D. 17C0. that therefore, they would now renew it, and pray the General 
Court, to form the eastern section into a separate county and 
appoint the Courts to be held at Pownalborough. 

The conn- jp yie\y of both applications, therefore, and of the extensive 

lies ol (aim- 

beiiiUKi ;iiui country, the General Court, by an act of June 19, 17G0, estab- 
iai)ii!,iicd. lished two new counties, Cumberland and Lincoln, and pre- 
scribed the lines of division.* 
York Coun- The easterly line of York County, by the division passed 
along in the northeasterly exterior of Saco, and Buxton ; in the 
south-westerly line of Standish as it borders on the river Saco 
to the north-west corner of the town ; and thence " north two de- 
grees west on a true course, as far as the utmost limits of the 
Province." At York, an autumnal term of the Supreme Court 
and two terms of the Court of Common Pleas, were appointed 
to be holden for the county annually as heretofore. 

Cumberland Countii adioincd the countv of York, and was 

Ciimbor- J J J ' 

land Coun- bounded south-castwardly on the Atlantic and Casco bay, ex- 
tending to Cape Small-point and including " all the Islands in 
that bay and on the seacoasts ;" and north-eastwardly on the 
eastern shore of New-Meadow's river to Stevens' carrying-place 
at its head ; thence to and upon Merrymeeting bay and the river 
Androscoggin thirty miles ; and thence north two degrees on a 
true course " to the utmost northern limits of the Province." 
Tiie shirc-town was Falmouth, where the Superior Court was 
directed by law to hold an annual term on the fourth Tuesday of 
June ; and the Inferior Courts of the county, to set on the second 
Tuesdays of May and September. 

Lincoln The residue of the present State, including the Islands upon 

the seaboard, and extending to Nova Scotia eastward, and to 
the utmost limits of the Province northward, was embraced by 
the county of Lincoln ; of which Pownalborough, was the shire- 
town. Here the terms of the Inferior Courts were appointed to 
commence on the second Tuesdays of May and September. But 
all matters, arising in this county, which were cognizable by the 
Superior Court, were to be heard, and tried at their term in Fal- 
mouth. 

The act took effect, November 1, and became operative. In 
Lincoln, a Register of Deeds was appointed for five years by 

* 12 Jour. H. of Rep. p. 44, 73.— Prov. L. p. 629, 637. 



Chap, xiii.] OF MAINE. 35.5 

the Governor and Council; — in Cunnberland, he was appointed A. D. 1760. 
by the Courts of Session to hold his office till one was chosen.* 

On the departure of Governor Povvnal, Thomas Hutchin- t. iinichin- 
soN, who had been Lieutenant-Governor two years, took the ifnam-Gov- 
chair. He was a native of the Province, a graduate at Harvard 
in 1727, and by profession a merchant. Not succeeding in his 
commercial pursuits, though it seemed to be the most ardent de- 
sire of his soul to acquire wealth ; he applied himself indefatiga- 
bly to the study of history, politics and law. He was early 
elected by the inhabitants of Jioston into the House of Repre- 
sentatives, and in 1747, he was Speaker. By his industry, elo- 
quence, and knowledge of public affairs, he acquired great influ- 
ence and distinction. Besides being Lieutenant-Governor he 
was a Councillor, Chief Justice of the Superior Court in 1760, 
and also Judge of Probate for Suffolk. The friends of Govern- 
or Pownal, were foes to Hutchinson, a man destined and willingly 
disposed to take a conspicuous part in the great political drama, 
approaching. He assumed great concern for the people on the 
eastern frontiers, and told the House, June 3, ' it was undoubted- 

* ly necessary to continue in employ tiie military of the preced- 

* ing year.'f 

Sir Francis Bernard arrived, August 4, from New-Jersey, Arrival of 
of which Province he had been Governor; now succeeding to J,'g|^j|^"j'" 
the same office in Massachusetts and Maine, at a period, when 
there was a favorable opinion entertained of his politics and 
merits. In his introductory address to the General Court, he 



* COUNTY OFFICERS. 
York County. Cumberland County. 

Jeremiah Moullon, l j^^ . John Minot ^ j^^^ . 

Simon 1; rest, [ the Common {^'/^clucl C ushm-, I ^/,, (^„,„„,4 

John [lili, f ,j/,,,,„ I'^noch Freeman, r „, 

Nathaniel Spnriiawlv, J ^ ""'• Edward Miiliken, j ^ "''*• 

Jeremiali Mou\ion-,Ju(Jgenf ProhaU. Sairinel Waldo, Judge of Probale. 
Simon Frost, Itegister. Stephen Longfellow, liegisler. 

Jeremiah Moulton, jr. Sheriff". Moses Pearson, Sheriff'. 

Lincoln County. 
Samuel Denny, "] , ,^ j. William Ciishing-, Jwc/o-e o/ Proia^e. 
William Li 11 iff ow, ! ,, '"^^^^ "' William Bryant, Jlpgisle'r. 
. ri- I I > the Lummon ,,, , r' i • c/ a- 

Aaron Ilinklcy, ( p. Ciiarlcs (.-uhlimg-, Shi'r'Jf. 

John North, J '^ ' Jonathan Bowman, Reg^r. of Deeds. 

N. B. By act, Feb. 17, 1762, Biddeford was made a shire-town with York, 
where one term of the Court of Common Pleas and Sessions was holden year- 
ly, 2d Tuesday in October, f 12 Jour. II. of Rep. p. 21.— 2 Minot, p. 79. 



356 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A.D. 17C0. spoke respectfully of the peoples' charter rights; and as the suc- 
cessful state of public affairs gave him an opportunity of remark- 
ing upon tlie peculiar happiness of the times ; he noticed, as 
nearest his heart, that all parties were imited and the voice of 
faction wholly silenced. But, replied the House, this Province, 
happy as it may appear, has been for more than sixty years a 
barrier as well as frontier to his Majesty's other northern colo- 
nies, against neighbors false and perfidious in peace, — bold and 
barbarous in war ; and the avenues of blood opened are yet 
scarcely closed. 
Imi -uis^re'^ ^^^' ^^ ^^^^ affairs of the Indians had now as to themselves so 
re'TiVd*^ fatally changed, it was determined to command if possible their 
entire trade, through the medium ,of two truck houses, one at 
Fort Halifax and the other at Fort Pownal, — by furnishing them 
with every article and supply needed ; putting those houses un- 
der the most judicious regulations ; and establishing in each of 
the forts a garrison of about 25 or 30 men, with two chaplains and 
armorers. It was also believed, the prejudices of the Indians 
might be entirely overcome, and all disputes with them effectually 
prevented, by favor, presents, and honorable traffic — according 
to the policy and rules of former times. The establishments 
were therefore made,* the legal provisions upon the subject re- 
vised, and the expeiiment tried. All this, however, was insufficient, 
for according to the Governor's views, expressed Dec. 17, ' still 
* further amendment of the laws concerning the Indians was de- 
'manded, particularly " to prevent their contracting large and 
" unnecessary debts, which they have no prospect of paying, but 
" by a sale of themselves ; to prevent parents from selling their 
" children, or making them subject to their debts ; and to subject 
"Indian offenders, to corporeal punishment, instead of fines, 
" which they can seldom pay." 
Drc. 23, In the midst of this legislative session, the Governor announc- 

crosM^ed. ed to the General Court, a demise of the Crown, Oct. 25, and 
the accession of George III, to the throne of Great Britain ; — a 
young monarch, whose well known liberal sentiments in politics 
and religion were presages of a reign, auspicious to his subjects 
throughout his dominions. 

""Balance of truck trade due the government for one year prior to June 
0, 1761, waȣl01. 



Chap, xiii.] of maine. 357 

To secure, more effectually, the trade of the Indians once so a. d. 17G1. 
lucrative, and to learn something more of them and of the re- Exploring 

1 • I I I 11^ • . n panics 

gions m which they have dwelt; two rangmg parties of 15 men nonhward. 
each were sent out, one under James Howard of Cushnoc, to 
ascend the Kennebeck to its sources, and thence proceed down 
the Chaudiere to its mouth ; and the other, to make an excursion 
through the waters of the Penobscot, and thence to the St. Law- 
rence. Provision was likewise made for a third expedition from 
Berwick through Coos, into Canada.* 

By a new valuation, taken and completed in 1761, it appeared. New vaiua 
that 1 9 towns and plantations in the three eastern counties, were 
considered of sufficient importance and ability to be called upon, 
and that their aggregate proportion of a £1,000 Provincial tax, 
was £74, 6s. 4|rf.f From these data, their whole population 
has been computed at 17,500 souls. 



* 12 Jour House of Rep. p. 79.— Wages per month to a Captain and two 
surveyors were ^*11 each, and to privates _£6 each. 

I The following- apportionment exhibits the relative importance of these 
towns and plantations: — 

County of York. £ s. d. County of Cumberland. £ s. 



York 

Kittery 

Berivick 

Wells 

Arundel 

Biddeford 

Narrajanset ) 
No. 1 [Buxton.] \ 



County of Lincoln. 
Pownalborough 
Georg-etown 
Newcastle 
Woolwich 
Topsham Precinct 



3 5 Falmouth 

11) 8} Scarborough 

10 9 North- Yarmouth, 
17 Brunswick 

9 lOi Ilarpswell 

11 11 Gorhaintown PI. 

New-Marblehead 
[Windham.] 



11 10 



33 15 

£ ^• 

1 17 

3 7 

1 7 

1 4 

17 



Aggreixale. 
York Count}' 
Cumberland Co. 
Lincoln Co. 



Total 



• £ 


s. 


d. 


13 


16 


2i 


5 


5 


c.f 


2 


9 


3i 


2 


3 


m 


1 


13 


OOJ 





19 


osi 





9 


10 


26 


17 


5| 


£ 


s. 


d. 


38 


15 


6 


26 


17 


H 


8 


13 


5 



74 6 4| 



8 13 5 
There were in number, about as many more plantations, which were 
not brouglit into the valuation. — Hampshire County of 31 towns (after 
Berkshire County was established in 1760) paid £75, 15*. 6J, ; Plymouth 
County, of 14 towns paid, £75, 4*. Id. — Falmouth was the principal town in 
Maine. The Neck, [now Portland] contained 136 dwellinghouses, besides 
4 shops, which had families in them. — Smith's Jour. p. 74. 



358 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A.D. 17G1. As peace and prosperity bad never before dawned upon Maine 
Political witb so mucb apparent brightness ; it is to be regretted that the 
paiiies. gjQi-iQus victories over the French so long desired, had scarcely- 
been achieved, ere the wicked spirits of jealousy and crimin- 
ation, should have countenance to poison the pleasures of success, 
to damp popular ardor, and to mar all the preconceived enjoy- 
ments and advantages of conquest. There had, it is true, long 
existed in the Province, party distinctions, — such as, advocates 
for the prerogative of the Crown, and defenders of charter and 
popular rights. It now became a matter of policy, conceived 
with much pride by the ministry and their emissaries in America, 
and advocated with great plausibility by them, that it would be 
inconsistent with the ability of the Colonies, to think of keeping up 
a military or marine force for their defence ; but that the country 
ought to rely upon British Governors and other select officers of 
the king's appointment, and upon royal ships of war and national 
garrisons, for protection or security. This party with us gener- 
ally consisted of all those, who were holding commissions under 
the Crown, or were courtiers expectant of some lucrative post, 
arising out of the anticipated system of taxation, planned ostensi- 
bly for defence of the Colonies, under ministerial direction.* 
Governor The class to whicli Governor Bernard belonged, was a ques- 
po^ihicsand tion which did not long rest in doubt. English-born, educated at 
Oxford, and devoted to the episcopal religion ; a man of tal- 
ents, literary taste, extensive knowledge, and fair moral charac- 
ter, he was selected by the ministry as a fit instrument to promote 
their deep and dark purposes. For though he, in one of his 
early speeches to the General Court, spoke of merit as the only 
passport to preferment ;— and of all party distinctions as resolved 
into patriotism and loyalty ; — even whig and tory — court and 
country, — (as he said) being swallowed up in the name of Brit- 
on : Yet he took upon himself to advise both branches, it was 
observed, to lay aside all political divisions whatever, to catch the 
spirit of gratitude, love and duty, which inspired the whole body 
of the English at home, and to disregard all declamations intend- 
ed by designing men, to excite among the people suspicions and 
fears, that their civil rights were in danger. — It is true, said the 



tCiilimciits. 



* Two shocks of an Earthquake were felt, March 12, at 15 minutes 
after two at night. That 5 years ago was jarring ;— this was undulatory. 



Chap, xiii.] of maine. 359 

House, a spirit of patriotic fire has powerfully touched the bosoms A. D. 1761. 
of his Majesty's American subjects ; and in this Province, it 
burns a pure flame — undamped by any pohtical dissensions among 
the people. The intimation, therefore, of any party-spirit prev- 
alent among us, is received from the chair with deeper regrets, 
because we are unconscious of its having any foundation in fact. 

The first controversies with him related to the custom-house ; .Mmiers in 
the ivrit of asssistance ; the estahlishment oj new municipal cor- Lh,','.""' "" 
porations ; and the pecuniary concerns of the Province. 

The numerous seizures made, were of course all libelled in Officf-rs of 
the Court of vice-admiralty, where exorbitant fees were taxed, 
and large rewards allowed to informers ; and hence the officers 
of the customs not only incurred an abundant share of popular 
odium, — they were also boldly accused of not paying into the 
Province treasury, the third part of the forfeitures or condem- 
nation money, as the law required.* A resolve, therefore, was 
passed, authorizing the treasurer to sue for the money ; and 
though it met the Governor's prompt negative, the suit was com- 
menced. It was abated, however, in the Superior Court, Mr. 
Hutchinson being at the head of the bench ; — a decision, gener- 
ally received with great disrelish by the people. 

I The writ of Assistance was a warrant granted by that Court, Writs of as- 
commanding all subjects, as well as officers, to search any house 
or place without designation, and without requiring a return of 
the precept. This arbitrary stretch of power was the more ob- 
noxious, because it was allowed to all custom-house officers on 
request ; and it required every body to assist them in making 
search, or collecting the revenue. Hence, by way of retaliation, 
the General Court subsequently passed bills, to exclude the 
judges from both legislative branches, and to reduce their sal- 
aries. 

Great affi'ont was also taken, about this time, especially by the Govnmor 
eastern people, because of the Governor's refusal to sign acts, in- l.^afrpola. 
corporating plantations into towns, with the usual rights and priv- \ZnL '"^^ 
ileges. He contended, that a multiplication of these municipal 
corporations would swell the House to a size, never contemplat- 
ed by the charter, and incur an expense, unnecessarily burden- 

* Due the Province at this time, £475, 9*. lid.— 12 Jout. House of Rep. 
p. 231, 247. 



360 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A. D, 17G1. some to the community. If they were districts, vested with all 
the rights of towns, except that of sending representatives to the 
General Court, he told them his approval would not be with- 
holden. They reminded him of the unnumbered difficulties, 
which had attended the frontier plantations in the settlement of 
a wilderness ; also the lives, labor and treasure, their defence had 
cost them ; and protested against giving these meritorious sections 
of the community, the opprobrious name of district ; — a name 
unknown to all his Majesty's other dominions, and designed to 
imply a restriction of privilege, Iiowcver large the place in terri- 
tory, or population. By the charter, every ' town and place* 
might choose two representatives — till a statute approved by the 
Crown, though restrictive, allowed every town of at least 40 
freeholders, to choose one ; and hence, no district nor other 
' place' having that number ought to be barred the privilege. But 
afterwards tiie Governor received a royal instruction to sign no 
bill for incorporating new townships " without a clause to sus- 
pend the right of sending a representative to the General Court."* 
This touched a political artery — for the people perceived, he 
already entertained a jealousy of the popular branch 
I'liMiic Though it appeared, that by levying a tax of usual amount, — 

contmumg an excisef on tea, coffee, chma-ware and other arti- 
cles, — and receiving £60,634 sterling, as reimbursement money 
advanced, the Province funds would be in a good condition; yet 
a question arose about making gold a tender at the current rates, 
in payment of treasurer's notes and taxes. In this the Governor 
joined ih<? opposition against the House, and after a fortnight's 
alterjcation, prorogued the General Court to January ; hoping, 
he said, by the time they met again, they would be more free from 
bias and prejudice, than they had manifested by their late con- 
Dispute of duct. At the next session, however, the voice of the House 
nor and prevailed against the Governor and his party ; — a result, which 
ouse. threw him into a fit of passion, and provoked him to utter several 
angry and unguarded expressions. 

Among the enterprizes undertaken at this period in this eas- 
tern Province, we may particularly mention the spacious wooden 



* Gov. Speech, Feb. 1762.— 12 Jour. H. of Rep. p. 272. 

t Collectors of excise : in York count}-, Nathaniel Clark; in Cumber- 
land, Theopbilus Bradbury; in Lincoln, Charles Cushing^. — la Cumber- 
land county it was farmed out for £57 for one year. 



Chap. XIII.] OF Maine. 35 j 

bridge, erected over York river, one mile from town, as an a.d. i76i 
ingenious specimen of art and improvement. Exclusive of large Vork 
abutments at the shores, it was 270 feet in length, by 25 in width ; "° " 
resting on thirteen piers, each of which consisted of four piles 
driven to a depth into the bed of the river, sufficient to render 
the whole superstructure firm and solid. It was a toll-bridge— 
and is still standing. The entire enterprize, including the new 
method of driving the piles, owes its construction to the inven- 
tive genius of Major Samuel Sewall, a native inhabitant of 
York. 

The good disposition, discovered at the winter session of the A. 15. 1762. 

Legislature, was mutual ; for the interest of the eastern country i2town- 
] . , . , ships east- 

came under consideration, and all measures proposed for its set^ "nrdof Fe- 

ement and security, were heartily espoused without distinction of ergrai.ied. 
party. Already there were several scattered settlers in the re- 
gion of Penobscot ; and on application of numerous petitioners, 
twelve townships were conceded to them ; — it being confidently 
believed, that by the united and persevering exertions of the 
Legislature and Governor, they should be able to procure a con- 
firmation from the Crown. Six of them were granted to David Location of 
Marsh and 359 others* named, and were to be located sever- 1."'' 
ally, six miles square, in a regular contiguous manner, between 
the Penobscot and Union rivers* These grantees, as voluntary 
associates and tenants in common, individually bound themselves, 
their heirs and assigns, in a penal bond of £50, conditioned to 
lay out no one of the townships more than six miles in extent^ 
on the bank of the Penobscot, or on the seacoast ; to present 
to the General Court for their acceptance plans of the survey, 
by the 31st of the ensuing July ;f to settle each township with 
sixty protestant families within six years, after obtaining the 
king's approbation, and build as many dwellinghouses, at least 18' 
feet square ; also to fit for tillage, 300 acres of land, erect a 
meeting-house, and settle a minister. There were reserved in 
each township one lot for parsonage purposes— another for the 

* Some of the others' names were Eooch Bartlett, James McHurd, 
James Duncan, Peter Parker, Edward Mores, Dudley Carlton, Benjamin 
Harrod, &c. 

t A plan was presented in June, \76Z.—See post^ A. D. 1785. 
Vol. II, 46 



362 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1762. first settled minister — a third for Harvard College — and a fourth 
for the use of schools. 

The second ^^^ Other class of SIX tovvHships were granted to several asso- 

class. ciations of petitioners upon the same terms.* These were to be 

laid out between the eastern limits of the first class and the river 
St. Croix ; and to be confirmed by the General Court, provided 
the royal assent could be obtained within eighteen months. The 
whole survey was made under the superintendance of Samuel 
Livermore j and as six of the townships were bounded on one 
side of " Union River," and six on the other, the circumstance 
gave the river itself its present name.f 

Confliiicns ]„ thcsc and all other conveyances of the ' Crown Lands,' 

ol llie • ' 

graut. lying between Sagadahock and St. Croix, the patents or deeds 
were signed by the Governor and Speaker, countersigned by the 
Provincial Secretary, and conditioned, according to the restric- 
tive clause in charter, to be valid, whenever they were confirmed 
by the king, otherwise without effect. The names also of the 
grantees were inserted, the boundaries described, and the con- 
ditions expressed ; each patent closing with a proviso, that the 
grantee " yield one fifth part of all the gold and silver ore, and 
precious stones found therein." 
Mourn Des- '^'^^ General Court granted the far-famed Island " Mount 
ert granted Dcsert" to Govcmor Bernard, in consideration, as they said, of 

lo (jovernor ' t j ) ^'^ 

Bernard. \i\s " extraordinary services ;" — or more probably, in fact and in 
policy, to secure his influence and efforts towards obtaining the 
royal assent. ' Yes,' said they to him, ' your immediate and undi- 

* vided attention to the subject is more especially requested, be- 

* cause a sufficient number of subscribers or applicants have come 

* forward, ready to go and settle thirteen townships, as soon as 

* the royal confirmation can be obtained.' 



* Tlie associ-itions of petitioners for the second class of townships were, 
David Bean and 80 others; Moses Twitchell and 179 others; Ebenezer 
Thorndike and 58 others ; Wait Wadsworth and 50 others; Samuel Liv- 
ermore and 40 others. — 13 Jour. H. of Hep. p. 278-9. — See post, A. D. 
1785. 

f First Class : No. 1 Bucksport. Second class : — IVo. 1 Trenton. 

Between Pe- 2 Orland. East of Union 2 Sullivan. 

nobscot and 3 Penobscot, rivrr. 3 Mt. Desert. 

Union river*. 4 Scdg-wick. v 4 Steuben. 

5 Bluehill. 5 Harrington. 

6 Surry. 6 Addison. 



Chap, xni.] of Maine. 363 

In the prevalent passion for new settlements, other grants were a. d. i762. 
obtained : some in the old Province of Maine, where the king Fr>eburg 

r^ r 1 • 7 I granted. 

had no territorial rights. One was that of a township to Joseph 
Frye, upon conditions cast in the common mould with the others; 
subsequently known by a name derivative of his own.* The 
liberality manifested by government in these numerous grants, 
was a pledge of public patronage, encouraging to emigrants, as 
well as settlers ; the beneficial effects of which were in a few years 
extensively witnessed. The ungranted territory of eastern lands LanHs east 
was still immense, and according to the report oi a legislative scot. 
committee, there had hitherto been no claim pretended to any of 
the region between Penobscot and the eastern line of the Pro- 
vince, except some right, which the proprietors of the Waldo 
\i2iien\. challenged ; and to all this, they were willing to sign an 
acquittance, in consideration of a single township. f The General commis- 
Court, therefore, aware of the advantages which amity and as°certain 
tranquillity afforded, appointed three Commissioners, William {fifebe^ii^pen 
Brattle, James Otis and John Winslow, " to repair to the river ^'^^.g^^"'' 
" St. Croix ; determine upon the place, where the said easterly "^• 
" line is to begin ', extend the said line so far as they shall 
" think necessary ; and ascertain and settle the same by marked 
" trees or other boundary marks ;" — they being directed to pro- 
ceed ex parte, if not met upon the ground, by Commissioners 
from Nova Scotia. It seems their report was made in the fol- 
lowing February, accepted by the Legislature and printed. But 
it shewed rather a view, than any descriptive survey. 

As the Indians were tranquil, it had been determined by the Governor's 

. . (. 1 . • J I 1 measures 

government in a spirit ol economy, to keep a very mconsiderable reimive to 
force under pay in Maine this season. Only one Lieutenant, one op^sed^by 
armorer, one sergeant, and fifteen privates were stationed at Fort ^'^^ House. 
Pownal ; and the number was still smaller at Forts Halifax and 
Cushnoc. The Province-sloop cruised upon the eastern coast, 
and carried supplies and intelligence to the garrison. On her re- 
turn to Boston, news was received of an attack by the French 
upon Newfoundland, corroborated by an arrival of 700 French 

* Fryeburgh, 

•j- Nor had they, as it turned out, in fact, any territorial right on the 
easterly side of the Penobscot ; though they owned Bcveral of the Islandi 
in the Bay. 



364 I'HE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A.D. 1762. Neutrals* from Halifax, whom the rulers of Nova Scotia durst 
not allow to live in that Province, Apprehensive for the safety 
of our fishing vessels, the Governor with advice of Council, des» 
patched the sloop and 50 men to Canseau for their protection. 
But the House, at the next meeting of the General Court, thought 
the en^ergency did not demand the expedition,. — it was a charge 
upon the treasury without au appropriation, and the precedent 
was mischievous ; therefore they blamed him and refused to pay 
the expense. A proposition of his to visit Fort Pownal, and 
acquaint himself with the temper of the Indians at diis juncture, 
received also a > decided negative. 'Let the Chiefs,' said the 
House, 'come to Boston, if they wish to have a talk or parley.' — ^ 
He met them, nevertheless, at Penobscot, in October, and cou'^ 
firmed the peace, which continued uninterrupted many years. 
Two years It is Worthy of remark, that when the operations of the war 
scarcii/aiid in the northern colonies were closed, they were succeeded by two 
years of drought and scarcity. In both, the freshness and bloom 
common to June in other years, were shrouded in the habili- 
ments of decay ; and the husbandman, in view of his withering 
fields, had sufficient reason for a deepening despondency of his 
hopes. The drought of 1761 was preceded by a wasting sick- 
ness, which greatly added to the calamities of the season. These 
severe frowns of Providence were followed widi devouring fires, 
which did immense damage. They burst forth from the woods 
of New-Hampshire, early in July of that year; and burning 
v.'ith irresistable fury, passed through Towoh [Lebanon] in 
Maine, and being driven by the winds to the eastward, entered 
Scarborough, Gorhamtown, New-Casco, and the neighboring 
forests, where they raged till they were only checked by a flood 
of rain, which fell on the 19th and 20th of August. The next 
year, (1762,) somewhat earlier in the season, six dwellinghouses, 
two saw-mills, and several barns were reduced to ashes at Dunston 
in Scarborough ; six families were burnt out in North-Yarmouth j 
and extensive fields were destroyed by the flames or laid open by 
a consumption of the fences. Even the cattle, in many places, 
did not escape the violence of devouring fire. A prodigious 

* Til J General Court thoug-lit it justifiable to " forbid the landing- within 
the Province of these unliapp)' exiles." — 2 Jlijiot, p, 119. — 1 JJaliLurlon, p, 
;211, and they were returned to Halifax, 



Chap, xiii.] of Maine. 355 

quantity of the most valuable forest-timber was destroyed; andA.D. i762. 
so much were crops cut short, that greater supplies from abroad 
than usual, were necessarily imported for the people's support. 

There were three Plantations incorporated, this year, into Three plan- 
towns, by the names of Windham, Buxton and Bowdoinham ; made^owns. 
whose respective dates are, June 12, July 14 and September 18, 
in their order.* 

Windham was a grant by the Provincial government to sixty of Windham. 
the inhabitants in Marblehead, A. D. 1734 ;f and was surveyed 
the next year, when the first permanent settlements were made. 

The planters, though {e\v in number, erected a large block-house 
in the fifth Indian war, and being aided by the proprietors, de- 
fended themselves manfully against the hostile visits of the natives, 
so often repeated;— a fortitude which received additional lustre 
in the late war. They enjoyed the settled ministry of Rev. John 
Wright, e] even years prior to his death, in May, 1753; and when 
Rev^ Peter T, Smith was ordained, in 1762, to the sacerdotal 
office among them, with a salary of £80, there were only thirty- 
nine families in the place. J 

The primary grantees and settlers of Narraganset Number jjuxion. 
One, now Buxton, originated from Ipswich, Rowley, Newbury, 
Haverhill, and Amesbury in Massachusetts ; and the town is full 
of their descendants. It was one of the military townships, and 
though it was granted in 1728, and allotments of land made 
within four yfiars, we find no settlers upon them, till after the 

* These three are the I6lh, nth, and \Sth toions incorporated in the State. 

f See ante, A. D. 1734. 

I Windham was previously called JVew-JIarhlehead. It contains 25,600 
acres. There were 630 orig^inal lots, the rest was holden in common. To 
make the settlement compact, the first lots contained only 10 acres. 

There are two ponds in this town, Sebago and Duck ponds The first 

church (of 7 members,) was g-athered in 1743.— Rev. Mr. Smith was the 
son of Rev. Thomas Smith, settled in Falmouth. When he was ordained, 
the proprietors paid hi:n £83. He was dismissed in 1790 ; and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. jYalhaniet Stone, in 1798, The town was first represented 
in the General Court, 1767, by Abraham Anderson, and a Post Office es- 
tablisiied there in 1798. — The soil is " lig-ht, arable, and free from rocks." 
In 1821, there were 125 orchards — yielding- 15,000 bushels of apples annu- 
ally ; three meeting-houses — one for congregationalists ; one for friends, 
having a society of 40 families ; and one for methodists and baptists ; a 
social library of 100 vols. ; 13 school districts ; 12 mills and a Comb-factory, 
^JIS. Let, of J. Waterman, Esq., 1821. 



366 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. U. 17(32. treaty of Aix la Chapelle, in 1748, and the close of the fifth 
Indian war. TJjere were only twenty-one families in the planta- 
tion in 1760-1, when the itinerant lahors of the Rev. Doct. Paul 
Coffin commenced there. Yet he lived to see the wilderness 
subdued and blossom, and every interest of society brighten into 
maturity ; — for his pastoral connexion with this people was con- 
tinued beyond sixty years.* 

Bowdoiii- Botvdoinhnm is a name evidently given to the town in compli- 
ment to a family, distinguished for its wealth and one of its mem- 
bers, whose benefactions contributed so largely towards the endow- 
ment of the first College in this State. There were probably 
residents in the vicinity of Fort Richmond, nearly opposite the 
head of Swan Island, soon after that fortification was established 
about 1720. The township extends from Cobbessecontee to 
Merrymeeting bay and Cathance river ; and was originally claim- 
ed by the Plymouth proprietors, who conveyed it and other con- 
tiguous lands to William Bowdoin of Boston. f But the title was 
involved in a dispute. For in 1637, July 3, Sir Ferdinand© 
Gorges granted to Sir Richard Edgecomb, of Mount Edgecomb 
in England, a tract of 8,000 acres, situated or to be surveyed 
' near the lake of New-Somerset.' The bounds were undefined, 
if the place of location were not wholly uncertain ; and neither 



* Buxlon was so called, at the instance of Rev. Mr. Coffin, wlio originat- 
ed from a town of the same name in i^ngland. He was graduated at Har- 
vard, in 1759 ; ordained, 1763; and died, 1821. He was a man of talents 
and learning; — and was honored with a doctorate. The first minister be- 
fore him, was Rev. Mr. White ; who preached in the garrison at Little 
Falls, now in Hollis. The next was Mr. Thompson. There are two meet- 
ing-houses for congregatlonalists in town, in which Mr. Loring the suc- 
cessor of Doct. Coffin, preaches alternately : also two meeting-liouses, for 
baptists, and two for methodists. There are three bridges over Saco river, 
between Btixton and Hollis; and in Buxton 15 mills. "The soil is gener- 
ally of a superior quality ;" and orchards are numerous. The town was 
first represented in the General Court, A. D. 1781, by Jacob Bradbury. 
N. B. "Bonny Eagle pond" is in Buxton near Standish line. — See ante, A. 
D. 1733. — MS. Let. of Charles Coffin, Esq., 1822. 

I Doct. Peter Bowdoin, was one of the protestanls, who fled from 
Rochelle in France, after the edict of Nantz was revoked, and arrived at 
Falmouth, [Portland,] in 1688, and in 1790, removed to Boston, where he 
died, 1705, — leaving two sons, John and James. — The Doctor's grandson 
was Governor of Massachusetts, in 1785-6 ; whose father was rich. — Dr. 
Allen's Biog. p. 79. 



Chap, xiii.] of maine. 367 

grantee nor his heirs paid any regard to the patent, till after A. u. 1762, 
Queen Anne's war. But John Edgecomb, of New-London, ap- 
peared for the heirs, in 1718, and entered in the Book of Claims, 
a minute of the grant, which seemed to be descriptive of a tract 
equal to four miles square, on the western bank of the Kenne- 
beck-river where it meets Merrymeeting bay.* The claim was 
revived in 1756 by Lord Edgecomb, the heir,f who committed 
the agency of his interest to Sir William Pepperell. On his 
death, the title lay dormant till 1768; when the Lord Proprietor 
empowered Sir William's son-in-law, Nathaniel Sparhawk,to pur- 
sue the claim. 

To try the title, Mr. Bowdoin brought an action against one Trial of ihs 
Springer of Bowdoinham, the ter-tenant, and shewed a derivative 
title from the Plymouth proprietors, and a quit-claim from Abba- 
gadasset, an Indian chief ; — all which the counsel for Springer, or 
rather Edgecomb, encountered, by exhibiting Gorges' grant to the 
ancestor, and a transcript of the description entered in the Book 
of Claims; and endeavored to shew, that the lake of 'New- 
Somerset,' mentioned, was Merrymeeting bay. But the early 
acts of possession by the Plymouth company, and the Indian 
deed, prevailed against an obsolete indefinite grant ; and his Lord- 
ship lost his case. Yet by a decision of the Superior Court, per- 
haps about 1767-8, the south line of the Plymouth patent was 
determined and fixed in the northerly line of Bowdoinham. { 

Early in the winter session, the Governor congratulated the A. D. 1763.- 
General Court, on the joyful news received of a general peace. Peace. 
By the treaty signed at Paris, Feb. 10, 1763, it appeared, thatT.oaiy of 
France had renounced to Great Britain, all Canada, and all her Jj^/.'^' fj''' 
other northern dominions in America. This was followed by a royal 
Proclamation from the British crown, Oct. 7 ; erecting Canada 
into a Provincial government by the name of Quebec, and run- Qi,ebec 
ning a part of its southerly line, as a boundary, from the point °""^ ' 

* Book of Claims, p. 82 Sullivan, p. 135. 

I Nicholas Edgecomb, removed from Blue-point to Saco, in 1660. His 
son Robert married Rachacl Gibbons. — Folsom's Saco, S^c, p. 112. 

\See ante, 1637, 1760. — Sullivan, p. IIS. — Bowdoinham was called before 
incorporation, Richmond. The fort stood on the bank of the river. It 
was dismantled, about 1754-5. The town was first represented in the 
General Coiirt, in 1784, by Zacheiis Beal. 



368 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 17C3. where the 45th degree of latitude intersects the St. Lawrence, 
and in that parallel eastward, across the outlet of Lake Cham- 
plain, thence " along the highlands, which divide the rivers that 
" empty themselves into the said river St. Lawrence, from those 
" which fall into the sea'' — extending to the bay of Chaleur; — a 
line supposed to form the northern boundary and limit of Maine. 

Note. — Government of Nova Scotia, from De Monts' patent, 1603, to the 
conquest by the English, 1710—1713. 
1603. De Monts' Patent. [French.'] 
1613. M. Siiassaye, Gov. under Madame Guercheville. 

" Conquests b_Y Sir S. Arg-al, lEnglish.] 
1G20. Mons. Biencourt. IFrench.'] 

1G21. Sir William Alexander, Proprietary Piuler. [English.^ 
1630—50. La Tour— Razilla— d'Aulncy. [French.'] 
16-51. La Tour, sole Commander. [French.] 
1652. M. Denys and le Borgne, Governor's. [French.] 

1654. Conquered by Major Sedg-wick. [English.] 

1655. Stephen de la Tour's claim. [French.] 

1656. Sir Tiiomas Temple, Governor. [English.] 
1C67— S. De Bourg- and M. Denys. [French.] 
1682—90. M. de la Valier.— M. Manneval. [French.] 

1690. Conquest bv Sir W. Phips. [English.] 

1691. John Nelson, Governor. [English.] 
1697. M. Villebon, Governor. [French.] 
1702. M. Brouillon. [French.] 

1705 — 6. M. de Subercase. [French.] 

1710. Conquered by Col. Nicholson, — Vetch, Governor. [English.1 
1713. Conceded by treaty of Utrecht^to England. 
[For residue, see 1 Hal. JV. S. p. 316—19.] 



Chap, xiv.] of niAirjE. 3gg 



CHAPTER XIV. 

tlevcnue in America — Disturbances unth the Indians — The F'oris 
Halifax and Pownal — Public lands — Census — Topsham, Gor- 
ham, Boothbay, Bristol and Cclpc- Elizabeth incorporated — Stamp 
act — First Congress— Stamp act repccdcd — The royal icnods — 
J. IVentworth, Surveyor- — Machias granted — Lcbanon~-^The pea- 
pie — Duties laid on teas, glass, paper — Salaries and Fees regu- 
lated by the Crown — Sjnrlford incorporated — Penobscot — -A Con- 
vention — Troops stationed in Boston— Disj^ute between the Gov. 
and House — Gov^ Bernard leaves the Province- — Duties repealed ^ 

except on teas Boston 3Irissacre — Militia Public lands — ^ 

Thomas Hutchinson commissioned Gov. of the Province — »SV/- 
tlemrnt of Penobscot and Kcnnebcrk — HnUoincll, Vassaliurough, 
Winslow and Winthrop iniorporated — Revenue officers — Dfec- 
tion of 'William Brattle — Pepper eVjorough, \^Saco^ incorporated 
— Right and Prerogative — Letters of the Gov. and others sent 
hither from Kngland — Judge Oliver impeached — Befast and 
Waldoborough incorporated — -Patriotism of ministers and laiC" 
yers — Episcopal sect — Causes of political controversy well tinder^ 
stood by the parties — Letter to Mr. Tyng — Teas destroyed in 
Baton — Hutchinson goes to England — Edgecomb and Ncw-GloU" 
cester incorporated. 

Amidst the diffusive glory and joy with which the war had ^ {^^ |-jcg_ 
closed; the politicians of Great iiritain thought it a highly fa^ ^..^s.-res 
vorable period, for trying more effectually tlie experiment long '",'i.,'!','',^p"f„^ 
contemplated of raising a revenue in America. The colonies •'^""^'i^'^- 
were large sharers in the fruits of success j and it was said 
the exhausted state of the national treasury, the weight of 
debts and taxes in England ; and the reimbursement money and 
pensions — all, rendered a call on them for contributions both rea- 
sonable and just. The ministry, therefore, whhout loss of time, 
gave the officers o( the colonial revenue, instructions very strictly 
to enforce the acts of trade ;* and Grenville went so far in the 
House of Commons as to suggest an internal tax by a stamp-act. 

* See ante, " American System ;" A. D. 1750-1-2, Chap. xi. 
Vol. II. £3 



370 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A. D. 1763. This, however, was postponed ; but the order for executing rigid- 
ly the molasses act, occasioned deep and general excitement.* 
Perhaps no act enforced, could more vitally affect the interests 
of the eastern country. For it was apprehended, that the fish- 
ing business, estimated as amounting in Massachusetts itself to 
£164,000 sterling by the year, might thereby be broken up ; and 
the particular advantages of sending lumber and other commodi- 
ties to the foreign plantations, would be entirely lost. There were 
likewise other impolitic measures urged by the king's servants. 
General Thomas Gage, having lately succeeded General Am- 
A disturb- herst in the chief command of Canada, proposed to carry war 
the norihern into the countrv of the Indians, south of the Great Lakes ; and 

Indiaus. _ •' _ ' 

for this purpose, made a requisition even upon Massachusetts, 
for 700 men. But the call was deemed unreasonable though 
there were a great rupture in that quarter, and the General 
Court disregarded it; believing whh the Governor, that in view 
of their loyalty and duty, there ought rather to be adopted timely 
and special measures for the sccui'ity of the eastern country. 
Savage hostility at tliis age was considered a contagion, and no 
one could foresee how far it might extend. Though the eastern 
Indians were not numerous, said he, they are able, even without 
foreign assistance, to spread desolation through our scattered and 
defenceless settlements ; and there ought to be under constant 
pay, at least 200 men for their protection. It is true, added he, 
the tribes are in professed amity with us, but what is the charac- 
ter of Indian faith? what apprehension of evil from savage men 
is out of time, whose maxim is, — " the first blow is the best 
part of the battle ?"f 

There were besides some special reasons for these jealousies 
Eastern In- and fears. For early the last spring, an unfortunate affray had 
elTand paci- happened at Penobscot, a {q\^ miles from Fort Povvnal, in which 
^ ■ an Indian was killed by a party of four English hunters, who 

took from him several traps and a large lot of fur. It was sup- 
posed, the bloody perpetrators when at home lived in the county 
of Cumberland, yet the uncertainty prevented detection ; and 

* 2Minot, p. 140— "In 1763, there were three families settled on the 
"southern part of Orphan Island and not another settler above them on 
^ the river at this time." Mr, Buck settled at Bucksport the next year.— 
J\IS. Letter. f Governor's Speech, Dec. 1763. 



Chap, xiv,] of maine. 371 

it was found to be so much impossible to repress the resentments a, D. 1763 
which the villainy enkindled among the Indians, that an actual 
rupture with them was apprehended- The current of feeling, 
especially among inconsiderate men, set strongly against the very 
name of Indian, so that they wished for only plausible excuses 
to take arms- Aware of this, the Governor issued a proclama- 
tion, July 19, forbidding all hostile acts towards the eastern tribes ; 
and made the greatest exertions to soothe the people's fears, to 
remove the Indians' jealousies, and to take the offenders ; pursuing 
also another party, who had pilfered from tlie Canibas tribe, and 
compeHing a restitution-* These evils educed a legislative act, 
to prevent the English from hunting in any part of the king's 
woods. About the same time, three of the Tarratine Chiefs vis- 
ited Boston, and peace was once more fully confirmed. 

On the resignation of General Preble, Thomas Goldthwait a. d. 1764 
was appointed commander and truck-master at Fort Pownal ; the Forts Pow- 
garrison then consisting of a lieutenant, gunner, armorer, chap- "iuhflx. 
lain, interpreter, two sergeants and thirty-two privates. Besides 
furnishing the establishment with all necessary articles and sup- 
plies suitable for the Indian trade, a large outer building for bar- 
racks, 40 feet by 24, was erected near the fort, to accommodate 
public worship, and to shelter the Indians in tempestuous weather, 
who resorted thither to trade. Fort Halifax, commanded by 
William Lithgow, had not usually been garrisoned by so large a 
number of men, though the Governor said the public safety 
required it. 

Possession of the Penobscot country and the prospect of a tiip public 
long peace, drew to the General Court a large number of officers ob'ipcis of 
and soldiers, with petitions to be remunerated for their " services [!"'' '^ °""* 
and sufferings. "f The claims involved the duties of gratitude 
and justice ; and the General Court directed lists to be made of 
all their names, beginning with those in the first expedition against 
Louisbourg ; and directed a second tier of townships eastward of 
Union river, and all the Islands upon the coast, except Mount 
Desert, to be surveyed ; — " in order that some further reward for 
" their brave services might be given them in the unappropriated 

* Council Rec. p. 14, Jour. H. of R. p. 35. 

f The king by proclamation encouraged these grants without any pe- 
cuniary exaction or terms.— 2 Holmet' A. Ann. p. 263. 



nni 



372 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A.D, i7Gi.'< lands of this Province." — ^The demand for new lands had now 
greatly enhanced their value ; dormant claims were revived ; 
and the Plymouth proprietors, for instance, thought their patent to 
be in fact above all price. Partaking of the fever, govei-nment 
ojipointed again two ranging parties to explore the bays and rivers 
Penobscot and St. Croix. 
Cori'Jiis 01- At this flourishing period of the colonies, the Lords of Trade 
L.Ini-, oi" ordered a census of the inhabitants to be taken, determining to 
^'^'^ ^' know more fully the extent of their ability to bear taxation. Ac- 
cordingly the General Court of Massachusetts directed the select- 
men of towns, to take and return into the Secretary's office in 
the course of the year, a correct number of the people, families 
and dwellinghouses ; Indians civilized, negroes, and jnolatloes, 
within the Province. 
Ti'R nover- This was evidently the cause which induced the Governor's 
'rj'i,gi'„'j:2„ enquiry into the number of the remaining eastern Indians. 
Thougli his estimate be not quite correct ; the result, as he stated 
it to tlie General Coiu-t, at the spriiig session, supposed the num- 
ber of VvT.i liors at Norritlgewock to be " prol)ably more tl.an 
30;" on Penobscot, "at least CO ;" and about Passamaquoddy, 
*' at least 30." He said there were two other tribes, "one settled 
" at Wawennock upon the river Perante ; and the other upon the 
"river St. Francois, both of whom keep a constant communica- 
*' tion wiih our Norridgewocks and Penobscots." — " The Pas- 
" samaquoddy tribe, (he thought,) belonged to the nation of St. 
" John's Indians, — a large people consisting of many hundreds, 
" (the Indians say, some thousands) of warriors."-— The calcula- 
tion of the Governor, however, was manifestly below the true 
census. — For besides the Mickmaks, the number of the eastern 
Indians, including those at St. John's river, must at this time have 
exceeded 1,500 souls;* and according to iManack, a French 
priest, the natives of Nova Scotia were now " near 3,000."f 
The census of the Inhabitants, as taken, was neither very 



* See ante, A. D. 1615 to 1675, vol. I, Ckip. 18-^Gor, Speech, Jlay, 1764. 
— ]Major Treat, a great trader with the Indians at Penobscot and earjy ac- 
quainted at Fort Pownal, supposes the number of Indians on this river after 
this period must have exceeded 700 souls. 

•}• ChuhVs Sktiches rJ\X. Brunswick, p. 100-5. — Manack was witli tlie In- 
dians 40 years ; he supposed there ware, in 1763, as many as 14 chiefs 
amonj the Mickmaks. 



Chap, xiv.] of Maine. 373 

thorough nor very correct. There were many who were not a.d. nci. 
without their scruples of its being equally presumptuous in the Onsus of 
present age, as in the days of the Israelites. Nor were there ' 
any orders for enumeraling the people in plantations, iherefoi'e 
they wei'e all omitted. But by the census returned and by esti- 
mation, the whole population in Maine was then about 24,000 
.souls.* 



* IjY 


YORK COL 


•.YTY. 






While. Inhabits. 


Fam'lies. 


Ilniixex. 


J^'egroes. 


York, 


2,277 


3i7 


272 


5G 


Kiircrv, 


2,353 


372 


288 


62 


Wells/ 


1,563 


251 


219 


34 


Berwick, 


2,:57-l 


364 


222 


44 


Aniiiilel, 


833 


133 


127 


5 


< Biddeford, 


627 


116 


87 


12 


( Peppere boro', [Saco.] 


533 


9G 


66 


2 


*Towwoli, [Lebanon.] 


20 








*Pliiilipsto»vn, [Sandtord,] 


150 








''Buxlon, 


225 
11,145 








C UJIBE 11 L.I.KB CO U. \''TY. 






Falmoiit]', 


3,770 


58-5 


4G0 


44 


Nortii-Yarmoulh, 


1,079 


188 


154 


IS 


b'carborongh, 


J,272 


201 


200 


15 


Bniiiswiok, 


304 


173 


73 


4 


Uarpsweli, 


S3G 


111 


65 


14 


=*A'ew Boston, [Gray,] 


160 








*Ne\v-Gloiiccstcr, 


175 








*VVindliain, 


250 








*Goriiatnlown, [Pfan.) 


340 








*Piersonfovvn and Ttubbs- ) 










town, [now Slandish,] ^ 


IJ 
fi.lOG 








LIJ\ CO LjY CO UXT Y. 






I'ownalborongh, 


8S9 


173 


161 


9 


Geortj-elown, 


1,329 


1S4 


18U 


12 


Bowdoinliam, 


220 


37 


38 


1 


AN'oolwicli, 


415 


63 


64 




Newcastle, 


454 


69 


69 


1 


Topsiiarn, 


34(j 


52 


54 


1 


*Gardinertown, [Hallowcll, ) 










Gardiner and PHtsf.on.'] ^ 


• 200 








^Townsbend, [BuU/ibay ;] \ 


1 








Pemaqiiid, or Hai'iinirton, ? 


SCO 








[Bristol;] and Walpole, ) 










^Rroadba}', Georffekcag-, "j 










£Thomastou and War- f 


200 








Ten.] JMedtincook, / 








^Friendship.] \ 











4,347 

23,GS8 3,572 2,78D 332 

Add Blacks, 332 

Census published ill C. Cen- 

Total— 24,020 tine.l, A. D. 1822. 

In 1764, the population of Nova Scotia was 13,000.-1 Haliburton's Jf. S. 
p. 243 : In 1772, 18,300.— 76. p. 250. 

N. B. — Those of this (*) mark are by estimation. 



374 THE HISTORY [VoL. n. 

A. D. 1764. The towns incorporated in 1764, were Topsham, January 31 ; 
3 towns in- GoRHAM, Oct. 30 I and BooTHBAY, Nov. 3, — all being; planta- 

corporated. . , ° '■ 

tions of considerable note.* 

Topsham. Topsham, bearing the name of a town in England, was so cal- 
led before its incorporation. In its peninsular form, it extends 
on the water to the river Cathance. Its territory is a part of the 
Pejepscot purchase. There were at an early period, probably 
soon after Queen Anne's war, three families settled in Topsham, 
one at Fulton's point, one at Pleasant point, and one at the head 
of Muddy river. They lived on good terms with the Indians 
till there was a general rupture with them ; when one of the set- 
tlers, returning home and finding his family murdered, went to 
St. Georges and thence to Europe. Giles, the one settled at 
Pleasant point and his neighbor at Muddy river, were with their 
families destroyed, except Giles' children, who were carried into 
captivity. The settlement was renewed in 1730, by the Scotch 
and Irish emigrants ; and in 1750, there were in the place 18 
families. By profession they were presbyterians, and in 1 759, 
the people built a house for the convenience of public worship. f 

iGorham. Gorham was granted, A. D. 1735, in lieu of what was called 

one of the Canada townships, which was found to lie in New- 
Hampshire, on running the line between this and that Province. 
It was so named out of respect to Capt. John Gorham, J who 
was ancestor to some of the grantees. The first settler was 
Capt. John Phinney ; whose fourth daughter, Mary Gorham, i^i 
born Aug. 13, 1736, in the second year of his residence there, 
was the first English birth in the place. The settlers in a short 
time ' built a garrison on Fort-hill' about a mile from the pres- 



* These were the I9th, 2Qth, and 2lst towns corporate in this State. 

^ See ante, A. D. 1725. — A Church was organized in 1771, and Rev. 
Jonathan Ellis settled in 1789. Topsham was for many years connected 
with Brunswick in its parochial affairs. — [See A. D. 1733.] — The town 
was first represented in the General Court, A. D. 1775, by James Fulton. 
—Letter of Rev. J. Ellis. 

I William Tyng-, son of Commodore Edward Tyng-, sheriff of Cumber- 
land county, from 17 G7 to 1775, — a refugee to Nova Scotia, where he was 
Chief Justice of the C, Com. Pleas, removed to Gorham in 1793, and died 
there, Dec. 8, 1807, a humane rnan and an exemplary christian. — 10 Coll. 
J\L His. Soc. p. 185. 

5 She died, 1825, a lady of great piety, — the wife of Capt. James Irish. 



Chap, xir.] of maine. 375 

ent village ; which in the subsequent Indian wars, was the A. u. 1764. 
asylum and only place of safety for their families.* 

Boothhay is the ancient Cape-newagen settlement, situated Boothbay, 
between the Damariscotta and Sheepscot. It is supposed to have 
been first settled about 1630-1-2; — a iew years after there 
were inhabitants at Pemaquid. A part or all of the peninsula 
was purchased in 1G66, of the famous Sagamore Robinhood, by 
one Henry Curtis; and in 1674, when the County of Devonshire 
was established, this was one of the principal plantations. It was 
wholly overrun by the savages, in the second Indian war, about 
A. D. 1688 ; and subsequently lay waste 40 years. On its re- 
vival under Col. Dunbar, in 1729, he gave it the name of Towns- 
hend. Rev. John Murray, a native of Ireland, was a burning 
light to this people, for 15 years prior to 1779, when he removed 
to Newburyport ; — a minister whose piety was as incense both at 
the fireside and the altar. f 



* Gorham was « Narra^-anset No. 7." (See ante, A. D. 1733.) It -was 
surveyed in 1762.— But there were in tlic plantation only ten families in 
1746, and reduced at one time to four. The usual number of persons 
during- the 5th Indian war was about 6U men, women and ciiildren, besides 
10 soldiers. For seven years, they were mo&liy confined to a small fort. 
In 1750, they were visited with a fever, so severe, that scarcely one man 
was able to stand sentry. Men hid their .2,'"ns beside them in tiie field ; 
and when they travelled, it was by nig-ht (hroug-h fear of an ambush. 
Yet Gorham now is a disting-nished town, having- in 1827, 509 rateable 
polls; C mills; one cotton and one powder factory ; IS school districts ; a 
flourishing academy, with ample funds, and a liandsome library ; four meet- 
ing- houses — one for methodists — one for congreg-ationalists — one for bap- 
tists — and one " free meeting house ;" also six ministers of the g-ospel. It 
is an agricultural town — where are larg-e stocks of cattle and large or^ 
chards. The first settled minister was Rev Solomon Lombard, ordained 
in 1750. lie was also the first representative to the General Court, clioscn 
in 1767. The same year, Rev. Josiah Thatcher was ordained with a settle- 
ment of £100 and a salary of £80 ; succeeded Oct. 1783, by Rev. Caleb 
Jewett; in 1803 by Rev. Jeremiah Noyes ; in 1809 by Rev. Asa Rand.— 
J\1S. Let. Hugh D. JMcLdlan, 1827. 

t Boothhay has passed through great vicissitudes. But " no part of the 
" lands within that town or Edgecomb fell within the lines of the three 
" claims," under Drown, Tappan or Brotcn. But Dunbar claimed the 
township till ousted. — Com. Rep. A. D. 1811, p. 24.— Dunbar made grants 
to M'Cobb and Rogers, who procured settlers, whose " descendants form 
" most of the inhabitants of Bootbbay." Early reservations were made 
for a meeting-house lot, burying ground, and train field; also, according to 
usage. 200 acres for the ministry, and £100 were to be allowed and paid 



3'76 'THE HISTORY [VoL. II.- 

A. E). 17^5. The next year, 1765, there were two towns incorporated, name-' 
2(owpsin- ly, Bristol, June 18 ; and Cape-Elizabeth, Nov. 1 ;* the latter 
eorpoiac . ^^j^^ g^ju y,-,ijgj ^^.[^^^ Falmouth, in the choice of a Representative 

to the General Court, eleven years. 
t5,.i,(j,, Bristol, situated between Darnariscotta and Muscongus, era- 

braces the ancient Pemaquid, wliicli is more noted in our early 
history, than any other eastern plantation in the State. A set- 
tlement was commenced on the river of that name near its mouth 
in 1626 ;■ the patent to Elbridge and Aldsworth is dated Feb. 20, 
1631 ; and May 27, 1633, according to Shurte's testimony, pos- 
session was given " from the head of the river Damariscotta to 
'• the head of the river Muscongus, and between them to the sea." 
On the eastern bank of the river was the seat of government 
imder the patentees, and the site of Fort William Henry, built 
of stone by Sir William Phips, in 1692; prior to which time 
the settlement had been laid waste by the savages. But under 
the guns of the fortress, there was a determinate purpose to pro- 
mote the babitancy of such as chose to dwell there, till the gar- 
rison, in 1696, was taken by the French. The country lay un- 
peopled, afterwards more than twenty years. A resettlement 
was attempted, about 1717-18 ; which was one of the first ef- 
fected In this eastern country after Queen Anne's war. Dunbar, 
in 1729-30, repaired the fortification and called it Fort Freder- 
ick, and gave to the place the name of Harrington. About the 
time of incorporation, the people, who were of Presbyterian ten- 
ets, voted to build three meeting-houses, one near the fort in 
" Harrington parish," which was soon erected, one north-east- 
wardly at " Broad Cove j" and one near Damariscotta river, in 
"Walpole parish."! 

towards building a meefing--house. Rev. Mr. Murray was the first settled 
minister. Hrs successor in 1785, was Rev. Mr. Merril ; wfio was succeed- 
ed in 1789, by Mr. Gould; in 1796 by Mr. Chapin ; neither of whom were 
settled. But in 1790, Rev. John Sawyer was installed ; Rev. J. P. Fisher 
in 1808;. and Rev. Mr. Weston in 1S18. Boolhbay was first represented 
in General Court, in 1783 by Paul Reed. As to titles to lauds; See J^ote 
on Edgecomb, A. D. 1794. — See Greenleaf\ Sketches, p, 132—145. 

* These are the 22d and 23d towns in the State. 

t See ante, A. D. 1631, 1692, 1729.— 2 Holmes'' A. Ann. p. 1 1.— 2 MaVs M 
E. p. 118. The corporate name is taken from the city of Bristol, the resi- 
dence of the patentees, Elbridge and Aldsworth. The township fell under 
the Brown and the Brown claims.— Cow. Rep. A. D. 1811 The settlers not 



Chap, xiv.] of jviaine. 3'7'7 

The first inhabitants of Cape-Elizabeth, which is separated A. D. 17G5. 
from the Peninsula by Fore river, seated themselves opposite to Cape Eliza- 
the harbor, upon Purpooduck point ; fi'om which the plantation, porated."'^ 
commencing forty-four years prior to king Philip's war, derived 
its name. Among the earliest settlers at that place, were several 
brethren by the name of Wallace. Mr. Jordan and family set- 
tled near the mouth of the Spurwink, which separates the town 
from Scarborough. The settlers at Purpooduck were, in the 
third Indian war, " nearly all massacred by the savages." It is 
said, " 50 or 60 dead persons were found" at Spurwink and 
Purpooduck,* by the crew of a visiting vessel, " and interred in 
one vault." The settlement was resumed about the year 1719- 
20; a church formed in 1734 ; the Rev. Benjamin Allen, settled 
the same year ; and, in 1752, the inhabitants were formed into a 
parish. But in submission to the Governor's policy and instruc- 
tion, they were incorporated with only " District" privileges, and 
thus disallowed the several and sole right of representation in the 
popular branch of the Legislature ; though that body was uni- 
formly opposed to this species of municipality, — never satisfied 
with a thin House ; — two or three towns in Lincoln county, being 
fined this year, for neglecting to choose representatives. f , 

only suffered incrcdibh' in the Indian wars ; — but in the war of the revolu- 
tion " they fouglit under tiic idea Uiat tliey were to have tlie lands, they 
" were defending ; and a quarter part of the able bodied men of Bristol fell, 
" either by land or sea."— fF. Finders'' lestimnny, Rep. p. 157.— Indeed, there 
never was a braver people. Rev. Kobert Rutherford, who probably came 
over with Dunbar, preached to them 4 or 5 years. He died in Thomaston, 
in 17oG. There was a great revival of religion in Bristol, in 1766 ; when 
a church was gathered under the advisatory influence of Rev. Mr. 
Murray. Rev. Alexander McLean, a native of Scotland and a Presbyte- 
rian in sentiment, was settled in 1773 ; a good preacher and excellent 
man. B}' reason of ill health he was dismissed, in 1795. His successor 
was Rev. William Riddel, in 1796; and Rev. J. Bclden, in 1807. Bristol 
was first represented in the General Court, A. D. 1775, by William Jones. 
— It is the residence of Commodore Samuel Tucker, who on a certain oc- 
casion, in 1778, distinguished himself so manfully in the war of the revolu- 
tion, on a voyage to Europe, having on board Hon. John Adams, a foreign 
minister. * See ante, vol. II, this Hist. (A. D. 1703) p. 43. 

t In Cape-Elizabeth, the 2d minister settled, was Rev. Ephraim Clark, 
who was installed in 1756, and died, 1797. He was succeeded by Mr. Wm. 
Grigg. Cape-Elizabeth, in the choice of representatives joined with 
Falmouth, till 1776 ; but was represented in the General Court by James 
Leach, that year, for the first time. The town contains 1.3,000 acres ; 
Vol. II. 48 



378 THE HISTORY [VoL. II, 

A.u. 1765, The present was a period of political gloom. No part of the 
A lime of policy for raising a revenue in the colonies was relaxed. The 
gboi'n. acts of trade were enforced, seizures were multiplied, the trials 
were in the vice-admiralty courts, without a jury, and if the 
judge, perhaps a minion of the ministry, certified there was prob- 
able cause for seizing the property libelled, the successful claim- 
ant could recover neither damage nor casts. In these direct and 
predetermined attacks upon our privileges, the wisest and best of 
men, had doubts what was the proper course to be pursued. 
To submit, were to take the yoke of perpetual servility upon 
ourselves and our posterity ; — to resist, were to commence a re- 
volt, by which a long and endearing connexion would be rent asun- 
der, and the country put to the hazard of contest, with a most 
powerful nation. As the safest expedient, resort was had to 
memorials, filled with loyalty and complaint, and presented 
through the medium of our agents, to the British Court, But 
all these were in vain ; for, by a rule of the Commons, ' no peti- 
' tion against a money bill could be received.' and in short, Par- 
jnmiary 10. jj^j^gj^j January 10, 17G5, passed the memorable Stamp-act; 

biamp act 7 j ' ' i j. , 

passed. {jy Yvhich, all legal instruments and business scripts, made after 
the 1st of November ensuing, would be invalid, unless written 
on stamp't parchment or paper ; the price of which was greatly 
enhanced by the duty exacted. Its passage was strenuously 
opposed by several members, — one boldly styling American citi- 
zens ' the sons of Liberty,' and predicting an uniform opposition 
among them to the act. When the news of it arrived, the ex- 
citable spirit foretold by the sagacious statesman, diffused itself, 
like an electric spark, through the continent. 

Nevertheless, the Governor, when he met the General Court in 

May, endeavored to divert their attention from the subject, which 

had thrown the public into so much agitation ; addressing them 

upon the exportation of lumber, fish and potash, and mentioning 

First Con- on^J matters of more general concern. But the House forthwith 

lirNew**''^ proposed a Congress of deputies from each Colony, to meet in the 

^*""''- city of New- York, Oct. 1, and consult upon the uncommon ex- 



— " soil red, brown, and black loam, some sand and clay, and exhibits 10 
orchards." There are in it four meeting-houses; 9 school districts; and 
240 voters. Tlie bridg-e that connects the town with Portland is 2,600 
feet in length. This town was taken from Falmouth. — MS. Let. of Eben- 
tzer Thrasher, Esq. 1821. 



Chap, xir.] of Maine. 379 

igency. A very deep sense of wrong pervaded the whole people. A. D. 17G6. 

In some places, they burnt the bolder prerogative-men in effigy ; — 

obliged the stainp-officers to decline their appointment, and in the 

burst of honest indignation, ran into some unjustifiable excesses. 

In fact, when the stamped paper arrived at Boston, Sept. 26, 

there was no commissioner, or person in the Province, disposed 

to receive it: — therefore, by order of the Governor, it was lodged 

. October 1. 

in the Castle, The Colonial Congress, convening as proposed, 'j'lieir 

1 1 1 I J r • 7 • 1 • IT memorials. 

declared the sole power oi taxation to be in then- own assemblies, 

and prepared three several addresses, to the King, the Lords, and 

the Commons, stating their grievances and praying for redress. 

If the eastern Provincials could not by their numbers greatly The people 

•' _ '^ "^ of Maine. 

swell the ranks of the patriots ; they could shew in evidence, as 
good a character for courage, union and fortitude, through the Sav- 
age wars, as any other people. It was too, in a spirit of true 
loyalty and gratitude, that they exulted so heartily in the accession 
of their present young ting to the throne, and in the late military 
glory of British arms. Nay, though they did not run into equal 
extravagance and excess with the inhabitants of Boston and other 
places in the opposition ; they were not less worthy of a bold 
and hardy ancestry, nor any more flexible to the iron hand of 
power. Taking deep interest in the cause of liberty and the 
public welfare, they hailed the event, with the exalted and gen- 
eral joy, which filled the country, when the news arrived, in May, 
1766, that the obnoxious stamp-act had, on the 18th of March, ^-^ ^''^^^ 
been repealed. Particularly in Falmouth, guns were fired, flags gia^^p^ci 
displayed, the church bell rung, and houses illuminated; — j^ repealed, 
other places, unable in their indigence to equal those exhibitions, 
the people rejoiced at the fireside, the table and the family altar ; 
and subsequently a day of public thanksgiving was observed on 
account of the repeal. Even the Governor, in his speech. May 
29, mentioned the same subject as cause of congratulation. But 
still there was an ingredient of extreme bitterness in this over- 
flowing cup of joy ; — this was a Declaratory act, passed at the 
time of the repeal, asserting the right and power of Parliament 
* to bind America in all cases whatsoever,' and annulling all the 
resolutions of American Assemblies, which had claimed the right 
of exemption from parliamentary taxation. 

Another subject of considerable public importance, was that of King'i 
the king's woods. A great value was still set upon them, though 



380 THE HISTORY [VoL. 11. 

A.D, iTGo. the late northern conquest had widely added to their extent. 
jMr. Wentworth, the Governor of New-Hampshire, had now en- 
joyed the office of surveyorship twenty-five years ; and till of 
late he had discharged the duties to his own honor and the general 
acceptahility. But he was advanced in years ; his fortune was 
made ; and he had probably trusted too much to his deputies. For 
some of the public officers had been charged in England with 
exacting exorbitant fees for passing licenses and land-patents ; 
and when the Crown had published a proclamation threatening all 
such persons with removal from office, Wentworth found himself 
involved in the charge. He had also been accused of negligence, 
in corresponding with the king's ministers, and in pcrniitting his 
deputies to sell and waste the king's timber. There is much 
probability, that his indulgence or forbeareance, was the reason 
why we have heard for several years, no more complaints of the 

B. Went- people against him and his deputies. But he escaped iurther 

worili sue- I 1 ~ I i 

ceeded by ccnsurc bv a wise resic;natIon, in August, — beino; succeeded by 

J. Went- . •' b ' b 5 b .' 

^vol•lll MS his nephew, John fVentworth, both to the government of New- 
tlie woods. Hampshire and the surveyorship oi the woods.''' 
Crown Immediately connected with the public timber, were the ' Crown 

Lands' themselves, which foreigners seemed to suppose were 
* royal domains ;' — j^arlicularly the region north-eastward of Mount 
Desert; and to consider them as a part of the territory intended 
Prnclama- by the king in his proclamation, issued in 1763, to be granted 
"°"' and given unto the men who had served in the late war, and been 

disbanded in America. f Each Colony-Governor was empower- 
ed to make these grants to such persons, without fee or reward ; 
— subject only to the usual conditions of cultivation and improve- 
ment. " J/ecAisses" — [now ^lachias,] seemed to have attracted 
much attention, ever since its situation first fell under the eye of 
visitants, whether English or French. In 1633, the Plymouth 
Colonists established a trading house there ; the French attempted 
to settle it in 1644; and in 1763, fifteen men from Scarborough, 
encouraged probably by the Provincial government, erected a 
saw-mill upon the western river, and formed a permanent plan- 
tation. It had a gradual increase ; and the General Court, June 



* 2 Belk. N. H. 

f 2 Hohnt's A. Ann. p. 264.— To z captain, 3,000 ; a subaltern 2,000; a 
private, 50 acres. 



Chap, xiv.] of maine. 381 

15, 1767, granted to Ichabocl Jones and seventy-nine others, a ad itg?, 
township upon the usual terms of settlement, uhich was, three .Uiur 15, 
years afterwards, fully confirmed to them, witliout any other license lownsiiip 
from the crown, than the proclamation mentioned.* It might be '"' ' 
this, which damped, or checked the undertaking of the Earl of 
Catherlough, Lord Viscount Falmouth, and Mr. Francis Vassalf 
who proposed, if patronized by the General Court, to settle 
the lands twelve miles in widtli on each side of Machias river, 
back 50 miles from its mouth, with GOO protestant families, con- 
taining at least 3,000 souls. About this time, the survey of 
Mount Desert was undertaken and completedj and was found to 
contain 100 square miles, equal to 44,000 acres, | 

Early in the summer, of 17G7, June 25, the plantation of l'<^h?in""i i"- 

corjioialed. 

Towivoh, was incorporated into a town by the name of Lebanon. 
It w^as a grant by the government, in 1733;§ and supposed to 
have been settled, about ten years afterwards. Rev. Isaac Hasey 
removed his family into the township, in 1747, where he was sup- 
ported in the ministry, by the proprietors, till his ordination, June 
25, 1765, and where he dwelt, beloved and respected by his 
people, till his death. || 

Though hurricanes are not frequent in tliis latitude, and very A iimri- 
seldom violent; there was one, July 31, winch, though not ex- 
tensive in its effects, did some damage. It commenced on the 
southerly side of Sebago Pond, passed through Windham, over 
Duck Pond, and the contiguous borders of Falmouth and North- 
Yarmouth, unroofed one dwellinghouse, and prostrated every 
tree it reached, sweeping all before it, about 3-4ths of a mile in 
breadth, to the sea. 

The high duties on imports and the restrictions on trade, were -pijp ppstem 
as severely felt by the eastern people as by any portion of the P'-"^''^- 
colonists. Engaged in the lumber business, and in the cod- 
fishery, instead of agriculture and manufactures, they were dis- 
proportionate consumers of foreign articles. Lumber and fish 



* Hon. J. Jones' MS. Let. 

fPerliaps a descendant of William Vassal, one of the fust Massacliiisetts 
Colony Assistants. J 14 Jour. LI. of Rep. p. 344, 411. 

5 See ante, A. D. 1733. 

11 He diedin 1812 ; and was succeeded by Rev. Paul Jewet, in 1814. 
Lebanon was first represented in the General Court, in 1772, by Samuel 
Copps. Lebanon is the 24th town in the State. 



382 THE HISTORY [VcL. II, 

A. 1). 17C7. vvere tlie staples of export ; though such large quantities of pot 
and pearl ashes were sent to Great Britain, that a statute was 
passed about this time, to prevent fraud in the manufacture and 
sale of them. Most people were in debt ; and it has been re- 
marked, that manual laborers in the business of lumbering, though 
fascinated with the prospect of large emoluments, never amass 
wealth. Few of the eastern people were ])ossessors of very con- 
siderable estates ; all had been encouraged to expect some relief 
from taxation, as well as rest from war, whenever Canada should 
be reduced, and the Indians subdued ; and therefore, many of 
them were more unwilling than other colonists, to submit to any- 
new and needless burdens. 

Pariiamen- Parliament, however, in nursuins; the ministerial plan of taxa- 

lary duties . , . . . 

oil paper, tion, passed an act, June 29, imposing a duty to be paid by the 

ginss-, paints . ■ , ^ i • i 

and ?tui,iin- colonists on all paper, glass, painters colors and teas, miportea 
into this country ; premising in the preamble, that the duty vvas 
laid " for the better suppoit of government and the administra- 

The Crown ttou of the Colonies." One clause of the act authorized the 

authorized ,-, , 

to rcjfiiiaie Crown, by warrants under the sign manual, to establish a gener- 
feesof of- al Civil List throughout every Province of North America, with 
such salaries, pensions, and pecuniary stipends or rewards, as 
he might be pleased to order and appoint — providing, that after 
the warrants so issued, for what might be " thought proper and 
necessary," were satisfied, the residue of such revenue should be 
at the disposal of Parliament. The duties were to take place, 
Nov. 21, ensuing, and a custom-house office and board of Com- 
missioners were established in America, three of whom arrived 
in season to execute the trust reposed in them, 
A.D. 17G8. These measures the colonists pronounced oppressive and the 
Feb. 11. appointments unconstitutional: therefore, the General Court, 

Circulars ' ' i r i • r^ i 

in union Feb. 11, 1768, sent a circular letter to each of the sister Colo- 

for redress. . . . . . , , 

nies, earnestly pressing upon them "to unite in suitable measures 
to obtain redress." Aroused to a height of indignation by these 
circulars, the ministry condemned them as " highly inflammatory 
and tending to sedition ;" and commanded the House, at the 
spring session, through Governor Bernard, to rescind them 
without delay. But as they persisted boldly in their refusal, — 
he dissolved the General Court, and protested against calling 
another. 

Opposed, as the Governor was, to any legislative acts, by which 



Chap, xiv.] of maine. 383 

thfi House of Representatives might be enlarged ; it is not strange AiD. 1768. 
that there was only one town incorporated in 1768, — none in Sandford 

mi • 1 r< iiicorporal' 

the two succeeding years. The one now estabhshed, was SAND-ed. 
FORD, Feb. 23, which to this time was the plantation of Phil- 
lipstown. The introduction of these names arose from the facts, 
that Major William Phillips, A. D. 1661-4, took from Fluellen 
Hobinowill and Captain Sunday, Indian chiefs of Saco river and 
Newichawannock, several quit-claim deeds of a territory, ex- 
tending from the river Saco to Berwick and Lebanon, and from 
the rear line of Welis. (exclusive of Lyman,) so l^ir back as ta 
embrace about four townships of the usual size ;* that the pur- 
chase, with revised bounds, was in 1670, confirmed by Sir Fer- 
dinando Gorges, to the grantee or his son, Nathaniel Piiillips of 
Saco; that ]\Irs. Phillips, the iNlajor's wife, devised by will, Sept. 
29, 1696, to Peleg Sand ford, a son by her former husband, what 
the Major had given to her — and what was included in the town 
now incorporated, Sandford. The first permanent settlement 
was effected about the year, 1740. The second Baptist society 
formed in the State, was established here in September, 1772; 
and a congregational parish, in 1788, of which Rev. Moses 
Swett was the settled minister forty-four years. f 



* These were Phillipstown, now Sanford, and Alfred; Massabesec, now 
Waterboroujh ; a section of Little Falls plantation, or norihem part of 
Pliiljipsb'.irgh, now Holiis, and a part of Liminjton. Fluellen also sold 
the territory of Lyman, to Saunders and others, in 1660. Ilobinowill's 
conveyance extended to Capt. Sunday's Rocks, which are described 
as ' three Hills of Rocks,' irnpreg-nated with ising'lass, quite shining, and 
Avere supposed to be in Liming-ton. — Folsom, p. 1C4-5. 

f Sandford^ the 25th town in the State, embraced 27,000 acres, till divid- 
ed, and Alfred incorporated, Feb. 4, ]794. There are within (he town, 
Dearing', Curtis, Fish, Sand, Duck, Eel, Old, and in part, Conny Beag*, 
Ponds. The place was sometimes called, JMousum, — from the river which 
issues out of Great pond in Shapleig-h, and runs through Sandford, afford- 
ing- remarkablj' fine mill sites. The soil, especially on the ridges, is deep 
and g-ood ; and the town exhibits fruitful orchards. It was first represented 
in the General Court, A. D. 1785, by Caltb Emery. — The first English 
birth in the place was that of Ephraim Low's daughter, July 28, 1742. — 
The " Piclure Tree,'''' took its name from this circumstance : — A little 
daughter of Peter Morrell, in Berwick, while gathering low-hemlock, 
discovered a party of Indians, and screamed ; when they, to prevent an 
alarm, cut off her head and carried it to Sand-pond, where they engraved 
the child's image on an antiquated pine. — MS. Let. of E. Allen and W, 
L. JFalker, Esqrt. 



384 



THE fllSTORY 



[V 



OL. II. 



The Penob 
scot coun- 
try. 



A.D. 17GS, The increase and entension of settlements in the Penobscot 
country, liad become so affronting to the Tarratines, that some of 
them be2;an to ntter bold threats against their progress. Hence, 
the Governor told the House, that a chaplain ought to be under 
constant pay at Fort Pownal, who might preach to the settlers in 
the audience of the Indians ; for, added he, there is no " minis- 
"ter of the gospel within a circle of 100 miles diameter, now 
'' generally peopled though but thinly ; and the settlers of them- 
" selves, were unable to maintain one." Nay, if the claim to the 
territory eastward of Penobscot river, were to be maintained against 
the natives, and the improvement of it promoted by an enterprizing 
population, the fortress, he said, must be made a more respecta- 
ble establishment. Happily agreeing with him in his eastern pol- 
itics, the General Court augmented the garrison, from 12 to 20 
men, and provided for the support of a chaplain, at the expense of 
£4 by the month. 

As the Governor refused to issue precepts for a new Legisla- 
ture without his Majesty's command ; a Convention of delegates 
met at Boston, Sept. 22, at the instance of its selectmen ; in 
which more than 100 towns of the Province were represented, 
General Preble being the member from Falmouth. Never was 
there in the Province an assemblage of more sensible, consider- 
ate men, and firmer patriots. They deliberated upon the subject 
of their grievances and the best constitutional means of seeking 
redress ; expressed an utter aversion both to parliamentary in- 
direct taxes or exactions, and standing armies ; and recommend- 
ed a manly and orderly defence of their rights, whether it brought 
relief, or led to resistance.* An able writer in the London maga- 
zine, on reading the essays and addresses printed at this period, 
observes ; — " there is such just and cogent reasoning, and such 
a spirit of liberty breathing through the whole of the American 
productions upon the subject of civil rights, as would not have 
disgraced ancient Greece or Rome, when struggling against op- 
pression." 

To crush these rising energies of feeling, sentiment, and ex- 
pression in Massachusetts, considered in England the base devices 



A Prnvin- 
cial Con- 
veiilioa in 
Ikislon. 
Sept. "2. 



British 
trocps sta- 
tioned ia 
Boston. 



* A part of the instructions given by Falmouth to General Preble, 
ran thus — " in all your consultations in said Convention, it is the desire of 
*' the town, that you advise to the most mild and peaceable measures-** 
— Smithes Journal Appx. p. 17. 



Chap, xiv.] of Maine. 3g5 

of faction, and to aid the civil authority, supposed to be too feeble a. d, 1768. 
to support government, a fleet from Halifax brought 700 troops, 
who were landed in Boston, Sept. 28, under cover of the cannon, 
and marched, with muskets loaded and bayonets fixed, into the 
common. Shocked by this array of an armed soldiery, the town 
was necessarily thrown into great confusion. The sentinels chal- 
lenged the inhabitants as they passed ; and the result was an in- 
creasing, mutual hostility and hatred. In the meantime. General 
Thomas Gage, who still commanded in America, arrived at Bos- 
ton, perhaps to enforce the orders of the ministry, by which the 
Governor was directed to remove every magistrate and other offi- 
cer from all official trust, who were unmindful of their oath and 
duty to their prince, and to appoint in their places such of his 
good and loyal subjects, as were faithful to his government. 

Influenced by the ministerial commands, as well as by his own A.D. 1769. 
ill-will, the Governor gave his negative, at the May election, 1769, S'lweeir*^ 
to eleven of the new elected Councillors ; and because the House ^"\ ^T 

' nard and 

protested to him against the military guard, stationed at the door ^^^ House, 
of the State House, and complained of it, as a measure utterly 
inconsistent with the freedom and dignity of debate, in all 
legislative assemblies, he adjourned the General Court to Cam- 
bridge. A scene of severe altercation ensued between him and 
the House through a long session ; in which they resolved, that 
the sending of an armed force into the colony, under pretence of 
assisting ' the civil authority,' was highly dangerous to the people, 
unprecedented and unconstitutional ; and that they never should 
make any provision for quartering the troops, though it were so 
strongly and perseveringly urged by bis repeated messages. Un- Aug. i. 
able, as he found himself, to carry a single point, he adjourned ^n°ciieaves 
the General Court to January; and embarked, August 1, for l*^" ^''■''^' 
England, in disgust. — Governor Bernard left few friends of any 
party. Nay, men of such arbitrary principles and supreme sel- 
fishness seldom secure to themselves, either the friendships which 
give charm to social life, or which follow them with afiection and 
respect into retirement.* 

The trade between Great Britain and her Colonies, on an ave- Commerce, 
rage of three past years, employed 1,078 ships, and 28,910 sea- 

* He died in England, in 1779. He was Governor of Massachusetts 
Province, nine years. 

Vol. II. 49 



386 THE HISTORY [VoL. II- 

A. D. 1769. men. The value of goods exported thither and elsewhere, on 

the same average, was £3,924,606 sterling ; and the imports 

into the Colonies, principally from Great Britain, were £3,370,900 

sterling.* But the embarrassments began to operate as checks 

to trade, ship-building, and the fisheries ; — seamen found employ 

proportionably difficult to be obtained ; — and consequently the 

eastern people met with more trouble in furnishing themselves 

with supplies. The agreements were more sedulously renewed 

against the importation of British goods ; and all persons were 

declared adversaries of the public welfare, who refused to unite. 

A. D. 1770. There was, however, about this time, some change in the minis- 

pcai'cd oir try, which was followed by a repeal of the duties on most of the 

clesl'excepi ^^ticles taxed, except teas ;f — an exception designed in England, 

teas. j^g ^ perpetual claim of right to tax the Colonies ; and rendered 

effectual in America, to keep alive the flame of patriotism. 

Hence associations were extensively formed ' to drink no tea, 

' until the act imposing the duty should be repealed.' 

Connected as these eastern Provinces were, in all the political 
concerns of Massachusetts, an omission to mention some par- 
Bosionivias- ticulars of the '■Boston Massacre,'' as it has been called, could 
not be excused. It happened, ]Monday evening, March 5, in 
King-street. One of the soldiers, being insulted by the populace, 
discharged his gun, without doing any harm ; when another re- 
ceiving a blow, shot at the aggressor, and six of his fellows, in- 
stantly firing, killed three of the inhabitants and mortally wounded 
a fourth. — At the funeral of those fallen men, there was an im- 
mense concourse, filled with deep toned lamentations ; and at the 
next term of the Superior Court, the Captain and six soldiers 
were tried on a charge of manslaughter, and two were convicted ; 
who according to the laws of the times, were branded in the 
hand and set at liberty. For several years, the day of the mas- 
sacre was commemorated in Boston, by spirited and eloquent 
orations to very crowded auditories. 
Lieutenant On the departure of Bernard, Lieutenant-Governor Hutch- 
Hutchinson. insonJ again took the executive chair ; determined by force of 



* 2 Holmes' A. Ann. p. 293. | Date of the repeal was April 12, 1770. 

J Governor Thomas Hutchinson was born in Boston, 1711; graduated 
at Harvard College, 1727 ; a Representative in 1740, fiom his native town, 
and Speaker of the House in 1747. He had the charms of oratory be- 
yond any man in the Assembly. In 1750, he was chosen into the Council ;, 



Chap, xiv.] of maine. 387 

prerogative, by management and by address, to prostrate all oppo- a. d. 1770. 
sition. Possessing wealth, talents, and learning, he aspired to the 
rank of nobility, which he once intimated he had been encour- 
aged to expect. No arguments of the House, for more than May. 
two years, could induce him to remove the seat of legislation from 
Cambridge to Boston. In a revision of the military system, some 
regiments were found already destitute of officers; great numbers 
of young men, old enough to bear arms, had not been enrolled in 
the trainbands ; military musters and discipline had been grossly 
neglected ; and therefore a bill was passed by both Houses for 
the improvement of the Militia ; but this was a branch of gov- 
ernment, which the creatures of arbitrary power, both disliked 
and feared, and Hutchinson declined giving his signature to the 
bill. 

He chose rather to call the attention of the General Court p^,,,jj, 
to the public lands eastward of Kennebeck, stating, that settlers '^"''s- 
were by no means confined to the conditional grants lately 
made ; but others, either under color of legislative patronage or 
without any pretence of tide or license whatever, had entered 
upon parcels of large tracts. All these were, by the express terms 
of the charter, he said, direct encroachments, — without the ex- 
press approbation of the crown ; therefore they demanded the 
special consideration of the General Court. Any longer silence, 
he thought, would be considered as a virtual encouragement " to 
" the waste and destruction of the king's timber" — those lofty 
mast-trees so essential to the naval strength of the realm. He 
was opposed to these unauthorized possessions, and recommend- 
ed a prosecution of trespassers, and more provident care of the 
royal woods. He highly approved of the establishment at Fort p^^, p^^, 
Pownal, and urged it upon the House as a duty, to keep it in ""'• 
the best possible condition for trade with the natives, and the se- 
curity of the settlers. Accordingly, some improvement took 

in 1756, a Judge of the Superior Court, and in 1760, Chief Justice. From 
1758 to 1770, he was Lieutenant-Governor. When Pownal left the chair, 
in 1760, Hutchinson acted as Chief Magistrate, a part of the year, till Gov- 
ernor Bernard's arrival. He again took the chair in 1770, and was com- 
missioned Governor the same year. He was superseded in 1774, by Gov- 
ernor Gage ; and went to England, where he died, June 3, 1780, aged 69 
years. — Poit^ 1772, note to Saco, see. 



388 TII^ HISTORY [Vol. II. 

A. u, 1770. place ; and Capt. Goldthwait was superseded in the command 
by John Preble. 

Change of There were some other changes made. Francis Waldo, Esq. 
was appointed collector of the customs at Falmouth ; Mr. Gush- 
ing, commissioner ; and on the death of Samuel Waldo,* Judge 
of Probate for Cumberland County, — Enoch Freeman was com- 
missioned to that office. All superfluities and extravagance were 

Mechanic discountenanced ; — all mechanic arts, manufactures and econo- 

aris. . _ ' ' 

mics were encouraged ; so that gentlemen were enabled to appear 
handsomely clad in garments of their own country's fabric ; and 
all the people found, they could live quite comfortably, though 
they purchased no foreign articles for domestic use. The gloom, 
occasioned by the early drought of summer, was changed by 
copious showers, into a prospect of plenty in the autumn ; and 
likewise upon our ))oliiical affairs, hitiierto so much darkened by 
ministerial politics, there was an imaginary, or anticipated dawn 
of more unclouded light. 
A. D. 1771. At the ]\Iay election, Mr. Hutchinson first met the Gen- 
Mr. Hutch- eral Court in his official character as Governor, though he had 

iRSon, Gov- . , , . . 

eriior. received his appouitment some months before. Ample provision 
having been lately made for remunerating his services, by the 

, crown ; he was thus rendered independent of the General Court, 

and under no necessity of asking them for any pecuniary favors 
whatsoever. The offer, however, and acceptance of a salary from 
that source, apparently designed to relieve him from all responsi- 

* Col. Samuel Waldo, a son of the General, died at Falmoutli, April IG, 
1770, and wns buried with military honors; — afterwards removed to Bos- 
ton. General Waldo was born in England, a man personable, tall of stat- 
ure, and of lig'iit complexion. [See ante, A. D. 1745, 1759.] He had three 
sons, Samuel, Fi-ancis, and Ralph. Samuel, (now deceased) married a 
daug-hter of Jolin Erving- of Boston, and left three children, Samuel who 
died young at Portland ; and two daughters, one married Mr. V/olcott of 
Connecticut; and the other, Judge William Wetmore of Boston. To Mr. 
Wetmore's wife, as heiress or devisee, belongs Orphan Island, in Penobscot 
river. Francis, the Collector, was never married. He 7-e(ired to the 
British when Falmouth was burnt and never returned. Ralph died un- 
married, when about twetitj* years of age. Their sister married Thomas 
Fluker, Secretary of the Province. ?he had one daughter, who was (he 
wife of General Ilcnry Knox, and inherited a large share of the Waldo 
patent, — a woman of strong mind, of fine education, and of lofty manners. 
Their children survived liei', — viz. Henry and two daughters — one of them, 
the wife of Hon. Ebenezer Thatcher of Thoinaston, — several years a 
Judge of the Circuit Court of Common Pleas. 



Chap, xiv.] of maine. 389 

bility to tlie people, greatly inflamed their jealousies, and forfeited a.d. rni. 
the remaining confidence of his fi-iends — or those who were foes 
to arbitrary domination. So deaf had he become to the voice of 
liberty, and so punctilious to the dictates of the ministry, that 
many of the high-toned and more discerning patriots, were ready 
to denounce him as a traitor to the country, that had given him 
birth, and crowned his years with riches and honors. 

To assure in a erreater degree the favor of the ministry, he He oppose* 

°. ° •' thescule- 

again, as some of his predecessors had repeatedly done, brought ments on 
before the General Court the territory of Sagadahock, the pos- Uock. 
sessions taken there by settlers, and the abounding timber. — " I 
" am required," he says, " by the king to recommend the subject to 
" your serious consideration. I think the people deceive them- 
^' selves, with a groundless expectation of acquiring a title by 
" force of possession. I know his Majesty is displeased with 
" such proceedings. I have reason to apprehend, that a longer 
" neglect of effectual measures on our part, to prevent further in- 
" trusions, and to remove those already made, will cause an in- 
"terposition of Parliament, — to preserve the possession of the 
" country for the sake of theUimber, with which it is said to 
" abound." — But the Legislature could not be made to believe, 
that there were any prominent circumstances which required their 
special interposition. The grants to settlers, they said, were con- 
ditional, till confirmed by the crown. . There was a surveyor- 
general of the royal woods, invested with the power of appoint- 
ing deputies, to whom the laws were auxiliary and the courts 
accessible, and if there were those, who were guilty of trespass or 
intrusion, they knew what were the charter and legal penalties, 
and the crown officers knew their duty. 

There was at this period no disposition in the popular branch -j'^eir in- 
to arm the agents of the ministry with additional powers, or afford ,7,e7>euob- 
them any special facilities in the execution of their trust. Gov- i^°,'),igbg(,|j 
ernor Pownal himself, it was known, had been an advocate for 
the grants, and a patron of the settlements. They were now ex- 
tending along the banks of the Penobscot to the head of the 
tide ; and through the efforts and influence of the Plymouth 
proprietors, the settlers upon the borders of the river Kennebeck, 
from the southerly limits of their patent to Teconnet, had since 



390 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1771. the reduction of Quebec, increased in number beyond a paral- 
lel.* 

Four towns ^°"^" incorporations of towns upon Kennebeck river, bear date 

mcorporat- the Same day, April 2G, 1771 ; and embrace a territory of 325 
square miles. These were Hallowell, Vassalborough, 
WiNSLOw, and Winthrop,! ^ach of them, except the last, lying 
in about equal widths on each side of the river. The first was 
named for the Hallowell family, who were among the Plymouth 
proprietors ; the second probably for William Vassal, one of the 
first Colony Assistants of Massachusetts, or some of his descend- 
ants ; the third for General John Winslow,J who had command 
of the expedition employed in the erection of Fort Halifax; and 
the fourth for a family ' more eminent for their talents, learning, 
and honors, than any other in New-England.' 

Hallowell. ^" Hallowell,§ which, when first incorporated, embraced the 
present Augusta, a settlement was resumed at the latter place, 
[then Cushnoc,] in the vicinity of the fort or block-house, shortly 
after the establishment of that fortification, in 1754; and some 
years later, at the " Hook," where the village of Hallowell is now sit- 

* In A. D. 1768, there were " not more than ten white inhabitants" in 
Vassalboroug-h and Sidney. — J\IS, Letter. 

■}■ These were the 26th, the 27th, the 28lh, and the 29th corporate towns 
in the State. 

I General Winslow commanded a company in the regiment sent to Cuba, 
in 1740. He disting:uished himself in the expeditions to Kennebeck and 
Nova Scotia, in 1754-5 ; and died at Hingham, in 1774, aged 71. 

J HaUowell was divided, A. D. 1797. See " Augusta,^'' — for early set- 
tlement Sec JVinthrop''s Journal^ p. 64, Penhaliovys Indian Wars, in 1 

JV. H. Hist. Soc. p. 88. Ken. Claims, p. 15.— In 1794, June 14, Hallowell 
was formed into the Soutli, JMiddle. and JN'nrth Parishes. The two latter 
were within the present Augusta. A church was formed about 1772 ; and 
in May, 1786, Mr. Isaac Foster was settled. His ministry continued about 
two years. The next year after the town was formed into Parishes, viz. 
in August, 1795, Rev. Eliphalet Gillet was ordained the first minister of 
the South Parish. The town was first represented in the General Court, or 
rather the " Provincial Congress," A. D. 1775, by William Howard. — 
" Hallowell Academy" was established March 5, 1791. — The first Bank 
there was the " Hallowell and Augusta Bank," established March 6, 1804, 
with a capital of $200,000. — Hallowell embraces upwards of 24,000 acres 
of land — 3-4ths of which have not yet been brought into a state of im- 
provement. In 182), there were in the town about 280 dwellinghouses, 
two thirds of which were in the village, a very flourishing place. There 
were then about 100 warehouses, stores and shops ; 62,334 superficial feet 
of wharf; and nearly 4,000 tons ot shipping owned. 



Chap. XIV.] OF maine. 391 

uated. Here had been inhabitants, or resident traders, at least a. D. 1771. 

one hundred and twenty years before the present incorporation. 

But the place was depopulated in the first Indian war ; resumed 

before the second, and again, after the peace of 1713; though 

the inhabitants were unable to defend thennselves against the bold 

tribe of Indians seated at Norridgewock. The original lots in 

the present Hallowell, on the west side of the river, were four, 

each a mile wide, extending from the river to Winthrop pond. 

Two were granted, in 17G0, to Dr. Gardiner, one to Mr. Pitts, 

and one to Mr. Hallowell, two of the Plymouth proprietors. 

The same year. Dr. Gardiner erected a grist-mill at the mouth of 

Cobbessecontee river ; and this, for many years, was the only 

place, at which the inhabitants on the river above, were able to 

procure the grinding of their corn and grain.* 

Vassalborough, when incorporated, embraced the present Vassaibo- 
town of Sidney. The settlements on both sides of the river 
were commenced about the year 1 760 ; and the town was sur- 
veyed and allotted the succeeding year, according to the plan of 
Nathan Winslow. In 1768, there were only ten families in the 
township; yet, in 1771, the inhabitants voted "to raise £30, 
lawful money, for the support of a minister and other necessary 
charges." " At a public town-meeting in January, 1775, Den- 
nis Getchell was chosen Captain of said town for the emergency 
of the times." The same year, his brother John was pilot to 
the party under General Arnold, in their memorable route through 
the wilderness to Canada. f 

=*■ MS. Let. of R. H. Gardiner, Esq. 

■\ Vassalborough was divided, January 30, 1792. — \_Scc Sidney.]^The 
present Vassalboroug-ii contains 28,000 acres ; two ponds, the north one is 12 
mile pond ; — S. E., Webber's pond. In 182 1, there were in town, 5 meeting- 
houses, one for congregationalists, one for baptists, one for methodists 
and two for friends, — one fourth at least of the inhabitants, belonging to 
their society. Rev. Mr. Scales was the first preacher ; and in 1818, Rev. 
Thomas Adams, a congregationalist was settled, also there were, in 
1820, 14 mills, 6 carding machines, two large tanneries, and a woollen fac- 
tory. The town was first represented in the Assemblj- or Provincial Con- 
gress, in 1775, by Remington Hobby; in 1777, by A. Lovejoy. A post- 
office wjis first established, about 1795-6. John Getchell, one of the first 
settlers, dug an underground avenue from his dwelling to a gully near the 
river, whence he might escape the Indians. He was a mighty hunter. 
Once he wounded a moose and caught him with clenched fingers, threvr 
him to the ground, and cut his throat with a jack-knife. — Let. of W. Buck' 
minster, Esq. 



392 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

All). 1771. WiNSLovv,* when incorporated, included the present Waterville, 
vviiisiuw. and has never been without inhabitants since Fort Hahfax was 
established at the triangle, between the Sebasticook and the Ken- 
nebeck, in the heart of the town, A. D. 1754; eleven families 
making a beginning in the place the same year. The original 
grant of the township by the Plymouth proprietors was in 1766, 
to Messrs. Bradford, Otis, Winslow, Taylor, Howard, and War- 
ren, — all distinguished citizens of the Province. The first set- 
tlers were staunch whigs, who had their committee of safety, in 
1776 ; and voted to raise or provide " 125,000 of shingles, 
" and 10,000 of clapboards, to purchase a town stock of ammu- 
" nition." The garrison gave the settlement extensive protection, 
and the place considerable celebrity. 
Wimhrop. WiNTHROP, by the act of incorporation embraced Readfieldy 
with which it was connected twenty years. Its plantation name 
was ' Pond-town' ; and its original settlement was effected in 
1760, at the site of the present village, by emigrants from Mas- 
sachusetts and New-Hampshire. f 

From the traces of those and other settlements so encourage- 



* JVinslotv, was divided, June 23, 1S02.— [Ste TFatervillerj— One of tlie 
first settlers was Ezckicl Paltee, another was Thonias Parker, wliose 
daug'htcr Betsey, born March 16, 1759, was the first Eng^lish birth in the 
place. Col. Josiah Hayden was a later and very respectable settler. The 
town was first represented in the General Court, 1782, by Zi:nri Hey- 
wood ; and after him by Mr. Pattee. Money was raised for the support of 
the gospel, in 1772, and each succeeding year, till the settlement of Rev. 
Joshua Cushman in 1795, whose connexion with the parish was dissolved in 
1814, by mutual consent. A meeting--house was erected in 1796. The 
natural beauties of the town are picturesque and the soil g-ood.— There 
were within it, in 1820, 8 mills and one pottery.— [See a description of the 
Fori, ante, A. £>. 1754.]— It was commanded, first by William Lithgow, and 
after him by Capt. Pattee.— J/S. Letter from TVinslow. 

t Winthrop was divided, March 11, 1791. [See Readfcld.] Situate within 
the town are the reservoirs of the Cobbessecontee waters ; and Chandler's 
pond forms a part of the line between Winthrop and Readfield. In the 
former town are four mills and « a very large cotton factory." A Post-ofSce 
was first established there in 1800. The town was first represented in the 
General Court in 1783, by Jonathan WTiiting. Within it are two meeting- 
houses, one for congregationalists, and one for friends. The first ministers 
of the Gospel resident here, were Messrs. Thurston Whiting, and Jeremiah 
Shaw. Rev. David Jewett was settled in 1782, and died the next year. 
The town was then divided into two parfshes. Mr. Jonathan Belden 
was ordained in 1800, who was succeeded by Rev. David Thurston in 1807. 
MS. Letter of Samuel Wood, Esq. 1819. 



C'hA?. XiV.j 6F MAlNhl. 

ing to our rising prosperity, the reveries of mind in view of the Ai u. i77i. 
future, were forcibly diverted, by the widening breaches between Dispute 
the parent country and her colonies. Ihe motives and spirit of Oovemor 

. . Til*' I • nlxml the 

an imperious ministry were supposed by the American whigs, to revenueoiR- 
be transfused into all the servants of the crown in this country j 
and there were occurrences, every year, which served to deepen 
the disaffection of the parties. The custom-house laws and 
officers were known to be extremely obnoxious, to mercantile 
men and the people in the seaports, who frequently came in con- 
tact with them and their exactions. Yet the Governor, sheltered 
by the king's instruction, had the imprudence, to withhold his sig- 
nature from the tax-bill, because it did not, contrary to all former 
usage, expressly exempt the officers of the customs from tax- 
ation. The House told him, they knew of no such officersy 
'*' nor of any revenue his Majesty had a right to establish in he 
Province ;" and a refusal of his assent to a bill for such a cause,- 
was in effect to vacate the charter, and give to instruction the 
paramount force of law. Still he delayed a long time to sign the 
bill ; and nothing could have had a more direct tendency to load 
with public odium and prejudice, the department he was intend- 
ing to favor. The only custom-house in this eastern Province Cnstftrt- 
was established at J^almouth, Francis Waldo, being collector ; |'e,'!f*'Ji®' 
Arthur Savage, comptroller and naval officer j and Thomas •^^''""''• 
Child, surveyor and tidewaiter. As the collector was absent on 
a journey to England, the comptroller, next in authority and trust, 
ordered the revenue-cutter, a tender, to seize, in the harbor, a 
schooner of Mr. Tyng, for breach of the revenue laws. It be- 
ing excusable, if not praiseworthy, to evade if possible those ob- 
noxious laws and officers, as too many were ready to believe ; the' 
resentments which this seizure enkindled bursting forth, were not- 
satiated, till a mob assembling, Nov. 13, administered to the un- 
happy comptroller such indignities, as a spirit of extreme preju- 
dice madly directed. 

In June, 1772, the Governor concluded to remove the General A.D. 1772. 
Court again to Boston. But it was too late to acquire him any Governor 

, . TT- r t • r I removes the 

popularity. His acceptance oi an annual compensation irom the General 

, . , , -J J Court 10 

crown, gave the representatives great umbrage ; they considered Boston, 
it an infraction of their charter; and when he mentioned to 
them the repairs needed upon the Province-house, they plainly 
Vol. II. 50 



William 
Bruiile. 



394 THE HISTORY [VoL. II. 

A. D. 1772. told him, that " as he had accepted a salary from the king, they 
Salaries. " felt 110 obligation to incur expense for his accommodation." 
The Judges of the Superior Court were equally exposed to the 
animadversions of the people, for iliey also liad salaries offered 
them by the crown, which they were vinder strong inducements 
to accept. The subject underwent learned and able discussions 
in the newspapers, William Brattle, the Councillor for Sagada- 
hock many years, and now senior member at the board, had hith- 
ei"to decidedly cosidemned ihe severe policy of ministers towards 
the Colonies ; strenuously asserting the charter-rights of the 
Province, in opposition to the arbitrary conduct both of Bernard 
and Hutchinson. But he became now more unsettled^, and less 
decided in favor of the people ; and at length boldly declared it 
as his opinion, that the new regulations, by which the Judges were 
to receive their support from the king, had not so dangerous a ten- 
dency as some apprehended. He publicly apologized for ths 
measure, upon the ground that it made them more independent. 
He contended that the Judges held their ofllce during good be- 
havior, and would not therefore be unduly subservient to the 
views of foreign administration, though they received their sa