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Full text of "The history of St. Dogmaels Abbey, together with her cells, Pill, Caldey and Glascareg, and the mother abbey of Tiron"

THE HISTORY OF 

ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

TOGETHER WITH HER CELLS. PILL, CALDEY AND CLASCAREG. 
AND THE MOTHER ABBEY OF TIRON. 



I DEDICATE 

THIS HISTORY OF THE ABBEY 

FOUNDED BY 

THE MARTINS 

TO 

THEIR PRESENT WORTHY DESCENDANT. 

Sir MARTEINE LLOYD. Bart. 

LORD MARCHER OF CEMAES. 



E. M. P. 






THE HISTORY OF 

ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY 



TOGETHER WITH HER CELLS, PILL, CALDEY AND GLASCAREG. 
AND THE MOTHER ABBEY OF TIRON 



BY 

EMILY M. PRITCHARD 

AUTHOR OF "CARDIGAN PRIORY IN THE OLDEN DAYS." AND 
EDITOR OF "GEORGE OWENS TAYLORS CUSSION" 



ILLUSTRATED BY TWENTY-TWO FULL PAGE PHOTOGRAVURES 
AND BLAEU'S MAP OF PEMBROKESHIRE 



I o'^ ' 



(ALL RIGHTS RESERVED) 



Itottiion : 
BLADES. EAST & BLADES 



1907 



PRINTED BV 

BLADES, EAST & BLADES, 

23, ABCHURCH LANE, LONDON, E.C. 



^ 



LIST OF CHAPTERS. 



CHAPTER 

I Origin 

11 An Almost Bloodless Conquest 

III The Mother Abbey 

IV Gifts Flow In 

V The Martins 

VI Little Ireland in Wales ... 

VII Gerald the Welshman ... 
VIII Silent Growth 

IX Palmy Days 

X The Dissolution 

XI The Old Order Changeth 

XII The Abbey's Richest Daughter 

XIII Her Decline and Fall 

XIV Erin's Tribute 

XV Geva's Gift 

XVI Queen Elizabeth 

XVII A Little Rift within the Lute 

XVIII Relics 

XIX Sidelights 

XX "Fisheries and Fishings" 



page 
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30 
40 

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66 

79 
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93 

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139 
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173 
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213 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



I St. Dogmaels and the Tbify Estuary 

II The Chapel of St. Dogmaels Abbey 

III St. Brynach's Cross, Nevern Churchyard 

IV Near Combmartin, on the Coast of North Devon 

V Ancient Church of the Abbey of Tiron 

VI Ancient College of the Abbey of Tiron 

VII St. Anne's Pond, Tiron Abbey 

VIII Salmon Fishing fro.m Coracles on the River Teify 

IX Vignette of Ancient Gateway with Ball Flower Moulding, 

St. Dogmaels Abbey 

X Teify Fishermen carrying their Coracles 

XI Interior of the Ancient Church of the Abbey of Tiron ... 

XII West End of the Chai-el, St. Dogmaels Abbey 

XIII Ancient Church and College of the Abbey of Tiron 

XIV Vignette of Shaft of Fan Tracery, St. Dogmaels Abbey ... 
XV Seal of St. Dogmaels Abbey 

XVI Act of Supremacy 

XVII Caldey Island, from Tenby Castle 

XVIII West End of Chapel of St. Dogmaels Abbey and East End 

of previous Church 

XIX A Catch of Salmon, St. Dogmaels 

XX The Ruins of Pill Priory 

XXI Seal of Pill Priory 

XXII St. Dogmaels from the Netpool, Cardigan 

XXIII Tower of Old Priory Church, Caldey 

XXIV Entrance to Old Harbour and River Gwayne, Fishguard 
XXV Upper and Lower Town of Fishguard 

XXVI A Salmon Fishing Fleet, St. Dogmaels 

XXVII Salmon Fishing ; Drawing in the Seine on the Poppitt Sands 

XXVIII Blaeu's Map of Pembrokeshire 



FroiUispiect 




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tht end 



INTRODUCTION. 




>ANY friends and strangers, both in St. Dogmaels and in North 
and South Wales, since the publication of " Cardigan Priory 
in the Olden Days," have expressed the wish that I would write 
a similar book on St. Dogmaels Abbey. The following is the 
result. I could have wished that I had found, for a certainty, Martin of the 
Towers' original domicile; but, as in the case of the most brilliant of his 
successors, little is left but their works to testify of them, Martin's and Robert's 
names being remembered by their buildings and grants, George Owen by 
his pen. 

The map here reproduced is one of Blaeu's, of Amsterdam. On the 
authority of Dr. Leendeuly, of Amsterdam, obtained for me by the kindness 
of Mr. Gudendag, of the same city, these maps of the Welsh counties were 
published in the 1648 edition of Blaeu's Atlas. " Blaeu was not only," he 
writes, " an excellent cartograph, but also a good merchant. Long before the 
Atlas was accomplished he sold the single maps, or a collection of the maps 

of one country But he did more. In order to please the buyers, 

or to allure them, he added to some maps their arms, etc He did 

not send an artist to Wales, but copied it from an older description of Wales 
that he possessed. ... In the complete work also that was finished at the 
end of 1647, England and Wales find their place in the latter part." It may 
be noted that this map of Pembrokeshire is one of these special maps, made 
" long before " to please some patron, by the number of coats of arms thereon 



10 INTRODUCTION. 

engraved, among which those of Strongbow (Earl de Clcire), William Marshall 
and William Herbert are specially interesting to Pembrokeshire folk. The 
Arms of Edward, Prince of Wales, doubtless belong to the Black Prince, who 
was at Cardigan for some weeks; but the most remarkable is that of Anne 
Boleyn why her arms should figure on this map is strange, and stamps the 
date of the original map, from which this was copied, as about 1534, the date 
of the signing of the Acknowledgment of the King's Supremacy, when Anne 
Boleyn was still in full favour. 

What collection of maps Blaeu used, from which to copy, is unknown, his 
maps being far more accurate than those now existing of that period. He may 
have bought some that had never been published. 

From the prominence given to William Herbert, by his coat of arms being 
twice inscribed on the map, one would infer that it was ordered by some 
member of that family. 

One of this series of Welsh maps is dedicated to Charles, Prince of Wales. 
If the Charles, who was afterwards Charles I., then they must have been 
engraved by Blaeu before 1625; if his son Charles, born 1630, it is remarkable 
that they should have been dedicated to a lad, and also at a time when his 
father was already a prisoner in the hands of the Parliamentary party. 

EMILY M. PRITCHARD, 
The Priory, 

Cardigaa 
July 1 2th, 1907. 



^ 




CHAPTER I. 




ST. DOGMAEL. 
ORIGIN. 

'BOUT fifteen hundred and fifty years ago the first Dogmael of 
whom any account is found was the son of Cunedda* Wledig, 
(Wledig meaning Emperor or Overlord) who settled in Dog- 
feiliog or Denbighshire. His grand-nephew, Dogmael the Saint, 
after whom the ancient borough of St. Dogmaels was named, was the son of 
Ithael, the son of Ceredig,^ who conquered what is now called Cardiganshire, 
and gave his name to the County. Ceredig married Meleri or Eleri, daughter of 
Brychan Brycheiniog (Brychan, Prince of Brecon). Cunedda's mother was Gwawl,' 
daughter of Coel Godebog, according to the British Chronicle 72nd King of 
Britain, founder of, and namegiver to, the persent town of Colchester, and the 
hero of the old English song " Good King Cole was a jolly old Soul." King 
Cole, or Coel Godebog, had a second daughter, Helen, born about the year 250, 
the wife of Constantius, and mother of the Emperor Constantine the Great, who 
was saluted as Emperor by the Roman Army in 306. On his succession as 
Emperor he caused his mother to be proclaimed Augusta (Empress) and medals 
were struck in her honour and inscribed " Flavia Julia Helena." At the age of 
nearly 80, in 326, the Empress Helena visited the Holy Land. She succeeded in 
discovering what was attributed to be the Holy Sepulchre, and, after digging to 
a great depth, discovered three crosses, which are claimed to have been those on 
which Christ and the two thieves were crucified. 

The date usually assigned to Cunedda is 350 A.D., but, if Helen was born 
in 250, it would more probably be earlier, unless it is to be understood that he 

' Cunedda Wledig lived in Strathclyde. He is stated to have had seventeen sons, many of 
whom ruled in Wales. ' Son of Cunedda Wledig. ' The radiant one. 



12 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

died in 350. Thus it may be safely concluded that St. Dogmael lived between 
450 and 500 A.D., the date usually assigned to him, probably as the date of 
his death, being 500 A.D. If Helen at the age of 80 was able to undertake the 
arduous task of travelling to Jerusalem, no easy matter in those days for an 
elderly woman, possibly they were longer lived then, as they seemed to have 
been in Cemaes during the Tudor period, William Owen, Lord of Kemes, 
dying in 1574 at the age of 105, his father and grandfather living to still more 
advanced ages. 

This second Dogmael, the Saint as he will be hereinafter called, lived on 
the left bank of the river Teify, in Pembrokeshire, and being of a religious 
disposition, he founded a religious house. There seems to be no reason to 
doubt that the site of this religious house was in the field now called " Yr hSn 
Monachlog " (the old monastery), which, besides being well known by this 
name, is also so marked in the larger edition of the map of the Ordnance 
Survey, and is about a mile from the present ruins of St. Dogmael's Abbey. 

Try and picture this old home about 650 ft. above the level of the sea 
On a clear day looking north and seeing the range of the North Wales 
mountains, and the coastline northwards; first Cardigan Island, then Lochtyn, 
New Quay. Aberystwyth, the saddle back beyond Harlech, Snowdon, Moel 
Hebog, and yr Eifl. At times so clear that one can see the houses in 
Portmadoc, and Criccieth; then to the north-west the rounded hill behind 
Nevern, in Carnarvonshire, and on to Bardsey Island, where about a hundred 
years later Dubricius, Bishop of Llandaff, died at what seems to us the almost 
incredible age of 130. Would not such a glorious view help somewhat to make 
up for the renouncing of a worldly life? But that is not all. At sunset turn 
your eyes slightly to the north of west, and you will see the Irish Coast and 
the undulations of the Wexford Hills. To the south-west you will also see 
the ever-varying billows of the Atlantic Ocean, and feel the sea-breezes from 
across those miles of ocean fanning your fevered brow, when wearied with the 
work of life. To the south and south-east, a nearer but hardly less pleasing 
view, commencing on the west with Dinas and Strumble Heads, the two points 
of Fishguard Bay, the name Dinas showing that it had once been occupied by 
the Danes; then " Carn Engli," the beginning of the Precelly Range, on the 
west, where St. Brynach, the tutor of Brychan, Prince of Brecon, lived for a 
while, and where the Angels are credited with having conversed with him, hence 
the name " Angels' Cairn,"* followed by the whole Precelly range, with its 

' Tops of mountains are often called "Cam" (cairn) in Wales, from the cairns found on them being 
built over ancient graves. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. IJ 

various points, the highest now called Preceley Top, but four hundred years 
ago called " Pen Cerwyn," because it was at the head of Cwm Cerwyn (the 
Stags' Valley), Moel Tregam, with its ancient encampment with double forti- 
fications enclosing three large cairns, and Frenny* fawr (the great highland) 
standing boldly forth, a landmark for many miles inland, having three large 
tumuli on its top. Inland the view is ever varied, but misses the grandeur of the 
north, west, and south. Here St. Dogmael settled; at first he called his place 
a hermitage, but many flocking to join him, it became a religious house,' and 
it was probably here that Robert Fitzmartin brought his first thirteen monks 
from Tiron, in 1113, as will be seen further on, calling it the "Priory de 
Guales"; before he built the Abbey of St. Dogmaels, Cathmais, in 1118, when 
he incorporated the old Priory de Guales, or the old religious house of St. 
Dogmael with the Abbey, keeping up the name of the first founder, St. 
Dogmael. 

St. Dogmael was evidently a hardy, as well as a cleanly man, for one reads 
of one of the rules he made being that his monks, or " holy hermits," as they are 
called in the original Latin, were to bathe daily in the waters of the river 
Teify, both in the icy water in the winter, as well as the rest of the year. 
Dogmael was later canonized as a Saint, his festival being on June 14th. So 
far no record has been found of his death. In Brittany he is known as St. 
Toel, possibly he may have visited his great-aunt, St. Nennoc, who founded the 
Abbey of Sainte Croix Quimperle, and not far from which there still exists a 
chapel dedicated to St. Non,' the mother of St. David. 

In R. P. Michaelis' "Alfordi Annales Ecclesiastici et civiles Britanorum 
Saxorum, Anglorum," 1668, he is found ranked amongst the saints of Britain, 
and " who in our martyrology is described as celebrated for his holy life and 
miracles," he lived about "A.D. 500," Festival, June 14. 

Before proceeding further it would be well to analyse the name " Dog- 
mael."* It is a sort of hybrid name due to the Roman influence then extending 
over Britain, and that part of it that is now called Wales. The first syllable. 
Dog, is derived from the Latin " Doctus " (learned), which word we find 
surviving in the present degenerate Welsh language, under the form of 

' "Frenny," the name the people call it, I judge to be more correct than the " Brenhin fawr" 
of the maps, "fawr" being the feminine form of " mawr" (great) and " frenny" is feminine, whilst 
" Brenhin " (a king), is not. 

' Not the same building, but the same establishment, owing to the Saxons destroying it 300 years 
later, and again 100 years later it was pillaged by the Danes. ' His great aunt. 

'Also written " Dogfael," " Dogvael," " Degwel," " Tegwel," and " Dogmell," and in Brittany 
"Toel." 



14 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

" doeth " (wise, sage), " doethor " (doctor), and other similar words, and " mael " 
(work or metal), hence the name Dogmael is equivalent to learned in works or 
metals, or, as we should say at the present day, a clever or master artificer. In 
conjunction with this let us take the noted Ogham stone, with its inscription 
clear even to the present day, in both Ogham character and in Latin, which now 
rests against a wall of the old Abbey. In its earliest days it probably stood 
in the burial ground of the old religious house founded by St. Dogmael at 
" Yr hen Monachlog." The inscription on this stone in Latin is : 

'Sagrani fili Cunotami, 

or in Ogham, Sagramni Maqi Cunatami, Maqi being the Irish form of the 
Welsh mab (son). 

Now let us find out the meaning of this name Sagranus. The Welsh form 
of Sagranus is Saeran, and means, according to Pugh, a wright, an artificer, 
therefore the names Dogmael and Sagranus are synonymous, and probably 
belonged to the same person. But whether this Sagranus stone is the tombstone 
of the Saint or of his great-uncle, Dogmael, the son of Cunedda, cannot be 
certainly ascertained. 

In old days grandsons were often spoken and written of as sons; perhaps 
great-grandsons may have been similarly written of, especially where the 
names were the same. Or, when Dogmael the great-uncle grew old, he may 
have left Denbighshire, where he had settled, and have entered his grand- 
nephew's religious house, in order to spend his last days in quiet, leaving 
Denbighshire to be ruled by one of his sons, for we read that Dogmael ap 
Cunedda Wledig was married, and that Meurig ap Elaeth, last Prince of 
Dogfeiliog (now Denbighshire), was descended from him. 

There are some who think that Sagranus is one and the same with " Sir 
Sagramore" (see Vivien, "Idylls of the King," Tennyson), but taking into 
consideration that the inscription is in Ogham character, as well as the meaning 
of the njime Saeran, the stone must be far older than the time of Arthur. If it 
refers to Cunedda's son, then it probably dates from about 375-425 A.D. But 
if it referred to Cunedda's great-grandson, it would very probably date from 
about 500, and would, in this latter case, be the gravestone of the founder of 
the first religious house. The following is the description of the famous 
Ogham stone, the tombstone of Sagranus, Saeran or Dogmael, and its history, 
as far as known. The stone is a long narrow slab of porphyritic greenstone, 
such as is found on the ridge of the Preceley Hills. It is about 7 feet high, 

' Sagranus, son of Cunedda. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 15 

average thickness of about 7 inches. This peculiar kind of igneous rock does 
not decompose readily; its greenish base, and the dull white crystals with 
which it is filled, resist the effects of weather and of vegetation to a remarkable 
degree, and the fourteen to fifteen hundred years that have passed since it was 
first inscribed have left but few traces of weather wear on the stone. Stones 
of this kind are prized all over Pembrokeshire, as, from their peculiar form 
and hardness, they are very useful as gate posts. The present stone shows, by 
two holes drilled into its surface, that it has also been used at some time for 
a similar purpose. " This stone, however, has been used not only as a gate post, 
but as a bridge by generations now dead and gone, for it was used over a 
brook, not far from its present resting-place, and had acquired a sort of super- 
natural reputation when thus used, the people near by firmly believing that at 
the witching hour of midnight a white lady constantly crossed over it, and no 
man or woman touched it willingly after dark, and it was this very tradition, 
added to its peculiar form, that probably led to its ultimate rescue." The 
Rev. H. J. Vincent, Vicar of St. Dogmael's over fifty years ago, found the 
stone covered with a thick coat of whitewash, in a wall adjoining his house. 
When this wall was taken down, the stone fell and was broken in two ; it was, 
however, mended, and conveyed to the spot where it now rests, against the 
Abbey wall. 

The inscription had been previously known, for that exact observer, 
Edward Lhwyd, had drawn the lettered surface most carefully, though his 
sketch was not known to exist till 1859, when it was found by Mr. J. O. 
Westwood at Oxford. 

With regard to the meaning of the Welsh word " SAER " already given, 
one finds, in the Archasologia Cambrensis, Vol. II., third series, p. 245, corrobo- 
rative evidence: 

Now "Saeran" signifies an artisan par excellence, and I believe it to be 
synonymous with "Dogvael." The prior element of the name, that is "Doc," appears 
derived from the Latin " doctus," which became in Welsh first "doct," and later 
" doeth" {learned or wise), but " wa^/ " brings the matter almost to a certainty, for 
"Dogvael" {learned in the arts) is really identical with "Saeran." The Abbey of 
St. Dogmaels derives its origin from another Dogvael, the son of Ithel ab Ceredig 
ab Cunedda, consequently the grandnephew of Dogfael ab Cunedda. 

(Robert Williams, M.A., Rhydycroesau, Oswestry). 

Not far from this " Hen Mynachlog " is a place called Caerau, which at 
first sight one would think was an ancient encampment ; here, again, let us take 
the early meaning of the word " caer," which now means walls or mounds for 
defence, or a fortress (Pugh), but in old days meant simply a house and 



l6 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

"caerau," the plural form, houses. This meaning of the word caer is retained 
to this day in Brittany. 

The following extract from the " Archaeologia Cambrensis," written by 
the late Mr. Vincent, the antiquarian Vicar of St Dogmaels, who lived at the 
time the following occurrence took place, and who therefore describes it with 
the pen of an intelligent eye-witness, gives a good account of Caerau, which 
might have belonged to the ancient Monastery of St. Dogmaels. It stands on 
high ground overlooking the sea, hence, as anyone may imagine, the air is of 
the purest and most bracing. The extract in the " Archaeologia Cambrensis " 
for October, 1864, p. 302, is as follows, and is an account of "Caerau" in St. 
Dogmaels, by the late Rev. Henry Vincent, of St. Dogmaels Vicarage : 

My attention has lately been called to " Caerau " (an earthwork, in a field called 
" Pare y gaer " on the farm of Penallt Ceibwr, on the brow of a hill overlooking 
Moylegrove) by a stone coffin enclosure found in the space between the second and 
third lines of fortification on the east, in what appears to have been an old cemetery 
extending to the east, north, and south of the earthwork ; which seems to give 
further proof that the defences were intended against attacks from the sea. In this 
place several graves have been found during the last seventy years. In one was a 
hammer and a cutlass ; in another the figure "T" grooved in the mould, and filled up 
with scoriae of the smithy ; in another a fragment of bone ; . . . . and in all five 
pebbles of pure quartz, taken evidently firom the sea-shore, of the size of a small apple. 
These graves seem to have been all of the same type, from the materials scattered 
around the field, consisting of fragments of slate, white pebbles, etc. In ploughing 
the field last spring, something white was turned up by the plough, which the 
ploughman mistook for a piece of lime ; but the lad who drove the plough took it up, 
and found it to be a human tooth. This led to further examination, and about 
fourteen inches below the surface they came to a coarse stone coffin of the rudest 
formation, consisting of five untrimmed slate stones about an inch thick in the middle, 
and tapering to a thin jagged edge ; one at the head, two on each side, both of which 
had two small grey rubble stones at the foot, probably to make out the length. It 
had neither lid, bottom, nor footstone, and gives one the idea of a warrior buried 
hastily on the battlefield ; but this could hardly have been the case, for the place 
was evidently a cemetery. This stone inclosure, now covered in, is of the following 
dimensions : length, six feet seven inches ; width at the widest part, one foot eleven 
inches ; width at the head and foot, eleven inches ; depth, eleven inches ; lying from 
north-west to south-east, and probably intended to face east. How singfular that, after 
the lapse of so many ages, .... this coffin, rudely, flimsily and hastily got up from 
materials found at or near the spot, should still remain. It probably owes its 
preservation to its insignificance and the isolation of its resting-place. The only thing 
indicating anything like care was the fine yellow mould with which the coffin was 
filled, which differed widely from the coarse, stony earth by which it was surrounded. 
At the head was found a small portion of the skull, which turned to dust the moment 
it was touched, fifteen small pieces of calcined bone, and eight human teeth (six molars 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 17 

and two canines) in a state of more or less perfection. One of the canine teeth, now 
in my possession, is covered with enamel, and bears no symptoms of decay except in 
the root. A medicu' gentleman thinks that the teeth belonged to a young man 
about thirty years of age. There were also found there a piece of crystal and five 
white pebbles, like those already described .... The owner of the jaw and teeth 
might have been a monk, for tradition says that there was once here a monastic 
establishment ; and it is not impossible but that it might be the Religious House of 
Llandudoch, destroyed by the Danes A.D. 987. In speaking of the monks of Caerau, 
Fenton describes them as having been located at Monachlog, which is a mistake ; 
for Monachlog is a cot situated in the grounds of Pantirion, .... overlooking the 
Tivy; and the names "Pantirion" (valley of God's Acre) and "Llan yr Arglwydd," on 
"Esgyrn" (bones) land, as well as several monastic remains discovered near the said 
cot, seem to indicate that there must have once have been a religious cell near the 
spot ; but this could not have been Caerau. We read nothing of the kings of Caerau, 
or warriors of Caerau, or knights of Caerau, but we have of the monks of Caerau. A 
monk could fight well at a pinch, and in troublous times a monk not unfrequently 
exchanged the cowl for the helmet, and his religious vestments for armour of proof. 
Could the cutlass found in the grave referred to have belonged to a monk ? But surely 
a* fortress could scarcely have been a suitable abode for a company of non-combatants. 
If the field of Caerau was the site of the Religious House referred to as destroyed by 
the Danes in the tenth century, could not the monks have subsequently fortified the 
place against the incursions of the enemy? Tradition says that there is a subterranean 
passage from Caerau to Castell Ion (the lord's castle) ; perhaps another religious 
fortress at Pantsaeson (valley of the Saxons) .... so that when the occupiers were 
driven out of it they might descend to Castell Ion at the foot of the hill and attack 
the enemy in the rear. If the monks of Caerau were Benedictines they verified the 
old Latin distich : 

" Bernardus valles, coUes Benedictus amabat ; 
Oppida Franciscus, magnas Ignatius urbes " ; 

for they were perched on the brow of a high hill. Martin, as well as his monks, was 
a reformed 'Benedictine (a Bernardite) ; and in bringing (if he did so) the monks of 
Caerau into his new establishment, he lowered them as to place, if he did not reform 
them ; at any rate they must have found a great change of climate in the winter. 
There are two cottages on the south side of the earthwork, called Caerau and Penallt 
Esgob (the top of the bishop's hill), which shows that Caerau had something 
ecclesiastical about it. Near these cottages on the south-east was, within the memory 
of men now living, a wall of very superior masonry about thirty feet long and nine 
feet high, which might have been a part of the monastery of Caerau. 

Caerau is situated in the hamlet of Pantygroes (the valley of the cross). Where 
the cross was it is hard to say, unless it was at the cross-road hard by called " Bwlch 
Pant y Groes " (Bwlch=gap), where a lady in white was formerly seen at the witching 
hour of midnight .... There must have been, however, a cross somewhere, Croes 

'Mr. Vincent here takes the modern meaning of "Caer," not the ancient houses, which is 
singularly applicable, the ancient Benedictine Monasteries ofttimes containing many houses. 



l8 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Bigog, where funerals coming from that part of the parish used formerly to stop, 
because, according to tradition, there the Abbey first came to view' a more 
probable reason for this custom is that it was once the site of a wayside cross it being 
a hamlet of the Abbey. 

The Traditions of Caerau. 

In the road near Caerau, and opposite the second embankment (Caerau consists 
of three concentric, circular embankments within and above each other at intervals 
of about twenty yards ; with an elevation in the second of two feet, and in the third, 
or innermost, of four feet). There are some men living who remember these embank- 
ments much higher than they are at present ; particularly the innermost agger, which 
on the seaward side was about ten feet, is a hollow which rings when any wheeled 
vehicle goes over it. About eighty years ago two men had the curiosity to dig there, 
and they solemnly declared that they came to the frame of a doorway ; but when they 
went to dinner, the rain descended, accompanied by thunder and lighting, and on 
their return the whole was closed, as they supposed by supernatural agency. A 
little above the place where they had been digging they affirmed that there had 
been no rain. 

At Castell Ion some stairs were seen, supposed to lead to some passage. A 
farmer's wife about ninety years since, having risen very early one morning, was thus 
accosted by a woman bearing the semblance of a gipsy : '' Would you like to take 
your rest of a morning instead of leaving your bed so early ? " " Yes," was the reply. 
" Then," said the woman, " if you dig in a certain spot in the subterranean passage 
between Caerau and Castell Ion, you will find what will make you the richest lady 
in the land." 

About sixty years ago a respectable man declared that he was cutting a hedge 
between Trefas and Pant y Groes when a grey-headed old man came to him and told 
him that there was an underground way from Caerau to Pentre-Evan ; and that if he 
excavated a certain place he would find two hundred " murk " (? marks). 

A woman once appeared to a ploughboy and told him that there were ten murk 
under the threshold of Caerau Bach. When the cottage, which had been probably 
built on the site of the outpost referred to, was taken down, a number of people 
assembled to search for the marks, but none were found. 

Tradition gives Castell Ion a different derivation to the one given by me. It is 
said to have been the abode of one lOAN ; but whether he was saint or sinner is not 
known. On one occasion it is said that, when pursued by the enemy, he crossed the 
stream, and left the impression of the hoof of his charger on the stone, which has 
something like the mark of a horse's shoe upon it. 

Probably these traditions might be the ingenious produce of a tump hard by, 
called " Cnwc y Celwydd " (the tump of lies), where men and women were formerly 
in the habit of assembling on the Lord's Day in large masses, to disport themselves 
by inventing and telling the most lying and wonderful tales that their imagination 

' On the road from Hendre to the Abbey a cros.s used to stand at a place where the first glimpse 
of the Abbey was seen. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 19 

could devise. Though this practice has been happily discontinued, and people now 
betake themselves to their respective places of worship, yet it is feared that falsehood 
has not yet left the neighbourhood ; indeed, it would have been well for this village 
if the "father of lies" had left it, and travelled so far to the extremity of the parish 
as Cnwc y Celwydd (it is as well that Mr. Vincent has passed beyond the reach of the 
inhabitants of St. Dogmaels, for one knows not what would happen were it other- 
wise). But alas, such is the case. 

The old chronicler of Caeraii, who used to say that he had been baptized by a 
vicar of St. Dogmaels (dead since 1768), and who had spent almost all his lifetime 
on the farm of Penrallt Ceibwr, was alive a few months ago. He told me that the 
whole neighbourhood was considered " fou." That men were led astray there all night, 
not knowing whither they went until cock-crowing, when they discovered that they 
were not far from home (hence the white gate-posts). A man carrying a bundle of 
hoop-rods, in one of these midnight wanderings, dropped them one by one to 
ascertain the extent of his journey ; and when he went after them in the morning, 
he found he had travelled an incredible number of miles. A St. Dogmaels fisherman 
having been to a wedding at Moilgrove, lost his bearings on his way home at night, 
and was for some hours not able to find his course, until at last he fortunately 
discovered the north pole (? the polar star), by which he sailed homewards .... 
This, however, cannot be said of them all; for an old clerical friend of mine of sober 
habits, had once the honour of joining in this magic dance for the great part of a 
night. All the land round Caerau was once unclosed, which may account, in some 
measure, for these vagaries. When a man in the dark loses every idea of the terminns 
a quo, he is not likely to arrive speedily at the terminns ad qnetn. A person in this 
parish told me that he one night heard groaning in the field where the lady used to 
appear, which frightened him so much that he was ill for several days. Could the 
groans have been caused by the disappearance of the lady, who, I believe, has not been 
seen for many years ? 

.... About a mile to the right of Caerau is Hendre, where there was once a 
fine mansion belonging to the Lloyds, who were descendants of Gwynfardd and 
Cwhelyn, who might have founded (or benefitted) the monastery of Caerau : for they 
were the regtdi of the district and had been great benefactors to the church, 
particularly Arcol Llaw Hir .... "To William Lloyd, one of the family" (the 
Lloyds of Hendre) writes Fenton " there was an indulgence granted by Pope 
Eugenius,! A.D. 1442, 14th November, at the city of Florence, to have ^ altar e 
portabtle ad missas et alia divina officio etiam ante diem et in locis interdictis 
celebranda.^ " John Lloyd of Hendre was Sheriff of Pembrokeshire in 1623. 

A part of the old house, and what was probably an oratory attached thereto have 
been converted into a cowhouse. The keystone of the arch of the doorway of the 
dwelling house is thus inscribed, T.LL.ESQ.1744.C.W. The supposed oratory has 
no entrance from without. The door on the north-west, leading to it from the 
dwelling house, is not dissimilar to the door of what used to be called the Refectory 

' A copy of this Boll was years ^o in the possession of a foimer tenant of Hendre ; his widow has, 
however, been nnable to find it. 



20 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

in the Abbey of St. Dogmaels. On the south-west once stood an image, which was 
taken down when an opening was made in the wall at a place where the said image 
had long stood. It was exhibited at the Cardigan Archaeological Meeting in 1859, and 
is now at Clynfiew, the seat of Major Lewis, the proprietor of Hendre .... In the 
east was a small window, the size of which may now be traced. It was probably a 
doublet, its breadth being much greater than its length. The walls of this building 
are very strong, and partly built of sea-pebbles embedded in very hard mortar. It is 
19 feet long (the choir), 15 feet 7 inches wide, 9 feet high ; and whatever it may have 
been, it certainly has the appearance of having once been devoted to religious 
worship.! To jj,g jgj^ jg Pa^t y Groes (in the parish ol Moylgrove) so called from 
having been once the site of the cross, now at Treprisk, an illustration of which 
appeared in the Archaeologia Cambrensis some time ago. A little further on is 
Tregamon, on the brook Conan, the birthplace of Maud (Matilda) Peveril, wife of 
Robert Fitzmartin, who, in the language of the charter, "with the approbation, 
or rather by the exhortation of my wife Matilda," largely endowed the Abbey of 
St. Dogmaels. A little beyond Tregaman is TREICERT [now Trecart] and 
Trewrdan, so-called from their owners, Ricart and Jordan, signers of two of the grants 
in the Barony of Cemaes, sons of Lucas de Hoda, a favourite of Martin's. 

With regard to Hendre (the old chapel), which formerly belonged to the 
Abbey of St. Dogmaels, the walls and roof are in almost perfect preservation. 
It was formerly cruciform in shape, but has now lost its north transept. The 
nave, choir, and south transepts are intact ; there is a room over the south transept 
which in all probability was a priest's chamber, as it is about two miles from 
the Abbey. The chancel arch still exists, and the remains of one old window 
in the choir to the east. It is at present used as a cow-house. It is capable of 
holding about a hundred people, so that the population of Hendre' (the old 
village) must in those days have been far in excess of what it is now. It 
adjoins the farmhouse of Hendre. The Mr. T. Lloyd,' 1744, afterwards of 
Cwm Gloyne, whose initials are inscribed on what is really half a holy water 
stoup built into the wall, acquired leave to turn this old chapel into a dwelling- 
house, after which its nave was turned into a cow-house, and the choir into a 
stable. 

During the existence of the Abbey funerals from Hendre were apparently 

' Mr. Vincent here evidently describes only the chancel. The whole chapel at Hendre is fcr 
longer, also what he describes as a " keystone " is half a holy water stoup. 

- " Hendref " in older MSS. 

' The founder of the family of Lloyds of Hendre is given by Lewis Dwn as Fylip Lloyd of 
Hendref; later leuan Lloyd of Hendref, gentleman, married, in 1613, Mari, daughter of George 
, Owen, Lord of Cemaes; this leuan was Sheriff for Pembrokeshire in 1623. These Lloyds of Hendre 
were descended from Gwynfardd and Cwhelyn, reguli of Dyfed (Pembrokeshire) before the conquest 
by Martin of the Towers. Gwynfardd lived at Castle Nevern, where Martin and his son and grandson 
afterwards lived. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 



21 



held at the Abbey, as one sees from the descriptions given of the resting of 
funerals at the cross where they first came in sight of the Abbey on their way 
there from Hendre. Two hundred and eight years after the dissolution the 
chapel was converted into a house. The valley beneath where this cross 
formerly stood is still called Pant y Groes (the Valley of the Cross). 





CHAPTER II. 




AN ALMOST BLOODLESS CONQUEST. 

HE history of St. Dogmaels, as we have seen, is very frag- 
mentary up to the time of the Conquest of England and 
part of Wales by the Normans, a period of such varied 
happenings to the Welsh and English, the treatment the 
inhabitants received depending so much on the individual characters of the 
knights, under William the Conqueror's banner, to whom he apportioned the 
subjecting of the different parts of Britain. Cardiganshire he, or rather his 
son, gave to his cousin, Gilbert de Clare, whilst Cemaes he apportioned to a 
knight, Martin, of the Towers, in 1087, who had come over in his train, as is 
seen by three of the Battle Abbey Rolls, though his name is not found inscribed 
in the roll of those who set sail from Dives,' near Caen, in Normandy, with 
William the Conqueror. Still, he is in three lists of those who fought with 
William at the Battle of Hastings, so it may have been that he sailed from a 
different port. Martin had subdued part of Devonshire, where he first settled, 
and where one of his sons succeeded him after his death. He has left his name 
there in Combmartin. After living for some years in Devonshire, William 
granted to him, in addition, a portion of Pembrokeshire if he could subdue it. 

Martin of the Towers was so-called from the three towers blazoned on his 
shield and banner, and not because he came from Tours, in Touraine, or 
any other Tours in France, no town in France bearing crests anterior to 
1200 A.D., the only place in France where one finds that he is known being 
Tiron, now called Thiron-Gardais, in Eure et Loir, on the south-east borders 
of Normandy. Taking this into consideration with the fact that he is alway^s 

' At Dives there is a column set up to commemorate the sailing of William, Duke of Normandy, 
for England. The hotel there is also called "Guillaume le Conquerant," and there is a list of the 
knights who sailed with William, in the Church Porch. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 23 

called a Norman knight, and that he came over with William the Norman, and 
that his son Robert, on founding the Abbey of St. Dogmaels, went over to this 
same Abbey of Ticon for the second time to bring back monks^ and an abbot, 
what more likely than that Martin himself came from the neighbourhood of 
Tiron.^ Also that George Owen, Lord of Cemaes, in his search as to his ancestor 
Martin, who he was and from whence he came, might after all have found this 
out, and it might have been no slip of his pen when he described him as 
Martinus Tironensis, or Martin of Tiron, and also so frequently called him 
Martin of the Towers or Martin Towres. Memy things point to his coming from 
Tiron, and his being described as from Tours, Touraine, is simply through 
"tours" being the French for towers. Through this also, in the Middle Ages, he 
was confounded with the noted Bishop of Tours (Touraine), afterwards 
canonized as St. Martin of Tours, who lived from 316 to 400 A.D. 

Even the present Church of Combmartin, in Devonshire, is dedicated to 
Saint Martin, and has a window to the Saint, thus showing that even there they 
imagined the name Martin came from the Saint, and not from the Norman 
knight. Happily, it is proved, both by the Domesday Book and by many 
other sources, that the Norman knight, Martin, lived there (in Devon) and many 
of his descendants after him, even after the family had become extinct in the 
male line in Cemaes.' 

Accordingly, Martin set sail with a small following, and landed in Fish- 
guard Bay, to which landing one will revert after giving extracts from Westcote 
and Risdon relative to Martin. Westcote writes : 

" Le Sire Martin de Turon, was a man of much worth, and assistance to William 
Duke of Normandy, when he conquered this land, of whom he had this (Combe 
Martin), and other great possessions given him." 

Risdon also mentions " Martin of Turon " among " men of renown, in military 
employments, and in Council, that came over with William the Conqueror, and 
seated themselves in this shire (Devon) some of whose posterity yet remain.'' 

It would be well to consider the derivation of the name of this province 
Martin conquered, namely, Cemaes, before proceeding further. 

In the earliest grant referring to it, it is written Cathmais, and is evidently 
derived from the Welsh " cath " (Latin caedes), signifying slaughter, and the 

'Called also "monachi de thuron," p. 443 George Owen's " Pembrokeshire," also p. 430. 

'The late Duchess of Cleveland, in the Battle Abbey Roll, states that he came from Tours, four 
miles from Bayeux, though this is erroneous, as atso does Risdon. Mons. Etienne Dupont has not 
yet reached his name in his work on the companions of William the Conqueror. 

'Written also "Caithmais," "Cathmaes," "Cemmais," " Kenies," " Kemmes," "Karnes," 
"Games," " Kemeys," "Camoys," etc. 



24 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Welsh " mais," maes, a field. Therefore, the name Cemaes, as it is now spelt, 
means the Field of Slaughter. This is undoubtedly the real old name for the 
Barony, and is also, and in this no doubt all will agree, a most appropriate 
name, for it must often have been a field of slaughter. 

In Roman times it is known that there was fighting here from various relics 
of that time found in the neighbourhood, notably the gravestone of a retired 
Roman lieutenant (not a soldier), removed some years back to Nevern Church- 
yard from the higher lands of Cathmais. Also the great number of Latin roots 
in the Welsh language, the Latin names of the days of the week adopted by the 
Welsh tends to show that Wales was more thoroughly occupied by the Romans 
than it is believed to have been at the present day. 

In 860, according to the " Brut leuan Brechfa," the Saxons destroyed all 
the monasteries in Pembrokeshire, and tradition tells how they fought the Welsh 
at Pantsaeson (the Valley of the Saxons), which is close to Yr hen Monachlog. 

Later the Danes harried the coasts and banks of the river Teify, climbing 
the hills from the Teify, and pillaging around in 987,* it being specially recorded 
in the annaies that they devastated St. Dogmaels. Then comes the battle in which 
Rhys ap Tewdwr, then living at St. Dogmaels, is suddenly attacked by the four 
Welsh princes, and defeats them, it is stated, with " great slaughter." 

In this one notices the lack of cohesion in the Welsh character, which exists 
to the present day. They are not truly patriotic, the love of country, though one 
would think, if one listened to them, they were brimful of it, does not exist in 
them ; if truly patriotic they would all unite when common danger, or a common 
foe faced them, or for the common good in improving their country or their 
towns; but all through their history it is the same, jealousy and treachery soon 
show forth, and they will not unite for the common good in anything, either in 
things pertaining to peace, or in things pertaining to war. They have ofttimes 
had the finest of leaders arise, but in every case they have failed, and still fail, 
from lack of cohesion, treachery, and petty jealousies this has been, and still 
is, their undoing. 

It was this that rendered the conquest of Cemaes, about 1087, so easy to 
Martin of the Towers.^ Each village met him separately, and, after the first 
slight resistance at Fishguard, meekly surrendered, till, going north-east, he 
reached Eglwyswrw, where the only fight occurred,' and there being but a 

^ See "Annaies Cambria:." 

' Called also, " Martinus Tironensis," " Martinus Turonensis," " Martin de Tours," " Martin de 
TurFibus," and "Martinus de Turonibus." 

' After the very slight attack with stones at Fishguard. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 25 

handful of Welsh, he easily defeated them; continuing his course to the Teify, 
all the villageF including St. Dogmaels, surrendering. Most fortunately for them 
Martin was a thoroughly good man, and what was rare in those days, both 
humane and just. Instead of burning their houses, and putting the men to 
death, he built himself a castle at Nevern,* and there issued leases of their 
farms to the inhabitants, allowing them to remain in the homes of their ances- 
tors. A few of the farms he kept and gave to his followers. The names 
of two of these followers, or rather of the sons of his favourite knight, de Hoda, 
are still retained in the names of farms, Trecart and Trereicert, that is, the Home 
of Risiart, and Trewrdan, the Home of Jordan, which are on the high lands not 
far from Crugiau Cemaes. Also Martin's great-great-great-granddaughter. 
Ales, or Nesta, married Richard de Hoda, the grandson of this young Norman 
knight, and through her the Barony of Cemaes descended to their son, Philip, 
who in his turn married Nesta, great-great-great-granddaughter of Rhys ap 
Gryffydd, Prince of South Wales. 

Martin, having now peacefully settled in the castle he had built at Nevern, 
his family lived there for three generations, till his grandson, Willieun, built 
Newport Castle in the thirteenth century, and went to live there. It is very 
difficult to trace this castle. There is a place marked Castell Nevern in the 
ordnance maps, which on first reconnoitring one would immediately think was the 
site of Martin's old castle, being almost surrounded by a deep moat, and having 
an inner mound, but when reaching the top of this mound one finds traces of a 
circular wall of unmortared slate-stone, hardly larger in circumference than a 
large-sized well, and on probing the outside banks of this site, one finds no trace 
of masonry. 

Martin and his descendants for three generations would certainly not have 
lived in an earthwork, but would in all probability have built a strong Norman 
castle, especially as he had many followers, who would all have helped in the 
work. There is one point in its favour, namely, the Welsh having no respect 
for the religion of their ancestors, despoiled the old druidical circles, and at 
Pentre Evan have not only taken away the stones from the double circle^ that 
once surrounded the cromlechs, but have also taken away the stones of two out 
of the three cromlechs that formerly stood there, and have used them for gate-posts, 
how much more likely then would it be for them to take the old stone from this 
deserted castle for building their cottages and farmsteads, instead of having the 

' On the site of the Welsh castle formerly inhabited by Gwynfardd the Regulus. 
' The late Mr. Bowen, of Llwyngwair, assured me that he knew there had been a large double 
ring of stones with three cromlechs, of which only the centre one remained. 



26 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

trouble of quarrying stone for the same, so this is probably the site of Martin's 
old castle, and the rubble of the old walls has simply become overgrown 
with grass. The moat still has water, and must have been a work of much 
labour. 

At Nevem Castle there also remains a large round tump which certainly 
resembles the remains of an ancient Welsh castle, which were simply " rounde 
turrets without any courtledge," and of which no other traces remained in 
George Owen's time save " highe and rounde toompes of earth." Around this is 
grassland, with a double row of grass-covered earth banks on three sides, 
suggestive of former buildings, surrounded again by a deep moat, and having 
apparently a high watch tower. This would rather lead one to believe that 
Martin built his Castle of Nevem on the site of an ancient British castle. That 
there are so few traces of stonework is not surprising, as Nevem Castle was 
abandoned in the thirteenth century, whilst of Henllys, abandoned only in the 
eighteenth century, not a stone remains. 

According to Geraldus Cambrensis, " the ancient and chief castle which 
the princes of Wales possessed in this part of the country (Pem.) was Castrum 
de Lanhever," that is the Castle of Nevern, " where still remain the ruins of 
a very strong hold, surrounded on three sides by a very deep moat, evidently 
cut out at a vast expenditure of labour, which even to this day contains water." 
In one of the old documents relating to Martin can be seen how immediately 
after his conquest of Cemaes he set to work to build the Castle of Nevem, and 
the Martins are described as of Nevern Castle, when his grandson, William, 
mcirried Angharad, daughter of Rhys ap Gryffydd, Lord of Cardigan, the 
building of Newport Castle being ascribed to him after his marriage in the 
thirteenth century. 

Mr. Laws, in page 97 of his " Little England beyond Wales," writes con- 
cerning the conquest of Cemaes by- 
One Martin de Turribus which is translated as " of Tours," though perhaps " of 
the Towers " would be the better rendering, [as it most undoubtedly is.] Martin was 
a man of might, and had been rewarded with broad lands in Somerset and Devon for 
valiant deeds done in England. He landed at Abergwayn, or Fishguard, with a 
considerable following, where according to local tradition he docked his little fleet, 
but the natives in the night rolled great rocks down on them and so damaged the 
vessels, that next day, having repaired them as well as he could, the Norman leader 
sailed on to Newport, where the harbour is on the flat, and safe from projectiles from 
above .... pitched his camp at Cronlhvyn, a hill on the banks of the Gwayn, about 
two miles from the shore and well adapted for his purpose, as its base was protected 
by a morass, whilst its summit commands an extensive view over the surrounding 
country. The Norman force remained in camp for some days unassailed by the 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 27 

Welsh. Martin then moved towards the hills, where the enemy was reported to be 
massing. He came up with the natives at Morvill, and repulsed them in a sharp 
skirmish. Man.n then followed the Welsh across Precelly. On the further side the 
men of Meline, Nantgwyn and Eglwyswrw came out to meet him ; but what could 
these poor villagers do against Norman veterans. Seized by a sudden panic they laid 
down their arms without striking a blow. This surrender concluded the war, and 
the hundred of Cemaes yielded without further bloodshed, becoming a March with 
Martin and his successors as lord Marchers. He took up his quarters at Nevern, 
where he appropriated the stronghold previously occupied by Cuhelyn, a regulus of 
Dyved. This was subsequently strengthened by successive members of Martin's 
family, though as will be seen they (afterwards) made Newport the capital of their 
barony. 

Martin, approaching the last years of his life, turned his thoughts to 
religion, and decided to build an abbey at St. Dogmaels. He began to make 
plans for the same, but the hand of death prevented him from accomplishing 
this desire of his heart. His death is noted by some writers as occurring in 1089. 

Martin changed the name of the cantref of Kemes into the Barony of 
Kemes; but left the ancient boundaries practically intact, "obtayninge of the 
kinges of England, upon his holding the same of them in capite to be by them 
erected onto a barony, and to have place in parlicun' of England, by the name 
of Lords of Kemes," he also divided the Barony into diverse knights' fees, and 
each knight's fee into ploughlands, and these into oxlands. He also changed 
their order of conveyance of land, to be after the use of the common laws of 
England, namely, by " fines and feoffementes, liverye and seisin, which was not 
used by the Welshmen, nor permitted by the laws of Howel dha, by which laws 
the then Princes of Wales governed their countreys." 

" He also encorporated, and erected townes, and made thereof boroughes, 
and appointed officers as Portrives and other officers (catchpolle or petty officer 
of justice such as a sheriff's officer or bum-bailiff) to governe the same, and made 
free burgesses, and gave them great liberties after the maner of England, never 
used or hard of among the Ancient Britaines." 

Soon after this, Robert, the eldest son of Martin, who had succeeded him 
as Baron of Cemaes, married Matilda, daughter of William Peverel of 
Trecamon.' Moylgrove was a part of her marriage dowry. Evidently Robert 
and his wife were both of one mind as regards the building of the Abbey, also 
Robert may have looked on it as a trust imposed on him by his father, which 
it was his duty to carry out, for he set to work and caused the Abbey to be 
built, some writers say from plans of his father's, anyway, he and he only had 

' Now Tregammon. 



a8 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

to do with the building of this Abbey, on the site of the present ruins, in the 
Village (formerly Borough) of St. Dogmaels, within a short distance of the 
river Teify. When the Abbey was finished in 1 1 18, he arranged with the abbot, 
William, of Tiron, to let him have an abbot and thirteen more monks for his 
new Abbey. This Abbey of St. Dogmaels was the first dependent Abbey 
belonging to the Abbey of Tiron, out of several that were founded. Robert 
richly endowed it, giving certain lands in St. Dogmaels to it for ever, and 
other rights of chapelries, and fees in different parts of the barony, also other 
lands in Devonshire; namely 

1st. The old Church and Priory of St. Dogmaels, with their adjacent 
lands, as well as the new Abbey and its adjacent lands. 

2nd. A large tract of land in the neighbourhood, bounded by the Breuan 
(Broyan), the Teify estuary, and other limits, and among them a 
stream that bounded Llanbloden. 

3rd. Lands in the Precelly range, lying in the fork between the stream 
called Combkaro,' (now Cwm Carw or Cwm Cerwyn, by both of 
which names it is still known, and has been for many hundred 
years), and the Cledi; this grant also appears to include 
Mynachlog Ddu, alias Nigra Grangia. 

4th. Caldey Island, given by his mother, Geva, and Moylgrove, by his 
wife, Matilda. 

5th. The Manor of Rattery, near Totnes, South Devon, and at Cock- 
lington, near Torquay, South Devon, he gave the " Church and 
two farthings of land to the Abbey of Cemois," for one reads 
that Robert Fitzmartin also granted to St. Dogmaels other lands, 
some at Cocklington, near Torquay, as appears from the following 
passage of Risdon's " Survey of Devonshire," p. 147, written 
before 1630, wherein is noted 

"Cocklington was bestowed on William Fallaise, one of the Conqueror's followers, 
and not long after it became the land of Robert Fitz Martin, lord of Camois, who 
gave it to his younger son, excepting the church and two farthings of land, which he 



' Cwm Carw, or Cwm Cerwyn, is interesting as being mentioned in the Mabinogion, in Olwen and 
Kilkwch, when King Arthur, overlord of Britain, rides through Cwm Cerwyn with many of his 
followers to hunt the "Trwch Trwyth," supposed to have been some horrible monster. It was also 
known by both names in the days of George Owen, Lord of Cemacs (1552-1613), for in one of his 
smaller MSS. he writes of it, noting the enormous number of Irish settlers in the villages north of 
the Preselies, so that in some villages every third house was inhabited by Irish, in others every fifth 
he also notes the valley called in Welsh Cwm Cerwyn (a cauldron) or Cwm Carw (a stag), adding that 
either name would be applicable, as there were plenty of stags in the valley, and also plenty of 
cauldrons, since nearly all the Irish have stills for whiskey. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 2o 

gave to the Abbey of Camois with other lands. In the time of Henry the first the 
posterity of this Robert Martin took the surname of Cockington. 

"There was a great controversy between Sir Robert and the Abbot of Camois 
about the tenure and service of the two farthings of land, which was appeased by 
Bartholomew, Bishop of Exeter (1161-1181)." 

Concerning Rattry, a parish about four miles from Totnes, in Devon (the 
Ratreu of the grant), it belonged, under William the Conqueror, to William 
Fallaise, but was sold by him to Robert Fitzmartin, in the time of Henry I, 
who was also Lord of Dartington and Kemes. Robert Fitzmartin also bought 
Cockington from William of Fallaise, and gave it to his younger son, except 
the church and two farthings of land, which he gave to the Abbots of St. 
Dogmaels. 





CHAPTER III. 




THE MOTHER ABBEY. 

' EFORE proceeding further with St. Dogmaels, it would 
be well to know something of Tiron,* now called Thiron- 
Gardais, near Nogent-le-Rotrou, in Eure-et-Loir, France, 
close to the south-east border of Normandy. The founder 
of this Abbey, Bernard, leaving a wealthy Abbey, for the sake of poverty, 
and a desire to lead a life of hard work and holiness, started in what was 
then a barren waste, but is now a fertile land. Thiron is sometimes called 
Thiron au Perche, the department of Eure-et-Loir being composed of two 
small provinces, called " Beance" and " Perche." Chartres is the chief town in 
the province of " Beance," a flat country having no rivers, whilst Thiron- 
Gardais is in " Perche," a land of charming hills, of verdant fields, and 
numerous rivulets. 

Nogent-le-Rotrou, close to Thiron, is the chief town in this province of 
Perche, and contains now about 9,000 inhabitants.- 

The old Monastery of Tiron has ceased to exist since the French Revolu- 
tion, but the ancient abbey church still remains, and is used as the parish church 
of Thiron-Gardais ; also a few other buildings of the old monastery' remain, 
used now for other purposes. 

The photograph representing the parish church shows the ancient Church 
of Tiron; it is in the pure Renaissance style, the old Gothic choir having fallen 
in 1830, the arch was walled up, having three windows left in it. This new 
work is plainly visible in the photograph. 

' Tiron is the old French name, Thiron, or Thiron Gardais, or Thiron au Perche, the modern 
French name, and Tyron the Latin. 

^Letter from the Rev. C. Claireaux, of N<^ent-le-Rotrou, Eure-et-Loir, France. 
' Not o{ St. Sernard's Monastery ; but built later, jirobably by John of Chartres. 



:% 




Qji^rn:-oeyn/' 



u/toTiy. 



^ 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 31 

The other buildings show what is left of the college of the Abbey, and the 
pond, which might have been their old fishpond. 

Bernard, by the hard labour of himself and his companions, changed this 
desolate spot to a "fertile land." Bernard, "a noted admirer of poverty, 
leaving a most opulent monastery, retired with a few followers to a wooded 
and sequestered place," and there, "as his light could not be hidden under a 
bushel," vast numbers flocking to him, he founded a monastery, A.D. 1 109, more 
celebrated then for the piety and number of the monks than for the splendour 
and extent of its riches.* 

Robert Fitzmartin is described as a most noble man of holy life, who, the 
first time that he returned to Tiron, took back with him to St. Dogmaels, in 
1 1 1 3, thirteen monks. This was probably for the priory of St. Dogmaels, which 
was known in France as the " Priory de Galles."^ On the occasion of his second 
visit to Tiron, 11 18, he took back with him thirteen more monks, and also an 
abbot,^ Fulchardus. This second visit of Robert Fitzmartin to Tiron would 
be in 11 18, as we see later in the Cartulary of Tiron that the Priory of Guales 
was raised into an abbey in 11 18; also Robert's grants to the abbey were there- 
fore made in, or before, 1 1 18, though confirmed by Henry I in 1 1 19. 

The Abbey of Tiron seems to have been held in high esteem in Great 
Britain, for not only did Robert Fitzmartin often go there, but also Henry I 
of England and his son, William, as well as bestowing gifts on the Abbey, as 
did also Henry Earl of War^vick, and David King of Scotland, together with 
his son, afterwards Malcolm HI. The two latter also founded abbeys in Scot- 
land under the Abbey of Tiron. David journeyed to Tiron expressly to see 
and honour the holy St. Bernard, but arrived too late, the founder having died,* 
so that he was only able to pay his devotions at his grave. 

Bernard was apparently succeeded by William as abbot, and in 11 20, by 
the inscription round the coat of arms of Geoffrey le Gros, in the old Abbey 
Church of Tiron, Geoffrey le Gros was then abbot; later he was Bernard's 
historian. 

Bernard was born at Ponticum, close to the town of Abbeville, of honest 
and pious parents. He studied diligently, and after he had become proficient 
in religion and literature, he joined the monks of St. Cyprian under the Abbot, 
Raymond H (seventeenth abbot since its foundation), a man of great erudition 

'William of Malmesbury. Or Guales. "'Cartulaire de la Ste. Trinite de Tiron." 

* According to the Patrologie Migne, Vol. CLXXH, St. Bernard died April 7th, 11 17. According 

to the Cartulary of Tiron, he died April 2Sth, 1 1 17. Ili.s fete ufed to be kept April 14th, but is now 

kept on April 19th. 



32 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

and eloquence, and gifted with high powers of administration. From this 
monastery, Bernard, having profited greatly by the example and learning of 
Raymond, was translated to Savigny as Prior. Bernard, however, indignantly 
condemned both the wealth and luxury of these two abbeys, and though he 
governed the Abbey of Savigny with wisdom and regularity, he determined, 
after seeing a vision one night in the oratory at Savigny, to take the vows of 
poverty, and, quitting the rule of the wealthy Monastery of Savigny, to go out 
into the wildest part of the province and found a hermitage. 

This he did; but so many flocked to him that he finally founded the 
Monastery of Tiron, where they lived for a time in great poverty, Bernard 
becoming its first abbot. 

The earliest spelling of this mother abbey of St. Dogmaels Abbey was 
" Tiron,"' though in later years an " h " was added, making it the Thiron of the 
present day. 

The life of the founder, now always called St. Bernard of Tiron, is still 
extant, and has lately been reprinted in the " Patrologie Migne," Vol. CLXXII. 
It was written by Geoffrey le Gros, Abbot of Tiron, who lived at the same 
time as St. Bernard, and was one of his most faithful disciples. He was a 
monk, and later Chancellor and Prior of the Abbey of Tiron, a contemporary 
and also a companion of St. Bernard, and in 1120 was made Abbot of Tiron. 
After the death of St. Bernard, yielding to the request of the Bishop of 
Chartres, Geoffrey wrote what he had witnessed in the life of St. Bernard for 
the edification of his confrhes to come. Mons. Lucien Merlet, Archivist of 
Eure-et-Loir, states that he has read and re-read this work, and accords to him 
(Geoffrey le Gros) full and entire confidence. Geoffrey writes : " It is not the 
recalling to you of the many and great miracles by which we would make you 
admire our father, Bernard, but rather by telling you that he was gentle and 
humble of heart." 

Geoffrey accompanied St. Bernard when he left the Forest of Savigny, 
near Fougeres, which had been given to Bernard by Raoul, Count of Fougeres, 
and where his companions had built a dwelling-place, and where they had 
spent many years, living by the work of their hands. Later, Bernard resolved 
to seek further for greater solitude, and charged four of his monks to find 
some vast desert, where they could raise large buildings to give shelter to all 
pilgrims who might come there. They were unable to find this desert, but one 
of them, having a vision, saw in his sleep a young man of resplendent beauty, 
clothed in white, who, -placing his hand on his head, said to him, "Arise at 

' See introduction to the " Cartulary of Tiron." 



> 




.K 






S' 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 33 

once; go to Rotrou, Count of Perche; he will give you what you desire." On 
his relating this vision to his companions they laughed at him, and returning 
to Bernard, related their non-success; but later recalling the dream of their 
confrere, they determined to visit Count Rotrou. On seeing him he granted 
their request. Possessing a property called Arcisses, about a mile from his 
Castle of Nogent, he conducted two of Bernard's disciples there, and promised 
to give this domain in perpetuity to St. Bernard and his companions. It was a 
fertile land, surrounded on all sides by forests, abundantly watered by springs 
and brooks, which kept the meadows always green. The soil .was perfectly 
suited to the culture of the vine, and would also furnish them with all they 
needed ; already the Count's predecessors had built there an oratory, had made 
a fishpond, planted orchards, and had, in fact, done all that was useful and 
agreeable for life. They were delighted with it, and returned to fetch 
Bernard; but by the time Bernard arrived Rotrou had changed his mind, and, 
withdrawing his promise with regard to Arcisses, giving them instead a place 
named Tiron. 

This changing of his mind is ascribed to the influence of his mother, 
Beatrice, who, hearing of what he had done, came to him in a greatly disturbed 
state of mind, begging her son on no account to allow Bernard and his monks 
to settle so close to the castle, and by her prayers and entreaties persuaded him 
to retract his promised gift, and to offer them instead a tract of more sterile 
land further from the castle. The reason for this is supposed to have been 
that she favoured the monks of Cluny, who, in later years, succeeded Bernard's 
followers at Tiron. Bernard was in no wise troubled by this contretemps: he 
accepted the newly-offered land, and sending his two disciples to Tiron, who, 
after examining it returned, reporting that it lacked everything needful to life; 
but during the night Bernard saw, in a vision, a lamp glowing in the middle of 
the sky and shedding its rays on all the surrounding places. This vision deter- 
mined him to accept the Count's offer. To his brethren he said, " Here is the 
place really suited to us, it is indeed the solitude we have so long sought." On 
reaching Tiron with Bernard, the brothers, after giving thanks to God, tied 
Poitevin (the donkey that had carried Bernard) to a tree, placed their light 
baggage on the ground, and quickly constructed a simple cell, and a few days 
later Bernard gathering his followers together, brought them to Tiron. At 
Easter, in the year 11 09, Bernard celebrated the first mass in a wooden 
sanctuary, which he found on the place given him by the Count. Bernard 
worked with his followers, helping them to build their dwellings, at the same 
time instructing them in the doctrine of the Lord. Their necessities became 



34 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

dire, as owing to the superabundance of rain, they were unable to sow their 
seed ; but William, Count of Nevers, had pity on them, and sent them a large 
golden vase, so that they were enabled to buy the necessities of life. 

They now worked night and day building their cloisters; they wore a 
monk's habit ; but it was different to that of other orders, being made of sheep's- 
skin, owing to their great poverty. Meanwhile, rich and poor flocked to hear 
Bernard. The monks of Cluny, becoming jealous of Bernard's popularity, 
disturbed them in their possession of Tiron; Bernard then went to the Bishop 
of Chartres, and begged him to give him a small portion of land of which he 
was lord, whereon to build a monastery. The Bishop and Chapter of Chartres 
accordingly gave him the straggling Village of Gardais, on the river Thironne, 
the confirmation of this gift being dated February 3rd, 11 14, and is the 
veritable charter of the foundation of the Abbey of Tiron. Adela, fourth 
daughter of William the Conqueror, came to Bernard after this and offered a 
more fertile land, but he gratefully refused the offer. Bernard's reputation for 
holiness increased from day to day, and spread far and wide, even to England 
and Scotland, one of his most fervent admirers being Henry I, King of 
England, and Duke of Normandy, who sent to him begging him to settle in 
Normandy. Henry's affection for the Abbey lasted even after Bernard's death; 
besides giving them a yearly revenue of fifteen marks, he also sent the monks 
each year fifty or sixty marks, and also built a magnificent dormitory for the 
Abbey. Louis le Gros, King of France, also held Bernard in high esteem, so 
much so that he wished Bernard to baptise both his sons, Philippe and Louis. 
There were many other benefactors to the Abbey besides these two kings, 
notably William Duke of Acquitaine, Foulques Count of Angou, then King of 
Jerusalem, Robert of Caen, Count of Gloucester', Henry Earl of Warwick, Guy 
the Younger, Count of Rochfort, William H, Count of Nevers^ Robert, son of 
Martin, Lord of Cemaes, and many others. Thus is seen that the reputation for 
sanctity of the blessed founder of Tiron, and the piety and devotion of his 
followers, drew to the new monastery the most generous gifts, so that even in 
the same century in which it was founded, it is seen by the Cartulary of the 
Abbey, that it already owned eleven abbeys (four of which were in Britain), 
more than a hundred priories, also owned the supremacy of the Abbey of Tiron, 
and were designated as of the Order of Tiron. 

Each year there was a general chapter at Tiron, where delegates from all 

' Natural son of Henry I of England, died about 1138. 

The Abbey of Tiron wa.s not ungrateful to its benefactors, for when William, Count of Nevers, 
was taken prisoner by Thibaut IV, Count of Blois, Bernard went to Blois with Robert of .'Xrbrissel 
to crave his liberty. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 35 

the abbeys and priories dependent on the mother house met, and the Abbot of 
Tiron, surrounded by "eleven other crossed and mitred abbots," sat in judgment 
on all delinquents, named or dismissed abbots and priors, and regulated the 
administration of their properties, etc. Such rapid and great prosperity led to 
abuses. The abbots succeeding Bernard, who, according to Mons. Lucien Merlet, 
died on April 25th, 1 1 16 or 11 17, more probably the later year, lost the humility 
and modesty of their saintly founder, their power blinded them, and they vied 
with the highest prelates in their magnificence and state. Towards the end of 
the thirteenth century, the Canons of the Chapter of Chartres bitterly upbraided 
John of Chartres, then Abbot of Tiron, because he would not appear in public 
without being surrounded by a host of sergeants carrying silver maces before 
him. An ancient miniature, preserved in the Abbey of Tiron, represented this 
John of Chartres in the Church of " Notre Dame de Chartres," preceded by six 
seculaires walking, with raised wands of office, and followed by four clerks. 

The monks no longer inhabited the modest cells of their founder; but the 
most sumptuous of palaces. John of Chartres rebuilt the monastery, and for 
the expenses of this and his gorgeous train, it was necessary to raise more 
money, which he did in ways more or less admissible. The authors of " Gallia 
Christiana " have portrayed the state of luxury and license of the Abbey after 
the rule of John of Chartres. Indeed, in the time of Giraldus (i 188) the monks 
of St. Dogmaels are described in his works as already living in wickedness and 
luxury. 

Towards the end of the English wars in France, the English seized all 
Normandy, Beance, and Perche, etc. The revenues of the Abbey of Tiron were 
seized, the monks dispersed, the priories destroyed, and on June 13th, 1428 (not 
1450, as given in the " Gallia Christiana "), the Earl of Salisbury, on his way to 
Orleans, passed by Thiron and partly burnt down the Abbey of Tiron. Their 
revenues being reduced by one-half, and no gifts coming in, as in the twelfth 
century, and not being able to procure money for the restoration of their ruined 
abbey,' they decided to do it themselves, and of their own private authority, 
taking their first Charter, they skilfully introduced clauses to their profit, giving 
them enormous privileges, and made themselves suzeraine lords of the domaine, 
overthrowing the feudal rights of the reigning lords, especially of the Chapter 
of Chartres, which was the richest landlord in the country, and the original 
giver of the land on which the Abbey of Tiron was built. The Chapter refused 
to acknowledge this usurpation of the Abbot of Tiron; finally the dispute 
came before Parliament, and was the occasion of a long and interesting trial, 

' In 1505, Louis de Crevant was Abbot of Tiron. 

3 



36 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

wherein the monks most skilfully defended the falsified charter of their 
foundation. On the 3rd October, 1556, Parliament condemned the monks of 
Tiron as usurpers, and confirmed this sentence on the 22nd March, 1558; but 
did not condemn them as forgers, so that the monks still hoped to win and 
proclaimed themselves as victims to the power of their adversaries. 

On the 19th March, 1562, three thousand German mercenaries, on their way 
to rejoin the Prince de Cond6, passing the Monastery of Tiron, killed three of 
the monks, pillaged their sacred vessels, turned the church into a stable, broke 
the crucifix and the figures of the Trinity on the super altar, completely 
smashed the altars of St. Martin and St. Eloi, fired many times at the windows 
of the choir, broke into the Treasury, appropriating all their treasures and relics, 
among them a chasuble, mitre, and cross belonging to the Abbot Bernard, their 
founder; the whole estimated as worth over three thousand pounds sterling, 
besides five hundred crowns worth of linen, cloth of gold, etc. All the furniture 
of the house, provisions, wheat, rye, oats, barley, twenty-five puncheons of wine, 
forty puncheons of cider, also became the prey of the troopers; also all the 
bullocks, cows, calves, horses, and poultry in the stables and farm buildings were 
killed or led off, only the animals in the wood escaping. 

Eight " lits garnis " (elaborate beds and hangings), a very large quantity of 
linen, and vessels of pewter, were also carried away. The pillage lasted three 
days, and what the troopers could not carry away they damaged. 

The abbot of that time, Hippolyte d'Este, Cardinal of Ferrara, tried by 
wise rules to bring order out of this disorder ; but in the year 1 563 he resigned in 
favour of Charles de Ronsard; this abbot (i 563-1 575) and Rene de Laubier, his 
successor (1575-1578) carefully governed the Abbey; but after their rule dis- 
cipline was again relaxed, the. monks thinking only of their own comfort. In 
1627, insubordination existing in the Abbey, the monks of St. Maur replaced 
those of the order of Tiron. Louis XIV gave his protection to Tiron, under the 
rule of St. Maur, and also permitted the monks to take the title of Royal 
Military School, for their college; they also took in invalid soldiers in return 
for the King's protection. The Abbey of Tiron ceased to exist in 1792. The 
first Church of Tiron was commenced about the year 11 15; it was cruciform in 
shape. The old choir fell down February loth, 18 17, and what now remains is 
the later church of the Monastery of Tiron ; it was twenty-five yards long, and 
was partly rebuilt by Lionel Grimault, abbot from 1454 to 1498, the high altar 
was dedicated to the Trinity, the old choir was in the Gothic style. The coat 
of arms of Bernard were in this chancel, having a scroll with Bemardus, 1109; 
also Geoffrey le Gros' "Abb. Monast. de Tironio, 11 20," with his coat of arms 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 57 

is there, which proves by the date that St. Dogmaels was founded before that 
date, as all three confirmations were during the rule of Abbot William. 

The fete of St. Bernard of Tiron is still celebrated in the diocese where he 
lived; until lately it was also celebrated in the diocese of Chartres on the 14th 
of April, but Pope Leo XIII changed the date of St. Bernard's Fete to April 
19th, owing to the 14th of April being also the Fete of St. Justin, the apologist. 
The following prayer is taken from the Office of St. Bernard : 

Grant, we beseech thee, oh our God, that we may be uplifted through the 
intercessions of the blessed Abbot Bernard, that through him, by whom thou hast 
granted thy servants evidence of the perfection of the gospel, thou mayst mete out to 
us help to everlasting salvation. Through God the Father, etc.^ 

In the Cartulary of the Abbey of Tiron, Vol. I, p. 41, are the confirmation 
of the grants made by Robert Fitzmartin to the Abbey of Cathmais (St. 
Dogmaels), circa 1 1 19, by Henry I, King of England. The first confirmation 
is signed by Prince William, son of Henry I, who was drowned, together with 
his sister,' on his voyage back from France to England, by the capsizing of the 
vessel, almost within sight of his father, who was in another vessel leading the 
way, on November 25th, 11 20; his njime also appears in the third confirmation. 
All these confirmations must have been after Robert Fitzmartin's second visit 
to Tiron,' the third containing a mention of the "Abbot then for the first time 
elected " at the request of Robert Fitzmartin, to the Lord Abbot William, and 
all the Convent of Tiron, that an Abbot should be appointed to the Priory of . 
St. Dogmaels. After the appointment of an Abbot, the Priory de Guales 
naturally was incorporated in the new abbey, built and endowed by Robert. 
This grant also contains rules for the seemly behaviour of the new abbot, and 
also for the fitting reception to be accorded to the Lord Abbot of Tiron, on the 
occasion of his visits to St. Dogmaels Abbey. 

The formula or nomination of abbots dependent on the Monastery of 
Tiron, though of a later date, namely, during the abbacy of the lordly John II 
of Chartres, about 1277, follows well here, as it comes from the Cartulary of 
Tiron. 

In the Cartulary, f ii V", under the name of John II of Chartres, who was 
Abbot of Tiron, from 1277 to 1297, is the formula for the nomination of Abbots 
dependent on the Monastery. " Brother John, by divine permission, lowly Abbot of 



'Received from the Rev. C. Claireaux, cure de Notre Dame, Nogent-le-Rotrou. 
- Prince William's sister was the Countess de la Pcrchc. 
'And before Geoffrey le Gros became Abbot in 1120. 



38 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Tiron, and the whole convent of the same place, to their beloved sons in Christ to 
the prior and convent of (such and such a) Monastery greeting and sincere love in 
God, whereas you by your letters patent announce to us the resignation (or decease) 
of brother (so-and-so), formerly Abbot of your Monastery, and you have in con- 
sequence entreated us to appoint for you a day on which in our Monastery of Tiron 
provision should be made in the customary way for a pastor for your widowed 
Monastery, we readily assenting to your request have decided to assign (such and such) 
a day on which you are to appear at Tiron in the Chapter and at the hour of the 
Chapter by deputies fixed and appointed and sufficiently instructed, who are to have 
from you the mandate and the power, viz., to ask for and receive in your stead, and 
in your name, the one whom we in our Monastery of Tiron in the customary way 
shall have thought fit to elect. Nevertheless we intimate to you that whether you 
will send on the appointed day or not we shall proceed to the election of an Abbot of 
(such and such a) Monastery as we ought to proceed by right and in accordance with 
approved custom." 

In Vol. II, p. 60, CCXCI, of the Cartulary of Tiron, there is a conhrmation 
by Pope Eugene III of the possessions of the Abbey of Tiron to William, 
Abbot of Tiron, and amongst them is mentioned the Church of St. Mary of 
Cathraais (St. Dogmaels), with all its appurtenances, dated 1 147, 30 May. Given 
at Paris. 

Also Vol. II, p. 98, CCCXXVI, dated 1 175-1176, is a confirmation of 
Pope Alexander II to Steplien, Abbot of Tiron. 

And, again, p. 103, CCCXXVIII, dated August 23rd, 1179, there is a 
confirmation by Pope Alexcinder II of the possessions and the privileges of 
the Abbey of Tiron to William, Abbot of Tiron, and first among these 
possessions is " the Monastery of Chamais " (Cemaes St. Dogmaels). There 
is also another bull of Pope Alexander II to the same effect. 

Also Vol. I, p. 201, CLXXXII, dated 1232-3, March i6th, one finds a 
confirmation by Pope Innocent II to William, Abbot of Tiron, of the possessions 
of the Abbey as follows : " In the kingdom of England Diocese of St. David's 
the church of St. Mary's of Cathmais (St. Dogmaels) with all its appurtenances. 
Given ai Valence." 

Vol. II, p. 264, one finds the Abbey of Cathmais Cemaes (St. Dogmaels) 
was founded in 11 18, in the County of Pembroke, in the diocese of St. David's 
(England). It was formerly a priory under the name of the Priory de Guales. 

Vol. II, p. 235, in a list of abbeys and priories belonging to the Abbey of 
Tiron, the Abbey of the Blessed Mary of Cathmais (St. Dogmaels), and again 
in the same list, on p. 236, Abbey of St. Dogmaels, in the English diocese of 
St. David's, Wales, dated 15 16. 



THE HISTORV OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 



39 



We also find under the heading of St. David's, Cathmais (Santa Maria de) 
in the County uf Pembroke. First a priory under the name of the Priory de 
Guales, raised to an Abbey in 1118, the grant of Robert, son of Martin, 
confirmed by Henry I, King of England, etc. 

This proves that St. Dogmaels owned allegiance to Tiron till 1516, so that 
it is safe to believe she remained with her cells under Tiron to the dissolution. 





CHAPTER IV. 




GIFTS FLOW IN. 

return to St. Dogmaels Abbey, after giving this brief 
account of the Mother Abbey of Tiron, and the greints 
made to it by its founder, Robert Fitzmartin, Lord of 
Cemaes, eldest son of Martin of the Towers, and of Geva, 
his wife, together with the confirmation of those grants. The original grants of 
Robert and his father were in all probability destroyed at the dissolution of 
the monasteries; but fortunately Henry I and succeeding Kings of England 
had a custom of incorporating previous grants in their confirmations, having 
their predecessors' grants and confirmations placed before them, and causing 
them to be copied in full, re-confirming them, and sealing them with their 
seals, at the same time stating that the original documents, or parchments, lay 
before them, and having their seals witnessed. 

In this way a record happily remains of one of the grants of Robert 
FitzMartin, and a confirmation by him of his parent's gifts to the Monastery, 
also the confirmation of the grants by Henry I. 

In the first document yet found, which unfortunately bears no date, but 
which is certainly not later than 1113, Robert confirms the bestowal by his 
parents of lands in Devonshire as follows : 

Robert son of Martin to all the sons of holy church, and all your men. French 
English and Welsh. Let all men know that I grant to the church of St. Mary of 
Cemaes [that is St. Dogmaels] the church of Tregent, the church of Wadtre and the 
chapel of Cockington with land and other priviledges. This I have done for the good 
of the souls of my parents, who have in former times made these gifts. I confirm 
these same by my charter Farewell. 

In this confirmation, of the previous charter of Martin, by Robert 
Fitzmartin, there is one point that should not be lost sight of, which is, that 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 41 

his parents had given these three churches and chapel to St. Dogmaels, and he 
emphasizes this when he adds, " This I have done for the good of my parents' 
souls, who in times past made these gifts." He never adds his own soul, thereby 
inferring that the gifts were none of his, but were his parents' gifts solely, and 
merely confirmed by him. 

Tregent cannot now be identified with certainty, unless it should be the 
East Brent of to-day. This parish adjoins Rattery, mentioned in later charters 
as Rattre; neither can Wadtre be identified unless it should be Rattre. These 
places, however, with the exception of Rattre, passed away from the possession 
of the Abbey at quite an early date, for in the Taxatio of Pope Nicholas, 1291, 
the Chapel of Cockington belonged to Tor Abbey, and East Brent to Buckfast- 
leigh Abbey. The next charters after this are a confirmation by Henry I 
reciting the gifts of Robert Fitzmartin, and the charters taken from the 
Cartulary of Tiron; in reviewing these it may be taken as an established fact 
that the Abbey was endowed and established in 1 1 1 8, but that the Priory de 
Guales was an earlier incorporation of the old Religious House of St. Dogmaels, 
with the addition of the thirteen monks brought over by Robert from Tiron in 
1 1 13, and the endowment of this priory by Robert's parents, with the revenues 
derived from the three churches and chapel, and land in Devonshire, between 
1089 and 1 1 13. 

There seems no possibility of fixing the exact date of this endowment; if 
Martin died in 1089, it might have been a death-bed grant of his, or Martin 
may have endowed the old religious house of St. Dogmael, to which Robert 
later brought the first thirteen monks. 

The first visit of Robert to Tiron is mentioned in the Cartulary of that 
Abbey as taking place in 1113; a corroboration of this visit is found in the 
Preface to the " Calendar of Documents,"* France, of which the following is 
a translation : 

At the same time a certain Robert of most noble birth approached a holy 
man' beyond the seas and taking with him thirteen of his disciples passed through 
Norman and English territories and reaching the furthest limits of the land ofWales 
on the coast of the Irish Sea close to the river Teify he established first indeed a cell 
but afterwards with an equal number of Monks together with an Abbot at their 
request as we have mentioned he established a Monastery fitted with all appurtenances. 

One very important point in the confirmation of the first grant (No. 25) 
relating to St. Dogmaels is that Prince William Henry's son "doth also make 



' By J. n. Round, p. xxxv. -' Doubtless this holy man was St. Bernard, Abbot of Tiron. 



4* THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

this grant." Now, William was shipwrecked crossing from France to England, 
and drowned, together with his sister, November 25th, 11 20,' therefore it proves 
conclusively that the confirmation of these grants by Henry I were anterior to 
that date. The Cartulary fixes the foundation of the Abbey as taking place 
in 1 1 18, and Henry's confirmation of Robert's grants as being in 11 19. The 
charter No. 31 of the Cartulary, which was posterior in date to No. 25, inasmuch 
as it is evidently later than the election of the Abbot Fulchardus to St. 
Dogmaels, refers to the " future election of abbots for that same place of 
Cemaes," and already shows how soon after Bernard's death they had departed 
from his rule of poverty and humility, and were striving after dignity and 
state; for in this charter it is particularly specified that the chief seats in the 
choir, chapter, and refectory are to be reserved for the Abbot of Tiron when 
he visits St. Dogmaels, and also that the Abbot of St. Dogmaels shall himself 
prepare a reception for him worthy of his dignity. This charter also mentions 
Prince William, so that it is earlier in date than November, 11 20. 

XXV. 

Cartulary of the Abbey of the Holy Trinity of Tiron Vol. I. p. 41. Con- 
fimation to the Abbey of Cathmais (St. Dogmaels) of the grants made by Robert 
Fitzmartin. (Circa 11 19). 

Henry King of England to the Abbot and all the convent of Tiron greeting. 

I grant to God and to the blessed Mary and to the Abbey of Cemaes the lands 
and all things which Robert Fitzmartin has given or will hereafter give to the 
aforesaid Abbey. And let the same Abbey be free and undisturbed as I have allowed 
if to be free and undisturbed as long as it has been a religious house. 

Witness William de Albineio a Briton at St. Walburga. 

And know ye that my son William* doth also make this grant. Witness 
Other ' son of a count. 

XXVI. 

Confirmation of the grants made by Robert Fitzmartin in Wales. 

Grant of the King of England concerning Wales (c. 1119). Henry King of 
England to the archbishops and bishops and all the barons and to his subjects 
throughout all England and especially to those who dwell in wales greeting. 

I grant to God and the Monks of Tiron for my souls sake and that of my wife 
and of my offspring as well as of my father and my mother and my ancestors that 



'Also Abbot Geoffrey succeeded Abbot William in 1120. 

Prince William, son of Henry I, was shipwrecked whilst crossing from France to England, 
November 25th, 1 120. 

' Other, son of a Coimt, was tutor to I'rincc William. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 45 

gift and alms for a perpetual possession which Robert Fitzmartin for his soul's sake 
granted of his righi: to the same Monks in Wales. 

Witnesses Ranulf chancellor and Geoffrey son of Paganus and William 
Puerello-Cloure and Hugh de Montfort ^ and William de Rollo. ^ At 
Moritonium. 

XXXI. 

Confirmation of the Abbey of Cathmais (St. Dogmaels). Concerning Cathmais 

(c. 1120). 

Since of necessity all things temporal soon pass into oblivion it has pleased us to 
make known to all present as well as future that the Monastery of Wales in the 
Bishopric of St. David's in the district of Cemaes near the ancient religious house of 
St. Dogmaels not far from the channel of the river Teivy formerly established in 
honour of Mary the Mother of God is a religious house of the Monks of the Holy 
Saviour of Tiron many brethren abiding there under their prior but because Robert 
Fitzmartin who at that time under Henry most good King of England held dominion 
over that land for the honour and glory of the holy church made a request of the 
Lord Abbot William and all the Convent of Tiron that an Abbot should be appointed 
in the priory of the aforesaid place God willing his request was granted. The King 
himself moreover and his son William and the aforesaid Robert granted that the 
same Abbey of St. Mary's of Cemaes should at all times be free in such a way that 
nothing could be established in it by any secular power viz. neither by the King 
himself nor by his princes nor by his or their successors. The King himself also 
granted and William his son and the aforesaid Robert and the Abbot then for the first 
time elected in the aforesaid place of Wales and his Monks that every future election 
of Abbots for that same place of Cemaes and for all places adjoining that same place if 
perchance they too should establish Abbeys should by right forever be in the province 
and the power of the Lord Abbot of Tiron and of the whole Convent as witness William 
de Albignero and Other* son of a count at St. Walburga. If indeed any Abbot 
whatsoever of the oft-mentioned place of St. Mary's of Cemaes or of other places subject 
to the same governs himself and his men otherwise than he ought to in an unseemly or 
irreligious manner which God forbid or departs from our rule of humility or our 
other religious observances by the rod and power of the pastoral rule of the church of 
Tiron he must be removed and another who is worthy must be set in his stead. 
Heed must be taken however how some in one way or another even while making 
grants blinded by greedy desire run the risk of the charge of simony whoever does so 
let him as is right be anathema from Christ. Next to the bond of love and the unity 
of the brotherhood, which neither space nor distance of time ought to separate 
provision is made that when any one of the Abbots of the above-mentioned church of 



' Hugh de Montfort belonged to the family of Montfort sur Risle. 

- William de Koullours (Rollo) was father of Richard, celebrated for his acricultural achievements 
in the Lordship of Bourne and Deeping, co. Lincoln, where he drained the vast marshes of Deeping, 
and succeeded so well that he formed a wealthy [arish. 

' Other, the son of a count, was according to Orderic, tutor to Prince William. 



44 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

the Blessed Mary of Cemaes has been chosen and appointed by the Lord Abbot and 
the whole Convent of Tiron then to the mother church of God the Saviour at Tirou in 
the presence of the Abbot who is at that time its head and of the whole Convent of 
Tiron to the same church of Tiron and to its rulers he the newly elected Abbot and 
his Monks who are at that time present shall in the presence of God promise obedience 
and due subjection. Moreover when the Lord Abbot of Tiron comes to the 
oft-mentioned place of St. Mary's of Cemaes or to any place soever subject to it as is 
fitting let him be received with due honour and let the Abbot himself of that place 
prepare a reception for him worthy of his dignity forsooth in the choir in the chapter 
and in the refectory and everywhere let the reverence due to a father be shown him 
as saith the Apostle " Honour to whom honour is due " and likewise " excelling one 
another in honour." Whatever temporal things are lacking to our monastery let 
them be sought for from others. And of spiritual benefits as well for the living as for 
their own brethren let charity shine forth according as the difference is great. 
Further it is decreed and settled by the Lord Abbot William and all the congregation 
of Tiron that the Abbots subject to the church of Tiron who are and will be in regions 
beyond the seas shall always every third year for the sake of strengthening and 
confirming our religion and of visiting the brethren assemble at the Convent of Tiron 
at the feast of holy Pentecost. And if any of the brethren disobediently fails to 
fulfil these conditions he must by no means be admitted any where else as associate 
without letters of recommendation. Let this likewise be known to the sons of holy 
church that the church of Tiron has this privilege from the holy and apostolic church 
of Rome that whoever wishes in any matter and for whatever cause to injure it is 
excommunicated by the Pope himself the pastor and ruler of all blessed Christendom 
who in especial instead of the apostles has received the power of binding and 
loosening in the blessed church to those however who support and increase that same 
patrimony of Christ blessing and peace from the Lord Jesus Christ who though he was 
rich for us became poor that he might enrich us through his poverty and might heal 
us through his infirmity. These things indeed were done in the year of the 
incarnation of the Lord 1120 in the reign of Louis King of France and of Henry 
King of England. 

Preface to Cal. of France, 

J. H. Round. 

The three Charters [from the Cartulary of Tiron] relating to St. Dogmaels are 
not only new but are all earlier than the Charter given in the Monasticon, as the 
history of its foundation is admittedly obscure, they are valuable especially for the 
light they throw on the conversion of a Priory into this Abbey, which had been, 
we find, effected before the King's return to England at the close of 11 20. It should 
be noted that one of the King's Charters is separately confirmed by his son, whose act 
is witnessed by Other " Fitz Count." who perished with him in the White Ship 
his tutor. The Monasticon Charter cannot be earlier than 1121, being witnessed 
by Queen Adeleya, but as it was granted when the first Abbot was blessed by the 
Bishop of St. Davids, it not improbably belongs to the King's visit to Wales in 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 45 

that year,^ in which case we could say that he was in the Pembroke district, 
September 1 1, ill;. 

It has been suggested that the original founder of the Abbey's Welsh house, was 
the father of Robert Fitzmartin. Of this father nothing is really known. The 
Editor would suggest that his name was not " Martin de Tours," as is always stated, 
but that we may detect him in " Martinus de Wales," the first witness to the 
foundation Charter of Totnes Priory.- This would carry back to a very early date 
his settlement in Wales. But the narrative quoted above is conclusive as to 
Robert's claims. 

The charter of i8 Edward III has been selected for the confirmation of 
Henry I charter, and the recital of Robert Fitzmai;tin's gifts, wherein he 
mentions the monastery established by him " in my land of Guales " and the 
ancient Church of St. Dogmaels. The boundaries are also given of the land 
granted by Robert to the Abbey. It is bounded by the river Teify, and the 
sea on the north, north-east, and west. On the east by the stream called the 
Bryan, which river in old maps is represented under the name of Braian, and 
as flowing into the river Teify near the " Forest " quarries, and from that river 
stretching south of certain farms belonging to Martin's followers, namely, 
Robert of Languedoc, Roger of Mathone, to the boundaries of Hugo, surnamed 
Gualensis, and as far as the river, which divides his land from Llanbloden 
Manor. Also in the Presely Mountains, from the land of Hubert de Vaux to 
Cwm Carw (or Cerwyn) and from thence to the source of the river Cleddau. 

Also his mother, Geva, granted to the monastery the Island of Caldey, 
which had been given to Robert by Henry I, who in his turn had granted it to 
his mother, whereon had stood an ancient religious house. This Island of 
Caldey was granted with all rights of fishing, milling, wood, and of the chase. 
Also in England Robert granted Rattre, in Devonshire, with all its appur- 
tenances. Possibly this Rattre is the same as the Wadtre of the former grant. 

This confirmation also states that William Lord Abbot of Tiron came to 
St. Dogmaels for the installation of Fulchardus, as Abbot; Bernard Bishop of 
St. David's was also present, and both, amongst others, signed the original 
charter. This confirmation of Edward III was in its turn signed, amongst 
others, by Gilbert de Clare, who had married one of Edward Ill's daughters, 
and the Bishop of St. David's, in 1290. 

Moylgrove, so named from Matilda's (Welsh Mallt) Grove, belonged to 
the Abbey at the dissolution, and, with Llantood, still belongs to St. Dogmaels. 
It is stated to have been part of the dowry of Matilda, the daughter of William 
Peverel, and wife of Robert Fitzmartin, and was so-called by the Normans 



' Sym Dun II, 263, 4. 3/MS. 5446, f. 269. 



46 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

because it was Matilda's favourite place for walking. It was given to the 
Monastery by her; it may have been in a later grant than the one of 1118, now 
lost, as it is mentioned in subsequent deeds. 

By Matilda urging Robert to make gifts to the Abbey, it is natural to 
believe that she also made some gift, as her mother-in-law, Geva, had done. 

Moylgrove will be heard of again in a later chapter' under its Welsh name 
of Trewyddal, the Irish hamlet, or village, in the argument as to the meaning 
of " Guales." The grove at Moylgrove, or Trewyddal, was stated to have been 
two hundred acres in extent. 

Charthr R (76) 18 Edw. 3' m. 13, No. 47. 

In the name of the holy and indivisable Trinity I Henry King of England and 
Duke of Normandy for the redemption of my soul and souls of my predecessors have 
granted to the Monks of Tiron my wife Adelaide also concurring whatever grants 
Robert son of Martin has given or shall give to the same Monks to be an 
undisturbed possession for ever as is written below in the parchment now before me. 

r Robert son of Martin thinking of reward in heaven with the consent or rather 
at the suggestion of my wife Matilda for the glory of Holy Church in my land 
of Guales commiserating the poverty of the Monks of Tiron established a Monastery 
in honour of the Holy Mother of God the ever Virgin Mary for the religious brethren 
there abiding I have obtained an Abbot from the Lord Abbot William and all 
the convent of Tiron with God's help at length after many entreaties desiring to meet 
their needs as far as the extent of my resources allowed Henry the illustrious King of 
England urging and likewise confirming what grants I have made and shall make to 
the Abbot and his Monks and their successors to be an undisturbed possession forever 
I have effected that in the same Abbey nothing can be set up by any secular power 
contrary to canonical authority viz. neither by the King himself nor by any prince of 
his soever nor by any of their successors I have given to them the ancient church of 
St. Dogmael with possession of the land adjacent to the same church whose name is 
Landodog in the Province of Cemaes by the bank of the river Teify. I have also 
given them all the land situated on the confines of the same aforesaid church and place 
which at that time I used to hold under my sway whose boundaries are as follows. 
From a certain river whose name is Braian'' which in those parts divides between * 
Emlyn and Cemaes as it descends to the next river the Teify and thence as the same 
river flows into the nearest sea. Likewise the land from the same aforesaid river 
towards the south as far as the land of Robert of Languedoch and thence along 
the land of Roger of Mathone towards the west until one reaches the land of William 
son of Roger and thence as far as the boundaries of Hugo with the surname' Gualensis 



' Chapter VI. 

I have also a copy of Kdward I and Edward II Charters. They are identically the same. 

" The Braian falls into the Teify west of Cilgerran Church. Does it take its name from the de Brians ! 

' The old hundred of Emlyn is now half in Carmarthenshire, half in Pembrokeshire, the 
Pembrokeshire half being now called the hundred of Cilgerran. 

' A division of Pembroke called Guales in the " Mabinogion," Galles in the " Cartularie de 
Tiron," and Walenses in G. Owen's " Pembrokeshire." 







V 



i 



N1 



^^ 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 47 

viz. as far as the river which divides his land and Lanbloden manor which belongs to 
them. All that la.-d accordingly which lies within these boundaries as well cleared as 
covert with the trees belongs to the Monks. I have also given them one of my 
knights by name Alan with his land which also lies within the aforesaid boundaries 
and also in the mountain districts the district named Breselech^ from the land of 
Hubert de Vaux as far as the source of a certain brook which is called Comb. 
Karo^ and thence until it flows into a river whose name is Cledi^ and thence towards 
the source of the same Cledi until it reaches a fair-sized brook which descends from 
the summit of the mountain on the right and thence along the summit of the 
same mountain as it extends lengthwise until one again reaches the land of Hubert de 
Vaux I to the aforesaid Monastery have granted. Whosoever indeed of my men 
for the remission of his sins shall have made grants of their land to the same 
Monastery those grants I altogether allow. Likewise to the same Monks my mother 
has granted the island of Pyr which is now called by another name Caldey which 
granted to me by my lord the King I had granted to my mother and this grant 
I willingly confirm. I have granted them also in addition that wherever in my own 
woods my swine are fed their swine may also pasture and that they may take 
without let or hindrance from thence for themselves whatever timber they may wish 
for building purposes. I have likewise given them the fishery of St. Dogmaels and 
have granted them all the waters as far as their land extends to use for milling or 
seine-fishing or any other fisheries or for whatever other purpose they can practise or 
devise. I have also given them of all the stags or hinds taken in my chase all 
the skins except tho.se which belong to the hunters. And in England I have given 
them a certain manor named Ratreu* with all its appurtenancies. Accordingly 
although I may have made these grants at different times nevertheless at the 
ordination of the Abbot this donation was solemnly made on the day when the 
first Abbot of the same place Fulchardus by name was enthroned in his seat by the 
lord Bernard Bishop of the Church of St. Davids with the consent of the same Bishop 
whatever of my tithes I had given to the same Abbot as well of produce as of animals 
whether of sheep or of foals or of calves or of any cattle soever of which a tithe ought 
to be rendered of wool of cheese and butter in Guales. These were accordingly given 
on the loth of September in the presence as witnesses of the same of Bishop Bernard 
and William lord Abbot of Tiron and also Richard son of G(osner ?) and Humphrey 
son of Gosmer* and Stephen Dapifer the King's Steward of Richard Alfred de 
Bennevilla* the same attesting this Charter. 

SEAL SEAL 

of of 

Henrv + King. Adelaide + Queen, 

of of 

+ of 

Seal + Robert. Seal + Bishop Bernard. Seal + Mathilda. Seal + Richard 
4- son of G. 

+ of Stephen -|- of Alfred -|- of Humphrey. 



' Presely. = Cwm Carw. ' Cleddau. ' Rattre, Devon. 

'Sfe G. Owen's " rembrokeshire," p. 363, Godfrey. "? Alfred of Bayvil. 



48 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

We accordingly ratifying the aforesaid donations and grants on behalf of ourselves 
and our heirs as far as in us lies allow and confirming them as duly witnessed in the 
aforesaid Charter. As witnesses whereof the venerable fathers R. Bath and Wells 
A. Durham J. Winchester and Thomas Bishop of St. Davids. Edmund our brother. 
William de Valence our uncle. Gilbert de Clare Earl of Gloucester and Hertford. 
John de Warrener Earl of Surrey. Humphrey de Bohm Earl of Hereford and 
Essex. Peter de Champnent. Richard de Wood and others. Given under our hand 
at Westminster the i6th day of June [1290]. 

The further ratification of this grant by Kings Richard II Henry IV and 
Henry V as follows. 

And we the gifts grants and confirmations aforesaid being ratified the same for 
us and our heirs as far as in us lies to our beloved in Christ the Abbot and Convent 
of St. Dogmaels the Monks of Tiron and their successors have granted and confirmed 
as the aforesaid Charters reasonably witness as they and their predecessors the 
aforesaid lands and tenements have hitherto held and the liberties aforesaid have 
reasonably used and enjoyed. These being witnesses the venerable fathers W Arch- 
bishop of York primate of England our Treasurer J bp of Winchester our Chancellor 
W bp of Norwich John of Eltham Earl of Cornwall our beloved brother John de 
Warrenne Earl of Surrey Thomas Wake Ralph de Nevill Steward of our Household 
and others. Given by our hand at Langele the 3rd Feb. the 5th year of our reign. 
And we the gifts grants and confirmations aforesaid and all and singular in the 
Charter aforesaid contained being ratified the same for us and our heirs as far as in 
us lies we have accepted and approved and to our beloved in Christ the now Abbot 
and Convent of the place aforesaid have granted and confirmed as the Charter 
aforesaid reasonably witnesses and as they and their predecessors the lands and 
tenements aforesaid have hitherto held and the liberties aforesaid have been wont 
to use and enjoy. In witness whereof these our letters patent we have caused 
to be made. Witness myself at Westminster the' 2nd June the 20th year of our 
reign. And we the gifts grants and confirmations aforesaid and all other and singular 
in these aforesaid Charters contained being ratified the same for us and our heirs as 
far as in us lies we accept approve and to our beloved in Christ the now Abbot and 
Convent of aforesaid place we grant and confirm as the letters aforesaid reasonably 
witness and as they and their predecessors hitherto had and held and the liberties 
aforesaid have been wont to use and enjoy. In witness whereof these our letters 
patent we have caused to be made. Witness myself at Westminster the * ist July the 
7th year of our reign. And we the gifts grants and confirmations aforesaid and all 
and singular in the Charters and letters aforesaid contained being ratified the same 
for us and our heirs as far as in us lies we accept approve and to our beloved in Christ 
the now Abbot and Convent of the place aforesaid and their successors by tenor of 
these presents we have granted and confirmed as the Charters and letters aforesaid 
reasonably witness and as they and their predecessors the lands and tenements aforesaid 
have hitherto had and held and the liberties aforesaid have been wont to use and enjoy. 
In witness whereof we have caused to be made these our letters patent. Witness 

'20 R. 2. '7 n. 4. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 49 

myself at Westminster the 2nd ApriH the fourth year of our reign. And we the 
letters aforesaid of ^uch liberties and customs not revoking by the advice and consent 
of the lords spiritual and temporal in our Parliament held at Westminster the 
1st year of our reign accept approve ratify and to the now Abbot and Convent of 
aforesaid place and his successors confirm as the letters aforesaid reasonably witness 
and as the said Abbot and Convent the liberties and customs aforesaid ought to use 
and enjoy and as they and their predecessors the aforesaid liberties and customs have 
always hitherto been wont to use and enjoy. In witness etc. Humphrey Duke of 
Gloucester Keeper of England at Westminster the 6th day of July. 
By the King himself and Council in Parliament. 

In a confirmation of a grant by Richard II of a grant made by Nicholas, 
son of Martin, Richard states that he had viewed the original confirmatory 
charter of Nicholas Fitzmartin, wherein Willicim, son and heir of Jordan de 
Cantington (near Eglwyswrw), granted the land of Fishguard to the Abbey 
of St. Dogmaels; this land remained in the possession of the Abbey to the 
end, and afterwards passed with St. Dogmaels into the hands of Mr. Bradshaw. 

In this grant the land given lay on both sides of the river Gwaine, and 
also extended to the sea. 

Nicholas herein speaks well of the hospitality and manner of life led by 
the monks at that time, and also comments on their poverty; so that in all 
probability this grant was made shortly after the pillaging of the Abbey by the 
Irish under the four Welsh princes in 1138, of which we read in the "Annales 
Cambriae," when Anaraud, Cadell, Owain, and Cadwaladr, with fifteen ships 
full of men (most probably Irish) Ctime to Aberteivi (Cardigan) at Martinmas, 
1 1 38, and made great slaughter all the way (up the river). These people also 
pillaged the town and Church of Llandudoch (which is St. Dogmaels), and 
carried off exceeding great booty to their ships. 

Naturally, after this, for a time at least, the monks would be poor. 

It is clearly indicated that this grant of William de Cantington, grandson 
of Lucas de Hoda,^ was made during the life of Robert Martin, inasmuch as 
both Robert and William Martin are among the witnesses. This would prove 
that this Nicholas whose confirmation Richard had before him was Robert's 
brother and Martin's son, and not " the Nicholas, Lord of Cemaes, and son of 
Martin" as he styles himself, though sixth in descent from Martin. This 
Nicholas Martin of the grant does not claim to be Lord of Cemaes. 

Moreover, immediately after 11 38 the monks were undoubtedly poor, 
having just been pillaged by the Irish, whereas in the time of Nicholas, Lord 
of Cemaes, the Monastery was nearing the zenith of its prosperity. 

'4-H. 5. 'One of Martin's followers. 



50 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Jordan, the first de Cantington, was one of Lucas de Hoda's sons, so would 
certainly be a contemporary of Robert, and Jordan's son, William, would 
certainly be living at the same time as Robert Martin and his son William. 
Also Philip de Stackpool, another of the witnesses, was a contemporary of 
Robert and William Martin, so that the date of this charter may certainly be 
fixed as soon after 1 1 38. Inn 88 we know the Monastery had again become 
prosperous. 

According to Fenton, Fishguard was settled by some of Martin's followers 
under Jordan, son of Lucas de Hoda, who later on lived near Eglwyswrw. It 
is clear that he possessed Fishguard, for his son, William, granted land on 
both sides the river Gwayne' to the Abbey of St. Dogmaels. 

The names of Jordan and his brother Richard are still preserved in the 
names of farms in North Pembrokeshire, as Tre Wrdan (Jordan's home) Tre 
Wrdan Uchaf, Tre Wrdan Isaf (upper and lower homes of Jordan), Rhos 
Wrdan (Jordan's Moor), all adjoining. The next farm to Rhos Wrdan is 
Trereikart (Richard's home), whilst another farm bears the name of Tre[rei]cart. 
Both they and their sons were naturally followers of the Martins, as their 
father had been, and Jordan and Richard, or their descendants, signed several 
of the charters of the Martins, copies of which are printed in the Baronia de 
Kemes, though most of these charters refer to the Barony and not to the Abbey. 

In the Charter Roll No. 3 is an Inspeximus (" we have viewed.") 
Charter R. (76) 18 Edw. Ill No. 3. 

On behalf of the Abbot and Monks of St. Dogmaels of Cemaes.* 
The King to the Archbishops greeting we have examined the confirmatory 
Charter which Robert son of Martin made to the Monastery (margin and the Abbot 
and Monks of the same place) of St. Mary and St. Dogmaels in Cemaes . . . .* with 
donation and grant of the land of Fishguard in these words. To all of the church 
of St. Mat(thew ?)'s to whom the present writing may come. Nicholas son of Martin 
sends greeting in the Lord . . . .* Jordan son and heir of the Lord William of 
Cantington which he made to the Monastery of St. Mary and St. Dogmael in Cemaes 
and to the Abbot and to the Monks of the same place granted above .... in these 
words. Let all present and future know that I William of Cantington son and heir 
of Jordan of Cantington etc. 

Leaf Charter R. 76. 18 Edw. I. No. 47 missing. 
Patent Roll (346) 20 Ric. 2 p. 3. m. 12. (1396-7). 

We have viewed the confirmatory charter which Nicholas son of Martin made to 
the monastery of St. Mary and St. Dogmael in Cemaes and to the abbot and monks 

' The Welsh name is Abergwayne. 
* All to l)e seen (well written) in Pat. K. 20, R. 3, p. 3, m. 12, 346. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 51 

of the same place concerning the gift and grant of the land of Fishguard in these 
words. To all the sons of holy church to whom the present writing comes Nicholas 
son of Martin sends greeting in the Lord. The charter of William of Cantiton^ son 
and heir of Jordan of Cantiton which he made to the monastery of St. Mary and 
St. Dogmael in Cemaes and to the Abbot and Monks of the same place concerning 
the gift and grant of the land of Fishguard we have viewed in these words. Let all 
present and future know that I William of Cantiton son and heir of Jordan of 
Cantington on behalf of myself and my heirs have given granted and by this my 
present charter confirmed for God's sake and for the sake of my soul and of the souls 
of my predecessors and successors as a fi-ee and perpetual alms to God and to the 
monastery of St. Mary and St. Dogmael in Cemaes and to the monks serving God 
and St. Mary and St. Dogmael in that place forever all my land of Fishguard on both 
sides of the river Gwain with all its appurtenances and with all my rights which I 
hold or shall hold in the aforesaid land of Fishguard to have and to hold forever all 
the said land with all its appurtenances to God and to the monastery of St. Mary 
and St. Dogmael in Cemaes and to the monks who forever there serve God and the 
Blessed Mary and St. Dogmael as a pure and perpetual gift in woods and plains in 
roads and paths in meadows and pastures in land arable and not arable in waters 
mills fisheries fishponds in common of pasture in harbours in the sea with all liberties 
and free customs of the said land within and without forever actually or possibly 
appertaining to it so that the said land or other land can be given or held better and 
more freely and more fully as a pure and free and perpetual gift. And I the said 
William and my heirs will warrantise all the said land of Fishguard in Cemaes with 
all its appurtenances in the aforesaid form to God and to the monks of the said 
monastery who there serve St. Mary and St. Dogmael against all mortal men forever. 
And that my gift grant and confirmation and warrantisation of my present charter 
may remain forever firm and valid I strengthen the present charter with the impress 
of my seal. As witnesses whereof the lord William of Bolevill then seneschal of 
Pembroke Tankard of the Household then sheriff Robert of Crippinges then constable 
lords David de Barry David de Wydeurze Philip (?) of Stakepol John of Castlemartin 
John de Buffeto Knights Roger de Mortimer Gilbert de Roche William de Canvill 
William son of Maurice Walter Malensant Herbert St. Leger John de Castro and 
others. 

These accordingly having been carefully inspected and (solemnly and piously 
considered) I Nicholas son of Martin having heed to the honourable manner of life 
and hospitality of the aforesaid monks and no less to the poverty of the said monastery 
for the sake of my soul and of my predecessors and successors all things which by 
the aforesaid William of Cantington have been conferred upon the aforesaid monks 
and their successors and upon the aforesaid monastery in lands and liberties which 
I and my heirs can rightly give and confirm I grant and by my present charter 
confirm and will to be held forever firm valid and undisturbed and to be preserved 
without any gainsaying or diminution on any pretext or annoyance firmly and 
faithfully by me and all my heirs and assigns. And so that none of my heirs or 
assigns may go counter to this my grant and confirmation or in any thing contradict 

' This was a manor in Eglwyswrw belonging to the Cantingtons, Jordan being a son of Lucas de Hoda. 

4 



Sa THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

it I have strengthened the present charter with the impress of my seal. In witness 
whereof Lords Stephen of Edesworth then seneschal of Pembroke William Martin 
Guy de Brian Robert de Vaur William de Kannvill John of Castlemartin Robert 
Martin Gilbert de Roche Knights John of Sherburn then Sheriff of Pembroke Roger 
de Mortimer Robert Martin of Cemaes Eynon son of William Llewelyn Goch then 
constable of Kemmeys and others. 

We accordingly ratifying and approving the aforesaid gift grant and confirmation 
on behalf of ourselves and our heirs as far as in us lies grant and confirm them in so 
far as the aforesaid charter reasonably testifieth. In witness whereof the venerable 
father R. of Bath and Wells Bishop our Chancellor William de Valence our uncle 
Henry de Lacy Earl of Lincoln Humphrey de Bohun Earl of Hereford and Essex 
Robert de Tybbot Walter Beauchamp Richard de Wood and others. Given under 
our hand at King's Clifton i on the sixth day of November in the eighteenth year 
of our reign. We accordingly etc. Given under our hand at Langley on the third 
day of February in the fifth year of our reign. We accordingly etc. As witness the 
King at Westminster on the second day of June. 

In return for 50 shillings paid into the Kings Treasury. 

Pat. 14 Edw. 2 pt. I m. 13. Printed Col. page 513. 

It is not surprising that the monks complained, as they did, of great 
poverty, in the ancient petitions, and begged the king to permit that Elena 
Brazon, of Cardigan, may be allowed to help them to the extent of eleven 
shillings, referring to their having been pillaged of late, as seen in the 
following : 

Ancient Petitions. 
"No. 6880. 

To our Lord the King and his Council the Abbot and Convent of St. Dogmaels in 
Wales shew that as they have been often pillaged of late and are living in great 
poverty through the war which has been in their country they pray the King 
for love of God and for the soul of the Queen that they may have help from 
a lady who wishes to advance them by a rent of eleven shillings in the town of 
Cardigan if the goodwill of the King will allow it which they pray the King that he 
will allow and confirm the deed of the lady if it pleases him. 

Elena Brazon who was the wife of Henry Brazon. 

Following on this, in the Harleian MSS., is the confirmation by Bishop 
Bernard, of St. David's, who died 1147. of the grant of Lisprant, by Hugh de 
Fossar, to the Abbey of St. Dogmaels, with the exception of half the mill, the 
mill dwelling-house, and a bovate of land. However, a century and a-half 
later we find the Manor of Lisprant was given to Llawhaden. This deed was 
witnessed by Hubert Abbot of St. Dogmaels, possibly successor to Fulchardus, 

' Chepstow. 



THE HISTORY OF 5T. DOGMAELS ABBEY. S3 

and what is singular, by three Canons of St. David's, all rejoicing in the name 
of John, one being digni&ed as Master John, the second having nothing but 
John by which to know him, the third was more fortunate, being known as 
John of Osterlof. 

In 9 Edward I we find the king writing to Bourgo de Neville regarding 
the Manor of St. Dogmaels, about the possession of which there was evidently 
some dispute. 

Harleian MSS. 1249, f. 109 b. 

Bernard by the grace of God Bishop of St. David's to all his faithful parishioners 
cleric as well as lay present and future the spirit of truth is not extinguished but of its 
own grace it grows through all things more abundantly let all of you know and 
understand that we in common council and with the assent of our church and of 
our faithful ones at the request also and with the consent of Hugh de Forsar have 
granted and given to the church of St. Mary's of the abbey of Cemaes and the 
brethren who there serve and will serve the Lord all the land Lispranst with the 
church saving however all episcopal custom to be held by right in perpetual alms for 
the soul of Henry the King and Matilda the Queen and their sons and all our 
ancestors and for our soul in that full liberty with which St. David holds his other 
lands with the exception of half the emoluments of the mill it they shall use the same 
and half the fish there caught the dwelling-place also connected with the mill being 
retained for us together with an ox-plough of land to remain in the common service 
of the mill if indeed it can be done let the brethren have the lordship of the mill quit 
all the rest of the emoluments to be reserved for us. Besides we have provided that it 
ought to be set down to pure charity that between us and Hugo it was so arranged 
that he appointed none except our church to be the heirs of his land which 
inheritance we assign to the aforesaid church and the profits of the same to be held 
uninterruptedly and the contents of this page we fortify and strengthen with the 
authority also of God and of our church. To all moreover who confirm and support 
this our gift we wish all happiness and grace but all who contradict or in anyway 
gainsay let their souls be driven to destruction by the scourge of eternal damnation. 
As witness Jordan Archdeacon and Master John and John together with John 
of Osterlof canons Augustine prior Walter chaplain and the laymen Jordan the 
steward Stephen the steward Abbot Hubert Edgar Hubert nephew of the bishop 
and many others besides. 

Originalia. 9 Edw. I, m. 10. 

The King to his beloved and faithful Burgo de Neville his Justicia in West 
Wales greeting. Concerning the agreement and will of our beloved and faithful 
Robert del Val we command you that the manor of St. Dogmaels with its 
appurtenances which recently at our command you took into our power and to which 
the aforesaid Robert says that he has a right you are to deliver to Master Thomas Beke 
to hold at our will so that of the revenues thence arising he is to render us account 
whenever we wish to have it. You are to deliver also to the same Thomas the other 
lands and tenements which likewise at our command you took into our power in the 



54 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

manors of Loghaden* and Landfey' on the occasion of the death lately of the Bishop 
of St. David's to hold at our will. So that of the revenues thence arising he is 
to render us account in the manner aforesaid at our command As witness whereof 
the King at Westminster the 6 day of June [1281]. 

Originalia. 9 Ed. I, m. 13. 

It is commanded Bogo de Knovill the King's Justice in West Wales that he shall 
deliver to Master Thomas Bek the manor of St. Dogmaels with appurtenances 
and other lands of Loghaeden and Landsey by reason of the death of the Bp. of 
St. Davids. 

Dugdale commences by calling St. Dogmaels a priory in the County of 
Pembroke, a cell of the Monastery of Tiron; but continues by calling it an 
abbey of the order of Si. Margin of Tours, declared to be of the order of St. 
Benedict. Speed falls into the same error, both evidently confounding the 
knight and the saint. Dugdale also adds that 

" Flood, precentor of the church of St. Davids told him, that Martin of the 
Towers, the first among the Normans who acquired Cemaes by war, and who founded 
the Monastery, and was buried in the middle of the choir," together, as we find 
elsewhere, with his wife and son Robert. 

Leland is equally erroneous in his statements. 

John Stevens, who compiled the " History of Abbeys and Monasteries, etc.," 
in 1733, is correct, he evidently having taken the trouble to read the charters, 
whereas it is simply impossible that Dugdale could have read the charter he 
gives of Henry I, for if he had, he would not have made so many gross 
mistakes. Stephens adds that in Royal Charters the monks of Tiron were 
always called " The Black Monks of Tiron." On p. 257 of the Appendix in his 
second volume, is the following quotation, under the heading of 

"Monasteries of the Ordek of Tiron." 
St. Dogmaels. 

Monastery of the Order of Tiron in Pembrokeshire. 

" This Monastery is to be found in the Monasticon, Vol. I, p. 454, and in the 
English abridgment, p. 55 ; but the little there said of it is confused and erroneous. 
In the head or title it is called a cell of Tyron, which it was not properly, but an Abbey 
of that congregation or Order. In the next lines it is called an Abbey of St. Martin of 
Tours, wherein is a visible error, for having said it was of Tiron, it could not be 
of Tours. Leland there quoted is no more to be regarded, where he says this 
Monastery was founded by Martin of Tours, whereas the founder was his son Robert." 

' Llawhadcn. - Lamfrey. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 55 

Here Stephens continues to point out that the charter Dugdale gives of 
Henry I " plaini}' shows all these mistakes," and that it could not be called a 
" cell of Tiron," for cells never had abbots, but were only governed by priors. 
" Besides the monastery is there thrown among the Benedictines, whereas in 
reality it was of a distinct congregation, or order, the Rule of St. Benedict 
being indeed the ground of their profession, but having many other observances 
added to it." 

Rymer relates that William Abbot of Tiron was present at the instalment 
of the first Abbot of St. Dogmaels, but is in error as to date, making it about 
1 1 26, and also states that Bernard Bishop of St. David's was present, "who 
seems to have been of the same order." 

Tanner ascribes the commencement of the Monastery to Martin of Tours, 
and that it was endowed and made an Abbey by his son; it was dedicated to 
St. Mary, and had a yearly income of 96/. o.y. 2d. gross, and 87/. 8j-. M. net. 
Leland also erroneously calls St. Dogmael " a priory of Bonhommes." 



\ 



:( 





ANCIENT GATEWAY. ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Phot^re^lud by BUhep Mitchinson, Masttr of Pembroke ColUj;e, Oxford. 




CHAPTER V. 



THE MARTINS. 




N the Duchess of Cleveland's Battle Abbey Roll, Mcirtin, or, as his 
name is spelt in Norman, Marteine, is mentioned, both in 
Holinshed's Roll, and Duchesne's Roll, as among the knights, 
who came over with William the Conqueror, and was conse- 
quently with him at the Battle of Hastings. 

He is also mentioned in Leland's Roll as Martine, though oddly enough 
he is not mentioned in the list, which is still in existence at Dives, near Caen, in 
Normandy, and it is from Dives that William the Conqueror is known to have 
sailed. The Duchess of Cleveland, in the Battle Abbey Roll, calls Martin 
" Sire de Tour, four miles from Bayeux," in Normandy, and states that " he 
came over with William of Normandy, in 1066, and conquered the territory of 
Kemeys, in Pembrokeshire. It was erected into a Palatine Barony, which he 
governed as Lord Marcher. . . . He was a great benefactor to religious 
houses, and began the foundation of a Benedictine Abbey' at St. Dogmaels, 
annexing it as a cell to the Monastery of Tirone, in France. The endowment 
was given by his son, Robert Fitzmartin,^ whose charter is witnessed by Henry I, 
who afterwards grinted a further confirmation charter. In the next generation 
Willicmi Fitzmartin (Robert's son) married a Welsh princess, the daughter of 
Rhys ap GryfFydd .... from whom he received great injury, for by 
force of arms he took from him his strong castle of Llanhever (Castell Nevern), 
in Kemeys Land, contrary to his oath and solemn promise of peace and friend- 
ship." William's grandson married Maud, daughter of Guy de Brian' and Eva, 
his wife, daughter of Henry de Tracy, Baron of Barnstaple. William Martin 
acquired, through her, the honour of Barnstaple and numerous estates in 



'Should be Priory. 'Who also built the Abbey. 

'There were six Guy de Brians in succession. 



^ 




^ 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 57 

Devonshire; he also owned a great deal of property in Devonshire, both' what 
had belonged originally to his great-great-grandfather, Martin, from the time 
of the Conquest, and the lands that had once belonged to William of Fallaise.. 
This William Martin (fifth in descent from Martin) had three sons, Nicholas 
(Lord of Cemaes), who left an only daughter, Colinetus, and Robert; Colinetus 
thus became heir to Nicholas, and was father of Sir William, who succeeded 
to the Barony of Cemaes. He was engaged in the Scottish wars and " constantly 
summoned to every Parlicunent as ' Baron of Kemeys ' from 1 7 Edward I to 
16 Edward II, in which year he died." His son died the following year without 
issue, when Cemaes passed through Joan Martin to the Audleys. One of 
Martin's descendants, in the younger branch, lived, in Queen Mary's time, to be 
nearly one hundred, and was noted for his charity. 

In Chapter II, on the conquest of Cemaes by the Normans, one sees 
something of the character of Martin, and in Chapter IV how his son, Robert, 
is described as a man of most noble birth and evidently pious. Let us now 
consider some of the many acts of Robert, and it will be seen at the same time 
that he was a man of note and substance both in France and various parts of 
England, as well as Wales, and also the esteem in which he was held by the 
number of charters he witnessed in various parts of England. 

With regard to the Martins there are several small things that tend to 
demonstrate their 'Norman origin. Not only is it seen how they are connected 
with Tiron; but they also contributed largely to the Abbey of Savigny, the 
Abbey which St. Bernard left when he founded his Abbey of Tiron. In the 
Cartulary of the Abbey of Savigny is a charter of Robert Fitzmartin, and 
Matilda, his wife, daughter of William Peverel, granting to the Abbey at 
Savigny the land of Venions, which had belonged to William Peverel ; this 
land, according to the Cartulary, was granted by Robert and Matilda 
before 1121. 

Cartulary of Savigny 

In the Archives of La Manche, at St. Lo, France. 

Folio 6. Ante 1121. 

Charter of Robert son of Martin and Matilda Peverel his wife notifying that they 
have given to the Abbey of Holy Trinity Savigny the land of William Peverel at 
Venions as it was held by himself and have placed that gift on the altar for the love 
of God and the redemption of their souls and those of their relatives. 

About ten years later there is a charter of Henry I, King of England, in 
the " Calendar of Documents," France, about 1 130, addressed to the Archbishop 
of Rouen, etc., confirming this grant of Robert and Matilda of the land of 
Vengions to Savigny. This Venions, or, as it is called in modern times, 



58 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Vengeons, through the " i " of Venions mutating into " g " and making 
Vengions, whilst in the seventeenth century the " i " changed into " e," hence 
the present form, Vengeons,' is about ten miles distant from Savigny. 

Calendar of Docitments Preserved in France, 
From Documents formerly of the Abbey of Savigny, p. 290. Circa 1 130. 
Charter of Henry I addressed to the Archbp. of Rouen and all his officers in 
Normandy. He grants to the Abbey of the Holy Trinity, Savigny, the gift of the 
land at Vengeons, which Robert, son of Martin, and Matildis his wife, have given by 
consent of Count Stephen of Mortain, of whose fee is that land, and of Earl Richard 
of Chester, of whom Robert and his wife held it etc. 

Together with the following and fuller confirmation of Henry II : 

P. 299. A.D. 1157. Charter of Hen. II granting to the Abbey of Savigny among 
other things, the land of Veniuns with the mill, multure etc. given by Robert, son of 
Martin, and Matilda, his wife, by permission of Richard, Earl of Chester, and Stephen, 
Count of Mortain. 

Again, there is a later charter of Richard I, 1198, confirming to the Abbey 
of Savigny all its possessions in Normandy, including the gifts of Robert 
Fitzmartin and his wife, Matilda, of the land of Wenion (Vengions, Veniuns, 
Venions) with the mill, etc., and all its other appurtenances, as follows : 

Charter of Richard I confirming to the Abbey of Savigny all its possessions in 
Normandy including the gift by Robert son of Martin and Matilda his wife, with 
consent of Richard Earl of Chester and Stephen Count of Mortain of the land of 
Wenions with the mill and the multure of the mill and its other appurtenances and 
taking the Abbey under his protection for the remission of his sins and the 
redemption of his soul. 

The following being witnesses thereof : Saverinus, Bishop of Bath, Robert 
Leicester, Baldwin Count of Albimare, William, son of Ralph Seneschal of 
Normandy, Robert Marmion, Seberius of Quineaco, Geraint, son of Gerald, 
Thomas Basset, Allen Basset, William of Stannus, Master Roslyn, Joel, the 
Chaplain, Baldwin, the Chaplain, and many others. Given by the hand of 
Eustach Bishop of Ely at my Court, the 31st day of July, in the ninth year of 
our reign, at my house at Caen^ (1198). 

In Symon of Durham's " History of the Acts of Kings of England," p. 236, 
is the following: "In the year 11 13 the monks of Tiron came to England. 
. . . . Now the first place that the monks of Tiron came to in Great Britain 
was St. Dograaels," as already given in the Cartulary of Tiron; also St 

' Mons. Etienne Dupont, Judge of the Civil Court, St. Malo. 
' Taken from the Cartulary of Savigny, f. 145. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 59 

Dogmaels was their first priory, and, later, their first abbey, followed by the 
founding of several other abbeys by their order both in England and Scotland. 

Thus 1 1 13 is confirmed as the date of Robert Fitzmartin's first journey to 
Tiron to bring over thirteen monks to the Priory de Guales, to which priory, 
lands, and churches in Devonshire had been given by Martin before he died. 

This journey of Robert's, in 11 13, was followed by another in 11 18, when 
he again went to Tiron, bringing back with him thirteen more monks, and 
an abbot for his newly-founded Abbey of St. Dogmaels, with which was in- 
corporated the Priory de Guales. 

In Helyot's "Histoire des Ordres Monastiques," Vol. IV, p. 573, Congre- 
gation of Tiron, is the following mention of Robert Fitzmartin : 

'' There were also an endless number of princes who came to see Bernard in his 
solitude, and not only made him big presents, but even built monasteries both during 
his life, and after his death, which they put under the Abbey of Tiron ; like William, 
Duke of Acquitaine ; Foulkes, Count of Anjou, who was later King of Jerusalem ; 

Guy, the young Count of Rochfort ; Robert Martin, etc This Robert, whom we 

believe to be the same as the one we are just about to mention, and to whom the King 
of England had given lands in his kingdom, took over there thirteen monks from 
Tiron, for whom he caused to be built the Abbey of Cemaes, in the diocese of 
St. Davids. This was before 11 16, in which year Bernard died." 

In the Montacute Charters, 1119-1129, there is a charter of Robert, son of 
Martin, who grants his Manor of Taunton to the Church of St. Peter of 
Montacute, at Carswell, for the souls of Hugh Earl of Chester and his wife, 
etc. ; and for the souls of his father, Martin, and his mother, Geva.* This is a 
very important charter, as though Robert's mother has often been mentioned, 
this is the only charter so far known wherein her name is given. 

Martin came over in 1066, so that in all probability he married in Britain, 
perhaps at Taunton, the only place in connection with which her name is 
mentioned. In 1087 he came to Wales, so that it is possible that he might have 
married in Wales, as, presuming that he married about 1089, Robert, his eldest 
son, would probably have been twenty-three in 11 13, the first we hear of him, 
and quite old enough to have journeyed to Tiron, or to have built the Abbey 
in 1 1 18. 

This grant was also signed by four of the Peverels, the last of the four 
being Matilda, afterwards his wife. 

In 1 141, in "Geoffrey de Mandeville," p. 94, Robert Fitzmartin witnesses 
a charter of the Empress Matilda to Geoffrey de Magneville. 

'Geva is an uncommon name what was her nationality? Was the name derived from [G]Eva, 
Ginivra, Genefer, or what? 



6o THE HISTORY Ol' ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Again his name occurs in the Pipe Roll, 31 Henry I, in connection with 
Dorset, wherein Robert Fitzmartin is excused his Danegeld xvjs. 

Also Robert witnessed two other charters of the Empress Matilda, both of 
them at Oxford.* 

The Charter of Baldwin de Riverius, Earl of Exeter, who granted to the 
Monastery of James, the Apostle, near Exeter, the Church of Tiverton, with 
tithes, etc., 1 141 -i 155, also contains among the witnesses the name of Robert 
Fitzmartin, so that he was evidently well-known in England, Wales, and 
Normandy. One of his sons, in 1 166, held five knights' fees of the Abbot of 
Glastonbury. 

MoNTACUTE Charter. 

Published by the Somersetshire Record Society, 1119-29. 

Charter of Robert son of Martin, who grants his Manor of Taunton to the Church 
of St. Peter of Montacute at Carswell for the souls of Hugh Earl of Chester and his 
wife, for the Welfare of Ranulph Earl of Chester, etc., and for the souls of his father 
Martin and his mother Geva .... [among the witnesses] Richard Peverel Hugh 
Peverel Ralph Peverel Matilda Peverel. 

From Matilda signing herself " Peverel " it is evident that Robert had not 
yet married, therefore this grant must have been earlier than 1 1 18, as in Robert's 
grant to St. Dogmaels, that same year, he names Matilda therein, his wife. 

In a MS. at SS. Sergius and Bacchus, Angier, there is a grant of Judhell, 
or Joel, to the Priory of Totnes, a cell of the Great Benedictine Abbey of 
SS. Sergius and Bacchus, wherein Joel desires that his sword might be hung 
over the altar in the Priory Church of Totnes. The first witness among others 
is Martin of Wales, etc., " all men of good memory." 

It has been already shown in one of the grants in a previous chapter that 
Robert had a brother, Nicholas; also another, Robert Martin, is mentioned in 
the same grant, who would be either Robert's son or nephew ; this grant is also 
signed by John of Castle Martin, but whether this is a brother, son, or nephew 
of Martin's, so far has not been ascertained. David, Bishop of St. David's in 
1328, was a descendant of Robert' Martin's. 

Further researches in the Domesday Book reveal that Martin held lands 
both in Buckinghamshire and in Lincolnshire.^ In the former county, under 
the heading " The Lands of Martin," it is stated that 

Martin held lands in Urchetone [Wroughton], in the Hundred of Sigelai, five 
and a-half hides of land for one manor. The land is five carucates. Under his sway 

k . ^ 

'Journal Bri.stol Archaeological Association xxxj, pp. 391 and 395. 
- This dates from before 10S6, so that Martin held these lands before coming to Wales. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 6 1 

is one and a-half carucates and possibly another half. Six villeins, with three 
bordars^ have three ploughs there is meadow land two carucates, there are four 
slaves. In all the total value was one hundred shillings, in the time of King 
Edward' six pounds. Azor, the son of Totus, a theign of King Edward, held this 
manor, another theign, his man, held one hide and might sell it. 

In Lincoln, under the heading of " The Lands of Martin," it appears 
that 

In Glentworth, Gamel hath six bovats of land subject of taxation. The land 
for ten oxen. Martin hath there four sokemen and one villain with five oxen to the 
carucate, and thirty acres of meadow land. In the time of King Edward it was 
valued at eight shillings, now ten shillings. 

In Helmswell, Sperrus hath ten bovats of land subject to taxation. The land 
for thirteen oxen. Martin hath there one carucate and one sokeman with two oxen 
on this land, and four villains and four bordars with one plough. In the time of King 
Edward valued at eleven shillings, now twenty shillings. 

In Hagetom, Sweyne hath three bovats of land, and four-fifths of a bovate subject 
to taxation. The land is four bovates, Martin has here two villains having three oxen 
to the carucate, and ten acres of meadow land. Value time of King Edward, and 
now, five shillings. 

In Owstrop, Godrie hath six bovates of land subject to taxation. The land for 
five Oxen. " Ber in Greuebi." [?] There are two villians and eight acres of meadow 
land, and at least one acre of wood. In the time of King Edward valued at ten 
shillings, now at eight shillings. 

This appears to be all the land held by Martin in these two counties. 

It seems to be certain that this must have been the same Martin, inasmuch 
as only one Martin is mentioned among the followers of William the 
Conqueror, though there was also the name Martinvast, yet all the brothers, of 
that name, kept the name in full. 

Mons. Etienne Dupont, Judge of the Civil Court, and President of the 
Historical and Archaeological Society of St. Malo, who is now writing a book 
on " Les Compagnons de Guillaume le Conquerant," has also made researches 
as to the place from which Martin originally came. He writes that he can 
affirm that Martin did not come from Tour, near Bayeux, nor from Tours, Ille 
et Loir. 

If Robert had come from Tour, near Bayeux, his name would certainly 
have been in the Dives Roll, as this Tour and Dives are both in the same 
department. Mons. Dupont also thinks it will be necessary to search for Martin 
in the direction of Poitou. 

' A Ipperior villain owning a cottage. ' King Edward the Confessor. 




CHAPTER VI. 



LITTLE IRELAND IN WALES. 




REGARDING the name given by either Martin, or Robert 
Fitzmartin, to the Priory at St. Dogmaels, before it was 
promoted to be an Abbey, namely, the " Prieure de Galles," 
in the Diocese of St. David's, in Cemaes, it seems ridiculous 
to translate this as the " Priory of Wales," knowing that both Cardigan Priory, 
and the Priory of Llanbadarn fawr were founded in 1 109 by a Norman knight, 
Gilbert de Clare, son of Gislebert de Crispin, son of Godfrid or Goisfred Conte 
d'Eu and de Brionne, a natural son of Richard the Elder, Duke of Normandy, 
who was thus a second cousin of William the Conqueror. This Gislebert, the 
father, and Martin came over at the same time, and were both held in high 
esteem by the Conqueror; they were therefore naturally well acquainted, as well 
as their lands being only separated by the rivers Teify and Brian. Thus it was 
quite impossible that Robert Fitzmartin should not know of these two earlier 
priories. Moreover, this Prieure de Galles is designated as being in the Diocese 
of St. David's, and in Cemaes. On p. 264, Vol. II, of the Cartulary of Tiron, 
is found " Genieae, Cathmeae, Chatmeae, Abbaye erigee en 1 1 1 8, dans le comt^ 
de Pembrock au diocese de Saint-David's (Angleterre) ; auparavant (that is 
before 11 18) prieure sous le nom de Prieure de Galles," and on p. 277, under 
" Galae," is again found, " prieure dans le diocese de Saint-David's en Angle- 
terre, erige en Abbaye en 11 18 sous le nom de Cameae." Galles is also written 
in Latin in other parts of the Cartulary as " Gallis." Referring to the 
" Mabinogion," in " Branwen, daughter of Lyr (King Lear), it is stated that after 
the death of Branwen, in Anglesea, her companions " went forth to Guales, in 
Penfro (Pembrokeshire), and they found a fair and regal spot overlooking 
the ocean." Later, George Owen, in his " History of Pembrokeshire," p. 503, 




^ 



1 



?l 



\^ 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 63 

under No. VI, Kernes Tracts, entitled, " Baroniae de Kemes Brevis Descriptio," 

writes : 

3I Carucates terra 1 [Morva 8 ] [in Nevern Parish over- 

extra feoda pre- / WaUensiitm \ Kilgwin Vechan 4 | _ ^ '-' 

dicta videlicet [? G/J Penkelly 1 f;^ Severn Parish now 

32' / \ Coedy Winoke 2 / called Coed Wynog.] 

Here again appears the same word, but apparently applied to a very small 
part of Cemaes, not more than fifteen or thirty-two carucates of land, a 
carucate in the time of George Owen measuring sixty-four acres, hence the 
fifteen carucates of land were only equivalent to nine hundred and sixty acres, 
or, if thirty-two carucates is correct, they were equivalent to 2,048 acres ; this did 
not include all the land belonging to the Prieure de Galles. 

Thus it is evident the " Wallensium " of the sixteenth century, the " Galles, 
Gallis, Galae "of 1 1 18 and earlier, of the Cartulary of Tiron, and the " Guales " 
of the " Mabinogion." all refer to a certain region in Pembrokeshire overlooking 
the sea, and certainly the mention in the Cartulary indicates a larger extent 
of country than that mentioned by George Owen. 

The most probable derivation of these names is from the Teutonic word 
" Walisc " or " Waelisc," in Anglo-Saxon, " Wealh " meaning " foreigner," 
which meaning is also found in the names " Gaul," " Gallia," " Wallachia," 
"Walloons," "Galatia," in " Wiilschland," the old German name, and "Wallach," 
as the Germans called the Romans, and in " Wales " and "Welsh," as this part of 
Britain and its inhabitants were called by the Anglo-Saxons, and are still so- 
called by the English of to-day. Though the name is not in the so-called 
Welsh language, nor do the people so call themselves in their own language; 
for "Wales" is, and ever has been, "Cymry" (hence the Latin "Cambria"), 
and " Welsh " is " Cymraeg." 

Roman remains in this region have already been noticed, also the Roman 
language must have been well understood here, as all the old inscribed stones 
found have Latin inscriptions. The Irish have also been already noted in 
Cemaes. A strong point in favour of the settlement of Irish in this neighbour- 
hood is that the Ogham inscriptions on these same stones are in Irish, thus 
indicating that the two languages then spoken in Cemaes were Latin and Irish, 
not Latin and Welsh. Also there are several place names around, wherein the 
Celtic word Gwyddel (Irish) still lingers, for example, "Trewyddel,"^ the 
Welsh name for " Moylgrove," meaning the Irish village. 

' Apparently 17 carucates of land have been omitted. 
'Though some authorities derive this from Gwydd, a shrub, which seems to be far-fetched. 



64 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

It is futile to trust the " Mabinogion " unsupported as evidence, for though 
some of the stories refer to events in the fourth and sixth centuries, and even 
earlier, still the earliest copy of it extant only dates back to the twelfth century, 
and in it traces are found both of Norman modes of thought, and customs. 
Before 1118 this Priory at St. Dogmaels was called the Prieure de Galles, in 
Cathmais, but neither Norman, nor English, was at that time spoken in any 
part of Pembrokeshire, beyond the few Norman followers of the Martins, so 
that no one then living in Pembrokeshire could have picked out this portion of 
Cemaes and called it Guales or Galles, meaning foreigners, more especially as 
Martin's followers were settled in different parts of Cemaes, among the Welsh. 
Consequently the prevailing language was Cymraeg (Welsh), and is it likely 
that these Welsh people would call any part of Pembrokeshire " Galles," 
meaning by that term " Welsh " or foreigners, evidently we must look further 
for the meaning of this name" Guales," " Galles," " Gallis," " Galae." The 
cognate term was well known to the Romans as meaning strangers or foreigners; 
they were called Wallachs or foreigners by the Teutons, and the Welsh, learning 
from the Romans this name for foreigner, applied it to the Irish settled in this 
part of Cemaes, calling this portion of the cantref Guales, or Galles, and later 
Wallensium. Taking into connection with this, the Irish inscriptions on the 
Ogham stones, the traces of Irish in so many place-names, the legends as to 
Irish settlers, the raids from Ireland mentioned in the "Annales Cambriae," 
Cunedda Wledig sending some of his sons from Strathclyde to help to drive 
out the Irish it would certainly indicate that this northern portion of Cemaes 
had been settled by Irish, and was called Guales or Galles by the surrounding 
Welsh. 

Guales might easily be a corruption of Gwyddel* (pronounced Gwy/Ael), 
the dd in Gwyddel disappearing, Gwy-el would remain, not unlike Gual, as 
Goi^^el also changes later into Gael by the elimination of the dh, and 
Ca/Amais into Camais, Cemaes by the similar disappearance of the th. 

Another very important point is that in the Erse language the word for Irish 
is Gaedeilg, Gaedeilge, equivalent again to Goidhel, Gael, Gaules, Galles. 

Referring again to the " Mabinogion," in Killwch and Olwen, the west 
coast of Pembrokeshire was in those days 'subject to invasion from the 
Gwyddel Fichti,^ and George Owen, a thousand years later, picks out 
Penkelly, in Wallensium, as well as Cwm Carw, as being particularly Irish, 
every third cottage, in some of the villages, being inhabited by Irish. 

' Meaning Irish. 
- Meaning the P.iinted Irish, or Irish Picts. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 65 

Still one thing more may be noted on the subject to forestafll criticism; in 
part of George Owen's " History of Pembrokeshire," published by Fenton, in 
1796, in the Cambrian Register, George Owen writes of the upper part of 
Pembrokeshire, Northern Cemaes, as the " Welshery " ; this is due to Welsh 
being spoken in these parts in the sixteenth century, whilst in South Pembroke- 
shire Welsh is hardly ever heard. Still, this would in no way affect the 
derivation of the ancient name Guales or Galles. 

In connection with this subject, the old legend still rife among the elders 
of the parish may be noted, namely, that an Irish Princess was buried in the 
Abbey grounds in a golden coffin, with steps leading down to her grave, but 
that anyone descending these steps was struck with death in punishment for 
prying, or intent to thieve. This legend is only useful inasmuch as it refers to 
the Irish or foreigners, "Wal lenses" or "Guales," in St. Dogmaels. Later on' 
these steps will be again referred to, whither they led, and the reason of their 
being filled in. 




' i 'li ' \> 



' In Chapter XIX. 




CHAPTER VII. 




GERALD, THE WELSHMAN. 

EXT in succession comes the visit of Archbishop Baldwin, of 
Canterbury, and Giraldus Cambrensis, to St. Dogmaels Abbey in 
1 1 88. The Archbishop, accompanied by Gerald, was touring 
throughout Wales preaching the Cross, and endeavouring to 

enlist as many as he could to follow his standard and go with him to fight 

the third Crusade. 

Gerald, being a Welshman, was chosen by him as his chief companion. 
His real name was Gerald de Barri, he was born about 1 147 at Manorbier 
Castle, Pembrokeshire, and was the youngest son of a Norman knight, William 
de Barri, who, according to Gerald, took his name from Barry Island, and his 
second wife, Angharad, daughter of Gerald of Windsor, Castellan of Pembroke, 
by the notorious Nesta, daughter of Rhys ap Tewdwr, who lived at St. Dog- 
maels. Baldwin, speaking of Gerald's oratory, ofttimes during his progress, 
confessed " that he never before on one day was witness to so much shedding 
of tears " ; this \yas during and after Gerald's discourse at Haverf ord. 

Gerald writes : " We slept that night in the Monastery of St. Dogmaels, 
where, as well as on the next day at Aberteify, we were handsomely entertained 
by Prince Rhys." The next day after being entertained at the Abbey they 
proceeded towards Cardigan, and on the Pembrokeshire side of the river, in 
St. Dogmaels parish, near the end of the old bridge, Archbishop Baldwin and 
Gerald, who mentions that " he uttered persuasive words of the Lord," preached 
to the people, whom Prince Rhys had collected together. 

Among the crowd were Rhys, a kinsman of Gerald, with his two sons, 
Malgwyn and Gryffydd. Baldwin knew no Welsh, so that few could under- 
stand him. Gerald also addressed the people in Latin, not being sufficiently 
fluent in Welsh to preach in that language; yet such was the magic of his voice 



^ 




THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 67 

that even thoOgh the people could not understand what he said, they were 
carried away by his enthusiasm, and he persuaded many to take the Cross. 
At the conclusion of his sermon a certain jester, John Spang, who was accus- 
tomed to amuse Prince Rhys and his Court by his feigned foolishness and 
biting railery, said to his master, " You owe a great debt to your kinsman, the 
Archdeacon, Oh ! Rhys, who has sent a hundred or so of your men to serve the 
Lord, for if he had only spoken in the Welsh tongue I do not think that one 
of the whole multitude would have remained to you." 

The following is Gerald's own account from his " De Rebus a se Gestis," 
and two anecdotes that he relates relative to the taking of the Cross, one of 
which related to a certain man having taken the Cross, although 

The only son, and the sole comfort of his aged mother, who steadfastly gazing on 
him, as if inspired by the Deity, uttered these words : " O most beloved Lord Christ, 
I return thee hearty thanks for having conferred on me the blessing of bringing forth 
a son, whom thou mayst think worthy of thy service." Another woman of Aberteivi, 
of a different way of thinking, held her husband fast by his cloak and girdle, and 
publicly, and audaciously prevented him from going to the Archbishop to take the 
cross ; but three nights afterwards she heard a voice in her sleep, saying, " Thou hast 
taken away my servant from me, therefore what thou most lovest shall be taken away 
from thee." On her relating her vision to her husband, they were struck with 
mutual terror and amazement, and on falling asleep again, she unhappily overlaid her 
little boy, whom with more affection than prudence, she had taken to bed with her : 
the husband relating to the bishop of the diocese both the vision and its fatal 
prediction, took the cross, which his wife, with her own hands, sewed on her 
husband's arm. 

Near the head of the bridge where the sermons were delivered, the people 
immediately marked out the site for a chapel on a verdant plain, as a memorial of so 
great an event ; intending that the altar should be placed on the spot where the 
Archbishop stood while addressing the multitude, and it is well known that many 
miracles (the enumeration of which would be too tedious to relate), were performed on 
the crowds of sick people who resorted hither from different parts of the country. 

On the Pembrokeshire side of the river Teify, near the end of the old 
bridge, which in those days crossed from the present Gloucester Row to where 
the railway station now stands, there is a place still called Pare y Capel, or the 
Chapel field, this Chapel stood where the engine-house now stands. It was 
circular, being called Capel Sidan (meaning, in old Welsh, circular or round). 

Gerald gives the story of a youth devoured by toads; this is reputed to 
have occurred at a house named Trellyffant (Toad's House), a farm which lies 
next to Rhos Wrdan, on the south-west. The story is still repeated by old 
people who have never heard of Gerald. At this house there was a carved 

5a 



68 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Italian mantlepiece, with a large toad carved in green veined marble over the 
centre of the fireplace. This carved toad was treasured for many generations; 
but was afterwards cut out. Eventually it came into the possession of its 
present owner, who lives at Haverfordwest. The toad is life-size. We give 
the story and another in Gerald's words : * 

Two circumstances occurred in the territory of Cemaes, one in our own time, the 
other a little before, which I think not right to pass over in silence. In our time a 
youth of this country during a severe illness suffered such a violent persecution from 
toads, as if the reptiles of the whole territory had flocked together by agreement ; and 
though they were killed without number by his friends, they still came together in 
crowds from all parts, like hydra heads. At last his friends were wearied to such an 
extent that he was hoisted up into a somewhat lofty tree stripped of its foliage, but 
even there he was not safe from his enemies, for they climbed up eagerly in great 
numbers, attacked and devoured him. The youth's name was Seisylt Esceif or 
Seisylt longshanks. 

It is also recorded, in like manner, that by the secret but never unjust judgment 
of God, another man suffered a like persecution from great rats. Also in the same 
barony, during the time of Henry the first, a certain wealthy landed proprietor, 
having a house at the northern extremity of the Presely Range, for three successive 
nights was warned by dreams that if he put his hand under a stone hanging over a 
bubbling spring near by, called St. Bernard's Well, he would there find a golden 
torques, accordingly he went the third day, but received instead a deadly wound from 
a viper. 

This last reads rather like a story with a moral. 

Soon after this occurred the long dispute regarding the election of a bishop 
to the see of St. David's. Three candidates were elected; firstly, Gerald, who 
undoubtedly would have made an excellent bishop; secondly, his kinsman, 
Walter, Abbot of St. Dogmaels, who, unfortunately for him, could neither read 
nor write, neither was he a wise governor of his Abbey ; the election of such an 
ignorant man as abbot shows more than anything else how the Monastery had 
degenerated within seventy years of its foundation; thirdly, the Abbot of 
Whitland. 

Gerald had the keenest desire to be Bishop of St. David's ; he had refused 
the offer of other bishoprics, among them Bangor, hoping to be elected to this 
see. One of his uncles had been the previous bishop, and when he became old 
and feeble Gerald had virtually ruled the diocese for him, and it was during 
this time that Walter, Abbot of St. Dogmaels, and Reginald Ffolliat had 
despoiled the diocese, and been compelled by Gerald to refund their spoils; but 



' Translated from the Roll edition of Gerald's works. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 69 

both the King* and the Archbishop of Canterbury feared that he would become 
too powerful, and would probably refuse to acknowledge the supremacy of 
Canterbury. In the end both he and his illiterate kinsman, the Abbot of 
St. Dogmaels, were passed over. 

In his " De Invectionibus," Lib. I, Gerald waxes wrath over the Abbot of 
St. Dogmaels being a candidate, describing him as absolutely illerate and 
ignorant ; in one place he writes of him, " the poor Abbot of St. Dogmaels was 
an illiterate monk, who could not read his Psalter," and who, Gerald writes, 
was instigated by the King, and the Archbishop of Canterbury, to contend for 
the see against him. 

The history of this dispute regarding the Abbot of St. Dogmaels, the only 
one of the three with whom this history is concerned, will be better learned from 
Gerald's own letters, taken from his " De Invectionibus." Many noted people 
from different parts of England were concerned in this dispute, among others 
the Bishops of Worcester and Ely; the Bishop, the Precentor, and Master J., 
Canon of Hereford; the Dean of London; the Archdeacon of Buckingham; 
the Archbishop of Canterbury; the Abbot of Worcester, and the Prior of 
Wenloc, etc. 

" De Invectionibus," Book I : 

And the Archbishop in order that he might gain his point procured that the 
illiterate and in short ignorant Abbot of St. Dogmaels of our country and a kinsman 
of mine by autocratic violence should be elected. And hearing that I was returning 
with a severe mandate associating himself with two false English brethren he inquired 
of them if by any art or ingenuity they could detach the Chapter from me to which 
they answered that if he could bring it about that the Abbot of the Cistercian order 
to wit of Whitland who was a son of our church and who had canonical sons and 
brethren cousins and very many relations in it although the Abbot of St. Dogmaels 
may have been elected all of them could support him against the Archdeacon. 
Hearing which the Archbishop summoned to him by letter the Abbot of Whitland 
firmly promising him that if he could detach the Chapter from me he would confer 
our See on him notwithstanding the election made of the Abbot of St. Dogmaels 
which had been cancelled by the lord Pope. And the said Abbot (of Whitland) 
otherwise a man of great religion although he was then engaged in the remote parts 
of Ireland on the duties of a visitation enjoined on him allured by the hope of 
preferment he flew across the Irish Sea into Wales, on the wings of ambition so that on 
the feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Mary passing through the gate of his 
Abbey when scarcely dawn before the hour of mass he did not think fit to hear mass 
or to celebrate or to salute his brethren. Being received with joy and honour by the 



' King John wrote, April loth, 1202 : " We have not assented to the election of Giraldus to the 
See of St. David.s ; but to that of the Abtot of St. Dogmaels." 



/ 



70 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Archbishop at Worcester and forthwith having come to a mutual agreement he was 
sent by him back to St. Davids and immediately calling together the brethren and 
reading the letters of the Archbishop and the Justiciar secretly and with closed doors 
and he was elected with trembling and in subdued voices. Now it is worthy of note 
that he inveighs against either abbot concerning his mode of action of whom the first 
was his kinsman and the other his friend neither have kept their oaths made. Then 
he returns to the Archbishop. 

Now forthwith when he elected the first Abbot^ he appointed as of his 
following our false brother Foliot and binding him to himself more firmly by an 
oath made him as it were a messenger between them a runner and courier between 
England and Wales and a carrier of news and letters between Canterbury and 
St. Davids. But afterwards he caused another Abbot to be elected and was 
not ashamed to bind the said Foliot also to him by an oath so that Foliot should 
support the one openly and the other secretly fulfilling contradictory offices 
strictly keeping his vow to both his loyalty however being well rewarded as 
was fitting by both the Abbots and the Archbishop. Who then was the author 
of this double perjury ? God forbid it were the Archbishop ! The oaths however 
he took to each of the two for different purposes. The same person was also the 
author of a third perjury who so often sent the prior Foliot with letters of the King 
the Archbishop and Justiciar to oppress the liberties of the church of St. Davids to 
which he had canonically sworn obedience and sent the same also to Rome for 
a similar purpose that he might work against the liberties of the church of 
St. Davids. Together with Andrew [in short he once more enumerates four offences 
of these persons against himself.] 

Cap. VIII. 
Of intestine discords of the persecutors among themselves. 

[Giraldus here commemorates no facts but is speaking ironically against the 
Abbot of St. Dogmaels he thus begins.] While the peoples are crying and shouting 
the Abbot of St. Dogmaels is alone conspicuous by his learning and discretion and so 
being called to that dignity by a holy man did not realise his impending fall. You 
shall hear what has been written veiledly and mockingly to him on this subject. 

Cap. IX. 
The Archdeacon to the Abbot Walter. 

You have three great enemies in three degrees positive comparative and 
superlative namely position comparison and exaggeration. If you ask who they 
are ? The horned one who wears the pallium' the sheepish one who wears a cowl' 
the wolf-whelp.* The horned one he bears a horn beware of him and the cloaked 
one for he cloaks deceit. Beware of the cowled one for he sighs pants desires and 
canvasses would that they were far from thy presence. In all the strivings to this 
end I contend through all right and wrong that he will overthrow you and cast you 



' Walter of St. Dogmaels. 

- i.e., the pallium, or mantle, sent to an Archbishop or Bishop on consecration by the Pope, 
refers to the Archbishop of Canterbury. ^ The Abbot of Whitland. ' Reginald Ffolliot. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 71 

out And the sdieeplike one because according to the gospel. " Beware of those who 
come to you in sheep's clothing but inwardly are ravening wolves." And beware of 
the whelp who bearing the fraudulent business of both with frequent passings to 
and fro that he may deceive you and then overthrow you with vulpine duplicity 
runs to and fro. 

Pope Innocent I later writes from the Lateran, on the 8th May, in the third 
year of his Pontificate, to the Abbots of Whitlands, St. Dogmaels, and Strata 
Florida, concerning the canonization of the Venerable Caradoc, and enquiring 
as to his life whilst he lived 

" And concerning the miracles which were wrought after his death by the right 
hand of the Lord news of which have reached the hearing of the Apostolic See. 
Wherefore lately we were recently entreated that he whom God had exalted in heaven 
we should have a care to glorify on earth by inserting him in the 'Calendar of the 
Saints'" but not wishing to act hastily in this matter he continues "we have thought 
fit to commit the inquisition of the same to you charging you by Apostolic writing 
that you diligently enquire as to what had been the former life of the said man what 
kind of death and what miracles followed him. What you shall find out on these 
matters you shall faithfully intimate to us in your letters" .... Taking due precaution 
that you so aim at simply enquiring the truth that no fraud or falsity may be mixed 
with it. 

Now these letters, by the ill-will of two of the abbots, namely, Peter of 
Whitland and Walter of St. Dogmaels, were maliciously suppressed, the two 
abbots thinking thereby to spite Gerald, who was very keen on the matter, 
having begged the Pope to canonize Caradoc. 

On the 23rd of August, the following year. Innocent writes to the Abbot 
of St. Dogmaels from Signia, charging him that he had appointed Gerald 
" keeper of the Church of St. David's as well as of the houses and the lands 
belonging to the bishopric and all the proceeds thereof," and that the Abbot 
Walter " should resign without diminution to Gerald, nor should he impeach 
him in the keepership of the Church of St. David's," and charging the Bishop 
of St. David's, the Precentor, and Master J., Canon of Hereford, that " they 
compel you to this." 

This is followed by another letter from Innocent, written three days later 
from the same place, but addressed to the Bishop of Ely, the Dean of London, 
and the Archdeacon of Buckingham on the spoliation of Gerald, and the illiteracy 
of the Abbot of St. Dogmaels, wherein he relates " how it had been signified to 
him how Gerald, whom he had made keeper of the Bishopric of St. David's," 
had "by violence been spoiled by the Abbot of St. Dogmaels and Reginald 
Foliot ; and that the said Foliot has committed sacriledge in the said spoliation 



72 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

and has incurred the sentence of excommunication." However, Foliot again took 
the vows of allegiance to the Church, was forgiven, and soon after was made 
Prior of Llanthony; and charging them to "compel these robbers to render 
Gerald his due," also charging them to enquire as to " the learning and fitness " 
of the Abbot of St. Dogmaels to be elected to the see of St. David's, as it was 
reported to him that he was " almost wholly unlearned." 

Again, three days later, Innocent writes to the same three stating that 
Gerald had brought his witnesses before the appointed auditors, and when he 
demanded that their evidence should be published, the Abbot of St. Dogmaels 
" prayed for delay in order to produce witnesses," and after some reference 
to Gerald's claim to the bishopric, and commands that Gerald " shall plead 
his cause in person at Rome, but the Archbishop of Canterbury by proxy." 

In the fourth book, of this same work of Gerald, is seen how the Abbot 
of St. Dogmaels was at length elected, as Gerald writes : " Whereupon, as 
they say, having understood at length by the letters of the Archbishop, and 
the letters of the Justiciar, that the king consented to the Abbot of St. Dogmaels, 
they elected him to the pastorate" (St. David's). Nearly two years later 
Innocent again writes about this same Abbot of St. Dogmaels to the Bishops 
of Ely and Worcester from Florence, on the 24th of May, as follows : " The 
cause which is pending between our beloved sons, the Abbot of St. Dogmaels 
and G, Archdeacon of Brecon, each of whom asserts himself to have been 
elected to the Bishopric of St. David's," and after examining in " our con- 
sistory" the evidence given "before delegated judges," the Cardinals say that 
the process of election was irregular. 

In another letter to the Abbot of St. Dogmaels ordering him to make 
restitution to Gerald of his spoliations, the Pope orders that he should submit 
to a test regarding his learning, and Reginald Foliot was commanded to set 
out the case of the Abbot of St. Dogmaels, for he acted as the Abbot's proxy, 
and here Gerald waxes caustic at Foliot's expense, owing to his mistaking the 
date of the Abbot's election, writing, " it behoves liars to have good memories 
lest perchance they forget the lie in which they have been instructed." 

But in spite of all, and Gerald's previous election to the Bishopric, the 
Archbishop " on the morrow of the next Epiphany, with the King's assent, 
elected the Abbot of St. Dogmaels, and a little before Christmas following 
the Chapter solemnised the election made by the Archbishop." 

To make matters now still more vexatious for Gerald, he was forthwith 
cited to appear before the papal delegates to answer the charges of the Abbot 
of St. Dogmaels, the Archdeacon of Carmarthen, and R. Foliot. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 73 

However, Gerald determined to summon a general synod on the morrow 
of Holy Trinity following, and caused the following letter to be sent " to the 
Abbot of St. Dogmaels, since he was unlearned and a despoiler of the tem- 
poralities of the bishopric, contrary to the disposal of the Lord Pope." 

Charging him, by the authority of the Pope, to appear before " our Synod 
(which) will be solemnly held on the octave of Penticost, God willing, at 
Brecon." .... And that you restore to us " all the profits of the 
bishopric " which he had applied to his own use. " Moreover, on the second 
day, we enjoin on you the synodal sermon and word of exhortation and 
instruction as it were of a great and authoritative person who bears himself 
and calls himself the elect of St. David's." 

This must have been a bitter pill to the Abbot, who could hardly fail to 
realise that he would never be able to get through this trial; the sermon, of 
course, he could get written for him, but in the verbal words of exhortation and 
instruction he would surely fail. Here follows the account of the first appear- 
ance of the Abbot in Gerald's own words : 

" And when the Abbot of St. Dogmaels who then for the first time appeared 
should be examined as to his learning the judges first offered him the letters of the 
lord pope to read containing the commission of the said business made to them. But 
those who spoke for him the clerks to wit and the accomplices of the Archbishop 
answered that he ought not to be proved by such letters to which he was not 
accustomed but rather by the ecclesiastical books. There was brought then a missal 
book with large and legible writing which was given him to read by the judges and 
to expound." Now after failing to read the Pope's letters he now " craved leave of 
the judges to retire for the purpose of consulting the Archbishop's clerks which 
being granted after a long and tedious delay he returned refusing both the reading 
and the exposition " . . . . and then withdrew. 

One cannot help partly pitying the old fraud, though at the same time being 
glad that he was at last publicly exposed. 

As will be foreseen, after this public failure of his to prove his ability to 
read even large and legible writing, his election to the Bishopric of St. David's 
was cancelled. When Gerald went to Rome to plead his own cause, he was 
subjected to many vexatious persecutions by his enemies, which to a man of his 
erudition and dominant disposition must have been exasperating. Among these 
was the accusation of the Welsh monk, of St. Dogmaels, Golwen, whom Gerald 
had formerly excommunicated, as a deserter from the Abbey, and as one who 
falsely without authority had gone through Wales preaching for gain. 

This Golwen, together with a crowd of the like sort, came almost every 



74 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

day before the papal chamberlain, demanding a certain horse, and violently 
accusing Gerald of stealing it from him in Wales. 

Gerald did not deny that a certain weak horse, scarcely able to carry 
Golwen, had been taken from him in Wales by one of his deans, with other 
spoils and false relics, without either his permission or authority, " But which 
horse, as compared with his horse, which was large and strong, and of no mean 
value, had nothing in common but the colour." Golwen, however, without any 
shame, continued to assert that the horse was his, and brought " a multitude of 
boys and ribalds of the opposite party who were all prepared to swear and 
testify " that the horse belonged to Golwen, and that they had seen it with him. 

Golwen continuing to visit, the " papal chamberlain daily throwing him- 
self with much weeping and sobbing at his feet, demanding his horse; the 
chamberlain, a simple man, ignorant of the law, and ' credulous,' sequestrated 
the horse, and caused it to be put in his own stable." 

Gerald, therefore, seeing that these fellows " were prepared to testify 
anything, at the nod of their masters," and caring more for his own honour than 
ought else, and feeling that if they prevailed against him, his election to St. 
David's would fail, and also being both embarrassed and distracted by such a 
mean and frivolous attack, decided to resort to stratagem, in order to bring 
about their defeat. He therefore instructed one of his followers to get up in 
Court on a certain evening, when the parties were come before the Chamberlain, 
and address the Chamberlain as follows : 

" It is wonderful that a man than whom none viler none more treacherous in the 
world a deserter from his order can have a voice in this court to vex a good and 
honourable man. For this horse which was taken from him in Wales on account of 
his treachery and which he now falsely claims to be his was a Gelding but this one 
(Gerald's) is a whole horse." 

Forthwith the rascal (Golwen) sprang up in the midst of them, and as he was 
hasty and bold, and ready to affirm or deny as occasion arose, turning to the 
spokesman, he said : 

" Surely thou liest for my horse was a whole horse which the lord Chamberlain 
can now judge and at once if it please him cause to be made clear which when he said 
the archdeacon and his party prayed that this testimony might be taken down word 
for word which was done." 

The Chamberlain at once sent off one of his servants to inspect the horse in 
his stable, with the result that Golwen* was convicted of perjury, and of falsely 



' Golwen was surnamed ihroughoiit Wales, Follus and FollcoUis (fool and little fool), also another 
of the witne!>ses against Gerald in this case was Philip, a false deacon. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 75 

accusing Geralu. Universal laughter followed the report. That night, when 
relating the account to the Pope, who was convulsed with laughter and ordered 
the horse to be restored to Gerald, and silence to be imposed on the rascal. 

" And so on the morrow when the adverse party were covered with confusion 
there was joy and exaltation throughout the court .... Now it happened in those 
days that the Pope was frequently wont to go to the Virgin's Fountain for the sake 
of recreation when times and circumstances allowed. It was a very beautiful fountain 
at no great distance from the Lateran on the southern side throwing up limpid and 
cool waters surrounded by walls of Parian marble from which flowed a pleasant 
and wide stream towards the country. And when it was known that the Pope was 
going both as the bells of the palace and report testified to his movements riding 
palfreys being made ready the elect of Bangor and his companion the Archdeacon 
(Gerald) followed in the wake of the Pope .... The Pope who sat apart by the 
steps of the fountain a little remote from the others as if in a room beyond a narrow 
path surrounded on all sides by the water with a few of his household .... Seeing 
Gerald he summoned him to come alone to his presence enquiring how he had 
progressed in the matter between him and the monk." 

Gerald then related the stratagem by which he had won, and how by 
acute subtlety, as the breaking of a bladder by a small needle, he had easily 
shattered Golwen's evident falsehood, and how a monk named Roger, one of 
the four united with Golwen and the other rascals against Gerald, had publicly 
made witticisms and jokes against Golwen, Gerald remarked to the Pope that 
it was a pity the monks were not all geldings, as probably they would then 
attend better to their duties. 

In process of time Gerald, seeing that his enemies still endeavoured by all 
means in their power to make out that the Abbot of St. Dogmaels was the first 
elected to St. David's, instead of Gerald, thus put his case before the Pope 

" Holy Father, that the election of the Abbot (St. Dogmaels) was not the 
first, as the adverse party lie in saying, we have supported by true statements 
with many presumptions and some proofs." 

On behalf of the Abbot of St. Dogmaels it was stated that after the death 
of Bishop Peter (St. David's) two Archdeacons and four Canons of St. David's* 
were sent to Hubert, Archbishop of Canterbury, with letters of their Chapter, 
asking that he would elect them a pastor, giving three names, firstly, Gerald, 
and secondly, the Abbot of St. Dogmaels. 

" But the Abbot of St. Dogmaels was quite illiterate as was proved both by the 
statement of the judges and by five or six witnesses of his own party at Rome." 



' Ocrald'i, " De Kebus a se Geslis," p. 94, Rolls Edition. 



7* THE HISTORY OK ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Gerald then accuses him of being such an ambitious man that though he 
knew Gerald's election was not cancelled, he consented to his own election, and 
intruded himself over Gerald. After this the three delegates nominated by the 
Pope, namely, the Abbot of Worcester, the Prior of Wenlock, and Master A. de 
Bromfield siding with the Abbot of St. Dogmaels, in spite of his illiteracy, 
condemned Gerald Archdeacon of Brecon, G of Llanthony, and J Prior of 
Brecon to pay one hundred marks. Forty of these to go to the Abbot of St. 
Dogmaels, thirty marks to the Archdeacon of Carmarthen, and thirty marks to 
Master G. Foliot, and that they were to put in their appearance before them on 
the eve of St. Matthew the Apostle, in the Church of Llandu, " if not we shall 
no less proceed to the execution of this order." In the end neither the Abbot of 
St. Dogmaels nor Gerald was ordained Bishop of St. David's, though the 
dispute had lingered on over several years. It has been already shown why 
Gerald was not made Bishop, and the Pope decided against the Abbot on the 
ground that he could not read. It is a pitiful story of lying and deceit, and a 
contemptible attack on a scholarly and able man. 

The two following stories of Gerald's are examples of that time, and of 
the characters of the people who lived then. 

" De Invectionibus," pp. 167 and 168 : 

A certain priest in those parts saw that a triformed beast such as he had never 
seen before pursued the Archdeacon whilst riding. At one time it appeared after 
the manner of a dog hanging on to the tail of his horse at another leaping towards 
the feet of the Archdeacon threatening to bite him. 

When he was now overcome and worn out with fatigue and disgust one of his 
followers on foot at his command aimed an arrow at the beast and pierced it. When 
they saw that it was dead and had more carefully examined it the first part looked like 
a sheepskin with the wool' on the second like a wolf and the third like a fox. And 
it was thought that this beast represented the Archbishop who three times had 
transformed himself when he promoted the Abbot of St. Dogmaels the Abbot of 
Whitlaud and last Foliot. 

The second is as follows : 

And there was a vision appeared to a boy at Ferentino .... wherein he saw 
three wolves one gray another white a third somewhat red and larger than the others 
the latter urging on the two others against the Archdeacon. And when the gray 
one savagely attacked him the Archdeacon meeting him boldly and thrusting his 
hand into his open mouth forcibly tore his jaws asunder and slew him. When the 
larger wolf still more angrily was urging him on the white wolf made a rush at the 
Archdeacon who boldly seizing him by the jaws in a similar manner broke them. 
And when the wolf the instigator of the affray saw this he was seen to retire in confusion 



Melola." 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 77 

with his tail betwen his legs. On which he beheld a most beautiful woman standing 
and following her a venerable old man carrying a very precious garment with which at 
the command as it were of the said lady he clothed and adorned the Archdeacon. 
And the boy beholding and wondering at these things enquired from one what they 
portended and received for answer that it was the Mother of Christ the Blessed 
Virgin and St. David the Patron Saint of Wales. So here it was seen that the 
Archdeacon shall have the victory for the two wolves are the two Abbots the first of 
St. Dogmaels the second of Whitland's and the third and large wolf that instigates 
the others is the Archbishop which can be regarded as the sentence of divine 
judgement. 

Herein it is seen how certain Gerald was of success, for even these visions were 
interpreted as meaning his victory. 

There is one more in which the Abbot of St. Dogmaels is mentioned, 
entitled 

The Anchorite Talks Through His Wicket. 

When however not long after Gerald came to him for the sake of justifying 
himself for he willingly repaid the kindness of the religious man who among other 
sayings spoke thus through his lattice. It is very clear and manifest that God the 
Avenger regards traitors and the adversaries of the dignity of St. David with hatred 
and detestation especially those who ought to be sons (of the church) and faithful. 
For we now see the most wicked adversary of St. David the Abbot of Whitland 
deposed and deprived of all honour in the land and the foolish Abbot of St. Dogmaels 
your kinsman who owing to the vengeance of God and St. David the land will no 
longer sustain alive. ' 

In the patent rolls follows a letter of King John's relating to Gerald and 
the Abbot of St. Dogmaels. King John was shrewd enough not to wish Gerald 
to reign as Prince Bishop of St. David's, though at the same time he greatly 
admired him. 

Pat. Roll. 3 John, m. 2, No. 2. 

The King etc. to all etc. Know ye that G. Archdeacon of Brecon is manifestly 
acting against our crown and dignity in calling himself elect of St. Davids since we 
have never given our assent to his election.' And thereupon he has drawn into 
a suit W[alter] Abbot of St. Dogmaels to whose election we consented. The 
temporalities moreover of the See of St. Davids which at the vacancy of the See 
should be in our hand by the long and approved custom of the realm. Against our 
crown and dignity he has procured to be committed to himself and impudently 
acquiring these and other things against us such as no one since our coronation has 



' All the quotations in this chapter have been translated direct from the Rolls edition of Gerald's 
Works. 

''See Gerald the Welshman, by Henry Owen, p. 17. Wherein at Chinon John spoke to the 
deputation "in praise of Gerald, and accepted his nomination," this was shortly after the death of 
King Richard. 



78 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

attempted against us. And whereas these things we can by no means endure. We 
charge you that as you love our honour and dignity which as our lieges you are 
bound to foster and maintain you will grant to the aforesaid G. Archdeacon in 
no way aid or assent for this purpose. And as far as you are able you shall resist the 
aforesaid Abbot of St. Dogmaels. And it is manifest that whoever does the contrary 
is an enemy to us and to our dignity. 

Witness myself at the Rock of Golden Grove loth April (1202). 

In the "Papal Registers," edited by W. H. Bliss, Vol. iiij, p. 231, 29th 
April, 1346, is a mandate to the Bishop and Archdeacon of St. David's, and 
the Dean of Chichester, from the Pope, to carry out the ordinances touching 
apostates in regard to John Barett, a monk of St. Dogmaels. 

Also in the same year, the 24th of May, dated Florence, in Vol. Ill, p. 23, 
is a mandate from the Pope to the Bishops of Ely and Worcester cancelling the 
" election of the Abbot (Walter) of St. Domuel (Dogmaels) and of G Arch- 
deacon of Brecon to the see of St. David's, and they were to induce the cjmons 
to make an unanimous election; and if this is not done to promote some fit 
person and cause him to be consecrated by the Metropolitan." 




> 










k 



I 




CHAPTER VIII. 



SILENT GROWTH. 




;N the "Testa de Nevill," Henry Ill-Edward I, the Abbot of 
St. Dogmaels is mentioned among those holding knight's fees 
in the County of Devon, that he held a fourth part of a knight's 
fee in Wittokesdone, of Nicholas Fitzmartin, of his Barony 
of Dartington. 

In 19 Edward I is seen, in the Taxatio of Pope Nicholas, the then 
value of St. Dogmaels Abbey. 

Also in the " Exchequer T. R. Miscellaneous Books 72," 24 Edward I (F 55, 
Devon), the Abbot of St. Dogmaels holds Luscombe Barrudge, or Barnerd, for 
half a knight's fee of William Martin, of his Barony of Dartington. In the 
Memoranda Rolls, Michaelmas, 1320, Edward II, the Abbot had been taxed 
twice over for the same lands, both by the Archdeaconaries of St. David's and 
Cardigan. The yi us. 8d. taxed by St. David's being herein cancelled. 
Later, in the reign of Edward II, the Abbot and monks of St. Dogmaels beg 
the King in the Ancient Petition 4315, to confirm the gift made to them by 
David de la Roche,' of the Church of Maenclochog,^ the monks pleading poverty 
from their lands having so often been laid waste by war in Wales. This petition 
is endorsed, " that the bill be shown to the Justices of Wales," the King also 
wishing to know the value of the church. Evidently the monks had been too 
precipitate in taking possession of this gift of David de la Roche, comprising 
an acre of ground, a garden and a parcel of land in Maenclochog, with the rights 
of patronage of the Church of St. Mary Maenclochog, and of the chapels 
annexed to this same church, before the King had confirmed the grant; how- 
ever, in the Patent Roll of 14 Edward II, the King forgives the Abbot and 
monks their transgression in so doing, and confirms, at Westminster, the grant 
of David de la Roche. 



' The same as " De la Rupe." 



-The Ringing Stone. 



8o THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Testa de Nevill, Hen. Ill Edw. I, County of Devon, 
p. 178. Names of those who hold knights' fees in the County of Devon and of 
whom they hold. 

Fees of the Abbot of Tavistock. 

The Abbot of St. Dogmaels holds in Whittokesden a fourth part of i fee of the 
same. 

p. 191. Inquisition of the fees and tenements in the Hundred of Staneburg made 
by the oath of William de Morlegh and others. 

The Abbot of St. Dogmael in Wales holds in Whittokedone a fourth part of a 
knt's fee of the same [i.e. of Nicholas fitz Martin of his Barony of Dertingthon]. 

ExCHEQtJER T. R., Miscellaneous Books 72, 24 Edw. I. 
f. 55. Devon. Hund' of Staneberg. 

The Abbot of St. Dogmaels holds Luscombe Barudge otherwise Barnerd for half 
a knight's fee of William Martyn as of his barony of Dartington. 

Also in the " Calendar of Feudal Aids," Co. Devon, Hundred of Stanburg, 
1284-1286, there is a similar entry to the above. 

Taxatio of Pope Nicholas, 1291. 
Devon. 
The Abbey of St. Dogmaels has at Rattre of Rent and other s. d. 
things taxed ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 13 9 8 

Sum of the value of the tithes i 6 11^ 

St. David's. 
The Chapel of Mynachlog Ddu (belonging to the Abbey of 

St. Dogmaels) ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 13 4 

The Church of Caldey (belonging to the Abbey of St. Dagmaels) 368 

Temporalities. 
The Abbot of St. Dogmaels hath the town of St. Dogmael with 
its appurtenances ; namely Crugau Gryffydd Mynachlog 
Ddu five carucates of land with rents of three mills for 
grinding and one fulling mill. The Revenues of the 
hundred Court together with other commodities ... ... 16 10 o 

Also he has fisheries together with Grangistown' with rent of a 

mill perquisites and other commodities 
Also he receives annually from the Priory of Pill 
Also he hath at Caldey one carucate of land with rent of assize 
The goods of the Aljbey of St. Dogmaels 
Note. That this taxation of the goods of the Abbey of St. Dogmaels is hereby 
cancelled on this account because it is wrong as is clear in the memoranda of 
the fourteen years of King Edward son of King Edward in the Records of 
St. Michael's term. 
iThere certainly are many omissions in this taxation of Pope Nicholas. 



II 


i,S 





9 


6 


8 


I 


10 





22 


1 1 


8 



' Hundred. - Granston. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 8l 

.* Memoranda Rolls, Mich. 14 Edw. II, m. 81. 

For the Abbot of St. Dogmaels. 

The Lord King has commanded here his writ of the great seal which is among the 
Communia of the 13th year in these words Edward by the grace of God King of 
England Lord of Ireland and Duke of Aquitaine to the Treasurer and Barons of his 
Exchequer greeting. From a certain plaint of our beloved in Christ the Abbot of 
St. Dogmaels of the diocese of St. David's we have heard that although all the 
temporal goods of the said Abbot at the township of St. Dogmaels with their members 
in the Archdeaconry of Cardigan and other his temporal goods that are at ffisgard 
Grangestown and Caldey in the Archdeaconry of St. David's and a certain pension 
which the said Abbot receives from the Prior of Pulle in the same Archdeaconry of 
St. David's are part by part taxed for a tenth among the temporalities in the said 
Archdeaconry of Cardigan where the said Abbey is situated at ;^g 2od. and the 
said Abbot the tenth and other charges touching the clergy from his aforesaid goods 
according to the said taxation part by part made always hitherto has been wont to 
pay and has not ever had any other tempwral goods than the aforesaid in the said 
diocese for which he ought to pay a tenth or any other such charge. Since however in 
the rolls of taxation of such temporal goods that are in the said diocese delivered into 
our Exchequer it is found that the temporal goods of the said Abbot at j^2 11. 8. 
in the aforesaid Archdeaconry of St. David's are taxed in gross although such taxation 
in gross in the said Archdeaconry of St. David's is comprised in the aforesaid ^^g 2od. 
the collectors of such tenths granted to us in the aforesaid Archdeaconry of Cardigan 
account at our said Exchequer for the tenths of the said temporal goods after the 
rate of the said j^g 2od. aforesaid and nevertheless to collectors of such tenths in 
the aforesaid Archdeaconry of St. David's are charged after the rate of 1^2 11. 8. 
of the aforesaid. And if the j^2 1 1. 8. aforesaid in the aforesaid sum of ^39 and 2od. 
are not included or comprised by pretext of which the aforesaid Abbot for the truth 
for one and the same thing to us is twice distrained to pay at the suit of the said 
collectors unjustly to the no little loss and charge of the said since it is not consonant 
with right that the said Abbot by such double taxation of his goods thus unjustly should 
be charged. We charge you that having made a scrutiny of the rolls and memoranda 
of such taxations which are at our Exchequer if by inspection of the same or by 
inquisition thereon if it shall be necessary to be made it shall appear to you that the 
temporalities of the aforesaid Abbot in the said Archdeaconry of St. David's at 
;^32 II. 8. in gross as is aforesaid taxed within the sum of j^g and 2od. aforesaid 
are comprised and contained and that the said Abtot has not any other temporal 
goods than the aforesaid taxed at ;^39 and 2od. as above is expressed in the said 
diocese for which he ought concerning any tenth l)eyond the sum of ;^39 and 2od. 
aforesaid to be charged then the taxation of ^32 11. 8. aforesaid shall be taken out 
and annulled from the said rolls of taxation and the aforesaid Ablx)t from that which 
is required from him of the tenth tax of ^32 11. 8. aforesaid at our said Exchequer 
you shall cause to be exonerate and quit. Witness me myself at Westminster the 
5th June the 13th year of our reign. By virtue of which writ the rolls being examined 
etc. it was found in the roll of taxation of the temporal goods of the clergy of St. 
David's diocese which is here in our treasury that the temporal goods of the said 
Abbot are taxed in the Archdeaconry of Cardigan part by part at ^^^g 2od. And in 



8s THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

the ATchdeaconry of St. David's at jQi2 ii. 8. and that it does not appear by the 
aforesaid taxation whether to wit the aforesaid jQ^z ii. 8. are contained and comprised in 
the aforesaid sum of ;^39 2od. as is above suggested in the writ aforesaid. It was 
commanded the Bishop of St. David's that he should make an inquest of the truth 
thereon to wjt what temporal goods the aforesaid Abbot hath in the Archdeaconry of 
Cardigan and in what townships and at how much such goods in the said Archdeaconry 
of Cardigan part by part are taxed and also what temporal goods the said Abbot hath 
similarly in the Archdeaconry of St. David's also if the temporal goods under the 
name of the said Abbot in the said Archdeaconry of St. David's taxed are contained 
and comprised within the taxation of his goods in the Archdeaconry of Cardigan and 
what thereupon etc. he shall cause to be shown here without delay. Which said Bi.shop 
now at the quindene of St. Michael sent here the King's writ upon the premises to him 
directed which is among the writs executed for the King this 14th year endorsement 
thus. By pretext of this mandate we have caused an inquisition diligently to be made 
by trusty men of our diocese upon the contents in the mandate aforesaid who being 
sworn say upon their oath that the Abbot of St. Dogmaels in the Archdeaconry of 
Cardigan hath the township of St. Dogmaels with its members to wit Crugau Griffith 
Menecregh the Black Grange five carucates of land with rents three grist mills and 
one fulling mill and the perquisites of hundreds and courts and other commodities 
which are taxed at ;i6 los. Also they say that the said Abbot receives from the 
priory of Pulle yearly which is in the Archdeaconry of St. David's ^^9 6. 8. Also at 
ffishguard and Grangestown rents with a water mill and other commodities which are 
taxed at _;^ii 15s. in the aforesaid Archdeaconry of St. David's. Also he hath at 
Caldey one carucate of land with rents and other things which are taxed at 30s. in the 
same Archdeaconry. Also they say that the temporal goods of the said Abbot in the 
aforesaid Archdeaconry of St. David's taxed as is premised are contained and comprised 
within the taxation of the temporal goods of the said Abbot in the Archdeaconry of 
Cardigan and that the said Abbot hath no other temporal goods in the Bishopric of 
St. David's than those which are taxed in the aforesaid Archdeaconry of Cardigan. 
And so it is considered that the taxation of the goods of the said Abbot which are 
taxed in the Archdeaconry of St. David's at 32 11. 8. as is above contained shall be 
cancelled and annulled in the Roll of Taxation and that the said Abbot shall be 
exonerated from the tenth of aforesaid ^^32 ii. 8. to wit 65s. 2d. yearly and is quit 
by pretext of the mandate and inquisition aforesaid. 

Ancient Petitions. 
No. 4315. 

To our lord the king pray his poor chaplains, the Abbot, and Convent of St. 
Dogmaels for love of God if it please him to confirm by his charter the church of 
Maenclochog in Cemaes in the lordship of Monsieur William Martin in the county 
of Pembroke which David de la Roche has given them to their own use for love of 
God and because they have been often laid waste by war in Wales. 
Endorsed 

Let the Bill be shown to the Justices of Wales and let the King be advised also 
of the value of the Church. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 83 

% 

Patent Roll (153). 14 Edw. II, part I, m. 13. 

1320. 

The King to all those to whom etc. greeting. Know that of our special grace 
we have pardoned our beloved in Christ the Abbot of the Monastery of St. Dogmaels 
in Kemmeys and the monks there abiding the transgression they committed in obtaining 
for themselves and their successors in fee of David de la Roche son and heir of 
Gilbert de la Roche one acre of land and one garden with a certain plot in the hamlet 
of Maencloghog as by landmarks and boundaries they are assigned with the right of 
patronage of the church of St. Mary of the same hamlet and of two chapels annexed 
to the aforesaid church and in entering upon them and in seizing and appropriating 
the aforesaid church with the aforesaid chapels for themselves and their successors 
forever after the publication of the statute concerning the non-bestowal of lands and 
tenements in mortmain issued by licence of the lord Edward formerly King of England 
our father which licence has not been superseded on our part willing and granting on 
behalf of ourselves and our heirs as far as in us lies that the aforesaid Abbot and 
monks may hold and have the aforesaid land garden plot right of the aforesaid 
patronage and likewise the aforesaid church thus appropriated for themselves and their 
successors forever without let or hindrance on the part of ourselves or our heirs 
Justiciars Escheators Sheriffs or other our bailiffs or our ministers soever the aforesaid 
statute notwithstanding save however the capital services thence due and customary to 
the lords of that fee. In witness whereof etc. the King at Westminster on the 30th 
day of October. 

P the King himself then Master Robert de Baldok. 
+ + 

In the fourteenth year of Edward II " Llewelyn ap Madoc was drowned in 
a certain pool near Glastir, in Cemaes." 

William Martin, who succeeded his cousin, Nicholas Martin, as Lord of 
Cemaes, was seventh in descent from Martin of the Towers; he died in 1324, after 
being Lord of Cemaes for thirty-two years. He was succeeded by his son, 
William, aged thirty, who died the year following, -and was succeeded in the 
Lordship of Cemaes by James, son of Joan, sister and co-heir of this William 
Martin, and her husband, Nicholas Audeleigh. 

In the inquisition held after the death of this last William Martin is 
enumerated : 

1st. That " the Abbott of St. Dogmaells holdeth one knightes ffee called 

Cassia" etc. "valued at c'." 
7th. " That the foresaid Abbott of St. Dogmaells owns half of the knight's fee of 

Kefen Chymwyrth." 

George Owen writes under " Lords of Kemes," p. 459 : 

" Item. In the Recordes of the same yeere [6 Ed. II] it is written that Tangustel, 
the Sonne of Keybour [Ceibwr] was indicted before the Steward of Fembroke, in his 

6a 



84 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Tour held at St. Dogmaells, for that he, for theft by him committed, fledd to the 
church of Nevearne in Kemeys, for w'^'' the towneshipp [St. Dogmaels] paid c." 

Thomas Warlaugh was also indicted for stealing a horse in St. Dogmaels; 
his wife, Joan, appeared and paid a fine of 6s. 8d. for him. 

Later in the Calendar of Close Rolls it is noted that the Abbot of St. 
Dogmaels held a quarter of a knight's fee in Whittokesden, valued at los. 
yearly; this is the one referred to earlier in the " Testa de Nevill." 

In 1330 (3 Edward III) William Martin having died, and James de 
Audeley, his heir, being a minor, Edward III, at Eltham, exercises the rights of 
the Barony of Cemaes, as guardian to the minor, on the death of the Abbot 
John de la Rede, namely, of putting in a warden to see that the monies 
belonging to the Abbey were not misapplied ; but were spent on the Abbey, and 
also to receive the fealty of the new Abbot, when appointed. When such fealty 
was received, the warden was removed. 

CaRTJE BARONIiE DE KeVMES. 

Extracts from the Roll of the County of Pembroke. 

Also in the Rolls of the same year 6 Edw. II it is thus entered Tantustel son 
of Keybs was indicted before the Seneschal of Pembroke in his court held at 
St. Dogmaels for a theft he had committed he fearing for himself fled to the church 
of Nevern in Kemeys and afterwards fled the country before the coroner of Pembroke 
had taken his abjuration. Wherefore the township has paid for his escape loos. and 
it is charged in the said rolls. 

Also there comes the same year as appears in the roll of the county one Joan wife 
of Thomas Warlaugh a felon and gives to the said Earl for fine and forfeit of the land 
of the said Thomas in Morvill to have to wit 6s. 8d. And he was indicted for 
feloniously stealing a horse at St. Dogmaels etc. 

Calendar of Close Rolls. 20 Edw. II, m. 10- 11. 

Vol. 228, p. 595. To Robt. de Bikkemor Escheator in the Cos. of Devon 
Cornwall Somerset Order to deliver to Robt. de Watevill and Margaret his wife late 
wife of William son of Wm. Martin Tenant in chief the following knts fees which 

were the said William Martin's and assigned to her as dower 

Co. Devon .... a quarter of a fee in whittokesden, which the Abbot of 
St. Dogmaels holds of the yearly value of los. 

Assignment of kts fees made to James de Andele Kinsman and co-heir of the 
aforesaid William son of William .... a fee in cassia in Wales which the 
Abbot of St. Dogmaels holds of the yearly value of iocs. ... a moiety of 
a fee in Wales which the Abbot of St. Dogmalls holds of the yearly value of iocs. 

'White Oxfn, in Dean Prior. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 85 

Close Roll. 20 Edw. II, m. lo-ii. 

(Extracts.) 

Of assignment of dower of knights fees which were of William son of William 
Martyn. 

The King to his beloved Richard de Bikkemore his Escheator in the counties of 
Cornwall Devon Somerset and Dorset greeting. Know ye that of the knights' fees 
which were of William son of William Martyn deceased who of us held in chief and 
which on occasion of the death of the same were taken into our hand we have assigned 
to our beloved and trusty Robert de Watewill and Margaret his wife sometime the wife 
of aforesaid William fitzMartin the fees underwritten to wit . . . the fourth part 
of a knight's fee with appurtenances in Whittokesdon in the said county [of Devon] 
which the Abbot of St. Dogmaels holds and worth ten shillings. 

Assignment of knights fees made to James de Audeley cousin and one of the heirs 
of aforesaid William fitzMartin . . . one knights fee with appurtenances in 
Cassia in Wales which the Abbot of St. Dogmaels holds and which is worth 100 
shillings . . . the half of a knights fee with appurtenances in Wales which the 
Abbot of St. Dogmaels holds which is worth 100 shillings. 

Close Roll. 3 Edw. Ill, m. 24. 
For the Abbot of St. Dogmael in the land of Cemaes in Wales. 

The King to his beloved and trusty Roger de Mortimer Earl of March Justiciar 
of the King in Wales or his lieutenant in South Wales greeting. Whereas we of late 
at the prosecution of our beloved in Christ the Abbot of St. Dogmaels in the land of 
Cemaes in Wales reporting to us that William Martin now deceased late lord of the 
said land of Cemaes and his ancestors lords of that land who for the time were the 
temporalities of the Abbey aforesaid at every vacancy of the same into their hands 
were wont to take and their ancestors aforesaid having received the fealty of the 
coming Abbot those temporalities of the said Abbey were bound to deliver without that 
we or our progenitors thereof in any vacancies of the said Abbey ought in anything to 
intermeddle and supplicating us that to the said Abbot the temporalities of such Abbot 
which late by the death of Brother John le Rede late Abbot of that place because the 
said land of Cemaes is in our hand by reason of the minority of James son of Nicholas 
de Audeley cousin and one of the heirs of aforesaid William who of the lord Edward 
late King of England our father held in chief were taken into our hands. We will 
shall be delivered and charge you that upon the estate which the said Abbot and his 
predecessors had in the Abbey aforesaid at the time of vacancy of the same and of other 
articles touching the premises you should make diligent inquisition. And by such 
inquisition by you the aforesaid lieutenant by our mandate made and into our Chancery 
returned it was found that from the time of the first foundation of the said Abbey the 
lords of the land of Cemaes founders of the said Abbey in times of vacancy of the 
same no issues from the temporalities of the said Abbey were wont to take or ought to 
take but that after the death of every Abbot there the founders of the said Abbey were 
wont to place a warden there on their behalf upon the temporalities of the said Abbey. 
So that the said Warden should take or ought to take nothing to the use of the founders 
but that he might see that the issues forthcoming of such temporalities were not 



86 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

dilapidated but were expended to the use of the aforesaid Abbey. And when the 
Abbot there was elected and confirmed having received the fealty of the same the 
aforesaid Warden retired without taking any issues from the temporalities aforesaid 
to the use of the said founders and that we and our progenitors aforesaid in any 
vacancies of that Abbey in anything have not intermeddled within the time of such 
custody by reason of the minority of the heirs of the lords of the land of Cemaes. We 
considering that we any other estate in that Abbey in the time of custody have not nor 
ought to have than the founders of the same when they are of full age have in the time 
of vacancy of the same charge you of the temporalities of the Abbey aforesaid being in 
our hand as is said if they are by reason aforesaid and not otherwise in our hand you 
further do not intermeddle, the issues if any therefrom you have levied to those whose 
they are you restore. 

Witness the King at Eltham ist May. 
By writ of privy seal. 

On November 26th, 1334, Edward II, at Westminster, confirms the renting 
of a mill and " 5 ferlings of land," with appurtenances at Rattre, Devon, to 
John Herbord, his heirs and assigns for the sum of four marks yearly. 

Followed two years later on the death of William Martin by the assigning 
by Edward II of the fees of William Martin to Margaret, widow of Willicim 
Martin, and her second husband, Robert de Watewill, amongst them the fourth 
part of a knight's fee in Whittokesdone (Co. Devon), held by the Abbot of 
St. Dogmaels at 10 shillings, and one knight's fee, in Cassia, in Wales, held by 
the same Abbot at 100 shillings, together with half another knight's fee held 
in Wales by the same Abbot at 100 shillings. 

Patent Roll. 18 Edw. II, pt. I, m. 2. 

For John Herberd. 

The King to all to whom etc. greeting. The gift and grant which our beloved 
in Christ the Abbot and Convent of St. Dogmael by their charter made to John 
Herberd of a messuage and a mill and 5 " ferlings" of land with appurts in Rattre 
in the Co. of Devon. To have and to hold to the said John and his heirs at fee farm. 
Rendering therefrom to the said Abbot and Convent and their successors 4 marks per 
annum for ever ratifying and confirming the same for us and our heirs as far as in us 
lies we have granted and confirmed as the charter aforesaid reasonably testifies. Being 
unwilling that the aforesaid Abbot and Convent or their successors or the aforesaid 
John or his heirs ... of the premises by us or our heirs, Justices, Escheators, 
sheriffs or other our bailiffs or ministers whatsoever should be hindered or burdened 
in anywise. In witness etc. Witness the King at Westminster 26th Nov. by fine 
of 100s. 

In the reign of Richard II (1388), in the Registers of the Archbishopric of 
Canterbury, John Sampson was commissioned to visit the Abbey of St. Dog- 
maels and the Priory of Pill ; but as there are no certificates of these visitations 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 87 

to be found in the registers, it is not known whether the visitation was carried 
out or no. 

Courtney. 
1388. 

Commission by the Archbp to Master John Sampson to visit certain religious houses 
in the diocese of St. David's. 

On the 4th May the Abbey of St. Dogmaels was visited. 
On the 8th the Priory of Pulle (Pill). 

The certificates of the above visitations are not entered in the register. 




CHAPTER IX. 




PALMY DAYS. 

)ITH the exception of a dispensation granted by Pope John XXIII, 
from St. Peter's at Rome, in the second year of his pontificate, 
and the year before the death of Henry IV, in the Papal 
Registers, Vol. VI, there is little concerning the Abbey till the 
reign of Henry VIII. 

This dispensation was granted to Howel Lange, priest, Benedictine monk 
of St. Dogmaels, in the Diocese of St. David's, that notwithstanding his ille- 
gitimacy, as the son of an unmarried man and an unmarried woman, he may 
personally hold all dignities, perpetual administrations, offices, and benefices 
of his order, even if such dignities be abbatical, or be conventual priories. 

There are about seven deeds ascribed to St. Dogmaels in the " Harleian 
MSS.," and in the " Originalia Rolls," etc.; these, however, refer instead to 
St. Dogwells, in Pebidiauk, so that at this period very little about the Abbey 
is known, beyond a dispute regarding tithes, under the heading of Devon, which 
apparently had not been paid in the reign of King Richard, and for which the 
Abbot of St. Dogmaels was summoned. He, however, pleaded that the King, 
Henry V, had already granted him a full pardon, and so he prayed for judg- 
ment, which doubtless he obtained, though no trace of it has been found. This 
abbot was probably Philip, who was abbot in 1415. 

In a Patent Roll, 9 Henry VI, besides confirming the confirmation of nearly 
all the kings of England, since Henry I, of the grant of Robert Fitzmartin, the 
grant of William de Cantington to the Abbey is also confirmed. 

Memoranda R. R. Hil Term. 5 Hen. V, m. 4. 
Devon. 

Of the Abbot of St. Dogmaels late Collector of the second and third moieties of the 
tenth granted to King Richard the 2nd in the Archdeaconry of Cardigan summoned to 
render to the King account of the second moiety of the tenth aforesaid. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 89 

The Lord Ring hath commanded here his writ of his great Seal which is among 
the "Communia" of this term in these words Henry by the grace of God King of 
England and France and lord of Ireland to the Treasurer and Barons of his Exchequer 
greeting. Whereas on the first day of August in the third year of our reign of our 
special grace and with the assent of the lords spiritual and temporal and at the request 
of the Commons of our realm of England who were in our parliament at Westminster 
the 2nd year of our reign we pardoned and released Philip Abbot of St. Dogmaels or 
by whatever other name he is called and the convent of the same place all fines 
adjudicated amercements issues forfeitures reliefs scutages and all dues accounts 
profits arrears of farms and accounts to us on the 21st day of March the first year of 
our reign in whatever way due and pertaining. Also all kind of actions and demands 
which we alone against him or we conjointly with other persons or person may have or 
might have as in our letters patent thereupon made more fully is contained. We charge 
you that the said Abbot and Convent against the tenor of our aforesaid letters patent 
you shall not molest or burden in any way. Witness me myself at Westminster the 
ist day of february the 4th year of our reign. And the tenor of the letters patent of 
which mention is made above in the writ follows in these words Henry by the grace 
of God King of England to all his bailiffs and lieges to whom these present letters 
shall come, greeting Know ye that of our special grace and with the assent of the lords 
spiritual and temporal and at the request of the Commons of our realm of England 
who were in our last parliament we pardoned and released to Philip Abbot of St. 
Dogmaels or by whatever other name he may be called and the convent of the same 
place all trespasses offences misprisons contempts and impeachments by them before 
the 8th day of December last past against the form of the statutes concerning liveries of 
cloths and hoods made or performed and whereon punishment should fall in fine to 
redemption and in other pecuniary penalties or imprisonments the statutes aforesaid 
notwithstanding. So however that the present pardon and release shall not be to the 
damage prejudice or derogation of any other person. 

And moreover of our mere motion out of reverence to God and by intuition of 
charity we have pardoned the said Abbot and Convent the suit of our peace which 
belongs to us against them for all kinds of treacheries rapes of women rebellions 
insurrections felonies conspiracies and other trespasses offences negligences extortions 
misprisons ignorances contempts concealments and deceptions by them before the 8th 
day of December in whatever way done or perpetrated murders perpetrated by them 
after the 19th day of Novemiber last past if there were any excepted upon which they 
are adjudged arrested or summoned. And also outlawries if any against them on these 
occasions have been promulged and thereon we have granted him our firm peace. While 
however the said Abbot and convent are not evildoers in the craft of money and 
multipliers of the coinage and washers of the gold and silver when coined in our Mint 
and clippers of our money common approvers and notorious thieves or felons who have 
made abjuration of the realm. So that however they stand to right in our Court if any 
shall prosecute them concerning the premises or any of the premises. And further of 
our more abundant grace we have pardoned and released the said Abbot and Convent 
all kinds of escapes of felons and chattels of fugitives outlaws and felons and all kinds 
of articles such as destructions of the highway and trespasses of vert and venison sale 
of woods within our forests and without and other things whatsoever before the said 



90 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

8th day of December within our realm of England and the parts of Wales . . . 
upon which punishment shall fall by due demand or by way of fine and ransom or in 
other pecuniary penalties or in forfeiture of goods and chattels or imprisonments or 
amercements of counties townships or of any persons or in a charge of their free tenants 
who have never trespassed as of heirs executors land tenants Escheators sheriffs Coroners 
and others and all which to us against them should belong by the causes aforesaid. And 
also every kind of grant alienation and purchase by them of lands and tenements of 
us or our progenitors sometime Kings of England held in chief. And also grants 
alienations and purchases in mortmain made and had without our royal license. Also 
every kind of intrusion and entry by them in their inheritance in part or in whole after 
the death of their ancestors without duly sueing of the same out of our royal hand 
before the same 8th day of Decemlber done together with the issues and profits therefrom 
in the meantime taken. And also we have pardoned and released to the aforesaid 
Abbot and Convent all kinds of fines judgments amercements issues forfeitures reliefs 
scutages and all kinds of dues accounts prests and arrears of farms and accounts on 
the ist day of March the first year of our reign in whatever way due and belonging. 
Also all kinds of actions and demands which we alone against him or we conjointly 
with other persons or person have or may have. And also outlawries against them 
promulged for any of the aforesaid causes. And moreover we have pardoned and 
released to the said Abbot and Convent all kinds of pains before the same 8th day of 
December forfeited before us or our council Chancellor Treasurer or any of our Judges 
for any cause and all other pains as well to us as to our most beloved father deceased 
for any cause before the same 8th day of December forfeited and to our use to be 
levied. And also all surieties of the peace before the same 8th day of December 
similarly forfeited. So that this our present pardon as far as concerns the premises or 
any of the premises shall not be to the damage prejudice or derogation of any other 
person that of us. In witness whereof we have caused to be made these our letters 
patent. Witness me myself at Westminster the ist day of August the third year of 
our reign by the King himself. Upon which comes here on the morrow of St. Hilary 
this term the aforesaid Abbot by Richard Hutley his attorney and complains that he 
has been harshly distrained by the sheriff of the county of Devon as collector of the 
second and third moiety of a tenth and the moiety of a tenth to the lord Richard late 
King of England the second after the conquest from the clergy of the province of 
Canterbury in the church of St. Paul at London the 2nd day of March the 21st year 
of the said late King granted in the Archdeaconry of Cardigan. To render account 
to the lord King that now is of the 2nd moiety of the tenth aforesaid. And this 
unjustly because he says that the said lord King that now is has pardoned the aforesaid 
Abbot of St. Dogmaels all kinds of dues accounts due prests arrears of farms and 
accounts also all kinds of demands etc. As in the writ and abovesaid letters patent of 
the King more fully is contained. Whereupon the said Abbot does not think that the 
said lord King that now is will impeach him further in the premises. And he prays 
judgment etc. 

There then occurs a long gap during the Wars of the Roses, when nothing 
about either St. Dogmaels or her cells can be gleaned, till, in 1504, in the reign 
of Henry VII, in the muniment room at Canterbury Cathedral, in the Registers 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 91 

of that Archbishopric, occurs a record of the Visitation of the Deanery of 
Cemaes, at Newport, Pembrokeshire, on the 14th July. Evidently by this the 
secular priests had ceased to keep the outlying chapels belonging to the Abbey 
in order, for we read of ruined chancels and damaged windows, though it is 
noted that the Rector of Pill had restored his chancel. This is followed two 
days later by a visitation at St. Dogmaels, held in the chapter house of the 
Abbey, when the Abbot Dom Lewis Baron, and the Prior of Caldey, Dom 
Nicholas, together with five other monks, are examined, who all agree that the 
monastery was in good order and that they are free from debt. 

These visitations took place while the see of St. David's was vacant, owing 
to the death of John Morgan, the late Bishop, which is noted in these same 
registers. The Abbey seems to have been prosperous at this time, as it was in 
Henry VII's reign that the fan tracery roof was added, besides other 
restorations. 

The Registers of the Archbishopric of Canterbury. 
Warham,* f. 228. 

The visitation of the Deanery of Cemaes in the Church of Newport, the 14th day of 

the month of July, A.D. 1504. 

The Abbot of St. Dogmaels impropriator of Llantood, Moylgrove, Eglwyswrw and 
Monington appears by his proctors Dom Philipp Lawrence vicar of St. Dogmaels also 
appears Dom Hugo Harris vicar of Llantood also appears Dom Phillip Lloyd vicar 
of Eglwyswrw also appears, he is found guilty of incontinence, his chancel ruinous and 
the windows not glazed. 

Also at the visitation of the Deanery of Pebidiank from the same registers, we 
find the Abbot of St. Dogmaels, impropriator of Fishguard, appears by his proctor of 
good life Dom John ap Atho vicar of Fishguard also appears, he is found guilty of 
incontinence. 

Dom John Howell precentor of the Cathedral Church of St. Dogmells'^ also 
appears of good life. 

Dom John Lowelin vicar there appears of good life. 

Dom Griffin Cedras vicar of Llanwnda also appears of good life. 

Now apparently from these two documents most of the priests appear to 
have led good lives, with the exception of the Vicar of Eglwyswrw, and the 
Vicar of Fishguard, both of whom had been convicted of immorality, and the 
Vicar of Eglwyswrw also of neglecting to keep the chancel of his church in 
good repair. 

' Warham was Archbishop of Canterbury, and was the predecessor of Cranmer. 

' ? St. Dogmaels. 



93 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

The last three on the lists, if St. Dogwells is meant instead of St. Dogmaels, 
would have nothing to do with the Abbey; but it might be of interest to 
residents in these two places to know the manner of life their priests led at that 
date, and that it was good. 

Registers of Archbishopric of Canterbury. 
Warham, f. 288, A.D. 1504, Henry VII. 

Visitation of the monastery of Blessed Mary of St. Dogmaels made in the 
Chapter House there i6th day of the month of July of the year aforesaid. 

Dom Lewis Baron Abbot there was interrogated and diligently examined of and 
upon the estate of his monastery who says that his monastery is in good estate and 
that it is not indebted to any one and that his brethren are of good and honest con- 
versation and obedient to him at their free will. 

Dom Nicholas Prior de Caldey being interrogated and examined agrees in all 
his statements with the Abbot. 

Dom Phillip being interrogated and examined agrees with the Prior of Caldey 
above examined. 

Dom Thomas Jevan Dom William Griffith Dom Thomas Baron Dom David . . 
being diligently and separately examined agree in all their statements with the Abbot 
and brethren above examined. 

And the oath of canonical obedience by them to the lord Archbishop due being 
first received it was enjoined on the Abbot abovesaid that every day at dinner he should 
have read at the table by one of his brethren two or three rules of the Order of St. 
Benedict and he should so continue [to do] for the better instruction of his brethren. 




SHAFT OF FAN TRACERY. ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

PHIvraphtd by Biskcp MitcMuoK, Maittr ^Ptmtntt Ctll4tt, Oi^inl. 



CHAPTER X. 



THE DISSOLUTION. 




[HE original of this Acknowledgment of the King's Supremacy 
remains in the Chapter House, at Westminster, as also does the 
one signed by the prior and monks of Pill Priory, with their seal 
attached; it is signed by the abbot and eight of his monks, and 
has the COMMON SEAL of the Abbey attached to it, the impression being on 
red wax; it is oval, of moderate size, and somewhat flattened. The subject of 
it, corresponding with the dedication of the Abbey, is the Virgin Mary, seated 
under an ornamental arch, with the infant Christ in her lap. Below the arch 
is a monk praying, with the legend S. COMUNE. SANTI. DOG. . . LIS. DE. KEMMEYS., 
as will be seen by the impression hereafter given. 

In the photograph of the Acknowledgment opposite, signed by the 
abbot and monks, it will be seen that the document is in one handwriting. The 
abbot signs his own name, as also does Dom Hugo Eynon, whereas the other 
seven names appear to have been written by the same hand, possibly that of 
Dom Robert Thomas, thus indicating how few of the monks could write even 
in 1534- 

There is a noticeable fact regarding these signatures, every name being 
preceded by Dominus, so that the acknowledgment evidently was not signed 
by the ordinary fathers, if there were eight entitled to the title of " Dominus " 
there would be two or three times that number of monks in the Abbey, and not 
simply eight as quoted by fairly modern writers. 

The honour given to Henry VIII's wife, Anne Boleyn, and the Princess 
Elizabeth, then one year old, will be noted in this act of supremacy. 

In the Cotton MSS., Cleopatra, E. IV, f. 388, the Abbey is valued at 
78 1 8s. 



94 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Acts of Supremacy. 
Ch. H", S. 3, 103.* 

Since it is the interest not only of the Christian Religion and of piety but also 
the rule of our obedience that to our lord King Henry, the eighth of that name, to 
whom alone after Christ Jesus our Saviour we owe all things not only entirely but 
altogether in Christ and always the same sincere whole and perpetual devotion of soul 
faith observance honour worship reverence we should offer but also the reason of our 
said faith and observance as often as it shall be required we should give most willingly 
and openly to all if the matter demands and should testify. Let all to whom this 
present writing shall come know that we the Abbot and Convent of the house and 
monastery of St. Dogmael in the diocese of St. David's with one mouth and voice and 
with the unanimous consent and assent of all to this our deed given under our common 
seal in our Chapter House for us and our successors all and singular for ever we 
confess testify and faithfully promise and faithfully pledge ourselves and successors 
all and singular to whole inviolate sincere and perpetual faith observance and obedience 
we will always pay towards our lord King Henry the 8th and towards Queen Anne wife 
of the same and towards his offspring of the said Anne lawfully as well begotten as to 
be begotten and this same to the people we will notify preach and recommend wherever 
the place and occasion shall be due. Also that you hold always ratified and confirmed 
and for ever shall hold that the aforesaid our King Henry is head of the Anglican 
church. Also that the Roman bishop who in his bulls usurps the name of Pope and 
arrogates to himself the supreme Pontificate hath not any greater jurisdiction given to 
him by God in this realm of England than any other foreign bishop. Also that none of 
us in any sacred assembly privately or publicly held shall call the said Roman bishop 
by the name of Pope or Supreme Pontiff but by the name of the Roman 
bishop or [Bishop] of the Roman Church. And that none of us shall pray 
for him as Pope but only as Bishop of Rome. Also that to our said 
lord King alone and his successors we will adhere and his laws and decrees will 
maintain. For ever renouncing the laws decrees and canons of the Bishop of Rome 
which are found to be against the divine law and sacred scripture or against the rights 
of this realm. Also that none of us in any either private or public assembly shall 
presume to distort anything taken out of the sacred scripture to another sense but each 
one shall preach in a Catholic and orthodox way Christ and his words and works 
simply openly sincerely and according to the Canon or rule of the sacred scripture and 
of the true Catholic and orthodox doctors. Also that every one of us in his prayers and 
supplications made of custom first of all will commend the King as supreme head of 
the Anglican church to God and the prayers of the people then the Queen Anne with 
her offspring then last the Archbishops of Canterbury and York with the other orders 
of the clergy. Also that we all and singular the aforesaid and our successors firmly 
bind ourselves in conscience and by oath that all and singular the aforesaid faithfully 
for ever we will observe. In witness whereof to this our deed we have appended our 
common seal and with our own name each with his own hand we have subscribed. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 



95 



Given in our Chapter house the 30th day of the month of July the year of our 
lord 1534. 

William Abbot of the monastery of St. Dogmael 

Dom Hugh Eynon 

Dom Robert Thomas 

Dom Philip Griffith 

Dom John David 

Dom William Bonne 

Dom David William 

Dom Lewis Laurens 

Dom David Res 




Valor Ecclesiasticus, 26 Hen. VIIL 

First Fruits Office. 

Abbey of St. Dogmael in Cemaes, in the County of Pembroke. 

William Abbot follower of the religion of St. Martin' and the convent of the same 

place holding the monastery or celF of St. Dogmaels the town mills hou.ses building 

orchard pastures granges lands and tenements besides the possessions below mentioned 

in towns places hamlets below mentioned for themselves and their successors in pure 

and perpetual alms together with the vis6 of frankpledge and the court to be held at 

the town of St. Dogmaels at their pleasure and the pleasure of their tenants fixed upon 

in accordance with the foundation and grant of Martin of the Towers.' 

The Abbey of St. Dogmaels. 
The manor or town of St. Dogmaels, and manors of Fish- 
guard and Grangistown with the appurtenances at the 
true value per annum of ... ... ... < ... ... jCiG 13 4 

Mynachlog Ddu with profits of free chapel at the same place 

per ann. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 815 6 

Lands and tenements in Haverfordwe.st per ann. ... ... 10 o 

In Pembroke ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 168 

In Menyth Tergh 168 

[Total Receipts should be jQ22i 12 2] 
[However] the total Receipts are [given as] ^^28 7 2 

Thence to be deducted at his Treasury Pembroke in any year whatever for the 
aforesaid lands as session dues and once only at the first entry of the said Queen^ as 



' Error, shoald be St. Benedict. Martin the founder again confounded with Martin the Saint. 
' The Abbey was never a cell. ' Robert Fitzmartin. * Anne Boleyn. 



98 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

presents do give and grant to the said William a certain annuity or yearly pension of 
20 marks sterling. To have enjoy and yearh' to take the same 20 marks to the said 
William and his assigns from the time of the dissolution and suppression of the said 
late Abbey to the term and for the term of the life of the said William until the said 
William shall be promoted to one or more ecclesiastical benefices or other suitable 
promotion of the clear yearly value of 20 marks or more by us as well by the hands of 
the Treasurer of our aforesaid Court who for the time shall be. He shall be paid from 
our treasure in his hands from the aforesaid revenues happening to remain as by the 
hands of our Receivors of the particulars of our Revenues aforesaid of the said 
Revenues at the feasts of the Annunciation B V M and St. Michael the Archangel by 
equal portions. Because express mention etc. In witness whereof etc. Witness etc. 
at Westminster the loth ^farch the 28th year of our reign. 

By the Chancellor and Council aforesaid by virtue of the warrant aforesaid. 

Patent Roll. 35 Hen. VIIT. 
* pt. 5, m. 9. 

The King to all to whom etc. greeting. Know ye that we in consideration of four 
hundred and thirty nine pounds fourteen shillings of our good and lawful money of 
England paid to the hands of the Treasurer of our Court of Augmentations of the 
Revenues of our Crown to our use by our belo\ed Richard Savery of Totnes in our 
county of Devon gentleman of which said sum of four hundred and thirty nine jxjunds 
fourteen shillings we acknowledge that we are fully satisfied and contented and the 
.said Richard his heirs and executors thereof quit and exonerate bv these presents of our 
special grace certain knowledge and mere motion have given and granted and by 
these presents do give and grant to the aforesaid Richard Savery all that our 
lordship or manor of RATTRE and all that our Rectory and church of Rattre in our 
said county of De\on with all their rights members and appurts. now or late in the 
tenure or occupation of John Manistv or his assigns and late to the monastery of St. 
Dogmaels in South Wales in our County of Pembroke belonging and appertaining 
and late being parcel of the possessions and revenues of the same late Monastery also 
the advowson gift presentation free disposal and right of patronage of the vicarage of 
the church of blessed Mary of Rattre aforesaid. And also all that our wood or coppice 
of wood called Winterscomes Coppie containing by estimation two acres also all that 
our wood or coppice of wood called Hurtley Coppie containing by estimation one acre. 
And also all that our wood or grove called Commen Grove containing by estimation 
two acres. Also all that our wood or grove called Blakewell Grove containing by 
estimation one acre and all the land ground and soil of the same woods lying or growing 
in the parish of Rattre in our said county of Devon now or late in the tenure or occupa- 
tion of the said John Manistv or his assigns and to the said late mrmastery of St. 
Dogmaels late belonging and api)ertaining. Al.so all and singular the me.ssuages mills 
houses buildings lands etc. rents reserved upon certain leases and grants. And al.so 
w<x)ds underwoods furze heath moors commons ways waste grounds waters fishings 
fisheries Court-leets profits of Courts views of frankpledge etc. knights fees wardships 
marriages escheats reliefs heriots fairs markets tolls customs fairs free warrens goods and 
chattels waifs strays. And also glebes tithes etc. in Rattre aforesaid or elsewhere 
wherever in our said county of Devon to the said manor or lordship and Rectory or 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 99 

either of them in whatever way belonging or appertaining of same manor or lordship and 
Rectory now or late in the tenure or occupation of the said John Manisty or his assigns. 
We give also for the consideration aforesaid and of our certain knowledge and mere 
motion by these presents do grant to the aforesaid Richard Savery all that annual rent 
of twenty pounds upon lease to the aforesaid John Manisty to us reserved also all and 
singular other woods underwoods and trees of in and upon the premises or any parcel 
thereof growing or l)eing. And also the re\ersion and reversions of the aforesaid 
manor or lordship and Rectory etc. with all their appurtenances in as ample manner and 
form as the last late Abbot and late Convent of the said late monastery of St. Dogmaels 
had held or enjoyed or ought to have had held or enjoyed and as fully and wholly and 
in as ample manner and form as the same all and singular to our hands by reason or 
pretext of the dissolution or surrender of the said late monaster) or by reason or pretext 
of any charter gift grant or surrender by the said late Abbot and late Convent under 
their Conventual seal to us thereof made or by reason or pretext of any act of parliament 
in whatsoever way they came or should come and in our hands now are or ought to be. 
Excepting and to us our heirs and successors altogether reserved all and singular 
advowsons and rights of patronage to the said monastery or lordship and other the 
premises in whatever way belonging or appertaining excepting only the advowson of 
the vicarage of the church of the Blessed Mary of Rattre aforesaid. Which said manor 
or lordship rectory lands tenements and other the premises with their appurtenances in 
Rattre aforesaid extend to the clear yearly value of twenty pounds and not more. To 
have hold and enjoy the aforesaid manor or lordship of Rattre and the aforesaid 
Rectory of Rattre and the aforesaid messuages mills lands tenements glebes tithes 
meadows etc. advowson of the vicarage of Rattre aforesaid and all and singular the 
premises with all their appurtenances excepting the afore excepted to the aforesaid 
Richard Savery etc. for ever. To hold etc. by the service of a thirtieth part of a 
knight's fee. And rendering therefrom yearly to us our heirs and successors forty 
.shillings of our legal money of England at our said Court of Augmentations of the 
Revenues of our Crown at the feast of St. Michael the Archangel every year to be 
paid by name of a tenth part of the premises for all rents services exactions and 
demands whatsoever therefrom to us our heirs or successors in any way to be rendered 
paid or done. And further we will and by our royal authority which we exercise bv 
these presents have granted to the aforesaid Richard Savery his heirs and assigns 
that the said Richard etc. may and shall have hold and enjoy and to their 
own proper use convert the aforesaid Rectory and aforesaid tithes etc. as fully 
and wholly and in as ample manner and form as the last late Abbot and 
late Convent of the said late monastery of St. Dogmaels or any of their 
predecessors in right of the said late monastery the aforesaid Rectory and other the 
premises to the said Rectory belonging had held or enjoyed etc. We will also for us 
our heirs and successors for the consideration aforesaid and of our certain knowledge 
and mere motion by these presents have granted to the aforesaid Richard Savery etc. 
that the said Richard etc. shall have hold and enjoy within the aforesaid manor or 
lord.ship the Rectory and other singular the premises with all their appurts and within 
every parcel therefore so many such the same and similar Courts leet views of ffrank- 
pledge and all which to views of ffrankpledge pertain or in future may or ought to 
belong fines amercements assize and assay of bread wine and beer goods and chattels 

7a 



lOO THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

waifs strays free warren and all which to free warren belongs rights profits liberties 
privileges etc. which the said late Abbot and convent had held and enjoyed. And also 
we will for the consideration aforesaid and of our certain knowledge and mere motion 
by these presents have granted to the aforesaid Richard Savery his heirs and assigns 
that we our heirs and successors for ever yearly and from time to time will acquit 
exonerate and indemnify and keep as will the said Richard etc. who the aforesaid 
manor or lordship Rectory lands tenements and other the premises with all their 
appurtenances against us our heirs etc. of all and every kind of corrody rent fee annuity 
and sums of money whatsoever from the aforesaid manor or lordship rectory and other 
the premises or of any parcell thereof in whatever way issuing or to be paid or thereon 
charged or to be charged except the rent and service above by these presents to us 
reserved. Willing moreover and firmly enjoining charging as well our Chancellor and 
Council of our said court of Augmentations of the Revenues of our Crown for the time 
being as well all and singular our Receivers Auditors and other officers and ministers 
whatsoever of our heirs etc that they and each of them upon the sole showing of these 
our letters patent or enrolment of the same without any other writ or warrant from us 
our heirs and successors in any way to be sought obtained or prosecuted full whole and 
due allowance default deduction and exoneration shown of all and every kind of 
corrodies rents fees annuities and sums of money whatsoever from the aforesaid manor 
or lordship and other the premises as aforesaid issuing or to be paid or thereon charged 
or to be charged shall make or cause to be made. And these our letters patent or inrol- 
ment of the same shall be yearly and from time to time as well to our said Chancellor 
and Council of our said Court of Augmentations etc. as well to our Receivers Auditors 
eta sufficient warrant and exoneration in this behalf. And further we give for the 
consideration aforesaid and of our certain knowledge and mere motion by these presents 
have granted to the aforesaid Richard Savery all issues rents reversions and profits 
aforesaid of the manor or lordship Rectory and other and singular the premises with 
all their appurtenances from the feast of the Annunciation of the blessed Virgin Mary 
last past forthcoming or growing. To have to the said Richard of our gift without 
any account or any other provision to us our heirs and successors in any way to be 
rendered paid or made. And also we will and by these presents have granted to the 
said Richard Savery that he may have and shall have these our letters patent under our 
great seal of England in due manner made and sealed without fine or fee great or small 
to us in our hanap)er or elsewhere to our use in any way to be rendered paid or made. 
Because express mention etc. In witness etc. Witness the King at Westminster 
8th July. 

By writ of privy seal etc. 

Amongst the particulars for grants, Henry VIII, No. i6o, dated March 
1 0th, 1537, is the preliminary account of the Manor and property of the Abbey 
of St. Dogmaels, together with the Manor and Island of Caldey, followed by 
the charter of sale to John Bradshaw and his heirs, of Presteign, Radnorshire, 
and formerly of Lancashire, with the annual property, or King's tax thereon. 

These deeds should be specially interesting to the present inhabitants of 
St. Dogmaels, owing to the family names, which sire still mostly the same, and 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. lOI 

also the place names of various portions of land, lately belonging to the 
Abbey. 

Among these " Potpitt," now " Poppitt," formerly the name for " Pwll-cam."* 

" Dary or dareg." derived from " Deri " = " oak." 

"Grige Pende " = " Crugiau^ pen du" = the "crags of the blackhead." 

"Parke Rolle" = "Parc y rheor' = "the roadside meadow." 

" Aries " = a " great benefit," it was a meadow of about four acres, so it 
may be presumed it was so named on account of its excellence. 

" Lalkerly" = "Llacharle" = " the bright place." 

" ffunhone " = " ffynnon " = a " spring," a " source." 

"The laundre" or " laundry " = Llandre = the house, or manor enclosure, 
this was evidently the Abbey enclosure, about forty acres, and where John 
Bradshaw lived. 

"Haver Brokechelly " = " Hafn a &rth"' = and if brokechelly can be taken 
as " brochell y lie," or " Uys," it would then signify " the place or court of 
Tempest of the Firth." 

" Briscwm " = " Brwys cwm " = " The fertile valley." 

"Place pen Abounte" = " Plas pen y bont" = "The Place at the Head of 
the Bridge." 

" Roosland " = " Rhos = a moor," therefore "moorland." 

" Pen rallt " = " The head of the forest." 

" Dame Parke " = " Dan y parke " = " Below the meadows." 

John Bradshaw had to pay the yearly stipend of the Vicar of St. Thomas 
the Martyr's. 

In 1538, 29 Henry VHI, there follows from the Aug" Min" Accounts (155), 
the Compotus of John Bradshaw, with full description of the different places 
belonging to the late Abbey, and also of their values, together with arrears to 
the sum of ;^8 iSs. 8d., also that it was let to farm to John Bradshaw for 
twenty-one years, who is here described as of Ludlow, in the County of Salop. 
It comprised all lands, buildings, etc., belonging to the Abbey in St. Dogmaels, 
with the site of the late Abbey, also the Rectory of the Church of St. Thomas 
the Martyr, Eglwyswrw, Caldey with appurtenances, also Bayvill, Moylgrove, 
Llantood, St. Nicholas Fishguard, Grangeston, and the Chapels of Penkelly 
vychan, Nantgwyn, Lisprant, and Newton, with appurtenances, and every con- 
ceivable right, as will be seen in the deed itself, only excepting the Manor of 
Rattre, which had been disposed of separately, and the Rectories of Maen- 



' The crooked pool. Pronounced here Cri-ge. ' Danish. 



to2 THE HISTORY OF ST. UOGMAELS ABBEY. 

clochog, Llandilo, Llancolman, and the Chapel of Mynachlogddu, and tene- 
ments at Haverford and Pembroke, which had belonged to the same Monastery.* 

John Bradshaw had to pay the yearly rental of go gs. S^^d., also he paid 
the Chaplain of St. Dogmaels ^ yearly, and ^ 13s. 6d. to the Chaplain of 
Caldey. 

The King granting John Bradshaw for repairs, thatch, also hedgebote, 
firebote, ploughbote, and cartbote, that is wood for the making and repairing 
of ploughs and carts, the repair of hedges, firewood, but not timber. Then 
follows a similar account of the Lordship of Rattre, formerly part and parcel 
of St. Dogmaels Abbey, but now handed over to John Manisty. 

Together with rents at Haverford and Pembroke, formerly belonging to 
the Abbey, amounting to thirty-six shillings and eightpence. 

The Rectories of Maenclochog, Llandilo, and Llancolman, amounting 
to i. 

The rents of tenants at will in Mynachlogddu at a rental of 117 shillings 
and one penny. 

The Chapel of Mynachlogddu at 100 shillings. 

With mentions of the g 6s. 8d. formerly paid to the last Abbot William 
Hire by the Priory of Pill, and a pension of sixteen shillings and eightpence 
formerly paid by the Priory of Glascareg, in Ireland, to the Abbot of St. 
Dogmaels; but which by the oath of William Hire, late Abbot, had not been 
paid for forty years and more. 

In fees and wages, ^ 2s. 

Together with a few odd items belonging to the late Abbey. 

In the Roll, 29 Henry VIII, Augmentation Office, the possessions of the 
Abbey are valued at ^'i20 i8s. 6d. ; Rattre, ^20; Glascareg, }, 6s. 8d. ; Llan- 
dilo, Llancolman, and Maenclochog, ;^8, were not, however, let to Mr. Bradshaw, 
so that if i\ 6s. 8d. is subtracted from this valuation, St. Dogmaels and the 
remaining possession as let to Mr. Bradshaw were only worth 89 lis. lod. 

Particulars for Grants. 

Hen. VIII, No. 160. Mar. 10, 28 Hen. VIII, 1537. 
The late Monastery of St. Dogmaels in the County of Penibroke. 

By John Bradshaw. 
Parcel of tlie possessions of the said late monastery in South Wales suppressed 
by authority of Parliament. 

The site of the late monastery aforesaid with the demesne lands in the county 
aforesaid is worth in houses buildings barns gardens orchards and two mills which lay 

' See deed. 



*^ 










J' 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 



103 



unoccupied before the suppression of the said late monastery x' one close of arable 
land called Parke Rolle containing 17 acres iis. 4d. : one close of arable land called 
the New parke containing 3 acres adjacent to the close called Parke Rolle aforesaid 
2s : a parcel of waste land called Grige pende 3s. 4d. : another parcel of waste land 
called the Abbot's parke with a messuage called the Darey 3s. 4d. : one messuage 
called the newer darey and one close of arable land called varn* parke containing 
4 acres 2s. 8d. : one close of arable land called the medowe containing i acre 8d. : 
one close called Potpitt^ containing 15 acres adjacent to the seashore 6s. 8d. : one 
close of arable land called Aries containing 4 acres 2s. : one close called the Great 
close containing 4 acres 2s. : one close called doctor's parke containing i acre 8d. : 
one close of arable land called free parke containing % acre i rood 8d. : one meadow 
called the East meadow containing i acre 2s. : one meadow called lakerly containing 
2 acres los. : one meadow called ffunhone containing ijX acres 6s. 8d. Which said 
premises are demised to John Bradshaw by Indenture under the seal of the lord King 
of his Court of Augmentation of the revenues of the Crown under date loth March 
the 28th year of the reign of King Henry the 8th. To have the said site with the 
parcels aforesaid to the aforesaid John and his assigns from the feast of St. Michael 
the Archangel last past for the term of 21 years next ensuing and fully to be 
completed rendering therefrom per ann. 74s. 

Manor of St. Dogmaels otherwise the Laundre in the parish of St. Dogmaels afore- 
said late Thomas Becket's Bishop in the county aforesaid with all the lands and 
tenements to the aforesaid Laundry belonging. 

The rents of divers tenements called Mill Broke with appurts : two tenements 
with all their belongings called Haver Brekechelley : one burgage with a garden 
annexed situate in the street called Landan within the township of St. Dogmaels : two 
tenements with their appurts called Parke John Lloid and Wyott land : one burgage 
with a garden and orchard adjacent late in the hands of Elizaljeth Williams : two 
acres of land lying in the East field of the township aforesaid with another small 
piece of land to the same belonging : other two acres lying in a place called Briscum : 
one tenement with appurts called Plas pen Alwunte : one burgage called Arnard plas 
Roos land : certain waste lands late in the tenure of James ap Powell Lloid : one 
tenement with aj)purts late in the tenure of Owen ap Philip : one piece of land late 
in the tenure of Robert ap Price ap Powell : one tenement with appurts situate by 
Cardigan bridge : one tenement called Penralte : divers lands late in the hands of 
William Hews: certain lands late in the hands of David ap leuan : one tenement 
with certain lands to the same annexed late in the hands of Morice ap David : 
one tenement with appurts late in the hands of Jenken Rogers j house with appurts late 
in the hands of Jenken ap leuans j acre of land late in the tenure of leuan Powell 
divers lands with a garden annexed late in the hands of John Sporrior j tenement with 
appurts late in the tenure of John Mortimer. Which said land and tenements together 
with the profits of court leets and views of frankpledge are demised to John Bradshaw 
by Indenture above recited and a rent therefrom per ann. 8'' 2' S'*j4- 

Manor and island of Caldey with the chapel there and all the tithes, rents of 
lands and tenements in the island aforesaid in the county aforesaid are worth in rents 



' Vainer in Dugdale. '' I'oppitl of the present day. 



I04 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 



and farms with all and every kind of tithe yearly growing in the island aforesaid late 
demised to divers persons and now in the tenure of aforesaid John Bradshaw by 
Indenture aforesaid per ann ii6' lo'' 

17" 3' 3^y2^ 

Reprises. 
Namely in the stipend of a chaplain yearly celebrating divine service and having 
cure of souls in the chapel of Caldey per ann 73" 6^ 
And remaining clear 13'' 9' g^% 



Abstract of Roll. 29 Henry VIII, Augmentation Office. 
The late monastery of St. Dogmaels under the diocese of St. David's. 



St. David's 



St. Dogmaels 



Manor Lands 
Rents 



Devon 

Manor of Rattre 

Wales 

Haverfordwest and Pembroke, Rents 

Water Mill Fishguard 

Rent in the town 

Grangiston rents 

Caldey rents ... 

Fishguard and Grangiston Rectories 

Maenclochog House Llandilo and Llancolmaii 

Mynachlog Ddu chapel 

St. Thos. Rectory St. Dogmaels 

Eglwyswrw 

Nantgwyn Llysprant and Newton 

Moylgrove Rectory 

Llantood and St. Nicholas ... 

Pill Late Priory 

Glascareg (Ireland) rents 

Penkelly Vychan 



... 3 


4 





... 8 


2 


oyi 


... 5 


17 


I 


... 20 








I 


16 


8 


I 








... 6 


13 


4 


I 


6 


8 


5 


16 


10 


... 10 


6 


8 


8 








5 








... 20 








... 7 


6 


8 


... 7 


6 


8 


... 6 


13 


4 


... 6 


13 


4 


... 9 


6 


8 


... 3 


6 


8 


1 


5 






;^I20 18 6 



AuGN. MiNRS. AccTS. 29-30 H. 8. 1538-9. 
No. 155. 
The late Monastery of St. Dogmaels within the Bishopric of St. David's. 

Compotus of John Br^idshaw Collector of Rents and farms of all and singular 
the lordships lands and tenements and other possessions whatsoever as well temporal as 
spiritual to the aforesaid late Monastery appertaining or belonging which to the hands 
of the lord King have now come and are and annexed to his Crown and of his heirs and 
successors the Kings of England in augmentation of the Revenues of the said Crown 



' ? The addition ; il is thus corrected in the Latin. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 105 

of England b)' virtue of a certain Act in his parliament held at Westminster upon pro- 
rogation the 4th Feb. [1537] the 27th year of the reign of the said lord King thereon 
published and provided as in the said Act among other things is contained to wit from 
the feast of St. Michael the Archangel the 29th year of the reign of the aforesaid King 
Henry the 8th until the said feast of St. Michael the Archangel then next ensuing the 
30th year of the King aforesaid to wit for one whole year. 

Arrears. 
And of viij'' xviij* viij** of arrears of last Account of the year preceding as 
appears there. 

Sum viij" xviij* viij"* 

Site of the late monastery aforesaid with other things. 

XX 

Of iiijx" viij iijj^** forthcoming of divers parcels of land as well temporal as 
spiritual belonging to the late Monastery aforesaid he does not answer here because it is 
demised at farm to John Bradshawe by Indenture for term of 21 years settled under the 
seal of the lord King of his Court of Augmentations of the Revenues of his Crown as 
in the next title following more fully and particularly appears. 

Sum nil. 
ffirms. 

XX 

But he answers of iiijx" ix* viijVX'' of rents of the demesne land so demised to 
John Bradshaw by Indenture sealed with the seal of the Court of Augmentations of the 
Revenues of the Crown of the lord King the tenor of which follows in these words 
This Indenture made between the most excellent prince and lord, the lord Henry the 8th 
by the grace of God King of England and France defender of the faith lord of 
Ireland and on earth supreme head of the Anglican Church of the one part and John 
Bradshawe of Ludlow in the County of Salop of the other part witnesseth that the 
said lord King by advice and consent of the council the Court of 
Augmentations of the Revenues of his Crown hath delivered granted and 
let at farm to the aforesaid John the house and site of the late Abbey or 
Monastery of St. Dogmaels within the Bishopric of St. David's by the authority of 
parliament suppressed and dissolved together with all houses edifices barns gardens 
orchards apple orchards ground and soil within the site and precinct of the said late 
Abbey etc. manor or lordship of Fishguard with appurts and a mill there with appurts 
to the said late monastery belonging and appertaining also the Rectories of the churches 
of St. Thomas the Martyr within the township of St. Dogmael, Eglwyswrw and 
Caldey with appurts Bayvill Moylgrove Llantood and St. Nicholas Fishguard 
Grangeston and the chapel of Penkelly Vychan Nantgwyn Lisprant Newton and Caldey 
with appurts to the said late monastery belonging and appertaining together with all 
tithes etc. whatsoever to the said Rectories and chapels or any of them belonging or 
appertaining and all messuages lands etc. and profits of Courts leet and views of frank- 
pledge and other possessions and hereditaments whatsoever with their rights and com- 
modities whatsoever in the township fields parishes and hamlets of St. Dogmaels Fish- 
guard Grangeston Caldey Eglwyswrw Bayvill Moylgrove Llantood Penkelly Vychan 
Nantgwyn Lisprant and Newton to the said Monastery late belonging and appertaining. 
Excepting however and to the said lord King his heirs and successors altogether 



Io6 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

reserved the lordship and manor of Rattre and the Rectories of Maenclochog Llandillo 
and Llancoleman and the Chapel of Manoclog ddu and all the lands and tenements in 
Manochlog ddu Rattre Haverford and Pembroke to the said late monastery belonging 
and appertaining. And also excepting and reserved all wards marriages escheats reliefs 
great trees and woods and advowsons of the vicarages of the premises also well 
(illegible) and such edifices within the site and precinct of the said late monastery which 
the said lord King may in future command to be laid low and taken away. To have 
and to hold the site manors Rectories chapels lands etc. except the pre-excepted to the 
aforesaid John Bradshawe and his assigns from the feast of St. Michael the Archangel 
last past to the end of the term and for the term of 2 1 years then next ensuing and fully 
to be completed. Rendering therefrom yearly to the said lord King his heirs and 
successors Ninety pounds nine shillings and eight pence and one halfpenny of lawful 
money of England to wit for the aforesaid site lands meadows pastures rents and 
services in the township of St. Dogmaels aforesaid eleven pounds six shillings and five 
pence and one halfpenny and for the aforesaid lordship of Fishingard six pounds 
fourteen shillings and nine pence and for the aforesaid mill of Fishingard twenty 
shillings and for the aforesaid land and tenements in the township of Grangiston 
aforesaid twenty six shillings and eight pence and for the aforesaid Rectory of St. 
Thomas in the township of St. Dogmaels twenty pounds and for the aforesaid Rectory 
of Eglwyswrw seven pounds six shillings and eight pence and for the aforesaid Rectory 
of Bayvill four pMDunds thirteen shillings and fourpence and for the aforesaid Rectory 
of Molgrave six pounds thirteen shillings and four pence for the aforesaid Rectory of 
Llantood and St. Nicholas six pounds thirteen shillings and fourpence and for the 
aforesaid Rectories of Fyshguard and Grangiston ten pounds six shillings and eight 
pence and for the aforesaid Rectory or chapel and lands and tenements in Caldey one 
hundred and sixteen shillings and tenpence and for the aforesaid chapel of Penkelly 
Vychan twenty five shillings and for the aforesaid chapels of Nantgwyn Lisprant and 
Newton seven pounds six shillings and eight pence at the feast of the Annunciation of 
the blessed virgin Mary and St. Michael the Archangel or within one month of either 
feast of such feasts at the Court aforesaid by equal portions to be paid during the term 
aforesaid and the aforesaid lord King wills and by these presents grants that he his 
heirs and successors the said John Bradshaw and his assigns as well of four pxjunds 
yearly for the wage and stipend of a chaplain yearly celebrating the divine office and 
observing the ca_re of souls in the church and parish of St. Dogmaels aforesaid. And 
of seventy three shillings and six pence yearly for the wage and stipend of a chaplain 
yearly celebrating the divine office and observing the cure of souls in the churches and 
parishes of Caldey aforesaid as of all rents fees etc. whatsoever of the premises or any 
of them issuing or to be paid except the rent above reserved against all persons what- 
.soever from time to time will exonerate acquit and defend and all houses and edifices of 
the premises in timber as in roofing of tiles and slate from time to time as often as shall 
be necessary and opportune will and sufficiently shall cause to be repaired sustained and 
maintained during the term aforesaid and the aforesaid John Bradshaw by these 
presents grants that he and his assigns roofing of thatch and all other necessary repara- 
tions of the premises except timber tiles and slate aforesaid from time to time as often 
as shall be necessary and opportune shall support and sustain during the term aforesaid 
and further the aforesaid lord King wills and by these presents grants that it shall be 



^ THE HISTORY OP' ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. . 107 

truly lawful to the aforesaid John Bradshaw and his assigns to take perceive and have 
competent and sufficient hedgebote firebote ploughbote and cartbote of in and upon the 
premises there and not elsewhere yearly to be expended and occupied during the term 
aforesaid. In witness whereof to one part of this Indenture with the said John 
remaining the aforesaid lord King his seal of the Court aforesaid appointed for the 
sealing of such deeds has commanded to be affixed and to the other part of the said 
Indenture with the said lord King remaining the aforesaid John has set his seal. Given 
at Westminster the loth March the 28th year of the reign of the said lord King. 

XX 

Sum iiijx" ix' viij'' ob. 

The Lordship of Rattre in the County of Devon. 

And of xx" of rent of the whole lordship aforesaid with all its appurts and with 
all Courts etc. also all tithes of sheaves of the parish church of the Blessed virgin 
Mary of Rattre aforesaid so demised to John Manyssee by indenture sealed with the 
seal of the Court of Augmentations of the Revenues of the Crown of the lord King 
the tenor of which follows in these words This Indenture made between the most 
excellent prince and lord the lord Henry the 8th by the grace of God King of England 
etc. and John Manysee of the other part witnesses that the said lord King by the advice 
and consent of his Council of the Court of Augmentation of the Revenues of the Crown 
hath delivered granted and at farm let to the aforesaid John the lordship and manor 
of Rattre with the appurts in the county of Devon together with the tithe of sheaves of 
the parish church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Rattre to the said late Monastery of 
St. Dogmaels in South Wales by the authority of parliament suppressed and dissolved 
appertaining or belonging together with all messuages lands etc. and except however 
and to the said lord King his heirs and successors altogether reserved all wardships 
marriages escheats reliefs great trees and woods and advowsons of the vicarage of 
Rattre aforesaid. To have and to hold the manor and tithes aforesaid and other the 
premises with appurts excepting the before excepted to the aforesaid John and his 
assigns from the feast of St. Michael the Archangel last past to the end of and for 
the term of twenty one years then next ensuing and fully to be completed rendering 
therefrom yearly to the said lord King his heirs and successors twenty jwunds of lawful 
money of England at the feasts of the Annunciation of the blessed virgin Mary and 
St. Michael the Archangel or within one month after either feast of those feasts at the 
Court aforesaid by equal portions during the term aforesaid and the aforesaid lord 
King wills and by these presents grants that he his heirs and successors the said John 
and his assigns of all rents fees feasts of Philip and James and St. Michael by equal 
portions. And of xxxvj^ viij'' of rent of one tenement with appurts situate in the town- 
ship of Pembroke aforesaid demised at will to John Smyth to be paid at the terms 
aforesaid. 

Sum xxxvj* viij'' 

Rectory of Maenclochog Llandilo and Llancolman. 

And of viij" of rent of the tithe of sheaves oblations and other profits there so 
demised to James Leche by Indenture sealed with the seal of the Court 
of Augmentations of the Revenues of the Crown of the Lord King of 
which the tenor follows in these words This Indenture made between the 
most excellent prince and lord the lord Henry the 8th by the grace of God King of 



Io8 THE HISTORY OK ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

England etc. of the one part and James Leche of la Hadden' in South Wales esquire 
of the other part witnesses that the said lord King by the advice and consent of his 
council of the Court of Augmentations of the Revenues of the Crown hath delivered 
granted and at farm let to the aforesaid James the rectories of Maenclochog Llandilo 
and Llancolman with appurts parcel of the late monastery of St. Dogmaels in South Wales 
etc. except however and to the said lord King his heirs and successors altogether reserved 
all great trees and woods of in or upon the lands of the premisses growing and being 
and the advowsons of the vicarages of Maenclochog Llandilo and Llancolman aforesaid. 
To have and to hold the rectories aforesaid with their appurts except the afore-excepted 
to the aforesaid James and his assigns from the feast of St. Michael the Archangel 
next coming to the end of the term and for the term of twenty one years then next 
ensuing and fully to be completed. Rendering therefrom yearly to the said lord King, 
his heirs and successors eight pounds of lawful money of England at the feasts of the 
Annunciation of the blessed Virgin Mary and St. Michael the Archangel or within one 
month after either feast or the feasts aforesaid at the Court aforesaid by equal portions 
and the aforesaid lord King wills and by these presents grants that he his heirs and 
successors to the said James and his assigns etc. And the aforesaid James has granted 
by these presents that he and his assigns roofing of thatch and all other necessary 
repairs of the prem'ises except repair of timber and roofing of tiles and slate aforesaid 
from time to time shall support and sustain during the term aforesaid and the 
aforesaid lord King further and by these presents grants that it shall be truly lawful to 
the aforesaid James and his assigns from time to time to take perceive and have of in 
and upon the premises competent and sufficient hedgebote firebote ploughbote and 
cartbote there and not elsewhere yearly to be expended and occupied during the term 
aforesaid. In witness whereof to one part of this Indenture with the said James 
remaining the aforesaid lord King his seal of the Court aforesaid appointed for the 
sealing of such deeds hath commanded to be affixed. Given and to the other part of 
the said Indenture with the said lord King remaining the aforesaid James hath set his 
seal. Given at Westminster the loth day of May the 29th year of the reign of the 
said lord King. 

Sum viij" 

Rent of tenants at will by copy and by Indenture in Manyghloke duy. 

And of xiij* iiij'' of rent of a tenement called Mynyth^ terthe in the tenure of 
Parot's heir who holds freely To be paid at two terms of the year to wit at the feasts of 
the blessed Virgin Mary and St. Michael the Archangel by equal portions And of 
viij* iiij"' of the rent of a tenement scituate and lying within the lordship aforesaid 
in the County of Pembroke and commonly called Mynachlog ddu y thache' which the 
abovesaid Howell now inhabits demised to Howell ap Thomas ap Owen by Indenture 
sealed with the Conventual seal of the late Monastery of St. Dogmaels aforesaid. Given 
the 8th day of October the 27th year of the reign of King Henry the eighth. To have 
to him and his assigns from the feast of St. Michael the Archangel last past before the 
date of these presents to the end of the term of 99 years then next ensuing and fully 
to be completed. Rendering therefrom as above to be paid at the feast of St. Michael 
the Archangel only as by one part of this Indenture with the Auditor remaining more 



' Llawhaden. 'A mountain. *V ddachre:= the beginning. 



^ THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 109 

fully appears. And of V viij'' of rent of a tenement with appurts situate and lying 
within the lordship aforesaid in the county of Pembroke and commonly called Plas 
pant y Rege demised to Howell ap Owen ap Powell by Indenture sealed with the 
Conventual seal aforesaid given the loth day of October the 27th year of the reign of 
Henry Vlllth. To have to him and his assigns from the feast of St. Michael the 
Archangel last past before the date of these presents to the end of the term of 99 years 
then next ensuing and fully to be completed. Rendering therefrom yearly as above 
to wit at the feast of St. Michael the Archangel only. And of x^ of rent of a tenement 
with all its appurts situate and lying within the lordship aforesaid in the County of 
Pembroke and commonly called Co'ne Karwyn' demised to David ap Ryce ap Owen by 
Indenture .sealed with the Conventual seal aforesaid given the 12th day of October the 
27th year of the reign of King Henry viij'*". To hold to him his heirs and assigns 
from the feast of St. Michael the Archangel last past before the date of these presents 
to the end of the term of 99 years then next ensuing and fully to be completed. 
Rendering therefrom as above to be paid at the feast of St. MicTiael the Archangel only. 
And of xvj* of the rent of two tenements with all their appurts situate and lying within 
the parish of St. Dogmaels in the lordship and county aforesaid and commonly called 
Landr^ Mynachlog ddu demised to Lewis ap leuan by Indenture sealed with the 
Conventual seal aforesaid. Given the loth day of October the 27th year of the reign 
of King Henry the viij'*". To have to him his heirs and assigns from the feast of 
St. Michael the Archangel last past before the date of these presents to the end of the 
term of 99 years then next ensuing and fully to be completed. Rendering therefrom 
yearly to be paid at the feast of St. Michael the Archangel only. Rendering also and 
doing all other charges and services according to use and custom as other tenants there 
done and have been accustomed to do. And of iij' iiij<* of rent of a tenement situate 
and lying within the lordship aforesaid at St. Julian's chapel demised by Indenture to 
Hoell ap Jenkyn ap Owen sealed with the conventual seal aforesaid which indeed he 
does not show. To be paid at the feasts of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary and St. Michael the Archangel by equal portions. And of ix' viij<i of the rent 
of a tenement with all its appurts situate and lying within the lordship aforesaid in the 
County of Pembroke and commonly called Pentr ithe' demised to Griffin ap Jevan ap 
Jenkyn by Indenture sealed with the Conventual seal aforesaid. Given the 9th day 
of October the 27th year of the reign of King Henry viij'''. To have to him his heirs 
and assigns from the feast of St. Michael the Archangel last past before the date of 
these presents to the end of the term of 99 years then next ensuing and fully to be 
completed. Rendering therefrom yearly as above to be paid at the feast of St. Michael 
the Archangel only. Rendering also and doing all other charges and services according 
to use and custom as other tenants have done and have been accustomed to do. And of 
v' viij** rent of a tenement situate and lying within the lordship aforesaid in the county 
of Pembroke and commonly called Blaen y cowrse glethe^ demised to Eynon ap David 
by Indenture sealed with the Conventual seal aforesaid. Given the 7th day of October 
the 27th year of the reign of King Henry viij'''. To have to him his heirs and assigns 
from the feast of St. Michael the .Archangel la.st past before the date of these presents 



' Cwm Cerwyn, where the Abbey had had rights of pasturage for 5,000 sheep. 
' Llandre= Home enclosure. ' Pentre uchaf= Upper chief house. , * The Cleddau. 



no THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

to the end of the term of 99 years then next ensuing and fully to be completed renderinj; 
therefrom yearly as above to be paid at the feast of St. Michael the Archangel only 
rendering also and doing all other charges and services according to use and custom as 
other tenants there have done and ha\e lieen accustomed to do as by one part of this 
Indenture with the Auditor remaining more fully appears. And of xj" rent of three 
tenements with their appurts of which one lies at ybrone lase within the lordship of 
St. Dogmaels which Griffin ap David goes late held and the other two tenements lie at 
Hengurto as there by their metes and bounds they are limited and assigned and all 
other lands and tenements from the stream Blaenerth to Blaenban demised to Owen ap 
Powell and David ap Powell by Indenture sealed with the conventual seal aforesaid 
given the 9th day of July the 25th year of the reign of King Henry the 8th. To have 
to him his heirs and assigns from the feast of St. Michael the Archangel next coming 
after the date of these presents to the end of the term of 99 years then next ensuing 
and fully to be completed rendering therefrom yearly as above to be paid at the feast 
of St. Michael only. And of x^ ij"* rent of a tenement with appurts demised at will to 
James ap Powell ap Bowen to be paid at the feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary and St. Michael the Archangel by equal portions. And of iij" viij*" rent 
of a tenement with appurts demised at will to Llewelyn ap Jevan Pickton to be paid at 
the terms aforesaid. And of v^ rent of a tenement with appurts demised at will to 
Jevan ap Powell ap Je\an ap David to be paid at the same terms. And of v^ viij'' rent 
of a tenement with appurts demised at will to Jenkyn ap Griffith to be paid at the 
same terms. And of 5* rent of a tenement with appurts demised at will to Philip 
Thomas to be paid at the terms aforesaid. And of ij' j'' rent of a tenement with appurts 
demised at will to David Willy ams to be paid at the same terms. And of ij' \}'^ rent 
of a tenement with appurts demised at will to Thomas ap dio Gwil"m to be paid at 
the same terms. 

Sum cxvij' j** 

Chapel of Mynachlog ddu. 
And of c' rent of the tithes of sheaves oblations and other profits so demised to 
Morgan John by Indenture sealed with the seal of the Court of Augmentations of the 
revenues of the crown of the lord King the tenor of which follows in these words This 
Indenture made between the most excellent prince and lord the lord Henry the 8th of 
the one part and Morgan Johns of Llangadocke in the county of Carmarthen in Wales 
gentleman of the other part. Witnesses that the said lord King by the adxice and 
consent of the council of the Court of Augmentations of the re\enues of his Crown 
hath delivered granted and at farm let to the aforesaid Morgan Johns the chapel of 
Mynachlog ddu with all houses buildings tithes oblations and other profits to the said 
chapel belonging or appertaining which said chapel lately belonged to the monasterv 
of St. Dogmaels in Wales etc. To have and to hold as well the said chapel with all 
houses buildings tithes etc. to the aforesaid Morgan his executors and assigns from the 
feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary la.st past to the end of the term 
and for the term of 21 years then next ensuing and fully to be completed. Rendering 
therefrom yearly to the said lord King his heirs and successors c*" of lawful money of 
England at the feast of St. Michael the Archangel and the Annunciation of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary or within one month after either feast of such feasts at the Court aforesaid 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. ill 

V 

by equal portions to be paid during the term aforesaid and the aforesaid lord King 

wills and grants for himself his heirs and successors that they will allow yearly to the 
aforesaid Morgan four pounds for the stipend of a chaplain there yearly celebrating. 
In witness whereof to one part of this Indenture with the aforesaid Morgan remaining 
the aforesaid lord King his seal of the Court aforesaid appointed for the sealing of 
such deeds hath commanded to be affixed and to the other part of the said Indenture 
with the said lord King remaining the aforesaid Morgan hath set his seal. Given at 
Westminster the 12th day of May the 29th year of the reign of the said lord King. 

Sum C 
Pensions of the late Priory of PuUe. 
Of ix" vj' viij<* rent of a pension yearly to be paid to William Hier* late Abbot of 
the Monastery aforesaid issuing out of the Priory of Pulle not answered for here 
because the aforesaid Priory is suppressed to the use of the lord King. 

Sum nil. 
Pension from Glascareg in Ireland. 

Of xvj' viij'' rent of a pension aforesaid for several years kept back and non paid 
for the space of forty years and more by the oath of the said William Hier late Abbot. 

The whole sum with arrears 

cxl" ij' p/i^ Of which 
Fees and wages. 

Also he accounts in fees of the said Accountant Bailiff and Collector of Rents and 
farms abovesaid at iiij" per ann and so in allowance this year for the whole time of this 
account finishing at the feast of St. Michael the Archangel the 30th year of the reign 
of King Henry the 8th iiij". And in stipend for the Auditor's clerks writing this 
Account at ij' per annum as the Auditor's clerks of the lord King of his Duchy of 
Lancaster are accustomed to be allowed in every account of the ministers there and so 
in allowance this year as in preceding ij'. 

Sum iiij" ij' 
Livery of monies. 

And in monies delivered to Edward Walters Receiver of the particulars of the 
lord King of the issues of his office this year as appears by divers bills signed and 
sealed under the hand of the said Edward Walters and among the memoranda of this 
year remaining. 

Sum cv'' xiiij' ixj^** 
In allowances and li\eries aforesaid. 

cix" xvj' ix%'^ 
And he owes xxx'' v' iiij<* 

Whereof 
James Leche farmer of the Rectory of Myachlog above charged at viij'' per ann so 
of arrears behind half a year finishing at the feast of St. Michael the Archangel the 
29th year of the reign of King Henry the 8th as appears there iiij" 

The said Ferres for such monies by him received in the year preceding bv colour 
of his office of Steward of the Court there at Ixvj' viij'^ per ann which hv right it is 
not known so upon him put until etc. Ixvj' viij'' 

' Hire. 



112 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 



Griffin Lloyd depute Archdeacon of St. David's diocese for such monies by him 
received in the preceding year for procurations and synodals issuing out of all the 
churches abovesaid late to the monastery aforesaid belonging at xxxij' per annum by 
what right it is not known so upon him put until etc xxxij* 

John Vaghan doctor of laws farmer of the lordship or manor of Ratre above 
charged at xx" per ann to wit of his arrears this year behind xx" 

James Baskefelde farmer of a tenement in Pembroke above charged at xxvj* viij'' 



per annum to wit of his arrears this year behind 

The same accountant of his own arrears behind this year 



xxvj' viij'' 
nil. 




rb 




CHAPTER XI. 




THE OLD ORDER CHANGETH. 

[HE first record of the Abbey, found after the dissolution, is in 
the 35th year of Henry VHI's reign (1544), in Dugdale's 
" Monasticon." It is in the form of a memorandum, of the 
desire of John Bradshaw to purchase the late Abbey of St. 
Dogmaels, as follows: 

Num. IV. 
Particular for Grant, 35 Hen. VIII, 12 June, 1544, Augmentation Office. 
Memorandum that I John Bradshavve of Presthende in the county of Radnor 
Esquyer requyer to purchase of the kings highnes by vertue of the kings comyssion of 
sale the premisses beyng of the cier yerlie value of 25/. 16s. 6j4d. the tenthe not 
deducted. In witnes whereof I have subscribed this bill with my hand and put to 
my seall the daye and yere in the said rate specified. ' ' 

Per me Joh'm Bradshawe. 

Together with the parcels and possessions belonging to it in South Wales. 

Hitherto one of the names, by which the Abbey enclosure or Llandre was 
known, has been omitted, namely, " The Llandre of the Bishop Thomas 
a Becket," who was Archbishop of Canterbury in the twelfth century. This is 
the more curious, as from the name it would be imagined that Thomas 
a Becket had either stayed at the Abbey, or was in some way connected with it ; 
but so far as is yet known, no trace of such a connection has been found. 

Following on this memorandum of John Bradshaw are items referring to 
St. Dogmaels and Caldey, the same as in the Charter following of 35 Henry 
VIII, with the addition of the three immediately following paragraphs, the first 
of which is audited by Edward Gostwycke. , 

Theis parcells before resyted be no parcell of any lordship of the clere yerely 
valew of 40I. nor doyth adjoyne to any of the kynges howses forrests or chases nor any 
fyne to my knolege hatha bene paid for the same, nether patronage advoyson nor 



114 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

chauntre doyth unto theym belong nor any other valew made out for any parcell 
thereof and who wyll by the premisses the audytor knoweth not. 

Per Edwardum Gostwyke auditorem. 
xijmo (jjg junii anno xxxv'" regni 
regis Henrici octavi. 

Pro Johanne Bradshawe. 

Certen Parcells of the Possessions of the late Monasterye of Wigmore' and 

Sancti Dogmelis. 

The clere yerelie value of the premisses, 25/. i6s. 6%d. Inde pro deciina 
2I. lis. Sd. et remanet clare 23/. 4^. io%d. which to be purchased after the rate of 
twenty-one yeres purchase amounteth to the some of 488/. 2^. 4j^rf. Add thereto for 
the woods 24/. 6d. and then the hole some is 512/. 25. io}id. To be paid in hand 
300/. and the residewe within three monethes. 

Memorandum the Kyng must discharge hym of all incumbraunces except the 
leasez and the rente before reservyd and also excepte 3Z. 13^. 6d. for the stipende of 
the curate of Calde. 

Memorandum to reserve all advowsons and patronages. 

These memoranda are followed by Henry's charter to John Bradshaw 
and his heirs, wherein for the sum of ;^5i2 2s. ioj4d., paid into the hands of 
the Treasurer of the Court of Augmentation of the Revenues of the Crown, 
he hands over to the said John Bradshaw and his heirs, all the lands and 
buildings, rights, etc., in St. Dogmaels and Caldey, formerly belonging to the 
Abbey of St. Dogmaels. 

Next is a " Compotus " of John Bradshaw, dated February 4th, 1 547, 
wherein the King receives back the 21 years lease of 1538-9, and grants a fresh 
lease for 2 1 years. In this deed the " arrears " have increased considerably, 
namely, 2-^ 9s. 2d. 

Whilst the Haverford and Pembroke rents are now valued at 2s. a year 
more, namely, on a tenement in Pembroke in the hands of John Smythe. The 
residue remains the same, except that there is no mention of either Pill, or 
Glascareg, and John Bradshaw has hereafter to pay a tenth yearly at the Court 
of Augmentation, amounting to twenty-six shillings and elevenpence halfpenny. 
In all other respects the two deeds are similar, and the necessity of this new 
deed was simply caused by John Bradshaw paying ;^5i2 2s. loj^d. three or 
four years previously, so that thereafter he simply paid a tenth of the yearly 
value to the King : a very similar tax to the income tax of the present day, only 
that it was then twice as heavy on landed property, it then being two shillings 
in the pound. 



' Another property belonging to the Bradshaws. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 115 

Patent Roll. 35 Hen. VIII, pt. 4, m. 28, 1544. 
Charter of John Bradshaw to him and his heirs. 

The King to all to whom etc. greeting. Know ye that we for the sum of five 
hundred and twelve pounds two shillings and tenpence halfpenny of our good and 
lawful money of England to the hands of the Treasurer of our Court of Augmentations 
of the revenues of our Crown to our use paid by our beloved John Bradshaw of 
Preston in our county of Radnor esquire of which said sum we acknowledge that we 
are fully satisfied and contented and the said John his heirs and executors are thereof 
acquitted and discharged by these presents of our special grace certain knowledge and 
mere motion have given and granted and by these presents do give and grant to the 
aforesaid John Bradshaw all that site enclosure circuit ambit and precinct to the late 
monastery of St. Dogmaels in our county of Pembroke with all their rights and 
appurtenances. And also all and singular houses edifices structures barns stables 
dovecotes orchards gardens pools vivaries waters fishings fisheries ground and soil being 
within the said site enclosure circuit ambit and precinct. Also all and singular 
messuages mills houses edifices land tenements meadows fields pastures and other our 
hereditaments lying or being in the township fields and parish of St. Dogmael 
commonly called St. Dogmaels otherwise called Llandudock in our said county of 
Pembroke to wit those two water mills with all their appurtenances. And also all and 
singular the pools ditches waters fishings fisheries rivers rivulets and water courses suits 
ways liberties rights profits commodities and other our hereditaments whatsoever to the 
said mills belonging or appertaining or with the same occupied and located. Also all 
that our close with appurtenances called the Parke Roll containing by estimation 
seventeen acres. And also all that our close called the Newe park with appurtenances 
containing by estimation three acres adjacent to the said close called the Park roll. Also 
all that parcel of waste land called Grige pende. And also all that other parcel of 
waste land called the Abbots park. Also all that our messuage with appurtenances 
called the Dareg otherwise Over Dareg. And also one other messuage with appurts 
called the Nether Dareg. Also all our close with appurts called Dame park containing 
by estimation four acres. And also all that our close called the Medowe containing by 
estimation one acre. Also all that our close called Potpyt* containing by estimation 
fifteen acres adjacent to the seashore. And also all that our close called Arlys containing 
by estimation four acres. Also all that our close called the Great close containing by 
estimation four acres. And also all that our close called Doctors park containing by 
estimation one acre. Also all that our close called ffres containing by estimation half 
an acre one rood. And also all that our meadow called The East meadow containing 
by estimation one acre. Also all that our meadow called Lakkerley containing by 
estimation two acres. Also all that our meadow called flfim containing by estimation 
one and a half acres. Also all and singular other messuages mills houses etc. known 
by the names of the demesne lands to the said late monastery of St. Dogmaels 
belonging and now or lately held or occupied by the said John Bradshaw or his assigns. 
Also all that our manor of St. Dogmaels otherwise called the Llandre in our said Co. 
of Pembroke. And all that our manor of Caldey in the same county with its rights 
members and all appurtenances now or lately held or occupied by the said John 

' Vopfit. 

8a 



Il6 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Bradshaw or his assigns and lately belonging and appertaining to the parcels possessions 
and revenues of the said late monastery. And also all and sundry messuages mills 
houses etc. with their belongings wardships marriages escheats reliefs heriots goods 
and chattels courtleets frankpledges and all things which pertain to it or can or ought 
to have regard to the future emoluments hereditaments and whatsoever of ours lies or 
exists in the aforesaid town fields and parish of St. Dogmaels or in the Island of 
Caldey in our said Co. of Pembroke or any other places in the same county in the said 
manors or members parts and parcels belonging and pertaining thereto now or lately 
in the tenure of the said John Bradshaw lately belonging and pertaining to the said 
monastery of St. Dogmaels also all and sundry messuages lands tenements burgages 
meadows fields pastures profits revenues and other hereditaments whatsoever in the said 
parish of St. Dogmaels namely two tenements with their appurtenances called Haver- 
berkchelley one burgage with a garden adjoining the same existing in the village called 
Laundau two tenements with their appurtenances called Pare y John Lloyd all those 
lands called Wyot a burgage with garden and orchard adjoining late in the tenure or 
occupation of Elizabeth Wills or her assigns two acres of land lying in the fields to the 
east of the town of St. Dogmaels one other piece of land belonging to and occupied 
with the same two other acres of land lying in a certain place called Briscwm one 
tenement with its appurtenances called Plas Pen Abounte one burgage called Arnarde 
one place or parcel of land called Rhos. All other waste lands late in the tenure or 
occupation of James ap Powell Lloyd one tenement with its appurtenances late in the 
tenure or occupation of Owen ap Philipp or his assigns one parcel of land late in the 
tenure or occupation of Robert ap Price ap Powell or his assigns one tenement with its 
appurtenances lying close to Cardigan Bridge one parcel of land called Penrallt. All 
other lands and tenements in the tenure of William Hughes or his assigns all other 
lands in the tenure or occupation of David ap leuan or his assigns one portion of land 
with its appurtenances lately held and occupied by Morris ap David one tenement with 
appurtenances lately held or occupied by Jenkin Roger or his assigns. One house with 
its appurtenances lately held or occupied by Jenkin ap leuan or his assigns. All those 
lands or tenements with their appurtenances and gardens adjoining in the tenure or 
occupation of John Sporier or his assigns. One tenement with its appurtenances lately 
held or occupied by John ^Mortimer or his assigns and also all other messuages bur- 
gages lands etc. in the parish of St. Dogmaels known and called by the name of the 
Landre lands lately in the tenure and occupation of the said John Bradshaw or his 
assigns and lately part and parcel of the monastery of St. Dogmaels. Likewise all and 
wholly our tithes arising and accruing therefrom or of whatsoever manors messuages 
lands tenements and other premises in the aforesaid Island of Caldey in our Co. of 
Pembroke lately in the tenure or occupation of the said John Bradshaw or his assigns 
and all and singular other messuages etc. in the said Island of Caldey held by John 
Bradshaw or his assigns etc. . . . We give for a certain sum aforesaid and of our 
own accord and certain knowledge by these our presents grant to the aforesaid John 
Bradshaw all that our wood called Abbots Wood otherwise the garden containing it is 
estimated five acres, lying on rising ground in the parish of St. Dogmaels part and 
parcel of the late monastery [here follows full list again] to hold and enjoy as fully and 
entirely as it was by the last Abbot and his predecessors before the dissolution etc. 
without prejudice to any reservations already thereon. Except that we reserve to our 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. ti? 

heirs and successors the tithes oblations obversions portions and other our special 
emoluments whatsoever etc. an) way belonging to the aforesaid and also reserving all 
the lead roofs and covering of any building soever of the late monastery the lead 
gutters and the lead in the windows, which said manor and other premises belonging 
to St. Dogmaels are to be held at the annual rent of ^1^ 9. g'yi. [here follow lands in 
Worcester belonging to John Bradshaw]. To have and to hold etc. [Here follows 
Presteign and Rhys Castle etc.] All tithes to be paid at the Court of the Augmentation 
of our Revenues at the Feast of St. Michaels yearly etc. 

We will also and of our certain knowledge and suggestion for us our heirs 
and successors by these presents grant to the aforesaid John Bradshaw his 
heirs and assigns that the said John his heirs and assigns shall have hold 
and enjoy and may and can have hold and enjoy within the aforesaid site 
manor lands tenements and other singular the premises and within any parcel thereof 
as many as much as great and the same and similar Courts leet views of frankpledge and 
all things which pertain to frankpledge or in future may or ought to belong fines 
amercements assize and assay of bread wine and beer free warren and all which to free 
warren belongs goods and chattels waifs strays goods and chattels of felons and 
fugitives or in any other way condemned persons rights profits commodities emoluments 
privileges liberties and hereditaments whatsoever as many as much as great and such 
as the aforesaid Abbot of the aforesaid late monastery of St. Dogmaels in right of said 
late monastery or any Abbot of the said late monastery of Wigmore .... or any 
of their predecessors had held or enjoyed the same or should or ought to have had held 
or enjoyed the same in the aforesaid site manors lands tenements and other all and 
singular the premises above expressed and specified and within every parcel thereof by 
reason or pretext of any charter of gift grant or confirmation or of any letters patent 
by us or by any of our progenitors to the aforesaid late Abbots and these Convents or 
of either of them in any way made or granted or by reason or pretext of any prescrip- 
tion use or custom or otherwise in any way. We will also and of our certain 
knowledge and mere motion for us our heirs and successors by these presents 
grant to the aforesaid John Bradshaw his heirs and assigns that we our 
heirs and successors for ever yearly and from time to time will acquit discharge 
and keep indemnified as well the said John his heirs and assigns as the aforesaid 
site manors messuages lands tenements and other all and singular the premises 
and every parcel thereof against us our heirs and successors and other persons or person 
whatsoever of all and every kind of corrody' rent fee annuity and sums of money 
whatsoever excepting the pre-excepted from the aforesaid site manors messuages etc. 
except of the rent and service above by these presents to us reserved. And except of the 
annual pension of three pounds thirteen and sixpence yearly paid to the chaplain of 
Caldey aforesaid for his stipend. Willing moreover and firmly enjoining commanding 
as well our said Chancellor and Council of our Court of Augmentations of the revenues 
of our Crown for the time being that to all and singular our Receivers Auditors and 
other our officers and ministers whatsoever and those of our heirs and successors that 
they and each of them upon the sole showing of these our letters patent or upon the 
enrolment of the same without any other writ or warrant from us our heirs and 



' Corody. See paragraph end of next deed. 



H8 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

successors in any way to be sought obtain or sued for upon payment of the said yearly 
rent to us by these presents above reserved full whole and due allowance default and 
clear discharge from all and every kind corrody rent fee annuity and sums of money 
whatsoever from the aforesaid site manors lands etc. And these our letters patent or 
enrolment of the same shall be yearly and from time to time as well to our Chancellor 
and Council of the said Court of Augmentation as well to our aforesaid Receivors 
Auditors and other our officers whatsoever and of our heirs and successors sufficient 
warrant and discharge in this behalf. We give also for the consideration aforesaid and 
of our certain knowledge and mere motion by these presents grant to the aforesaid John 
Bradshaw all the issues rents revenues and profits of the aforesaid site manors lands 
tenements and other all and singular the premises and of every parcel thereof from the 
feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary last past forthcoming or growing 
to have to the said John of our gift without account or anything else therefrom to us 
our heirs or successors in any way to be rendered paid or made. And also we will and 
of our certain knowledge and own accord by these presents grant to the aforesaid John 
Bradshawe that he may have and shall have these our letters patent under our great 
seal of England in due manner made and sealed without fine or fee great or small to 
us into our Hanaper or elsewhere to our use in any way to be paid or made. Because 
express mention etc. In witness etc. Witness the King, the town of St. Albans the 
loth day of November. 

By writ of privy seal. 

The late Monastery of St. Dogmaels in the county of Pen^roke. Feby. 4, 1547. 

Compotus of John Bradshawe Bailiff of all and singular the lordships manors 
lands and tenements and other possessions whatsoever as well temjxiral as spiritual to 
the aforesaid late monastery belonging or appertaining. Which to the hands of the 
lord King that now is have come and are in his hands and annexed to his Crown his 
heirs and successors of the realm of England in augmentation of the revenues of the 
said Crown of England by virtue of a certain act in his Parliament held ujwn 
prorogation at Westminster the 4th February the 37th year of tiie reign of the 
said King thereon issued and provided as in the same Act among other things is 
contained to wit from the feast of St. Michael the Archangel in the 34th year of the 
said lord Henry the 8th etc. to the same feast of St. Michael the Archangel then next 
ensuing the 35th year of the aforesaid King to wit for one whole year. 

Arrears. 

The same renders account of xxxij" vij' xjri^ of arrears of last account the year 
next preceding. 

Sum xxxij" vij xj^"* 
ffarm of demesne lands. 

XX 

The same answers iiijx'' ix'^ viij^"* of the rent of the site of the late Monastery 
aforesaid together with all houses buildings barns gardens orchards land and ground 
within the site and precinct of the said late monastery and lordship of fyshyngarde one 
mill there with appurts also the Rectories of the Churches of St. Thomas in the township 
of St. Dogmaels, Eglwyswrw and Caldey Bayvil Moylegrave Llantood and St. Nicholas 



i, THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 119 

Fishguard Grangiston' and the chapel of Penkelly Vychan Nantgwyn Lysprant Newton 
and Caldey with appurts. And all the messuages lands tenements mills meadows etc. 
in the townships fields parishes and hamlets of St. Dogmaels Fishguard Grangeston 
Caldey Eglwyswrw Bayvill Moylgrove Llantood Penkelly Vychan Nantgwyn Lysprant 
and Newton so demised to John Bradshawe by Indenture sealed with the seal of the 
Court of Augmentation of the Revenues of the Crown of the lord King given the loth 
March the 28th year of the reign of the said lord King Henry the 8th. To have to 
him and his assigns from the feast of St. Michael the Archangel last past for the term 
of xxi years then next ensuing and fully to be completed. Yielding therefrom as above 
to wit for the aforesaid site land meadow pastures rents and services in the township of 
St. Dogmaels aforesaid xj" vj^ v%^ and for the aforesaid lordship of Fishguard 
vj" xiiij* ix"* and for the aforesaid mill of F'ishguard xx* and for the aforesaid tenements 
in the township of Grangeton xxvj^ viij^ and for the aforesaid Rectory of St. Thomas 
in the township of St. Dogmaels xx'', for the aforesaid Rectory of Eglyswrw 
vijii vj' viij'' Rectory of Bayvil iiij'' xiij* iiij"* for aforesaid Rectory of Moylgrove 
vj'' xiij* iiij<* for aforesaid Rectory of Llantood and St. Nicholas vj" xiij* iiij"* and for 
aforesaid Rectories of ffyshgard and Grangeston x" vj' viij'', for aforesaid chapel and 
lands and tenements in Caldey cxvj' x"* for aforesaid chapel of Penkelly Vychan xxv' 
and for aforesaid chapels of Nantgwyn Lysprant and Newton vij" vj viij'^ at the 
feasts of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Mary the Archangel 
equally. And the aforesaid lord King wills and by these presents grants that he his 
heirs and successors the said John and his assigns as well of iiij" yearly for the wages 
and stipend of a chaplain yearly celebrating the divine offices and taking the cure of 
souls in the church and parish of St. Dogmaels aforesaid and of Ixxiij* vj'' yearly for 
the wages and stipend of another chaplain yearly celebrating the divine offices and 
taking the cure of souls in the church and parish of Calde aforesaid as of all the 
fees, rents, annuities, pensions, portions and sums of money whatsoever from the 
premises or any of them issuing or to be paid except the rent above reserved against 
all persons whatsoever from time to time will exonerate acquit and defend. And 
all the houses and buildings of the premises as well in timber as in roofing of tile and 
slate from time to time as often as shall be necessary and opportune shall cause well 
and sufficiently to be repaired sustained and maintained during the term aforesaid. And 
the aforesaid John and his assigns roofing of thatch and all necessaries for reparation of 
the premises except timber tiles and slates aforesaid which the lord King shall find 
from time to time as often as it shall be necessary and opportune shall support and 
sustain during the term aforesaid. And the aforesaid lord King further wills and 
by these presents grants that it shall be truly lawful to the aforesaid John and his 
assigns from time to time to take and have competent and sufficient hedgebote firebote 
ploughbote and cartbote of in and upon the premises there and not elsewhere yearly to 
be expended and occupied during the term aforesaid. 

XX 

Sum iiijx'* ix' viijj^'' 
' Cranston. 



120 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Lordship of Rattre in the Co. of Devon. 
And of xx" of the farm of the whole lordship aforesaid with tithe of sheaves of 
the parish church of blessed Mary of Rattre and all messuages lands tents meadows 
fields pastures rents and services to the said lordship in any way belonging so demised 
to John Manesey by Indenture sealed with the seal of the Court of Augmentation of 
the Revenues of the Crown given the 20th March the 28th year of the reign of the 
aforesaid lord King. To have to him and his assigns from the feast of St. Michael 
the Archangel last past for the term of xxi years etc. And the aforesaid John and 
his assigns at their own proper costs and expense roofing of thatch and all other 
necessary reparations of the premises except the reparation of timber and roofing of tiles 
and slates aforesaid from time to time shall support and sustain during the term 
aforesaid. And the aforesaid lord King wills and by these presents grants that it shall 
be lawful to the said John and his assigns from time to time to take perceive and have 
of in and upon the premises there and not elsewhere yearly to be expended and 
occupied competent and sufficient hedgebote firdxjte ploughbote cartbote during the 

term aforesaid. 

Sum xx" 
Rents at will in Haverfordwest and Pembroke. 

And of X' rent of j Tenement situate in the township of Haverfordwest in the 
hands of John therefrom as above to be paid at the feast of the Annunciation of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Michael the Archangel equally etc. 

And of xxviij'* viij** rent of j tenement scituate in the township of Pembroke 
aforesaid in the hands of John Smythe at the will of the lord to be paid at the terms 
aforesaid. 

The Rectories of Maenclochog, Llandilo and Llancolman. 

And of viij'' rent of the tithe of sheaves oblations and other profits there to the 

said Rectories or either of them belonging or appertaining so demised to James Leche 

by indenture sealed with the seal of the Court of Augmentations of the Revenues of 

the Crown of the lord King given the loth May the 29th year of the reign of King 

Henry the 8th. To have to him and his assigns from the feast of St. Michael the 

Archangel next coming to the end of the term xx years then next ensuing etc. aforesaid 

James grants and that it shall be lawful to the aforesaid James and his assigns from 

time to time to take perceive and have from in and ujwn the premises competent and 

sufficient hedgebote firebote ploughbote and cartbote there and not elsewhere to be 

expended and occupied during the term aforesaid. 

Sum viij" 

Rents of assize in the township of Manoglokdewe. 

And of xiij^ iiij'' of rent of j tenement called Mynith Terth in the tenure of the 

heirs of parottes who hold freely to be paid at the feasts of the Annunciation of the 

Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Michael the Archangel equally. And of viij' viij^ rent 

of a tenement in the town.ship aforesaid called Maenochlog ddu y tharch so demised 

to Howell ap Thomas ap Owen by Indenture sealed with the convent seal given the 

viijth day of October the 27th year of the reign of King Henry the 8th. To have to 

him and his assigns from the feast of St. Michael the Archangel last past to the end 

of Ihe term of 99 years then next ensuing and fully to be completed. Rendering 

therefrom as above to be paid at the terms aforesaid. And of V* xiij-^ rent of a 



*t THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 131 

t 

tenement with appurts called Plas pant y Rege in the hands of Howell ap Owen ap 

Powell by indenture sealed with the convent seal given the loth Oct the 27th year of 

the reign of King Henry the 8th. To have to him and his assigns from the feast of 

St. Michael the Archangel last past for the term of 99 years then next ensuing and 

fully to be completed. Rendering therefrom yearly as above to be paid at the terms 

aforesaid equally. And of x' rent of a tenement [called] Kome'-Kerwyn in the hands of 

David ap Ris ap Owen by indenture sealed with the convent seal given the 12th October 

the 27 th year of the reign of King Henry the 8th. To have to him and his assigns 

from the feast of St. Michael the Archangel last past for the term of 99 years then 

next ensuing and fully to be completed. Rendering therefrom as above to be paid at 

the terms aforesaid. And of xvj" rent of ij tenements with appurts called Lounder 

monoglok dwg in the hands of Ludovic ap Jevan by indenture sealed with the convent 

seal given the xth October the 27th year of the reign of King Henry the 8th. To have 

to him and his assigns from the feast of St. Michael the Archangel last past to the end 

of the term of 99 years then next ensuing and fully to be completed. Rendering 

therefrom as above to be paid at the feasts aforesaid. And of iij* iiij'' rent of a 

tenement with appurts called Pentre gthe^ in the hands of Griffith ap leuan ap Jenken 

by indenture sealed with the convent seal given the 9th Oct the 27th year of the reign 

of the same lord King. To have to him and his assigns from the feast of St. Michael 

the Archangel last past for the term of 99 years then next ensuing and fully to be 

completed. Rendering therefrom as above to be paid at the terms aforesaid. And of 

V' iiij"' rent of a tenement called Blaen y Cowrse Glethe^ in the hands of Evyon ap 

David by indenture sealed with the convent seal dated the 7th Oct the 27th year of 

the reign of King Henry the 8th. To have to him and his assigns from the feast of 

St. Michael the Archangel last past to the end of the term of 99 years then next ensuing 

and fully to be completed. Rendering therefrom as above to be paid at the terms 

aforesaid. And of xj* rent of iij tenements in the hands of Owen ap Powell and David 

ap Powell by indenture sealed with the convent seal given the 9th July the 25th year 

of the reign of King Henry the 8th. To have to him and his assigns from the feast 

of St. Michael the Archangel then next ensuing and fully to be completed. Rendering 

therefrom as alx)ve to be paid at the feast of St. Michael the Archangel only. And 

of X' ij"* rent of a tenement with appurts in the hands of James ap Powell ap Owen by 

indenture sealed with the Convent seal which indeed he has not shown to l)e paid at 

the feasts of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Michael the 

Archangel equally. And of iij^ viij"* rent of tenement with appurts in the hands of 

Llewellyn ap leuan Pykton at the will of the lord to be paid at the terms aforesaid. 

And of V' rent of another tenement in the hands of leuan ap Powell ap leuan David 

at the will of the lord to be paid at the terms aforesaid. And of v^ viij'' rent of j 

tenement in the hands of Jenkyn ap Griffith at the will of the lord to be paid at the 

terms aforesaid. And of v* rent of another tent in the hands of Philip Thomas at the 

will of the lord to be paid at the terms aforesaid. And of ij^ j"* rent of a tenement with 

ai)purts in the hands of David Williams at the will of the lord to be paid at the terms 

aforesaid. And of ij* vj'' rent of a tenement in the tenure of Thomas ap Dyo Guilliam 

at the will of the lord to be paid at the terms aforesaid. _ .. .j 

* . , . . . ^ Sum crvij* j" 



' Cwm Cerwyn = The Slags' \allcy. -'Gilli =: The corn. 'Cleddau. 



122 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Chai)el of Mynachlog ddu.' 
And of c* farm of the Chapel in aforesaid [townshij)] with all profits to the same 
belonging so demised to Morgan Jones by indenture under the seal of the lord King 
of his Court of Augmentation of the Revenues of the crown given the 12th May the 
29th year of the reign of King Henry the 8th. To have to him and his assigns from 
the feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary last past for the term of 
21 years then next ensuing and fully to be completed. Rendering therefrom as above 
yearly to be paid at the feast of St. Michael the Archangel and the Annunciation of the 
blessed Virgin Mary by equal portions. And the aforesaid lord King wills and by 
these presents grants that he his heirs and successors will allow the said Morgan iiij" 
for the stipend of a chaplain celebrating within the aforesaid chapel. And the 
aforesaid Morgan grants by these presents that he and his assigns all the premises in 
all things and by all things will repair and sustain during the term aforesaid. 

Sum c" 

Perquisites of Court. 

Of certain sums of money forthcoming of the perquisites of Courts held there this 
)ear he does not answer here because they are demised to John Bradshaw with the 
demesne as appears above. 

Sum total with arrears clxiij" xj* iiij"* 
of which 
ffees and wages etc. here follow. 

Because our lord that now is Henry the 8th by his letters patent under the Great 
seal of England given the loth Nov the 35th year of his reign gave and granted all 
and singular the premises to one John Bradshaw his heirs and assigns for ever. To 
hold of the said lord King and his successors in chief by the service of the twentieth 
part of a knight's fee. And rendering therefrom to the said lord King and his 
successors in name of a tenth part of the premises xxvj* x]^'^ sterling at the Court 
of Augmentation of the Revenues of his Crown every year to be paid. To have to the 
said John Bradshaw from the feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary 
last past forthcoming or growing of the same. 

Which said tenth of xxvj* ^JH^ 's charged in the Account of the Receiver there 
under the tithe of the yearly tenth as ig contained there and so in his allowance as 
above. And deduction of x" for the moiety of the rent of the lordship of Rattre and 
the Rectory of the same place.' 

Corrody, or Corody, which appears in the grant of 35 Henry VIII, was 
formerly a right of sustenance, or of receiving certain allotments of victuals 
and provision for one's maintenance, in virtue of the ownership of some 
corporeal hereditament; specifically, such a right due from an abbey or a 
monastery to the king or his grantee. 

In Pwyll, in the " Mabinogion," this giving of food is mentioned, though 
in those days they were more generous. Any one who applied for hospitality 



' The Black Monastery. ' Here follows about Raltery again to the end. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 



123 



was received. First they were washed, then they had food, night's ' lodging, 
and food again the next morning. 

We also see that the night's lodging was given, as well as food, by many 
of the monasteries, for most of them had their " guest house." 

A custom still holds good at the Hospice of St. Cross, Winchester, where 
anyone who applies is given a horn of beer and a piece of bread : all forms of 
corrody, the word corrody being derived from the middle Latin word 
corrodium, meaning, provision. 





CHAPTER XII. 




THE ABBEY'S RICHEST DAUGHTER 

I HE Roches, who gave the Priory of Pill to the Abbey of St. 
Dogmaels, took' their name of Roche, which means rock, from 
the rock on which Roche Tower or castle, as it is called, was 
built, though their name is Latinized in the charters as De la 
Rupe. They appear to have originally been Flemings, as, one Godebert, a 
" Fleming of Roose," dwelt in this part of Pembrokeshire in 1131 ; his grand- 
sons, David, Henry, and Adam taking the name of De la Roche. 

Adam was the first who lived at Roche Castle; he had acquired consider- 
able property in that neighbourhood, and founded the Priory of Pill towards 
the end of the twelfth century, in honour of St. Budoc and the Blessed Virgin, 
giving to it, not only the lands on which the Priory was built, but lands in 
Roose and New Moat, together with the Churches of St. Cewydd (now St. 
Peter's) at Stainton, St. Mary of Roch, St. David (now St. Peter's) of Little 
Newcastle, and St. Nicholas of New Moat, with the assent and consent of his 
heir, his wife, Blandina, agreeing thereto, and granting it all, by his charter, 
to the monks of the order of Tiron, together with a mill, and the fisheries, with 
all rights, liberties, etc. The first witness to the grant was Andrew Abbot of 
St. Dogmaels. 

Later, Thomas, son and heir of John de Roche, and his wife, Matilda, 
daughter of Thoms Wallensis, Bishop of St. David's, 1248-1256, confirms all 
the donations of Adam, the founder, and also grants two carucates of land, 
with all appurtenances, called Suthoc (South Hook), in the township of 
Herbiand (Herbrandston), given by his mother, Matilda, and three carucates 
of land, with all appurtenances in Sewant, with three parts of the mill there, 
also six bovates* of land in Stodhart (Studdolph), and five acres of land, with 

' Three-quarters of a carucate. In the time iif the Doomsday Book, ami for three or four liundrcd 
years after, a carucate of land was called a hundred acres, though it was really six score, or one 
hundred and twenty acres ; but in Queen Elizabeth's time a carucate of land was only sixty-four acres. 




^ 






\ 



*THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 125 

half a carucate of land in the same parish, together with half a carucate of land 
in Strickemeres Hill (Dredgman's Hill), which is called Vyndessors (Windsor). 
Also six acres of land in Pill, formerly belonging to Richard Blakeman, and 
one mark of yearly rent with the lordship of Walter Baglas; also he grants 
all kinds of wreckage on the half carucate of land on which the Chapel of 
St. Cradoc of Neugol stands, as is witnessed in the charter of his father, John 
de Roche. He also grants two carucates of land with appurtenances, and one 
bovate of land in the township of John, which is called Monkestown, with 
patronage of the church there; two bovates of land in Castle Vydy, which 
seems to refer to Castle Hill, abutting upon Stainton Highway, mentioned 
among the possession of the Priory at the dissolution; two bovates of land in 
Thometon, two bovates in Retford, with appurtenances; also he grants them 
land, tenements, and gardens, which they already have in Roche, in Hubert's 
township (Hubberstone), in Leddin's township (Liddeston), in St. Budoc, 
Redderch (Redberth), and all the meadows, which were returned after the death 
of his father, John de Roche, by the prior and monks, with right of patronage 
of St. David's, Hubberstone, and St. Madoc's, Nolton. 

Amongst the witnesses were Sir Nicholas Fitzmartin (d. 1284), Sir Guy 
de Brian, etc. 

Following this was a charter of confirmation by William Marshall, Earl 
of Pembroke, to the Priory of Pill, of one carucate of land called Roger's 
(Mortimer) land, half a carucate called Waffret, twenty and a-half acres called 
Seman Scopal Mill, the liberty of making a fishery in the creek by that mill, 
a burgage at Moat, eight acres at Bakerlineran, in the fee of Moat, and every- 
thing given by Adam de Roche, Phillip being Prior of Pill at this time. This 
was inspected and confirmed by Edward I, 1296. Among the witnesses being 
R. Archbishop of Canterbury, A. Bishop of Durham, W. Bishop of Ely, and 
R. Bishop of London, with Henry, elect of York, and Brother William, elect 
of Dublin, 13th July, 25 Edward I. 

From this it appears that the Roches were the chief benefactors of Pill 
Priory, which was made by them a cell of St. Dogmaels. 

John, the son of the above Thomas, seems to have died rather suddenly, 
as in making his will, in 1314, he notes at the end, he could not give any more 
thought to it, and his executors must dispose of the residue, but he willed 
that he should be buried at Pill Priory, and also bequeathed 40s. to the 
monastery. He was succeeded by his brother Thomas (d. about 1324). 

In 1330 William, the son of the above Thomas, founded a chauntry in 
the chapel of St. Thomas the Martyr, by Pill Oliver, for the souls of his father 
and mother, and of his ancestors. 



126 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

About 1383 there is an account by Llewellyn ap William, the Reeve, of the 
rents of two parts of the manor of Roche and Pill, after the death of 
Margaret, niece of William de la Roche, being daughter and heiress of his 
sister, Margot, and wife of Roger de Clarendon, who in her right held two 
parts of the Manor of Roche and Pill of the King by knight's service. 

Charter Roll. 25 Edwd. I. July 13, 1294-5. 
No. 8. 
For the monks of Pill. 

The King to his Archbi.shops etc. greeting. We have inspected a charter which 
Adam de Roche' made to God and St. Mary and St. Budoc and the monks of the order 
of Tiron serving God in the monastery of Pill in these words. Let all the children 
of Holy Mother Church present and to come know that I Adam de Roche having 
confidence of a heavenly reward for the exaltation of Holy Church founding a 
monastery in my land of Pill to the honour of the Holy Mother of God the ever virgin 
Mary with the consent and assent of my heir, my wife Blandina also agreeing for the 
health of our souls of our fathers and mothers and of our successors have given granted 
and by this my present charter confirmed to God and St. Mary and St. Budoc and the 
monks of the order of Tiron there serving God one carucate of land which is called 
Roger's land and half a carucate of land which is called Waffren land by the ancient 
bounds and twenty acres and a half in the land which is called Seman land near to the 
said monastery in meadow and in pastures and in all liberties which to them I can 
warrant and a mill which is called Stoppel mill and in Pill below the said mill the 
liberty of making and freely having a fishery in what place they will and in the 
township of the New Moat a burgage by the east gaie and one burgage on the north 
side excepted with eight acres of land and in the same fee of the Moat all the land 
called Vachketerlmechan and of my woods about the said Moat to their own use as 
much as they will. Besides I have given to them and granted in their lands as is well 
known the duel gallows fire blood and all other rights and liberties which I have in 
my lands and whatever the free men of my lordship by inspiration of mercy of their 
lands have reasonably conferred with the aforenamed liberties I grant to them to hold 
I have given also to them common of pasture in my land with as many animals as their 
said land requires according to the custom of the country. So that my gabulars may 
have common of pasture with them. And because these donations to the building of 
the aforesaid monastery and to the good support of the aforesaid monks are not 
sufficient I have given to them and granted all the churches of my land to wit the 
church of St. Kewit^ of Sternton and the church of St. Mary de Roche and the church 
of St. David of New Castle and the church of St. Nicholas of New Moat and all 
the churches of my whole conquest with all their appurtenances and liberties and the 
tithes of all my mills. These therefore aforenamed lands churches tithes and liberties 
I have given to them and granted in pure and perpetual alms free and quit from all 



' Pill was founded before Glascareg ; if 1 173 is the correct date for the foundation of Glascareg, as 
given on the margin of the charter referring to it, then Pill must have been founded before that date. 
Allowing thirty years to a generation, Godebert's date being 1 131, Adam, his son, probably founded 
Pill Priory l)etween 1 161 and 1170. 

' St. Cewydd. 



.'-THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 127 

service and secular exaction as any alms can well and freely be bestowed. And that 
this my donation may remain firm and stable this present writing we have strengthened 
with the affixing of my seal. These being witnesses Andrew Abbot of St. Dogmael 
Richard Mangunel Richard de Huscart John son of Walter Henry son of Robert 
Maurice de Trenvan Stephen Lupo Henry Ruffo Richard Gundewin Adam the clerk 
Robert the clerk and many others. 

We have also inspected a charter of confirmation which Thomas de Roche son 
and heir of John de Roche made to God and St. Mary and St. Budoc and the monks 
aforesaid in these words. Let all present and to come know that I Thomas de Roche 
son of John de Roche and heir for the health of my soul and of my ancestors and 
successors do give and grant and by this my present charter confirm all the donations 
which Adam de Roche the elder founder of the priory of Blessed Mary de Pill gave 
and granted to God and St. Mary and St. Budoc and the monks of the order of Tiron 
there serving and to serve God for ever as well in lands as in churches in houses and 
gardens as in mills in pools and weirs in meadows ways and paths in present rents. To 
have and to hold in pure and perpetual alms for me and my heirs or assigns for ever 
freely and quietly wholly peacefully and honorably without any secular exaction in 
all liberties and free customs as the aforesaid charters of Adam de Roche witness. And 
I the said Thomas de Roche for me and my heirs or assigns these donations aforesaid 
in form aforewritten I give and confirm together with two carucates of land with all 
the appurts which are called Suthoe* in the tenement of the township of Herbiand^ as 
the charter of Matilda de Roche my mother witnesses and three carucates of land 
with all their appurts in the tenement of Sewant with three parts of the mill of the 
same township with their appurts. I grant also to the said monks six bovates of land 
with their appurts in the township of Stodliayt' and five acres of land with half a 
carucate of land in the same township. And half a carucate of land in the tenement 
in Strichemereshill* which is called Vyndessors' with appurts. And in Pill adjacent 
to the said Priory a weir in whatever place they will well and freely [to have] and six 
acres of land in the tenement of Pill with appurts which formerly were Richard 
Blakeman's and one mark of yearly rent with the lordship of Walter Baglas and his 
heirs or assigns with appurts. Moveover I grant to aforesaid monks all the land 
which they have with the houses and gardens in the tenement of Roche with six perches 
of land with appurts and every kind of wreck which happens or may happen in the 
half carucate of land in which the chapel of St. Caradoc of Neugol is situated as the 
charter of John de Roche my father witnesses. Moreover I grant to the said monks 
two carucates of land with appurts and one bovate of land in the tenement of the 
township of John with appurts which is called Munketun and the right of patronage 
of the church of the township of John with appurts and twobovatesof the land in Castle 
Vydy with appurts and other two bovates of land in the tenement in Thornitun' with 
appurts. Also two bovates of land at Retford in the tenement of Dunant with appurts. 
I grant to the same monks all the land which they have in Hubert's township' and in 
Leddin's' township and in the land of St. Budoc with appurts together with eight 
acres of land at Redeberch' in the tenement of Robert's township with appurts. And 
all the meadows which were returned after the death of John de Roche my father by 



'South Hook. 'Herbrandston. 'PStuddolph. < Dredgmans Hill. 'Windsor. 

* Thorneton. ' Hubberstone. ' ? Liddistone. ' Redberth. 



128 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

the prior and monks as their tenements besides their houses and gardens wherever 
they be I grant to the said monks saving the common of my Gabelers of Pull besides the 
hay when collected and carried. Moreover I grant to the said monks the right of 
patronage of the church of St. David of Hubert's township with appurts together 
with the right of patronage of the church of St. Madoc of the old township with one 
acre of land with appurts. And these donations abovesaid and grants to the prior and 
monks and their successors with all their appurts for me my heirs or assigns I have 
granted and quit claimed and by this present writing confirmed as the charters of their 
gifts or enfeoffments whatsoever witness. In witness whereof to this present writing 
I have set my seal. These being witnesses Sir Nicholas son of Martin Sir Guy de 
Brian Sir Robert de Val Sir Gilbert de Roche knts John Wogan Master Giles then 
seneschal of Pembroke Walter Malesaunt Richard de St. Bridget Radenor son of 
Philip and others. We have inspected also the charter which William Marshall 
sometime Earl of Pembroke made to the church of St. Budoc and the monks aforesaid 
in these words : William Marshall Earl of Pembroke to all to whom this present 
charter shall come as well present as to come greeting. Know ye that I by the 
inspiration of God and for the health of my soul and the Countess Isabella my wife 
and all my ancestors and heirs have granted and by this my present charter confirmed 
to the church of St. Budoc and the monks of the order of Tiron there serving God one 
carucate of land which is called Roger's land half a carucate of land which is called 
Wasfreit and twenty acres and a half in the land called Seman and a mill which is 
called Scopel mill and the liberty of making a fishery in Pull by that mill. And a 
burgage in the township of the Moat with eight acres of land and all the land which 
is called Bakerleneran* in the fee of the Moat and all the churches of the land of 
Adam de Roche with the tithes of his mills with pasture and with those things which 
are necessary to them to their own use in the woods of the said Adam about the said 
moat and the liberties and rights which the said Adam conferred on them in his lands 
which he held of my fee. Wherefore I will and firmly command that the aforesaid 
church of St. Budoc and the monks there serving God shall have and hold all the 
abovesaid with appurts in free pure and perpetual alms of the gift of aforesaid Adam 
as his charter which they had thereof witnesses. Saving all my right and service and 
of my heirs. And that this my grant may remain for all future time firm and 
unbroken this present charter t, have strengthened signed with mv seal. These being 
witnesses John de Erleng Henry son of Gerald Ralph Bloeb Ralph de Mortimer 
Walter Covenant John de Erleng the younger Ralph de Nevill Philip the clerk and 
many others. And we the grants gifts and confirmations aforesaid having ratified the 
same for us and our heirs as far as in us lies to our beloved in Christ Philip prior of 
the aforesaid church of blessed Mary of Pull and the monks of the aforesaid place 
and their successors have granted and confirmed as the aforesaid charters reasonably 
witness and as the said Prior and monks and their predecessors the priors and monks 
of the same place the aforesaid liberties have hitherto reasonably used and enjoyed. These 
being witnesses the venerable fathers R. Archbp of Canterbury primate of all England 
A. bp of Durham W. of Ely and R. of London Master Henry Elect of York and 
Brother William Elect of Dublin William de Beauchamp Earl of Warwick Hugh le 
Despencer Roger Braba^on Walter de Beauchamp steward of our household William 

Berllan. 



t^ THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 139 

' 

de Hereford and others. Given by our hand at Westminster the 13th July the year etc. 
the 25th by bill of Exchequer. 

Ministers Accts. (1383-4.) 

1207-9. 
Roche and Pille. 7-8 Rd. II. 
The Compotus of Lllewellyn ap William the Reeve there of the issues of the 
aforesaid two parts of the manors of Roche and Pille falling to the lord King by 
the death of Margaret who was the wife of Roger de Claryndon who held of the King 
by Knight service to wit from the feast of St. Michael the 7th year of the reign of 
King Richard the 2nd to the 8th of August then next ensuing to wit the 8th year on 
which day the said two parts were delivered to Warren Archdeacon and Robert Verney 
heirs of the said two parts by letters of privy seal of the lord King to Hugh le Young 
his Escheator of Haverfordwest directed and in the account of the said Escheator of 
the 8th year noted as appears in the Court of the Forren of Haverford held there 
monthly on Wednesday next after the feast of the Translation of St. Thomas the 
Martyr the 8th year. 

Free Rents. 
The same answers for ij' vijj^<i part of v iij<i of 2 parts of the manor of Roche 
to be paid at the feasts of Easter and Michaelmas to wit for the term of Easter within 
the time of this account. 

Sum ij' vijj^'' 
Gablers Rents. 
And of Ixj' }%^ part of vj'' ij* 1]%^ received of Gablers rents there to be paid 
at the feasts aforesaid to wit for the term of Easter within the time of this account. 

Sum lxj jj^d 
Sale of works. 
And of xij' xj"* part of xix' iiijj^'' received for winter works due at the feast of 
Easter within the time of this account besides the works of the Reeve there for the 
same time which are allowed to him for his office by custom of the manor. Of 
^j' ij/*** P^rt of x" ix%^ of summer works due at the feast of Michaelmas he does 
not answer for because they do not fall within the time of this account. 

Sum xij^ xj"* 
Farm of the demesne land. 
And of xj' jy^^ part of xxij' iJM'' ^^^^ of Richard Moris for vij bovates of 
land so to him demised to be paid at the feasts aforesaid to wit for the term of Easter 
within the time of the Account. And of vij' ix%^ part of xv= v]%^ received of 
David ap Morris for vij bovates of land so to him demised to be paid at the feasts 
aforesaid to wit for the term of Easter within the time of the Account. And for 
vij* ix%^ part of xv vj^"* received of William Gay for vij bovates of land so to him 
demised to be paid at the feasts aforesaid to wit for the term of Easter within the 
time of this account. And of vij' ixj^** part of xv' v}^^ received of David ap 
Meurice William Gay and Richard Moris for the pasture of vij bovates of land so to 
them demised in le Wode to be paid at the feasts aforesaid to wit for the term of 
Easter within the time of the Account. And of ij' ijj^'' one half part of iiij' vj^* 



13/0 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

received of the tenements of la Roche and Treffgarn so demised to be paid at the 
feasts aforesaid to wit for the term of Easter within the time of the account of the 
farm of a meadow called Castelmede he does not answer because it does not fall 
within the time of this account. Of the arable fields of Arnold the meadow of Rewan 
received from Tilbarg he does not account because it does not fall within the time of 
the account. 

Sum xxxvj viijj^'' 
Farm of the mill. 

And of xxvj' viij"* part of liij' iiij^ farm of the mill there to be paid at the terms 
aforesaid to wit for the term of Easter within the time of the account. And the lesser 
tolls he does not answer for because there are none. 

Sum xxvj' viij'^ 

Issues of the land remaining in the hands of the lord. 
And of vj^"^ part of viijj^'' received of Thomas fFox for ij bovates of land 
which Jevan ap Madoc sometime held to wit for the term of Easter within the time of 
the account. And the issues and profits of two bovates of land which Simon Sandre 
sometime held nothing because it does not appear within the time of this account. 

Sum vj%^ 
Advowson. 

Of the advowson there he does not answer because nothing falls within the time 
of the Account. 

Sum Nil. 
Perquisites of Court. 

And of iiij" xix' received of pleas and perquisites of Court there within the time 
of the Account as appears by Court Roll upon this account delivered and examined. 

Sum iiij" xix* 

Sum total received xj" xix* vij"* of which there is paid to Philip Crabol the 
steward holding Courts there from the feast of St. Michael the 7th year of the reign 
of King Richard the 2nd to the 8th August then next ensuing at the rate of xxvj' viij'^ 
per ann. xxiij^ iiij'' And allowed to him what he has paid for parchment for Court 
Rolls there. And he owes x" xiiij* iij'' Which he has delivered to Hugh Young 
Receiver there by acknowledgment of said receiver. And he is quit. 

Pulle. 
Compotus of Philip Batton the Reeve of Pulle for the time aforesaid. 

Free Rents. 
The same answers for ix^"* one half part of xviijj^'' rents of free tenants there 
to be paid at the feasts of Easter and Michaelmas to wit for the term of Easter within 
the time of this account. 

Sum ix^"* 
Gablers Rents. 

And of xij" xiiij' iiijJl*^ part of xxv" viij" ixj^"* of gablers rents there to be 
paid at the feasts aforesaid to wit for the term of Easter within the time of this account. 

Sum xij'' xiiij^ '"JM'' 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 131 

Sale of work. 
And of iiij' vj'' part of ix* received for winter works to be paid at the feast of 
Easter within the time of this account. And xij^ ^j}i^ for summer works he does 
not answer because they do not fall within this account. 

Farm of demesne land. 
And of xxxvj' viij^ part of Ixxiij' iiij"* farm of demesne lands so demised to be 
paid at the feasts of Easter and Michaelmas. 

Sum xxxvj* viij'' 
The Mill. 

Of the issues of the mill there he does not answer because it lies totally ruined 
and no profit therefrom can be taken for the time. 

Sum nil. 
Lands remaining in the hands of the lord. 
And of xij"* part of ij' received of David Hamlockes forthccxning of v acres and 
j4 of land remaining in the lord's hands so demised to be paid at the terms of Easter 
and Michaelmas to wit for the term of Easter within the time of this account. 

And of vj"* part of xij'' received of Richard Thomas for the pasture of 5J4 acres 
of land which were accustomed to pay ij' vj"* To be paid at the feasts of Easter and 
Michaelmas for the term of Easter within the time of this account. 

Sum xviij'' 
Sum total received xiiij" xvij' x^^'^ 

Arrears. 
In arrears of rent of one messuage sometime Richard Coles v' iiij"* to wit for the 
term of Easter ij' viij"" And in arrears of rents of works of the tenants there part of 
xvj^^ vijf^"* because they could not be let this year. And in decay of the rent 
of a cottage sometime Richard Triggs part of ij' xij* And in arrears of rent 
of X and J4 acres of land sometime John Philips part of ix%^ iiij^'' And in 
' arrears of rent of one tenement sometime David Stodach's part of vij^ v^"* 
iij viij^'' And in arrears of rent of the services of the tenants there sometime 
David Button's and David Jockyn's part of viij' xj^"* iiij' v}^"* And in arrears of 
rent of land sometimes John Davyston's part of xvj'' viij*" And in arrears of the 
pasture of Walter Sandy part of ij* xij** 

Sum of arrears xiiij' vj^^ 

And he owes xiiij" iij' iij5^<* which he has delivered to Hugh le Young 
Receiver of the said lordship by the acknpwledgment of the said Receiver. 

And he is quit. 

In 1395, on July 19th, Richard II orders the investigation of some error 
that had occurred, by which Warrin, the Archdeacon, Robert Verney, and 
Eleanor, his wife, then of the Manor of Roche and Pill, had suffered great 
damage. David Fleming, who, together with Robert Verney, the plaintiff. Sir 
Warine, the Archdeacon, and Thomas de la Roche of Langum, represented the 
four daughters of the Thomas de la Roche, who died about 1324. His second 
daughter had married Sir David de la Roche, of Langum ; they were sisters of 

9a 



132 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

the William de la Roche who founded the Chantry Chapel at St. Thomas the 
Martyr. 

There appears, however, to be no record left of this suit 

Patent Roll. 19 Rich. II, pt. I, m. 27"* 

[1395] 
Of correcting an error. 

The King to his beloved and trusty cousin Thomas de Percy and his beloved John 
Knightley Stephen White and Thomas Polsawe greeting. Know ye that whereas in a 
record and process and also in the rendering of judgment of a plea which was before 
our beloved and trusty John Penros late our justice of South Wales at Haverford 
between us and David Fleming and Warrin Archdeacon and Robert Verney and 
Eleanor his wife of the manor of Roche and Pille within the lordship of Haverford 
in South Wales a manifest error occurred to the grave damage of them Warrin Robert 
and Eleanor as by their plaint we have heard. We the error if there is any now willing 
duly to be corrected and full and speedy justice to be done on this behalf have assigned 
you three and two of you of whom you the aforesaid Stephen we will to be one to 
survey the record and process of the plaint aforesaid if judgment thereupon was given 
and the errors if there are any or in the giving of the judgment aforesaid shall happen 
to be found to correct and amend and the aforesaid Warrin Robert and Eleanor full 
and speedy justice thereon to cause to be done according to law and custom of the 
aforesaid parts. And so we charge you concerning the premises you diligently apply 
yourselves and cause the same to be examined in form aforesaid. Saving etc. And 
you the aforesaid Thomas de Percy' at certain etc. which etc. of which etc. for this 
purpose you shall provide the record and process of the plaint aforesaid with all 
touching the same in your custody as it is said before you etc. you shall cause to come 
warning the aforesaid David that he be then there to hear the errors if there are any 
in the record and process aforesaid or in the giving of judgment of the plea aforesaid 
shall happen to be found and further to do and receive that by us etc. of which etc. it 
shall be considered in the premises. In witness whereof etc. Witness the King at 
Westminster the 19th day of July. 

By writ of priory seal. 
[N.B. There appears to be no record of this suit.] 

From the following cincient petition in Norman French the later Roches 
do not appear to have been so piously disposed as Adam and Thomas, for 
here is a complaint from the poor Prior of Pill that David, son of Thomas de 
la Roche, has laid waste their possessions, and seized his monks, and begging 
the king to cause him to come before the Justices of the King's Bench to answer 
for his trespass. 

Ancient Petitions. 
No. 3301. 

To our lord the King and his Council shows his poor Prior of La Pulle how 
David who was the son of Thomas de la Roche has laid waste the goods of their house 

' ? Sheriff. 



t" THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 133 

and seized his monks to his great damage and fines them at his will whereupon he begs 
the favour that he will cause him to come before the Justices of the Kings Bench to 
answer for the trespass since our lord the King has cognizance of all trespasses which 
his tenants in chief commit. 

In the calendar of entry in the Papal Registers are a few entries about 
this date. 

Calendar of Entry in Papal Registers. 
Petition Vol. X, 1347, 5 Clement VI, f. 43d. 

Richard Vaughan, late the King's envoy, on behalf of John Henry of the diocese 
of St. David's, for a benefice with cure of souls, value thirty marks, in the gift of the 
prior and hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England, notwithstanding that he 
expects a benefice in forma pauperum in the gift of the Benedictine Prior and convent 
of St. Mary Pille, order of Tiron, in the said diocese. Granted at Avignon Kals. 
February. 

Petitions. Vol. XXXIII of the same, p. 383 & 4, 9 Innocent VI. 
John Philip, Clerk. For confirmation of the collation by the ordinary of the 
Church of St. Swithin, London, Void by the death of Ralph Nicol, nothwithstanding 
that he expects a benefice in the gift of the Prior and convent of St. Mary Pille, order 
of Tiron, in the diocese of St. David's. 

Granted Avignon, May 22. 

Petitions. Vol. XXXVII of the same, p. 428, i Urban V, 1363. 
Thomas Parnel, a poor priest of the diocese of St. David's for a benefice in the 
gift of the Prior and Convent of Pill (Pulla Tironensium). 

These are followed, in 1405, from Vol. VI of the Papal Registers, by a 
mandate from the Pope to the Prior of Pill. 

Papal Registers. Vol. VI. 1405. 
4 Non, Feb., St. Peter's, Rome. 
To the Prior of Pill in the Diocese of St. David's. Mandate to collate and 
assign to John Heywarde, canon of St. David's, if found fit the canonry and prebends 
of Penfoos in St. David's, value not exceeding 20 marks, void by the free assignation 
of Roljert Wermyngton to Bishop Guy ; notwithstanding that John holds another 
canonry and a cursal prebend of St. David's and the church without cure of St. 
Martin Pomeroy (in Pomerio) London the value of both of which does not exceed 
40 marks. Upon obtaining the said canonry and prebend of Penfoos he is to resign 
his said canonry and cursal prebend. 

Next follows, in 1553-4. a valuation of the rents of Roche and Pill, taken 
by Thomas Parker, collector, which may be interesting, together with the former 
compotus, to those living in that neighbourhood, and for the mention of a coal 
mine. 



134 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

MiN. ACCTS. 651, 10532. 31-2 H. VI. 
Roche and Pulle. 
Compotus of Thomas Parker Collector of Rents there for the time abovesaid. 

Arrears. 
The same answers of xxxvj* of arrears of last account of the year preceding as 
appears at the foot there. 

Sum xxxvj' 
Free rents and Gablers. 

And of xxiij" viij ij^ of free rent of the gablers there at the terms of Easter and 
St. Michael equally. And of xx* rent of v acres of land of new rent so demised to 
John Tonker at the same terms. And of Ixvj' viij'' of the farm of a coal mine there at 
the same terms. And of v* iiij"! increased rent of one plot and land at Annablepull, 
which he answers to pay xiij* iiij"^ per ann. 

Sum xxvij'' xxij"* 

Perquisites of Court. 

Of perquisites of Court there this year nothing because no courts were held there 
this year by the oath of the accountant. 

Sum nil. 
Sum of receipts with arrears xx" xvij' x"* 

Of which 
there is allowed to him iiij" xviij' viij"* of decayed rent of divers tenants there remaining 
in the hands of the lady the Queen for default of tenants as may be proved by 
examination thereof made and as was allowed in preceding account. And to the same 
xx" xix' ij"* of money delivered to aforesaid Receiver by acknowledgment of the said 
Receiver upon the Account. And he owes Ix'. 

Which are respited to him to wit xxxvj' thereof above charged under the name 
of arrears and xxxiiij* above charged under the name of rents of Gablers in the total 
of xxiij" viij* ij"! of decayed rents of divers lands and tenements there being in the 
hands of the lady the Queen by default of tenants as here testified by the homage and 
ministers and here respited until etc. And nothing beyond this in respite. 

Dugdale's account of Pill Priory is so very erroneous that it is not worth 
quoting the first part of it; he falls into the old error of mixing up Martin of 
the Towers, Lord of Cemaes, with St. Martin of Tours, and makes Thomas 
de la Roche of the second charter, son of Adam, instead of his being one or 
two generations later. The Priory at Pill was subordinate to St. Dogmaels 
Abbey from first to last, and paid a yearly sum to St. Dogmaels up to the 
dissolution, as we see by valuation of St. Dogmaels Abbey, in which g 6s. 8d. 
is put down as the sum yearly paid by Pill Priory. This should set at rest once 
and for ever any doubts of this kind. It naturally had its own revenue as all 
cells did, so that its revenue being assessed 26 Hen. VIII at 6y 15s. 3d. gross. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 135 

but $2 2s. 5d. net/ in no way rendered it independent of St. Dogmaels, as 
Dugdale assumes. Also the assertion that the convent of Pill " in time forsook 
that strict rule, and became ordinary Benedictines," as quoted by Dugdale, 
Regner and Stevens is exceedingly doubtful. St. Dogmaels Abbey was 
nominally of the order of Tiron to the last, therefore her cells must have been 
the same; but that either the abbey or her cells kept to the strict Rule of St. 
Bernard of Tiron, any more than, as we have seen, the Convent of Tiron herself 
did, is absurd. 

Leland also falls into the error of describing Pill as being in Caldey 
Island, thus making two cells into one. Speed also falls into the same error, 
possibly through taking Leland for his authority. There is no date to these 
two charters of Adam and Thomas, but Adam was a son of Godebert, a 
Fleming of Roose, who held land there in 1 131. Adam's charter was therefore 
certainly before 1200, whilst the grant of Thomas was probably 80 years 
later. Nicholas Martin, who was one of the witnesses of the latter charter, did 
not succeed to the Barony till 12 16, and died in 1284. Also Thomas's father, 
John, held the land in 1251. Roger Mortimer granted Thomas a carucate of 
land at Pill Rhodal, in 1274. So that evidently his charter, which was in all 
probability made on his death bed, was after 1274, but before 1284, when 
Nicholas, one of the witnesses, died. 

In the hfth year of Henry V is a similar deed to the one under St. 
Dogmaels Abbey, in which Henry grants full pardon to the Prior and Convent 
of Pill for whatever misdeeds they may have committed, amongst other things 
remitted to them were "deodands";^ in English law, from the earliest times, 
this had been a personal chattel, which had been the immediate occasion of the 
death of a human being, and for that reason was " given to God "that is, 
forfeited to the king to be applied to pious uses, and distributed in alms by his 
high almoner. Thus if a man was killed by a cart, the cart was by law for- 
feited as a deodand, and the coroner's jury required to fix the value of the 
forfeited property. Deodands were not abolished till 1846. The pious object 
of this forfeiture was soon lost sight of, so that kings might, and often did, 
cede their right to deodands, within certain limits, as a private perquisite. 

Henry V's deed continues that no one was in any way to harass, or molest, 
the prior and convent. However, in spite of this, the prior appears by his 
attorney, John Brokholes, and complains that he had been hardly distrained 



'The Cotton MS., Cleopatra, C. IV, f. 388. St. David, Priory of Pill, gives gross value at 
;i72 lis. 5d. atid the net value at 49 ss. gd. 

' From the Latin Deo dandiim, a thing to be given to God. 



136 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

by Roland Leynthole Knight, Lord of Haverford, for a subsidy to the king. 
A day being fixed to hear the Prior of Pill's case, he was exonerated by the 
king's deed from paying the sum demanded. 

Memoranda K. R. Easter Term. 5 Hen. V, m. 5. 1418. 

Wales. Letters patent of the King made to the Prior and Convent of la Pille of the 
order of St. Benedict enrolled. 

The Lord King has commanded here his writ under his great seal which is among 
the " Communia" of this term in these words Henry by the grace of God King of 
England and France and lord of Ireland to the Treasurer and Barons of his Exchequer 
greeting. Whereas of our special grace and with the assent of the lords spiritual and 
temporal and at the request of the Commons of our realm of England in our parliament 
held at Westminster the 2nd year of our reign we Have pardoned and released the 
Prior and Convent of la Pille otherwise called Pull otherwise called the Prior of Pulla 
of the order of St. Benedict collector of a tithe and a moiety of a tithe to the lord 
Richard late King of England the second after the Conquest granted by the clergy of 
the province of Canterbury the 21st year of his reign in the Archdeaconry of St. David's 
in the diocese of St. David's and collector of a subsidy to the lord Richard late King 
of England granted from the clergy of the province of Canterbury in the church of 
St. Paul at London the loth day of May the 7th year of his reign to wit 6s. 8d. from 
every chaplain secular or religious also of the order of mendicants stipendiary or 
hired, taking a salary or stipend. And from every chaplain or warden of chantries 
and every other beneficed person or other beneficed persons or officials for tithe or tithes 
to our said father granted not accustomed to pay. Also from all vicars whatsoever or 
other beneficed persons in Cathedral and collegiate churches and Rectors and Vicars of 
Churches whatsoevei to such tithe not accustomed to pay in the Archdeaconry of 
St. David's in the diocese of St. David's all kind of trespasses offences misprisons 
contempts and suits by them before the 8th day of December the said 2nd year against 
the form of the statutes of liveries of cloth and . . * made or perpetrated. Upon 
which punishment shall fall by way of fine and ransom or in other pecuniary penalties 
or imprisonments the statutes aforesaid notwithstanding. So that the present pardon 
and release shall not be to the damage prejudice or derogation of any other person than 
ourself. And moreover of our mere motion out of reverence to God and by intention of 
charity we have pardoned the said prior and convent the suit of our peace which to us 
against them belonged for all treacheries murders rapes of women rebellions insur- 
rections felonies conspiracies and other trespasses offences negligences extortions mis- 
prisons ignorances contempts concealments and deceptions by them before the said 
8th day of December the said 2nd year in whatever way done or perpetrated, murders 
by them perpetrated after the 19th day of November the aforesaid year if there are 
any excepted. Whereupon they are adjudged arrested or summoned. And also 
outlawries if any against them on these occasions have been promulged and our firm 
peace to them we have granted. While however the said prior and convent are not 
evildoers in the craft of money multipliers of the coinage washers of gold and silver 

Illegible. 



^ 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 137 



coined at our Mint clippers of our money common approvers and notorious thieves or 
felons who have made abjuration of the realm. So that they stand to right in our 
Court if any shall prosecute them concerning the premises or any of the premises. And 
further of our more abundant grace we have pardoned and released to the said prior 
and convent all escapes of felons chattels of felons and fugitives chattels of outlaws and 
felons deodands, wastes suits and all articles such as destruction of the highway and 
trespasses of vert and veneson sale of woods within our forests or without and other 
things whatsoever before the said 8th day of December within our realm of England 
and the parts of Wales . . .* whereupon punishment should fall in due demand 
or in fine and ransom or in other pecuniary penalties or in forfeiture of goods and 
chattels or imprisonments or amercements of Counties townships or other persons or in 
charge of their free tenants who have never trespassed as heirs executors or land tenants 
Escheators sheriffs Coroners and others and all which to us against them may belong 
for the causes aforesaid. And also all grants alienations and purchases in mortmain 
made or had without our royal license. Also all intrusions and entries by them in their 
inheritance in part or in whole after the death of their ancestors without duly sueing 
out the same of our Royal hand before the said eighth day of December done together 
with the issues and profits therefrom in the meantime taken. And also we have 
pardoned and released to the said Prior and Convent all fines judgments amercements 
issues forfeitures reliefs scutages and all dues accounts prests and arrears of farms 
and accounts to us on the 21st day of March the first year of our reign in whatsoever 
way due and belonging. Also all actions and demands which we alone against them 
or we conjointly with other persons or person have or may have. And also outlawries 
against them promulged for any of the aforesaid causes. And moreover we have 
pardoned and released to the said prior and convent all pains before the said 8th day 
of December forfeited before us on our Council Chancellor treasurer or any of our 
judges for any cause and all other pains as well to us as to our most dear father 
deceased for any cause before the said 8th day of December similarly forfeited and 
to our use levied. And also all sureties of peace before the said 8th day of December 
forfeited as in our letters patent thereof made more fully is contained. And since the 
aforesaid prior and convent have found before us in our Chancery sufficient surety of 
bearing themselves well towards us and our people from this time according to the 
form of the statute for that purpo.se published and provided. We charge you that the 
said prior and convent against the tenor of our letters patent you do not molest or harass 
in any way. Witness me myself at Westminster the ist of May the 5th year of our 
reign by the King himself. And the tenor of the letters patent of which above in the 
writ mention is made follows in these words . . [Letters patent repeated] . . . 

Upon which comes here now at the quindene of Easter this term the aforesaid 
Prior by John Brokholes his attorney and complains that he has been harshly distrained 
by Roland Leynthole Knt lord of Haverford to render account to the King of the 
tenth and the moiety aforesaid as of the subsidy aforesaid and this unjustly because 
he says that the said lord King pardoned inter alia all dues and accounts and all 
actions demands etc. as in the letters patent of the King more fully is contained. And 

Illegible. 



138 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 



the said Prior does not think that the said lord King will further sue him concerning 
the premises against the force and effect of the letters patent and writ of the King 
aforesaid. And because the Court wishes further to deliberate on the premises before 
that further etc. A day is here given to the aforesaid Prior of la Pille to the morrow 
of St. John Baptist upon which deliberation being had by the Barons it was considered 
by them that the aforesaid Prior as far as the accounts to be exacted from him to the 
King is exonerated by pretext of the letters patent and writ of the King aforesaid. 
Saving action of the King if otherwise etc. 




I" 



\ 



CHAPTER XIII. 



HER DECLINE AND FALL. 




'OR nearly a hundred years no records of Pill are found till in 
the visitation of the Deanery of Cemaes, July, 1504, from the 
Canterbury Registers, Warham, f. 228, held in the Church of 
Newport, the Prior of Pill, as Rector, was reported to have 
restored the ruined chancel of Pill, and that it was in good order; also on 
f. 234 of the same registers, in the visitation of the Deanery of Roos, held in 
the chapter house of Pill Priory, September loth, 1504. Dom David here says 
that he has five monks all obedient to him, that the monastery was not in debt, 
and that he had sufficient means to keep it up, that they held services in the 
accustomed manner, and at due hours, according to the rule of St. Benedict, 
and that as far as he knows all the brethren were honest and chaste. 

Amongst the names of the monks given is Dom William Watt, who was 
prior at the dissolution, and Dom William Hyre (Hire) shortly after Abbot of 
St. Dogmaels. 

All the brethren being examined after Dom David Luce gave similar 
testimony. 

Warham, f. 234. 

Visitation of the Deanery of Roos begun in the monastery of I'ulle in the Chapter 
House there the loth day of September 1504. 

Dom David Luce prior of the Priory of PuUe produces a certificate in writing. 
And the said Prior was examined as to how many monks he had in number and he 
says that he has five and that they are obedient to him. Further interrogated of the 
letting of his benefices he says that he hath not any church let at farm until the feast 
of St. James next coming. Interrogated concerning the e.state of his monastery he 
says that the said monastery is not charged with any del>t but that he hath wherewith 
he can satisfy and keep up the estate of the said monastery. 

Further interrogated concerning divine worship he says that he and his brethren 
observe divine worship in the accustomed manner and at the due hours according to 
the foundation of the said monastery and the rule of St. Benedict. Also he says that 
his brethren keep themselves honest and chaste as far as he knows. 



I40 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Names of the monks there Dom John Castell, Dom John Dore, Dom William 
Watts, Dom William Hyre whom the lord has diligently examined concerning the 
estate of the monastery who being examined and interrogated agree in all their 
statements with the lord prior abovesaid. 

The oath of canonical obedience from them as is customary being received the lord 
commissary admonishes the prior and Convent abovesaid that they should so govern 
themselves in future that they might please God and these things being done the lord 
Commissary dissolved his ordinary visitation. 

Thirty years later they agree to call the Pope by no other name than Bishop 
of Rome, and to pray for him only as such, and to reject his laws, decrees, and 
canons, unless according to divine law, scripture, and the laws of England. They 
agreed also to preach according to the Scriptures, not distorting their meaning, 
and also in the commendatory prayers, after the king as head of the Church, 
his Queen Anne, and their offspring, to commend the Archbishops of Canterbury 
and York, together with the rest of the clergy. William Watt, now prior, alone 
remaining of the five monks whose names are given in 1 504. 

The original Act is at Westminster. 

In the " Lansdowne MS.," 165, the County of Pembroke, is the account of 
a mill in Dennant belonging to the Priory of Pill, its yearly rental being six 
shillings and eightpence. Now come the last days of the priory, for there is 
nothing more to be found till a deed taken from Rymer, which is in reality the 
Act of Supremacy, in which Henry VIII is acknowledged by the Prior and 
Convent of Pill as head of the Anglican Church, and they render allegiance to 
him as such, and next to his wife, Anne Boleyn, and to their infant daughter, 
Elizabeth, then about a year old, and to other legitimate children of theirs. 

Rymer XIV. 
Close Roll. 26 H. VIII, m. 15'' and m, 9"*. July 20, 1534. 
Since it is a matter not only pertaining to the Christian religion and piety ; but 
also a rule for our obedience, that we ought to gi^e to our Lord Henry eighth king of 
that name, to whom alone after Christ Jesus we owe [all things], not only entirely but 
altogether in Christ, and always the same sincere, undiminished devotion of soul, 
fidelity, esteem, honour, worship, and reverence; but also with the same fidelity and 
esteem we render an account, as often as it may be demanded, and bear witness openly 
to all most willingly, if the matter calls for it. Let all men know to whom this present 
writing comes, that we the Prior and Convent of Pill in the diocese of St. David's, with 
one mouth and voice assent to all by this our deed. Given under the common seal in 
our chapter house, on behalf of ourselves and our successors, all and singular for ever. 
We profess, testify, and faithfully promi.se and pledge, that we aforesaid, our successors 
all and singular observe whole, inviolate, sincere and perpetual esteem and obedience 
towards our lord the King Henry VIII, and towards Anne the Queen, his wife, and 
towards his offspring of this same Anne, as well legitimately begotten as to be begotten. 



^ 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 



141 



And that we shall notify, proclaim and recommend these same things to the people 
wheresoever place and occasion permit. 

Item. Also that we consider as confirmed and ratified, and always and for ever 
will thus consider that, the aforesaid King Henry is head of the Anglican Church. 

Item. Also that the Bishop of Rome, who in bulls usurps the name of Pope, and 
arrogates to himself the position of sovereign pontiff, has not any greater jurisdiction, 
conferred on himself by God in holy scripture in this kingdom of England, than that 
of an outside Bishop. 

Item. Also that not one of us, in any sacred meeting to be held privately or 
publicly, will call the san>e Bishop of Rome, by the name of Pope, or sovereign 
Pontiff; but rather by the name of Bishop of Rome or of the Romish Church; and 
that none of us will pray for him as Pope, but as Bishop of Rome. 

Item. Also that we will adhere to the said lord King alone, and to his successors, 
and will maintain his laws and decrees, renouncing for ever the laws, decrees and 
canons of the Bishop of Rome, which may be found to be against divine law and holy 
scripture, or against the laws of this kingdom. 

Item. Also that none of us in any private or public assembly shall presume to 
twist anything taken from sacred scripture to another meaning ; but each one of us 
will preach Christ, his words and deeds simply, openly and sincerely by " Norm," or 
rule, of holy scriptures, and by true catholic and orthodox teachers in a catholic and 
orthodox manner. 

Item. Also that each one of us in his orisons and supplications, according to 
general use, shall first commend to God and the people the King, as the supreme head 
of the Anglican Church, then Queen Anne with their offspring, and lastly the Arch- 
bishops of Canterbury and York with the rest of the ordained clergy as seems fit. 

Item. Also that we, all and singular, the aforesaid Prior and Convent firmly 
bind ourselves and our successors by an oath, that all and singular the aforesaid shall 
faithfully observe for ever. 

In witness whereof, to this writing we append 
our common seal and we have subscribed our 
names each with his own hand. 

Given in our chapter house the twentieth day 
of the month of July, 1534.' 

Wyllym Watt, Prior of Pill. 

Diiis Mauricius leiin, Monk of the same. 

Heliseas Peco'ke, Monk of the .same. 




' This has been corrected by the acknowledgment of supremacy of Pill at Westminster. 



I4J 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 



Attached to this is the " Common Seal " of the Convent (see illustration) 
representing the Virgin with Christ in her right arm, and a sceptre in her left 
hand; underneath is a full-length figure of a monk, with the inscription round 
Sigillium commune prioratus B. V. Marie De PULLA. 

Here follows the Valor Ecclesiasticus, Hen. VIII (1535): 



Priory of St. Mary the Virgin ok Pill. 

Of the order of Tiron. 

Priory of Pill. 

William Watt, prior of this same priory, founded by Adam de 
la Roche, held his aforesaid priory church and mansion 
with lands of his lordship, pastures, building, etc. with one 
carucate of land at the yearly value of xxvj'' 

Also at Steynton one manor and a carucate 

of land 

Also one tenement in Haverford. viij" which was valued in 
common years at 

Also at Southoke one carucate of land valued per ann. 

Also at St. Badock 

Also at Stedogh half a carucate of land 

Also at Moncketon ij carucates of land 

Also at Thornton ij bovates of land 

Also at Dennant ij carucates of land 

Also at Deplesmore a tenth of a carucate of land 

Also at Ketyngeston a tenth of a carucate of land 





Total xvj 



nij" 



The same prior held a tenement in Ledameslton iiij' 
The rent of one carucate of land in Hubberstone xj' 

Subject by Philip Steven in the cure of Steynton 
And subject by William Vychan in Ketyngeston. 

xiij bovates of land. 
Free rent per ann. for ward marriages etc. ij" 

And subject to and in the occupation of Thomas 

Hichets in Stedogh iiij bovates of land. 
Add one half years rent. 

And five carucates of land with appurtenances in 
the lordship of Maria Herle widow relict of 
James ap Owen in Kethingeston etc. xviij 

/ 
Total Value xx 



iiij" 

Ixvj" 

liiij" 

XX vj' 

xx'* 

x'' 

xxxij^ 



vuj" 



vnj" 



vuj" 



xij" 



d. 

X 



XV 



d. 
'ij 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 143 

Rebates fees fines etc. etc. 

John Wogan of Dennant xj 
John Longton of Thornton ii^"* 

And also John Langton for house in Roch and 

Castle Walwin and Southhook iij^ iiij'' 

And for great Pill Hubberston and Roch iij^ 
And cure ditto xi]'^ 

And the fee of Henry Catherine Esq. etc. xiij^ iv** 

To John Fisher Bailliff per ann. during his life vj viij 

/ s. d. 

xiij iij ij 

Fees etc. x' 

And annuity to the Abbot of St. Dogmaels Ix" vj" viij'' 

s. d. 

Sum clear vij xij j 

The Churches belonging to the Priory. 
Steynton, with vicarage xxx" 

Roch with vicarage one tenement, one bovate of land 

and 10 belonging to it iiij 

Fruits and emoluments xj" with xxxx' glebe 
Church of New Castle in Cemaes with glebe iiij" 

New Moat xlv" 

Fees etc. Archidiaconal xxiij* 

ordinary xxvj* viij 

/ s. d. 
There remains clear xliij x iij 

Pensions, 

The same Prior receive as pensions annuity as rector 

of Hustard xxvj^ viij 

From the Church of Hubberstone jij iiijd 

Nolton and the rent of an acre 

of land iiij 

From the Church of Pentvayne iiij<i 

It Johneston vj' viij 

Sum of Pensions xl 

/ s. d. 

Clear value of the sum total Iij ij v 

Tithe ciiij iij 



144 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Churches etc. belonging to Pill Priory 
Hubberstone. 
Church of the same under the Priory of Pill. 
Thomas Parrish is rector, with house and glebe 

Total value in common years yj" xiij* 
Yearly Pension to the foresaid Prior iij^ 

Visitation fees every 3^ year 
Visitation Synodal etc. fees v' 



iiij<' 




iiij"* 




xx*" 




ix'' 




s. 


d. 


vj ii 


vij 


xij 


iiJK 



There remains clear 
Tithe 
Hustarde. 
Church of the same under the Priory of Pill. 
Xerpofer Taylour clerk is rector and has a house 

yearly value of the fruits of this Benefice xx'' 

Year pension to the Prior of Pill xxvj' viij^ 

Archidiaconal and Synodal etc. fees v' ix 

Ordinary Visitation each third year xiij 

/ s. d. 

There remains clear xviij vj vj 

Nolton. 
Church of the same The Prior of Pill is patron. 
Thomas Wogan is rector and has a house 
Value etc. yearly 
Pension to the Prior of Pill 
Ordinary Visitation each 3"^ year 
Archidiaconal Visitation etc. 



iiij'' xiij* iiij*" 




iiij* 




xij 




v^ ix"* 




/ s- 


d. 


tins clear iiij ij 


vij 


Tithe viij 


iU>^ 



Rupe. 

Vicarage of the same under the said Prior of Pill. 
John Barbour, clerk, is vicar has a small house 
and glebe 

Value in common years iiij'' 
Ordinary Visitation fees every 3'' year xiiij^ 

Archidiaconal fees etc. v' 

s. d. 

There remains clear iiij xiiij ix 

Tithe ix* iiij)^ 

Pontvayne. 

Church of the same under the Priory of Pill. 
Gryffyn Lloid is rector Value, common years Ixvj* viij"* 

Tithe vj* viij'' 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 1-45 

Decanatus Deanery of Donegleddy. 

Archdeaconry of St. David. 
New Moat 
The Priory of Pill hold the rectorship of this church himself 
He has one manor with certain lands of vj viij yearly value etc. 

with fruit fees etc. of the total clear value xliiij^ vij^ 

Tithe iiij' vyi^ ' 

Decanatus Parishes Church in the Deanery of Rhos. 

Freystroppe 

Parish Church under the Priory of Pill. 

Thomas Stephen is Rector. The Rectory with land and fruits 

is valued at vj'" 
Ordinary Visitation fees every 3"' year viij** 
Archidiaconal Visitation and Synodals etc. v' ix"" 

Clear value 
Tithe 
Steynton Vicarage. 
The Vicarage of the same under the Priory of Pill. 
Richard Coyre is vicar Total value x'' 



cxnj' 
xj 



Visitation fees every 3'''' year 
Archidiaconal Visitation Synodals etc. 



vj" 
ij^ 



Clear value 
Tithe 
Johneston. 
Church under the Priory of Pill. 

Mr. Thomas Johns is rector with house and land 

Value in common years liiij' 
Ordinary Visitation every 3"^ year fees 
Archidiaconal Visitation Synodals etc. v' 

Pension from the rectory to the foresaid Prior of Pill vj' 



inj'" 

/ 
Ix 



s. 

xvij 
xix 



nij" 
viij"* 
ix*" 
viij*" 
Clear value 
Tithe 



xl' 

iiij 



vij 
iiij>4 



d. 

ij 
viijji 



"J 



Then follows, in 1 536, the king's grants of a pension to William Watts, 
the late Prior of Pill, of the yearly value of ten pounds, and two years later is 
an account of the value of the possessions of the late Priory of Pill, by John 
Wogan, collector of rents, taken from the Exchequer Augmentation Office, 
together with another valuation, taken four years later, in which the " arrears " 
have considerably increased. The first of these two valuations, of John Wogan, 
contains an interesting account of a messuage, etc., and a rabbit warren, let by 
John Prior of Pill to Morris Butler, called " Le Monckton," at xx shillings a 



146 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

year, containing 2j^ carucates of land with the warren, on a forty years lease, 
given July 4th, 15 17, in which lease it was agreed that it was lawful for the 
Prior and convent to hunt in the aforesaid warren, three times a year, and also 
to have a rick of rushes every year, cutting and carting them at their own 
expense, besides other rights. These two indentures also occur again in the 
next deed, from the Exchequer Augmentation Office, Vol. 232, f. 52. 

Exchequer Augmentation Office. Vol. 232, fol. 52. 20 Mar., 1536. 

The King to all to whom etc. greeting. Whereas the late Priory of Pulle in South 
Wales by the authority of parliament is suppressed and dissolved. And whereas one 
William Wattes at the time of such dissolution and long before was Prior thereof. We 
willing that a reasonable yearly pension or adequate promotion for the said William 
should be provided to better maintain him in food and sustenance. Know ye that we 
in consideration of the premises of our special grace certain knowledge and mere 
motion by the advise and consent of the Chancellor and council of our Court of 
Augmentations of the Revenues of our Crown have given and granted and by these 
presents do give and grant to the said William a certain annuity or yearly pension of 
ten pounds sterling. To have enjoy and yearly to take the same ten pounds to the 
said William and his assigns from the time of the dissolution and suppression of the 
said late Priory to the term and for the term of the life of the said William or until 
the said William to one or more ecclesiastical benefices or other adequate promotion 
of the clear yearly value of ten pounds or beyond by us shall be promoted as well by 
the hands of the Treasurer of our aforesaid Court who for the time shall be from our 
treasure in his hands of the revenues which happen to remain in his hands as well by 
the hands of the Receivers of the particulars of the revenues aforesaid of the said 
revenues at the feasts of the Annunciation B V M and St. Michael the Archangel by 
equal portions to be paid. Because express mention etc. In witness whereof etc. 
Witness etc. at Westminster the 20th day of March the 28th year of our reign. 

By the Chancellor and Council aforesaid by virtue of the warrant aforesaid. 

Augmentation Ministers Accounts. 29-30 Hen. VIII, 153. 1538-9. 

The late Priory of Pylle within the Bishopric of St. David's. 

Compotus of John Wogan Collector of Rents and farms of all and singular the 
lordships manors lands and tenements and other possessions whatsoever temporal as 
well as spiritual to the aforesaid late priory appertaining or belonging which came to 
the hands of the lord King that now is and is annexed to his Crown and that of his 
heirs and successors the Kings of England in augmentation of the revenues of his said 
Crown of England by virtue of a certain act in his parliament held at Westminster 
on its prorogation 4th Feb. the 27th year of the reign of the said lord King published 
and provided as in the said Act inter alia is contained to wit from the feast of St. 
Michael the Archangel the 29th year of the reign of the aforesaid King Henry the 8th 
to the same feast of St. Michael the Archangel then next ensuing the 30th year of the 
aforesaid King to wit for one whole vear. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 147 

Arrears. 
And of xxxvij' of arrears of the last account of the year preceding as appears there. 

Sum xxxvij^ 
Site of the late priory of Pille with other things. 

Of xlj'' xij ij** forthcoming of divers parcels of land as well temporal as spiritual 
to wit the site of the late Priory aforesaid Ixxiij^ iiij"* Southoke* Ixxvj* viij<i Seynt 
Baddocke^ xxvj* viij<* Lodameston Iv' iiij<i Great Pulle x* ij"* The Rectory of 
Staynton xxx'' not answered for here because demised at farm to John Wogan by 
Indenture for term of xxj years sealed under the seal of the lord King of his Court 
of Augmentations of the revenues of his Crown as in the next title following more 
fully and particularly appears. 

Sum nil. 

Farms. 
But he renders account of xlj" xij' ij** of rent of demesne lands with divers 
parcels of land and with the Rectory of Staynton demised by Indenture to John 
Wogan sealed with the seal of the Court of Augmentations of the Revenues of the 
Crown of the lord King of which the tenor follows in the.se words This Indenture 
made between the most excellent prince and lord the lord Henry the eighth by the 
grace of God King of England and France defender of the faith and lord of Ireland 
and on earth supreme head of the Anglican church of the one part and John Wogan of 
the other part witnesseth that the said lord King by advice and consent of the Council 
of the Court of Augmentation of the Revenues of his Crown hath delivered granted 
and let at farm to the aforesaid John the house and site of the late Priory of Pulle 
within the Bishopric of St. David's by authority of parliament suppressed and dissolved 
together with all houses e<lifices barns gardens orchards dovecotes ground and soil 
within the site and precinct of the said late Priory and five small orchards and one 
small wood and one meadow there abutting upon Davye Harryes wood to the same 
late priory belonging and appertaining also one parcel of arable land called Castell 
Hill there abutting upon Steynton Highway and two acres of waste land there. And 
also one other parcel of waste land in the field aforesaid abutting upon the way of the 
waste land on the one side and Staynton highway on the other side also all the grain 
mill with appurts there together with the pool and all the watercourse running to and 
belonging to the same which said premises to the said late priory belonged and apper- 
tained and further the said lord King has delivered granted and let at farm to the 
aforesaid John all the messuages lands tenements meadows fields pastures with appurts 
in Southoke' Saint Badocks^ and Ledemaston to the said late priory belonging and 
appertaining and which in the hands and proper occupation of the late prior of the 
said late priory at the time of the dis.solution of that priory were reserved and 
occupied. And also four Ixtvates of land in Great Pulle to the said Priory similarly 
belonging and appertaining which Philip Webbe late had and held at farm by a yearly 
rent of ten shillings and two pence and further the said lord King by the advice and 
consent of his council aforesaid hath delivered granted and let at farm to the aforesaid 
John the Rectory of the parish Church of Staynton with appurts to the said late 
priory belonging and appertaining together with lands glebes tithes etc. whatsoever to 

' South Hook. ' St. Budoc. 

10 a 



148 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

the said Rectory appertaining and belonging except however and to the said lord King 
heirs and successors altogether reserved all great trees and woods of the premises and 
advowsons of vicarages and chajDels all kinds of buildings within the said site and 
precinct of the late priory which the said lord King shall command to be thrown down 
and carried away. To have and to hold all and singular the premises with the appurts 
excepting the preexcepted to the aforesaid John and his assigns from the feast of the 
Annunciation of the Blessed virgin Mary last past to the end of the term and for the 
term of 2r years then next ensuing and fully to be completed rendering therefrom yearly 
to the said lord King his heirs and successors forty-one pounds twelve shillings and two 
pence of legal money of England to wit for the aforesaid site mill orchards wood lands 
meadows and pastures except the said lands and tenements in Southoke St. Badoks 
Ledemaston and aforesaid four' bovates of land in Great Pulle and the said Rectory 
of Staynton seventy three shillings and four and for the said lands and tenements in 
Southoke sixty six shillings and eight pence and for the aforesaid lands and tenements 
in Saint Badoks twenty six shillings and eight pence and for the aforesaid lands 
and tenements in Lodesmaston fifty five shillings and four pence and for the aforesaid 
four bovates of land in Great Pulle ten shillings and two pence and for the aforesaid 
Rectory of Staynton thirty pounds at the feasts of St. Michael the Archangel and the 
Annunciation of the Blessed virgin Mary or within one month after either feast of those 
feasts at the Court aforesaid by equal portions to be paid during the term aforesaid. 
And the aforesaid lord King wills and by these presents grants that he his heirs and 
successors the said John and his assigns from all rents services fees annuities pensions 
portions and sums of money whatsoever of the premises or any of them issuing or to be 
paid except of the Rents above reserved against all persons whatsoever from time to 
time will exonerate and defend and all houses and buildings of the premises as w^ell 
in timber as in roofing of tile and slate from time to time as often as shall be 
necessary and opportune will and faithfully shall cause to be repaired sustained and 
maintained during the term aforesaid and the aforesaid John grants by these presents 
that he and his assigns roofing of thatch and all other necessary repairs of the premises 
except timber tiles and slates aforesaid from time to time shall support and sustain 
during the term aforesaid and the aforesaid lord King further wills and by these 
presents grants that it shall be lawful to the aforesaid John and his assigns to take 
perceive and have from time to time of in and upon the premises comp)etently and 
sufficiently hedgebote firebote ploughbote and cartbote there and not elsewhere to be 
expended and occupied during the term aforesaid to one part of this present indenture 
with the aforesaid John remaining the aforesaid lord King his seal of the aforesaid 
Court appointed for the sealing of such deeds has commanded to be affixed and to the 
other part of the same Indenture with the said lord King remaining the aforesaid 
John has affixed his seal. Given at Westminster the fifth day of July the 29th year 
of the said lord King. 

Sum xlj" xij' ij*" 
Rents of tenants at will in the manor of Staynton. 

And of x^ of rent of one tenement with divers lands to the same annexed demised 
to Rotherothe ap John at the will of the lord to be paid at the feasts of SS. Philip and 



' ? Eight bovates in the later and former deeds. 



h 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 149 



James and St. Michael the Archangel by equal portions. And of viij^ of rent of one 
burgage demised at will to David Bordde' to be paid at the terms aforesaid. And of 
xiij=^ of Rent of one tenement demised at will to William Phillip to be paid at the 
terms aforesaid. And of xx* of Rent of one messuage demised at will to Phillip ^leller 
to be paid at the terms aforesaid. And of v^ of rent of one tenement with appurts 
demised at will to William Hay to be paid at the terms aforesaid. And of xx^ of rent 
of one tenement demised at will to John Bull to be paid at the same terms. 

Sum Ixxvj* 

Rents of tenants by indenture and at will in Devant. 

And of xx^ of rent of one tenement with appurts lying within the lordship of 
Haverford West demised by Indenture to Richard Davye sealed with the conventual 
seal of the Priory of Pille of which the tenor follows in these words Thys Indenture 
etc. [as given in Latin copy] .... And of xxj* viij'' of one tenement and 6 
bovates of land with all and singular their appurts in the tenement of Devant demised 
by Indenture to Richard ffisher sealed with the conventual seal of the late priory of 
Pylle which indeed he has not shown to be paid at the feasts of Easter and St. Michael 
the Archangel by equal portions. And of xvj* of rent of one tenement with appurts 
demised at will to Robert Pers to be paid at the terms aforesaid. And of xij= of rent 
of one tenement with appurts demised at will to John Hoell to be paid at the terms 
aforesaid. 

Sum Ixix' viij"* 

Saint Haddocks.' 

And of xxvj' viij'^ of rent of one messuage and one carucate of land with all and 
singular their appurts which they have in the township and fields of St. Badocks within 
the lordship of Haverford which said messuage and carucate of land with all and 
singular their appurts one William Rowe late held there as by certain metes and 
boundaries to the said Hugh are assigned and limited now demised to Hugh Nutt by 
Indenture sealed with the Conventual seal aforesaid given the 4th April the i6th year 
of the reign of King Henry the 8th To have and hold To have and hold to him 
and his assigns from the day of the making of these presents to the end of the term 
of 60 years then next ensuing and fully to be completed rendering therefrom yearly 
as above to be paid at the feast of SS. Philip and James and St. Michael the Archangel 
by equal portions. And the aforesaid Hugh wills and grants for him and his assigns 
the aforesaid messuage with all buildings to the said messuage belonging with all their 
appurts he will repair sustain and maintain at his own proper costs and expense during 
the term aforesaid and at the end of the term aforesaid the said messuage with other 
buildings to the same belonging with appurts well and decently shall surrender and 
leave and suit of Court etc. 

Sum xxvj' viij"^ 

Rents of free tenants by Indenture in Stedolph.* 

And of j"* of rent of one tenement in the tenure of Thomas Hytes who held freely 
To be paid at the feast of St. Michael the Archangel only. And of xxxvij' viij"* of rent 
of one messuage and seven bovates of land with appurts in the township and fields of 

' Byrde in the Latin compotus. 'St. Bndocs. 'Studdnlph. 



I50 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Stedolph aforesaid as by metes and bounds are assigned and known demised to William 
Hill by Indenture sealed with the Conventual seal aforesaid given the 19th day of 
December the 27th year of the reign of King Henry the 8th. To have and to hold to 
him his heirs and assigns from the feast of the Nativity of our Lord next coming after 
the date of these presents to the end of the term of 95 years then next ensuing and 
fully to be completed. Rendering there from yearly as above to be paid at the feasts 
of St. Michael the Archangel and Easter by equal porcions and the aforesaid William 
Hyll wills and grants for himself his heirs and assigns by these presents the aforesaid 
messuage with appurts he will repair sustain and maintain and at the end of the term 
aforesaid in good repair according to the custom of the lordship of Haverford will 
surrender and leave etc. 

Sum xxvij' ix** 

Mounckton. 
And of XX' of Rent of one messuage with appurts and with warren of conies 
demised to Moris Butler by Indenture sealed with the Conventual seal of the late 
Monastery aforesaid the tenor of which follows in these words This Indenture made 
between John Prior of Pulle and convent of the same and by their assent and consent 
have delivered granted and at farm let to the aforesaid Maurice one messuage called 
Le Monckton containing two carucates one bovate of land with warren of conies in the 
tenement of Johnstone aforesaid as by certain metes and bounds there are assigned 
and limited. To have and to hold to the aforesaid Maurice and his assigns from the 
feast of St. Michael the Archangel next coming after the date of these presents until 
the end of the term of forty years of 40 years then next ensuing and fully to be com- 
pleted under the form and conditions following to wit to render and do to the chief lord 
of that fee the rents and services therefrom due and accustomed and to render to us 
the aforesaid Prior and convent and our successors during the term aforesaid a yearly 
rent of xx' of silver of lawful money of England at two terms of the year to wit at the 
feast of the Holy Apostles Philip and James and St. Michael the Archangel by equal 
portions to be paid and if it happen the aforesaid rent or any part of the same to be 
behind unpaid in part or in whole at any feast at which it should be paid that then it 
shall be lawful to the aforesaid Prior Convent and their successors into the aforesaid 
messuage and lands with their appurts to enter and distrain and the distraints so and 
there taken from thence to take carry drive away and retain until of the whole aforesaid 
rent and every part of the same if there shall be any they shall be satisfied and 
moreover the aforesaid Maurice wills and grants that if it happen the aforesaid rent 
to be unpaid for one whole year and a day through default of the aforesaid Maurice 
or his assigns. So that sufficient distress in the aforesaid messuage and lands with 
appurts shall not be found by which the aforesaid Prior Convent and their successors 
shall be able to distrain that then it shall be lawful to the aforesaid Prior Convent and 
their successors the aforesaid messuage and lands with their appurts to re-enter and 
their former estate therein to have again without any impeachment; and the aforesaid 
messuage with appurts he shall repair sustain and maintain and at the end of the term 
aforesaid in good and sufficient repair according to the custom of the lordship of 
Haverford shall surrender and leave. Moreover know ye that I the aforesaid Maurice 
for me and my assigns [do grant] that it shall be lawful to the aforesaid Prior Convent 
and their successors during the term aforesaid into the warren aforesaid three times a 



i^ 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 151 



year to enter and there to hunt and there to hold their Courts to wit within the feast 
of all Saints the feast' of the Nativity of our Lord and the feast of the Purification of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary without any impeachment and conies or rabbits there and 
then take for the use of their household or quest house to take have and with them 
from thence to carry away without distress of the said warren. And also if " Rushes" 
grow upon the land aforesaid then the aforesaid Maurice wills also and grants for 
himself and assigns that the aforesaid Prior and Convent may have of such " Rushes" 
one rick every year at their own costs and expense to be paid done and carried away 
besides other rights unless it is required for the use of the household of the said 
Maurice or his assigns if the aforesaid Rushes shall be sold. In witness whereof to 
one part of these Indentures with the aforesaid Maurice remaining the aforesaid Prior 
and Convent their common seal in the chapter house of Pulle have procured to be 
affixed and to the other part of these indentures with the aforesaid Prior and Convent 
remaining the aforesaid Maurice has affixed his seal. Given the 4th July A..D. 151 7 
and the ninth year of the reign of King Henry the 8th after the conquest of England. 

Sum xx^ 

Rents at will in Thorneton. 

And of x' of rent of one tenement with appurts demised at will to John Day to 
be paid at the feasts of Philip and James and St. Michael the Archangel by equal 
portions. 

Sum x' 

Deplesmore. 

And of xij* of Rent of one tenement with all and singular its appurts demised by 
Indenture to Hugh Barnard sealed with the Conventual seal of the late Priory of 
Pylle the tenor of which follows in these words This indenture made between William 
Watts prior of Pulle with the assent and consent of his Order, the convent and chapter 
of the said house of the one part and Hugh Barnard of Camrose of the other part 
witnesses that the aforesaid prior and convent with unanimous assent and consent have 
delivered and let at farm to aforesaid Hugh one tenement and all the lands meadows 
messuages and pastures with all their appurts called Deplesmore in the tenement of 
Ketingeston being within the lordship of Haverford as by certain metes and bounds 
are assigned and limited To have and to hold the said messuages and all other the 
premises with appurts to the aforesaid Hugh and his assigns during the term of 40 
years next ensuing and fully to be completed the term beginning at the feast of the 
Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary next ensuing after the date of this Indenture 
to be rendered made and paid therefrom to us the aforesaid Prior Convent and our 
successors a yearly rent of twelve shillings sterling and services there accustomed as 
the tenants there have been wont to hold render and pay to be levied and satisfied by 
all kinds of distraints as shall be just and we the aforesaid Prior and Convent and our 
successors the aforesaid messuages and tenements aforesaid with their appurts etc. to 
the aforesaid Hugh and his assigns during the term aforesaid against all men will 
warrant and defend by these presents. In witness whereof the aforesaid Prior and 
Convent to one part of this Indenture with the said John remaining the common seal 



' "Within the feast." ? Would this include the octave^three weeks hunting per year. 



152 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

of the said house order and chapter have affixed and to the other part of this Indenture 
with the said Prior and Convent remaining the said Hugh for the performance of this 
said agreement has set his seal. Given at Pulle the 28th May the 26th year of the 
reign of King Henry the 8th. 

Sum xij> 

Rents of free tenants and by Indenture in Kethingston. 

And of ij' of Rents of marriages and reliefs there in the tenure of William 
Vaghan who holds freely. To be paid at the feasts of Philip and James and St. 
Michael the Archangel by equal portions. And of xviij* of rent of 5J4 carucates of 
land with appurts in the tenure of Dame Owyn widow who holds freely to be paid 
at the terms aforesaid. And of x'' of rent of one tenement with a plot of land to the 
said tenement belonging lying there demised by Indenture to William Gyliat sealed 
with the conventual seal of the late monastery of Pylle which said [indenture] he does 
not show. To be paid at the terms aforesaid. 

Sum XXX' 

New Castle. 
And of viij' of rent of one tenement with its appurts demised at will to John 
Stephen to be paid at the feasts of Easter and St. Michael the Archangel. 

Sum viij' 

Rents at will in Windsore. 

And of xiij' iiij"* of rent of one tenement with appurtenances demised at will to 
David Guy. To be paid at the feasts of Easter and St. Michael the Archangel by 
equal portions. 

Sum xiij' iiij** 
Ratford. 

And of vj* viij'* of rent of one bovate of land with appurts demised at will to 
John Mellor to be paid at the feasts of the Annunciation B V M and St. Michael the 
Archangel by equal portions. 

Sum vj* viij** 
Free Rents in Roche and Huberstone. 
And of iiij* of rent of a piece of land in the tenure of William Giliat who holds 
. freely to be paid at the feast of St. Michael the Archangel only. And of xj* of rent 
of divers lands and tenements lying in Huberstone aforesaid to be paid at the feasts 
of Philip and James and St. Michael the Archangel by equal portions. 

Sum xv 

Neugold.* 

And of ij* iiij"* of rent of divers lands and tenements lying and being in the parisli 
of Roche and the chapel called St. Cradok's Chapel demised by Indenture to John 
Phillips Esquire sealed with the Conventual seal aforesaid which he does not show. To 
be paid at the feasts of the Annunciation B V M and St. Michael by equal portions. 

Sum ij^ iiij"* 

' Neugol. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 153 

Rectory of Newniote. 

And of c^ of Rent of the tithe of sheaves and other profits there with appurts of 
the aforesaid Rectory demised to John Phillips Esquire by Indenture sealed with the 
Conventual seal of the late Monastery aforesaid as is said to be paid at the feasts of 
Philip and James and St. Michael the Archangel by equal portions. 

Sum c^ 

Rectory of New Castle and Roche. 
And of xv'' of the Rents of tithe of sheaves and all other profits forthcoming of 
the Rectory aforesaid demised to Edward Lloyd by Indenture sealed with the seal 
of the Court of Augmentations of the Revenues of the Crown of the Lord King the 
tenor of which follows in these words This Indenture made between the lord Henry 
the 8th of the one part and Edward Lloyd yeoman of the houshold of the lord King 
of the other part witnesses that the said lord King by the advice and consent of the 
Council of the Court of Augmentations of the Revenues of his Crown hath delivered 
and let at farm to the aforesaid Edward the Rectory of New Castle and Roche with 
the appurts to the late Priory of Pulle within the Bishopric of St. David's by the 
authority of Parliament suppressed and dissolved together with all tithes oblations 
profits and emoluments whatsoever of the said Rectory, belonging and appertaining 
[to the late Priory] excepting however and to the said lord King his heirs and successors 
altogether reserved all great trees and woods of and upon the premises growing and 
being and the advowson of the vicarage of New Castle and Roche aforesaid. To have 
and to hold the Rectory aforesaid and other all and singular the premises with the 
appurts excepting the pre-excepted to the aforesaid Edward and his assigns from the 
feasts of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary last past to the end of the 
term and for the term of 2 1 years then next ensuing and fully to be completed rendering 
therefrom yearly to the said lord King his heirs and successors fifteen pounds of lawful 
money of England at the feasts of St. Michael the Archangel and the Annunciation 
B V M or within one month after either feast of those feasts at the Court aforesaid 
by equal portions to be paid during the term aforesaid and the aforesaid lord King 
wills and by these presents grants that he his heirs and successors the said Edward and 
his assigns from all pensions portions and sums of money whatsoever of the premises 
or any of them issuing or to be paid except the rent above reserved against all persons 
whatsoever from time to time will exonerate acquit and defend and all houses and 
buildings of the premises as well in timber as in roofing of tiles and slate from time 
to time as often as shall be necessary and opportune well and sufficiently shall cause 
to be repaired sustained and maintained during the term aforesaid and the aforesaid 
Edward grants by these presents that he and his assigns roofing of thatch and all other 
necessary repairs of the premises except repairs of timl>er and roofing of tiles and slate 
aforesaid from time to time will support and sustain during the term aforesaid. In 
witness whereof to one part of this Indenture with the aforesaid Edward remaining 
the aforesaid lord King his seal of the Court aforesaid appointed for the sealing of such 
deeds has commanded to be affixed and to the other part of the said Indenture with the 
said lord King remaining the aforesaid Edward has affixed his seal. Given at 
Westminster the 14th May the 29th year of the said lord King. 

Sum xv" 



154 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Pensions. 

And ot xxvj* viij"* of rent of a pension from Huscard there yearly paid to William 
Watts late prior there at the feast of St. Michael the Archangel only. And of iij* iiij"" 
of rent of a pension from Hubertston there yearly paid to the aforesaid William Watts 
late prior there at the feast aforesaid. And of vj' viij<* rent of a pension from 
Jannston' there yearly paid to the aforesaid late prior at the feast aforesaid. And 
of xij"* rent of a pension from Norlton there yearly paid to the late prior aforesaid at 

the feast aforesaid only. 

Sum xxxvij' viij"* 

Perquisites of Court. 

Of any profit forthcoming of perquisites of Court held there this year he does not 

answer here because none have fallen this year within the time of this account by the 

oath of the said Accountant. 

Sum nil. 

The whole sum total with arrears. 

x% 

iiijj'' iiij* iij* 

Of which 
Fees and wages. 
The same accounts in moneys paid to John Phillips Esquire steward of the Court 
there at 40s. per ann as appears by letters patent sealed with the Conventual seal as in 
the account of the year preceding more fully appears and so in allowance this year as 
in the preceding xl' And in fee of Henry Cathern Clerk of the Court of Stanton 
granted to him for the term of his life at xiij* iiij"* per ann. and so in allowance this 
year as in preceding xiij^ iiij"* And in fee of the aforesaid Accountant by reason of 
his collection of rents and farms abovesaid at xxxvj* viij"* per ann. and so there shall 
be an allowance for the whole time of this account at the feast of St. Michael the 
Archangel the 30th year of the King aforesaid xxvj^ viij'' And in the stipend of the 
Auditor's clerk writing this account at ij* per ann as the clerks of the Auditor of the 
lord King of his Duchy of Lancaster were accustomed to be allowed on every account 
of the Ministers and so in allowance this year as in preceding ij' 

Sum iij" ij 

Rents resolute. 
And in moneys paid to the heirs of Malesant issuing out of the late priory 
aforesaid for a certain rent resolute at xl* per ann. to be paid at the feast of St. 
Michael the Archangel only and so in allowance at such feast of St. Michael the 
Archangel this year as in preceding xl' And in similar moneys paid to the heirs of 
James Bowen issuing out of the manor of Staynton for a certain rent resolute at vj"* per 
ann. to be paid at the feast aforesaid only and so in allowance this year as in preceding 
vj"! And in similar moneys paid to Thomas Llamesfelde for a certain rent resolute 
issuing out of tenements in Denante and Southeoke at 2j4d. per ann. To be paid at 
the feast aforesaid only and so in allowance this year as in preceding zj^d. 

Sum xl viijj^"* 

'Johneston. ';^8l 4s. 3d. 



s* 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 155 



Livery of moneys. 
And in moneys delivered to Edward Walters Receiver of the particulars of the 
lord King of the issues of his office as appears by divers bills thereof delivered and 
among the memoranda of this year remaining. 

Ixiij" viij* ^yA^ 
Stun of allowances and liveries aforesaid Ixix" xj' iij"* 

And he owes xj' xiij' 

Whereof 
Lewis ap Bowen Archdeacon of the diocese of St. David's as holding of moneys by 
him received in the year preceding for procurations and synodals issuing out of all the 
churches to the late priory aforesaid belonging at xxxvij' per ann. which by right of 
inquisition therefore charged upon him as well for this year as for the year preceding 
as soon as it was decreed and determined by the Chancellor and Council of the Court 
of Augmentations of the Revenues of the Crown of the lord King Ixxiiij' 

John Phillips for rent of a tenement as above charged at vj' viij"* per ann to wit of his 
arrears this year behind vj^ viij"* 

The same John for rent of another tenement as above charged at vj' viij"" per ann. to 
wit of his arrears this year behind ij' iiij"* 

John Stephens for rent of a tenement as above charged in New Castle at viij^ per ann. 
to wit of arrears this year behind viij' 

Owen Tewe for rent of a tenement above charged at iiij* per ann to wit of his arrears 
behind this year iiij 

The Rector of the parish church of Hus Kard for rent of his pension as above charged 
at xxvj viij"! per ann. to wit of his arrears this year behind xxvj' viij<* 

Sir Thomas Jones, priest Rector of the church of Janeston as above charged at vj* viij^ 
per ann to wit of his arrears behind as well for this year as for the year preceding by 
the oath of the said Accountant xiij' iiij"* 

Exchequer Augmentation Office. 34-35 Hen. VIII, 215. 1142-3. 
County of Pembroke. 
The late Priory of Pylle in the county aforesaid. 

Compotus of John Wogan Collector of Rents of all and singular the hereditaments 
belonging to the said late priory by authority of Parliament suppressed and dissolved. 

Arrears. 

The same answers for 1" xiij xj"* of arrears of last account of the preceding year 
as at the foot of the same more plainly appears. 

Sum !' xiij' xj"* 

Farm of the site of the late priory aforesaid same value as in previous account 
eta and the same only less full till we come to the following 

Within the Site of the aforesaid late Priory this year as appears by bill of parcels 
thereof made and before the Auditor shown examined and approved and among the 
Memoranda of this year remaining and so in allowance as above. And he owes 
c" vij' v'' 



IS6 lUE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

John Phillips for rent of a tenement above charged at vj' viij^ per ann being in 
arrears for three years ending at the feast of St. Michael the Archangel the 32nd year 
of the reign of the King aforesaid whereof of Arrears xx^ John Stephen for the farm 
of a tenement above charged under the title of New Castle at viij* per ann being in 
arrears for the said time and not yet paid whereof of arrears xxiiij*' 

The Rector of Uskard rent of a pension issuing there at xxvf per ann being 
in arrears for the same time Jiij'* (xxvj* and viij"*) 

last time 

The Rector of Janyston for rent of a pension issuing there at vj^ viij"* per ann 
being in arrears for five vears finishing at the feast aforesaid in the 33rd year 

* _ last time 

iiij" (xiij* and iv<*) 

John Phillips farmer of the Rectory of Newmote is charged at c^ per ann being in 
arrears for the whole time of this account and not yet paid whereof of arrears C 

Edward lloyd farmer of the Rectory of New Castle and Roche is above charged 
at xv'' per ann. being in arrears as well for this year as for the preceding year and 
not paid mw" 

The Archdeacon of St. David's and Cardigan for monies by him received from 
the accountant aforesaid for procurations and synodals in the 32nd year of the King 
aforesaid issuing out of divers churches aforesaid at xxiij^ pen ann and disallowed by 
counsel of the Court aforesaid and not yet paid whereof of arrears xxiij' 

John Young clerk depute to the Bishop of St. David's for similar monies by him 
the same year received and by counsel of the court aforesaid disallowed as in preceding 
and not yet paid whereof of arrears xvij* ix** 

The heirs of Mallesant for monies by them of the aforesaid accountant received 
for rent resolute issuing out of the manor of Staynton at xl* per ann and by counsel 
aforesaid disallowed xl' 

John Griffith deputy farmer of the site of the late Priory aforesaid with others 
above charged at xl'' xij* ij"* per ann whereof arrears on behalf of the said rent this 
year and not yet paid xxxiij" xiij* \'f 

The said Accountant of his arrears of the last in the preceding year xviij" xV ix'' 

The Rector of Norlias for rent of pension yearly paid to the late priory aforesaid 
at xij"i per ann so of his arrears behind to wit as well for this year as the year 
preceding ij' 

The said accountant for his own arrears behind iiij" xvj' 

Total of above xj'' xiij' 

" Pill," as seen in Camden, as well as by the maps of the present day, 

"Otherwise called Pill Roose, was a house of monks of the St. Dogmaels order, 
standing in Roose country four miles above Arford West [Haverfordwest] upon the 
further shore of the Haven of Milford. It was founded about 1200 by Adam de 
Rupe for Monks of the Order of Tyron." 

It is in the parish of Stainton, about one and a-half miles north-east of Mil ford. 

' Increased from viijs. 



4^ 

THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 157 

There is an indenture between the King and Edward Lloyd yeoman of the 
Royal Household, 14th May, 29 Henry VHI, 1538, regarding the Rectory of 
Newcastle and Roche. 

After the dissolution, Pill Priory was granted to John Barlow with its 
possessions. Later, in 31 Charles H, there was a dispute in the Parish of 
Stainton, Jordan v. Field, relating to tithes and similar to the one we shall 
give under Fishguard, and in 8 James H another, Hook v. Meare, regarding 
tithes in Monckton, both formerly part of the old Priory of Pill. 

Fenton writes : 

The church of Little New Castle was, by the endowment of Adam de Rupe 
annexed to the priory of Pill, which latter also belonged to St. Dogmaels. About a 
mile from the village of Hubberston Mr. Le Hunt, an Irish gentleman, built a house 
on the site of the old chapel of St. Budoc, descending into the valley at the extremity 
of Hubt)erston Pill, one suddenly comes on the small remains of Pill Priory ; there is 
little more standing than the east side of part of the tower wall, yet enough to inform 
us that the building was cruciform, the tower in the centre forming the choir supported 
on arches, one of which remains entire, a little pointed, but very plain and rude, without 
the least trace of sculptured ornament anywhere. Yet this principal fragment, together 
with the lesser ones scattered round the cottages among the ruins, and the mill backed 
by the prettily wooded hill of Ledelmston, groups into no unpleasing landscape. This 
religious estal;)lishment owed its foundation to Adam de Rupe or de la Roche. . . . 
A few years ago, in digging a garden adjoining the ruins of the priory church, the 
workmen fell upon the spot that had been the burying place of the monastery, and 
uncovered several gravestones ; one of which I have seen broken in two, with an 
inscription round the rim in flowery characters in a gentleman's yard in the town of 
Milford; though much effaced, there was still enough left to prove it the gravestone 
of one of the early priors of the house. . . . With an endowment of the best land 
round the spot, a right of fishery not restricted, and various other privileges, in a 
retirement mad2 more desirable as it was visited twice a day by the sea bringing fre.sh 
air and health with its tide; if monks were capable of happiness, surely those of Pill 
might have felt themselves so. 

Fenton had in his possession a charter of William de la Grace, Earl of Pembroke, 
Earl Marshal of England, confirming the endowment of Pill Priory not mentioned by 
Dugdale, which was incorporated in Charter Roll 25 Ed. I already given. 

In Nicholas Carlisle and Tanner are the following extracts, which are not 
. altogether correct, as at the dissolution Pill was still a cell of St. Dogmaels and 
by the Cartulary of Tiron we know that in 15 16 St. Dogmaels belonged to 
Tiron, so that there must be an error in the statement of several of these later 
authors, who relate that the Priory of Pill forsook the order of Tiron and 
became common Benedictines. 



IS8 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Pille, in the Cwmwd of Ys Garn, Cantref of Rhos (now called the Hundred of 
Rhos), Co. of Pembroke. In the Parish of Stainton " Adam de Rupe founded a 
Priory here, about A.D. 1200, and placed Monks in it of the Order of Tyron, who in 
time forsook that strict Rule, and became common Benedictines. This House was 
dedicated to St. Mary and St. Budoc, and is said to have been subordinate to St. 
Dogmaels, but was found 26 Hen. VIII, to have distinct Revenues of its own to the 
value of jQ6j 15. 3. per annum in the whole, and j$i 2. 5. clear; and was granted, 
38 Hen. VIII, to Roger and Thomas Barlow." N. Carlisle. 

Also as already seen though Pill had her own Revenues, as was usual with 
cells, she still paid a certain sum yearly to the mother Abbey of St. Dogmaels 
to the end, which proves conclusively that she was subordinate to St. Dogmaels. 
Dugdale also falls into exactly the same two errors; and as St. Dogmaels 
remained under Tiron, one fails to see how Pill could have left that order. 

Even the learned Dom Gasquet, till lately Abbot President of the English 
Benedictines, falls into the error of mixing up the Saint and the Seigneur in his 
description of Pill, or Pylle, or Pulle, as he describes it in his " English 
Religious Houses." It is there noted as an alien priory, cell to 5/. Mar/in of 
Touts, instead of cell to St. Dogmaels and of the order of Tiron, reformed 
Benedictine. 





CHAPTER XIV. 



ERIN'S TRIBUTE. 




*N continuation of the benefactions of the Roches to the Church, 
notably by the foundation and endowment of Pill Priory, a 
cell of St. Dogmaels, is the foundation of another priory by 
them in Ireland for the monks of Tiron, and given by them 
also to St. Dogmaels Abbey. 

The Priory of Glascareg, in the diocese of Ferns, Co. Wexford, was founded 
by Griffin Condon and Cecilia Barry, his wife, also her father, Rinoc Barry, 
Roberic Borke, David Roche, Richard Carrin, and John Fitts, of Arcalon, these 
granted all their lands, viz., woods, meadows, pastures, with a mill in their 
special lands of Consinquilos and Trahir, with the long marsh, fisheries, and 
salvage of wrecks, it being near the sea, in the Barony of Ballaghkeen, six 
miles from Gorry, in honour of the Abbey of St. Dogmaels, in Pembrokeshire, 
of the order of St. Bernard of Tiron. One of the MSS. calls him St. Benedict 
of Tiron, but this is an error mixing up St. Bernard, founder of the Benedictine 
Order of Tiron, with St. Benedict, the founder of the Benedictines, a similar 
error to that between the Sieur Martin of the Towers and St. Martin of Tours, 
and almost the same number of centuries in each case between the two men. 
There is also another mistake in the Additional MS. 4,789, for in it the founders 
of Glascareg claim to have been founders of St. Dogmaels, instead of the 
Priory of Pill, a cell of St. Dogmaels. They specially ordain that the Priory of 
Glascareg is to be subject to the Abbey of St. Dogmaels, whose Abbot was 
always to present one of his monks to succeed on the death of each prior of 
Glascareg. Raymond, Lord Barri, gave the Church of St. Patrick, Dormaghyn, 
with the Chapel of St. Mary Magdalen, also the Church of St. Barburga of 
Leytmagh; Lord Griffin Condon and his wife gave the Church of Temple' 
Landecan, and the free chapel of Templeboyne ;' Lord Barry and Lord Robert 



' ? Co. Tipperary. 



i6o THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Burgh gave the Church of Inleyn, with the Chapel of Joram, otherwise called 
Lagen; the Church of St. Leatrina de Nayt, was given by Lord David Roch, 
also the Church of St. Patrick, by the marsh near Clonenan, in the lordship of 
the Lord David Roch; William and Raymond, sons of Lord Condon gave, in 
Ferramuige, in the diocese of Cloyne, Co. Cork, the Church of St. Mary, in 

Magnomia, in Clonendon the Church of Letrom, and the Church of ; 

Richard Carryn and his brothers gave the Church of Laceria Delturaon, with 
the Chapel of St. Brigid, the Church of St. Mary of Clongossy^ with the 
Chapel of St. Mary, the Church of St. Synell with the chapel of St. Peter, the 
Church of St. Leyre of Baston with the Chapel of St. Mary in the diocese of 
Leighlin, Co. Carlow. John Fynelte gave the Church of St. Brigitte of Tinagh 
in the diocese of Glendalough (Co. Wicklow) with all the tithes thereto 
belonging. This charter was confirmed by Thomas Den, who was Bishop of 
Ferns from 1363 to 1400, and again confirmed by Patrick Barrett, Bishop of 
Ferns (he died in 141 5), and by the then Bishop of Ferns, 1501, by Chas. 
McMurgh, Prior and the Convent of Glasgareg. 

On the Feast of St. Katherine, 5 Edward VL' Dermit, the Prior (then last), 
was seized of the following rectories of Lorome (in that town and 
Killmalapoke), Kilreny Kilerat, and Cormore, also of Templebodigane, 
Kiltenen, and Clonygosse ( ? Co. Carlow), and of Ballane, Castelgrace, 
Balledyne, and Keppoghe. 

One has only to compare the list given in the first grant with this list of 
Edward VI to see how many of their old possessions had passed away from 
the convent, and that they had acquired many new possessions in their place. 

There is also a seventeenth century transcript of the original charter, and 
its confirmation in 1501 by the then Bishop of Ferns to the venerable and 
religious man Charles McMugh, Prior of Glascareg, from the Harleian MSS. ; 
unfortunately it is in some places illegible. Charles McMurgh was Prior 
35 Hen, VIII. 

Add. MS. 4789, f. 71 (205). 

Know ye present and to come that we Griffin Condon and Cecily Barry and 
Rinoc Barry father of Cecily my wife Rohric Borke and David Roch Richard Karrin 
John Fitts of Arcalon lords, led by our free will and piety have granted given 
delivered and mortmained all our lands woods meadows pastures with a mill in 
those our special lands of Consinquilos and Traher with their appurts and the long 
marsh and right of fishing and goods cast on the shores by fortune of the sea as it 
appears that we have there to found a monastery in honour of the blessed virgin Mary in 
the place which is called Glascarge for our souls and for our ancestors and for the 



Illegible. ' ? Clongall, Co. Carlow. ' After the dissolution in England. 



^ 




^ 



^ 

^ 






**^ 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. i6i 



souls of our wives and children and in honour of the monastery of blessed Mary of 
St. Dogmael in Pembroke in Wales of the order of St. Benedict of Tiron of which 
monastery our predecessors were founders giving these from the well by the chapel of 
St. Patrick and by the marsh " rectar " as far as garve and right over to Clonenan and 
by Clonenan direct towards the great wood being part of the township of Pemery 
and so to the sea by a circuit with all the liberties without any secular service which 
now we have given for ever and liberally have bestowed in aid of charity and for our 
souls and our predecessors to build the aforesaid monastery or cell of the blessed Mary of 
Glascarig in the diocese of Ferns. 

Glascarrig. 

Archdale's " Monasticon Hibernicon." 

In the barony of Ballaghkeen on the seaside and six miles south-east of Gorey 
Griffin Condon and Ceclia Barry his wife and Roberic Borke her father' together with 
David Roche, Richard Carrin and John Fytte of Arcolon granted all their lands in 
Consenquilos and Trahir with the long marsh fishery and salvage of wrecks for the 
purpose of founding this priory for Benedictine monks in honour of the monastery of 
the blessed Virgin Mary of St. Dogmael in Pembrokeshire Wales of which their pre- 
decessors were founders, this house to be subject to that of St. Dogmaels whose abbot 
was alwavs to present one of his monks to succeed on the death of the prior of 
Glascarrig. We find the following churches and chapels granted to this priory ; by 
Raymond lord Barry the church of St. Patrick of Dormaghyn, with the chapel of St. 
Mary Magdalen and the Church of St. Barburga of Leytmagh ; by Griffin Cordon and 
his wife the church of Temple Laudecan and the free chapel of Templeloyne ; by the 
Lord Barry and the Lord Robert Burgh the church of St. Inleyn with the chapel of 
Joram otherwise called Lagen, the church of St. Leatrina de Nayt, and the church of 
St. Patrick in the lordship of the Lord David Roch ; by William and Raymond sons 
of the said Lord Condon in Ferramuige and in the diocese of Cloyne, in Magnomia the 
church of the Virgin Mary, in Clonendon the church of Letrom, and the church of . . . 
by Richard Carryn and his brothers the church of Laceria Delturaon with the chapel of 
St. Brigid, the church of St. Mary of Clongossy with the chapel of St. Mary, the 
church of St. Synell with the chapel of St. Peter, the church of St. Leyre of Baston 
with the chapel of the blessed virgin in the diocese of Leighlin ; and by John Fynette 
the church of St. Brigitte of Tinagh in the diocese of Glendalogh with all the tithes 
thereunto belonging. This charter received the approbation of Thos Den who 
succeeded to the Bishopric of Ferns in the year 1363 he died in 1400. 
[Here is given briefly the survey of 32 Hen. VIIL] 

N.B. A very imperfect transcript of the charter to Glascarig a short preamble 
says it was exhibited for confirmation in 1501 to the Bp of Ferns at his visitation by 
Charles McMurgh^ and his convent. 

On the deed are some not very legible notes. 

Largit' intuitu cavitat A ab incarnatione din 1 172.' 

' Rinoc Barry, see add. MS. 4789. 

^ A faulty 17th century transcript, in some places illegible; the original was no doubt destroyed. 
' If Glascar^ was founded in 1172, then Pill Priory was founded earlier still, as it was founded 
by Adam de Roche some years before David de Roche went to Ireland. 



t6a THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Confirmed by the Lord Thomas Dem by the grace of God Bishop of Ferns (1363). 
Patrick Barrett Bishop of Ferns confirms this charter. 

This Patrick died A.D. 141 5, and was buried at Kemlas, where he was formerly 
a canon. 

Harl. 4789, fol. 205.' 

In the name of God Amen by this present public instrument let it evidently appear 
to all that in the year from the incarnation of our Lord according to the course and 
computation of the church of England and Ireland 1501 in the first Indiction of the 
Pontificate of our most hold father in Christ and Lord Julius by divine providence 
pope the 2nd in the monastery of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Glascarge of the order 
of Tiron in the diocese of Ferns to the Reverend Bishop of Ferns in the course of 
his visitation in the aforesaid monastery the venerable and religious man Charles 
McMurgh by the sufferance of God prior of the aforesaid monastery with his convent 
exhibited a certain charter concerning the land possessions names of benefices and 
confirmations of liberties before made to the monastery under the rule of ancient 
ordinaries almost consumed by age and by moths bearing date the month of January 
and the * day in the presence of me the notary public personally appointed and 

witnesses underwritten for this purpose specially summoned and called by the organ 
of voice of the said prior and convent have caused to be read ' 

and that it would quickly pass from the memory of transitory men which to us and 
our successors would ' damage since things conveyed by the ear more slowly 

impress minds than those submitted to the eye have requested for the faithful that 
in this matter of my merit they should be pleased the aforesaid charter or ancient 
deed should be reduced into public form which in the presence of them and of the 
said bishop and * in the order which follows I have thought fit to be 

described. 

Know ye present and to come that we Griffin Condon and Cecilia Barry and 
Rinoc Barry father of my wife Cecilia Roboric Borke and David Roch Richard Karrin 
John Fytte of Arcalon lords all of their free will and free piety have given granted 
bestowed delivered and mortmained all our lands meadow fields pastures with the mill 
in those special places of Consinquilos and Trahor with their appurtenances and the 
long marsh and the right of fishery and things cast on the land by good fortune of 
the sea as to us it plainly appears to have been for the founding a monastery in honour 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the place which is called Glascarge for our souls and 
of our fathers and for the souls of our wives and children and out of honour of the 
monastery of Blessed Mary of St. Dogmael in Wales in Pembrokeshire of the order of 
St. Benedict of Tiron of which monastery our predecessors were founders giving these 
lands from the well by St. Patrick's chapel and by the marsh . . as far as Garve 
and right on to Clonevan and by Clonevan direct to the great meadow being part of 
the township of Pomery and so to the sea by a circuit with all liberties or any secular 
service which we have given for ever and have freely bestowed in aid of 

charity for our souls and our predecessors towards the fabric of the aforesaid monastery 
or cell of Blessed Mary of Glasarg in the diocese of fumes for the reverence profit and 

' Illegible. 



^ 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 163 



honour to endure to future times of the lord almighty and the blessed virgin Mary of 
Glasarg and the priors of St. Dogmael in Wales and the sustenance of the convent 
1 the rights of jurisdiction churches chapels in 

which we have perpetual proprietary [rights] by the foundation and special [ordinances] 
of the Roman pontiffs bishops and archbishops with all their rights and appurts so 
that the house or cell of Glasarg shall always by monks of St. Dogmaels [be served] 
that it be not defrauded of due observances and divine suffrages and the memory of the 
founders in be forgotten or [their names] removed from the martyrology 

and lest a rapacious wolf should invade the learned flock after the death of the prior 

* the lord Abbot shall present another monk of his convent to govern the 
priory or cell of blessed Mary and these churches with the chapels of the gift of 
Raymond lord Barry of St. Patrick of Dormahyn with the chap>el of St. Mary 
Magdalene the church of St. Barbarge de Leyttriach with rights and appurts of the 
pious donation of Lord Griffin Condon and hi* wife Cecilia Condon the church 
of Temple Landecan with his free church of Tempelboyne and of the gift of Lord Barri 
and Lord Robert Borg the church of blessed Bridget of . . . with the chapel of 
Lanven the church of St. Merleyn decul and fosse with the chap>el of St. Joram 
aforewritten which is otherwise called Lacryne the church of St. Leatrine of Naigt 

with their rights and appurts the church of blessed Patrick 
of the lordship of Lord David Roche of the gift of the lord of Roche with its appurts. 
These are contained in the diocese of Ferns of the gift of William and Raymond^ sons 
of aforesaid Condon in ferranige (?) in the diocese of Cloyne in Magnonia the church 
of Blessed Mary of Clovendan the church of Letrom the church of * 

with its rights and appurts of the gift of Richard Carry n and his brothers the church 
of Lascria deleuraon with the chapel of St. Bridget of * the church 

of Blessed Mary of Clongossy with the chapel of [St. Mary the] virgin the church of 
St. Synell with the chapel of St. Peter the church of St. Ley re of iboscun with the 
chapel of Blessed Mary with its rights and appurts in the diocese of Leiglen the church 
of St. Bridget of Tinagh of the gift of Lord John ffyutte in the diocese of Glendalogh 
with all rights tithes oblations fruits forthcoming of the premises . . . freely 
given and sealed etc. Archdale adds " This Charter received the approbation of 
Thos Den, who succeeded to the bishopric of Ferns in 1363 and died in 1400." 
" Chas McMortho was prior 35 Hen. VIII." 

* [abstract of inquisition given] 

"On the feast of St. Katherine 5 Edw. VI, it was found that Dermit, the last 
prior, was seized of the following rectories in this county, appropriated to him and his 
successors ; Lorome, which extendeth into the towns of Lorome, Kilmalapoke, Kilreny, 
Kilerat and Cormore; Templebodegane Kiltenen and Clonygosse which extend into 
Kiltenen Clonygosse Balledonagh, Killenerlde Bollyncollen and Killemonde; and the 
rectories of Ballane and Templemallyne which extend into Templemallyne, Ballane 
Castlegrace Balledyne and Keppoghe." 

' Illegible. ' ? Raymond, Lord of Barry. 



l64 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

In the Papal Letters, Vol. V, 1 397, 1 2 Kal December, from St. Peter's at Rome, 
there is a mandate concerning Ymar Odinyd (or Odoymd or O'Dowd) a 
Benedictine monk in priest's orders, of a Scotch monastery in Vienna, of the 
Cistercian Abbey de Benedictione Dei (PBective) in the Diocese of Meath. 
This Ymar Odwynd appears later appointed Abbot of Benedictione Dei 
(? Bective), though he seems never to have been accepted as Abbot, whether 
through his never going there, or through the convent for some reason objecting 
to receive him, for it is curious that the Pope, after appointing him to be 
Abbot, then gives him the Priory of Glascareg instead of the Abbey, though 
Glascareg was not even a free priory, but was subordinate to St. Dogmaels, so 
that it looks as if there were something objectionable in this Ymar Odwynd. 
Whether he was received or not at Glascareg is not known; by the foundation 
charter the appointment of Prior rested with the Abbot of St. Dogmaels, and 
not with the Pope; ten years later than Odwynd's appointment the Prior, Henry 
of Wales, had just died. After Henry's death the Pope again intervened and 
appointed Andrew Occuryn, a priest's bastard, to Glascareg; but there are no 
further MS. apparently to prove whether this appointment was confirmed by the 
Abbot of St. Dogmaels or not. 

In the Papal Letters 1401, February 15th, from St. Peter's, Rome, in the 12th 
year of Pope Boniface IX, is found a mandate to the Bishops of Tivy and Clonfert 
and Eugene O'Maershayn, Canon of Killaloe, to collate and assign to the above 
Ymar[us] Odwynd Cistercian abbot de Benedictione Dei, in the diocese of Meath, the 
Benedictine Priory not exceeding 40 marks, conventual, with cure and elective, of 
Glascareg in the diocese of Ferns upon his obtaining possession, they are to transfer 
him from Benedictione Dei, of which he is Abbot, under a provision which the pope 
recently ordered to be made to him, but of which he has not got possession, and which 
he is, as he has offered, to resign upon obtaining Glascareg. 

In Vol. VI of the Papal Letters, ten years later (141 1), from Bologna we 
find a mandate from the Pope to the Abbot, as he is called, of St. Mary's Ferns 
dependent upon the Monastery of St. Dogmael, and to the Archdeacon of 
Leighlyn, relating to the Priory of Glascareg being void by the death of 
Henry of Wales, so that Ymar Odwynd could not have been Prior long, or 
Henry either, and referring to the appointment of Andrew Occuryn, a bastard. 

Papal Letters. Vol. VI, p. 235. i John, xxiij. 
141 1 3 Kal Feb Bologna. 

To the Bishop of Civitaten (sic) the Abbot of St. Mary Ferns and the Archdeacon 
of Leighlin Mandate to collate and assign to Andrew Occurryn, priest monk of St. 
Stephen's Bologna of the order of St. Benedict who lately, then a secular clerk, 
received Papal dispensation as the son of a priest and an unmarried woman to be 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 165 

promoted to all even holy orders, and hold a benefice even with cure under the priory 
of St. Mary Glascarraig of the said order [of St. Benedict] in the diocese of Ferns 
which has cure and is not conventual is dependant on the monastery of St. Dogmael 
[of the order of] Tiron (Tyronen) of the same order [of St. Benedict] in the diocese 
of St. David's and is wont to be governed by monks thereof, and whose value does not 
exceed 40 marks void by the death of Henry of Wales (de Wallia) Andrew hath hereby 
the necessary dispensation Religionis zelus vite etc. 

In the State Papers of Ireland some idea is gained both of the acreage and 
value of the possessions of this Priory after the dissolution, 27th January, 1541, 
wherein the old Priory Church was then used as a parish church, and that within 
the precincts of the late Priory were three small thatched buildings of no 
value, but might be useful to the farmer there. 

In the township of Kylynghill they had possessed 120 acres of land worth 
six shillings, and twenty-four flagons of beer worth four shillings, but laid 
waste by war this year and of no value. 

In the township of Kylinagte sixty acres of land lately worth half an ox 
or three shillings here may be noticed the value of an ox in those days; this 
also was laid waste. 

In the township of Ballenemonery sixty acres of the same value, also laid 
waste. 

In the township of Smytheston and Templederry the same amount of land 
in each of the same value, also laid waste. 

The Rectory of Ardemayne, lately worth 20s., but now waste. 

The Rectory of Killemagh' was worth 6s., laid waste. 

The Rectory of Lorome' was worth 13s. 4d., advowson now belonging to 
the King. 

The Rectory of Kylmoch Irysshe was worth 26s. 4d., now worth only 
13s. 4d. 

The Rectory of Kylpatrick' was worth 26s. 4d., now Worth only 4s. 

Two Rectories in Munster* not named worth 13s. 4d., now waste. 

The total worth now, except the land laid waste, xxx* viij*' 

State Papers Ireland. Fol. Vol. III. 
Extent of Glascarrig. 
. The possessions to the late Priory of Glascarrig belonging. 
County of Wexford. Extent of all and singular the lands and possessions to the 
late priory of Glascarrig in the county aforesaid belonging being in the hands of the 



' ? Killenaule, Co. WeNford. ' ? Laurencetown, Co. Tipperary. 

' Between Bandon and Inishannon, Co. Cork. ' Munster. 



t66 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

lord King by the dissolution of the said late Priory made at Arcclo 27th Jan. the 32nd 
year of the reign of the lord King that now is before the aforesaid John Mynne one 
of the Commissioners of the lord King and assisting him William Brabazon and Patrick 
Dowdale then and there present by the oath of Thomas fitz Henry Walter Devereux 
and other good and lawful men of the county aforesaid Who say upon their oath 
that the church of the said late priory is the parish church for the parishioners there 
to hear the divine offices. And there are within the precinct of the said late priory 
three small buildings covered with thatch which are necessary and convenient for the 
farmer there and of no value per annum beyond the reparations. 

Township of Kylynghell. 
And there are there 120 acres of land which late were worth one mark value 6s. and 
24 flagons of beer value 4s. in all los. now being waste by reason of the Rebellion 
and the wars by the Irish and the Kavaners and of no value per year. 

Township of Kylmayte. 
And there are there 60 acres of land which late were worth per ann half an ox 
value 3s. now being waste for the reason as above. 

Township of Ballenemonery. 
And there are there 60 acres of land which late were worth half an ox value 3s. 
now being waste for the reason as above. 

Township of Smytheston. 
And there are there 60 acres of land late worth half an ox value 3s. now waste 
for reason as above. 

Township of Templederry. 

And there a.re there 60 acres of land late yearly valued when they were let at 3s. 
now waste for reason as above. 

The Rectory of Ardemayne. 
And that the Rectory there to the said late Priory belonging and late worth 20s. 
now waste and worth nothing jjer annum. 

The Rectory of Kyllenagh. 
And that the Rectory there was late worth when the lands were sown 6s. 8d. now 
waste and of no value per ann. 

Rectory of Lorome. 
And the Rectory of Lorome is worth in 2 parts of the tithes there beyond the third 
belonging to the vicarage 13s. 4d. And the gift and advowson of the vicarage there 
belongs to the lord King by reason of the dissolution of the said late priory. 

The Rectory of Kylmock Irysshe. 
And that the Rectory aforesaid is worth when the lands there are sown 26s. 8d. 
but now worth only 13s. 4d. 







THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 167 



The Rectory of Kylpatryk. 
And that the Rectory aforesaid when the lands there are sown are worth 26s. 8d. 
but now only 4s. 

Mounster. 
And there are there two Rectories of the names of which the Jurors aforesaid are 
altogether ignorant which are worth when the lands are sown 13s. 4d. but now they 
are waste and worth nothing per ann. 

Sum of the whole extent of all the possession besides those in waste xxx* viij<^ 

This laying waste of the lands of Glascareg by war had evidently occurred 
some years before the dissolution as is seen by the valuation of St. Dogmaels 
Abbey, wherein the late Abbot states that nothing had been received from the 
Priory of Glascareg for some years past, instead of the annual payment 
formerly sent of ^ 6s. 8d. 

In the " Monasticon Hibernicon" we find, under "Benedictines." on p. 152, 
in the Co. of Wexford 

Glasscarick Abbey* [? Priory]. 

" At Glasscarrick, a small town on the Coast, was an Abbey founded by 
some English in the twelfth century, cell to St. Dogmaels, order of Tiron." 

Glascareg evidently was not really dissolved till the reign of Edward VI, 
for Dermit was the last Prior, 5 Ed. VI, 1552. 



All the Priors yet discovered are as follows : 

Ymar Odwynd (appointed by the Pope) 

Henry of Wales (died) 

Andrew Occuryn (appointed February) 

Charles McMurgh 

Dermit (the last) 



139; 
1410 
1411 
1501-1544 
1551 



The Priory continuing to this date is the more extraordinary owing to it 
being dissolved by the King according to the State Papers of Ireland at 
Arcelo, the 27th January, 1541. 



' A clerical mistake for Priory. 




CHAPTER XV. 




GEVA'S GIFT. 

lALDEY, as already shown by the grant of Robert Fitzmartin, 
was given by Robert to his mother, Geva, who in her turn 
granted it to the Abbey of St. Dogmaels. 

It had been, like St. Dogmaels, an old British Religious 
House, at one time under the rule of the still well-known Dubricius (Dyfrig), 
who was afterwards Bishop of Llandaff, and who at an extremely advanced 
age retired to Bardsey Island, where he died at the reputed age of 130. 

In the Island is a well-known Ogham Stone, with the inscription, MAGL . . 
DUBR . . INB, the rest broken, which reads so far,* as Maglia Dubracuna, i.e., of 
the slave of Doborchon. Mr. Law, however, gives it in his " Little England 
beyond Wales " as " Magolite Bar Cene," and mentions that there is also an 
imperfect Ogham inscription on the other side of the stone. This same tomb- 
stone has been used again for a later inscription in Latin, to one " Catuocomus " 
or Cathen, who lived in the latter half of the seventh century; he was name- 
giver to Llangathen, and to the hundred of Catheiniog, and may have been 
one of the early Priors or Heads of the Religious House of Caldey. 

It is a fine old stone of red sandstone, 5 ft. 10% in. long, by i ft. 2^ in. 
wide at its narrowest point, and four inches thick; above the inscription to 
Catuocomus is an inscribed Latin cross. 

The British name for Caldey was Ynys Pyr (the Island of Pyrus), Pyrus 
being the name of an ancient and almost mythical King of Britain ; his name is 
retained also in Manorbier (Manor Byr = Pyr or Pyrus) the House of Pyrus. 

The name Caldey is derived from the Norse, kald = cold, and eye = island. 
It was specially celebrated for its barley. 

The island was purchased by Mr. John^ Bradshaw after the dissolution. 

' The rest of the Ogham character is too broken to decipher. 

' George Owen calls him " Koger" Bradshaw, and father to John Bradshaw, sen. ? but according 
to the Grant it was bought by John Bradshaw at the same time as St. Uogmacls Abbey. 



> 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 



169 



From the date of its being granted to St. Dogmaels Abbey by Geva, the 
wife of Martin, we know little of its history; its seal is no longer to be found, 
neither is there at Westminster any Act of Supremacy signed by the Prior and 
monks of Caldey. It may be that it was such an out of the way Priory that 
it was never dissolved separately from St. Dogmael. It is averred by a Roman 
Catholic now living that the monastery continued to exist early in 1700, and 




^^-% 



CALDEY CHURCH. 



that it was the last place in Great Britain where mass was celebrated, excepting 
in private chapels. In the Valor Ecclesiasticus, 1535, its yearly value is given 
as 5 los. iid. ; tithes, lis. i^^d. At the present time the island is owned by 
the Rev. D. Bushell, D.D., lately a master at Harrow School, who has esta- 
blished a so-called Anglican Benedictine Monastery there. He has written a 
booklet containing the ancient British history of Caldey Priory, when 



17 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Dubricious was Prior, before he was translated to Llandaff, as well as other 
interesting points in its history. 

George Owen describes Caldey in his " History of Pembrokeshire," p. no, as 
" an Hand, as I shold judge, a mile long, and halfe as broade, yt standeth ij miles 
from the mayne, seated opposite the town of Tenby. . . . There was in yt in times 
past a Priorie ... a parish church and a chappell . . . yt did belonge to 
the Abbey of St. Dogmells, and was purchased by Mr. Roger Bradshawe, at the 
dissolution, father to the last Mr. John Bradshawe and grandfather to Mr. John 
Bradshawe, that nowe ys, who about foure yeares past sould the same to Mr. Water 
Philpin of Tenby, whose inheritance now yt is, the Hand is verie fertile and yeldeth 
plentie of corne, all their plowes goe wth horses, for oxen the inhabitantes dare not 
keepe, fearing the purveyors of the pirates, as they themselves told me, who often 
make their provisions there by their owne commission, and most commonlie to the good 
contentement of the inhabitantes when conscionable theeses arrive there, the Hand is 
of viij' or x* housholdes, and some parte of the demesnes annexed to the ruines of 
the Priorie, the Lord keepeth in his handes, yt is nowe growne a question in what 
hundred of Pembrokeshire this Hand shold be, whether in Kemes as pvarcell of 
St. Dogmells, to which it appertayned, or parte of the next hundred of the maine, and, 
untill this double be decided, the inhabitantes are content to rest exempt from anie 
payenKntes or taxacions wth anie hundred." 

Camden, in his "Britannia" (Gough edit., 1789), p. 696, under " Islands to the 
West of Britain," states that " The next Island is Caldey, in British Inispir, very 
near the shore." 

And in Vol. II, p. 517, " Against Manober, or between it and Tinby, lieth Inispir, 
I.E. Insula Pirrhi, alias Caldey. There was in Caldey or Pyr island, a cell of monks 
of St. Dogmail." 

Rees in "Beauties of England and Wales," Vol. XVIII, also gives a similar 
account of Caldey, to that which one has had already, and also of St. Dogmael's, 
p. 867, and of Pill Priory, p. 815. Also Donovan, in his " Excursions through South 
Wales," in 1804, Vol. II, p. 379, gives an account of an excursion to Caldey as follows : 
" Proceeding up the Island, we could not avoid observing it to be thinly inhabited, 
and so far as we went, at least, in a meagre state of cultivation. Formerly it was 
represented as being very fertile, and yielding corn in plenty, but so infested by pirates 
that they dared not plough with oxen lest the marauders should carry them off with 
other booty in their occasional visits. There are scarcely more than half-a-dozen houses 
on the island, a tract of land extending ... a mile in length and half a mile in 
breath . . . Wild rabbits are everywhere abundant on this spot beyond conception 
. . . . so numerous were they that the sale of their skins realized more than 
sufficient to pay half the yearly rental of the island." Woodward speaks of " a sort of 
black marble found in Caldy island. Upon the shore I (Rees) picked up many 
fragments of coarse granite, calcareous spars, fossil madrepores, etc. A course granite 
of a reddish colour prevails through many parts of the island." 

On p. 251 of Fenton one finds "Every insulated rock off the coast (of Tenby) 
had its cell and its anchorate ; and Caldey a much larger establishment, a priory 



;^ 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 171 



L 



subordinate to the Abbey of St. Dogmaels. ... In company with my friend Sir 
Richard Hoare, I took boat from the pier of Tenby to visit Caldey ; the day was 
pleasant, and the voyage not too long to excite any dread of that most horrid of all 
disorders sea sickness ; for by the help of a gentle favourable breeze, enough to fill 
our sails, we were soon wafted across, and landed in a little bay just under the principal 
mansion, which by a gentle ascent from the water, we soon reach. It consists of a 
handsome modern building joined to a curious aggregate of miscellaneous masonry, 
the greater part being evidently of the age of the first monastic pile, enlarged by 
additions of a later date, though very old, and some of a castellated form. The 
ancient tower of the priory church crowned with a stone spire, still remains entire, and 
all the lower apartments of the old house and its offices are vaulted, and seemingly coeval 
with it. In the room, which, from its position, must have been the chancel of the 
priory church, the tracery of the great east window, though now stopped up, may be 
followed, and the present kitchen, which in all probability had been their refectory, 
has a very curious arched roof with many intricate odd-shaped doors opening from it, 
which might have led to the dormitory. In the ruins of the priory was dug up many 
years ago a gravestone, now lying in Mr. Kynaston's garden, with an inscription in very 
rude characters and much effaced, but I plainly read ' orent pro anim caduocani ' 
(pray for the soul of Cadwgan'). Sufficient to ascertain that it was inscribed to 
commemorate one of the early priors of the name of Cadwgan, this stone, after its 
removal from its first position, had served the office of lintel to a window, and in this 
capacity it was last found." 

" The prbry was founded, as we presume, by Robert, the son of Martin of the 
Towers, soon after the date of the charter of endowment to his Abbey of St. Dogmaels, 
to which it was annexed. In that charter Robert recognizes the grant of the Island of 
Caldey by his mother to the monastery of St. Dogmaels, and confirms it, and it is 
supposed that the priory was founded here soon after. To the right of the road going 
down to the beach there is an old chapel, in which, till lately, there stood an old 
baptismal font. At the dissolution it (Caldey) was held to be of the value of five 
Pounds ten shillings and eleven pence. The island is about a mile in length, and half 
as broad ; it consists of six hundred and eleven acres, two hundred of which are 
enclosed and in good cultivation ; the west end of the island is all limestone, and the 
opposite a red drab. ... In William of Worcester's time it had thirty houses on 
it, and in the time of George Owen eight or ten. William of Worcester, writing of it 
says, the island of Caldey is situated next to Shepey Island . . . and has about 
thirty inhabited houses and one with a chapel to St. Mary above the seashore, and the 
church of the priory of Caldey." 

" To the south-west lies the Island of little Caldey, which is usually rented by 
Lord Milford to the occupier of Caldey." (Fenton.) 

" At the dissolution, the Island, together with the Abbey of St. Dogmells and its 
appurtenances, was purchased by George^ Bradshaw." {ibid.) 

In the October number of the " Archaeologia Cambrensis " for 1855, and in the 
October number i88o, are both plates and description of the Caldey Island Ogham 
Stone, which in 1855 was built into a window-sill of the Priory there, which was a 

' Cathen. 'John. 



17a THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

cell to St. Dogmael's. The name of the person recorded on the stone is " Catuoconus." 
possibly the Latinized form of " Cathen," the founder of Llangathen, Carmarthen- 
shire, and from whom the hundred of Catheiniog, in the same county, is supposed to 
derive its name; this account is given by "J. O. Westwood, of Hammersmith"; in 
October, 1880, Prof. Rhys had more recently examined the stone and had " found 
traces of Oghams all round the upper part of the stone." In his " Lectures on Welsh 
Philology," he, however, gives the reading of the Ogham as Magolite Bar-Cene. The 
stone was thus evidently used twice, as Mr. Westwood gives the probable date of the 
Latin inscription as between the seventh and ninth centuries, the Ogham inscription 
being several hundred years older. Mr. Romilly Allen also gives this stone in his 
" Catalogue of the Early Christian Monuments in Pembrokeshire." In April, 1896, 
Professor Rhys writes as follows: " I had failed to read the Ogam inscription; but 
the late Dr. Haigh, who saw the stone after it had been taken out of the wall, sug- 
gested the reading Mogolite Barcene. I agree with him as to most of the consonants, 
but he seems to have erred in not observing that the whole of the top of the stone is 
gone. . . . My reading is : " Magi Dubr Inb," the rest is not legible. The 
vocable beginning with Dubr is probably to be completed as Dubracunas or Dubracuna, 
that is Duborchon ; the whole name would be Maglia-Dubracuna ; that is "of the slave 
of Doborchu." 

Tanner writes under Caldey : 

The Abby of St. Dogmael had this fmall* island by the gift of Robert FitzMartin's 
mother'', and before the diffolution had a cell here of the yearly value of 5' 10' 11'*'= 

Dugdale's " Monasticon." 
Caldey. 

This is indexed to iv. 132 mentioned under St. Dogmaels Abbey at p. 129. Caldey 
in Pembrokeshire, situated in the island of its name was a Cell to St. Dogmael. So 
Leland, ibid, V, 14, " Ther was a celle of the order of monks of St. Dogmaels in Caldey 
Island now suppressed." 

As will have been seen in previous chapters, Caldey being ih the Arch- 
deaconry of Cardigan, for all visitations, etc., its prior attended in the chapter 
house of St. Dogmaels Abbey and signed his name after the Abbot of St. 
Dogmaels, therefore in the signature to the Act of the Acknowledgment of the 
King's supremacy Dom Hugh Eynon may have been Prior of Caldey. 

Corbett, in his " Abbeys and Priories, etc., confiscated at the Reformation," 
gives Caldey as a Tyrone [Tiron] cell, the gift of Robert Fitzmartin's mother; 
rents, $, now worth ;^ioo. 



a. l-'or thuiiijli lliey had the whole island, the Lincoln taxation saith the Abbex o( St. Dogmaels 
had a cell at Caldey (in the Archdeaconry of Cardigan) and one carucate of land of the yearly 
value of xls. 

h. My mother gave to these same monks to hold the island of Pyr otherwise named Caldey 
R. Fitzmartin's Charter, Men. Angl. Vol. I, p. 445. 



i*^ 




CHAPTER XVI. 




QUEEN ELIZABETH. 

HE extract, frcm Bundle 225 of the Augmentation Office leases, 
is interesting as giving full particulars of the estates of the late 
monastery rented to Mr. John Bradshaw, and afterwards to his 
son, with certain portions reserved to the Crown. 
The portions rented to Mr. John Bradshaw are as follows: 

I St. Thomas' St. Dogmaels 
I Eglwyswrw 
\ Bayvil 
The Rectories and Churches of . Moylgrove 

I Llantood 

St. Nicholas Fishguard 

Grangistown 

Penkelly Vychan 

Nantgwyn 

Lylsvrayne' 

Newton 



And all the Chapels of 



With all appurtenances, rights, etc , also all houses, lands, tenements, mills, 
meadows, fields, pastures, moors, marshes, rivers, fishings, etc. With the 
exception of the Lordships and Manors, etc., of Rattre (Devon). 

The Rectories of Maenclochog, Llandilo, Llancolman, the Chapel of 
Mynachlogddu, and all lands, etc., in Mynachlogddu, Haverford, and 
Pembroke, all great trees, woods, underwoods, marriages, reliefs, escheats, mines, 
quarries, advowscns of churches, chapels, etc. 

This property is leased to Mr. John Bradshaw, Jun, at ;^66 us. 8d. per 
annum, payable at Lady Day and Michaelmas. 

' Lljrspnuit. 



174 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

The Queen exonerating Mr. Bradshaw from the payment of \, the stipend 
of the Chaplain of St. Thomas Church, St. Dogmaels, etc., and of all repairs 
to the chancels, etc. This latter item as to the exonerating of John Bradshaw 
from the repairs of the chancels, is singular, as he owned the Rectorial Fees. 
However, this special clause may have been inserted, owing to all the chancels 
being in a more or less state of great disrepair. It hardly seems likely that this 
would have come to pass so rapidly unaided, yet St. Dogmaels Abbey is 
described as a ruin by George Owen, and he was born only five years after the 
death of Henry VIII. 

There is no mention of Caldey in this document, though in the post mortem 
inquisition on John Bradshaw, Senr., who died only two months later, he was 
seized for Great Caldey. This renting of the Abbey and its possessions to 
John Bradshaw, the younger, before the death of his father, would show that 
the father had left St. Dogmaels, and was living elsewhere, most likely at 
Presteign, and had handed St. Dogmaels over to his eldest son to live in ; but 
still retaining the ownership of it. 

In the post mortem inquisition, John Bradshaw had two tenements in 
Nevern and one in Moylgrove, as well as Caldey and St. Dogmaels. 

The writ for this inquisition was given Nov. 1 4th, 1 567, within three days 
of the completion of the gth year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Therefore 
the inquisition, taken at Haverford, followed early in the tenth year of her 
reign; the day and month are, however, illegible. 

Augmentation Office Leases. 

Bdle. 225, No. 69. 9 Queen Elizabeth, 23 July, 1567. 
County of Pembroke. 

Parcel of the possessions of the late Monastery of St. Dogniaels in the county 
aforesaid. 

Farm of the whole mill in Fishguard and of all the Rectories and Churches of 
St. Thomas within the township of St. Dogmaels Eglwyswrw, Bayvill, Moylgrove, 
Llantood, and St. Nicholas Fishguard and Grangiston and of all the chapels of 
Penkelly* Vychan Nantgwyn Llysvrayne' and Newton with all their rights and memliers 
and appurtenances in the said County of Pembroke or elsewhere within the Bishopric 
of St. David's to the said late Monastery of St. Dogmaels belonging together with all 
tithes profits obventions commodities and emoluments whatsoever to the said Rectories 
and chapels or to any of them belonging or appertaining. Also of all messuages lands 
tenements mills meadows fields pastures commons moors marshes Rivers fishings and 
fisheries Reversions pensions portions tithes oblations obventions fruits profits and 
commodities and other possessions and hereditaments whatsoever in the townships fields 

' Pengelly. ' Llysprant. 







THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 175 



parishes and hamlets of St. Dogmaels, Grangiston, Eglwyswrw, Bayvill Moylgrove 
Llantood St. Nicholas Fishguard Pengelly Vychan Nantgwyn Llysvrayne and Newton 
aforesaid in the said county of Pembroke or within the Bishopric of St. David's with 
all their rights and appurts to the aforesaid late Monastery of St. Dogmaels sometime 
belonging. All which and other the premises were late demised to one John Bradshaw 
senior of Preston in the county of Radnor and so now demised to John Bradshaw junr 
by letters patent of the lady Elizabeth now Queen given at the town of St. Albans the 
23rd July the 9th year of Her Majesty's reign. Except and altogether reserved the 
lordship and manor of Rattre and the rectory of ^laenclochog Llandilo and Llancolman 
and the chapel of Mynachlog ddu. And all the lands and tenements in Mynachlog ddu 
Rattre Haverford and Pembroke. And also excepted and similarly reserved all great 
trees woods underwoods Wardships Marriages Reliefs escheats mines and quarries of 
the premises. And advowsons of churches and chapels whatsoever to the 
premises or to any of them in any way belonging. To have from the 
feast of the Annunciation of the blessed Virgin Mary last past for the term of 
21 then next ensuing and fully to be completed. And the aforesaid lady the Queen 
shall exonerate the aforesaid farmer as well of ^^4 for wages and stipend of a chaplain 
to celebrate divine service in the parish church of St. Dogmael as of all other rents 
fees annuities pensions portions and sums of money all things whatsoever to the 
premises or any of them being parcel repairs of the Chancels aforesaid and of all the 
premises at the charge of the farmer timber only excepted with a clause of forfeiture of 
the lease aforesaid for non-payment of rent for the space of 40 days after any feast 
of the usual feasts as in the same letters patent more fully appears. Rendering there- 
from yearly to our said lady the Queen her heirs and successors of in and for the 
aforesaid mill of Fishguard with the appurtenances 20s. And of in and for the 
aforesaid lands and tenements in Grangiston with the appurtenances 26s. 8d. And of 
in and for the Rectory of St. Thomas in the township of St. Dogmaels with the 
appurtenances 20" And of in and for the aforesaid Rectory of Eglwyswrw with the 
appurtenances 7" 6' 8^ And of in and for the Rectory of Bayvill with appurtenances 
4" 13' 4"' And for the Rectory of Moylgrove with the appurtenances 6" 13' 4^ for 
the Rectory of Llantood and St. Nicholas 6" 13" 4^ And for the Rectory of Fishguard 
and Grangiston 10'' vj' viij'' for the Rectory of Pengelli Vychan with the appurts 25' 
for the chapels of Nantgwyn Llysvrayne and Newton with appurtenances 7" 6' 8"* In 
all reaching [the sum] among them at the feasts of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary and St. Michael the Archangel equally per ann 66" 11^ 8^ 

[The rest in English.] 
Make a lease of the premises unto the said John Bradshaw the ffather of William 
and James Bradshawe, his sonnes for the term of their lyves successively yelding to 
the Q Matie the sayd rent and ffyne. The lease to have comencemts from Michas last 
past Th'excepcons covennte and condicftns to be such as in like cases are appointed. 
The clere yerely value of the premises being Ixvj" xj' viij'' 

The ffyne thereof ys rated at fortie marks xl marks 

to be paid in hand. 

Evidently John Bradshaw, Senr., died September 30th. The date of this 
lease, according to the post mortem examination being two months later. In the 



I7<5 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

next document the Queen issues a writ for his post mortem inquisition, which is 
followed by the inquisition itself. 

Writ for Post Mortem Inquisition on John Bradshaw. 14 Nov., 1567. 

Elizabeth by the grace of God of England France and Ireland Queen Defender 
etc. To her beloved John Rastell esq John Barlow esq Rice ap Morgan esq Greeting. 
Whereas it hath been given us to understand that John Bradshaw esq who held of us in 
chief hath closed his last day as we have heard. We having great confidence in your 
fidelity and provident circumspection have assigned you or two of you to enquire b\ 
the oath of good and lawful men of the county of Pembroke as well within the liberty 
as without by whom the truth of the matter shall be better known what lands and 
tenements the aforesaid John Bradshaw or any other or others to the use of the said 
John Bradshaw held of us in chief as in demesne as in service in the county aforesaid 
on the day he died and how much of others and by what service and how much such 
lands and tenements are worth per aiui in all issues. And on what day the said John 
Bradshaw died and who is his next heir and of what age. And to take and seize the 
said lands and tenements into our hands and concerning other articles and circumstances 
of the premises whatsoever more fully the truth. And so you or two of you we 
charge that at certain days and places which you or two of you for this purpose shall 
provide diligently upon the premises to make inquisition and it distinctly and openly 
made to us in our Chancery under your seals or of two of you and the seals of those 
by whom it shall be made without delay you send and these our letters patent. And we 
charge by the tenor of these presents our sheriff of the county aforesaid that at certain 
days and places which you or two of you shall cause him to know he cause to come 
before you or two of you so many and such good and lawful men of your bailiwick by 
whom the truth of the matter in the premises shall be better known and inquired into. 
In witness whereof we have caused to be made these our letters patent. Witness me 
myself at Westminster the 14th Nov. the 9th year of our reign. 

Inq. p. M. Chan. Vol 148, No. 48. 1567. 

Inquisition indented taken at Haverford in the tenth year of our lady Elizabeth 
by the grace of God of England ffrance and Ireland Queen defender of the Faith. 
Before John Barlowe and Richard Morgan esqrs. commissioners of our said lady the 
Queen by virtue of a commission of our said lady the Queen to the same and John 
Rastell directed and annexed to this Inquisition by the oath of Morgan ap Owen gent. 
James Lewes gent John Griffith gent Matthew Thomas gent William ap Rice Junior 
gent Rice Davyd Powell ap Owen, Matthew Jenkin Jevan Davyd de Molgrove Lewes 
David Jacob Jevan Rice ap . . . Howell lien' ap David Lewis David de 
Whifchurch Thomas ap Rice and William Stephen. Who being sworn and charged say 
upon their oath that John Bradshaw in the said Commission named was seized in his 
demesne as of fee on the day he died of the lordship or manor of St. Dogmaels with 
appurts in the said county of Pembroke which is worth pet ann. in all issues beyond 
reprises 12'' (?) 6' 8"* and of two tenements in the parish of Neveme in the county 

' Llewelyn. 



^ 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 177 



aforesaid which are worth per ann 8^ And of a parcel of one tenement in Moylgrove 
in the county aforesaid which is worth per ann. 5^ which said tenements are parcels 
of the said lordship or manor of St. Dogmaels. And they say by their oath that 
aforesaid John Bradshaw was seized in his demesne as of fee on the day he died of 
an island called Great Caldey in the said county of Pembroke which is worth per ann. 
in all issues beyond reprises 3" * . . . And further they say upon their oath that 
the aforesaid John Bradshaw died the last day of September the 9th year of the reign 
of our said lady the Queen. And also that John Bradshaw esquire is his son and next 
heir and on the day of the death of aforesaid John his father was 48 years old and 
more. In witness whereof as well John Barlow and Richard Morgan commissioners 
as the aforesaid jurors to this Inquisition have alternately put their seals. Given the 
day and year aforesaid. 

In 1579 this lease of 1567, granting St. Dogmaels and part of its 
possession to John Bradshaw, Jan., is cancelled, a new lease being granted 
for the balance of the 21 years of the old lease, and an additional 
21 years, with remainder, to his son, William Bradshaw, his heirs and assigns, 
for their lives. At his death, or the deaths of either or each of his sons, William 
and James, provided that James inherited the property after William, the best 
beast belonging to the deceased was to be surrendered and paid to the Queen 
" in name of heriot." Also in this fresh lease, the Bradshaws were 
responsible for keeping the various chancels, houses, mills, etc., in repair, and 
the land clear of gorse, and also were bound to pay the stipend, 4, of the 
Chaplain of St. Thomas', St. Dogmaels. In return, they were allowed to have 
sufficient timber from the woods for all repairs of tenements, hedges, for 
making and repairing carts and ploughs, and for firewood, with large timber 
for the repairing of chancels, houses, mills, etc., from the steward or under- 
steward. In the Pembroke Rolls, Augmentation Office, the same day and year, 
is a similar, but curtailed deed. 

In the 40th year of Queen Elizabeth, in the " Lansdowne MS.," 445, 
February i8th, 1598, the Vicarage of St. Dogmaels was granted to Gryffyn 
Johnes, Clerk of the Diocese of St. David's, with a net yearly value of 
4 15s. I id. In the following year, on the loth July, 1599, the Vicarage of 
St. Dogmaels was granted to Nicholas Davies, Clerk of the diocese of St. 
David's, through the resignation of the last incumbent, by the Lord Keeper 
of the Great Seal. 

Patent Roll. 23 Eliz. Pt. , m 29 (21). 16 Dec, 1579. 

Of a grant for John Bradshaw and others. The Queen to all to whom etc. greeting. 
Whereas we by our letters patent made under our great seal of England bearing date 

' Radnor lands here. 



178 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

at the town of St. Albans tlie 23rd July the 9th year of our reign. We delivered 
granted and at farm demised to one John Bradshaw junr all the mill in Fishingard 
and all the tithes of the churches of St. Thomas within the towns of St. Dogmaels and 
Eglwyswrw Bayvil Moylgrave Llantood and St. Nicholas Fishguard and Grangiston. 
And all the chapels of Penkelly Vychan Nantgwyn Lisprant and Newton with all their 
rights members and appurtenances in our County of Pembroke or elsewhere within the 
bishopric of St. David"s to the said late monastery of St. Dogmaels as it is said 
sometime belonging and app>ertaining and formerly being parcel of the possessions 
thereof together with all the tithes profits obventions commodities and emoluments 
whatsoever to the said Rectories and chapels or any of them belonging or appertaining 
also all messuages lands tenements mills meadows fields pastures commons moors 
marshes waters fishings fisheries fruits profits and commodities. And our other 
possessions and hereditaments whatsoever in the townships fields parishes and hamlets 
of St. Dogmaels Grangiston Eglwyswrw Bayvil Moylgrave Llantood St. Nicholas 
Fishguard Penkelly Vychan Nantgwyn Lisprant and Newton aforesaid in our said 
County of Pembroke or within the said bishopric of St. David's with all their members 
and appurts to the late monastery of St. Dogmaels sometime belonging and appertaining 
as parts or parcels of the premises or either of them before then usually by a separate 
rent in our said letters patent reserved being acknowledged accepted used or 
occupied. Except however always and to us our heirs and successors altogether reserved 
the lordship and manor of Rattre and the Rectories of Maenclochog Llandilo and 
Llancolman and the chapels of Mynachlogddu and all the lands and tenements in 
Mynachlogddu Rattre Haverford and Pembroke aforesaid to ithe late Monastery of 
St. Dogmaels as is aforesaid belonging and appertaining. And also except and in a 
similar way reserved all great trees woods underwoods wardships marriages reliefs 
escheats mines and quarries of the premises and advowsons of churches and chaj>els 
whatsoever of the premises or any of them in any way belonging appertaining falling 
or emerging. To have and to hold the aforesaid mill rectories chapels messuages lands 
tenements meadows fields pastures tithes rents pensions portions and other all and 
singular the premises with all their appurts except the pre-excepted to the aforesaid 
John Bradshawe junior his executors and assigns from the feast of the Annunciation 
B V M then last past ito the end of the term and for the term of 21 years then next 
following and fully to be completed. Rendering then yearly to us our heirs and 
successors of and for the aforesaid mill of Fishingard with appurts 20s. And of and 
for the aforesaid lands and tenements in Grangiston with appurts 26* S"* And of and 
for the aforesaid rectory of St. Thomas in the township of St. Dogmaels with appurts 
20" And of and for the aforesaid Rectory of Egglwyswrw with appurts 7'' 6^ 8'' And 
of and for the aforesaid Rectory of Bayvill with appurts 4" 13' 4'' And of and for the 
aforesaid Rectory of Moylgrave with appurts 6" 13' 4"* And of and for the aforesaid 
Rectory of Llantood and St. Nicholas with appurts 6'' 13'' 4"* And of and for the aforesaid 
Rectory of Fishguard and Grangiston 10" 6' S"* And of and for the aforesaid Chaijel 
of Penkelly Vaughan with appurts 25^ And of and for the aforesaid chapels of 
Nantgwyn Lisprant and Newton with appurts 7'' 6' S^ of lawful money of England 
as by the same our letters patent more fully appears. Which said letters patent and 
all the right estaite title term of years and interest of and in the premises our beloved 
John Bradshaw esq having and enjoying surrendered and restored to us to be cancelled 



^ 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 179 

with the intention however that we other letters patent and a lease of the premises to 

the said John Bradshaw remaining to William and James Bradshaw sons of the said John 

Bradshaw for term of their lives and of either of ithem longest living in form following 

we have thought fit to make and grant. Which said surrender we have accepted by 

these presents. Know ye therefore that we as well in consideration of the surrender 

aforesaid as for a certain sum of money of lawful money of England at the receipt of 

our Exchequer paid. We have delivered and granted and let at farm and by these 

presents do deliver grant and let at farm to the same John Bradshaw all that our 

aforesaid mill in Fishguard. And all those our aforesaid Rectories of churches of 

St. Thomas within the township of St. Dogmaels and Eglwyswrw Bayvil Moylgrove 

Llantood and St. Nicholas Fishguard and Grangiston and all the chapels of Penkelly 

Vychan Nantgwyn Lisprant and Newton with all their rights and appurts in our said 

county of Pembroke or elsewhere within the said bishopric of St. David to the said 

late monastery of St. Dogmael as is aforesaid sometime belonging and appertaining 

and formerly parcel of the possessions thereof together with all tithes profits obventions 

commodities and emoluments whatsoever to the said Rectories and chapels or any of 

them belonging or appertaining also all messuages lands tenements mills meadows 

fields pastures commons moors marshes waters fishings fisheries rents pensions portions 

tithes oblations obventions fruits profits and commodities and other our possessions 

and hereditaments whatsoever in the townships fields parishes and hamlets of St. 

Dogmaels Grangiston Eglwyswrw Bayvil Moylgrove Llantood St. Nicholas Fishguard 

Penkelly Vychan Nantgwyn Lisprant and Newton aforesaid in our said County of 

Pembroke or within the said bishopric of St. David's with all their rights and appurts 

premisecj by these presents aforegranted or any of them in any way belonging or 

appertaining or with the same or either of them for a separate yearly rent as below by 

these presents reserved being before this demised placed used or enjoyed. Except 

however always and to us our heirs and successors altogether reserved the lordship and 

manor of Rattre and the rectories of Maenclochog Llandilo and Llancolman and the 

chapels of Mynachlogddu and all the lands and tenements in Mynachlogddu Rattre 

Haverford and Pembroke to the said late Monastery of St. Dogmaels late belonging 

and appertaining. Also except and in a similar way reserved all great trees woods 

underwoods wardships marriages reliefs escheats mines and quarries. And advowsons 

of churches and chapels whatsoever of the premises. To have and to hold the 

aforesaid mill rectories chapels messuages lands tenements tithes pensions portions 

and other all and singular the premises by these presents demised with all their appurts 

excepting the pre-excepted to the aforesaid John Bradshaw and his assigns at the term 

and for the term of the life of him John and after the decease surrender or forfeiture 

of the .said John Bradshaw then the aforesaid mill rectories chapels lands tenements 

tithes pensioas portions and other all and singular the premises by these presents 

demised with all their appurts excepting the pre-excepted wholly to remain to the 

aforesaid William Brad.shaw and his assigns at the term and for the term of the life 

of him William and after the decease surrender or forfeiture of either aforesaid John 

and William Bradshaw then the aforesaid mill rectories chapels lands tenements tithes 

pensions portions and other all and singular the premises by these presents demised 

with all their appurts except the pre-excepted shall wholly remain to aforesaid James 

Bradshaw and his as.signs at the term and for the term of the life of him James. 



i8o THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Rendering yearly to us our heirs and successors of and for the aforesaid mill of 
Fishguard with appurts 20^ And of and for the aforesaid lands and tenements in 
Grangiston with appurts 26' 8"* And of and for the rectory of St. Thomas in the 
township of St. Dogmael with appurts 20'' And for the aforesaid Rectory of 
Eglwyswrw with appurts 7'' 6* &^ And for the aforesaid Rectory of Bayvil with 
appurts 4'' 13' 4^ And for the aforesaid rectory of Moelgrove with appurts 6'' 13' 4'' 
And for the aforesaid Rectory of Llantode and St. Nicholas with appurts 6" 13' 4'' 
And of and for the aforesaid rectory of ffischard and Grangiston 10'' 6' 8^ And of 
and for the chapels of Penkelly Vychan with appurts 25' And for the aforesaid 
chapel of Nantgwin Lisprant and Newton with appurts 7" 6' S"* of lawful money of 
England at the feast of the Annunciation B V M. and St. Michael the Archangel at 
the Receipt of our Exchequer, or to the hands of the Receivers or Bailiffs of the 
premises for the time being by equal portions to be paid during the several terms 
aforesaid by these presents granted. And after the decease of the said John Bradshaw 
then to be rendered and paid to us our heirs and successors the best beast of him John 
by name of heriot. And after the decease of the said William Bradshawe if the said 
William Bradshaw shall survive the said John the best beast of him William by name 
of heriot. And after the decease of the said James Bradshaw if the said Bradshaw 
shall survive the said John and William Bradshaw the best beast of him James by 
name of heriot. And we will and by these presents grant to aforesaid John William 
and James and their assigns that we our heirs and successors the said John William 
and James and their assigns as well of 4'' yearly for the wages and stipend of a 
chaplain yearly celebrating divine service and observing the cure in the church and 
parish of St. Dogmael aforesaid as of all rents fees annuities pensions portions and 
sums of money and all whatsoever of the premises or of any parcel thereof in any way 
issuing or to be paid or as above charged or to be charged except the several rents as 
above by these presents reserved. And except all such payments and sums of money 
which any farmer of the premises or either of them before this were accustomed to 
support and pay if any there were against all persons whatsoever from time to time 
will exonerate and acquit during the term aforesaid. The aforesaid however John 
William and James Bradshaw and their assigns all chancels mills houses and edifices 
and all hedges ditches inclosures shores banks and sea-walls and all other necessary 
reparations of the premises in all and by all from time .to time as often as it shall be 
necessary and opportune at their own costs and expense shall well and sufficiently 
repair scour purge and maintain during the term aforesaid. And the premises 
sufficiently repaired shall leave at the end of the term aforesaid. And we will and by 
these presents grant to the aforesaid John William and James Bradshaw and their 
assigns that it shall be truly lawful to them from time to time to take perceive and have 
growing of in and upon the premises competent and sufficient housebote hedgebote 
firebote ploughlx>te and cartbote there and not elsewhere yearly to be exf)ended and 
occupied during the term aforesaid. And that they may have timber growing in the 
woods and lands of the premises to and for the reparations of the chancels mills houses 
and edifices of the premises by the assignment and survey of the steward or under- 
steward or other our officers our heirs and successors there for the time being during 
the term aforesaid. Provided always that if it shall happen that aforesaid several 
rents or any of them should be in arrear and not paid in part or in whole for the space 



^ 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. l8l 

of forty days after any feast of the feasts aforesaid as it is aforesaid they should be 
paid. That then and from then this present lease and grant shall be void and shall 
count for nothing anything in these presents to the contrary notwithstanding. Any 
statute, etc. In witness whereof. Witness the Queen at Westminster the i6th day of 
December. By writ of privy seal. 

Patent Roll (1589). 34 Eliz., pt. 10, m. 12. 

Of a grant at farm for William Bradshaw his wife and others. 

The Queen to all to whom etc. greeting. Whereas we by our letters patent sealed 
with our great seal of England bearing date at Westminster the i6th day of December 
the 23rd year of Our reign delivered granted and let at farm to our beloved John 
Bradshawe Esq. all that our mill in Fishguard and all those Rectories of the churches 
of St. Thomas in the vill of St. Dogmaels and Eglwyswrw Bayvil Moylgrave 
Llantood and St. Nicholas Fishguard and Grangiston. And all the chapels of Penkelly 
Vychan Nantgwyn Lisprant and Newton with all their rights and appurtenances in our 
county of Pembroke or elsewhere within the Bishopric of St. David's with all their 
rights and appurtenances to the late Monastery of St. Dogmael sometime belonging 
and appertaining and parcel of the possessions thereof sometime being together with 
all tithes profits obventions commodities and emoluments whatsoever to the same 
Rectories and chapels or any of them belonging or appertaining also all messuages 
lands tenements mills meadows feedings pastures commons moors marshes waters 
fisheries fishings rents pensions portions tithes oblations obventions fruits profits and 
commodities and other our possessions and hereditaments whatsoever in the vills fields 
parishes and hamlets of St. Dogmaels Grangiston Eglwyswrw Bayvil Moylgrave 
Llantood St. Nicholas Fishguard Penkelly Vychan Nantgwyn Lisprant and Newton 
aforesaid in our said County of Pembroke or within our said Bishopric of St. David 
with all their rights and appurtenances premised by the said letters patent demised or 
any of them in any way belonging or appertaining or with the same or any of them by 
several yearly rents in the said letters patent reserved before then demised let used or 
enjoyed. Except however always and to us and our successors altogether reserved the 
lordship and manor of Baare and the Rectory of Maenclochog Llandillo and Llancolman 
and the chapel of Maenclochog and all the lands and tenements in Maenclochog Baare 
Haverford and Pembroke to the said late Monastery of St. Dogmaels late belonging 
and appertaining also excepted and likewise reserved all great trees woods underwoods 
wards marriages reliefs escheats mines and quarries and advowsons of churches and 
chapels whatsoever of the premises. To have and to hold the aforesaid mill Rectories 
chapels messuages lands tenemerkts tithes pensions portions and other all and singular 
the premises by said letters patent demised with all their appurts except the pre-excepted 
to the aforesaid John Bradshawe and nis assigns at the term and for the term of the 
life of him John. And after the decease .surrender or forfeiture of the said John 
Bradshawe then the aforesaid mill Rectories lands tenements tithes pensions portions 
and other all and singular the premises by said letters patent demised with all their 
appurts except the pre-excepted shall wholly remain to William Bradshawe and his 
assigns at the term and for the term of the life of him William and after the decease 
surrender or forfeiture of either of the aforesaid John and William Bradshawe then 



iSz THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

the aforesaid mill Rectories chapels lands tenements tithes pensions jwrtions and other 
all and singular the premises by said letters patent demised with all their appurts 
except the pre-excepted shall wholly remain to James Bradshawe and his assigns at 
the term and for the term of the life of him James. Rendering yearly to us our heirs 
and successors of and for the aforesaid mill of Fishingarde with appurts 20s. and of 
and for the aforesaid lands and tenements in Grangiston aforesaid with appurts 
26s. 8d. And of and for aforesaid Rectory of St. Thomas in the vill of St. Dogmaels 
with appurts j[^2o. And of and for the aforesaid Rectory of Eglwyswrw with appurts 
^7 6s. 8d. And for the aforesaid Rectory of Bayvil with appurts ,i^ 13s. 4d. And 
for the aforesaid Rectory of Moylgrove with appurts J[fi 13. 4. And for the aforesaid 
Rectory of Llantode and St. Nicholas with appurts ^6 13. 4. And for the aforesaid 
Rectory of Fyshgard and Grangeston j[^io 6. 8. And of and for the aforesaid chapel 
of Penkelthie Vaughan with appurts 25s. And of and for the aforesaid chapels of 
Nantgwyn Llisprant and Newton with appurts ,7 6. 8. of lawful 
money of England at the feasts of the Annunciation B. V. M. and 
St. Michael the Archangel at .the receipt of our Exchequer or at the hands of our 
bailiffs or receivers of the premisses for the time 'being by equal jKjrtions to be paid 
during the several terms aforesaid by our said letters patent granted as by the said 
letters patent more plainly appears. Which said John Bradshaw and James Bradshawe 
are dead as we have certain knowledge thereof. And the aforesaid William Bradshawe 
is in full life having and enjoying the whole right estate title term and interest of and 
in the premises by virtue of the letters patent aforesaid as to all and singular the said 
premises with appurts except the premises in Nantgwyn aforesaid which he surrendered 
restored and gave to us with the intent however that we other letters patent and another 
demise of all and singular the premises except of the j)remises in Nantgwyn 
aforesaid to the said William Bradshaw for term of his life remainder 
thereof to Elizabeth his wife for term of her life remainder thereof to Edmund 
Bradshawe their son for term of his life in form following we thought fit to make and 
grant. Which said surrender we have accepted by these presents. Know ye therefore 
that we as well in consideration of the surrender aforesaid as for a fine of ;^20 of 
lawful money of England at the receipt of our Exchequer to our use by the aforesaid 
William Bradshawe Elizabeth his wife and Edmund Bradshawe their son paid with 
the advice of our beloved and trusty councillors William Baron of Burghley our 
Treasurer of England and John Fortescue esq our Chancellor and Sub-treasurer of our 
Court of Exchequer have delivered granted and let at farm and by these presents do 
deliver grant and let at farm to the aforesaid William Bradshawe Elizabeth his wife 
and Edmund Bradshaw all that aforesaid mill in Fishingarde and all those aforesaid 
Rectories of the churches of St. Thomas in the vill of St. Dogmaels and Eglwyswrw 
Bayvil and Moylgrave Llancode alias Llantode and St. Nicholas Fyshgard and 
Grangiston and all the aforesaid chapels of Penkelthie Vaughan Llisprant and Newton 
with all their rights and appurtenances in our said County of Pembroke and elsewhere 
in the said Bishopric of St. David's to the said late Monastery of St. Dogmaels as is 
aforesaid sometime belonging and appertaining and being sometime parcel of the 
possessions thereof together with all tithes profits obventions commodities and emolu- 
ments whatsoever to the same Rectories and chapels or to any of them lielonging or 
appertaining also all messuages lands tenements mills meadows feedings pastures 



.* 



' THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 183 

commons moors marshes Avaters fisheries fishings rents pensions portions tithes oblations 
obventions fruits profits and commodities and other our possessions and hereditaments 
whatsoever in the vills fields parishes and hamlets of St. Dogmaels Grangiston 
Eghvyswrw Bayvil Moylgrove Llantood St. Nicholas Fishguard Penkelly Vychan 
Lisprant and Newton aforesaid in our aforesaid County of Pembroke or within the 
said Bishopric of St. David's with all their rights and appurtenances premised by these 
presents demised and granted or any of them in any way belonging or appertaining or 
to the same or any of them by several yearly rents by these presents reserved before this 
demised let used or enjoyed. Except however always and to us our heirs and successors 
altogether reserved the lordships and manors of Baare and Rectories of Maenclochog 
Llandillo and Llancolman and the chapels of Maenclochog and all the lands and 
tenements in Maenclochog Baare Haverford and Pembroke to the said late Monastery 
of St. Dogmaels late belonging and appertaining also excepting and in likewise reserved 
all great trees woods underwoods wards marriages reliefs escheats mines and quarries 
and advowsons of Churches and chapels whatsoever of the premises. To have and to 
hold the aforesaid mill Rectories and Chapels messuages lands tenements tithes pensions 
jx>rtions and other all and singular the premises by these presents demised with all their 
appurts except the pre-excepted to aforesaid William Bradshawe and his assigns at the 
term and for the term of the life of him William. And after the decease surrender or 
forfeiture of aforesaid William Bradshawe then we will and by these presents grant 
that aforesaid mill Rectories lands tenements tithes pensions and other all and singular 
the premises by these presents demised with all their appurts except the pre-excepted 
shall wholly remain to aforesaid Elizabeth wife of aforesaid William and their assigns 
at the term and for the term of the life of said Elizabeth. And after the decease 
surrender or forfeiture of the said William and Elizabeth Then we will and by these 
presents grant that the aforesaid mill Rectories lands tenements tithes pensions portions 
and other all and singular the premises by these presents demised with all their appurts 
except the pre-excepted shall wholly remain to aforesaid Edmund Bradshaw and his 
assigns at the term and for the term of the life of him Edmund. Rendering yearly to 
us our heirs and successors of and for the aforesaid mill of Fishgard with the appurts 
20s. And of and for the aforesaid land and tenements in Grangiston aforesaid with 
appurts 26s. 8d. And of and for the aforesaid Rectory of St. Thomas in the vill of 
St. Dogmae! with appurts ;2o. And for the aforesaid Rectory of Eglwyswrw with 
appurts jQ"] 6. 8. And for the aforesaid Rectory of Bayvil with appurts jQ^ 13. 4. 
And for the aforesaid Rectory of Moylgrove with appurts jQ6 13. 4. And of and for 
the aforesaid Rectory of Llantood alias Llancode and St. Nicholas Fishguard with 
appurts jQ6 13. 4. And of and for the aforesaid Rectory of Fishguard and Grangiston 
jQiQ 6. 8. And of and for the aforesaid chapel of Penkelly Vychan with appurts 25s. 
And for the aforesaid chapyels of Lisprant and Newton with appurts jQi of lawful 
money of England at the feasts of St. Michael the Archangel and the Annunciation 
B. V. M. at the receipt of the Exchecjuer of us our heirs and successors at Westminster or 
at the hands of our bailiffs and receivers of the premises for the time being by equal 
portions to be paid during the .several terms aforesaid by these presents aforegranted. 
And after the decease of the said William Bradshaw then to be rendered or paid to us 
our heirs and successors the best beast of said William in name of heriot. And after 
the decease of said Elizalieth wife of aforesaid William if the said Elizabeth shall 



l84 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY 

survive the said William the best beast of the said Elizabeth in name of heriot. And 
after the decease of said Elizabeth Bradshawe if the said Edmund survive the said 
William and Elizabeth the best beast of the said Edmund in name of heriot. And we 
will and by these presents grant to aforesaid William Elizabeth his wife and Edmund 
and their assigns that we our heirs and successors to the said William Elizabeth and 
Edmund and their assigns as well of ^\ yearly for the wage and stipend of a chaplain 
yearly celebrating divine service and serving the cure [of souls] in the church and 
parish of St. Dogmaels aforesaid as of all rents fees annuities pensions portions and 
sums of money and charges whatsoever from the premises or any parcel thereof in any 
way issuing or to be paid or thereupon charged or to be charged besides of the several 
rents above by these presents reserved and besides of such payments charges and sums 
of money which any farmer or farmers of the premises or any of them before this have 
been accustomed to support and pay if there are any against whatsoever persons from 
time to time will exonerate acquit and defend during the term aforesaid. And the 
aforesaid William Bradshawe Elizabeth his wife and Edmund Bradshawe and his 
assigns the chancels mills houses and buildings and all hedges ditches inclosures shores 
banks and sea-walls also all other necessary repairs of the premises in all and by all 
from time to time as often as is necessary and shall be opportune at their own charges 
and expense shall well and sufficiently repair support sustain scour purge and maintain 
during the term aforesaid. And the premises sufficiently repaired and maintained at 
the end of their term shall demise. And we will and by these presents grant to 
aforesaid William Bradshawe, Elizabeth his wife and Edmund Bradshawe and their 
assigns that it shall be lawful for them and each of them from time to time to take 
perceive and have from and upon the premises growing comjjetent and sufficient 
houseboote* hedgeboote fyreboote ploughboote andcartboote there and not elsewhere yearly 
to be expended and occupied during the terms aforesaid. And that they may have timber 
in the woods and lands of the premises growing for and towards the repair of chancels 
mills houses and buildings of the premises by assignment and survey of the steward or 
understeward or of other officers of us our heirs and successors there for the time being 
during the term aforesaid. Provided always that if it happen the aforesaid several rents 
or any of them shall be in arrear and not paid in part or in whole for the space of 
forty days after any feast of the feasts aforesaid on which as is aforesaid they should 
be paid and not paid at such day and place days and places as by proclamation within 
the County aforesaid by the Sheriff of the same to be made as by warrant of the 
Receiver for the first moiety of the year also of the Auditor and Receiver 
for the last moiety of the year were appointed. That then this present demise 
and grant so far as the estate and interest of him who so shall default in payment of 
the several rents aforesaid. And so far as such part and parcel of the premises whereof 
several rents above by these presents reserved are so in arrear unpaid shall be void and 
of no effect. Anything in these presents to the contrary thereof notwithstanding. Any 
statute etc. In witness whereof etc. Witness the Queen at Westminster 21st day of 
July. By writ of privy seal. 

' Bote = wood. 



i* 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 185 

The Bradshaws held St. Dogmaels for three or four generations, the 
first being the John Bradshaw who died September 30th, 1 567. His son, John, 
succeeded him, dying May 31st, 1588, and was buried in the Abbey burial 
ground; part of his old tombstone is still to be found, with the inscription " Hie 
jacet Johannes Bradshaw Armiger, qui obiit ultimo die Maii Anno Domino 
1588," aged 59. 

This John was the father of William and James Bradshaw. He was 
Sheriff of Pembrokeshire in 1570. Lewis, in his "Topographical Dictionary," 
states " that it was of this family of Bradshaw that the Bradshaw who presided 
at the trial of Charles I came." 

The Bradshaws came to St. Dogmaels in 1537, and in 1645 were still 
living there. John Bradshaw, the regicide, was born at Stockport, in Cheshire, 
in 1602, emd died in London, 1659; evidently he was not in the direct line, and 
as far as is ascertainable the Bradshaws were only connected with Lancashire 
years before coming to St. Dogmaels, afterwards with Shropshire, and then 
Radnorshire and Pembrokeshire; however, Lewis is often incorrect witness 
the " Sagranus " stone which he describes as " Acrani." William Bradshaw 
succeeded in 1 588 ; he was the father of Joan, who married Alban Owen of 
Henllys, in 1591. His wife's name was Elizabeth, and he had also a son named 
Edmund. He was one of the jurors at the post mortem inquisition held at 
Haverfordwest, May 4th, 1614, after the death of George Owen. On April 13th, 
161 3, by commission of that date, he was made a Justice of the Peace for 
Pembrokeshire, and his name is in the list as a Justice of the Peace for Pem- 
brokeshire, in 1620. James Bradshaw married Alice, daughter of James Rhys 
of Mynachlogddu, but died early, before or during 1589, and his widow 
married Edmund Winstanley, who had been Sheriff of Pembrokeshire in 1590. 
The re-grant of St. Dogmaels, etc., to William, his wife, Elizabeth, and their 
son, Edmund, in Patent Roll, Elizabeth, July, 1592, was probably caused by the 
death of James, who had in the former grant been noted as next heir after 
William. 

St. Dogmaels continued in the Bradshaw fjunily till 1646, when it was sold 
to David Parry of Noyadd Tref awr. 

The Parrys lived at St. Dogmaels, at Plas Newydd, and the old house of 
the Abbey seems to have entirely disappeared. 

After 1646 they owned the Abbey. Thomas ap Harry,' of Blaenpant and 
Noyadd Tref awr. County Cardigan, married for his second wife, about 1560- 
1570, Margaret, sole heiress of Rhydderch ap Rhys Vychan, Lord of Towey, of 



' I am indebted for this |)edigrce to Mrs. Tyler, of Glanhelig. 



l86 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

St. Dogmaels. Her grandmother was daughter and co-heiress of Owen Cwri, 
ap leuan, ap Nicholas of Tredafed, and second wife of Rhys Vychan, Lord 
of Towey. Margaret brought Thomas ap Harry as her dowry, Plas Newydd 
and its appurtenances; their eldest son, Stephen Parry, lived at Plas Newydd, 
and was Sheriff for Cardiganshire in 1629. His eldest son, Thomas,' by his 
first wife, Joan, daughter of Morgan Lloyd, of Llanllyr, also lived at Plas 
Newydd. By his first wife, Bridget, daughter of James Owen, he had one son, 
Stephen, who died without issue, and two daughters; Elizabeth, the elder, 
married her second cousin, David Parry, of Noyadd Trefawr; he died in 162 1, 
leaving two sons, the elder also named David. Now it is the second of these 
Davids who became owner of the old Abbey property. John Parry, one of the 
Commissioners in 1691 in the tithe dispute, was the brother of this last David; 
he was Archdeacon of Cardigan, and Vicar of Troedyrawr, and died in 1727. 
His elder brother, David, was Sheriff for Cardiganshire in 1684, and died 
without issue in 171 1, and was buried at Llandygwydd. His second sister, 
Susan, inherited the St. Dogmaels property; she married her cousin, William 
Parry, of Brethyr, about 1748; in 1753 they inherited Noyadd Trefawr, through 
the death of her elder sister. At the present day Mrs. Brenchley, of Glaneirw, 
owns some of the old Abbey lands, whilst the rest of it has been sold in plots 
to the various owners. 

In the dispute regarding the tithes, Matthew Thomas, aged 57, born and 
bred in St. Dogmaels, and others, testify in 1693 David Parry, Esq., is the 
right owner and proprietor of the Abbey. 




' This Thomas Parry married, as his second wife, Anne, daughter of Hector Phillips, of Cardigan 
Priory, they had, however, no issue. 



4* 



*^ 




CHAPTER XVII. 




A LITTLE RIFT WITHIN THE LUTE 

^T has already been seen that certain lands, etc., at Fishguard were 
granted to the Abbey by William of Cantington, son of Jordan, 
son of Lucas do Hoda, Martin's chief knight. 

From the phraseology used in the grant, that is, making 
the abbot and monks his heirs, it appears to have been a death-bed grant, and 
that William wished to make his peace with Heaven by bestowing this property 
on the Church. It is part of this property then given, shortly after the pillaging 
of the Abbey by the Irish, under the four Welsh princelings, that forms the 
subject of the following dispute in the reign of James I, concerning the 
ownership of a certain field, and that a mill belonging to the Bradshaws, and 
formerly to .St. Dogmaels Abbey, was not used by the tenants of the Brad- 
shaws, as it should have been, for the grinding of their com. 

In the "Lansdowne MS.," 443, 1-24 Elizabeth, in the first book of 
presentations, is noted the appointment of Owin Parker, clerk, to the Church 
of Fishguard, loth May, 1571, void by death, at a salary of /^ os. 5d. 

In the second book of above MS., 444, 25-33 Elizabeth, is noted the 
appointment of Rowland Jones, clerk, 13th October, 1599, to the same church, 
at the same salary, again void by death. 

And in 165 of the " Lansdowne MSS.," fol. 5, is a notice of Fishguard 
mill, in the County of Pembroke, of the yearly value of xx'. 

In the Book of Extracts from the Records of the Church of St. David's, 
the tithe of the Vicarage of Fishguard is noted as viij'^ and a halfpenny. 

In the reign of James I, William Bradshaw was the owner of this property, 
as well as of St Dogmaels Abbey and Caldey, in Pembrokeshire, in this 
document following William Bradshaw contended that Owen Phillip had 
encroached on his land, and that his tenants were sending their corn to be 
ground at another mill, instead of to his water-mill as agreed, together with the 
question of the rent and repairs of the same mill, which we see by the extract 
above given was valued at twenty shillings yearly. And also as to the Vicar 



z88 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

of Llanunda for the time being, who " quietly and without any gainsaying " 
carried off the tithe hay, growing on the land in dispute, and the extent of the 
parish of Fishguard. 

First there is James I's command for an Inquisition to be held at 
Fishguard by James Thomas, gent., Edward Powell, gent., Owen Pickton, 
gent., and Alban Lloyd, gent., with a list of eight interrogations appended, 
followed by the deposition of the witnesses for the plaintiffs, taken at 
Fishguard on the 19th of August of the same year, by virtue of the King's 
writ from the Court of Exchequer, at Westminster, again followed by the 
depositions of the witnesses for the defendants. 

In 35 Charles II, 1695, there were again disputes relating to this mill, under 
Owen V. Stefford, and the following year the same dispute between the same 
parties; however, space forbids the giving of these later deeds, but should 
anyone desire to see them, they will now know where they may be found. 

Deposns. 14 Jas. I. 
Writ. Court of Exchequer. 

James by the grace of God King of England Scotland France and Ireland 
defender of the Faith etc. to our beloved James Thomas gent Edward Powell gent Owen 
Pickton gent and Alban Lloyd gent greeting. Know ye that we having full confidence 
in your fidelity industry and provident circumspection in the conduct of our affairs have 
given and by these presents do give to you or three or two of you full power and 
authority to diligently examine any witnesses whatsoever of and upon certain 
articles or interrogatories as well on behalf of William Bradshaw esq plaintiff 
as on behalf of Owen Phillips Griffin Nicholas and Robert Llewellyn defendants to 
you three or two of you to be shown or delivered. And therefore we charge you that 
at ffishingard in our county of Pembroke at such day or days as for this purpose you 
shall provide or three or two of you shall provide you shall cause and summon the 
witnesses aforesaid to come before you or three or two of you and the said witnesses 
and each of them by themselves of and upon the articles or interrogatories aforesaid 
upon their oath before you or three or two of you upon the holy Gospels of God 
corporally to be taken you diligently examine and you shall receive their examinations 
or three or two of you shall receive and shall reduce them into writing on parchment 
and when the same are so taken you shall send to the Barons of our Exchequer at 
Westminster from the day of St. Michael in fifteen days next coming under your seals 
or of three or two of you enclosed or three or two of you shall send together with the 
interrogatories aforesaid and this writ provided always that one of the defendants shall 
have warning by the space of 14 days of the first day of your sessions about the execu- 
tion of this our writ. Witness Laurence Tanfield Knt at Westminster 19th June the 
14th year of the reign of our reign of England France and Ireland and of Scotland 
the 49th. by the Barons. 

Endd. Execution of this writ appears in certain schedules attached to this writ. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 189 

Interrogatories mynistred by Owen Phillips Robert Llewellyn and Griffith Nicholas 
deff^ to examine their witnesses against William Bradshaw esquier complt. 

1 Imprimis. Do you knowe the plt^ and deffendants and doe you know one water 
mill lyeing in the parish and lordship of fishgard held by the pit' or his under ffearmour 
by lease from the late Queenes Ma''' and doe you knowe one parcell of medowe grounde 
claymed by the plaintiffe to be held frcMn the late Queenes Ma"'' by lease and howe 
longe have you knowne the said water mill and meadow grounde. 

2 Item. Do you knowe or have you credibly hard that the deff" Robert Llewellen 
and Griffith Nicholas and others who have heretofore dwelt in the howses and enjoyed 
the lande w"^*" the said deffendants now hould are and during your memorie were 
tenants unto one William Williams of mardnawen gent and to those whose estate he 
hath, and have alwaye during your memorie ground all the corne growing upon their 
said tenemente at mardnawen mill and seldome or never but at their oone pleasure have 
ground at the pltffs mill declare your knowledge herein at lardge. 

3 Item. Doe you knowe that the said deffendts Robert Llewellin and Griffith 
Nicholas are bounde by covenantes in their leasez made between them and their 
landlord to grind all their corne and graine growing upon their said tenements in their 
landlords mill called Mardnawen mill declere your knowledge herein at lardge. 

4 Item. Doe you knowe that the mill of fishgard is by the negligence of the 
miller or fearmour there much decayed and not attended as it ought to be and doe you 
knowe that this notwithstanding the complaynant receyveth about sixe pounds rent 
yerely for the same mill w"^*" hath heretofore bene sett at xx'^ rent declare your 
knowledge herein at lardge. 

5 Item. Do you know that he deff" Owen Phillip is seized in his demesne as 
of ffee of and in one messuage or tenement of land called the Drym in the parish of 
Llanunda within the county of Pembroke. And doe you know the said percell of 
meadowe grounde claymed by the pltf and adjoining unto the said deffts lande declare 
the quantity and the bounds thereof at lerdge uppon your othe. 

6 Do you knowe a great brooke or river runing uppon the Southeast side of the 
said deff" Owen Phillips land called the Drym declare the name of the said river 
and doe you knowe that the same river hath for all the time of your memorie bene 
reputed and taken all the waye of the course thereof to the sea to be the landscare 
and division between the parishes of fishgard and Llanunda and between the hundred 
of Kernes and Dewesland and how longe have you knowne the said river and doth 
not the same nowe runne on the channell that you have ever knowne it to run declare 
the truth herein uppon your othe. 

7 Item. Declare uppon your othe within what parish you doe believe the said 
percel of meadow grounde to be and unto whom do you beleeve in your conscience the 
same to belonge of right and what resons have you see to beleeve declare the truth 
herein at lerdge uppon your othe. 

8 Item. Doe you know that the tythe heye growing uppon the said percel of 
ground hath beene carried away by the vicar of Llanunda for the time being quietlie 
without anie gainesaying and for howe many yeres have you knowne the same soe to 



ipo THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

be. And have you known or have you overhard for truth that the lordship or parish 
of fishgard have or do extend to the Northwest any further than the said river declare 
what you knowe or beleeve to be the truth therein uppon your othe. 

Depositions. 14 Jas. I. 
Perrtbroke. Mich. 24. 

Interrogatories ministred by William Bradshaw esquier complaynant to examine 
his witnesses against Robert tt.ein Griffith Nicholas and Owen Phillips defendants. 

I Imprimis dooe yxm know the said parties and dooe you knowe the menor or 
lordship of fishingard in the countie of Pembroke and one water mill within the said 
menor being the Kings Ma''" mill and one meadow called y weirglodd dan y goyed 
grodig and one perte thereof called Garth y Gwenyn lying and being in the lordship 
and perishe of fishingard in the said county of Pembroke. What quantitie of ground 
dothe the said medowe conteine. And dothe it not conteine one welsh acre or more. And 
how longe have you known the said manor and lordship mille and percel of meadowe. 

2. Item dooe you knowe the water grist mille of William Williams gent called 
Melin manor nawon. And how long is it sithence the same hath benne first erected. 
And is not his Ma'"'* said mille an auncient mille and hath had contynuaiKe tyme out 
of mynd and long time before the erecting of the said William Williams mille. 

3. Item dooe you knowe or have you heerd that our late soverayne lady Elizabeth 
late Queene of England was seased in her demesne as of fee in the right of her 
crown of England of and in the said percel of meadowe as percel of the lands belonging 
to the said manor or lordship of fishingard. And doth not the same meadowe lye 
within the perish of fishingard and doth not the teyth haye thereof issuing and due 
ben yerely from tyme to tyme thereof the memorye of man is not to the contrary payed 
to the farmer for the tyme beinge of fishingarde. 

4 Item. Doo you know or heve you heerde that all the tenaunts which hold of 
the said lordship and manor of fishingarde as well those which inhebit or dwell within 
the borough as those which dwell without the borough within Tregoes and elsewhere 
within the hundred of Kernes tyme out of mynd whereof the memorie of man is not 
to the contrary have from tyme to tyme and at all tymes used and accustomed to grind 
their several corne and graine growne uppon their several lands at his Ma''* said 
Myll and at no other Myll. And that they have ben accustomed so to doe. And are 
not the said Robert tt.en and Griffith Nicholas tenants inhabiting within his Ma'''* said 
lordship of Fishingard. 

5 Do you knowe have you hard that the father of the said Robert tten and the 
former inhabitants of the lands as well where the said Robert tten as of the tenement 
that Griffith Nicholas dwelleth on have bene ever accustomed and used to grind all 
their corne and graine at his Ma''" Mylls at ffishgard and at noe other Mylls and hath 
not the said Robert tten and Griffith Nicholas of late within these fewe years 
withdrawne their suit from his Ma''" mylles of ffishgard unto the myll of one William 
Williams. And howe far is it distant from the Kinge's mill. And is it not in another 
lordship and out of the same hundred wherein the King's myll is declare your 
knowledge herein at lerdge. 



> 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 191 



6 Item. Do you kiiowe or hanl that the said Robert iten and Griffith Nicholas 
doe severally hold divers messuages landes and tenements of the said Manor or lordship 
of fishgard. And that by reason of their several tenures they ought to doe suit to his 
Ma''" myll. And at his Ma}^" said myll to grind all their said corne growing upon 
the said severall tenements and not at any other myll declare your knowledge herein 
at lerdge. 

7 Do you knowe that there is yerelie payd out of all the tenements and landes 
within the mannor of fishgard an yerelie rent to his Ma''** use at May and Michaelmas. 
And that the occupants of the same tenements and landes doe paye their yerelie rent. And 
that all the tenaunts and occupants have used and accustomed tyme out of mynd to 
grind all their griste at his Ma*'*^ said myll. And have not the said defendants Robert 
tten and Griffith Nicholas heretofore. And those that hold their severall landes and 
tenements before them dooe suit at his Ma''* mylls. 

8 Do you knowe or hard that the said defs Robert tten and Griffith Nicholas have 
of late withdraune their suit from his Ma'''* said myll and have not brought their 
corne thether to be ground. And that they have carried the same to ther mylles. And 
that the plaintif and his . . tenaunts have had greate hindrance and losse therebye 
declare your knowledge. 

9 Item. Do you knowe or hard that the deffs Owen Phillips being seased of 
certain landes adjoininge his Ma'''' said meadowe hath of late encroached upon the 
said meadowe and altered the meres and bounds of the same. And his Ma''*' said 
landes cannot be knowne from his the said Owen Phillips lands. And so entendeth 
to gaine the said whole meadowe or at least some part thereof. And hath directed out 
of his course a ryver that in parte dyd mcere and devyde between the said meadowe 
and said defs owne landes. 

Item doe you knowe or have you hard that upon complaint made about iiij yeres 
past to the steward of the said mannor and to the great Inquest at a Leet Court there 
for the said manor houlden that the def Owen Phillip had then encroched upon the 
said meados whereupon the said Inquest repayred to the said meadowe and viewed the 
same and the meres and boundes thereof and did not the said Inquest upon evident 
and good proof then made by divers witnesses before them fynd and present that the 
said def Owen Phillips had then encroched upon the said medowe and turned the said 
water out of his course. And also fynd and present that Garth y Gwenyn was perte 
and percell of the said medowe. And weare you one of the said Jurie yea or noe or 
weere you then present when the Jurie soe found declare \our knowledge thereon at 
lardge. 

Depositions. 14 Jas. I. 

Pembroke. Mich. 24. 

Witnesses on the part of the plaintiff. 

Depositioas of witnesses taken at ffishingard in the county of Pembroke the 19th 
day of August the year of the reign of our lord James by the grace of God of England 
Scotland France and Ireland King defender of the faith etc. to wit of England France 
and Ireland the 14th and of Scotland the 50th. Before James Thomas gent Edward 



I9> THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Powell gent Owen Picton gent and Alban Lloyd gent by virtue of the King's Ma'*' 
write of Commission to them directed from his Ma''* Courte of Exchequer at Westm 
for examination of witnesses in a matter depending at issue in the said Courte. Betweene 
William Bradshawe esquier plantief and Owen Phillips Gryffith Nicholas and Robert 
Lloid deffs for one* the behalff of the said plaintiefF. 

Owen Johnes of Tre' Coon in the Coin of Pembroke gent of the age of Threascore 
and fifteen yeares or thereabouts sworn and examined upon the interrogatories hereunto 
annexed one the said plaintieffs behalff deposeth and sayeth as followeth. To the first 
interrogatorie he sayeth that he knoweth both perties and the menor or lordship of 
fishingard in the Coin of Pembroke and one water mill within the said menor being 
the King's Ma'' mill and knoweth the medowe in that interrogatorie mencioned nowe 
in question between the said plaintief and said deffs Owen Phees' w'*" he always 
hath hard called and knowne by the name of y Weir glodd* dan goed y drym. And 
sayeth that one part thereof is called Garth y Gwenen. And this deponent sayeth that 
about seven and ffortie yeres pa-st viz in or aboute the tenth yere of the reigne of the 
late Queen Elizabeth late Queen of England there was a commission awarded from 
her Ma"* then .... Suth Wales to Edward Powes esquier and Thomas George 
Bowen esquier authorising and requirring them by the othe of a sufficient Jurie of the 
then freeholders of the said maner to view and take a survey of her Ma''*' then said 
manor or lordship of fyshyngard and of all her then lands and possessions within the 
saii>e. By vertue of w'^'' commissions the said Commissioners did swaere and cherge in 
that behalf a Jurie of the then best and substantiell ffreeholders of the said manor, of 
wch Jurie this deponent was foreman and sixteen or thereabouts more of the then 
freeholders of the said manor were of the said Jurie w'='' are nowe all dead saveing 
this deponent. And the defendant Owen Phillips grandfather was of the said Jurie. 
And this deponent and the rest of the Jurie then viewing the said medow did then find 
that the same did lie within the manor or lordship of Fishyngard in the parish of 
Fishingarde. And the said then Jurie found the said medowe to containe in quantitee 
two acres or thereabouts. To the third interrogatorie he sayeth that he knoweth that 
our said late sovereign lady Elizabeth late Queene of England was seased of those 
percels of medowe as percel of the lands belonging to the said manor or lordship of 
fishyngard. And the Jurie aforesaid found that the same did lie within the said manor 
of fishyngard. To the nyneth interrogatorie he sayeth that of the said medowe found 
by the Jurie aforesaid and w"^*" by the then prooff and report of old men was found 
to be her said late Ma'''* medowe. The said defendant Owen Phillips hath sithence 
the said surveye taken, encroched and drawen to his grounde a part of the said medowe 
called Garth y Gwennen. And the def Owen Phillips himself hath confessed that he 
did and dothe occupie the same and mowe haye thereupon but claymeth the same to be 
his. And he this deponent sayeth that the course of the water that did mere* an<l 
divide between the said medowe and the lands of the said defendant Owen Phillips in 
perte is everted out of that course where it was found by the said Jurie it sholde be w"^"" 
course of .the water was then found by the jurie upon report and proof of olde men to 
be the mere between the .said medowe and the lands of the said def Owen Phillips. To 
the tenth interrogatorie he sayeth that he hath heard by credible report that about 

' On. - Tre Cwm. ' ? Phillippes. ' The meadow under the wood on the ridge. ' Bound. 



^ 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 193 



fower yeares past the inquest in that interrogatorie mentioned did view the said 
medowe and found and presented that the defs Owen Phees> had encroched upon part 
thereof and heard how the said inquest found and presented that Garth y Gwennyn was 
part of the said medowe. And further doth not depose. 

David Johnes of fishingard in the Coin of Pembroke Clre^ of the age of ffortye 

three yeeres or thereabouts alsoe sworne and examined upon the interrogatories 

aforesaid one the said pltfs behalfe deposeth and sayeth as followeth. To the first 

interrogatorie he sayeth that he knoweth both parties and the manor or lordship of 

fishingard in the Corn of Pembroke and the water mill lying in the said manor being 

the King's Ma''" mill and knoweth the medowe in that interrogatorie mentioned by the 

name of the King's Ma''" medowe and knoweth one part thereof to be called Garth 

y Gwenyn and he sayeth that about three yeares or somewhat more nowe last past this 

deponent being then a layman and one of the inhebitants of the said manor was of a 

jurie sworen in at a leet before the deputie steward of the said manor and upon 

Complaint then made touching the encrochement of the said medowe this deponent and 

others the rest of the then jurie repayring to the said medowe and viewing the same did 

upon the othe and testimonie of certaine witnesses and the reporte of certain olde men 

find and present that the said medowe nowe in question was lying wthin the perish 

and manor of fishingard and therefore by the same testimonie and proof then made 

before the said jurie this deponent taketh it that the said medowe lyeth within the manor 

and parish of fishgard. To the third interrogatorie he sayeth that he knoweth that 

our late sovereign lady Elizabeth late Queen of England was seazed of the said percel 

of medowe pert of the lands belonging to the said manor of fishingard. And for the 

reason by him in his answer to the first interrogatorie layed down he thinketh it and 

taketh that the said medowe lyeth within the perish of fishingard. And he sayeth that 

the tieth haye thereof for the space of these two and twenty yeeres nnowe last past hath 

yerely for ought this deponent knoweth to the contrary ben payed to the farmour for 

the time being of fishingard. To the seventh interrogatorie he sayeth that there is yerelie 

payen out of all the tenements and lands within the said manor of fishingard oon yere 

chieff rente to his Ma''" use at Maye and Michaelmas and thoccupants of the said 

tenements and lands do paye the same chief rents yerelie. To the ninth and tenth 

interrogatories he sayeth that the deff Owen Phillips doth holde and occupie one percel 

of the said meadow called Gerth y Gwennyn w'='' upon proof made on he this deponent 

and the rest of the jurie [torn] in this deponents answer to the first interrogatorie. This 

deponent and the rest of the said jurie did find and present upon hearinge of the said 

pruff and view of the said meadowe. And for further reason of their said prsent""' 

this deponent sayeth that one William John Hewes came before this jurie and made 

pruff upon his oath that about eighteen yeres past he this William and one Thomas 

John Meredith did mowe this meadow and that pert thereof called Gerth y Gwennin for 

one John Germin whoe then was tenant of those medowes to the pi. or to John 

Bradshaw esquier the pis nephew. And that as they were mowinge that pte of the 

said medowe called Garth y Gwennin Phee Gr[yffydd] the deft Owen Phillips father 

then holding the defs lands came to the said mowers and never made any clayme then 



' ? Phillippes. ' Clericus, clerk. 

13 



194 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

to Gardd y Gwennen or contradicted them in mowing but intreated them to come to 
mow him a plott of medowe in another place and further doth not depose. 

John Dawes of ffishingard in the Coin of Pembroke gent of the age of threescore 
and five years or thereabouts alsoe sworne and examined upon the interr aforesaid 
one the said Compls behelff deposeth and sayeth as followeth. To the first interro- 
gatorie he sayeth that he knoweth iboth perties and the menor or lordship of fishingard 
in the Cain of Pembroke and knoweth the water mill within the said manor being the 
King's Ma'"'* mill and knoweth the medowe in that interr specified nowe in question. 
And sayeth that the same is called Y Weirglodd dan goed y drym^ and knoweth that 
parte of the said medowe v/'^^ is in question is lying and being in the lordship and 
parishe of fishgard in the county of Pembroke and he sayeth that in or about the tenth 
yeere of the reigne of our sovereign lady Elizabeth late Queen of England upon a 
survaye teken of the said lordship there was a Rent roule' of and for the King's lands 
and rents within the said menor made which rent roule this deponent diverse tymes 
hath scene and perused and by the same rent rolle it appereth that the said medowe 
lieth in the lordship and parish of fishgard and dothe contayne two acres and the names 
of the iurie that did soe survaye the said manor and layed downe in the said Rent 
rolle and as by the same rent rolle appereth one Gr[yiTydd] ap leun ap Rees grand- 
father to the defT Owen Phee was one of the said Jurie sworne upon and for the 
survayinge of the s"* manor. To the second interr he sayeth that he knoweth his Ma*''* 
said mill is an auncient mill and has had continuance tyme out of mynd. To the third 
interr he sayeth that he knoweth that o^ late sovereign lady Elizabeth late Queen of 
England was seized of and in the said medowe as percel of the lands belonging to the 
said menor or lordship of fishingard. To the iiijth vth and vjth interr he sayeth 
that the severall messuages lands and tenements w'"* the deffs Robert tten and Griffith 
Nicholas doe holde and are tenants of . . the lands of William Williams gent and 
the same or moste pert thereof were purchased by leiin ap William gent late father 
of the said William Williams. And he sayeth that before the said purchase the owners 
and occupiers of the said messuages tenements and lands w"^"" the said two deffs nowe 
doe holde and occupie did use to grinde their corn and griest in his Ma'''* said mille 
except the same happened to be out of repaire or to want water. But whether they 
were bounde to do suit to the said mill he doth not knowe and he sayeth that all other 
the tenants w"^'' holde of the said of the said lordship or manor of fishgard as well 
those that doe inhabit and dwell within the borough as those that dwell without the 
borough within tregroes and ells where within the menor of fishgard as farr as he 
knoweth have always during all the tyme of this deponents remembraunce used to 
grind their seuerall corne and graine growing upon the seuerall tenements at his 
Ma"*' said mill. But whether they ought soe to doe he knoweth not. To the seventh 
interr he sayeth that there is yerelie payed out of all the tenements and lands within 
the said manor an yerelie chief rent to his Ma'''* use at Maye and Michaelmas and the 
occupante of the same tenants did paye the same rent yerelie. To the eighth interr he 
sayeth that the said two deffs Robert ttein and Griffith Nicholas have of late brought 
their corne to be ground to the mill of the said William Williams at some tymes and at 
some other tymes to his Ma'*' said mill. To the nyneth and xth interr he sayeth that 



' The meadow under the wood on the ridge. * Roll. 



^ 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 195 

about iiij yeeres now last past upon complaint made on the nowe pis behelff at a Leete 
Court holden for the said manor [torn] that the def Owen Phees had encroched upon 
pert of the said meadow [torn] great inquest sworne at the said leete repayred to the 
said medowe [torn]' where divers witnesses whereof this deponent was one were 
examined thereon. Who proved what they knew themselves and what had ben . . ' 
and reported to them touching the meeres of the said meadow . . * the same and 
the lands of the said deff Owen. And as the same meeres . . . ' shewed and 
proved by witnesses upon their oune knowledges . . * they hard of other old men 
before it appered and soe it was found by the said jurie that the said deffs Owen had 
encroched and drawen to his land the said medowe and further dothe not depose. 

John Mendus of fishgard in the county of Pembroke weaver of the age of Ix yeres 
and upwards alsoe sworne and examined upon the interr aforesaid on the said Complts 
behalffe deposeth and sayeth as followeth. To the first interr he sayeth that he knoweth 
both pties and doth knowe the moste part of the Lordship of fishingard in the Corn of 
Pembroke and the water mill within the said manor being the King's Ma'''* mill and 
the medowe nowe in question w"='' he knewe and heard call by the name of Y Weyrglod 
dan goed y dryn and one part thereof called Gardd y Gwenyn^ w"^*" medowe as this 
deponent taketh it and as it hath bene shewed him and as he was informed by olde 
people doth lye in the lordship and parish of fishingard in the Com of Pembroke. And 
he hath knowen the same premises for the space of these 43 years or thereabouts. To 
the second interr he sayeth that he knoweth the mill of William Williams gent in the 
same interr menconed but doth remember when it was bilt but knoweth the Kings 
Ma''*' .said mill hath had continuance tyme out of mynde. To the third interr he 
sayeth that when he was a boye repayring to the churche of ffishgard many yeres past he 
sawe then there a company of the men of the said lordship. And as then he heard it 
said and repeated they were a jurie sworn to survey the said Lordship. And the lands 
thereof. And then it was reported that they found the said medowe to be parcel of 
the said lordship. And that our late lady soueraigne lady Elizabeth late Queene of 
England was then seased thereof as parcel of the said manor. And it was then 
reported that the said jurie found this medowe to be lyinge in the lordship and parish 
of ffishingarde. And he sayeth that he knoweth that his this deponents father was 
one of the said jurie. And he sayeth that the first yere that the said medowe bare haye 
and was tornd' for meadow was about 20 yeres past and that yere this deponent took to 
rent the 4th part of the said meadow and three others of his neighbours tooke the 
other three parts at 6d parte and that yere John Jermyn then farmer of fishgarde had 
the tithe heye of the said medowe. To the 4th interr he sayethe that aboute fortie 
yeres past and for certein yeres then after all the freeholders and tenants of the said 
lordship of ffishingarde did from tyme to tyme use and accustome to grinde their come 
and grist w*^"" grewe upon the growndes and tenements at his Ma"'* said mill of the 
s"* lordship excepte the mill were decayed or wanted water but sithenoe some dwellinge 
out of the s<* lordship have purchased certein tenements in the said lordship and some 
of those purchasers caused theire tenants of those tenements to withdrawe their suite 
from his Ma'"' said mill and to bringe theire corne to the said purchasers owne mills 
and by the then reporte it was thought and reported that all the tenants of the said 

' All torn or illegible. ' The bees* garden, or enclosure. ' Turned. 

13 a 



196 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Lordship ought to doe suite to his Ma''" said mill. To the vth interr he sayeth that 
leun ap William of Manor Nawen did heretofore purchase the tenemts and lands 
nowe in the occupacon of the defFs Robert ttein and Griffith Nicholas. And they for 
a long time after sale thereof made and did suite and brought theire corne to his 
Ma"'' said mill except the same were out of repaire or wanted water. But after the 
death of the said leiiii ap W" they were drawen by William Williams their landlord 
to his mill. To the rest of the interr he can say noe more than formerlie he hath 
answered and further dothe not depose. 

James Phillips of Ste Edryns in the County of Pembroke husband man of the 
age of 60 yeres or thereabouts also sworn and examined upon the Interr aforesaid on 
the said Complts behalf deposeth and sayeth as followeth. To the ist interr he sayeth 
that he knoweth both parties the manor or lordship of Fishingard in the Com of 
Pembroke and the Kings Ma''" mill within the said manor and hath known the same 
these 48 yeres nowe last or thereabouts to all the rest of the interr he sayth that he was 
borne in the parish of ffishingard and dwelt there wth his father at tree yeres until he 
was aboute xxtie yeres of age and then being about fortie yeres past removed thence to 
Ste Edryns some 6 miles thence. And doth not knowe any thinge of the said 
mill since. But before this deponents removeable out of the said parish of ffishgard 
this deponents father being a freeholder dwelling at Tregroes' in the said lordship of 
ffishingard and brought his corne to his Ma''** said myll allwayes excepte the same was 
oute of repaire or wanted water. And further doth not depose. 

John David Walker of ffishingard in the Com of Pembroke husbandman of the 
age of Ixxvij yeares or thereabouts alsoe sworne and examined upon the interr aforesaid 
on the said pltfs behalf deposeth and sayeth as followeth. To the first interr he sayeth 
that he knoweth both parties and the manor of ffishingarde afores'^ and his Ma''" mill 
within the said manor and hath knowne the same for the space of these 60 yeres nowe 
last past or thereabouts to all the rest of the interr he sayeth that allwayes from tyme 
to tyme duringe all this deponents memorie all the tenants and freeholders of the said 
lordship or manor of fishingard as well those that inhabited and dwelt within the 
borough as without the borough in tregroes and ells where within the said manor have 
used and accustomed to grind their several corne and graine growing upon their several 
tenements at his Ma''*' said mill and at noe other mill except his Ma''*' said mill 
shold happen to be out of repair or want water untill that Jevan ap William of Maner 
Nawen did purchase the lands nowe in the occupation of Robert ttien and Griffith 
Nicholas and after the said purchase drewe them to his mill. And farther doth not 
depose. 

Depwsitions of witnesses taken at fishingard in the Coin of Pembroke the xixth 
day of August the 14th year of the reign of our lord James bv the grace of God of 
England France and Ireland King defender of the Faith etc. Before James Thomas 
gent Edward Powell gent Owen Picton gent and Alban Lloyd gent. Bv virtue of the 
King's Ma''*' writte of Commission to them directed etc. for and on behalf of the 
Defendants. 



' The Cross house. 



.^ 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 197. 



Witnesses on the part of the Defendts Moris David of the parish of Llanunda in 
the Com of Pembroke yeoman aged four score and sixe yeares and upwards being sworn 
and examined on the defts behalf upon the Interrogatories annexed deposeth and 
sayeth as foUoweth. To the ist Interrogatory he saieth that he knoweth both parties 
plaintiff and defts and knoweth the water mill leyeing in the parishe and lordship of 
fishgard in that interrogatorie named held by the plaintife or his under tenante by lease 
from the late Queenes Ma'"' and knoweth the parcel of meadow ground claimed by the 
plaintife to be held from the said late Queen by lease and hath knowne the said mill 
and parcell of meadow grounde this threescore and fifteene years or thereabouts. To 
the 5th 6th 7 th and 8th interrogatorie this deponent sayeth that the said deft Owen 
Phillips in that interr named is seased in his demeasne as of ffee of and in the messuage 
or ten' of lands therein mentioned called the Dryne* and that part therein adjoined to 
the plaintiffs lands being less than an acre by this deponents estimation. And sayeth 
that the River called Goodige for all the time of this Deponents memorie hath bene 
reputed and taken to be the Landscare^ and division between the parish of fishgard and 
betwene the hundreds of Kemes and Dewsland and knoweth that the course of the 
said River hath bene as nowe it is this threescore and fifteen years and sayeth that the 
said percel of meadow grounde lieth in the parish of Llanunda and the reason of his 
knowledge herein is that he this deponent heretofore about eight or nine yeares past 
bought the teyth hay growing uppon the said parcel of meadow of Sir Hugh tten' 
clerk Vicar of Llanunda and caried the same home. And sayeth that the said vicar had 
and enjoyed the said teyth haye to his owne use during all his life tyme without 
contradiction to this deponents knowledge. And sayeth that he never knewe or hard 
that the Lordship or parish of fishgard doth or did extend to the Northwest anie further 
than the said river and further dothe not depose. 

Philip Jenkin of the parish of Llanunda in the Com of Pembroke mason adged 
fourscore and sixe yeares and upwards sworne and examined on the defendants behalf 
de|X)seth and sayeth as followeth. To the first interrogatorie this deponent sayeth that 
he knoweth both parties plaintiffs and defendants and knoweth the parcell of meadow 
grounde claymed by the plaintife to be held from the late Queen's Ma'' by lease and 
hath known the same verie nigh this fourscore yeares past. To the 5th 6th and all the 
rest of the Interrogatories this deponent sayeth that the defft Owen Phillipes in the 5th 
interr named is seazed on his demeasne as of fee of and in the messuages tenements and 
lands in that interr named called Drym in the perish of Llanunda and adjoyneth to the 
plaintiffs lands. And sayeth that a great brooke or river running upon the South east 
of the said Owen Phes lands called the Drym which river is called the River of Goodige 
which is and for all the time of this deponents memorie hath bene reputed and taken 
(all the waye of the course thereof to the sea) to be a Landscare and division between 
the parishes of fishgard and Lanunda and betweene the hundred of Kemes and 
Dewsland and sayeth that the said River dothe nowe runne and during all the tyme 
of this deponents memorie did runne the self same waye into the Mayne sea without 
change or alteration of his course. And sayeth that the said parcell of meadow grounde 
lieth in the parish of Llanunda and that part tliereof doth belonge to the pltf by vertue 
of his lease from the late Queen's Ma''"= and another parte to the defendant Owen 

' The ridge. - landscare =: lioundary. " Llewelen. 



198 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 



Phillipes. And sayeth that the parishe or lordship of fishgard doth not nor never did 
to this deponents knowledge extend to the Northwest anie further than the said river. 
And further doth not depose. 

John Hughe of the parish of Llanunda in the Coin of Pembroke yeoman 
aged threescore and sixe yeares or thereabouts sworne and examined on the 
defendants behalf deposeth and sayeth as ffolloweth. To the ist interr he sayeth 
that he knoweth both parties plaintiff and defendants and knoweth the water mill in 
that interr named and the parcel of ground in variance and hath known the said 
percel of ground this threescore yeeres or thereabouts. To the 5th and all the rest of 
the interr this deponent sayeth that the defendte Owen Phillips is seazed in his 
demeasne as of fee of and in the messuage ten''' and lands in the Vth interr mentioned 
called Drym and knoweth the said parcell of meadow claymed by the pltf to be within 
the parish of Llanunda (for ought this deponent knoweth). And sayeth that the ri\'er 
called Goodige is and for ought he knoweth hath bene tyme out of mind the Landscore 
and division betweene the parishe of fishgard and Llanunda and between the hundreds 
of Kemes and Dewsland. And this deponent remembreth that the course of the said 
river doth now runne in the channel that yt hath used to passe this 60 yeers together 
without change or alteration of his course. And further dothe not depose. 





^ 

^ 



.^ 



u 




CHAPTER XVIII. 



RELICS. 




OWARDS the end of the seventeenth century discontent with the 
Established Church of England gained ground, finally cul- 
minating in such disturbances over the religious question that 
in some places troops had to be called out to quell the riots. It 
was about this time that the old parish Church of St. Dogmaels became 
involved in the trouble, and was partly pulled down, a window and a portion 
of a wall were left, and formed part of one of the cottages built on its site; 
several other cottages were also built in the churchyard, all signs of tombstones 
being removed. 

According to old deeds, " St. Thomas the Apostle," the old parish Church 
of St. Dogmaels " lay between two mills," near the present National Schools in 
Davies Street. One of these mills is still in existence, the other was in ruins 
some years ago. 

In 1905 two of these old cottages, both rented by widows, and belonging 
to a sea captain, were pulled down, in order that he might build himself a 
comfortable house to retire to. The builder excavating at the site of the southern 
cottage, expecting to find sand for building, came upon some ancient stone 
coffins' in good preservation, some still containing skeletons, the head of one 
of the skeletons lying just beneath the usual seat of one of the old widows, as 
she sat beside her hearth. In all there were about sixteen coffins found; four of 
these were of slate slabs joined together, the others having only loose slabs at 
the two sides, ends, and top. 

In pulling down the other cottage, the ancient stone framework of a 
Gothic window was found, and some remains of the old church wall, built of 
an exceedingly hard stone, reddish in colour, probably the same " Redd Stone " 

' For this information I am indebted to Capt. Jones, " Cardigan I5ay," and the builder, there 
being no remains of coflfins and bones left when the author visited the spot. 



200 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

mentioned by George Owen in his " Description of Pembrokeshire," and 
described as a 

" Kynde of freestone, which for fynes and collor passeth all other yet spoken 
of, which is a bludd red stone, and will be hewen very well, and make fine worke, this 
is very perfect red myxt with some brownesses and will serve to make faer and lardge 
windows, mantell trees and all other hewen work both within and without the house 
& against weather is most durable .... I find it in many places in the ruins 
of the Abbey of St. Dogmaels. Yt is founde in Moelgrove in the Cornefieldes . . . 
and also in the sea clyffes there." 

There is also a quarry of this stone on the Pantsaeson Estate. 

These remains undoubtedly belong to the ancient Church of St. Thomas, 
as these cottages lay in the position indicated between the two old mills. The 
north cottage was undoubtedly part of the church, whilst the south cottage 
was built over part of the graveyard. The site of this old church adjoins the 
present National School. The account taken from the Tivyside Observer the 
week after here follows, dated October 20th, 1905 : 

INTERESTING ANTIQUARIAN FIND AT ST. DOGMELLS. 



On Tuesday last, at Shingrig, St. Dogmells, an interesting discovery was 
made that points to olden times in connection with the village. M^srs. H. O. 
Davies and John Bowen, contractors, having recently been engaged in building 
a new house just below the National School, and in the course of clearing away 
the rubbish of some out-buildings, discovered three stone-lined graves 
apparently of considerable antiquity. Two of them were empty, with the 
exception of dust and fine ashes at the bottom, but the third contained a 
quantity of human bones, thoroughly decayed, but still recognisable. It is 
said the old building pulled down was a portion of the ancient Church of 
St. Dogmells, and pronounced by Fenton, the historian of Pembrokeshire, to 
have existed long before the present parish church was built. Fenton, nearly 
a century ago, stated that the old church of the parish stood between two mills, 
and such is the case with the old building, now pulled down, as it stood between 
an old mill opposite the Cardigan Bay Inn, and the present mill, occupied by 
Mr. Gwynne. The building now demolished had two pine ends, one of 
comparatively modern date, but still of old formation, and the other was 
evidently a portion of the old church, as it contained the remains of a window 
with grooves for glass in the stonework, which points to its being really the 



> 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 301 

eastern window of the ancient edifice, and appears to be coeval with the Abbey 
itself, the formation of the window being in red stone similar to those now 
extant in the abbey ruins. This supposition may be ratified by the fact that 
there is nothing to show that the present St. Dogmells Churchyard dated 
further back than the seventeenth century, and the present find, if equal in 
antiquity to the abbey, would go back to some date between the eleventh and 
seventeenth centuries. Probably we may hear something more upon the matter. 

A little further up the hill were the ruins of the old Vicarage. 

In a dispute relating to the lay rectorship of St. Dogmaels, and the 
claiming of rectorial tithes, October 15th, 1691, many of the old witnesses 
deposed to remembering an ancient chapel belonging to the Abbey, and still 
visible, and recently used for " divine service," and to seeing a pulpit still 
remaining, made of green stone. This pulpit, as related elsewhere, was made 
of greenish porphyritic granite, the same as used for the Ogham stone; also 
Anne Davies testifies that she also saw a tombstone of this green stone, and a 
baptismal font within the said chapel. This was evidently St. Thomas's 
Church, still standing in 1691, but apparently no longer used. The deed will 
doubtless be of special interest to all those who live in St. Dogmaels, the farms 
still bearing the same names that they did 216 years ago, and some of the same 
family neune still surviving in and around St. Dogmaels. Thomas Lloyd, one 
of the Commissioners, was undoubtedly then living at Hendre, where they still 
lived in 1741, his descendants soon after moving to Cwmgloyne. Mr. Parry, 
another of the Commissioners, has descendants in the female line still living in 
the neighbourhood. 

The farm herein mentioned as Manaian Fawr, where an ancient stone was 
found in 1904, used as a gate-post, and removed last year to the Abbey 
grounds for safety, inscribed with a long floreated cross intersected by a 
St. Andrew's cross, and having circles also inscribed between the arms of the 
cross fleure. 

Sayings and Depositions of witnesses taken swome and examined upon their 
corporall oathes at the towne Hall of Cardigan the 15th Oct 169 1 by and before 
Thomas Jones gent Roger Philips gent Thomas Lloyd esq and John Parry Com- 
missioners etc. for the defendants behalf. 

JAMES GRIFFITH of the perish of Bayvill aged 80 years and upwards sayth 
that he knoweth the Abbey or Monastery of St. Dogmells and the close and site and 
all that belongs to the same for the space of 30 years last past and further sayth that 
he doth not know nor ever heard of any manner of tith or any other decimal duty or 
anything else in lieu thereof payed or rendered by or from the inhabitants or land- 
holders that inhabited or dwelt or held occupied or enjoyed or manured any messuaga 



2oa THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

lands tenements pieces closes or parcels of land that is or lyes within the site or close 
wall now in the ixjssession of the said defendants neither did this deponent know of 
any manner of tithe or anything else in lieu thereof claimed or demanded by the said 
plaintiff or b\' any other person or persons of or from such person or persons as did any 
time hold occupy manure or enjoy any lands closes pieces or parcels of land that is 
or lye within the said site or close wall. And the reason of this deponents knowledge 
herein is for that he inhabited and dwelt as a husbandman or Dairyman for the space 
of three years in a certain tenement of land of David Parry Esq called Menion Vawe' 
under Robert Lloyd who rented the same of said Mr. Parry or his agent and likewise 
five years more as Dairyman or husbandman in another tenement of land of the said 
Mr. Parry called Ty Hyr' under the said Robert Lloyd and five or six yeers more under 
one James Griffith who rented the same from the s"* Mr. Parry both w'^'> s"* tenements 
doe lye and are within the wall and site close belonging to the said Abby or monastery 
of St. Dogmells. And during all the time that the Deponent dwelt and inhabited in 
the s"* tenements and sowed ploughed manured and reaped in and upon the said 
premises there was no manner of tith or any other decimal duty claimed or demanded 
of or from this Deponent from the Rector or impropriator of St. Dogmells or his 
agent neither was there any manner of tithe corne or grayne or any other titheable 
duty or anything else in lieu thereof payed or rendered for such corn or grayne as was 
plowed sowed reaped or raised in and upon s"* premises by this Deponent etc. 

JAMES GRIFFITH of the town of Cardigan gent aged 60 years sayth he 
knoweth the Abby of St. Dogmells for about 60 years last past and likewise knows all 
the messuages etc. within the site close wall or precinct of the said Abbey and that all 
the messuages lands tenements etc. in the s"* def" possession that is or lyes within the 
s** close or site of the said Abby by some Auncient custome or usage is and hath beene 
freed dischardged and exempted of and from paym' of tythes or any other decimal 
dutye to the Rector or Impropriator of the parish of St. Dogmell neither was there any 
manner of tythes or tenths paid or rendered or claimed or demanded from landholders 
within the said site for the space of 60 yeers last past nor of or from one particular 
field or close called Arlaise. And the reeson of this deponents knowledge herein is 
for that he was imployed and concerned for Abell Griffith gen' deponents father in 
his life-time as agent or steward to his said father who held several messuages within 
the said site called Menian Vawr and Ty Hyr' and did usually sowe or look after 
the sowing dividing and threshing of all or most of the corn or grayne that did yeerely 
grow in and upon the said severall premises for severall years while he this deponents 
said father held the said premises and likewise sayeth that Mathew Griffith this 
deponent's brother succeeded his s** father in the enjoyment of the said premises 
as tenant to David Parry esq. 

THOMAS PHILIP HENRY of the parish of Neverne Co. Pembroke husband- 
man aged 80 saithe that he knows the Abby of St. Dogmells and the Parke Close site 
wall etc. And that there was an old chajjpell belonging or appertaining to the said 
Abbey and hath known the same premises with its appurts for the space of sixty five 
years last past and upwards and further sayth he knoweth all and every the severall 



' Manaian Fawr ? Man eigiun = the place by the sea. -' The long house. 



^ 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 203 

messuages tenements lands etc. within the said park and that the same was and time 
out of mind hath been exempted and discharged of and from payment of tith or tenth 
or any other decimal duty or annything else in lieu thereof to the Rector or 
Impropriator of St. Dogmells or to his agents or servants for the time being and saith 
that he was credibly informed by his Mother who lived and dwelt with some of her 
relations in the time of her virginity upon a certain tenement within the said site and 
close wall or precinct called Menian Vawr that all the messuages and within the s"* close 
by some Auncient custom or usage time out of mind wherof the memory of man not to 
the contrary was and hath beene freed exempted and discherdged of and from the 
payment of any tithe or tenth and the reason of this Deponents knowledge was and is 
that he was born and bred in the parish of St. Dogmells called the Great parish and 
was and hath been a covenant servant unto Abell Griffith gent who took to rent or 
fFarm the s** premises that lyes within the site etc. called Menian Vawr and this 
dejxjnent was plowing sowing and reaping upon the s"* premises and never heard of any 
tith or tenth ever claimed or demanded and deposeth that it is usually and anciently 
called the little parish. And he did follow plow etc. upon severall tenements within 
the close and particularly upon a certain piece called Arlaise and no manner of tithe 
was paid or rendered for the same. And further sayth that there is a certain tenement 
of land called Clawdd Cam' now in the possession of the def Anne Martine, that 
some part thereof is and lyes within the said close and some other part without etc. 
and for such as is or lyes within the s"* Park close etc. no manner of tithe was ever payd 
or rendered or claymed and for such pert of the said premises as lyes without the said 
close was and is tithable. 

MATHEW THOMAS of the parish of St. Dogmells Husbandman aged 57 saith 
that he hath known the Abbey of St. Dogmells and the close etc. since he came to 
any knowledge he being bred and born in the said parish and believes that David 
Parry esq is the right owner and proprietor of the said Abby and further deposeth that 
there was and is an auncient chappeli that belongs and lyes within the s"* Abby or 
Monastery where this depjonent supposeth and believes might be a place of Divine 
worship or prayers in the time of the Ancient Abbotts and likewise believes that all and 
every the severall messuages lands etc. that is and lyes within the s^ site was the 
Auncient demesne belonging and appertaining to the same and to the Abbots thereof 
and further sayth that all and singular the messuages etc. within the s"* site hath been 
ever since this deponents remembrance freed exempted and discharged of and from the 
paying or rendering of any manner of tithe or tenth etc. and this deponent was ever 
since his nativity an inhabitant and dwells to this day within aforesaid parish of St. 
Dogmells and hath been often Reteyned and employed by the owners and proprietors 
of the said Rectory of St. Dogmells to gather and collect tithes within the said Rectory 
and more particularly in gathering tith of corn and grayne that grew upon the 
messuages bordering on such site and deposeth that there is a certain tenement called 
Clawdd Cam some part thereof without the site pays tith etc. And further sayeth that 
there is one field close or piece of land grounde called Parke le Cleg^ that is and 
hath been Reputed deemed or taken to be within the precincts or demesne there and 



The crooked ditch. Cleg = a hard mass, a lump. The field of the place of the hard mass. 



304 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

that the same is likewise freed discharged and exempted of and from paying or 
Rendering any manner of tithe etc. 

OWEN JAMES of the parish of St. Dogmells husbandman aged 79 sayth that 
he knows the Abbey of St. Dogmells for the space of 60 years and sayeth that Mr. 
Bradshaw was the owner or proprietor of the same when first this depon' knew it and 
believes the same is now the right inheritance of David Parry esq and that all the 
messuages etc. within the site is usually called Parke yr Abbot or Litte Parish and 
reputed to be the demesne lands of the said Abby and that there hath been and yet is 
an Ancient chappell within the said Monastery where this deponent verily believes and 
was likewise credibly informed was a place anciently used and imployed for the 
Abbottes and others the owners and proprietors of the said Abby for the reading of 
Divine service and exercising Divine worship and Religion and the reason of this 
deponents knowledge and belief herein is for that he this Deponent hath seen the 
ancient reading seat or pulpit anciently used there for that purpose and that part of 
the said reading desk or pulpit is yet to be seen for the confirmation of this Depon'' 
knowledge herein and further sayeth that all the messuages etc. within the said site 
have been time out of mind exempt from paying of tithe. And there is a percel called 
Clawdd Cam [deposeth as the other witnesses] . . . and sayeth that there is two 
several closes or percels of land called Parke Pen y Gragge* and Parke y Hinen^ now 
in the possession of the def William Parry by the grant of David Parry Esq which did 
always pay tithe to the Rectory of St. Dogmells and two other closes or parcels of 
ground called Parke y reese' and Parke y Coed* now in possession of s"* William 
Parry is not nor hath been tithable in regard that the same did belong as part of the 
demesne land belonging to the s^ Abby. 

JOHN BEYNON of the parish of St. Dogmells labourer aged 78 saith he 
knoweth the said Abbey site etc. for 55 years last past and that the messuages etc. 
within the said site hath been time out of mind exempt from tithe and this deponent 
heard or believes that the reason that the s"* severall premises was and is exempt and 
discharged from the payment of tithe for that the said ancient Abbots or owners of 
the s^ Aljby keepe annuite for the reading of Divine service and exercising of Divine 
worship and Religion in a certain old chappell that was and yet is within the s^ Abbey 
in w'^'" s"* chappell there was an ancient pulpit or reading seat and yet remaines part 
thereof for that purpxise as this deponent veryly believes . . [deposeth as before as 
to Clawdd Cam etc.] 

JOHN MORRIS of the town of Cardigan alderman a witness formerly produced 
for plaintiffs knoweth the Abby and site and never heard if any tithe paid from 
messuages within said site and about 35 veers since was Agent for James Phillips esq 
for getting the tithes of St. Dogmell and doth not remember any tithe paid or rendered 
out of the premises mentioned and sayeth that he is a tenant of S'' John Cope Knt 
impropriator of Mount and Llechrid Co. Cardigan and that the chapelries of 
Llechryd pays assessmt as of the Rectory or parish of Llangoedmore notwithstanding 



' Crugiau ^ Crags. - ? Eilbinen = Gorse, the gurse field. 

' Rhys' field. ' The field of the wood. 



^ 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. aS 

that the Rector or parson of Llangoedmore doth not nor hath not receaved any manner 
of tithe out or from the messuages etc. within the s"* chapel of Llechryd or the 
inhabitants thereof. 

ENGHERARD GRIFFITH of the parish of St. Dogmells widow aged 70 sayth 
that she knows the Abbey and precinct for 60 years past and the messuages etc. within 
the site have been time out of mind exempt from tith, she was bred and born in St. 
Dogmells [and deposeth as the others]. 

THOMAS JONES of the parish of Menerdlvy^ Co. Pembroke gent aged 57 
sayth that he hath heard of the Abbey and believes the same to be the inheritance of 
David Parry Esq and that the said David Parry Esq of two parts out of three parts 
the whole into three parts divided of the two severall and respective impropriations or 
Chapelry of Kilsy' Vawr and Llangolman penbeador* in the Co. of Pembroke and the 
tythes arising out of the same. And that William Jenkins gent is intitled to the s** 
other third part of the said premises and the tithes and profits arising from the same 
and further sayth that the said chapelry of Kill y Vawr pays all manner of taxations 
and impositions excepting Church rates as of the same were part and parcel of a 
certain rectory or parish adjoining and bordering to the said chapel of Kill y vawr 
called the Rectory of Manerding and that the s<* chapel of Llangolman Penbeador 
likewise lyeth and bordereth upon the rectory of Llannyhangell Penbeador and 
notwithstanding that the inhabitants of the said chapelry of Llanfyhangell' penbeador 
doe always pay all manner of tithe to the s^ Mr. Parry and Mr. Jenkins the inhabitants 
and landholders of the said chapelry of Llangolman' penbeador doe and time out of 
mind hath been by some ancient custom charged with all manner of offices and lyeable 
to taxations etc. as if they were residing within the said Rectory of Llanfyhangell 
penbeador aforsd etc. 

MARGARET RICHARD of the parish of St. Dogmells widow aged 66 hath 
known the Abbey and precinct for 55 yeers and that there is an ancient chappel in or 
near the said Abby and now visible and that all the messuages within the ring or 
precinct called Parke y Abbot have been time out of mind exempt from payment of 
tithe as she hath been credibly informed by her ancestors and several of the ancient 
people that heretofore were bred and born in the said parish and veil knew of the 
ancient customs and usages. And she was bred and lx)rn in Menian Vawr now or late 
in the tenure or occupation of George Lewis one of the defendants. 

MORGAN BOWEN of the parish of Verwick Co. Cardigan husbandman aged 
70 knoweth the monastery or site etc. and that there was and yet is an ancient chapelF 
now visible which was anciently used for the reading of Divine service and for burying 
and interring of the dead that should dye within the precincts of the said Abbey and 
verily believes that without doubt the tithes and tenths of the said Abby landes was 
imployed intended and apply'd for the said Abby and the messuages etc within the 
precinct have been ever exempted from paying tithe [and further deposeth as the rest]. 



' Anghand. The Teify Manor. Cilfawr. Penbedw = Head of the birches. 

' The angels' enclosure. ' St. Colman's enclosure. ' St. Thomas. 



se6 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

ANNE DAVIES of the town of Cardigan widow aged 80 yeers knoweth the 
Abby and the ancient chappell that i.s within and belonging to the said Abby and that 
she did see a tombe or grave one made of Green stone and likewise a baptizeing fTont 
and alsoe a pulpitt for the reading of Divine service within the said chapel. And that 
all and singular the lands and tenements that did anciently belong to the said was by 
some ancient right or custom time out of mind exempted from payment of tithe. And 
that the tithes of such lands was intended and imployed for the use of the said Abby 
or chappell as this deponent was credibly informed. And that certain fields and closes 
now the inheritance of David Parry esq was formerly in the tenure or occupation of 
this deponent viz one field or Close called Parke glas* ,and another called Park y ffryer' 
and another called Park weirglodd' vaier all which premises were tyme out of mind 
exempt from payment of tithe etc. 

At Michaelmas, 1691, 3 William and Mary, the King and Queen jointly 
commanded four Commissioners, namely, Thomas Jones, gent., Roger Philipps, 
gent., Thomas Lloyd, Esq., and John Parry, or two of them, to hold an 
inquisition on behalf of Julius Deeds, Esq., plaintiff, and of the ten defendants 
named in the inquisition, respecting the disputed lay rectorship, Mr. Deeds 
claiming the rectorial tithes, whilst the defendants refused to pay them, 
claiming exemption from tithes, owing to the lands named having previously 
belonged to the Abbey. Mr. Deeds' witnesses, however, claimed to have 
previously paid the rectorial tithes to Mr. Deeds, and an assessor asserted that 
he had collected them. It was no unusual thing in those days for the Lord of 
the Manor to let out the lay rectorship. There are several examples of this in 
the old deeds belonging to Cardigan Priory. Apparently at this time Mr. 
David Parry owned the greater part of St. Dogmaels. The previous examina- 
tion of the defendant's witnesses should follow this, but for the sake of the 
evidence therein, respecting the old parish Church of St. Dogmaels, it has been 
placed next to the account of the old church, the examination of the plaintiff's 
witnesses following this order of William and Mary. 

On the same day in the same year, 3 William and Mary, is an examination 
as to the " Tithes of St. Dogmaels," in the Exchequer Depositions, taken at the 
Town Hall in Cardigan, before the same four Commissioners mentioned in the 
last case, wherein Julius Deeds, Esq., is the plaintiff, and claims the rectorial 
tithes of St. Dogmaels. 

The first witness, James Griffiths, states that " he did pay church rate and 
poor rate," and also " did pay to his landlord [David Parry] for his share of 
tythe," which was " the fourth part of all Corn, Woole, Lambes, and other 
tythable things," and that he did not know the plaintiff. 

' The green field. ' The friar's field. St. Maiy's meadow. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. M? 

The next witness knows all the defendants and the plaintiff, and believes 
the Rectory Impropriate belongs to Julius Deeds, he having been " Sessor " 
within the parish of St. Dogmaels, and had charged Julius Deeds, as 
Impropriator, in the said rates, and they had been paid ; and that Julius Deeds, 
or his agent, received the tithe both great and small of the said parish, many 
other witnesses testifying to the same, especially John Morris, gentleman, of 
Cardigan, whose evidence is fuller and more interesting. 

This is followed on the 13th February, probably 1692, by a decision of the 
three Judges, Sir Nicholas Lechmere, Sir John Turton, and Sir John Powell, 
Knights, three of the Barons of the Court of Exchequer, at Westminster. The 
verdict was in favour of the plaintiff, Mr. Julius Deeds, and the defendants 
were ordered to pay the rectorial tithes to him. 

ExCH. Depositions. William and Mary. Mich. 12. 

(Writ.) 

William and Mary by the grace of God King and Queen of England Scotland 
France and Ireland defenders of the faith etc. to our beloved Thomas Jones gent 
Roger Philipjjs gent Thomas Lloyd esq and John Parry greeting. Know ye that we 
having full confidence in your fidelity industry and provident circumspection in the 
conduct of our affairs have assigned you or two or more of you and do give and commit 
to you full power and authority by these presents diligently to examine any witnesses 
whatsoever of and upon certain articles and interrogatories as well on behalf of Julius 
Deeds esquire pltf as on behalf of George Lewis David Thomas William Parry Hector 
Gambold John Gambold William Rees Anne Martin Alice Rowland David Griffith and 
David Howells def" before you or two or more of you to be exhibited or delivered. 
And so we charge you that at such a day and place or days and places as you for this 
purpose shall provide the aforesaid witnesses before you or two or more of you you 
summon and cause to come and the said witnesses and every of them by themselves 
separately of and upon the articles or Interrogatories aforesaid upon their oaths before 
you or two or more of you by the holy gospels corporally to be taken you shall diligently 
examine or two or more of you shall examine and the examinations you shall take you 
shall reduce into writing on parchment and etc. when you shall have taken the same 
to the Barons of our Exchequer at Westminster from the day of St. Michael next 
ensuing in one month under your seals or two or more of you enclosed }ou .send or two 
or more of you send together with the Inetrrogatories aforesaid and this writ Provided 
that John Woolley shall have warning by the space of fourteen days of the day and 
place of your first session about the execution of this writ. Witness Robert Atlyns Knt 
Given at Westmr the ist July the third year of our reign 

by the Barons. 

Provided that before the within named defendants shall examine any witnesses by 



mS the history of ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

virtue of this commission they shall first pay or cause to be paid to the within-named 

pltf or his solicitor 9s. 4d. half of the fee for this writ. 

Endd. Execution of this writ appears in certain schedules to this attached. 

Thos Jones. 
Ro Phillips. 
Tho Lloyd. 
John Parry. 

ExcHEQ. Deposns. 3 Will, and Mary. Mixed Counties. Mich. No. 12. 
Tithes of St. Dogmael's. 

Sayings and depositions of witnesses taken sworn and examined at the town-hall 
of Cardigan in the County of Cardigan by virtue of their Majesties Commission unto 
us Thomas Jones Roger Phillips Thomas Lloyd Esqrs and John Parry gent directed 
from their Ma'''' Court of Exchequer for the swearing and examining of witnesses 
in a matter or cause depending at issue in the said honorable Courte. Wherein Julius 
Deeds Esq is plaintiff and George Lewis David Thomas William Parris* Hector 
Gambold John Gambold William Rees Anne Martin Alice Rouland David Griffith 
and David Howells are defend" the 15th Oct 1691 and that on the plaintiffs behaulfe 
as followeth. 

JAMES GRIFFITH of the parish of Bayvill in the county of Pembroke 
yeoman aged eighty years or thereabouts. To the first interrogatorie this deponent 
sayeth that he doth not know the plaintiff Julius Deeds in the title or heading in the 
said Interrogatorie named by doth know George Lewis William Parry Hector Gambold 
John Gambold Anne Martin Alice Rouland David Griffiths and David Howells in the 
said Interrogatorie named defendants. To the third interrogatorie and all the rest this 
depxjnent sayeth that he knoweth several pieces or parcels of ten" in the severall 
possessions of the defendants lyeing or reputed to lye within the scite close wall or 
precinct of the late dissolved monastery and that he hath lived for some years in Ty Hir 
and Manegan as dayrieman to one Robert Lloyde and this deponent sayeth that the 
severall pieces or parcels of land the scite close or wall was reputed and taken to be 
part and parcel of the parish of St. Dogmaels and did always beare offices and pay 
rates as pert and parcel of the said parish and that he this deponent did pay church 
rate and poor rate during the tyme he lived in the tenement aforesaid towards the 
Church and poore of the perish of St. Dogmaels and this deponent further sayeth that 
during the tyme that he lived in the said lands which was three years this Deponent 
did pay to his landlord for his share of tythe which was the fourth part of all the 
Corn Woole Lambes and other tythable things and this Deponent likewise sayth that 
the tythe of ty Hir and Manegan was scne yeares worth five poundes and some 
yeares three poundes and further deposeth not. 

JAMES ROWLAND of the parish of St. Dogmells Co. Pembroke gent agtfd fifty 
years or thereabouts deposeth that he knoweth all the defendants and hath heard of 
the plaintiffs. To the 2nd interrogatorie he sayth that the Rectory Impropriate of 

' Parry. 



: 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 209 

St. Dogmells and doth verily Believe that Julius Deeds Esq is Impropriator or Rector 
of the said parish and the reason of this deponents belief herein is that he this 
deponent hath several times been Sessor within the said parish and that he did charge 
the said plaintiff in the said Rate as Impropriator and that the said Rates were 
accordingly paid and that the said plaintiff and his agents do receave the tithe of the 
said parish both great and small. To the 3rd Interr he sayeth that he knoweth severall 
pieces or parcels of land belonging to the said Abby of St. Dogmells for about twenty 
years ago which is the tenements which was and is in the jKDSsession of George Lewis 
one of the defendants and that he heard that one Howell Thomas was leading tithe 
from part or parcel of the said Abby land called Arlish and that the tithe arising from 
the said Abby land is worth per ann four or five pounds : to the 5th and all the rest of 
the interrogatories saith that he knoweth the percels of land within the site close wall 
or precinct of the said Abbey in the possession of the said defendants doe lye or have 
been reputed to lye within the parish of St. Dogmells during this Deponents memorye 
and that the said lands was always taxed and assessed within the parish of St. 
Dogmells and did likewise pay all manner of Church rates and all other rates 
whatsoever and that the defendants which lived or doe live within the site close wall 
or precinct did and doe beare all maner of offices as lyeing within the said parish of 
St. Dogmells and to noe other parish. 

JOHN' GEORGE of the perish of fiishgard Co. Pembroke yeoman aged 50 
yeers or thereabouts. To the first Interrogatorie sayth he hath heard Julius Deeds Esq 
is Impropriator. To the 2nd and all the rest of the interrogatories he sayth that he was 
informed that the manor or impropriation of fiishgard always held under the Abby of 
St. Dogmells and all the inhabitants of the parish of fiishgard doe now and always 
did pay all manner of decimal duties and tithes in kind to the Impropriator of the 
said parish ever since this deponent remembers. 

OWEN JAMES of the perish of Monington yeoman aged 40 yeers saith that he 
knoweth the site close or wall belonging to the said Abby and that the plaintiffs agents 
did sett the tithe of the parish of St. Dogmells and did receave the proffitts thereof but 
not from the site close wall and precincts of the Abbey and sayth that if the tithes were 
duely and constantly payd from the lands belonging to the said Abbey it would be really 
worth five or six pounds per ann. to this deponents knowledge and the reason of this 
deponents knowledge herein is that this Deponent did live for some tyme in the premises 
in the pleadings mentioned viz. Ty Hyr and Manegan and his father bieng tenant in 
aforesaid premises about 20 years ago during the time that he continued tenant did 
always and yeerely pay for his share or profit of the tenth of the fourth part accrueing 
from the said tenement which was the fourth of all the profits unto his landlord one 
Robert Lloyd who held same from David Parry Esq or his predecessors and that the 
inhabitants residing within the said site close or wall of the Abbey of St. Dogmells 
have been always assessed and taxed and were alwayes reputed and taken to be part and 
percel of the parish of St. Dogmells and that the said Inhabitants residing within the 
limits aforesaid bore all manner of offices which they were charged with as inhabitants 
of the said parish of St. Dogmells ever since this Deponent doth remember. 

JAMES MATHIAS of the perish of St. Dogmells yeoman aged 53 sayth that he 
knowes the impropriation or Rectory of St. Dogmells 33 years and upwards and hath 

4 



2IO THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

heard say that the plaintiff or his agents doth receeve the tyth both great and small 
within the said parish excepting such messuages tenements and lands within the site close 
or wall in the possession of defendants and of the tythe or titheable matters accrueing 
from the said defend' were payd yeerly it would be worth four or five pxjunds and the 
reason of his knowledge is that he hath lived with his father in one of the tenements 
called Manegan Vawre for 7 yeers and ever since he knewe the parish of St. Dogmells 
the inhabitants living within the site wall or close did alwayes beare offices and payd 
all manner of Rates and taxations as well to the parish church of St. Dogmells as to 
the poor of the said parish without any distinction or separation more than other 
parishioners or inhabitants of the said parish. 

JOHN MORRIS of the town of Cardigan gent aged 60 years sayth that he hath 
known the Rectory impropriate of St. Dogmells for four or five and thirty years past 
and doth know that the plaintiff is Impropriator or Rector of the said perish and doth 
and did enjoy the said parish or Rectory of St. Dogmells for 9 or 10 years past and 
that the said impropriation or Rectory doth extend throughout the whole parish of 
St. Dogmells and the reason of this deponents knowledge herein is for that the plaintiff 
is always assessed and taxed with the tenth part of all assessments which are imposed 
up)on the whole perish as well within the site close wall or precinct of the said Abbey 
as otherwise and that the said plaintiff or his agents doth and did alwayes as often as it 
was charged pay the tenth part of all manner of assessments whatsoever which are 
imp)Osed uppon the said parish : he knoweth the tenements called Manegan and Ty 
Hyr and several other percels of land in the pleading mentioned which doe not pay 
any tithe and which doe lye in the little parish usually soe called and that the said 
tenements pieces or percels of lands doe conteine above four score acres and that the 
said land is sowed with wheat Rye barley Pease and oats as this deponent is informed 
and that there are several tenements or parcels contiguous or neare to the pretended 
exempted lands from paying of tithe now and formerly belonging to ^the Abbey and 
called and reputed to lye within the little parish soe usually called which always pay 
their full tithe in kind and further sayth that he would give for the tithe or decimal 
duties of or from the pretended land exempted from tithe in the pleadings mentioned 
the sum of five or six pounds yeerely and would take a lease if graunted of one and 
twenty years upon the same upon the same rate. And saith that all those person living 
or residing on the pretended exempted lands from tith did and doe alwayes pay all 
manner of Rates assessments and taxations within the parish and Rectory of St. 
Dogmells and did or doe likewise pay all Church rates to the parish church or Rectory 
of St. Dogmells and did and doe beare all manner of oflSces as residing within the 
parish without any distinction whatsoever and sayth that he about two yeers ago as 
agent for the plaintiff did claim and demand the tith in kind from the defendant George 
Lewis or his wife who then held the tenements called Ty Hyr and Manegan Vawre and 
this deponent further sayeth he did there was a lease granted from Henry the eighth 
in the eight and twentieth yeer of his reign to one John Bradshaw gent conveying in it 
the Abbey of St. Dogmells and the manner of ffishgard among other things which 
manner of fishgard pey their tith or decimal duties in kinde as this deponent is credibly 
informed. 



^ 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 2II 

JOHN AP JOHN of the town of Cardigan yeoman aged 49 sayth that there are 
several tenements lying and being within the Little parish soe commonly called which 
pay their tith corn in kind and the reason of his knowledge herein is that he hath been 
leading and gathering of tith Corn in a certain hamlet called the Little parish hamlett 
to the plaintiff or his agent's use. 

ExcHEQ. Book of Decrees. Lib. IV, No. 15. 
13th Feb. Hillary Term. William and Mary. 

Whereas Julius Deeds Esq pltf did in Michaelmas Terme in the 2rvd year of 
their now Ma"'" reigne exhibit his English Bill in this courte against George Lewis 
David Thomas William Parry Hector Gambold John Gambold William Rees Anne 
Martin Alice Rowlande David Griffith David Howell def" thereby setting forth that the 
pltf for term years last before the exhibiting of the bill had been lawfull owner and 
proprietor of the Rectory and personage of St. Dogmells in the county of Pembroke 
and thereby had bene intituled to all tithes both great and small yeerly happening 
within that Rectory or parish or ye titheble places thereof and that ye defts had yearlye 
during the said tyme severally occupyed great quantities of land within the said parish 
of St. Dogmells and had thereon yearly great quantityes of corne hay and other tythable 
matters ye tithes of w"^"" they ought partly to have paid the pltf in kind or some 
satisfaction for the same w"^*" they had severally refused pretending an exemption from 
payment of any manner of tithes their said lands formerly belonging to some Abby or 
by some otherwayes or mganes were discharged of tithes whereas if their lands did 
formerly belong to some Abby at ye dissolucon thereof yet by ye law of ye land their 
lands ought not to be discharged of tithes ye said Abbey being one of ye lesser Abbies. 
Therefore that ye def' might sett forth ye pticular cause of their exemption and might 
satisfie ye pltf for ye values of their said tithes was ye scope of ye said bill. To w*^** 
bill the saied def'> having appeared put in two severall answers and thereby said that 
they had held for ye respective tymes therein sett forth severall percells of land as 
tenants under David Parry esq and had heard and believed that part of their said 
land were percells of ye possessions of ye late dissolved Abby of St. Dogmells enjoyed 
by the Abbots thereof and within the gate or wall of the Abby and always in their 
own manurance and said yt some part of their lands w"^*" lyeth out of ye close wall or 
precinct of ye said Abby of St. Dogmells doth lye within the said Rectory of St. 
Dogmells and thet tithes have bine constantly paid for the same but ye def" said thet 
other part of their lands doe lye within the site wall close or precinct of the said Abby 
and for such part thereof noe manner of tithes or anything in lieu thereof were ever 
paid or demanded for the same but have alwayes bine exempted or discharged from 
tithes either by real Composicion or by some usage law custom gscription or by some 
other wayes or meanes and the def" did by their said answers severally sett forth ye 
valewes of ye tithes of suche part of their lands as lye within the scite close wall or 
precinct of ye said Abby. To w*^** answer the pltf replyed and the def" rejoyned and 
divers witnesses being examined in ye said cause and duly published ye said cause came 
this day to be heard in ye Exchequer Chamber at Westmr before S'' Nicholas 
Lechxnere S' John Turton and S' John Powell Knts three of ye Barons of this Court 
where upon opening of ye said bill by Mr Dodd and of the def" answer by Mr Lloyd 

14 a 



212 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 



and heareing Mr Ettrick and ye said Mr Dodd for the pltf and of S' Robert Sawyer 
Knt and ye said Mr Lloyd for ye def" and on debate of ye matter for asmuche as ye 
def" insisted that ye lands in question were ye lands lyeing within the scite close wall 
or precinct of the said Abby of St. Dogmells and were always thought to be 
exempted from ye payment of tithes or anything in lieu thereof ye same being part of 
ye fKJSsessions of ye said Abby of St. Dogmells at ye dissolucon thereof and always in 
ye manurance of ye Abbots thereof but it appearing to the Court that ye said Abby was 
one of ye lesser Abbyes and was dissolved by ye statute of ye 27 th of Henry ye 8th the 
Court was therefore of opinion thet though it did not appeare thet the said lands had 
for many years past paid any tithes yet thet ye said lands in question ought and are 
by law lyable to ye payment of tithes to ye pltf as Impropriator of ye said parish of 
St. Dogmells. It is therefore ordered adjudged and decreed by ye Court thet ye said 
def'^ do severally accompt and pay to ye said pltf for ye values of their tithes ariseing 
upon ye said lands lyeing within the scite close wall or precinct of ye said Abby for 
ye respective tymes and according to ye respective values in their said answers sett 
forth the said pltf being willing to accept the same at those values to witt ye said def 
George Lewis the sum of ^2 5s. the said def David Thomas the sum of 12s. the said 
def William Parry the sum of 4s. 8d. the said def Hector Gambold the sum of 12s. 
the said def John Gambold the sum of ,\ los. the said def William Rees the sum 
of 15s. the said def Anne Martin the sum of ;^5 the said def Alice Rowland the sum 
of los. The said def David Griffith the sum of 15s. And the def David Howells 
the sum of tenn shillings. 




;^ 




CHAPTER XIX. 




SIDELIGHTS. 

i T. MARY'S ABBEY, St. Dogmaels, when restored after the Irish 
invasion of 1138, must have been a fine building. In 11 18 there 
were twenty-six monks and an abbot, also doubtless many lay 
brothers. Their numbers must have increased considerably, as the 
remains show that the buildings were both large and numerous. 

In 1 188 the Abbey was sufficiently large to house Archbishop Baldwin, 
Gerald, and their retinues, and their cuisine was such that they were able to 
entertain them well. The steps closed in the time of Mr. Vincent's predecessor,' 
which were reputed to lead down to the golden coffin, in which, legend states 
that, an Irish Princess, who came over with her followers from Ireland, was 
buried, really led to Icirge ovens, situated in all probability close to the old 
kitchen of the Abbey, now buried under the debris of centuries. The adven- 
turous man,' who descended these steps, in order to find out what was there, 
unhappily died three weeks later, poisoned by the foul air of this long-unused 
stairway and passage. Unhappily the then vicar closed this stairway, so as to 
prevent any further misadventures; it is represented as having been in the 
middle of the orchard, which now flourishes, among the ruins of the old abbey. 

When digging a grave, '^ some sixty years ago, opposite the vestry door of 
the present church, and about eight to ten feet distant, a large hole was dis- 
covered which led down to some part of the old buildings. A similar hole was 
also found on the south side of the church, and a stone arch was discovered, 
about nine years ago, five feet below the surface at the west end of the church, 
when digging a grave. 

The enclosure surrounding the Abbey contained about forty acres. 

' Cap. Jones, of "Cardigan Bay," to whom I am indebted for this account, was a friend and next- 
door neighlxiur of this man. 

' I am indebted to Capt. Jones, of Bryn Teify, for tliis and the two following items of information. 



214 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Half of the gravestone of Mr. John Bradshaw, Junr., now rests at the end of 
the rockery in the vicarage garden, the inscription being as clear as on the day 
it was cut. 

The old altar slab stands on end in the orchard ; at each comer of the slab 
there is a cross chiselled. 

Evidently from the broken bits of carved stone lying about, and forming 
the before-mentioned rockery, these Tironian Benedictines excelled as stone- 
masons. It is highly probable that they were also as skilful in the carving of 
wood, though of this there is now no proof remaining, so that the old Abbey 
may be regarded as a fine group of buildings, standing in a lovely wooded 
valley. Its present ruinous condition is more likely to be due to the ruthless 
hand of man than to the ravages of passing years. 

A stone lately found, used latterly as a gate-post at Manaian fawr, has 
been placed near the old Sagranus stone in the Abbey grounds. This stone has 
in all probability been removed, like the Sagranus stone, from the old burial 
ground of St. Dogmaels Religious House. 

According to an early rent roll, "the Abbey at its foundation"* owned 
one hundred and five houses, and a yearly revenue of gi os. 2d. in St. 
Dogmaels. 

There still remain of the ruins, the west and north walls of what was the 
north transept, and of various buildings attached to the east wall. The chapel 
was evidently cruciform in shape, and had a very large choir. 

In the west wall are remains of a large window (see photograph), but all 
the tracery has now fallen away. 

The door in the west end of the north wall has a jamb moulding, and this 
had formerly a ball flower moulding round it, an ornament peculiar to the 
decorated style of architecture (1272- 1377). Other additions must have been 
made to the Abbey during this period as well as in Henry VII's time. The 
north wall has also recesses, at one time containing the tombs of the abbots, 
probably either destroyed at the dissolution or else by Cromwell's soldiers. 
Formerly within the choir there were two canopied recesses, which are reported 
to have contained the effigies of Martin and his son, Robert, who, as is already 
known, were buried in the middle of the choir. 

In the south wall were recesses, apparently used as sediliae,' and the 
remains of a piscina,'' also a recess about five feet deep by fourteen feet long, in 
the centre of the wall, probably used as a confessional. 

' The author thinks this " foundation " is probably an error for " dissolution." ' Fenton. 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 215 

P'enton writes ' ' that the North transept has undergone considerable alterations at 
a later period, and had been used as a lady chapel, and has the same kind of recess 
(sepulchral) on each side of the altar, some rich key stones, ornamented with a winged 
lion and an angel holding an escutcheon." The roof is described as "of stone, and 
of a good design of fan tracery groining, springing from richly ornamented corbels, 
only a few feet however of the springers of this rich groining remain. The windows 
of this transept are of the same date and character as of the roof, namely, the reign of 
Henry VII. On the south side there remains part of the cloister walls, and the south 
wall of the refectory, this portion is very interesting, having the stairway constructed 
in the wall leading to the remains of the pulpit, which had a window at the back. . . . 
On the same line about one hundred and fifty foot east of the refectory is another 
building in more perfect preservation 38 foot long by 20 ft. 6 inches wide, it seems to 
have been another chapel having remains of a piscina, sediliae, etc. It seems to have 
been of an earlier date than the larger cruciform chapel and built of better masonry, 
it has alternate lines of dark and light stone, the roof also being of stone in the form 
of a pointed arch ; but without ribs, and has been ingeniously constructed to avoid all 
outward thrust of the walls. Over the panel of the east window is a corbel, supported 
by an angel." 

The refectory is still perfect; it is used as a bam; it was formerly well 
lighted by a " handsome end window, as well as side ones of fine tracery," and 
had a " lofty vaulted roof." Over this end window is a stone with a date cut, 
which, owing to its height and the lack of light, is difficult to make out. 

The church of Fenton's day was, Fenton writes : " Evidently raised from 
the ruins of the Abbey," as the stonework of " the windows of the chancel 
exhibit remains of workmanship that could never have been meant originally to 
furnish such an edifice." 

The fragments, formerly among the ruins, consisted of Norman, transition, 
early English, decorated, and perpendicular styles, proving that the Abbey was 
enlarged or embellished from time to time. In the grounds are a mutilated 
coffin lid, with an early Greek cross, and another slab with the shaft of a cross, 
both leaning against the wall, near the Sagranus stone. The present church was 
built in 1847. In Fenton's time the ruins of St. Thomas' Church could still be 
traced, and it was then called " Yr hen Eglwys." 

Fenton was in error as to his reading of the date of Mr. Bradshaw's death 
as 1538, it being 1588. He continues: 

" In Queen Elizabeth's time it (St. Dogmaels) was deemed a corporation, and had 
at the first establishment of it, one hundred and five houses, as may be gathered from 
an ancient rental of the town. It was governed by a portreeve, yearly elected at the 
leet court after St. Meigan's Fair, and William Bradshaw was then lord thereof, with 
all the power and priveledges of the abbot. His mansion-house was the abbey. This 
magnificent pile was charmingly situated on a gentle elevation, in a richly wooded 



2x6 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

and watered dingle, bounded by high hills on every side, but that which admits of an 
opening to the navigable Teivy whose every tide administered to the luxury of the 
convent " 

On page 301 of Ferrton one reads " Nor must I omit here to enumerate amongst 
the other insignia of royalty of this lordship marcher (Cemaes), and peculiar to it 
alone, the patronage of the bards, with the adjudication and disposal of the silver 
harp, an honour, except in this province, confined to the prince's palace, and one of 
the brightest gems in his diadem, yet here supposed immemorially to be suffered to 
attach to the reguli of Dyved, and their later descendants the nobles of Cemaes, many 
of whom had themselves been bards of eminence, such as Gwynvardd and his son, 
Cuhylin Vardd, names to which the people were so endeared, that the Normans from 
pride as well as policy could do no less than 'comply with and continue a custom 
sanctioned by the heads of that tribe, whose subjection he took pains to conciliate. The 
silver harp in the absence of the lord was placed in the custody of his monastery of 
St. Dogmaels, the abbot being his representative at the Eisteddfod, whenever he was 
summoned to parliament or to the field." 

The after history of this harp cannot be traced, though there are rumours 
that it was found fifty or sixty yccirs ago, together with other hidden silver. 
George Owen also notes this silver harp as belonging to the Barony, and that 
it was deposited at St. Dogmaels Abbey for safe custody during the absences 
of the Lords of Cemaes. 

In the " Register Book of Kemeys "' is a post mortem inquisition on 
Willicmi Martin, by order of Edward 11, King of England, held at the Court 
at Newport, Cemaes, by John of Hampton, Escheator to the King, May 14th, 
10 Edward II. Amongst the thirteen sworn were John Peverel and William 
Picton; all declared on oath that William Martin held from the King in chief, 
the day he died, twenty knights' fees in Cemaes, of which the Abbot of St. 
Dogmaels held one called Cassia, valued at 100 shillings; also Adam de 
Roche held three fees of the same William, namely, Maenclochog, valued at 
one hundred shillings; Monington, eighty shillings; and Randykaith (?), three 
pounds. This is followed by another very similar document. 

In a deed 14th June, 37 Edward III, the King confirms a grant of James, 
Lord Audeley, one of the witnesses being the Lord John Abbot of St. Dogmaels, 
who also did homage to the Lord of Cemaes, at Newport, on the feast of 
St. Barnabas, June nth, 37 Ed. III. 

' George Owen. 



... 


1118 


after 


1 138 


... before 


1 188 


before and after 


1200 


died 


1330 


... 


1364 


... about 


1415 


... ... ,f 


1429 


... 


1504 


... died before 


1520 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 217 

The following list of Abbots contains all that are so far traceable : 

Fulchardus (first abbot) 

Hubert 

Andrew 

Walter (kinsman of Gerald the Barri)... 
John Le Rede 

John (did homage at Newport) 

Phillip 

Walter 

Lewis Barron 

John Wogan 

William Hire (last abbot) 1520-1536 

Of the Priors of Pill, so far only three have been discovered 
Phillip Prior ... ... ... ... ... ... about 1200 

David Luce 1504 

William Watt (last Prior) till 1534 

Whilst Nicholas, 1504, is the only Prior of Caldey recorded, so completely 
have all traces of the history of the island vanished. 

In October, 1357, in the Papal Registers, the Vicarage of St. Thomas the 
Martyr is recorded as given to Philip Henry. 

There is little fresh in " The Acta Sanctorum," 23rd June, Vol. HI, of the 
Bolandus, beyond the fresh spelling of Rammaes for Cemaes, and that the 
Barony contained three towns,' twenty military stations,^ and twenty-six 
parishes. Also that Bernard, Bishop of St. David's, was a Norman by birth. 
Chaplain to Henry I, and was consecrated Bishop of St. David's July 12th, 
1 1 1 5 ; but the account given therein of Tiron is erroneous as regards dates. 

An interesting bit of information is found in the Dimetian Code, namely, 
that there were seven Bishops' houses in Dyved (Pembrokeshire), the sixth being 
at Llan Deulydog,' and that " the Abbot of Teulydog^ should be graduated in 
literary degrees." 

Referring again to George Owen's " Pembrokeshire," under his description 
of the geology of the county, and that of Cemaes and St. Dogmaels in parti- 
cular, it is noted that 

There is a " kynde of freestone which for fignes and collor passeth all other yet 
spoken of" [found in many parts of Moylgrove and at Pantsaeson] " which is a blood 
red stone, etc," next " slates & tylinge stones black and blewe." Then there is a 



' Of which two belonged to the Abbey. ' Knights' fees. 

' Llandudoch or St. Dogmaels. ' St. Dogmaels. 



2l8 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

" russet stone, more lardge and roughher than the other two, but more profitable to the 
owner, soe his house be tymbered thereafter, and the lattes (laths) and nayle agreable. 
This stone is digged verye lardge, three foote & some fowre foote longe and layed on 
of that biggnes cleaveth more roughe then the rest, and therfore the lyme taking better 
hold then betweene the smoeth ston^ dureth the longer on the house .... with 
these the great fratry [refectory] at St. Dogmells is covered many yeres seethence; the 
best stones of this kinde are found at Pont y gwen undy [Pant y Grwndy = valley of 
the ridge house] Coom Degwell [Cwm Tegwell = Valley of St. Dogmael] Llantood 
Henllys [The Old Court The home of George Owen Lord of Cemaes] and almost in 
every quarry between the ryver of Nevarne [Nevern] and the sea." 

Nearly all the houses, cottages, outbuildings, and walls were built of this 
stone in St. Dogmaels, and around in the sixteenth century, " It is founde to 
lye in great flakes alwaies leanninge to the South " ; and now follows a curious 
explanation which George Owen gives : 

" This is thought to be doon by the violence of the generall flood, which at the 
departinge thereof breake southward and tare the erthe in pieces, and seperated the 
Ilandes from the Contynent, and made the hills and valleies as we now find them." 

Further on in a chapter on the chief rivers of the shire we come to the 
exact whereabouts of the River Bryan. 

From Aberych* forward the river Teify " is the lanskarre^ between Pembrok & 
Cardigan Sheers ... & soe passinge down under Leghrid' bridge a little beneath 
reoeiveth a brooke from the south called Morgeney." 

The name of this brook is exceedingly interesting, dating from the time of 
Howel dda. It takes its name from Morganeu, or Morgenau, the judge 
summoned by Howel dda, with six of the wisest laymen, etc., when he made his 
" book of the law " in Dyfed, and this book was compiled by Morganeu and his 
son, Cyfnerth, two of the wisest men in the kingdom. 
After receiving the Morganeu 

" It approacheth Killgarron* betweene great deepe and narrowe hills, over which 
is frame the weare of Killgarron strongly built of stone and tymber worke, where 
atx>undance of most excellent & sweet salmons are taken . . .a little beneath, it 
reoeaveth from the southwest a rillet called Pliskogh and there hence proceedeth 
downewards by the Forest . . . where at the lower part it receaveth the brooke 
Bryan coming from Diffrin [Dyffryn] Breyan, which there parteth the hundreds of 
Kemes & Killgarron . . . before it cometh to the barre yt receaveth in a rill 
Meynian Moore [Manaian Marsh] & so to the sea." 

' Abercych. ' Boundary. ' Llechryd. ' Cilgerran. 



p 



THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 219 

It is between this Manaian Marsh and the sea that the " Poppit " lays, mentioned 
as " Potpit "* in one of the grants ; the sands also on the same side of the river 
are called the Poppit Sands. 

George Owen in his notes on the Tallage for redemption of the great Sessions in 
old times, within the County of Pembroke, writes : " I finde also in the auncient booke 
of Receipts of Pembrokeshire of my father William Owen at the feast of St. Michael 
18 Henry 8 " . . . as to the paying of knights fees " and this way payed by the 
Knightes Fees as followeth at the rate of ix' a knightes fee every paiement of the five 
paiements ' [about fifteen entries] 

" Abbey of St. Dogmaels v shillings. 

" Lordship of Monachlog v shillings. 

" This Tallage was paied in five paiementes, twice every yeare at Michaelmas & 
Easter as appeareth by my fathers booke of Receipts i8, 19 & 20 Hen. 8." 

So that the Abbot of St. Dogmaels had to pay tallage for his knight's fee of 
Cassia. 

In the " Dale Castle MS.," a William de Cantington is mentioned as Lord 
of the Manor of Eglwyswrvv, in 1200. 

In the Lords of Kemes tracts it is recorded : 

" 1st. That the Abbott of St. Dogmaells holdeth one knightes ffee called Cassia 
by giving of free alms' and yeeldeth nothinge to the lord, and that the same is worth 
yeerely to the Abbott in all issues c\" 

This Manor of Cassia is mentioned in " Pembrock and Kemes," fol. 3a, as 
one of the eight " meane fees holden of the Baronye " which were manors 
subject to the High Court of Kemes. 

In the " Carte Baroniae de Kemes," p. 29, it is stated that Cassia belonged 
to the Abbot of St. Dogmaels, " is like to be a knightes ffee of one Alen," 
mentioned in the grant of Robert Fitzmartin, and further " that the foresaid 
Abbott of St. Dogmaells holdeth half of Kefenlhymwyth [Kenth limuth, in the 
Parish of Llanfair nant y Gof], alias Fishgard by ffree almes geeveinge & 
yieldeth nothinge to the Lord out of the same yeerely." 

There were two chapels belonging to the Abbey in St. Dogmaels, " Chappell 
Cranok " and " Chappell Degwel." These two chapels were " pilgrimage 
chapels," and were also used for solemn processions on holy days. Whether 
" Capel Cranok " was the name of the chapel at Hendre, which belonged to the 

' Potpit is given as another name for Pwllcam (the Crooked Poo!) in Elizabeth's time. 

' The tenure in frank-almoign (or free alms) was expressly excejited from the aliolition of feudal 
tenures by 12 Car. IF, cap. 24, and still exists in a modified form. By it the religious houses and 
|)arochial clergy held lands by the service of praying for the souls of the donor and of his heirs. Vide 
note by Dr. Henry Owen in George Owen's " Pembrokeshire." 



220 THE HISTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEY. 

Abbey, is not so easy now to know for a certainty, though Hendre appears to be 
far larger than a pilgrimage chapel. St. Dogmaels was divided into four hamlets- 
Bridge End, Abbey, Pant y groes, and Cipyn, the two former being now in the 
Municipal Borough of Cardigan. The ancient and conventional division of 
St. Dogmaels was " Y Plwyf Mawr (the great parish) and Y Plwyf Bach (the 
small parish)," by a line drawn from Cwm Ion to Cwm Deifo, through the lands 
of Trewidwal, Pen y Wern, Tirion Uchaf, Pantirion, etc., all the land between 
this line' and the sea being called Y Plwyf Bach. At a vestry, July 15th, 1741, 
held in the Parish Church, St. Dogmaels, a separate account was brought for 
Y Plwyf Mawr; and according to a pamphlet of Mr. Vincent's, called Pwll y 
Granant, "the inhabitants of 'Y Plwyf Bach' have then (1856) a right of 
summer pasture for their young cattle on the Manor of Mynachlog Ddu, which 
formerly belonged to the monastery, and afterwards to Mr. John Bradshaw." 

In 1599 St. Dogmaels, in Cemaes hundred, had, according to George 
Owen's " Taylors Cussion " : 

Population. Househoulders. Plowes. Dairies. Cartes or Truckles. 
1,370. 510. 510. 120. o. 

From the number of householders compared to the population, one would 
gather that only adults were included, as there is only an average of 2 ,' persons 
to each house. The larger houses and farms, where there would be grown-up 
sons and daughters, and also servants kept, would easily account for 
these few extra adults. The population in 1801 was 1,379; the parish rates in 
1803, ;^400; the parish contains about 6,000 acres of land, also there is a 
chalybeate spring. 




4* 




CHAPTER XX. 




h 



"FISHERIES AND FISHINGS." 

'AVING now finished the history of the Abbey, it may be 
interesting to notice some of the products of the neighbourhood 
shortly after the dissolution. 

The fisheries, mentioned in various grants to the Abbey, 
were undoubtedly the same as the salmon and sewin fisheries of to-day; also it 
is most probable that the very same kind of seine or shot fawr was used by the 
monks at the Abbey, as is used by the fishermen at St. Dogmaels to-day. 

Further, in the grants will be noted that besides the " Fisheries," " fishings " 
were also granted; by this may be gathered, the herrings, mackerel, gurnards, 
whiting, soles, turbot, plaice, lobsters and crabs, that are caught in the bay, 
together with the silver bass, grey mullet, and eels that are caught in the tidal 
waters of the river, of all of which George Owen gives such a delightful 
account, especially his quaint quotation from Darion ( ? Claude Dariot) 
regarding the lobster. 

The principal industry of St. Dogmaels is this salmon and sewin fishery, 
which, in fact, gives a name to the village, which is often called " the fishing 
village " of St. Dogmaels. The Teify ranks as one of the best salmon rivers of 
Great Britain, except at Christchurch, Hants, there is no salmon that can compare 
with it, for the excellence of its taste, in all Great Britain. In the photograph 
appended some of the St. Dogmaels fishermen will be seen drawing in their 
net, whilst a man in the boat is holding up a small salmon, already taken. 

Near where the Bryan enters the Teify, the men fish in a more primitive 
manner, namely, two men, each in a coracle, paddle down the river with a net 
spread between the two coracles. The Teify has been celebrated for the flavour 
of its salmon for many hundred years; even in the twelfth century Gerald, the 
Welshman, mentions that the Teify was famous for salmon, beavers, and otters; 
the beavers, however, are long since extinct. 

Many lobsters and crabs are still caught off Cemaes Head, which was within 



or si: 




tkoft wd to be held 






brt is 
celfetiKof 
li^AeAhbqr. 



Vm. TM>af 
.St 



ait 






THE raSTORY OF ST. DOGMAELS ABBEI. M3 

was bought by ncxlh Welshmen, and by them woven into white dodis. which 
they again sold to men fnxn Shrewsburj-. At the same period woe sold in 
Cemaes. com, cattle, butter, and dieese. the cheese being sometimes sent to 
Ireland for the use of the Queen's gairisoDs there. 

Butter is still sent away weekly to Bristol and Cardiff; but the cheese now 
made is used locally. Pigs are from time to time sent to England. There is 
also an annual Wool Fair, held in Cardigan, to whidi the St Dogmaels 
farmers Iwing their wool. 

Also in Queen Elizabeth's reign great dro\-es of sheep and lambs ^rre 
driven into England to be sold, and also droves of pigs, which bcoa^t mooe\- 
into the country. 

Now it is chiefly cattle that are sent to England to be fattened. 

Amongst other products of Cemaes. George Owen again writes ; 

" It alK> attereth stcae of hides, tallov, and sbeepe skinnes and lambe skisns; tloi 
last cnmmnditie Ikle l ega iJ ed bat aadi as the tnde thereof hath enriched diven ata, 
neither will I here lave dovn what aoMes of waauey as I hare hard hath ben pakd in 
these three dbeeies for lantbeskiims in one Maie bv Loodoners." 



Numbers of excellent and sturdy cobs and mountain ponies are largely 
bced on the lands formerly belonging to the Abbey, as w^l as in Cardiganshire, 
being chiefly sold at Wrexham. 




I 




V 



^ 



s/ 




A 



s jhC J n c. 



Tl 




* 




INDEX 



Abbeville, 31 

Abbot of Glastonbury, 60 

President of the English Benedictines, 

158 
of St. Dogmaels, Andrew, 70, 124, 127, 

217 

Dom Lewis Baron, 91, 92, 217 

Fulchardus, 42, 47, 217 

Hubert, 52, 53, 217 

John de la Rede, 84, 85, 217 

The Lord John, 216, 217 

Philip, 89, 217 

Walter, 68, 69, 71, 72, 73, 75, 76, 

77. 78. 217 

Walter, 217 

William Hire, 95, 97, 98, 102, in, 

217 
of St. Cyprian, Raymond, 31 

of Tavistock, 80 

of Tiron, Bernard (Bernardus), 17, 30, 

3'. 32, 33. 34. 35. 36, 37. 41. 42. 57. 

59, 139, 159 

Charles de Ronsard, 36 

Geoffrey le Gros, 31, 32, 36, 37, 42 

John, 36 

John 11 of Chartres, 35, 37 

Hippolyte d'Este, Cardinal of 

Ferrara, 36 

Lionel Grimault, 35 

Louis le Crevaut, 35 

Ren^ de Laubier, 36 

Stephen, 35 

William, 2nd Abbot, 31, 37, 38, 

42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 55 

William, 4th or 5th Abbot, 35 

of Whitland, Peter, 69, 70, 77 

of Worcester, 69 

Abbot's Parke, 103, 115 

Abbot's Wood, 116 

Abercych, 218 

Abergwayne, 28 

Aberteivi (Cardigan), 49, 66, 67 

Aberystwyth, 12 

Acrani, 185 

Acta Sanctorum, 217 

Act of Supremacy, 94, 96, 140, 169, 172 

Adam, the Clerk, 127 

Adela, daughter of William the Conqueror, 

34 



Adelaide (Adeleya), Queen of Henry I, 44, 

46. 47 

Advowson, 130 

Alan, 47, 219 

Alen Basset, 58 

Ales, 25 

Alfordi, Michael, 13 

Alfred de Bennevilla ( ? Bayvill), 47 

Allen, Romilly, Catalogue of Early Chris- 
tian Monuments in Pembrokeshire, 
172 

Altar Slab, 214 

Amsterdam, 9 

Anaraud, 49 

Anchorite, The, 77 

Ancient Petitions, 52, 79, 82, 132 

Angels' Cairn, 12 

Angharad, daughter of Gerald de Windsor, 
66 

Angharad, daughter of Rhys ap Gryffydd, 
26, 56 

Anglesey, 62 

Annable Pull, 134 

Annales Cambriae, 24, 49, 64 

Anne, Queen of Henry VIII, 10, 94, 95, 96, 
140 

Antiquarian Find, 200 

Arcalon, 159, 160, 161, 162 

Arcelo, 166, 167 

Archaeologia Cambrensis, 15, 16, 20, 170 

Archbishop of Canterbury, Baldwin, 66, 67, 

2>3 

Becket, Thomas a, 113 

Courtney, 86 

Cranmer, gi 

Hubert, 75 

R, 125, 128 

Warham, 91, 92, 139 

68, 69, 70, 72, 73, 77, 95, 140, 141 

Dublin, Brother William, elect of, 125, 
128 

Rouen, 57, 58 

York, Henry, elect of, 125, 128 

York, William, 48, 95, 140, 141 

Archdeacon of Brecon (Gerald), 75, 76, 77, 78 

Buckingham, 69, 71 

Cardigan, 79, 81, 82, 156, 172 

Carmarthen, 72, 76 

Leighlyn, 164 



'5 



326 



INDEX. 



Archdeacon of St. David's, 78, 79, 81, 82, 

112, 136, 155, 156 
Archdeaconry of Cardigan, 79, 81, 82, 88, 90 

St. David's, 145 

Archdale's Monasticon Hibernicon, 161, 163 

Arcisses, 33, 34 

Arcol Llaw Hir, 19 

Ardmayne, 165, 166 

Arlaise, 202, 203, 209 

Aries (Arlys), loi, 103, 115 

Arnard plas Roos, 103, 116 

Arnold, 130 

Arrears, 118, 131, 134, 146, 155 

Arthur, 14, 28 

Atlantic, The, 12 

Atlyns, Robert, Knt., 207 

Audeleigh, James, 83, 84, 85, 216 

Nicholas, 83, 85 

Audleys, 57 

Augmentation Ministers' Account, loi, 104 

Office Leases, 173, 174 

Rolls, 177 

Augustine, The Prior, 53 
Avignon, 133 

Azor, son of Totus, 61 

Baare, Manor of, 181, 183 

Baglas, Walter, 125, 127 

Bakerlineran, 125, 128 

Baldwin (see Archbishop of Canterbury). 

Count of Albimare, 58 

de Riverius, Earl of Exeter, 60 

The Chaplain, 58 

Ballaghkeen, 161 
Ballane, 160, 163 
Balledyne, 160, 163 
Ballenemonery, 165, 166 
Ballflower Moulding, 214 
Ballydonagh, 163 
Bandon, 165 

Bangor, The elect Bishop of, 75 
Bartour, John, 144 
Bardsey Island, 12, 168 
Barlow, ex-Monk of St. Dogmaels, 
John, 176, 177 

Roger, 158 

Thomas, 158 

Barnard, Hugh, 151, 152 
Barnstaple, 56 

Baronia de Kemes, 50, 53, 219 

Barony of Ballaghkeen, 159 

Barony of Cemaes, 24, 25, 27, 57, 84, 135, 

217, 219 
Barret, John, 78 

Barry (Barri), Raymond, Lord, 159, 161, 163 
Barry, Cecilia, 159, 160, 161, 162 
Barry Island, 66 
Barry, Rinoc, 159, 160, i6i, 162 
Bartholomew, Bishop of Exeter, 29 
Baskerfelde, James, 112 
Basset, Allen, 58 

Thomas, 58 

Battle Abbey Rolls, 22, 23, 50 

Battle of Hastings, 23 

Batton, Philip, Reeve of Pill, 130 



30. 31. 32. 


33. 


57. 59. >39. 


'59 


45. 47. 52. 


53. 



Bayeux, 56 
Bayvill, 201 

Church of, 96, 101, 105, 106, 118, 119, 

'73. '74. '75. '78. 179. '80, 181, 182, 

'83 
Beance, 30 

Beatrice, mother of Count Rotrou, 33 
Beauchamp, Wm., Earl of Warwick, 128 
Walter de. The King's Steward of the 

Household, 128 
Benedictines, 55, 157, 158, 167 
Benedictione Dei ( ? Bective) Abbey, 164 

Reformed, 17 

Ber in Grenebi, 6i 
Bereford, William de, 129 
Bernard, Abbot of Tiron, 17, 

34. 35. 36. 37. 4'. 42. 

Bishop of St. David's, 

55. 2'7 
Bernadite, 17 
Beynon, John, 204 
Bishop of Bath and Wells, R of, 47, 52 

Chartres, 32, 34 

Civitatem, 164 

Clonfert, 164 

Durham, A of, 47, 125, 128 

Ely, Eustach of, 58, 69, 71, 72, 78 

Ely, W of, 125, 128 

Exeter, Bartholomew of, 29 

Ferns, Thomas Den, 160, 161, 162, 163 

Hereford, 69 

Llandafi, D of, 168 

London, R of, 125, 128 

Norwich, W of, 48 

Rome, 95, 140, 141 

St. David's (1281), 54 

Bernard, 45, 47, 52, 53, 55, 217 

David, 77 

Guy, 133 

Peter, 75 

Thomas, 47 

Thomas Wallensis, 124 

Saverino, 58 

Tivy, 164 

Winchester, J, 47, 48 

Worcester, 69, 72, 78 

Black Grange, Nigra Grangia, 169 

Black Marble, 174 

Blaen, 9 

Bleanban, no 

Blaenerth, no 

Blaenpant, 185 

Blaen y cowrse glethe, 107, 121 

Blakeman, Rd., 125, 127 

Blakewell Grove, 97, 98 

Blandina, wife of Adam de Roche, 124, 126 

Bliss, W. H., 78 

Bloeb, Ralph, 128 

Blois, 34 

Bolandus, 217 

Boleyn, Anne, 10, 94, 95, 96, 140 

Bologna, 164 

St. Stephen's, 164 

BoUyncollen, 163 
Bonkommes, Priory of, 55 



INDEX. 



227 



Book of Extracts, Records of St. David's, 187 
Book of Receipts of Pembrokeshire, 219 
Bordde, David, 149 
Borke, Roberic, 159, 160, 161, 162 
Boundaries of the Abbey lands, 45 
Bourgo de Neville, 53, 54 
Bourne and Deeping Lordship, 43 
Bowen, James, 154 

James Bevan, 28 

John, 200 

Morgan, 205 

Thomas George, 192 

Brabazon, Roger and William, 128, 166 
Bradshaws, 107 

Bradshaw, Alice, 185 

Edward, 181, 183, 184, 185 

Elizabeth, i8i, 182, 183, 184, 185 

George, 170 

James, 175, 177, 179, 180, 181, 182, 185 

Joan, 183 

John, Sen., 49, 100 to 107, 113 to 119, 

122, 168 to 170, 173 to 177, 185, 210, 
220 

Compotus of, loi, 104, 114 

Postmorten Examination of, 174, 

176 

John, Jun., 169, 173, 174, 175, 177, 178, 

179, 180, 181, 182, 185, 212 

John, the Regicide, 185 

John, William's nephew, 193 

Roger, 168, 169 

William, 175, 177, 179, 180, 181, 182, 

183, 184, 185, 187, 188, 189, 204, 215 
Branwen, 62 
Brecon, 73 

John, Prior of, 76 

Brenchley, Mrs., 186 

Brian, Guy de (6 Guys in succession), 46, 

135, 128 
Briscwm (Brwyscwm), loi, 103, 116 
Bristol, 323 

Brokholes, John, Attorney, 135, 137 
Bromfield, Master J of, 76 
Brut leuan Brechfa, 24 
Bryan (Braian, Broyan) River, 28, 4;, 46, 62, 

218, 221 
Brychan Brycheiniog, 11, 12 
Brynach, 12 

Buckfastleigh Abbey, 41 
Buckinghamshire, 60, 61 
Bull, John, 149 
Burghley, Wm., Baron 182 
Bushell, The Rev. D., D.D., 169 
Butler, Morris, 150, 151 
Bulton, David, 131 
Bwlch Pant y groes, 17 

Cadell, 49 

Cadwaladr, 49 

Cadwgan, 170 

Caen, 22, 58 

Caerau, Traditions of, 18, 19 

Caldey, 

Chaplain or Curate of, 102, 114, 117, 119 

Church of, 80, 104, 105, 118, 119 



Caldey Island, 28, 45, 47, 82, 100, 103, 104, 
105, 106, 113, 115, 116, 119, 135, 168, 
169, 170, 171, 174, 177, 187 

Prior of, Dubricius, 169 

of Dom Nicholas, 91, 92, 217 

Hugh Eynon, 172 

Priory of, 96, 168, 169, 172 

Calendar of Close Rolls, 84 

of Documents (France), 41, 44, 57, 58 

of Entry, Papal Registers, 133 

of Feudal Aids, 80 

Cambrian Archaeological Meeting, 20 
Cambrian Register, 63 

Camden's Britannia, 169 
Camrose, 151 
Canterbury, 70, 90, 136 

Cathedral Muniment room, 90 

Registers, 88, 91, 92, 139 

Cantington, Jordan de (son of Lucas de 

Hoda), 20, 49, 50, 51, 88, 187, 217 

William de, 49, 50, 51, 88, 187, 217 

Cantref (or hundred) of Cemaes, 27 

Cilgerran, 46, 218 

of Rhos, 158 

Capel Cradog, 219 
Caradoc, 71 
Cardiff, 223 

Cardigan, 52, 66, 204, 206, 207, 210, 211, 
222, 223 

Bay Inn, 200 

Bridge, 103, n6 

Co. of (or Shire), 12, 22, 185, 186, 204, 

205, 208, 218, 223 

Priory of, 62, 206 

Town Hall of, 201, 206, 208 

Carlisle, Nicholas, 157 

Carmarthenshire, 46, no, 172 

Cam Engli, 12 

Carswell, 59, 60 

Cartae Baroniae de Keymes, 84 

Carrin, Richard, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163 

Cassia, 83, 84, 85, 86, 216, 219 

Castell, Grace, 160, 163 

Castell, ION, 18 

Nevern, Description of, 20, 25, 26, 29 

Castle Hill, 125, 147 

Martin, 51, 52 

Vydy, 125, 127 

Walwin, 143 

Cath (Caedes, Lat.), slaughter, 23 

Catherine, Henry, 143 

Cathern, Henry, clerk, 154 

Catheiniog, 168, 172 

Cathen, i68, 170, 171 

Cathmais (Chamais), 13, 23, 24, 37, 38, 39, 
42, 43, 62, 64 

Catuocomus (Caducani), 168, 170, 171 

Ceibwr (Keybour), 83 

Celtic, 163 

Cemaes, Cemmaes, Cames, Kameys, Kemeys, 
Camoys, etc., 23, 24, 42, 43, 46, 54, 
S6, 62, 63, 64, 65, 68, 82, 83, 8s, 95, 
143, i6g, 216, 217, 222, 223 

Deanery of, 91, 139 

Head, 221 



15a 



228 



INDEX. 



Cemaes, High Court of, 219 

Lords of, 216 

Ceredig, 11 

Chapel (Capel) Cradoc, 219 

Degwell, 219 

at Hendre, 20, 219 

Sidan, 67 

Charles I, 10, 185 

II, 188, 219 

- Prince of Wales, 10 
Chartres, 30 

Bishop of, 32, 34 

Canons of, 35 

Chapter of, 34, 35 

Church of Notre Dame of, 35, 36 

Diocese of, 37 

John of, 35 

Chalybeate Spring, 220 
Chapters, Canterbury, 72, 75 

Pill, 139, 141 

St. David's, 69 

St. Dogmael, 

Tiron, 38 

Charters of Martin, 40, 42 

Robert Fitz, 46, 57, 60, 172 

Nicholas Fitz, 50, 5! 

Baldwin de Riverius, Earl of Exeter, 60 

Charles 1, 185 

Charles II, 188, 219 

Edward I, 126 

Edward III, 41, 45, 46, 50 

Henry I, 45, 58 

Henry II, 59, 60 

Montacute, 59, 60 

John Bradshaw, 114, 115 

Totnes Priory, 43 

William de la Grace, Earl of Pembroke, 

Earl Marshal of England, 157 
Cheshire, 185 
Chichester, Dean of, 78 
Chinon, 77 

Christchurch (Hants), 221 
Cilgerran (Kilgerran), 218, 222 

Church of, 46 

Hundred of, 218 

Cistercian Abbey, 164 

Abbot, 164 

Clairveaux, The Rev. C, 30, 37 

Clare, Gilbert de (Cousin of William the 
Conqueror), 22 

Strongbow, Earl of, 10 

Clarendon, Roger de, 126, 129 
Clawdd Cam, 203, 204 
Cleveland, The Duchess of, 56 
Clonenan, 160, 161, 162 

Clonendon, Church of Letrom and another, 

160, i6i, 163 
Clongosse, Rectory, 160, 163 
Clongossy, Church of St. Mary, 160, 161, 163 

Chapel of St. Mary, 160, 161, 163 

St. Peter, 160, 161, 163 

Church of St. Synell, 160, 161, 163 

Cloyne, Diocese of, 160, 161, 163 
Cluny, 33, 34 

Clyddau River, 28, 45, 47, 109 



Cnwc y Celwydd, 19 

Cockington, 28, 29, 40, 41 

Coed y Wynog (Coed y Winoke), 63 

Coel Godebog (King Cole), 11 

Coffin lid, 215 

Coffin, The Golden, 60, 213 

Colchester, 11 

Coles, Richard, 131 

Combe Martin, 22, 23 

Comore, 160, 163 

Cond^, Prince de, 36 

Condon, Cecelia, 163 

Griffin, 159, 160, 161, 162 

wife of Griffin, 159 

Lord, 159, 161, 163 

Raymond, 160, 161, 163 

William, 160, 161, 163 

Conquest of Cemaes, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27 
Consinquilos, 159, 160, 161, 162 
Constantine, 11 

Constantius, ii 

Cope, Sir John, Knt., 204 

Corbett, Abbeys and Priories, etc., 172 

Cornwall, Co. of, 84, 85 

Coracle, 221 

Corody, 100, 117, 118, 122, 123 

Cotton MSS., Cleopatra, E. IV {see MSS.). 

Co. Cardigan (see Cardiganshire). 

Co. Carlow, 160 

Co. Cork, 160, 165 

Co. Pembroke {see Pembroke Co.). 

Co. Wexford, 159, 165, 167 

Co. Wicklow, 160 

Covenant, Walter, 128 

Court of the Exchequer, 188, 192, 207, 208 

Barons of, 207, 208, 211 

Coyre Road, 145 

Crabot, Philip, 130 

Criccieth, 12 

Croes Bigog, 18 

Cromwell's Soldiers, 214 

Crugiau Cemaes, 25, 26 

Crugiau Griffyth ("? Treriffith), 80, 82 

Crugiau Pen du, loi 

Cuhelyn, The Regulus, ig, 27, 216 

Cu^edda Wledig, 9, 14, 64 

Cwm Carw (or Cerwyn), 28, 45, 47, 64, 109, 

121 
Cwm Deifo, 220 
Cwm Gloyne, 20, 201 
Cwm Ion, 220 
Cwm Tegwell, 218 
Cwmwd of Ys Garn, 158 
Cwri, Owen ap leuan ap Nicholas of 

Tredafed, 186 
Cyfnerth, 218 
Cymraeg, 63 

Cyrary (Lat. Cambria), 63 
Dairies, Number of, 220 
Danegeld, 60 
Danes and Danish, 14, 24 
Dareg (Dary Dairy), loi, 103, 115 
Dame Parke (Dan-y-Parke), loi, 115 
Darion (Claude Dariot), 221, 222 
Dartington, Barony of, 79, 80 



^ 



INDEX. 



229 



Dartington, Lords of, 29 
David de Barry, 51 
David ap leuan, 103, 116 

ap Powell, no, 121 

ap Ryce ap Owen, 109, 121 

John, 194 

King of Scotland, 31 

Lewis, 176 

Lewis de Whitchurch, 176 

Morris, 197 

William, 121 

de Wydeurze, 51 

St. {see St.). 

Davies, Anne, 201, 206 

H. O., 200 

Davyd Rice, 176 

Jevan de Moylgrove, 176 

Davye, Richard, 149 
Davyston, John, 131 

Day, John, 151 

Dean Prior, 84 

Deeds, Julian, 206, 207, 208, 209, 211 

De Invectionibus (Geralds), 69, 76 

Dennant (Devant, Dumant), 127, 142, 143, 149, 

54 

Mill, 140 

Deodands, 135, 136 
Deplesmore, 142, 151 

De Rebus a se Gestis (Geralds), 67, 75 

Despencer, Hugh le, 128 

Devereux, Walter, 166 

Devon, Devonshire, 22, 23, 26, 28, 40, 41, 45, 
47. 57. 59. 79. 80, 84, 85, 86, 88, 90, 
96. 97. 98. 104. 107. "o, 173 

Dewesland Hundred, 189, 197, 198 

Dimetian Code, 217 

Dinas, and Dinas Head, 12 

Dives, 22 

Doctors Parke, 103, 115 

Dodd, Mr., 211, 212 

Dogfeiliog (part of Denbighshire), 11, 14 

Dogmael ap Cunedda, 9, 14 

Dogmael, meaning of, 13, 14, 15 

(Dogfael), St., 11, 12, 13, 14 

Dogmaels St. Cemaes, 42, 44, 45, 49 

Abbey of, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43,49, 

50. 5'. 52. 53. 54. .56, 58, 59. 66, 73', 
79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 88, 89, 90, 

9'. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. >>. '<". 
102, 104, 105, 108, no, 113, 114, 115, 
116, 117, 118, 134, 135, 157, 158, 159, 
i6i, 162, 164, 167, 168, 169, 170, 172, 
'74. 175. '78. 181, 182, 183, 185, 186, 
187, 192, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 

206, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 215, 216, 
219, 221, 222, 223 

Abbots of, 29, 37, 38, 42, 48, 50, 51, 52, 

55, 62, 66, 68, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 
84, 85, 86, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 94, 95, 
96, 116, 117, 139, 143, 159, 161, 163, 
164, 167, 169, 170, 203, 211, 212, 213, 

Ancient Church of, 45, 46, 49 

Borough of, 28, 222 



Dogmaels, St., Cathedral Church of, Dom 

John Howell, Precentor, gi 
Dom John Lowelin, Vicar, 91 

Chaplain and Vicar of, loi, 102, 174, 

. 75. 177. '8o, 184 

Dissolution, 94, 96, 97, 114 

Fishermen of, 221, 222 

Four Hamlets of. Abbey, 220 

Bridge End, 220 

Cipyn, 220 

Pant y groes, 220 

Foundation of Abbey, 1118, 28, 38, 41, 

42 

Grants to, 40 

Manor of, 53, 54, 95, 100, 103, no, 115, 

176, 177, 220 

Market of, 222 

Old Religious House of, 41, 214 

Parish of, 84, 91, 92, 100, log, 116, i8i, 

183, 200, 201, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 
208, 211, 217, 218, 220 
Present Church of, 215, 220 

Priors of, 160 

Priory of, 37, 54, 58, 62, 64 

Rectory, Vicarage, or Church of St. 

Thomas, Apostle and Martyr, 96, 
loi, 104, 105, io6, 118, 119, 173, 174, 
'75. '77. '78. 179. 180, 181, 182, 183, 
199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 
210, 211, 215, 217, 220 

Remains, Description of, 214, 215 

Township of, 81, 95, 105, 106, 107, 114, 

119, 174, 175, 179, 186 

Vicars of, Dom Philipp Lawrence, 91, 92 

Gryffyn Jones, 177 

Nicholas Davies, 177 

Henry J. Vincent, 15, 16, 19, 20, 

213, 220 
Philip Henry, 217 

28 

Dogwells, St., 88, 92 
Dom Gasquet, 158 

Donovan's Excursions through S. Wales, 169 
Donegleddy Deanery, 145 
Domesday Book, 23, 60, 124 
Dormaghyn Chapel of St. Mary Magdalene, 
'59. '63 

Church of St. Patrick, 159, 161, 163 

Dorset, 60 

Dowdale, Patrick, 166 
Drym, 189, 197, 198 
Duborchon, 168, 172 
Dubricius (Dyfryg), 12, i68, 169 
Dupont, Mons. Emile, 23, 58, 6i 
Dyfed, 27, 216, 217, 218 
Dyfryn Braian, 218 

East Brent, 41 

Edgar Hubert, 53 

Edmund, Brother of Edward III, 

Edward the Confessor, King of England, 61 

I, King of England, 46, 57, 79, 80, 125, 

126, 157 

II, King of England, 46, 57, 79, 80, 81, 

83, 84, 85, 216 



230 



INDEX. 



Edward III, King of England, 45, 50, 84, 
8s, 216 

VI, King of England, 160, 163, 167 

Prince of Wales, 10 

Eglwyswrw, 24, 27, 49, 50, 51, 91, loi, 104, 
106, ng, 175, 183 

Church of, 96, n8, 173, 174, 175, 178, 

179, 180, 181, 182, 183 

Manor of, 219 

Vicar of Dom Phillip Lloyd, 91 

Rectory of, 105, 119 

Eifl, Yr, 12 

Eisteddfod, 216 

Elena Brazon, 52 

Elizabeth, Queen of England, 124, 173, 174, 
175, 176, 177, 181, 184, 185, 187, i8g, 
190, 192, 193, 194, 195, 197, 215, 219, 
222, 223 

Princess, 94, 140, 141 

Ells, 194 

Eltham, 84, 86 

Ely, Bishop of, 69, 71, 72, 78 

Emlyn, 46 

Empress Matilda, 59, 60 

English Religious Houses, Dom Gasquet, 158 

Erleng, John de, 128 

John the Younger, de, 128 

Esgryn, 17 

Ettrick, Mr., 212 

Eugenius Pope, 19 

Eure et Loir, 22, 30, 32 

Eva, wife of Guy de Brian, 56 

Exeter, 60 

Exchequer, 81 

Augmentation Office, 97, 145, 146, 155 

Book of Decrees, 211 

Chambers, 211 

T. R. Miscellaneous Books, 79, 80 

Eynon ap David, 109, 121 

Eynon, son of William, 52 

Fan Tracery, 215 

Farm of demesne lands, 118, 129, 131 

of the Mill (Pill), 130, 131 

Fenton, 19, 50, 65, 157, 169, 170, 200, 214, 215, 

216 
Ferentino, 76 
Ferns, Bishop of, 160, 162 

Patrick Barret, 162 

Thos. Den of, 160, 161, 162, 163 

Diocese of, 159, 161, 162, 164, 165 

Ferramujge, 160, 161, 163 

Ferrers (Ferres), Lord, 96, iii 

F6te of St. Bernard, Abbot of Tiron, 37 

St. Justin, 37 

Ffox, Thomas, 130 
Ffunhone = fiynon, loi, 103 
Field of Slaughter, 24 
Fish, Beavers, 221 

Crabs, 221 

Dogfish, 222 

Ells, 221 

Grampus, 222 

Gray Mullet, 221 

Gurnard, 221 



Fish, Herrings, 221, 222 

Lamperies, 222 

Limpets, 222 

Lobster, 221 

Its qualities, armour, etc., 232 

Mackerel, 221, 222 

Mussels, 222 

Otters, 221 

Plaice, 221 

Porpoise, 222 

Salmon, 218, 221 

Seal, 222 

Sewin, 221 

Shrimp, 222 

Silver Bass, 221 

Soles, 221 

Turbot, 221 

Whiting, 221 

Fisher, John, Bailiff, 143 
Fisher Road, 149 

Fisheries, 47, 51, 91, 98, 115, 138, 159, 174, 

221 
Fishery of St. Dogmaels (Seine fishing), 47, 

221 
Fishguard (Fyssingard), 24, 26, 49, 50, 51, 

82, 91, 95, 105, 106, 119, 183, 187, 

188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 

196, 198, 209, 219, 222 

Bay of, 12, 23 

Church and Rectory of, 96, 104, 106, 

175, 180, 182, 187 

Parish of, 175 

St. Nicholas, 173, 174, 175, 178, 179, 180, 

181, 182, 183 

Vicar of, Dom John ap Atho, 91 

Fitts, John, 159, 160, 161, 162 

Fleming, David, 131, 132 

Flemings, The, 124, 135 

ETood, 54 

Flood, The, 218 

Florence, 72, 78 

Foliot, Reginald, 68, 70, 71, 72, 76 

Master G., 76 

Forest Quarries, 45 
Fortesque, John, 182 

France, Louis le Gros, King of, 34 

Franciscus, 17 

Fraystroppe, 145 

Free Rents, 129, 130, 134, 152 

Frenny fawr, 13 

Fulchardus, ist Abbot St. Dogmaels (1118), 

3'. 45. 47. 52 
Foulques, Count of Anjou, 34, 57 
Foundation of St. Dogmaels Abbey by Robert 

Fitzmartin (1118), 42 

Priory by the Martins (1113), 

Fynette (ffyntte), John or Lord John, 160, 

161, 163 

Gablers' Rents, 129, 130, 134 

Gaedeilg, Gaedeilge, 64 

Gallia ("hristiana, 35 

Gambold, Hector, 207, 208, 211, 212 

John, 207, 208, 211, 212 

Gamel, 61 



INDEX. 



231 



90, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195 
63 



213, 221 



'59. 



Gardais, 34 

Garth y Gwenyn, 

Garve, 162 

Gaul Gallia Galatia. 

Gay, William, 129 

Geoffrey de Mandeville, 59 

son of Paganus, 42 

George, John, 209 
Geraint, son of Gerald, 58 
Gerald de Windsor, 66 
Gerald, the Welshman, 66 to 77 
German Mercenaries, 36 
Germans, 63 
Germin, John, 193 
Gilbert de Clare, 45, 62 

Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, 47 

Giles, Seneschal of Pembroke, 128 

Giraldus Cambrensis, 26, 35, 66 to 77 

Gislebert, son of Crispin, 62 

Glaneirw, 186 

Glanhelig, 185 

Glascareg (Glascarge), 165, 167 

Foundation of, 159, 160, 161, 162 

Grants to and Charters, 160, 161 

Priors of, 159, 161, 164 

Priory, 9(5, 102, 104, iii, 114, 126, 

160, 161, 162, 164, 165, 166, 167 

St. Mary of, 163 

Prior Andrew Occuryn, 164, 165, 167 

Charles McMurgh, 160, i6i, 162, 

163, 167 

Dermit, 160, 163, 167 

Henry of Wales, 164, 165, 167 

Ymar Odwynd (O'dowd, etc.), 164, 

.67 
Glastir in Cemaes, 83 
Glastonbury, Abbot of, 60 
Glendalough, 160 

Diocese of, 161, 163 

Glentworth, 61 

Gloucester Row (Cardigan), 67 

Godebert (1131), 124, 126, 135 

Godfrid, or Goisfred Conte d'Eu, 62 

Godric, 61 

Goi<iAel, Gael, 64 

Golden Vase, 34 

Golwen, ex-monk of St. Dogmaels, 73, 74, 75 

Goodige River, 197, iq8 

Gor, 61 

Gorry, 159, 161 

Gostwyche, Edward, 113, 114, 115 

Grangistown (Granston), Parish and Manor, 

80, 82, 95, loi, 104, 105, 106, 119, 175, 

178, 180, 182, 183 

Rectory of, 106, 173, 174, 175, 179, 180, 

181, 182, 183 
Grants of Martin of the Towers, 40, 42 

Nicholas fitz, 50, 51 

Robert fitz, 46, 60 

Particulars for, 102, 113 

Great ('lose, 103 

Griffin ap David, no 

leuan (or Jevan) ap Jenkyn, 109, 121 

Griffith, Abel, 202, 203 

David, 207, 208, 211, 212 



Griffith, Engherad, 205 

James, 201, 202, 206 

of Cardigan, 202 

John, 156 

John, 176 

Matthew, 202 

Grige Pende (Crugiau pen du), loi, 103, 115 
Grove Common, 97, 98 
Gryffydd ap leuan ap Rees, 194 

Rhys, 66 

Phee (Philippe), 193 

Guales, Galles, Gallis, 46, 47, 62, 63, 64, 65 

land of, 45, 46, 62 

Prieure de, or Priory of, 37, 38, 39, 41, 

46, 59, 62, 63, 64 
Gudendag, Mr., 9 
Gu}', David, 152 

de Brian, 52, 56 

the younger Count of Rochfort, 34, 59 

Gwayne, 26, 49, 50 

Gwawl (the radiant one), 11 
Gwyddel (Irish), 64 

Fichti (the painted Irish or Picts), 64 

=Gwy-el = Gual, 64 

Gwynefardd, The Regulus, 20, 25, 216 
Gwynne, Mr., 200 

Hagetom, 61 

Haigh, Dr., 172 

Hamlockes, David, 131 

Hammersmith, 172 

Hampton, John, 216 

Hants (Hampshire), 221 

Harlech, 12 

Harleian MSB. {see MSS.). 

Harp, The Silver, 21, 61 

Harrow School, i6g 

Harreyes, Davye, 147 

Haver Brokechelley = Hafn brochell y lie (or 

llys), loi, 103, 116 
Haverford, 66, 102, 106, 114, 129, 132, 136, 137, 

149, 150, 151, 156, 173, 174, 175, 176, 

178, 179, i8i, 183 
Haverfordwest, 68, 95, 104, 120, 129, 149, 185 
Hay, William, 149 
Helen, Helena, The Empress, daughter of 

Coel Godebog, 11, 12 
Helmswell, 61 

Helyot's Histoire des Ordres Monastiques, 59 
Hendre, 19, 20, 21, 220 

Chapel of, 20, 219 

Hengurto, no 
Henllys, 26, 185, 218 
Henry, Brazon, 52 

de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, 52 

de Tracy, Baron of Barnstaple (Barn- 

stable), 56 

Earl of Warwick, 31, 34 

I, King of England, 29, 31, 34, 37, 39, 

40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, S3, 54, 
55. 56. 57. 58, 60, 88, 217 

- n, 53, 58 

- Ill, 79, 80 

IV, 48, 88 

V, 48. 88, 89, 135, 136, 137, 138 



232 



INDEX. 



Henry VI, 88, 134 

VII, 90, 91, ()2, 214, 215 

VIII, 88, 94, 95, 97 to 105, 107, 109 to 

116, 118 to 122, 134, 140, 141, 142, 
146 to 158, 160, 161, 163, 165, 166, 
167, 174, 210, 212, 219, 222 

Philip, Vicar of St. Dogmaels, 217 

son of Gerald, 128 

Robert, 127 

Herbert St. Leger, 51 

William, lo 

Herbiand (Herbrandstown), 124, 127 
Hereford, Bishop of, 69 

Master J., Canon of, 6g, 71 

Precentor of, 69, 71 

Heriot, 177, 180, 184 
Herle, Mary, 142 
Herrings, 221, 222 
Hews, William, ro3, 116 
John, 193 

Heywarde, John, Canon of St. David's, 133 

Hill, William, 150 

History of Abbeys, etc., 54 

Hitchets, Thomas, 142 

Hoare, Sir Richard, 170 

Hoda, Lucas de, 25, 49, 50, 159 

sons of, 20, 25 

Hoell ap Jenkyn ap Owen, 109 

John, 149 

Householders, Number of, in St. Dogmaels, 

220 
Howel Lange, Priest, O.S.B., 88 
Howell ap Owen ap Powell, 109, 121 

ap Thomas ap Owen, 108, 120 

David, 207, 208, 211, 212 

Dda, 218 

Laws of, 27 

Huberstownship (Hubberstone), 125, 127, 142, 

143. '44. 152. 154. 157 

St. David's of, 128, 143, 144 

Hubert de Vaux, 45, 47 
Hugh de Fossar, 52, 53 
Earl of Chester, 60 

de Montfort, 43 

the Young, 129, 130, 131 

Hughe, John, rgS 

Hugo (Gualensis), 45, 46 
Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and 
Essex, 48, 52 

Duke of Gloucester, 49 

son of Gosner, 47 

Hurtley Coppice, 97, 98 
Huscart, Richard de, 126 

Hustard (Uscard, Huscard, Huscart), 126, 

143, 144, 154, 155, 156 
Hytes, Thomas, 149 

leuan ap Powell ap leuan David, 121 
William, 194, 195, 196 

Powell, 103 

Ignatius, 17 
Inishannon, 165 
Inispir {see Ynys Pyr). 
Inleyn, Church of, 160 
Innocent, Pope {see Popes). 



Inquisition (Legal), 188 

loan, 18 

Ion, 17 

Ireland, 62, 69, 96, iii, 159, 213, 223 

Irish, 49, 63, 64, 187, 213 

Coast, 12 

Maqi (son) on Ogham Stones, 14 

Princess, 213 

Sea, 69 

Settlers in Cemaes, 28, 64 

Isabella, Countess of Pembroke, 128 
Ithel (Ithael), 11, 15 

James ap Bowen (or ap Owen), no, 121 

ap Owen, 142 

ap Powell Lloyd, 103, 116 

I, King of England, 187, 188, 190, 191, 

192. 193. '94. i95> '96 

Owen, 204, 209 

Jenkin ap leuan, 103, 116 

Matthew, 176 

Philip, 197 

Rogers, 103, 116 

Jenkins, William, 205 
Jenkyn ap Griffith, no, 121 
Jermyn, John, 195 

Jerusalem, Foulques Conte d'Anjou, King of, 

34. 59 

St. John's Hospital of, in England, 133 

Jevan ap David, no 

ap Madoc, 130 

Powell, no 

Jacob, 176 

Joan (see Martin). 

Warlaugh, 84 

Jockyn, David, 131 
Joel, or Judhell, 60 
the Chaplain, 58 

John, Canon of St. David's, 53 

Master, Canon of St. David's, 53 

of Osterlop, Canon of St. David's, 53 

Barret, The Apostate Monk of St. Dog- 
maels, 78 

David, 193 

de Buffelo, 50 

de Castro, 51 

de Warrenne, Earl of Surrey, 48 

Henry, 133 

Herbord, 86 

King of England, 68, 77 

of Castle Martin ( ? son of Martin of 

the Towers), 50, 51, 52 

of Chartres, Abbot of Tiron, 30, 35 

of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall, 48 

of Sherburn, 52 

Owen, 192 

Sampson, 86, 87 

son of Walter, 126 

Sprang, the Jester, 67 

Stevens, 54 

the Archdeacon, 53 

the Steward, 53 

Thomas, 205 

Thomas, 145 



INDEX. 



233 



John's township = Johnstown, 127, 143, 145, 

150, 154, 155, 156 
Jones, Capt. Bryn Teify, 213 

Capt. Cardigan Bay, 199, 213 

John ap John, 211 

Rowland, 187 

Sir Thomas, 155 

Thomas, 201, 2(>5, 207, 208 

Joram, Chapel of, 160, 161, 163 

Jordan de Cantington, son of Lucas de Hoda, 

20, 25, 49, 50, 187 
Justiciar, Roger de Mortimer, Earl of March, 

King's, in Wales, 84, 85 
Kernes, Tracts (George Owen), 62 
Kemeys, Kernes, Kamays, Rammaes {see 

Cemaes). 
Kemeys, Register Book of (George Owen), 216 
Kemlas, 162 
Keppoghe, 160, 163 
Ketyngeston, 142, 151, 152 
Kilerat, 160, 163 

Kilgwyn Vychan (and Vechan), 63 
Killaloe, 164 
Killemaght, 165, 166 
Killemonde, 163 
Killenaule, 165 
Killenerlde, 163 
Killmalapoke, 160, 163 
Kilreny, 160, 163 
Kilsy Fawr (Cilfawr), 205 
Kiltenen, 160 

Killwch and Olwen, 28, 64 
King's Supremacy, Act of Acknowledgment, 

163 

Pill, 140 

St. Dogmaels, 93, 94, 95 

Clipton (Chepstow), 52 

Treasury, 52 

Knightley, John, 132 

Knight's Fee, Cassia, 83, 84, 85, 86, 216, 219 

Kefen Chymwyrth, 83, 219 

Maenclochog, 216 

Monington, 216 

Randykaith, 216 

Whittokesden, 84, 85, 86 

Kylinnaghte, 165, 166 
Kylmoche Irysshe, 165, 166 
Kylpatrick, 165, 167 
Kylynghill, 165, 166 
Kynaston's, Mr., Garden, 170 

Laceria Delturon, Chapel of St. Brigid, 160, 
161, 163 

Church of, 160, 161, 163 

Lacryne, 163 

I^gen, 160, 161 

La Haden (Llawhaden), 52, 108 

Lakerly Larcharle, loi, 105 

La Manche, Archives of, 57 

Lancashire, too, 185 

Lancaster, Duchy of, 154 

Landau, 103 

Landfrey (Lamfrey), 51 

Langley, 52 

Languages, Cymraeg, 64 



loi, 103, 109, 



Languages, Erse, 64 

Irish, 63 

Latin, 63, 168 

Welsh, 63, 64 

Lanven, Chapel of, 163 
Lateran, The, 75 
Latin Inscriptions, 63 
Laundre, laundry = Llandre, 

114, 115, 116 
Laurencetown, 165 

Law's Little England beyond Wales, 26, 168 
Lead of Windows, 117 
Leche, James, 107, 108, in, 112 
Lechmere, Sir Nicholas, 207, 2n 
Ledameston, 142, 147, 148, 157 
Leddin (Liddestone), 125, 127 
Leenduly, Dr., 9 
Leet Court, 191, 194 
Le Forren, Court of, 129 
Legend of Irish Princess, 63 
Le Gros, Geoffrey, 3rd Abbot of Tiron, 31, 

32. 36, 37 
Le Hunt, Mr., 157 
Leighlin, Diocese of, 160, 161, 163 
Leland, 54, 55, 135, 172 
Le Monkton, 145, 150 
Les Compagnons de Guillaume le Con- 

querant, Mon. E. Dupont, 61 
Lewis ap Bowen, 155 

ap leuan, 109 

Dwn, 30 

George, 205, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212 

James, no 

Jordan, 96 

Major, of Clynfiew, 20 

Topographical Dictionary, 

Leynthole, Roland, Knt., 

136, 137 
Leytraagh, Church of St. Barburga, 159, 

163 

Life of St. Bernard, G. le Gros, 31, 32 
Lincolnshire, 60, 61 
Lincoln Taxation, 172 
Lhwyd, Edward, 15 
Llamesfelde, Thos., 154 
Llanbadenfawr, 62 
Llanbloden, 28 

Manor of, 45, 47 

Llancolman, 97, 102, 104, 178 

Rectory of, 106, 107, 108, 120, 173, 175, 

178, 179, 181 
Llandaff Dubricius of, 12, 169 
Llandilo, 97, 102, 104, 178 

Rectory of, io6, 107, 108, 120, 173, 175, 

178, 179, 181 
Llandu, Church of, 76 

Llandudoch (Llandodog, Llan Deulydog), 46, 
49, 115, 217 

Bishop's House, 217 

Llandygwydd, 186 
Llanfair Nant y Gof, 219 
Llanfyhangel Penbedw (Penbeador), 205 
Llangolman Penbeador (Llancolman Pen- 
bedw), 205 
Llangadocke, no 



185 
Lord of Haverford, 

161, 



34 



INDEX. 



Llangathen, i68, 171 

Llangele, 48 

Llangoedraore, 204, 205 

Llanhever {see Nevern). 

Llanllyr, 186 

Llanthony, Foliot, Prior of, 72 

G., Prior of, 161 

Llantood, 45, gi, 97, loi, 104, 105, iij, 218 

Church of, 118, 173, 174, 178, 179, 183 

Rectory of, 106, 119, 173, 175, 180, 181, 

182 

Vicar of, Dom Hugo Harris, 91 

Llanwnda, 188, 189, 197, 198 

Dom Griffin Cedres, Vicar of, 91 

Llawhaden (Loghaden, La Hadden), 52, 108 
Llechryd, 204, 205, 218 

Llewelyn ap David, 176 

ap Jevan Pickton, no, 121 

ap Madoc, 83 

ap William, the Reeve, 126, 129 

Goch, 52 

Robert, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 194, 195, 

196 

Sir Hugh, Vicar of Llanwnda, 197 

Llisprant (Llysvrane), 52, 104, 105, 119, 175, 

183 

Chapel and Church of, 96, loi, 105, 106, 

173, 174, 17s, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 

83 
Lloyd, Fylip, of Hendre, 20 

leuan, of Hendre, 20 

John, of Hendre, 20 

Thomas, of Hendre, 201, 206, 207, 208 

T., of Hendre, 20 

William, of Hendre, 20 

Alban, 188, 192, 196 

Kdward, 153, 156, 157 

Griffin, 112, 144 

Mr., 211, 212 

Morgan, 186 

Robert, 202, 208, 209 

Sir Marteine, Bart., of Bronwydd, Lord 

of Cemaes, Dedication. 
Lochtyn, 12 
London, 185 

Dean of, 69, 71 

Longton, John (2), 143 
Lord Julius, 162 

Lords or Barons of Cemaes, 27, 29 
Lord Marcher of Cemaes, 56 

Marchers, 27 

Lorome, 160, 163, 165, 166 

Louis le Gros, King of France, 34 

son of King of France, 34 

XIV, King of France, 36 

Lucas de Hoda, 25, 49, 50, 159 

sons, Jordan and Richard, 20, 25 

Ludlow, 101, 105 

Ludovic ap Jevan, 121 
Lupo, Stephen, 127 
Luscombe, Barrudge, 79, 80 

Mabinogion, 28, 46, 62, 63, 64, 122 
Maenclochog, 79, 82, 83, 104, 178, 181, 183 



Maenclochog, Rectory of, loi, 103, 104, 107, 

108, 120, 173, 175, 177, 178, 179, 181,183 
Maenochlogddu y thache (Mynachlogddu), 

120 
Maglia Dubracuna, 168 
Magnomia, Church of St. Mary, 160, 161, 

63 
Magolite Bar Cene, 168, 172 
Malcolm III., King of Scotland, 31 
Malesant, Walter, 128, 154, 156 
Malgwyn ap Rhys, 66 
Mallt's (Matilda's) grove = Moylgrove, 45 
Manaian (Manegan, Man eigion) fawr, 201, 

202, 203, 205, 208, 209, 210, 214 

Marsh, 218, 219 

Mangunel, Richard de, 127 

Manisty (or Manesey), John, 97, 98, 102, 107, 

120 
Manobier, 168, 169 

Castle, 66 

Manordeify (Maneerdivy), 205 
Manor of Taunton, 59 

MSS., Additional, 159 

Cotton, Cleopatra, E. IV, 94, 135 

Dale Castle, 219 

Harleian, 52, 53, 88, 160, 161, 187 

Lansdowne, 140, 177 

St. Sergius and St. Bacchus Anglers, 

60 
Maqi (son), 14 
Mardnawen, i8g 
Margaret, niece of William de Roche, 126, 

129 
Margaret of Anjou, Queen of Henry VI, 134 
Margot, sister of William de Roche, 126 
Marshall, William, 10 
Martin, Colinetus (great, great grandson of 

Martin), 57 

Geva ( = Eva), wife of Martin of the 

Towers, 28, 40, 45, 54, 59, 60, 168, 
169, 170, 172 
Joan, 57, 83 

John of Castle ( ? Martin of the Tower s 

son), 50, 52, 60 

Matilda, wife of Robert, Lord of 

Cemaes, 20, 27, 28, 45, 46, 47, 57, 58 

Nesta, 25 

Nicholas (son of Martin), 49, 50, 51, 60 

Nicholas, Lord of Cemaes (great-grand- 

son of Martin), 49, 57, 79, 80, 83, 
125, 128, 135, 158 

Robert (eldest son of Martin of the 

Towers), Lord of Cemaes, 23, 27, 28, 

29. 3'. 34. 37. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 45. 
46, 47, 49, 50, 52, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59, 
60, 62, 88, 95, 168, 170, 172, 214, 219 

Robert { ? grandson of Martin of the 

Towers), 52, 60 

of the Towers (called also de Turribus 

de Tours, Tironensis, Turonensis, 
and of Wales), 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 40, 
41,45,46,49, 50, 52, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 
59, 60, 62, 83, 95, 128, 133, 156, 169, 
178, 187, 204 



INDEX. 



235 



Martin, Landing of Martin of the Towers, 26 
of Wales, 60 

William I (grandson), 25, 26, 49, 50, si, 

56 

II (great-great-great-great-grandson), 

56. 57. 79. 80, 82, 83, 85 

Ill, Sir (great-great-great-great-great- 

grandson), 57, 83, 84, 85, 86, 216 

Lands of, 60, 61 

St., of Tours (4th century), 23, 54, 95, 

134, 158, 159 
Martine, Anne, 203, 207, 208, 2H, 212 
Martinvast, 61 
Mathias, James, 209 
Matilda, the Queen, 53 
Maud, daughter of Guy de Brian, 50 
Meath, Diocese of, 164 
Meleri, or Eleri, daughter of Brycban, wife 

of Ceredig, 11 
Melin Manoi Nawoa, 190, 195, 196 
Meline, 27 
Meller, John, 152 

Philip, 149 

Melota, 76 
Mendus, John, 195 
Meredith, Thomas John, 193 
Merlet, Mons. Lucien, 32, 35 
Meurig ap Klaeth, 14 
Milford, 156, 157 

Milford Haven, 156 

Lord, 170 

Mill Broke, 103 

Mill, Fishguard (corn), 104, 119, 174, 175, 
178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 187, 189, 
190, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, igig 

Manor nawon (corn), igo, 195, 196 

Glascareg (corn), 159 

Pill (corn), 124, 125, 126, 128 

St. Dogmaels (2 corn), 97, 105, 115, 116, 

119, 174, 181, 182, 199, 200 

(i Fulling), 97 

Ministers' Accounts, 129, 134 
Moat, 125, 126, 128 
Moel Hebog, 12 

Trigarn, 13 

Monachlog yr hen, 12, 14, 15, 17, 24 
Monasticon, 44, 54 

Angl., 172 

Hibernicon, 167 

Monastry of St. James, 60 
Monington, 91, 97, 209 
Monks' Benedictine, 161 

Caldey, 169 

Pill, 125, 126, 133 

St. Dogmaels, 35, 47, 50, 51, 79, 88, 163, 

169, 172, 213, 221 

of St. Dogmaels, Dom David (i6th cen- 

tury), 92 

David Res, 95 

David William, 95 

Hugo Eynon, 93, 95 

John David, 95 

Philipp Laurence, 92 

Phillip Griffith, 95 

Lewis Lawrens, 95 



Monk of St. Dogmaels, Robert Thomas, 94, 95 

Thomas Baron, 92 

Thomas Jevan, 92 

William Bonne, 95 

William Griffith, 92 

St. Maur, 36 

Tiron, 36, 43, 46, 48, 54, 58, 59, 128, 

58. 159 
Monkton, 127, 142, 150 
Montfort sur Risle, 43 
Morgan ap Owen, 176 

John, of Llangadocke, no, in 

Jones, 122 

Rd., 176, 177 

Morgeney, The Brooke, 218 
Morgenau, Morganeu, The Judge, 218 
Morice ap David, 103, 116 

Moris, David, 129 

Richard, 129 

Morris, John, 204, 207, 210 
Moritonium, 43 
Mortimer, John, 103, 116 

Ralph de, 128 

Morva, 63 
Morvill, 27, 84 
Mount, 204 

Moylgrove (Moelgrove, etc.), 16, 27, 28, 45, 
46, 63, 91, 104, 105, 106, 174, 177, 
179, 183, 200, 217 

Rectory and Church of, 96, loi, 118, 

119, 173, 175, 178, 180, 181, 182, 183 
Munster, 165, 167 
Mynne, John, 160 
Mynachlog Ddu, 28, 80, 95, io8, 109, 120, 

'73. '75. 178. >79. 220 

Chapel, loi, 104, 106, no, 122, 173, 175, 

178, 179 

- ( haplain, in 

Rectory, in 

Mynyth tergh (Mene cregh), 82, 95, 108, 120 

Nantgwyn, 27, 104, 175 

Chapel of, 96, loi, 105, 106, 119, 173, 

'74. '75. '78. '79. '80, i8i, 182 
National School, Davies Street, 199, 200 
Nennoc, St., 13 
Nesta, great-great-great-granddaughter of 

Rhys ap Gryffydd, 25 

daughter of Rhys ap Tewdwr, 66 

Neugol, 125, 127, 152 

Nevern, Carnarvonshire, 12 

Castell, 25, 26, 56 

Pembrokeshire, 25, 63, 84, 174, 176, 202 

River, 218 

Nevil, Ralph de, 128 

Newcastle, 25, 26, 152, 155, 156, 157 

Church of, 143 

Little, 124, 157 

Church of St. David's (now St. 

Peter's), 124 

Court at, 216 

New Moat, 124, 126, 145, 153, 156 

Church of St. Nicholas, 124, 143 

New Parke, 103, 115 
Newport, 26, 27, 91, 216 



S36 



INDEX. 



Newport, Church of, 91, 139 

Newquay, 12 

Newton, Church and Chapel, 96, loi, 104, 

105, 106, 109, 173, 174, 17s, 178, 179, 

180, 181, 182, 183 

Parish of, 

Newtown, 175, 183 
Nicol, Ralph, 133 

Nicolas, Griffin, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 194, 

19s, 196 
Nigra Grangia, 28, 82 
Nogent, Castle of, 33 

-le-Rotrou, 30, 37 

Nolton, 143, 144, 154 

Church of, 144 

Nominations of Abbots, Form for, 37, 38 

Non, St., 13 

Norlias, 156 

Normandy, 22, 30, 34, 35, 56> S^, 60 

Normans, 45, 54, 57, 64, 216, 217 

Noyadd Trefawr, 185 

Nutt, Hugh, 149 

Oderic, 43 

Office of St. Bernard, I'rayer from, 37 

Ogham Character, 14 

Inscriptions, 63, 168 

Stones, 14, 15, 168, 170, 172 

Olwen and Killwch, 28 

O'Maershayn Eugene, Canon of Killaloe, 164 

Order Cistercian, 69 

of St. Benedict (O. S. B.), 92, 136, 164, 

St. Dogmaels, 156 

St. Maur, 36 

Tiron, 34, 36, 54, 124, 126, 128, 133, 

135, 142, 156, 157, 158, 159, 162, 165, 
167, 214 

Orleans, 35 

Other, son of a Count, tutor to Prince Wil- 
liam, 42, 43, 44 

Owain, 49 

Owen Alban, Lord of Cemaes, 185 

George, Lord of Cemaes, 20, 23, 26, 28, 

46, 47, 62, 64, 65, 83, 168, 169, 170, 
174, 185, 200, 216, 218, 219, 221, 222, 
223 

William, Lord of Cemaes, 12, 219 

George, History of Pembrokeshire, 46, 

47, 62, 63, 65, 169, 200, 216, 217, 219, 
222 

Lords of Kemes, 83 

Pembroke and Kemes, 219 

Taylors Cussion, 220 

Note, by Dr. Henry Owen, 219 

Henry Gerald, the Welshman, 77 

ap Philip, 103, 116 

ap Powell, no, 121 

James, 186 

V. Stafford, 188 

Owestrop, 61 
Owyn, Dame, 152 
Oxford, 60 

Pantirion, 220 



Pantsaeson, 17, 24, 200, 217 
Pant-y-Groes, 20 
Pant y Grundy, 218 
Papal Chamberlain, 74, 75 

Letter, 164 

Registers, 78, 88, 132, 217 

Pare y Capel, 67 

Pare y John Lloyd, 103, 116 

Parke Close, 202, 203 

Parke glas (green meadow or field), 206 

- le cleg (mass, hard lump), 203 

Pen y Gragge (Crugiau = top of the 

crags), 204 

Rolle (Parc-y-rheol), loi, 103, 115 

y Coed (the wood), 204 

y firyer, 206 

y Hinen (eithinen = gorse), 204 

y Reese (Rhys = meadow), 204 

yr Abbot, 204, 205 

Park Weir glodd vaier (St. Mary's Meadow), 

206 
Parker, Owin, 187 

Thomas, Collector, 133, 134 

Parliament (English), 49, 69, 102, 105, 118 

(French), 35, 36 

Parnel, Thomas, a priest, 134, 144 
Paris, 39 
Parot, 108 
Parry, Ann, 186 

Bridget, 186 

David, 185, 186 

David II, 186, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 

209, 211 
Elizabeth, 186 

Joan, 186 

John, Archdeacon of Cardigan, 186, 

201, 206, 207, 208 
Margaret, 185, 186 

Stephen, 186 

Stephen II, 186 

Susan, 186 

Thomas (ap Harry), 185, 186 

William, 204, 207, 208, 211, 212 

William of Brethyr, 186 

Patrologie Migne, 31, 32 
Pebidiauk, 88 

Deanery of, 91 

Pembroke, 84, 95, 96, 102, 104, 106, 107, 112, 
114, 120, 155, 173, 178, 179, 181, 183, 
190, 191 

Co. of, 38, 39, 46, 54, 63, 64, 65, 66, 91, 

98, 102, 108, 109, IIS, "6, 118, 124, 
140, 158, 159, 161, 162, 169, 172, 174, 
17s, 176, 178, i8i, 182, 183, 185, 187, 
188, 189, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 
197, 198, 200, 202, 205, 208, 209, 211, 
217, 2i8, 219, 222 

Earls of, 84, 125, 126 

Earldom of, 90 

Pemery (Pomery), 161, 162 
Pen Cerwyn, 13 

Crugiau (grige, gragge), 204 

Penfoos, 133 

Penfro, 62 

Penkeliy Vychan, 63, 64, 175, 183 



INDEX. 



a37 



Penkelly Vychan, Chapel of and Rectory of, 
96, loi, 104, 105, 106, 119, 173, 174, 
175, 178, 179, 181, 182, 183 

Penrallt, loi, 103, 116 

Ceibwr, 19 

Esgob, 17 

Penros, John, 132 
Pensions, 97, iii, 154 
Pentre Ifan, or Evan, 18, 25 

ithe, 102, 121 

Pen y Wern, 220 
Perche, 30 

Contesse de la, daughter of Henry I, 

37. 42 
Percy, Thomas de, 132 

Perquisites of the Court, 122, 130, 134, 154 
Pers, Robert, 149 
Peter de Champnent, 48 
Peverel, John, 216 

Matilda, 20, 59, 60 

William, 27, 57 

Peverels, The, 59, 60 
Philip, a false deacon, 74 

de Stackpool, 50, 51 

- John, 133 

Owen, 187 to 194, 195, 197, 198 

the Clerk, 128 

Thomas, no, 121 

William, 149 

Philipe, son of Louis le Gros, King of 

France, 34 
Philips, John, 131 

Phillip, grandson of Lucas de Hoda, 35 
Phillips, James, 196, 204 

John, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156 

Roger, 201, 206, 207, 208 

Philpine, Walter, 169 
Pickton, Owen, 188, 192, 196 
Picton, William, 216 

Pill, 125, 127, 128, 129, 133, 134, 141, 156, 

58 

Chapter House of, 139, 141 

Lands of, 126 

Manor of, 126, 131, 132, 133 

Monks of, 125, 133 

John (about 1500), 145, 150 

Dom John Castell, 140 

Dom John Dore, 140 

Heliseas Pecocke, 141 

Dom Mauricius leuan, 141 

Dom William Hire (Hyre), 139 

Dom William Watt, 139, 14a, 145, 

146, 151, 154 

Priors of, 125, 132, 133, 135, 136, 137, 

138, 139, 140, 144, 145, 146, 150, 151, 

Dom David Luce, Prior of, 139, 140, 217 

Phillip, Prior of, 125, 128, 217 

William Watt, Prior of, 140, 141, 217 

Priory or Convent of, 80, 81, 82, 86, 87, 

93, 96, 100, 104, III, 114, 124 to 128, 
13s to 137, 139, 140, 142, 144, 147, 
149 to 153, 155, 157, 158, 159, i6i, 169 

Rector of, 91 

Great, 143, 147, 148 



Pill Oliver, 125 

Rhodal, 135 

Roos, 156 

Place Pen Abounte = plas pen-y-bont, loi, 

103, 116 
Plas Newydd, 185, 186 
Plas Pant-y-Rege, 109, 121 
Ploughs, Number of, in St. Dogmaels, 220 
Plwyf bach (little parish), 211, 220 
Plwyf fawr (great parish), 203, 220 
Poitevin (St. Bernard's Donkey), 34 
Poitou, 61 

Polsawe, Thomas, 132 
Pontvrayne, 143, 144 
Pope Alexander II, 38 

Boniface IX, 164 

Clement VI, 133 

Eugene III, 38 

Eugenius, 20 

Innocent I, 71, 72, 73, 75, 76, 78 

VI, 133 

Leo XIII, 37 

Nicolas, Taxatio of, 41, 79, 80 

Urban V, 133 

The, 69, 140 

Poppitt (Potpyt), loi, 103, 115, 219, 222 

The Sands, 219 

Population of St. Dogmaels, 220 
Portmadoc, 12 

Powell ap Owen, 176 

Edward, 188, 192, 196 

Sir John, 207, 211 

Powes, Edward, 192 
Precelly Top, 13, 27, 28 

Preseley (Preceley, Breselech), 45, 47, 68, 97 
Presteign (Presthende, Preston), 100, 113, 115, 

116, 174 
Prior and Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, 

33 
Priory de Guales, Galles, Gallis, 13, 31, 62 
Products, 222, 223 
Pugh, 15 

Pwll-cam, loi, 219 
Pwll-y-Granant, Mr. Vincent, 220 
Pwyll (Mabinogion), 122 

Quimperle, 13 

Radenor, son of Philip, 128 

Radnor, Co. and Shire of, too, 113, 115, 177, 

185 

Ralph Nevill, 48 

Ranulph, 43 

Earl of Chester, 60 

Raoul, Count of Fougeres, 32 

Rastell, John, 176 

Rattry, Rattre, Rattreu (? Wadtree), 28, 29, 
41, 45, 47, 80, 86, 96 to 102, 104, 
io6, 107, 112, 120, 122, 173, 178 

Rectory and Church of St. Mary, 97, 

98, 99, 107, 120, 122, 17s, 178 
Raymond, Abbot of St. Cyprian, 31, 32 
Redderch, 125, 127 

Registers of Canterbury, Courtney, 86, 87 
Warham, 90, 91, 92 



*3 



INDEX. 



Reginald, FfoUiot, 68, 70, 71, 72, 76 
Regner, 135 

Reats at Will, Haverfordwest and Pembroke, 
120 

Resolute, 154 

Rees, Beauties of England and Wales, 169 

William, 207, aois, 211, 212 

Retford, 125, 127, 152 

Re wan, 130 

Rhos, Deanery of, 139, 145 

Wrdan, 50, 67 

Rice ap Morgan, 176 
Rhydderch ap Rhys fychan, 185 
Rhys ap Gryffydd, 26, 66, 67 

Tewdwr, 24, 66 

Castle, 117 

James, of Mynachlogddu, 185 

Rhys' Lectures on Welsh Philology, 172 
Rhys Vychan, Lord of Towy, 186 

Ricart, Risiart, son of Lucas de Hoda, 20, 28 
Richard I, King of England, 58, 77 

II, King of England, 48, 49, 50, 86, 88, 

90, 129, 130, 131, 132, 136 

de Wood, 48, 52 

Earl of Chester, 58 

Hutley, 90 

Margaret, 205 

son of Gosner, 47 

Right of Pasture on Mynachlogddu, 220 

Risdon, 23, 28 

Robert ap Price ap Powell, 103, 116 

Arbrisel, 34 

Crippinges, 51 

de Baldock, 83 

de Bikkenor, 84, 85 

del Val, S3 

de Tybbot, 52 

de Vawr (Vaux), 52 

de Watevill, 84, 85 

Earl of Leicester, 58 

Fitzraartin (see Martin). 

Journey to Tiron, 31, 37 

Marmion, 58 

of Caen, Count of Gloucester, 34 

of Languedoc, 45, 46 

The Clerk, 127 

Roch Church, 96, 143 

Roche, 125, 127, 129, 130, 133, 134, 143, 152, 

153. 156, 157 

Adam de, 124, 125, 127, 128, 132, 134, 

13s. 42. >56, 157. '.S8, 161, 2to 

David de, 79, 82, Z^i, 124 

David II (of Ireland), 159, 160, 161, 

162 

Lord de, (of Ireland), 160, 161, 163 

Gilbert de, 51, 52, 83, 128 

Henry, 124 

John de, 124, 125, 127, 135 

Sir David de la, 131 

Matilda de, 124, 127 

Thomas de, 124, 125, 127, 132, 134, 135 

Thomas de, 125, 131, 132 

Thomas de la, of Langum, 131 

William de, 125, 126, 131 

The Lordship of (Ireland), i6i, 163 



Roches, The, 124, 125, 132, 159 
Roche, The Manor of, 126, 131, 133 

Tower or Castle, 96, 143 

Rock of Golden Grove, 79 
Roger, a monk, 75 

de Mortimer, 51, 52, 85, 135 

(Mortimer's) land, 125, 126, 128 

of Mathone, 45, 46 

Roll of Battle Abbey, 22, 23, 50, 56 
Rolls, Augmentation Office, 102, 104 

Charter, 46, 50, 126, 157 

Close, 85, 140 

Calendar of, 84 

Court, 130 

Dives, 61 

Duchesne's, 56 

Hollinsheds, 56 

Lelands, 56 

Memoranda, 79, 81, 88, 136 

of Taxation, 82 

Originalia, 53 

Patent, 50, 77, 79, 83, 86, 88, 97, 98, 115, 

132, 177, 179, 181, 185 

Pembroke, 177 

Pipe, 60 

Roman remains, 63 
Romans, 64 

Rome, 70, 72, 73, 75, 88, 133, 164 
Roose, 124, 135, 156 
Roosland = Rhosland, loi, 116 
Roslyn, Master, 58 , 

Rotherothe ap John, 147 
Rotrou, 33 

Count of Perche, 33, 34 

Round, J. H., 41, 44 
Rowe, William, 149 

Rowland, Alice, 207, 208, 211, 212 

James, 208 

Royal Military School, 36 
Ruffo, Henry, 127 
Rules of St. Benedict, 140 
Rupe, de la (see Roche). 
Rushes, 151 
Rymer, 53 

Saer, Saeran, Sagramni, Sagranus, 14, 15, 

185 
Sagramore, Sir, 14 
Sagranus, son of Cunedda, 14 
St. Albans (Herts), 118, 175, 178 
St. Andrew's Cross, 201 
St. Badock, 142, 147, 148, 149 
St. Benedict, 54, 55, 95, 139, 159. 161, 162, 

65 
St. Bernard, 31, 57, 59, i3.5. '59 
St. Bernard's Well, 68 
St. Budoc, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 158 
St. Cewydd (St. Kewit), 124, 126 
St. Cradoc, 125, 127 

Chapel, 152 

St. Cross Hospice, Winchester, 123 

St. Cyprian, 31 

St. David, 39, 52, 54, 68, 70, 74, 77, 125, 133 

Bishop of, 44, 45, 53. 5.S. 68, 71, 77, 78, 

156. 217 



INDEX. 



239 



St. David, Bishopric and See of, 43, 68, 69, 
72, 73, 91, 104, 105, 146, 147, 153, 
74. 175. '78. 181, 182, 183 

Canons of, 53, 133 

Chapter of, 6g 

Diocese of, 38, 59, 62, 81, 87, 88, 94, 

104, 112, 133, 136, 140 

Gerald, Keeper of the Church of, 71 

Little Newcastle, 124 

of Newcastle, Church of, 126 

St. Edryns, 196 

St. Eloi, 36 

St. Inleyn, Chapel of, 161 

St. Julian's Chapel, 109 

St. Leatrina de Nayt, Church of, 160, 161, 

163 
St. Leyre of Bastoro or Boscum, Chapel of 

B.V.M., 160, 163 

Church of, 160, 163 

St. Lo, 57 

St. Madoc's, Nolton, 125, 128 

St. Martin, 36 

St. Mary of Cathmais, 38, 40, 42, 43, 44, 50, 

5'. 53. SS. >S8 

of Glascareg, 161 

Pill, 126, 127, 128 

Roch, 124 

St. Matthew, Church of, 50 

St. Meigan's Fair, 215 

St. Merleyn, Church of, 163 

St. Nicholas, of Fishguard, loi, 104, 105, 118 

Rectory of, 106 

New Moat, 126 

St. Patrick, Chapel of, 162 

Church of, 160, 161, 163 

St. Paul's, London, 90, 136 

St. Peter's of Montacute, Church of, 59, 60 

Rome, 88, 133, 164 

SS. Sergius and Bacchus, Angiers, Abbey of, 
60 

MS. at, 60 

St. Swithin's Church, London, 133 
St. Thomas the Martyr, 125 

Chantry, Chapel of, 131 

St. Walburga, 42, 43 
Sale of Works, 129, 130 
Salisbury, Earl of, 35 
Sandre, Simon, 130 
Sandy, Walter, 131 
Saverinus, Bishop of Bath, 58 
Savigny, Abbey of, 32, 57, 58 

Cartulary of, 57, 58 

Forest of, 32 

Savory, Rd., of Totnes, 97, 98, 99, 100 
Sawyer, Sir Robt., Knt., 212 
Saxons, 24 
Seal, Conventual of Pill Priory, 141 

St. Dogmaels Abbey, 93, 108, 109 

Seberius of Quineaco, 58 
Seine or Shot fawr, 221 
Seisylt Esceif (Longshanks), 68 
Seman Scopell, 125, 126, 128 
Sewant, 124, 127 
Shepey Island, 170 
Shingrig, 200 



Shrewsbury, 223 

Shropshire, 101, 105, 185 

Sigelai, Hundred of, 60, 61 

Signatures to Act of Supremacy, St. Dog- 

mael, 93, 94, 95 
Signia, 71 
Sire de Tours, 56 
Smyth, John, 107, 114, 120 
Smythston, 165, 166 
Snowdon, 12 
Somerset, 26, 84, 85 
Somersetshire Record Society, 60 
Speed, 54, 135 
Sperrus, 61 

Sporier, John, 103, 116 
Stags Valley, 13, 28 
Stainton, 124, 125, 126, 142, 145, 147, 148, 

>S4. 15s. 156. 158 

Church of, 143, 147 

Highway, 147 

Staneberg, Hundred of, 80 
State Papers of Ireland, 165, 167 
Stephen, Count of Mortain, 58 

Dapifer (The King's Steward), 47, 52 

Edesworth, 52 

John, 152, 155, 156 

Philip, 142 

Thomas, 145 

William, 176 

Stephens, 54, 55 
Stevens, 135 

Steward or Seneschal of Pembroke, 83, 84 

Stockport, 185 

Stodach, David, 131 

Stodhart (Studdolph), 124, 127, 142, 149, 150 

Stolen Horse, The, 74, 75 

Stone Altar, 199 

Coffins, 214 

free, 200, 217 

green porphyritic granite, 201, 206 

Manaian fawr, 201, 214 

Redd, 199, 217 

Russet, 218 

Sagranus, 14, 15 

Slates and tiling, 217 

with shaft of Cross, 215 

Stopell Mill, 126, 128 

Stories, Gerald the Welshman, 67, 68, 76, 77 

Mr. Vincent, 18, 19 

Strathclyde, 64 

Strickmeres (Dredgman's) Hill, 125, 127 

Strumble Head, 12 

Styles of Architecture as shown by remains, 

Norman Early English, decorated 

perpendicular, 215 
Suthoc (South Hook), 127, 142, 143, 147, 

148, 154 
Sweyne, 61 
Sword of Joel, 60 
Symon of Durham, History of the Acts of 

the Kings of England, 58 

Tanfield, Lawrence, Knt., 188 

Tangustel, son of Keybour (Ceibwr), 83, 84 

Tallage, The, of Wm. Owen, 219 



240 



IIJIDEX. 



Tankard, 51 
Tanner, 55, 157, 172 
Taunton, 59 

Manor of, 59, 60 

Taxatio of Pope 5ficholas, 41, 71, 80 
Taylors Cussion, The, George Owen, 220 
Taylour Xerpofer, 144 
Teify River, 12, 24, 25, 28, 41, 44, 45, 46, 

62, 67, 216, 218, 221 
Temple Boyne, Chapel of, 159, 161, 163 
Temple Bodigane, 160 
Temple Derry, 165, 166 
Temple Landecan, Church of, 159, 161, 163 
Temple Mallyne, 163 
Tenby, 169, 179 
Testa de Nevill, 79, 80, 84 
Teulydog, Abbot of (St. Dogmaels), 217 
Teutonic, 63 
Teutons, 64 
Tewe, Owen, 155 
Thibaut, Conte de Blois, 34 
Thiron au Perche, 30 
Thironne River, 34 
Thomas ap dio Gwilum, 120, 121 

ap Rice, 176 

Basset, 58 

Becket's Bishop, 103 

Beke, Master, 53, 54 

David, 207, 208, 211, 212 

Fitz Henry, 166 

Howell, 209 

James, 188, 191, 206 

Matthew, 176, 186, 203 

Richard, 131 

Wake, 48 

Wallensis, 124 

Thorneton, 125, 127, 142, 143, 151 
Tilbarg, 130 

Tinagh, Church of St. Brigitte, 160, 161, 163 
Tirion Uchaf, 220 

Tiron (Thiron Gardais), 22, 30, 31, 33, 34, 
35. 38, 41. 57. 59. 161, 162, 217 

Abbey of, 23, 28, 30, 31, 34, 35, 36, 37, 

38, 39, 40, 54, 56, 57, 172 

Abbots (see Abbots) 

Cartulary of, 31, 37, 41, 42, 44, 46, 58, 

62, 63, 167 

Chapter of, 38 

Congregation of, 59 

Convent of, 43, 44, 46 

Treasury of, 36 

The Trinity, 36 

Tipperary, Co. of, 165 

Tithe Dispute, Examination of St. Dogmaels 

Tithes, 201, 206, 208, 212 
Tiverton, Church of, 60 
Tivyside Observer, 200 
Toads House and the Toads, 67, 68 
Tonker, John, 134 
Tor Abbey, 41 
Torquay, 28 
Totnes (Devon), 28, 29, 45, 97, 98 

Priory Church of, 60 

Tours, Bayeux, 56, 61 

Hie et I.x)ir, 61 



Tours, Touraine, 22, 23 

Towey, Lord of, 185, 186 

Trahir, 159, 160, 161, 162 

Trecart, Trereikart, 251 5' 

Trecoom (Trecwm), 192 

Tredafed, 186 

Trefas, 19 

Trefigarne, 130 

Tregamon (Trecamon), 20, 27 

Tregent, Church of, 40, 41 

Tregoes (Tregroes), 190, 194, 196 

Trellyfant, 67, 68 

Trenvan Maurice de, 127 

Treprisk, 20 

Trewidwal, 220 

Trewrdan (and uchaf and issaf), 25, 50 

Trewyddel, 46, 63 

Triggs, Richard, 131 

Troedyrawr, i86 

Twrch Trwyth, 28 

Ty Hyr, 202, 208, 209, 210 

Tyler, Mrs., 185 

Vachketerlmechan, 126 
Vaghan, John, 112 

William, 152 

Val, Sir Robert de Val, 28 
Valence, 38 

William de, 48 

Valor Ecclesiasticus, 95, 96, 142, 169 

Varn Parke, 103 

Vaughan, Richard, 133 

Vengeons, Wenion, Vengions, Venions, 57, 58 

Verney, Eleanor, 131, 132 

Robert, 129, 131, 132 

Verwick, 205 

Vienna, 164 

Vincent, The Rev. H. J., 15, 16, 19, 20, 203, 

220 
Virgins' Fountain, The, Rome, 75 

with Christ, 142 

Vivien, 14 

Vychan, William, 142 

Vyndessors (Windsor), 125, 127 

Wadtree, Church of, 40, 41, 45 
Waffret, 125, 126, 128 
Walensium, 63, 64 
Wales, Charles Prince of, 10 

Edward, Prince of, 10 

Walisc, Waelisc, Weahl, Wallachia, Wal- 
loons, Walshland, Wallach, Wales, 
63, 64 

Walker, John David, 196 

Walter, Beauchamp, 52 

The Chaplain, 53 

Malesant, 51 

Wars of the Roses, 90 

Warren, the Archdeacon, 129, 131, 132 
Watevill, Margaret de, wife of Robert, and 

widow of William Martin III, 84, 

85, 86 

Robert de, 84, 85, 86 

Walters, Edward, in, 155 
Webbe, Philip, 145 



^ 



INDEX. 



241 



Welsh, 46 

Character, 24 

Language, 24 

Welshery, The, 65 
Wenloc, Prior of, 69, 76 
Wermyngton, John, 133 
Westcote, 23 

Westminster, 48, 49, 79, 81, 83, 86, 8g, go, 
98, 100, 105, 108, III, 118, 129, 132, 

'36. i37> '4. MI. 146, 148, 153. '69, 
175, 181, 184, 188, 192, 207, 211 

Chapter House, 93, 94, 95 

Westwood, J. O., 15, 172 
Wexford, Co., 159, 165, 167 
Whiskey, 28 

White Oxen {see Whittokesdene, in Dean 

Prior, 84 
White Ship, The, 44 
White, Stephen, 132 
Whitland, Abbot of (Cistercian Order), 69 

Peter of, 70, 71, 76, 77 

Whittokesdene (see White Oxen), 79, 80, 84, 

8s, 86 
Wigmore, Monastery of, 114, 117 
William I the Conqueror, King of Kngland, 

22, 29, 56, 61, 62 

Ill and Mary, King and Queen of 

Kngland, 206, 207, 208, 211 

Prince, son of Henry I, King of Kng- 

land, 31, 37, 41, 42, 43, 44 

Albignero, 43 

ap Rice, 176 

Count of Nevers, 34 

de Albineis, a Briton, 42 

de Baray, 66 

de Bolevill, 51 

de Canvill, 51, 52 

de Cantington (grandson of Lucas de 

Hoda), 49, 50, 51, 88, 187, 217, 219 

de Morlegh, 80 

de Rollo, 43 

de Valence, 48, 52 

Duke of Acquitaine, 34, 59 



William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, 125, 

128 
^ of Falaise, 28, 29, 57 

of Malmesbury, 31 

of Stannus, 58 

of Worcester, 170 

Peverell, 27, 45 

Puerello-Cloun, 43 

son of Ralph, Seneschal of Normandy, 

58 

son of Roger, 46 

Williams, Elizabeth, 103, 116 

Robert, 15 

William, 189, 190, 194, 195, 196 

Willyams, David, no 

Winchester, 123 

Windsore, 152 

Winstanley, Edmund, 185 

Winterscombe Coppice, 97, 98 

Wode, Le, 129 

Wogan, John, 128, 143, 145, 146, 147, 155 

Thomas, 144 

Woodward, 169 
Wool Fair, 223 
WooUey, John, 207 
Worcester, 70, 117 

Abbot of, 69, 76 

Bishop, 60, 72, 78 

Canon J., of, 69 

Precentor of, 69 

Wrdan Uchaf, 50 
Wrexham, 207 
Writ, 223 

Wroughton (Urchstone), 60, 61 
Wyott land, 103, 116 

Ymar, Odinyd, Odwynd, O'Dowd, 164 
Ynys Pyr (Island of Pyrus), 168, 169, 172 
Yound, John, 156 

Y Weirglodd dan y goyed grodig (y drym), 

190, 192, 194, 19s 

Y Plwyf Bach, 211, 220 

Y Plwyf fawr/ 203, 220 




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