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% ]| istorq; uF lip Somthj, its Stltes, Uoums, &t., 

Biographical Sketches of Citizens, War Record of its Volunteers 

< in the late Rebellion, General and Local Statistics, Portraits 

of Early Settlers and Prominent Men, History of the 

Northwest, History of Illinois, Map of Stephenson 

County, Constitution of the United States, 

Miscellaneous Matters, &c, &e. 

&4 $71 • &y ■ 






rj^HE following pages, assuming to relate a history of Stephenson County from 

its earliest settlement to the present day, owe their appearance to the enter- 
prise of an historical company, supplemented by the demand of a generous pub- 
lic. In its preparation, sources of information have been sought and appropria- 
tions freely made from presumably authentic data. No claim is made to origin- 
ality, and numerous mistakes will doubtless be discovered, especially by those 
disposed to be hypercritical. In a work of such magnitude, these are unavoid- 

The author cannot pretend to have acquitted himself to his own satisfac- 
tion, though he has labored diligently to furnish a reliable, if yet an imperfect, 
compilation of facts and events which are alleged to have occurred in Stephen- 
son County since the days when Kellogg, Kirker, Robey, Timms and others 
rejoiced to get into the wilderness. Whatever of merit or demerit the book col ' 
tains remains for the reader to discover, and his judgment may be unprejudiced 
if he finds no word of promise on the introductory page. 

In conclusion, he desires to make his acknowledgments to the Pioneers who 
still survive, to the Press, the ' ; cloth," the public officers, County, State and 
Federal, and other mediums of communication, not alone for " history," but for 
many kind acts, and much else that may contribute to whatever of success shall 
greet the succeeding pages. 

A preface is generally regarded as the substitute for an apology. The 
author indulges the hope that, in equaling reasonable expectations, the substi- 
tute will be adopted by his readers. 

M. H. Tilden. 

Chicago, September, 1880. 



IIS and 120 Monroe Street. 




History Northwest Territory 19 

Geographical Position 19 

Early Explorations 20 

Discovery of the Ohio 32 

English Explorations and Set- 
tlements 34 

American Settlements 59 

Division of the Northwest Ter- 
ritory , 65 

Tecumseh and the War of 1812 69 
Black Hawk and the Black 
Hawk War 73 


History of Ohio 93 

French History 96 

Ordinance of 1787, No. 32 105 

The War of 1812 122 

Banking 126 

The Canal System 128 

Ohio Land Tracts 129 

Improvements 132 

Boundary Lines 136 

Organization of Counties, and 

Early Events 137 

Governors of Ohio 160 

History of Ohio: 

Ancient Works 174 

Some General Characteristics...l77 

Outline Geology of Ohio 179 

Ohio's Rank During the War..l82 
A Brief Mention of Prominent 

Ohio Generals 191 

Some Discussed Subjects 196 

Conclusion 200 


Source of the Mississippi 22 

La Salle Landing on the Shore of 

Green Bay 24 

Buffalo Hunt 26 

Trapping 28 

Mouth of the Mississippi 31 



High Bridge 33 

Pontiac, the Ottawa Chieftain 42 

Indians Attacking Frontiersmen.. 55 
Present Site Lake Street Bridge, 

Chicago, 1833 58 

A Pioneer Dwelling 60 

Lake Bluff. 62 

Tecumseh, the Shawanoe Chieftain 68 

Indians Attacking a Stockade 71 

Black Hawk, the Sac Chieftain 74 

Perry's Monument, Cleveland 91 

Niagara Falls 92 




Adoption of Children 132 

Bills of Exchange and Promissory 

Notes 123 

County Courts 127 

Conveyances , 136 

Church Organizations 157 

Descent 123 

Deeds and Mortgages 129 

Drainage 135 

Damages from Trespass 139 

Definition of Commercial Terms....l43 

Exemptions from Forced Sales 128 

Estrays 129 

Fences 138 

Forms : 

Articles of Agreement 145 

Bills of Purchase 144 

Bills of Sale 146 

Bonds 146 

Forms : 

Chattel Mortgages 147 

Codicil 157 

Lease of Farm and Build- 
ings 149 

Lease of House 150 

Landlord's Agreement 150 

Notes 144 

Notice Tenant to Quit 151 

Orders 144 

Quit Claim Deed 153 

Receipt 144 

Real Estate Mortgaged to Secure 

Payment of Money 151 

Release 154 

Tenant's Agreement 150 

Tenant's Notice of Leaving 151 

Warranty Deed 152 

Will 155 


Game 13o 

Interest 123 

Jurisdiction of Courts 126 

Limitation of Action 127 

Landlord and Tenant 139 

Liens 142 

Married Women 127 

Millers 131 

Marks and Brands 131 

Paupers 136 

Roads and Bridges 133 

Surveyors and Surveys 132 

Suggestions to Persons Purchasing 

Bunks by Subscription 168 

Taxes 126 

Wills and Estates 124 

Weigh ts and Measures 130 

Wolf Scalps 136 


Map of Stephenson County Front 

Constitution of the U. S 160 

Electors President and Vice Pre-i- 

dent 172 

Practical Rules fur Every Day Use.173 
U. S. Government Land Measure. ..176 
Agi cultural Productions of Illinois 

by Counties, 1870 186 



Surveyors' Measure 177 

How to Keep Accounts 177 

Interest Table 178 

Miscellaneous Tables 178 

Names of the States of the Union 

and their Signification 179 

Population of Fifty Principal Cities 

of the United States 180 


Population of the United States 180 

Population of the Principal Coun- 
tries in the World 181 

Population of Illinois 182-183 

State Laws Relatingto Interest 184 

State LawsRelating to Limitations 
of Actions 185 





Topography 189 

Geological Formations 191 

Quaternary Deposits 193 

Indian Occupation 200 

Indian Troubles — Black Hawk 

War 203 

County Roster 217 

Early Settlements 219 

Mormon Meddlings 262 

Wallace Suicide 267 

The Boardman Murder 269 

Mexican War v 272 

Railroads 273 

Famine of 1848 280 

Township Organization 280 

The Hegira to California, 1849 281 

Cholera Visitations 284 

Completion of the C. & G. U. R. R....285 

Educational Facilities 287 

The Panic of 1857 289 

County Buildings 298 

Stephenson County Society of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons 301 

Stephenson County Farmer's Co- 
operative Association 301 

Stephenson County Agricultural 

Society 302 

Patrons of Husbandry 303 

Old Settlers' Association 303 

Criminal Records 304 

War Record 308 

Volunteer Roster 315 

Soldiers' Monument 344 


Agricultural Statistics 361 

Assessment Tables 362-363 

Population, 1880 364 

Freeport 365 

Official Roster 389 

Fire Department 391 

Police 393 

Educational 394 

Press 401 

Water Power 425 

Gas Works 426 

Young Men's Library Associa- 
tion 427 

Banks 427 

German Insurance Company....429 

Telephone Exchange 430 

Post Office 431 

Cemetery 432 

Parks 433 

Opera House 433 

Munn's Building 433 

Fry's Building 434 

Brewster House 434 

Taylor's Driving Park 435 

Religious 436 

Odd Fellows 454 

Masonic 456 

Military 461 

Temperance 462 

Other Societies 463 

Mills 467 

Breweries 468 

Manufactures 470 


Rock Grove Township 482 

Rock Grove Village 485 

Rock Run Township 486 

Davis 488 

Rock City 492 

Dakota Township 495 

Dakota Village 495 

Silver Creek Township 499 

Loran Township 500 

Jefferson Township 502 

Erin Township 504 

Dublin Settlement 506 

Eleroy 507 

Harlem Township 509 

Kent Township 513 

Ridott Township 515 

Ridott Village 517 

West Point Township 520 

Lena 522 

Buckeye Township 535 

Cedarville 537 

Buckeye Center 542 

Buena Vista 543 

Waddams Township 543 

New Pennsylvania 544- 

Winslow Township 545 

Winslow 550 

Oneco Township 552 

Orangeville 554 

Oneco 560 

Florence Township 560 

Lancaster Township 562 



John H. Addanis 277 

Smith D. Atkins 403 

Horatio C. Burchard 367 

A. A. Babcock 385 

Ross Babcock 493 

L. A. Babcock 475 

Thomas Hunt 547 

M. Hettinger 349 


D. A. Knowlton 295 

Jacob Krohn 439 

A. A. Krape 529 

George W. Loveland 565 

Pells Manny 241 

Chancellor "Martin 189 

L. L. Munn 457 

George Purinton 223 


C. H. Rosenstiel 313 

V. Stoskopf 331 

Jared Sheetz ...259 

0. H. Wright 205 

Ira Winchell 511 

William Young 421 



Buckeye 741 

Dakota 769 

Erin 703 

Freeport City 611 

Florence 675 

Harlem 683 


Jefferson 701 

Kent 663 

Lancaster 752 

Loran 695 

Oneco 710 

Ridott 778 


Rock Grove 732 

Rock Run 759 

Silver Creek 678 

Waddams 669 

West Point 720 

Winslow 666 


n ae i • 

The Northwest Territory. 


When the Northwestern Territory was ceded to the United States 
by Virginia in 1784, it embraced only the territory lying between the 
Ohio and the Mississippi Rivers, and north to the northern limits of the 
United States. It coincided with the area now embraced in the States 
of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and that portion of 
Minnesota lying on the east side of the Mississippi River. The United 
States itself at that period extended no farther west than the Mississippi 
River ; but by the purchase of Louisiana in 1803, the western boundary 
of the United States was extended to the Rocky Mountains and the 
Northern Pacific Ocean. The new territory thus added to the National 
domain, and subsequently opened to settlement, has been called the 
" New Northwest," in contradistinction from the old " Northwestern 

In comparison with the old Northwest this is a territory of vast 
magnitude. It includes an area of 1,887,850 square miles ; being greater 
in extent than the united areas of all the Middle and Southern States, 
including Texas. Out of this magnificent territory have been erected 
eleven sovereign States and eight Territories, with an aggregate popula- 
tion, at the present time, of 13,000,000 inhabitants, or nearly one third of 
the entire population of the United States. 

Its lakes are fresh-water seas, and the larger rivers of the continent 
flow for a thousand miles through its rich alluvial vallej-s and far- 
stretching prairies, more acres of which are arable and productive of the 
highest percentage of the cereals than of any other area of like extent 
on the globe. 

For the last twenty years the increase of population in the North- 
west has been about as three to one in any other portion of the United 




In the year 1541, DeSoto first saw the Great West in the New 
World. He, however, penetrated no farther north than the 35th parallel 
of latitude. The expedition resulted in his death and that of more than 
half his army, the remainder of whom found their way to Cuba, thence 
to Spain, in a famished and demoralized condition. DeSoto founded no 
settlements, produced no results, and left no traces, unless it were that 
he awakened the hostility of the red man against the white man, and 
disheartened such as might desire to follow up the career of discovery 
for better purposes. The French nation were eager and ready to seize 
upon any news from this extensive domain, and were the first to profit by 
DeSoto's defeat. Yet it was more than a century before any adventurer 
took advantage of these discoveries. 

In 1616, four years before the pilgrims " moored their bark on the 
wild New England shore," Le Caron, a French Franciscan, had pene- 
trated through the Iroquois and Wyandots (Hurons) to the streams which 
run into Lake Huron ; and in 1634, two Jesuit missionaries founded the 
first mission among the lake tribes. It was just one hundred years from 
the discovery of the Mississippi by DeSoto (1541) until the Canadian 
envoys met the savage nations of the Northwest at the Falls of St. Mary, 
below the outlet of Lake Superior. This visit led to no permanent 
result; yet it was not until 1659 that any of the adventurous fur traders 
attempted to spend a Winter in the frozen wilds about the great lakes, 
nor was it until 1660 that a station was established upon their borders by 
Mesnard, who perished in the woods a few months after. In 1665, Claude 
Allouez built the earliest lasting habitation of the white man among the 
Indians of the Northwest. In 1668, Claude Dablon and James Marquette 
founded the mission of Sault Ste. Marie at the Falls of St. Mary, and two 
years afterward, Nicholas Perrot, as agent for M. Talon, Governor Gen- 
eral of Canada, explored Lake Illinois (Michigan) as far south as the 
present City of Chicago, and invited the Indian nations to meet him at a 
grand council at Sault Ste. Marie the following Spring, where they were 
taken under the protection of the king, and formal possession was taken 
of the Northwest. This same year Marquette established a mission at 
Point St. Ignatius, where was founded the old town of Michillimackinac. 

During M. Talon's explorations and Marquette's residence at St. 
Ignatius, they learned of a great river away to the west, and fancied 
— as all others did then — that upon its fertile banks whole tribes of God's 
children resided, to whom the sound of the Gospel had never come. 
Filled with a wish to go and preach to them, and in compliance with a 


request of M. Talon, who earnestly desired to extend the domain of his 
king, and to ascertain whether the river flowed into the Gulf of Mexico 
or the Pacific Ocean, Marquette with Joliet, as commander of the expe- 
dition, prepared for the undertaking. 

On the 13th of May, 1673, the explorers, accompanied by five assist- 
ant French Canadians, set out from Mackinaw on their daring voyage of 
discovery. The Indians, who gathered to witness their departure, were 
astonished at the boldness of the undertaking, and endeavored to dissuade 
them from their purpose by representing the tribes on the Mississippi as 
exceedingly savage and cruel, and the river itself as full of all sorts of 
frightful monsters ready to swallow them and their canoes together. But, 
nothing daunted by these terrific descriptions, Marquette told them he 
was willing not only to encounter all the perils of the unknown region 
they were about to explore, but to lay down his life in a cause in which 
the salvation of souls was involved ; and having prayed together they 
separated. Coasting along the northern shore of Lake Michigan, the 
adventurers entered Green Bay, and passed thence up the Fox River and 
Lake Winnebago to a village of the Miamis and Kickapoos. Here Mar- 
quette was delighted to find a beautiful cross planted in the middle of the 
town ornamented with white skins, red girdles and bows and arrows, 
which these good people had offered to the Great Manitou, or God, to 
thank him for the pity he had bestowed on them during the Winter in 
giving them an abundant " chase." This was the farthest outpost to 
which Dablon and Allouez had extended their missionary labors the 
year previous. Here Marquette drank mineral waters and was instructed 
in the secret of a root which cures the bite of the venomous rattlesnake. 
He assembled the chiefs and old men of the village, and, pointing to 
Joliet, said : " My friend is an envoy of France, to discover new coun- 
tries, and I am an ambassador from God to enlighten them with the truths 
of the Gospel." Two Miami guides were here furnished to conduct 
them to the Wisconsin River, and they set out from the Indian village on 
the 10th of June, amidst a great crowd of natives who had assembled to 
witness their departure into a region where no white man had ever yet 
ventured. The guides, having conducted them across the portage, 
returned. The explorers launched their canoes upon the Wisconsin, 
which they descended to the Mississippi and proceeded down its unknown 
waters. What emotions must have swelled their breasts as they struck 
out into the broadening current and became conscious that they were 
now upon the bosom of ths Father of Waters. The mystery was about 
to be lifted from the long-sought river. The scenery in that locality is 
beautiful, and on that delightful seventeenth of June must have been 
clad in all its primeval loveliness as it had been adorned by the hand of 



Nature. Drifting rapidly, it is said that the bold bluffs on either hand 
" reminded them of the castled shores of their own beautiful rivers of 
France." By-and-by, as they drifted along, great herds of buffalo appeared 
on the banks. On going to the heads of the valley they could see a 
country of the greatest beauty and fertility, apparently destitute of inhab- 
itants yet presenting the appearance of extensive manors, under the fas- 
tidious cultivation of lordly proprietors. 


On June 25, they went ashore and found some fresh traces of men upon 
the sand, and a path which led to the prairie. The men remained in the 
boat, and Marquette and Joliet followed the path till they discovered a 
village on the banks of a river, and two other villages on a hill, within a 
half league of the first, inhabited by Indians. They were received most 
hospitably by these natives, who had never before seen a white person. 
After remaining a few days they re-embarked and descended the river to 
about latitude 33°, where they found a village of the Arkansas, and being 
satisfied that the river flowed into the Gulf of Mexico, turned their course 


up the river, and ascending the stream to the mouth of the Illinois, 
rowed up that stream to its source, and procured guides from that point 
to the lakes. " Nowhere on this journey," says Marquette, " did we see 
such grounds, meadows, woods, stags, buffaloes, deer, wildcats, bustards, 
swans, ducks, parroquets, and even beavers, as on the Illinois River." 
The party, without loss or injury, reached Green Bay in September, and 
reported their discovery — one of the most important of the age, but of 
which no record was preserved save Marquette's, Joliet losing his by 
the upsetting of his canoe on his way to Quebec. Afterward Marquette 
returned to the Illinois Indians by their request, and ministered to them 
until 1675. On the 18th of May, in that year, as he was passing the 
mouth of a stream — going with his boatmen up Lake Michigan — he asked 
to land at its mouth and celebrate Mass. Leaving his men with the canoe, 
he retired a short distance and began his devotions. As much time 
passed and he did not return, his men went in search of him, and found 
him upon his knees, dead. He had peacefully passed away while at 
prayer. He was buried at this spot. Charlevoix, who visited the place 
fifty years after, found the waters had retreated from the grave, leaving 
the beloved missionary to repose in peace. The river has since been 
called Marquette. 

While Marquette and his companions were pursuing their labors in 
the West, two men, differing widely from him and each other, were pre- 
paring to follow in his footsteps and perfect the discoveries so well begun 
by him. These were Robert de La Salle and Louis Hennepin. 

After La Salle's return from the discovery of the Ohio River (see 
the narrative elsewhere), he established himself again among the French 
trading posts in Canada. Here he mused long upon the pet project of 
those ages — a short way to China and the East, and was busily planning an 
expedition up the great lakes, and so across the continent to the Pacific, 
when Marquette returned from the Mississippi. At once the vigorous mind 
of LaSalle received from his and his companions' stories the idea that by fol- 
lowing the Great River northward, or by turning up some of the numerous 
western tributaries, the object could easily be gained. He applied to 
Prontenac, Governor General of Canada, and laid before him the plan, 
dim but gigantic. Frontenac entered warmly into his plans, and saw that 
LaSalle's idea to connect the great lakes by a chain of forts with the Gulf 
of Mexico would bind the country so wonderfully together, give un- 
measured power to France, and glory to himself, under whose adminis- 
tration he earnestly hoped all would be realized. 

LaSalle now repaired to France, laid his plans before the King, who 
warmly approved of them, and made him a Chevalier. He also received 
from all the noblemen the warmest wishes for his success. The Chev- 



alier returned to Canada, and busily entered upon his work. He at 
once rebuilt Fort Frontenac and constructed the first ship to sail on 
these fresh-water seas. On the 7th of August, 1679, having been joined 
by Hennepin, he began his voyage in the Griffin up Lake Erie. He 
passed over this lake, through the straits beyond, up Lake St. Clair and 
into Huron. In this lake they encountered heavy storms. They were 
some time at Michillimackinac, where LaSalle founded a fort, and passed 
on to Green Bay, the " Baie des Puans" of the French, where he found 
a large quantity of furs collected for him. He loaded the Griffin with 
these, and placing her under the care of a pilot and fourteen sailors, 


started her on her return voyage. The vessel was never afterward heard 
of. He remained about these parts until early in the Winter, when, hear- 
ing nothing from the Griffin, he collected all the men — thirty working 
men and three monks— and started again upon his great undertaking. 

By a short portage they passed to the Illinois or Kankakee, called by 
the Indians, "Theakeke," wolf, because of the tribes of Indians called 
by that name, commonly known as the Mahingans, dwelling there. The 
French pronounced it Kiakiki, which became corrupted to Kankakee. 
"Falling down the said river by easy journeys, the better to observe the 
country," about the last of December they reached a village of the Illi- 
nois Indians, containing some five hundred cabins, but at that moment 


no inhabitants. The Seur de LaSalle being in want of some breadstuff's, 
took advantage of the absence of the Indians to help himself to a suffi- 
ciency of maize, large quantities of which he found concealed in holes 
under the wigwams. This village was situated near the present village 
of Utica in LaSalle County, Illinois. The corn being securely stored, 
the voyagers again betook themselves to the stream, and toward evening, 
on the 4th day of January, 1680, they came into a lake which must have 
been the lake of Peoria. This was called by the Indians Pim-i-te-wi, that 
is, a place where there are many fat beasts. Here the natives were met 
with in large numbers, but they were gentle and kind, and having spent 
some time with them, LaSalle determined to erect another fort in that 
place, for he had heard rumors that some of the adjoining tribes were 
trying to disturb the good feeling which existed, and some of his men 
were disposed to complain, owing to the hardships and perils of the travel. 
He called this fort " Orevecoeur'''' (broken-heart), a name expressive of the 
very natural sorrow and anxiety which the pretty certain loss of his ship. 
Griffin, and his consequent impoverishment, the danger of hostility on the 
part of the Indians, and of mutiny among his own men, might well cause 
him. His fears were not entirely groundless. At one time poison was 
placed in his food, but fortunately was discovered. 

While building this fort, the Winter wore away, the prairies began to 
look green, and LaSalle, despairing of any reinforcements, concluded to 
return to Canada, raise new means and new men, and embark anew in 
the enterprise. For this purpose he made Hennepin the leader of a party 
to explore the head waters of the Mississippi, and he set out on his jour- 
ney. This journey was accomplished with the aid of a few persons, and 
was successfully made, though over an almost unknown route, and in a 
bad season of the year. He safely reached Cana ia, and set out again for 
the object of his search. 

Hennepin and his party left Fort Crevecoeur on the last of February, 
1680. When LaSalle reached this place on his return expedition, he 
found the fort entirely deserted, and he was obliged to return again to 
Canada. He embarked the third time, and succeeded. Seven days after 
leaving the fort, Hennepin reached the Mississippi, and paddling up the 
icy stream as best he could, reached no higher than the Wisconsin River 
by the 11th of April. Here he and his followers were taken prisoners by a 
band of Northern Indians, who treated them with great kindness. Hen- 
nepin's comrades were Anthony Auguel and Michael Ako. On this voy- 
age they found several beautiful lakes, and " saw some charming prairies." 
Their captors were the Isaute or Sauteurs, Chippewas, a tribe of the Sioux 
nation, who took them up the river until about the first of May, when 
they reached some falls, which Hennepin christened Falls of St. Anthony 



in honor of his patron saint. Here they took the land, and traveling 
nearly two hundred miles to the northwest, brought them to their villages. 
Here they were kept about three months, were treated kindly by their 
captors, and at the end of that time, were met by a band of Frenchmen, 


headed by one Seur de Luth, who, in pursuit of trade and game, had pene- 
trated thus far by the route of Lake Superior ; and with these fellow- 
countrymen Hennepin and his companions were allowed to return to the 
borders of civilized life in November, 1680, just after LaSalle had 
returned to the wilderness on his second trip. Hennepin soon after went 
to France, where he published an account of his adventures. 


The Mississippi was first discovered by De Soto in April, 1541, in his 
vain endeavor to find gold and precious gems. In the following Spring, 
De Soto, weary with hope long deferred, and worn out with his wander- 
ings, fell a victim to disease, and on the 21st of May died. His followers, 
reduced by fatigue and disease to less than three hundred men, wandered 
about the country nearly a year, in the vain endeavor to rescue them- 
selves by land, and finally constructed seven small vessels, called brig- 
antines, in which they embarked, and descending the river, supposing it 
would lead them to the sea, in July they came to the sea (Gulf of 
Mexico), and by September reached the Island of Cuba. 

They were the first to see the great outlet of the Mississippi; but, 
being so weary and discouraged, made no attempt to claim the country, 
and hardly had an intelligent idea of what they had passed through. 

To La Salle, the intrepid explorer, belongs the honor of giving the 
first account of the mouths of the river. His great desire was to possess 
this entire country for his king, and in January, 1682, he and his band of 
explorers left the shores of Lake Michigan on their third attempt, crossed 
the Portage, passed down the Illinois River, and on the 6th of February 
reached the banks of the Mississippi. 

On the 13th they commenced their downward course, which they 
pursued with but one interruption, until upon the 6th of March they dis- 
covered the three great passages by which the river discharges its waters 
into the gulf. La Salle thus narrates the event : 

" We landed on the bank of the most western channel, about three 
leagues (nine miles) from its mouth. On the seventh, M. de La Salle 
went to reconnoiter the shores of the neighboring sea, and M. de Tonti 
meanwhile examined the great middle channel. They found the main 
outlets beautiful, large and deep. On the eighth we reascended the river, 
a little above its confluence with the sea, to find a dry place beyond the 
reach of inundations. The elevation of the North Pole was here about 
twenty-seven degrees. Here we prepared a column and a cross, and to 
the column were affixed the arms of France with this inscription : 

" Louis Le Grand, Roi de France et de Navarre, regne ; Le neuvieme April, 1682." 

The whole party, under arms, chanted the Te Deum, and then, after 
a salute and cries of " Vive le Hoi" the column was erected by M. de 
La Salle, who, standing near it, proclaimed in a loud voice the authority of 
the King of France. La Salle returned and laid the foundations of the Mis- 
sissippi settlements in Illinois ; thence he proceeded to France, where 
another expedition was fitted out, of which he was commander, and in two 
succeeding voyages failed to find the outlet of the river by sailing along 
the shore of the gulf. On the third voyage he was killed, through the 



treachery of his followers, and the object of his expeditions was not 
accomplished until 1699, when D'Iberville, under the authority of the 
crown, discovered, on the second of March, by way of the sea, the mouth 
of the " Hidden River." This majestic stream was called by the natives 
" Malbouchia" and by the Spaniards, " la Palissade" from the great 



A/ } 9 



number of trees about its mouth. After traversing the several outlets, 
and satisfying himself as to its certainty, he erected a fort near its western 
outlet, and returned to France. 

An avenue of trade was now opened out which was fully improved. 
In 1718, New Orleans was laid out and settled by some European colo- 
nists. In 1762, the colony was made over to Spain, to be regained by 
France under the consulate of Napoleon. In 1803, it was purchased by 


the United States for the sum of fifteen million dollars, and the territory 
of Louisiana and commerce of the Mississippi River came under the 
charge of the United States. Although LaSalle's labors ended in defeat 
and death, he had not worked and suffered in vain. He had thrown 
open to France and the world an immense and most valuable country ; 
had established several ports, and laid the foundations of more than one 
settlement there. " Peoria, Kaskaskia and Cahokia, are to this day monu- 
ments of LaSalle's labors ; for, though he had founded neither of them 
(unless Peoria, which was built nearly upon the site of Fort Crevecceur,) 
it was by those whom he led into the West that these places were 
peopled and civilized. He was, if not the discoverer, the first settler of 
the Mississippi Valley, and as such deserves to be known and honored." 

The French early improved the opening made for them. Before the 
year 1698, the Rev. Father Gravier began a mission among the Illinois, 
and founded Kaskaskia. For some time this was merely a missionary 
station, where none but natives resided, it being one of three such vil- 
lages, the other two being Cahokia and Peoria. What is known of 
these missions is learned from a letter written by Father Gabriel Marest, 
dated " Aux Cascaskias, autrement dit de lTmmaculate Conception de 
la Sainte Vierge, le 9 Noveinbre, 1712." Soon after the founding of 
Kaskaskia, the missionary, Pinet, gathered a flock at Cahokia, while 
Peoria arose near the ruins of Fort Crevecceur. This must have been 
about the year 1700. The post at Vincennes on the Oubache river, 
(pronounced Wa-ba, meaning summer cloud moving swiftly} was estab- 
lished in 1702, according to the best authorities.* It is altogether prob- 
able that on LaSalle's last trip he established the stations at Kaskaskia 
and Cahokia. In July, 1701, the foundations of Fort Ponchartrain 
were laid by De la Motte Cadillac on the Detroit River. These sta- 
tions, with those established further north, were the earliest attempts to 
occupy the Northwest Territory. At the same time efforts were being 
made to occupy the Southwest, which finally culminated in the settle- 
ment and founding of the City of New Orleans by a colony from England 
in 1718. This was mainly accomplished through the efforts of the 
famous Mississippi Company, established by the notorious John Law, 
who so quickly arose into prominence in France, and who with his 
scheme so quickly and so ignominiously passed away. 

From the time of the founding of these stations for fifty years the 
French nation were engrossed with the settlement of the lower Missis- 
sippi, and the war with the Chicasaws, who had, in revenge for repeated 

« There is considerable dispute about this date, some asserting it was founded as late as 1742. When 
the new court house at Vincennes was erected, all authorities on the subject were, carefully examined, and 
1702 fixed upon as the correct date. It was accordingly engraved on the corner-stone of the court house. 


injuries, cut off the entire colony at Natchez. Although the company 
did little for Louisiana, as the entire West was then called, yet it opened 
the trade through the Mississippi River, and started the raising of grains 
indigenous to that climate. Until the year 1750, but little is known of 
the settlements in the Northwest, as it was not until this time that the 
attention of the English was called to the occupation of this portion of the 
New World, which they then supposed they owned. Vivier, a missionary 
among the Illinois, writing from " Aux Illinois," six leagues from Fort 
Chartres, June 8, 1750, says: "We have here whites, negroes and 
Indians, to say nothing of cross-breeds. There are five French villages, 
and three villages of the natives, within a space of twenty-one leagues 
situated between the Mississippi and another river called the Karkadaid 
(Kaskaskias). In the five French villages are, perhaps, eleven hundred 
whites, three hundred blacks and some sixty red slaves or savages. The 
three Illinois towns do not contain more than eight hundred souls all 
told. Most of the French till the soil ; they raise wheat, cattle, pigs and 
horses, and live like princes. Three times as much is produced as can 
be consumed ; and great quantities of grain and flour are sent to New 
Orleans." This city was now the seaport town of the Northwest, and 
save in the extreme northern part, where only furs and copper ore were 
found, almost all the products of the country found their way to France 
by the mouth of the Father of Waters. In another letter, dated Novem- 
ber 7, 1750, this same priest says : " For fifteen leagues above the 
mouth of the Mississippi one sees no dwellings, the ground being too low 
to be habitable. Thence to New Orleans, the lands are only partially 
occupied. New Orleans contains black, white and red, not more, I 
think, than twelve hundred persons. To this point come all lumber, 
bricks, salt-beef, tallow, tar, skins and bear's grease ; and above all, pork 
and flour from the Illinois. These things create some commerce, as forty 
vessels and more have come hither this year. Above New Orleans, 
plantations are again met with ; the most considerable is a colony of 
Germans, some ten leagues up the river. At Point Coupee, thirty -five 
leagues above the German settlement, is a fort. Along here, within five 
or six leagues, are not less than sixty habitations. Fifty leagues farther 
up is the Natchez post, where we have a garrison, who are kept prisoners 
through fear of the Chickasaws. Here and at Point Coupee, they raise 
excellent tobacco. Another hundred leagues brings us to the Arkansas, 
where we have also a fort and a garrison for the benefit of the river 
traders. * * * From the Arkansas to the Illinois, nearly five hundred 
leagues, there is not a settlement. There should be, however, a fort at 
the Oubache (Ohio), the only path by which the English can reach the 
Mississippi. In the Illinois country are numberless mines, but no one to 



work them as they deserve." Father Marest, writing from the post at 
Vincennes in 181 2, makes the same observation. Vivier also says : " Some 
individuals dig lead near the surface and supply the Indians and Canada. 
Two Spaniards now here, who claim to be adepts, say that our mines are 
like those of Mexico, and that if we would dig deeper, we should find 
silver under the lead ; and at any rate the lead is excellent. There is also 
in this country, beyond doubt, copper ore, as from time to time large 
pieces are found in the streams." 


At the close of the year 1750, the French occupied, in addition to the 
lower Mississippi posts and those in Illinois, one at Du Quesne, one at 
the Maumee in the country of the Miamis, and one at Sandusky in what 
may be termed the Ohio Valley. In the northern part of the Northwest 
they had stations at St. Joseph's on the St. Joseph's of Lake Michigan, 
at Fort Ponchartrain (Detroit), at Michillimackanac or Massillimacanac, 
Fox River of Green Bay, and at Sault Ste. Marie. The fondest dreams of 
LaSalle were now fully realized. The French alone were possessors of 
this vast realm, basing their claim on discovery and settlement. Another 
nation, however, was now turning its attention to this extensive country, 


and hearing of its wealth, began to lay plans for occupying it and for 
securing the great profits arising therefrom. 

The French, however, had another claim to this country, namely, the 


This " Beautiful" river was discovered by Robert Cavalier de La- 
Salle in 1669, four years before the discovery of the Mississippi by Joliet 
and Marquette. 

While LaSalle was at his trading post on the St. Lawrence, he found 
leisure to study nine Indian dialects, the chief of which was the Iroquois. 
He not only desired to facilitate his intercourse in trade, but he longed 
to travel and explore the unknown regions of the West. An incident 
soon occurred which decided him to fit out an exploring expedition. 

While conversing with some Senecas, he learned of a river called the 
Ohio, which rose in their country and flowed to the sea, but at such a 
distance that it required eight months to reach its mouth. In this state- 
ment the Mississippi and its tributaries were considered as one stream. 
LaSalle believing, as most of the French at that period did, that the great 
rivers flowing west emptied into the Sea of California, was anxious to 
embark in the enterprise of discovering a route across the continent to 
the commerce of China and Japan. 

He repaired at once to Quebec to obtain the approval of the Gov- 
ernor. His eloquent appeal prevailed. The Governor and the Intendant, 
Talon, issued letters patent authorizing the enterprise, but made no pro- 
vision to defray the expenses. At this juncture the seminary of St. Sul- 
pice decided to send out missionaries in connection with the expedition, 
and LaSalle offering to sell his improvements at LaChine to raise money, 
the offer was accepted by the Superior, and two thousand eight hundred 
dollars were raised, with which LaSalle purchased four canoes and the 
necessary supplies for the outfit. 

On the 6th of July, 1669, the party, numbering twenty-four persons, 
embarked in seven canoes on the St. Lawrence ; two additional canoes 
carried the Indian guides. In three days they were gliding over the 
bosom of Lake Ontario. Their guides conducted them directly to the 
Seneca village on the bank of the Genesee, in the vicinity of the present 
City of Rochester, New York. Here they expected to procure guides to 
conduct them to the Ohio, but in this they were disappointed. 

The Indians seemed unfriendly to the enterprise. LaSalle suspected 
that the Jesuits had prejudiced their minds against his plans. After 
waiting a month in the hope of gaining their object, they met an Indian 



from the Iroquois colony at the head of Lake Ontario, who assured them 
that they could there find guides, and offered to conduct them thence. 

On their way they passed the mouth of the Niagara River, when they 
heard for the first time the distant thunder of the cataract. Arriving 


among the Iroquois, they met with a friendly reception, and learned 
from a Shawanee prisoner that they could reach the Ohio in six weeks. 
Delighted with the unexpected good fortune, they made ready to resume 
their journey ; but just as they were about to start they heard of the 
arrival of two Frenchmen in a neighboring village. One of them proved 
to be Louis Joliet, afterwards famous as an explorer in the West. He 


had been sent by the Canadian Government to explore the copper mines 
on Lake Superior, but had failed, and was on his way back to Quebec. 
He gave the missionaries a map of the country he had explored in the 
lake region, together with an account of the condition of the Indians in 
that quarter. This induced the priests to determine on leaving the 
expedition and going to Lake Superior. LaSalle warned them that the 
Jesuits were probably occupying that field, and that they would meet 
with a cold reception. Nevertheless they persisted in their purpose, and 
after worship on the lake shore, parted from LaSalle. On arriving at 
Lake Superior, they found, as LaSalle had predicted, the Jesuit Fathers, 
Marquette and Dablon, occupying the field. 

These zealous disciples of Loyola informed them that they wanted 
no assistance from St. Sulpice, nor from those who made him their patron 
saint ; and thus repulsed, they returned to Montreal the following June 
without having made a single discovery or converted a single Indian. 

After parting with the priests, LaSalle went to the chief Iroquois 
village at Onondaga, where he obtained guides, and passing thence to a 
tributary of the Ohio south of Lake Erie, he descended the latter as far 
as the falls at Louisville. Thus was the Ohio discovered by LaSalle, the 
persevering and successful French explorer of the West, in 1669. 

The account of the latter part of his journey is found in an anony- 
mous paper, which purports to have been taken from the lips of LaSalle 
himself during a subsequent visit to Paris. In a letter written to Count 
Frontenac in 1667, shortly after the discovery, he himself says that he 
discovered the Ohio and descended it to the falls. This was regarded as 
an indisputable fact by the French authorities, who claimed the Ohio 
Valley upon another ground. When Washington was sent by the colony 
of Virginia in 1753, to demand of Gordeur de St. Pierre why .the French 
had built a fort on the Monongahela, the haughty commandant at Quebec 
replied : " We claim the country on the Ohio by virtue of the discoveries 
of LaSalle, and will not give it up to the English. Our orders are to 
make prisoners of every Englishman found trading in the Ohio Valley." 


When the new year of 1750 broke in upon the Father of Waters 
and the Great Northwest, all was still wild save at the French posts 
already described. In 1749, when the English first began to think seri- 
ously about sending men into the West, the greater portion of the States 
of Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota were yet 
under the dominion of the red men. The English knew, however, pretty 


conclusively of the nature of the wealth of these wilds. As early as 
1710, Governor Spotswood, of Virginia, had commenced movements to 
secure the country west of the Alleghenies to the English crown. In 
Pennsylvania, Governor Keith and James Logan, secretary of the prov- 
ince, from 1719 to 1731, represented to the powers of England the neces- 
sity of securing the Western lands. Nothing was done, however, by that 
power save to take some diplomatic steps to secure the claims of Britain 
to this unexplored wilderness. 

England had from the outset claimed from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 
on the ground that the discovery of the seacoast and its possession was a 
discovery and possession of the country, and, as is well known, her grants 
to the colonies extended " from sea to sea." This was not all her claim. 
She had purchased from the Indian tribes large tracts of land. This lat- 
ter was also a strong argument. As early as 1684, Lord H oward, Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, held a treaty with the six nations. These were the 
great Northern Confederacy, and comprised at first the Mohawks, Onei- 
das, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas. Afterward the Tuscaroras were 
taken into the confederacy, and it became known as the Six Nations. 
They came under the protection of the mother country, and again in 
1701, they repeated the agreement, and in September, 1726, a formal deed 
was drawn up and signed by the chiefs. The validity of this claim has 
often been disputed, but never successfully. In 1744, a purchase was 
made at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, of certain lands within the " Colony of 
Virginia," for which the Indians received <£200 in gold and a like sum in 
goods, with a promise that, as settlements increased, more should be paid. 
The Commissioners from Virginia were Colonel Thomas Lee and Colonel 
William Beverly. As settlements extended, the promise of more pay was 
called to mind, and Mr. Conrad Weiser was sent across the mountains with 
presents to appease the savages. Col. Lee, and some Virginians accompa- 
nied him with the intention of sounding the Indians upon their feelings 
regarding the English. They were not satisfied with their treatment, 
and plainly told the Commissioners why. The English did not desire the 
cultivation of the country, but the monopoly of the Indian trade. In 
1748, the Ohio Company was formed, and petitioned the king for a grant 
of land beyond the Alleghenies. This was granted, and the government 
of Virginia was ordered to grant to them a half million acres, two hun- 
dred thousand of which were to be located at once. Upon the 12th of 
June, 1749, 800,000 acres from the line of Canada north and west was 
made to the Loyal Company, and on the 29th of October, 1751, 100,000 
acres were given to the Greenbriar Company. All this time the French 
were not idle. They saw that, should the British gain a foothold in the 
West, especially upon the Ohio, they might not only prevent the French 


settling upon it, but in time would come to the lower posts and so gain 
possession of the whole country. Upon the 10th of May, 1774, Vaud- 
reuil, Governor of Canada and the French possessions, well knowing the 
consequences that must arise from allowing the English to build trading 
posts in the Northwest, seized some of their frontier posts, and to further 
secure the claim of the French to the West, he, in 1749, sent Louis Cel- 
eron with a party of soldiers to plant along the Ohio River, in the mounds 
and at the mouths of its principal tributaries, plates of lead, on which 
were inscribed the claims of France. These were heard of in 1752, and 
within the memory of residents now living along the " Oyo," as the 
beautiful river was called by the French. One of these plates was found 
with the inscription partly defaced. It bears date August 16, 1749, and 
a copy of the inscription with particular account of the discovery of the 
plate, was sent by DeWitt Clinton to the American Antiquarian Society, 
among whose journals it may now be found.* These measures did not, 
however, deter the English from going on with their explorations, and 
though neither party resorted to arms, yet the conflict was gathering, and 
it was only a question of time when the storm would burst upon the 
frontier settlements. In 1750, Christopher Gist was sent by the Ohio 
Company to examine its lands. He went to a village of the Twigtwees, 
on the Miami, about one hundred and fifty miles above its mouth. He 
afterward spoke of it as very populous. From there he went down 
the Ohio River nearly to the falls at the present City of Louisville, 
and in November he commenced a survey of the Company's lands. Dur- 
ing the Winter, General Andrew Lewis performed a similar work for the 
Greenbriar Company. Meanwhile the French were busy in preparing 
their forts for defense, and in opening roads, and also sent a small party 
of soldiers to keep the Ohio clear. This party, having heard of the Eng- 
lish post on the Miami River, early in 1652, assisted by the Ottawas and 
Chippewas, attacked it, and, after a severe battle, in which fourteen of 
the natives were killed and others wounded, captured the garrison. 
(They were probably garrisoned in a block house). The traders were 
carried away to Canada, and one account says several were burned. This 
fort or post was called by the English Pickawillany. A memorial of the 
king's ministers refers to it as " Pickawillanes, in the center of the terri- 
tory between the Ohio and the Wabash. The name is probably some 
variation of Pickaway or Picqua in 1773, written by Rev. David Jones 

* The following is a translation of the inscription on the plate: "In the year 1749. reign of Louis XV., 
King of France, we, Celeron, commandant of a detachment by Monsieur the Marquis of Gallisoniere, com- 
mander-in-chief of New France, to establish tranquility in certain Indian villages of these cantons, have 
buried this plate at the confluence of the Toradakoin, this twenty- ninth of July, near the river Ohio, otherwise 
Beautiful River, as a monument of renewal of possession which we have taken of the said river, and all its 
tributaries; inasmuch as the preceding Kings of France have enjoyed it, and maintained it by their arms and 
treaties; especially by those of Ryswick, Utrecht, and Aix La Chapelle." 


This was the first blood shed between the French and English, and 
occurred near the present City of Piqua, Ohio, or at least at a point about 
forty-seven miles north of Dayton. Each nation became now more inter- 
ested in the progress of events in the Northwest. The English deter- 
mined to purchase from the Indians a title to the lands they wished to 
occupy, and Messrs. Fry (afterward Commander-in-chief over Washing- 
ton at the commencement of the French War of 1775-1763), Lomax and 
Patton were sent in the Spring of 1752 to hold a conference with the 
natives at Logstown to learn what they objected to in the treaty of Lan- 
caster already noticed, and to settle all difficulties. On the 9th of June, 
these Commissioners met the red men at Logstown, a little village on the 
north bank of the Ohio, about seventeen miles below the site of Pitts- 
burgh. Here had been a trading point for many years, but it was aban- 
doned by the Indians in 1750. At first the Indians declined to recognize 
the treaty of Lancaster, but, the Commissioners taking aside Montour, 
the interpreter, who was a son of the famous Catharine Montour, and a 
chief among the six nations, induced him to use his influence in their 
favor. This he did, and upon the 13th of June they all united in signing 
a deed, confirming the Lancaster treaty in its full extent, consenting to a 
settlement of the southeast of the Ohio, and guaranteeing that it should 
not be disturbed by them. These were the means used to obtain the first 
treaty with the Indians in the Ohio Valley. 

Meanwhile the powers beyond the sea were trying to out-manceuvre 
each other, and were professing to be at peace. The English generally 
outwitted the Indians, and failed in many instances to fulfill their con- 
tracts. They thereby gained the ill-will of the red men, and further 
increased the feeling by failing to provide them with arms and ammuni- 
tion. Said an old chief, at Easton, in 1758: " The Indians on the Ohio 
left you because of your own fault. When we heard the French were 
coming, we asked you for help and arms, but we did not get them. The 
French came, they treated us kindly, and gained our affections. The 
Governor of Virginia settled on our lands for his own benefit, and, when 
we wanted help, forsook us." 

At the beginning of 1653, the English thought they had secured by 
title the lands in the West, but the French had quietly gathered cannon 
and military stores to be in readiness for the expected blow. The Eng- 
lish made other attempts to ratify these existing treaties, but not until 
the Summer could the Indians be gathered together to discuss the plans 
of the French. They had sent messages to the French, warning them 
away ; but they replied that they intended to complete the chain of forts 
already begun, and would not abandon the field. 

Soon after this, no satisfaction being obtained from the Ohio regard- 


ing the positions and purposes of the French, Governor Dinwiddie of 
Virginia determined to send to them another messenger and learn from 
them, if possible, their intentions. For this purpose he selected a young 
man, a surveyor, who, at the early age of nineteen, had received the rank 
of major, and who was thoroughly posted regarding frontier life. This 
personage was no other than the illustrious George Washington, who then 
held considerable interest in Western lands. He was at this time just 
twenty-two years of age. Taking Gist as his guide, the two, accompanied 
by four servitors, set out on their perilous march. They left Will's 
Creek on the 10th of November, 1753, and on the 22d reached the Monon- 
gahela, about ten miles above the fork. From there they went to 
Logstown, where Washington had a long conference with the chiefs of 
the Six Nations. From them he learned the condition of the French, and 
also heard of their determination not to come down the river till the fol- 
lowing Spring. The Indians were non-committal, as they were afraid to 
turn either way, and, as far as they could, desired to remain neutral. 
Washington, finding nothing could be done with them, went on to 
Venango, an old Indian town at the mouth of French Creek. Here the 
French had a fort, called Fort Machault. Through the rum and flattery 
of the French, he nearly lost all his Indian followers. Finding nothing 
of importance here, he pursued his way amid great privations, and on the 
11th of December reached the fort at the head of French Creek. Here 
he delivered Governor Dinwiddie's letter, received his answer, took his 
observations, and on the 16th set out upon his return journey with no one 
but Gist, his guide, and a few Indians who still remained true to him, 
notwithstanding the endeavors of the French to retain them. Their 
homeward journey was one of great peril and suffering from the cold, yet 
they reached home in safety on the 6th of January, 1754. 

From the letter of St. Pierre, commander of the French fort, sent by 
Washington to Governor Dinwiddie, it was learned that the French would 
not give up without a struggle. Active preparations were at once made 
in all the English colonies for the coming conflict, while the French 
finished the fort at Venango and strengthened their lines of fortifications, 
and gathered their forces to be in readiness. 

The Old Dominion was all alive. Virginia was the center of great 
activities ; volunteers were called for, and from all the neighboring 
colonies men rallied to the conflict, and everywhere along the Potomac 
men were enlisting under the Governor's proclamation — which promised 
two hundred thousand acres on the Ohio. Along this river they were 
gathering as far as Will's Creek, and far beyond this point, whither Trent 
had come for assistance for his little band of forty-one men, who were 


working away in hunger and want, to fortify that point at the fork of 
the Ohio, to which both parties were looking with deep interest. 

" The first birds of Spring filled the air with their song ; the swift 
river rolled by the Allegheny hillsides, swollen by the melting snows of 
Spring and the April showers. The leaves were appearing ; a few Indian 
scouts were seen, but no enemy seemed near at hand ; and all was so quiet., 
that Frazier, an old Indian scout and trader, who had been left by Trent 
in command, ventured to his home at the mouth of Turtle Creek, ten 
miles up the Monongahela. But, though all was so quiet in that wilder- 
ness, keen eyes had seen the low intrenchment rising at the fork, and 
swift feet had borne the news of it up the river ; and upon the morning 
of the 17th of April, Ensign Ward, who then had charge of it, saw 
upon the Allegheny a sight that made his heart sink — sixty batteaux and 
three hundred canoes filled with men, and laden deep with cannon and 
stores. * * * That evening he supped with his captor, Contrecoeur, 
and the next day he was bowed off by the Frenchman, and with his men 
and tools, marched up the Monongahela." 

The French and Indian war had begun. The treaty of Aix la 
Chapelle, in 1748, had left the boundaries between the French and 
English possessions unsettled, and the events already narrated show the 
French were determined to hold the country watered by the Mississippi 
and its tributaries ; while the English laid claims to the country by virtue 
of the discoveries of the Cabots, and claimed all the country from New- 
foundland to Florida, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The 
first decisive blow had now been struck, and the first attempt of the 
English, through the Ohio Company, to occupy these lands, had resulted 
disastrously to them. The French and Indians immediately completed 
the fortifications begun at the Fork, which they had so easily captured* 
and when completed gave to the fort the name of DuQuesne. Washing- 
ton was at Will's Creek when the news of the capture of the fort arrived. 
He at once departed to recapture it. On his way he entrenched him- 
self at a place called the " Meadows," where he erected a fort called 
by him Fort Necessity. From there he surprised and captured a force of 
French and Indians marching against him, but was soon after attacked 
in his fort by a much superior force, and was obliged to yield on the 
morning of July 4th. He was allowed to return to Virginia. 

The English Government immediately planned four campaigns ; one 
against Fort DuQuesne ; one against Nova Scotia ; one against Fort 
Niagara, and one against Crown Point. These occurred during 1755--6, 
and were not successful in driving the French from their possessions- 
The expedition against Fort DuQuesne was led by the famous General 
Braddock, who, refusing to listen to the advice of Washington and those 


acquainted with Indian warfare, suffered such an inglorious defeat. This 
occurred on the morning of July 9th, and is generally known as the battle 
of Monongahela, or " Braddock's Defeat." The war continued with 
various vicissitudes through the years 1756-7 ; when, at the commence- 
ment of 1758, in accordance with the plans of William Pitt, then Secre- 
tary of State, afterwards Lord Chatham, active preparations were made to 
carry on the war. Three expeditions were planned for this year : one, 
under General Amherst, against Louisburg ; another, under Abercrombie, 
against Fort Ticonderoga ; and a third, under General Forbes, against 
Fort DuQuesne. On the 26th of July, Louisburg surrendered after a 
desperate resistance of more than forty days, and the eastern part of the 
Canadian possessions fell into the hands of the British. Abercrombie 
captured Fort Frontenac, and when the expedition against Fort DuQuesne, 
of which Washington had the active command, arrived there, it was 
found in flames and deserted. The English at once took possession, 
rebuilt the fort, and in honor of their illustrious statesman, changed the 
name to Fort Pitt. 

The great object of the campaign of 1759, was the reduction of 
Canada. General Wolfe was to lay siege to Quebec ; Amherst was to 
reduce Ticonderoga and Crown Point, and General Prideaux was to 
capture Niagara. This latter place was taken in July, but the gallant 
Prideaux lost his life in the attempt. Amherst captured Ticonderoga 
and Crown Point without a blow ; and Wolfe, after making the memor- 
able ascent to the Plains of Abraham, on September 13th, defeated 
Montcalm, and on the 18th, the city capitulated. In this engagement 
Montcolm and Wolfe both lost their lives. De Levi, Montcalm's successor, 
marched to Sillery, three miles above the city, with the purpose of 
defeating the English, and there, on the 28th of the following April, was 
fought one of the bloodiest battles of the French and Indian War. It 
resulted in the defeat of the French, and the fall of the City of Montreal. 
The Governor signed a capitulation by which the whole of Canada was 
surrendered to the English. This practically concluded the war, but it 
was not until 1763 that the treaties of peace between France and England 
were signed. This was done on the 10th of February of that year, and 
under its provisions all the country east of the Mississippi and north of 
the Iberville River, in Louisiana, were ceded to England. At the same 
time Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain. 

On the 13th of September, 1760, Major Robert Rogers was sent 
from Montreal to take charge of Detroit, the only remaining French post 
in the territory. He arrived there on the 19th of November, and sum- 
moned the place to surrender. At first the commander of the post, 
Beletre. refused, but on the 29th, hearing of the continued defeat of the 


French arms, surrendered. Rogers remained there until December 23d 
under the personal protection of the celebrated chief, Pontiac, to whom, 
no doubt, he owed his safety. Pontiac had come here to inquire the 
purposes of the English in taking possession of the country. He was 
assured that they came simply to trade with the natives, and did not 
desire their country. This answer conciliated the savages, and did much 
to insure the safety of Rogers and his party during their stay, and while 
on their journey home. 

Rogers set out for Fort Pitt on December 23, and was just one 
month on the way. His route was from Detroit to Maumee, thence 
across the present State of Ohio directly to the fort. This was the com- 
mon trail of the Indians in their journeys from Sandusky to the fork of 
the Ohio. It went from Fort Sandusky, where Sandusky City now is, 
crossed the Huron river, then called Bald Eagle Creek, to " Mohickon 
John's Town " on Mohickon Creek, the northern branch of White 
Woman's River, and thence crossed to Beaver's Town, a Delaware town 
on what is now Sandy Creek. At Beaver's Town were probably one 
hundred and fifty warriors, and not less than three thousand acres of 
cleared land. From there the track went up Sandy Creek to and across 
Big Beaver, and up the Ohio to Logstown, thence on to the fork. 

The Northwest Territory was now entirely under the English rule. 
New settlements began to be rapidly made, and the promise of a large 
trade was speedily manifested. Had the British carried out their promises 
with the natives none of those savage butcheries would have been perpe- 
trated, and the country would have been spared their recital. 

The renowned chief, Pontiac, was one of the leading spirits in these 
atrocities. We will now pause in our narrative, and notice the leading 
events in his life. The earliest authentic information regarding this 
noted Indian chief is learned from an account of an Indian trader named 
Alexander Henry, who, in the Spring of 1761, penetrated his domains as 
far as Missillimacnac. Pontiac was then a great friend of the French, 
but a bitter foe of the English, whom he considered as encroaching on his 
hunting grounds. Henry was obliged to disguise himself as a Canadian 
to insure safety, but was discovered by Pontiac, who bitterly reproached 
him and the English for their attempted subjugation of the West. He 
declared that no treaty had been made with them ; no presents sent 
them, and that he would resent any possession of the West by that nation. 
He was at the time about fifty years of age, tall and dignified, and was 
civil and military ruler of the Ottawas, Ojibwas and Pottawatamies. 

The Indians, from Lake Michigan to the borders of North Carolina, 
were united in this feeling, and at the time of the treaty of Paris, ratified 
February 10, 1763, a general conspiracy was formed to fall suddenly 





upon the frontier British posts, and with one blow strike every man dead. 
Pontiac was the marked leader in all this, and was the commander 
of the Chippewas, Ottawas, Wyandots, Miamis, Shawanese, Delawares 
and Mingoes, who had, for the time, laid aside their local quarrels to unite 
in this enterprise. 

The blow came, as near as can now be ascertained, on May 7, 1768. 
Nine British posts fell, and the Indians drank, " scooped up in the hollow 
of joined hands," the blood of many a Briton. 

Pontiac's immediate field of action was the garrison at Detroit. 
Here, however, the plans were frustrated by an Indian woman disclosing 
the plot the evening previous to his arrival. Everything was carried out, 
however, according to Pontiac's plans until the moment of action, when 
Major Gladwyn, the commander of the post, stepping to one of the Indian 
chiefs, suddenly drew aside his blanket and disclosed the concealed 
musket. Pontiac, though a brave man, turned pale and trembled. He 
saw his plan was known, and that the garrison were prepared. He 
endeavored to exculpate himself from any such intentions ; but the guilt 
was evident, and he and his followers were dismissed with a severe 
reprimand, and warned never to again enter the walls of the post. 

Pontiac at once laid siege to the fort, and until the treaty of peace 
between the British and the Western Indians, concluded in August, 1764, 
continued to harass and besiege the fortress. He organized a regular 
commissariat department, issued bills of credit written out on bark, 
which, to his credit, it may be stated, were punctually redeemed. At 
the conclusion of the treaty, in which it seems he took no part, he went 
further south, living many years among the Illinois. 

He had given up all hope of saving his country and race. After a 
time he endeavored to unite the Illinois tribe and those about St. Louis 
in a war with the whites. His efforts were fruitless, and only ended in a 
quarrel between himself and some Kaskaskia Indians, one of whom soon 
afterwards killed him. His death was, however, avenged by the northern 
Indians, who nearly exterminated the Illinois in the wars which followed. 

Had it not been for the treachery of a few of his followers, his plan 
for the extermination of the whites, a masterly one, would undoubtedly 
have been carried out. 

It was in the Spring of the year following Rogers' visit that Alex- 
ander Henry went to Missillimacnac, and everywhere found the strongest 
feelings against the English, who had not carried out their promises, and 
were doing nothing to conciliate the natives. Here he met the chief, 
Pontiac, who, after conveying to him in a speech the idea that their 
French father would awake soon and utterly destroy his enemies, said : 
" Englishman, although you have conquered the French, you have not 


yet conquered us ! We are not your slaves ! These lakes, these woods, 
these mountains, were left us by our ancestors. They are our inheritance, 
and we will part with them to none. Your nation supposes that we, like 
the white people, can not live without bread and pork and beef. But you 
ought to know that He, the Great Spirit and Master of Life, has provided 
food for us upon these broad lakes and in these mountains." 

He then spoke of the fact that no treaty had been made with them, 
no presents sent them, and that he and his people were yet for war. 
Such were the feelings of the Northwestern Indians immediately after 
the English took possession of their country. These feelings were no 
doubt encouraged by the Canadians and French, who hoped that yet the 
French arms might prevail. The treaty of Paris, however, gave to the 
English the right to this vast domain, and active preparations were going 
on to occupy it and enjoy its trade and emoluments. 

In 1762, France, by a secret treaty, ceded Louisiana to Spain, to pre- 
vent it falling into the hands of the English, who were becoming masters 
of the entire West. The next year the treaty of Paris, signed at Fon- 
tainbleau, gave to the English the domain of the country in question. 
Twenty years after, by the treaty of peace between the United States 
and England, that part of Canada lying south and west of the Great 
Lakes, comprehending a large territory which is the subject of these 
sketches, was acknowledged to be a portion of the United States ; and 
twenty years still later, in 1803, Louisiana was ceded by Spain back to 
France, and by France sold to the United States. 

In the half century, from the 'building of the Fort of Crevecceur by 
LaSalle, in 1680, up to the erection of Fort Chartres, many French set- 
tlements had been made in that quarter. These have already been 
noticed, being those at St. Vincent (Vincennes), Kohokia or Cahokia, 
Kaskaskia and Prairie du Rocher, on the American Bottom, a large tract 
of rich alluvial soil in Illinois, on the Mississippi, opposite the site of St. 

By the treaty of Paris, the regions east of the Mississippi, including 
all these and other towns of the Northwest, were given over to England; 
but they do not appear to have been taken possession of until 1765, when 
Captain Stirling, in the name of the Majesty of England, established him- 
self at Fort Chartres bearing with him the proclamation of General Gage, 
dated December 30, 1764, which promised religious freedom to all Cath- 
olics who worshiped here, and a right to leave the country with their 
effects if they wished, or to remain with the privileges of Englishmen. 
It was shortly after the occupancy of the West by the British that the 
war with Pontiac opened. It is already noticed in the sketch of that 
chieftain- By it many a Briton lost his life, and many a frontier settle- 


ment in its infancy ceased to exist. This was not ended until the year 
1764, when, failing to capture Detroit, Niagara and Fort Pitt, his confed- 
eracy became disheartened, and, receiving no aid from the French, Pon- 
tiac abandoned the enterprise and departed to the Illinois, among whom 
he afterward lost his life. 

As soon as these difficulties were definitely settled, settlers began 
rapidly to survey the country and prepare for occupation. During the 
year 1770, a number of persons from Virginia and other British provinces 
explored and marked out nearly all the valuable lands on the Mononga- 
hela and along the banks of the Ohio as far as the Little Kanawha. This 
was followed by another exploring expedition, in which George Washing- 
ton was a party. The latter, accompanied by Dr. Craik, Capt. Crawford 
and others, on the 20th of October, 1770, descended the Ohio from Pitts- 
burgh to the mouth of the Kanawha ; ascended that stream about fourteen 
miles, marked out several large tracts of land, shot several buffalo, which 
were then abundant in the Ohio Valley, and returned to the fort. 

Pittsburgh was at this time a trading post, about which was clus- 
tered a village of some twenty houses, inhabited by Indian traders. This 
same year, Capt. Pittman visited Kaskaskia and its neighboring villages. 
He found there about sixty-five resident families, and at Cahokia only 
forty-five dwellings. At Fort Chartres was another small settlement, and 
at Detroit the garrison were quite prosperous and strong. For a year 
or two settlers continued to locate near some of these posts, generally 
Fort Pitt or Detroit, owing to the fears of the Indians, who still main- 
tained some feelings of hatred to the English. The trade from the posts 
Was quite good, and from those in Illinois large quantities of pork and 
flour found their way to the New Orleans market. At this time the 
policy of the British Government was strongly opposed to the extension 
of the colonies west. In 1763, the King of England forbade, by royal 
proclamation, his colonial subjects from making a settlement beyond the 
sources of the rivers which fall into the Atlantic Ocean. At the instance 
of the Board of Trade, measures were taken to prevent the settlement 
without the limits prescribed, and to retain the commerce within easy 
reach of Great Britain. 

The commander-in-chief of the king's forces wrote in 1769 : " In the 
course of a few years necessity will compel the colonists, should they 
extend their settlements west, to provide manufactures of some kind for 
themselves, and when all connection upheld by commerce with the mother 
country ceases, an independency in their government will soon follow." 

In accordance with this policy, Gov. Gage issued a proclamation 
in 1772, commanding the inhabitants of Vincennes to abandon their set- 
tlements and join some of the Eastern English colonies. To this they 


strenuously objected, giving good reasons therefor, and were allowed to 
remain. The strong opposition to this policy of Great Britain led to its 
change, and to such a course as to gain the attachment of the French 
population. In December, 1773, influential citizens of Quebec petitioned 
the king for an extension of the boundary lines of that province, which 
was granted, and Parliament passed an act on June 2, 1774, extend- 
ing the boundary so as to include the territory lying within the present 
States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Michigan. 

In consequence of the liberal policy pursued by the British Govern- 
ment toward the French settlers in the West, they were disposed to favor 
that nation in the war which soon followed with the colonies ; but the 
early alliance between France and America soon brought them to the side 
of the war for independence. 

In 1774, Gov. Dunmore, of Virginia, began to encourage emigration 
to the Western lands. He appointed magistrates at Fort Pitt under the 
pretense that the fort was under the government of that commonwealth. 
One of these justices, John Connelly, who possessed a tract of land in the 
Ohio Valley, gathered a force of men and garrisoned the fort, calling it 
Fort Dunmore. This and other parties were formed to select sites for 
settlements, and often came in conflict with the Indians, who yet claimed 
portions of the valley, and several battles followed. These ended in the 
famous battle of Kanawha in July, where the Indians were defeated and 
driven across the Ohio. 

During the years 1775 and 1776, by the operations of land companies 
and the perseverance of individuals, several settlements were firmly estab- 
lished between the Alleghanies and the Ohio River, and western land 
speculators were busy in Illinois and on the Wabash. At a council held 
in Kaskaskia on July 5, 1773, an association of English traders, calling 
themselves the " Illinois Land Company," obtained from ten chiefs of the 
Kaskaskia, Cahokia and Peoria tribes two large tracts of land lying on 
the east side of the Mississippi River south of the Illinois. In 1775, a mer- 
chant from the Illinois Country, named Viviat, came to Post Vincennes 
as the agent of the association called the " Wabash Land Company." On 
the 8th of October he obtained from eleven Piankeshaw chiefs, a deed for 
37,497,600 acres of land. This deed was signed by the grantors, attested 
by a number of the inhabitants of Vincennes, and afterward recorded in 
the office of a notary public at Kaskaskia. This and other land com- 
panies had extensive schemes for the colonization of the West ; but all 
were frustrated by the breaking out of the Revolution. On the 20th of 
April, 1780, the two companies named consolidated under the name of the 
"United Illinois and Wabash Land Company." They afterward made 


strenuous efforts to have these grants sanctioned by Congress, but all 
signally failed. 

When the War of the Revolution commenced, Kentucky was an unor- 
ganized country, though there were several settlements within her borders. 

In Hutchins' Topography of Virginia, it is stated that at that time 
" Kaskaskia contained 80 houses, and nearly 1,000 white and black in- 
habitants — the whites being a little the more numerous. Cahokia con- 
tains 50 houses and 300 white inhabitants, and 80 negroes. There were 
east of the Mississippi River, about the year 1771 " — when these observa- 
tions were made — " 300 white men capable of bearing arms, and 230 

From 1775 until the expedition of Clark, nothing is recorded and 
nothing known of these settlements, save what is contained in a report 
made by a committee to Congress in June, 1778. From it the following 
extract is made : 

" Near the mouth of the River Kaskaskia, there is a village which 
appears to have contained nearly eighty families from the beginning of 
the late revolution. There are twelve families in a small village at la 
Prairie du Rochers, and near fifty families at the Kahokia Village. There 
are also four or five families at Fort Chartres and St. Philips, which is five 
miles further up the river." 

St. Louis had been settled in February, 1764, and at this time con- 
tained, including its neighboring towns, over six hundred whites and one 
hundred and fifty negroes. It must be remembered that all the country 
west of the Mississippi was now under French rule, and remained so until 
ceded again to Spain, its original owner, who afterwards sold it and the 
country including New Orleans to the United States. At Detroit there 
were, according to Capt. Carver, who was in the Northwest from 1766 to 
1768, more than one hundred houses, and the river was settled for more 
than twenty miles, although poorly cultivated — the people being engaged 
in the Indian trade. This old town has a history, which we will here 

It is the oldest town in the Northwest, having been founded by 
Antoine de Lamotte Cadillac, in 1701. It was laid out in the form of an 
oblong square, of two acres in length, and an acre and a half in width. 
As described by A. D. Frazer, who first visited it and became a permanent 
resident of the place, in 1778, it comprised within its limits that space 
between Mr. Palmer's store (Conant Block) and Capt. Perkins' house 
(near the Arsenal building), and extended back as far as the public barn, 
and was bordered in front by the Detroit River. It was surrounded by 
oak and cedar pickets, about fifteen feet long, set in the ground, and had 
four gates — east, west, north and south. Over the first three of these 


gates were block houses provided with four guns apiece, each a six- 
pounder. Two six-gun batteries were planted fronting the river and in a 
parallel direction with the block houses. There were four streets running 
east and west, the main street being twenty feet wide and the rest fifteen 
feet, while the four streets crossing these at right angles were from ten 
to fifteen feet in width. 

At the date spoken of by Mr. Frazer, there was no fort within the 
enclosure, but a citadel on the ground corresponding to the present 
northwest corner of Jefferson Avenue and Wayne Street. The citadel was 
inclosed by pickets, and within it were erected barracks of wood, two 
stories high, sufficient to contain ten officers, and also barracks sufficient 
to contain four hundred men, and a provision store built of brick. The 
citadel also contained a hospital and guard-house. The old town of 
Detroit, in 1778, contained about sixty houses, most of them one story, 
with a few a story and a half in height. They were all of logs, some 
hewn and some round. There was one building of splendid appearance, 
called the " King's Palace," two stories high, which stood near the east 
gate. It was built for Governor Hamilton, the first governor commissioned 
by the British. There were two guard-houses, one near the west gate and 
the other near the Government House. Each of the guards consisted of 
twenty -four men and a subaltern, who mounted regularly every morning 
between nine and ten o'clock, Each furnished four sentinels, who were 
relieved every two hours. There was also an officer of the day, who per- 
formed strict duty. Each of the gates was shut regularly at sunset, 
even wicket gates were shut at nine o'clock, and all the keys were 
delivered into the hands of the commanding officer. They were opened 
in the morning at sunrise. No Indian or squaw was permitted to enter 
town with any weapon, such as a tomahawk or a knife. It was a stand- 
ing order that the Indians should deliver their arms and instruments of 
every kind before they were permitted to pass the sentinel, and they were 
restored to them on their return. No more than twenty-five Indians wer^e 
allowed to enter the town at any one time, and they were admitted only 
at the east and west gates. At sundown the drums beat, and all the 
Indians were required to leave town instantly. There was a council house 
near the water side for the purpose of holding council with the Indians. 
The population of the town was about sixty families, in all about two 
hundred males and one hundred females. This town was destroyed by 
fire, all except one dwelling, in 1805. After which the present " new " 
town was laid out. 

On the breaking out of the Revolution, the British held every post of 
importance in the West. Kentucky was formed as a component part of 
Virginia, and the sturdy pioneers of the West, alive to their interests, 


and recognizing the great benefits of obtaining the control of the trade in 
this part of the New World, held steadily to their purposes, and those 
within the commonwealth of Kentucky proceeded to exercise their 
civil privileges, by electing John Todd and Richard Gallaway, 
burgesses to represent them in the Assembly of the parent state. 
Early in September of that year (1777) the first court was held 
in Harrodsburg, and Col. Bowman, afterwards major, who had arrived 
in August, was made the commander of a militia organization which 
had been commenced the March previous. Thus the tree of loyalty 
was growing. The chief spirit in this far-out colony, who had represented 
her the year previous east of the mountains, was now meditating a move 
unequaled in its boldness. He had been watching the movements of the 
British throughout the Northwest, and understood their whole plan. He 
saw it was through their possession of the posts at Detroit, Vincennes, 
Kaskaskia, and other places, which would give them constant and easy 
access to the various Indian tribes in the Northwest, that the British 
intended to penetrate the country from the north and south, and annihi- 
late the frontier fortresses. This moving, energetic man was Colonel, 
afterwards General, George Rogers Clark. He knew the Indians were not 
unanimously in accord with the English, and he was convinced that, could 
the British be defeated and expelled from the Northwest, the natives 
might be easily awed into neutrality; and by spies sent for the purpose, 
he satisfied himself that the enterprise against the Illinois settlements 
might easily succeed. Having convinced himself of the certainty of the 
project, he repaired to the Capital of Virginia, which place he reached on 
November 5th. While he was on his way, fortunately, on October 17th, 
Burgoyne had been defeated, and the spirits of the colonists greatly 
encouraged thereby. Patrick Henry was Governor of Virginia, and at 
once entered heartily into Clark's plans. The same plan had before been 
agitated in the Colonial Assemblies, but there was no one until Clark- 
came who was sufficiently acquainted with the condition of affairs at the 
scene of action to be able to guide them. 

Clark, having satisfied the Virginia leaders of the feasibility of his 
plan, received, on the 2d of January, two sets of instructions — one secret, 
the other open — the latter authorized him to proceed to enlist seven 
companies to go to Kentucky, subject to his orders, and to serve three 
months from their arrival in the West. The secret order authorized him 
to arm these troops, to procure his powder and lead of General Hand 
at Pittsburgh, and to proceed at once to subjugate the country. 

With these instructions Clark repaired to Pittsburgh, choosing rather 
to raise his men west of the mountains, as he well knew all were needed 
in the colonies in the conflict there. He sent Col. W. B. Smith to Hoi- 


ston for the same purpose, but neither succeeded in raising the required 
number of men. The settlers in these parts were afraid to leave their 
own firesides exposed to a vigilant foe, and but few could be induced to 
join the proposed expedition. With three companies and several private 
volunteers, Clark at length commenced his descent of the Ohio, which he 
navigated as far as the Falls, where he took possession of and fortified 
Corn Island, a small island between the present Cities of Louisville, 
Kentucky, and New Albany, Indiana. Remains of this fortification may 
yet be found. At this place he appointed Col. Bowman to meet him 
with such recruits as had reached Kentucky by the southern route, and 
as many as could be spared from the station. Here he announced to 
the men their real destination. Having completed his arrangements, 
and chosen his party, he left a small garrison upon the island, and on the 
24th of June, during a total eclipse of the sun, which to them augured 
no good, and which fixes beyond dispute the date of starting, he with 
his chosen band, fell down the river. His plan was to go by water as 
far as Fort Massac or Massacre, and thence march direct to Kaskaskia. 
Here he intended to surprise the garrison, and after its capture go to 
Cahokia, then to Vincennes, and lastly to Detroit. Should he fail, he 
intended to inarch directly to the Mississippi River and cross it into the 
Spanish country. Before his start he received two good items of infor- 
mation : one that the alliance had been formed between France and the 
United States ; and the other that the Indians throughout the Illinois 
country and the inhabitants, at the various frontier posts, had been led to 
believe by the British that the " Long Knives" or Virginians, were the 
most fierce, bloodthirsty and cruel savages that ever scalped a foe. With 
this impression on their minds, Clark saw that proper management would 
cause them to submit at once from fear, if surprised, and then from grati- 
tude would become friendly if treated with unexpected leniency. 

The march to Kaskaskia was accomplished through a hot July sun, 
and the town reached on the evening of July 4. He captured the fort 
near the village, and soon after the village itself by surprise, and without 
the loss of a single man or by killing any of the enemy. After sufficiently 
working upon the fears of the natives, Clark told them they were at per- 
fect liberty to worship as they pleased, and to take whichever side of the 
great conflict they would, also he would protect them from any barbarity 
from British or Indian foe. This had the desired effect, and the inhab- 
itants, so unexpectedly and so gratefully surprised by the unlooked 
for turn of affairs, at once swore allegiance to the American arms, and 
when Clark desired to go to Cahokia on the 6th of July, they accom- 
panied him, and through their influence the inhabitants of the place 
surrendered, and gladly placed themselves under his protection. Thus 


the two important posts in Illinois passed from the hands of the English 
into the possession of Virginia. 

In the person of the priest at Kaskaskia, M. Gibault, Clark found a 
powerful ally and generous friend. Clark saw that, to retain possession 
of tke Northwest and treat successfully with the Indians within its boun- 
daries, he must establish a government for the colonies he had taken. 
St. Vincent, the next important post to Detroit, remained yet to be taken 
before the Mississippi Valley was conquered. M. Gibault told him that 
he would alone, by persuasion, lead Vincennes to throw off its connection 
with England. Clark gladly accepted his offer, and on the 14th of July, 
in company with a fellow-townsman, M. Gibault started on his mission of 
peace, and on the 1st of August returned with the cheerful intelligence 
that the post on the "O^ache'' had taken the oath of allegiance to 
the Old Dominion. During this interval, Clark established his courts, 
placed garrisons at Kaskaskia and Cahokia, successfully re-enlisted his 
men, sent word to have a fort, which proved the germ of Louisville, 
erected at the Falls of the Ohio, and dispatched Mr. Rocheblave, who 
had been commander at Kaskaskia, as a prisoner of war to Richmond. 
In October the County of Illinois was established by the Legislature 
of Virginia, John Todd appointed Lieutenant Colonel and Civil Governor, 
and in November General Clark and his men received the thanks of 
the Old Dominion through their Legislature. 

In a speech a few days afterward, Clark made known fully to the 
natives his plans, and at its close all came forward and swore alle- 
giance to the Long Knives. While he was doing this Governor Hamilton, 
having made his various arrangements, had left Detroit and moved down 
the Wabash to Vincennes intending to operate from that point in reducing 
the Illinois posts, and then proceed on down to Kentucky and drive the 
rebels from the West. Gen. Clark had, on the return of M. Gibault, 
dispatched Captain Helm, of Fauquier County, Virginia, with an attend- 
ant named Henry, across the Illinois prairies to command the fort. 
Hamilton knew nothing of the capitulation of the post, and was greatly 
surprised on his arrival to be confronted by Capt. Helm, who, standing at 
the entrance of the fort by a loaded cannon ready to fire upon his assail- 
ants, demanded upon what terms Hamilton demanded possession of the 
fort. Being granted the rights of a prisoner of war, he surrendered to 
the British General, who could scarcely believe his eyes when he saw the 
force in the garrison. 

Hamilton, not realizing the character of the men with whom he was 
contending, gave up his intended campaign for the Winter, sent his four 
hundred Indian warriors to prevent troops from coming down the Ohio, 


and to annoy the Americans in all ways, and sat quietly down to pass the 
Winter. Information of all these proceedings having reached Clark, he 
saw that immediate and decisive action was necessary, and that unless 
he captured Hamilton, Hamilton would capture him. Clark received the 
news on the 29th of January, 1779, and on February 4th, having suffi- 
ciently garrisoned Kaskaskia and Cahokia, he sent down the Mississippi 
a " battoe," as Major Bowman writes it, in order to ascend the Ohio and 
Wabash, and operate with the land forces gathering for the fray. 

On the next day, Clark, with his little force of one hundred and 
twenty men, set out for the post, and after incredible hard marching 
through much mud, the ground being thawed by the incessant spring 
rains, on the 22d reached the fort, and being joined by his " battoe," at 
once commenced the attack on the post. The aim of the American back- 
woodsman was unerring, and on the 24th the garrison surrendered to the 
intrepid boldness of Clark. The French were treated with great kind- 
ness, and gladly renewed their allegiance to Virginia. Hamilton was 
sent as a prisoner to Virginia, where he was kept in close confinement. 
During his command of the British frontier posts, he had offered prizes 
to the Indians for all the scalps of Americans they would bring to him, 
and had earned in consequence thereof the title " Hair-buyer General," 
by which he was ever afterward known. 

Detroit was now without doubt within easy reach of the enterprising 
Virginian, could he but raise the necessary force. Governor Henry being 
apprised of this, promised him the needed reinforcement, and Clark con- 
cluded to wait until he could capture and sufficiently garrison the posts. 
Had Clark failed in this bold undertaking, and Hamilton succeeded in 
uniting the western Indians for the next Spring's campaign, the West 
would indeed have been swept from the Mississippi to the Allegheny 
Mountains, and the great blow struck, which had been contemplated from 
the commencement, by the British. 

" But for this small army of dripping, but fearless Virginians, the 
union of all the tribes from Georgia to Maine against the colonies might 
have been effected, and the whole current of our history changed." 

At this time some fears were entertained by the Colonial Govern- 
ments that the Indians in the North and Northwest were inclining to the 
British, and under the instructions of Washington, now Commander-in- 
Chief of the Colonial army, and so bravely fighting for American inde- 
pendence, armed forces were sent against the Six Nations, and upon the 
Ohio frontier, Col. Bowman, acting under the same general's orders, 
marched against Indians within the present limits of that State. These 
expeditions were in the main successful, and the Indians were compelled 
to sue for peace. 


During this same year (1779) the famous " Land Laws" of Virginia 
were passed. The passage of these laws was of more consequence to the 
pioneers of Kentucky and the Northwest than the gaining of a few Indian 
conflicts. These laws confirmed in main all grants made, and guaranteed 
to all actual settlers their rights and privileges. After providing for the 
settlers, the laws provided for selling the balance of the public lands at 
forty cents per acre. To carry the Land Laws into effect, the Legislature 
sent four Virginians westward to attend to the various claims, over many 
of which great confusion prevailed concerning their validity. These 
gentlemen opened their court on October 13, 1779, at St. Asaphs, and 
continued until April 26, 1780, when they adjourned, having decided 
three thousand claims. They were succeeded by the surveyor, who 
came in the person of Mr. George May, and assumed his duties on the 
10th day of the month whose name he bore. With the opening of the 
next year (1780) the troubles concerning the navigation of the Missis- 
sippi commenced. The Spanish Government exacted such measures in 
relation to its trade as to cause the overtures made to the United States 
to be rejected. The American Government considered they had a right 
to navigate its channel. To enforce their claims, a fort was erected below 
the mouth of the Ohio on the Kentucky side of the river. The settle- 
ments in Kentucky were being rapidly filled by emigrants. It was dur- 
ing this year that the first seminary of learning was established in the 
West in this young and enterprising Commonwealth. 

The settlers here did not look upon the building of this fort in a 
friendly manner, as it aroused the hostility of the Indians. Spain had 
been friendly to the Colonies during their struggle for independence, 
and though for a while this friendship appeared in danger from the 
refusal of the free navigation of the river, yet it was finally settled to the 
satisfaction of both nations. 

The Winter of 1779-80 was one of the most unusually severe ones 
ever experienced in the West. The Indians always referred to it as the 
"Great Cold." Numbers of wild animals perished, and not a few 
pioneers lost their lives. The following Summer a party of Canadians 
and Indians attacked St. Louis, and attempted to take possession of it 
in consequence of the friendly disposition of Spain to the revolting 
colonies. They met with such a determined resistance on the part of the 
inhabitants, even the women taking part in the battle, that they were 
compelled to abandon the contest. They also made an attack on the 
settlements in Kentucky, but, becoming alarmed in some unaccountable 
manner, they fled the country in great haste. 

About this time arose the question in the Colonial Congress con- 
cerning the western lands claimed by Virginia, New York, Massachusetts 


and Connecticut. The agitation concerning this subject finally led New 
York, on the 19th of February, 1780, to pass a law giving to the dele- 
gates of that State in Congress the power to cede her western lands for 
the benefit of the United States. This law was laid before Congress 
during the next month, but no steps were taken concerning it until Sep- 
tember 6th, when a resolution passed that body calling upon the States 
claiming western lands to release their claims in favor of the whole body. 
This basis formed the union, and was the first after all of those legislative 
measures which resulted in the creation of the States of Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. In December of the same 
year, the plan of conquering Detroit again arose. The conquest might 
have easily been effected by Clark had the necessary aid been furnished 
him. Nothing decisive was done, yet the heads of the Government knew 
that the safety of the Northwest from British invasion lay in the capture 
and retention of that important post, the only unconquered one in the 

Before the close of the year, Kentucky was divided into the Coun- 
ties of Lincoln, Fayette and Jefferson, and the act establishing the Town 
of Louisville was passed. This same year is also noted in the annals of 
American history as the ye&v in which occurred Arnold's treason to the 
United States. 

Virginia, in accordance with the resolution of Congress, on the 2d 
day of January, 1781, agreed to yield her western lands to the United 
States upon certain conditions, which Congress would not accede to, and 
the Act of Cession, on the part of the Old Dominion, failed, nor was 
anything farther done until 1783. During all that time the Colonies 
were busily engaged in the struggle with the mother country, and in 
consequence thereof but little heed was given to the western settlements. 
Upon the 16th of April, 1781, the first birth north of the Ohio River of 
American parentage occurred, being that of Mary Hecke welder, daughter 
of the widely known Moravian missionary, whose band of Christian 
Indians suffered in after years a horrible massacre by the hands of the 
frontier settlers, who had been exasperated by the murder of several of 
their neighbors, and in their rage committed, without regard to humanity, 
a deed which forever afterwards cast a shade of shame upon their lives. 
For this and kindred outrages on the part of the whites, the Indians 
committed many deeds of cruelty which darken the years of 1771 and 
1772 in the history of the Northwest. 

During the year 1782 a number of battles among the Indians and 
frontiersmen occurred, and between the Moravian Indians and the Wyan- 
dots. In these, horrible acts of cruelty were practised on the captives, 
many of such dark deeds transpiring under the leadership of the notorious 



frontier outlaw, Simon Girty, whose name, as well as those of his brothers, 
was a terror to women and children. These occurred chiefly in the Ohio 
valleys. Cotemporary with them were several engagements in Kentucky, 
in which the famous Daniel Boone engaged, and who, often by his skill 
and knowledge of Indian warfare, saved the outposts from cruel destruc- 


tion. By the close of the year victory had perched upon the American 
banner, and on the 30th of November, provisional articles of peace had 
been arranged between the Commissioners of England and her uncon- 
querable colonies. Cornwallis had been defeated on the 19th of October 
preceding, and the liberty of America was assured. On the 19th of 
April following, the anniversary of the battle of Lexington, peace was 


proclaimed to the army of the United States, and on the 3d of the next 
September, the definite treaty which ended our revolutionary struggle 
was concluded. By the terms of that treaty, the boundaries of the West 
were as follows : On the north the line was to extend along the center of 
the Great Lakes ; from the western point of Lake Superior to Long Lake ; 
thence to the Lake of the Woods ; thence to the head of the Mississippi 
River; down its center to the 81st parallel of latitude, then on that line 
east to the head of the Appalachicola River ; down its center to its junc- 
tion with the Flint ; thence straight to the head of St. Mary's River, and 
thence down along its center to the Atlantic Ocean. 

Following the cessation of hostilities with England, several posts 
were still occupied by the British in the North and West. Among these 
was Detroit, still in the hands of the enemy. Numerous engagements 
with the Indians throughout Ohio and Indiana occurred, upon whose 
lands adventurous whites would settle ere the title had been acquired by 
the proper treaty. 

To remedy this latter evil, Congress appointed commissioners to 
treat with the natives and purchase their lands, and prohibited the set- 
tlement of the territory until this could be done. Before the close of the 
year another attempt was made to capture Detroit, which was, however, 
not pushed, and Virginia, no longer feeling the interest in the Northwest 
she had formerly done, withdrew her troops, having on the 20th of 
December preceding authorized the whole of her possessions to be deeded 
to the United States. This was done on the 1st of March following, and 
the Northwest Territory passed from the control of the Old Dominion. 
To Gen. Clark and his soldiers, however, she gave a tract of one hundred 
and fifty thousand acres of land, to be situated any where north of the 
Ohio wherever they chose to locate them. They selected the region 
opposite the falls of the Ohio, where is now the dilapidated village of 
Clarksville, about midway between the Cities of New Albany and Jeffer- 
sonville, Indiana. 

While the frontier remained thus, and Gen. Haldimand at Detroit 
refused to evacuate alleging that he had no orders from his King to do 
so, settlers were rapidly gathering about the inland forts. In the Spring 
of 1784, Pittsburgh was regularly laid out, and from the journal of Arthur 
Lee, who passed through the town soon after on his way to the Indian 
council at Fort Mcintosh, we suppose it was not very prepossessing in 
appearance. He says : 

" Pittsburgh is inhabited almost entirely by Scots and Irish, who 
live in paltry log houses, and are as dirty as if in the north of Ireland or 
even Scotland. There is a great deal of trade carried on, the goods being 
bought at the vast expense of forty-five shillings per pound from Phila- 


delphia and Baltimore. They take in the shops flour, wheat, skins and 
money. There are in the town four attorneys, two doctors, and not a 
priest of any persuasion, nor church nor chapel." 

Kentucky at this time contained thirty thousand inhabitants, and 
was beginning to discuss measures for a separation from Virginia. A 
land office was opened at Louisville, and measures were adopted to take 
defensive precaution against the Indians who were yet, in some instances, 
incited to deeds of violence by the British. Before the close of this year, 
1784, the military claimants of land began to occupy them, although no 
entries were recorded until 1787. 

The Indian title to the Northwest was not yet extinguished. They 
held large tracts of lands, and in order to prevent bloodshed Congress 
adopted means for treaties with the original owners and provided for the 
surveys of the lands gained tliereby, as well as for those north of the 
Ohio, now in its possession. On January 31, 1786, a treaty was made 
with the Wabash Indians. The treaty of Fort Stanwix had been made 
in 1784. That at Fort Mcintosh in 1785, and through these much land 
was gained. The Wabash Indians, however, afterward refused to comply 
with the provisions of the treaty made with them, and in order to compel 
their adherence to its provisions, force was used. During the year 1786, 
the free navigation of the Mississippi came up in Congress, and caused 
various discussions, which resulted in no definite action, only serving to 
excite speculation in regard to the western lands. Congress had promised 
bounties of land to the soldiers of the Revolution, but owing to the 
unsettled condition of affairs along the Mississippi respecting its naviga- 
tion, and the trade of the Northwest, that body had, in 1783, declared 
its inability to fulfill these promises until a treaty could be concluded 
between the two Governments. Before the close of the year 1786, how- 
ever, it was able, through the treaties with the Indians, to allow some 
grants and the settlement thereon, and on the 14th of September Con- 
necticut ceded to the General Government the tract of land known as 
the " Connecticut Reserve," and before the close of the following year a 
large tract of land north of the Ohio was sold to a company, who at once 
took measures to settle it. By the provisions of this grant, the company 
were to pay the United States one dollar per acre, subject to a deduction 
of one-third for bad lands and other contingencies. They received 
750,000 acres, bounded on the south by the Ohio, on the east by the 
seventh range of townships, on the west by the sixteenth range, and on 
the north by a line so drawn as to make the grant complete without 
the reservations. In addition to this, Congress afterward granted 100,000 
acres to actual settlers, and 214,285 acres as army bounties under the 
resolutions of 1739 and 1790. 



While Dr. Cutler, one of the agents of the company, was pressing 
its claims before Congress, that body was bringing into form an ordinance 
for the political and social organization of this Territory. When the 
cession was made by Virginia, in 1784, a plan was offered, but rejected. 
A motion had been made to strike from the proposed plan the prohibition 
of slavery, which prevailed. The plan was then discussed and altered, 
and finally passed unanimously, with the exception of South Carolina. 
By this proposition, the Territory was to have been divided into states 


by parallels and meridian lines. This, it was thought, would make ten 
states, which were to have been named as follows — beginning at the 
northwest corner and going southwardly : Sylvania, Michigania, Cher- 
sonesus, Assenisipia, Mesopotamia, Illenoia, Saratoga, Washington, Poly- 
potamia and Pelisipia. 

There was a more serious objection to this plan than its category of 
names,— the boundaries. The root of the difficulty was in the resolu- 
tion of Congress passed in October, 1780, which fixed the boundaries 
of the ceded lands to be from one hundred to one hundred and fifty miles 


square. These resolutions being presented to the Legislatures of Vir- 
ginia and Massachusetts,- they desired a change, and in July, 1786, the 
subject was taken up in Congress, and changed to favor a division into 
not more than five states, and not less than three. This was approved by 
the State Legislature of Virginia. The subject of the Government was 
again taken up by Congress in 1786, and discussed throughout that year 
and until July, 1787, when the famous "Compact of 1787" was passed, 
and the foundation of the government of the Northwest laid. This com- 
pact is fully discussed and explained in the history of Illinois in this book, 
and to it the reader is referred. 

The passage of this act and the grant to the New England Company 
was soon followed by an application to the Government by John Cleves 
Symmes, of New Jersey, for a grant of the land between the Miamis. 
This gentleman had visited these lands soon after the treaty of 1786, and, 
being greatly pleased with them, offered similar terms to those given to the 
New England Company. The petition was referred to the Treasury 
Board with power to act, and a contract was concluded the following- 
year. During the Autumn the directors of the New England Company 
were preparing to occupy their grant the following Spring, and upon the 
23d of November made arrangements for a party of forty-seven men, 
under the superintendency of Gen. Rufus Putnam, to set forward. Six 
boat-builders were to leave at once, and on the first of January the sur- 
veyors and their assistants, twenty-six in number, were to meet at Hart- 
ford and proceed on their journey westward ; the remainder to follow as 
soon as possible. Congress, in the meantime, upon the od of October, 
had ordered seven hundred troops for defense of the western settlers, and 
to prevent unauthorized intrusions ; and two days later appointed Arthur 
St. Clair Governor of the Territory of the Northwest. 


The civil organization of the Northwest Territory was now com- 
plete, and notwithstanding the uncertainty of Indian affairs, settlers from 
the East began to come into the country rapidly. The New England 
Company sent their men during the Winter of 1787-8 pressing on over 
the Alleghenies by the old Indian path which had been opened into 
Braddock's road, and which has since been made a national turnpike 
from Cumberland westward. Through the weary winter days they toiled 
on, and by April were all gathered on the Yohiogany, where boats had 
been built, and at once started for the Muskingum. Here they arrived 
on the 7th of that month, and unless the Moravian missionaries be regarded 
as the pioneers of Ohio, this little band can justly claim that honor. 



Gen. St. Clair, the appointed Governor of the Northwest, not having 
yet arrived, a set of laws were passed, written out, and published by 
being nailed to a tree in the embryo town, and Jonathan Meigs appointed 
to administer them. 

Washington in writing of this, the first American settlement in the 
Northwest, said : " No colony in America was ever settled under 
such favorable auspices as that which has just commenced at Muskingum. 
Information, property and strength will be its characteristics. I know 
many of its settlers personally, and there never were men better calcu- 
lated to promote the welfare of such a community." 


On the 2d of July a meeting of the directors and agents was held 
on the banks of the Muskingum, " for the purpose of naming the new- 
born city and its squares." As yet the settlement was known as the 
"Muskingum," but that was now changed to the name Marietta, in honor 
of Marie Antoinette. The square upon which the block - houses stood 
was called "Campus Martins ;" square number 19, " Capitolium ;" square 
number 61, "Cecilia ;" and the great road through the covert way, " Sacra 
Via." Two days after, an oration was delivered by James M. Varnum, 
who with S. H. Parsons and John Armstrong had been appointed to the 
judicial bench of the territory on the 16th of October, 1787. On July 9, 
Gov. St. Clair arrived, and the colony began to assume form. The act 
of 1787 provided two district grades of government for the Northwest, 


under the first of which the whole power was invested in the hands of a 
governor and three district judges. This was immediately formed upon 
the Governor's arrival, and the first laws of the colony passed on the 25th 
of July. These provided for the organization of the militia, and on the 
next daj r appeared the Governor's proclamation, erecting all that country 
that had been ceded by the Indians east of the Scioto River into the 
County of Washington. From that time forward, notwithstanding the 
doubts yet existing as to the Indians, all Marietta prospered, and on the 
2d of September the first court of the territory was held with imposing 

The emigration westward at this time was very great. The com- 
mander at Fort Harmer, at the mouth of the Muskingum, reported four 
thousand five hundred persons as having passed that post between Feb- 
ruary and June, 1788 — many of whom would have purchased of the 
"Associates," as the New England Company was called, had they been 
ready to receive them. 

On the 26th of November, 1787, Symmes issued a pamphlet stating 
the terms of his contract and the plan of sale he intended to adopt. In 
January, 1788, Matthias Denman, of New Jersey, took an active interest 
in Symmes' purchase, and located among other tracts the sections upon 
which Cincinnati has been built. Retaining one-third of this locality, he 
sold the other two-thirds to Robert Patterson and John Filson, and the 
three, about August, commenced to lay out a town on the spot, which 
was designated as being opposite Licking River, to the mouth of which 
they proposed to have a road cut from Lexington. The naming of the 
town is thus narrated in the "Western Annals " : — " Mr. Filson, who had 
been a schoolmaster, was appointed to name the town, and, in respect to 
its situation, and as if with a prophetic perception of the mixed race that 
were to inhabit it in after days, he named it Losantiville, which, being 
interpreted, means : ville, the town ; anti, against or opposite to ; os, the 
mouth ; L. of Licking." 

Meanwhile, in July, Symmes got thirty persons and eight four-horse 
teams under way for the West. These reached Limestone (now Mays- 
ville) in September, where were several persons from Redstone. Here 
Mr. Symmes tried to found a settlement, but the great freshet of 1789 
caused the " Point," as it was and is yet called, to be fifteen feet under 
water, and the settlement to be abandoned. The little band of settlers 
removed to the mouth of the Miami. Before Symmes and his colony left 
the " Point," two settlements had been made on his purchase. The first 
was by Mr. Stiltes, the original projector of the whole plan, who, with a 
colony of Redstone people, had located at the mouth of the Miami, 
whither Symmes went with his Maysville colony. Here a clearing had 



been made by the Indians owing to the great fertility of the soil. Mr. 
Stiltes with his colony came to this place on the 18th of November, 1788, 
with twenty-six persons, and, building a block-house, prepared to remain 
through the Winter. They named the settlement Columbia. Here they 
were kindly treated by the Indians, but suffered greatly from the flood 
of 1789. 

On the 4th of March, 1789, the Constitution of the United States 
went into operation, and on April 30, George Washington was inaug- 
urated President of the American people, and during the next Summer, 
an Indian war was commenced by the tribes north of the Ohio. The 
President at first used pacific means ; but these failing, he sent General 
Harmer against the hostile tribes. He destroyed several villages, but 


The frontage of Lake Bluff Grounds on Lake Michigan, with one hundred and seventy feet of gradual ascent. 

was defeated in two battles, near the present City of Fort Wayne, 
Indiana. From this time till the close of 1795, the principal events were 
the wars with the various Indian tribes. In 1796, General St. Clair 
was appointed in command, and marched against the Indians ; but while 
he was encamped on a stream, the St. Mary, a branch of the Maumee, 
he was attacked and defeated with the loss of six hundred men. 

General Wayne was now sent against the savages. In August, 1794, 
he met them near the rapids of the Maumee, and gained a complete 
victory. This success, followed by vigorous measures, compelled the 
Indians to sue for peace, and on the 30th of July, the following year, the 
treaty of Greenville was signed by the principal chiefs, by which a large 
tract of country was ceded to the United States. 

Before proceeding in our narrative, we will pause to notice Fort 
Washington, erected in the early part of this war on the site of Cincinnati. 
Nearly all of the great cities of the Northwest, and indeed of the 


whole country, have had their nuclei in those rude pioneer structures, 
known as forts or stockades. Thus Forts Dearborn, Washington, Pon- 
chartrain, mark the original sites of the now proud Cities of Chicago, 
Cincinnati and Detroit. So of most of the flourishing cities east and west 
of the Mississippi. Fort Washington, erected by Doughty in 1790, was a 
rude but highly interesting structure. It was composed of a number of 
strongly-built hewed log cabins. Those designed for soldiers' barracks 
were a story and a half high, while those composing the officers quarters 
were more imposing and more conveniently arranged and furnished. 
The whole were so placed as to form a hollow square, enclosing about an 
acre of ground, with a block house at each of the four angles. 

The logs for the construction of this fort were cut from the ground 
upon which it was erected. It stood between Third and Fourth Streets 
of the present city (Cincinnati) extending east of Eastern Row, now 
Broadway, which was then a narrow alley, and the eastern' boundary of 
of the town as it was originally laid out. On the bank of the river, 
immediately in front of the fort, was an appendage of the fort, called the 
Artificer's Yard. It contained about two acres of ground, enclosed by 
small contiguous buildings, occupied by workshops and quarters of 
laborers. Within this enclosure there was a large two-story frame house, 
familiarly called the " Yellow House," built for the accommodation of 
the Quartermaster General. For many years this was the best finished 
and most commodious edifice in the Queen City. Fort Washington was 
for some time the headquarters of both the civil and military governments 
of the Northwestern Territory. 

Following the consummation of the treaty various gigantic land spec- 
ulations were entered into by different persons, who hoped to obtain 
from the Indians in Michigan and northern Indiana, large tracts of lands. 
These were generally discovered .in time to prevent the outrageous 
schemes from being carried out, and from involving the settlers in war. 
On October 27, 1795, the treaty between the United States and Spain 
was signed, whereby the free navigation of the Mississippi was secured. 

No sooner had the treaty of 1795 been ratified than settlements began 
to pour rapidly into the West. The great event of the year 1796 was the 
occupation of that part of the Northwest including Michigan, which was 
this year, under the provisions of the treaty, evacuated by the British 
forces. The United States, owing to certain conditions, did not feel 
justified in addressing the authorities in Canada in relation to Detroit 
and other frontier posts. When at last the British authorities were 
called to give them up, they at once complied, and General Waj r ne, who 
had done so much to preserve the frontier settlements, and who, before 
the year's close, sickened and died near Erie, transferred his head- 


quarters to the neighborhood of the lakes, where a county named after 
him was formed, which included the northwest of Ohio, all of Michigan, 
and the northeast of Indiana. During this same year settlements were 
formed at the present City of Chillicothe, along the Miami from Middle- 
town to Piqua, while in the more distant West, settlers and speculators 
began to appear in great numbers. In September, the City of Cleveland 
was laid out, and during the Summer and Autumn, Samuel Jackson and 
Jonathan Sharpless erected the first manufactory of paper — the " Red- 
stone Paper Mill" — in the West. St. Louis contained some seventy 
houses, and Detroit over three hundred, and along the river, contiguous 
to it, were more than three thousand inhabitants, mostly French Canadians, 
Indians and half-breeds, scarcely any Americans venturing yet into that 
part of the Northwest. 

The election of representatives for the territory had taken place, 
and on the 4th of February, 1799, they convened at Losantiville — now 
known as Cincinnati, having been named so by Gov. St. Clair, and 
considered the capital of the Territory — to nominate persons from whom 
the members of the Legislature were to be chosen in accordance with 
a previous" ordinance. This nomination being made, the Assembly 
adjourned until the 16th of the following September. From those named 
the President selected as members of the council, Henry Vandenburg, 
of Vincennes, Robert Oliver, of Marietta, James Findlay and Jacob 
Burnett, of Cincinnati, and David Vance, of Vanceville. On the 16th 
of September the Territorial Legislature met, and on the 24th the two 
houses were duly organized, Henry Vandenburg being elected President 
of the Council. 

The message of Gov. St. Clair was addressed to the Legislature 
September 20th, and on October 13th that body elected as a delegate to 
Congress Gen. Wm. Henry Harrison, who received eleven of the votes 
cast, being a majority of one over his opponent, Arthur St. Clair, son of 
Gen. St. Clair. 

The whole number of acts passed at this session, and approved by 
the Governor, were thirty-seven — eleven others were passed, but received 
his veto. The most important of those passed related to the militia, to 
the administration, and to taxation. On the 19th of December this pro- 
tracted session of the first Legislature in the West was closed, and on the 
30th of December the President nominated Charles Willing Bryd to the 
office of Secretary of the Territory vice Wm. Henry Harrison, elected to 
Congress. The Senate confirmed his nomination the next day. 



The increased emigration to the Northwest, the extent of the domain, 
and the inconvenient modes of travel, made it very difficult to conduct 
the ordinary operations of government, and rendered the efficient action 
of courts almost impossible. To remedy this, it was deemed advisable to 
divide the territory for civil purposes. Congress, in 1800, appointed a 
committee to examine the question and report some means for its solution. 
This committee, on the 3d of March, reported that : 

" In the three western countries there has been but one court having 
cognizance of crimes, in five years, and the immunity which offenders 
experience attracts, as to an asylum, the most vile and abandoned crim- 
inals, and at the same time deters useful citizens from making settlements 
in such society. The extreme necessity of judiciary attention and assist- 
ance is experienced in civil as well as in criminal cases. * * * * To 
minister a remedy to these and other evils, it occurs to this committee 
that it is expedient that a division of said territory into two distinct and 
separate governments should be made ; and that such division be made 
by a line beginning at the mouth of the Great Miami River, running 
directly north until it intersects the boundary between the United States 
and Canada." 

The report was accepted by Congress, and, in accordance with its 
suggestions, that body passed an Act extinguishing the Northwest Terri- 
tory, which Act was approved May 7. Among its provisions were these : 

" That from and after July 4 next, all that part of the Territory of 
the United States northwest of the Ohio River, which lies to the westward 
of a line beginning at a point on the Ohio, opposite to the mouth of the 
Kentucky River, and running thence to Fort Recovery, and thence north 
until it shall intersect the territorial line between the United States and 
Canada, shall, for the purpose of temporary government, constitute a 
separate territory, and be called the Indiana Territory." 

After providing for the exercise of the civil and criminal powers of 
the territories, and other provisions, the Act further provides : 

" That until it shall otherwise be ordered by the Legislatures of the 
said Territories, respectively, Chillicothe on the Scioto River shall be the 
seat of government of the Territory of the United States northwest of the 
Ohio River ; and that St. Vincennes on the Wabash River shall be the 
seat of government for the Indiana Territory." 

Gen. Wm. Henry Harrison was appointed Governor of the Indiara 
Territory, and entered upon his duties about a year later. Connecticut 
also about this time released her claims to the reserve, and in March a law 


was passed accepting this cession. Settlements had been made upon 
thirty-five of the townships in the reserve, mills had been built, and seven 
hundred miles of road cut in various directions. On the 3d of November 
the General Assembly met at Chillicothe. Near the close of the year, 
the first missionary of the Connecticut Reserve came, who found no 
township containing more than eleven families. It was upon the first of 
October that the secret treaty had been made between Napoleon and the 
King of Spain, whereby the latter agreed to cede to France the province 
of Louisiana. 

In January, 1802, the Assembly of the Northwestern Territory char- 
tered the college at Athens. From the earliest dawn of the western 
colonies, education was promptly provided for, and as early as 1787, 
newspapers were issued from Pittsburgh and Kentucky, and largely read 
throughout the frontier settlements. Before the close of this year, the 
Congress of the United States granted to the citizens of the Northwestern 
territory the formation of a State government. One of the provisions of 
the "compact of 1787" provided that whenever the number of inhabit- 
ants within prescribed limits exceeded 45,000, they should be entitled to 
a separate government. The prescribed limits of Ohio contained, from a 
census taken to ascertain the legality of the act, more than that number, 
and on the 30th of April, 1802, Congress passed the act defining its limits, 
and on the 29th of November the Constitution of the new State of Ohio, 
so named from the beautiful river forming its southern boundary, came 
into existence. The exact limits of Lake Michigan were not then known, 
but the territory now included within the State of Michigan was wholly 
within the territory of Indiana. 

Gen. Harrison, while residing at Vincennes, made several treaties 
with the Indians, thereby gaining large tracts of lands. The next }*ear is 
memorable in the history of the West for the purchase of Louisiana from 
France by the United States for $15,000,000. Thus by a peaceful mode, 
the domain of the United States was extended over a large tract of 
country west of the Mississippi, and was for a time under the jurisdiction 
of the Northwest government, and, as has been mentioned in the early 
part of this narrative, was called the "New Northwest." The limits 
of this history will not allow a description of its territory. The same year 
large grants of land were obtained from the Indians, and the House of 
Representatives of the new State of Ohio signed a bill respecting the 
College Township in the district of Cincinnati. 

Before the close of the year, Gen. Harrison obtained additional 
grants of lands from the various Indian nations in Indiana and the present 
limits of Illinois, and on the 18th of August, 1804, completed a treaty at 
St. Louis, whereby over 51,000,000 acres of lands were obtained from the 


aborigines. Measures were also taken to learn the condition of affairs in 
and about Detroit. 

C. Jouett, the Indian agent in Michigan, still a part of Indiana Terri- 
tory, reported as follows upon the condition of matters at that post : 

" The Town of Detroit. — The charter, which is for fifteen miles 
square, was granted in the time of Louis XIV. of France, and is now, 
from the best information I have been able to get, at Quebec. Of those 
two hundred and twenty-five acres, only four are occupied by the town 
and Fort Lenault. The remainder is a common, except twenty-four 
acres, which were added twenty years ago to a farm belonging to Wm. 
Macomb. * * * A stockade incloses the town, fort and citadel. The 
pickets, as well as the public houses, are in a state of gradual decay. The 
streets are narrow, straight and regular, and intersect each other at right 
angles. The houses are, for the most part, low and inelegant." 

During this year, Congress granted a township of land for the sup- 
port of a college, and began to offer inducements for settlers in these 
wilds, and the country now comprising the State of Michigan began to 
fill rapidly with settlers along its southern borders. This same year, also, 
a law was passed organizing the Southwest Territory, dividing it into two 
portions, the Territory of New Orleans, which city was made the seat of 
government, and the District of Louisiana, which was annexed to the 
domain of Gen. Harrison. 

On the 11th of January, 1805, the Territory of Michigan was formed, 
Wm. Hull was appointed governor, with headquarters at Detroit, the 
change to take effect on June 30. On the 11th of that month, a fire 
occurred at Detroit, which destroyed almost every building in the place. 
When the officers of the new territory reached the post, .they found it in 
ruins, and the inhabitants scattered throughout the country. Rebuild- 
ing, however, soon commenced, and ere long the town contained more 
houses than before the fire, and many of them much better built. 

While this was being done, Indiana had passed to the second grade 
of government, and through her General Assembly had obtained large 
tracts of land from the Indian tribes. To all this the celebrated Indian, 
Tecumthe or Tecumseh, vigorously protested, and it was the main cause 
of his attempts to unite the various Indian tribes in a conflict with the 
settlers. To obtain a full account of these attempts, the workings of the 
British, and the signal failure, culminating in the death of Tecumseh at 
the battle of the Thames, and the close of the war of 1812 in the Northwest, 
we will step aside in our story, and relate the principal events of his life, 
and his connection with this conflict. 






This famous Indian chief was born about the year 1768, not far from 
the site of the present City of Piqua, Ohio. His father, Puckeshinwa, 
was a member of the Kisopok tribe of the Swanoese nation, and his 
mother, Methontaske, was a member of the Turtle tribe of the same 
people. They removed from Florida about the middle of the last century 
to the birthplace of Tecumseh. In 1774, his father, who had risen to be 
chief, was slain at the battle of Point Pleasant, and not long after Tecum- 
seh, by his bravery, became the leader of his tribe. In 1795 he was 
declared chief, and then lived at Deer Creek, near the site of the 
present City of Urbana. He remained here about one year, when he 
returned to Piqua, and in 1798, he went to White River, Indiana. In 
1805, he and his brother, Laulewasikan (Open Door), who had announced 
himself as a prophet, went to a tract of land on the Wabash River, given 
them by the Pottawatomies and Kickapoos. From this date the chief 
comes into prominence. He was now about thirty-seven years of age, 
was five feet and ten inches in height, was stoutly built, and possessed of 
enormous powers of endurance. His countenance was naturally pleas- 
ing, and he was, in general, devoid of those savage attributes possessed 
by most Indians. It is stated he could read and write, and had a confi- 
dential secretary and adviser, named Billy Caldwell, a half-breed, who 
afterward became chief of the Pottawatomies. He occupied the first 
house built on the site of Chicago. At this time, Tecumseh entered 
upon the great work of his life. He had long objected to the grants of 
land made by the Indians to the whites, and determined to unite all the 
Indian tribes into a league, in order that no treaties or grants of land 
could be made save by the consent of this confederation. 

He traveled constantly, going from north to south ; from the south 
to the north, everywhere urging the Indians to this step. He was a 
matchless orator, and his burning words had their effect. 

Gen. Harrison, then Governor of Indiana, by watching the move- 
ments of the Indians, became convinced that a grand conspiracy was 
forming, and made preparations to defend the settlements. Tecumseh's 
plan was similar to Pontiac's, elsewhere described, and to the cunning 
artifice of that chieftain was added his own sagacity. 

During the year 1809, Tecumseh and the prophet were actively pre- 
paring for the work. In that year, Gen. Harrison entered into a treaty 
with the Delawares, Kickapoos, Pottawatomies, Miamis, Eel River Indians 
and Weas, in which these tribes ceded to the whites certain lands upon 
the Wabash, to all of which Tecumseh entered a bitter protest, averring 


as one principal reason that he did not want the Indians to give up any 
lands north and west of the Ohio River. 

Tecumseh, in August, 1810, visited the General at Vincennes and 
held a council relating to the grievances of the Indians. Becoming unduly 
angry at this conference he was dismissed from the village, and soon after 
departed to incite the southern Indian tribes to the conflict. 

Gen. Harrison determined to move upon the chiefs headquarters at 
Tippecanoe, and for this purpose went about sixty-five miles up the 
Wabash, where he built Fort Harrison. From this place he went to the 
prophet's town, where he informed the Indians he had no hostile inten- 
tions, provided they were true to the existing treaties. He encamped 
near the village early in October, and on the morning of November 7, he 
was attacked by a large force of the Indians, and the famous battle of 
Tippecanoe occurred. The Indians were routed and their town broken 
up. Tecumseh returning not long after, was greatl}- exasperated at his 
brother, the prophet, even threatening to kill him for rashly precipitating 
the war, and foiling his (Tecumseh's) plans. 

Tecumseh sent word to Gen. Harrison that he was now returned 
from the South, and was ready to visit the. President as had at one time 
previously been proposed. Gen. Harrison informed him he could not go 
as a chief, which method Tecumseh desired, and the visit was never 

In June of the following year, he visited the Indian agent at 
Fort Wayne. Here he disavowed any intention to make a war against 
the United States, and reproached Gen. Harrison for marching against his 
people. The agent replied to this ; Tecumseh listened with a cold indif- 
ference, and after making a few general remarks, with a haughty air drew 
his blanket about him, left the council house, and departed for Fort Mai- 
den, in Upper Canada, where he joined the British standard. 

He remained under this Government, doing effective work for the 
Crown while engaged in the war of 1812 which now opened. He was, 
however, always humane in his treatment of the prisoners, never allow- 
ing his warriors to ruthlessly mutilate the bodies of those slain, or wan- 
tonly murder the captive. 

In the Summer of 1813, Perry's victory on Lake Erie occurred, and 
shortly after active preparations were made to capture Maiden. On the 
27th of September, the American army, under Gen. Harrison, set sail for 
the shores of Canada, and in a few hours stood around the ruins of Mai- 
den, from which the British army, under Proctor, had retreated to Sand- 
wich, intending to make its way to the heart of Canada by the Valley oi 
the Thames. On the 29th Gen. Harrison was at Sandwich, and Gen 
McArthur took possession of Detroit and the territory of Michigan. 



On the 2d of October, the Americans began their pursuit of Proctor, 
whom they overtook on the 5th, and the battle of the Thames followed. 
Early in the engagement, Tecumseh who was at the head of the column 
of Indians was slain, and they, no longer hearing the voice of their chief- 
tain, fled. The victory was decisive, and practically closed the war in 
the Northwest. 


Just who killed the great chief has been a matter of much dispute ; 
but the weight of opinion awards the act to Col. Richard M. Johnson, 
who fired at him with a pistol, the shot proving fatal. 

In 1805 occurred Burr's Insurrection. He took possession of a 
beautiful island in the Ohio, after the killing of Hamilton, and is charged 
by many with attempting to set up an independent government. His 
plans were frustrated by the general government, his property confiscated 
and he was compelled to flee the country for safety. 


In January, 1807, Governor Hull, of Michigan Territory, made a 
treaty with the Indians, whereby all that peninsula was ceded to the 
United States. Before the close of the year, a stockade was built about 
Detroit. It was also during this }^ear that Indiana and Illinois endeavored 
to obtain the repeal of that section of the compact of 1787, whereby 
slavery was excluded from the Northwest Territory. These attempts, 
however, all signally failed. 

In 1809 it was deemed advisable to divide the Indiana Territory. 
This was done, and the Territory of Illinois was formed from the western 
part, the seat of government being fixed at Kaskaskia. The next year, 
the intentions of Tecumseh manifested themselves in open hostilities, and 
then began the events already narrated. 

While this war was in progress, emigration to the West went on with 
surprising rapidity. In 1811, under Mr. Roosevelt of New York, the 
first steamboat trip was made on the Ohio, much to the astonishment of 
the natives, many of whom fled in terror at the appearance of the 
" monster." It arrived at Louisville on the 10th day of October. At the 
close of the first week of January, 1812, it arrived at Natchez, after being 
nearly overwhelmed in the great earthquake which occurred while on its 
downward trip. 

The battle of the Thames was fought on October 6, 1813. It 
effectually closed hostilities in the Northwest, although peace was not 
fully restored until July 22, 1814, when a treaty was formed at Green- 
ville, under the direction of General Harrison, between the United States 
and the Indian tribes, in which it was stipulated that the Indians should 
cease hostilities against the Americans if the war were continued. Such, 
happily, was not the case, and on the 24th of December the treaty 
of Ghent was signed by the representatives of England and the United 
States. This treaty was followed the next year by treaties with various 
Indian tribes throughout the West and Northwest, and quiet was again 
restored in this part of the new world. 

On the 18th of March, 1816, Pittsburgh was incorporated as a city. 
It then had a population of 8,000 people, and was already noted for its 
manufacturing interests. On April 19, Indiana Territory was allowed 
to form a state government. At that time there were thirteen counties 
organized, containing about sixty -three thousand inhabitants. The first 
election of state officers was held in August, when Jonathan Jennings 
was chosen Governor. The officers were sworn in on November 7, and 
on December 11, the State was formally admitted into the Union. For 
some time the seat of government was at Corydon, but a more central 
location being desirable, the present capital, Indianapolis (City of Indiana), 
was laid out January 1, 1825. 


On the 28th of December the Bank of Illinois, at Shawneetown, was 
chartered, with a capital of $300,000. At this period all banks were 
under the control of the States, and were allowed to establish branches 
at different convenient points. 

Until this time Chillicothe and Cincinnati had in turn enjoyed the 
privileges of being the capital of Ohio. But the rapid settlement of the 
northern and eastern portions of the State demanded, as in Indiana, a 
more central location, and before the close of the year, the site of Col- 
umbus was selected and surveyed as the future capital of the State. 
Banking had begun in Ohio as early as 1808, when the first bank was 
chartered at Marietta, but here as elsewhere it did not bring to the state 
the hoped-for assistance. It and other banks were subsequently unable 
to redeem their currency, and were obliged to suspend. 

In 1818, Illinois was made a state, and all the territory north of her 
northern limits was erected into a separate territory and joined to Mich- 
igan for judicial purposes. By the following year, navigation of the lakes 
was increasing with great rapidity and affording an immense source of 
revenue to the dwellers in the Northwest, but it was not until 1826 that 
the trade was extended to Lake Michigan, or that steamships began to 
navigate the bosom of that inland sea. 

Until the year 1832, the commencement of the Black Hawk War, 
but few hostilities were experienced with the Indians. Roads were 
opened, canals were dug, cities were built, common schools were estab- 
lished, universities were founded, many of which, especially the Michigan 
University, have achieved a world wide-reputation. The people were 
becoming wealthy. The domains of the United States had been extended, 
and had the sons of the forest been treated with honesty and justice, the 
record of many years would have been that of peace and continuous pros- 


This conflict, though confined to Illinois, is an important epoch in 
the Northwestern history, being the last war with the Indians in this part 
of the United States. 

Ma-ka T tai-me-she-kia-kiah, or Black Hawk, was born in the principal 
Sac village, about three miles from the junction of Rock River with the 
Mississippi, in the year 1767. His father's name was Py-e-sa or Pahaes ; 
his grandfather's, Na-na-ma-kee, or the Thunderer. Black Hawk early 
distinguished himself as a warrior, and at the age of fifteen was permitted 
to paint and was ranked among the braves. About the year 1783, he 
went on an expedition against the enemies of his nation, the Osages, one 





of whom he killed and scalped, and for this deed of Indian bravery he was 
permitted to join in the scalp dance. Three or four years after he, at the 
head of two hundred braves, went on another expedition against the 
Osages, to avenge the murder of some women and children belonging to 
his own tribe. Meeting an equal number of Osage warriors, a fierce 
battle ensued, in which the latter tribe lost one-half their number. The 
Sacs lost only about nineteen warriors. He next attacked the Cherokees 
for a similar cause. In a severe battle with them, near the present City 
of St. Louis, his father was slain, and Black Hawk, taking possession of 
the " Medicine Bag," at once announced himself chief of the Sac nation. 
He had now conquered the Cherokees, and about the year 1800, at the 
head of five hundred Sacs and Foxes, and a hundred Iowas, he waged 
war against the Osage nation and subdued it. For two years he battled 
successfully with other Indian tribes, all of whom he conquered. 

Black Hawk does not at any time seem to have been friendly to 
the Americans. When on a visit to St. Louis to see his " Spanish 
Father," he declined to see any of the Americans, alleging, as a reason, 
he did not want two fathers. 

The treaty at St. Louis was consummated in 1804. The next year the 
United States Government erected a fort near the head of the Des Moines 
Rapids, called Fort Edwards. This seemed to enrage Black Hawk, who 
at once determined to capture Fort Madison, standing on the west side of 
the Mississippi above the mouth of the Des Moines River. The fort was 
garrisoned by about fifty men. Here he was defeated. The difficulties 
with the British Government arose about this time, and the War of 1812 
followed. That government, extending aid to the Western Indians, by 
giving them arms and ammunition, induced them to remain hostile to the 
Americans. In August, 1812, Black Hawk, at the head of about five 
hundred braves, started to join the British forces at Detroit, passing on 
his way the site of Chicago, where the famous Fort Dearborn Massacre 
h:.' 1 a few days before occurred. Of his connection with the British 
<o,c . eminent but little is known. In 1813 he with his little band descended 
the Mississippi, and attacking some United States troops at Fort Howard 
was defeated. 

In the early part of 1815, the Indian tribes west of the Mississippi 
were notified that peace had been declared between the United States 
and England, and nearly all hostilities had ceased. Black Hawk did not 
sign any treaty, however, until May of the following year. He then recog- 
nized the validity of the treaty at St. Louis in 1804. From the time of 
signing this treaty in 1816, until the breaking out of the war in 1832, he 
and his band passed their time in the common pursuits of Indian life. 

Ten years before the commencement of this war, the Sac and Fox 


Indians were urged to join the Iowas on the west bank of the Father of 
Waters. All were agreed, save the band known as the British Band, of 
which Black Hawk was leader. He strenuously objected to the removal, 
and was induced to comply only after being threatened with the power of 
the Government. This and various actions on the part of the white set- 
tlers provoked Black Hawk and his band to attempt the capture of his 
native village now occupied by the whites. The war followed. He and 
his actions were undoubtedly misunderstood, and had his wishes been 
acquiesced in at the beginning of the struggle, much bloodshed would 
have been prevented. 

Black Hawk was chief now of the Sac and Fox nations, and a noted 
warrior. He and his tribe inhabited a village on Rock River, nearly three 
miles above its confluence with the Mississippi, where the tribe had lived 
many generations. When that portion of Illinois was reserved to them, 
they remained in peaceable possession of their reservation, spending their 
time in the enjoyment of Indian life. The fine situation of their village 
and the quality of their lands incited the more lawless white settlers, who 
from time to time began to encroach upon the red men's domain. From 
one pretext to another, and from one step to another, the crafty white 
men gained a foothold, until through whisky and artifice they obtained 
deeds from many of the Indians for their possessions. The Indians were 
finally induced to cross over the Father of Waters and locate among the 
Iowas. Black Hawk was strenuously opposed to all this, but as the 
authorities of Illinois and the United States thought this the best move, he 
was forced to comply. Moreover other tribes joined the whites and urged 
the removal. Black Hawk would not agree to the terms of the treaty 
made with his nation for their lands, and as soon as the military, called to 
enforce his removal, had retired, he returned to the Illinois side of the 
river. A large force was at once raised and marched against him. On 
the evening of May 14, 1832, the first engagement occurred between a 
band from this army and Black Hawk's band, in which the former were 

This attack and its result aroused the whites. A large force of men 
was raised, and Gen. Scott hastened from the seaboard, by way of the 
lakes, with United States troops and artillery to aid in the subjugation of 
the Indians. On the 24th of June, Black Hawk, with 200 warriors, was 
repulsed by Major Demont between Rock River and Galena. The Ameri- 
can army continued to move up Rock River toward the main body of 
the Indians, and on the 21st of July came upon Black Hawk and his band, 
and defeated them near the Blue Mounds. 

Before this action, Gen. Henry, in command, sent word to the main 
army by whom he was immediately rejoined, and the whole crossed the 


Wisconsin in pursuit of Black Hawk and his band who were fleeing to the 
Mississippi. The} r were overtaken on the 2d of August, and in the battle 
which followed the power of the Indian chief was completely broken. He 
fled, but was seized by the Winnebagoes and delivered to the whites. 

On the 21st of September, 1832, Gen. Scott and Gov. Reynolds con- 
cluded a treaty with the Winnebagoes, Sacs and Foxes by which they 
ceded to the United States a vast tract of country, and agreed to remain 
peaceable with the whites. For the faithful performance of the provi- 
sions of this treaty on the part of the Indians, it was stipulated that 
Black Hawk, his two sons, the prophet Wabokieshiek, and six other chiefs 
of the hostile bands should be retained as hostages during the pleasure 
of the President. They were confined at Fort Barracks and put in irons. 

The next Spring, by order of the Secretary of War, they were taken 
to Washington. From there they were removed to Fortress Monroe, 
"there to remain until the conduct of their nation was such as to justify 
their being set at liberty." They were retained here until the 4th of 
June, when the authorities directed them to be taken to the principal 
cities so that they might see the folly of contending against the white 
people. Everywhere they were observed by thousands, the name of the 
old chief being extensively known. By the middle of August they 
reached Fort Armstrong on Rock Island, where Black Hawk was soon 
after released to go to his countrymen. As he passed the site of his birth- 
place, now the home of the white man, he was deeply moved. His village 
where he was born, where he had so happily lived, and where he had 
hoped to die, was now another's dwelling place, and he was a wanderer. 

On the next da}' after his release, he went at once to his tribe and 
his lodge, His wife was yet living, and with her he passed the remainder 
of his days. To his credit it may be said that Black Hawk always re- 
mained true to his wife, and served her with a devotion uncommon among 
the Indians, living with her upward of forty years. 

Black Hawk now passed his time hunting and fishing. A deep mel- 
ancholy had settled over him from which he could not be freed. At all 
times when he visited the whites he was received with marked atten- 
tion. He was an honored guest at the old settlers' reunion in Lee County, 
Illinois, at some of their meetings, and received many tokens of esteem. 
In September, 1838, while on his way to Rock Island to receive his 
annuity from the Government, he contracted a severe cold which resulted 
in a fatal attack of bilious fever which terminated his life on October 3. 
His faithful wife, who was devotedly attached to him, mourned deeply 
during his sickness. After his death he was dressed in the uniform pre- 
sented to him by the President while in Washington. He was buried in 
a grave six feet in depth, situated upon a beautiful eminence. " The 


body was placed in the middle of the grave, in a sitting posture, upon a 
seat constructed for the purpose. On his left side, the cane, given him 
by Henry Clay, was placed upright, with his right hand resting upon it. 
Many of the old warrior's trophies were placed in the grave, and some 
Indian garments, together with his favorite weapons.'" 

No sooner was the Black Hawk war concluded than settlers began 
rapidly to pour into the northern parts of Illinois, and into Wisconsin, 
now free from Indian depredations. Chicago, from a trading post, had 
grown to a commercial center, and was rapidly coming into prominence. 
In 1835, the formation of a State Government in Michigan was discussed, 
but did not take active form until two years later, when the State became 
a part of the Federal Union. 

The main attraction to that portion of the Northwest lying west of 
Lake Michigan, now included in the State of Wisconsin, was its alluvial 
wealth. Copper ore was found about Lake Superior. For some time this 
region was attached to Michigan for judiciary purposes, but in 183(5 was 
made a territory, then including Minnesota and Iowa. The latter State 
was detached two years later. In 1848, Wisconsin was admitted as a 
State, Madison being made the capital. We have now traced the various 
divisions of the Northwest Territory (save a little in Minnesota) from 
the time it was a unit comprising this vast territory, until circumstance?, 
compelled its present division. 




Preceding chapters have brought us to the close of the Black Hawk 
war, and we now turn to the contemplation of the growth and prosperity 
of the Northwest under the smile of peace and the blessings of our civili- 
zation. The pioneers of this region date events back to the deep snow 


of 1831, no one arriving here since that date taking first honors. The 
inciting cause of the immigration which overflowed the prairies early in 
the '30s was the reports of the marvelous beauty and fertility of the 
region distributed through the East by those who had participated in the 
Black Hawk campaign with Gen. Scott. Chicago and Milwaukee then 
had a few hundred inhabitants, and Gurdon S. Hubbard's trail from the 
former city to Kaskaskia led almost through a wilderness. Vegetables 
and clothing were largely distributed through the regions adjoining the 



lakes by steamers from the Ohio towns. There are men now living in 
Illinois who came to the state when barely an acre was in cultivation, 
and a man now prominent in the business circles of Chicago looked over 
the swampy, cheerless site of that metropolis in 1818 and went south 
ward into civilization. Emigrants from Pennsylvania in 1880 left behind 


them but one small railway in the coal regions, thirty miles in length, 
and made their way to the Northwest mostly with ox teams, finding in 
Northern Illinois petty settlements scores of miles apart, although the 
southern portion of the state was fairly dotted with farms. The 
water courses of the lakes and rivers furnished transportation to the 
second great army of immigrants, and about 1850 railroads were 
pushed to that extent that, the crisis of 1837 was precipitated upon us, 



from the effects of which the Western country had not fully recovered 
at the outbreak of the war. Hostilities found the colonists of the prairies 
fully alive to the demands of the occasion, and the honor of recruiting 








the vast armies of the Union fell largely to Gov. Yates, of Illinois, and 
Gov. Morton, of Indiana. To recount the share of the glories of the 
campaign won by our Western troops is a needless task, except to 
mention the fact that Illinois gave to the nation the President who saved 



it, and sent out at the head of one of its regiments tne general who led 
'ts armies to the final victory at Appomattox. The struggle, on the 


whole, had a marked effect for the better on the new Northwest, gi dng 
it an impetus which twenty years of peace would not have produced. 
In a large degree this prosperity was an inflated one, and with the rest 
of the Union we have since been compelled to atone therefor by four 


years of depression of values, of scarcity of employment, and loss of 
fortune. To a less degree, however, than the manufacturing - or mining 
regions has the West suffered during the prolonged panic now so near its 
end. Agriculture, still the leading feature in our industries, has been 
quite prosperous through all these dark years, and the farmers have 
cleared away many incumbrances resting over them from the period of 
fictitious values. The population has steadily increased, the arts and 
sciences are gaining a stronger foothold, the trade area of the region is 
becoming daily more extended, and we have been largely exempt from 
the financial calamities which have nearly wrecked communities on the 
seaboard dependent wholly on foreign commerce or domestic manufacture. 

At the present period there are no great schemes broached for the 
Northwest, no propositions for government subsidies or national works 
of improvement, but the capital of the world is attracted hither for the 
purchase of our products or the expansion of our capacity for serving the 
nation at large. Anew era is dawning as to transportation, and we bid 
fair to deal almost exclusively with the increasing and expanding lines 
of steel rail running through every few miles of territory on the prairies. 
The lake marine will no doubt continue to be useful in the warmer 
season, and to serve as a regulator of freight rates; but experienced 
navigators forecast the decay of the system in moving to the seaboard 
the enormous crops of the West. Within the past five years it has 
become quite common to see direct shipments to Europe and the West 
Indies going through from the second-class towns along the Mississippi 
and Missouri. 

As to popular education, the standard has of late risen very greatly, 
and our schools would be creditable to any section of the Union. 

More and more as the events of the war pass into obscurity will the 
fate of the Northwest be linked with that of the Southwest, and the 
next Congressional apportionment will give the valley of the Mississippi 
absolute control of the legislation of the nation, and do much toward 
securing the removal of the Federal capitol to some more central location. 

Our public men continue to wield the full share of influence pertain- 
ing to their rank in the national autonomy, and seem not to forget that 
for the past sixteen years they and their constituents have dictated the 
principles which should govern the country. 

In a work like this, destined to lie on the shelves of the library for 
generations, and not doomed to daily destruction like a newspaper, one 
can not indulge in the same glowing predictions, the sanguine statements 
of actualities that fill the columns of ephemeral publications. Time may 
bring grief to the pet projects of a writer, and explode castles erected on 
a pedestal of facts. Yet there are unmistakable indications before us of 


the same radical change in our great Northwest which characterizes its 
history for the past thirty years. Our domain has a sort of natural 
geographical border, save where it melts away to the southward in the 
cattle raising districts of the southwest. 

Our prime interest will for some years doubtless be the growth of 
the food of the world, in which branch it has already outstripped all 
competitors, and our great rival in this duty will naturally be the fertile 
plains of Kansas, Nebraska and Colorado, to say nothing of the new 
empire so rapidly growing up in Texas. Over these regions there is a 
continued progress in agriculture and in railway building, and we must 
look to our laurels. Intelligent observers of events are fully aware of 
the strides made in the way of shipments of fresh meats to Europe, 
many of these ocean cargoes being actually slaughtered in the West and 
transported on ice to the wharves of the seaboard cities. That this new 
enterprise will continue there is no reason to doubt. There are in 
Chicago several factories for the canning of prepared meats for European 
consumption, and the orders for this class of goods are already immense. 
English capital is becoming daily more and more dissatisfied with railway 
loans and investments, and is gradually seeking mammoth outlays in 
lands and live stock. The stock yards in Chicago, Indianapolis and East 
St. Louis are yearly increasing their facilities, and their plant steadily 
grows more valuable. Importations of blooded animals from the pro- 
gressive countries of Europe are destined to greatly improve the quality 
of our beef and mutton. Nowhere is there to be seen a more enticing- 
display in this line than at our state and county fairs, and the interest 
in the matter is on the increase. 

To attempt to give statistics of our grain production for 1877 would 
be useless, so far have we surpassed ourselves in the quantity and 
quality of our product. We are too liable to forget that we are giving 
the world its first article of necessity — its food supply. An opportunity 
to learn this fact so it never can be forgotten was afforded at Chicago at 
the outbreak of the great panic of 1873, when Canadian purchasers, 
fearing the prostration of business might bring about an anarchical condition 
of affairs, went to that city with coin in bulk and foreign drafts to secure 
their supplies in their own currency at first hands. It may be justly 
claimed by the agricultural community that their combined efforts gave 
the nation its first impetus toward a restoration of its crippled industries, 
and their labor brought the gold premium to a lower depth than the 
government was able to reach by its most intense efforts of legislation 
and compulsion. The hundreds of millions about to be disbursed for 
farm products have already, by the anticipation common to all commercial 


nations, set the wheels in motion, and will relieve us from the perils so 
long shadowing our efforts to return to a healthy tone. 

Manufacturing has attained in the chief cities a foothold which bids 
fair to render the Northwest independent of the outside world. Neaiiy 


our whole region has a distribution of coal measures which will in time 
support the manufactures necessary to our comfort and prosperity. As 
to transportation, the chief factor in the production of all articles exce]^ 
food, no section is so magnificently endowed, and our facilities are yearly 
increasing beyond those of any other region. 


The period from a central point of the war to the outbreak of the 
panic was marked by a tremendous growth in our railway lines, but the 
depression of the times caused almost a total suspension of operations. 
Now that prosperity is returning to our stricken country we witness its 
anticipation by the railroad interest in a series of projects, extensions, 
and leases which bid fair to largely increase our transportation facilities. 
The process of foreclosure and sale of incumbered lines is another matter 
to be considered. In the case of the Illinois Central road, which formerly 
transferred to other lines at Cairo the vast burden of freight destined for 
the Gulf region, we now see the incorporation of the tracks connecting 
through to New Orleans, every mile co-operating in turning toward the 
northwestern metropolis the weight of the inter-state commerce of a 
thousand miles or more of fertile plantations. Three competing routes 
to Texas have established in Chicago their general freight and passenger 
agencies. Four or five lines compete for all Pacific freights to a point as 
as far as the interior of Nebraska. Half a dozen or more splendid bridge 
structures have been thrown across the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers by 
the railways. The Chicago and Northwestern line has become an aggre- 
gation of over two thousand miles of rail, and the Chicago, Milwaukee 
and St. Paul is its close rival in extent and importance. The three lines 
running to Cairo via Vincennes form a through route for all traffic with 
the states to the southward. The chief projects now under discussion 
are the Chicago and Atlantic, which is to unite with lines now built to 
Charleston, and the Chicago and Canada Southern, which line will con- 
nect with all the various branches of that Canadian enterprise. Our 
latest new road is the Chicago and Lake Huron, formed of three lines, 
and entering the city from Valparaiso on the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne 
and Chicago track. The trunk lines being mainly in operation, the 
progress made in the way of shortening tracks, making air-line branches, 
and running extensions does not show to the advantage it deserves, as 
this process is constantly adding new facilities to the established order 
of things. The panic reduced the price of steel to a point where the 
railways could hardly afford to use iron rails, and all our northwestern 
lines report large relays of Bessemer track. The immense crops now 
being moved have given a great rise to the value of railway stocks, and 
their transportation must result in heavy pecuniary advantages. 

Few are aware of the importance of the wholesale and jobbing trade 
of Chicago. One leading firm has since the panic sold $24,000,000 of 
dry goods in one year, and they now expect most confidently to add 
seventy per cent, to the figures of their last year's business. In boots 
and shoes and in clothing, twenty or more great firms from the east have 
placed here their distributing agents or their factories ; and in groceries 



Chicago supplies the entire Northwest at rates presenting advantages 
over New York. 

Chicago has stepped in between New York and the rural banks as a 
financial center, and scarcely a banking institution in the grain or cattle 
regions but keeps its reserve funds in the vaults of our commercial insti- 
tutions. Accumulating here throughout the spring and summer months, 
they are summoned home at pleasure to move the products of the 
prairies. This process greatly strengthens the northwest in its financial 
operations, leaving home capital to supplement local operations on 
behalf of home interests. 

It is impossible to forecast the destiny of this grand and growing 
section of the Union. Figures and predictions made at this date might 
seem ten years hence so ludicrously small as to excite only derision. 


Early History of Illinois. 

The name of this beautiful Prairie State is derived from Illini, a 
Delaware word signifying Superior Men. It has a French termination, 
and is a symbol of how the two races — the French and the Indians — 
were intermixed during the early history of the country. 

The appellation was no doubt well applied to the primitive inhabit- 
ants of the soil whose prowess in savage warfare long withstood the 
combined attacks of the fierce Iroquois on the one side, and the no less 
savage and relentless Sacs and Foxes on the other. The Illinois were 
once a powerful confederacy, occupying the most beautiful and fertile 
region in the great Valley of the Mississippi, which their enemies coveted 
and struggled long and hard to wrest from them. By the fortunes of 
war they were diminished in numbers, and finally destroyed. " Starved 
Rock," on the Illinois River, according to tradition, commemorates their 
last tragedy, where, it is said, the entire tribe starved rather than sur- 


The first European discoveries in Illinois date back over two hun- 
dred years. They are a part of that movement which, from the begin- 
ning to the middle of the seventeenth century, brought the French 
Canadian missionaries and fur traders into the Valley of the Mississippi, 
and which, at a later period, established the civil and ecclesiastical 
authority of France from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico, 
and from the foot-hills of the Alleghanies to the Rocky Mountains. 

The great river of the West had been discovered by DeSoto, the 
Spanish conqueror of Florida, three quarters of a century before the 
French founded Quebec in 1608, but the Spanish left the country a wil- 
derness, without further exploration or settlement within its borders, in 
which condition it remained until the Mississippi was discovered by the 
agents of the French Canadian government, Jolietand Marquette, in 1673. 
These renowned explorers were not the first white visitors to Illinois. 
In 1671 — two years in advance of them — came Nicholas Perrot to Chicago. 
He had been sent by Talon as an agent of the Canadian government tc 





call a great peace convention of Western Indians at Green Bay, prepara- 
tory to the movement for the discovery of the Mississippi. It was 
deemed a good stroke of policy to secure, as far as possible, the friend- 
ship and co-operation of the Indians, far and near, before venturing upon 
an enterprise which their hostility might render disastrous, and which 
their friendship and assistance would do so much to make successful ; 
and to this end Perrot was sent to call together in council the tribes 
throughout the Northwest, and to promise them the commerce and pro- 
tection of the French government. He accordingly arrived at Green 
Bay in 1671, and procuring an escort of Pottawattamies, proceeded in a 
bark canoe upon a visit to the Miamis, at Chicago. Perrot was there- 
fore the first European to set foot upon the soil of Illinois. 

Still there were others before Marquette. In 1672, the Jesuit mis- 
sionaries, Fathers Claude Allouez and Claude Dablon, bore the standard 
of the Cross from their mission at Green Bay through western Wisconsin 
and northern Illinois, visiting the Foxes on Fox River, and the Masquo- 
tines and Kickapoos at the mouth of the Milwaukee. These missionaries 
penetrated on the route afterwards followed by Marquette as far as the 
Kickapoo village at the head of Lake Winnebago, where Marquette, in 
his journey, secured guides across the portage to the Wisconsin. 

The oft-repeated story of Marquette and Joliet is well known. 
They were the agents employed by the Canadian government to discover 
the Mississippi. Marquette was a native of France, born in 1637, a 
Jesuit priest by education, and a man of simple faith and of great zeal and 
devotion in extending the Roman Catholic religion among the Indians. 
Arriving in Canada in 1666, he was sent as a missionary to the far 
Northwest, and, in 1668, founded a mission at Sault Ste. Marie. The 
following year he moved to La Pointe, in Lake Superior, where he 
instructed a branch of the Hurons till 1670, when he removed south, and 
founded the mission at St. Ignace, on the Straits of Mackinaw. Here 
he remained, devoting a portion of his time to the study of the Illinois 
language under a native teacher who had accompanied him to the mission 
from La Pointe, till he was joined by Joliet in the Spring of 1673. By 
the way of Green Bay and the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers, they entered 
the Mississippi, which they explored to the mouth of the Arkansas, and 
returned by the way of the Illinois and Chicago Rivers to Lake Michigan. 

On his way up the Illinois, Marquette visited the great village of 
the Kaskaskias, near what is now Utica, in the county of LaSalle. The 
following year he returned and established among them the mission of 
the Immaculate Virgin Mary, which was the first Jesuit mission founded 
in Illinois and in the Mississippi Valley. The intervening winter he 
had spent in a hut which his companions erected on the Chicago River, a 
few leagues from its mouth. The founding of this mission was the last 


act of Marquette's life. He died in Michigan, on his way back to Green 
Bay, May 18, 1675. 


The first French occupation of the territory now embraced in Illi- 
nois was effected by LaSalle in 1680, seven years after the time of Mar- 
quette and Joliet. LaSalle, having constructed a vessel, the " Griffin," 
above the falls of Niagara, which he sailed to Green Bay, and having 
passed thence in canoes to the mouth of the St. Joseph River, by which 
and the Kankakee he reached the Illinois, in January, 1680, erected Fort 
Crevecceur, at the lower end of Peoria Lake, where the city of Peoria is 
now situated. The place where this ancient fort stood may still be seen 
just below the outlet of Peoria Lake. It was destined, however, to a 
temporary existence. From this point, LaSalle determined to descend 
the Mississippi to its mouth, but did not accomplish this purpose till two 
years later — in 1682. Returning to Fort Frontenac for the purpose of 
getting materials with which to rig his vessel, he left the fort in charge of 
Touti, his lieutenant, who during his absence was driven off by the Iro- 
quois Indians. These savages had made a raid upon the settlement of 
the Illinois, and had left nothing in their track but ruin and desolation. 
Mr. Davidson, in his History of Illinois, gives the following graphic 
account of the picture that met the eyes of LaSalle and his companions 
on their return : 

" At the great town of the Illinois they were appalled at the scene 
which opened to their view. No hunter appeared to break its death-like 
silence with a salutatory whoop oi welcome. The plain on which the 
town had stood was now strewn with charred fragments of lodges, which 
had so recently swarmed with savage life and hilarity. To render more 
hideous the picture of desolation, large numbers of *skulls had been 
placed on the upper extremities of lodge-poles which had escaped the 
devouring flames. In the midst of these horrors was the rude fort of 
the spoilers, rendered frightful by the same ghastly relics. A near 
approach showed that the graves had been robbed of their bodies, and 
swarms of buzzards were discovered glutting their loathsome stomachs 
on the reeking corruption. To complete the work of destruction, the 
growing corn of the village had been cut down and burned, while the 
pits containing the products of previous years, had been rifled and their 
contents scattered with wanton waste. It was evident the suspected 
blow of the Iroquois had fallen with relentless fury." 

Tonti had escaped LaSalle knew not whither. Passing down the 
lake in search of him and his men, LaSalle discovered that the fort had 
been destroyed, but the vessel which he had partly constructed was still 


on the stocks, and but slightly injured. After further fruitless search, 
failing to find Tonti, he fastened to a tree a painting representing himself 
and party sitting in a canoe and bearing a pipe of peace, and to the paint- 
ing attached a letter addressed to Tonti. 

Tonti had escaped, and, after untold privations, taken shelter among 
the Pottawattamies near Green Bay. These were friendly to the French. 
One of their old chiefs used to say, " There were but three great cap- 
tains in the world, himself, Tonti and LaSalle." 


We must now return to LaSalle, whose exploits stand out in such 
bold relief. He was born in Rouen, France, in 1643. His father was 
wealthy, but he renounced his patrimony on entering a college of the 
Jesuits, from which he separated and came to Canada a poor man in 1666. 
The priests of St. Sulpice, among whom he had a brother, were then the 
proprietors of Montreal, the nucleus of which was a seminary or con- 
vent founded by that order. The Superior granted to LaSalle a large 
tract of land at LaChine, where he established himself in the fur trade. 
He was a man of daring genius, and outstripped all his competitors in 
exploits of travel and commerce with the Indians. In 1669, he visited 
the headquarters of the great Iroquois Confederacy, at Onondaga, in the 
heart of New York, and, obtaining guides, explored the Ohio River to 
the falls at Louisville. 

In order to understand the genius of LaSalle, it must be remembered 
that for many years prior to his time the missionaries and traders were 
obliged to make their way to the Northwest by the Ottawa River (of 
Canada) on account of the fierce hostility of the Iroquois along the lower 
lakes and Niagara River, which entirely closed this latter route to the 
Upper Lakes. They carried on their commerce chiefly by canoes, pad- 
dling them through the Ottawa to Lake Nipissing, carrying them across 
the portage to French River, and descending that to Lake Huron. This 
being the route by which they reached the Northwest, accounts for the 
fact that all the earliest Jesuit missions were established in the neighbor- 
hood of the Upper Lakes. LaSalle conceived the grand idea of opening 
the route by Niagara River and the Lower Lakes to Canadian commerce 
by sail vessels, connecting it with the navigation of the Mississippi, and 
thus opening a magnificent water communication from the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico. This truly grand and comprehensive 
purpose seems to have animated him in all his wonderful achievements 
and the matchless difficulties and hardships he surmounted. As the first 
step in the accomplishment of this object he established himself on Lake 
Ontario, and built and garrisoned Fort Frontenac, the site of the present 


city of Kingston, Canada. Here he obtained a grant of land from the 
French crown and a body of troops by which he beat back the invading 
Iroquois and cleared the passage to Niagara Falls. Having by this mas- 
terly stroke made it safe to attempt a hitherto untried expedition, his 
next step, as we have seen, was to advance to the Falls with all his 
outfit for building a ship with which to sail the lakes. He was success- 
ful in this undertaking, though his ultimate purpose was defeated by a 
strange combination of untoward circumstances. The Jesuits evidently 
hated LaSalle and plotted against him, because he had abandoned them 
and co-operated with a rival order. The fur traders were also jealous of 
his superior success in opening new channels of commerce. At LaChine 
he had taken the trade of Lake Ontario, which but for his presence there 
would have gone to Quebec. While they were plodding with their bar& 
canoes through the Ottawa he was constructing sailing vessels to com- 
mand the trade of the lakes and the Mississippi. These great plans 
excited the jealousy and envy of the small traders, introduced treason and 
revolt into the ranks of his own companions, and finally led to the foul 
assassination by which his great achievements were prematurely ended. 

In 1682, LaSalle, having completed his vessel at Peoria, descended 
the Mississippi to its confluence with the Gulf of Mexico. Erecting a 
standard on which he inscribed the arms of France, he took formal pos- 
session of the whole valley of the mighty river, in the name of Louis 
.XIV., then reigning, in honor of whom he named the country Louisiana. 

LaSalle then went to France, was appointed Governor, and returned 
with a fleet and immigrants, for the purpose of planting a colony in Illi- 
nois. They arrived in due time in the Gulf of Mexico, but failing to 
find the mouth of the Mississippi, up which LaSalle intended to sail, his 
supply ship, with the immigrants, was driven ashore and wrecked on 
Matagorda Bay. With the fragments of the vessel he constructed a 
stockade and rude huts on the shore for the protection of the immigrants, 
calling the post Fort St. Louis. He then made a trip into New Mexico, 
in search of silver mines, but, meeting with disappointment, returned to 
find his little colony reduced to forty souls. He then resolved to travel 
on foot to Illinois, and, starting with his companions, had reached the 
valley of the Colorado, near the mouth of Trinity river, when he was 
shot by one of his men. This occurred on the 19th of March, 1687. 

Dr. J. W. Foster remarks of him : " Thus fell, not far from the banks 
of the Trinity, Robert Cavalier de la Salle, one of the grandest charac- 
ters that ever figured in American history — a man capable of originating 
the vastest schemes, and endowed with a will and a judgment capable of 
carrying them to successful results. Had ample facilities been placed by 
the King of France at his disposal, the result of the colonization of this 
continent might have been far different from what we now behold." 



A temporary settlement was made at Fort St. Louis, or the old Kas- 
kaskia village, on the Illinois River, in what is now LaSalle County, in 
1682. In 1690, this was removed, with the mission connected with it, to 
Kaskaskia, on the river of that name, emptying into the lower Mississippi 
in St. Clair County. Cahokia was settled about the same time, or at 
least, both of these settlements began in the year 1690, though it is now 
pretty well settled that Cahokia is the older place, and ranks as the oldest 
permanent settlement in Illinois, as well as in the Mississippi Valley. 
The reason for the removal of the .old Kaskaskia settlement and mission, 
was probably because the dangerous and difficult route by Lake Michigan 
and the Chicago portage had been almost abandoned, and travelers and 
traders passed down and up the Mississippi by the Fox and Wisconsin 
River route. They removed to the vicinity of the Mississippi in order 
to be in the line of travel from Canada to Louisiana, that is, the lower 
part of it, for it was all Louisiana then south of the lakes. 

During the period of French rule in Louisiana, the population prob- 
ably never exceeded ten thousand, including whites and blacks. Within 
that portion of it now included in Indiana, trading posts were established 
at the principal Miami villages which stood on the head waters of the 
Maumee, the Wea villages situated at Ouiatenon, on the Wabash, and- 
the Piankeshaw villages at Post Vincennes ; all of which were probably 
visited by French traders and missionaries before the close of the seven- 
teenth century. 

In the vast territory claimed by the French, many settlements of 
considerable importance had sprung up. Biloxi, on Mobile Bay, had 
been founded by DTberville, in 1699 ; Antoine de Lamotte Cadillac had 
founded Detroit in 1701 ; and New Orleans had been founded by Bien- 
ville, under the auspices of the Mississippi Company, in 1718. In Illi- 
nois also, considerable settlements had been made, so that in 1730 they 
embraced one hundred and forty French families, about six hundred " con- 
verted Indians," and many traders and voyageurs. In that portion of the 
country, on the east side of the Mississippi, there were five distinct set- 
tlements, with their respective villages, viz. : Cahokia, near the mouth 
of Cahokia Creek and about five miles below the present city of St. 
Louis ; St. Philip, about forty-five miles below Cahokia, and four miles 
above Fort Chartres ; Fort Chartres, twelve miles above Kaskaskia ; 
Kaskaskia, situated on the Kaskaskia River, five miles above its conflu- 
ence with the Mississippi ; and Prairie dn Rocher, near Fort Chartres. 
To these must be added St. Genevieve and St. Louis, on the west side 
of the Mississippi. These, with the exception of St. Louis, are among 


the oldest French towns in the Mississippi Valley. Kaskaskia, in its best 
days, was a town of some two or three thousand inhabitants. After it 
passed from the crown of France its population for many years did not 
exceed fifteen hundred. Under British rule, in 1773, the population had 
decreased to four hundred and fifty. As early as 1721, the Jesuits had 
established a college and a monastery in Kaskaskia. 

Fort Chartres was first built under the direction of the Mississippi 
Company, in 1718, by M. de Boisbraint, a military officer, under command 
of Bienville. It stood on the east bank of the Mississippi, about eighteen 
miles below Kaskaskia, and was for some time the headquarters of the 
military commandants of the district of Illinois. 

In the Centennial Oration of Dr. Fowler, delivered at Philadelphia, 
by appointment of Gov. Beveridge, we find some interesting facts with 
regard to the State of Illinois, which we appropriate in this history: 

In 1682 Illin6is became a possession of the French crown, a depend- 
ency of Canada, and a part of Louisiana. In 1765 the English flag was 
run up on old Fort Chartres, and Illinois was counted among the treas- 
ures of Great Britain. 

In 1779 it was taken from the English by Col. George Rogers Clark. 
This man was resolute in nature, wise in council, prudent in policy, bold 
in action, and heroic in danger. Few men who have figured in the his- 
tory of America are more deserving than this colonel. Nothing short of 
first-class ability could have rescued Vincens and all Illinois from the 
English. And it is not possible to over-estimate the influence of this 
achievement upon the republic. In 1779 Illinois became a part of Vir- 
ginia. It was soon known as Illinois County. In 1784 Virginia ceded 
all this territory to the general government, to be cut into States, to be 
republican in form, with " the same right of sovereignty, freedom, and 
independence as the other States." 

In 1787 it was the object of the wisest and ablest legislation found 
in any merely human records. No man can study the secret history of 


and not feel that Providence was guiding with sleepless eye these unborn 
States. The ordinance that on July 13, 1787, finally became the incor- 
porating act, has a most marvelous history. Jefferson had vainly tried 
to secure a system of government for the northwestern territory. He 
was an emancipationist of that day, and favored the exclusion of slavery 
from the territory Virginia had ceded to the general government ; but 
the South voted him down as often as it came up. In 1787, as late as 
July 10, an organizing act without the anti-slavery clause was pending. 
This concession to the South was expected to carry it. Congress was in 


session in New York City. On July 5, Rev. Dr. Manasseh Cutler, of 
Massachusetts, came into New York to lobby on the northwestern terri- 
tory. Everything seemed to fall into his hands. Events were ripe. 

The state of the public credit, the growing of Southern prejudice, 
the basis of his mission, his personal character, all combined to complete 
one of those sudden and marvelous revolutions of public sentiment that 
once in five or ten centuries are seen to sweep over a country like the 
breath of the Almighty. Cutler was a graduate of Yale — received his 
A.M. from Harvard, and his D.D. from Yale. He had studied and taken 
degrees in the three learned professions, medicine, law, and divinity. He 
had thus America's best indorsement. He had published a scientific 
examination of the plants of New England. His name stood second only 
to that of Franklin as a scientist in America. He was a courtly gentle- 
man of the old style, a man of commanding presence, and of inviting 
face. The Southern members said they had never seen such a gentleman 
in the North. He came representing a company that desired to purchase 
a tract of land now included in Ohio, for the purpose of planting a colony. 
It was a speculation. Government money was worth eighteen cents on 
the dollar. This Massachusetts company had collected enough to pur- 
chase 1,500,000 acres of land. Other speculators in New York made 
Dr. Cutler their agent (lobbyist). On the 12th he represented a demand 
for 5,500,000 acres. This would reduce the national debt. Jefferson 
and Virginia were regarded as authority concerning the land Virginia 
had just ceded. Jefferson's policy wanted to provide for the public credit, 
and this was a good opportunity to do something. 

Massachusetts then owned the territory of Maine, which she was 
crowding on the market. She was opposed to opening the northwestern 
region. This fired the zeal of Virginia. The South caught the inspira- 
tion, and all exalted Dr. Cutler. The English minister invited him to 
dine with some of the Southern gentlemen. He was the center of interest. 

The entire South rallied round him. Massachusetts could not vote 
against him, because many of the constituents of her members were 
interested personally in the western speculation. Thus Cutler, making 
friends with the South, and, doubtless, using all the arts of the lobby, 
was enabled to command the situation. True to deeper convictions, he 
dictated one of the most compact and finished documents of wise states- 
manship that has ever adorned any human law book. He borrowed from 
Jefferson the term " Articles of Compact," which, preceding the federal 
constitution, rose into the most sacred character. He then followed very 
closely the constitution of Massachusetts, adopted three years before. 
Its most marked points were : 

1. The exclusion of slavery from the territory forever. 

2. Provision for public schools, giving one township for a seminary, 


and every section numbered 16 in each township ; that is, one-thirty-sixth 
of all the land, for public schools. 

3. A provision prohibiting the adoption of any constitution or the 
enactment of any law that should nullify pre-existing contracts. 

Be it forever remembered that this compact declared that " Religion, 
morality, and knowledge being necessary to good government and the 
happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall always 
be encouraged." 

Dr. Cutler planted himself on this platform and would not yield. 
Giving his unqualified declaration that it was that or nothing — that unless 
they could make the land desirable they did not want it — he took his 
horse and buggy, and started for the constitutional convention in Phila- 
delphia. On July 13, 1787, the bill was put upon its passage, and was 
unanimously adopted, every Southern member voting for it, and only one 
man, Mr. Yates, of New York, voting against it. But as the States voted 
as States, Yates lost his vote, and the compact was put beyond repeal. 

Thus the great States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wis- 
consin — a vast empire, the heart of the great valley — were consecrated 
to freedom, intelligence, and honesty. Thus the great heart of the nation 
was prepared for a year and a day and an hour. In the light of these eighty- 
nine years I affirm that this act was the salvation of the republic and the 
destruction of slavery. Soon the South saw their great blunder, and 
tried to repeal the compact. In 1803 Congress referred it to a committee 
of which John Randolph was chairman. He reported that this ordinance 
was a compact, and opposed repeal. Thus it stood a rock, in the way 
of the on-rushing sea of slavery. 

With all this timely aid it was, after all, a most desperate and pro- 
tracted struggle to keep the soil of Illinois sacred to freedom. It was 
the natural battle-field for the irrepressible conflict. In the southern end 
of the State slavery preceded the compact. It existed among the old 
French settlers, and was hard to eradicate. The southern part of the 
State was settled from the slave States, and this population brought their 
laws, customs, and institutions with them. A stream of population from 
the North poured into the northern part of the State. These sections 
misunderstood and hated each other perfectly. The Southerners regarded 
the Yankees as a skinning, tricky, penurious race of peddlers, filling the 
country with tinware, brass clocks, and wooden nutmegs. The North- 
erner thought of the Southerner as a lean, lank, lazy creature, burrowing 
in a hut, and rioting in whisky, dirt and ignorance. These causes aided 
in making the struggle long and bitter. So strong was the sympathy 
with slavery that, in spite of the ordinance of 1787, and in spite of the 
deed of cession, it was determined to allow the old French settlers to 
retain their slaves. Planters from the slave States might bring their 


slaves, if they would give them a chance to choose freedom or years 
of service and bondage for their children till they should become 
thirty years of age. If they chose freedom they must leave the State 
in sixty days or be sold as fugitives. Servants were whipped for offenses 
for which white men are fined. Each lash paid forty cents of the fine. A 
negro ten miles from home without a pass was whipped. These famous 
laws were imported from the slave States just as they imported laws foi 
the inspection of flax and wool when there was neither in the State. 

These Black Laws are now wiped out. A vigorous effort was made 
to protect slavery in the State Constitution of 1817. It barely failed. 
It was renewed in 1825, when a convention was asked to make a new 
constitution. After a hard fight the convention was defeated. But 
slaves did not disappear from the census of the State until 1850. There 
were mobs and murders in the interest of slavery. Lovejoy was added 
to the list of martyrs — a sort of first-fruits of that long life of immortal 
heroes who saw freedom as the one supreme desire of their souls, and 
were so enamored of her that they preferred to die rather than survive her. 

The population of 12,282 that occupied the territory in A.D. 1800, 
increased to 45,000 in A.D. 1818, when the State Constitution was 
adopted, and Illinois took her place in the Union, with a star on the flag 
and two votes in the Senate. 

Shadrach Bond was the first Governor, and in his first message he 
recommended the construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. 

The simple economy in those days is seen in the fact that the entire 
bill for stationery for the first Legislature was only $13.50. Yet this 
simple body actually enacted a very superior code. 

There was no money in the territory before the war of 1812. Deer 
skins and coon skins were the circulating medium. In 1821, the Legis- 
lature ordained a State Bank on the credit of the State. It issued notes 
in the likeness of bank bills. These notes were made a legal tender for 
every thing, and the bank was ordered to loan to the people $100 on per- 
sonal security, and more on mortgages. They actually passed a resolu- 
tion requesting the Secretary of the Treasury of the United States to 
receive these notes for land. The old French Lieutenant Governor, Col. 
Menard, put the resolution as follows: " Gentlemen of the Senate : It is 
moved and seconded dat de notes of dis bank be made land-office money. 
All in favor of dat motion say aye ; all against it say no. It is decided 
in de affirmative. Now, gentlemen, I bet you one hundred dollar he 
never be land-office money ! " Hard sense, like hard money, is always 
above par. 

This old Frenchman presents a fine figure up against the dark back- 
ground of most of his nation. They made no progress. They clung to 
their earliest and simplest implements. They never wore hats or cap* 1 


They pulled their blankets over their heads in the winter like the Indians, 
with whom they freely intermingled. 

Demagogism had an early development. One John Grammar (only 
in name), elected to the Territorial and State Legislatures of 1816 and 
1836, invented the policy of opposing every new thing, saying, " If it 
succeeds, no one will ask who voted against it. If it proves a failure, he 
could quote its record." In sharp contrast with Grammar was the char- 
acter of D. P. Cook, after whom the county containing Chicago was 
named. Such was his transparent integrity and remarkable ability that 
his will was almost the law of the State. In Congress, a young man, 
and from a poor State, he was made Chairman of the Ways and Means 
Committee. He was pre-eminent for standing by Ms committee, regard- 
less of consequences. It was his integrity that elected John Quincy 
Adams to the Presidency. There were four candidates in 1824, Jackson, 
Clay, Crawford, and John Quincy Adams. There being no choice by the 
people, the election was thrown into the House. It was so balanced that 
it turned on his vote, and that he cast for Adams, electing him ; then 
went home to face the wrath of the Jackson party in Illinois. It cost 
him all but character and greatness. It is a suggestive comment on the 
times, that there was no legal interest till 1830. It often reached 150 
per cent., usually 50 per cent. Then it was reduced to 12, and now to 
10 per cent. 


In area the State has 55,410 square miles of territory. It is about 
150 miles wide and 400 miles long, stretching in latitude from Maine to 
North Carolina. It embraces wide variety of climate. It is tempered 
on the north by the great inland, saltless, tideless sea, which keeps the 
thermometer from either extreme. Being a table land, from 600 to 1,600 
feet above the level of the sea, one is prepared to find on the health 
maps, prepared by the general government, an almost clean and perfect 
record. In freedom from fever and malarial diseases and consumptions, 
the three deadly enemies of the American Saxon, Illinois, as a State, 
stands without a superior. She furnishes one of the essential conditions 
of a great people — sound bodies. I suspect that this fact lies back of 
that old Delaware word, Illini, superior men. 

The great battles of history that have been determinative of dynas- 
ties and destinies have been strategical battles, chiefly the question of 
position. Thermopylae has been the war-cry of freemen for twenty-four 
centuries. It only tells how much there may be in position. All this 
advantage belongs to Illinois. It is in the heart of the greatest valley in 
the world, the vast region between the mountains — a valley that could 


feed mankind for one thousand years. It is well on toward the center of 
the continent. It is in the great temperate belt, in which have been 
found nearly all the aggressive civilizations of history. It has sixty-five 
miles of frontage on the head of the lake. With the Mississippi forming 
the western and southern boundary, with the Ohio running along the 
southeastern line, with the Illinois River and Canal dividing the State 
diagonally from the lake to the Lower Mississippi, and with the Rock and 
Wabash Rivers furnishing altogether 2,000 miles of water-front, con- 
necting with, and running through, in all about 12,000 miles of navi- 
gable water. 

But this is not all. These waters are made most available by the 
fact that the lake and the State lie on the ridge running into the great 
valley from the east. Within cannon-shot of the lake the water runs 
away from the lake to the Gulf. The lake now empties at both ends, 
one into the Atlantic and one into the Gulf of Mexico. The lake thus 
seems to hang over the land. This makes the dockage most serviceable ; 
there are no steep banks to damage it. Both lake and river are made 
for use. 

The climate varies from Portland to Richmond ; it favors every pro- 
duct of the continent, including the tropics, with less than half a dozen 
exceptions. It produces every great nutriment of the world except ban- 
anas and rice. It is hardly too much to say that it is the most productive 
spot known to civilization. With the soil full of bread and the earth full 
of minerals ; with an upper surface of food and an under layer of fuel ; 
with perfect natural drainage, and abundant springs and streams and 
navigable rivers ; half way between the forests of the North and the fruits 
of the South ; within a day's ride of the great deposits of iron, coal, cop- 
per, lead, and zinc ; containing and controlling the great grain, cattle, 
pork, and lumber markets of the world, it is not strange that Illinois has 
the advantage of position. 

This advantage has been supplemented by the character of the popu- 
lation. In the early days when Illinois was first admitted to the Union, 
her population were chiefly from Kentucky and Virginia. But, in the 
conflict of ideas concerning slavery, a strong tide of emigration came in 
from the East, and soon changed this composition. In 1870 her non- 
native population were from colder soils. New York furnished 133,290 ; 
Ohio gave 162,623; Pennsylvania sent on 98,352; the entire South gave 
us only 206,734. In all her cities, and in all her German and Scandina- 
vian and other foreign colognes, Illinois has only about one-fifth of her 
people of foreign birth. 



One of the greatest elements in the early development of Illinois is 
the Illinois and Michigan Canal, connecting the Illinois and Mississippi 
Rivers with the lakes. It was of the utmost importance to the State. 
It was recommended by Gov. Bond, the first governor, in his first message. 
In 1821, the Legislature appropriated $10,000 for surveying the route. 
Two bright young engineers surveyed it, and estimated the cost at 
$600,000 or $700,000. It finally cost $8,000,000. In 1825, a law was 
passed to incorporate the Canal Company, but no stock was sold. In 
1826, upon the solicitation of Cook, Congress gave 800,000 acres of land 
on the line of the work. In 1828, another law — commissioners appointed, 
and work commenced with new survey and new estimates. In 1834-35, 
George Farquhar made an able report on the whole matter. This was, 
doubtless, the ablest report ever made to a western legislature, and it 
became the model for subsequent reports and action. From this the 
work went on till it was finished in 1848. It cost the State a large 
amount of money ; but it gave to the industries of the State an impetus 
that pushed it up into the first rank of greatness. It was not built as a 
speculation any more than a doctor is employed on a speculation. But 
it has paid into the Treasary of the State an average annual net sum of 
over $111,000. 

Pending the construction of the canal, the land and town-lot fever 
broke out in the State, in 1834-35. It took on the malignant type in 
Chicago, lifting the town up into a city. The disease spread over the 
entire State and adjoining States. It was epidemic. It cut up men's 
farms without regard to locality, and cut up the purses of the purchasers 
without regard to consequences. It is estimated that building lots enough 
were sold in Indiana alone to accommodate every citizen then in the 
United States. 

Towns and cities were exported to the Eastern market by the ship- 
load. There was no lack of buyers. Every up-ship came freighted with 
speculators and their money. 

This distemper seized upon the Legislature in 1836-37, and left not 
one to tell the tale. They enacted a system of internal improvement 
without a parallel in the grandeur of its conception. They ordered the 
construction of 1,300 miles of railroad, crossing the State in all direc- 
tions. This was surpassed by the river and canal improvements. 
There were a few counties not touched by either railroad or river or 
canal, and those were to be comforted and compensated by the free dis- 
tribution of $200,000 among them. To inflate this balloon beyond cre- 
dence it was ordered that work should be commenced on both ends of 


each of these railroads and rivers, and at each river-crossing, all at the 
same time. The appropriations for these vast improvements were over 
812,000,000, and commissioners were appointed to borrow the money on 
the credit of the State. Remember that all this was in the early days of 
railroading, when railroads were luxuries ; that the State had whole 
counties with scarcely a cabin ; and that the population of the State was 
less than 400,000, and you can form some idea of the vigor with which 
these brave men undertook the work of making a great State. In the 
light of history I am compelled to say that this was only a premature 
throb of the power that actually slumbered in the soil of the State. It 
was Hercules in the cradle. 

At this juncture the State Bank loaned its funds largely to Godfrey 
Gilman & Co., and to other leading houses, for the purpose of drawing 
trade from St. Louis to Alton. Soon they failed, and took down the 
bank with them. 

In 1840, all hope seemed gone. A population of 480,000 were loaded 
with a debt of $14,000,000. It had only six small cities, really only 
towns, namely : Chicago, Alton, Springfield, Quincy, Galena, Nauvoo. 
This debt was to be cared for when there was not a dollar in the treas- 
ury, and when the State had borrowed itself out of all credit, and when 
there was not good money enough in the hands of all the people to pay 
the interest of the debt for a single year. Yet, in the presence of all 
these difficulties, the young State steadily refused to repudiate. Gov. 
Ford took hold of the problem and solved it, bringing the State through 
in triumph. 

Having touched lightly upon some of the more distinctive points in 
the history of the development of Illinois, let us next briefly consider the 


It is a garden four hundred miles long and one hundred and fifty 
miles wide. Its soil is chiefly a black sandy loam, from six inches to 
sixty feet thick. On the American bottoms it has been cultivated for 
one hundred and fifty years without renewal. About the old French 
towns it has yielded corn for a century and a half without rest or help. 
It produces nearly everything green in the temperate and tropical zones. 
She leads all other States in the number of acres actually under plow. 
Her products from 25,000,000 of acres are incalculable. Her mineral 
wealth is scarcely second to her agricultural power. She has coal, iron, 
lead, copper, zinc, many varieties of building stone, fire clay, cuma clay, 
common brick clay, sand of all kinds, gravel, mineral paint — every thing 
needed for a high civilization. Left to herself, she has the elements of 
all greatness. The single item of coal is too vast for an appreciative 


handling in figures. We can handle it in general terms like algebraical 
signs, but long before we get up into the millions and billions the human 
mind drops down from comprehension to mere symbolic apprehension. 

When I tell you that nearly four-fifths of the entire State is under- 
laid with a deposit of coal more than forty feet thick on the average (now 
estimated, by recent surveys, at seventy feet thick), you can get some 
idea of its amount, as you do of the amount of the national debt. There 
it is ! 41,000 square miles — one vast mine into which you could put 
any of the States ; in which you could bury scores of European and 
ancient empires, and have room enough all round to work without know- 
ing that they had been sepulchered there. 

Put this vast coal-bed down by the other great coal deposits of the 
world, and its importance becomes manifest. Great Britain has 12,000 
square miles of coal; Spain, 3,000; France, 1,719; Belgium, 578; Illinois 
about twice as many square miles as all combined. Virginia has 20,000 
square miles ; Pennsylvania, 16,000 ; Ohio, 12,000. Illinois has 41,000 
square miles. One-seventh of all the known coal on this continent is in 

Could we sell the coal in this single State for one-seventh of one cent 
a ton it would pay the national debt. Converted into power, even with 
the wastage in our common engines, it would do more work than could 
be done by the entire race, beginning at Adam's wedding and working 
ten hours a day through all the centuries till the present time, and right 
on into the future at the same rate for the next 600,000 years. 

Great Britain uses enough mechanical power to-day to give to each 
man, woman, and child in the kingdom the help and service of nineteen 
untiring servants. No wonder she has leisure and luxuries. No wonder 
the home of the common artisan has in it more luxuries than could be 
found in the palace of good old King Arthur. Think, if you can conceive 
of it, of the vast army of servants that slumber in the soil of Illinois, 
impatiently awaiting the call of Genius to come forth to minister to our 

At. the present rate of consumption England's coal supply will be 
exhausted in 250 years. When this is gone she must transfer her dominion 
either to the Indies, or to British America, which I would not resist ; or 
to some other people, which I would regret as a loss to civilization. 


At the same rate of consumption (which far exceeds our own) the 
deposit of coal in Illinois will last 120,000 years. And her kingdom shall 
be an everlasting kingdom. 

Let us turn now from this reserve power to the annual products of 


the State. We shall not be humiliated in this field. Here we strike the 
secret of our national credit. Nature provides a market in the constant 
appetite of the race. Men must eat, and if we can furnish the provisions 
we can command the treasure. All that a man hath will he give for his 


According to the last census Illinois produced 30,000,000 of bushels 
of wheat. That is more wheat than was raised by any other State in the 
Union. She raised In 1875, 130,000,000 of bushels of corn — twice as 
much as any other State, and one-sixth of all the corn raised in the United 
States. She harvested 2,747,000 tons of hay, nearly one-tenth of all the 
hay in the Republic. It is not generally appreciated, but it is true, that 
the hay crop of the country is worth more than the cotton crop. The 
hay of Illinois equals the cotton of Louisiana. Go to Charleston, S. C, 
and see them peddling handfuls of hay or grass, almost as a curiosity, 
as we regard Chinese gods or the cryolite of Greenland; drink your 
coffee and condensed milk ; and walk back from the coast for many a 
league through the sand and burs till you get up into the better atmos- 
phere of the mountains, without seeing a waving meadow or a grazing 
herd ; then you will begin to appreciate the meadows of the Prairie State, 
where the grass often grows sixteen feet high. 

The value of her farm implements is $211,000,000, and the value of 
her live stock is only second to the great State of New York. in' 1875 
she had 25,000,000 hogs, and packed 2,113,815, about one-half of all that 
were packed in the United States. This is no insignificant item. Pork 
is a growing demand of the old world. Since the laborers of Europe 
have gotten a taste of our bacon, and we have learned how to pack it dry 
in boxes, like dry goods, the world has become the market. 

The hog is on the march into the future. His nose is ordained to 
uncover the secrets of dominion, and his feet shall be guided by the star 
of empire. 

Illinois marketed $57,000,000 worth of slaughtered animals — more 
than any other State, and a seventh of all the States. 

Be patient with me, and pardon my pride, and I will give you a list 
of some of the things in which Illinois excels all other States. 

Depth and richness of soil ; per cent, of good ground ; acres of 
improved land ; large farms — some farms contain from 40,000 to 60,000 
acres of cultivated land, 40,000 acres of corn on a single farm ; number of 
farmers ; amount of wheat, corn, oats and honey produced ; value of ani- 
mals for slaughter ; number of hogs ; amount of pork ; number of horses 
— three times as many as Kentucky, the horse State. 

Illinois excels all other States in miles of railroads and in miles of 
postal service, and in money orders sold per annum, and in the amount of 
lumber sold in her markets. 


Illinois is only second in many important matters. This sample list 
comprises a few of the more important : Permanent school fund (good 
for a young state) ; total income for educational purposes ; number of pub- 
lishers of books, maps, papers, etc.; value of farm products and imple- 
ments, and of live stock ; in tons of coal mined. 

The shipping of Illinois is only second to New York. Out of one 
port during the business hours of the season of navigation she sends forth 
a vessel every ten minutes. This does not include canal boats, which go 
one every five minutes. No wonder she is only second in number of 
bankers and brokers or in physicians and surgeons. 

She is third in colleges, teachers and schools ; cattle, lead, hay, 
flax, sorghum and beeswax. 

She is fourth in population, in children enrolled in public schools, in 
law schools, in butter, potatoes and carriages. 

She is fifth in value of real and personal property, in theological 
seminaries and colleges exclusively for women, in milk sold, and in boots 
and shoes manufactured, and in book-binding. 

She is only seventh in the production of wood, while she is the 
twelfth in area. Surely that is well done for the Prairie State. She now 
has much more wood and growing timber than she had thirty years ago. 

A few leading industries will justify emphasis. She manufactures 
$205,000,000 worth of goods, which places her well up toward New York 
and Pennsylvania. The number of her manufacturing establishments 
increased from 1860 to 1870, 300 per cent.; capital employed increased 350 
per cent,, and the amount of product increased 400 per cent. She issued 
5,500,000 copies of commercial and financial newspapers — only second to 
New York. She has 6,759 miles of railroad, thus leading all other States, 
worth $636,458,000, using 3,245 engines, and 67,712 cars, making a train 
long enough to cover one-tenth of the entire roads of the State. Her 
stations are only five miles apart. She carried last year 15,795,000 passen- 
gers, an average of 36i miles, or equal to taking her entire population twice 
across the State. More than two-thirds of her land is within five miles of 
a railroad, and less than two per cent, is more than fifteen miles away. 

The State has a large financial interest in the Illinois Central railroad. 
The road was incorporated in 1850, and the State gave each alternate sec- 
tion for six miles on each side, and doubled the price of the remaining 
land, so keeping herself good. The road received 2,595,000 acres of land, 
and pays to the State one-seventh of the gross receipts. The State 
receives this year $350,000, and has received in all about $7,000,000. It 
is practically the people's road, and it has a most able and gentlemanly 
management. Add to this the annual receipts from the canal, $111,000, 
and a large per cent, of the State tax is provided for. 



of the State keep step with her productions and growth. She was born 
of the missionary spirit. It was a minister who secured for her the ordi- 
nance of 1787, by which she has been saved from slavery, ignorance, and 
dishonesty. Rev. Mr. Wiley, pastor of a Scotch congregation in Randolph 
County, petitioned the Constitutional Convention of 1818 to recognize 
Jesus Christ as king, and the Scriptures as the only necessary guide and 
book of law. The convention did not act in the case, and the old Cove- 
nanters refused to accept citizenship. They never voted until 1824, when 
the slavery question was submitted to the people; then they all voted 
against it and cast the determining votes. Conscience has predominated 
whenever a great moral question has been submitted to the people. 

But little mob violence has ever been felt in the State. In 1817 
regulators disposed of a band of horse-thieves that infested the territory. 
The Mormon indignities finally awoke the same spirit. Alton was also 
the scene of a pro-slavery mob, in which Lovejoy was added to the list of 
martyrs. The moral sense of the people makes the law supreme, and gives 
to the State unruffled peace. 

With $22,300,000 in church property, and 4,298 church organizations, 
the State has that divine police, the sleepless patrol of moral ideas, that 
alone is able to secure perfect safety. Conscience takes the knife from 
the assassin's hand and the bludgeon from the grasp of the highwayman. 
We sleep in safety, not because we are behind bolts and bars — these only 
fence against the innocent ; not because a lone officer drowses on a distant 
corner of a street ; not because a sheriff may call his posse from a remote 
part of the county ; but because conscience guards the very portals of the 
air and stirs in the deepest recesses of the public mind. This spirit issues 
within the State 9,500,000 copies of religious papers annually, and receives 
still more from without. Thus the crime of the State is only one-fourth 
that of New York and one-half that of Pennsylvania. 

Illinois never had but one duel between her own citizens. In Belle- 
ville, in 1820, Alphonso Stewart and William Bennett arranged to vindi- 
cate injured honor. The seconds agreed to make it a sham, and make 
them shoot blanks. Stewart was in the secret. Bennett mistrusted some- 
thing, and, unobserved, slipped a bullet into his gun and killed Stewart. 
He then fled the State. After two years he was caught, tried, convicted, 
and, in spite of friends and political aid, was hung. This fixed the code 
of honor on a Christian basis, and terminated its use in Illinois. 

The early preachers were ignorant men, who were accounted eloquent 
according to the strength of their voices. But they set the style for all 
public speakers. Lawyers and political speakers followed this rule. Gov. 


Ford says: "Nevertheless, these first preachers were of incalculable 
benefit to the country. They inculcated justice and morality. To them 
are we indebted for the first Christian character of the Protestant portion 
of the people." 

In education Illinois surpasses her material resources. The ordinance 
of 1787 consecrated one thirty-sixth of her soil to common schools, and 
the law of 1818, the first law that went upon her statutes, gave three per 
cent, of all the rest to 


The old compact secures this interest forever, and by its yoking 
morality and intelligence it precludes the legal interference with the Bible 
in the public schools. With such a start it is natural that we should have 
11,050 schools, and that our illiteracy should be less than New York or 
Pennsylvania, and only about one-half of Massachusetts. We are not to 
blame for not having more than one-half as many idiots as the great 
States. These public schools soon made colleges inevitable. The first 
college, still flourishing, was started in Lebanon in 1828, by the M. E. 
church, and named after Bishop McKendree. Illinois College, at Jackson- 
ville, supported by the Presbyterians, followed in 1830. In 1832 the Bap- 
tists built Shurtleff College, at Alton. Then the Presbyterians built Knox 
College, at Galesburg, in 1838, and the Episcopalians built Jubilee College, 
at Peoria, in 1847. After these early years colleges have rained down. 
A settler could hardly encamp on the prairie but a college would spring 
up by his wagon. The State now has one very well endowed and equipped 
university, namely, the Northwestern University, at Evanston, with six 
colleges, ninety instructors, over 1,000 students, and $1,500,000 endow- 

Rev. J. M. Peck was the first educated Protestant minister m tne 
State. He settled at Rock Spring, in St. Clair County, 1820, and left his 
impress on the State. Before 1837 only party papers were published, but 
Mr. Peck published a Gazetteer of Illinois. Soon after John Russell, of 
Bluffdale, published essays and tales showing genius. Judge James Hall 
published The Illinois Monthly Magazine with great ability, and an annual 
called The Western Souvenir, which gave him an enviable fame all over the 
United States. From these beginnings Illinois has gone on till she has 
more volumes in public libaaries even than Massachusetts, and of the 
44,500,000 volumes in all the public libraries of the United States, she 
has one-thirteenth. In newspapers she stands fourth. Her increase is 
marvelous. In 1850 she issued 5,000,000 copies; in 1860, 27,590,000 ; in 
1870, 113,140,000. In 1860 she had eighteen colleges and seminaries ; in 
1870 she had eighty. That is a grand advance for the war decade. 

This brings us to a record unsurpassed in the history of any age, 



I hardly know where to begin, or how to advance, or what to say. I 
can at best give you only a broken synopsis of her deeds, and you must 
put them in the order of glory for yourself. Her sons have always been 
foremost on fields of danger. In 1832-33, at the call of Gov. Reynolds, 
her sons drove Blackhawk over the Mississippi. 

When the Mexican war came, in May, 1846, 8,370 men offered them- 
selves when only 3,720 could be accepted. The fields of Buena Vista and 
Vera Cruz, and the storming of Cerro Gordo, will carry the glory of Illinois 
soldiers along after the infamy of the cause they served has been forgotten. 
But it was reserved till our day for her sons to find a field and cause and 
foemen that could fitly illustrate their spirit and heroism. Illinois put 
into her own regiments for the United States government 256,000 men, 
and into the army through other States enough to swell the number to 
290,000. This far exceeds all the soldiers of' the federal government in 
all the war of the revolution. Her total years of service were over 600,000. 
She enrolled men from eighteen to forty -five }^ears of age when the law 
of Congress in 1864 — the test time — only asked for those from twenty to 
forty-five. Her enrollment was otherwise excessive. Her people wanted 
to go, and did not take the pains to correct the enrollment. Thus the 
basis of fixing the quota was too great, and then the quota itself, at least 
in the trying time, was far above any other State. 

Thus the demand on some counties, as Monroe, for example, took every 
able-bodied man in the county, and then did not have enough to fill the 
quota. Moreover, Illinois sent 20,844 men for ninety or one hundred days, 
for whom no credit was asked. When Mr. Lincoln's attention was called 
to the inequality of the quota compared with other States, he replied, 
" The country needs the sacrifice. We must put the whip on the free 
horse." In spite of all these disadvantages Illinois gave to the country 
73,000 years of service above all calls. With one-thirteenth of the popu- 
lation of the loyal States, she sent regularly one-tenth of all the soldiers, 
and in the peril of the closing calls, when patriots were few and weary, 
she then sent one-eighth of all that were called for by her loved and hon- 
ored son in the white house. Her mothers and daughters went into the 
fields to raise the grain and keep the children together, while the fathers 
and older sons went to the harvest fields of the world. I knew a father 
and four sons who agreed that one of them must stay at home ; and they 
pulled straws from a stack to see who might go. The father was left. 
The next day he came into the camp, saying : " Mother says she can get 
the crops in, and I am going, too." I know large Methodist churches 
from which every male member went to the army. Do you want to know 


what these heroes from Illinois did in the field ? Ask any soldier with a 
good record of his own, who is thus able to judge, and he will tell you 
that the Illinois men went in to win. It is common history that the greater 
victories were won in the West. When everything else looked dark Illi- 
nois was gaining victories all down the river, and dividing the confederacy. 
Sherman took with him on his great march forty-five regiments of Illinois 
infantry, three companies of artillery, and one company of cavalry. He 
could not avoid 


If he had been killed, I doubt not the men would have gone right on. 
Lincoln answered all rumors of Sherman's defeat with, " It is impossible ; 
there is a mighty sight of fight in 100,000 Western men." Illinois soldiers 
brought home 300 battle-flags. The first United States flag that floated 
over Richmond was an Illinois flag. She sent messengers and nurses to 
every field and hospital, to care for her sick and wounded sons. She said, 
" These suffering ones are my sons, and I will care for them." 

When individuals had given all, then cities and towns came forward 
with their credit to the extent of many millions, to aid these men and 
their families. 

Illinois gave the country the great general of the war — Ulysses S. 
Grant — since honored with two terms of the Presidency of the United 

One other name from Illinois comes up in all minds, embalmed in all 
hearts, that must have the supreme place in this story of our glory and 
of our nation's honor ; that name is Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois. 

The analysis of Mr. Lincoln's character is difficult on account of its 

In this age we look with admiration at his uncompromising honesty. 
And well we may, for this saved us. Thousands throughout the length 
and breadth of our country who knew him only as " Honest Old Abe," 
voted for him on that account ; and wisely did they choose, for no other 
man could have carried us through the fearful night of the war. When 
his plans were too vast for our comprehension, and his faith in the cause 
too sublime for our participation ; when it was all night about us, and all 
dread before us, and all sad and desolate behind us ; when not one ray 
shone upon our cause ; when traitors were haughty and exultant at the 
South, and fierce and blasphemous at the North ; when the loyal men here 
seemed almost in the minority ; when the stoutest heart quailed, the bravest 
cheek paled ; when generals were defeating each other for place, and 
contractors were leeching out the very heart's blood of the prostrate 
republic : when every thing else had failed us, we looked at this calm, 
patient man standing like a rock in the storm, and said : " Mr. Lincoln 


is honest, and we can trust him still." Holding to this single point with 
the energy of faith and despair we held together, and, under God, he 
brought us through to victory. 

His practical wisdom made him the wonder of all lands. With such 
certainty did Mr. Lincoln follow causes to their ultimate effects, that his 
foresight of contingencies seemed almost prophetic. 

He is radiant with all the great virtues, and his memory shall shed a 
glory upon this age that shall fill the eyes of men as they look into his- 
tory. Other men have excelled him in some point, but, taken at all 
points, all in all, he stands head and shoulders above every other man of 
6,000 years. An administrator, he saved the nation in the perils of 
unparalleled civil war. A statesman, he justified his measures by their 
success. A philanthropist, he gave liberty to one race and salvation to 
another. A moralist, he bowed from the summit of human power to the 
foot of the Cross, and became a Christian. A mediator, he exercised mercy 
under the most absolute abeyance to law. A leader, he was no partisan. 
A commander, he was untainted with blood. A ruler in desperate times, 
he was unsullied with crime. A man, he has left no word of passion, no 
thought of malice, no trick of craft, no act of jealousy, no purpose of 
selfish ambition. Thus perfected, without a model, and without a peer, 
he was dropped into these troubled years to adorn and embellish all that 
is good and all that is great in our humanity, and to present to all coming 
time the representative of the divine idea of free government. 

It is not too much to say that away down in the future, when the 
republic has fallen from its niche in the wall of time ; when the great 
war itself shall have faded out in the distance like a mist on the horizon : 
when the Anglo-Saxon language shall be spoken only by the tongue of 
the stranger ; then the generations looking this way shall see the great 
president as the supreme figure in this vortex of history 


It is impossible in our brief space to give more than a meager sketch 
of such a city as Chicago, which is in itself the greatest marvel of the 
Prairie State. This mysterious, majestic, mighty city, born first of water, 
and next of fire ; sown in weakness, and raised in power ; planted among 
the willows of the marsh, and crowned with the glory of the mountains ; 
sleeping on the bosom of the prairie, and rocked on the bosom of the sea , 
the youngest city of the world, and still the eye of the prairie, as Damas- 
cus, the oldest city of the world, is the eye of the desert. With a com- 
merce far exceeding that of Corinth on her isthmus, in the highway to 
the East ; with the defenses of a continent piled around her by the thou- 
sand miles, making her far safer than Rome on the banks of the Tiber ; 


with schools eclipsing Alexandria and Athens ; with liberties more con- 
spicuous than those of the old republics ; with a heroism equal to the first 
Carthage, and with a sanctity scarcely second to that of Jerusalem — set 
your thoughts on all this, lifted into the eyes of all men by the miracle of 
its growth, illuminated by the flame of its fall, and transfigured by the 
divinity of its resurrection, and you will feel, as I do, the utter impossi- 
bility of compassing this subject as it deserves. Some impression of her 
importance is received from the shock her burning gave to the civilized 

When the doubt of her calamity was removed, and the horrid fact 
was accepted, there went a shudder over all cities, and a quiver over all 
lands. There was scarcely a town in the civilized world that did not 
shake on the brink of this opening chasm. The flames of our homes red- 
dened all skies. The city was set upon a hill, and could not be hid. AK 
eyes were turned upon it. To have struggled and suffered amid the 
scenes of its fall is as distinguishing as to have fought at Thermopylae, or 
Salamis, or Hastings, or Waterloo, or Bunker Hill. 

Its calamity amazed the world, because it was felt to be the common 
property of mankind. 

The early history of the city is full of interest, just as the early his- 
tory of such a man as Washington or Lincoln becomes public property, 
and is cherished by every patriot. 

Starting with 560 acres in 1833, it embraced and occupied 23,000 
acres in 1869, and, having now a population of more than 500,000, it com- 
mands general attention. 

The first settler — Jean Baptiste Pointe au Sable, a mulatto from the 
West Indies — came and began trade with the Indians in 1796. John 
Kinzie became his successor in 1804, in which year Fort Dearborn was 

A mere trading-post was kept here from that time till about the time 
of the Blackhawk war, in 1832. It was not the city. It was merely a 
cock crowing at midnight. The morning was not yet. In 1833 the set- 
tlement about the fort was incorporated as a town. The voters were 
divided on the propriety of such corporation, twelve voting for it and one 
against it. Four years later it was incorporated as a city, and embraced 
560 acres. 

The produce handled in this city is an indication of its power. Grain 
and flour were imported from the East till as late as 1837. The first 
exportation by way of experiment was in 1839. Exports exceeded imports 
first in 1842. The Board of Trade was organized in 1848, but it was so 
weak that it needed nursing till 1855. Grain was purchased by the 
wagon-load in the street. 

I remember sitting with my father on a load of wheat, in the long 


line of wagons along Lake street, while the buyers came and untied the 
bags, and examined the grain, and made their bids. That manner of 
business had to cease with the day of small things. Now our elevators 
will hold 15,000,000 bushels of grain. The cash value of the produce 
handled in a year is $215,000,000, and the produce weighs 7,000,000 
tons or 700,000 car loads. This handles thirteen and a half ton each 
minute, all the year round. One tenth of all the wheat in the United 
States is handled in Chicago. Even as long ago as 1853 the receipts of 
grain in Chicago exceeded those of the goodly city of St. Louis, and in 
1854 the exports of grain from Chicago exceeded those of New York and 
doubled those of St. Petersburg, Archangel, or Odessa, the largest grain 
markets in Europe. 

The manufacturing interests of the city are not contemptible. In 
1873 manufactories employed 45,000 operatives ; in 1876, 60,000. The 
manufactured product in 1875 was worth $177,000,000. 

No estimate of the size and power of Chicago would be adequate 
that did not put large emphasis on the railroads. Before they came 
thundering along our streets canals were the hope of our country. But 
who ever thinks now of traveling by canal packets ? In June, 1852, 
there were only forty miles of railroad connected with the city. The 
old Galena division of the Northwestern ran out to Elgin. But now, 
who can count the trains and measure the roads that seek a terminus or 
connection in this city ? The lake stretches away to the north, gathering 
in to this center all the harvests that might otherwise pass to the north 
of us. If you will take a map and look at the adjustment of railroads, 
you will see, first, that Chicago is the great railroad center of the world, 
as New York is the commercial city of this continent ; and, second, that 
the railroad lines form the iron spokes of a great wheel whose hub is 
this city. The lake furnishes the only break in the spokes, and this 
seems simply to have pushed a few spokes together on each shore. See 
the eighteen trunk lines, exclusive of eastern connections. 

Pass round the circle, and view their numbers and extent. There 
is the great Northwestern, with all its branches, one branch creeping 
along the lake shore, and so reaching to the north, into the Lake Superior 
regions, away to the right, and on to the Northern Pacific on the left, 
swinging around Green Bay for iron and copper and silver, twelve months 
in the year, and reaching out for the wealth of the great agricultural 
belt and isothermal line traversed by the Northern Pacific. Another 
branch, not so far north, feeling for the heart of the Badger State. 
Another pushing lower down the Mississippi — all these make many con- 
nections, and tapping all the vast wheat regions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, 
Iowa, and all the regions this side of sunset. There is that elegant road, 
the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, running out a goodly number of 


branches, and reaping the great fields this side of the Missouri River. 
I can only mention the Chicago, Alton & St. Louis, our Illinois Central, 
described elsewhere, and the Chicago & Rock Island. Further around 
we come to the lines connecting us with all the eastern cities. The 
Chicago, Indianapolis & St. Louis, the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & 
Chicago, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, and the Michigan Cen- 
tral and Great Western, give us many highways to the seaboard. Thus we 
reach the Mississippi at five points, from St. Paul to Cairo and the Gulf 
itself by two routes. We also reach Cincinnati and Baltimore, and Pitts- 
burgh and Philadelphia, and New York. North and south run the water 
courses of the lakes and the rivers, broken just enough at this point to 
make a pass. Through this, from east to west, run the long lines that 
stretch from ocean to ocean. 

This is the neck of the glass, and the golden sands of commerce 
must pass into our hands. Altogether we have more than 10,000 miles 
of railroad, directly tributary to this city, seeking to unload their wealth 
in our coffers. All these roads have come themselves by the infallible 
instinct of capital. Not a dollar was ever given by the city to secure 
one of them, and only a small per cent, of stock taken originally by her 
citizens, and that taken simply as an investment. Coming in the natural 
order of events, they will not be easily diverted. 

There is still another showing to all this. The connection between 
New York and San Francisco is by the middle route. This passes inevit- 
ably through Chicago. St. Louis wants the Southern Pacific or Kansas 
Pacific, and pushes it out through Denver, and so on up to Cheyenne. 
But before the road is fairly under way, the Chicago roads shove out to 
Kansas City, making even the Kansas Pacific a feeder, and actually leav- 
ing St. Louis out in the cold. It is not too much to expect that Dakota, 
Montana, and Washington Territory will find their great market in Chi- 

But these are not all. Perhaps I had better notice here the ten or 
fifteen new roads that have just entered, or are just entering, our city. 
Their names are all that is necessary to give. Chicago & St. Paul, look- 
ing up the Red River country to the British possessions ; the Chicago, 
Atlantic & Pacific ; the Chicago, Decatur & State Line ; the Baltimore & 
Ohio ; the Chicago, Danville & Vincennes ; the Chicago & LaSalle Rail- 
road ; the Chicago, Pittsburgh & Cincinnati ; the Chicago and Canada 
Southern ; the Chicago and Illinois River Railroad. These, with their 
connections, and with the new connections of the old roads, already in 
process of erection, give to Chicago not less than 10,000 miles of new 
tributaries from the richest land on the continent. Thus there will be 
added to the reserve power, to the capital within reach of this city, not 
less than $1,000,000,000. 


Add to all this transporting power the ships that sail one every nine 
minutes of the business hours of the season of navigation ; add, also, the 
canal boats that leave one every five minutes during the same time — and 
you will see something of the business of the city. 


has been leaping along to keep pace with the growth of the country 
around us. In 1852, our commerce reached the hopeful sum oi 
$20,000,000. In 1870 it reached $400,000,000. In 1871 it was pushed 
up above $450,000,000. And in 1875 it touched nearly double that. 

One-half of our imported goods come directly to Chicago. Grain 
enough is exported directly from our docks to the old world to employ a 
semi-weekly line of steamers of 3,000 tons capacity. This branch is 
not likely to be greatly developed. Even after the great Welland Canal 
is completed we shall have only fourteen feet of water. The great ocean 
vessels will continue to control the trade. 

The banking capital of Chicago is $24,431,000. Total exchange in 
1875, $659,000,000. Her wholesale business in 1875 was $294,000,000. 
The rate of taxes is less than in any other great city. 

The schools of Chicago are unsurpassed in America. Out of a popu- 
lation of 300,000 there were only 186 persons between the ages of six 
and twenty-one unable to read. This is the best known record. 

In 1831 the mail system was condensed into a half-breed, who went 
on foot to Niles, Mich., once in two weeks, and brought back what papers 
and news he could find. As late as 1846 there was often only one mail 
a week. A post-office was established in Chicago in 1833, and the post- 
master nailed up old boot-legs on one side of his shop to serve as boxes 
for the nabobs and literary men. 

It is an interesting fact in the growth of the young city that in the 
active life of the business men of that day the mail matter has grown to 
a daily average of over 6,500 pounds. It speaks equally well for the 
intelligence of the people and the commercial importance of the place, 
that the mail matter distributed to the territory immediately tributary to 
Chicago is seven times greater than that distributed to the territory 
immediately tributary to St. Louis. 

The improvements that have characterized the city are as startling 
as the city itself. In 1831, Mark Beaubien established a ferry over the 
river, and put himself under bonds to carry all the citizens free for the 
privilege of charging strangers. Now there are twenty-four large bridges 
and two tunnels. 

In 1833 the government expended $30,000 on the harbor. Then 
commenced that series of manoeuvers with the river that has made it one 


of the world's curiosities. It used to wind around in the lower end of 
the town, and make its way rippling over the sand into the lake at the 
foot of Madison street. They took it up and put it down where it now 
is. It was a narrow stream, so narrow that even moderately small crafts 
had to go up through the willows and cat's tails to the point near Lake 
street bridge, and back up one of the branches to get room enough in 
which to turn around. 

In 1844 the quagmires in the streets were first pontooned by plank 
roads, which acted in wet weather as public squirt-guns. Keeping you 
out of the mud, they compromised by squirting the mud over you. The 
wooden-block pavements came to Chicago in 1857. In 1840 water was 
delivered by peddlers in carts or by hand. Then a twenty-five horse- 
power engine pushed it through hollow or bored logs along the streets 
till 1854, when it was introduced into the houses by new works. The 
first fire-engine was used in 1835, and the first steam fire-engine in 1859. 
Gas was utilized for lighting the city in 1850. The Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association was organized in 1858, and horse railroads carried them 
to their work in 1859. The museum was opened in 1863. The alarm 
telegraph adopted in 1864. The opera-house built in 1865. The city 
grew from 560 acres in 1833 to 23,000 in 1869. In 1834, the taxes 
amounted to $48.90, and the trustees of the town borrowed $60 more for 
opening and improving streets. In 1835, the legislature authorized a loan 
of $2,000, and the treasurer and street commissioners resigned rather than 
plunge the town into such a gulf. 

Now the city embraces 36 square miles of territory, and has 30 miles 
of water front, besides the outside harbor of refuge, of 400 acres, inclosed 
by a crib sea-wall. One-third of the city has been raised up an average 
of eight feet, giving good pitch to the 263 miles of sewerage. The water 
of the city is above all competition. It is received through two tunnels 
extending to a crib in the lake two miles from shore. The closest analy- 
sis fails to detect any impurities, and, received 35 feet below the surface, 
it is always clear and cold. The first tunnel is five feet two inches in 
diameter and two miles long, and can deliver 50,000,000 of gallons per 
day. The second tunnel is seven feet in diameter and six miles long, 
running four miles under the city, and can deliver 100,000,000 of gal- 
lons per day. This water is distributed through 410 miles of water- 

The three grand engineering exploits of the city are : First, lifting 
the city up on jack-screws, whole squares at a time, without interrupting 
the business, thus giving us good drainage ; second, running the tunnels 
under the lake, giving us the best water in the world ; and third, the 
turning the current of the river in its own channel, delivering us from the 
old abominations, and making decency possible. They redound about 


equally to the credit of the engineering, to the energy of the people, and 
to the health of the city. 

That which really constitutes the city, its indescribable spirit, its soul, 
the way it lights up in every feature in the hour of action, has not been 
touched. In meeting strangers, one is often surprised how some homely 
women marry so well. Their forms are bad, their gait uneven and awk- 
ward, their complexion is dull, their features are misshapen and mismatch- 
ed, and when we see them there is no beauty that we should desire them. 
But when once they are aroused on some subject, they put on new pro- 
portions. They light up into great power. The real person comes out 
from its unseemly ambush, and captures us at will. They have power. 
They have ability to cause things to come to pass. We no longer wonder 
why they are in such high demand. So it is with our city. 

There is no grand scenery except the two seas, one of water, the 
other of prairie. Nevertheless, there is a spirit about it, a push, a breadth, 
a power, that soon makes it a place never to be forsaken. One soon 
ceases to believe in impossibilities. Balaams are the only prophets that are 
disappointed. The bottom that has been on the point of falling out has 
been there so long that it has grown fast. It can not fall out. It has all 
the capital of the world itching to get inside the corporation. 

The two great laws that govern the growth and size of cities are, 
first, the amount of territory for which they are the distributing and 
receiving points ; second, the numb'er of medium or moderate dealers that 
do this distributing. Monopolists build up themselves, not the cities. 
They neither eat, wear, nor live in proportion to their business. Both 
these laws help Chicago. 

The tide of trade is eastward — not up or down the map, but across 
the map. The lake runs up a wingdam for 500 miles to gather in the 
business. Commerce can not ferry up there for seven months in the year, 
and the facilities for seven months can do the work for twelve. Then the 
great region west of us is nearly all good, productive land. Dropping 
south into the trail of St. Louis, you fall into vast deserts and rocky dis- 
tricts, useful in holding the world together. St. Louis and Cincinnati, 
instead of rivaling and hurting Chicago, are her greatest sureties of 
dominion. They are far enough away to give sea-room, — farther off than 
Paris is from London, — and yet they are near enough to prevent the 
springing up of any other great city between them. 

St. Louis will be helped by the opening of the Mississippi, but also 
hurt. That will put New Orleans on her feet, and with a railroad running 
over into Texas and so West, she will tap the streams that now crawl up 
the Texas and Missouri road. The current is East, not North, and a sea- 
port at New Orleans can not permanently help St. Louis. 

Chicago is in the field almost alone, to handle the wealth of one- 


fourth of the territory of this great republic. This strip of seacoast 
divides its margins between Portland, Boston, New York, Philadelphia, 
Baltimore and Savannah, or some other great port to be created for the 
South in the next decade. But Chicago has a dozen empires casting their 
treasures into her lap. On a bed of coal that can run all the machinery 
of the world for 500 centuries ; in a garden that can feed the race by the 
thousand years; at the head of the lakes that give her a temperature as a 
summer resort equaled by no great city in the land ; with a climate that 
insures the health of her citizens ; surrounded by all the great deposits 
of natural wealth in mines aud forests and herds, Chicago is the wonder 
of to-day, and will be the city of the future. 


During the war of 1812, Fort Dearborn became the theater of stirring 
events. The garrison consisted of fifty-four men under command of 
Captain Nathan Heald, assisted by Lieutenant Helm (son-in-law of Mrs. 
Kinzie) and Ensign Ronan. Dr. Voorhees was surgeon. The only resi- 
dents at the post at that time were the wives of Captain Heald and Lieu- 
tenant Helm, and a few of the soldiers, Mr. Kinzie and his family, and 
a few Canadian voyageurs, with their wives and children. The soldiers 
and Mr. Kinzie were on most friendly terms with the Pottawattamies 
and Winnebagos, the principal tribes around them, but they could not 
win them from their attachment to the British. 

One evening in April, 1812, Mr. Kinzie sat playing on his violin and 
his children were dancing to the music, when Mrs. Kinzie came rushing 
into the house, pale with terror, and exclaiming : " The Indians ! the 
Indians!" "What? Where?" eagerly inquired Mr. Kinzie. "Up 
at Lee's, killing and scalping," answered the frightened mother, who, 
when the alarm was given, was attending Mrs. Barnes (just confined) 
living not far off. Mr. Kinzie and his family crossed the river and took 
refuge in the fort, to which place Mrs. Barnes and her infant not a day 
old were safely conveyed. The rest of the inhabitants took shelter in the 
fort. This alarm was caused by a scalping party of Winnebagos, who 
hovered about the fort several days, when they disappeared, and for several 
weeks the inhabitants were undisturbed. 

On the 7th of August, 1812, General Hull, at Detroit, sent orders to 
Captain Heald to evacuate Fort Dearborn, and to distribute all the United 
States property to the Indians in the neighborhood — a most insane order. 
The Pottawattamie chief, who brought the dispatch, had more wisdom 
than the commanding general. He advised Captain Heald not to make 
the distribution. Said he : " Leave the fort and stores as they are, and 
let the Indians make distribution for themselves ; and while they are 
engaged in the business, the white people may escape to Fort Wayne." 


Captain Heald held a council with the Indians on the afternoon ot 
the 12th, in which his officers refused to join, for they had been informed 
that treachery was designed — that the Indians intended to murder the 
white people in the council, and then destroy those in the fort. Captain 
Heald, however, took the precaution to open a port-hole displaying a 
cannon pointing directly upon the council, and by that means saved 
his life. 

Mr. Kinzie, who knew the Indians well, begged Captain Heald not 
to confide in their promises, nor distribute the arms and munitions among 
them, for it would only put power into their hands to destroy the whites. 
Ac tine upon this advice, Heald resolved to withhold the munitions of 
war ; and on the night of the 13th, after the distribution of the other 
property had been made, the powder, ball and liquors were thrown into 
the river, the muskets broken up and destroyed. 

Black Partridge, a friendly chief, came to Captain Heald, and said : 
" Linden birds have been singing in my ears to-day: be careful on the 
march you are going to take." On that dark night vigilant Indians had 
crept near the fort and discovered the destruction of their promised booty 
going on within. The next morning the powder was seen floating on the 
surface of the river. The savages were exasperated and made loud com- 
plaints and threats. 

On the following day when preparations were making to leave the 
fort, and all the inmates were deeply impressed with a sense of impend- 
ing danger, Capt. Wells, an uncle of Mrs. Heald, was discovered upon 
the Indian trail among the sand-hills on the borders of the lake, not far 
distant, with a band of mounted Miamis, of whose tribe he was chief, 
having been adopted by the famous Miami warrior, Little Turtle. When 
news of Hull's surrender reached Fort Wayne, he had started with this 
force to assist Heald in defending Fort Dearborn. He was too late. 
Every means for its defense had been destroyed the night before, and 
arrangements were made for leaving the fort on the morning of the 15th. 

It was a warm bright morning in the middle of August. Indications 
were positive that the savages intended to murder the white people ; and 
when they moved out of the southern gate of the fort, the march was 
like a funeral procession. The band, feeling the solemnity of the occa- 
sion, struck up the Dead March in Saul. 

Capt. Wells, who had blackened his face with gun-powder in token 
of his fate, took the lead with his band of Miamis, followed by Capt. 
Heald, with his wife by his side on horseback. Mr. Kinzie hoped by his 
personal influence to avert the impending blow, and therefore accompanied 
them, leaving his family in a boat in charge of a friendly Indian, to be 
taken to his trading station at the site of Niles, Michigan, in the event ot 
his death. 


The procession moved slowly along the lake shore till they reached 
the sand-hills between the prairie and the beach, when the Pottawattamie 
escort, under the leadership of Blackbird, filed to the right, placing those 
hills between them and the white people. Wells, with his Miamis, had 
kept in the advance. They suddenly came rushing back, Wells exclaim- 
ing, " They are about to attack us ; form instantly." These words were 
quickly followed by a storm of bullets, which came whistling over the 
little hills which the treacherous savages had made the covert for their 
murderous attack. The white troops charged upon the Indians, drove 
them back to the prairie, and then the battle was waged between fifty- 
four soldiers, twelve civilians and three or four women (the cowardly 
Miamis having fled at the outset) against five hundred Indian warriors. 
The white people, hopeless, resolved to sell their lives as dearly as possible. 
Ensign Ronan wielded his weapon vigorously, even after falling upon his 
knees weak from the loss of blood. Capt. Wells, who was by the side of 
his niece, Mrs. Heald, when the conflict began, behaved with the greatest 
coolness and courage. He said to her, " We have not the slightest chance 
for life. We must part to meet no more in this world. God bless you." 
And then he dashed forward. Seeing a young warrior, painted like a 
demon, climb into a wagon in which were twelve children, and tomahawk 
them all, he cried out, unmindful of his personal danger, " If that is your 
game, butchering women and children, I will kill too." He spurred his 
horse towards the Indian camp, where they had left their squaws and 
papooses, hotly pursued by swift-footed young warriors, who sent bullets 
whistling after him. One of these killed his horse and wounded him 
severely in the leg. With a yell the young braves rushed to make him 
their prisoner and reserve him for torture. He resolved not to be made 
a captive, and by the use of the most provoking epithets tried to induce 
them to kill him instantly. He called a fiery young chief a squaw, when 
the enraged warrior killed Wells instantly with his tomahawk, jumped 
upon his body, cut out his heart, and ate a portion of the warm morsel 
with savage delight ! 

In this fearful combat women bore a conspicuous part. Mrs. Heald 
was an excellent equestrian and an expert in the use of the rifle. She 
fought the savages bravely, receiving several severe wounds. Though 
faint from the loss of blood, she managed to keep her saddle. A savage 
raised his tomahawk to kill her, when she looked him full in the face, 
and with a sweet smile and in a gentle voice said, in his own language, 
" Surely you will not kill a squaw ! " The arm of the savage fell, and 
the life of the heroic woman was saved. 

Mrs. Helm, the step-daughter of Mr. Kinzie, had an encounter with 
a stout Indian, who attempted to tomahawk her. Springing to one side, 
she received the glancing blow on her shoulder, and at the same instant 


seized the savage round the neck with her arms and endeavored to get 
hold of his scalping knife, which hung in a sheath at his breast. While 
she was thus struggling she was dragged from her antagonist by anothei 
powerful Indian, who bore her, in spite of her struggles, to the margin 
of the lake and plunged her in. To her astonishment she was held by 
him so that she would not drown, and she soon perceived that she was 
in the hands of the friendly Black Partridge, who had saved her life. 

The wife of Sergeant Holt, a large and powerful woman, behaved as 
bravely as an Amazon. She rode a fine, high-spirited horse, which the 
Indians coveted, and several of them attacked her with the butts of their 
guns, for the purpose of dismounting her ; but she used the sword which 
she had snatched from her disabled husband so skillfully that she foiled 
them ; and, suddenly wheeling her horse, she dashed over the prairie, 
followed by the savages shouting, " The brave woman ! the brave woman ! 
Don't hurt her ! " They finally overtook her, and while she was fighting 
them in front, a powerful savage came up behind her, seized her by the 
neck and dragged her to the ground. Horse and woman were made 
captives. Mrs. Holt was a long time a captive among the Indians, but 
was afterwards ransomed. 

In this sharp conflict two-thirds of the white people were slain and 
wounded, and all their horses, baggage and provision were lost. Only 
twenty-eight straggling men now remained to fight five hundred Indians 
rendered furious by the sight of blood. They succeeded in breaking 
through the ranks of the murderers and gaining a slight eminence on the 
prairie near the Oak Woods. The Indians did not pursue, but gathered 
on their flanks, while the chiefs held a consultation on the sand-hills, and 
showed signs of willingness to parley. It would have been madness on 
the part of the whites to renew the fight ; and so Capt. Heald went for- 
ward and met Blackbird on the open prairie, where terms of surrender 
were soon agreed upon. It was arranged that the white people should 
give up their arms to Blackbird, and that the survivors should become 
prisoners of war, to be exchanged for ransoms as soon as practicable. 
With this understanding captives and captors started for the Indian 
camp near the fort, to which Mrs. Helm had been taken bleeding and 
suffering by Black Partridge, and had met her step-father and learned 
that her husband was safe. 

A new scene of horror was now opened at the Indian camp. The 
wounded, not being included in the terms of surrender, as it was inter- 
preted by the Indians, and the British general, Proctor, having offered a 
liberal bounty for American scalps, delivered at Maiden, nearly all the 
wounded men were killed and scalped, and the price of the trophies was 
afterwards paid by the British government. 




[This was engraved from a daguerreotype, taken when Shabbona was 83 years old.] 

This celebrated Indian chief, whose portrait appears in this work, deserves 
more than a passing notice. Although Shabbona was not so conspicuous as 
Tecumseh or Black Hawk, yet in point of merit he was superior to either 
of them. 

Shabbona was born at an Indian village on the Kankakee River, now in 
Will County, about the year 1775. While young he was made chief of the 
band, and went to Shabbona Grove, now DeKalb County, where they were 
found in the early settlement of the county. 

In the war of 1812, Shabbona, with his warriors, joined Tecumseh, was 


aid to that great chief, and stood by his side when he fell at the battle of 
the Thames. At the time of the Winnebago war, in 1827, he visited almost 
every village among the Pottawatomies, and by his persuasive arguments 
prevented them from taking part in the war. By request of the citizens 
of Chicago, Shabbona, accompanied by Billy Caldwell (Sauganash), visited 
Big Foot's village at Geneva Lake, in order to pacify the warriors, as fears 
were entertained that they were about to raise the tomahawk against the 
whites. Here Shabbona was taken prisoner by Big Foot, and his life 
threatened, but on the following day was set at liberty. From that time 
the Indians (through reproach) styled him " the white man's friend," 
and many times his life was endangered. 

Before the Black Hawk war, Shabbona met in council at two differ- 
ent times, and by his influence prevented his people from taking part with 
the Sacs and Foxes. After the death of Black Partridge and Senachwine, 
no chief among the Pottawatomies exerted so much influence as Shabbona. 
Black Hawk, aware of this influence, visited him at two different times, in 
order to enlist him in his cause, but was unsuccessful. While Black Hawk 
was a prisoner at Jefferson Barracks, he said, had it not been for Shabbona 
the whole Pottawatomie nation would have joined his standard, and he 
could have continued the war for years. 

To Shabbona many of the early settlers of Illinois owe the pres- 
ervation of their lives, for it is a well-known fact, had he not notified the 
people of their danger, a large portion of them would have fallen victims 
to the tomahawk of savages. By saving the lives of whites he endangered 
his own, for the Sacs and Foxes threatened to kill him, and made two 
attempts to execute their threats. They killed Pypeogee, his son, and 
Pyps, his nephew, and hunted him down as though he was a wild beast. 

Shabbona had a reservation of two sections of land at his Grove, but 
by leaving it and going west for a short time, the Government declared 
the reservation forfeited, and sold it the same as other vacant land. On 
Shabbona's return, and finding his possessions gone, he was very sad and 
broken down in spirit, and left the Grove for ever. The citizens of Ottawa 
raised money and bought him a tract of land on the Illinois River, above 
Seneca, in Grundy County, on which they built a house, and supplied 
him with means to live on. He lived here until his death, which occurred 
on the 17th of July, 1859, in the eighty-fourth year of his age, and was 
buried with great pomp in the cemetery at Morris. His squaw, Pokanoka, 
was drowned in Mazen Creek, Grundy County, on the 30th of November, 
1864, and was buried by his side. 

In 1861 subscriptions were taken up in many of the river towns, to 
erect a monument over the remains of Shabbona, but the war breaking 
out, the enterprise was abandoned. Only a plain marble slab marks the 
resting-place of this friend of the white man. 

Abstract of Illinois State Laws. 


No promissory note, check, draft, bill of exchange, order, or note, nego- 
tiable instrument payable at sight, or on demand, or on presentment, shall 
be entitled to days of grace. All other bills of exchange, drafts or notes are 
entitled to three days of grace. All the above mentioned paper falling 
due on Sunday, New Years' Day, the Fourth of July, Christmas, or any 
day appointed or recommended by the President of the United States or 
the Governor of the State as a day of fast or thanksgiving, shall be deemed 
as due on the day previous, and should two or more of these days come 
together, then such instrument shall be treated as due on the day previous 
to the first of said days. No defense can be made against a negotiable 
instrument (assigned before due*) in the hands of the assignee without 
notice, except fraud was used in obtaining the same. To hold an indorser, 
due diligence must be used by suit, in collecting of the maker, unless suit 
would have been unavailing. Notes payable to person named or to order, 
in order to absolutely transfer title, must be indorsed by the payee. Notes 
payable to bearer may be transferred by delivery, and when so payable 
every indorser thereon is held as a guarantor of payment unless otherwise 

In computing interest or discount on negotiable instruments, a month 
shall be considered a calendar month or twelfth of a year, and for less 
than a month, a day shall be figured a thirtieth part of a month. Notes 
only bear interest when so expressed, but after due they draw the legal 
interest, even if not stated. 


The legal rate of interest is six per cent. Parties may agree in writing 
on a rate not exceeding eight per cent. If a rate of interest greater than 
eight per cent is contracted for, it works a forfeiture of the whole of said 
interest, and only the principal can be recovered. 


When no will is made, the property of a deceased person is distrib- 
uted as follows : 



First. To his or her children and their descendants in equal parts ; 
the descendants of the deceased child or grandchild taking the share of 
their deceased parents in equal parts among them. 

Second. Where there is no child, nor descendant of such child, and 
no widow or surviving husband, then to the parents, brothers and sisters 
of the deceased, and their descendants, in equal parts, the surviving 
parent, if either be dead, taking a double portion ; and if there is no 
parent living, then to the brothers and sisters of the intestate and their 

Third. When there is a widow or surviving husband, and no child or 
children, or descendants of the same, then one-half of the real estate and 
the whole of the personal estate shall descend to such widow or surviving 
husband, absolutely, and the other half of the real estate shall descend as 
in other cases where there is no child or children or descendants of the 

Fourth. When there is a widow or surviving husband and also a child 
or children, or descendants of the latter, then one third of all the personal 
estate to the widow or surviving husband absolutely. 

Fifth. If there is no child, parent, brother or sister, or descendants of 
either of them, and no widow or surviving husband, then in equal parts 
to the next of kin to the intestate in equal degree. Collaterals shall not 
be represented except with the descendants of brothers and sisters of the 
intestate, and there shall be no distinction between kindred of the whole 
and the half blood. 

Sixth. If any intestate leaves a widow or surviving husband and no 
kindred, then to such widow or surviving husband ; and if there is no such 
widow or surviving husband, it shall escheat to and vest in the county 
where the same, or the greater portion thereof, is situated. 


No exact form of words are necessary in order to make a will good at 
law. Every male person of the age of twenty-one years, and every female 
of the age of eighteen years, of sound mind and memory, can make a valid 
will ; it must be in tvriting, signed by the testator or by some one in his 
or her presence and by his or her direction, and attested by two or more 
credible witnesses. Care should be taken that the witnesses are not inter- 
ested in the will. Persons knowing themselves to have been named in the 
will or appointed executor, must within thirty days of the death of 
deceased cause the will to be proved and recorded in the proper county, 
or present it, and refuse to accept; on failure to do so are liable to forfeit 
the sum of twenty dollars per month. Inventory to be made by executor 
or administrator within three months from date of letters testamentary or 


of administration. Executors' and administrators' compensation not to 
exceed six per cent, on amount of personal estate, and three per cent. 
on money realized from real estate, with such additional allowance a? 
shall be reasonable for extra services. Appraisers'' compensation $2 pei 

Notice requiring all claims to be presented against the estate shall btf 
given by the executor or administrator within six ■months of being - quali- 
fied. Any person having a claim and not presenting it at the time fixed 
by said notice is required to have summons issued notifying the executor 
or administrator of his having filed his claim in court ; in such cases the 
costs have to be paid by the claimant. Claims should be filed within two 
years from the time administration is granted on an estate, as after that 
time they are forever barred, unless other estate is found that was not in- 
ventoried. Married women, infants, persons insane, imprisoned or without 
the United States, in the employment of the United States, or of this 
State, have two years after their disabilities are removed to file claims. 

Claims are classified and paid out of the estate in the following manner : 

First. Funeral expenses. 

Second. The widow's aivard, if there is a widow ; or children if there 
are children, and no widow. 

Third. Expenses attending the last illness, not including physician's 

Fourth. Debts due the common school or township fund . 

Fifth. All expenses of proving the will and taking out letters testa- 
mentary or administration, and settlement of the estate, and the physi- 
cian s bill in the last illness of deceased. 

Sixth. Where the deceased has received money in trust for any pur- 
pose, his executor or administrator shall pay out of his estate the amount 
received and not accounted for. 

Seventh. All other debts and demands of whatsoever kind, without 
regard to quality or dignity, which shall be exhibited to the court within 
two years from the granting of letters. 

Award to Widow and Children, exclusive of debts and legacies or be- 
quests, except funeral expenses : 

First. The family pictures and wearing apparel, jewels and ornaments 
of herself and minor children. 

Second. School books and the family library of the value of $100. 

Third. One sewing machine. 

Fourth. Necessary beds, bedsteads and bedding for herself and family. 

Fifth. The stoves and pipe used in the family, with the necessary 
cooking utensils, or in case they have none, $50 in money. 

Sixth. Household and kitchen furniture to the value of $100. 

Seventh. One milch cow and calf for every four members of her family. 


Eighth. Two sheep for each member of her family, and the fleeces 
taken from the same, and one horse, saddle and bridle. 

Ninth. Provisions for herself and family for one year. 

Tenth. Food for the stock above specified for six months. 

Eleventh. Fuel for herself and family for three months. 

Twelfth. One hundred dollars worth of other property suited to her 
condition in life, to be selected by the widow. 

The widow if she elects may have in lieu of the said award, the same 
personal property or money in place thereof as is or may be exempt from 
execution or attachment against the head of a family. 


The owners of real and personal property, on the first day of May in 
each year, are liable for the taxes thereon. 

Assessments should be completed before the fourth Monday in June> 
at which time the town board of review meets to examine assessments, 
hear objections, and make such changes as ought to be made. The county 
board have also power to correct or change assessments. 

The tax books are placed in the hands of the town collector on or 
before t) e tenth day of December, who retains them until the tenth day 
of March following, when he is required to return them to the county 
treasurer, who then collects all delinquent taxes. 

No costs accrue on real estate taxes till advertised, which takes place 
the first day of April, when three weeks' notice is required before judg- 
ment. Cost of advertising, twenty cents each tract of land, and ten cents 
each lot. 

Judgment is usually obtained at May term of County Court. Costs 
six cents each tract of land, and five cents each lot. Sale takes place in 
June. Costs in addition to those before mentioned, twenty-eight cents 
each tract of land, and twenty-seven cents each town lot. 

Real estate sold for taxes may be redeemed any time before the expi- 
ration of two years from the date of sale, by payment to the County Clerk 
of the amount for which it was sold and twenty-five per cent, thereon if 
redeemed within six months, fifty per cent, if between six and twelve 
months, if between twelve and eighteen months seventy-five per cent., 
and if between eighteen months and two years one hundred per cent., 
and in addition, all subsequent taxes paid by the purchaser, with ten per 
cent, interest thereon, also one dollar each tract if notice is given by the 
purchaser of the sale, and a fee of twenty-five cents to the clerk for his 



Justices have jurisdiction in all civil cases on contracts for the recovery 
of moneys for damages for injury to real property, or taking, detaining, or 


injuring personal property ; for rent; for all cases to recover damages done 
real or personal property by railroad companies, in actions of replevin, and 
in actions for damages for fraud in the sale, purchase, or exchange of per- 
sonal property, when the amount claimed as due is not over $200. They 
have also jurisdiction in all cases for violation of the ordinances of cities, 
towns or villages. A justice of the peace may orally order an officer or a 
private person to arrest any one committing or attempting to commit a 
criminal offense. He also upon complaint can issue his warrant for the 
arrest of any person accused of having committed a crime, and have him 
brought before him for examination. 

Have jurisdiction in all matters of probate (except in counties having a 
population of one hundred thousand or over), settlement of estates of 
deceased persons, appointment of guardians and conservators, and settle- 
ment of their accounts ; all matters relating to apprentices ; proceedings 
for the collection of taxes and assessments, and in proceedings of executors, 
administrators, guardians and conservators for the sale of real estate. In 
law cases they have concurrent jurisdiction with Circuit Courts in all 
cases where justices of the peace now have, or hereafter may have, 
jurisdiction when the amount claimed shall not exceed $1,000, and in all 
criminal offenses where the punishment is not imprisonment in the peni- 
tentiary, or death, and in all cases of appeals from justices of the peace 
and police magistrates; excepting when the county judge is sitting as a 
justice of the peace. Circuit Courts have unlimited jurisdiction. 


Accounts five years. Notes and written contracts ten years. Judg- 
ments twenty years. Partial payments or new promise in writing, within 
or after said period, will revive the debt. Absence from the State deducted, 
and when the cause of action is barred by the law of another State, it has 
the same effect here. Slander and libel, one year. Personal injuries, two 
years. To recover land or make entry thereon, twenty years. Action to 
foreclose mortgage or trust deed, or make a sale, within ten years. 

All persons in possession of land, and paying taxes for seven consecu- 
tive years, with color of title, and all persons paying taxes for seven con- 
secutive years, with color of title, on vacant land, shall be held to be the 
legal owners to the extent of their 'paper title. 


May sue and be sued. Husband and wife not liable for each other s debts, 
either before or after marriage, but both are liable for expenses and edu- 
cation of the family. 


She may contract the same as if unmarried, except that in a partner- 
ship business she can not, without consent of her husband, unless he has 
abandoned or deserted her, or is idiotic or insane, or confined in peniten- 
tiary ; she is entitled and can recover her own earnings, but neither hus- 
band nor wife is entitled to compensation for any services rendered for the 
other. At the death of the husband, in addition to widow's award, a 
married woman has a dower interest (one-third) in all real estate owned 
by her husband after their marriage, and which has not been released by 
her, and the husband has the same interest in the real estate of the wife 
at her death. 


Home worth $1,000, and the following Personal Property : Lot of ground 
and buildings thereon, occupied as a residence by the debtor, being a house- 
holder and having a family, to the value of $1,000. Exemption continues 
after the death of the householder for the benefit of widow and family, some 
one of them occupying the homestead until youngest child shall become 
twenty-one years of age, and until death of widoiv. There is no exemption 
from sale for taxes, assessments, debt or liability incurred for the purchase 
or improvement of said homestead. No release or waiver of exemption is 
valid, unless in writing, and subscribed by such householder and wife (if 
he have one), and acknowledged as conveyances of real estate are required 
to be acknowledged. The following articles of personal property owned 
by the debtor, are exempt from execution, writ of attachment, and distress 
for rent : The necessary wearing apparel, Bibles, school books and family 
pictures of every person ; and, 2d, one hundred dollars worth of other 
property to be selected by the debtor, and, in addition, when the debtor 
is the head of a family and resides with the same, three hundred dollars 
worth of other property to be selected by the debtor ; provided that such 
selection and exemption shall not be made by the debtor or allowed to 
him or her from any money, salary or wages due him or her from any 
person or persons or corporations whatever. 

When the head of a family shall die, desert or not reside with the 
same, the family shall be entitled to and receive all the benefit and priv- 
ileges which are by this act conferred upon the head of a family residing 
with the same. No personal property is exempt from execution when 
judgment is obtained for the wages of laborers or servants. Wages of a 
laborer who is the head of a family can not be garnisheed, except the sum 
due him be in excess of $25. 



To be valid there must be a valid consideration. Special care should 
be taken to have them signed, sealed, delivered, and properly acknowl- 
edged, with the proper seal attached. Witnesses are not required. The 
acknoivledgement must be made in this state, before Master in Chancery, 
Notary Public, United States Commissioner, Circuit or County Clerk, Justice 
of Peace, or any Court of Record having a seal, or any Judge, Justice, or 
Clerk of any such Court. When taken before a Notary Public, or United 
States Commissioner, the same shall be attested by his official seal, when 
taken before a Court or the Clerk thereof, the same shall be attested by 
the seal of such Court, and when taken before a Justice of the Peace resid- 
ing out of the county where the real estate to be conveyed lies, there shall 
be added a certificate of the County Clerk under his seal of office, that he 
was a Justice of the Peace in the county at the time of taking the same. 
A deed is good without such certificate attached, but can not be used in 
evidence unless such a certificate is produced or other competent evidence 
introduced. Acknowledgements made out of the state must either be 
executed according to the laws of this state, or there should be attached 
a certificate that it is in conformity with the laws of the state or country 
where executed. Where this is not done the same may be proved by any 
other legal way. Acknowledgments where the Homestead rights are to 
be waived must state as follows : " Including the release and waiver of 
the right of homestead." 

Notaries Public can take acknowledgements any where in the state. 

Sheriffs, if authorized by the mortgagor of real or personal property 
in his mortgage, may sell the property mortgaged. 

In the case of the death of grantor or holder of the equity of redemp- 
tion of real estate mortgaged, or conveyed by deed of trust where equity 
of redemption is waived, and it contains power of sale, must be foreclosed 
in the same manner as a common mortgage in court. 


Horses, mules, asses, neat cattle, swine, sheep, or goats found straying 
at any time during the year, in counties where such animals are not allowed 
to run at large, or between the last day of October and the 15th day of 
April in other counties, the oivner thereof being unknown, may be taken up 
as estrays. 

No person not a householder in the county where estray is found can 
lawfully take up an estray, and then only upon or about his farm or place 
of residence. Estrays should not be used before advertised, except animals 
giving milk, which may be milked for their benefit. 


Notices must be posted up within five (5) days in three (3) of the 
most public places in the town or precinct in which estray was found, giv- 
ing the residence of the taker up, and a particular description of the 
estray, its age, color, and marks natural and artificial, and stating before 
what justice of the peace in such town or precinct, and at what time, not 
less than ten (10) nor more than fifteen (15) days from the time of post- 
ing such notices, he will apply to have the estray appraised. 

A copy of such notice should be filed by the taker up with the town 
clerk, whose duty it is to enter the same at large, in a book kept by him 
for that purpose. 

If the owner of estray shall not have appeared and proved ownership, 
and taken the same away, first paying the taker up his reasonable charges 
for taking up, keeping, and advertising the same, the taker up shall appear 
before the justice of the peace mentioned in above mentioned notice, and 
make an affidavit as required by law. 

As the affidavit has to be made before the justice, and all other steps as 
to appraisement, etc., are before him, who is familiar therewith, they are 
therefore omitted here. 

Any person taking up an estray at any other place than about or 
upon his farm or residence, or without complying with the law, shall forfeit 
and pay a fine of ten dollars with costs. 

Ordinary diligence is required in taking care of estrays, but in case 
they die or get away the taker is not liable for the same. 


It is unlawful for any person to kill, or attempt to kill or destroy, in 
any manner, any prairie hen or chicken or woodcock between the loth day 
of January and the 1st day of September ; or any deer, faivn, wild-turkey, 
partridge or pheasant between the 1st day of February and the 1st day 
of October ; or any quail between the 1st day of February and 1st day of 
November ; or any wild goose, duck, snipe, brant or other water fowl 
between the 1st day of May and 15th day of August in each year. 
Penalty : Fine not less than $5 nor more than $25, for each bird or 
animal, and costs of suit, and stand committed to county jail until fine is 
paid, but not exceeding ten days. It is unlawful to hunt with gun, dog 
or net within the inclosed grounds or lands of another without permission. 
Penalty: Fine not less than $3 nor more than $100, to be paid into 
school fund. 


Whenever any of the following articles shall be contracted for, or 
sold or delivered, and no special contract or agreement shall be made to 
the contrary, the weight per bushel shall be as follows, to-wit : 




Stone Coal, - 

- 80 

Buckwheat, - 

- 52 

Unslacked Lime, 

- 80 

Coarse Salt, 

- 50 

Corn in the ear, 

- 70 

Barley, - 

- 48 


- 60 

Corn Meal, 

- 48 

Irish Potatoes, 

- 60 

Castor Beans, 

- 46 

White Beans, 

- 60 

Timothy Seed, - 

- 45 

Clover Seed, - 

- 60 

Hemp Seed, - 

- 44 

Onions, - 

- 57 

Malt, - 

- 38 

Shelled Corn, 

- 56 

Dried Peaches, 

- 33 

Rye, - 

- 56 

Oats, - 

- 32 

Flax Seed, 

- 56 

Dried Apples, 

- 24 

Sweet Potatoes, - 

- 55 

Bran, - 

- 20 


- 55 

Blue Grass Seed, - 

- 14 

Fine Salt, - 

- 55 

Hair (plastering), 


Penalty for giving less than the above standard is double the amount 
of property wrongfully not given, and ten dollars addition thereto. 


The owner or occupant of every public grist mill in this state shall 
grind all grain brought to his mill in its turn. The toll for both steam 
and water mills, is, for grinding and bolting wheat, rye, or other grain, one 
eighth part; for grinding Indian corn, oats, barley and buckwheat not 
required to be bolted, one seventh part ; for grinding malt, and chopping all 
kinds of grain, one eighth part. It is the duty of every miller when his 
mill is in repair, to aid and assist in loading and unloading all grain brought 
to him to be ground, and he is also required to keep an accurate half 
bushel measure, and an accurate set of toll dishes or scales for weishino- 
the grain. The penalty for neglect or refusal to comply with the law is 
§5, to the use of any person to sue for the same, to be recovered before 
any justice of the peace of the county where penalty is incurred. Millers 
are accountable for the safe keeping of all grain left in his mill for the 
purpose of being ground, with bags or casks containing same (except it 
results from unavoidable accidents), provided that such bags or casks are 
distinctly marked with the initial letters of the owner's name. 


Owners of cattle, horses, hogs, sheep or goats may have one ear mark 
and one brand, but which shall be different from his neighbor's, and may 
be recorded by the county clerk of the county in which such property is 
kept. Th.e fee for such record is fifteen cents. The record of such shall 
be open to examination free of charge. In cases of disputes as to marks 
or brands, such record is prima facie evidence. Owners of cattle, horses, 
hogs, sheep or goats that may have been branded by the former oioner, 


may be re-branded in presence of one or more of his neighbors, who shall 
certify to the facts of the marking or branding being done, when done, 
and in what brand or mark they were re-branded or re-marked, which 
certificate may also be recorded as before stated.^ 


Children may be adopted by any resident of this state, by filing a 
petition in the Circuit or County Court of the county in which he resides, 
asking leave to do so, and if desired may ask that the name of the child 
be changed. Such petition, if made by a person having a husband or 
wife, will not be granted, unless the husband or wife joins therein, as the 
adoption must be by them jointly. 

The petition shall state name, sex, and age of the child, and the new 
name, if it is desired to change the name. Also the name and residence 
of the parents of the child, if known, and of the guardian, if any, and 
whether the parents or guardians consent to the adoption. 

The court must find, before granting decree, that the parents of the 
child, or the survivors of them, have deserted his or her family or such 
child for one year next preceding the application, or if neither are living, 
the guardian ; if no guardian, the next of kin in this state capable of giving 
consent, has had notice of the presentation of the petition and consents 
to such adoption. If the child is of the age of fourteen years or upwards, 
the adoption can not be made without its consent. 


There is in every county elected a surveyor known as county sur- 
veyor, who has power to appoint deputies, for whose official acts he is 
responsible. It is the duty of the county surveyor, either by himself or 
his deputy, to make all surveys that he may be called upon to make within 
his county as soon as may be after application is made. The necessary 
chainmen and other assistance must be employed by the person requiring 
the same to be done, and to be by him paid, unless otherwise agreed ; but 
the chainmen must be disinterested persons and approved by the surveyor 
and sworn by him to measure justly and impartially. 

The County Board in each county is required by law to provide a copy 
of the United States field notes and plats of their surveys of the lands 
in the county to be kept in the recorder's office subject to examination 
by the public, and the county surveyor is required to make his surveys 
in conformity to said notes, plats and the laws of the United States gov- 
erning such matters. The surveyor is also required to keep a record 
of all surveys made by him, which shall be subject to inspection by any 
one interested, and shall be delivered up to his successor in office. A. 


certified copy of the said surveyor's record shall be prima facie evidence 
of its contents. 

The fees of county surveyors are six dollars per day. The county 
surveyor is also ex officio inspector of mines, and as such, assisted by some 
practical miner selected by him, shall once each year inspect all the 
mines in the county, for which they shall each receive such compensa- 
tion as may be fixed by the County Board, not exceeding $5 a day, to 
be paid out of the county treasury. 


Where practicable from the nature of the ground, persons traveling 
in any kind of vehicle, must turn to the right of the center of the road, so 
as to permit each carriage to pass without interfering with each other. 
The penalty for a violation of this provision is $5 for every offense, to 
be recovered by the party injured; but to recover, there must have 
occurred some injury to person or property resulting from the violation. 
The owners of any carriage traveling upon any road in this State for the 
conveyance of passengers who shall employ or continue in his employment 
as driver any person who is addicted to drunkenness, or the excessive use of 
spiritous liquors, after he has had notice of the same, shall forfeit, at the 
rate of $5 per day, and if any driver while actually engaged in driving 
any such carriage, shall be guilty of intoxication to such a degree as to 
endanger the safety of passengers, it shall be the duty of the owner, on 
receiving written notice of the fact, signed by one of the passengers, and 
certified by him on oath, forthwith to discharge such driver. If such owner 
shall have such driver in his employ within three months after such notice, 
he is liable for $5 per day for the time he shall keep said driver in his 
employment after receiving such notice. 

Persons driving any carriage on any public highway are prohibited 
from running their horses upon any occasion under a penalty of a fine not 
exceeding $10, or imprisonment not exceeding sixty days, at the discre- 
tion of the court. Horses attached to any carriage used to convey passen- 
gers for hire must be properly hitched or the lines placed in the hands of 
some other person before the driver leaves them for any purpose. For 
violation of this provision each driver shall forfeit twenty dollars, to be 
recovered by action, to be commenced within six months. It is under- 
stood by the term carriage herein to mean any carriage or vehicle used 
for the transportation of passengers or goods or either of them. 

The commissioners of highways in the different towns have the care 
and superintendence of highways and bridges therein. They have all 
the powers necessary to lay out, vacate, regulate and repair all roads* 
build and repair bridges. In addition to the above, it is their duty to 
erect and keep in repair at the forks or crossing-place of the most 


important roads post and guide boards with plain inscriptions, giving 
directions and distances to the most noted places to which such road may 
lead ; also to make provisions to prevent thistles, burdock, and cockle 
burrs, mustard, yellow dock, Indian mallow and jimson weed from 
seeding, and to extirpate the same as far as practicable, and to prevent 
all rank growth of vegetation on the public highways so far as the same 
may obstruct public travel, and it is in their discretion to erect watering 
places for public use for watering teams at such points as may be deemed 

The Commissioners, on or before the 1st day of May of each year, 
shall make out and deliver to their treasurer a list of all able-bodied men 
in their town, excepting paupers, idiots, lunatics, and such others as are 
exempt by law, and assess against each the sum of two dollars as a poll 
tax for highway purposes. Within thirty days after such list is delivered 
they shall cause a written or printed notice to be given to each person so 
assessed, notifying him of the time when and place where such tax must 
be paid, or its equivalent in labor performed ; they may contract with 
persons owing such poll tax to perform a certain amount of labor on any 
road or bridge in payment of the same, and if such tax is not paid nor 
labor performed by the first Monday of July of such year, or within ten 
days after notice is given after that time, they shall bring suit therefor 
against such person before a justice of the peace, who shall hear and 
determine the case according to law for the offense complained of, and 
shall forthwith issue an execution, directed to any constable of the county 
where the delinquent shall reside, who shall forthwith collect the moneys 
therein mentioned. 

The Commissioners of Highways of each town shall annually ascer- 
tain, as near as practicable, how much money must be raised by tax on real 
and personal property for the making and repairing of roads, only, to any 
amount they may deem necessary, not exceeding forty cents on each one 
hundred dollars' worth, as valued on the assessment roll of the previous 
year. The tax so levied on property lying within an incorporated village, 
town or city, shall be paid over to the corporate authorities of such town, 
village or city. Commissioners shall receive $1.50 for each day neces- 
sarily employed in the discharge of their duty. 

Overseers. At the first meeting the Commissioners shall choose one 
of their number to act General Overseer of Highways in their township, 
whose duty it shall be to take charge of and safely keep all tools, imple- 
ments and machinery belonging to said town, and shall, by the direction 
of the Board, have general supervision of all roads and bridges in their 


As all township and county officers are familiar with their duties, it 
is only intended to give the points of the law that the public should he 
familiar with. The manner of laying out, altering or vacating roads, etc., 
will not be here stated, as it would require more space than is contem- 
plated in a work of this kind. It is sufficient to state that, the first step 
is by petition, addressed to the Commissioners, setting out what is prayed 
for, giving the names of the owners of lands if known, if not known so 
state, over which the road is to pass, giving the general course, its place 
of beginning, and where it terminates. It requires not less than twelve 
freeholders residing within three miles of the road who shall sign the 
petition. Public roads must not be less than fifty feet wide, nor more 
than sixty feet wide. Roads not exceeding two miles in length, if peti- 
tioned for, may be laid out, not less than forty feet. Private roads 
for private and public use, may be laid out of the width of three rods, on 
petition of the person directly interested ; the damage occasioned thereby 
shall be paid by the premises benefited thereby, and before the road is 
opened. If not opened in two years, the order shall be considered 
rescinded. Commissioners in their discretion may permit persons who 
live on or have private roads, to work out their road tax thereon. Public 
roads must be opened in five days from date of filing order of location, 
or be deemed vacated. 


Whenever one or more owners or occupants of land desire to construct 
i drain or ditch across the land of others for agricultural, sanitary or 
mining purposes, the proceedings are as follows : 

File a petition in the Circuit or County Court of the county in which 
the proposed ditch or drain is to be constructed, setting forth the neces- 
sity for the same, with a description of its proposed starting point, route 
and terminus, and if it shall be necessary for the drainage of the land or 
coal mines or for sanitary purposes, that a drain, ditch, levee or similar 
work be constructed, a description of the same. It shall also set forth 
the names of all persons owning the land over which such drain or ditch 
shall be constructed, or if unknown stating that fact. 

No private property shall be taken or damaged for the purpose of 
constructing a ditch, drain or levee, without compensation, if claimed by 
the owner, the same to be ascertained by a jury ; but if the construction 
of such ditch, drain or levee shall be a benefit to the owner, the same 
shall be a set off against such compensation. 

If the proceedings seek to affect the property of a minor, lunatic or 
married woman, the guardian, conservator or husband of the same shall 
be made party defendant. The petition may be amended and parties 
made defendants at any time when it is necessary to a fair trial. 


When the petition is presented to the judge, he shall note there m 
when he will hear the same, and order the issuance of summonses a*id 
the publication of notice to each non-resident or unknown defendant. 

The petition may be heard by such judge in vacation as well as in 
term time. Upon the trial, the jury shall ascertain the just compensation 
to each owner of the property sought to be damaged by the construction 
of such ditch, drain or levee, and truly report the same. 

As it is only contemplated in a work of this kind to give an abstract 
of the laws, and as the parties who have in charge the execution of the 
further proceedings are likely to be familiar with the requirements of the 
statute, the necessary details are not here inserted. 


The County Board of any county in this State may hereafter alluw 
such bounty on ivolf scalps as the board may deem reasonable. 

Any person claiming a bounty shall produce the scalp or scalps with 
the ears thereon, within sixty days after the wolf or wolves shall have 
been caught, to the Clerk of the County Board, who shall administer to 
said person the following oath or affirmation, to-wit: "You do solemnly 
swear (or affirm, as the case may be), that the scalp or scalps here pro- 
duced by you was taken from a wolf or wolves killed and first captured 
by yourself within the limits of this county, and within the sixty days 
last past." 


When the reversion expectant on a lease of any tenements or here- 
ditaments of any tenure shall be surrendered or merged, the estate which 
shall for the time being confer as against the tenant under the same lease 
the next vested right to the same tenements or hereditaments, shall, to 
the extent and for the purpose of preserving such incidents to and obli- 
gations on the same reversion, as but for the surrender or merger thereof, 
would have subsisted, be deemed the reversion expectant on the same 


Every poor person who shall be unable to earn a livelihood in conse- 
quence of any bodily infirmity, idiocy, lunacy or unavoidable cause, shall 
be supported by the father, grand-father, mother, grand-mother, children, 
grand-children, brothers or sisters of such poor person, if they or either 
of them be of sufficient ability ; but if any of such dependent class shall 
have become so from intemperance or other bad conduct, they shall not be 
entitled to support from any relation except parent or child. 


The children shall first be called on to support their parents, if they 
are able ; but if not, the parents of such poor person shall then be called 
on, if of sufficient ability ; and if there be no parents or children able, 
then the brothers and sisters of such dependent person shall be called 
upon ; and if there be no brothers or sisters of sufficient ability, the 
grand-children of such person shall next be called on ; and if they are 
not able, then the grand-parents. Married females, while their husbands 
live, shall not be liable to contribute for the support of their poor relations 
except out of their separate property. It is the duty of the state's 
(county) attorney, to make complaint to the County Court of his county 
against all the relatives of such paupers in this state liable to his support 
and prosecute the same. In case the state's attorney neglects, or refuses, to 
complain in such cases, then it is the duty of the overseer of the poor to 
do so. The person called upon to contribute shall have at least ten days' 
notice of such application by summons. The court has the power to 
determine the kind of support, depending upon the circumstances of the 
parties, and may also order two or more of the different degrees to main- 
tain such poor person, and prescribe the proportion of each, according to 
their ability. The court may specify the time for which the relative shall 
contribute — in fact has control over the entire subject matter, with power 
to enforce its orders. Every county (except those in which the poor are 
supported by the towns, and in such cases the towns are liable) is required 
to relieve and support all poor and indigent persons lawfully resident 
therein. Residence means the actual residence of the party, or the place 
where he was employed ; or in case he was in no employment, then it 
shall be the place where he made his home. When any person becomes 
chargeable as a pauper in any county or town who did not reside at the 
commencement of six months' immediately preceding his becoming so, 
but did at that time reside in some other county or town in this state, 
then the county or town, as the case may be, becomes liable for the expense 
of taking care of such person until removed, and it is the duty of the 
overseer to notify the proper authorities of the fact. If any person shall 
bring and leave any pauper in any county in this state where such pauper 
had no legal residence, knowing him to be such, he is liable to a fine of 
$100. In counties under township organization, the supervisors in each 
town are ex-ofncio overseers of the poor. The overseers of the poor act 
under the directions of the County Board in taking care of the poor and 
granting of temporary relief ; also, providing for non-resident persons not 
paupers who may be taken sick and not able to pay their way, and in case 
of death cause such person to be decently buried. 

The residence of the inmates of poorhouses and other charitable 
institutions for voting purposes is their former place of abode. 



In counties under township organization, the town assessor and com- 
missioner of highways are the fence-viewers in their respective towns. 
In other counties the County Board appoints three in each precinct annu- 
ally. A lawful fence is four and one-half feet high, in good repair, con- 
sisting of rails, timber, boards, stone, hedges, or whatever the fence- 
viewers of the town or precinct where the same shall lie, shall consider 
equivalent thereto, but in counties under township organization the annual 
town meeting may establish any other kind of fence as such, or the County 
Board in other counties may do the same. Division fences shall be made 
and maintained in just proportion by the adjoining owners, except when 
the owner shall choose to let his land lie open, but after a division fence is 
built by agreement or otherwise, neither party can remove his part of such 
fence so long as he may crop or use such land for farm purposes, or without 
giving the other party one year's notice in writing of his intention to remove 
his portion. When any person shall enclose his land upon the enclosure 
of another, he shall refund the owner of the adjoining lands a just pro- 
portion of the value at that time of such fence. The value of fence and 
the just proportion to be paid or built and maintained by each is to be 
ascertained by two fence-viewers in the town or precinct. Such fence- 
viewers have power to settle all disputes between different owners as to 
fences built or to be built, as well as to repairs to be made. Each party 
chooses one of the viewers, but if the other party neglects, after eight 
days' notice in writing, to make his choice, then the other party may 
select both. It is sufficient to notify the tenant or party in possession, 
when the owner is not a resident of the town or precinct. The two 
fence-viewers chosen, after viewing the premises, shall hear the state- 
ments of the parties , in case they can't agree, they shall select another 
fence-viewer to act with them, and the decision of any two of them is 
final. The decision must be reduced to writing, and should plainly set 
out description of fence and all matters settled by them, and must be 
filed in the office of the town clerk in counties under township organiza- 
tion, and in other counties with the county clerk. 

Where any person is liable to contribute to the erection or the 
repairing of a division fence, neglects or refuses so to do, the party 
injured, after giving sixty days notice in writing when a fence is to be 
erected, or ten days when it is only repairs, may proceed to have the 
work done at the expense of the party whose duty it is to do it, to be 
recovered from him with costs of suit, and the party so neglecting shall 
also be liable to the party injured for all damages accruing from such 
neglect or refusal, to be determined by any two fence-viewers selected 
as before provided, the appraisement to be reduced to writing and signed. 


Where a person shall conclude to remove his part of a division fence, 
and let his land lie open, and having given the year's notice required, the 
adjoining owner may cause the value of said fence to be ascertained by 
fence-viewers as before provided, and on payment or tender of the 
amount of such valuation to the owner, it shall prevent the removal. A 
party removing a division fence without notice is liable for the damages 
accruing thereby. 

Where a fence has been built on the land of another through mis- 
take, the owner may enter upon such premises and remove his fence and 
material within oix months after the division line has been ascertained. 
Where the material to build such a fence has been taken from the land 
on which it was built, then before it can be removed, the person claiming 
must first pay for such material to the owner of the land from which it 
was taken, nor shall such a fence be removed at a time when the removal 
will throw open or expose the crops of the other party ; a reasonable 
time must be given beyond the .six months to remove crops. 

The compensation <)f fence-viewers is one dollar and fifty cents a 
day each, to be paid in the first instance by the party calling them, but 
in the end all expenses, including amount charged by the fence-viewers, 
must be paid equally by the parties, except in cases where a party neglects 
or refuses to make or maintain a just proportion of a division fence, when 
the party in default shall pay them. 


Where stock of any kind breaks into any person's enclosure, the 
fence being good and sufficient, the owner is liable for the damage done ; 
but where the damage is done by stock running at large, contrary to laiv, 
the owner is liable where there is not such a fence. Where stock ia 
found trespassing on the enclosure of another as aforesaid, the owner 01 
occupier of the premises may take possession of such stock and keep the 
same until damages, with reasonable charges for keeping and feeding and 
all costs of suit, are paid. Any person taking or rescuing such stock so 
held without his consent, shall be liable to a fine of not less than three 
nor more than five dollars for each animal rescued, to be recovered by 
suit before a justice of the peace for the use of the school fund. Within 
twenty-four hours after taking such animal into his possession, the per- 
son taking it up must give notice of the fact to the owner, if known, or 
if unknown, notices must be posted in some public place near the premises. 


The owner of lands, or his legal representatives, can sue for and 
recover rent therefor, in any of the following cases : 

First. When rent is due and in arrears on a lease for life or lives. 


Second. When lands are held and occupied by any person without 
any special agreement for rent. 

Third. When possession is obtained under an agreement, written 
or verbal, for the purchase of the premises and before deed given, the 
right to possession is terminated by forfeiture on con-compliance with the 
agreement, and possession is wrongfully refused or neglected to be giver, 
upon demand made in writing by the party entitled thereto. Provided 
that all payments made by the vendee or his representatives or assigns, 
may be set off against the rent. 

Fourth. When land has been sold upon a judgment or a decree of 
court, when the party to such judgment or decree, or person holding under 
him, wrongfully refuses, or neglects, to surrender possession of the same, 
after demand in writing by the person entitled to the possession. 

Fifth. When the lands have been sold upon a mortgage or trust 
deed, and the mortgagor or grantor or person holding under him, wrong- 
fully refuses or neglects to surrender possession of the same, after demand 
in writing by the person entitled to the possession. 

If any tenant, or any person who shall come into possession from or 
under or by collusion with such tenant, shall willfully hold over any lands, 
etc., after the expiration the term of their lease, and after demand made 
in writing for the possession thereof, is liable to pay double rent. A 
tenancy from year to year requires sixty days notice in writing, to termi- 
nate the same at the end of the year ; such notice can be given at any 
time within four months preceding the last sixty days of the year. 

A tenancy by the month, or less than a year, where the tenant holds 
over without any special agreement, the landlord may terminate the 
tenancy, by thirty days notice in writing. 

When rent is due, the landlord may serve a notice upon the tenant, 
stating that unless the rent is paid within not less than five days, his lease 
will be terminated ; if the rent is not paid, the landlord may consider the 
lease ended. When default is made in any of the terms of a lease, it 
shall not be necessary to give more than ten days notice to quit or of the 
termination of such tenancy ; and the same may be terminated on giving 
such notice to quit, at any time after such default in any of the terms of 
such lease ; which notice may be substantially in the following form, viz : 

To , You are hereby notified that, in consequence of your default 

in (here insert the character of the default), of the premises now occupied 
by you, being etc. (here describe the premises), I have elected to deter- 
mine your lease, and you are hereby notified to quit and deliver up pos- 
session of the same to me within ten days of this date (dated, etc.) 

The above to be signed by the lessor or his agent, and no other notice 
or demand of possession or termination of such tenancy is necessary. 

Demand may be made, or notice served, by delivering a written or 


printed, or partly either, copy thereof to the tenant, or leaving the same 
with some person above the .age of twelve years residing on or in posses- 
sion of the premises ; and in case no one is in the actual possession of the 
said premises, then by posting the same on the premises. When the 
tenancy is for a certain time, and the term expires by the terms of the 
lease, the tenant is then bound to surrender possession, and no notice 
to quit or demand of possession is necessary. 

Distress for rent. — In all cases of distress for rent, the landlord, by 
himself, his agent or attorney, may seize for rent any personal property of 
his tenant that may be found in the county where the tenant resides ; the 
property of any other person, even if found on the premises, is not 

An inventory of the property levied upon, with a statement of the 
amount of rent claimed, should be at once filed with some justice of the 
peace, if not over $200 ; and if above that sum, with the clerk of a court 
of record of competent jurisdiction. Property may be released, by the 
party executing a satisfactory bond for double the amount. 

The landlord may distrain for rent, any time within six months after 
the expiration of the term of the lease, or when terminated. 

In all cases where the premises rented shall be sub-let, or the lease 
assigned, the landlord shall have the same right to enforce lien against 
such lessee or assignee, that he has against the tenant to whom the pre- 
mises were rented. 

When a tenant abandons or removes from the premises or any part 
thereof, the landlord, or his agent or attorney, may seize upon any grain 
or other crops grown or growing upon the premises, or part thereof so 
abandoned, whether the rent is due or not. If such grain, or other crops, 
or any part thereof, is not fully grown or matured, the landlord, or his 
agent or attorney, shall cause the same to be properly cultivated, harvested 
or gathered, and may sell the same, and from the proceeds pay all his 
labor, expenses and rent. The tenant may, before the sale of such pro- 
perty, redeem the same by tendering the rent and reasonable compensation 
for work done, or he may replevy the same. 

Exemption. — The same articles of personal property which are bylaw 
exempt from execution, except the crops as above stated, is also exempt 
from distress for rent. 

If any tenant is about to or shall permit or attempt to sell and 
remove from the premises, without the consent of his landlord, such 
portion of the crops raised thereon as will endanger the lien of the land- 
lord upon such crops, for the rent, it shall be lawful for the landlord to 
distress before rent is due. 



Any person who shall by contract, express or implied, or partly both,, 
with the owner of any lot or tract of land, furnish labor or material, or 
services as an architect or superintendent, in building, altering, repairing 
or ornamenting any house or other building or appurtenance thereto on. 
such lot, or upon any street or alley, and connected with such improve- 
ments, shall have a lien upon the whole of such lot or tract of land, and 
upon such house or building and appurtenances, for the amount due to 
him for such labor, material or services. If the contract is expressed, and 
the time for the completion of the work is beyond three years from the com- 
mencement thereof ; or, if the time of payment is beyond one year from 
the time stipulated for the completion of the work, then no lien exists. 
If the contract is implied, then no lien exists, unless the work be done or 
material is furnished within one year from the commencement of the work 
or delivery of the materials. As between different creditors having liens, 
no preference is given to the one whose contract was first made ; but each 
shares pro-rata. Incumbrances existing on the lot or tract of the land at 
the time the contract is made, do not operate on the improvements, and 
are only preferred to the extent of the value of the land at the time of 
making the contract. The above lien can not be enforced unless suit is 
commenced within six months after the last payment for labor or materials 
shall have become due and payable. Sub-contractors, mechanics, workmen 
and other persons furnishing any material, or performing any labor for a 
contractor as before specified, have a lien to the extent of the amount due 
the contractor at the time the following notice is served upon the owner 
of the land who made the contract: 

To , You are hereby notified, that I have been employed by- 

(here state whether to labor or furnish material, and substantially the 
nature of the demand) upon your (here state in general terms description 
and situation of building), and that I shall hold the (building, or as the 
case may be), and your interest in the ground, liable for the amount that 

may (is or may become) due me on account thereof. Signature, 


If there is a contract in writing between contractor and sub-contractor, 
a copy of it should be served with above notice, and said notice must be 
served within forty days from the completion of such sub-contract, if there 
is one ; if not, then from the time payment should have been made to the 
person performing the labor or furnishing the material. If the owner is 
not a resident of the county, or can not be found therein, then the above 
notice must be filed with the clerk of the Circuit Court, with his fee, fifty 
cents, and a copy of said notice must be published in a newspaper pub- 
lished in the county, for four successive weeks. 


"When the owner or agent is notified as above, he can retain any 
money due the contractor sufficient to pay such claim ; if more than one 
claim, and not enough to pay all, they are to be paid pro rata. 

The owner has the right to demand in writing, a statement of the 
contractor, of what he owes for labor, etc., from time to time as the work 
progresses, and on his failure to comply, forfeits to the owner $50 for 
every offense. 

The liens referred to cover any and all estates, whether in fee for 
life, for years, or any other interest which the owner may have. 

To enforce the lien of sub-contractors, suit must be commenced within 
three months from the time of the performance of the sub-contract, or 
during the work or furnishing materials. 

Hotel, inn and boarding-house keepers, have a lien upon the baggage 
and other valuables of their guests or boarders, brought into such hotel, 
inn or boarding-house, by their guests or boarders, for the proper charges 
due from such guests or boarders for their accommodation, board and 
lodgings, and such extras as are furnished at their request. 

Stable-keepers and other persons have a lien upon the horses, car- 
riages and harness kept by them, for the proper charges due for the keep- 
ing thereof and expenses bestowed thereon at the request of the owner 
or the person having the possession of the same. 

Agisters (persons who take care of cattle belonging to others), and 
persons keeping, yarding, feeding or pasturing domestic animals, shall 
have a lien upon the animals agistered, kept, yarded or fed, for the proper 
charges due for such service. 

All persons who may furnish any railroad corporation in this state 
with fuel, ties, material, supplies or any other article or thing necessary 
for the construction, maintenance, operation or repair of its road by con- 
tract, or may perform work or labor on the same, is entitled to be paid as 
part of the current expenses of the road, and have a lien upon all its pro- 
perty. Sub-contractors or laborers have also a lien. The conditions and 
limitations both as to contractors and sub-contractors, are about the same 
as herein stated as to general liens. 


$ means dollars, being a contraction of U. S., which was formerly 

placed before any denomination of money, and meant, as it means now, 
United States Currency. 

£ means pounds, English money. 

@ stands for at or to. lb for pound, and bbl. for barrel; ^ for per or 
by the. Thus, Butter sells at 20@30c f lb, and Flour at $8@12 f bbl. 

fo for per cent and # for number. 

May 1. — Wheat sells at $1.20@1.25, "seller June." Seller June 


means that the person who sells the wheat has the privilege of delivering 
it at any time during the month of June. 

Selling short, is contracting to deliver a certain amount of grain or 
stock, at a fixed price, within a certain length of time, when the seller 
has not the stock on hand. It is for the interest of the person selling 
"short," to depress the market as much as possible, in order that he may 
buy and fill his contract at a profit. Hence the " shorts " are termed 
" bears." 

Buying long, is to contract to purchase a certain amount of grain or 
shares of stock at a fixed price, deliverable within a stipulated time, 
expecting to make a profit by the rise of prices.. The "longs" are 
termed "bulls," as it is for their interest to " operate " so as to "toss" 
the prices upward as much as possible. 


Form of note is legal, worded in the simplest way, so that the 
amount and time of payment are mentioned. 

1100. Chicago, 111., Sept. 15, 1876. 

Sixty days from date I promise to pay to E. F. Brown, 
or order, One Hundred dollars, for value received. 

L. D. Lowry. 
A note to be payable in any thing else than money needs only the 
facts substituted for money in the above form. 


Orders should be worded simply, thus : 

Mr. F. H. Coats: Chicago, Sept. 15, 1876. 

Please pay to H. Birdsall, Twenty-five dollars, and charge to 

F. D. Silva. 


Receipts should always state when received and what for, thus: 

$100. Chicago, Sept. 15, 1876. 

Received of J. W. Davis, One Hundred dollars, for services 
rendered in grading his lot in Fort Madison, on account. 

Thomas Brady. 

If receipt is in full it should be so stated. 


W. N. Mason, Salem, Illinois, Sept. 15, 1876. 

Bought of A. A. Graham. 
4 Bushels of Seed Wheat, at $1.50 - - - $6.00 

2 Seamless Sacks " .30 - - .60 

Received payment, $6.60 

A. A. Graham. 



An agreement is where one party promises to another to do a certain 
thing in a certain time for a stipulated sum. Good business men always 
reduce an agreement to writing, which nearly always saves misunder- 
standings and trouble. No particular form is necessary, but the facts must 
be clearly and explicitly stated, and there must, to make it valid, be a 
reasonable consideration. 


This Agreement, made the Second day of October, 1876, between 
John Jones, of Aurora, County of Kane, State of Illinois, of the first part, 
and Thomas Whiteside, of the same place, of the second part — 

Witnesseth, that the said John Jones, in consideration of the agree- 
ment of the party of the second part, hereinafter contained, contracts and 
agrees to and with the said Thomas Whiteside, that he will deliver, in 
good and marketable condition, at the Village of Batavia, 111., during the 
month of November, of this year, One Hundred Tons of Prairie Hay, in 
the following lots, and at the following specified times ; namely, twenty- 
five tons by the seventh of November, twenty-five tons additional by the 
fourteenth of the month, twenty-five tons more by the twenty -first, and 
the entire one hundred tons to be all delivered by the thirtieth of 

And the said Thomas Whiteside, in consideration of the prompt 
fulfillment of this contract, on the part of the party of the first part, 
contracts to and agrees with the said John Jones, to pay for said hay five 
dollars per ton, for each ton as soon as delivered. 

In case of failure of agreement by either of the parties hereto, it is 
hereby stipulated and agreed that the party so failing shall pay to the 
other, One Hundred Dollars, as fixed and settled damages. 

Id witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands the day and 
year first above written. John Jones, 

Thomas Whiteside. 


This Agreement, made the first day of May, one thousand eight 
hundred and seventy-six, between Reuben Stone, of Chicago, County 
of Cook, State of Illinois, party of the first part, and George Barclay, of 
Englewood, County of Cook, State of Illinois, party of the second part — 

Witnesseth, that said George Barclay agrees faithfully and dili- 
gently to work as clerk and salesman for the said Reuben Stone, for 
and during the space of one year from the date hereof, should both 
live such length of time, without absenting himself from his occupation ; 


during which time he, the said Barclay, in the store of said Stone, of 
Chicago, will carefully and honestly attend, doing and performing all 
duties as clerk and salesman aforesaid, in accordance and in all respects 
as directed and desired by the said Stone. 

In consideration of which services, so to be rendered by the said 
Barclay, the said Stone agrees to pay to said Barclay the annual sum of 
one thousand dollars, payable in twelve equal monthly payments, each 
upon the last day of each month ; provided that all dues for days of 
absence from business by said Barclay, shall be deducted from the sum 
otherwise by the agreement due and payable by the said Stone to the said 

Witness our hands. Reuben Stone. 

George Barclay. 


A bill of sale is a written agreement to another party, for a consider- 
ation to convey his right and interest in the personal property. The 
purchaser must take actual possession of the property. Juries have 
power to determine upon the fairness or unfairness of a bill of sale. 


"Know all Men by this instrument, that I, Louis Clay, of Princeton, 
Illinois, of the first part, for and in consideration of Five Hundred 
and Ten dollars, to me paid by John Floyd, of the same place, of the 
second part, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, have sold, and 
by this instrument do convey unto the said Floyd, party of the second 
part, his executors, administrators, and assigns, my undivided half of 
ten acres of corn, now growing on the farm of Thomas Tyrrell, in the 
town above mentioned ; one pair of horses, sixteen sheep, and five cows, 
belonging to me, and in my possession at the farm aforesaid ; to have and 
to hold the same unto the party of the second part, his executors and 
assigns, forever. And I do, for myself and legal representatives, agree 
with the said party of the second part, and his legal representatives, to 
warrant and defend the sale of the afore-mentioned property and chattels 
unto the said party of the second part, and his legal representatives, 
against all and every person whatsoever. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto affixed my hand, this tenth day 
of October, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-six. 

Louis Clay. 


A bond is a written admission on the part of the maker in which he 
pledges a certain sum to another, at a certain time. 



Know all Men by this instrument, that I, George Edgerton, of 
Watseka, Iroquois County, State of Illinois, am firmly bound unto Peter 
Kirch off, of the place aforesaid, in the sum of five hundred dollars, to be 
paid to the said Peter Kirchoff, or his legal representatives ; to which 
payment, to be made, I bind myself, or my legal representatives, by this 

Sealed with my seal, and dated this second day of November, one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-four. 

The condition of this bond is such that if I, George Edgerton, my 
heirs, administrators, or executors, shall promptly pay the sum of two 
hundred and fifty dollars in three equal annual payments from the date 
hereof, with annual interest, then the above obligation to be of no effect ; 
otherwise to be in full force and valid. 
Sealed and delivered in 

presence of George Edgerton. [l.s.] 

William Turner. 


A chattel mortgage is a mortgage on personal property for payment 
of a certain sum of money, to hold the property against debts of other 
creditors. The mortgage must describe the property, and must be 
acknowledged before a justice of the peace in the township or precinct 
where the mortgagee resides, and entered upon his docket, and must be 
recorded in the recorder's office of the county. 


This Indenture, made and entered into this first day of January, 
in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five, 
between Theodore Lottinville, of the town of Geneseo in the County 
of Henry, and State of Illinois, party of the first part, and Paul Henshaw, 
of the same town, county, and State, party of the second part. 

Witnesseth, that the said party of the first part, for and in consider- 
ation of the sum of one thousand dollars, in hand paid, the receipt whereof 
is hereby acknowledged, does hereby grant, sell, convey, and confirm unto 
the said party of the second part, his heirs and assigns forever, all and 
singular the following described goods and chattels, to wit : 

Two three-year old roan-colored horses, one Burdett organ, No. 987, 
one Brussels carpet, 15x20 feet in size, one marble-top center table, one 
Home Comfort cooking stove, No. 8, one black walnut bureau with mirror 
attached, one set of parlor chairs (six in number), upholstered in green 
rep, with lounge corresponding with same in style and color of upholstery.- 
now in possession of said Lottinville, at No. 4 Prairie Ave., Geneseo, 111. ; 


Together with all and singular, the appurtenances thereunto belong- 
ing, or in any wise appertaining ; to have and to hold the above described 
goods and chattels, unto the said party of the second part, his heirs and 
assigns, forever. 

Provided, always, and these presents are upon this express condition, 
that if the said Theodore Lottinville, his heirs, executors, administrators, 
or assigns, shall, on or before the first day of January, A.D., one thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-six, pay, or cause to be paid, to the said Paul 
Ranslow, or his lawful attorney or attorneys, heirs, executors, adminis- 
trators, or assigns, the sum of One Thousand dollars, together with the 
interest that may accrue thereon, at the rate of ten per cent, per annum, 
from the first day of January, A.D. one thousand eight hundred and 
seventy-five, until paid, according to the tenor of one promissory note 
bearing even date herewith for the payment of said sum of money, that 
then and from thenceforth, these presents, and everything herein con- 
tained, shall cease, and be null and void, anything herein contained to the 
contrary notwithstanding. 

Provided, also, that the said Theodore Lottinville may retain the 
possession of and have the use of said goods and chattels until the day 
of payment aforesaid ; and also, at his own expense, shall keep said goods 
and chattels; and also at the expiration of said time of payment, if said 
sum of money, together with the interest as aforesaid, shall not be paid, 
shall deliver up said goods and chattels, in good condition, to said Paul 
Ranslow, or his heirs, executors, administrators, or assigns. 

And provided, also, that if default in payment as aforesaid, by said 
party of the first part, shall be made, or if said party of the second part 
shall at any time before said promissory note becomes due, feel himself 
unsafe or insecure, that then the said party of the second part, or his 
attorney, agent, assigns, or heirs, executors, or administrators, shall have 
the right to take possession of said goods and chattels, wherever they 
may or can be found, and sell the same at public or private sale, to the 
highest bidder for cash in hand, after giving ten days' notice of the time 
and place of said sale, together with a description of the goods and chat- 
tels to be sold, by at least four advertisements, posted up in public places 
in the vicinity where said sale is to take place, and proceed to make the 
sum of money and interest promised as aforesaid, together with all reason- 
able costs, charges, and expenses in so doing ; and if there shall be any 
overplus, shall pay the same without delay to the said party of the first 
part, or his legal representatives. 

In testimony whereof, the said party of the first part has hereunto 
set his hand and affixed his seal, the day and year first above written. 
Signed, sealed and delivered in 

presence of Theodore Lottinville. [l.s.] 

Samuel J. Tilden. 



This Indenture, made this second day of June, 1875, between David 
Patton of the Town of Bisbee, State of Illinois, of the first part, and John 
Doyle of the same place, of the second part, 

Witnesseth, that the said David Patton, for and in consideration of 
the covenants hereinafter mentioned and reserved, on the part of the said 
John Doyle, his executors, administrators, and assigns, to be paid, kept, 
and performed, hath let, and by these presents doth grant, demise, and 
let, unto the said John Doyle, his executors, administrators, and assigns, 
all that parcel of land situate in Bisbee aforesaid, bounded and described 
as follows, to wit : 

\Sere describe the land.~\ 

Together with all the appurtenances appertaining thereto. To have 
and to hold the said premises, with appurtenances thereto belonging, unto 
the said Doyle, his executors, administrators, and assigns, for the term of 
five years, from the first day of October next following, at a yearly rent 
of Six Hundred dollars, to be paid in equal payments, semi-annually, as 
long as said buildings are in good tenantable condition. 

And the said Doyle, by these presents, covenants and agrees to pay 
all taxes and assessments, and keep in repair all hedges, ditches, rail, and 
other fences ; (the said David Patton, his heirs, assigns and administra- 
tors, to furnish all timber, brick, tile, and other materials necessary for 
such repairs.) 

Said Doyle further covenants and agrees to apply to said land, in a 
farmer-like manner, all manure and compost accumulating upon said 
farm, and cultivate all the arable land in a husbandlike manner, accord- 
ing to the usual custom among farmers in the neighborhood ; he also 
agrees to trim the hedges at a seasonable time, preventing injury from 
cattle to such hedges, and to all fruit and other trees on the said premises. 
That he will seed down with clover and timothy seed twenty acres yearly 
of arable land, ploughing the same number of acres each Spring of land 
now in grass, and hitherto unbroken. 

It is further agreed, that if the said Doyle shall fail to perform the 
whole or any one of the above mentioned covenants, then and in that 
case the said David Patton may declare this lease terminated, by giving 
three months' notice of the same, prior to the first of October of any 
year, and may distrain any part of the stock, goods, or chattels, or other 
property in possession of said Doyle, for sufficient to compensate for the 
non-performance of the above written covenants, the same to be deter- 
mined, and amounts so to be paid to be determined, by three arbitrators, 
chosen as follows : Each of the parties to this instrument to choose one, 


and the two so chosen to select a third ; the decision of said arbitrators 
to be final. 

In witness whereof, we have hereto set our hands and seals. 
Signed, sealed, and delivered 

in presence of David Patton. [l.s.] 

James Waldron. John Doyle. [l.s.] 


This Instrument, made the first day of October, 1875, witnesseth 
that Amos Griest of Yorkville, County of Kendall, State of Illinois, hath 
rented from Aaron Young of Logansport aforesaid, the dwelling and lot 
No. 13 Ohio Street, situated in said City of Yorkville, for five years 
from the above date, at the yearly rental of Three Hundred dollars, pay- 
able monthly, on the first day of each month, in advance, at the residence 
of said Aaron Young. 

At the expiration of said above mentioned term, the said Griest 
agrees to give the said Young peaceable possession of the said dwelling, 
in as good condition as when taken, ordinary wear and casualties excepted. 

In witness whereof, we place our hands and seals the day and year 

Signed, sealed and delivered Amos Griest. [l.s.] 

in presence of 


Notary Public. 


This certifies that I have let and raited, this first day of January, 
1876, unto Jacob Schmidt, my house and lot, No. 15 Erie Street, in the 
City of Chicago, State of Illinois, and its appurtenances ; he to have the 
free and uninterrupted occupation thereof for one year from this date, at 
the yearly rental of Two Hundred dollars, to be paid monthly in advance ; 
tent to cease if destroyed by fire, or otherwise made untenantable. 

Peter Funk. 

This certifies that I have hired and taken from Peter Funk, his 
house and lot, No. 15 Erie Street, in the City of Chicago, State of Illi- 
nois, with appurtenances thereto belonging, for one year, to commence 
this day, at a yearly rental of Two Hundred dollars, to be paid monthly 
in advance ; unless said house becomes untenantable from fire or other 
causes, in which case rent ceases ; and I further agree to give and yield 
said premises one year from this first day of January 1876, in as good 
oondition as now, ordinary wear and damage by the elements excepted. 

Given under my hand this day. Jacob Schmidt. 



To F. W. Arlen, 

Sir : Please observe that the term of one year, for which the house 
and land, situated at No. 6 Indiana Street, and now occupied by you, 
were rented to you, expired on the first day of October, 1875, and as I 
desire to repossess said premises, you are hereby requested and required 

to vacate the same. Respectfully Yours, 

P. T. Barnum. 
Lincoln, Neb., October 4, 1875. 


Dear Sir: 

The premises I now occupy as your tenant, at No. 6 Indiana Street, 
I shall vacate on the first day of November, 1875. You will please take 
notice accordingly. 

Dated this tenth day of October, 1875. F. W. Arlen. 

To P. T. Barnum, Esq. 


This Indenture, made this sixteenth day of May, in the year of 
our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-two, between William 
Stocker, of Peoria, County of Peoria, and State of Illinois, and 011a, his 
wife, party of the first part, and Edward Singer, party of the second part. 

Whereas, the said party of the first part is justly indebted to the said 
party of the second part, in the sum of Two Thousand dollars, secured 
to be paid by two certain promissory notes (bearing even date herewith) 
the one due and payable at the Second National Bank in Peoria, Illinois, 
with interest, on the sixteenth day of May, in the year one thousand eight 
hundred and seventy-three ; the other due and payable at the Second 
National Bank at Peoria, 111., with interest, on the sixteenth day of May, 
in the year one thousand eight hundred and seventj^-four. 

Now, therefore, this indenture witnesseth, that the said party of the 
first part, for the better securing the payment of the money aforesaid, 
with interest thereon, according to the tenor and effect of the said two 
promissory notes above mentioned ; and, also in consideration of the fur- 
ther sum of one dollar to them in hand paid by the said party of the sec- 
ond part, at the delivery of these presents, the receipt whereof is hereby 
acknowledged, have granted, bargained, sold, and conveyed, and by these 
presents do grant, bargain, sell, and convey, unto the said party of the 
second part, his heirs and assigns, forever, all that certain parcel of land, 
situate, etc. 

[Describing the premises.] 

To have and to hold the same, together with all and singular the 
Tenements, Hereditaments, Privileges and Appurtenances thereunto 


belonging or in any wise appertaining. And also, all the estate, interest, 
and claim whatsoever, in law as well as in equity which the party of 
the first part have in and to the premises hereby conveyed unto the said 
party of the second part, his heirs and assigns, and to their only proper 
use, benefit and behoof. And the said William Stocker, and Olla, his 
wife, party of the first part, hereby expressly waive, relinquish, release, 
and conve} 7, unto the said party of the second part, his heirs, executors, 
administrators, and assigns, all right, title, claim, interest, and benefit 
whatever, in and to the above described premises, and each and every 
part thereof, which is given bj r or results from all laws of this state per- 
taining to the exemption of homesteads. 

Provided always, and these presents are upon this express condition, 
that if the said party of the first part, their heirs, executors, or adminis- 
trators, shall well and truly pay, or cause to be paid, to the said party of 
the second part, his heirs, executors, administrators, or assigns, the afore- 
said sums of money, with such interest thereon, at the time and in the 
manner specified in the above mentioned promissory notes, according to 
the true intent and meaning thereof, then in that case, these presents and 
every thing herein expressed, shall be absolutely null and void. 

In witness whereof, the said party of the first part hereunto set their 
hands and seals the day and year first above written. 
Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of 

James Whitehead, William Stocker. [l.s.] 

Fred. Samuels. Olla Stocker. [l.s.] 


This Indenture, made this sixth day of April, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy-two, between Henry Best 
of Lawrence, County of Lawrence, State of Illinois, and Belle, his wife, 
of the first part, and Charles Pearson of the same place, of the second part, 

Witnesseth, that the said party of the first part, for and in consideration 
of the sum of Six Thousand dollars in hand paid by the said party of the 
second part, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, have granted, 
bargained, and sold, and by these presents do grant, bargain, and sell, 
unto the said party of the second part, his heirs and assigns, all the fol- 
lowing described lot, piece, or parcel of land, situated in the City of Law- 
rence, in the County of Lawrence, and State of Illinois, to wit : 
[Here describe the property.'] 

Together with all and singular the hereditaments and appurtenances 
thereunto belonging or in any wise appertaining, and the reversion and 
reversions, remainder and remainders, rents, issues, and profits thereof; 
and all the estate, rignt, title, interest, claim, and demand whatsoever, of 
the said party of the nrst part, either in law or equity, of, in, and to tht» 


above bargained premises, with the hereditaments and appurtenances. 
To have and to hold the said premises above bargained and described, 
with the appurtenances, unto the said party of the second part, his heirs 
and assigns, forever. And the said Henry Best, and Belle, his wife, par- 
ties of the first part, hereby expressly waive, release, and relinquish unto 
the said party of the second part, his heirs, executors, administrators, and 
assigns, all right, title, claim, interest, and benefit whatever, in and to the 
above described premises, and each and every part thereof, which is given 
by or results from all laws of this state pertaining to the exemption of 

And the said Henry Best, and Belle, his wife, party of the first 
part, for themselves and their heirs, executors, and administrators, do 
covenant, grant, bargain, and agree, to and with the said party of the 
second part, his heirs and assigns, that at the time of the ensealing and 
delivery of these presents they were well seized of the premises above 
conveyed, as of a good, sure, perfect, absolute, and indefeasible estate of 
inheritance in law, and in fee simple, and have good right, full power, 
and lawful authority to grant, bargain, sell, and convey the same, in 
manner and form aforesaid, and that the same are free and clear from all 
former and other grants, bargains, sales, liens, taxes, assessments, and 
encumbrances of what kind or nature soever ; and the above bargained 
premises in the quiet and peaceable possession of the said party of the 
second part, his heirs and assigns, against all and every person or persons 
lawfully claiming or to claim the whole or any part thereof, the said party 
of the first part shall and will warrant and forever defend. 

In testimony whereof, the said parties of the first part have hereunto 
set their hands and seals the day and year first above written. 
Signed, sealed and delivered 

in presence of Henry Best, [l.s.] 

Jerry Linklater. Belle Best. [l.s.] 


This Indenture, made the eighth day of June, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy-four, between David Tour, 
of Piano, County of Kendall, State of Illinois, party of the first part, 
and Larry O'Brien, of the same place, party of the second part, 

Witnesseth, that the said party of the first part, for and in considera- 
tion of Nine Hundred dollars in hand paid by the said party of the sec- 
ond part, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, and the said party 
of the second part forever released and discharged therefrom, has remised, 
released, sold, conveyed, and quit-claimed, and by these presents does 
remise, release, sell, convey, and quit-claim, unto the said party of the 
second part, his heirs and assigns, forever, all the right, title, interest, 


claim, and demand, which the said party of the first part has in and to 
the following described lot, piece, or parcel of land, to wit : 

[Here describe the land .] 

To have and to hold the same, together with all and singular the 
appurtenances and privileges thereunto belonging, or in any wise there- 
unto appertaining, and all the estate, right, title, interest, and claim 
whatever, of the said party of the first part, either in law or equity, to 
the only proper use, benefit, and behoof of the said party of the second 
part, his heirs and assigns forever. 

In witness whereof the said party of the first part hereunto set his 
hand and seal the day and year above written. 

Signed, sealed and delivered David Tour, [l.s.] 

in presence of 
Thomas Ashley. 

The above forms of Deeds and Mortgage are such as have heretofore 
been generally used, but the following are much shorter, and are made 
equally valid by the laws of this state. 


The grantor (here insert name or names and place of residence), for 
and in consideration of (here insert consideration) in hand paid, conveys 
and warrants to (here insert the grantee's name or names) the following- 
described real estate (here insert description), situated in the County of 
in the State of Illinois. 

Dated this day of A. D. 18 . 


The grantor (here insert grantor's name or names and place of resi- 
dence), for the consideration of (here insert consideration) convey and 
quit-claim to (here insert grantee's name or names) all interest in the 
following described real estate (here insert description), situated in the 
County of in the State of Illinois. 

Dated this day of A. D. 18' . 


The mortgagor (here insert name or names) mortgages and warrants 
to (here insert name or names of mortgagee or mortgagees), to secure the 
payment of (here recite the nature and amount of indebtedness, showing 
when due and the rate of interest, and whether secured by note or other- 
wise), the following described real estate (here insert description thereof), 
situated in the County of in the State of Illinois. 

Dated this day of A. D. 18 . 


Know all Men by these presents, that I, Peter Ahlund, of Chicago, 
of the County of Cook, and State of Illinois, for and in consideration of 
One dollar, to me in hand paid, and for other gooc] and valuable considera- 


tions, the receipt whereof is hereby confessed, do hereby grant, bargain, 
remise, convey, release, and quit-claim unto Joseph Carlin of Chicago, 
of the County of Cook, and State of Illinois, all the right, title, interest, 
claim, or demand whatsoever, I may have acquired in, through, or by a 
certain Indenture or Mortgage Deed, bearing date the second day of Jan- 
uary, A. D. 1871, and recorded in the Recorder's office of said county, 
in book A of Deeds, page 46, to the premises therein described, and which 
said Deed was made to secure one certain promissory note, bearing even 
date with said deed, for the sum of Three Hundred dollars. 

Witness my hand and seal, this second day of November, A. D. 1874. 

Peter Ahlund. [l.s.] 

State of Illinois, ) 

Cook County. \ I, George Saxton, a Notary Public in 

and for said county, in the state aforesaid, do hereby 

certify that Peter Ahlund, personally known to me 

as the same person whose name is subscribed to the 

foregoing Release, appeared before me this day in 

[ vt ^BAL. Xi ] person, and acknowledged that he signed, sealed, and 

delivered the said instrument of writing as his free 

and voluntary act, for the uses and purposes therein 

set forth. 

Giv*m under my hand and seal, this second day of 
November, A. D. 1874. 

George Saxton, N. P. 


I, Charles Mansfield, of the Town of Salem, County of Jackson, 
Scate of Illinois, being aware of the uncertainty of life, and in failing 
health, but of sound mind and memory, do make and declare this to be 
my last will and testament, in manner following, to wit: 

First. I give, devise and bequeath unto my oldest son, Sidney H. 
Mansfield, the sum of Two Thousand Dollars, cf bank stock, now in the 
Third National Bank of Cincinnati, Ohio, and the farm owned by myself 
in the Town of Buskirk, consisting of one hundred and sixty acres, with 
all the houses, tenements, and improvements thereunto belonging ; to 
have and to hold unto my said son, his heirs and assign^, forever. 

Second. I give, devise and bequeath to each of my daughters, Anna 
Louise Mansfield and Ida Clara Mansfield, each Two Thousand dollars in 
bank stock, in the Third National Bank of Cincinnati, Ohio, and also each 
one quarter section of land, owned by myself, situated in the Town of 
Lake, Illinois, and recorded in my name in the Recorder's office in the 
county where such land is located. The north one hundred and sixty 
acres of said half section is devised to mv eldest daughter, Anna Louise. 


Third. I give, devise and bequeath to my son, Frank Alfred Mans- 
field, Five shares of Railroad stock in the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 
and my one hundred and sixty acres of land and saw mill thereon, situ- 
ated in Manistee, Michigan, with all the improvements and appurtenances 
thereunto belonging, which said real estate is recorded in my name in the 
county where situated. 

Fourth. I give to my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, all my 
household furniture, goods, chattels, and personal property, about my 
home, not hitherto disposed of, including Eight Thousand dollars of bank 
stock in the Third National Bank of Cincinnati, Ohio, Fifteen shares in 
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and the free and unrestricted use, pos- 
session, and benefit of the home farm, so long as she may live, in lieu of 
dower, to which she is entitled by law ; said farm being my present place 
of residence. 

Fifth. I bequeath to ray invalid father, Elijah H. Mansfield, the 
income from rents of my store building at 145 Jackson Street, Chicago, 
Illinois, during the term of his natural life. Said building and land there- 
with to revert to my said sons and daughters in equal proportion, upon 
the demise of my said father. 

Sixth. It is also my will and desire that, at the death of my wife, 
Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, or at any time when she may arrange to 
relinquish her life interest in the above mentioned homestead, the same 
may revert to my above named children, or to the lawful heirs of each. 

And lastly. I nominate and appoint as executors of this my last will 
and testament, my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, and my eldest son, 
Sidney H. Mansfield. 

I further direct that my debts and necessary funeral expenses shad 
be paid from moneys now on deposit in the Savings Bank of Salem, the 
residue of such moneys to revert to my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, 
for her use forever. 

In witness whereof, I, Charles Mansfield, to this my last will and 
testament, have hereunto set my hand and seal, this fourth day of April, 
eighteen hundred and seventy-two. 

Signed, sealed, and declared by Charles 

Mansfield, as and for his last will and 

testament, in the presence of us, who, 

at his request, and in his presence, and 

in the presence of each other, have sub- )> 

scribed our names hereunto as witnesses 

Peter A. Schenck, Sycamore, Ills. 
Frank E. Dent, Salem, Ills. 

Charles Mansfield, [l.s.] 

Charles Mansfield, [l.s.] 



Whereas I, Charles Mansfield, did, on the fourth day of April, one 
thousand eight hundred and seventy-two, make my last will and testa- 
ment, I do now, by this writing, add this codicil to my said will, to be 
taken as a part thereof. 

Whereas, by the dispensation of Providence, my daughter, Anna 
Louise, has deceased November fifth, eighteen hundred and seventy-three, 
and whereas, a son has been born to me, which son is now christened 
Richard Albert Mansfield, I give and bequeath unto him my gold watch, 
and all right, interest, and title in lands and bank stock and chattels 
bequeathed to my deceased daughter, Anna Louise, in the body of this will. 

In witness whereof, I hereunto place my hand and seal, this tenth 
day of March, eighteen hundred and seventy-five. 

Signed, sealed, published, and declared to N 

us by the testator, Charles Mansfield, as 

and for a codicil to be annexed to his 

last will and testament. And we, at 

his request, and in his presence, and in 

the presence of each other, have sub- 
scribed our names as witnesses thereto, 

at the date hereof. 
Frank E. Dent, Salem, Ills. 
John C. Shay, Salem, Ills. 


May be legally made by electing or appointing, according to the usages 
or customs of the body of which it is a part, at any meeting held for that 
purpose, two or more of its nfembers as trustees, wardens or vestrymen, and 
may adopt a corporate name. The chairman or secretary of such meeting 
shall, as soon as possible, make and file in the office of the recorder of 
deeds of the county, an affidavit substantially in the following form : 
State of Illinois, 



I, , do solemnly swear (or affirm, as the case may be), 

that at a meeting of the members of the (here insert the name of the 
church, society or congregation as known before organization), held at 

(here insert place of meeting), in the County of , and State of 

Illinois, on the day of , A.D. 18 — , for that purpose, the fol- 
lowing persons were elected (or appointed) [here insert their names] 
trustees, wardens, vestrymen, (or officers by whatever name they may 
choose to adopt, with powers similar to trustees) according to the rules 
and usages of such (church, society or congregation), and said 


adopted as its corporate name (here insert name), and at said meeting 
this affiant acted as (chairman or secretary, as the case may be). 

Subscribed and sworn to before me, this day of , A.D. 

18—. ■ Name of Affiant" 

which affidavit must be recorded by the recorder, and shall be, or a certi- 
fied copy made by the recorder, received as evidence of such an incorpo- 

No certificate of election after the first need be filed for record. 

The term of office of the trustees and the general government of the 
society can be determined by the rules or by-laws adopted. Failure to 
elect trustees at the time provided does not work a dissolution, but the 
old trustees hold over. A trustee or trustees may be removed, in the 
same manner by the society as elections are held by a meeting called for 
that purpose. The property of the society vests in the corporation. The 
corporation may hold, or acquire by purchase or otherwise, land not 
exceeding ten acres, for the purpose of the society. The trustees have 
the care, custody and control of the property of the corporation, and can, 
ivhen directed by the society, erect houses or improvements, and repair 
and alter the same, and may also when so directed by the society, 
mortgage, encumber, sell and convey any real or personal estate belonging 
to the corporation, and make all proper contracts in the name of such 
corporation. But they are prohibited by law from encumbering or inter- 
fering with any property so as to destroy the effect of any gift, grant, 
devise or bequest to the corporation ; but such gifts, grants, devises of 
bequests, must in all cases be used so as to carry out the object intended 
by the pe'rsons making the same. Existing societies may organize in the 
manner herein set forth, and have all the advantages thereof. 


The business of publishing books by subscription having so often been 
brought into disrepute by agents making representations and declarations 
not authorized by the publisher ; in order to prevent that as much as possi- 
ble, and that there may be more general knowledge of the relation such 
agents bear to their principal, and the law governing such cases, the fol- 
lowing statement is made : 

A subscription is in the nature of a contract of mutual promises, by 
which the subscriber agrees to pay a certain sum for the work described ; 
the consideration is concurrent that the publisher shall publish the book 
named, and deliver the same, for which the subscriber is to pay the price 
named. The nature and character of the work is described in the prospectus 
and by the sample shown. These should be carefully examined before sub- 
scribing, as they are the basis and consideration of the promise to pay, 


and not the too often exaggerated statements of tithe agent, who is merely 
employed to solicit subscriptions, for which he is usually paid a commission 
for each subscriber, and has no authority to change or alter the conditions 
upon which the subscriptions are authorized to be made by the publisher. 
Should the agent assume to agree to make the subscription conditional or 
modify or change the agreement of the publisher, as set out by prospectus 
and sample, in order to bind the principal, the subscriber should see that 
such conditions or changes are stated over or in connection with his signa- 
ture, so that the publisher may have notice of the same. 

All persons making contracts in reference to matters of this kind, or 
any other business, should remember that the law as to written contracts is, 
that they can not be varied, altered or rescinded verbally, but if done at all, 
must be done in writing. It is therefore important that all persons contem- 
plating subscribing should distinctly understand that all talk before or after 
the subscription is made, is not admissible as evidence, and is no part of the 

Persons employed to solicit subscriptions are known to the trade as 
canvassers. They are agents appointed to do a particular business in a 
prescribed mode, and have no authority to do it in any other way to the 
prejudice of their principal, nor can they bind their principal in any other 
matter. They can not collect money, or agree that payment may be made 
in anything else but money. They can not extend the time of payment 
beyond the time of delivery, nor bind their principal for the payment of 
expenses incurred in their buisness. 

It would save a great deal of trouble, and often serious loss, if persons, 
before signing their names to any subscription book, or any written instru- 
ment, would examine carefully what it is ; if they can not read themselves, 
should call on some one disinterested who can. 



We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, 
establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common 
defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty 
to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution 
for the United States of America. 

Article I. 

Section 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in 
a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and 
House of Representatives. 

Sec. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of mem- 
bers chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the 
electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of 
the most numerous branch of the State Legislature. 

No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to the 
age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United 
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in 
which he shall be chosen. 

Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the sev- 
eral states which may be included within this Union, according to their 
respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole 
number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of 
years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. 
The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first 
meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subse- 
quent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The 
number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, 
but each state shall have at least one Representative ; and until such 
enumeration shall be made the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled 
to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plan- 
tations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylva- 
nia eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina. five, 
and Georgia three. 

When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the 
Executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such 

The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other 
officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment. 

Sec. 3. The Senate of the United Stafes shall be composed of two 
Senators from each state, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six years ; 
and each Senator shall have one vote. 

Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first 
election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. 
The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expira- 


tion of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth 
year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that 
one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by 
resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any state, 
the Executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next 
meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies. 

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age 
of thirty years and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and 
who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he 
shall be chosen. 

The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the 
Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided. 

The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro 
tempore, in the absence of the Vice-President, or when he shall exercise 
the office of President of the United States. 

The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When 
sitting for that purpose they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the 
President of the United States is tried the Chief Justice shall preside. 
And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds 
of the members present. 

Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend further than to 
removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of 
honor, trust, or profit under the United States ; but the party convicted 
shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, 
and punishment according to law. 

Sec. 4. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Sen- 
ators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each state by the Legis- 
lature thereof ; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter 
such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators. 

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such 
meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by 
law appoint a different day. 

Sec. 5. Each house shall be the judge of the election, returns, and 
qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute 
a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to 
day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members 
in such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide. 

Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its 
members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, 
expel a member. 

Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to 
time publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in their judgment, 
require secrecy ; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house 
on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered 
on the journal. 

Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without the 
consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other 
place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting. 

Sec. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compen- 
sation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the 
treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason. 


felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their 
attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and 
returning from the same ; and for any speech or debate in either house 
they shall not be questioned in any other place. 

No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was 
elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United 
States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall 
have been increased during such time ; and no person holding any office 
under the United States, shall be a member of either house during his 
continuance in office. 

Sec. 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of 
Representatives ; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments 
as on other bills. 

Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and 
the Senate, shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President 
. the United States ; if he approve he shall sign it ; but if not he shall 
return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have origi- 
nated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and 
proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration two-thirds of that 
house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objec- 
tions, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if 
approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all 
such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, 
and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered 
on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned 
by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted), after it shall have 
been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he 
had signed it, unless the Congress, by their adjournment, prevent its 
return, in which case it shall not be a law. 

Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the 
Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a 
question of adjournment), shall be presented to the President of the 
United States, and before the same shall take effect shall be approved by 
him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two-thirds of 
the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and lim- 
itations prescribed in the case of a bill. 

Sec. 8. The Congress shall have power — 

To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts, 
and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United 
.States ; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout 
the United States ; 

To borrow money on the credit of the United States ; 

To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several 
States, and with the Indian tribes ; 

To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on 
the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States ; 

To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and 
fix the standard of weights and measures ; 

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and 
current coin of the United States ; 

To establish post offices and post roads ; 


To promote the progress of sciences and useful arts, by securing, 
for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their 
respective writings and discoveries ; 

To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court ; 

To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high 
seas, and offenses against the law of nations ; 

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules 
concerning captures on land and water ; 

To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that 
use shall be for a longer term than two years ; 

To provide and maintain a navy ; 

To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and 
naval forces ; 

To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the 
Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions ; 

To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and 
for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the 
United States, reserving to the states respectively the appointment of the 
officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the disci- 
pline prescribed by Congress ; 

To exercise legislation in all cases whatsoever over such district (not 
exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the 
acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United 
States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the 
consent of the Legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for 
the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock yards, and other needful 
buildings ; and 

To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying 
intc execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this 
Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any depart- 
ment or officer thereof. 

Sec. 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the 
states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited 
by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, 
but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten 
dollars for each person. 

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, 
unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may 
require it. 

No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed. 

No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion 
to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken. 

No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. 

No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or rev- 
enue to the ports of one state over those of another; nor shall vessels 
bound to or from one state be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in 

No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in consequence of 
appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of 
the receipts and expeditures of all public money shall be published from 
time to time. 


No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States : and no 
person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the 
consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title 
of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state. 

Sec. 10. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confeder- 
ation ; grant letters of marque and reprisal ; coin money ; emit bills of 
credit ; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of 
debts ; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the 
obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. 

No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts 
or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary 
for executing its inspection laws, and the net produce of all duties and 
imposts laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the 
Treasury of the United States ; and all such laws shall be subject to the 
revision and control of the Congress. 

No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty on 
tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any 
agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or 
engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will 
not admit of delay. 

Article II. 

Section 1. The Executive power shall be vested in a President of 
the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term 
of four years, and, together with the Vice-President chosen for the same 
term, be elected as follows : 

Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof 
may direct, a number of Electors, equal to the whole number of Senators 
and Representatives to which the state may be entitled in the Congress ; 
but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or 
profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector. 

[*The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by 
ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of 
the same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the 
persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each ; which list they 
shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the government 
of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The Pres- 
ident of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Rep- 
resentatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. 
The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed ; 
and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal 
number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately 
choose by ballot one of them for President ; and if no person have a ma- 
jority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like 
manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the vote 
shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one 
vote ; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members 
from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be 
necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, 

* This clause between, brackets has been superseded and annulled by the Twelfth.amendment. 


the person having the greatest number of votes of the Electors shall be 
the Vice-President. But if there should remain two or more who have 
equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice-Presi- 

The Congress may determine the time of choosing the Electors, and 
the day on which they shall give their votes ; which day shall be the same 
throughout the United States. 

No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United 
States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible 
to the office of President ; neither shall any person be eligible to that 
office who shall not have attained the age of thirty-five years, and been 
fourteen years a resident within the United States. 

In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, 
resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said 
office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-Pnesident, and the Congress 
may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inabil- 
ity, both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what officer shall 
then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the dis- 
ability be removed, or a President shall be elected. 

The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a com- 
pensation which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the 
period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive 
within that period any other emolument from the United States or any of 

Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the fol- 
, lowing oath or affirmation : 

" I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the 
office of President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, 
preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States." 

Sec. 2. The President shall be commander in chief of the army and 
navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when 
called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the 
opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive 
departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective 
offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardon for offenses 
against the United States, except in cases of impeachment. 

He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present con- 
cur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice of the Senate, 
shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of 
the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States whose 
appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be 
established by law ; but the Congress may by law vest the appointment 
of such inferior officers as they think proper in the President alone, in 
the courts of law, or in the heads of departments. 

The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may 
happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which 
shall expire at the end of their next session. 

Sec 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress information 
of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such mea- 
sures as he shall judge necessary and expedient ; he may on extraordinary 


occasions convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagree- 
ment between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may 
adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper ; he shall receive 
ambassadors and other public ministers ; he shall take care that the laws be 
faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United 

Sec. 4. The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the 
United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and con- 
viction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. 

Article III. 

Section I. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested 
in one Supreme Court, and such inferior courts as the Congress may from 
time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the Supreme and 
inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at 
stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be 
diminished during their continuance in office. 

Sec. 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and 
equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and 
treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority ; to all cases 
affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls ; to all cases of 
admiralty and maritime jurisdiction ; to controversies to which the United 
States shall be a party ; to controversies between two or more states ; 
between a state and citizens of another state ; between citizens of differ- 
ent states ; between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants 
of different states, and between a state or the citizens thereof, and foreign 
states, citizens, or subjects. 

In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, 
and those in which a state shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have 
original jurisdiction. 

In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall 
have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions 
and under such regulations as the Congress shall make. 

The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by 
jury ; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall 
have been committed ; but when not committed within an}' state, the 
trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have 

Sec. 3. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levy- 
ing war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid 
and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the tes- 
timony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open 

The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, 
but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, 
except during the life of the person attainted. 

Article IV. 

Section 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the 
public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state. And 


the Congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such 
acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. 

Sec. 2. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges 
and immunities of citizens in the several states. 

A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, 
who shall flee from justice and be found in another state, shall, on demand 
of the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered 
up, to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime. 

No person held to service or labor in one state, under the laws thereof 
escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation 
therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered 
up on the claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due. 

Sec. 3. New states may be admitted by the Congress into this Union ; 
but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any- 
other state ; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states,, 
or parts of states, without the consent of the Legislatures of the states 
concerned, as well as of the Congress. 

The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful, 
rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging, 
to the United States ; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed 
as to prejudice any claims of the United States or of any particular state. 

Sec. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this. 
Union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them 
against invasion, and on application of the Legislature, or of the Execu- 
tive (when the Legislature can not be convened), against domestic vio- 

Article V. 

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it 
necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the ap- 
plication of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call 
a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be 
valid to all intents and purposes as part of this Constitution, when rati- 
fied by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several states, or by con- 
ventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratifi- 
cation may be proposed by the Congress. Provided that no amendment 
which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and 
eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth 
section of the first article ; and that no state, without its consent, shall 
be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate. 

Article VI. 

All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adop- 
tion of this Constitution shall be as valid against the United States under 
this Constitution as under the Confederation. 

This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be 
made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, 
under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the 
land ; and the Judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in 
the Constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding. 

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the mem- 



bers of the several state Legislatures, and all executive and judicial offi- 
cers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound 
by oath or affirmation to support this Constitution ; but no religious test 
shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under 
the United States. 

Article VII. 

The ratification of the Conventions of nine states shall be sufficient 
for the establishment of this Constitution between the states so ratifying 
the same. 

Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the states present, the 
seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the 
United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof we have 
hereunto subscribed our names. 

President and Deputy from Virginia. 

New Hampshire. 
John Langdon, 
Nicholas Gilman. 

Nathaniel Gorham, 
Rufus King. 

Wm. Sam'l Johnson, 
Roger, Sherman. 

Geo. Read, 
John Dickinson, 
Jaco. Broom, 
Gunning Bedford, Jr., 
Richard Bassett. 

James M'Henry, 
Danl. Carroll, 
Dan. of St. Thos. Jenifer. 

New York. 
Alexander Hamilton. 

New Jersey. 
Wil. Livingston, 
Wm. Paterson, 
David Brearley, 
Jona. Dayton. 

John Blair, 
James Madison, Jr. 

North Carolina. 
Wm. Blount, 
Hu. Williamson, 
Rich'd Dobbs Spaight. 

B. Franklin, 
Robt. Morris, 
Thos. Fitzsimons, 
James Wilson, 
Thos. Mifflin, 
Geo. Clymer, 
Jared Ingersoll, 
Gouv. Morris. 

South Carolina. 
j. rutledge, 
Charles Pinckney, 
Chas. Cotesworth Pinckney, 
Pierce Butler. 

William Few, 
Abr. Baldwin. 



Articles in Addition to and Amendatory of the Constitution 
of the United States of America. 

Proposed by Congress and ratified by the Legislatures of the several states, 
pursuant to the fifth article of the original Constitution. 

Article I. 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, 
or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of 
speech, or of the press ; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, 
and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. 

Article II. 

A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free 
state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. 

Article III. 

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without 
the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to be pre- 
scribed by law. 

Article IV. 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, 
and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be vio- 
lated ; and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by 
oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched 
and the persons or things to be seized. 

Article V. 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous 
crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in 
cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual 
service in time of war or public danger ; nor shall any person be subject 
for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb ; nor shall 
be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be 
deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law ; nor 
shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. 

Article VI. 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a 
speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district 
wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have 
been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and 
cause of the accusation ; to be confronted with the witnesses against him ; 
to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to 
have the assistance of counsel for his defense. 

Article VII. 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed 
twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact 


tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United 
States than according to the rules of the common law. 

Article VIII. 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, 
nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 

Article IX. 

The enumeration, in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be 
construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 

Article X. 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, 
nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, 
or to the people. 

Article XI. 

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to 
extend to any suit in law or equity commenced or prosecuted against one 
of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or sub- 
jects of any foreign state. 

Article XII. 

The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot 
for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an 
inhabitant of the same state with themselves ; they shall name in their 
ballots the person to be voted for as president, and in distinct ballots the 
person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of 
all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice- 
President, and of the number of votes for each, which list they shall sign 
and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United 
States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the 
Senate shall, in presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, 
open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person 
having the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed ; 
and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the 
highest number not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as 
President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by 
ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be 
taken by States, the representation from each state having one vote; a 
quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two- 
thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to 
a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a Presi- 
dent whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the 
fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as 
President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of 
the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice- 
President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be the majority 
of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a major- 


ity / then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose 
the Vice-President ; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds 
of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number 
shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible 
to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the 
United States. 

Article XIII. 

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a 
punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, 
shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their juris- 

Sec. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appro- 
priate legislation. 

Article XIV. 

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and 
subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States, and 
of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law 
which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United 
States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, 
without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction 
the equal protection of the laws. 

Sec. 2. Representatives shall be appointed among the several states 
according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of per- 
sons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed ; but when the right to 
vote at any election for the choice of Electors for President and Vice- 
President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the execu- 
tive and judicial officers of a state, or the members of the Legislature 
thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such state, being 
twenty-one years of age and citizens of the United States, or in any way 
abridged except for participation in rebellion or other crimes, the basis of 
representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the num- 
ber of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens 
twenty-one years of age in such state. 

Sec. 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, 
or Elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or 
military, under the United States, or under any state, who, having previ- 
ously taken an oath as a Member of Congress, or as an officer of the 
United States, or as a member of any state Legislature, or as an execu- 
tive or judicial officer of any state to support the Constitution of the 
United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the 
same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress mav 
by a vote of two-thirds of each house, remove such disability. 

Sec. 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States author- 
ized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and boun- 
ties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be ques- 
tioned. But neither the United States nor any state shall pay any debt 
or obligation incurred in the aid of insurrection or rebellion against the 
United States, or any loss or emancipation of any slave, but such debts, 
obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void. 



Sec. 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate 
legislation, the provisions of this act. 

Article XV. 

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall 
not be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any state, on 
account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 

Sec. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appro- 
priate legislation. 


November 7, 1876. 


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Practical Rules for Every Day Use. 

How to find the gain or loss per cent, when the cost and selling price 
are given. 

Rule. — Find the difference between the cost and selling price, which 
will be the gain or loss. 

Annex two ciphers to the gain or loss, and divide it by the cost 
price ; the result will be the gain or loss per cent. 

Hoiv to change gold into currency. 

Rule. — Multiply the given sum of gold by the price of gold. 

Sow to change currency into gold. 

Divide the amount in currency by the price of gold. 

Hoiv to find each partner s share of the gain or loss in a copartnership 

Rule. — Divide the whole gain or loss by the entire stock, the quo- 
tient will be the gain or loss per cent. 

Multiply each partner's stock by this per cent., the result will be 
each one's share of the gain or loss. • 

Hoiv to find gross and net weight and price of hogs. 

A short and simple method for finding the net weight, or price of hogs, 
when the gross weight or price is given, and vice versa. 

Note.— It is generally assumed that the gross weight of Hogs diminished by 1-5 or 20 per cent 
of itself gives the net weight, and the net weight increased by K or 25 per cent, of itself equals the 
gross weight. 

To find the net weight or gross price. 

Multiply the given number by .8 (tenths.) 

To find the gross weight or net price. 

Divide the given number by .8 (tenths.) 

Hoiv to find the capacity of a granary, bin, or luagon-bed. 

Rule. — Multiply (by short method) the number of cubic feet by 
6308, and point off one decimal place — the result will be the correct 
answer in bushels and tenths of a bushel. 

For only an approximate answer, multiply the cubic feet by 8, and 
point off one decimal place. 

How to find the contents of a corn-crib. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of cubic feet by 54, short method, or 



by 4£ ordinary method, and point off one decimal place — the result will 
be the answer in bushels. 

Notk.— In estimating corn in the ear, the quality and the time it has been cribbed must he taken 
into consideration, since corn will shrink considerably during the Winter and Spring. This rule generally holds 
good for corn measured at the time it is cribbed, provided it is sound and clean. 

How to find the contents of a cistern or tank. 

Rule. — Multiply the square of the mean diameter by the depth (all 
in feet) and this product by 5681 (short method), and point off one 
decimal place — the result will be the contents in barrels of 31£ gallons. 

How to find the contents of a barrel or cask. 

Rule. — Under the square of the mean diameter, write the length 
(all in inches) in reversed order, so that its units will fall under the 
tens ; multiply by short method, and this product again by 430 ; point 
off one decimal place, and the result will be the answer in wine gallons. 

How to measure boards. 

Rule. — Multiply the length (in feet) by the width (in inches) and 
divide the product by 12 — the result will be the contents in square feet. 

How to measure scantlings, joists, planks, sills, etc. 

Rule. — Multiply the width, the thickness, and the length together 
(the width and thickness in inches, and the length in feet), and divide 
the product by 12 — the result will be square feet. 

How to find the number of acres in a body of land. 

Rule. — Multiply the length by the width (in rods), and divide the 
product by 160 (carrying the division to 2 decimal places if there is a 
remainder) ; the result will be the answer in acres and hundredths. 

When the opposite sides of a piece of land are of unequal length, 
add them together and take one-half for the mean length or width. 

Hoiv to find the number of square yards in a floor or wall. 

Rule. — Multiply the length by the width or height (in feet), and 
divide the product by 9, the result will be square yards. 

Hoiv to find the number of bricks required in a building. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of cubic feet by 22f. 

The number of cubic feet is found by multiplying the length, height 
and thickness (in feet) together. 

Bricks are usually made 8 inches long, 4 inches wide, and two inches 
thick ; hence, it requires 27 bricks to make a cubic foot without mortar, 
but it is generally assumed that the mortar fills 1-6 of the space. 

Hoiv to find the number of shingles required in a roof. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of square feet in the roof by 8, if the 
shingles are exposed 4£ inches, or by 7 1-5 if exposed 5 inches. 

To find the number of square feet, multiply the length of the roof by 
twice the lensrth of the rafters. 


To find the length of the rafters, at one-fourth pitch, multiply the 
width of the building by .56 (hundredths) ; at one-third pitch, by .6 
(tenths) ; at two-fifths pitch, by .64 (hundredths) ; at one-half 
pitch, by .71 (hundredths). This gives the length of the rafters from 
the apex to the end of the wall, and whatever they are to project must be 
taken into consideration. 

Note.— By a or K pitch is meant that the apex or comb of the roof is to be X or M the width of the 
building higher than the walls or base of the rafters. 

How to reckon the cost of hay. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of pounds by half the price per ton, 
and remove the decimal point three places to the left. 

How to measure grain. 

Rule. — Level the grain ; ascertain the space it occupies in cubic 
feet ; multiply the number of cubic feet by 8, and point off one place to 
the left. 

Note.— Exactness requires the addition to every three hundred bushels of one extra bushel. 

The foregoing rule may be used for finding the number of gallons, by 
multiplying the number of bushels by 8. 

If the corn in the box is in the ear, divide the answer by 2, to find 
the number of bushels of shelled corn, because it requires 2 bushels of eai 
corn to make 1 of shelled corn. 

Rapid rules for measuring land ivithout instruments. 

In measuring land, the first thing to ascertain is the contents of any 
given plot in square yards ; then, given the number of yards, find out the 
number of rods and acres. 

The most ancient and simplest measure of distance is a step. Now, 
an ordinary-sized man can train himself to cover one yard at a stride, on 
the average, with sufficient accuracy for ordinary purposes. 

To make use of this means of measuring distances, it is essential to 
walk in a straight line ; to do this, fix the eye on two objects in a line 
straight ahead, one comparatively near, the other remote ; and, in walk- 
ing, keep these objects constantly in line. 

Farmers and others by adopting the following simple and ingenious con- 
trivance, may always carry with them the scale to construct a correct yard 

Take a foot rule, and commencing at the base of the little finger of 
the left hand, mark the quarters of the foot on the outer borders of the 
left arm, pricking in the marks with indelible ink. 

To find how many rods in length tvill make an acre, the width being given. 
Rule. — Divide 160 by the width, and the quotient will be the answer. 



Hoiv to find the number of acres in any plot of land, the number of rods 
being given. 

Rule. — Divide the number of rods by 8, multiply the quotient by 5, 
and remove the decimal point two places to the left. 

The diameter being given, to find the circumference. 

Rule. — Multiply the diameter by 3 1-7. 

Hoiv to find the diameter, ivhen the circumference is given. 

Rule. — Divide the circumference by 3 1-7. 

To find hoiv many solid feet a round stick of timber of the same thick- 
ness throughout ivill contain when squared. 

Rule. — Square half the diameter in inches, multiply by 2, multiply 
by the length in feet, and divide the product by 144. 

General rule for measuring timber, to find the solid contents in feet. 

Rule. — Multiply the depth in inches by the breadth in inches, and 
then multiply by the length in feet, and divide by 144. 

To find the number of feet of timber in trees with the bark on. 

Rule. — Multiply the square of one-fifth of the circumference in 
inches, by twice the length, in feet, and divide by 144. Deduct 1-10 to 
1-15 according to the thickness of the bark. 

Hoivard's neiv rule for computing interest. 

Rule. — The reciprocal of the rate is the time for which the interest 
on any sum of money will be shown by simply removing the decimal 
point two places to the left ; for ten times that time, remove the point 
one place to the left; for 1-10 of the same time, remove the point three 
places to the left. 

Increase or diminish the results to suit the time given. 

Note.— The reciprocal of the rate is found by inverting the rate ; thus 3 per cent, per month, in- 
verted, becomes % of a month, or 10 days. 

When the rate is expressed by one figure, always write it thus: 3-1, 
three ones. 

Rule for converting English into American currency. 
Multiply the pounds, with the shillings and pence stated in decimals, 
by 400 plus the premium in fourths, and divide the product by 90. 


A township — 36 sections each a mile square. 
A section — 640 acres. 

A quarter section, half a mile square — 160 acres. 
An eighth section, half a mile long, north and south, and a quarter 
of a mile wide — 80 acres. 

A sixteenth section, a quarter of a mile square — 40 acres. 


The sections are all numbered 1 to 36, commencing at the north-east 

The sections are divided into quarters, which are named by the 
cardinal points. The quarters are divided in the same way. The de- 
scription of a forty acre lot would read : The south half of the west half of 
the south-west quarter of section 1 in township 24, north of range 7 west, 
or as the case might be ; and sometimes will fall short and sometimes 
overrun the number of acres it is supposed to contain. 

The nautical mile is 795 4-5 feet longer than the common mile. 


7 92-100 inches make 1 link. 

25 links " 1 rod. 

4rods .'. " 1 chain. 

80 chains " 1 mile. 

Note. — A chain is 100 links, equal to 4 rods or 66 feet. 

Shoemakers formerly used a subdivision of the inch called a barley- 
corn ; three of which made an inch. 

Horses are measured directly over the fore feet, and the standard of 
measure is four inches — called a hand. 

In Biblical and other old measurements, the term span is sometimes 
used, which is a length of nine inches. 

The sacred cubit of the Jews was 24.024 inches in length. 

The common cubit of the Jews was 21.704 inches in length. 

A pace is equal to a yard or 36 inches. 

A fathom is equal to 6 feet. 

A league is three miles, but its length is variable, for it is strictly 
speaking a nautical term, and should be three geographical miles, equal 
to 3.45 statute miles, but when used on land, three statute miles are said 
to be a league. 

In cloth measure an aune is equal to li yards, or 45 inches. 

An Amsterdam ell is equal to 26.796 inches. 

A Trieste ell is equal to 25.284 inches. 

A Brabant ell is equal to 27.116 inches. 


Every farmer and mechanic, whether he does much or little business, 
should keep a record of his transactions in a clear and systematic man- 
ner. For the benefit of those who have not had the opportunhVy of ac- 
quiring a primary knowledge of the principles of book-keeping, we here 
present a simple form of keeping accounts which is easily comprehended, 
and well adapted to record the business transactions of farmers, mechanics 
and laborers. 






Jan 10 

To 7 bushels Wheat 

at $1.25 















" 17 

By shoeino- span of Horses „ 


Feb. 4 

" 4 

March 8 

To 14 bushels Oats 

To 5 lbs. Butter 

... at $ .45 .25 


" 8 

Bv sharneninsr 2 Plows . . . 


" 13 

By new Double-Tree. 


" 27 

To Cow and Calf _ . . 

April 9 
" 9 

To half ton of Hay 

By Cash 


May 6 
" 24 

By repairino- Corn-Planter ... 


To one Sow with Pigs _ . 

July 4 

By Cash, to balance account 










March 21 
" 21 
" 23 

2 It 
"" 12 
Sept. 1 








By 3 days' labor .at $1.25 

To 2 Shoats at 3.00 

To 18 bushels Corn at .45 

By 1 month's Labor 

To Cash 

By 8 days' Mowing at $1.50 

To 50 lbs. Flour. 

To 27 lbs. Meat at $ .10 

By 9 days' Harvesting 2.00 

By 6 days' Labor at 1.50 

To Cash... 

To Cash to balance account 


























A Simple Rule for accurately Computing Interest at Any Given Per Cent, for Any 

Length of Time. 

Multiply the principal (amount of money at interest) by the time reduced to days; then divide this product 

the quotient obtained by dividing 360 (the number of days in the interest year) by the per cent, of interest, 

by the quotient _ 

andt/ie quotient thus obtained will be the required interest 


Require the interest of 8462.50 for one month and eighteen days at 6 per cent. An 
interest month is 30 days; one month and eighteen days equal 48 days. $462.50 multi- 



(because 360 divided by 12" gives 30); "if 4 percent., we would divide by 90; if 8 per 
cent., by 45; and In like manner for any other per cent, 

> 6)360 \ 185000 

60/ $222.0000( $3.70 




12 units, or things, 1 Dozen. 
12 dozen, 1 Gross. 
30 things, 1 Score. 

196 pounds, 1 Barrel of Flour. I 24 sheets of paper. 1 Quire. 

200 pounds, 1 Barrel of Pork. 20 quires paper 1 Ream. ,„,,„. 

56 pounds, 1 Firkin of Butter. | 4 ft. wide, 4 ft. high, and 8 ft. long, 1 Cord V\ ooa. 



Virginia. — The oldest of the States, was so called in honor of Queen 

Elizabeth, the "Virgin Queen," in whose reign Sir Walter Raleigh made 

his first attempt to colonize that region. 

Florida. — Ponce de Leon landed on the coast of Florida on Easter 

Sunday, and called the country in commemoration of the day, which was 

the Pasqua Florida of the Spaniards, or " Feast of Flowers." 

Louisiana was called after Louis the Fourteenth, who at one time 

owned that section of the country. 

Alabama was so named by the Indians, and signifies " Here we Rest." 
Mississippi is likewise an Indian name, meaning " Long River." 
Arkansas, from Kansas, the Indian word for " smoky water." Its 

prefix was really arc, the French word for " bow." 

The Carolinas were originally one tract, and were called "Carolana," 

after Charles the Ninth of France. 

Georgia owes its name to George the Second of England, who first 
established a colony there in 1732. 

Tennessee is the Indian name for the " River of the Bend," i. e., the 
Mississippi which forms its western boundary. 

Kentucky is the Indian name for " at the head of the river." 

Ohio means " beautiful ; " Iowa, " drowsy ones ; " Minnesota, " cloudy 
water," and Wisconsin, '"wild-rushing channel." 

Illinois is derived from the Indian word illini, men, and the French 
suffix ois, together signifying " tribe of men." 

Michigan was called by the name given the lake, fish-iv eir, which was 
so styled from its fancied resemblance to a fish trap. 

Missouri is from the Indian word "muddy," which more properly 
applies to the river that flows through it. 

Oregon owes its Indian name also to its principal river. 

Cortes named California. 

Massachusetts is the Indian for " The country around the great hills." 

Connecticut, from the Indian Quon-ch-ta-Cut, signifying "Long 

Maryland, after Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles the First, of 

New York was named by the Duke of York. 

Pennsylvania means " Penn's woods," and was so called after Williarp 
Penn, its orignal owner. 



Delaware after Lord De La Ware. 

New Jersey, so called in honor of Sir George Carteret, who was 
Governor of the Island of Jersey, in the British Channel. 

Maine was called after the province of Maine in France, in compli- 
ment of Queen Henrietta of England, who owned that province. 

Vermont, from the French word Vert Mont, signifying Green 

Neiv Hampshire, from Hampshire county in England. It was 
formerly called Laconia. 

The little State of Rhode Island owes its name to the Island of 
Rhodes in the Mediterranean, which domain it is said to greatly 

Texas is the American word for the Mexican name by which all that 
section of the country was called before it was ceded to the United States. 


States asd Territories. 























New Hampshire. 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina .. 




Rhode Island 

South Carolina... 





West Virginia 


Total States. 




District of Columbia. 



New Mexlqo 

Utah ... 



Total Territories... 
Total United States 



53 ~. 



05 1 

74 8 






New York, N. Y 

Philadelphia, Pa.... 

Brooklyn, N. Y 

St. Louis, Mo 

Chicago, 111 

Baltimore, Md 

Boston, Mass 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

New Orleans, La. .. 
San Francisco, cal.. 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Washington, D. C... 

Newark, N. J 

Louisville, Ky 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Pittsburg, Pa 

Jersey City, N. J ... 

Detroit, Mich 

Milwaukee, Wis — 

Albany, N. Y 

Providence, R. I 

Rochester, N. Y 

Allegheny, Pa 

Richmond, Va 

New Haven, Conn.. 

Charleston, S. C 

Indianapolis, Ind... 

Troy, N. Y 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Worcester, Mass.... 

Lowell, Mass 

Memphis, Tenn 

Cambridge, Mass... 

Hartford, Conn 

Scranton, Pa 

Reading, Pa 

Paterson, N.J 

Kansas City, Mo 

Mobile, Ala 

Toledo. Ohio 

Portland, Me 

Columbus, Ohio 

Wilmington, Del... 

Dayton, Ohio 

Lawrence, Mass 

Utica, N. Y 

Charlestown, Mass 

Savannah, Ga 

Lvnn. Mass 

Fall River, Mass... 
























































States and 
























New Hampshire. 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina.. 




Last Census of 

Area in 
Miles. 1870 























Michigan taken in 1874 







R. R. 


States and 



Rhode Island 

South Carolina... 





West Virginia 


Total States 





Dist. of Columbia 



New Mexico 


Washington , 


Total Territories 

Area in 



























R. R. 









Aggregate of U. S.. 2,915,203 38,555,983 60,852 

* Included in the Railroad Mileage of Maryland. 


Population and Area. 



Date of 

Area in 


to Square 




British Empire 


United States with Alaska 


Austria and Hungary 


Great Britain and Ireland 

German Empire 






Sweden and Norway 






New Grenada 





Argentine Republic 











San Salvador 





San Domingo 

Costa Rica 









































































































Pekin , 


St. Petersburg. 
Washington ... 








Rio Janeiro 














Buenos Ayres.. 











Sal Salvador... 
Port au Prince 


Monte Video... 


San Domingo... 

San Jose 
















































By Counties. 



Alexander. . 








Christian .. 







De Kalb... 
De Witt... 


Du Page 



Effingham. . 








Hamilton .. 



Henderson . 


Iroquois ... 





Jo Daviess. 



Kankakee. . 
Kendall ... 



La Salle 



Livingston . 


1870. 1860. 1850. 1840. 1830. 1820 



















1 1 248 
















1 094 1 









99 x 5 









1 205 1 
















































































McHenry .. 
McLean — 
















Richland ... 
Rock Island 


Sangamon .. 





St. Clair 





Wabash .... 



Wayne . 


Whitesides .. 





1870. 1860. 1850. 1840. 1830. 1820 





















































1 1079 







1 1492 






2539891I 1711951) 851470 













































5 2 43 


1 1 14 







Relating to Rates of Interest and Penalties for Usury. 

States and Territories. 









District of Columbia .., 


Georgia • 













Mississippi .... 





New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 


Ontario, Canada 



Quebec, Canada 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 






Washington Territory 

West Virginia 


Wyoming , 

Rate of 


per cent 

















Rate al- 
lowed by 

Penalties for Usury. 

per cent. 

Any rate 

Any rate 
Any rate 




Any rate. 







Any rate. 

Any rate. 




Any rate 


Any rate 

Any rate 


Any rate. 


Any rate. 
Any rate. 
Any rate. 
Any rate, 


Ary rate. 

Any rate 

Any rate 

Forfeiture of entire interest. 
Forfeiture of principal and interest. 

Forfeiture of excess of interest. 
Forfeiture of entire interest. 
Forfeiture of principal. 
Forfeiture of entire interest. 

Forfeiture of entire interest. 

Fine and imprisonment. 

Forfeiture of entire interest. 

Forfeiture of excess of interest. 

Forfeiture of entire interest. 

Forfeiture of ex. of in. above 12 per cent. 

Forfeiture of entire interest. 

Forfeiture of entire interest. 

Forfeiture of excess of interest. 

Forfeiture of ex. of in. above 7 per cent. 
No Usury Law in this State. 
Forfeiture of excess of interest. 
Forfeiture of entire interest. 

Forfeiture of entire interest. 

Forfeiture of thrice the excess and costs. 
Forfeiture of entire interest. 

Forfeiture of contract. 
Forfeiture of entire interest. 
Forfeiture of excess above 6 per cent. 

Forfeiture of excess of interest. 
Forfeiture of excess of interest. 

Forfeiture of excess of interest. 
Forfeiture of entire interest. 

Forfeiture of excess of interes - 
Forfeiture of entire interest. 

* Except in cases d :fin<:d by statutes of the State. 




Relating to Limitations op Actions : Showing Limit of Time in which 
Action may be Brought on the following : 

States and Tereitories. 








District ot Columbia . 




















New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 


Ontario (U. Canada).. 



Quebec (L. Canada).. 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 






Washington Territory 

West Virginia 


Wy omi ng 







Sealed and 




















































































































































































































Hancock , 




Iroquois... — . 





















Marshall . 










Morgan .' 












Rock Island 







St. Clair 

















N umbel 

other un- 

































OS 4 



59 1 













7 19 








95 1 

90 1 





1 4 7 

















4 53 
4 50 







4 12 
3 73 
50 1 



48, 117 






























63,9" ' 

















































2 025 











































































■ 89,304 
































































































































11 540 




















































































































1, VS. Mil 



































































V- c^^k^TZt^i 





Is bounded on the east by Winnebago, on the south by Ogle and Carroll, 
on the west by Jo Daviess, and on the north by Green County, Wis. It 
thus lies in the northern tier of counties in the State, and is the second county 
eastward from the Mississippi River. It is twenty-seven miles wide from east 
to west, and about twenty-one from its northern to its southern boundary line, 
containing 573 square miles. The northern part of the county, according to 
surveys made by the Illinois Central Railroad Company, averages about 723 
feet above the level of the Mississippi River at Cairo, about 415 feet above the 
level of Lake Michigan, and about 1,000 feet above the level of the sea. The 
southern part of the county averages some 250 feet lower than these averages. 
The general level of the country, it will thus be seen, presents a gentle slope to 
southern sunny skies. The general surface, or face of the country, is composed 
of gently undulating and rather rolling prairie land, interspersed with small 
groves and narrow belts of timber lands skirting the streams. A small portion 
of the county is made up of barrens and oak orchards or openings. The prairie 
soil is of unsurpassed fertility, and under a high state of cultivation and improve- 
ment. It is not so black and deep as the prairie soil further south ; but is 
drier, sandier, lighter or more chocolate colored, producing in great perfection 
all the staple crops of the northern part of the State. The oak openings and 
other poorer portions of the county produce the best wheat and other cereal 
grains, the best potatoes raised in the State, very excellent apples, and pears' 
of the hardier varieties, and with proper care and cultivation will nourish the 
vine and ripen its fruitage to a greater extent than is now dreamed of by the 
grape-growers and wine-makers of the West. Indeed, the day is coming, when 
its gravelly hills and loess clay will not only blush with the purple clusters of 
such vines as best endure the cold climate, but will also become sources of profit 
to their cultivators, and of exquisite pleasure to those who delight in using 
healthful, invigorating, pure wines. The soil of this county, as of all these 
northern counties, also produces and ripens in great perfection the currant, 
gooseberry, strawberry, raspberry and other garden fruits. 

The county is reasonably well watered with streams, which flow in various 
directions over its surface- Of these, the Pecatonica is the largest and most 
important. It enters the county about seven miles from its northwest corner, 
flows in a course a little south of east to Freeport, bends round to the westward 
at this latter place, and enters the county of Winnebago, not far from the 
center of its western boundary lines. Its waters are turbid and muddy as the 
"Yellow Tiber;" its course is serpentine and crooked beyond comparison, 
winding and doubling upon itself in the most capricious manner ; its current 
slow-flowing, treacherous and silent, notwithstanding the general difference in 


level between the northern and southern portions of the county, affording few 
water powers, and they of limited fall, but heavy and constant in their action. 
This is pre-eminently true of the six feet fall at Freeport, but hardly so true of 
the power at Martin's mill, just across the northern line of the county. Indeed, 
so far as a description of the stream is concerned, the dispute as to the Indian 
significance of the name " Pecatonica," "Muddy Water" and "Crooked 
Stream," might be well reconciled by adopting both meanings, and applying 
them with much truth to this tortuous body of flowing mud. Along portions 
of its course, its oozy banks and stagnant waters might breed miasms and 
fevers, were its influences not counteracted by the general healthfulness and 
salubrity of the climate of Northern Illinois. Yellow Creek enters the county 
almost at the center of its western boundary line, and flows into the Pecatonica 
two or three miles below and east of Freeport, its general course being a little 
south of east. Its waters have a yellowish, somewhat creamy color, and are 
slow floating like the Pecatonica. The color of its waters is derived from the 
Cincinnati shales along its banks, which dissolve and mingle with the water 
like yellow cream with muddy coffee. Its course is not so crooked as the 
Pecatonica. It wanders about in long, undulating swerves, instead of short, 
abrupt doublings. It affords few water powers, and they of limited extent. 
Cedar and Richland Creeks rise almost entirely within the county toward its- 
northern and central parts, flow southward, mingle their waters together within 
a few miles of the Pecatonica, and empty into the latter stream a few miles 
above Freeport. Both these streams afford light but constant water powers. 
They are not mountain born, but are fed by prairie and woodland springs, 
almost entirely within the boundaries of the county lines. Rock Run enters 
the county about four miles from its northeast corner, and empties, after run- 
ning about four miles on an air line, into the Pecatonica, about one and a half 
miles west of where it crosses the western line of Winnebago County. This is 
a beautiful little stream, affording a few light water powers. It goes babbling 
and murmuring along through rich prairie farms and woodland groves, until 
within a half a dozen miles of its mouth. Here the banks rise to precipitous, 
brush-covered, timber-covered hills, and in a few miles further, the low alluvial 
bottom of the Pecatonica is entered, through which it seeks its way with less 
haste into the dirty waters of the latter stream. Cranes Creek is a small and 
short prairie stream or brook, flowing into the Yellow Creek nearly south of 
Freeport, coming in from near the center of the southern boundarv line of the 
county. Besides these, there are many brooks, rivulets and little streams in 
various parts of the county, watering it reasonably well, both for agricultural 
and stock purp< ses. Nor should the mention of the bright, flashing, singing 
little Silver Creek be omitted ; this runs through the town of the same name, 
and finds its way into Yellow Creek not far from its mouth. 

In comparison with most northern counties, Stephenson might be said to be 
well timbered. The Pecatonica is skirted, more especially along its eastern 
bank, with a body of rather heavy timber, spreading out northward into the 
town of Oneco, for a considerable distance. Yellow Creek is fringed, for a 
part of its course, with a scattering growth of white oak-groves and clumps 
spreading across from Mill Grove to Eleroy and Sciota mills, into oak openings 
and a somewhat rough soil. Part of the town of Loran, in the southwest portion 
of the county, is a regular white-oak barren, with scattering trees and some 
brush-wood. Crane's Grove, lying south of Freeport, is about three miles long 
and more than a mile wide. Lynn and walnut groves dot the broad expanse of 
prairie in the northeastern part of the county, with a grateful exchange in 


the monotony of the prairie view. Cedar Creek has some good timber along 
its course. Richland Creek is shadowed by the heaviest body of good timber 
perhaps in the whole county. 

The prevailing timber consists of white, black and burr oak, sugar maple, 
black walnut, butternut, pignut, shellbark and common hickory, slippery and 
water elm, yellow poplar, with occasional laurel, red cedar, white pine, paw- 
paw, and some of the rarer oaks interspersed ; sumach and hazel also abound 
in and around all the groves ; wild cherry, honey locust, linden or basswood, 
ash, cotton-wood sycamore and some other varieties of timber are more or less 
to be noticed, and in some particular localities are found in considerable abun- 

Such, in brief, are the topographical features of Stephenson County — a 
county whose agricultural resources are not surpassed by those of any county 
in Northern Illinois. Indeed, it would be hard to find an equal area anywhere 
in the State whose soil is so universally good, productive and teeming in every 
bountiful gift to the industrious tillers of the earth. No mineral wealth or 
peculiar manufacturing facilities will attract to this county the attention of the 
adventurous, but for those resources which are derived from a rich soil and 
abundant agricultural capabilities, this favored county may well claim a last- 
ing pre-eminence. 


The geology of Stephenson County is of a very simple character. After- 
leaving the surface geology, the first formation met in a descending order is the 
Niagara limestone, succeeded in regular order by the Cincinnati shales, and 
the three divisions of the Trenton period, namely, the Galena, Blue and Buff 
limestones of the old Trenton seas. The following sections show the actual 
worked exposures of these rocks as measured in the quarries by the Hon. 
James Shaw, of Mt. Carroll, from whose writings on the subject the preced- 
ing and following have been taken : 


Quaternary deposits, consisting of clays, sands, gravels, etc 10 to 65 feet. 

Niagara limestone 23 " 

Cincinnati group 40 " 

Galena limestone 75 " 

Blue limestone 38 " 

Bluff limestone 40 " 

Each of these groups or formations outcrops at some place or places in the 
county. Some of them are the immediate underlying rocks over large portions 
of the same. 

As further illustrating the geological formations of this county, and more 
especially those which lie deep down in the earth, an imperfect section, obtained 
from the borings of the Rocky Farm oil well, is given. This well was com- 
menced in 18t54, and continued on through a great part of the year 1865. At 
that time the oil fever was prevailing extensively. Some surface indications 
were noticed in a small brook running through the north part of Section 6, in 
the town of Lancaster. A company was formed, an engine obtained, and a 
hole six inches in diameter drilled into the earth for over 800 feet. No oil 
was obtained, no indications of oil noticed, after leaving the surface, and the 
enterprise was finally abandoned. Although very unprofitable to the company, 
this boring was not devoid of scientific interest. After boring about eight feet 
through the overlying soil and clays, the Galena limstone was struck. No 


very accurate record of the material passed through for the first 120 fee c 
was kept, but from the fact that the Galena limestone outcrops heavily at 
Cedarville, only a mile or two distant, being there seventy-five or eighty feet 
thick in the exposure on Cedar Creek, it is believed the well in this 120 feet 
passed out of the Galena limestone, and reached perhaps a considerable dis- 
tance into the blue limestones, immediately underlying. Commencing at 120 
feet beneath the surface, a section of strata and materials bored through is 
o-iven, until the depth of 608 feet was reached, as indicated by the detritus 
brought to the surface by the auger. No record of the last 250 feet seems to 
have been kept. 


120 to 130 feet, blue limestone and mud veins 10 feet. 

130 '■ 146 " gray limestone, containing crevices 16 " 

146 " 168 " shales of various kinds 22 " 

168 " 375 " St. Peter's sandstone, soft and very white 207 " 

375 " 484 " red sandstone, with tough, paint-like mud veins 109 " 

484 " 487 " yellow, sand-like surface sand 3 " 

487 " 491 " quicksand and salty water 4 ' ; 

491 " 494 '.' bright yellow, fine salty sand 3 " 

494 " 501 " slate of chalky color and nature 7 '• 

501 " 520 " snuif-colored, slaty rocks 19 " 

520 " 532 " sharp, slate-colored sand 12 " 

532 " 564 " dark red stone, like soapstone, with thin, flinty strata and 

iron pyrites 32 " 

564 " 586 " bright red stone, slightly only 22 '• 

586 " 608 " dark reddish slate, with iron pyrites 22 " 

At the depth of about 60 feet from the surface, some dark-colored carbon- 
ferous shales were struck. These must have belonged to the Blue limestone 
underlying the Galena, and, perhaps, are near the dividing line between the two. 
From thence to the depth of 168 feet the blue and buff limestones of the Tren- 
ton period were undoubtedly the rocks passed through. The next 207 feet 
was the St. Peter sandstone. There could be no mistake as to this ; the auger 
brought it up pure, white and crumbly. The next 109 feet, although it strongly 
resembled the St. Peter's sandstone, was stained by water holding iron in 
solution, and belongs, perhaps, to the calciferous sandstone, or lower magnesian 
limestone of the Northwest. The next 121 feet almost loses its identity, but, 
perhaps belongs to the lower calciferous sandstones, and to the Potsdam sand- 
stone. Chemical analysis of the materials brought to the surface, aided by a 
strong magnifying glass, may show these surmises to be partially untrue. 

Some importance is to be attached to the above section, because it is a 
matter of much interest to the citizens of Stephenson County, and because 
it aiforded an opportunity for making even a partial examination of the deep 
underlying foundations. It also settled another question for a long time agitat- 
ing the public mind in this part of the State. Before this experiment, geologi- 
cal science had foretold that no productive oil deposits-could or would be found 
in this part of the country. It had predicted this from knowledge of the under- 
lying strata, and their inability to collect and preserve the oily treasures of the 
earth. But capitalists lacked faith in the teachings of science, and acquired in 
the school of experience the lessons which they would nowhere else learn. The 
experiment of this well had a wonderful influence in allaying the oil fever in 
this region. 

The following is a description of the out cropping geological formations, for 
which the heartiest acknowledgments are also tendered ex-Speaker Shaw : 



The deposits cover unconformably the underlying rocks to a varying depth. 
At some places they are five or ten feet thick ; at others, they perhaps extend in 
thickness to sixty or seventy feet. To say that they average twenty-five or 
thirty feet all over the county, would, perhaps, be placing the figures safely 
within the bounds of truth. If all this accumulation of deposited materials 
could be removed, the surface of the underlying rocks would present a very 
rough and uneven surface, scooped-out depressions, extending through over- 
lying formations, and over large portions of the country, presenting, if 
filled with water, the phenomena of broad shallow lakes. The mounds, 
rising like watch-towers, over these prairies (resisting, on account of some 
local cause or hardness, the denuding agencies that carried away the rest 
of the formation), would appear like islands in the surrounding waste of 
waters. The rocky surface thus left, so far as can be judged by limited exam- 
inations, would be unsmoothed by water current and unscratched by glacier, 
but would be everywhere uneven, rough and covered with unworn fragments of 

Along the narrow bottoms of the Pecatonica may be noticed a strip of 
alluvium proper. At some places it is very narrow; at others, it extends to 
one or two miles in width. The same deposit may be observed at a few local- 
ities along the Yellow Creek bottom, and also along the narrow bottoms of some 
of the smaller streams. The deposit, however, is of limited extent ; it is rich, 
fat and heavy as an agricultural and timber soil. Along some of these streams 
the low, bold hills are found to be composed of the loess marls and clays ; but 
this deposit is also of quite limited extent in the country. All the rest of these 
superficial deposits belong to the sands, clays and gravels of the drifts proper. 
These clays, and clayey sands, however, do not very strongly furnish the evidences 
of deposition or transportation. They seem to partake, in part at least, of the 
nature and character of the rock formations lying immediately below them. 
Where the Galena limestone is the underlying rock, the appearance seemed, 
upon examination, to have been somewhat as follows : First, there was the 
prairie soil and clayey sub-soil, at most only a few feet in thickness ; this was 
succeeded by a reddish-brown clay, mixed with flints and pieces of cherty 
Galena limestone. Then came the clay and pieces of limestone, preserving 
their regular stratification, the limestone becoming more abundant in the 
descent until the solid rock strata were reached. In a few instances, this over- 
lying clay is creamy in color, and almost limey in texture ; but the prevail- 
ing color is reddish-brown or red, and in many cases it is more or less mixed 
with sand. The clays overlying the Cincinnati shades also bear a resem- 
blance to this formation, from which they are doubtless in part derived. 
They are of a creamy or more chocolate color finer in texture and freer from 
sand. These superficial clays and loams certainly have the appearance of 
being the residuem left after frost and water had pulverized and, by percolation, 
removed, the more soluble portions of the uppermost parts of the formaftions 

But, aside from these deposits, the gravel beds and bowlders of the true 
drift period are not wanting in this county. That part lying west of the 
Illinois Central Railroad and south of Yellow Creek, being mostly low, level, 
prairie, underlaid mostly by the Cincinnati shales, and also that low, rich, 
level part between Waddam's Mound and the range of mounds running from 
the neighborhood of Warren toward the southwest, and underlaid by the 


Galena limestone, may almost be denominated a driftless region. Few 
bowlders are seen over it, and few or no real gravel deposits can be found. 
The prairies north and east of Waddams' Grove have strewed over them num- 
berless bowlders, some black, some flame-colored, and some combining the vari- 
ous colors of the metamorphic rocks. At one place, about halfway between 
Waddams' Grove and Winslow, they are rolled into windrows along the road, 
and used in part for the lane fences. Many of these are exceedingly beautiful 
and many colored. They are the real "lost rocks," and must have been 
dropped from the slow-moving icebergs, as they drifted along toward the south- 
west. All that part of the country north and east of the Pecatonica is char- 
acterized by these bowlders, and many deposits of gravel and gravelly clay are 
to be met with in almost any of the low ridges of land. The same may be said 
of the eastern portion of the county, excepting that the deposits are not so 

Some other formations belonging to the surface geology, such as fire clay, 
peat, bog-iron ore, muck and the like, will be referred to in the economical geol- 
ogy of the county. 


The superficial extent of the county covered by this formation is quite 
small. Waddams' Grove, quite a high elevation of land, two or three miles 
long and a mile or two wide, and located a little northwest of Lena, is capped 
by the Niagara limestone. At French's quarry, near the top end of this eleva- 
tion facing toward Lena, there is an exposure worked to the depth of about 
fifteen feet. French's well, near the same spot, is forty -five feet deep, the 
upper twenty feet being sunk through this formation, and the lower twenty- 
five feet sinking through the underlying Cincinnati shales. At Blakesly's 
quarry, twenty-five feet of the same formation is worked into. This is about 
one mile west of French's, on the north face of the hill. Here they have 
worked down to the Cincinnati shales. The bottom layers in both these quar- 
ries are compact and solid ; the top layers are thick, irregular, speckled and 
porous. A species of slender, rotten Oynthophyllum was the only fossil observed 
in these quarries. From the latter quarry the prospect toward the north and 
west is beautiful beyond description. The low, level, rich prairie, with its 
fields and meadows, barns and farm-houses, skirted in the distance by the range 
of mounds, bending around like a distant amphitheater into Jo Daviess County, 
presents as fine a scene beneath a glowing June sun, as can be observed in any 

Leaving this elevation, the Niagara is next found outcropping in the south- 
western part of the county. Its extent can be indicated by a line which should 
enter the county from the west in the town of Kent, some three miles south of 
Simmons' Mound, then following the general course of Yellow Creek, keeping 
distant from that stream two to five miles, until nearly opposite to Crane's Grove, 
then southward until the south boundary line of the county is reached, near it, 
bi-section with the Illinois Central Railroad track. This line would cut off that 
portion of the county underlaid by the Niagara rocks. And even in this, some 
of the small streams which come into Yellow Creek through this section cut into 
the Cincinnati group; and a band of the Cincinnati group along Lashell's Hol- 
low, where the little village of Loharn is located, also discloses the shales and 
quarries of this group. ****** 

This formation is not much marred in this portion of the county. At Big 
Springs in Lashell Hollow, quite a quantity of stone has been taken out. Few 


fossils were to be observed, except that great quantities of some of the rougher 
Niagara corals lie strewnover the hills about Loharn, consistiug of two or three 
species of Favosites and some imperfect Halysites. 

Cincinnati Group. — The rocks and shales of this group cover but a lim- 
ited extent of this county. All that part of Waddam's Grove, between the level 
of the surrounding prairie and the capping Niagara, is composed of the shales 
and rocks of this group. The gentle slopes of the ascent, and the creamy, col- 
ored waters of the springs, are an unfailing index of this formation. No quar- 
ries are opened in it, but it is here, perhaps, forty feet thick. The broad belt 
south of Yellow Creek, crossing this stream in the township of Kent, extending 
up into the southwest corner of the township of West Point, as indicated on the 
general map, has been referred to sufficiently, perhaps, in speaking of the pre- 
vious formation. About the village of Loharn, the hills on either side of the 
creek, to their top, are composed of the Cincinnati rocks and shales. Many 
quarries are opened in the face of the hills, and fair building stone is obtained. 
The worked outcrops are here fifteen or twenty feet thick. Following the creek 
to the northward from here a few miles, the Cincinnati formation runs under, 
and the Niagara takes its place. In the half-township of Erie, just west of the 
village of Eleroy, there is quite an elevation of land, covering several sections, 
and crowned with a scattering grove, which is made up exclusively of the Cin- 
cinnati formation. On the west end of the village of New Dublin, there is a 
quarried outcrop some forty feet deep. A Catholic chapel is built out of the 
stones of this quarry. 

The Trenton Limestone. — This formation as now recognized by geolo- 
gists embraces the Galena. The Trenton proper, or blue, and the buff lime- 
stones — these formations are well-marked and easily distinguishable, and will 
be referred to under their appropriate heads. 

The Galena Limestone. — Nearly three-fourths of Stephenson County is 
underlaid by this well-known division of the Trenton rocks. And, inasmuch as 
the railroad cuts and the streams afford the best facilities to study the geologic 
formations of this county, they will be considered. The Illinois Central enters 
the county at Warren, near its northwest corner. It passes over a low, smooth 
prairie, without outcrop or stone quarry, to Lena. Waddam's Grove, which 
stands in this prairie, shows that the Galena limestone underlies it. At Lena, 
there is a quarry and a limekiln within a short distance of the town, reposing 
some fifteen feet in thickness. About two miles farther, there is another; both 
on a little stream toward the north. Passing on toward the southeast, the 
railroads exhibit several small sections in the top of the Galena beds, but do 
not afford any heavy section until Freeport is reached. Just west of the city, 
along the track of the railroad, and near the banks of the Pecatonica River, in 
a low range of hills, three extensive quarries are worked, furnishing stone for 
lime and for the large amount of building material needed. The first nearest 
the city is worked about eighteen feet deep. The rock obtained here is very 
soft, yellow, sandy and full of cavities the size of a walnut. Where heaps of it 
have been removed, a considerable amount of sand is left scattered on the 
ground. The top layers of this quarry are so friable and crumbling, that hand 
specimens will hardly remain in shape. The second quarry exposes an outcrop 
of about twenty -four feet. The third is exactly similar to the second. Both 
of them are somewhat shaly toward the top. but rapidly grow massive and 
solid as they are worked into. The Western Union Railroad enters the county 
on a line almost exactly south of Freeport, and passes out of it four miles south 
of its northeast corner. Three miles southwest of Freeport, it cuts through the 


top of the rock under consideration, exposing the usual red clay, and over this 
a gravelly subsoil. About three miles northwest of Freeport, there is an exactly 
similar cut. About a mile further on toward the northwest is another, which 
measures 1,000 feet long and twenty-four feet deep in the middle. Further 
on, and a little over a mile west of Rock City, is another cut 350 yards long 
and fifteen feet deep in the solid stone at the deepest place, and the stone 
covered by about ten feet of the usual gravelly clay. Here the stone is hard, 
glassy, conchoidal in fracture, and begins to assume the characteristics of the 
blue or Trenton proper. One-half a mile further on and nearer Rock City, 
there is a cut about twelve feet deep, the lowest part exposing the real blue 
limestone. Further on, and one mile east of Dacotah, there is another cut in 
the yellow Galena. Further on, at the railroad bridge over Rock Run, there 
is a cut about twenty-two feet deep. The first four feet is the usual reddish 
clay, the next twelve feet is Galena limestone, assuming characteristics of the 
blue, and the last five feet is into the blue itself. The union of the Galena and 
blue, passing into each other almost perceptibly, may be satisfactorily examined 
here. The next and last cut is about one-fourth of a mile east of Davis, almost 
on the county line. It is over 1,000 feet long and thirty-one feet deep ; the 
upper seven feet is the usual clay, with some gravel in it : the lower twenty- 
four feet is Galena limestone, solid, a little bluish in color and of a somewhat 
conchoidal fracture. In fact, all these exposures along the eastern part of the 
county, in their blue color, conchoidal fracture and hardness, differ consider- 
ably from the Freeport quarries. They are lower down in the series, and 
assimilate somewhat into the character of the blue below. So true is this that 
in some of the exposures it is hard to fix upon the line of separation between 
the two. 

From Freeport, south along the railroad track, no other exposures of the 
Galena limestone are visible. 

Leaving the railroad cuts, the streams present the next best opportunities 
to trace the superficial area, thickness and phenomena of this deposit. The 
Pecatonica River, about four or five miles after entering the county, strikes the 
Galena limestone, and for its whole distance in the county, exposes this forma- 
tion where any rocks are exposed along its banks. There are no very good 
exposures, however, on this stream, except those at Freeport, already referred 
to. At Bobtown, or New Pennsylvania, an outcrop is worked near the river, 
and at or near the mouth of Yellow Creek the formation is dug into in an old 
crevice lead mine. Richland Creek and Cedar Creek both expose the Galena 
rocks for their entire length. Both these streams have cut deep into the solid 
rocks, and at many places along their banks heavy outcrops and escarpments 
stand out in bold relief. At Buena Vista, on the former stream, there is an out- 
crop of twenty feet, quarried into for its full depth. At Cedarville, on the lat- 
ter stream, the outcrop is seventy feet thick. A large quarry is here opened, 
out of which the stone in Adclams' mill-dam have been taken. At the Scioto 
mills, below the confluence of the two streams, and in many places in that 
neighborhood, the same rocks are exposed and quarried. Crane's Creek, where 
it washes the west end of Crane's Grove, exposes the Galena limestone, and the 
the same limestone is worked into at Rosensteel's quarry, near Freeport, to a 
depth of twenty-two feet. 

Leaving the streams, reference will next be made to other portions of the 
county examined. Burr Oak Grove, half-way between Lena and Winslow, has 
near its eastern limits an interesting outcrop. About two and a half miles west 
of the latter place, almost every little prairie hill-top is dug into, and several 


small quarries opened. An exposure of twenty-four feet was also examined at 
the limekiln, a little southeast of Rock City. The top of this quarry is Galena 
limestone, but it gradually changes into the blue before the bottom is reached. 
In the township of Ridott, the Galena is the underlying stone, changing into 
the blue toward the eastern and southeastern part. In the township of Oneco 
the formation is heavily developed. In short, the outcrop of this well-known 
formation, or division of the Trenton rocks, are so numerous that it is not neces- 
sary to particularize more fully than to briefly state their superficial boundaries 
and area. 

All that part of the country between the Pecatonica River and Yellow Creek, 
except a small strip east and south of Winslow, and except the developments 
of the Cincinnati group at Waddam's Grove, New Dublin, Kent and along the 
banks of the Yellow Creek, is underlaid by the Galena rocks. All that part 
of the county north and east of the Pecatonica River, except in the bed and 
along either side of Rock Run, is underlaid by the same. The southeastern 
part of the county, nearly up to the Pecatonica River, and nearly to the track 
of the Illinois Central Railroad, with the exception of a strip along the south- 
eastern corner and a few isolated patches in the eastern part of the township 
of Silver Creek, is also underlaid by these same rocks. 

Fossils. — Few fossils are found in the Galena limestone in Stephenson Co. 
The characteristic Heceptaculites sulcata, called by the miners and quarrymen 
" lead blossom " and " sunflower coral," is found at Freeport and Cedarville in 
great abundance, but good specimens are hard to obtain on account of the fri- 
able nature of the stone in which it is found. At the former place, a specimen 
of Heceptaculites orbicularis was noticed. Two or three species of Murchi- 
sonia, fragments of several species of Orthocera, one or two well-known 
Orthis, two species of Pleurotomaria, a small Bellerophon, and a rather well- 
defined Ambonychia, were the fossils most usually observed. They all exist in 
the form of casts, and perfect specimens are hard to find. 


This, the middle division of the Trenton, is of limited extent in this 
county. Of course, in many places marked on the map with the color indi- 
cating the Galena, a shaft sunk down a short distance would strike the blue 
limestone, but it is described as the surface rock. Rock Run cuts into the blue 
limestone soon after entering the county, and all along its banks on both sides, 
until within a mile or two of its confluence with the Pecatonica, this rock out- 
crops and shows itself. Some of the high, rocky banks, are overcapped with 
the Galena, but the usual rock is the blue. At the railroad bridge of the 
Western Union Railroad Company, over Rock Run, the railroad track is about 
six feet below the junction of the Galena and the blue. Stepping west out of 
the railroad cut, there is a perpendicular descent of thirty-three feet from the 
track down to the water level, making the whole thickness of the blue, at this 
place, about thirty-nine feet. The lower part of this outcrop is very blue, the 
upper part yellowish, with thin strata, and gradually changing in lithological 
character, until the overlying Galena just east of the bridge is reached. This 
is a very interesting section. One and a half miles below this locality is a quarry, 
opened in the west bluff of the stream. The outcrop is twenty-five feet thick. 
The top part is shaly and yellowish and the bottom becomes heavier and bluer 
in color. Some of the thin shaly strata are full of small-sized orthis. These 
two outcrops are fair representations of all the others along the stream. Some 


indications of underlying blue limestones prophesy its existence in the south- 
eastern part of the county, and have so been marked on the county map. 

Some slabs with fossils similar to those found in the Dixon marble were 
picked up ; these with the fragmentary stems of Eucrinites, were the only fos- 
sils found. A small specimen of the " sunflower coral " was found in the blue 
limestone, at Rock Run railroad bridge, the only one ever found by the party 
making the examinations in this rock. 

The Buff Limestone. — The only place where this, the lower division of 
the Trenton, is developed in this county, is at Winslow. It is doubtless the 
underlying rock for a few miles below this place and on both sides of the Pec- 
atonica River for this distance. Here it presents very much the appearance of 
a quarry in the blue. The top is shaly, thin bedded, and of a yellowish choc- 
olate color. At Martin's mill in Wisconsin, one mile above, the outcrop is 
much heavier, the bottom layers more massive and very blue. Professor Whit- 
ney pronounces these exposures of the buff, and the fossils seem to indicate 
that he is correct in this. The lithological character of the quarries would 
indicate the same thing, but in a less satisfactory manner. On either side of 
this strip of buff, and within a short distance of its outcrops, the Galena lime- 
stone comes to the surface, so that the latter seems to rest uncomfortably upon 
the former; but in following the stream to the northward, a few miles above the 
mill, the St. Peters sandstone begins to show its outliers. The quarry at 
Winslow is worked twenty-three feet deep, and at Martin's mill thirty-five feet, 
and at both places it is some ten feet from the bottom of the quarries to the 
surface of the water. Geologically, the locality is one of the most interesting 
in this part of the State. 


Many well-preserved casts of fossils were found here. Among them the 
most characteristic were Pleurotomaria subconica; a large Orthoeera, five or 
six inches in diameter and six feet long, with a part of the shell still wanting ; 
a Cypricardites Niota; Oncoceras pandion; some two species of Tellinomya, 
etc., etc. 


The chief sources of wealth in Stephenson County are to be found in the 
richness and productiveness of its soil, and in its abundant agricultural resources. 
It is as less waste land, and is regarded as the best agricultural county in 
the State. In her fat, rich soil, therefore, is contained the first and chiefest 
source of wealth in the county — that which nourishes all the rest, and fostering 
and building up the city of Freeport in a wonderful manner. But, aside from 
this, there are other sources of wealth and industry demanding attention. 


Almost everywhere beneath the soils and sub-soils may be found clay beds, 
out of which an excellent article of common red brick can be manufactured, 
This is more especially true of the reddish clays overlying the Galena limestone. 
Beds of sand are also found, sufficiently pure for mortars and plastering pur- 
poses, but they are far less numerous than the clay beds. A tough, tenacious, 
dark-colored fire-clay also underlies some of the peat marshes, which has been 
dried and baked into a tenacious, light-colored brick, as an experiment, but this 
is not, perhaps, of much economic value. 



The more solid portions of the Galena limestone burns into a quicklime of 
excellent quality, and there are many limekilns in the county. Certain portions of 
the blue limestone also burn into a good lime, and at Martin's mill certain por- 
tions of the buff are being successfully made into lime of fair quality. 


All the rocks hitherto described furnish building stone of better or worse 
qualities. The Niagara is quarried in several places. It furnishes a handsome- 
colored, enduring building material, but is unshapely and unmanageable on 
account of its irregular stratification. The Cincinnati group, although con- 
sidered an invaluable building material, is much quarried about New Dublin 
and in that region. It comes out of the quarry in good shape for light work, 
and does not crumble and decay when exposed to the weather, as it has been 
known to do farther west. Farm foundations, houses, bridge abutments, and 
such other work may be seen built out of the Cincinnati group, at many places 
in the western part of the county. The Catholic chapel before alluded to is 
built out of this material, and does not, as yet, exhibit much signs of decay. 
Indeed, some of the bottom strata are massive, very blue and excessively hard ; 
but yet the Cincinnati group would not furnish stone suitable for massive and 
solid masonry, or for long-continued resistance to the action of the elements. 
The Galena limestone furnishes a good material for the heavier kinds of masonry . 
It is a rough, unshapely stone, requiring much labor to lay it, but when well 
dressed and laid, it seasons into great hardness, and takes a beautiful cream 
or chocolate color. Nearly all the stone work in the city of Freeport is built 
of this stone. The blue and buff both afford a good stone for building purposes. 
The upper strata are too thin and irregular, but the lower blue strata afford the 
most beautiful building stone to be found in this part of the State. The only 
difficulty seems to be the great labor in quarrying, on account of the great 
amount of worthless materials to be removed upon reaching the handsome and 
valuable portions of the quarries. 


Some bog-iron ore may be found in some of the marshes, but it is of little 
value and limited extent. Pieces of flat copper have been picked up in the 
gravel beds, but they are of rare occurrence, and come from regions far remote. 
Galena, or common lead ore, is and has been mined for to some extent. There 
is an old crevice mine near the mouth of Yellow Creek that has often engaged 
attention in years past, but no heavy amounts of mineral have ever been taken 
from it. From the quarries near Lena, " chunks " as large as the fist have 
been taken. In the township of Oneco a company of Freeport men prospected 
to a considerable extent, and obtained several hundred pounds of mineral. 
Near Weitzel's Mill some "prospecting" has been carried on. Along the 
banks of Yellow Creek some "float mineral" has been picked up; and in 
almost any of the quarries small bits of ore may be detected. But none of 
these localities have shown heavy bodies of lead. Indeed, the Galena lime- 
stone, notwithstanding its general prevalence in this county, seems to be very 
unproductive of rich bodie3 of mineral wealth. The probabilities are that no 
rich, or even good-paying, diggings will ever be discovered, for the simple rea- 
son that they do not exist within the borders of the county. Small deposits 


undoubtedly do exist, and will occasionally create some excitement, and invite 
the expenditure of mining capital, but, in the opinion of many, capital thus 
expended will never make remunerative returns. 


At several localities peat-beds of some value have been discovered. On the 
farm of a Mr. White, in Township 26, Range 9, a bed of about fifty acres 
was discovered. It was from three to six feet, and underlaid by a tough, 
tenacious, dark-colored fire-clay. The peat is of a rather poor quality, and is 
probably of no great value as fuel. Near Lena and Burr Oak Grove the same 
indications exist. On the low, level prairies south of Yellow Creek, and rang- 
ing between Florence and Crane's Grove, almost every swale and marsh has 
more or less peat in it. One of these beds is quite extensive, and will become 
valuable as soon as the peat experiment succeeds. It is found in the township 
of Florence, between Sections 25 and 26, the section line running along near 
its middle. Careful borings show a depth of from six to nine feet of peat. 

The peat experiment is not yet fully solved, but its solution will not only 
enrich the experimentalist, but confer great blessings upon the inhabitants of 
these northern prairie counties. 


In prefacing what it seems worth while to say upon the Indian occupation 
of Stephenson County, the publisher desires to acknowledge his obligations to 
the judicious and very valuable compilations on the subject made by Gen. S. D. 
Atkins, and contained in his address of July 4, 1876, from which the following, 
in that behalf, is appropriated. After detailing the history of Illinois from its 
earliest settlements to the close of the war for Independence, he says : 

"After the Revolutionary war, emigration pushed rapidly over the Alle- 
ghanies into the magnificient country watered by the Ohio and Mississippi and 
their tributaries. Many settlers in Illinois came from Virginia, Kentucky and 
Tennessee. They were mostly poor people, unable to own slaves, and many 
were in sentiment opposed to slavery, and were seeking a new country where 
slavery did not exist. Southern Illinois was principally settled by these 
people who, with their families, penetrated the wilderness, with all their house- 
hold goods upon pack animals and themselves upon foot, depending upon their 
trusty rifles and fishing-rods for sustenance by the way. Some trace the sobri- 
quet of ' Suckers, ' universally applied to Illinois, to these poor settlers from 
the South ; they were emigrants from the 'poorer classes of the Slave States, 
where the tobacco plant was already extensively cultivated by slave labor, and 
they, not being able to own slaves in the Slave States, came to Illinois to get 
away from the imperious domination of their wealthy neighbors. The tobacco 
plant (now so extensively cultivated in Stephenson County) has many sprouts 
from the root and main stem, which, if not stripped off, suck up its nutriment 
and destroy the staple. These sprouts are called 'suckers. ' and are as care- 
fully stripped off from the plant and thrown away as is the tobacco worm itself. 
These poor emigrants from the Slave States were jeeringly and derisively called 
' Suckers, ' because they were asserted to be a burden upon the people of 
wealth ; and when they removed to Illinois they were supposed to have stripped 
themselves off from the parent stem, and gone away to perish in the wilderness 
like the ' suckers ' stripped from the tobacco plant. But we wear the title 
proudly now, for the 'stone rejected by the builders has become the chief stone 


of the corner, ' and in intelligence, morals, material prosperity and population, 
Illinois has far outstripped her poor old mother, Virginia, and surpassed Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee. The cognomen was misapplied. Slavery was the 
'sucker' from which they fled, and the ' Subtle corps of sappers and miners " 
that 'sucked' the life-blood out of the States from which the early settlers of 
Illinois emigrated. But there is another generally accepted explanation of this 
sobriquet of 'Suckers, ' the nickname of the Illinoisans. Lead was early dis- 
covered in the vicinity of Galena, and in 1824, Col. James Johnson, of Ken- 
tucky, had gone there with a party of miners and opened a lead mine, about one 
mile above the present city of Galena. His great success drew others there in 
1825, and in 1826 and 1827 hundreds, and even thousands, from Kentucky 
and Missouri and Southern Illinois went to that section to work the lead mines. 
It was estimated that in the summer of 1827 the number of miners in the min- 
ing region about Galena was between seven and ren thousand. The Southern 
Illinoisans ran up the Mississippi in the spring season, worked the lead mines 
during the warm weather, and ran down the river again to their homes in the fall 
season, thus establishing a similitude between their migratory habits and the 
fishy tribe known as 'Suckers, ' that run up stream in the spring and down 
stream in the fall. No matter how it came about, the term ' Suckers ' will 
stick to the Illinoisans 'while wood grows and water runs.' At that time. 
1824 and 1825, there was not a white settler within the bounds of what now 
constitutes Stephenson County, and not a white settlement anywhere in North- 
ern Illinois, between Chicago and Galena. This broad expanse of magnificent 
country, Southern Wisconsin and Northern Illinois, surpassing, in the estimation 
of the writer, any country he has ever visited ; and, in the estimation of at least 
one gentleman who has traveled extensively and circumnavigated the globe, 
surpassing in climate, soil and productions any other spot on the globe's sur- 
face, was in the peaceful possession of the red man. So far as the writer 
knows, or has been able to learn within the few days he has devoted to the sub- 
ject, bo white man had then looked upon its beautiful prairies, grand old 
groves or sparkling streams. It is possible that under the treaty of 1804, the 
white man, the European and their descendants, might have had a right to 
visit this country, but, so far as the writer knows, no one ever did. It was the 
home of, and in the undisturbed possession of, the powerful Indian tribes known 
in history as the Sacs and Foxes. A subordinate Indian tribe, the Winne- 
bagoes, occupied Stephenson County and vast tracts besides along the Pecaton- 
ica, Wasemon and Rock Rivers. The chief of this subordinate tribe was 
Winneshiek, whose principal village was situated on the banks of the Pecatonica, 
at the mouth of the Spring Run, along Spring street, through the present densely 
inhabited portion of the city of Freeport. This Indian chieftain, Winneshiek, 
was a short, stubbed, powerful man, temperate in his habits, and peaceable and 
well-disposed toward the whites. In fact, the Winnebagoes were so well dis- 
posed toward the whites that they have gone down in history as pusillanimous 
and cowardly. Their lodges were on the grounds now occupied by the Illinois 
Central and Northwestern Railway Companies. Their corn-fields, where the 
dusky squaws and dark-eyed maidens of the Winnebagoes planted and raised 
their corn, were in the immediate vicinity of Taylor's Driving Park, and the 
writer has often traced their corn-hills, laboriously thrown up by these matron 
and maiden 'grangers,' with no better 'agricultural implements' than clam 
shells, where the park now is, and no doubt traces of these corn-hills might 
yet be found by the curious in that vicinity. The burial-ground of the tribe 
was where the Illinois Central Railway freight house now stands, and, in 


excavating for the foundation of that structure, in 1853, many skeletons of the 
Indians buried there were exhumed by the workmen. 

" Col. E. H. Gratiot, so far as the writer knows, was one of the first white 
people who looked upon the beautiful country of Stephenson County before a 
plow had broken its virgin soil. Col. Gratiot is a son of the founder of 
Gratiot's Grove, Wis. His grandfather emigrated to America with John Jacob- 
Astor, of New York, and his father came to the lead mines, in the vicinity of 
Galena, immediately after the first discovery of lead in that region. Col. 
Gratiot remembers distinctly this peculiar mode of burial of the Winnebagoes — 
' burial in the air.' It is an interesting query, ' Who was the first white person 
in Stephenson County ?' I cannot answer the query. Southern Illinois was 
settled immediately at the close of the Revolutionary war, but Northwestern 
Illinois had no settlers until lead was discovered near Galena, about 1823-24. 
Illinois was admitted into the Union as a State in 1818, but, so far as the writer 
knows, no white man had yet visited the valley of the Pecatonica. Col. Gratiot 
traveled on horseback, in company with a single companion, in the fall of 1827, 
from Jacksonville, 111., to Gratiot's Grove, Wis., passing through from Dixon 
to Buffalo Grove, and Burr Oak Grove to the Apple River country, and, with 
the exception of a man named Kirker, who settled in 1826 in Burr Oak Grove 
and built a cabin — which he abandoned within the year — Col. Gratiot and his 
companion were, so far as the writer knows, the first. Col. Gratiot and com- 
panion stopped at Kirker's deserted cabin for 'nooning ' when on their way 
through this region in 1827. Col. Gratiot crossed Rock River at Dixon before 
any ferry was established there, fording streams, following an ' Indian trail ' 
afterward known, we believe, as the ' Sucker trail;' at any rate, he struck the 
'Sucker trail' at that point; and he met no white man in his journey after 
leaving Peoria until he reached Gratiot's Grove. Kirker may have, and 
probably did, abandon his claim at Burr Oak Grove on account of the Winne- 
bago difficulty that occurred in 1827. Some of the lead miners had gone 
beyond what the Indians regarded as their proper bounds, and trespassed upon 
the lands of the Indians, and, in addition to that, there was another cause of 
difficulty. In the month of July, 1827, a boat left Galena for Fort Snelling, 
in Minnesota, and on the way up, the crew stopped at an Indian encampment 
on the bank of the river. Some of the Indians went on board of the boat, and 
were forcibly detained and not permitted to land until they had gone about 
twelve miles farther up the stream. The Indians highly resented the insult, 
and watched the return of the boat. As soon as the party were discovered 
descending the river, the Indians attacked them from the bank, and severely 
wounded several on board; but the party reached Galena and spread the alarm, 
when the miners built small forts, or log block-houses, and flocked to them for 
safety. A fort was built at Elizabeth, another at Apple River, and another at 
Hamilton's Diggings, near Wyota, on the northwest branch of the Pecatonica, 
about sixteen miles northwest of Winslow, on the road to Mineral Point. 
William Hamilton, the founder of Hamilton's Diggings, was a son of the great 
Alexander Hamilton, Washington's first Secretary of the Treasury. Gen. 
Dodge who, about that time, came to the lead-mining region from Missouri, 
raised irregular volunteers among the miners, and began scouting the country 
for the hostile red-skins. Probably late in the fall of 1827, while Dodge and 
his irregulars were in the vicinity of Mineral Point, they espied a young Indian 
lad a short distance from them. Gen. Dodge ordered the guide and Indian 
interpreter, Jesse W. Shull, the founder of Shullsburg. to go up to the Indian 
boy and ascertain the tribe to which he belonged, and where his people were 


encamped. The Indian boy ran, but Shull hailed him in the Winnebago tongue 
and induced him to halt and surrender. When brought into the presence of 
Gen. Dodge, the brave Indian boy refused to give up his gun, and was disarmed 
by force. He informed Gen. Dodge that he was a son of ' Winneshiek,' or 
'Coming Thunder,' whose village was on the Pecatonica, and who, with his 
braves, was hunting in that vicinity. Dodge and his volunteers moved to the 
Indian encampment, but the Indians fled. Gen. Dodge directed the Indian boy to 
go into the neighborhood of some thickets, where the Indians were, and call them 
out, as he wished to have a talk with them; but the suspicious Winnebagoes 
paid no heed to the captive Indian boy. Gen. Dodge retained his captive, and 
soon started with him down the Pecatonica to ascertain if Winneshiek and the 
bands of Winnebagoes had gone to attend a council of the hostile Indians, at 
that time reported to be in council on the Wisconsin River. Gen. Dodge and 
his volunteers, guided by Winneshiek's son, came to Winneshiek's principal 
village, where Freeport now stands, but found the village deserted, and concluded 
that Winnesheik and his warriors were attending the great Indian pow-wow on 
the Wisconsin. 

" The Winnebago difficulty resulted in a great scare to the miners, but in 
nothing more, except the building of forts and block -houses, which were after- 
ward found very handy to have in the family. The Winnebagoes made a treaty 
with the whites, by which the whites were allowed to occupy a part of the 
mineral region, and the Indians were paid $20,000 in goods and trinkets, 
at enormous prices, for the damages sustained by mining on their lands 
and a much larger strip of mineral-bearing land opened up to the miners. 
About a year afterward, two large strips of country were purchased from the 
Winnebagoes, one extending along the Wisconsin and Fox Rivers from the east 
to the west, giving a passage across the country from Lake Michigan to the 
Mississippi, and the other reaching from Rock Island to the Wisconsin, including 
Stephenson County." 


" A treaty had been made with the Sacs and Foxes, by General Harrison 
at St. Louis, in September, 1804, by which those powerful Indian nations had 
ceded to the United States all their lands on Rock and Pecatonica Rivers, and 
much more elsewhere. That treaty was confirmed by another treaty with part 
of those Indians in 1815 and by another part in 1816. Under these various 
treaties the Indians had principally removed to the west side of the Mississippi, 
and the United States had caused some of these lands situated at the mouth of 
the Rock River to be surveyed and sold. 

" But there was one old chief of the Sacs, called Mucata Muhicatah, or 
Black Hawk, who always denied the validity of these treaties. Black Hawk 
was now an old man. He had been a warrior from his youth ; he had led many 
a war party on the trail of an enemy, and had never been defeated. He had 
been in the service of England in the war of 1812, and had been aide-de-camp 
to the great Tecumseh. At the close of the war of 1812 he had not joined in 
making peace with the United States, but he and his band long kept up a con- 
nection with Canada, and the voice of Black Hawk was always for war upon 
the Americans. Black Hawk's ownaccount of the treaty of 1804 is as follows: 
He says that some Indians of his tribe were arrested and imprisoned in St. 
Louis for murder, and that some of the chiefs were sent down to provide for 
their defense ; that while there, and without the consent of the nation, those 


chiefs were induced to sell the Indian country ; that when they came home it 
appeared that they had been drunk most of the time while absent, and could 
give no account of what they had done, except that they had sold some land to 
the white people, and had come home loaded with presents and Indian finery. 
This, said Black Hawk, was all the nation ever heard or knew about the treaty 
of 1804. 

" Under the pretence that the treaty of 1804 was void, he made some resist- 
ance to the order of the Government for the removal of his tribes west of the 
Mississippi, but had at length consented, and with his people took up a resi- 
dence on the west side of the ' Father of Waters.' In the spring of 1831 Black 
Hawk re-crossed the river with his women and children and three hundred war- 
riors of the British band, together with some allies from the Pottawatomie and 
Kickapoo nations, to establish himself upon his ancient hunting-grounds and in 
the principal village of his nation, on the banks of Rock River, in what is now 
Whiteside County. Many white settlers were there, but he ordered them away, 
threw down their fences, unroofed their log cabins, cut up their grain, drove oft* 
and killed their cattle, and threatened the people with death if they remained. 
The settlers complained to Gov. Reynolds, who called out the militia, which 
,was placed under the command of Gen. Gaines, of the regular army, who, after 
many delays, marched against Black Hawk, but only to find that he and his 
dusky warriors and dusky maidens and squaws and pappooses had quickly re- 
crossed the Mississippi. But Gaines, more bent upon devastation than the In- 
dians had been, gave the ancient Indian village to the flames, and proposed to 
follow Black Hawk across the river and chastise him there. Black Hawk sued 
for peace and ratified the treaty of 1804, by which the Indian lands, including 
Stephenson County, had been sold to the whites. 

"But, notwithstanding Black Hawk and his followers had, in 1831, ratified 
the treaty of 1804, the wily chieftain and the disaffected Indians prepared to 
again cross to the east side of the Mississippi, and re-assert their claim to the 
country on Rock River and Pecatonica and their tributaries. 

"The united Sac and Fox nations were divided into two parties. Black 
Hawk commanded the warlike band, and Keokuk, another chief, headed the 
band which was in favor of peace. But nearly all the bold, turbulent spirits, 
who delighted in mischief, arranged themselves under the banner of Black 
Hawk, and with the chivalry of his nation he re-crossed the Mississippi early 
in the spring of 1832, and marched directly to the Rock River country. Gov. 
Reynolds made another call for volunteers, and four regiments and a spy 
battalion were soon organized. Col. Dewitt commanded the First Regiment, 
Col. Fry the Second, Col. Thomas the Third, Col. Thompson the Fourth and 
Col. James D. Henry commanded the spy battalion, and the whole was placed 
under the command of Brig. Gen. Samuel Whiteside, of the State Militia, 
after whom Whiteside County was afterward named. Gen. Atkinson, of the 
regular army, commanded the regulars, and had general command. The force 
marched to Dixon, and was there joined by two battalions of mounted volun- 
teers from Central Illinois, under Ma's. Stillman and Bailey, who were pushed 
up Rock River, in the advance, about thirty miles above Dixon, to White Rock 
Grove, in Ogle County, where he encamped just befoi'e night, on the 12th of 
May, 1832, and in a short time a party of Indians were discovered on some 
rising ground about a mile further up the river. A party of Stillman's volun- 
teers, without orders, mounted and pursued, stringing along in disorder. The 
Indians retreated, but were overtaken, and three of them slain. Black Hawk 
was just over the hill with his main force, amounting to about seven hundred 




warriors, and with his dusky warriors, he moved down on Maj. Stillman's 
camp, driving his whole force helter-skelter before him, and, it is said, that 
not a man of them stopped until they had safely reached the camp at Dixon, 
or been halted by an Indian rifle or tomahawk. The writer recently visited 
that locality, and it is known to this day as 'Stillman's Run.' Eleven of 
Stillman's men were killed, among them Maj. Perkins and Capt. Adams. As 
is usual in a disastrous retreat, every man who escaped reported all his com- 
rades killed. One badly frightened Kentuckian made a report to Gen. White- 
side, of Dixon, and his speech has come down to us in history. Here it is, 
for it is too good to be lost: 'Sirs,' said he to Gen. Whiteside and the soldiers 
gathered near, 'our detatchment was encamped among some scattered timber, 
on the north side of Old Man's Creek, with the prairie from the north gently 
sloping down to our encampment. It was just after twilight, in the gloaming 
of the evening, when we discovered Black Hawk's army coming down upon 
us in solid column ; they displayed in the form of a crescent upon the brow of 
the prairie, and such accuracy and precision of military movements were never 
witnessed by man ; they were equal to the best troops of Wellington in Spain. 
I have said that the Indians came down in solid column, and displayed in the 
form of a crescent ; and, what was most wonderful, there were large squares of 
cavalry resting upon the points of the curve, which squares were supported 
again by other columns fifteen deep, extending back through the woods and 
over a swamp three-quarters of a mile, which again rested upon the main body 
of Black Hawk's arm} 7 , bivouacked upon the banks of the Kishwakee. It was 
a terrible and glorious sight to see the tawny warriors as they rode along our 
flanks attempting to outflank us, with the glittering moonbeams glistening 
from their polished blades and burnished spears. It was a sight well calcu- 
lated to strike consternation into the stoutest and boldest heart, and accord- 
ingly, our men soon began to break in small squads, for tall timber. In a very 
little time the route became general ; the Indians were upon our flanks, and 
threatened the destruction of the entire detachment. About this time Maj. 
Stillman,Col. Stephenson, Maj. Perkins, Capt. Adams, Mr. Hackelton and myself, 
with some others, threw ourselves into the rear to rally the fugitives and pro- 
tect the retreat. But in a short time all my companions fell, bravely fighting 
hand to hand with the savage enemy, and I alone was left upon the field of 
battle. About this time I discovered, not far to the left, a corp3 of horsemen 
which seemed to be in tolerable order. I immediately deployed to the left, 
when, leaning down and placing my body in a recumbent position upon the 
mane of my horse, so as to bring the heads of the horsemen between my eye 
and the horizon, I discovered by the light of the moon that they were gentle- 
men who did not wear hats, by which token I knew they were no friends of 
mine. I therefore made a retrograde movement and recovered my former 
position, where I remained some time meditating what further I could do in the 
service of my country, when a random ball came whistling by my ear, and 
plainly whispered to me, "Stranger, you have no further business here." Upon 
hearing this, I followed the example of my companions in arms, and broke for 
tall timber, and the way I ran was not a little, and quit.' 

" The Kentuckian was a lawyer, just returning from the circuit, with a 
slight wardrobe and Chitty's pleadings packed in his saddle-bags, all of which 
were captured by the Indians. He afterward related, with much vexation, 
that Black Hawk had decked himself out in his finery, appearing in the wild 
woods, among his savage companions, dressed in one of the Kentuckian ruffled 


shirts drawn over his deerskin leggings, with a volume of Chitty's Plead- 
ings under each arm. 

" But the trumpet sounded a" council of war at the tent of Gen. Whiteside, 
in Dixon, and it was resolved to march to the fatal field. The volunteers 
marched, but the Indians had gone — some further up Rock River, and many 
had scattered out in smaller parties all over the country to attack the nearest 
settlements of white people. 

" One party of about seventy Indians made a descent upon a settlement of 
whites at Indian Creek, and massacred fifteen persons, men, women and chil- 
dren, of the families of Messrs. Hall, Davis and Pettigrew, and took two young 
women prisoners — Silvia and Rachel Hall, one about seventeen, the other about 
fifteen years of age. To describe this massacre is only to repeat what has been 
written hundreds of times. The Indians in broad daylight entered the homes 
of the settlers, quietly and apparently peacefully ; some of the inmates were 
immediately shot down with rifles, others pierced through with spears or dis- 
patched with the tomahawk. The Indians afterward related with an infernal 
glee, how the women had squeaked like geese when they were run through the 
body with spears, or felt the sharp tomahawk entering their heads. All the 
victims were scalped; their bodies were mutilated and mangled; the little chil- 
dren were chopped to pieces with axes, and the women were tied up by their 
heels to the walls of the houses. The young women prisoners were hurried 
away, by forced marches, from this horrid scene, beyond the reach of pursuit. 
After a long and fatiguing journey through the wilderness in charge of their 
Indian conductors, they were at last ransomed by Major Gratiot, founder of 
Gratiot's Grove, on the headwaters of the Wisconsin River, by the payment of 
two thousand dollars in horses, wampum and trinkets, and returned to their 

" General Whiteside gathered up the mutilated remains of the eleven white 
men slain by the Indians and buried them at Stillman's Run, and then returned 
to Dixon, where he met General Atkinson and the regulars with supplies. The 
volunteers, who had expected to have grand sport killing Indians, began to 
realize that the boot might be on the other leg, and the Indians have grand 
sport killing them ; and so they grumbled and demanded to be mustered out, 
their term of enlistment being about to expire, and on the 27th and 28th of 
May they were mustered out by Gov. Reynolds, at Ottawa. Meanwhile a 
new regiment of volunteers was mustered in at Beardstown, with Jacob Fry as 
Colonel, James D. Henry as Lieutenant Colonel, and John Thomas as Major. 
Gen. Whiteside, the late commanding general, volunteered as a private. The 
different companies of this regiment were so posted as toguard the frontiers, 
Capt. Adam W. Snyder was sent to scout the country between Rock River 
and Galena, and while he was encamped near Burr Oak Grove, in what is now 
the township of Erin, in Stephenson County, on the night of the 17th of June. 
1832, his company was fired upon by the Indians. The next morning he pur- 
sued them, four in number, and drove them into a sink-hole in the ground, 
when he charged upon and killed the Indians, losing one man mortally wounded.. 
As he returned to camp, bearing his wounded soldier, his men, suffering from 
thirst, scattered in search of water, when they were sharply attacked by about 
seventy Indians, who had been secretly watching their motions, and awaiting 
a good opportunity. Captain Snyder called upon General Whiteside, then a 
private in his company, to assist him in forming his men. General Whiteside 
proclaimed in a loud voice that he would shoot the first man who attempted to 
run. The men were soon formed. Both parties took position behind trees.. 


Gen. Whiteside, an old Indian fighter and a capital marksman with a rifle, 
shot the commander of the Indians, and they, from that moment, began to 
retreat. As they were not pursued, the Indian loss was never ascertained. 
Capt. Snyder lost two men killed and one wounded. 

" On the 15th of June, 1832, the new levies of volunteers were in camp, 
and were formed in three brigades. Gen. Alexander Posey commanded the 
first ; General Milton K. Alexander, the second, and Gen. James D. Henry 
the third brigade." 

" Before the new army could be brought into the field, the scattered war 
parties of the Indians had killed several white men ; one was killed on Bureau 
Creek, one in Buffalo Grove, in Ogle County, another on Fox River, and two 
east of Fox River. On the 22d of May, 1882, Gen. Atkinson had dispatched 
Mr. St. Vrain, the Indian Agent for the Sacs and Foxes at Rock Island, with 
a few men, as an express to Fort Armstrong. On their way they fell in with 
a party of Indians led by a Chief well known to St. Vrain, a particular friend 
of his, named 'Little Bear,' who had adopted St. Vrain as his brother. Mr. 
St. Vrain felt no fear of one who was his friend, who had been an inmate of 
his house, and had adopted him as his brother, and approached him in the 
greatest security ; but ' Little Bear ' no sooner got St. Vrain in his power 
than he murdered and scalped him and all his party." 

" About the middle of June, 1832, some strolling Indians had captured 
horses near Elizabeth, in Jd Daviess County. Shortly after the animals 
were missed, Capt. J. W. Stevenson, a son of Col. Benjamin Stevenson, in honor 
of whom this county is named, went from Galena to Elizabeth, with a few of 
his men, and set out in pursuit of the savages. As the grass was long at that 
season of the year, it was not difficult to keep the Indians' trail, and they soon 
came up to them at a point a little northeast of what is now known as Waddam's 
Grove, in Stevenson County. The Indians immediately ran into a thicket 
close by, and, concealing themselves amid the thick brush and fallen timber, 
waited for Stevenson to make the attack, which Capt. Stevenson did with 
admirable gallantry, although it may appear at this distance that his zeal and 
gallantry outran his discretion. Capt. Stevenson, who had with him only about 
a dozen men, ordered his party to dismount, and, leaving the horses, in charge of 
one or two men, led the rest to the charge, intending, probably, to drive the Indians 
from their place of concealment. The Indians reserved their fire until the white 
men approached quite close, when they fired from th^ir concealment, the whites 
returned the fire without effect upon their concealed foe, and turned back upon 
the prairie out of range to re-load; and again, with admirable courage, marched 
toward the thicket, and, before entering it, again received the cool fire of the 
Indians. Three of Capt. Stevenson's men were killed, and others, including 
himself, wounded. Capt. Stevenson then retreated, leaving the bodies of his 
dead companions, Stephen Howard, George Eames, and a man named Lovell, 
who were buried the next morning after the Indians had departed. Governor 
Ford says : ' This attack of Capt. Stevenson was unsuccessful, and may have 
been imprudent ; but it equaled any thing in modern warfare in daring and 
desperate courage.' 

"About a week after the above occurrence, Black Hawk selected about one 
hundred and fifty of his very choicest braves and marched across the country 
from Rock River, and made an attack on Apple River Fort, erected by the 
miners, just north of the present village of Elizabeth, in Jo Daviess County. It 
was a fearful struggle by the handful of miners and their wives — the women 
molded bullets while the men, in the absence of Moody and Sankey, proceeded 


most gallantly to ' Hold the Fort ' — and Black Hawk and his band were 

"About the same time, another party of Indians made an attack on three 
men near Fort Hamilton, on the Pecatonica, killing two of them, the third 
escaping to the fort. General Dodge soon after arrived at Fort Hamilton, 
with twenty men, and made quick pursuit of the Indians, and chased them to 
the Pecatonica, where they took shelter under the high bank of the river. 
Dodpe and his party charged up on them in their place of concealment and 
shelter, and killed the whole party of Indians, eleven in number, losing four 
whites wounded, three of them mortally. 

"On the 25th of June, 1832, Major John Dement, of Dixon, in command 
of a detachment of Posey's Brigade, was camped near Burr Oak Grove, in what 
is now the township of Kent, in this county, and, learning from Captain Funk 
that a fresh trail of a large body of Indians leading south had been seen within 
five miles of his camp the day before, undoubtedly the trail of Black Hawk 
and his band falling back from Apple River Fort, after his unsuccessful attack, 
his whole command rushed out in pursuit of the enemy and discovered seven 
Indians, who were as intent on spying out the situation as was Major Dement. 
Some of Dement's men immediately made pursuit of the Iudians, but their 
commander, fearing an ambuscade, endeavored to call them back. In this 
manner Major Dement had proceeded about a mile, pursuing the seven Indians 
first discovered, and he had scarcely entered the grove before he perceived 
about three hundred of Black Hawk's band issuing from the timber to 
attack him. The Indians came on firing, hallooing and yelling to make them- 
selves more terrific, after the Indian fashion, when Major Dement, seeing him- 
self in great danger of being surrounded by a superior force, retired to 
his camp, closely pursued by the yelling savages. Here his whole force took 
possession of the log buildings erected by Kirker and Kellogg, which answered 
the purpose of a fort, and here Major Dement and his command were 
vigorously attacked by the Indians. They shot sixty-seven of the horses 
and narrowly escaped killing the commander himself. Major Dement and Duvall 
were standing in the door of one of the log houses together, when two of the 
Indians came out in sight, and before Duvall, who perceived them, could draw 
the attention of Major Dement to their movements, the Indians fired. One of 
the bullets whizzed past Duvall's ear and lodged in the timbers of the house ; 
the other bullet cut Major Dement's commission, which he carried in the 
crown of his hat. Major Dement mounted two of his men on his swiftest 
horses, as an express to General Posey, at Buffalo Grove, for reinforcements, 
who eluded the Indians, but who, doubtless, were observed by the Indians, who 
divined the object of the flying couriers, and Black Hawk formed his braves 
into column and started for Rock River. Major Dement lost nine men killed 
and the Indians left upon the field nine of their dusky warriors, and 
probably had twice as many wounded. General Posey hastened with his 
entire brigade to the relief of Major Dement, but did not reach the Grove, until 
two hours after Black Hawk had retreated. The next day General Posey 
marched a little to the north in search of the Indians, then marched back to 
the Grove to await the arrival of his baggage wagons ; and then nwched to 
Fort Hamilton, on the Pecatonica. 

"When the news of the battle reached Dixon, where the volunteers and 
regulars were then assembled, under the command of General Atkinson of the 
regular army, Alexander's Brigade was ordered in the direction of Plum River 
to intercept Black Hawk, if possible, but did not succeed. General Atkinson 


remained with the infantry at Dixon two days, then marched, accompanied by 
the brigade of General Henry, toward the country of the Four Lakes, higher 
up Rock River, in Wisconsin. 

"General Atkinson., having heard that Black Hawk had concentrated his 
forces at the Four Lakes and fortified his position with the intention of decid- 
ing the fate of the war by a grand battle, marched with as much haste as pru- 
dence would warrant when invading a hostile and wilderness country with 
undisciplined forces, where there was no means of procuring reliable intelligence 
of the number or whereabouts of the enemy. 

"On the 30th of June, 1832, he passed through Turtle Village, a consid- 
erable town of the Winnebagoes, then deserted, and camped one mile beyond 
it on the open prairie. He believed that the hostile Indians were in that 
immediate neighborhood, and prepared to resist their attack, if made. That 
night the Indians were prowling abput his encampment. Continual alarms 
were given by the sentinels during the night, and the whole command was fre- 
quently called out in order of battle. The march was continued the next day, 
and nothing occurred until the army arrived at Lake Koshkanong, except the 
discovery of trails and signs of the recent presence of Indians, the occasional 
sight of an Indian scout, and the usual camp rumors. Here General Atkinson 
was joined by General Alexander's brigade, and after Major Ewing and Colonel 
Fry, with the battalion of the one and the regiment of the other, had thoroughly 
examined the whole country round about and had ascertained that no enemy 
was near, the whole force again continued its march up Rock River, on the east 
side, to the Burnt Village, on the White River, in Wisconsin, where General 
Atkinson was joined by the brigade of General Posey, from Fort Hamilton on 
the Pecatonica, and a battalion of a hundred men from Wisconsin, commanded 
by Major Dodge. 

"Eight weeks had now been wasted, with scarcely the sight of a red-skin 
since the battle of Kellogg's Grove, and the commanding general seemed further 
from the attainment of his object than when the second requisition of troops 
was organized. At that time Posey and Alexander commanded each 1,000 
men. General Henry took the field with 1,262, and the regulars, under the 
immediate command of Colonel Zachary Taylor, amounted to 450 more. At 
this time there was not more than four days' rations in the hands of the com- 
missary; the enemy might be weeks in advance; the volunteers were fast 
melting away from various causes, although the regulars had not lost a man. 
General Atkinson therefore found it necessary to disperse his command for the 
purpose of procuring supplies. 

" According to previous arrangements, on the 10th of July, 1832, the sev- 
eral brigades took up their lines of march for their several destinations. Col. 
Ewing's regiment was sent back to Dixon ; Gen. Posey marched to Fort Ham- 
ilton, on the Pecatonica ; Gen. Henry, with Col. Alexander and Maj. Dodge, 
was sent to Fort Winnebago, situated at the Portage, between the Fox and 
Wisconsin Rivers ; while Gen. Atkinson, with Col. Taylor and the regulars, 
fell back to Lake Koshkonong, and there erected a fort, named after the lake, 
where he Avas to remain until the volunteers returned with supplies. Gen. 
Henry marched to Fort Winnebago in three days. Two days were occupied 
by Gen. Henry, at Fort Winnebago, in obtaining provisions, on the last of 
which the Winnebago chiefs there reported that Black Hawk and his forces 
were encamped at Manitou Village, thirty-five miles above Gen. Atkinson, on 
Rock River. In a council held by Gen. Henry, Col. Alexander, and Maj. 
Dodge, it was determined to violate orders by marching directly to the enemy, 


with the hope of taking him by surprise, or at least putting Black Hawk be- 
tween them and Gen. Atkinson, thus cutting off his further retreat to the 
north. Twelve o'clock, noon, July 15, 1832, was the hour appointed to com- 
mench the march. Gen. Henry proceeded at once to reorganize his command, 
with a view to disincumber himself of his sick and dismounted men, that as 
little as possible might impede the celerity of his march. Gen. Henry was a 
complete soldier. He was gifted with uncommon talent of commanding with 
sternness without giving offense; of forcing his men to obey, without degrading 
them in their own estimation ; he was brave without rashness, and gave his orders 
with firmness and authority, without any appearance of bluster. In his mere 
person he looked the commander, in a word, he was one of those very rare men 
who are gifted by nature with the power to command militia ; to be at the same 
time feared and loved, and with the capacity of inspiring his soldiers with the 
ardor, impetuosity, and honorable impulses of their commander. Col. Alex- 
ander, with his brigade, was sent back to Gen. Atkinson, and at noon, July 15, 
1832, Gen. Henry, with his brigade, the battalion of one hundred Wisconsin 
volunteers, under Maj. Dodge, and a spy battalion under command of Maj. 
William Lee D. Ewing, set out on his march from Fort Winnebago to attack 
Black Hawk, accompanied by Poquette, a half-breed, and the 'White Pawnee,' 
a Winnebago chief, as guides. On the route to the head-waters of Rock River 
he was thrown from a direct line by intervening swamps extending for miles. 
Reaching Rock River, three Winnebagoes gave intelligence that Black Hawk 
was encamped at Cranberry Lake, further up the river. Relying on this in- 
formation, it was decided by Gen. Henry to make a forced march in that direc- 
tion. Dr. Merryman, of Springfield, 111., and W. W. Woodbridge, of Wis- 
consin, were sent as an express to Gen. Atkinson to advise him of Henry's 
movements. They were accompanied by a chief called ' Little Thunder,' as a 
guide, and, having started about dark, and proceeded on their perilous journey 
about eight miles to the southwest, they came upon the fresh main trail of 
Black Hawk and his people, endeavoring to escape by way of the Four Lakes 
across the Wisconsin River. At the sight of the broad, fresh trail, the Indian 
guide was struck with terror, and, without permission, retreated back to the 
camp. Merryman and Woodbridge retreated also, but not until the treacher- 
ous ' Little Thunder ' had announced his discovery in the Indian tongue to the 
Winnebagoes, his countrymen, who were in the very act of makiag their 
escape, when they were stopped by Maj. Murray McConnell, and taken to the 
tent of Gen. Henry, to whom they confessed that they had come into his camp 
only to give false information, and favor the retreat of Black Hawk and his 
dusky warriors, and then, to make amends for their perfidy, and, perhaps, as 
they were led to believe, to avoid immediate death, they disclosed all they knew 
of Black Hawk's movements. Gen. Henry prudently kept the treachery of 
these Indians a secret from his men, for it would have required the influence 
of himself and all his officers to have saved their lives, had their perfidious 
conduct been known throughout the camp. The next morning, July 19, 1832, 
by daylight, everything was ready for a forced march ; but first another express 
was dispatched to Gen. Atkinson. All cumbrous baggage was thrown away. 
The tents and most of the camp equipage were left in a pile in the wilderness. 
Many of the men left their blankets and all their clothing, except the suits 
they wore. Those who had lost their horses took nothing but their guns and 
ammunition and slight rations on their backs, and traveled over mountain and 
plain, swamp and thicket, and kept up with the men on horseback. All the 
men now marched with a better spirit than usual. The sight of the broad, 


fresh trail of Black Hawk's retreating people inspired every one with a lively 
hope of bringing the war to a speedy end. There was no murmuring, there 
was no excuse or complaining, and none on the sick report. The first day, in 
the afternoon, they were overtaken by one of those storms common on the 
prairies, black and terific, accompanied by torrents of rain, and the most fear- 
ful lightning and thunder ; but the men dashed on through thickets almost im- 
penetrable, and swamps almost impassable, and that day marched upward of 
fifty miles. During the day's march, Gen. Henry, Maj. Murray McConnell, 
and the members of the General's staff, often dismounted and marched on foot, 
giving their horses to the weary, dismounted men. The storm raged until two 
o'clock the next morning. The men, exhausted with fatigue, threw themselves 
supperless upon the rain-drenched earth — for the rain was so continuous that 
they could not kindle fires with which to prepare supper. The next morning, 
July 20, 1832, the storm had abated, and all were on the march by daylight, 
and after a march as fatiguing as the day before, the army encamped upon the 
banks of the Four Lakes forming the source of the Catfish River in Wisconsin, 
and near where Black Hawk had encamped the night previous. The men 
kindled their fires for supper with a hearty good will, for they had marched 
nearly a hundred miles without cooked food or a spark of fire. All were in 
fine spirits and high expectation of overtaking the Indians next day, and put- 
ting an end to the war by a general battle. 

"At daylight, July 21, 1832, the march was resumed with unabated ardor. 
The men were hurried forward by the continual order, ' Close up, close up.' 
The day's march was harder than the two preceding days. The men on foot 
were forced into a run to keep up with the column, the men on horseback 
carrying for them their arms and rations. Maj. William Lee D. Ewing com- 
manded the spy battalion and with him was joined the battalion of one hundred 
men under the command of Maj. Dodge, of Wisconsin. These two officers with 
their commands were in the advance, but the main body was always in sight. 
About noon the advance guard came close upon the rear guard of the retreating 
red-skins. It is to be regretted that we have no account of the management and 
perils of Hawk Black in conducting his retreat. All that we know is that for 
many miles before they were overtaken their broad trail was strewn with camp 
kettles baggage of various kinds, which they had thrown away in the hurry of 
their flight. The sight of those articles encouraged Gen. Henry's men to press 
forward. About noon the scouts in the advance came suddenly upon two 
Indians, and as the Indians were attempting to escape, one of them was killed 
and left dead upon the field. Dr. Addison Philleo, editor of the G-alenian, a 
newspaper published at Galena, and the only paper published in the North- 
west at that time, scalped the dead Indian, and for a long time afterward 
exhibited the scalp as an evidence of his valor. He may not have been as 
eloquent as the Kentucky lawyer who distinguished himself in reporting to 
Gen. Whiteside the battle of Stillman's Run ; but the writer is induced to re- 
mark that lawyers and editors are not, in his opinion, successful Indian fighters. 
Early in the afternoon the rear guard of Black Hawk's army began to make 
feint stands, merely to gain time to enable the main body to take up a more 
advantageous position. A few shots would be exchanged, and then the Indians 
would push ahead; but with so wily a foe to fight, caution had to be observed, 
troops deployed, and the thickets scoured, to be certain of no lurking foes. In this 
manner the Indians gained time to reach the broken grounds on the bluffs of 
the Wisconsin river. Near the middle of the afternoon, July 21, 1832, while 
Gen. Henry's advance guard was passing some uneven ground, covered with 


low timber and high grass, they were suddenly fired upon by a body of secreted 
Indians. In an instant Maj. Ewing's command was dismounted and formed in 
front, sending their horses to the rear. The Indians kept up a fire from behind 
fallen trees, and none of them could be discovered except by the flash and report 
of their guns. In a few minutes Gen. Henry arrived with the main body, and 
formed instantly his order of battle. Col. Jones' regiment was placed on the 
right, Col. Collins' regiment on the left, and Col. Fry's regiment in the rear as 
a reserve; Maj. Ewing's battalion was placed in front of the line; Maj. Dodge's 
battalion of one hundred men, from Wisconsin, on the extreme right, all dis- 
mounted, and in this order Gen. Henry's little army moved forward into battle. 
Gen. Henry gave the order to charge with the whole line, and his order was 
eagerly and handsomely executed by Ewing's battalion, and by Col. Jones' and 
Col. Collins' regiments. 

" The Indians retreated before this charge obliquely to the right, and con- 
centrated their main force in front of Dodge's battalion, evidencing a design to 
turn his right flank. Gen. Henry sent an order by Major Murray^ McConnell 
to Major Dodge to charge with his battalion ; but Major Dodge being of the 
opinion that the enemy was too strong for him, requested a reinforcement. Gen. 
Henry ordered Col. Fry's regiment, his only reserve, to the aid of Major Dodge, 
and formed it on his right, and Major Dodge and Col. Fry charged upon the In- 
dians. In front of Col. Fry's regiment were bushes and high grass where the In- 
dians lay concealed, and Fry's regiment received the fire of nearly the whole body 
of Black Hawk's warriors. But their fire was briskly returned by the regiment 
of Col. Fry and by Dodge's batalion, and the whole line steadily advanced 
until within almost bayonet reach of the red-skins, when Black Hawk fell back 
to the west along the high, broken bluffs of the Wisconsin, and took up a new 
position in the thickest timber and tall grass at the head of a hollow leading to 
the Wisconsin river, where Black Hawk appeared determined to make a firm 
stand ; but he was gallantly charged upon in his new position by the battalion 
of Major Ewing and the regiments of Col. Collins and Col. Jones, and the 
Indians put to rout, some of them being pursued down the hollow, and others 
again to the west along the high bluffs of the river, until they descended the 
bluffs to the Wisconsin bottom, nearly a mile wide and very swampy, covered 
with thick, tall grass above the heads of men on horseback. Night came on ; 
further pursuit was stopped, and Gen. Henry and his victorious little army lay 
upon the field of battle. 

" That night Gen. Henry's camp was disturbed by the voice of an Indian, 
loudly sounding from a distant hill, as if giving orders or desiring conference. 
It afterward appeared that it was a voice of an Indian chief, speaking in the 
Winnebago language, stating that the Indians had their squaws and families 
with them, that they were starving for provisions, and were not able to fight 
the white people ; that if they were permitted to pass peacefully over the Mis- 
sissippi, they would do no more mischief. He spoke in the Winnebago tongue 
in the hope that some of the Winnebago Indians were with Gen. Henry and 
would act as his interpreters. No Winnebagoes were present, they having ran 
at the commencement of the action, and so his language was never explained 
until after the close of the war. 

"Next morning early > Gen. Henry advanced his forces to the Wisconsin 
River, and ascertained that the Indians had all crossed it, and made their 
escape to the hills between the Wisconsin and the Mississippi, It was ascer- 
tained after the battle that Black Hawk's loss amounted to sixty-eight left dead 
upon the field, and a large number of wounded, of whom twenty-five were after- 


ward found along the Indian trail leading to the Mississippi. Gen. Henry 
lost one man killed and eight wounded. It appeared that the Indians, knowing 
that they were to fight a mounted force had been trained to fire at an elevation 
to hit men on horseback; but as Gen. Henry had dismounted his forces, and 
sent his horses into the rear, the Indians had overshot their foes, which 
accounted for the small loss in Gen. Henry's command. 

" This gallant action, July 21, 1832, an Illinoisan, and a volunteer, fought 
against orders, but with a true soldier's ardor to serve his country, and with a sol- 
dier's care to notify his commanding general by frequent expresses of his actions 
and intentions ; and this battle of the Wisconsin really and virtually ended the 
famous Black Hawk War, and opened up Stephenson County to permanent 
settlement by the whites. But Gen. Henry received no credit for it then. The 
valorous Doctor Philleo, editor of The Gralenian, wrote up an account of it, 
in the interest of Maj. Dodge, calling Dodge a general, and not mentioning 
Gen. Henry at all, and his account of the battle was printed in all the news- 
papers ofthe United States, and has gone into many of its histories, filching Gen. 
Henry's fame for the benefit of Maj. Dodge. Besides, the gallant conduct and 
splendid generalship of Gen. Henry, gave mortal offence to all the regular army 
officers — for then, as in our late war, West Pointers were determined that mere 
volunteers should win no laurels. Gen. Henry was as modest as he was brave 
and skillful, and went to his death without the just praise that prosterity will 
award him. 

" The next day after the battle of the Wisconsin, on July 22, 1832, for 
want of provisions, Gen. Henry determined to fall back to the Blue Mounds. 
The Winnebagoes who accompanied Gen. Henry during his forced march, at the 
very commencement of the action, had deserted, and made a bee-line for ' tall 
timber.' No one with Gen. Henry knew enough of the country to act as a 
guide. Gen. Henry had marched 130 miles through an unknown and unex- 
plored country, without roads or landmarks, simply pushing hard upon Black 
Hawk's trail, and now found himself in a position in which no one with him 
could direct his way to the settlements. He was without rations or forage, 
men and animals fatigued, and he might be a week blundering through the 
wilderness finding his way out. A council was called to consider these diffi- 
culties ; and whilst he was debating the course to be pursued, some Indians 
approached with a white flag, who were ascertained to be friendly Winneba- 
goes. They acted as guides for Gen. Henry, and in two days he had arrived 
at Blue mounds, where he met Gen. Atkinson with the regulars and 
Alexander's brigade, from Fort Koskonong, where they had been 'bottled up' 
while Gen. Henry achieved his splendid victory over Black Hawk ; also Posey's 
brigade from Fort Hamilton, on the Pecatonica. It was soon apparent to 
Gen. Henry, and to all his officers, that Gen. Atkinson, and all the regular 
officers, were deeply mortified at the success of Gen. Henry and the Illinois 
militia. They did not intend that non-professionals and mere volunteers should 
have any of the credit in the war. Volunteers were good enough for fighting, 
good enough to enrich the soil with their blood, but the harvest of fame that 
sprang from their sprinkled blood must be garnered by West Pointers. 

"Gen. Henry had virtually ended the war, but Gen. Atkinson soon put 
his army in motion after Black Hawk and his dispirited braves. On the 2d of 
August, 1832, the battle of Bad Axe was fought by Gen. Atkinson. He put 
the gallant Gen. Henry and his command virtually into disgrace by detail- 
ing him and his brigade as train guard in the rear. But circumstances occurred 
that gave Gen. Henry and his gallant Illinois volunteers the front again, 


without the orders and against the wish of Gen. Atkinson. The Indians were 
encamped on the banks of the Mississippi, some distance below the mouth of 
the Bad Axe River. They were aware that Gen. Atkinson was in close pur- 
suit ; and to mislead Gen. Atkinson and gain time for crossing into the 
Indian country, west of the Mississippi, Black Hawk in person went back with 
about twenty Indians, to meet Gen. Atkinson's advance, attack, and retreat to 
the river several miles above his regular camp. Accordingly, Gen. Atkinson's 
advance was suddenly fired upon by Biack Hawk and his litt4e band from 
behind trees and fallen timber. Gen. Atkinson rode immediately to the front 
and, in person, directed a charge. The wily Indians gave way, and were 
pursued by Gen. Atkinson and his regulars, and all the army except the 
brigade of the gallant Gen. Henry, that was in the rear acting as train guard, 
and in the hurry of the pursuit of the Indians, Gen. Henry was left without 
orders. When Gen. Henry came up to the place where the attack had 
first been made by the Indians, he saw clearly that the wily stratagem of 
the untutored savage had triumphed over the science of a veteran General. 
The main trail of the Indians was plain to be seen leading to the river 
lower down, and Gen. Henry marched his brigade right forward upon the 
main trail. At the foot of the high bluff bordering the river valley, on the 
edge of a swamp covered with timber, drift-wood and underbrush, through 
which the Indian trail led fresh and broad, Gen. Henry dismounted his troops 
and left his horses. He formed his men on foot and advanced to the attack, 
preceded by an advance guard of eight men, who advanced until they came in 
sight of the river, where they were fired upon by about fifty Indians, and five 
out of eight in the advance guard instantly fell wounded or dead. The other 
three, behind trees, stood their ground until Gen. Henry came up with the matin 
body, which deployed to the right and left from the center, rushed forward, and 
the battle became general along the whole line. The fifty Indians first met 
retreated upon the main body, amounting to about 800 warriors ; but the Indians 
were taken by surprise. They fought bravely and desperately, but their leader, 
Black Hawk, was not with them — he had led the small party in the first attack 
upon Gen. Atkinson, and was now misleading the veteran regular General away 
from his own camp — and the Indians in front of Henry fought without plan or 
concert. Gen. Henry, with his gallant Illinois volunteers, charged steadily 
forward, driving the foe from tree to tree, and from hiding place to hiding place, 
and crowded them steadily to the river's bank, where a desperate struggle 
ensued ; but the deadly bayonet in the hands of Gen. Henry's charging 
brigade drove them into the river, some to swim it, some to drown, and some 
to take temporary shelter on a small willow-covered island near the shore. 

" Gen. Atkinson heard the music of Henry's rifles, and returned with 
his army, but the work was mainly accomplished. It had been determined that 
Gen. Henry and his Illinois volunteers should have no share in that day's 
glory, but the fates — taking advantage of a blunder by Gen. Atkinson — had 
otherwise directed. After the Indians had retreated into the Mississippi River 
and on to the willow-covered island, Gen. Henry sent Maj. Murray McConnel 
to give intelligence of his movements to Gen. Atkinson, who, while being mis- 
led by Black Hawk and his little band of twenty chosen warriors, had heard the 
firing where Gen. Henry was engaged. Gen. Atkinson left the pursuit of 
the twenty Indians and hastened to share in the general engagement. He w as 
met by Gen. Henry's messenger, Maj. Murray McConnell, near the scene of 
action, in passing through which, the dead and dying Indians lying around, bore 
frightful evidence of the stern work done before his arrival. Gen. Atkinson, 


however, lost no time in forming his regulars, and Major Dodge's battalion, 
Maj. Ewing's battalion, and Col. Fry's regiment, for a descent upon the wil- 
low-covered island, where lay concealed the last remnant of Black Hawk's 
army. They gallantly charged through the water up to their arm-pits on to the 
island and swept it clean of the lurking foe. The twenty Indians who first 
made the attack on Gen. Atkinson, and misled him, who were led by Black 
Hawk in person, escaped up the river to the Dalles, on the Wisconsin, where 
some friendly Sioux and Winnebagoes pursued the broken and defeated chief, 
captured him and turned him over to Col. Zachary Taylor, of the regular army. 
He was taken to Jefferson Barracks, where Gen. Winfield Scott and Gov. 
Reynolds made another ' treaty,' and again the Sacs and Foxes relinquished 
to the whites all claim upon the territory now known as Stephenson County, 
111., including, of course, vast tracts besides. Black Hawk was taken to 
Washington, Philadelphia, New York, Albany, etc., and dined and wined, and 
eventually returned to his people west of the Mississippi, on June 4, 1833. 
Black Hawk never went upon the warpath again, and died at the age of eighty, 
October 3, 1840. 


Stephenson County was created by an act of the Legislature, promulgated 
March 4, 1837, its organization provided for, and the seat of justice established 
at Freeport, by a Board of Commissioners, composed of Minor York, of Ogle, 
and Vance L. Davidson and Isaac Chambers, of Jo Daviess Counties. A meeting 
of the Commissioners was held at the house of William Baker, on the first 
Monday of May following, whereat the organization was perfected, and an 
election held for the following county officers : Sheriff, Coroner, Surveyor, 
three County Commissioners and one Clerk of the County Commissioners' 
Court, who were to hold their offices until the next succeeding general elections, 
and until their successors are elected and qualified. 

The subjoined is a list of the first county officers, together with those who 
succeeded the subsequent vacancies : 

Sheriffs.— William Kirkpatrick, 1837; Hubbard Graves, 1838; Oliver 
W. Brewster, 1840; Joseph McCool, 1842; 0. W. Brewster, 1844-46; F A. 
Strockey, 1848. 

Coroner.— Lorenzo Lee. 1837 ; B. R. Wilmot, 1838 ; Lorain Snow, 1840 ; 
Henry W. Hollenbeck, 1841 ; Isaac S. Forbes, 1842 ; W. Patterson, 1844 ; 
Henry W. Foster, 1846 ; Abel Smith, 1848. 

Surveyor. — Frederick D. Bulkley, from 1837 to 1842 ; A. Chamberlain, 
1843 ; no record in 1844, 1845, 1846 ; M. Montelius, 1847. 

Commissioners. — L. W. Streator, Isaac S. Forbes and Julius Smith, 1837 ; 
L. W. Streator, Robert McConnell and John Moore, 1838 ; Thomas Van Valzah, 
1839 ; J. Cory and B. R. Wilmot, 1840 ; Hubbard Graves and Alfred Cad- 
well, 1841; James T. Smith and George Reitzell, 1842; Joseph Musser, 1843; 
Ezekiel Brown, 1844 ; Samuel F. Dodds. 1845 ; Abner B. Clingman, 1846 ; 
John Bradford, 1847 ; Gustavus A. Farwell, 1848. 

County Clerk.— O. H. Wright, 1837 ; no returns for 1838 ; O. H. Wright, 
from 1839 to 1846. 

Assessor and Treasurer. — L. O. Crocker, 1837-40. 

Assessors.— 0. W. Brewster, 1841-42; Chancellor Martin, 1843 ; A. W. 
Rice, 1844-47. 

Probate Judges.— 0. H. Wright, 1838-41 ; Thomas J. Turner, 1842-45 ; 
Seth B. Farwell, 1846 ; C. W. Williams, 1847. 


Clerks County Commissioners Court. — W. H. Hollenbeck, 1837 ; W. P. 
Hunt, 1838: W. H. Hollenbeck, 1839-42; William Preston, from 1843 
to 1847. 

Collectors.— John R. Howe, 1838 ; John Gordon, 1840 ; 0. W. Brewster, 
1841-47 ; F. A. Strockey, 1848. 

State Senators.— George W . Harrison, 1838; J. A. Mitchell, 1842; L. 
P. Sanger, 1846-48. 

Mouse of Representatives. — Germanicus Kent, 1838 ; Thomas Drummond, 
1840; William Preston, 1842 ; G. Purinton, 1844 ; L. H. Bowen, 1846 ; L. H. 
Bowen, 1847 ; A. Eads, 1848. 

School Commissioners.— John Rice, 1841 ; Jared Sheetz, 1843 ; L. W. Guit- 
eau. 1845-47. 

Treasurer.— L. 0. Crocker, 1841—42 ; Chancellor Martin, 1843 ; A. W. 
Rice. 1844-7. 

Recorder.— J. W. Bulkley, 1843 ; John A. Clark, 1845-47. 

It should be stated that prior to the election, of November, 1849, the county 
was under what is known as " the county organization." Thereafter it came 
under township organization, and the following is the list of officers who have 
served : 

County Judge.— George Purinton, 1849 ; John Coates, 1853 ; W. M. Buck- 
ley. 1857;Talcott Ormsbee, 1861; Charles B. Wright, 1863—65; Andrew 
Hinds 1869; Henry C. Hyde, 1873-77. 

County Clerk. — W. Preston, 1849; J. J. Rogers, 1853 — died in office, and 
David H. Sunderland, elected to the vacancy at a special election, holden June 

4. 1855. David H. Sunderland 1857-61; George Thompson, 1865; George 
Thompson, 1869; I. F. Kleekner. 1873-77. 

County Justices of the Peace. — L. Gibler and G. W. Andrews, 1850. 

County Treasurer. — Jonathan Reitzell, 1849; W. M. Buckley, 1853; 
Andrew Hinds, 1855; W. S. Gray, 1857-61; William Young, 1863-65; 
Robert T. Cooper, 1869-71; Oliver P. McCool, 1873-75; Charles F. Goodhue, 
1877 — removed in October, 1878, and Wallace W. Hutchison succeeded to the 
vacancy at a special election held in November of the same year ; re-elected at 
the general election for county officers, holden Nov. 4, 1879. 

County Surveyor. — Marcus Carter, 1849; B. Dornblazer, 1853-57; C. 
T. Dunham, 1859; William 0. Saxton, to fill vacancy, 1860; W. Peters, 
1861-63; Christopher T. Dunham, 1865-69 ; Samuel J. Dodds, 1871 ; F. 
E. Josel, 1875; Hiram Shons, 1879. 

School Commissioners. — J. B. Smith, 1849 ; John Barfoot, 1852 ; F. W. 

5. Brawley, 1853-55; Henry Freeman, 1857; H. C. Burchard, 1859; A. 
A. Crary, 1861-63. 

The title to the office changed to County Superintendent of Schools — A. 
A. Crary, 1865; Isaac F. Kleckner, 1869; Johnson Potter, 1873; Adam 
A. Krape, 1877. 

Senators. — The Senatorial District was originally composed of the counties 
of Stephenson, Carroll and Jo Daviess, with one Senator'and three Representa- 
tives — one from each county. This continued until the adoption of the consti- 
tution in 1870. The Senators were Hugh Wallace, 1850; John H. Adams; 
1854, re-elected, 1858-62 and 1866 ; James M. Hunter and Dr. Little, 1870, 
Henry Green, 1872; R. H. McClellan, 1876. 

Representatives.— B. B. Howard, 1850; C. B. Denio, 1852; T. J. Turner, 
1854; J. A. Davis, 1856; J. A. Davis, 1858; John F. Ankeney, 1860; Ho- 
ratio C. Burchard, 1862-64; Joseph M. Bailey, 1866-68; Thomas J. Tur- 


ner and William Massenberg, 1870; E. L. Cronkrite and J. S. Taggart, 
1872-74 ; E. L. Cronkrite, 1876 ; J. I. Neff and Andrew Hinds, 1878. 

Sheriffs. — Peter D. Fisher, 1850; George Reitzell, 1852; Isaac Kleckner, 
1854 ; J. W. Shaffer, 1856: C. F. Taggart, 1858: J. W. Shaffer, 1860; W. W. 
Robey. 1862; Jeremiah J. Piersol, 1864; W. W. Robey, 1866; John R. 
Hayes, 1868 ; John R. Haves, 1870 ; J. J. Piersol, 1872-74 ; Jesse R. Leigh, 

Coroner. — Isaac Bechtol, 1850; George H. Hartsough, 1852; Abel Smith, 
1854 ; Samuel McAfee, 1856 : B. P. Belknap, 1857, to fill vacancy ; John 
Washburn, 1858 ; Levi A. Mease, 1862 ; W. W. Robey, 1864 ; F. A. Darling, 
1866: Caspar Schultz, 1868 ; Christian M. Hillebrand, 1869; Jeremiah J. 
Dean, 1870-78. 

Circuit Judges. — The Circuit Court first held its sessions on the 26th day 
of August, 1839, the Hon. Daniel Stone presiding. In the winter of 1840, an 
act was passed by the General Assembly, abolishing the Circuit Court system, 
and providing that the duties incident thereto should be discharged by the 
Judges of the Supreme Court. This was continued until the fall of 1848, 
when the Circuit Court system was revived, and has since obtained with the 
following Justices: Daniel Stone, 1839; Thomas C. Brown, 1841; Benja- 
min R. Sheldon, 1849 to March, 1870; William Brown, the present incumbent. 
In 1877, Stephenson County was included in the Thirteenth Circuit, the same 
consisting of the counties of Jo Daviess, Stephenson, Winnebago, Carroll, 
Ogle, Whiteside and Lee. For this circuit three Judges were elected — J. M. 
Bailey, William Brown and John V. Eustace. Bailey was appointed Justice of 
the Appellate Court, and the duties of his circuit are discharged by Justices 
Brown and Eustace, though Judge Bailey assists when not engaged on the 
Appellate bench. 

Clerks Circuit Court. — John A. Clark, from 1839 to 1852; Joseph B. 
Smith, to 1856 ; Luther W. Guiteau, to 1860 ; John W. Shaffer, to Novem- 
ber 9, 1863, resigned and Edward P. Hodges appointed to the vacancy ; sub- 
sequently elected to the office for four years from 1864 : William Polk, to 18 T2 ; 
Aaron W. Hall, 1876 ; D. S. Brewster, present incumbent. 

States .Attorney.— Sheldon L. Hall, 1839 ; Thomas J. Turner, 1846 ; H. 
B. Stillman, 1847-50; Orrin S. Miller, 1851-52; William Brown, to 1860; 
S. D. Atkins, to 1864; F. C. Ingalls, to 1868 ; D. W. Jackson, to 1872 ; J. 
S. Cochran, the pesent incumbent. 


With the close of the Black Hawk war, the Indians as a rule disappeared 
from their hunting grounds, and returned no more to plague the inventors of a 
new line of life in future Stephenson County. The few who remained were 
dispirited, subdued and awed into defenseless apathy by the whites, whom they 
rarely interfered with or in any way, save through minor thefts and annoyances 
proceeding therefrom, recognized as the existing power. The relics of their 
barbaric life, however, were noticed by the settlers at intervals, and recalled the 
days when Winneshiek occupied the country without restraint. Near the City of 
Freeport,where are to be seen their corn-fields, council houses, cabins and cemeter- 
ies wherein they labored, consulted, lived, died and were buried — not committed to 
mother earth, there to await the dawning of the resurrection morn, but laid to 
rest in the air, if so anomalous a condition of affairs can be conceived. Four 
strong poles were planted in the ground, on which a platform was constructed, 
and the body of the dead with his bow and arrows, together with various trinkets 


placed thereon and left to the storms, the sunshine, and the future. Some 
of these antique "burial-grounds " were to be observed by the early settlers in 
the West, when the skeleton of deceased was all that remained to recall the liv- 
ing, who once rejoiced in health and strength, whose tribe doubtless mourned 
the deep damnation of his takings-off, as its representatives shrived him for his 
pursuit of game and foemen in the happy hunting-grounds. But these senti- 
nels of death, against whom the advance of progressing civilization long since 
prevailed, disappeared with their discovery, and no monument remains to mark 
the spot where once they were endured. 

Years have elapsed since the first settlers visited Stephenson County, whence 
they went the way of all flesh, and the music of their rejoicings became fainter 
and fainter until it was stilled. In the hurry and bustle of life, in the burdens 
which mankind has borne, made heavier with each succeeding cycle, in the 
changes which have followed each other so rapidly, and the active advance- 
ment in the perfected places of life, — the historic associations connected with 
these pioneers, have lost some of their freshness, but none of the value to which 
they are justly entitled. Once their corn-fields decked the river bottoms and 
fringed the hillsides and ravines with a wealth of foliage, bespeeking a plen- 
teous harvest against the hour of need. In the russet days of the present, when 
the tanned reaper in brief moments of ease vouchsafed him, the fields lying 
brown and bare, contemplates his possessions as they dot the landscape, and 
are lost in the horizon, he scarcely reflects upon the times long since gone out 
in age, and consigned to the tomb of oblivion, where others who preceded him 
toiled as he toiled in fields of grain ripe for the harvest, rejoiced as he rejoiced, 
unmindful of the coming of age and infirmities, or of another generation by 
whom his acres should be appropriated and himself not unfrequently left to 
wander an Ishmaelite in almost undiscovered lands. But many of them have 
gone, and with them many a glorious throng of happy dreams. Yet if there is 
a pious mansion for the blest, if the soul is not extinguished with the body, 
may they not return in spring, or with the harvest in autumn, or with winter 
and his aged locks, and view the regions they once knew so familiarly, or sit 
and muse upon the changes that have been wrought and have survived the 
injuries of time, since they went hence. They kept their patient vigil in their 
day, faced the storm of penury and wre3tled with the strong hand of adversity, 
but the seed sown amid trials, and sorrows and weepings, has yielded sheaves 
of wealth to the present days which are bound to the melodies of harvest songs 
and stored with prayers of thanksgiving. Those days were dark, indeed, with 
no silver lining to the clouds that impended over the future. But none were 
disheartened. Their hearts were high with hope. They believed the horizon 
would dawn into the morning of which prophets spoke and minstrels sang, of 
which poets dreamed and painters sketched. They believed the time would be 
when the fir-tree would come up instead of the thorn, the myrtle-tree instead of 
the brier, when the mountains and hills should break forth into singing, and 
the trees of the wood should clap their hands. 

And these confidences have been more than realized. The thorn has given 
place to the fir-tree, and the myrtle-tree has usurped the place of the briar. 
The voices of the husbandmen are heard throughout the land, and their songs 
of thanksgiving are echoed from each hillside. Peace, plenty, felicity and con- 
tentment are to be witnessed on every side ; the heritages of those who came 
into this unbroken wilderness fifty years ago, buo} T ant, elastic, laughing at tem- 
porary misfortune, shedding a genial warmth on those they met while passing 


through life, and, departing, leaving behind not only a kindly and gentle mem- 
ory, but an example for those who came after. 

The collation of facts concerning events occurring at a date within the 
memory of inhabitants by no means comparatively ancient, would appear to the 
uninitiated in the character of a task presenting but limited difficulties. By 
some, the labor has been regarded as one of the necessary incidents of life to be 
endured; some have regarded it with indifference, while others have paused 
not in their fierce career to concede a superficial consideration of the premises. 

From these indispositions, coupled with the failure among those possessed 
of the incidents, to record the same for future reference and adaptation, the 
record of early settlements contains but scant materials from which to weave an 
acceptable history. Patient industry and careful research, however, have not 
been without results, but have aided the laborers employed in that behalf. 
From all that can be learned in this connection, it appears that a man named 
Kirker left St. Louis some time during the year 1826, and, removing to the 
vicinity of Galena, established himself as a lead miner in the employ of 
Col. Gratiot, founder of Gratiot's Grove, Wis. Here he remained about a 
year, doubtless encountering many of the vicissitudes, enduring many of the 
trials and participating in some of the triumphs peculiar to lead mining and 
the life thereof, when he dissolved partnership with the business, bade good-bye 
to Col Gratiot and his associates, and, venturing into Stephenson County, built 
a cabin in Burr Oak Grove, and set himself up as an Indian trader. The 
success which attended his commercial undertaking is not of record, but the 
fact that he retired from active operations and left his habitation to the posses- 
sion of savages within a year after his advent into its vicinity, would argue the 
conclusion that his ambition was not properly recognized, which conclusion is 
further strengthened by the fact that he was heard of no more after his year's 
sojourn at Burr Oak. Whither he went or what he did are beyond the ken 
of the living, the suggestion of rumor or the range of probabilities, to determine. 
He was never seen again in the vicinity nor elsewhere, according to the chron- 

For a year following, future Stephenson County was remitted to the 
possession of the Indians, and whomsoever may have been sufficiently 
adventurous to enter its territorial limits, without leaving any trail behind him 
to guide posterity or enterprise in their pursuits of his name and local habita- 

During 1827, when, according to all accounts, the summer's sun had 
vanished and autumn winds were whistling through the leafless trees, a native 
of New York by the name of Oliver W. Kellogg, crossed the river at Dixon, 
and, pursuing the uneven tenor of an emigrant's way in those days, worried 
gradually through the eastern portion of the present county, and tarried not 
until he reached the improvements made by Kirker, his predecessor, near Burr 
Oak Grove, in the vicinity of which he pitched his camp, and before the coming 
of spring erected a house. The domicile was in many respects a pretentious 
edifice for the days, and enjoyed an experience as varied as it has been at 
times, exciting. Within its protecting and hospitable walls John Dement, of 
Dixon, and his troops, took shelter from the Indians, and, in the spring of 1835, 
it became the home of James Timms, one of the first permanent settlers in the 
county, he purchasing the domain from a man named Green, of Galena, who 
derived a title from Lafayette, a French adventurer who succeeded Kellogg in 
its possession, but fled when the Black Hawk war rendered residence in Burr 
0;ik Grove an exceedingly hazardous undertaking. The old house remained 


comparatively intact until 1862, when it was torn down and the frame appro- 
priated to other uses. A new house was built on the site, but no more like 
the Kellogg improvement, it is said, than Hecuba resembled Hamlet. Nothing 
remains of these pioneer premises but an orchard, old and fruitless, that was 
planted by Kellogg, the first in Stephenson County. It has served its purpose, 
and, decrepit with age, is permitted to survive the rush of matter for the good 
it has been the means of accomplishing in the flush of its youth and strength. 

During the summer of 1833, the " barren" opposite this house was the 
scene of a tragedy as fatal as it was singular, by which two lives were sacrificed, 
two families shrouded in woe, and the soil of Stephenson County first drenched 
with the blood of murdered innocence. 

It seems that two young men, en route to the lead mines, had halted at the 
point indicated, and encamped for the night. Their establishment consisted 
of a wagon and two yoke of cattle, together with the equipments usual to the 
completely furnished " prairie schooner," and of a quality superior to that 
ordinarily taken into the lead mines at the period mentioned. As was afterward 
ascertained, they were the sons of Virginia planters, who became impressed 
with the glowing accounts they had heard of the wealth of the lead country, 
and, provided with every accessory that could contribute to their comfort or 
prosperity, started in pursuit of fortune. After a laborious trip, the adven- 
turous twain reached Kellogg's cabin, as the shades of night were obscuring 
the landscape, and having, as they thought, secured their cattle and eaten 
their supper, lay down to dreams. In the morning, they awoke to discover 
that their oxen had strayed off, and while one of them prepared breakfast the 
other started out in search of the missing stock. After a delay of several hours 
the oxen were recovered, and driven to camp. Upon their arrival, the young 
man who had been left in charge, was found to have made no progress in the 
duties assigned him, and a dispute arose between himself and his companion as 
to the cause. This discussion was carried on, it is said, with much acrimony, 
and finally ended in blows, during which one of the contestants seized a pin, 
connected with the tongue of the wagon, or an ox-yoke, and, striking a blow 
upon the head of his antagonist, crushed the skull, and inflicted a wound that 
caused almost instant death. Paralyzed with horror at the lengths to which, 
in an unguarded moment, he had permitted his anger to carry him, he was 
powerless for the time to attempt any concealment of his crime, and sought a 
relief from the woe, to which he had committed his peace of mind, by flight. 
But wanderings through the forest afforded no release from the pangs of con- 
science, and he returned to the scene of the tragedy, where his victim had 
fallen by the wayside, cold and stiff, grim and ghastly, a horrible spectacle to 
those inured to scenes of strife and bloodshed, and doubly so to him, with whom 
he had embarked so short a time before, with high hopes and pleasurable antici- 
pations on the voyage of life that terminated in death and eternal desolation. 
With the implements included in the invoice of tools, he digged a grave, and, 
laying his companion therein, the survivor hooked up the oxen and pursued his 
journey west, arriving at Apple River within a week after the sad occurrence, 
where he related the facts, as are herein stated, to the amazed settlers, who 
placed no restraint upon his liberty, however, when he disappeared from view, 
and was never seen or heard of thereafter. Many years subsequent, the skeleton 
of a human being was found in the woods of Jo Daviess County, of whose 
identity no one could be found to testify, and the impression obtained that it 
was the remains of him who had murdered his comrade in the ik barren " oppo- 
site the Kellogg cabin. 



There were others who came into Stephenson County about this time besides 
Kellogg, including William Baker, one of the Prestons, and, possibly, a few 
more ; but their stay was only temporary, after which they returned whence 
they came, reserving a permanent settlement until some years subsequent. In 
1832 (during the fall), William Waddams, with his two sons, made his advent 
into Stephenson County, and, canvassing the country round about, formally 
staked out a claim at a point in West Point Township about three miles north- 
west of the present town of Lena. Here, in the summer of 1833, he erected 
a small log house, on the present site of Jo Daviess Waddams' house, and locat- 
ing his family therein, carried off the honors to which the first permanent set- 
tler in Stephenson County can legally and equitably lay claim. This was the 
second house, it is alleged in the county, but, unlike its predecessor, " Kellogg's 
Mansion," it now stands on the Waddams place, opposite where it first stood, 
and is occupied by Mrs. Eunice Place, daughter of its architect and builder. 
The " Cabin " is of the most limited dimensions, presenting none of the attract- 
ive features for which farmhouses are to-day noticeable, yet it is as comfortable 
and cozy as when first raised in the wilderness, and bears its age without any 
of the marks of weakness or "discouragement" peculiar to manufactures of 
that "beatific" period. The logs remain as sound as when first placed in posi- 
tion, and the window frames, fashioned by Mr. Waddams with his jack-knife, 
are untouched by decay ; but the puncheon floor has yielded place to material more 
adapted to that purpose, and the huge fire-place which formerly occupied one 
end of the apartment has been vacated, its uses being appropriated by more 
modern inventions. If the walls could but speak, what a tale of the pleasures 
and pains experienced in that old-fashioned, one-roomed house, they would 
unfold. What mournful cadences they would sigh of the troubled visions that 
have swept over the breast of breathing sorrow for those who went out from its 
portals, chilled in the embrace of death, to sleep beneath the daisies which car- 
essed their graves as the breezes tossed them into rippling eddies. Or how 
joyfully they would detail the marriage fete, the social, quilting and what-not 
of pleasure that has passed within its confines. The old home is still treasured 
as a relic of heroic days, when men possessed less of the superficial and more 
of those characteristics which raise mortals to the skies, than is apparent to the 
casual observer of to-day. It possesses a charm for those who have survived 
the death of Mr. Waddams which can never be dissipated, and promises to be 
preserved for years to come, when Stephenson County shall have attained a pro- 
minence and influence, in comparison with which that enjoyed to-day is but 

The close of the Black Hawk war, and dispersion of the soldiers who aided 
in subduing that fierce and seemingly unconquerable foe of the white race, 
called the attention of the country more generally to the natural advantages to 
be found in Northern Illinois, and particularly in the country bordering upon 
the Pecatonica and its tributaries. The volunteers regarded the homes of 
Winneshiek and his tribe found along the streams and creeks, and in the bar- 
rens and wilderness of Stephenson County, as veritable gardens of Babylon, and 
many of them, acting upon this conclusion, came in as settlers among the first 
who arrived, where they entered claims and have since remained. The 
majority, having reached the Biblical limits of human life, have departed in 
peace ; but a few still remain residents of Stephenson County, where they have 
witnessed the fullest fruition of their predictions regarding the country and 
amassed a comfortable competence. Among these are John Waddams, Robert 


Brightendall, Jacob Burbridge, George Trotter and, perhaps, one or two more. 
About the same time, as will be remembered, the Galena mines were the 
objective points for soldiers of fortune from every State, and those at Dubuque, 
the restraints to emigration thither having been removed, but imperfectly 
developing. As a consequent, thousands of prospectors, adventurers, specu- 
lators and the hoi polloi journeyed in those directions, intent on putting money 
in their individual purses, by mining, luck or agencies they hoped would favor 
their efforts without entailing too great a draft on their physical or financial 
resources. They were composed of men from Ohio, Missouri and elsewhere, 
with a sprinkling of lllinoisans. The route to Galena in those days was by 
St. Louis or by some other point on the Mississippi ; another route was to 
cross the river at Dixon, strike what is known as " Sucker Trail," entering 
Stephenson County in the southwestern part of Loran Township, and Jo 
Daviess County, from Kent Township, thence to Galena and Dubuque. 
This route was patronized quite freely by emigrants, on their trips to those 
points, to whom the fertility of the soil, salubrity of the climate and other 
advantages patent to all who passed through Stephenson County, became 
as familiar as they are to-day to the manor born. Many who visited the 
lead mines returned without testing the value of their claims — many returned 
after encountering failure, and many returned only when they had attained 
the object for which they went in pursuit. The inducements held out by the 
agricultural resources of the county, persuaded representatives of every class 
cited to enter claims hereabouts and in time become farmers. Those who 
did so, have, as a rule, succeeded, and laid up treasures upon earth, at least. 
Added to the volunteers and miners were the natives and residents of Eastern 
States, who, impatient at the limited extent of their hereditaments, and ambi- 
tious to identify themselves with enterprise in an enlarged field of action, where 
legitimate business, if conducted with the industry and integrity indispensable 
to a living at home, would be attended with better results, sought to test their 
judgment in the West. Illinois was then an almost undiscovered bourne to 
many of them, and Stephenson County was an absolute wilderness. But the 
knowledge of these facts, instead of appalling, rather influenced their coming 
hither, and to-day, the history of the county is largely a record of what has 
been accomplished by those who came from the East, notably from Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio and New York. 

Such, then, were the influences employed to attract emigration, and such was 
the character of those who responded. As a matter of course, there were 
numberless worthless characters who came in with the "flood," but the same 
causes which admonished them to leave their native heaths exerted a similar 
influence here and urged them to seek elsewhere for what they were restrained 
from appropriating on the banks of the Pecatonica. This country, then await- 
ing the claims ofr the industrious and enterprising, but holding out the promise 
of prosperity to all, was scarcely a comfortable locality for the outlaw or one of 
felonious propensities. If they came "born again" they were accepted as 
valuable additions. But if the new dispensations duplicated their acts com- 
mitted elsewhere, they were no longer tolerated, but banished. The conse- 
quence was, and is, that crime has never been an important factor of the civili- 
zation established in Stephenson County. Indeed, the record of the criminal 
court in this county is comparatively free from the various crimes entailing 
capital punishment or prolonged imprisonment. This is due entirely to the 
sturdy character and unflinching integrity of the early settlers, whose virtues 


have been visited upon their descendants, and exempted the county from many 
calamities their neighbors elsewhere have been called upon to endure. 

During the seasons of 1832-33, the settlement quoted above was the only 
one made in the county. William Waddams was the pioneer who paved the 
way for the coming of the army of occupation which speedily followed in his 
wake — the sapper and miner who effected a successful advance into the enemy's 
territory, maintaining a line of communication with his base of supplies, and 
holding the fort until the forces in reserve had been brought forward to his 
support. Civilization with its germinal forces thereafter persistently pushed 
its way into the territory like the march of a conquering army, and to-day the 
casual observer of events that have passed into history, stands amazed at the 
foot-prints of development and progress it has left in its luminous trail. The 
remote sections have been united by railroads and canals ; the modern insti- 
tutions of learning, the methods of human industry, the churches and schools, 
the telegraph and telephone, and other indications of progress and perfection, 
have gradually developed from the rude and imperfect accommodations of 
those early days. The broad prairies are born anew with each succeeding 
decade in the westward march of empire, and populous cities and villages 
are becoming the centers and gateways of trade and commerce. Agriculture 
bn scientific principles has drained and rejuvenated the lands, making them to 
blossom with annually increasing harvests, and the wealth born of their prod- 
ucts, coupled with enterprise and architectural skill, has builded where 
once the forest disputed possession with the plain. These are the works of 
those who rest from their labors, and the beneficiaries for whom these trusts 
were created daily rise up to call them blessed. 

The winter of 1833-34 passed without the happening of any event which 
has left its impress on the times to guide the historian in his search therefor. Mr. 
Waddams. with his family comfortably housed, dreamed the hours away in a 
solitude unbroken by aught that savored of civilization. Gathered about the 
winter log, himself and famiiy doubtless engaged in perfecting plans for 
future operations, when the dawn of spring announced the coming of more per- 
fect days. The resident of Stephenson County of to-day would hardly reconcile 
the appearance of that county then with what greets his vision on all sides in 
1880. The country now covered with highly cultivated farms, imposing 
residences and expensive improvements, was almost a trackless waste of prairie 
and timber. There was nothing to enthuse, little to encourage. Occasional 
bands of predatory Indians demurred to the title of the solitary settler, and 
not unfrequently levied upon his meager stores for supplies. But the long 
and inhospitable season dragged tediously to its close, and the flowers and 
shrubbery of the year before, which had yielded to the winter's blasts, warmed 
into new life and ran wild in the sunshine, hi'ding the trees and blooming 
foliage, with leaf and flower. Undismayed by the prospect, Mr. Waddams, as 
soon as the ground was fit to work, began the labor of preparing the soil about 
him for crops that would last him when autumn should have yielded place to 
the winters' winds, and with this beginning sowed the seeds for future 

It should here be observed that a claim is made, that Lyman Brewster, ac- 
companied by one Joe Abeno, came into Stephenson County during 1833, and 
established a ferry near Winslow, which was the first in the county, and 
survived its owner many years. This, however, is disputed, as also is the 
coming of Simeon Davis into Oneco, and the conclusion seems irresistible that 
Mr. Brewster did not settle in the county until the spring of 1834. That year 


was noticeable not only for the number but the sterling character of the 
additions made to the population. Among them were George Payne, who 
halted at Brewster's ferry, George W. Lott, who built a shanty in the present 
limits of Winslow Village, Harry and Jerry Waters, and A. 0. Ransom. To 
this latter gentleman belongs the honor of laying out the first town in the 
county. It was located about one and a half miles below Brewster's ferry, on 
the Pecatonica River, and derived its name in part from that of its founder, be- 
ing called " Ransomburg." It was regularly surveyed and platted, and on the 
map offered inducements of a character calculated to inspire the credulous with 
a desire to become identified with the town by investments, which proved to be 
permanent if not profitable. The map of the proposed city was illustrated in 
colors in the highest style of the lithographer's art. Streets and avenues 
intersected each other at measured distances; parks were laid out, and 
ornamented with shrubbery, fountains and statuary ; wharves were built and 
extended into the river, upon which a floating palace, under full head of steam, 
was to be seen suppositiously approaching the landing. Ransomburg, it was 
thought, would become the center of trade for the county, and the shipping- 
point for the surrounding country. It does not appear, however, that these 
considerations influenced purchasers, although the ubiquitous land-agent was 
doubtless abroad seeking whom he might devour, but his insatiable maw for 
profits probably remained unsatisfied, for the number of purchasers and the 
prices paid have remained in obscurity. Mr. Ransom established a store at the 
place, as did a Mr. Stewart, who disposed of his lot in the town for $500, dur- 
ing a visit to St. Louis when that city was in its infancy, and Miss Jane 
Goodhue opened a school there, the first in the county, which, with other im- 
provements, promised to confirm the predictions made respecting its rapid 
growth. But none of these predictions were ever, even in part, realized. The 
unappreciative public, for whose benefit the plans were projected, failed to avail 
themselves of the disinterested labors in their behalf, and the town lapsed, and 
finally became as a tale that is told. Mr. Ransom removed to Texas, where 
he afterward died, the improvements were left to decay, and a corn-field now 
occupies the site that once indicated the existence of Ransomburg. 

The impetus given to emigration by the pioneers mentioned gathered 
strength, however, and manifested itself through that entire year. Though the 
number who came and remained in Stephenson County was limited, they were 
men of brains and brawn, fully alive to the demands of the times, and equal to 
every emergency they were called upon to encounter. Some of those who have 
left no trace of their coming went further west; or, dismayed by the difficulties 
which met them on every hand, returned whence they came to enjoy the rather 
questionable honors accorded a prophet in his own land. The fall of 1834 wit- 
nessed the advent of 3ome who are still here, having grown up with the country 
and witnessed its transformation from an almost inaccessible wilderness to its 
present prosperous and cultivated condition. Among these were Jacob Amos, 
William Robey and family, which consisted of his wife, Levi Robey and wife, John, 
William W., Thomas L., Francis L., Elizabeth and Mary Robey, children of Will- 
iam Robey. The latter reached Brewster's ferry on the 21st of November. Mr. 
Robey, some time later, became lessee of the ferry, which he conducted for a num- 
ber of years, though at the time he made a claim on which he subsequently settled, 
near Cedarville, in Lancaster Township. At that time, the lands along the 
Pecatonica were heavily timbered, and filled with Indians. He came from Scioto 
County, Ohio, and journeyed via Dixon, Buffalo Grove, in Ogle County, 
thence to Brewster's Ferry, to the cabin of Simeon Davis, in Oneco, to Monroe, 


Wis., and back to Brewster's Ferry, from which vantage-ground Levi Robey 
was accustomed to start forth in search of an available point to make a claim 
and settle. Finally, he found a place that would suit, and on St. Valentine's 
day, 1835, he removed to the present town of Waddams, locating at a point on 
the bank of the Pecatonica, half a mile northeast of his present residence. Here 
he built a house, with an ax and a jack-knife to shape the logs, which were cut 
in the woods and hauled over the ice to the site of his future home. He was 
chary at first, he relates, about trusting the ice to bear the bui'den of his ox team, 
and the load they hauled. In the country whence he came, " ice bridges " were 
unknown mediums of communication. When he first went on the ice, that 
brittle and deceptive substance cracked ominously, and he apprehended that 
himself with his yoke of steers and house frame would go to the bottom instead 
of the place appointed for their reception. But he and his portables were pre- 
served from accident to find new difficulties staring him in the face when he 
considered the practicability of raising his ' ; frame " into position. These 
were overcome, however, and himself and family were in a brief time ensconced 
in their new home, without neighbors, mail facilities, access to supplies, or any 
of the absolute necessities which ar.e to-day obtained without the least exertion. 

The claim is made that during this year occurred the first birth in the 
county, the new-comer being a son to George W. Lott, who was born in the 
cabin of his father, then located in the present Winslow Township, between the 
villages of Winslow and Oneco. The Waddams family, however, opine that the 
birth of Amanda Waddams, in February, 1836, at the Waddams farm, on the 
road from Nora to Bobtown, was the pioneer birth in the county, and the same 
claim is also made for Lucy, daughter of Dr. Bankson, who was brought forth 
early in the latter year. 

From 1832 until 1835, the above constituted the settlements made in this 
immediate section. As already stated, there were a number who passed through 
the county en route to the lead mines, and tarried only long enough to rest and 
recuperate their energies sufficiently to continue their trip. But between the 
dates mentioned no settlements of a permanent character, other than those 
cited, were made. Indeed, it required an almost unlimited complement of 
courage and manhood to reconcile men to remove from the old homesteads, dis- 
solve old associations, and, cutting loose from the humanizing influences with 
which they had been surrounded from youth, turn their faces toward new fields 
wherein the foot of man never trod. Yet those who opened the way for the 
advance of civilization in the West were possessed of these qualities in a re- 
markable degree. They were the modern crusaders who fought against 
barbarism and savage occupation, with all the courage, gallantry and steadfast- 
ness of purpose that characterized their prototypes in the age of religious' 
enthusiasm and chivalry centuries ago. They were the counterparts of a 
grenadier of the old regime, who never in any sudden storm or rally, desperate 
melee or sorrowful encounter, forgot to doff his plumed hat to an adversary and 
cry out through his gray mustache as he shortened his sword arm, u En garde." 
They made the beginning of the present gratifying prosperity in the West, and 
dedicated themselves to promoting the happiness, gladdening the hearts and 
smoothing the pathway of those who came with them and after them to journey 
down the chequered aisles of Time. Thrice blessed are these brave men who 
never yielded up the chase even when afflictions and disappointment seemed to 
wail a requiem over their hopes and the dark clouds of adversity settled like a 


The lives they led were far from being luxurious. No crops of consequence 
were raised, and even those who had money experienced difficulty in procuring 
the necessaries of life. The condition of families in indigent circumstances, at 
a time when wheat cost $4 a bushel, and a journey of forty or fifty miles was 
required before it could be ground, can be readily imagined. The nearest base 
of supplies was on the Mississippi, at Savannah and Galena, and in those days 
the arrival of a steamboat at either place was regarded as an event of so vital 
importance that it became the talk of the neighborhood. Some of the settlers 
obtained food for their families by hunting, but this was a precarious recourse, 
as game, excepting deer, was by no means plentiful. Often the hunter would 
go out in the morning to procure something for breakfast, but was compelled to 
pass the entire day without a mouthful to satisfy his hunger. It is related by one 
of the men who occupied a shanty, that himself and his companion were often 
glad, in days when meat was scarce, to procure pork sufficient to grease a grid- 
dle, and that upon one occasion his comrade and another young man made a 
hearty meal on rinds that had done service in this way, and were hard and 
green with mold. The same party stated that he has often worked hard for 
weeks together improving his land, on no better fare than Indian meal mixed 
with water. These were extreme cases, it is true, but those who for a moment 
imagine they led a life of ease and contentment are disposed to listen to the 
whisperings of fancy and not the truths of fact. Their lives were by no means 
enveloped in a halo of romance, but led in the midst of experiences the modern 
hero would shrink from. 

Very few of the present inhabitants of Stephenson County can realize the 
hardships to which the early settlers were subjected. Their houses were built 
of rough, unhewed logs, the cracks filled with mud, the roof composed of 
clapboards split from the timber, and secured by poles laid on the top, nails 
being an unknown article of trade. These rude habitations rarely contained 
windows or floors, or, if provided with the latter, they were composed of pun- 
cheons split from logs, and rendered comparatively smooth by hewing. If they 
left their cabins for any length of time, they might expect on their return to 
find that they had been visited during their absence by the Indians, who had 
relieved them of all the provisions they had in store. The farmer manufac- 
tured his own plows, fashioned his own drag, or utilized a young sapling in 
lieu thereof, and constructed his own wagon, and other farming implements, 
and, in nearly every case, without iron. The fur of the raccoon, fox, or 
wolf, furnished them with caps, the deer's hide, tanned at home, with 
pants, coat and shirt. Tea and coffee were luxuries, to be had at rare inter- 
vals, and used only upon special occasions ; as a substitute therefor the set- 
tlers provided peas, wheat and barley. When Mr. Waddams made his farm it 
contained but four acres, located in the timber, which he cleared, fenced and 
planted in corn and potatoes without the assistance of teams. When the iron 
plow was first introduced into the county it was regarded as a curiosity, con- 
demned as an innovation upon established custom, and as worthless for the 
objects for which it~was designed. The grain was threshed with flails, or by 
horses, and, when Hiram Waddams thrashed his wheat for the first time, in 
1839, with a traveling thrasher mounted upon wheels, the curiosity of his 
neighbors found expression in similar criticisms, that were in no degree abated 
when, in 1848, Pells Manny introduced a new era in harvesting by construct- 
ing the first harvester in this part of the country. It was termed a header, 
cutting the heads from off the grain eight inches below the hulls. This was 
an improvement upon the cradle where the grain stood up, but when down its 


success was not so gratifying. It was a cumbersome concern, and lasting but a 
short time, led the way to other experiments, until finally they brought forth 
the reaper which Mr. Manny subsequently invented and patented. Improve- 
ments, however, succeeded improvements in this invaluable farming implement, 
and the reapers of those days have long since become incidents of the past, and 
recurred to now only as illustrating the features of pioneer life with distinctness. 
It might be added in this connection that Mr. Manny still lives in the enjoy- 
ment of a hale old age, his home in the city of Freeport, surrounded by all that 
can smooth the decline of a life that has not been altogether uncheckered. 

The spring of 1835 is represented as having been a season of unparalleled 
beauty and bright promise. The forests were early decked with foliage, the 
prairies shone with the colors of the rainbow in the flowers and shrubberies 
that grew upon the surface, and all nature seemed to combine to lend enchant- 
ment to a scene no artist's hand can trace. Nothing was lacking to complete 
this unrivaled landscape represented in the territory of subsequent Stephenson 
County, which a resident of that day asserts rivaled in its magnificence the 
fabled beauties of Araby the blest. Crops were put in by the measured num- 
ber of agriculturists who then owned clearings, with confidence that the harvest 
would be plenteous; and improvements were made, which in a measure accom- 
modated the influx of immigration that year witnessed. An advance was also 
accomplished in other material interests, and wants were supplied which had 
previously been sorely experienced. With these blessings at the threshold, it is 
scarcely to be wondered at that settlers began to come in much more numerously 
than during previous years. The first who came were few, 'tis true, but before 
the year had gone, leaving behind it marks and pleasant memories, joys and 
shadows, the additions to the population had been increased by the arrival of 
representatives and families, who have been instrumental in building up and 
developing the latent wealth which lay hidden in the woods and plains of North- 
ern Illinois. 

Prominent among those who settled in Stephenson County that year were 
John and Benjamin Goddard, Henry and William Hollenbeck, George Trotter, 
Richard Parriott, Sr., and family, Levi Lucas, Robert Jones, Andrew St. John 
and others, who made claims in what has since been called Buckeye Township; 
Nelson Wait, Hubbard Graves and wife, Charles Gappen, Abijah Watson, John 
and Thomas Baker and William Willis established homes in Waddams ; James 
and W. H. Eels, Alvah Denton, Lemuel W. Streator and Hector P. Kneeland 
became identified with Winslow Township, and aided in the progress anticipated 
for Ransomburg ; Jefferson and Lewis Van Matre came to Oneco ; John B. 
Kaufman to present Erin : Miller Preston to Harlem ; James Timms, Jesse 
Willett, and Calvin and Jabez Giddings to Kent ; Albert Alberson, Eli Frank- 
eberger, and possibly Josiah Blackamore, to Rock Grove; Thomas Crain and 
family to Silver Creek ; Conrad Van Brocklin and Mason Dimmick, also Otis 
Love and family, to Florence ; Luman and Rodney Montague and William Tucker 
to West point, etc., etc. In addition to these, William Baker — who, it will be 
remembered, came into the county first in 1832 — returned to settle, after a 
temporary absence in Wisconsin, and laid the foundation for the present city of 
Freeport ; Thompson Wilcoxon also came in and staid a short time in Harlem, 
wherein he finally settled during the following year; Harvey P. Waters and 
Lyman Bennett arrived at the mouth of Yellow Creek in the fall, where they 
remained until the spring of 1836, when they removed to Ridott and, with A. 
J. Niles, formed the nucleus of settlements subsequently made in that township. 


James Timms, who came that year, as already stated, took possession of the 
Kellogg house, wherein he resided for many years, and raised a family, members 
of which are to-day living, prominently identified with the agricultural resources 
of the county. Benjamin Goddard stopped first with Mr. Robey, which was 
fifteen miles from any road traveled by wagon. The Montagues settled near 
Waddam's Grove, where they built a house of logs, the floors of which were 
made of bass-wood. And so on. Hubbard Graves settled near Levi Robey's, 
and the remainder of those mentioned found abiding places which, if they were 
attended with an absence of privileges and immunities from care, possessed 
comforts which were, in those times, of priceless value. 

The settlers experienced the same difficulties, in a measure, while providing 
themselves with homes that those who came in the year previous had encount- 

The Winnebago Indians, in vagrant squads, yet remained in the county, 
and not unfrequently annoyed the settlers by petty thefts or trespasses upon 
their hospitality. Among other losses sustained through their felonious acts, 
was the loss of an entire drove of hogs, which they stole from William Wad- 
dams. Robert Jones and Levi Lucas maintained a bachelors' retreat about 
this time on their claim, near the present village of Cedarville, and during their 
absence upon one occasion the Indians effected an entrance into the cabin left 
tenantless, which they robbed of a number of articles, including razors, game, 
wild honey and tobacco. Upon the return of the owners, an Indian was 
observed stealing out of the cabin. When they ascertained that their house- 
hold goods had been levied upon, it was decided that the savage had partici- 
pated in the robbery, and they concluded to follow him up, to, if possible, 
recover their valuables or ascertain where they could be obtained. Acting upon 
this conclusion, they started in pursuit of the fugitive, whom they overtook in 
the woods while he was in the act of shooting a wild turkey. Before he had 
time to comprehend the object of pursuit, Jones rushed up to him and, seizing 
his gun, threatened to inflict capital punishment in the case if he did not imme 
diately restore what had been taken. After some demurring and pleas in 
confession and avoidance, he offered to restore the articles missed if Jones and 
Lucas would accompany him to his wigwam. This they consented to do, and 
were conducted several miles through the woods, coming suddenly into an 
encampment of about thirty braves who, with their families, were quietly rest- 
ing after the fatigues of the day. They comprehended the critical situation in 
which they had permitted themselves to be placed at a glance, and, though 
apprehensive of results, calmed their fears, and putting on a bold front, entered 
the circle of encamping savages and sat down. After a prolonged parley, 
devoid of anger, the Indian who had conducted them thither disappeared, and 
after a brief absence, returned with their tobacco, which was restored, but 
assured them that the razors and provisions were in posession of a branch of the 
tribe residing on Yellow Creek. When these preliminaries had been con- 
cluded, the old Indian related his interview with Jones and Lucas in the forest, 
how his rifle had been taken from him, and he had thereby been prevented 
from bagging a wild turkey ; embellished with exaggeration and emphasized 
with gesticulations that enforced conviction in the savage breast more persua- 
sively than the charm of exquisite music possesses for the aesthetic admirer 
of the divine art. As a result, his eloquence did not fall upon barren 
ground, but was responded to by loud murmurs of dissatisfaction from the 
assembled council, and excited the Indians to a degree unprecedented, who 
expressed their opinions in language both loud and threatening. Upon behold- 


ing this unexpected storm, Jones sought to placate their anger by a show of 
generosity, and dividing his tobacco among the thievish gang, waited for their 
anger to subside. A calm succeeded the fierce outburst which the settlers had 
witnessed, and Jones succeeded in effacing any remembrance of his accusation 
for the time being at least by tickling the Indian maidens, gathered there, under 
the chin and indulging in other harmless pleasantries with them, which cemented 
the reconciliation, though, as Mr. Jones related to the writer, his gallantry was 
never more severely taxed than when making love to the greasy beauties of the 
Winnebagoes to save his possessions and, possibly, preserve the capillary inte- 
guments which constituted his scalp. After "swinging on the gate " for a brief 
period with their hostesses, Jones and Lucas departed, and passed the night at 
Benjamin Goddard's cabin, south of Cedarville. The following morning they 
accompanied Mr. Goddard to William Baker's claim, to assist the latter in 
raising his cabin. During that trying period, and while the cabin frame hung 
in the balance, so to speak, a party of the Yellow Creek branch of the tribe 
hove in sight, doubtless attracted thither in the hope that they would be invited 
to partake of the supply of metheglin, the attendant concomitant of similar 
undertakings in the times that more than tried men's souls, patience and tem- 
per. When they came on to the ground, Mr. Jones, reinforced by the reserve 
at his back, informed them that he was entirely familiar with their depredations 
on his property, and demanded the return of his stolen razors, in default of 
which they would receive the punishment of death, without benefit of clergy. 
Thus admonished, they agreed to the alternative, and pointing to the sky, indi- 
cated that when the sun reached the meridian they would restore his property, 
and, starting off, as if pursued by the Evil Spirit of Indian theology, for their 
camp, returned at the appointed hour with the razors. 

After this time the Indians were no longer factors in the county. Accord- 
ing to the statement contained in a publication of the times, " Tradition still 
points to a place near the foot of Stephenson street where Winnesheik, after 
vainly resisting the power of the white people until hope had perished, and 
being hemmed in by hostile pursuers, leaped into the swollen Pecatonica and 
swimming to the opposite shore escaped from his enemies, never to return." 
In this instance tradition is not to be relied upon for the facts, for " Coming 
Thunder " did return, after many days, and beheld with astonishment the 
advances made by the white race in the domain over which himself and his race 
once exercised exclusive control. During one of his visits to Freeport, a 
daughter of Mrs. Oscar Taylor who had been named " Winnesheik," in compli- 
ment to the old chief, was presented to him. But he failed to appreciate the 
distinguished honor conferred, and expressed his 'disgust in words of unintelli- 
gible patois, accompanied by contemptuous shrugs of his shoulders. 

Among those who are noted as having settled in Stephenson County during 
the year William Baker, Benjamin Goddard, Levi Robey and others are 
remembered with feelings of pleasure by those of their neighbors still living, as 
also by the thousand and one prominent citizens who have grown up with the 
county, or come into and become part of it since it was incorporated, and 
assumed a front place in the northern tier of Illinois counties. As already 
mentioned, Baker came into the county proper at a daylong since recorded among 
the events that have been, and remained only a sufficient length of time to 
establish his claim, when he returned to his family. In December, 1835, 
accompanied by his son Frederick, who still lives a citizen of Freeport, and 
others, he re-visited his claim and so directed his campaign in the wilderness 
that the present flourishing city of Freeport was the result. They were men, 


it is said, of wonderful inventive genius, possessed of much of that nature which 
makes the whole world kin, persons of infinite wit and endless resource. They 
possessed the happy faculty of so adapting themselves to circumstance, as that 
they were not only always in a good humor themselves, but prevailed against 
afflictions in others, and resolved gloom into sunshine. They were men of 
unbounded hospitality, impulsive, of quick sensibilities and warm sympathies, 
and so constituted that without the presence of men of their kind, the world 
would be less humane, and new settlements less advanced with the departure 
of each season. Baker has left the city of Freeport. and the remainder of the 
county as monuments for posterity to learn of them, and their multitude of 
friends throughout the great West recall their lives with smiles of pleasure 
when reflecting upon the many cheerful hours they have passed in their 

During the balance of the year 1835, there was nothing of interest occur- 
ring which can be ascertained, either effected a change in the situation as 
already described, or proposed a different outlook for the future. Those who 
had come in during the year, with others, doubtless, whose names have not 
been preserved, extended the settlements to various parts of the county, where 
claims were perfected by possession and occupation, and their improvement 
settled down to. There were no amusements in those days, as one of the 
old settlers remarked upon being interrogated on that subject. " Why, bless 
you man, we worked ; and when we finished the chores at night," he continued, 
"we were ready to smoke and go to bed." Their amusements were such as 
aided them in preparing amusements for the future. Up with the dawn, whence 
they labored constantly, with a brief intermission at noon for lunch, until 
sunset ; they indeed earned their bread in the sweat of their brows, and sank 
down to rest at nightfall with the consciousness that some headway had been 
made by them on the great highway of life, and that if fortune refused to smile 
upon their efforts, she would not embargo their advance. 

As with amusements, so it was with schools and churches. The absence of 
the former was duplicated in the latter respect. There were none of either. 
The schoolmaster was not abroad in Stephenson County that year, and beyond 
the solitary circuit rider, who came at long intervals, if he came at all in the 
days of this period, there was no representative of the Church to be seen or 
heard of. And, if the truth be told, as [conservators of morals, there was no 
call for their presence. The settlers had no spare time to listen to the charm- 
ings of Satan, and, if they had, they were so distant removed from the base of 
supplies that no mischief could have been provided for idle hands to do. From 
these alleged facts, it would- seem that nothing -remained for them but the 
development of the country and the providing of homes for days when age 
could not supply the deficiencies of youth, arid the promise of yesterday 
remained unfulfilled. Such was the case without exaggeration ; they knew no 
avoidance of duty, sought no means that would aid them in violating their 
obligations, but toiled on and persevered in the path of duty until the dawn of 
perfect days, and the triumph of mind over matter enabled them to rest from 
their labors and partake of that reward reserved for those who " drag up 
drowned honor from the locks." 

The winter of 1835 was, according to general report, as inhospitable and 
cheerless as the spring previous had been ''childlike and bland." Breaking 
the prairie was continued until late in the fall, when the frost congealed 
earth's moisture so effectually as to forbid the husbandman from further 
labors in that behalf. Their efforts were then transferred to the timber, 


and through the eager and nipping air of December trees were felled and timber 
hewn for houses, stables, mills and other conveniences requiring time and 
material to provide. There were no mills in the county at the date men- 
tioned, and, when meal or flour was required, a lengthy and fatiguing trip was 
necessary before either could be obtained. No supplies of this or a kindred 
character could be obtained nearer than Galena, Dixon, Peoria and other 
distant points. In the straits these circumstances placed the settlers, occasion- 
all} they improvised mills and inaugurated schemes that materially aided in 
relieving their immediate necessities. When they were at a loss for meal or 
flour, yet possessed the grain to grind, the settler would cut down a large oak 
tree, smooth off the stump and build a fire in the center to burn out the heart 
of the wood. When the interior was sufficiently charred, the part thus rendered 
easy to chop was chopped out with an axe until a rude mortar, capable of 
containing a peck or more of corn, was provided. When these preparations 
were concluded, the self-constituted miller would rig up a sweep, similar, in 
some respects, if not in power and dimensions, to the old-fashioned well-sweep, 
in one end of which he drove an iron wedge, and, using this as a pestle, he 
pounded the corn. When it was reduced to the consistency of the coarsest 
quality of meal, he would toss the product up and winnow it with his breath, after 
which it was ready for use, and the corn-dodgers mixed therefrom and baked 
in the ashes are said to have been sweeter than the honey of Hymettus. 

Although the acreage of timber was in some places nearly equal to the area 
of prairie, the former was, as a rule, employed only in the building of cabins 
wherein to reside. If the settler had a drove of cattle or hogs, and there were 
those who did boast such possessions, they were allowed to range at will without 
protection from the elements. In some instances, however, the farmer secured 
comfortables stables, built of sods, which were to be obtained in every furrow of 
the virgin prairie turned up. And these, it is said, formed better bricks than 
the Hebrews could have furnished Pharaoh before he denied them straw. Out 
of this prairie quarry the laborer was enabled to obtain sufficient sod to com- 
plete an outhouse large enough to accommodate his horse and cow, when the 
bleak winds of November chilled them to the marrow, and materially interfered 
with their usefulness and capacity to sustain burdens. 

One peculiar feature of life here in those days was the entire absence of 
homesickness among the settlers. Inquiries in that direction failed to elicit 
any response tending to prove the existence of this much dreaded malady in 
the settlement. On the contrary, all were full of heart and hope, assured of 
becoming lords of the land and looking forward to a day when this assurance 
should be made doubly sure by possession. But 7 the absence of the complaint 
suggested was doubtless due to the same causes which denied them amusements 
and other privileges mentioned. In addition to these, it might be stated that 
in temporal affairs the settlers were as innocent of that which distracted the 
brain of those nearer the centers of trade, as was Evangeline's father of the 
wiles of the world. Politics then caused them no concern ; there were no office- 
holders or office-seekers, and the poetry and pleasure of their lives was undis- 
turbed by promises from the former, or appeals from the latter, until long after 
civil government was established. Yet, notwithstanding the many advantages and 
privileges vouchsafed them, there were no markets for the surplus harvests raised, 
if such there should be, and little to mitigate the severity of disease or secure its 
prevention or cure. A writer of the times details that " they led happy lives, 
satisfied that they would live and die on their own estate. When the land 
should come into market, they would obtain title thereto and own it from the 


surface to the stars, and from their cabin floors all the way down to the center 
of the globe." These claims, which have been referred to so frequently, was 
the "unwritten law of the settlers themselves." It guaranteed possession to 
him who first picked out a spot as his own and "blazed" a tree around it, or 
marked it with a furrow in the sod through the prairie. To this he had an 
undoubted right, an indisputable "claim" against all comers, save the Govern- 
ment, whence he expected to buy when the lands were offered for sale in the 
market. They were generally 640 acres, and occasionally included much more, 
while some speculators, assuming to be settlers, were disposed to claim the 
country around for the purpose of holding the same and disposing of it at 
advanced rates to those who came after them. But they did not always succeed 
in the ungenerous undertakings, and were almost invariably left in the vocatire. 
When the sales of land were made at Dixon, in 1848, the contest between pur- 
chasers thereat and those who held possession under this "unwritten law" were 
numerous and prolonged. Not unfrequentiy harsh measures were deemed 
necessary to quiet title, and the claim societies organized years before in antici- 
pation of these difficulties, to express it in the language of one of their mem- 
bers, "had their hands full." But time at last, which sets all things even, 
dissipated the bickerings born of these events, and the legal claimants were, 
as a general rule, protected in their rights. 

The year 1836 was characterized by a still larger immigration than that of 
either of the preceding years. According to the opinions of many who were 
on the ground and competent to judge, the history of the county properly 
commences with that annual Those who had become msmbers of the body 
politic by residence and improvement, sent back to the homes whence they 
came glowing accounts of this beautiful land, with her broad, billowy prairies, 
replete with buds and blossoms, with her wooded fastnesses, in which the deer 
and smaller game roamed at pleasure; of the water-power that her streams 
would afford, and many other items of interest, which conspired to render the 
country not only fascinating to the traveler, but productive under the horny 
hand of toil. Why remain at the East, circumscribed in their possessions, 
when they could obtain domains of unlimited extent and fertility by joining 
fortunes with those already here, was asked of those at home who had been 
vouchsafed a "New Dispensation " in Illinois. The descriptions sent thither, 
and the queries propounded, produced their natural results. They induced 
reflection and a comparison of advantages enjoyed at home with those that 
could be secured in other fields. These reflections begat a feeling of discontent 
and unhappiness in the breasts of the toilers by whom they were indulged, and 
this discontent and unhappiness culminated in their decision to " pull up 
stakes " and find in the West, if not the Fountain of Youth, the rock of end- 
less resources, which needed only to be smote that abundant streams of reve- 
nue might gush forth. Adopting the lang'uage of one who has discoursed most 
eloquently on the subject, " The spring of 1836" witnessed an unprecedented 
flow of immigration from all quarters into the county. Farms were opened, 
cabins built, blacksmith and other shops improvised ; beside the stumps of trees 
men began to talk and plan for the future, women made calls and visits, and 
submitted to all the trials, privations and hardships of their frontier life with a 
heroism and faith that cheered the hearts and nerved the arms of the sterner 
sex in many a season of gloom and despondency." 

Among those who settled in the county this year was a young man who, by 
the force of his real merit, indomitable energy and personal character, elevated 
himself to one of the most prominent and honorable positions within the power 


of the people to confer. Beginning life amid discouraging surroundings, 
restrained from choice in the adoption of a pursuit by the iron hand of penury, 
Thomas J. Turner found his way into Stephenson County in May, 1836, and. 
having made a claim in the eastern part thereof, erected a mill near Farwell's 
ferry on the Pecatonica, at the mouth of Rock Run, where he began the battle 
of life with none of the auxiliaries that attend modern youth in their wrestles 
with fate. In company with Julius Smith and B. Thatcher, he built a cabin 
for his protection, and, when not occupied in discharging his duties at the mill, 
was storing his mind with knowledge that laid the foundation for future 
eminence on the hustings, at the bar, and in the councils of the nation. Pro- 
visions at the time spoken of were scarce, and for several days, as he subsequently 
stated, himself and his companions had nothing whatever but boiled corn to 
eat. Not relishing this unpalatable edible, however, as a steady diet, he started 
for Galena in order that he might supply the larder with corn that had been 
eaten up. About dark on the first day of his journeying, he reached a cabin 
on the opposite side of the Pecatonica, and announced his presence by repeated 
hallooings. After a season a lad manned a canoe, and ferried him across the 
river, where he was introduced into the cabin of Mr. William Baker. The 
head of the house was absent, as he learned upon inquiry, having gone to Peoria 
for a stock of supplies, but he received a hospitable welcome from the lady of 
the house and her houseful of children. After an exchange of compliments, 
he asked for food and the good woman said he should have some, but all she 
had to offer were two small "corndodgers" and the remains of a catfish. The 
visitor was nearly famished, he had even gone without his usual meal of boiled 
corn, but he refused to take the scanty supply in the house and declined her ten- 
der, after properly acknowledging its proffer. She insisted, and assured 
him that her husband would return in time to prevent them from starving, 
besides the boys had got the line out and would have another catfish before 
morning. He retired to sleep with an exalted opinion of frontier hospitality, 
and during the night his slumbers were disturbed by the barking of dogs and an 
unusual commotion out of doors. Upon rising to investigate, he ascertained 
that the disturbance arose by reason of the return of Mr. Baker, accom- 
panied by an abundant store of provisions, upon part of which he feasted in the 
morning, and continued his trip to Galena. Here he obtained work, and pro- 
curing a stock of supplies, he returned to his claim in the county, to meet and 
dispose of new embarassments, endure other hardships and privations, until he 
amassed sufficient means to enable him to live without the constant apprehen- 
sion of want uppermost in his mind. 

His was not a remote instance of the privations that were suffered by the 
early settlers of Stephenson County, to be recurred to in after years when the 
struggle, the strife, the pain, the turmoil of life were nearly over, as experiences 
that were gained in adversity to be handed down to their children when the tale 
is told, is finished and ended. As these facts are recited, there are many whose 
lives Avere duplicates of that led by Col. Turner, who survive him, and can 
attest their truth ; there be many too upon whose lips the seal of death has 
been set. No' word can reach the ears of these dead sleepers, but departing they 
have left behind them the stories of lives that shall be told and oft repeated in 
the "evening tent," by the household hearth, and wherever the memory of the 
brave and true is venerated and revered. 

This scarcity of provisions mentioned as existing as late as 1836, is in part 
accounted for by the fact that the area of cultivation was not measurably increased 
by that time. There were no roads, no bridges and few ferries, and the means 


of communicating with points at which supplies could be obtained were 
exceedingly meager. Three saw-mills had been commenced — one at Winslow 
by Thomas Lott, the second on Yellow Creek by William Kirkpatrick, and 
Turner's Mill at the mouth of Rock Run, but none of them were completed 
until late in the season. There were no grist-mills north of the Illinois River; 
during the year William Kirkpatrick erected a corn cracking machine on 
Yellow Creek, which was also used as a grist-mill, but it was a poor substitute, 
and was employed to crack wheat as well as corn. The houses were nearly all 
built of logs, and as the settler was unable to build his cabin single-handed, 
"raisings" were cheerfully assisted at by neighbors for miles around. 

In this vear a " claim meeting " was organized, being among the first of the 
kind in the county. Its object was to defend each member in the possession of 
his respective claim. The officers consisted of a President, Secretary and Board 
of Directors. If the claim of any member was encroached upon the party suffer- 
ing was to notify the officers, who were authorized to make an investigation ; 
if it be found that the cause of complaint is just, the trespasser was to be 
warned to abandon the claim within five days. If he remained delinquent at 
the expiration of that period he was to be "carefully removed with his effects 
from the premises." These were the chief provisions of the constitution as 
adopted, supplemented by a general understanding that two sections, two miles 
square, should constitute the extreme limit that heads of families might 

The previous year, William Baker had erected an "Indian trading post" at 
the mouth of the creek which now empties into Pecatonica River within the 
limits of Freeport, thus practically beginning the building of that city. In the 
following year, he built a house in the future city, of hewn logs, the first pre- 
tentious establishment in Stephenson County, as also the first hotel in the 
section. Soon after, the town was laid out, and a company formed for the sale 
of lots, composed of Mr. Baker, William Kirkpatrick and W. T. Galbraith. A 
limited emigration drifted hither during the year, including L. 0. Crocker, 0. 
H. Wright, Joel Dodds, Jacob Goodheart, Hiram G. Eads, John Hinkle, James 
Burns, Robert Smith, Benjamin R. Wilmot, John Brown and others. The 
improvements made elsewhere in the county were meager, though in Freeport 
a comparative number of houses went up under the direction of the company 
and those who came there as a result of their labors. Ransomburg was still in 
existence and, with Freeport, made up the sum total of settlements that bore 
the appearance of villages in the county. 

The remainder of the vast territory was, when occupied, devoted to farming 
purposes, with all that the term implies, and though agriculture had just com- 
menced to be a factor in the new country, it was attended with abundant returns. 
The exact number who settled in Stephenson County that year cannot be deter- 
mined with any degree of accuracy. Their name was not legion, however, as they 
can almost be counted without an extended knowledge of mathematics. Har- 
mony existed between them in all the departments of life that became the 
outgrowth of their coming. No bickerings disturbed the friendly relations 
which existed ; a commendable absence of disorder was apparent, all combined 
their best efforts to bring order out of chaos and redeem the country from 
unproductiveness, or the production that benefited no man. And this was as 
it should be. The advance of civilization in the world, as illustrated in the 
origin and consolidation of empires, monarchies and republics, from the days of 
Romulus and Remus to the present, is measured by the limits of public tran- 
quility, during which nations gain their highest elevation, weakening and 


lamentable antagonisms and international strifes causing them to sink below 
the level of obscurity. 

In addition to those already cited as having settled in the vicinity of Free- 
port, the following persons, some of them with their families, came in and made 
claims at dhTerent points in the county: Pells Manny, Alfred and San- 
ford Giddings, Washington Perkey, " Widow " Swanson and family, Thomas 
Flynn, E. Mullarkey, Henry Hulse, M. Welsh. William and Leonard Lee, 
Nathan Blackamore, Aaron Baker, Jehu Pile, Ira Job, Daniel Holly, Lydia 
Wait and family, Thomas Hawkins, John Boyington, N. Phillips, John Lobdell, 
L. M. and Jeremiah Grigsby, Barney Stowell, a man named Velie, Nicholas 
Marcellus, John Dennison, W. P. Bankson, M. D., the first physician to settle in 
the county, Harmon Coggeshall, James Macomber, Alonzo Denio, Duke Chilton, 
William Kirkpatrick, Gilbert Osborn, A. J. Niles, Sanford Niles, Sawyer 
Forbes, Daniel Wooten, John Reed, E. H. D. Sanborn, the Ostranders, Garrett 
Lloyd, Asa Nichols, Lorenzo Lee, Madison Carnefex, Phillip Fowler, D. W. C. 
Mailory, Joseph Norris, Thomas Hathaway, with his mother-in-law, a Mrs. 
Brown, James Shinkle, and perhaps two or three others whose names not having 
been preserved are unintentionally omitted. 

From this record it will be seen that the population of the county, owing to 
the attractions held out per se, as also to the favorable reports which had been 
carried back East by the videttes of the army of civilization which afterwards 
followed and took possession, was materially augmented. 

The winter of 1836-37 was a repetition of that of 1834-35. The cold was 
intense, and its severity to-day is quoted as one among the wonderful mys- 
teries of nature revealed at long intervals to the curious, if not entirely grate- 
ful human family. There was, as a result, very little done in the way of build- 
ing, or improving the land. A happy-go-lucky sort of a life was led, as most 
of the settlers had become comparatively comfortable, and remaining generally 
in their cabins, took scarcely any thought of the morrow, content to wait until 
the icy fetters of winter were permanently severed before arranging for future 
campaigns. During the fall, lands to a large amount were entered in the State 
of Illinois, of which a reasonable proportion was located in Stephenson County. 
From this, it was not unreasonable to conclude that an extraordinary tide of 
emigration would set in with the spring of 1837. This fired the ideas of 
farmers and business men with the hope of attaining fortunes suddenly, and 
caused almost unlimited investments ; to prevent them from becoming a drug 
upon the hands of purchasers, as also to invite immigration to the State, a 
system of internal improvements was formulated, based on the faith and credit 
of the State. A bill providing for the construction of railroads, the building 
of canals and improvement of rivers was adopted by the Legislature, and great 
results were expected. But these expectations were never realized. The 
internal improvement system collapsed entirely almost before it had been tested, 
the suspension of banks became frequent and hard times obtained wherever two 
or three had gathered together in one place. The effect of this in the State 
was to retard immigration for a brief period, and although Stephenson County 
escaped its direct effects, there is no doubt but that its growth and development 
was temporarily checked. Merchandising during this period was made up of the 
retailing of a, few groceries and necessaries, and the money received, where 
the trade was not a barter, was sent abroad for the payment of goods, which 
drained the country of anything like a sufficient currency and added to the 
inconveniences experienced, as also aggravated the panic of that year. This 
calamity, however, was not felt to any appreciable extent in Stephenson 


County, say those who were here in those days, but reserved for their benefit 
twenty years later, when the East and West were threatened with financial ruin 
by the monetary difficulties which overran the country in 1857. 

A cursory review of the situation in the county, from the day when William 
Waddams came into what was then a part of Jo Daviess County, to the organi- 
zation of the county by legislative enactment, not five years after, reveals a 
condition of affairs as changed as they were singularly wonderful and encour- 
aging. During that period the number of inhabitants had increased in a 
remarkable degree. Wild and untrodden prairies had been resolved into farms 
under a comparatively high state of cultivation. Houses had been built of a 
more imposing character than Mr. Waddams believed would appear in the 
ensuing decade, forests had been felled, roads surveyed and towns laid out ; the 
water power applied to beneficial uses and "internal improvements" contem- 
plated, which should appreciate the value of property, increase the attractions 
offered immigrants and accomplish the greatest good for the greatest number. 
This was the situation when spring opened in 1837, and active operations were 
begun by the people. 

The first marriage to occur in the county is a question involved in doubt. 
Some maintain that the ceremony took place in Ransomburg during the year 
1836, while others assert it was postponed until a year later. The couple 
united at Ransomburg is said to have been a Mr. Gage and Melindy Eels. The 
fact, however, is claimed by old settlers about Winslow, that the marriage 
of Dr. W. G. Bankson to Phoebe Macomber took place in the fall of 1836, and 
if any wedding had preceded that in the county they are unfamiliar with the 
contracting parties. A colporteur or Squire Waddams officiated upon this latter 
occasion, but who attended in a similar capacity at the marriage of Mr. Gage 
and Miss Eels, is not susceptible of proof. 

The first death is quoted as occurring the same year, also the first birth. 
The former was a son of Lemuel Streator, in the township of Winslow, and 
the latter, as already referred to, was Amanda Waddams, the date of her com- 
ing being during the month of February. 

All of these events came to pass prior to the separation of the county 
from Jo Daviess, to which they properly belong, and are only mentioned in 
this connection as evidence of the fact that life, marriage and death visited the 
homes of settlers, and that grief and joy, pleasure and sorrow, were as freely 
distributed as in the days which have followed. 

With the advance that had been made in the five years mentioned, the peo- 
ple were proud. Though few in number they thanked God for it ; they 
thanked Him that their lives were cast in such pleasant places ; they felt that 
their homes were established, whence they would not depart from until the 
summons came to join the innumerable throng marching to that mysterious 
realm in the dim land of dreams, and, with quiet, genial, loving promptings, 
united in a common cause, they contemplated the future, not as children con- 
template the darkness of the night, but full of hope for the days that were yet 
hidden in its unfathomable depth. 

Up to the spring of 1837 there was no civil organization among the settlers. 
the territory, as has been stated, being under the jurisdiction of Jo Daviess 
County, though, as one of the chroniclers details, but few of them knew it. 
The differences arising between them, when any occurred, proceeding from the 
disputes engendered regarding the boundaries of claims. How these were dis- 
posed of when arbitration failed of adjustment is known, sometimes summarily 
but without litigation. Industry, frugality and hospitality were the ruling 


f -7 




maxims among them, and they lived together in peace. Though without many 
of the accessories of civilization, or the comforts of life, many live to-day who 
regret that those days of trial and adventure are past, and the rude cabin with 
the rifle hanging above the entrance, possess a charm for them unspeakable. 

On the 4th of March, 1837, the Legislature, then in session at Vandalia, 
passed an act providing for the organization of the county, as follows : 

Section 1. — Be it enacted by the people of the State of Illinois represented in the General 
Assembly, That all tract of that country within the following boundaries, to wit : commencing on the 
northern boundery of the State where the section line between sections three and four, in town 
twenty-nine north, range five, east of the fourth principal meridian strikes said line, and thence 
east on the northern boundary of the State, to the range line between ranges nine and ten east, 
thence south on said range line to the northern boundary of Ogle County, thence west on the 
northern boundary of Ogle County to and passing the northeast corner of the county, to the 
line between sections thirty-three and thirty-four, in township twenty-six north, range five east 
to the place of beginning, shall form a county to be called Stephenson, as a tribute of respect to 
the late Col. Benjamin Stephenson. 

Sec. 2 — An election shall be held at the house of .William Baker, in said county, on the first 
Monday of May next, for one Sheriff, one Coroner, one Recorder, one County Surveyor, three 
County Commissioners, and one Clerk of the County Commissioner's Court, who shall hold their 
offices until the next succeeding general elections, and until their successors are elected and 
qualified ; which said election shall be conducted in all respects agreeable to the provisions of 
the law regulating elections. Provided, That the qualified voters present may elect from their own 
number three qualified voters to act as judges of said election, who shall appoint two qualified 
voters to act as clerks. 

By a further provision of this act, the counties of Stephenson and Boone 
contrived to form a part of the county of Jo Daviess until their organization, 
and they were also afterwards to be attached to Jo Daviess in all general elec- 
tions, until otherwise provided for by law. 

In pursuance of this act, an election was accordingly held at the house of 
William Baker on the first Monday of May, 1837, at which James W. Fowler, 
Thomas J. Turner and Orleans Daggett were selected as judges, with Benjamin 
Goddard and John C. Wickham as Clerks. The total number of votes cast 
was 121. William Kirkpatrick was elected Sheriff; Lorenzo Lee, Coroner ; 
Oestes H. Wright, Commissioner's Clerk and Recorder ; Lemuel W. Streator, 
Isaac S. Forbes and Julius Smith, Commissioners, and Frederick D. Bukley, 
County Surveyor. Of these, the first officers of Stephenson County, Fred- 
rick D. Bukley alone survives, the remainder, it is believed, having crossed 
over the river, are resting beneath the trees that line its banks. On the 8th 
of May, the County Commissioners' Court convened according to law, at which 
the officers elected the week previous qualified, after which the Court proceeded 
to lay off the county into election precincts and dispose of other business de- 
manding its attention. During the session of the Court, a drunken man who 
was noisy and pugnacious was arrested by Sheriff Kirkpatrick and locked up in 
William Baker's root house, where he was kept until the liquor had spent its 
force, when he was discharged. If to-day an inebriated warrior in pursuit of 
trouble and gore should collide with an officer of the law, he would be furnished 
with quarters in the calaboose, and when sober charged for his accommodations 
at rates that would astonish the economical tipstaff of 1837. 

Among other orders entered on the Commissioners' book upon that memor- 
able occasion, was one prohibiting inn-keepers from charging more than 37^ 
cents for a meal, 12J cents for a night's lodging, 25 cents for a measure of oats, 
and the same price for a horse to hay over night. That order, it is believed, 
has never been repealed, but is never enforced and has become a dead letter. 
The electoral precincts, as then laid off, were as follows: — 
Rock Grove Precinct began at the northeast corner of the county and ran 
south six miles, thence west nine miles, thence north to the State line, thence 


on the line to the place of beginning. Jonathan Cora, J. R. Blackamore and 
Eli Frankeberger were appointed Judges. 

Silver Creek Precinct commenced at the southeast corner of Rock Grove 
Precinct and ran south to the south line of the county, thence seven miles 
west, thence north, striking the line of Rock Grove Precinct, thence east to 
the place of beginning. Horace Colburn, N. Salsbury and Philo Hammond, 

Brewster Precinct commenced at the northwest corner of Rock Grove Pre- 
cinct, running south six miles, west eleven miles, north to the State line and 
east to the place of beginning. L. R. Hull, John M. Curtiss and N. C. Ran- 
som, Judges. 

Central Precinct commenced at the northwest corner of Silver Creek Pre- 
cinct, ran south five miles, west thirteen miles, north to the southwest corner 
of Brewster Precinct, thence east to the place of beginning. Ira Jones, Levi 
Lucas and Alpheus Goddard, Judges. 

Waddams Precinct commenced at the northwest corner of Brewster Precinct, 
ran south to the south line of the county, thence west on the county line to the 
west line, north on the line to the north line of the county, and east to the place 
of beginning. John Garner, William Waddams and Othniel Preston were 
appointed Judges. 

Freeport Precinct began at the southeast corner of Central Precinct, ran 
south to the south line of the county, west to the east line of Waddams Pre- 
cinct, north to the south line of Central Precinct, and east to the place of begin- 
ning, with Seth Scott, A. M. Preston and L. 0. Crocker, Judges. 

The act creating the county also authorized Vance L. Davidson, Isaac Cham- 
bers and Miner York to locate the county seat, appointing them Commissioners 
for that purpose; and as soon as their appointment, together with the object, was 
promulgated, the fun began in earnest as to where the court house should be 
located. Propositions for the county seat were submitted from all parts of the 
county where any approach to a settlement had been made, and the advantages 
offered by the several claimants were no doubt urged with a pertinacity that 
equalled eloquence. The principal rivalry, however, existed between Cedarville, 
then in futuro, and Freeport, which by this time contained as many as half a 
dozen houses, a store, saloon, hotel and other adjuncts of progress. On behalf 
of the former place its locality was urged as one of the principal arguments. 
It would, when built up, occupy the center of the county, within easy reach of 
the most distant citizen. In addition to this, there were other features of excel- 
lence which were not presented by Freeport or any other mooted point. But 
the claims of the latter place carried the day, the argument advanced by 
William Baker being that the site for the court-house should be donated, sup- 
plemented by the assurance that each of the Commissioners should receive a 
lot. This inducement, the Rev. F. C. Winslow thought, influenced the judgment 
of the Commissioners, and biased their decision in making the award. At all 
events, they concluded upon Freeport as the most available site, and in June, 
1837, issued the following proclamation as the result of their deliberations: 

We, the Commissioners appointed by the Legislature of the State of Illinois, to locate the 
county seat of Stephenson County and State aforesaid, have located said Seat of Justice, on 
the northwest quarter of Section 31, in Township 27, north, Range 8, east of the Fourth Prin- 
cipal Meridian, now occupied and claimed by William Kirkpatrick & Co., William Baker and 
Smith Galbraith. 

Whereunto we have set our hands and seals this 12th day of June, A. D. 1837. 

(Signed,) V. L. DAVIDSON. 



When the agony was over the people returned to their usual avocations, and 
though it was alleged that the Commissioners had acted inequitably in the 
premises, no one has been found, in the light of subsequent events, to condemn 
the policy adopted on that occasion. 

The next most important event in the -history of the times, was the first 
marriage solemnized according to law after the county was organized, and 
requiring the issue of a licence to make it legally binding. 

The parties to the contract were Eunice, daughter of William Waddams, 
and George Place. The happy couple selected the anniversary of American In- 
dependance, 1837, for the celebration of their nuptials, and enlisted the services 
of Levi Robey, Esq., then acting as a Justice of the Peace. He tied the knot 
presumably with neatness and despatch, and Mrs. Place yet lives to relate the 
fact. She says there were no jollifications had upon this memorable occasion ; 
that she and her consort continued on the even tenor of their way, and never 
regretted the benediction which made them one. She now lives in the house 
her father built forty-eight years ago, on the road from Nora to McConnell's 
Grove, enjoying a ripe old age and all the comforts to which she was then a 
stranger. On the 24th of the same month James Blair was married to 
Kate Marsh at the residence of James Timms. William Ensign opened a 
school in Mr. Timms' residence the same summer — probably the first school 
taught in the county after it was laid off. On May 24, of this year, Harvey 
M. Timms came to light in his father's cabin, and is generally distinguished as 
the first birth. The first deaths reported were those of Thomas Milburn and a 
man named Reed, who had but recently come into the county, and their tragic 
ending caused feelings of sympathy and gloom to prevail in the neighborhood 
where the accident by which they met their fate occurred. 

It seems that they were employed in cultivating a corn patch a short dis- 
tance west of the present village of Ridott, on the opposite side of the Pecaton- 
ica, which they were accustomed to cross when proceeding to work, by means of 
a " dug out." One morning, in the spring of 1837, the men, accompanied by a 
step-son of Thomas Crain, embarked in their treacherous ferry and shoved out 
into the stream. During the passage the unwieldy barque capsized, precipitat- 
ing the unfortunate trio into the swollen waters. Reed and Milburn were una- 
ble to swim and sank to the bottom, while Wooten, the young man who started 
with them, reached the opposite shore, narrowly escaping the end which attended 
his companions. The survivor hurried to arouse the settlers, who hastened to 
the scene of the accident, and, after dragging the river without results for sev- 
eral hours, finally recovered the bodies. The only hearse procurable was a 
large emigrant wagon, in which, drawn by a yoke of oxen, they were taken to 
the highest and dry est spot near by, a grave dug, and they laid reverently in. 
Hazel brush was placed on. the bodies, and the grave filled up. A few days 
after, one who had assisted at the burial, on going to the grave, found that 
prairie wolves had dug in so far as to bring up a portion of the fustian pants 
in which one of them was dressed. He procured a block of wood, which he 
drove into the opening, after which it remained undisturbed, and is remembered 
as a landmark, visible for a long distance, by travelers on the prairie. 

On the 5th of December, 1837, a contract was concluded between the County 
Commissioners and Thomas J. Turner for the erection of a frame court house 
and a jail of hewn logs. The timbers were gotten out during the winter, under 
the direction of Julius Smith, and the premises in part completed the following 
summer. From 1838 to 1870 the old "justice shop " stood in the square on 
Stephenson street, and served the purpose for which it was erected, without 


decay. Twice it was struck by lightning, which splintered some of its timbers, 
but in each instance repairs restored its safety and left it without a scar. The 
old building passed through a world of experience in its day, but was finally 
removed to give place to the splendid structure which now ornaments its site. 

An impetus was added to immigration this year, and all the material 
interests of the county prospered, notwithstanding the dark and troublesome 
times which were being experienced in more populated communities, where 
wealth and happiness had given place to actual want, and anticipations yielded 
place to discouraging realities. These were the effects of the panic. 

Indeed, it may be safely said, that in spite of the numerous drawbacks which 
new corporations inevitably encounter, the year 1837, in many respects, yielded 
the first intimations received by settlers that good would come out of Stephen- 
son County in a future not too distant to discourage. A prosperous period it 
was insisted upon was dawning. The farmers closed their year's labors with a 
consciousness that these labors had not been altogether vain, and determined to 
so improve the opportunities offered by the ensuing season that their profits 
should be liberal. To this portion of the community, at least, the prospect was 
cheering. The location of the county seat but confirmed to their minds the 
predictions regarding the future they had ventured. The contracts let for 
public buildings would create a demand for labor, attract emigration, cause 
money te be disbursed, create a larger demand for their products and cheapen 
the price of necessaries. Nor was this all. The county, then devoid of roads, 
would in a short time be supplied, and farmers would be able to market their com- 
modities with some assurance that they could go there and return home without 
exhausting the proceeds of their sales. Nor was this all. The value of lands 
appreciated, and the sales of claims effected, if so desired, at prices which seemed 
extravagant ; mail facilities would be improved, and means of communication 
increased. The accomplishment of these desideratums would do much to dissi- 
pate the feeling of solitude and desire which come upon the most courageous 
for temporary change. 

Freeport began to assume the appearance of a village, and New Pennsylva- 
nia, known as Bobtown, but of late years as McConnell's Grove, had been laid 
out by Dennison and Vanzant. At the former place a number of houses had 
been put up, and considerable trading carried on at the village store of 0. H. 
Wright. Business there was generally concluded while it was light; when 
night spread its wings over the scene, merchant and customer, factor and 
planter, were usually at home, and the "city " was left to darkness and vacancy. 
Amusements were not indulged. The necessity for labor to provide the staff 
of life precluded pleasantries of any but a kind seemingly indigenous to new 
countries — including raisings, quiltings and the like. Schools, with sparse 
attendance and the most ordinary curriculum, had been established in some 
portions of the county, and services were held by traveling preachers whenever 
an opportunity was afforded. Their edifices were frequently " God's first 
temples," and the congregation made up of residents within a circuit of many 
miles from the point of occupation. The Rev. Father McKean, it is believed, 
preached in Freeport, this year, the first sermon by a regularly ordained min- 
ister, in the village, and some say that Judge Stone convened court in 0. H. 
Wright's residence, which was in the rear of his store. When the court house 
was partly finished, it was devoted to religious as well as judicial purposes, its 
occupation being divided between the various sects then seeking converts, on 
the ground, and was so appropriated until the several denominations were 
domiciled in quarters of their own. 


Among the large number who came into this section that year, there were 
some who have left the impress of their labors and characteristics so pronounc- 
edly that they are distinctly remembered after the lapse of nearly half a cen- 
tury. Prominent among these was Dr. Thomas Van Valzah, who came from 
Pennsylvania, the pioneer of a class of people, the "Pennsylvania Dutch," 
who followed in his footsteps, and, purchasing large tracts of land in the 
county, have attained to wealth and importance by their indefatigable industry, 
keen foresight, economy and perseverance. As farmers, speculators making 
investments, heads of corporations, bank presidents, and citizens, they have 
everywhere commanded the public confidence and a decided success. 

Dr. Van Valzah settled on a claim within the present site of the village of 
Cedarville, which he purchased of John Goddard, and at once began the erec- 
tion of a saw and grist mill. These were completed in November, 1837, and 
were the first of the kind put up in the county. The latter was supplied with 
one run of stone and a " chopper." The mill was at first operated by hand- 
power, but within a year of its completion water-power was substituted. The 
establishment has been conducted since, though the old mill building long since 
yielded precedence to a handsome structure, at present owned by Hon. John H. 

During the summer, Nelson Martin opened a school in Freeport, and some 
of his pupils still remember the "deportment " he enforced, more particularly 
that attending their disobedience of an order issued by him prohibiting the 
scholars from testing the supporting qualities of the ice upon the Pecatonica 
when that stream was frozen over in the following winter. 

In other portions of the county an imperfect system of education had been 
introduced, and was attended with beneficial results. In short, this year, as al- 
ready remarked, was a year in which rapid strides were made in the direction 
of an independence that only required time to develop fully. In addition to 
Freeport and McConnell's Grove, there were other settlements which sought the 
felicity of villages. " Irish Grove," in Rock Run Township, and " Dublin," 
in the Township of Erin, were sprouting into significance as the Celtic residents 
of both places made improvements and cultivated the graces of peace, supple- 
mented by a moderate degree of prosperity. Too much cannot be said of the 
Irish residents of Stephenson County. None are dependent, while many of 
them own and cultivate large farms, and all are industrious, law-abiding and 
reputable citizens. A temperance organization exists in Dublin, which enjoys a 
generous membership, and wherever this nationality predominates it exerts an 
influence for good. The sons and daughters are educated to fit them for the 
duties of life. As one of the early settlers of that race stated to the writer, he 
was determined that his children should not be deprived of the advantages that 
were denied him in his youth. Two of the oldest churches in the county were 
built and supported by them, and the religious influence exerted by the congre- 
gations is not surpassed by that of any other organization in the county. 

The arrivals this year included, among others : Joseph Musser, Isaac Dev- 
eley, Thomas and Samuel Chambers, William Wallace, a Mr. Moore, Joseph 
Osborn, Daniel Guyer, Pat Giblin, Miles O'Brien, a man named Corcoran, 
Hiram Hill, John Howe, I. Forbes, John Milburn and — Reed, whose deaths 
by drowning in Pecatonica River are related above, Stewart Reynolds, Sanford 
Niles, John Tharp, Jackson Richart, Saferus Snyder, Joseph Green, Charles 
Macomber, the Rev. Philo Judson, Cornelius Judson, S. F. M. Fretville, Alfred 
Gaylord, the Rev. Asa Ballinger, Phillip and Warner Wells, Henry Johnson, 
Oliver and John R. Brewster, Isaac Kleckner, Ezra Gillett, Joab Morton, James 


Turnbull, " Father " Ballinger, Hector C. Haight, who became a Mormon, Jacob 
Gable, Valorus Thomas, George W. Babbitt, John Edwards, Levi Lewis, John 
Lewis, Rezin and Levi Wilcoxon, Caleb Tompkins, the Farwell Brothers, the 
Brace family, Garett Lloyd, Harvey and Jeremiah Webster, Sybil Ann Price, 
Samuel F. Dodds, Robert T. Perry, Robert and Wm. Lashell, James and Oliver 
Thompson, Jacob Burbridge, Samuel and Marshall Bailey, Martin Howard, 
John Harmon, a Mr. Graham, Alonzo Fowler, and some few others. Marriages, 
births and deaths were more numerous, owing to this increase in the population, 
there being several of each recorded in the county that year. But there was 
much to mitigate the inconveniences experienced by those who had come two 
years before, whose comfort was augmented by those who came after, and com- 
pensated in a measure for the trials they had been called upon to previously 

The old year floated away into the past, leaving behind it pleasant mem- 
ories of hopes realized by a people who had been more than prospered during 
its career. The new year bended above the prostrate form of 1837, cast dead 
flowers over what had passed to nothingness, and, gliding in through the open 
door scattering blossoms in its way, renewed unto the people the pledges 
which had already been recorded, but lay buried in the ashes of years. 

Among those who came in 1837, Maj. John Howe should not be forgotten. 
He had been a member of the New York Legislature, and came West with the 
close of his official term. His influence in Stephenson County was wide-spread, 
and he was regarded as a man of the most brilliant attainments. After filling 
the offices of County Commissioner, County Judge, etc., he emigrated to Wis- 
consin, where he died. His daughter married L. W. Guiteau, long a prominent 
resident of Freeport, where he died during the month of July, 1880. 

With the opening of spring in 1838 the tide of emigration again began to 
flow in slowly, tis true, but of a character, as the sequel proved, the reverse of 
transient ; for those who came, settled, and contributed their efforts toward 
building up the country. Commercial interests increased in Freeport, which 
by this time bore evidences in its buildings and increase in population of possi- 
bilities in the future. The uncertainties born of the financial crisis of the pre- 
ceding year had been dissipated, and were succeeded by a feeling of confidence 
which found expression in investments made not only in the future city but the 
surrounding country, while improvements were projected and completed at a 
number of points. These were the reverse of ornamental as a rule, architect- 
urally speaking, yet they relieved the primitive surroundings of tiresome monot- 
ony and added the spice of variety to scenes otherwise characterized by too 
much sameness. No change was made in municipal or county affairs, and 
schools were sustained by private subscription to the absence of legal assess- 
ments for their support. Religious services continued to be held, and the num- 
ber of worshipers visibly increased. Good order was the rule, though in Free- 
port, which was made the rendezvous of that class of men who direct their steps 
to communities of recent date, the law officers were often compelled to enforce 
the statutes by arrest and confinement in jail. But the innumerable trials to 
which the pioneers were subjected were by this time lessened, and the cases of 
actual suffering more remote. The men were strengthened by the experience 
through which they had passed, and timid women became brave through combats 
with dangers that had been real. The constant struggle for the means to sus- 
tain life had brought with it some incidents of ease and luxury, and it was not 
until many years after, when the distance to market and the cost of transporta- 
tion absorbed the proceeds of the crops, that settlers were reminded of the days 


that had once been dark. Mills were accessible, and, instead of resorting to 
"gritters" or the improvised pestle and mortar for an unsatisfactory quality of 
meal, or obtaining a modicum thereof for home consumption at the expense of 
a fatiguing journey, meal such as is prized to-day for its purity and health-giv- 
ing properties was easily secured at the Van Valzah, Kirkpatrick and other 
mills that had been completed meanwhile. In the olden time of the settlement 
of Stephenson County, heads of families were obliged to visit the mills at Galena, 
na, Peoria and elsewhere for their grinding. The slow mode of travel by ox 
teams was rendered still more prolonged by the utter absence of roads, bridges 
and ferries. In dry weather these embargoes were sufficiently discouraging, but 
when the rainy season was at its height, or during the breaking up of winter, 
these troubles became dangers. To get mired in a slough was no uncommon 
occurrence, and often a swollen stream would blockade the way, when if the 
traveler was unable to cross, he was obliged to have recourse for his object 
at other points. In dry weather they got along better, but in winter progress 
was next to impossible. The utmost economy of time, too, was necessary, for 
often, when the goal was reached after a week or more of toilsome travel with many 
exposures and risks, and where the applicant was anxious to return to his fam- 
ily with the least possible delay, he was not unfrequently disheartened with the 
information that his turn might come in a week. When his "turn" came he 
must be on hand or miss his " turn, " and, when the anxious soul was ready to 
endure the trials of a trip back, his heart was heavy with the thoughts of how 
affairs had been at home. 

It is interesting to trace the relation between the present condition of the 
county and the first acts of its first settlers. The beauty of the landscape to- 
day, proceeding from the industry of a later generation, has its seminal princi- 
ple in the events of the first years of the county's settlement. The ambition 
that their children should be educated, for which they permitted themselves to 
be assessed, was a fit prelude to the zeal for the adoption of a system that has 
since obtained. The persistence of Father McKean, the Revs. Winslow, Bol- 
linger and others, in maintaining religious services under difficulties, was the 
germ from which have sprung the churches, and promoted public morals and 
order. To these agencies, more than all others combined, is due, not only the 
production of material wealth, but the thrift and refinement for which Ste- 
phenson County and her inhabitants are characterized. 

The difficulties referred to were in a degree banished with the approach 
of 1838 ; their benediction was pronounced with the close of 1837. The 
country was no longer a frontier. Business was an established fact. Farms 
were in a high state of cultivation, and all that would aid in hastening the 
advent of days of prosperity was combined to that end. What a metamor- 
phosis ten years had wrought ! What a contrast between 1827, when Kellogg 
came timorously into the country, and 1838, when that country, freed from 
Indian occupation, was comparatively thickly settled. 

This year elections were held, and the first Assessor, L. 0. Crocker, inducted 
into office. He was a most excellent man, who came into Freeport among the 
first to locate there, and engaged in merchandising. Well fitted to discharge 
the duties of life in whatever position he might be assigned, he was intrusted 
with many important duties and generous enterprises, and found faithful in all. 
He died many years ago, but not until he had witnessed the growth and 
advancement of the city from infancy and penury to age and wealth. 

During the early administrations Of the Assessor, every species of taxable 
personal property was listed. The cradle and the winding-sheet and the 


coffiin were doubtless excepted, but nearly every other necessity, not to say 
luxury, from a prairie-breaking team to a $12 watch, was made to pay tribute, 
and that, too, as high as the law permitted. The man who carried a time- 
piece of measured value, was compelled to pay 6J cents for the privilege, and 
three of the richest men in the county contributed $2 each to the support of 
the county on the watches they owned. Hubbard Graves was Collector, and 
the total amount paid him in his official capacity footed up $96 and some 
cents, the rate being about 45 cents on each $100 assessed value, which would 
give the assessed value of personal property in the county in 1838, about 

At the election this year the voters were more numerous than had par- 
ticipated in that held when the county was organized. For example, in Ridott 
Township, the election was held at Daniel Wooton's house, with the host. John 
Hoag and William Everts, Judges ; Horatio Hunt and Harvey Waters, Clerks ; 
who, with D. W. C. Mallory, Philo Hammond, Giles Pierce, Zebulon Dimmick, 
William Barlow, Pat Frame and S. Forbes, constituted the number who were 
entitled to exercise the privileges of the elective franchise. The day there, 
as elsewhere, was made one of rejoicing. At Wooton's house a barrel of 
whisky was provided, and frequent resorts to its contents had a tendency to 
elevate, if not inebriate the company. All maintained a commendable condi- 
tion of sobriety, however, save one, whose capacity to resist the effects was 
disproportioned to his appetite for the beverage. As a consequence, when 
night came, the gentleman was oblivious to passing events, and scarcely able to 
maintain his equilibrium. During the day — an inseparable incident of all 
elections — the rain fell in torrents, and, when it came time to disperse, the route 
home was over shallows and/ull of difficulties, aggravated by the semi-incapacity 
of some to travel, and particularly the merry little gentleman under considera- 
tion. He crossed the river in safety, where a hill, the sides of which had 
attained the consistency of thin mortar by the action of the rain, opposed his 
advance. Like as a war-horse, while cavorting in peaceful solitudes hears the 
strains of marshal music, pricks up his ears and snorts and paws and kindles 
at the sound, so did the intoxicated citizen joy in the knowledge of his powers 
to overcome the difficulty. But he counted without carrying the fractions, for 
a trial was concluded with the subject on his back in the mud, the object of 
merriment to those who witnessed his fall. But he was a man of heroic mold, 
and, like Antseus, renewing his ambition with defeat, he raised up, a most laugh- 
able spectacle, and tried it again. The second attempt was attended with 
similar results, as was the third, until some of his neighbors crossed over to 
where he was and assisted him home, where he was tucked into bed and left 
to sleep oif the effects of his too frequent absorbings. 

It was in 1838 that the first house was built in the present village of Rock 
Grove ; a schoolhouse was put up in Freeport, and Hiram Eads built a hotel in 
the same town, and, on the Fourth of July of that year, invited the entire country 
for miles around to take dinner therein. 

The celebration here indulged in 1838 was the first of the series since 
celebrated in the county. Preparations were made for a proper observance of 
the occasion weeks prior to its arrival. The Rev. F. C. Winslow was quite 
active in perfecting arrangements, as, also, were Benjamin Goddard, Isaac 
Stoneman, 0. H. Wright, Allen Wiley, William Baker, the Truax boys, Abe 
Johnson, and, in fact, the patriotic citizens generally. For days before the 
Fourth, the Rev. Mr. Winslow had a class in training to sing ballads of Revo- 
lutionary memory and a national ode, believed to have been specially composed 


in honor of the event. This class was composed of Miss Cornelia Russell, now 
Mrs. T. J. Hazlett. and residing^in Freeport, Eliza Hunt, Marion Snow, Mrs. 
Amelia Webb, who subsequently married Hollis Jewell, and others, and it would 
be no exaggerated statement of the case to inform modern choristers that their 
efforts, including the Ode to Columbia, were received with pronounced mani- 
festations of pleasure. Benjamin Goddard's barn was selected as the forum, 
where the Declaration was read with proper emphasis upon each syllabic 
reference to liberty. 0. H. Wright, it is believed, delivered an oration, after 
which, dinner, dancing and the pursuit of happiness as each particular celebrant 
individually inclined. 

The year 1838 is remembered by the settlers of that day in connection 
with the tragedy which occurred in what is now Oneco Township, resulting in 
the suicide of one of the Lott family while laboring under a fit of temporary 
insanity. The cause of this diseased mind could not be ascertained, nor could 
any but the most meager particulars be obtained from presumably reliable 
sources. At all events, according to the drift of these statements, it appears 
that Lott, while invested with one of the constantly-recurring paroxysms 
manifested, left his home unbeknown to any of the family, who were cognizant 
that he had inherited the malady, and maintained a watch upon his movements, 
and, proceeding in the direction of Jonas Strohm's farm, in Section 27, disap- 
peared from view. He had not been gone long before his absence was noted, 
and a general search made for his whereabouts by members of the household, 
assisted by Alonzo Denio and others of the neighbors, who happened to be 
in the vicinity. After some delay, he was overtaken, but not until he had 
hanged himself to a tree, and was almost dead when found. He was cut 
down, it is said, by Alonzo Denio, and every effort made to resuscitate him, 
but without accomplishing the desired object. The spark of life was too feeble 
to be restored by the means improvised or the remedies employed. The scene 
of his immolation is almost in sight of the present home of Duke Chilton, half 
a mile distant from the village of Oneco, and was regarded with curiosity not 
unmingled with superstition for many years after. His tragic taking-off caused 
a feeling of gloom to pervade the vicinity, from the effects of which recovery 
was not immediate. 

The first marriage ceremony by a minister of the gospel was celebrated 
early in February of this year, the happy pair submitting their affections for 
community purposes being Thomas Chambers and Rebecca Moore. The Rev. 
James McKean, better known as "Father McKean," officiated, and pronounced 
them man and wife at John Moore's cabin, in Rock Grove, on property now 
owned by Levi Kiester. The cabin was but twenty feet square, yet in these 
contracted limits not less than forty guests were gathered as witnesses. The 
event was considered as of distinguished importance, and was attended by resi- 
dents in the county whose homes were some of them at a distance of eighteen 
miles from the scene of festivities. At the close of the services, cake, wine and 
music were dispensed with, and the couple settled down to the realities of life 
without any of the memories that chaperone brides of to-day when they launch 
their barques on the tempestuous waves of matrimony, hoping to float with the 
tide and escape all hidden obstructions. 

These are some of the incidents of the times, but, while they were occur- 
ring, labor was not suspended by the architects who were engaged in those days 
laying the foundation for that magnificent superstructure which was to rise 
therefrom. The sublime promise ventured by its prophetic infancy was being 
gloriously realized unto Stephenson County, as day succeeded day, and months 


cycled into years. The hours of travail and despondency in which that infancy 
was passed were gone — glimmering phantoms, school-boy dreams — to yield 
place to days of rejoicings, when hope's most generous fruitions were fully 
realized to the confidences that had been reposed. 

But improvements were not entirely confined to Freeport, as would be 
naturally imagined, though that municipality was particularly favored in this 
respect. The court house was in progress of completion there, the company of 
Kirkpatrick, Galbraith & Co., had been nearly constantly occupied in putting 
up buildings or providing for future operations. Benjamin Goddard was occu- 
pying the position of Boniface at the Mansion House, erected by himself. 
There were three stores in the town, to which an addition was made in the fall 
of 1838 by L. W. Guiteau, etc., etc. The country tributary was proportion- 
ately fortunate, and as proportionately benefited. The area of cultivation was 
increased and its quality improved by the introduction of valuable aids. 
While the labor of preparing and laying by the crop was thereby diminished, 
plans were incubating that should revolutionize the machinery employed at 
harvest, and found expression a year later, when a four-horse threshing machine 
was first used in the county. 

Hamlets came into being, and towns, which had been heretofore laid out 
were platted and divided up into lots. Ransomburg, the first of the list which 
became flourishing cities in imagination, but finally sank into oblivion, was 
approaching that period of decay when its lease of life could be extended no 
further. A half-dozen residences, Way's school, Stewart's and Ransom's stores, 
and probably a blacksmith shop, made up the aggregate of improvements, and 
less than half a score of inhabitants were enumerated in the bills of mortality. 
But its decay and final dismemberment, and the ultimate reduction of its site 
to agricultural purposes, produced no effect upon the army of enterprising men 
who had settled in the county, and were ambitious of distinction as the found- 
ers of towns. If anything, hope was stimulated and lived upon the almost 
certain results of the future. Robert McConnell, who drove a herd of cattle 
into the county about this time, purchased the title of Dennison & Vanzant 
to the town laid out by them in Waddams, which he named " McConnell's 
Grove," erected a store for trading purposes, and as a means of attracting 
settlers, which he stocked with goods purchased at Galena and hauled them to 
their final destination, over hills and sloughs, and remained in charge until the 
hopes he had nursed for days to come had become resolved into disappoint- 

Immigration in 1838 was, as it should be, greater than ever before. The 
flattering inducements held out for honest toil were not passed by unavailed of. 
The men who composed the incomers were, as those who came in before them, 
bred to the business of farming in the quiet old homes of New England, and the 
precedent established by Dr. Van Valzah encouraged a liberal quota of citizens 
of Pennsylvania to come hither. In addition, the number of foreigners was 
visibly increased, and what is claimed as the first Catholic Church in the county 
was that year erected in Irish Grove, though this is disputed by the commu- 
nicants of the Catholic Church in Dublin. But those were days of romance in 
church affairs, and a decision of the truth in the premises is remitted to the dis- 

The political views of the people then were not as pronounced or generally 
expressed as in later years. Indeed, politics and political manipulations did 
not concern them to any but a very limited extent. Among the pioneers of any 
new country, there will always be found a class of political adventurers who 


seek in new fields the life of ease and accumulation of property they were un- 
able to secure in commonwealths established and indebted to the efforts of others 
for their independence, and there were no great political questions which, up to 
this time, divided the people. Politics was consequently more personal, 
and suffrage was bestowed more as a favor than to promote the public weal. 
The candidates represented the Whig and Locofoco parties, and, though the 
people almost to a man voted, it was not until 1837, when the murder of Eli- 
jah P. Lovejoy, at Alton, created the first impressions of the antagonism that 
were felt. This feeling grew apace with advancing time, and, though the democ- 
racy were often triumphant, and the party contained some of its ablest repre- 
sentatives from Stephenson County, an expression of the general opinion was 
delayed until the repeal of the Wilmot Proviso and the dissolution of the Whig 
party gave birth to the Republican party, which has obtained in Illinois for 
nearly a quarter of a century. But at the time we speak, politics was a most 
insignificant factor in the daily walks of life, and in 1838, at least, bore no ap- 
pearance to what it is to-day. 

The arrivals that year included Robert Sisson, H. G. Davis, John 
Walsh, John and Thomas Warren. Isaac Scott, Samuel Liebshitz, Christian 
Strockey, with two sons, Chauncey Stebbins. F. Rosenstiel, P. L. Wright, 
William Preston, Louis Preston, Matthew Bredendall (Thomas Carter, Isaac 
Rand, Samuel Bogenruff, L. L. Pitcher, a man named Lathrop and some 
others settled about this time in Kent), Lewis Gitchell, David Gitchell, Philo 
Hammond, Ezekiel and Jacob Forsythe, John Lloyd, Putnam Perley, Ezekiel 
Brown, John Brazee, Christian Clay, J. D. Fowler, James McGhu, Adrian 
Lucas, Newcomb Kinney, Charles A. Gore, Hiram Gaylord, Cornelius and 
Jonathan Cowan, Alexander Allen, John Bradford, Thomas Loring, Columbus 
and Ichabod Thompson, Elias and Edward Hunt, and some others, doubtless, 
but lack of memory prevented the securing of their names. 

Taken for its all in all, the year 1838, was one of success for Stephenson 
County, paving the way for the important events which followed in the years 
that succeeded. 

The season of 1839 was, in very many respects, regarding settlements and 
improvements, a duplicate of 1838. The machinery of government moved noise- 
lessly and effectively, and among the improvements put up was a building on Luman 
Montague's farm, in West Point Township, to be devoted exclusively to school 
purposes, the first of the kind appropriated to that object in the county. The 
building was long since torn down, but the site is there, visible to the passer-by 
from Nora to Bobtown, on the farm now owned by H. C. Montague. The 
court house had been made ready for use, and the log jail, when necessary, 
was guarded by citizens, the same not having been sufficiently completed at 
this time to safely house prisoners. At one time this calaboose was filled with 
prisoners, received the addition of a man arrested for horse-stealing in 
Winnebago, and bringing his stolen property to Freeport. He was ar- 
raigned and called upon to plead, when his counsel moved to quash the 
indictment and discharge his client. The motion was demurred to, but with- 
out avail, as the document was defective, and no other course was left to 
the Judge but direct the issue of an order providing for the prisoner's 
release. At this critical juncture his Honor adjourned court without tak- 
ing action in the case, and a young man hastened to Rockford for the pur- 
pose of procuring a warrant for his return thither. Arriving at Rock- 
ford about midnight, he forded the river for the purpose of finding a Justice 
of the Peace, but just as he came out of the water he was met by a vigilance 


committee on the look out for horse-thieves, and narrowly escaped the punish" 
ment usually administered to one of that gentry. He was able to convince 
them of his identity in time to avoid the impending penalty, and, hurrying to 
the residence of a Justice, procured the document he was after. With this 
he returned to Freeport, in time for the opening of court in the morning, 
when the defective indictment was quashed and the prisoner discharged, but at 
once re-arrested and taken to Rockford, where he was tried, with the usual 

It might be here observed that horse-thieves and rattlesnakes were among 
the most dangerous foes settlers had to contend with. The former were cunning 
in attack ; the latter fatal. Horse-thieves might be prevented from operating, 
but the bite of the rattlesnake was instant death in comparison. Every effort 
was made to kill off both, but without much satisfaction until the country 
became more generally settled, and the land-owners were, by associations and 
mutual-aid organizations, enabled to control one of these classes of cormorants. 
The horse- thieves infested every part of the country that promised returns, 
and counties bordering on the northern line of the State were particularly 
annoyed. The gang carried on their felonies so deftly that it was difficult to 
catch them in the act, and by the time discovery was made they were too far in 
the lead to induce pursuit. If, however, they were pursued, it was rare to over- 
take them, or, if captured, it was after they had disposed of the booty to an 
accomplice, who pushed across the Mississippi and sold him to a purchaser in 
the mines or one about to visit the interior. 

A pair of these scoundrels visited the farm of Conrad Van Brocklin, in 
the town of Florence, upon one occasion, and came remarkably near getting 
away with a pair of fine blooded horses Mr. V. B. greatly prized. It was 
during the afternoon, and the horses were quietly feeding in the pasture. Sud- 
denly Mr. V. B.'s attention was attracted to the efforts of the thieves, and, 
comprehending the situation, he started to prevent them from executing their 
designs. But they succeeded in eluding his pursuit for the time being, and, 
procuring the assistance of Mason Dimmick, Van Brocklin started in their 
wake. The villains, however, had gotten considerably in advance, and but for 
one circumstance would easily have escaped. One of the horses had a peculiar 
dread of crossing a stream of water, and could not be made to enter a stream. 
The thieves had no bridles for the horses, and this rendered their escape the 
more difficult. At the first stream, the stolen steeds came to a dead halt, and 
no amount of persuasion or severity could influence them to budge. When 
Van Brocklin and Dimmick came in sight, both horses were abandoned, and 
the scoundrels sought security in the fastnesses of the swamp. In the mean 
time it began to grow dark, and both escaped. 

Samuel Smith, of Lancaster, was depredated upon in this manner, and 
never recovered his stock, as they were transported to the Mississippi and were 
never more heard of. These are individual cases, and fairly illustrate the actual 
state of affairs existing at the time. 

The moccasin and American rattlesnake were found in every part of the 
county — in the fields, the woods, barns, etc., even taking refuge in sheaves of 
grain. Their bite was fatal, though remedies abounded, which, if taken in 
time, occasionally postponed the coming of the Man on the Pale Horse ; but 
if they were neglected a brief time, the victim was condemned. One day a 
settler in Rock Run started off fishing, accompanied by a neighbor and mem- 
bers of his family. While perambulating the banks of the Pecatonica, one of 
the lads, as he thought, stubbed his toe, and uttering cries of pain, his father 


hurried to examine the extent of his injuries. He saw, at a glance, that the 
boy had been stung by a " racer," and, returning home as rapidly as possible, 
summoned a physician in the vain hope that immediate treatment would coun- 
teract the effects of the poison before his system became impregnated with it. 
But efforts were useless ; the life of the lad set with the sun. 

On another occasion, an Irishman was plowing in a field near Rock City, 
and while so occupied was bitten in the calf of his leg. At a distance from 
medical supplies, and realizing the danger encountered by delay, he whipped 
out his knife, and, cutting a piece out of that portion of his limb affected, 
continued his labors, and lived many years after without experiencing any 
serious effects from his collision with the reptile. 

These instances will index some of the many dangers that crossed the path- 
way of early settlers, and left their several marks. To-day, snakes and horse- 
thieves have become dead issues. At times they indicate their presence, but are 
speedily suppressed without loss or injury. 

In the spring of this year, a Norwegian colony came from across the sea. 
and, landing in America, pursued their journey to Illinois, settling in Rock 
Run Township, of Stephenson County, the first representatives of that 
nationality who came to the United States to remain. Some months before, an 
agent of these people visited the States and making a general canvass of the ad- 
vantages offered in the South and West, returned, after deciding upon the 
section subsequently occupied. A portion were husbandmen, and at once took 
up claims ; a few were mechanics, and worked at their respective trades. All 
were industrious, thrifty, economical, and soon conquered a competency, which 
descended to their children, who, in professional, mechanical and agricultural 
lines of life, have not only done well, but deserved confidence. 

The character of the men who became identified with the county in 1839, 
was in keeping with that of the best who seek the extended field of operations 
afforded by a new country, where they can, by the exercise of diligence, 
industry and careful management, control their own destiny more acceptably 
than in regions which are already established, and revere the memory of men 
who are afterward regarded as the marks and models of the times in which 
they lived. 

Such a man was D. A. Knowlton, Sr., who settled in Freeport at this 
period. From small beginnings he amassed wealth and became an influential 
man, not alone in the county and State, but in the Northwest. The following 
story, indexing the quality of customers he occasionally had to deal with while 
engaged in merchandising, he related himself at the Old Settlers' meeting, which 
convened at Cedarville, in August, 1875 : 

"You know, " he began, " that I was always called a sharp collector. One 
day, a man by the name of Charley Hall came into my store with an order for 
goods, but he wanted more goods than the order called for. I said, ' Charley, 
I cannot trust you; and "no" is a word I can always say in business matters. ' 
'But,' pleaded Hall, 'let me have them, Mr. Knowlton, and I will pay you 
next week. ' I then made the following bargain with him : 'If you do not pay 
me the balance as per agreement, I shall have the privilege of kicking you 
every time I see you until the debt is paid.' For several weeks the countenance 
of Hall did not grace my store ; but after a while he appeared, and, walking into 
my store, I said : ' Charles, I would like to see you a moment outside, ' and 
when out I gave him a very violent kick. Hall turned around and said. 
' Knowlton, what's that for ?' ' According to agreement, ' says I. The sequel 
to the case was that Charley a few days afterward brought a load of corn to me 


in payment of the debt, which I received and placed to his credit. I afterward 
learned that he was trusted for the corn by the farmer, in order to avoid any 
further indorsements of my contract. It is unnecessary to add that the farmer 
was never paid for the corn. He endeavored to wash two hands with one, and 
washed the farmer's. " 

Mr. Knowlton, during the latter years of his life, was the head of a banking 
house in Freeport, which, since his death, has been conducted by his sons. 

On the 29th of August, 1839. affairs had become settled, and the machinery 
of government in the county to operate without friction or jar. Among other 
evidences of civilization and the desire to emulate the example set by older 
places, was the convening of the Circuit Court for the disposition of routine 
and litigious business. But this latter, beyond actions instituted on behalf of 
the people, was confined to making orders relating to appeals from sub- 
ordinate courts. 

On the date above indicated, the first session of the Circuit Court of 
Stephenson County was commenced, the Hon. Daniel Stone, Justice of the 
Sixth Judicial District, presiding; Hubbard Graves, Sheriff; John A. Clark, 
Clerk. The bar was occupied with attorneys from distant points, there being 
none of the profession at that time resident in the county, and none came until 
the Hon. George Purinton arrived, on the last day of the old year 1839. The 
lawyers in attendance were mostly from Galena, and included Mr. Hoag, 
Thompson Campbell, probably E. B. Washburne, with one or two others, who 
traveled the circuit, making but a precarious livelihood, but establishing a 
practice which, in after years, was more than remunerative. 

At the same term of court, John C. Robey and William H. Hollenbeck 
appeared in open court to be qualified, and their appointment as deputies were 
duly entered upon the Court Records. Previous to this a Grand Jury was 
impaneled, consisting of John Howe, Luther F. Hall, Samuel F. Dodds, Levi 
Wilcoxon, Joseph Lobdell, Pells Manny, A. B. Watson, Mason Dimmick, 
Levi R. Hull, Robert Barber, Newcomb Kinney, Jonathan Corey, Phillip 
Fowler, Thomas Crain, Loring Snow, Eldridge Farwell, Giles Pierce, D. W. 
C. Mallory, Job S. Watson, J. K. Blackamore, Thompson Wilcoxon, Edward 
Marsh, and Alpheus Goddard. 

The petit jury was composed of Frederick D. Bulkley, John Goddard, 
John Vanepps, Rodney Montague, Mason Dimmick, J. H. Barber, James 
Hart, Bartholomew Fletcher, Samuel Nelson, James Canfil, Thomas Early, 
and Joseph Green. 

The first case submitted for adjudication was that of Asa B. Ames vs. 
Jacob Stroder, on appeal ; but as the appeal had been taken before Stephenson 
County was judicially organized, an order dismissing the same was entered, and 
plaintiff mulcted in costs. 

On the 27th of August, John O'Connor and Jackson Bushkirk were in- 
dicted for the crime yet prevalent, horse stealing, and, being unable to fee coun- 
sel, Thompson Campbell, assisted by John C. Kimball, was appointed by the 
court to conduct their defense. But a change of venue was taken by the ac- 
cused to Jo Daviess County, and the readers are denied the privilege of infor- 
mation as to what measure of punishment was awarded them. 

Other cases were called at this session, and more satisfactorily disposed of, 
among which was the case of the State vs Robert Compton et al., for riot ; also 
against Hiram Walker, for horse stealing. The defendants in both cases were 
convicted, and Walker was sentenced to the penitentiary for four years. He 
was escorted to Alton and served out his term. 


The court adjourned on the same day it was convened, until the next court 
in course. On April 7 and September 7, 1840, it sat again in Freeport with 
the same Judge and officers, remaining in session two days during April and 
three days in September, after which the court was abolished. 

It might here be observed, speaking retrospectively, that settlements made 
in the county as late as 1839 were exclusively confined to timber belts, the 
settlers using prairies, which were beautiful beyond description, for pastures 
and ranges for cattle. They were almost universally of the opinion that these 
broad plains would never be cultivated, but be used almost exclusively for the 
purposes to which at this time they were devoted. When a change came over 
the spirit of their drean s, and compelled the conclusion that the prairie was a 
natural garden, which only required " breaking " and harrowing to " blossom like 
the rose," farmers had recourse to them for cultivation, and a repetition of 
hardships, though of a different character from those described in an earlier 
portion of this narrative was remarked. The sod of the prairie was exceed- 
ingly tenacious and hard to break up the first time, testing the capacity of the 
cattle employed for that purpose not more than the patience and endurance of 
the farmer. The usual method was with a breaking plow, provided with a 
wheel in front and a lever to gauge the depth of the furrow, so that the cumber- 
some contrivance needed no guiding hand to control its direction. To this five 
or six yoke of oxen were hooked, and, urged on by the gad, completed consider- 
able work during the day. The plow generally cut a furrow from twenty to 
twenty-two inches in width by from three to five inches in depth through the 
wiry roots of grass, and turned it over like a long black ribbon, without a break 
for rods, unless the "shear " was thrown out by striking a root. This rarely 
happened, for the blade of the plow-shear was kept sharp by grinding and 
re-filing at the end of nearly every row. When the " breaking " up was concluded, 
the soil was harrowed until it became mellow, when it was ready for cultivation 
and planting. These fields have grown into unfailing springs of wealth, owing 
to the close observance of their needs by the farmers, their constant application 
of systems of cultivation, and the employment of other means essential to their 
development and liberal yield. 

The year 1839 concluded the decade in which the settlement of Stephenson 
County was accomplished, and its woods and broad prairies transformed into 
acres of productive land. The wigwam of the Indian had been exchanged for 
the rude cabin of the settler, and that, in the brief space of time recorded, for 
the more comfortable and commodious farmhouse. Acres had been put to seed, 
forests cut down, roads laid out, and towns built supplied with every auxilary that 
in the times whereof mention is made, could aid to render life endurable. From 
arbitration and the decision of disputed points by agencies, recognized as extra- 
judicial, courts had been established to which appeal was had. Schools had 
succeeded the primitive methods adopted for an equally primitive education, 
and in the minor affairs of the day a change had been wrought as wonderful as 
it was complete. 

The settlers who came in during the year 1839, were : Joseph R. Berry, 
W. P. Cox, A. A. Mallory, Lewis Gibler, William Van Matre, Joseph Van 
Matre, Jr., Henry Corwith, Allen Curry, Sylvester Langdon, Thompson 
Cockerell, Charles H. Babcock, George H. Watson, William B. Hawkins, Ross 
and Anson Babcock, John Karcher, Lewis Woodruff, Solomon and Jacob 
Fisher, a man from the lead mines by the name of Drummond, Peter D., 
George and John Fisher, Calvin Preston, J. S. Patten, John Kleckner, Conrad 
Epley, Edward Pratt, M. Flower, M. Smith, Uriah Boy den, Thomas Bree,. 


Martin Muller, Patrick Flynn, Patrick Flynn second, Michael Flynn, Thomas 
Hawley, William Marlowe, probably Benson McElheney, Henry and Jacob 
Bordner, John Brown, Robin McGee, James McKee, Samuel Templeton, John 
Price, Peter Fair, Daniel Zimmerman, Robert Price, Jacob Hoebel, A. Gund, 
Valentine Stoskopf, Jacob Shoup, Jacob Bardell, D. E. Pattee, " Jock " 
Pattee, M. L. Howard, a man named Judkins, who settled in Silver Creek, 
0. Stabeck, Ole Anderson, Canute Canutson, Covert Oleson, Ole Covertson, 
and a noble army of enterprising martyrs, whose names and records have been 
forgotten in the whirl of events. 

In 1840, the population of Stephenson County was quoted at 2,800, of 
which 49, resided within the corporate limits of Freeport. The county contained 
ten schools, with an aggregate number of 170 scholars ; five grist and nine saw- 
mills ; five professional residents and other agencies of progress, religious, edu- 
cational and material, though there was no church and it was not until nine 
years later that a house especially devoted to the service of God was erected 
in the city. 

In all the departments of life, however, with but one exception, a healthy 
feeling was to be observed. The county was measurably improved by the open- 
ing and cultivation of farms, and Freeport was to enter upon a prosperous period, 
during which it would become a formidable rival of similar organizations in the 
State. Permanent buildings of architectural excellence were to grace the 
streets. Schools, churches, academies and other aids to the development and 
accretion of wealth were to lend their presence, and flattering prospects attend 
the efforts improvised in these connections. The stream of population would 
continue to flow in a resistless tide into this favored land, and business, to use a 
Westernism, would be " booming " before the decade had run its course. 

There were some who might have thought that it would be difficult to 
carry out these schemes, and were inclined to assert they were Utopian — to 
express astonishment that men, presumably so wise in worldly matters, should 
have attempted to combine so many projects. But they were not heeded when 
they gave expression to the reflections of their prophetic souls, and uttered 
prophecies of Cassandra import. The men who had undertaken the execution of 
these designs possessed unceasing, restless activity, unbounded curiosity, a craving 
for new knowledge, ever incubating plans that should develop into startling and 
original results from their stores of experience and observation, with patience, 
industry and power of endless labor were the marks of that beauty of the mind 
which many inherited, and to which the name of genius is given. These were 
the indexes, when judged by the standard of modern times, which marked dar- 
ing reformers, as they were. They were victorious over hardships, yet the 
victories won were only means to an end, the perfect conservation of all forces 
so completely that the highest order of progress would be brought forth, gather 
strength and mold the character of the people. The travels of Herodotus, 
the expedition of Xenophon through Asia Minor, the conquests of Alexander, 
and the discoveries of Columbus opened up Asia, Egypt and America not more 
freely than did the master minds and muscular brawn of the early settlers open 
up the wealth and resources of the Northwest. 

Morally, the towns and surrounding country were in a reasonably satis- 
factory condition. The lawlessness and violence peculiar to other sections 
were nowhere visible, or, if at any time previous pronounced, had been softened 
through the benign influences that had been exerted in later days. Courts in 
1839, irregular and "new to the business," became regular in their sittings 
and dignified and expeditious in the dispatch of business. The laws were more 




rigidly enforced, and penalties more unflinchingly imposed. Outlaws and 
bandits, however, occasionally indicated their presence at intervals, and sought 
to disturb the law and order which prevailed, by the assumption of prerogatives 
in harmony with their inclinations and characters. This class was, as a rule 
composed of adventurers and gamblers, who, with horse-thieves and vagrants 
generally, had been run out of the lead mines, and, halting long enough at a 
safe distance from the scene of banishment, endeavored to defy opposition to 
their practices, but failed ignominiously, and received the extreme penalty of 
the law as a testimony against them. 

From 1840 until 1846, indeed up to the building of railroads, the growth 
of the county, as compared with earlier years, was slow. Other portions of the 
West were sought by settlers, particularly the lead mines, and received accessions 
more rapidly. One cause of this was the absence of markets. The population 
was engaged almost exclusively in agriculture, and after farms were opened 
there was but a moderate sale of their products for this reason. Settlers have 
been known to take a load of pork to Mineral Point, where it was disposed of 
with difficulty at $1.25 per hundred weight, and occasional shipments of grain 
were made down the Mississippi from Savannah, which practice continued up 
to the very period, when railroads were operated in the country. These flat- 
boats were laden with produce and floated down the river to New Orleans, unless 
a market was found en route, and disposed of. The cargo being disposed of, the 
flat was sold for the lumber it contained, when the merchant who had shipped 
the venture, together with his supercargo or clerk and laborers, beo-an his 
wearisome journey homeward. A partial market was found in the lead region, 
but as productions increased that market became overstocked, and prices 
decreased so that the transportation of commodities thither could not be made to 
pay. The same can be said of the Chicago market, though for a different 
reason — the distance. Chicago was at that early day beginning to be an 
important factor in the building up of the West. It was the point at which 
settlers procured their final outfits, and the market to which farmers transported 
their grain for sale. The means of conveyance was a lumber wagon drawn by 
four or five yoke of oxen, the driver pasturing his cattle at night by the 
wayside, himself camping out and cooking his meals. If he succeeded in 
progressing over horrible roads, or surviving the crossing of seemingly impassable 
sloughs and reaching his long journey's end, he was extremely fortunate. Not 
more so, however, if he was able to find a customer to whom a sale of the grain 
could be effected at 50 cents per bushel. Whenever he was able to control 
their patronage, he returned with a load of merchandise for the merchants of 
Freeport, for which he received a nominal consideration of store goods. 
Occasionally he found a family of emigrants, who, having reached Chicago by 
way of the lake, were waiting for the means of conveyance to continue then- 
trip. In such cases the household goods of this -'lucky find," together with 
the emigrant and his wife and little ones, were laden on the wagon for the 
return trip. Such a cargo was a bonanza to the teamster, for passage was 
invariably cash. With such difficulties to encounter, and the low prices paid 
for commodities, together with the extravagant charge made for many of the 
necessaries of life, it is not surprising that wealth was not rapidly amassed. 
As a compensation for these disadvantages, land was cheap. The broad prairies, 
which proved to be the finest farming land in the State, were held at a price 
within reach of the most impecunious. The suggestion is frequently made to 
some who came at an early day and are yet comparatively the reverse of 
independent, as to the reason why they failed to invest and wait for a rise ; 


Why it was that they were not possessed of the colossal fortune which might 
now have been theirs had they but invested their moderate resources in land. 
The answer to both these interrogatives invariably has been that they came here 
in search of moderate resources and didn't bring it with them. 

Among those who came subsequent to 1839, not including those who 
settled in Freeport, there were : John, Reuben, Levi, Adam and Michael 
Bolander, George and Jacob Maurer, VV. P. Naramore, Joseph Barber, Andrew 
Hinds, D. A. Baldwin, Captain Knese, Thomas and Adam Wilson, Christian 
Bennett, John Flynn, the Babb family, Mathias Ditzler, George House, John 
Lamb, Warren and Anson Andrews, Horace Post, Truman Lovdell, William 
Barkalow, Thomas Foster, Joseph Rush, Samuel Shiveley, Henry Loyer, 
Reuben Tower, William Schermerhorne, Frederick Gossmann, John Hammond, 
Nathan Ferry, Charles W. and Robert Barber, Frank Maginnis, Benjamin 
Illingworth, J. B. Clingman, George and Philip Reitzell, Henry Wohlford r 

John Frybarger, Richard Parriott, Jr., Franklin Scott, George Ilgen, Eddy, 

Cyrus Woodman, Isaac Miller, Lyman, William and Nelson Hulburt, John 
Clarke, Joseph Norris, Seth Schockley, Henry Rybolt, with numberless- 


In the spring of this year the Mormons, or Latter-Day Saints, a religious 
sect with which the world has since become familiar, made their advent for the 
first time into the State of Illinois. The representatives of the doctrines taught 
by Joseph and Hyrum Smith had been guilty of crimes in Missouri of a charac- 
er different from that included in the polygamous tenets expounded from their 
pulpits, in consequence of which the indignation of the warlike Missourians had 
been excited to a degree that compelled their leaders to flee to Illinois, where 
they took refuge in Hancock County and commenced the building of Nauvoo. 
The accounts furnished by the saints of the cruel treatment they received at the 
hands of their enemies excited feelings of sympathy for what was then thought 
to be a Christian body of men and women, suffering in the cause of religion. 
This sympathy found expression in various ways ; among others, by the pass- 
age of a bill providing for the incorporation of the city of Nauvoo and confer- 
ring extraordinary powers upon its municipal officers, including the military and 

Thus protected, the Mormons began in Illinois a career of missionary work 
which has attracted thousands to their fold at the sacrifice of every sentiment of 
self-respect and the regard of all mankind. The emissaries of the sect were dis- 
tributed throughout Illinois and States contiguous thereto, with results that 
were made apparent by the annual increase of population in Nauvoo. The 
proselytes were by no means the ignorant classes represented as the converted 
of late years, but educated, reasoning men, with their families. The meetings, 
it is said, held in Stephenson County, were quite respectable, but conversion was 
accomplished by means entirely dissimilar to those adopted by other denomina- 
tions. There was little public speaking, the missionaries having recourse to- 
private interviews and personal solicitation to accomplish their miracles. The 
result of their labors was not, if report in that behalf is predicated upon fact, pro- 
portioned to the means used or the diligence and energy exercised. The saints 
were thick as lice in Egypt, according to report, but were unable to perform 
miracles as was Moses, and departed from Stephenson County, wise in their expe- 
rience, but. impoverished as to results. True, there were some who accompanied 
them, notably Hector C. Haight, of Jefferson Township, and a settler named 
Shumway, residing in the northern part of the county. 


Both Haight and his wife became charmed with the teachings of Joe 
Smith's agents, if the sermons of this religion can possess any charm for a 
man above mediocrity, as Haight is represented to have been, and disposing of 
his possessions in Jefferson, he with his family crossed the Mississippi and made 
one of the number of martyrs, who, a few years after, suffered all the pangs of 
the inquisition in their weary pilgrimage across the plains to Salt Lake. For 
years nothing Avas heard of him, and the pioneer settler in Jefferson Township 
was forgotten in the hurry of life at home. But after a season, reports came 
of his success, which, upon being investigated, were found to be far more than 
the baseless fabric of a vision. He had prospered in temporal affairs, and 
spiritually he was above the vainglory of this world. He was one of Young's 
trusted advisers by the "Salt Lake's sad waves," and his wife had become a 
leading spirit in the revivals and meetings held in Zion. Both had increased 
the number of " sealings " to be found in Brigham's domain, but not without 
money or price. A short time back they re-visited the locality of their early 
residence in Stephenson County, upon which occasion they expressed an unal- 
terable and abiding faith in the religion they embraced, and, though it is said 
they pictured the lives led by the elect of Salt Lake citizens in glowing colors, 

none were influenced thereby or persuaded to return with them. 


In the history of Haight's apostasy to the cause of morality and good 
government, the writer had forgotten Shumway and his less prominent com- 
panions. Well, so much the better. He was never heard of, however, after 
being " led astray " by Latter-Day Saints. 

In this year the town of Oneco, in Oneco Township, was laid out under 
the direction of John K. Brewster, and Orangeville, within sight of Oneco, was 
also surveyed about this period by John M. Curtis, though its platting and 
building up were delayed until 1846, when John Bowers came in and estab- 
lished the place. 

But it was to Oneco that the sanguine hopes of Mr. Brewster, Mr. Corwith 
and others, were turned in lively anticipation of what that town would become. 
These hopes, as is known by the world and the flesh resident in Stephenson 
County, were doomed to disappointment. The eligible site was never improved 
to its utmost capacity, and the water privileges that it was thought would 
become unexhaustible and invaluable, were never availed of. A church, 
schoolhouse, post office, one or two stores, and other indications of life, survive 
the flight of time, and the proud man's contumely, to illustrate to a later gener- 
ation the beginnings of what might have been. 

Before the year 1840 had run the race set before it, the county was com- 
mencing to show good results of the years of labor that had been expended upon 
its improvement, and it promised, upon its advent into the fourth year of its 
existence, to do more than had been done during the years that had rolled into 
the past. "Let there be light," was the first word of the Creative Power, and 
"Let there be light" must remain the motto of every future development. 
The year was remarkable for many improvements, and an increase in the num- 
ber of farms that were occupied and cultivated. Very little can be said con- 
cerning the emigration hither, for, beyond the fact that some come in, its meas- 
ure was not in any ratio with what it should have been. This was due to the 
causes cited, more than the absence of large numbers who were only waiting 
for the sign that was to move them to change their several camps. The popu- 
lation was increased very slightly, as will be inferred, and did not, during the 
entire year, receive accessions of more than two hundred to the number already 


there. The post office, which was established at Freeport a year before, was 
not an unfruitful source of comfort and convenience to citizens throughout the 
county, as they were by its means enabled to communicate with their friends 
more frequently than when Thomas Craine was accustomed to carry the mail 
once or twice a month to Freeport. A stage line had been in operation for some 
time at this period, and the inspirations of delight that were felt when the 
bugle was sounded, need but to be referred to to be recalled. The notes 
brought back a consciousness that its auditors were not altogether beyond the 
pale of civilization ; that a trip of two days and two nights, and the expend- 
iture of a round sum of money, would carry one to the heart of the city, 
where he might be brought directly in communication with scenes and incidents 
to which he had been theretofore a stranger. And no doubt there will be many 
who read these lines to echo their truth and be carried back to days when they 
made their first trip to Chicago, arriving in the city and stopping at the old 
frame tavern on Lake street, near the river, as the day was declining into 

The fact that there was no material increase in the population during 
1840 would argue the conclusion that there were, comparatively, no improve- 
ments. This was generally the case outside of towns, but not altogether so in 
Freeport, and other less pretentious but more ambitious bailiwicks. Freeport 
then had about sixty houses, divided into stores, saloons and residences, the 
major part being, of course, devoted to the latter purpose, with a population, 
within the present city limits, of about fifty families. With this meas- 
ured showing, the town aped the manners of a city. Saloons were maintained, 
and gambling was indulged without limit. John Barleycorn reigned in those 
days more generally in proportion to the number of the inhabitants, than he 
does now, while the Tiger of Pharaoh was a beast that roamed abroad freely, 
and, though no one was ever known to fear him, there were many who retired 
wounded after encounters with his strength and skill. 

Secret societies and granges had not at this time become objects either of 
curiosity or interest to the people, and the square and level were as yet in the 
unborn future. Temperance societies, were in existence, though, and had been 
for two years. Not that there was a vital necessity for their existence, for the 
early settlers were not topers. But they came into being as the settlers came 
into the county, doubtless, for the enjoyment of life, liberty and pursuit of hap- 
piness, in which trinity of objects they were aided by patrons and admirers. 
Along in 1838, L. W. Guiteau made a pilgrimage to the present town of 
Cedarville, where he was to deliver a temperance address, at the invitation of 
A. Goddard and others. At the time appointed, a snow storm was prevail- 
ing, and, though Mr. Guiteau disliked to go there, he went, and was confronted 
by an audience of fifteen or twenty, to whom he spoke with reference to the 
advantages to be derived from a practical application of the doctrine of total 
abstinence. This was the first speech ever delivered in the county on the sub- 
ject, but the work of reform begun upon that night, amid the storm and sur- 
rounded by many, very many, discouraging circumstances, has grown in 
strength, and, stretching out its sympathetic arms, has since gathered into its 
folds many of the loved and lost of Stephenson County. Two years later, the 
Rev. F. C. Winslow and John A. Clark headed a temperance movement in 
Freeport, holding sessions of an order of Crusaders in a little room over a saloon, 
at the corner of Galena and Chicago streets. From these insignificant 
commencements, the cause of temperance has increased each year, until 


to-day it is a power for good in the county, including among the members of its 
organizations some of the most capable, intelligent and educated influences in 
this portion of the State. 

The amusements of the people, for by this time amusements had become 
more general, were naturally, by reason of the limited resources in their behalf, 
confined to a class of entertainments requiring preparations and expenditures 
by no means elaborate or extravagant. With some, dancing was a species of 
pleasure, indulged upon appropriate occasions, and there are a number of ladies 
residing in the county to-day, married years ago, who well remember the sharp, 
frosty nights, upon which they mounted a horse and galloped off" through 
the brisk air to attend a dance in some distant log cabin to the inspiriting notes 
of a fiddle manipulated by Daniel Wooton, "Professor" Clark, or musicians 
of equal skill and repute. Sleigh-riding became a favorite amusement in time, 
as did skating, while the elegant accomplishments were made up of the house- 
hold duties with which the girl of the period, to whom gilt is gold, and curb- 
stone wit philosophy, is entirely unfamiliar. 

To those who regarded dancing as an evil to be avoided, quiltings and 
sociables were substituted, and no doubt contributed a fund of humor to the 
company attracted. The circus was never known in the county until along 
about 1842, and it was years after that, before the lecturer or facial contortionist 
came along and paved a way for the building of a theater to accommodate 
tragedians very much crushed, limp disciples of Comus, the ballet, the minstrels 
or Little Buttercup and Pinafore. 

The public health was never quoted in those days, and sanitary commis- 
sioners, harmless as doves, but without the wisdom of serpents, were reserved 
for the future to delineate. Physicians were somewhat of a rarity, too, and, 
when sickness prostrated settler after settler, these indispensable adjuncts to com- 
fort and consequent happiness were without leisure. The complaints suffered 
from in those days were generally of a kind indigenous to a new country, being 
made up of chills, ague, intermittent and other fevers that most always yielded 
temporarily to remedies. Senna, salts, quinine and calomel were staple com- 
modities kept by storekeepers, and it was a rare occurrence when they were 
without all of these articles. The patient was most generally charged with 
compounds of which the constituent parts were as above indicated. While his 
system remained thus impregnated he was free from ailment, but let him sus- 
pend a dose and the last stage of his disease was worse than the first. This 
liability to attack remained until the lands were drained and cultivated, the 
forests cut down, and pure air substituted for the miasmatic vapors that proceeded 
from rank vegetation and the swamps. When these improvements were gradu- 
ally completed, they brought health to the frames that were palsied by sickness 
and bloom to cheeks from which the color had long since fled. The waste 
places were built up and the lands were made to bud and blossom again. 

Society, it might be here observed, was such as is peculiar to a new 
country, and, while there were many marriages, there were also many 
bachelors, living by themselves, and, with fewer women to reverence than in 
older settled constituencies, there may have been a lack of reverence for women. 
But there was an absence of scandal, either of a private nature or of the 
weakness of public characters, which cannot be otherwise regarded than as 
a compensation. For the absence of agencies, which, while they may conduce 
to enjoyment yet promote infelicities, is to be desired and commended. This 
condition of affairs is not only natural but inevitable, in new countries where 
the first fight is for life, and the masculine quality predominates. But with the 


progress made, and the civilizing influences that come with Time, the feminine 
nature increased. It crept in everywhere, in men and women alike, in intel- 
lectual culture, in art and social intercourse, refining and hallowing the atmos- 
phere of every-day life. In affairs of public morals, of education and religion, 
it created a healthy progress. The New England element was largely repre- 
sented, their Puritan habits softened by association with the free life of a young 
settlement and its cosmopolitan inhabitants, though preserving the best quali- 
ties of decency, order, justice and constant progress upward in morality and 
virtue. As the ratio of production increased, the ratio of comfort and pros- 
perity grew, and as productive enterprises were ventured, the country was 
benefited by an increase in the amount of capital seeking investment. Coun- 
tries, like individuals, are great only as they are teachers, and the history of 
early settlements in the Northwest shows that they are great because they 
have taught that there are mines of treasure to be gained by industry and per- 
severance, and that rich gems of blessing will be laid bare to the toiler. 

With the progress made, as cited, the history of Stephenson County enters 
upon another year of its existence. This year would contain many new 
features, it was thought, and be an improvement upon the one that had closed. 
The people had met discouragements in years gone by, in opposition from 
sections possessing greater inducements for settlers, but were never overcome by 
them. They had encountered difficulties which are always strewn in the walks 
of life. In place of being vanquished, these awoke their sleeping energies and 
set them to working with increased determination. Their resources were 
tested, and the metal of their composition tried in the fire. They realized that 
the earth was not a Paradise, but put forth thorns at every season. They also 
realized that labor and perseverance conquer every opposition, surmount every 
difficulty and overcome misfortune. They were taught these lessons in the 
schools of experience, and guided in the future by the admonitions they 

During 1841, there was absolutely nothing to discourage the people or 
make them to rejoice with exceeding joy. No event of importance, it is 
believed, occurred to startle the nation or paralyze the public. If human 
agencies were lacking of contributions toward perfection, Dame Nature continued 
to act in her blandest, most beneficial mood, lavishing her gifts to promote the 
welfare of all, the productive soil yielding abundantly of every farm staple 
intrusted to its keeping, and the forests giving up their choicest growth for 
building, fencing and other purposes. The falling-off in the number of emi- 
grants, begun the previous year, was continued, and improvements were, as a 
rule, confined to the villages. The professions began to be more freely repre- 
sented this year, and some who have since left the impress of their characters 
upon the years that followed, identified themselves with the county from 1889 
to 1842. But few remain to recount the difficulties that met them at every 
turn, or how dangerous a thing to them the "little learning" they possessed 
often proved to be; but they survived opposition, and became powerful advocates 
and accomplished scientists in after days. 

One of these gentlemen, who has since occupied distinguished positions on 
the bench and at the bar, related to the writer a scrap of his experience when first 
landing in Freeport. It was almost at the close of the year, and the wintry sky hung 
lowering and repellant. With ten shillings in his purse, a few books, and a still 
less generous wardrobe, he dismounted from the "jumper" at Mr. Goddard's 
Mansion House, and contemplated the immediate future, as may be imagined, 
with no very cheerful conclusions. As a matter of course, he began to climb the 


hill, and it was many days before he halted for the rest and encouragement occu- 
pation begets. But the day came wjien forensic eloquence was demanded, when, 
to express it in the spirit of the day, the present Judge was in town, where he 
has since remained, honored and enriched by the practice which he obtained. 
He long since attained the summit of professional prosperity, but in his days of 
retirement he often recurs to his entry into Freeport as among the most event- 
ful, if not the happiest, of a life that has been passed amid scenes as varied with 
sunshine and shadow as a day in June. 

During the early period of 1842 there were no changes, either in the tem- 
poral or spiritual surroundings of the situation in Stephenson County to report. 
But, as the days came and went, they were characterized by events out of the 
ordinary channel in which the lives of settlers and citizens had previously 
•drifted. The payment of interest on the public debt had been abandoned, and 
the financial embarrassments of the State began to be felt. To add to the dis- 
tress of the people, State banks were beginning to grow " shaky," and finally 
to collapse. There was no trade, and business stagnation was complete. 
Values declined, and the agricultural portion of the community were unable to 
dispose of their crops, except at prices that entailed a loss on the cost of pro- 
duction. In this crisis, the farmers of Stephenson County, and merchants of 
towns located within her boundaries, though not entirely unscathed, suffered 
less than points more thickly settled, and from other causes susceptible to its 
influences. But there is no doubt that emigration hither was lessened, though 
some of the choicest spirits ever associated with the county's history came in 
during this period. 


During the summer of this year, an old settler named William Wallace, 
who had settled in the county five years before, suicided by hanging at the 
edge of Rock Grove, and died before he was discovered. His neighbors 
regarded him as insane from infelicities, with the exact import of which no one 
could be found who was familiar, and, while thus oppressed, he had sought in 
the unknown world that peace of mind denied him here. He was discovered, 
it is said, by some lads traveling in pursuit of cows, who advertised the fact 
to the few settlers in the vicinity, by whom he was cut down and buried 
almost in sight of the tree under which his troubles were dissipated with his life. 

Notwithstanding the tight times made mention of, the county was regarded 
as a terminal point of great excellence by residents of the Eastern States and 
elsewhere, and agents from communities contemplating emigration to the 
West were to be found here prospecting and making examinations of the 
resources, with a view to submit reports that should be acted upon by those 
who had commissioned them. This was not confined to the Eastern States 
alone, but extended to foreign parts. It will be remembered that the Nor- 
wegians, who settled in Rock Run about 1839, adopted this policy before deter- 
mining upon settlement, and their judgment obtained in other countries of 
Europe — for example, in England. In the spring of 1842, the inhabitants of 
farming shires there empowered an agent to visit America and select a location 
where they could secure land at reasonable rates, that, by the employment of 
the same means which at home gave them only a tolerable income, they might 
be enabled to amass a competency. Acting upon these instructions, he visited 
Illinois, and was so impressed with the inducements offered in present Ridott 
Township, that he advised the colony to settle there as possessing every advan- 
tage that could be had at home, in addition to many inaccessible in England, even 


to those in easy circumstances. The communication containing this ultimatum 
was received, and, after some delay devoted to deliberation, its adoption was 
decided upon, and preparations were inaugurated for the journey. These 
completed, sail was set, and a colony, consisting of about twenty-two, landed at 
their future home in Ridott Township, on the 28th of August, 1842, and 
established themselves in the timber near the present village. They were 
composed of the sturdy class of English yeomanry, under whose watchful care 
and taste Devonshire, Sussex and other vicinages have prospered, to-day 
abounding in scenes of exquisite beauty, with groves, gardens and residences 
that charm the beholder, inspiring him with emotions of the sublime and beau- 
tiful, and educating the heart to reverence the gifts of Nature and Nature's 
God. The settlement made here was inhabited by this character of people, 
who have aided most liberally in the improvements of that portion of the 
county, some of whom reside there still. In many cases, they are the propri- 
etors of vast estates, which are highly cultivated, and stocked with the choicest 
specimens of improved breeds. Their houses are commodious, substantially 
built, provided with libraries and centers of comfort. Industrious, with much 
of that geniality and bonhomie recognized as characteristics of cultivators of 
the soil, they have done a great deal to develop the section in which they settled, 
by the appropriation of improved systems of agriculture, the large crops they 
have laid by, and the air of independent comfort made manifest in their sur- 

The original settlement remained intact for about one year, when the com- 
munity of interest which prevailed was interrupted and never afterward 
resumed. Death visited the home of one and left his mark upon its posts. A 
wife who came to the new world sickened and died before she scarcely realized 
the change, but, amid strangers and scenes unlike those she had come from, 
closed her eyes in death. May it not be, however, that in her cabin in the 
wilderness, where she may have lingered through the night unconscious of 
friends around her, she heard a strain of the mysterious harmony from afar, 
in the midst of dreams of England, the long path across the ocean and friends 
and home ? 

This event, with others of a similar character that followed in its wake, 
bred a feeling of discontent and loneliness that comes when frail mortality has 
run its race and the golden ripple comes back no more, which precipitated a 
dissolution of the band and distributed its members over the West. The separa- 
tion came gradually, however, and it was not until two years after their coming 
that the surviving members left the rendezvous rendered sacred by associations 
and mournful memories. Many remained in Stephenson County with results 
already quoted, whose worth and standing are as pronounced as they are the 
fulfillment of a promise always pledged to industry and enterprise. 

The English colony was the largest addition to the inhabitants at any point 
in the county this year, it is believed, Freeport included. Settlers visited other 
portions of Stephenson, it is true, and some remained, but the large proportion 
that it was a few years before expected would make the county an abiding 
place, failed to materialize either in numbers or frequency of arrivals. The 
reasons for this were doubtless due to hard times and bad roads, though, as 
before remarked, the hard times did not produce that distress in this as in other 
counties and States. This was owing to the fact that the people, as also the 
county, having been accustomed to pay as they went, were comparatively free 
from debt. The failure of fresh arrivals, however, disturbed no one ; the farm- 
ers continued to labor for the development of this "beautiful land. " Schools, 


to cultivate the intellect of the growing generation to educate its uses, and 
religion to inculcate a respect for morals not less than for self. The merchants 
increased somewhat in number, as did their business, and they looked forward 
to a time, in the near future, when their days of probation would be over. 
Mechanical industries, though, had by this year, begun to assume a prominence in 
keeping with the times- Wagon and carriage shops were accessible, and that 
class of work obtained without resorting to lengthy trips and submitting to 
scores of inconveniences. Blacksmith shops had been established where once 
they were unknown, and agricultural implements were substituted where a few 
years before their use had been ridiculed. 

The season of 1843 was, in point of material prosperity, an improvement 
over the previous year. Additions were made to the population, farms became 
more productive, though markets were as far beyond reach as they had been, 
farmers being still compelled to draw their wheat to Chicago and receive a price 
per bushel totally disproportionate to the cost of raising, thrashing and trans- 
portation. Yet the opportunities to obtain loads on the return trip were more 
favorable and paid better, for building in Freeport and at other localities was 
becoming more general, and not unfrequently the material was procured at 
Chicago. The lead mines were still visited occasionally, when the settler was 
in a hurry to dispose of his crops, but as markets they ceased to bear so impor- 
tant a relation to the county as had existed in earlier years. The spring was 
passed amid bustle and some disorders incident to the resumption of business 
and farming, and summer came and went without any apparent diminution in 
these particulars — not disorders involving violations of law, for this was not 
permitted by the orderly residents, but the hurry and carelessness evidenced 
where business is paramount to all other considerations. The composition of 
the emigrants who came in this year was remarked as gratifying. They were 
as a rule substantial men, untainted by association with adventurers, who seek 
to conquer adversity without reference to the means employed in that behalf. 
In the fall, when the crops had been gathered and stacked, and an account was 
taken of the season's profits, if a very small balance remained to the credit of 
the producer, it was gratify ingly exceptional and encouraging. 


This year witnessed the first murder reported in the annals of Stephen- 
son County, that is, after the county was incorporated as such. The scene of 
the tragedy was a farm in Rock Grove Township, at that time owned by Daniel 
Noble. It seems, according to report, that Noble employed a man to assist him 
about the farm, by the name of Boardman. The relations existing between them 
were of a character that, when the latter mysteriously disappeared, Noble's state- 
ments were received without dispute. One day in the fall of the year, Noble and 
Boardman took their guns and started off on a hunt, remaining absent for a day 
or so without exciting distrust. One afternoon Noble turned up without his 
companion, and, upon being interrogated as to his absence, stated that, hav- 
ing tired of the point at which he resided, he had made up his mind to seek a 
location elsewhere. He had departed in the direction of, and asserted that he 
was going to, Wisconsin. Previous to separating, the missing man handed a 
watch to Noble and requested that he would deliver it to Mrs. Boardman, with 
the assurance that when he was established he would send for her. The gun, 
it was said, he had carried off. The winter passed without hearing from the 
absent one, and, though anxiety was expressed among the settlers as to the cause, 
no suspicion was directed toward Noble. The spring came and went without 


aught happening or being done to solve the mystery of Boardman's continued 
and prolonged silence. As summer appeared, with the dawn of June, a query 
was addressed to many in this connection, calculated to assail the innocence of 
Noble, and put him upon the defensive. One afternoon, Mr. Marsh, a neigh- 
bor, was engaged in the discharge of his farm duties, when his sense of smell 
was assailed by the stench of corruption, and he hastened to ascertain the cause. 
After a brief search, his efforts were rewarded by the finding of a human skel- 
eton in the brush, so decayed that it was beyond recognition, yet bearing 
marks indicating that he had met death by violence. Mr. Marsh detached the 
skull from its connection with the body, and, proceeding to Noble's premises, 
exhibited his "find" to the latter, who was engaged in threshing in his barn. 
His appearance upon being confronted with the spectacle was calculated to con- 
firm previous suspicions, and after consultation it was decided to arrest him on 
the following day, or as soon thereafter as a warrant could be obtained therefor 
from Justice Frank eberger. In the mean time, Noble directed his wife to get 
ready, and that night he quietly disappeared. Mrs. Noble he left at her fathers, 
in Ogle County, while he proceeded to Dixon, where he left his team, thence 
to parts unknown. He was never arrested, and the death of Boardman, in all 
probability a victim to the unsettled condition of affairs at that day, or the turbu- 
lent passions of man, has always been involved in mystery. 

A correspondent of the Madison (Wis.) Express, traveling through this 
country about that time, gives his impressions of portions of the county 
through which he passed, as follows : 

" Since I have been here I have been about the county considerably, and 
have become well convinced that it is well deserving of the high reputation it 
has attained, of being one of the very best counties in the State. From Rock- 
ford to this place (Freeport), the road passes through one continuous prairie, 
with the exception of a grove about one mile in length. The prairie is quite 
rolling, in many places amounting to hills, with an uncommonly rich and fertile 
soil. There is in this county less waste land on account of sloughs or marshy 
places than in most prairie countries with which I am acquainted. Yet the 
land is admirably well watered, there being a clear creek nearly every 
mile, wending its way through the prairie to the Pecatonioa. These, I am told, 
originate in springs, the water being always clear and pure, and the streams 
never dry. The banks of the creeks are usually high, and the land, on either 
side of the water's edge, is perfectly dry. A heavy body of timber is to be 
found on the north side of the Pecatonica River, the best growth I have ever 
found in the State. It is mainly oak, but in many places we find a great 
variety of heavy timber." 

The population of the county was then supposed to be somewhere between 
five and ten thousand, and was "rapidly increasing." The amount of wheat 
raised in the county, that year, was upward of fifty thousand bushels, which 
talked well for a county that had been settled a little less than ten years. It was 
but ten years since Mr. Waddams erected the first cabin, and what vast changes 
time had wrought ! Since that day, though, the progress of the county has 
been far more rapid — far beyond the wildest expectations of the most hopeful 
enthusiast. The five thousand inhabitants have increased to nearly ten times 
that number. The prairies, with scarcely a cabin to vary the monotony of the 
landscape, now present unbroken chains of the finest farms in the country, 
ornamented with mansions and buildings. The dirt roads and corduroy tracks, 
with their lumber wagons and " prairie schooners," have given place to the 
railways and palace cars. 


The following year, 1844, was characterized by the arrival of a class of 
settlers who were possessed of some means, and desirous of investing a portion 
of what they brought with them in lands, to hold the same until it appreciated 
in value, when sales could be eifected with profit. At that time, F. D. Bulk- 
ley was Recorder of the county, and, in the discharge of his official duties 
appertaining to the position, he was sometimes assisted by his daughter and 
niece. These young ladies, though almost constantly occupied, were ever ready 
to assist the pursuit of knowledge by strangers who were endeavoring to trace 
a chain of title, and generally had little time to devote to anything else. These 
visitors were quite numerous, and many of those who came in at that time and 
became real-estate speculators have remained, and are now large land-owners. 

About this period, the troubles arising between purchasers and claimants 
first found open expression, and sometimes reached a state of affairs that could 
only be likened to a combat between the cats of Kilkenny, or worse. As will 
be remembered, these troubles grew out of the land sales at Dixon, and were 
pursued until one of the contesting parties had reached the end of his worsted. 
In these sales, the doctrine caveat emptor should have obtained, but did not 
apply. The purchaser of a claim by no means secured possession of his 
property by the payment of the purchase money. If its location impinged upon 
the claim of an old campaigner, or rather one who had come in at an early day 
and borne the heat of the battle, he was decided in his refusal to yield the 
coign of vantage to one who came on to the field when the victory was won. 
In many of the townships the fight between claimants and purchasers was 
prolonged and bitter. If the purchaser insisted upon maintaining his title to 
the property, he was met by opposition which endangered his remaining, and in 
all cases realizing this fact, he generally abandoned the field of occupation to his 
foe, and departed for other scenes. There is no recorded case of homicide grow- 
ing out of these disturbances, but these may have been avoided by the surrender 
of him whose alleged right was disputed. An instance of this is to be found in 
the case of a resident of Rock Run, who innocently became a trespasser, though 
he claimed title to lands purchased at Dixon. His neighbors, including the 
Seeleys, Carnefex, Webb, Davis and others, so interfered with his occupation 
that he was compelled finally to abandon the land and go elsewhere. These 
troubles, however, were finally compromised, and long since ceased to exist ; 
but, while they were active, nothing short of civil war, say those familiar with 
its ramifications, could equal the land contests for bitterness and refusal to yield. 

There were many other annoyances to which these same people were 
subjected, long after the introduction of civil process, and the establishment of 
courts ; but they have not occurred during late years, and need only be 
referred to as among the incidents of life in the West at an early day. 

Among those who came in 1844, was the Hon. John H. Addams, President 
of the Second National Bank, and as prominently identified with landed as 
monetary affairs. He settled in Cedarville, where he purchased the mill built, 
in 1837, by Dr. Van Valzah. He has represented the district, in which 
Stephenson County is included, in the State Senate, is the father of railroad 
enterprise in Stephenson County, and of the extension of lines to points that 
were thereby benefited. In all the departments of life he has sustained a 
character above criticism, and is esteemed not more for his unimpeachable 
integrity than his enterprise and public spirit. 

The year 1845 was not different from 1844, in any of its salient features. 
The prospects were no more discouraging than had been those of that year, and 
the improvements had kept pace with the times, though the rush of emigration 


and the influx of money was not by any means proportioned to the wishes of 
the people. Farmers were yet obliged to market their products in Chicago, 
and put up with treatment that enforced a belief that their lives were not nearly 
so independent as they were considered by men who contemplated them from a 
distance. Little had been done even at this late day, to render the roads 
passable, and, when teamsters en route to Chicago or other distant points found 
them to be in a condition that forbade their attempting to proceed, they unloaded, 
and, returning to Freeport, waited until the weather and improvement of the 
highways permitted them to renew the attempt. This entailed a second loss in 
the depreciated value of the quality, which, with that estimated by the purchaser 
in Chicago, had a tendency to diminish the area of cultivation, and turn atten- 
tion to other sources of revenue which would not be so severely assessed. 

The coming of railroads, however, a few years later, rather equalized the 
necessities of both planter and factor, and removed this embargo to progress 
and wealth. 


Before the close of 1845, the dispute with Mexico, consequent upon the 
admission of Texas, became so open and apparently beyond the powers of 
diplomatic agents to adjust, that war between that nation and the United 
States was only a question of time. This was what came, as all remember, after 
robberies and outrages had been perpetrated under the cloak of official sanction, 
involving the loss of millions of dollars' worth of property to Americans resi- 
dent in Mexico and upon the border. 

When hostilities were begun, a call was made for volunteers, apportioned 
mostly to the Western and Southern States, and the requisition from Illinois 
embraced three regiments. When this proclamation was promulgated, and 
reached Stephenson County, it created an excitement and enthusiasm only 
equaled by that precipitated by the firing upon Sumter. Age forgot its 
crutch and labor its task ; and youth, rank and genius rushed into the lists, 
anxious to be of the number who should follow the eagles of another Cortes and 
camp in the halls of the Montezumas. Nor was this spirit of ardent patriotism 
confined to the men. It was manifested by ladies, who formed sewing societies and 
aided in the fashioning of uniforms for the soldiers, and flags for the regiments. 
Public meetings were convened and the situation discussed by men who hurled 
oratorical thunderbolts against the pugnacious foe. Volunteers were enlisted 
without bounty or effort, and, after imperfect preparation, hurried to the field 
of battle, thirsting for reputation and gore. 

In Freeport, a public meeting was called, which convened at the court 
house, during the continuance of this excitement, and was largely attended by 
representatives from all portions of the county. Maj. John Howe officiated as 
Chairman ; addresses of patriotic import were made by Thomas J. Turner. 
S. B. Farwell and others, and some enlistments were secured that evening, 
What is true in this connection regarding the feeling at Freeport, applies to 
other portions of the county. Wherever a settlement existed, the utmost enthu- 
siasm was manifested, and volunteers were greatly in excess of the demand. 
About twenty-five recruits were obtained in Stephenson County, including 
William Goddard, of West Point, who was promoted to a Captaincy, and survived 
the contest to fall at Shiloh ; the Pattee boys, George and Jason, from Lancaster 
and Silver Creek ; Foster Hart, from Florence, with others representing the 
remaining townships. They were apportioned to the company commanded by 
Captain McKinney, of Dixon, it is said, and formed part of the Second Regiment 


of Illinois troops, of which J. L. D. Morrison, of St. Clair County, but latterly 
a resident of St. Louis, was appointed Colonel. The regiment was mustered 
in July 2, 1846, and, after a brief sojourn in camp, crossed the Rio Grande and 
entered the city of Santa Rosa, thence proceeding to the base of the Sierra 
Gorda. This regiment participated in the battle of Buena Vista, and other 
engagements, being finally disbanded at Camargo, whence they returned home, 
arriving in Springfield, June 4, 1847, thence to their several places of enlist- 

The soldiers on their reaching home were received with marks of affection, 
and tendered, as they deserved, the enthusiastic welcomes of the people. 
Dinners, addresses, toasts and speeches greeted their arrival ; newspapers in 
the vicinity lauded their patriotism, while, as candidates for office, civilians were 
obliged to yield precedence to the victorious warrior. Those who had fallen 
on the battle-field, or died in the hospital, were held in sacred remembrance, 
while the wounded who bore the marks of strife, were regarded with an awe 
and veneration passing comparative comprehension. 

In April, 1847, the Government issued another call for troops, that was 
responded to with equal readiness, and the lists of volunteers, it is believed, 
were made up in part of residents of Stephenson County, mustered into the 
Sixth Regiment. However, the fall of the City of Mexico virtually ended the 
war, and, beyond investing Vera Cruz, and the engagement at Tampico, the 
duties of the two battalions into which this regiment was divided, were confined 
to garrisons, returning home when peace was declared, to again take part in the 
duties which had been temporarily abandoned to engage in the pursuit of arms. 


In the fall of 1846, according to the record, the people began to appreci- 
ate the necessity of an outlet and a market for their crops, and a strong feeling 
in favor of railroads began to manifest itself. This was the beginning of an 
era in the progress of the State, county and city. The farmers had long before 
realized how utterly hopeless any approach to independence could be made 
under the existing condition of affairs. The labor employed in cultivating the 
soil and laying by the crops, together with the expense of conveying them to 
market, left but a small margin when high prices were paid for their products. 
But the rates received by them, per bushel for their grain, and other expenses 
incurred in its delivery, left them no margin for present necessities or future 
operations. They must either obtain more remunerative prices, less expensive 
means of transportation, or engage in occupations that would not only afford a 
living, but a surplus upon which to live when age incapacitated them from the 
active duties of life. With these sentiments, the project of securing a railway, 
accessible to farmers in the county, was canvassed, and met with a hearty 
response from those interested. Scheming brains, with an eye to the future, 
endeavored to formulate a plan by which this inestimable desideratum might 
be attained, and its powerful aid secured to develop the country, as also to 
educate, civilize, and Christianize the people. People talked about the influences 
it would exert, and it became a topic of general conversation on the streets, or 
in the hotels, in the commercial marts, and by the fireside. However, nothing 
came of the efforts made in that connection during the year 1846 but plans 
which did not crystallize into acts, and it was not until the following year that 
practical work commenced. 

On January 7, 1847, quoting from the recollections of John H. Addams, 
who was prominently instrumental in agitating the subject until it was "egarded 


feasible, the first railroad convention ever held in the Western country was con- 
vened at Rockford. The attendance was very large, and included representa- 
tives from all portions of the country. Among those who attended from Ste- 
phenson County, the residents of which, by the way, were instrumental in call- 
ing the meeting, were John H. Addams, Luman Montague, Jackson Richart, D. 
A. Knowlton, Martin P. Sweet and Adrian Lucas. W. B. Ogden, Walter 
Newberry and I. N. Arnold were present from Chicago, and, after the disposi- 
tion of preliminary business, the questions at issue were very generally dis- 
cussed. The Chicago party proposed to commence the building of a road under 
a charter previously obtained, and this led to the organization of a company 
under which the Galena & Chicago road was constructed. 

Though there was scarcely any money in the country, and it was indis- 
pensable to the success of the corporation that $20,000 of stock be taken in the 
county, the people subscribed as liberally as their limited means would permit, 
and succeeded in raising this amount. Railroad meetings were not frequent in 
those days, the settlers residing so far apart that they could not assemble at a 
moment's notice, and those interested in placing the stock were obliged to travel 
the county to secure its taking. Wherever they went the residents were found 
willing to co-operate, the ladies vieing with the sterner sex in their readiness to 
render assistance. They appreciated how necessary it was to have the road 
built, and were prepared to make any personal sacrifice to further the under- 
taking. Many of them helped pay for the stock subscribed for at their solicita- 
tion from the profits derived by the sales of butter, cheese and other house- 
hold productions, even depriving themselves of the means necessary to educate 
their children that a railroad might be built for the good of that and future 
generations. The stock sales were but incidents connected with an enterprise 
the establishment of which is always attended with difficulties. The road was 
finally completed to Belvidere, when the management was called upon to 
encounter greater vexations than any it had been able to dispose of up to that 
time. At this point an effort was made to divert the road from its original route 
to Savannah, which would leave Stephenson County without the benefits her peo- 
ple had so industriously labored for and liberally contributed to obtaining. 
Those who had urged the taking of stock were discouraged at the apparent 
failure of the scheme, while those who had subscribed were bitter in their 
expressions of disappointment. 

Finally, a committee of gentlemen from Freeport, composed of J. H. 
Addams, D. A. Knowlton, 0. H. Wright and John A. Clark, visited Rockford 
to endeavor to procure the execution of the original contract, and secured the 
indorsement of the people that so far as they could influence a decision it 
should be done. The trip was continued to Chicago, and after labors that were 
effectual as were the laborers deserving of the public thanks, the project of divert- 
ing the road was abandoned. Labor was continued on the route, and in August, 
1853, the iron horse entered Freeport amid the rejoicings that such an 
occasion would bring forth. After many days, the trials of the people had 
become resolved into a triumph both pronounced and valuable. Those days 
have long since glided into the past, and the pioneer, who then acted his part in 
the struggle for improvement, realizes in the present days, always bright and 
clear with the glad sunshine and the song of birds, that " God will remember 
the world." 

The building of the Illinois Central was begun almost with the building 
of the Galena & Chicago, and its entry into Freeport was made almost 
at the same time. The grand scheme of connecting Lake Michigan with the 


Mississippi had long been a desideratum with the people of Illinois, and when, 
in 1850, an act was passed by Congress granting 3,000,000 acres to the State 
to aid in its construction, the completion of the road was regarded almost as a 
foregone conclusion. 

The act granted a right of way- for the railroad through the public lands 
the width of two hundred feet from the southern terminus of the Illinois 
and Michigan Canal to a point at or near the junction of the Ohio and Mis- 
sissippi Rivers, and for branches to Chicago and Galena. The construction of 
the road was to be commenced at its northern and southern termini simul- 
taneously, and when completed, the branches were to be built. 

With the passage of this bill, it became the duty of the Legislature of Illi- 
nois to make a disposition of this grant, which should be not only prudent and 
wise, but satisfactory. After no inconsiderable delay, caused by the efforts 
necessary to defeat peculation and the appropriation of the franchise by other 
parties, a bill was passed by the Legislature, and became a law February 10, 
1851, providing for its survey, construction and equipment. 

When the bill passed, or rather prior thereto, an understanding existed 
between the agent of the English capitalists, who were to furnish the money to 
build the road, and the Galena & Chicago management, that the former 
would proceed to Galena and the Mississippi River via Freeport. In consider- 
ation of this, the Galena road was to terminate at Freeport, and assign the right 
of way thence to Galena to the Illinois Central. This was the outgrowth of 
the efforts made during the construction of that road to divert its route in the 
direction of Savannah. When that question was under consideration, as will 
be remembered, a committee representing Stephenson County visited Rock- 
ford and Chicago, and labored for the prevention of so great a violation of the 
contract under which stock was subscribed to its building. The labors of this 
committee produced a restraining effect, as would appear in the light of subse- 
quent events, upon the influences exerted, and brought the road, as was prom- 
ised it should come, direct to Freeport. 

Surveys were at once commenced, and by the spring of 1852, had made 
such progress that grading and track-laying were succeeding each other with 
gratifying rapidity, and the road completed to Freeport in 1853, with but little 
interruption. While the work was progressing in Silver Creek Township, 
near Crain's Grove, an emeute was caused among the laborers by the dissatis- 
faction expressed by strikers for higher wages. At first no attention was paid 
to the demands or complaints by the contractors. Emboldened by the admis- 
sions this silence was construed into conceding, the "gang" suddenly aban- 
doned work, with the significant assurance that it would not be resumed until 
they had a surfeit of leisure. Soon after their pugnacity became excited with 
drafts of liquor, which was on tap in the camp, and for a brief period it seemed 
as if a reign of terror would be substituted for peace and order, so difficult to 
maintain. At this juncture, the railroad authorities appealed to the law for 
protection, whereupon Capt. J. W. Crane marshaled his militiamen and, 
marching to the scene of disorder, distributed the whisky among the woods 
and creeks, dispersed the rebels, suppressed the disorder and came marching 
home with a consciousness of duty well performed. 

The road was completed to Dubuque, Iowa, in May 1855, and on July 18, 
of that year, was formally opened with a celebration, attended by many who had 
been instrumental in procuring its construction and equipment. Stephenson 
County sent her prominent men to the city of Julien Dubuque, to grace with 
their presence an occasion so felicitous with the results of labors in which they 


had been " wheel-horses." Stephen A. Douglas orated, and the predictions 
he ventured regarding the future of Illinois, many have lived to see realized. 

The Illinois Central enters the county in the southern portion of Silver 
Creek Township, passing through Silver Creek, Harlem, Erin and West Point, 
a distance of about fifteen miles. The Northwestern or Galena and Chicago, 
passes through Ridott and Silver Creek, to Freeport, its western terminus. 

The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul line, entering the county near Davis, 
in Rock Run Township, was formerly operated under the name of the " Racine 
& Mississippi Railroad." It passes through Rock Run, Dakota, Lancaster, Silver 
Creek and Florence Townships, and does a large way business. The company 
was chartered in 1852, to build a road from Racine to Beloit, and was organized 
the same year. The city of Racine and the towns of Racine, Elkhorn, Dela- 
van and Beloit subscribed an aggregate of $490,000 for that amount of stock, 
while farmers along the line of the road took considerable of the same, for the 
payment of which they mortgaged their farms. The road was completed to 
Beloit in 1856, but, failing to pay interest on its bonds and maturing indebted- 
ness, a new company took possession of the property and refused to recognize 
the rights of the farmers who had hypothecated their realty for stock. Almost 
endless litigation followed the transfer of the corporation, but, the holders being 
innocent purchasers, the courts recognized their equities, and the mortgagors 
were compelled to pay them. 

Along in 1858-59, the extension of the road to Freeport was commenced 
and prosecuted with vigor. The labors thereon were continuous and uninter- 
rupted, save by an experience similar to that encountered by the Illinois Cen- 
tral in Silver Creek Township, i. e., a strike instigated by a number of unruly 
laborers who attempted to compete successfully with capital, but failed of 
achieving results. The affair occurred at " Deep Cut," and was participated 
in by a majority of those employed ; but Capt. Crane's company, with their arms 
at a "right-shoulder shift," hurried to the scene and suppressed the mutiny 
without loss. 

The road was completed to Freeport in 1859, and afterward extended to 
the Mississippi River at Savannah, thence to Rock Island. 

These enterprises stimulated industry and improvements, attracted 
increased emigration, appreciated the price of lands and increased the pros- 
pects of markets so instantly, that landholders became feverish with expectations 
of suddenly acquired wealth and were happy in contemplating the cheerful out- 

Nothing could have happened since the coming of the first settlers to add 
so pronounced an impetus to the agencies of civilization, which had been for 
years, it might be said, falling behind, as these undertakings. Towns were sur- 
veyed and laid off along the routes of these roads; manufacturing, educational, 
religious and other interests were cultivated, lots sold for city prices, buildings 
were erected, the area of cultivation increased, and when the roads were com- 
pleted a bound was experienced in prices that repaid the toilers for all the suf- 
ferings and privations they had previously undergone. Since then, with these 
arteries of wealth and commerce coursing the territory in nearly every 
direction, Stephenson County has enjoyed unrivaled facilities for its com- 
plete development and thrift and prosperity, barring the panics of 1857, and 
that precipitated by " Black Friday," continuous and unfailing. 

Freeport was not less benefited than the surrounding country. Thence 
onward the history of the city is not marked by any of the great trials, troubles 
or vexations of spirit which have been the lot of other corporations. The 

db£c 'MAlsL 

*-* f' -^ "^ • — V 



jealousies which had previously been indulged by rivals in the county, yielded 
to the logic of events and were dissipated. Strange contrast with the closing 
month of 1835, when William Baker erected his ''Indian Trading Post" and 
Ransomburg was coming to the front in its race for prominence. But the 
inhabitants who came into the future city, disregarding opposition, struggled 
manfully in the contest with results which not only attested their wisdom and 
pluck, but fully confirmed the truth of the premise, that excellence in any un- 
dertaking invariably follows in the wake of patience, perseverance and industry. 
The tide of emigration which tended in the direction of Stephenson County, at 
or about this period, left many who had come with it, residents of the town. 
Commercial interests increased, Freeport began to be regarded as by no 
means the least promising municipality west of Chicago, and farming was prose- 
cuted constantly and successfully. The uncertainties that succeeded the panic 
of 1837 were settled, and in their stead a feeling of confidence was substituted, 
which found expression in permanent and remunerative investments. Some 
improvements were projected, and a limited number completed. The water- 
power of Pecatonica River had been utilized, and mills and factories were com- 
pleted or contemplated. In short, the aggregate of business in city and county 
would be far in excess of previous years. These predictions were surely real- 
ized. The business portion of the town was limited to Galena and Stephenson 
streets, and, though carried on in establishments by no means epitomes of 
architectural skill or elegance, answered the purposes for which they had been 
erected. The residence part of the town was not a prominent feature, either. 
Some of the merchants not only "traded," but lived, moved and had their being 
in their stores. The court house was the most elaborate structure, and contin- 
ued to do duty for a variety of purposes, as of yore. The log schoolhouse on 
the bank of the river had been abandoned for school purposes, and the "old 
red schoolhouse" had become its successor. Religious classes were formed, 
and congregations organized, though it was not until two years later that the 
Presbyterians erected the first church edifice in the town. 

Politics had by this time assumed some degree of prominence, if not 
regarded as a staple commodity, and leaders were found, representing opposing 
sentiments, who attracted a generous following and support. The Whigs con- 
tended for superiority, and the Democrats felicitated themselves in the belief 
that they were the sole possessors of an air-line route to future success. 

The towns tributary to Freeport were equally fortunate, though to a more 
limited extent. Those who, for reasons satisfactory to themselves, preferred to 
identify themselves with those of similar ambition without its growth, " skipped " 
the county seat, and wended their several ways to Winslow, Orangeville and 
other points advertising advantages of location and promise of future eminence. 
Both these places were building up, having been laid out, as already mentioned, 
in anticipation of that dawn of prosperity which came gradually but surely. 
The New England Land Company, through agents in one and private enter- 
prise in the other, had employed capital and labor in behalf of each with happy 
results. The history of neither of these points has ever been fruitful of events 
that would either immortalize the names of their founders or startle the nation ; 
but both offer the inducements of quiet, social, educational and refining influen- 
ces to the professional and mechanical representative, for homes afar from the 
busy haunts of trade, where the sunshine of days unborn may be reflected, 
beautifying the present and lighting up the future with rays of purity. 


FAMINE OF 1848. 

Such was the outlook, as it appeared to citizens and settlers in the fall of 
1847, and was prorogued into 1848. These encouraging signs gave birth to a 
new condition of things, and elicited the most enthusiastic expressions among 
men who reason correctly. The spring of 1848 opened with a revival 
of business, and some settlers came with its dawn. Trade and commerce, 
which had so short a time before only survived, were large, and agriculturists, 
who had previously been dependent upon purchasers at other points for the 
sales of their products and stores of supplies, found accessible markets at home. 
This year, it will be remembered, the great famine prevailed in Ireland, and 
America responded to the calls of their famishing brethren over the sea. Ste- 
phenson County then contained a large number of Irishmen, who contributed 
of their abundance to the relief necessitated by the afflictions at home. And 
this was not confined to that nationality, either. Though there does not seem 
to have been any concert of action throughout the county, or the convening of 
meetings for the purpose of inaugurating united action, the sympathies of the 
people were not backward of expressing themselves, in liberal donations to the 
needy and afflicted in Ireland. Charity, generosity and sympathy, a trinity of 
virtues that grace the composition of true manhood, were not then, nor have 
they ever been, found wanting among settlers in new countries, and those who 
created Stephenson County proved no exception to the rule. 


From 1837, the year during which Stephenson County was set apart from 
Jo Daviess, and civil government inaugurated, until the adoption of township 
organization, the county government was composed of three Commissioners, 
the first of which were Lemuel G. Streator, Isaac G. Forbes, and Julius Smith. 
This form of municipal government was maintained until 1850. 

The Constitution of Illinois, adopted March 6, 1848, and in force from 
and after April 1 of that year, declared that " the General Assembly shall 
provide, by a general law, for a township organization, under which any 
county may organize whenever a majority of the voters of such county, at any 
general election, shall so determine." 

At the session of the Legislature of 1849, the following act, providing for 
the proper organization of a township, by way of supplement to that quoted, 
was adopted : 

" Art. 1. Section 1. * * * * That at the next gen- 
eral election to be held in the several counties in this State, the qualified voters 
of each county may vote, for or against ' township organization ' in their 
respective counties," etc. 

Acting in obedience to these enactments, the constituted authorities issued 
a proclamation directing the holding of an election in Stephenson County, on 
the 5th day of November, 1849, for the purpose of indicating their adoption of 
the organization, provided for by the act cited. The opposition to this change 
in the form of government was neither numerous nor intense. There were some 
few, however, who were antagonistic to the proposed new order of affairs, but 
their votes of discord were drowned in the general acclamations which greeted 
its introduction, and at the election holden according to law, township organi- 
zation was accepted by a vote of 973 to 99. At the same election, George 
Purinton was elected County Judge, with George W. Andrews and Lewis 
Gibler, Associates; William Preston, County Clerk, and J. B. Smith, School 


These preliminaries having been disposed of, the county entered at once 
upon its changed plan of government, and little delay was experienced in 
adapting the same to immediate and successful practice. 

The officers elected under the law qualified, and the County Court was con- 
vened in December, the Hon. George Purinton presiding. At its first session, 
Levi Robey, Robert Foster and Erastus Torrey were appointed Commissioners 
to lay off and subdivide the county into townships, pursuant to the statute in 
such case made and provided, and proceeded to organize and discharge the 
duties imposed without the exercise of unnecessary delay. 

After some time employed in laying off the township boundaries, adjusting 
disputes and completing their work, the Commissioners appointed by the court 
submitted a report, detailing the result of their labors to have been the sub- 
division of the county as provided by law, into the following townships : Rock 
Grove, Oneco, Wislow, West Point, Waddams, Buckeye, Rock Run, Freeport, 
Lancaster, Harlem, Erin, Loran, Florence, Silver Creek and Ridott. The 
township of Harlem was subsequently changed to Wayne by Commissioner 
Torrey, but the change, having been made after the submission of the report, 
and being without authority, was never confirmed. 

This report was accepted, and on the 5th of November, 1850, the follow- 
ing-named persons were elected Supervisors for their respective towns : Jonathan 
Reitzell, Lancaster; C. G. Epley, Rock Run; James J. Rogers, Rock Grove; 
George Cadwell, Oneco ; Cornelius Judson, Winslow ; Michael Lawver, Wad- 
dams ; John Montelius, Buckeye ; Daniel Wilson, West Point ; William M. 
Buckley, Harlem ; John I. F. Harman, Erin ; Conrad Van Brocklin, Flor- 
ence ; Gustavus A. Farwell, Ridott ; Samuel McAfee, Silver Creek ; Hiram 
Hart, Loran, and E. S. Hanchett, Freeport. 

The first meeting of the board was convened on November 11, 1850, and 
its organization perfected by the election of John I. F. Harman as Chairman. 
The members of the board were all present except Hanchett, of Freeport, who 
was absent, and failing to qualify, John K. Brewster was appointed in his 
stead, and took his seat as Supervisor from Freeport. 

The number of townships in the county was afterward increased by the 
formation of new townships out of those created as follows, and the representa- 
tion augmented: On the 17th of March, 1856, the township of Kent was 
formed out of a part of Erin ; at the September meeting of the board for the 
same year, the township of Loran was subdivided, the western portion being 
organized into Jefferson, and, in 1860, the township of Dakota was formed by 
the appropriation of the eastern portion of Buckeye to its name and posses- 

From this on the organization has been preserved, and found to answer 
every expectation ventured in its behalf. 


During this year, as will be inferred by reference to the tally lists kept at 
the election held in November, the population had become "numerous" through- 
out the county. The towns had grown, as every one who watched the progress 
of events admitted. Mills had become fixtures, and supplied the markets with 
lumber, flour and meal. Farmers disposed of their crops, and merchants and 
speculators made investments that the rust of age would not corrupt, and held 
them for the " boom " that came in after years. 

About this time the California gold fever, which had been of an " intermit- 
tent " character since 1847, attacked Stephenson County residents with a 


violence that brooked no mitigation, and there were quite a number who pro- 
cured outfits and proceeded across the plains to the Sutter discoveries. The 
excitement was not confined to any particular portion, but distributed itself 
quite generally ; wherever a settler had established his claim the "fever" put 
in an appearance, and, unless immediately checked, most generally added to the 
number of its victims. The list who wandered into that comparatively undis- 
covered land, numbered nearly a hundred this year, among whom were many 
young men who could be ill spared from the fields, or the commercial and 
professional walks in which they had become familiar to the public. Many of 
fchose who went thither returned with a surfeit of experience and poverty. A 
number remained in the West and rose to prominence, occupying positions of 
executive, as also legislative and judicial honor, in the Territories. Several that 
were well known in the town of Freeport, where, for the times, they were prosper- 
ously engaged, dropped the certainty of future preferment for the uncertainties 
of success in this new field, and became residents of that city beside the blue 
waves of the bay which rolls outward through the Golden Gate to the Pacific. 
Here they seemed to fail of realizing their too sanguine hopes, and fled to the 
interior, where they might be able to acquire in the mines that denied them in 
the city by arduous toil. Finally, they disappeared from these scenes, and, 
emigrating to Mexico, as some have it, or to Nicaragua, as others insist, joined 
the filibusters and went down with Walker, the "gray-eyed man of destiny," in 
his hopeless campaigns. 

Among the rest, there went from Stephenson County, John Mease, Elmus 
Baker, B. T. Buckley, Charles Willet, John Kirkpatrick, William Vore, 
Onesimus Weaver, — Shutz, William Patterson, Alfred Cadwell, J. W. Shaffer, 
P. C. Shaffer, Joseph Carey, S. B. Farwell, Charles Bogar, Joseph Quest, 
William Young, Robert Hammond, Charles O'Neil, Horatio Hunt (about 
this time), Cameron Hunt, who became Governor of Colorado, and many others 
whose names cannot be recalled, and whose fate is not of record. 

The crusaders in pursuit of gold usually went in parties, but rendezvoused 
at Freeport to lay in their stock of supplies, reserving organization until they 
had departed from the last habitable location previous to entering the Indian 
country. When they had secured what their necessities called for, pending 
departure, they left homes and friends, and, " striking out " over the prairie, 
crossed Iowa and encamped at Omaha, where final arrangements were concluded, 
and the long, weary trip to this promising El Dorado entered upon. For a few 
years next succeeding, reports of their success and condition came at intervals, 
and in some cases were the opposite of rose-colored. Sometimes the friends 
of those who had gone were shocked at the news received, sometimes they were hope- 
ful ; at no time were they enthusiastic. Gradually, and in shreds and patches, 
the story of their lives, and, in some instances, the death that had befallen 
them, their trials and their triumphs, were detailed and combined to weave a 
story from the warp and woof of real life as pathetic as it had been disastrous, 
as discouraging as it was pitiful, with bright chapters of success and happiness 
interspersed among its somber pages like a glint of sunshine on a day in 

There were citizens of Stephenson County also who went to California 
through another — that is, they invested in outfits for others' benefits, and pro- 
vided the ways and means to enable them to reach the land of promise, with a 
specific understanding that they should participate in the profits ; but in nearly 
every instance this confidence was found to be misplaced, and the investment made 
by the too confiding capitalist became permanent, with all that the term implies. 


The effects of this emigration, while not discouraging to those who remained 
behind willing to labor and to wait, were not specially calculated to promote an 
extravagant enthusiasm. Large sums, comparatively, had been expended by 
the adventurers in the purchase of outfits, which created an increased volume of 
trade ; but this diminished with the departure of the purchasers, and a seeming 
paralysis affected the commercial and agricultural branches. Indeed, business 
was carelessly prosecuted, and there was an absence of spirit that was not pre- 
viously visible. The area of cultivation was measurably reduced in consequence 
of this exodus to California ; trade dragged, values were lowered, money 
became inconveniently scarce, and other evils followed in their wake. In fact, 
the effects that would naturally be produced on any settlement of substantially 
recent date by the withdrawal from its territory of fully one or two hundred 
residents, all young and able-bodied, was duplicated in Stephenson County. 

The fall gave place to winter, and that most inhospitable season of the 
year remained undisturbed by the happening of any accident or incident out of 
the sluggish current of events. Settlers drifted in during its course, and united 
with those already there in expressing confidence that the temporary dull times 
would give way to prosperous days with the return of spring, and the doubts 
and uncertainties, in the midst of which they then suffered, would be dissipated 
by the "logic of events." Buoyed up by such hopes, this dreary, inactive win- 
ter passed, and, as predicted, the county and its municipalities were granted a 
new lease of life. When spring blossoms came once more forth, the California 
fever had spent its force, and the county was rapidly convalescing' from the vio- 
lence of its attacks. Emigration was resumed, the new arrivals hailing from 
Pennsylvania and the Eastern States, and bringing with them, to supply the 
absence of material resources, the thrift, industry, and other characteristics of 
a people reared in a sterile section, where man's daily bread is indeed obtained 
in the sweat of his brow. 

In 1850, when the United States census was taken, the population of the 
county was quoted at 11,658, an increase of over 9,000 in ten years. Fifty 
private schools, with an average daily attendance of 2,000 scholars, had suc- 
ceeded to ten schools and 170 scholars in 1840. The improved lands in the 
county were estimated at 76,343 acres; lands unimproved aggregated upward 
of 280,000 acres. Farms in the county represented a valuation of $1,689,550, 
and farming implements, $108,000. There were four church edifices in the 
county, the most prominent being the brick Presbyterian Church, at the corner 
of Walnut and Stephenson streets, Freeport, and other improvements which 
might be included under the head of "public." This year there were 764,814 
bushels of grain of all kinds raised in the county, and the cultivation of fruit 
had assumed a reasonably gratifying prominence. 

During this decade, experiences similar to those which had previously 
greeted the county and its inhabitants, as also those of other sections, were 
endured and enjoyed. In 1850, a colony of Germans settled in Ridott Town- 
ship, and others who came at the same time, of the same race, became residents 
of townships immediately contiguous to and distant from the "tenting places" 
of their friends and countrymen, on the old State road, in the southeasternmost 
township of the county. 

The construction of the Galena & Chicago Railroad was progressing slowly, 
and that of the Illinois Central only awaited legislation before commencing. 

During the earlier years of the decade, beginning with 1850, pilgrims to 
California had, in some cases, given up their pursuit of gold, and returned 
home ; others, on whom the fickle goddess had smiled benignantly, evidenced 


the fruit of their labors by remittances to families and friends. In truth, there 
was a small per centage of liabilities incurred, and long since charged to P. and 
L., liquidated with the profits accruing from labor in the mines. 

In the city and county new faces were seen daily, and new arrivals for 
business noted in the weekly record of current events, which was then published 
by S. D. Carpenter, and known as the Prairie Democrat. Property, again, 
was regarded as increasing in value, new buildings were put up, both of brick 
and frame, commodious, substantial and appropriate to the purposes for which 
they were designed, was it either residence or business. In addition to these 
evidences of reviving prosperity, societies, both religious and secular, were 
organized ; associations, financial, commercial and social, were improvised and 
perfected. Thirteen years only had been required to accomplish what in days 
more remote had required, one might say, ages. In that period a wilderness 
had been converted into a garden. The iron age, in which man had been 
heated in the flames of adversity, and molded into form to combat opposition, 
had been converted into a golden age, when farms and factories resounded with 
the songs of rejoicing, when merchants were successful, and the cry of penury 
was silent in the land ; when schoolhouses were filled with ambitious youth, and 
churches with consistent worshipers. Law, science, ethics, politics and eloquence 
had their exponents among the inhabitants, and refinement and Christian 
humanity were possessions to which they held an indisputable title. 

There was nothing of moment worthy of perpetuation during this year ; 
business remained flourishing, and enterprises born of the encouraging season 
were ushered into being, with some confidence in the results. Migration began 
to resume somewhat of its former importance, and improved facilities for 
marketing products more than roused business men from the apathy of a 
former day. 


As is intimated, this decade dawned upon the county rich in fruition 
and promise. They were accepted and utilized, and that at a time when the 
inhabitants were on the eve of a calamity, in comparison with which war and 
famine can scarcely be mentioned. 

The Asiatic cholera made its first visitation to Stephenson County in 1850, 
again in 1852, and once more two years later. The first "epidemic" was 
limited to a few sporadic cases, and disappeared late in the season, without 
creating more than passing alarm. But it left its mark in the families from 
which members had laid down the burden of life and slept beneath the sod. 
When it repeated its calls in 1852, the people, immersed in business and agri- 
cultural pursuits, without taking thought of the morrow, not having been admon- 
ished by the hints dropped two years previous, were ill prepared for its advent. 
The health of the county was regarded as perfect, there being an exceptional 
freedom from the miasmatic maladies that had in early times prevailed, as sin- 
gular as it was gratifying. Nature smiled upon the landscape, and all the ele- 
ments combined to cultivate hope in the breasts of the people, who had for 
years toiled as the children of Israel, without reward or prospects. As the 
summer came, bringing with it the climatic excesses peculiar to the season, the 
disease began to manifest its presence in localities ordinarily healthful, as also 
subject to disease. The cases received prompt attention, but in the majority 
of instances terminated fatally. Remedies regarded as specifics for the malady 
produced no effect, the attack generally proving so violent that the system 
would become exhausted under its influence before the medicine could operate 


and induce reaction. Its origin could not be traced to any authentic cause, 
and its dissipation defied the efforts of physicians. Freeport was greatly 
afflicted, the deaths there reaching as high as eighteen in one day. Ridott 
Township, in the vicinity of Nevada, suffered grievously under the calls of the 
scourge, as did Kirkpatrick's Mills, and other points accessible to its approach. 
One gentleman, who was here in those days of tribulation, stated that there 
was scarcely a family on the old State road in which there was not one of its 
members down with the disease, dying or buried. Indeed, he represents the 
state of affairs as deplorable in the last degree. It may be imagined that dur- 
ing the existence of the plague, the inhabitants, terror-stricken at its approach 
and subsequent presence, with one accord fled from the wrath to come or when 
it rapped at his neighbor's door. This was not the case. Physicians and 
nm-ses for the sick were procurable at nearly all hours, and men and women 
attended to the calls of the dying and buried the dead with a tenderness and 
heroism which fully attested their Christian charity and spirit of self-sacrifice. 
Along in the fall, having run its course, the disease abated, and nothing of its 
visitation remained but the vacancies it had made in the home and by the fire- 
side, and the fresh-turned graves to be seen in the village churchyard. It 
looked in upon the people again in 1854, but left without repeating its observa- 
tions of 1852, and has since remained at an enchanting distance from this 

During the prevalence of the epidemic, business came to a standstill both in 
towns and the county. The streets of the former evidenced the blight that had 
fallen upon the surroundings, and the highways of the latter bore confirmation 
thereof. As a result, some who had come into the county with bright hopes and 
brighter prospects, died or fled before its approach ; others en route or contem- 
plating coming, turned back or abandoned the trip and remained at home. The 
population thus practically diminished, and an apprehension of the return of 
the disease with many dismayed the coming of those who would have been here 
the following spring. 


The building of the railroads was continued, however, notwithstanding 
these afflictions, and rapid progress was made on the lines having Freeport for 
their objective point. Early in the following year (1853) the Galena & Chicago 
Union had made such headway that contractors began laying the rails, and the 
people anticipated the whistle of the locomotive as an event of the near future. 
On the 23d of August a construction train crossed the Pecatonica and arrived 
in Freeport. This was the signal for enthusiastic rejoicings among merchants, 
farmers, and all, for all were interested in its success. These manifestations oi 
rejoicings but prefaced those evinced by the people when, on September 1 
following, passenger and freight trains were placed on the road, and the public 
were afforded means of communication they had longed for, prayed for, and 
extorted from soulless corporations and municipalities. 

The fight had been fought, the victory won, but not without the employ- 
ment of every available means and every accessible aid that could be invoked. 
The people saw everything that was made ; and behold, it was good. Those who 
had been instrumental in its procuration and completion, saw that it was good, 
and rejoiced also. A new era in the history of the county was born indeed. 
Thenceforward her career was upward and onward, without one interposing 
obstacle or one element that would prevail to prevent its advance. 


The benefits which accrued by the completion of this improvement were 
not altogether gradual nor insubstantial, but rather instant and permanent. The 
road was made the channel for an influx of emigration, in comparison with which 
the number who had come previously were as visitors. Lands increased in 
value beyond all precedent, and no one could escape the conclusion that Ste- 
phenson County, both from its geographical position and physical resources, 
would become one of the most populous and wealthy counties in the State. It 
is an interesting fact, and one beyond dispute, that no inland county in the 
State increased in population in a larger ratio during the ten years previous to 
the census taken in 1850. This was due to the causes cited; i. e., the supe- 
rior qualities of the soil for agricultural purposes, the abundance of timber, 
beautiful rolling prairies, excellent water, abundant water-power for manufact- 
uring purposes, and, general good health ; and, when the county and its towns 
became intimately connected with the rest of mankind, it was an event of no 
ordinary importance. 

For many years the citizens had been subjected to all the inconveniences 
of an imperfect business connection with the East, and had borne them patiently. 
The merchants had been compelled to transport their purchases made from 
farmers a distance of 120 miles over imperfect roads, and often met with loss in 
the sales effected. The farmers submitted to the same trials, intensified in some 
cases by the poverty of the victim. This state of things was now over, and the 
merchant and farmer were placed on an equal footing with contemporaries at 
the East. 

With increased facilities for business, men of capital visited the county, 
who invested and expended money in opening to the world and utilizing the 
almost inexhaustible resources that had remained undeveloped. This great 
agent of civilization and reform bound together distant portions of the country, 
made neighbors of those who would otherwise have remained strangers, harmo- 
nizing and mutualizing conflicting interests, and blending into one universal and 
harmonious effort, the desire and action of countries and communities for the 
realization of their highest and noblest hopes and aspirations. 

The Illinois Central was completed to Freeport early in September, and 
extended three miles beyond within a month. This was an additional incentive 
for rejoicing, and the people made much of it. As the county was benefited, 
so were the towns, and particularly the county seat. Freeport had been keeping 
pace with the time, growing with its growth, and strengthening with its strength. 
With no false excitement, calculated to throw her prosperity into the hands of 
speculators, the town had kept steadily on from a half a dozen houses, a few 
business men and a " gang of loafers," until her population at this period had 
increased from 1,036, in 1849, and 1,500, in 1850, to 3,000. This growth 
was not confined to an increase of inhabitants, but affected business and business 
accommodations. Instead of small store-rooms, with a peddler's pack of notions 
for stock, the town contained between thirty and forty large stores, some of 
them doing a business of between $30,000 and $40,000 per annum. In addition, 
there were churches and schools, not to mention saloons and kindred resorts, 
which, if they failed to testify to the quality of civilization encouraged, at least 
indicated its existence. 

Since the scream of the iron horse was first heard in the land, treasures of 
wealth and industry have been poured into the county, pointing out a present 
of usefulness and a future of greatness and prosperity. 



The year 1855 marked the turning point in the history of common-school 
education in the State. The first school established in the county had been 
commenced nearly twenty years previous, when a very small class assembled at 
Ransomburg, and Miss Jane Goodhue sought the instruction of its members in 
a knowledge of the alphabet and words of two syllables. During the interven- 
ing period, labors in the cause of education had been constant and profitable. 
From this solitary class as a beginning, schools had been established all over 
the county, and were doing the work allotted them, as civilizers, effectively. 
The influence created by their existence and efforts had been of the most ben- 
eficent and extended character, and was enlisted without regard to minor details. 
But this was not brought about save by the indefatigable labors of zealous men. 
The schools in Stephenson County were at first supported by private subscrip- 
tion, and so continued for many years, or until the expenses incident thereto 
were provided for by legislative enactment. The Legislature of 1844 made 
some imperfect provision for maintaining the schools, which were supplemented 
by amendments in 1847, again in 1849, once more in 1851, and finally in 1855, 
when a law embracing all the essential principles of previous enactments was 
adopted. Among these was the sovereign right of the State to levy and collect 
a sufficient tax from the real and personal property within its jurisdiction, to 
be expended in furnishing its youth a common-school education. The tax, how- 
ever, proved oppressive to some counties, and this portion of the law was sought 
to be repealed, without results, for it remains the vital principle of that law 
to-day. As a consequence of this course, there is not a township in the county 
but what is supplied with one or more schools, in which scholars between the 
ages of six and twenty-one years can avail themselves of the privileges therein 

There were many causes, at first, to retard the progress of the present 
system, which, however, proceeding, as a rule, from a class of persons who are 
never found in the van of reform and are always opposed to experiment, because 
experiment involves change, was neither pronounced nor prolonged. An 
unfriendly disposition was manifested by some, who apprehended that the system 
was prematurely inaugurated, and the ability of the people too limited to pro- 
vide for its support. The fear of an annual assessment operated to restrain 
others from its enthusiastic support — the tax would be onerous and oppressive ; 
other opposition, it is said, existed, proceeding from caste; and the rebellion 
added materially to attracting from the system which, nevertheless, has obtained 
in Stephenson County not more satisfactorily than elsewhere. It has not 
accomplished everything that could be desired, yet, in view of the hindrances 
with which it has been beset, it has accomplished much, and as a public agency 
for the dissemination of knowledge, intelligence and virtue, it has commended 
its merit to opponents and supporters indiscriminately. 

The support of the schools, according to the act of 1855, and subsequent 
amendments, is derived, first, from the State fund created and maintained by 
the levy of certain assessments for educational purposes, upon the real and 
personal property listed in the State, which is paid out to schools pro rata, 
according to the number of children in each district less than twenty-one years 
old ; second, by a distribution of the interest of a township fund, derived from 
the sale of the sixteenth section in the township, the proceeds of which have 
been invested for this purpose. The amount necessary to the support of the 
schools, over and above that provided as above set forth, is made up by the 
Directors of the school district to be benefited, bv whom it is certified to 


the Township Treasurer, thence to the County Clerk, by whom the amount 
certified is levied upon the real and personal property of the district. 

The following statistical summary, for the year 1879, shows the result of 
common-school efforts in the county for that year : 


Number of males under twenty-one years of age 8,033 

Number of females under twenty-one years of age 8,021 

Whole number under twenty-one years of age 16,054 


Number of males between six and twenty-one 5,547 

Number of females between six and twenty-one 5,606 

Total 11,153 


Whole number of school districts 148 

Average number of months school sustained 6.88 


Number male pupils enrolled 4,363 

Number female pupils enrolled 4,329 

Total number enrolled 8,692 


Total number male teachers 125 

Total number female teachers 166 

Total of teachers .' 291 


Number of graded schools 11 

Number of high schools 3 

Number of ungraded schools 141 

Number of private schools 5 

Total schools 160 


Number of stone schoolhouses 24 

Number of brick schoolhouses 31 

Number of frame schoolhouses 98 

Total number of schoolhouses 153 


Whole number between the ages of twelve and twenty-one unable to read and 
write 10 


Balance on hand October 1, 1878 $21,237 45 

Amount of State and county funds received 13,460 54 

Amount of interest on township fund 2,797 64 

Amount of special district taxes 33,476 44 

Amount from sale of school property 77 75 

Amount from sale of district bonds 101 00 

Amount of railroad and other taxes 1,688 47 

Amount for tuition 183 71 

Amount from all other sources 200 00 

Total $73,223 00 



Amount paid male teachers $18,976 07 

Amount paid female teachers 11,348 79 

Amount paid for new schoolhouses 966 27 

Amount paid for school sites and grounds 77 00 

Amount paid for furniture 352 32 

Amount paid for apparatus 62 45 

Amount paid for fuel and incidentals 4,599 10 

Amount paid Township Treasurers 1,214 76 

Amount paid interest on notes 97 33 

Amount paid principal of notes 655 66 

Amount paid for repairs and improvements 2,729 14 

Amount paid for other expenses 4,299 04 

Total $45,377 93 

Highest monthly wages paid male teacher $160 00 

Highest monthly wages paid female teacher 60 00 

Lowest monthly wages paid male teacher 18 00 

Lowest monthly wages paid female teacher 8 00 

Average monthly wages paid male teachers 39 65 

Average monthly wages paid female teachers 23 47 

Whole number of examinations for certificates held during the year 15 

Male applicants for first grade 15 

Male applicants for second grade f 141 

Female applicants for first grade 7 

Female applicants for second grade 209 

First-grade certificates issued 14 

Second-grade certificates issued 199 

Number of schools visited by Superintendent 141 

Grand total number of drays' attendance of pupils 750,295 

No course of study for the schools has been adopted, but much attention 
has been given to proper classification. While the schools are by n<3 means 
graded, yet there is a tendency on the part of teachers to systematize their 
work. There is almost a uniformity in text-books used in the different schools, 
which does much toward taking the place of a course of study. 

Instruction in most of the schools is confined to the common-school 
branches. Teachers are becoming more skilled in the use of text-books, and 
have abandoned that slavish system which consists in memorizing the text-books 
only. The aim in all work done is to make the pupil master of the elements of 
an education that will benefit him the most, and prepare him for the duties of 
■after life. In these efforts the teacher is yearly becoming more successful. 

During the past twenty years, county institutes have been held in various 
parts of the country. These have been faithfully conducted, and are among the 
most useful means employed for the teachers' improvement. They have ordi- 
narily continued one week, and the ablest talent to be found in the State has been 
usually called in to assist, and, though the attendance of teachers has never been 
made compulsory, the number present has varied from 100 to 160 at each session. 

This system was not deemed sufficient, and, in 1879, a Normal Institute was 
established, holding one term of four weeks, from July 14 of each year. The 
enrollment reached 128, and was attended with the most satisfactory results to 
all concerned. Township institutes have been conducted in a number of places 
in the county, all tending toward one great object— better teachers, and with 
them better schools. 


Such was the condition of affairs when the spring of 1857 aroused the 
inhabitants of the county from their season of hibernation to renewed labor, 
and a faith in the future intensified by experience. As spring graduated into 
summer and the heated term was drawing to its close, appearances failed to 


indicate the coming of the storm that threatened to involve the entire country in ruin. 
During the latter part of August, the suspension of the Life Insurance and 
Trust Company at Cincinnati, with liabilities quoted at five millions, came with 
unexpected suddenness, and created a havoc in financial ranks from which 
recovery has only been accomplished after years of industry, pluck and unmeas- 
ured confidence. This crash was succeeded by others, as is well known, with 
similar depressing and ruinous results. These warnings preceded the advance 
of the foe into the West, and caused people to reflect on what might be in store 
for them. There were many, doubtless, admonished by their prophetic souls of 
what was coming ; but, a majority, flattering their peace of mind with the 
thought that the city and county would escape unscathed, declined to outline 
their connections regarding impending troubles until too late to provide any 
remedy to mitigate their severity. There were some, however, who saw the 
horizon dark and portentous with the coming storm, and put their house in 
order to resist its violence. When it came, as a consequence, if not protected 
entirely, they were sufficiently so as to escape permanent paralysis. 

Its immediate presence was first manifested by the falling-off in trade, the 
absence of new arrivals, the depreciation in property values, and other insignias 
of coming calamities which, though strange to the West and her people, carried 
with them a dread of what was to follow in their wake. Soon after, more pro- 
nounced symptoms were to be observed. Lots and lands were without markets, 
and none but the choicest of either was worth the cost of assessment. Vision- 
aries, who had dwelt in castles constructed by fancy, fled from the scene of 
their creations, appalled at the storm which they had aided in provoking. Sub- 
stantial merchants, who heard the muttering, hastily, and in every instance 
when it*was too late, sought to take their latitude and ascertain how far they could 
be driven from their true course and yet survive. Nearer and nearer approached 
the crisis, closer and closer came the advance of that intangible agency, which 
was to wreck so many hopes, strand so many enterprises and commit the fruits 
of years of labor to an adversity both remediless and hopeless. 

The crash succeeded these premonitions of its coming, and carried all 
before it. Hundreds were irretrievably ruined in an hour, and men who felic- 
itated themselves upon the possession of resources, ascertained, when beyond 
salvation, that these resources were unavailable. Some survived, but the 
majority went down in the storm, and were heard of no more. 

The events which followed this crisis are familiar to many who are alive 
to-day. Gloom and discouragement usurped the places of hope and prosperity. 
Farm lands were cultivated only that the necessaries of life might be harvested. 
In some remote instances they lay idle. There was no money in the country, 
and this absence of a circulating medium prevented the sale of the crops. Mer- 
chants, for similar reasons, were unable to buy or sell commodities, and the 
most terrible distresses followed, threatening almost permanent poverty, if 
not complete annihilation. In 1861, when the war broke out, there was a 
brief revival of business and exchange for a season, which gave a temporary 
impetus to trade, but in a brief time business resumed its sluggish channel. 
Thus were cast the lines of life in Stephenson County — not in pleasant places, 

Inquiry was instituted to discover, if possible, the cause of these unfor- 
tunate effects, and the endeavor made to ascertain if their recurrence could be 
prevented. In all former revulsions, it was reasoned, the blame might be fairly 
attributed to a variety of co-operating causes, but not in the case under con- 
sideration. There were no patent reasons for the failures, of which that of the 


trust company was the beginning, a failure unequaled in its extent and dis- 
astrous results since the collapse of the United States Bank. Reasonings in- 
duced the conclusion that the ruin which at one time hung over the country 
and the people, was due almost entirely to the system of paper currency and 
bank credits, exciting wild speculations and gambling in stocks. So long as 
the amount of the paper currency, bank loans and discounts of the country 
should be left to the discretion of irresponsible banking institutions, which, from 
the very law of their nature, consult the interests of the stockholders rather 
than the public, a repetition of these experiences would come at intervals. 
This had been the financial history of the country for years. It had been a 
history of extravagant expansions followed by ruinous contractions. At suc- 
cessive intervals the most enterprising men had been tempted to their ruin by 
bank loans of mere paper credit, exciting them to speculations and ruinous and 
demoralizing stock operations. In a vain endeavor to redeem their liabilities 
in specie, they were compelled to contract their loans and their issues, and when 
their assistance was most needed, they and their debtors sank into insolvency. 

Deplorable, however, as were the prospects, the people indulged in bright 
hopes for the future. No other nation ever existed which could have endured 
such violent expansions and contractions of the currency, and live. But the 
buoyancy of youth, the energies of the people, and the spirit which never quails 
before difficulties, enabled the country to recover from this financial embarrass- 
ment. Its coming was long delayed, but it came at last and dissipated the 
troubles existent, without permitting the people to forget the lesson these 
troubles inculcated. 

The wheat crop of 1861 was sold for gold and silver, and, though the price 
paid was comparatively less than was expected, it was the beginning of the end of 
the crisis. As the war continued, and fresh levies were made upon the State 
and county, the demand for supplies increased proportionately, and necessitated 
their production. The demand augmented almost with every month, until in 
1863 it had become so generous that it seemed as if the denials and privations 
of the people were about to yield precedence to days of plenty. The crops were 
constantly on the move, money became easier, and merchants experienced diffi- 
culty in keeping pace with the wants of their customers. Lands increased in 
value, and the area upon which cultivation had been wholly or in part aban- 
doned, was replanted and harvested with profit. The towns also revived under 
these benign influences, and that better days had come indeed, was a conclusion 
both cheerful and universal. 

The experiences through which this people passed in these years of woe, 
were not, however, without results to the county and city, which have proved 
advantageous and beneficial. Speculators, adventurers, soldiers of fortune and 
visionaries were weeded out. The dross was separated from the pure gold ; the 
country was shorn of its superficial inhabitants, and men only remained, consoling 
compensations for the ruin that had been wrought, who are motive powers 
by which communities are sustained and characters for manhood and integrity 

The decade in which were included occurrences of which mention has been 
made, consisted of a series of years, characterized by events, as has been 
seen, which tended to the civilization of the age, the education of the world by 
example, and the discipline of humanity by experience. Commencing at a 
period in the history of Stephenson County, when the days of trial were yield- 
ing place to more auspicious seasons, running the gauntlet of an experience both 
varied and checkered, and closing amid surroundings calculated both to encourage 


and approve, illustrates how nations, peoples and communities, like indi- 
viduals, are subject to causes and motions, to results and promises, as unex- 
pected as they are gratifying, and as incomprehensible as they are irresistible. 

The ensuing ten years were passed in war and rumors of war by the nation, 
in which the county, through its volunteers, enacted the role assigned them in 
this drama for real life, with a fidelity that has commanded perpetual applause. 
When the war began its initial struggles with peace, not a few of those who 
subsequently became identified with the contest, hoped for a peaceable solution 
of the difficulties that threatened to result in separation, and discouraged the 
expectation of war. The maintenance of the Union and enforcement of the 
laws was urged without dissent, but many believed that these objects cculd be 
better accomplished by the employment of influences other than those sought 
to be invoked. 

During these inaugural struggles a temporal prosperity was shadowed in 
the near future, and, notwithstanding the signs of depression apparent in every 
department of local progress, this promise was not without a prospect of realiza- 
tion at an early day. Business to some extent was restored, but it was up-hill 
work, and enterprises hesitated before development, with more of apprehension 
than had ever before been felt. Emigration had come in with the railroads years 
previous, and the county was generally settled ; yet increased facilities for trade 
and an extended territory only partially roused business men from their coma 
condition of despondency, and but partially revived corporations that had 
become lifeless through inactivity and embarrassments. What a contrast to 
ten years before ! " 'Twas Greece, but living Greece no more." The contrast 
struck a chill into many a saddened heart, and not a few, still revolving the 
changed condition of affairs, turned themselves adrift, " the wide world before 
them where to choose." 

When the surrender of Sumter cut off all hope of compromising the exist- 
ing differences and compelled a decision as to what side should command their 
support, the people of Stephenson County, like the rushing of a mighty wind, 
became united in their tender of support to the Federal authorities. There was 
no half-way sympathy and love manifested for the Union ; it was united and 
complete. Treason was made odious ; its toleration not permitted. The war 
brought with it, at home and in the field, the same features witnessed elsewhere. 
The lives of the citizens were cast in patriotic grooves ; pronounced in the sup- 
port of the cause, in procuring the enlistment of troops ; and all that loyal 
impulse prompted or could accomplish was done to remind the volunteers that 
those who remained behind were waiting and watching on their return. The 
soldiers who left their lives on the field of battle, in the hospitals or prisons, in 
putting off the corruptible and assuming the immortal, are not forgotten, but 
remembered as their forms seem to fade away through the gloaming when the 
sunlight filters through green leaves and hazy clouds. 

'Tis now a score of years since a war for the perpetuation of a nation 
" conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created 
free and equal," was commenced and fought to the end. The lessons taught 
have been as varied as the races which mingled in the contest. They are not 
confined in their benefits to States, districts or counties; but every locality 
inhabited by Americans is vested with the admonitions they embody. The 
people and the army, in which Illinois, Stephenson County and the towns within 
her borders, were prominent integers, are truly celebrated, less so for the sup- 
pression of war equally disastrous as the invasion of foreign levies, than for exter- 
minating in America the causes which precipitated its advent and continuance. 


The effects of the war were to increase the volume of business in this 
vicinity, creating demands for future consignments, and supplying resources for 
the revival and conducting of business. There was no immigration into the 
county worthy of mention immediately after the close of the last act in the 
bloody drama at Appomattox Court House, where the Confederate Government 
became a thing of the past, and for years the places of soldiers who came not 
back were left unfilled. Emigrants and speculators passed by on the roads 
which pass through the county, but, instead of halting, pushed onward to the 
gold fields of Colorado, deeming the uncertainties of a life amid the surroundings 
of wealth, the procurement of which was a " lottery," with associations which are 
measured by their excesses rather than their absence, far preferable to comfort, 
contentment, and a moderate income on the borders of civilization. 

When peace resumed dominion over the entire country, many of the 
evils that follow in the wake of war were far from dissipated, and if not miti- 
gated by the influences its coming exerted, were at least tempered. There were 
towns in the county which had sprung into existence with the railroads ; in these, 
the breaking out of the war caused the suspension of operations. If none of 
these retrograded, none improved to any appreciable extent ; and, if none 
amassed wealth, none contracted liabilities which involved them in bankruptcy. 
After the war, building was resumed and trade increased. Elevators were 
erected, banks established, operators from abroad came in, and these, with other 
combinations, laid the foundation for shipments of cereals and live-stock, that 
have grown into a magnitude and importance that can scarcely be approxi- 

Freeport, more benefited by the war in limine, experienced more sensibly 
the effects of the reaction when the "flush " of trade was over. The drain 
upon its resources, as a result of the panic, had not been fully balanced, and 
the " spurt" in business the war excited, though temporary, was sufficient to, in 
a measure, compensate for the long season of dullness and inactivity, then at 
its height. From thence on trade gradually revived, until it boomed in 1865 
when soldiers returned with money. Considerable was put in circulation by them, 
and a suspicion that hard times had gone away to return no more was generally 

Improvements were made all over the county between 1860 and 1870, and 
of a superior order in every particular. The houses are patterns of comfort, 
being composed of brick and frame, and the beauty and finish of the surround- 
ings are only surpassed by the domestic felicities found within doors. 

The system of agriculture had undergone great changes since the days 
when the farmer cultivated four acres of ground and harvested his crop for 
home consumption, and these changes are not completed in this day, either. 
Mechanical skill and genius had conspired to place the farmer in as independ- 
ent an attitude with regard to the cost of labor and, consequently, productions, as 
the manufacturer. He ploughed, sowed, cultivated, reaped, bound, stacked and 
thrashed with machinery. Money that was paid to hands for performing these 
various duties ten years before, was then appropriated to the cultivation of the 
farm and supplying it with superior strains of blood for the improvement of 
stock, for the erection and furnishing of commodious homes, the education of 
the young idea, and the many other purposes which for years had been denied 
the people by reason of their inability to pay therefor. 

Throughout the county, while private enterprise had not been delayed, 
public improvements became equally as numerous and valuable. Roads were 
opened, graded and made available, streams "dammed" or drained as the 


necessities of trade or health demanded, railroad enterprises inaugurated and 
carried to a finality, and other advances made along the line of progress. 

The system of education adopted in 1855, was working with benefits to all 
who came within the circle of its influence, and the cause of religion was ably 
sustained, both in the city and county. 

Politically, the county became more pronouncedly Republican with each 
succeeding year. In early days, as has been noted, the Whig and Democratic 
parties were the rival organizations, under whose direction the political affairs 
of the county were manipulated. This continued without change until 1856,. 
when the birth of the Republican party absorbed a majority of the Whig element, 
together with a limited number of anti-slavery Democrats. These successors 
to the organizations of the old regime flourished up to the breaking out of the 
war with varying success. During the continuance of that struggle the Repub- 
lican party gained a very decided ascendancy, notwithstanding the Democrats 
maintained strict party lines. Some opposition was manifested by the latter 
while the contest lasted, but it never-became organized, and obtained no decided 
prominence in the community. Since the war the Republicans have remained 
in the ascendant, and to-day control the offices, influence and patronage in the 
county, by a majority estimated at 500. 

The inhabitants of the county are composed of the best classes of all 
nationalities. The farmers are intelligent, scientific workers, as a rule inde- 
pendent, with many of them wealthy, cultivating from 160 to 700 acres of 
land, and raising crops which command ready sale and at the best market rates. 
The merchants are enterprising, substantial, responsible and honorable men, 
who add to the character of the population not less than to the wealth of the 
communities in which they reside. The professions are represented by men of 
dignity, capacity and intelligence, many of whom have won distinction on the 
bench, where their opinions have shed a luster upon the pages of jurisprudence in 
Illinois, and at the bar, where their reasoning power and superior judgment have 
commanded admiration ; as physicians, whose advice and opinions have been 
accepted as authority on the subject-matter to which they relate; as ministers 
of the gospel, whose charity illustrates the greatest of virtues ; as editors, the 
conservators of public opinion and public morality ; and in the less prominent 
walks of life, her citizens have evinced the possession of those characteristics 
which constitute the composition of men who make a State. 

During the past ten years the new court house has been completed and 
occupied, and improvements of great value and utility supplied the place of 
imperfect machinery. Railroads and highways afford easy access to the East, 
West, North and South, and all things have combined to render the happiness 
and prosperity of the people universal. 

One can hardly realize the changes that have been wrought in this section 
of Northern Illinois in less than a half-century. A brief interval has elapsed 
since the county was a wilderness inhabited by the Indians; where the county 
seat now stands was located the village of Winneshiek and his tribe. A 
remarkable, indeed miraculous, change has come since then, due in part to the 
careful and laborious thrift of the people, as also to the broad-gauge principle 
upon which business is conducted. The golden-clad fields, laden at this season 
of the year with plenteous harvests, indicate the fertility of the soil, and how 
Nature has endowed these broad prairies. Nor has she been sparing in her con- 
tributions of beautiful scenery; a more exquisite panorama than is to be seen 
from eligible points in Stephenson County, the eye never rested upon. From 
elevations in West Point Township a more delightful landscape can scarcely be 


imagined; stretching away to the south and west are a range of mounds, cross- 
ing Apple River to Galena; in the extreme west Sinsiniwa Mound lifts its head, 
crowned with age ; to the northwest a range of hills, in which the glistening 
ore of commerce is said to lie imbedded ; away to the north a line of mounds 
greets the gaze, while off toward Mineral Point lies a belt of woodland, defining 
the course of the Pecatonica. 

With railroad facilities for communication with the East and North and 
South, the county is placed in direct connection with markets and places of 
resort, as also in a position with refei'ence to the future that admits of no mis- 
understanding. Banks and commercial establishments flourish where once the 
Indian met in council, and farms are cultivated where once he pursued the 
fleeing game. 

So, too, in moral, intellectual and educational improvements, the people 
have kept pace with the times. Churches, schools, libraries and other avenues 
of improvement are open to the admission of all who may seek their portals, acces- 
sible to whomsoever may apply for permission to avail himself of the privileges. 

The old settlers of to-day are scarcely able to realize the changes that 
have been made and the improvements completed since they first came into this 
new country, when they were younger than they are now. The past rises up 
before them in characters of life-like fidelity, reminding them of days long since 
moldering with the dead, and of friends years ago entombed in Mother Earth. 
Again they are at their place of birth, the home of their nativity, sanctified by 
a mother's presence and a mother's love. They are carried back to the dav, 
when, cutting loose from that home and its sacred associations, they took up the 
burden of life and began their weary pilgrimage across its sands and drifts. 
They recall the day when, weary and footsore, but exuberant with youth and 
hope and determination, they came upon the scene, and, gazing out upon the 
landscape, rejoiced at the spectacle which greeted their vision. The scene 
itself is pictured to them as they saw it then, in all the exquisite beautv of its 
rural simplicity; immense forests, wherein the foot of man ne'er left its im- 
press; boundless prairies, flowing in the colors of variegated blossoms. No 
genial spirit welcomed them to the hospitalities of a home, no cheerful notes of 
gladness were sounded at their approach. The stillness of solitude, and soli- 
tude itself, alone awaited their acceptance and guarded them against the advance 
of human foes. 

But the wand of progress touches the wilderness, and it falls never to hop e 
more. It touches the rolling prairies, and they are changed into fruitful fields ; 
it touches the solitudes and peoples them with a race whose career has been 
marked with success at every mile-stone on the route. What a change, what 
a wonderful change, has been worked by the ingenuity and industry of man ! 
The forest has yielded precedence, and the wilderness become sources of wealth. 
The rolling prairie has been converted into productive fields, and the harvest 
song is heard where once the war-cries of the savages resounded. 

The past ten years have been years of profit to the county and its inhab- 
itants. Buildings have gone up, improvements concluded and much been accom- 
plished. The county has had little to discourage its advance during the past 
ten years less to prevent a full and complete fruition in the future. The 
county is completely out of debt, with resources almost unlimited, and of an 
excellence beyond comparison. The prosperity that came with time was accom- 
panied by refining influences also ; and the county, having passed that period 
in the history of great endeavors when failure is to be apprehended, is drawing 
nearer and nearer unto a perfect day. 



Court House. — On the 6th of December, 1837, Hon. Thomas J. Turner,, 
since deceased, at that time a carpenter and joiner, concluded a contract with 
Lemuel W. Streeter, Isaac G. Forbesand Julius Smith, County Commissioners, 
to build a court house and jail on the site of the present edifice, in the square 
bounded by Stephenson street, Galena avenue, Bridge and Van Buren streets. 
During the winter of 1837-38, the timbers for the old court house were hewn in> 
the woods, under the immediate supervision of Julius Smith. These completed, 
the same were " framed " and erected, standing from 1838 to 1870, and, with 
the exception of the sill beneath the front door, which had long been exposed to- 
the weather, not a timber decayed. That plain old temple of justice, when 
built, surpassed in size and elegance all other buildings west of Detroit and 
north of St. Louis, but long since the county outgrew it, and, like some of the 
old settlers, it was obliged to take up the line of march to humbler quarters. 
Within its bar, in early times, gathered men whose names have become histori- 
cal, including Thomas Drummond. Joseph L. Hoge, Thompson Campbell, 
Joseph Knox, James L. Loop, Jason Marsh, Martin P. Sweet, Sefch B. Farwell, 
Benjamin R. Sheldon and others, the latter presiding therein as Circuit Judge 
for the space of twenty years. 

This old building served its purpose well until advancing civilization, 
increased prosperity and population demanded that the abode of justice should 
be somewhat in harmony with the surroundings, when steps were inaugurated 
which were concluded with the erection of the present edifice. 

On the 27th of April, 1869, the first practicable movement was made 
toward the object in hand. The Board of Supervisors at that time was made 
up of Ralph Sabin, A. A. Babcock, Charles H. Rosenstiel, John M. Williams,. 
George Osterhout, J. A. Grimes, John Burrell, C. F. Mayer, H. H. Becker, 
Francis Boeke, James McFatrick, S. K. Fisher, Peter Marlin, James A. Tem- 
pleton, H. 0. Frankeberger, Andrew Hinds and Samuel Wilber, and, on 
motion, the committee appointed to receive plans and specifications was con- 
tinued, with instructions to procure the same for a new court house at an 
expense not to exceed $80,000. 

At the next session of the board, the plans and specifications of E. E. 
Myers were adopted, and on February 22, 1870, the committee reported that it 
had closed a contract to erect the new court house with A. Walbaum & Co. t 
which was also adopted, and the chairman authorized to execute the contract 
on behalf of the people. On the 23d of April following, S. K. Fisher, Ralph 
Sabin, George Osterhout, A. P. Goddard, Peter Marlin and Andrew Hinds 
were appointed the Building Committee, and arrangements were completed for 
the laying of the corner-stone, which occurred during the summer of the same 
year. From that event no delay in the building was experienced, the same 
being labored upon uninterruptedly until its dedication on the 22d of February, 
1873, after which the undertaking was delivered into the hands of the county 
authorities complete in every particular, and costing a total for building and 
furnishing, of $130,413.56. 

The design was furnished by E. E. Myers, of Springfield, 111. The style 
of architecture should properly be called American, and the artist has dis- 
played an exquisite taste in blending the different styles to combine the useful 
and ornamental, and to give the whole the appearance of grandeur both simple 
and bold. The building is of stone, from the crystalline marble quarries, 
99x80, four stories high, including basement, which is six feet above grade 
line, the upper story being known as the Mansard or French style. 


The entrance fronting on Stephenson street, is reached by a flight of marble 
steps, and opens into a lobby, thence to corridors, leading to the Clerk's, 
Recorder's, Sheriff's and Treasurer's offices, County Court room and Board of 
Supervisors. A broad, open flight of stairs leads to the next floors above, on 
which are located the State's Attorney's, Surveyor's and other offices, together 
with the Circuit Court room. The style adopted in the interior finish of the 
building is Corinthian, the wood finish being walnut with white ash inlaid. 
The Circuit Court room is 56x76 and 28 feet high, frescoed in oil, and finished 
in the highest style of the art. From this floor two flights of stairs lead to 
the upper story, which comprehends six rooms, designed for consultation and 
jury rooms, and from this floor the dome is reached, containing the clock, and 
affording to visitors an unsurpassed view of the surrounding country. 

The clock was placed in the tower by A. W. Ford immediately upon its 
completion, and is conveniently accessible to those who desire to see it in 
motion. It weighs 2,000 pounds, with a pendulum eight and a half feet 
long, and weights necessary to running the clock aggregating 950 pounds. 
It was built by Seth Thomas & Sons, of Connecticut, and is famous not only 
for its beauty and finish, but also for its regularity and accurate time. 
The bell was also furnished by A. W. Ford, from the foundry of E. A. & G. R. 
Meneley, of Troy, N. Y. ; weighs 1850 pounds,, and is of superior tone. 

The old court house still remains intact, occupying the northwest cor- 
ner of Clay and Adams streets, where it is used as a tobacco warehouse. The 
new court house is a source of admiration to strangers as well as citizens, and 
is in truth and in deed a temple of justice, where the rights of the widow and 
orphan are guarded, and the heritage left them by the dead is saved from the 
avarice of the living. No bonds were ever issued, and no debt hangs over the 
county for the cost of its erection. No law-suits or entanglements have grown 
out of the work, and none can or will, as everything was fully settled and 
adjusted on the day when its formal dedication took place. 

County Jail. — The first jail erected in the county was that, doubtless, 
built under the supervision of Thomas J. Turner, under his contract made with 
the County Commissioners in 1839. The building was commenced during the 
same year, but remained incomplete and so uninhabitable for some time that 
the citizens were often obliged to shoulder their guns and stand guard, to pre- 
vent the escape of prisoners. It was built of logs, after the most primitive, not 
to say original, style of architecture, and occupied the present site of the high 
school, where it remained until the actual necessities of the case compelled the 
authorities to seek more commodious and secure quarters. In early days, 
counterfeiters, horse-thieves and the felonious scum, it might be said, indige- 
nous to a new settlement, were here in force, and, as a consequence, the little 
log jail was almost constantly filled to repletion with these classes of citizens, 
awaiting trial or transportation. The jail was the reverse of secure, and its 
occupants the opposite of obtuse, and upon every occasion they made it apparent 
to the freeholders about Freeport that, unless extraordinary diligence was prac- 
ticed, the building could not be held responsible for the retention of those incar- 
cerated. This knowledge led to the organization of a " night watch," it is 
said, who paced their beats about the jail at an hour when graveyards yawn, as 
a security against being revisited and depredated upon by those who were tem- 
porarily immured in its Chillon-like dungeons. In time, this was relieved of 
that spice of variety it added to frontier life, and the decision was made to 
remove into a stone jail, to the rear of the present structure, corner of Bridge 
street and Galena avenue. Possession was taken thereof as soon as the 


premises could be adapted to the occupation of criminals, and, as it was deemed 
impossible to escape from, no thought was taken of the possible repetition of 
experiences suffered in the log jail. For some years this flattering unction 
was enjoyed, when a lapse in the habits of the officers, or inability of the prem- 
ises to longer retain the prisoner panting for liberty, caused a ripple of excite- 
ment, and induced a conclusion in the minds of citizens that in the jail con- 
struction things were not entirely as they seemed. Some fault existed which 
demanded immediate correction. Whatever this may have been, it was, pre- 
sumably, corrected, for no more complaints proceeding from similar causes arose, 
until recent years, when drafts upon the confidence of people in the stability 
and reliability of the "little stone jug" became so numerous and heavy that 
they were finally dishonored, in 1875. During the fall of that year, an exodus 
from the jail prompted the Supervisors to act decisively, at a meeting of that 
body convened on November 4, of that year, when a resolution for the build- 
ing of a new jail, to cost a sum not exceeding $35,000, was adopted nem con. 
This being passed, a committee, consisting of Andrew Hinds, F. A. Darling, 
John Erfert and J. H. Pierce, were appointed to procure specifications, and 
authorized to visit Rockford, Joliet, Dixon and a superior structure at Monroe, 
Wis., and, from their observations at these points, formulate plans to be 
employed in the construction of a jail that should be absolutely proof against 
the attempts of inmates. The visits were extended and the observations made, 
but the committee's report was without recommendation. 

Thereupon a contract was made with W. H. Myers, of Fort Wayne, Ind., 
for the building of the jail, which was undertaken, completed and occupied 
during 1876. The building is erected from plans furnished by T. J. Tolan & 
Son, architects, also of Fort Wayne, and is certainly as handsome, architect- 
urally, as it is represented as being substantial. It is built of brick and stone, 
contains the Sheriff's home and County Jail, and is an ornament to the city, 
as also an honor to the taste and skill of the builders. The jail proper is com- 
pleted in stone, containing accommodations for fourteen prisoners, and is every 
way comfortable and secure. The premises cost, completed, $40,553, and a 
glance at their arrangements will preclude a suspicion as to their strength, 
durability and security. 

The County Poor- House. — One of the first matters disposed of after the 
county of Stephenson had been set apart and organized, was provision for the 
poor and afflicted. At an early day a home was established for mendicants, in 
what now is Silver Creek Township, about two miles south of the city, which 
was occupied by paupers and the insane until February, 1859. 

On the night of Friday, February 28, of that year, the poor house was 
burned to the ground, and Lavina Kohn, one of the inmates, met a horrible 
death, while Elizabeth Smiley, also a pauper, was badly burned. The fire, it 
seems, originated in the room occupied by Lavina Kohn, who, on account of the 
impossibility of restraining, was placed in an apartment by herself, under lock 
and key. The evening of the fire, Mrs. Wilson, the Matron, made her rounds of 
the building, previous to retiring, and found everything secure. Some time 
after, the alarm was sounded, and being without effective means for subduing 
the flames, the building was destroyed, entailing a loss of $3,523.95, upon which 
there was no insurance. 

The Board of Supervisors convened on March 1, and adopted a resolu- 
tion providing for the issue of $4,000 in bonds, to be appropriated to the 
rebuilding of the premises. The same were begun at once, completed in time, 
and are still used. The almshouse proper is a large two-story stone structure, 


containg seven rooms and a dining-hall on the first floor, with ten apartments 
on the floor above. To the rear of this is the insane department, being con- 
structed of brick, 30x45, one story high, and containing ten cells. In 1872 the 
board caused the erection of a commodious dwelling house, to the north of the 
main building, which is used for residence purposes by the Superintendent. 
The whole are located on a farm of 160 acres, forty of which are cultivated for 
the benefit of the corporation, the balance being rented out, the rental being 
one-third of that produced thereon. 

The charity is supported by the townships, which are charged the actual 
(jost of support of those sent them by the Supervisor thereof. The expenses 
incident to maintaining the poor house, including a salary of $750 paid Jacob S. 
Reisinger, Superintedent, are estimated at $3,500 per annum. 


was organized on the 10th day of July, 1878, the lineal descendant of the 
Stephenson County Medical Society. The latter was established in 1865, and 
for some few years its affairs were conducted regularly. In time, the attendance 
became small, duties were neglected, and the society, being unable to rally suf- 
ficient members to constitute a quorum, lapsed into forgetfulness. 

In June, 1878, the question of reviving the old society or creating a new 
organization from its wreck, was generally canvassed among the profession 
throughout the county, which ended in the convening of meetings to take meas- 
ures looking to the latter object. At the date above mentioned, a meeting 
was held in the Supervisor's office, court house building, Dr. C. M. Hillebrand 
presiding, Louis Stoskopf officiating as Secretary, when a constitution and 
by-laws were adopted after debate, and the following officers elected and mem- 
bers signed the roster of membership : F. W. Hance, M. D., President ; L. A. 
Mease, M. D., Vice President ; Louis Stoskopf, M. D., Secretary and Treas- 
urer ; Drs. Claries Brundage, Buena Vista; L. A. Mease, F. W. Hance, 
and Louis Stoskopf, Freeport ; I. P. Fishburn and S. K. Martin, Dakota ; E. 
A. Carpenter, Baileyville ; C. B. Wright Florence, and T. L. Carey, Lena. 

The present officers are : Louis Stoskopf, M. D., President ; L. G. Voigt, 
M. D., Vice President and B. H. Bradshaw, M. D., Secretary and Treasurer. 

The membership is now stated at fifteen, and meetings are held quarterly, 
at such place as the President shall designate. 


was organized at a meeting of agriculturists, held at the court house on 
August 3, 1875, and incorporated soon after under an act of the Legislature 
providing therefor. The objects of the association are stated to be those of buy- 
ing, manufacturing and selling such articles and implements as are used or 
needed by the farmer ; also to sell, ship or exchange their products in the mar- 
kets of the world. The capital stock was placed at $6,000, represented by six 
hundred shares, and the duration of the corporate existence was limited to 
ninety-nine years. 

At the first election of officers, Ira Crippen was chosen President, H. S. 
Blakeway, Treasurer, and J. M. Chambers, Secretary, with Ira Crippen, H. S. 
Blakeway, W. P. Miller, J. F. Strunk, and Hiram Snyder as the Board of 
Directors, and at a meeting convened October 6, 1875, the business of the 
county Grange, similar in character, was purchased by the Farmers' Associa- 
tion. The latter 's officers took possession of the Grange warehouse, at the 
southwest corner of Adams and Stephenson streets, obtained a complete supply 


of agricultural implements, and opened business with a flattering promise of 

So abundantly was this promise realized, that the capital stock was increased 
to $16,000, and other steps taken to accommodate the increase of business. 
About this time, the owners of the premises occupied insisted on an advance in 
the rent. The association declined to accede to this demand, and decided to 
erect a building adapted to the uses of its trade. Accordingly, a lot on the 
southeast corner of Adams and Stephenson streets was purchased of J. H. 
Haines for $5,000, and the erection of the present edifice commenced early in 
the spring of 1877. Before its completion, however, their lease expired, and' 
the business of the society was transferred to the " curb," where it continued 
until May, when possession of the new quarters was taken, and where the farm- 
ers, co-operatively inclined, have sold and purchased from that date to the 
present time. 

The building is a substantial three-story brick, 60x110, finished in a neat 
but inexpensive manner, and cost an aggregate of $11,000. The ground floor 
is occupied as an office and warehouse, the upper floors by an agricultural 
implement exhibition hall, 40x50, also a society hall of the same dimensions, 
equipped and furnished, and a commercial school. 

The present officers are : Ira Crippen, President ; Daniel Musser, Vice 
President ; J. M. Chambers, Secretary ; William Bear, Treasurer, and John ' 
Hart, Agent. Annual meetings are held in January, when the election of offi- 
cers is had, also meetings of the Board of Directors, which are convened quarterly. 

The corporation own property worth $20,000, carry stock valued at 
$25,000, and hol,d stock of the organization representing a valuation of 


an association which, up to very recent date, has been prominent in the 
county, was organized as a private corporation, in 1852, by a number of agri- 
culturists and horticulturists, who believed in the encouragement of their sev- 
eral arts. Immediately preparations were concluded for the holding of a county 
fair, which was held and attended with so gratifying a success that the experi- 
ment was repeated annually until 1861. That year, and in 1862, its grounds 
were occupied for the quartering of troops, which monopoly prevented exhibi- 
tions being given, and the society remained quiescent. These were resumed, 
however, in 1863, and have been continued with varying success until the 
present season. 

In 1871, the society became incorporated under the State laws, changed 
its title to the "Stephenson County Agricultural Board," and received sub- 
scriptions of stock to the amount of $8,000. The grounds were enlarged and 
improved, the buildings thereon located being reconstructed and redecorated, 
and every effort made to conquer a success of the undertaking. Regular 
exhibits were given until 1877, when the grounds were appropriated to the uses 
of the State Fair Expositions, and again in 1878. 

In 1879, a fair was held on the Taylor Driving Park, and, though begun 
under the most favorable auspices, was so seriously interfered with by rain that 
the society was unable to liquidate the demands of exhibitors entitled to premi- 
ums. In addition to this, an indebtedness had been created by improvements 
made in 1875, and, being without funds, the grounds, consisting of about thirty 
acres, located in the southwestern portion of the city, were disposed of by sale, 
Jere Pattison and Capt. William Young becoming the purchasers. 


The society to-day, is without a home of its own, but, as soon as the 
•circumstances will warrant their doing so, the stockholders design effecting a 

The present officers are William Young, President ; Godfrey Vought, 
Vice-President ; Jacob Krohn, Treasurer, and William Trembor, Secretary. 


This association of agriculturists, for mutual protection and improvement, 
was formally organized about the 20th of February, 1874, though granges now 
"tributary, had been in active operation previous to that date. The charter offi- 
cers were Daniel Musser, President ; W. P. Miller, Treasurer, and J. M. 
Chambers, Secretary. 

At present the grange consists of thirteen working lodges, with a total 
membership of 260, and the following officers : Daniel Musser, President ; F. 

B. Walker, Treasurer, and A. A. Stamm, Secretary. The initiation fee is $3 
for males, and 50 cents for females, with annual fees of $1.20. 

The headquarters of the grange are at Freeport. The subordinate lodges 
meet monthly, the County Grange quarterly and annually. 


On Thursday, December 16, 1869, a meeting of old settlers was held at 
the court house in Freeport, to take measures for the organization of a society 
of old settlers residing in Stephenson County, and to provide ways and means 
for a social re-union of those who became citizens of Stephenson County prior 
to 1850. 

D. A. Knowlton was called to preside, and L. W. Guiteau officiated as 
Secretary. After a general interchange of views, a committee, consisting of the 
following gentlemen, was appointed to make arrangements for the re-union, as 
also to further the object for which the meeting had been convened, after which, 
an adjournment until Saturday evening following, was carried : James Turn- 
bull and Samuel Gunsaul, Winslow ; Levi Robey and Samuel K. Fisher, 
Waddams ; Luman Montague and Thomas French, West Point ; Williard P. 
Naramore and Jacob Gable, Kent ; Andrew Hinds and Bissell P. Belknap, 
Oneco ; John H. Addams and James M. Smith, Buckeye ; Robert Bell and 
William B. Mitchell, Lancaster ; Calvin Preston and Samuel Chambers, Rock 
Grove ; S. E. M. Carnefex and Stephen Seeley, Rock Run ; John Brown and 
Harrison Diemer, Dakota ; A. J. Niles and D. W. C. Mallory, Ridott ; Charles 
H. Rosenstiel and Fred Baker, Silver Creek ; Conrad Van Brocklin and Anson 
A. Babcock, Florence ; Ralph Sabin and John Lamb, Loran ; Samuel Hayes, 
Jefferson ; Pascal L. Wright and Perez A. Tisdel, Harlem ; Thomas Kaufman 
and Alanson Bacon, Erin ; E. Ordway, William Smith, W. G. Waddell, Thomas 

C. Gatliff, Benjamin Goddard, O. W. Brewster, Jere Pattison, George Purinton 
and Isaac C. Stoneman, Freeport. 

At the meeting on Saturday evening thereafter, a committee, consisting of 
George Purinton, L. W. Guiteau, M. Hettinger, D. A. Knowlton and W. S. 
Gray, was appointed to make permanent the organization, draft a constitution 
and by-laws, and arrange for future meetings. 

Finally, the society was organized on the 1st of January, 1870, at a meet- 
ing held on that day, and the following officers elected : Levi Robev, Presi- 
dent; W. H. Eels, B. P. Belknap, Charles T. Kleckner, John Brown, William B. 
Mitchell, A. W. Lucas, H. P. Waters, F. Baker, Benjamin Goddard, Pascal 
Wright, C. Van Brocklin, Luman Montague, Hubbard Graves, Jacob Gable, 


Samuel Hayes and Alanson Bacon, Vice-Presidents ; George Purinton and 
D. H. Sunderland, Secretaries, and L. W. Guiteau, Treasurer. 

Since that date the society has been in active existence, meeting annually 
on the last Wednesday in August, and numbering upon its roster of members 
all who have been identified with the early settlement and subsequent building 
up of Stephenson County. 

The officers elected at the meeting convened in 1879, were : Levi Robey, 
President ; S. Chambers, Rock Grove ; M. Gift, Oneco ; H. Eels, Winslow ; 
R. Baysinger, West Point ; W. Dively, Waddams ; John H. Addams, Buck- 
eye ; George Walker, Dakota ; Elijah Clark, Rock Run ; Thomas Bell, Lan- 
caster ; Aaron Kostenbader, Harlem ; J. W. Pickard, Erin ; L. W. Mogle, 
Kent; S. Hayes, Jefferson ; Reuben Babb, Loran ; John Aspinwall, Florence; 
Fred Baker, Silver Creek ; W. G. Woodruff, Ridott, and J. B. Smith, Free- 
port, Vice-Presidents ; W. Wright, Treasurer, and Jackson Richart, Secretary. 


The Qrossen Murder. — A horrible murder was committed on Sunday ? 
March 23, 1856, at Craine's Grove, by an Irishman, named John Crossen, the 
victim being his helpless wife. It seems that Crossen had been celebrating the 
holiday (Easter Sunday), and became intoxicated. Immediately upon the 
departure of a companion who bad indulged a similar weakness and left the 
premises, Crossen began a brutal attack upon his wife, beating her most unmer- 
cifully with a poker, and inflicting wounds from the effects of which she died 
before assistance could reach the scene of the tragedy. When the officers who 
were summoned reached the spot, they found the poor woman dead, her back 
and limbs beaten to a jelly, and her arm horribly fractured by the blows she 
had endeavored to prevent reaching her head. Crossen was at once arrested 
and confined in jail in Freeport, utterly indifferent to his fate; he admitted he 
beat his wife, but denied that his intention was to kill her, having frequently 
beaten her much more severely without serious results. 

The records are silent as to the disposition of the case. 

The Lauber Murder. — About three o'clock on Tuesday afternoon, June 7, 
1859, a German named William Lauber was stabbed by a man named Lauth, 
of Elkhorn Grove, and died almost instantly. The affair happened near where 
the "Branch " crosses the railroad track, just below the machine shop. The 
deceased, commonly known as " Butcher Bill," claimed that Lauth owed him, 
and for some time previous had been persistently dunning him. During the 
forenoon of the day upon which the homicide occurred, Lauth had made threats 
and exhibited a butcher-knife which he carried, as was inferred from his 
remarks, to aid in his attack upon deceased. When first noticed, the latter 
was demanding his pay from Lauth, to which reply was made " Keep away, 
and leave me alone." The dispute waxed warm, until finally Lauth drew a 
knife and plunged it into the heart of his antagonist. Lauber died instantly, 
and Lauth was arrested and held on a charge of murder. 

The accused pleaded guilty to manslaughter at the September term, 1859, 
of the Circuit Court, and was sentenced to the penitentiary for eight years. 

The Arnd Tragedy. — During the summer of 1859, a German named Peter 
Arnd, accompanied by his family, consisting of a wife and four children, settled 
in this county on a place belonging to George Boardman, five miles above 
Cedarville. He was employed by Boardman as a field-hand, and generally 
regarded as a capable, responsible man. No attention was paid to his domestic 
affairs, nor was it believed that any difficulty existed in that quarter, his wife 


being an industrious woman, and his children, though all of tender age, requir- 
ing but little care. 

On Tuesday morning, July 26, 1859, he proceeded to work, but returned 
about ten o'clock on account of a sore hand, and sent his wife to do the work 
assigned him. She worked until noon, when she returned to the house to care 
for the children and provide dinner, remaining but a short time ere she 
resumed work in the field. When night came on she ceased from her labors, 
and once more returned in the direction of her home, another woman accom- 
panying her thither. As they reached the house and were passing an open win- 
dow a most horrible sight met their gaze, transfixing them with terror, and for 
the time incapacitating either of them from sounding an alarm. Her four 
children lay upon the floor weltering in their blood, and manifesting no sign of 
life. The father stood by, an ax in his hand, with which he had done the deed, 
gazing in a senseless manner upon the upturned faces of his dying sons and 
daughters, but making no efforts to escape. By this time the witnesses of this 
dread result made an outcry and caused the murderer's apprehension. He was 
committed to jail, after an inquest had been held, at which a verdict in accord- 
ance with the facts was rendered, and held for trial. 

During his confinement he exhibited signs of mental weakness, and within 
two weeks from the- date of his incarceration died from softening of the brain, 
superinduced by sunstroke, and confirming the belief that he was not respon- 
sible for his acts when he committed the deed. 

Three children were killed outright ; the fourth survived his injuries sev- 
eral days. 

The Shooting of Mrs. George Whitney. — About 11 o'clock on the morn- 
ing of Saturday, August 8, 1866. Dakalb Walton, a soldier in the three- 
months service attached to Capt. Crane's company, shot and instantly killed 
Mrs. George Whitney, wife of a soldier in the Fifteenth Regiment. The affair 
occurred directly opposite the Stephenson House, and Walton, after he had 
inflicted the fatal wound upon his victim, attempted suicide by shooting himself. 

According to the evidence elicited at the coroner's inquest, deceased and 
her would-be assassin had been living together at Oneco for some time prior to 
the tragedy, or since her husband, who was Sergeant of Company A, Fifteenth 
Regiment, had enlisted. On the Saturday of the killing, Walton and Mrs. Whit- 
ney had visited the brewery and drank beer, after which the former disclaimed 
his ignorance of what had passed until he realized consciousness in jail. The 
jury directed his imprisonment on a charge of murder, to await the action of 
the Grand Jury. 

The defendant was tried at the April term, of 1864, of the Circuit Court, 
and acquitted on the ground of insanity. 

The Schmidtz Mystery. — About the 30th of April, 1869, thebody of a man 
named Henry Schmidtz, a former resident of Freeport, was found lying by the 
side of a slough in the town of Lancaster, in an advanced state of decompo- 
sition, and bearing marks indicating that he had met his death by violence. 
The body was recovered by Thomas S. Leach and William Peters, and taken to 
Freeport, where an inquest was held and evidence elicited tending to show that 
he had received $300 a short time previous to the discovery of the body, and 
when last seen was in the company of a man by the name of Casper Stoffels,. 
whom he had employed to assist him in his business, being that of peddling. 

A verdict of murder at the hands of persons unknown to the jury, was- 


The Wood Murder. — Between the hours of 1 and 2 o'clock, on the morn- 
ing of June 7, 1872, a shooting affray took place at the Kraft House, opposite 
the Western Union Depot, resulting in the death of Frank Wood, at the hands 
of John L. Thompson. Both had been together since the Thursday previous and 
up to the time of the affray, consorting with a pair of disreputable women named 
Rosa Bell and Flora Kennedy, and all drinking to excess. The quarrel began 
about these women, both of whom accompanied Thompson to the hotel a short 
time prior to the tragedy, followed by Wood. An altercation succeeded Wood's 
arrival at the house, during which the latter struck Thompson in the face, at 
the same time accompanying his blow with threats and insulting epithets. 
Thereupon Thompson drew a revolver and fired at his assailant, inflicting 
wounds from which death resulted immediately. Thompson was arrested. 

He was placed on trial, at the December term, 1872, of the Circuit Court, 
convicted of manslaughter, and sentenced to the penitentiary for one year. 

The Thompson Defalcation. — During the month of May, 1874, rumors 
were rife throughout Stephenson County that George Thompson, ex-County 
Clerk, had, while in office, falsified the records, forged numerous county orders, 
and re-issued others that had already been redeemed by the County Treasurer. 

The facts which led to the discovery of these frauds first came to the sur- 
face on Saturday, May 7, 1874, when Thompson called upon Aaron Wolfe and 
offered for sale an order dated September 14, 1871, payable to himself, for 
$1,220.05. The order bore an indorsement by the County Treasurer that the 
same had been "presented for payment and registered by me, this May 2, 1874 
— 0. P. McCool, County Treasurer," misleading Wolfe, who purchased the 
security. Subsequent reflection induced the holder to investigate the facts, 
tending to trace the paper into the possession of Thompson. After an exami- 
nation, it was ascertained that an order of a similar tenor and date had been paid 
in 1872, and so reported to the County Clerk for cancellation by the Finance 
Committee. As the investigation progressed, the fraud and decepti on practiced 
by Thompson became more apparent, and his victim impressed with the position 
in which he had been placed. 

In the mean time, Thompson left the city and proceeded to Chicago, whence 
he returned to Freeport, however, and redeemed the order purchased by Mr. 
Wolfe. After the discovery of his frauds, others, who had become the holders 
of similar property as collaterals, repaired to the records and found that spu- 
rious orders, representing a face valuation of about $4,000, had been disposed 
of as collaterals and by transfer of ownership, to Knowlton & Sons, the Second 
National Bank, Joseph Emmert, First National Bank, James Mitchell & Co., 
and others. The public were naturally exercised at these discoveries, and con- 
siderable excitement prevailed throughout the county. Thompson had enjoyed 
universal confidence in the political, social, financial and Christian circles, had 
been a leading spirit in Sabbath-schools and church organizations, and was gen-, 
erally regarded as one whose daily life had commended him to general respect. 
The Finance Committee of the Board of Supervisors made an investigation into 
the charges alleged against Thompson, and found that, imposing on the credulity 
of the public, he had been able to swindle that too confiding unknown quantity 
out of about $5,000. A warrant was at once issued for his arrest, but before 
he could be apprehended the accused absconded and its service was prevented. 
He fled to Canada, thence to California, where he established a ranche, mean- 
time paying off the liabilities he had left unsettled in Freeport, and remaining 
absent until the fall of 1878, at which time he returned to the scene of his 
crime, pleaded guilty to one of the number of indictments that had been returned 


against him, and was sentenced to the penitentiary. He remained in Joliet 
two years and was pardoned, returning to California, where he now is. 

Hall's Haul. — The defalcation of A. W. Hall should not be forgotten, 
either. He was elected Clerk of the Circuit Court, and was inducted into office 
the first in the county under the provision of the constitution abolishing fees 
and substituting therefor a salary. 

Hall refused to recognize the equity of this change, insisting upon it that 
"he was entitled to the fees accruing, and declining to pay them over according 
to law. The Supervisors instituted suit against him to test the points held by 
both parties, and obtained judgment. An appeal was taken by Hall, but the 
Supreme Court affirmed the judgment, and by this time, his term of office 
"having expired, Hall disappeared, defaulter to the extent of $3,184, and has 
never been heard of since. He was indicted, and his bondsmen liquidated $2,000 
of his liability, leaving $1,184 with interest unpaid, which was lost by the county. 

The Goodhue Defalcation. — Charles. F. Goodhue, Treasurer of Stephen- 
son County, was indicted at the December (1878) term of the Circuit Court for 
embezzlement, as County Treasurer, of the sum of $5,000 of moneys in his 
possession by virtue of his official position. A change of venue was taken by 
Goodhue to the Circuit Court of Rockfo'rd, Winnebago County, and at the 
January (1879) term, he was tried, convicted and sentenced to four years in 
the penitentiary. His attorney, J. A. Crain, appealed the case, by writ of 
error, to the Supreme Court, and at the September term, 1879, of that tribunal, 
the judgment was reversed, and the case remanded for a new trial. ' At the 
January term, 1880, just one year from the first trial, Goodhue, after laying 
thirteen months behind the bars of Winnebago County Jail, was again tried, 
and, under the rulings of the Supreme Court, as applied to his case, acquitted. 

At the December term 1879, of the Stephenson County Court, two additional 
indictments were found against him, one for the embezzlement and another fbr 
larceny of jail orders, amounting to $22.12 ; these, with two other indictments 
which had been found, one for the embezzlement of $100, and the other for 
falsifying a public record, came up for hearing in the Stephenson County Circuit 
Court at the April term, 1880, and Goodhue's attorney took a change of venue 
on all four of the cases to DeKalb County. At this stage of the proceedings, 
the Board of Supervisors of Stephenson County met and passed a resolution, 
instructing the Finance Committee to employ the ablest legal assistance, in their 
judgment, in the State of Illinois, to assist J. S. Cochran in the prosecution of 
the case. Clothed with this authority, Mr. H. Lichtenberger, Chairman of the 
Finance Committee, retained Charles H. Reed, of Chicago, who had been for 
twelve years the State's Attorney of Cook County, to assist in the prosecution. 
The case came to trial on Friday, June 25, the indictment on which the test 
was based being the embezzlement of the jail orders. The defense proved by 
Mr. Lichtenberger. one of the witnesses against Goodhue, that he (Lichtenber- 
ger) had ordered Goodhue to draw the money on the orders, which he did, and 
placed $600 in each of three Banks of Freeport, and the balance, $412, 
in the safe of the Treasurer's office. They also proved by Miss Kate Goodhue, 
who was acting in the capacity of clerk in the Treasurer's office at that time, 
that Goodhue had paid out every dollar of this money to liquidate authorized 
claims against the county, thus showing there was no ca6e against Goodhue 
from a legal standpoint, and on the 1st day of July, 1880, after a week's pro- 
traction, the trial ended, and the jury rendered a verdict fully acquitting him, 
and, the other indictments having been abandoned, Charles F. Goodhue once 
more breathed the pure air of freedom. 



A traveler sailing up the Bay of Athens sees, while yet afar off, the shin- 
ing splendors of the " Eye of Greece, Mother of Arts and Eloquence." " There 
are marble palaces and columns, rising white against the vineries and olive 
groves which deck the mountain landscape with a foliage of endless green. The 
hum of early traffic mingles with the shoutings of the crews of Alexandrian corn 
ships hoisting the anchors. Sheer and rugged in the foreground rises the 
Acropolis. On its summit the citadel, and crowning that the colossal statue of 
Minerva, her golden shield catching the morning light and flashing it back in 
brightness that dazzles while still enchanting the eye." 

In a like manner, as one approaches the theme The Union, and the contest 
for its preservation, does he find himself encompassed with glories born of the 
most perfect civilization. Art, science and literature were in the enjoyment of a 
golden age, and the roll-call of names of those who excelled in each was sur- 
rounded by the glories of America, as were the names of Homer, Herodotus, 
Plato, Euclid, Praxiteles, Demosthenes and others, around whom the glories of 
Athens have gathered for thousands of years. 

Twenty eventful annuals have become merged into the sounding past since 
the coming of the days which are now consecrated to the memories of the sad, 
triumphant period in the nation's history, with which the world is familiar. 
Those were perfect days. It seemed as if science, art, the laws, the people and 
God aided at their birth and development. Peace and happiness went hand in 
hand ; the laws were observed, and their violation was visited with the severest 
penalties. Each section contributed to the wealth of the opposite portion of the 
Union ; in fact, nothing was wanted to complete the picture of universal pros- 
perity then exhibited to the world by the United States. Such, imperfectly, 
was the condition of affairs as they existed upon the dawn of 1861 in both sec- 
tions of the country, which rivaled in all that tended to complete a make-up of 
brilliancy and wealth, emeralds and rubies set in burnished gold. But the 
notes of the impending storm were heard before the advancing winter was 
ushered in with the New Year, and the people had begun to conclude that the 
summer of the nation, with all its glories, had gone to belaid in the great store- 
house of the past. 

Finally, the rebellion reached a stage when the crisis was at hand — a 
crisis which compelled every man to side either with law and order or with mob 
rule and sectional despotism. No rights of the South were endangered by the 
Union, or could be enforced by rebellion. The assumption that the ascendency 
of the party in power threatened danger to the rights and peace of the South 
was regarded as entirely without force by the people of the North, and as 
importing anarchy against law and order. Upon such a question, which vitally 
concerned every man's safety in business as it concerned the existence of the 
Government, decisive expressions of opinion were heard all over the North. 
There was little disposition to talk, but a determined purpose to act developed; 
a purpose equal to the emergency. There was but one Government and one 
system of laws, to which every man should be compelled to feel there was alle- 
giance. Acting upon this conclusion, a demand was made for respect for the 
laws by men who had no thought of flinching, and who expressed the matured 
judgment of a majority. That the law was resisted was a calamity, but greater 
calamities would attend the general anarchy which must follow if a rigorous 
execution of the laws was prevented or restrained. 

Such were the views of the citizens of Stephenson County, when the sur- 
render of Fort Sumter and the call for troops were promulgated. On the 


evening of Thursday, April 18, 1861, Plymouth Hall was crowded by an eager, 
anxious multitude, assembled in response to a call issued at noon of that day, 
appealing to the lovers of the stars and stripes to rally and; rally they did, in 
numbers overwhelming, made up of Republicans and Democrats, for all were 

The Hon. F. W. S. Brawley presided, with J. R. Scroggs and C. K. 
Judson acting as Secretaries, and, on motion of J. W. Shaffer, T. Wilcoxon, J. 
M. Smith, W. P. Malburn, H. H. Taylor, Capt. Crane and Dr. Martin were 
appointed Vice Presidents. 

During the absence of the Committee on Resolutions, composed of J. W. 
Shaffer, James Mitchell, C. K. Judson, J. R. Scroggs and A. H. Stone, speeches 
were made by S. D. Atkins, C. Betts, C. S. Bagg and Mr. Wagner, editor of 
the Anzeiger, the latter in German. Resolutions were adopted declaratory of 
the love for the Union felt by citizens of Freeport, and their determination to 
aid, so far as lay within their power, the General Government in its enforce- 
ment of the laws. The meeting was then adjourned, but the spirit manifested 
became intensified as time progressed. The following day recruiting was begun, 
and on Saturday, April 20, 1861, the first company enlisted in the county was 
filled and the oath administered to the following officers and privates: S. D. 
Atkins, Captain; M. E. Newcomer, First, and S. W. Field, Second Lieutenant; 
F. T. Goodrich, H. A. Sheetz, William Polk and R. W. Hulburt, Sergeants ; 
C. T. Dunham, J. 0. Churchill, R. H. Rodearmel and W. W. Lott, Corporals ; 
C. E. Cotton, drummer, and J. R. Harding, fifer; W. W. Allen, J. W. Brew- 
ster, Robert Brennan, W. N. Blakeman. A. S. Best, H. P. Parker, W. H. 
Brown, Frank Bellman, J. S. Chambers, J. M. Chown, Thomas Chattaway, 
A. Coppersmith, F. Dreener. J. W. Duncan, J. P. Davis, M. Eshelman, Will- 
iam Eddy, J. Geiser, J. R. Hayes, E. J. Hurlburt, W. J. Hoover, L. Hall, T. 
J. Hathaway, J. E. Hershey, J. F. Harnish, F. M. DeArmit, W. W. Hunt, 
W. J. Irvin, S. H. Ingham, Nicholas Kassel, D. L. Farmer, 0. F. Lamb, J. 
H. Loveland, S. Lindeman, S. Lebkicker, J. H. McGee, U. B. McDowell, W. 
T. McLaughlin, F. Murphy, D. McCormick, J. M. Miller, F. R. McLaughlin, 
J. P. Owen, J. Pratt, A. Patterson, G. L. Piersol, N. Smith, L. Strong, J. S. 
Stout, 0. F. Smith, M. Slough, 0. Sched, J. S. Sills, C. G. Stafford, T. 
Wishart, W. P. Waggoner, M. S. Weaver, J. Walton, Stephens Waterbury, J. 
Walkey and J. Work. 

The company left Freeport for Springfield on Wednesday morning. May 
1, 1861, escorted to the depot by Capt. M. B. Mills' company and the Union 
Cornet Band, and cheered by the presence of not less than 3,000 people, who 
were there to bid them good-bye, and implore God's blessing upon the efforts 
inaugurated in behalf of their country. Upon arriving in camp, the " boys " were 
assigned to the Eleventh Regiment, making up the roster of Company A. 

Soon after the departure of the volunteers under the command of Capt. 
Atkins, W. J. McKim enlisted a second company, the following being the 
roster : W. J. McKim, Captain ; Henry Setley and Philip Arno, Lieutenants ; 
Carl F. Wagner, Jacob Hoebel, D. A. Galpin and Theodore Grove, Sergeants ; 
Joseph Meyer, Jacob Fiscus, E. Wike, John Bauscher, L. Lehman, Amos D. 
Hemmig, Joseph Boni, George Moggly, Dietrich Sweden, John Kruse, Mein- 
hard Herren, C. H. Gramp, Jacob Steinhauer, Mat Allard, John Berry, Peter 
E. Smith, James Holmes, Henry Groenewald, Albert Kocher, Thomas Burling, 
C. Protexter, David Stocks, Henry Luttig, Thomas Shuler, Adam Haiser, 
Andrew Olnhausen, E. Neese, David French, J. H. Maynard, A. Borches, 
Jacob Doll, John A. Raymer, Jacob Ernst, Leonard Sherman, Frederick 


Deusing, John T. Palmer, John Wheeler, Martin Aikey, R. Harberts, A. V. L. 
Roosa, Emanuel Evee, C. F. A. Kellogg, John Niemeyer, Thomas Willan y 
James Vore, August Temple, Jacob Rohrback, Henry Spies, Charles Entorff, 
Isaac Kephart, James Barron, Herman Froning, Daniel F. Shirk, James Ken- 
neg, Albert J. Miller, William H. Hennich, John Wiefenbach, William Morris, 
Henry Kasper, Martin D. Rollison, Henry D. Black, John F. Black, Henry 
Rubald, Bernard O'Brien, George Philbrick, William Quinn, John B. Yoder, 
John Ginther, M. D. Miller, John Yordy, Moses Burns, Gotlieb Vollmer, Gar- 
rison Haines and Max Lamprecht, privates. 

From this, beginning the work went bravely on. Lena furnished a compnay 
which was attached to the Fifteenth Regiment, and rendezvoused at Camp 
Scott, a camp established on the grounds of the Stephenson County Agricul- 
tural Association, near Freeport, and recruits were drawn from every township 
to swell the contributions of the county to the suppression of treason. Those 
who were unable to proceed to the front remained at home to aid the efforts- 
inaugurated there for the preservation of the Union and the enforcement of the 
laws. Relief and aid societies were formed, sanitary associations organized, and 
every agency that could aid in promoting the comfort of the soldiers was suc- 
cessfully invoked in that behalf. 

On the morning of June 19, 1861, the Fifteenth Regiment, commanded 
by Col. T. J. Turner, one of the oldest and most promient residents of Stephenson 
County, left Camp Scott and proceeded to Alton. The day was one of the 
most exciting and memorable in the history of the present city. When the 
huge train moved out it bore with it the earnest prayers of assembled thous- 
ands, that those who were passengers, may-hap for the opposite shore, might be 
returned to their homes in safety. 

As all are familiar with, the three-months service of volunteers concluded 
with the battle of Manassas. The defeat sustained in that engagement in no- 
manner disheartened the men of the North. The sad intelligence spread a 
general gloom over the country, and carried sorrow and mourning into many a 
household, whence some loved member had gone forth to return no more. Yet 
the people faltered not in this dark hour of trial, but were spurred on to renewed 
efforts in behalf of the Government. The public mind was roused to a keener 
appreciation of the dangers that threatened and the difficulties that surrounded 
the country, and this call upon the people's patriotism was responded to by 
thousands, who pledged themselves to the defense of the old flag. Capt. Atkins' 
company was re-organized and re-enlisted for the war. Recruits were also 
furnished from Stephenson County to the formation of Company " B," of the 
Twenty-sixth Regiment, and Companies A, B, C, D, G, and K, of the Forty- 
sixth Regiment, these latter coming from Buckeye, Oneco, Rock Grove, Lan- 
caster and Florence Townships, being organized for service on the 28th of 
December, 1861. Truly, the spirit was not yet dead. Patriotism and patriotic 
impulse found as earnest expression in Stephenson County with the dawn of 
1862, as was witnessed when the first call to arms was sounded. Like strains 
of martial music will the story of their patriotism roll down through listless 
ages, till Time shall pause in his career* and the race of man is run. The 
patriotic spirit burned in every breast, flashed from every eye, thrilled every 
nerve and quivered in every muscle, and the arm of him who fought for home 
proved mightier far than the mad ambition of him who fought for treason. 
Though 1861 had gone, leaving its mark upon each brow, and shadow in each 
heart, the nation pursued the object of its contest, and waited trustfully, but 
with hushed hearts and tear-filled eyes, for the shining of the bow of promise. 


The year 1862, as all know, opened discouraginlgy, and it was not until the 
capture of Fort Donelson, in February of that year, that the gleam of promise, 
set by God among the clouds, first began to flicker in the horizon of the future. 
The regiments, in which volunteers from Stephenson County were enrolled, 
participating in that engagement, were the Eleventh, Forty-fifth, " Forty-sixth " 
and perhaps more. Many there were, from these organizations, who yielded up 
their lives, a holocaust at their country's call, and, though history may never 
record their humble names or chronicle their deeds, yet they belong to the 
nobility of earth, and in that kingdom which comes after earth, each one is 
crowned with more than Olympic laurels. 

In September, 1862, the Ninety-second Regiment was enlisted, organized 
and mustered into service. The thought indulged, with the first call for troops, 
that three months only would be required to conquer the South, had by this 
time been thoroughly dissipated. The people were ignorant of war, and it was 
not until the return of the sick, the wounded and the dead, the latter in rough 
pine boxes, with their soldiers' coats about them, that the " folks at home " 
began to realize that war was abroad. The frequent calls for men, the repeated 
repulses, not to say defeats, intensified this reality ; and when it became necessary 
to have recourse to the draft to restore the shattered regiments ; to somewhat of 
a resemblance to their former appearance, then was the conviction forced 
without demurrer. The Ninety-second contained soldiers enlisted in Lancas- 
ter, Buckeye, Erin, Kent and Jefferson Townships, of Stephenson County, and 
the fidelity they exhibited to the cause in which they embarked is found in the 
killed, wounded and missing that depleted its ranks. 

During the same year, about June, a company of three-months troops was 
partially made up of volunteers from Stephenson County, and entered the service 
at Camp Douglas. It was commanded by James W. Crane, with Stephen Allen 
and Lorenzo Willard as Lieutenants ; John Stine, James R. Bake, Charles A. 
Dodge, John D. Lamb and Harrison W. Sigworth, Sergeants ; C. D. Bently, 
Theodore A. Cronk, Oliver T. Steinmetz, Ambrose Martin, Sidney Robins, H. 
S. Ritz, W. H. Heyt and W. H. Battle, Corporals. The Ninety-second was 
raised for three years or the war, in response to a requisition made by the 
Government for nine regiments from the State of Illinois, to fill up the ranks 
depleted in the five-days fight about Richmond, but the three-months troops 
were appropriated mostly to provost duty. Notwithstanding the liberality with 
which the county responded, it was feared that a draft would become neces- 
sary to supply Governmental demands, and during the same year the Ninety- 
second was mustered into service (1862), an enrollment of the county was made, 
and 3,000 residents reported as liable to duty under the provisions of an act 
amending Chapter 70, Revised Statutes. About this time, war meetings were 
convened at various points, notably at Freeport, Lena, Cedarville and else- 
where, which were addressed by E. B. Washburne, T. J. Turner, Adjutant 
General Fuller and others. These meetings had the effect of increasing enlist- 
ments, which were assigned to companies in the Eleventh, Twenty-sixth and 
other regiments, and of postponing the draft, which was delayed for two years. 
In October following, Capt. Irvin enlisted a company about Freeport, which 
was assigned to the Seventy-fourth Regiment, and included upon the roster of 
that organization as Company I. The year 1862 passed without much more 
being done than is cited. The defeat at Fredericksburg increased the surround- 
ing gloom, and the campaign in the valley, early in 1863, rather aggravated 
than lessened the gravity of the situation. With each call for troops succeed- 
ing calamities gave birth to, Stephenson County responded cheerfully, though 


available material had been comparatively exhausted by the drafts made on her 
resources. The season of 1863 was a repetition of those which had preceded 
its advent. Meetings were convened to further enlistments, and provide for 
the soldiers. Money was subscribed for the support of families whose heads 
were at the front, and the payment of bounties. Fairs were held, and other 
mediums employed that would remotely aid in the gigantic undertaking. But 
little occurred to encourage the people, or bind up the broken hearts that pul- 
sated with grief for the loss of those who perished in Virginia and the South- 
west. Among the most prominent killed during this year was Holden Putnam, 
Colonel of the Ninety-third Regiment, which had been in existence about one 
year. But many of those who went out from Stephenson County with high 
hopes and creditable ambitions, passed away before 1863 was included among 
the years that have gone. Grievous, sore and terrible were the blows that fell 
upon the North that year, and many a lonely wife and fatherless little one 
looked to God for fresh hope and courage, and to help them to remember that 
this life is but the vestibule to a glorious hereafter. The principal events,, 
notably the capture of Vicksburg, the issue of the emancipation proclamation, 
battle of Gettysburg, etc., served to temporarily dispel the clouds which sur- 
rounded the cause, and inspire new plans for the closing year of the war. Early in 
January, 1864, the Forty- sixth regiment re-enlisted, and returned to Freeport, 
where they met with a hearty welcome. But these were days when the finality 
of that contest which had been raging for nearly four years was drawing nigh ; 
when the surrender of the rebel forces had resolved itself into a question of 
certainty, the time of that event being in the near future. Day was breaking 
to the watchers in the tower of American liberty, and the coming dawn 
announced its presence through the mist and clouds, sublime with the glories of 
the breaking morn, when error should decay, truth be, strengthened and right 
rule supreme o'er vanquished wrong; when jealousies and hate should give 
way to joy and peace and brotherhood. And, although the advent of the 
smiling stranger was prolonged another year, it came at last. Peace shed its 
gentle rays over the scenes of war and desolation, and a rosy radiance, gleam- 
ing from afar, melted in the dawning of the perfect day. " Well done, watch- 
ers on the lonely tower." Broad daylight finally broke upon the plain, and 
to-day soars unfettered, as its God designed. 

With the peace at Appomattox, the soldiers for the Union returned to 
their homes in Stephenson County, where they were welcomed as the defend- 
ers of faith in that form of government which must not perish from off the face 
of the earth. 

In addition to the enlistments quoted, Stephenson County had represent- 
atives in every branch of the service, and her citizens remember the names of 
those who fought the good fight unto the end, and returned to receive the 
reward of faithful stewards. 

But there were many who did not return, and many still who were returned 
in the arms of Death. Some sleep the sleep of the just in the village church- 
yard, where their little white headstones dispute for prominence with the daisies 
and white-topped clovers. Their lives and death are shrined in the Pantheon of 
patriotic hearts to an immortal memory. Some sleep in the land of the jasmine 
and orange blossom. Neither are forgotten. Both are remembered as they 
slumber, "each in his windowless cell," the slumbers of sanctified rest. 

During the war, Stephenson County furnished a total of 3,168 soldiers, 
and bounties, subscriptions and supplies aggregating upward of half a million 
of dollars. The draft was enforced but once. 









Adjt Adjutant 

Art Artillery 

Bat Battle or Battalion 

Col Colonel 

Capt Captain 

Corp Corporal 

Comsy Commissary 

com commissioned 

cav cavalry 

captd captured 

disab disabled 

disd discharged 

e enlisted 

excd -exchanged 

hon. disd honorably discharged 

inv invalid 


I. V. I. 


.Iowa Volunteer Infantry 

Lieut Lieutenant 

Ma J Major 

m - ° mustered out 

prmtd promoted 

P nsr prisoner 

Re S t Regiment 

re "^ re-enlisted 

re8t * resigned 

Sergt Sergeant 

trans transferred 

*j? *"•" veteran 

v - B - c Veteran Reserve Corps 

w( * wounded 


The regiment was called into service under 
proclamation of the President, April 16, 1861 ; 
organized at Springfield, and mustered into 
service April 30, 1861, by Capt. Pope, for 
three months. 

During this term of service, the regiment 
was stationed at Villa Ridge, 111., to June 20th, 
then removed to Bird's Point, Mo., where it 
remained, performing garrison and field duty, 
until July 80th, when the regiment was mus- 
tered out, and re-enlisted for three-years 
serviee. During the three-months term, the 
lowest aggregate was 882, and the highest 933, 
and at the muster-out was 916. 

Upon the re-muster, July 13th, the aggre- 
gate was 288. During the months of August, 
September, October aud November, the regi- 
ment was recruited to an aggregate of 801. In 
the mean time were doing garrison and field 
duty, participating in the following expedi- 
tions: September 9th to 11th, expedition 
toward New Madrid ; October 6th to 11th, to 
Charleston, Mo.; November 3d to 12th, to 
Bloomfield, Mo., via Commerce, returning via 
Cape Girardeau; January 7th and 8th, expe- 
dition to Charleston, Mo., skirmished with a 
portion of the command of Jeff Thompson ; 
January 13th to 20th, reconnoissance of Colum- 
bus, Ky., under Gen. Grant ; January 25th to 
28th, to Sikestown, Mo.; February 2d, em- 
barked on transports to Fort Henry, partici- 
pating in campaign against that place ; Feb- 
ruary 11th, moved toward Fort Donelson ; 
February 12th, 13th and 14th, occupied in 
investing that place, 12th heavily engaged 
with the enemy about five hours, losing 329 
killed, wounded and missing, out of about 500 
engaged, of whom 72 were killed and 182 
wounded ; March 4th and 5th. en route to Fort 
Henry ; 5th to 13th, en route to Savannah, 
Xenn., in transports ; 23d to 25th, en route 

from Savannah to Pittsburg Landing ; April 
6th and 7th, engaged in battle of Shiloh, losing 
27 killed and wounded, out of 150 engaged ; 
April 24th to June 4th, participated in siege 
of Corinth, thence marched to Jackson, Tenn., 
making headquarters there to August 2d ; par- 
ticipated in two engagements. July 1st and 2d, 
toward Trenton, Tenn. ; July 23d to 28th, 
to Lexington, Tenn. ; August 2d, moved to 
Cairo, 111., for purpose of recruiting ; remained 
at that point until August 23 ; thence to Pa- 
ducah, Ky., remaining there until November 
20th ; in the mean time engaged in two expedi- 
tions — August 24th to September 16th, to 
Clarksville, Tenn,, via Forts Henry and Don- 
elson— October 31st to November 13th, expedi- 
tion to Hopkinsville, Ky. ; November 20th to 
14th, en route to La Grange, Tenn., where the 
regiment reported and was assigned to Brig. 
Gen. McArthur's Division, Left Wing, 13th 
Army Corps. From this time to Jan. 12, 1863, 
participated in campaign in Northern Missis- 
sippi, marching via Tallahatchie (where the 
regiment was engaged in a sharp skirmish) ; 
from thence to Abbeville ; thence seven miles 
below Oxford ; thence to Holly Springs, Mos- 
cow and Memphis, Tenn. Remained in Mem- 
phis until the 17th, when it embarked on 
transport and en route to Young's Point until 
24th, remaining there until February 11th; 
then moved to Lake Providence, and assigned 
to the Seventeenth Army Corps, making head- 
quarters there until April 20th, participating 
in expedition to American Bend, from March 
17th to 28th. April 23, 1863, the One Hun- 
dred and Ninth Illinois Infantry was trans- 
ferred to the Eleventh, 589 being the aggregate 
gained by the transfer. April 26th, regiment 
moved with column to rear of Vicksburg, via 
Richmond, Perkins' Landing, Grand Gulf, 
Raymond and Black River, arriving before the 
works May 18th ; May 19th and 22d, engaged 
in assaults on the enemy's works ; then in the 



advance siege works to July 4th, at time of 
surrender ; the regiment losing in the siege 
and assault one field officer (Col. Garrett Nev- 
ins) killed : three line officers wounded, and 
forty men killed and wounded. July 17th, 
moved with expedition to Natchez, Miss., par- 
ticipating in expedition to Woodville, Miss. 
October 12th, returned to Vickshurg, Miss., 
making headquarters there to July 29, 1864; 
in the mean time engaged in the following expe- 
ditions : February 1st to March 8th, up Yazoo 
River to Greenwood, Miss., having a skirmish 
at Liverpool Heights, February 5th, losing four 
killed and nine wounded ; action at Yazoo 
City, March 5th, losing one line officer killed, 
eight men killed, twenty-four wounded and 
twelve missing; April 6th to 28th, at Black 
River Bridge : May 4th to 21st, expedition to 
Yazoo City, Benton, and Vaughn's Station, 
Miss., taking a prominent part in three impor- 
tant skirmishes ; July 1st to 7th, with an expe- 
dition to Jackson. Miss., under Maj Gen. 
Slocum, engaged with the enemy three times ; 
July 29th, moved to Morganza, and was 
assigned to Nineteenth Army Corps, Maying 
there to September 3d ; in the mean time par- 
ticipating in an expedition to Clinton, La., 
August 24th to 29th ; September 3d, moved to 
mouth of White River, Ark.; October 8th, 
moved to Memphis, Tenn., returning to White 
River October 27th ; November 6th and 7th, 
expedition to Gaines' Landing; November 8th, 
moved to Duvall's Bluff, Ark.; November 30th 
to December 4th, en route to Memphis, Tenn.; 
December 20th to 31st, expedition to Moscow, 
Tenu.; January 1st to 5th, en route to Kenner, 
La.; February 4th to 7th, en route to Dauphine 
Island, via Lake Pontchartrain ; March 17th to 
April 12th, engaged in operations against 
Mobile, Ala., marching from Fort Morgan, 
participating in the investment and siege, and 
final capture of Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, 
and in the assault on the latter ; April 12th, 
marched into and took possession of the city 
of Mobile, staying there until the 27th of May, 
when embarked in transport and moved via 
Lake Pontchartrain to New Orleans; from 
thence to Alexandria, La., remaining there 
until June 22d ; thence to Baton Rouge, La., 
to be mustered oat of service ; mustered out 
July 14, 1865, and left for Springfield, 111., for 
payment and final discharge. 

Killed in the field and died of wounds, 149 

Aggregate three-months service 933 

Aggregate three-years service 1879 

Field and staff, three years' service... 53 
The following general officers have been in 
the regiment: Gen. W. H. L. Wallace, Gen. T. 
E. G. Ransom, Gen. Smith D. Atkins. 

The following field officers of other regi- 
ments were members of this regiment : Col. 
Hotchkiss, Col. Hopeman, Col. H. H. Dean, 
Col. G. L. Fort, Lieut. Col. McCalb, Maj. S. B. 
Dean, Maj. Widmer. 

Line officers from this regiment to other 
regiments, thirty-three (33). 

Maj. Smith I>. Atkins, com. Capt Co. A, May 14, 1861, 
prmtd maj. Feb. 15, 1862 prmtd Col. 92nd Regt. 

Quartermaster Guyan J. Davis, com. 1st lieut. Co. A, 

July 4. 1860, p>mtd. Quartermaster Aug. 31, 1861, 

term exp. July 29, 1864. 
Quartermaster Joseph W. Brewster, e. as private Co. A. 

July 30, 1862, prmtd 2nd Lieut. Oct. 31, 1863, prmtd! 

Quartermasier July 29, 1864. 

Company A. 

Capt. Smith D. Atkins, com. May 14, 1861. 

First Lieut. Martin E. Newcomer, com. May 14, 1861. 

Second Lieut. Silas W. Fields, com. May 14, 1861. 

First Sergt. Richar.son W. Hurlburt, e. July 30, 1861, 
prmtd 2d lieut. 

Sergt. James 0. Churchill, e. July 30, 1861, prmtd. 2d 

Sertg. Orton Ingersol, e. July 30, 1861, prmtd. 2nd lieut. 

Sergt. F. T. Goodrich, e. July 30, 1861, kid. bat. Shiloh. 

Sergt. F. R. Bellman, e. July 30, 1861, kid. at Ft. Donel- 

Corp. Hugh Q. Staver, e. July 30, '61, disd. for promotion. 

Corp. JohnR. Hayes, e. July 30, 1861, disd. Nov. 24, 1862. 

Corp. O. F. Lamb, e. July 30, '61, disd. Aug. 3, '62, disab. 

Corp. John D. Waggoner, e. July 30, 1861, disd. May 17, 

Corp. H. B. Springer, e. July 30, '61, died July 14, '63, wd. 

Corp. William N. Blakeman, e. July 30, 1861, disd. July 
30, 1864, term expired. 

Corp. John Cronemiller, e. July 30, 1861, kid. at Ft. Don- 

Corp. Jason Clingman, e. July 30, 1861, disd. foi promo 
tion, June 6, 1863. 

Musician C. E. Cotton, e. July 30, 1861, trans, to hon- 
com. staff. 

Musician John R. Harding, e. July 30, 1861, disd. for 
promotion, June 6, 1863. 

Addams, S. J., e. July 30, 1861, disd. April, 1862, disab. 

Alexander, Joseph, e. July 30, 1861, died Aug 3, 1862. 

Adams, John H., e. July 30, 1861, disd. Nov. 20, 1862, wd. 

Bradford, John, e. Dec. 15, 1861, disd. May 17, 1862. 

Brewster, Joseph W., e. July 30, 1861, trans, to non-com - 
| Brooks, E. L., e. July 30, 1861. 

Bobb, Isaac, e. July 30, 1801, disd. Dec. 25, 1862. 
| Brace, S. N., e. July 30, 1861, vet. 

Bamberger, E., e. July 30, 1861, disd. for promotion, Oct. 
20, 1863. 
I Chown, Joseph N., e. July 30, 1861. 
! Cross, Levi, e. July 30, 1861, disd. Aug. 13, 1862, disab. 
! Clingman, William, e. July 30, '61, kid. at Ft. Donelson. 
. Cramer, D. N., e. July 30, 1861, kid. at Ft. Donelson. 
! Cradler, Joseph, e. July 30, 1861, as vet. 
! Dereham, David, e. Dec. 11, 1861, trans, from 109 111. Inf.. 

disd. May 5, 1863, disab. 
| Dunham, Christopher, e. July 30, 1861, trans, to cav. 
i Frain, William, e. July 30, 1861, disd. May 17, 1862. 
! Fry, John W., e. July 30, 1861, died Oct. 17, 1862. 
i French, D. H., e. July 30, 1861, disd. May 17, 1862. 
i Figely. William, e. July 30, 1861. 

Ferrin, Harvey, e. July 30, 1861, disd. May 17, 1862. 

Forbes, John, e. July 30, 1861. 

Graham, D. F., e. July 30, 1861, kid. at Ft. Donnlson. 

Gillet, John, e. July 30, 1861. 

Gillapp, Henry, e. July 30, 1861, disd. July 18, '62, disab. 

Gravenwold, Henry, e. July 30, 1861, kid. at Ft. Donelson. 

Hurlburt, E. D., e. July 30, 1861, as vet. 

Hayes, Russell A., e. July 30, 1861, disd. Aug. 9, '62, disab. 

Hail, Luther, e. July 30, 1861, disd. Sept. 22, 1864, term- 

Hay, Jonathan, e. July 30, 1861, disd. Oct. 13, 1861. 

Hanman, John M.. e. July 30, 1861, kid. at Shiloh. 

Hartman, F. D., e. July 30, 1861, kid. at Shiloh. 

Hile, Samuel, e. July 30, 1861, disd. Nov. 20, 1868, disab. 

Hays, Samuel P., e. Jan. 26, 1865, trans, to 46th 111. Inf. 

Hayes Win., e. July 30, 1861, vet. 

Haight Samuel, e. July 30, 1861, dis. Feb. 9, 1864. 

Ingham Samuel H., e. July 30, 1861, trans. 

Inian Seth, e. July 30, 1861. 

Kassell Nicholas, e. July 30, 1861, disd. Aug. 14, '62, disab. 

Kearney Francis, e. July 30,1861, m. o. Nov. 4,1864, terra 

Kline Eli, e. July 30, 1861, disd. Aug. 21, 1862, disab. 

Kailey Jos., e. July 30, 1861, kid. Ft. Donelson. 

Lamb John, e. Sep. 27, 1x61, disd. May 17, 1863. 

Loveland J. H., e. July 30, 1861, vet. 

Lambert F., e. July 30, 1861, kid. Vicksburg, May 22, '63. 

Lamb Thomas, e. July 30, 1861. 

Lutz Chas. H., e. July 30, 1801, vet. 

Lied Edwin, e. July 30. 1861, disd. Nov. 20, 1862, disab. 

Lyon George W., e. Juiy 30, 1861. 



Lynch Jcs. J., e. July 30, 1861, disd. Sept. 14, 1864, term 

McGhee James J., July 30, 1861, vet. 

McCormick D., July 30, 1861, disd. Aug. 14, 1862, disab. 

McGlouthling R., e. July 30, 1861, disd. Sep. 30, '62bisab. 

Marian Jacob, e. July 30, 1861, vet. 

Pratt Joseph, e. July 30, 1861. 

Patterson Arthur, e. July 30, 1861, vet. 

Parker II. M., e. July 31, 1861, disd. for promotion. 

Pope H. H., e. July 30, 1801, disd. May 17, 1862. 

Roe John M., e. July 30, 1861, vet. 

Koss Isaac M., e. July 30, 1861, kid. Ft. Donelson. 

Smith 0. F., e. July 30, 1861, m. o. July 29, 1864, term ex- 

Slough M., e. July 30, 1861, trans, to corps. 

Stoner H. C, e. July 30, 1861, vet. 

Stoner Saul, e. July 30, 1861. 

Shoemaker Anson, e. July 30. 1861, disd. May 17, 1862. 

Smith Benj. e. July 30, 1861, disd Feb. 1862, disab. 

Sidle John, e. July 30, "61, disd. July 30, '64, term expired. 

Svphep Annias, e. Sep. 27, 1861, disd. Nov. 24, 1861, disab. 

Thompson John A., e. July 30. 1861, kid. Ft. Donelson. 

Templeton David, e. July 30, 1861, disd. May 17, 1862. 

Trimper John, e. July 30, 1861, kid. Ft. Donelson. 

Taylor John B., e. July 30, 1861, disd. Nov. 30, 1863, disab. 

Weaver M. S., e. July 30, 1861, died Sept. 2, 1861. 

Woodring Uriah, e. July 30, 1861, disd. May 17, 1862. 

Wohlford Aaron, e. July 30, 1861. 

Wohlford Jerit, e. July 30, 186U 

Wohlford Geo., e. July, 30, 1861, promtd. Corp., died Aug. 
29 1863 

Wohlford Jos., e. July 30, 1861, promtl. Corpl. 

Wentz James, e. July 30, 1861. 

Williams F. J., e. Sep. 27, 1861, disd. Oct. 14, 1862, disab. 

Company D. 

Clement, Louis e. Aug. 15, 1861, died July 27, 1864, wd. 


The Fifteenth Regiment Infantry, Illinois 
Volunteers, was organized at Freeport, 111., and 
mustered into the United States service May 
24, 1861 — being the first regiment organized 
from the State for the three-years service. It 
then proceeded to Alton, 111., remaining there 
six weeks for instruction. Left Alton for St. 
Charles, Mo.; thence by rail to Mexico, Mo. 
Marched to Hannibal, Mo.; thence by steam- 
boat to Jefferson Barracks ; then by rail to 
Rolla, Mo. Arrived in time to cover Gen. Sie- 
gel's retreat from Wilson's Creek ; thence to 
Tipton, Mo., and thence joined Gen. Fremont's 
army. Marched from there to Springfield, Mo.; 
thence back to Tipton ; then to Sedalia, with 
Gen. Pope, and assisted in the capture of 1,300 
of the enemy a few miles from the latter place ; 
then marched to Otterville, Mo., where it went 
into winter quarters December 26, 1861. Re- 
mained there until Februarv 1, 1862. Then 
marched to Jefferson City : thence to St. Louis 
by rail ; embarked on transports for Fort Don- 
elson, arriving there the day of the surrender. 

The regiment was then assigned to the Fourth 
Division, Gen. Hurlbut commanding, and 
marched to Fort Henry. Then embarked on 
transports for Pittsburg Landing. Partici- 
pated in the battles of the 6th and 7th of April, 
losing 252 men killed and wounded. Among 
the former were Lieut. Col. E. T. W. Ellis. Maj. 
Goddard, Capts. Brownell and Wayne, and 
Lieut. John W. I'uterbaugh. ('apt. Adam Nase, 
wounded and taken prisoner. The regiment 
then marched to Corinth, participating in var- 
ious skirmishes and the siege of that place, 
losing a number of men killed and wounded. 

After the evacuation of Corinth, the regiment 

marched to Grand Junction ; thence to Holly 
Springs ; back to Grand Junction ; thence to 
La Grange ; thence to Memphis, arriving there 
July 21, 1862, and remained there until Sep- 
tember 6. Then marched to Bolivar; thence 
to the Hatchie River, and participated in the 
battle of the Hatchie. Lost fifty killed and 
wounded in that engagement. Then returned 
to Bolivar; frora thence to La Grange; thence, 
with Gen. Grant, down through Mississippi to 
Coffeeville. returning to La Grange and Mem- 
phis ; thence to Vicksburg, taking an active part 
in the siege of that place. After the surrender 
of Vicksburg, marched with Sherman to Jack- 
son, Miss.; then returned to Vicksburg and 
embarked for Natchez. Marched thence to 
Kingston ; returned to Natchez ; then to Har- 
risonburg, La., capturing Fort Beauregard, on 
the Washita River. Returned to Natchez, re- 
mained there until November 10, 1863. Pro- 
ceeded to Vicksburg and went into winter 
quarters. Here the regiment re-enlisted as 
veterans, remaining until February 1, 1864, 
when it moved with Gen. Sherman through 
Mississippi. On Champion Hills had a severe 
engagement with rebel Carney. Marched to 
Meridian ; thence south to Enterprise ; thence 
back to Vicksburg. Was then ordered to Illi- 
nois on veteran furlough. On expiration of 
furlough joined Seventeenth Army Corps, and 
proceeded up the Tennessee River to Clifton ; 
thence to Huntsville, Ala.; thence to Decatur 
and Rome, Ga.; thence to Kingston, and joined 
Gen. Sherman's Army, marching on Atlanta. 

At Allatoona Pass, the Fifteenth and the 
Fourteenth Infantry were consolidated, and the 
organization was known as the Veteran Battal- 
ion Fourteenth and Fifteenth Illinois Infantry 
Volunteers, and numbering 625 men. From 
Allatoona Pass it proceeded to Ackworth, and 
was then assigned to duty, guarding the Chat- 
tanooga & Atlanta Railroad. While engaged 
in this duty, the regiment being scattered along 
the line of road, the rebel Gen. Hood, march- 
ing north, struck the road at Big Shanty and 
Ackworth, and captured about 300 of the com- 
mand. The remainder retreated to Marietta, 
were mounted, and acted as scouts for Gen. 
Vandever. They were afterward transferred 
to Gen. F. P. Blair, and marched with Gen. 
Sherman through Georgia. 

After the capture of Savannah, the regi.i.ent 
proceeded to Beaufort, S. C; thence to Salka- 
hatchie River, participating in the various 
skirmishes in that vicinity — Columbia, S. C.j 
Fayetteville, N. C; battle of Bentonville — 
losing a number wounded ; thence to Goldsboro 
and Raleigh. At Raleigh, recruits sufficient to 
fill up both regiments were received, and the 
organization of the Veteran Battalion discon- 
tinued, and the Fifteenth re-organized. The 
campaign of Gen. Sherman euded by the sur- 
render of Gen. Johnston. The regiment then 
marched with the army to Washington, D. C, 
via Richmond and Fredericksburg, and partici- 
pated in the grand review at Washington, May 
24, 1865; remain 2, there two weeks. Pro- 
ceeded, by rail and steamboat, to Louisville, 



Ky.; remained at Louisville two weeks. The 
regiment was then detached from the Fourth 
Division, Seventeenth Army Corps, and pro- 
ceeded by steamer to St. Louis ; from thence to 
Fort Leavenworth, K;in., arriving there July 1, 
1865. Joined the army serving on the plains. 
Arrived at Fort Kearney August 14 ; then 
ordered to return to Fort Leavenworth Septem- 
1, 1865, where the regiment was mustered out 
of the service and placed en route for Spring- 
field, 111., for final payment and discharge- 
having served four years and four months. 

Number of miles marched 4,290 

Number of miles by rail 2,403 

Number of miles by steamer 4,310 

Total miles traveled 11,012 

Number of men joined from organization. 1,963 
Number of men at date of muster-out.... 640 

Col. Thomas J.Turner com. May 14, 1861, res. Nov. 2, 

Maj. William R. Goddard, com. June 26, 1861, kid. Pitts- 
burg Landing. 

Mai. Rufus C. McEathorn, com. 1st lieut. Co. G., April 
24, 1861, prmtd. capt. April 2, 1862, prmtd. maj. July 
7, 1863. 

Surgeon William J. McKim, com. May 14, 1861, hon. 
disd. March 21, 1865. 

First Asst. Surg. John W. Van Valzah, com. April 11, 
1862, died about August 9, 1863. 

Fife Maj. John H. Griffith, e. Dec. 21, 1863 

Hospital Stewart, H. H. McAfee 

Assisiant Surgeon, J. N. DeWitt. 

Company A. 

Henry Williams, Warren W. Armstrong, John S. Smith, 
George W.' Whitney, James Hodges and Charles S- 

Company B. 

Samuel Aikey, Joseph H. Fleaury, Patrick McNicholas. 

Company C. 

Alfred Broadee, Joseph Clark 

Company D 

Hotchkiss, W. N, e. May 24, 1861, vet. Dec. 3, 1863. 
Barnes, William G., e. May 24, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1864, 

Co. E. 
Deye, Emanuel, e. May 24, 1861, died May 5, 1862, wds. 
Freman, Alfred, e. May 24, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Smith, William H., e. May 24, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Giltner, Conrad, e. May 26, 1862, vet. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Hyortas, Julius 0., e. May 24, 1861, disd. Aug. 11, 1862, 

Hawkins, John H , e. March 26, 1862, vet. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Protexter, Christian, e. May 26, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1862. 
Shattuck, Abner, e. May 26, 1861, disd. Dec. 15, 1862, 

Smith, Charles, e. May 26, 1861, died April 22, 1862. 
Krink, Jonas, e. June 3, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Miere, Oscar, e June 3, 1861. 
Prjuse, William H., e. Sept. 12, 1861. 
Wilson, Robert B., e. June 3, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1864. 

Company F. 

Sweden, Dietrich, e. May 24, 1861. 
Luttig, Henry, e. Jan. 1, 1864. 

Jordan, Frank A., e. Nov. 2, 1861, disd. Nov. 14, 1863, 

Company C. 

Capt. James 0. P. Burnside, com. May 15, 1861, m. o. April 

2, 1862. 
Capt. Albert Bliss, Jr., com. 2d lieut. April 24, 1861, 

prmtd. 1st lieut. April 2, 1862, prmtd. capt. July 7, 

1863, m. o. at Consolidation. 
First Lieut. Hubbard P. Sweet, e. as 1st sergt. May 24, 

1861, prmtd. 2d lieut. April 2, 1862, prmtd 1st lieut. 

July 7, 1863, m. o. at Consolidation. 

Sergt. Robert Reeder, e. May 24, 1861, disd. Oct. 17, 1861, 

Sergt. Waterman Ells, e. May 24, 1861, vet., trans, to Co. 

B, Vet. Bat. 
Sergt. John W. Foil, e. May 24, 1861, disd. May 1, 1863, 

Sergt. Lansing Ells, e. May 24, 1861, disd. Oct. 17, 1861, 

Corp. William T. House, e. May 24, 1861. 
Corp James Aurand, e. May 24, 1861, disd. Jan. 1, 1862, 

Corp. Albeit V. S. Butler, e. May 24, 1861, died Jan. 4, 

Corp. Thomas J. Kaufman, e. May 24, 1861. 
Corp. George L. Stevens, e. May 24, 1861, disd. Oct. 19, 

1862, disab. 
Corp. Hood Hazlett, e. May 24, 1861. 
Corp. Daniel J. Keeley, e. May 24, 1861. 
Allen, William, e. Dec. 1, 1863, trans to Co. B, Vet. Bat. 
Auk, Jacob, e. May 24, 1861. 

Addis, Jacob R., e. May 24, 1861, disd. Jan. 1, 1862, disab. 
Aikey, Martin, e. May 24, 1861. 
Aurand, George C, e. May 24, 1861. 

Bailey, R. B., e. May 24, 1861, kid. at Shiloh April 6, 1862. 
Brigham, Lewis D., e. May 24, 1861, disd. Jan. 11, 1862, 

Braham, August, e. May 24, 1861, died Dec. 19, 1863. 
Bowker, Homer H., e. May 24, 1861. *> 

Bowker, James M., e. May 24, 1861, died Aug. 17, 1861. 
Barnes, William G., e. May 24, 1861, trans, to Co. E. 
Ballinger, Burroughs W., e. Sept. 23, 1861, disd. Aug. 15, 

1862, disab. 
Burrell Henry, e. Sept. 30, 1861. 

Company C. 

Barden. George R.,e. March 31, 1864. 

Barber Geo. E., e. March 31, 1864. 

Buswell Wm. J., e. May 24, died Oct. 14, 1863. 

Bahan John, e. May 24, '61, vet., trans, to Co. B, vet. bat. 

Brien B. 0., e. May 24,1861, disd. Oct. 17, 1861, disab. 

Brown Alex., e. May 24, 1861, disd May 1, 1863, disab. 

Cox James H., e. May 24, 1861, disd. Oct. 17, 1861, disab. 

Christenson Claus, e. May 24, 1861. 

Cassidy Wm. J., e. May 24, 1861, disd. Nov. 1, 1862, wd. 

Calhoun John P., e. May 24, 1861, disd. Jan. 1, 1862, disab. 

Cair Geo., e. May 24, 1861, disd. Aug. 20, 1862, disab. 

Callen John, e. May 24, 1861. 

DeWitt N. J., e. June 23, '61, v"t., prmtd. hospital steward. 

Davenport Lucius, e. May 24, 1861, disd. Oct.17, 1861, disab. 

Denton E S., e. May 24, 1861, vet., trans, to Co. B, vet. bat. 

Denton Chas. E., e. May 24, 1861. 

Doyle Mathew, e. May 24, 1S61, kid. at Shiloh, April 6,'62. 

Ehrman, Florence, e. May 24,1861, disd.|Keb.4, '63, disab. 

Ferguson, N. M., e. May 24, 1861, disd. Jan. 17, 1862. 

French, Geo. W., e. May 24, 1861. 

Fox, John C, e. May 24, 1861, disd. May 18, 1862, disab. 

Feely, Duncan MacD., e. May 24,"61, disd.April 17,'63, disab. 

Gardner, Jerome, e. Oct. 1, 1861, disd. Oct. 19, 1862, disab. 

Garner, John D. F., e. May 24, 1861, vet. trans, to vet. bat. 

Co. B. 
Gittner, John C, e. May 24, 1861. 

Gittner, R. D., e. May 24, 1861, disd. July 28, 1862, disab. 
Girton, John W., e. May 24, 1861. 
Gintter. John, e. May 24, 1861, dis. Feb. 7, 1862, disab. 
Hayes, Charles G., e. May 24, 1861. 
Heiser, Wm. H., e. May 24, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1864, trans . 

to Co. B, vet. bat. 
Hoag, Leonard H., e. May 24, 1861. 

Hofte, John, e. Dec. 1, 1863, vet. trans, to Co. B, vet. bat. 
Hackman, John W., e. May 24, 1861. 
Hays, A. A., e. May 24, 1861, m. o. May 24, 1864. 
Hays, Martin, e. May 19, 1864, trans, to Co. B, vet. bat. 
Hayes. Wm., e. May 24, 1861, trans, to invalid corps. 
Illingsworth, Jos., e. June 17, '61, disd. Jan. 1. '62, disab. 
Kline, M. V., e. May 24, 1861, died Nov. 8, 1861. 
Kinsman, Richard, e. May 24, 1861, vet. Jan. 1,1864, trans. 

to Co. B, vet. bat. 
Lawver, M. A,, e. March 31, 1861, trans, to Co. B, vet. bat. 
Laurer, Lewis, e. May 24, 1861, disd. April 8, 1862, disab. 
Landon, Lyman, e. May 24, 1861. 
Ling, E. W., e. May 24, 1861, died Aug. 15, 1862. 
Lambrecht, Max, e. May 24, 1861. 

Milhollin, Daniel, e. Oct. 4, 1861, died June 24, '62, wds. 
Moll, Wm. F., e. May 24, '61, vet. trans, to Co. B, vet. bat. 
Mack, John, e. Dec. 5, 1863. 
Minns, Chas., e. May 24, 1861. 
Mack, Samuel, e. Dec. 5, 1863. 
Murphy, Thomas, e. May 24, 1861. 
Moist, E., e. Dec. 24, 1863, trans, to Co. B, vet. bat. 
Morley, Marshall, e. May 24, 1861, dis. Dec. 16, '62, disab. 



Maloney, Michael, e. April 23, '64, trans, to Co. 

Mullen, James, e. May 24, 1861. 

Mathison, Alex., e. May 24, 1861, vet. trans, to Co. B, vet. 

McAfee, Henry H., e. May 24, 1861, prmtd. to hospital 

Miller, John H., e. May 24, 1861, dis. Oct. 17, 1861, disab. 
Noble, Geo. W., e. May 24, 1862, vet. 
Niemeyer, John, e. May 24, '61, kid. at Shiloh April 6, '62. 
Philips, Hugh, e. May 24, 1861, died Jan. 6, 1862. 
Pickel, Henry, e. May 24, '61, vet. trans, to vet. bat. Co. B. 
Patton, Wm. P., e. May 24, 1861, dis. Dec. 10, 1862, disab. 
Preston, Geo. L., March 31, 1864, trans, to Co. B. vet. bat. 
Palmer, John T., e. May 24, 1861,disd. Oct 17,1861, disab. 
Reeder, John, disd. June 14, 1862, disab. 
Randall, Geo. H., e. May 24, 1861, disd. Sep. 2, 1862, wd. 
Roes, Walter J., e. May 24, 1861. 
Rush, Peter, e. May 24, 1861, disd. Oct. 17, 1861, disab. 
Rishel, John G., e. May 24, 1861, disd. Oct. 17, 1861. 
Rees, Daniel J., e. May 24, 1861. 

Rohback, Jacob, e. May 24, 1861, disd. Aug. 20, 1862, disab. 
Seymour, Oliver, e. May 31, 1861. 
Sasman, D. W., May 24, 1861, disd. Oct. 18, 1862. 
Sigler, John B., e. May 24, 1861. 
Shiney, Sylvester, e. May 24, 1861, vet. trans, to Co. B. Vet. 

Shinkle, Geo. W., e. May 24, 1861, vet., Jan. 1, 1864, trans. 

to Co. B. Vet. Bat. 
Stites, David R. P., e. Sept. 23, 1861, kid. at Shiloh, April 

6, 1862. 
Shrove, Wm. H., e. May 24, 1861, disd. 0ctJ7, '61, disab. 
Snyder, Egbert, e. Sep. 30, 1861, disd. Dec. 1?, 1862, disab. 
Shinkle, E. R., e. May 24, 1861. 
Stull, James, e. Sep. 1, 1862, trans, to Co. B vet. bat. 
Shrove, Daniel, e. May 24, 1861, disd. Feb. 1862, disab. 
Sturm, Henry, e. May 31, 1864, trans, to Co. B. vet. bat. 
Solace, E. D., e. May 24, 1861, died April 8, 1862, wd. 
Savidge, Robt. S., e. May 24, 1861, disd. July 28, 1862, wd. 
Tull, Chas. H., e. Sep. 23, 1861, vet. 
Tenant, Owen, May 24, 1861, died April, 1862, wd. 
Trepus, Daniel, Sept. 2, 1862, trans to vet. bat. 
Twogood, Luther J., e. May 24, 1861. 
Wite, John E., e. March 30, 1864, trans to vet. bat. 
Wheeler, John S., e. May 24. 1861, kid. at Shiloh. 
Toder, John B., e. May 24, 1861. 


Company K. 

Blankenehip, John, e. March 9, 1865. 
Rollins, Solomon W., e. March 9, 1865. 


Maj Rufus McEathorn, com. July 7, 1863, m. o. Aug' 

Surg. Wm. J. McKim, com. May 14, 1861. 


Surg. Wm. J. McKim, com. May 14, 1861, hon. disd. Dec. 
22, 1864. 

Company B. 

Sergt. Waterman Ells, e. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Sergt. William F. Mall, e. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Corp. John D. F. Garner, e. Jan. 1. 1864. 
Corp. Erastus Denton, e Jan. 1, 1864, vet. 
Musician Oliver Seymour, e. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Allen, William, e. Dec. 1, 1863. 
Beham, John, e. March 1, 1864. 
Barden, George, R., e. March 31, 1864. 
Barber, Geo. E., e. March 31, 1864. 
Foreman, Alfred, Jan. 1, 1864. 
Huffee, John, e. Dec. 1, 1863. 
Hayes, Martin, e March 19, 1864. 
Heiser, Henry, e. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Kinsman, Richard, e. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Lawver, M. A., e. March 31, 18(i4. 
Maloney, Michael, e. April 23, 1864. 
Mook, Samuel, e. Dec. 5, 1863. 
Moist, Ephraim, e. Dec. 24, 1863. 

Noble, George W. 

Preston, Geo.L.,e. March 31 , 1864. 

Potter, Sanuel. 

Shuler, Thomas. 

Stull, James, e. Sept. 1, 1862. 

Starn, Henry, e. Mrrch 31, 1864. 

Trepus, Daniel, e. Sept. 26, 1862. 

White, John E., e. March 30 1864. 

Company C. 

Hotchkiss, W. N., e. Dec. 16, 1863. 
Perry, James H., e. March 17, 1862. 
Price, William, e. Dec. 18, 1863. 
Staplin, George W., e. April 1, 1862. 

Company E. 

Armstrong, W. W., e. Jan. 1, 1864. 

Hawkins, John H.. e. March 26, 1864, died Sept. 14, 1864. 

Luttig, Henry, e. Jan. 1, 1864. 

Protexter, Chris, e. Jan. 1, 1864. 

Prouse, William H., e. Sept. 12, 1861, m. o. Sept. 23, 1864. 

Page, Charles S., e. April 27, 1864. 

Pabst, Charles H. C, e. Jan. 1, 1864. 

Steekle, Reuben, e. Jan. 1, 1864. 

Smith, William H., e. Jan. 1, 1864. 

Steves, Thomas M., e. Jan. 1, 1864. 

Smith, John H., e. Jan. 1, 1864. 

Whitney, George W., e. Jan. 1, 1864, disd. March 27, 1865. 

Company C. 

Fessenden, E. A., e. March 2, 1865. 
Gill, Richard H., e. March 2, 1865. 

Company H. 

Fowler, William, e. March 2, 1865. 


The Twenty-sixth Illinois Volunteer Infantry 
was mustered into the United States service, 
with seven companies, at Camp Butler, Illi- 
nois, August 31, 1861, and were ordered to 
Quincy, 111., for the protection of that place. 
Not having been armed, the regiment did 
guard duty with hickory clubs. During the 
autumn, the regiment did guard duty on the 
Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad, and were 
armed with old English Tower muskets — Col. 
John Mason Loomis commanding post at Han- 
nibal. Prior to January 1, }862, three more 
companies were raised, completing the organi- 
zation. February 19, 1862, they left Hanni- 
bal, Mo., for the South, stopping at Commerce, 
where the regiment was assigned to Brig. Gen. 
J. B. Plummer's Brigade, Brig. Gen. Schuyler 
Hamilton's Division, Maj. Gen. John Pope's 
Corps. They arrived at New Madrid March 
3, and were engaged in action there ; marched 
to Point Pleasant, and, arriving on the 6th, 
engaged rebel gunboats with sharp-shooters 
and prevented the landing of the enemy; 
marched to intercept the flyiDg enemy from 
Island Number 10, and assisted in capturing 
many prisoners. After remaining some time at 
New Madrid, joined an expedition against Fort 
Pillow ; returning, proceeded up the Ohio and 
Tennessee Puvers. to Hamburg Landing ; took 
part in the eiege of Corinth ; May 8 and 9, were 
engaged at Farmington, the regiment losing five 
killed and thirty wounded, Lieut. Col. Charles J. 
Tinkham was among the wounded ; Col. Loomis 
commanded the brigade, and Gen. Stanley the 
division. May 28, engaged the enemy one 
mile from Corinth, the regiment losing four 
killed and twenty-five wounded ; Maj. Gilmore 



was wounded. Company G-, of the Twenty- 
sixth, was the first to enter Corinth on evacua- 
tion by the enemy; engaged in the pursuit to 
Booneville, and returned to Clear Creek, four 
miles from Corinth. June 23, ordered to Dan- 
ville, Miss., where we remained till August 18, 
1862, at which time we joined the brigade 
commanded by Col. R. C. Murphy, Eighth Wis- 
consin, and marched for Tuscumbia ; arrived 
21st; September 8, with Forty-seventh and 
Twenty-sixth, Lieut. Col. Tinkham command- 
ing, marched to Clear Creek; September 18, 
marched for Iuka ; 19th, were engaged with 
the enemy, in a brigade commanded by Lieut. 
Col. J. A. Mower, of the Eleventh Aiissouri; 
the enemy evacuating in the night, we joined 
in the pursuit, arriving at Corinth October 3, 
and participating in the battle of Corinth ; 
after the battle, followed the retreating enemy 
as far as Ripley. Ten days afterward, arrived 
again at Corinth, where we stayed until Novem- 
ber 2. Marched, via Holly Junction, Holly 
Springs and Lumpkin's Mill toward Tallahatch- 
ie River, the enemy being fortified on the south 
side of the river. The regiment was here de- 
tailed to guard a commissary train to Hudson- 
viile, during the trip, losing two men killed 
and two wounded by guerrillas ; ordered to 
Holly Springs for guard duty ; thence to Ox- 
ford, Miss., where we remained until December 
20; ordered to Holly Springs, to prevent the 
capture of that place: on the 21st, reached 
that place, the enemy having fled ; remained 
here during the year, Col. Loomis command- 
ing the post, and Lieut. Col. Gilmore as chief 
of outposts. 

In the beginning of the year 1863, the post 
at Holly Springs was broken up and the army 
fell back to La Grange, Tenn., where the regi- 
ment was assigned to duty as provost guard, 
Col. Loomis commanding the post. Here it 
remained until March 8. 

March 3, the regiment was brigaded with 
the Ninetieth Illinois, Twelfth and One Hun- 
dredth Indiana, Col. Loomis commanding. 
March 8, the brigade marched from La Grange 
to Collierville, Teun., where they remained 
three months, engaged in fortifying the place 
and defending the railroad against guerrillas 
and bushwhackers. June 7, left Collierville 
for Memphis. The following day they embarked 
for Haines' Bluff. The regiment subsequently 
went into camp at Oak Ridge, where it remained 
until after the fall of Vicksburg. On the aft- 
ernoon of July 4, started in pursuit of the 
retreating forces of Gen. Johnson. The siege 
of Jackson was marked by severe skirmishing, 
in one of which ('apt. James A. Dugger, of 
Company C, was instantly killed by a round 
shot through the breast, and a number of men 
were killed and wounded. About the 22d of 
July, began the march back to Vicksburg, and 
when the troops crossed Black River they went 
into camp for the summer. September 28, the 
encampment was broken up and the regiment 
marched into Vicksburg, and there embarked 
for Memphis, where it arrived on the 7th of 

October. Here a few days were given for the 
purpose oi outfitting the men, preparatory for 
the long march across the country from Mem- 
phis to Chattanooga, to relieve the besieged 
Army of the Cumberland. The march began 
at 8 A. M.. October 11 ; arrived at Bridgeport 
November 15, and. on the 24th and 25th, took 
an active part in the battle of Mission Ridge, 
losing, in killed and wounded, one hundred 
and one officers and men. Among the officers 
severely wounded were Lieut. Col. Gilmore, 
Capt. James P. Davis, Company B, Adjutant 
Edward A. Tucker and Lieut. William Polk, 
Company B. The next morning, started before 
daylight, in pursuit of the defeated and flying 
enemy ; followed them to Ringgold, Ga.; burnt 
the bridges and destroyed the railroad ; then 
turned to make the march of two hundred miles, 
without supplies, cooking utensils, camp equip- 
age, or change of clothing, to the relief of Gen. 
Burnside, at Knoxville ; returned to Br.dge- 
port in the latter part of December ; were re- 
clothed, paid off, and marched to Scottsboro, 
Ala., and went into winter quarters. 

January 1, 1864, there were five hundred 
and fifteen men present for duty, of whom four 
hundred and sixty-three" re-enlisted as vete- 
rans. Of sixty-one men present in Company 
K, sixty re-enlisted. 

January 12, started home on veteran fur- 
lough. At the expiration of furlough, returned 
to the field with ranks well filled with recruits. 
Arrived at old camp at Scottsboro, March 
3, and remained there until May 1, when it 
started on the great Atlanta campaign. The 
regiment was actively engaged in all the 
marches, skirmishes and battles which finally 
resulted in the capture of Atlanta. On the 3d 
of August, a detail of nine hundred men was 
made from the division, to charge the enemy's 
skirmish line. The charge was to be made 
over an old field, covered with high grass, a 
distance of about four hundred yards. When 
the signal was given, the men started on a 
keen run for the rebel works. Private John 
S. Wilson, of Company D, Twenty-sixth Illi- 
nois, a stout, active fellow, outran the rest, 
and suddenly found himself alone in front of a 
rebel pit, which had been concealed by the tall 
grass, filled with seventeen men and a commis- 
sioned officer. He drew up his musket and 

told them to " fight or run, and that d 1 

quick." All surrendered except the officer, 
who started to run, and he shot him. It was 
laughable to see " Buck," as he was called, 
marching back with his seventeen prisoners. 
By order of Gen. Logan, he retained the offi- 
cer's sword and a fine Whitney rifle, found in 
the pit, and now has them at home, as memen- 
toes of his gallantry. After the fall of Atlanta, 
most of the old officers were mustered out of 
the expiration of their term of service. Only 
two of the original officers remained, one at 
whom, Capt. Ira J. Bloorafield, Company K, 
was made Colonel of the regiment. About the 
same time, the Fourth Division, Fifteenth Army 
Corps, was broken up, and the regiment was 



transferred to the First Division of the same 
corps, with which it remained until the close 
•of the war. 

The regiment did some hard marching, fol- 
lowing Hood up toward Chattanooga, and off 
into Northern Alabama; then returned to At- 
lanta; were paid and reclothed, preparatory 
to " marching through Georgia.'' 

The Twenty-sixth was engaged in the action 
of Griswoldville, siege 'of Savannah, and cap- 
ture of Fort McAlister. A short time after the 
fall of Savannah, the regiment was ordered to 
Beaufort, S. C, and remained on duty there 
and at Port Royal Ferry until the commence- 
ment of the northward march through the Car- 
olinas ; were among the first regiments into 
Columbia, and were hotly engaged in the bat- 
tle of Bentonville. Here the regiment was or- 
dered to carry the bridge across Mill Creek, 
which was strongly guarded by the enemy. 
The regiment charged and carried it, but lost a 
number of good men. Sergt. Smith, of Com- 
pany K.. color bearer, was charging at the 
head of the column, across the bridge, and was 
shot, the colors falling into the stream. The 
enemy rushed forward to secure them, but 
Lieut. Webster, with Company E, charged, drove 
them back, and saved the colors. Col. Bloom- 
field had his horse shot under him, and nar- 
rowly escaped himself. 

Remained at Goldsboro, N. C, a few days, 
and, April 10, began the march against Ra- 
leigh. Left Raleigh May 1, for Washington, 
via Richmond; participated in the grand review 
at Washington ; transported by rail to Parkers- 
burg, Va.; thence by boat to Louisville, Ky., 
where it remained in camp until July 20, 1865, 
when it was mustered out of service and started 
for Springfield, 111., for final payment and dis- 
charge. July 28, the regiment was paid off 
and disbanded. 

The regiment had marched, during its four 
years of service, six thousand nine hundred 
and thirty-one miles, fought twenty-eight hard 
battles, beside innumerable skirmishes. They 
were permitted, by the orders of the command- 
ing General, to place upon their banners " New 
Madrid," " Island No. 10," " Farmington," 
'•Siege of Corinth,' "Iuka," " Corinth, 3d 
and 4th October, 1862," " Holly Springs," 
" Yicksburg," " Jackson, Miss.," "Mission 
Ridge," " Resaca," " Kenesaw," " Ezra 
Church," " Atlanta," "Jonesboro," "Gris- 
woldville," "McAllister," "Savannah," "Co- 
lumbia," "Bentonville.'" 

Lieut. Col. George H. Eeed, com. 1st Lieut. Co. B Aug. 
28, 1861, prmtd. Capt. Mav 17, 1864, prmtd. Maj. June 
6, 1865. 

Company B. 

Capt. James P. Davis, com. May 28, 1861. hon. died. March 

30, 1864. 
Capt. Theodore Schermerhorn, e. as (? | corp. Aug. 15, 1861, 

prmtd. 2d lieut. March 5, 1864, prmtd. 1st lieut. May 

14, 1864, prmtd. capt. June 6, 1865. 
First Lieut. William Polk, com. 2d lieut. Aug. 28, 1861, 

prmtd. 1st lieut. May 4, 1863, res. May 14, 1864. 
First Lieut. David Layser, e. as corp. Aug. 15, 1861, vet. 

Jan. 1, 1864, prmtd. 1st lieut. June 6, 1865. 
Sergt. William Quinn, e. Aug. 15, 1861, disd. Oct. 31, 

1862, disab. 

Sergt. James P. Dursk, e. Aug. 15, 1861, prmtd Q. M- 

sergt., vet. 
Sergt. William J. Irvin, e. Aug. 15, 1861, vet. 
Sergt. Jonas Andrew, e. August 15, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Corporal James P. Winters, e. Aug. 15, 1861, died Oct. 10, 

Addams, C. H., e. Aug. 15, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Buckley, Daniel, e. Aug. 15, 1861, trans, to Co. H. 
Buckley, Patrick, e. Aug. 15, 1861, trans, to Co. H. 
Buckley, John, e. Aug. 15, 1861, trans, to Co. H. 
Berry, Edwin, e. Feb. 12, 1S64. 

Bentley, William, e. Aug. 15, 1861, disd. July 16, 1862. 
Blake, F. W., e. Aug. 15, 1861, trans, to Co. I. 
Bear, F. H., e. Aug. 15, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Burns, Francis, e. Aug. 15. 1861, trans, to Co. I. 
Butcher, James, e. Aug. 15, 1861, prmtd. corp., vet. Jan. 

1, 1864, died Oct. 31, 1864. 
Burk, John J., e. Aug. 15, 1861, disd. Aug. 28, 1864, term 

Baker, Philip, e. Aug. 15, 1861, kid. Farmington, Miss., 

May 9, 1862. 
Bokof, Harmon, e. Aug. 15, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1864, m. o. 

as corp. 
Cornelius, Samuel, e. Aug. 15, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Cawley, William, e. Aug. 15, 1861, trans, to Co. I. 
Choppy, Charles, died May 31, 1864, wds. 
Derliug, Israel, e. Aug. 15,1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1864, m. o. as 

Dow, Edward, e. Aug. 15, 1862. 
Doll, Dogebert, e. Sept. 18, 1862. 
Fehr, William, e. Oct. 10, 1864. 
Fleekson, Peter, e. Feb. 7, 1864. 
Fannon, Andrew, e. Nov. 3, 1862. 

Eastland, A. J., e. Aug. 15, 1861, trans, to Co. I. , 

Eshlerman, William, e. Aug. 15, 1861, died July 27. 1862. 
Eaton, N. H., e. Aug. 15, 1861, vet., Jan. 1, 1864. 

Frisby, Julius, e. Aug. 15, 1861, died April 2, 1862. 

Forbs, Nathan, e. Aug. 15, 1861, disd. Aug. 28, 1864, term 

Foster, K. J., vet. Jan. 1, 1864, m. o. corp. 

Gold Charles, e. Aug. 15, 1861, died Jan. 9, 1864, wd. 

Gartman, Nicholas, e. Aug. 31, 1864. 

Gates Simon, e. Aug. 15, 1861, died Sept. 17, 1863. 

Geiser, John, e. Aug. 20, 1862, died Jan. 2, 1864, wd. 

Garrison, Freeborn, e. Aug. 15, 1861, disd. Aug. 28, 1864, 
term expired. 

Greer, John, e. Aug. 15, 1861, disd. Oct. 13, 1864. 

Hennick, William H., vet. Jan. 1, 1864, m. o. as sergt. 

Hunt, A. B., e. Aug 15, 1861, trans, to Co. H. 

Heise, John, vet. Jan. 1, 1864, died Aug. 19, 1864, wd. 

Henry, John, e. Aug. 15, 1861, trans, to Co. I. 

Hoag, Theodore G. e. Feb. 22. 1864, disd. Nov. 12, '64 disab. 

Hanson Christopher, e. Aug. 15, 1861, disd. July 12, 1862, 

Heise, Aaron, e. Feb. 22, 1864. 

Haines, Howard, e. Aug. 15, 1861, Jan. 1, 1864, m. o. as 
as corp. 

Heise, Moses, e. Feb. 22, 1864, died March 22, 1864. 

Haines, Garrison, e. Aug. 15, 1861, disd. Aug. 28, 1864, 
term expired. 

Heller, Jacob, e. Jan. 29, 1864. 

Hiatt, William W., e. Aug. 15, 1861, trans, to Co. I. 

Kane, John, e. Aug. 15, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1864, disd. July 
2, 1865. 

Kumnierrer, Tieghman, e. Aug. 15, 1861, disd. March 6, 

1863, disab. 

Kraymer, William H., e. Aug. 15, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1864, 
Keegan, James, e. Aug. 15, 1861, trans, to Co. I. 
Kramer, Benj. F., e. Feb. 2, 1864. 
Kruntzler, William, e. Aug. 15, 1861, re-e. vet. Jan. 1, 

1864, m. o. as corp. 
Kouth. Michael, e. Aug. 16, 1862. 

Leonard, Arthur, e. Aug. 15, 1861, trans, to Co. I. 
Lilley, William E., e. Nov. 17, 1863. 
Long, William, e. Aug. 15,'61, died at Iuka' Aug. 28, '62. 
Long, John, e. Aug. 15, 1861, disd. Oct. 13, 1864, term ex- 
Long, Jacob H. 
Mieley, Samuel P., e. Aug. 15, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1864, m. 

0. as drummer. 

McCoy, Lemuel, e. Aug. 15, 1862, died July 22, 1864, wd. 
Messenger, J. C, e. Aug. 15, 1861, prmtd. corp. vet. 
Montague, Patrick F., e. Aug. 15, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1864, 

kid. April 30, 1864. 
Morris, D., e. Aug. 15, 1861, died May 29, 1864, wd. 
Mallick, Franklin, e. Feb. 13, 1864. 
Miller, Bernard, e. Sept. 28, 1861, trans, to V. R. C. May 

1, 1864. 

Miller, A. J., e. vet. Jan. 1 1864, trans, to 147th Inf. as 
1st lieut., Co. G. 



Melody, Thomas, e. Sept. 28, 1861, vet. Jan 1, 1864. 
Needham, Denaison, Sept. 8, 1861, trans to Co. I. 
Needham, Thomas, Sept. 8, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Nicholas, Thomas, Aug. 15, kid. at Corinth, Miss., Oct. 

4, 1862. 
Paul, V. A., e. Aug. 15, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Robnett, James, e. Aug. 15, 1861, disd. Jan. 13, 1863. 
Rice, Frank, e. Feb. 3, 1864, m. o. May 26, 1865, wd. 
Robinold, S. J., e. Aug. 15, 1861, died May 22, 1862. 
Raymer, Charles, e. Feb. 3, 1864, m. o. July 20, 1865. 
Reardon, John, e. Sept. 8, 1861. 
Ryan, James, e. Feb. 2, 1864. 
Smith, Peter E., e. Sept. 8, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1864, kid. 

May 13, 1864. 
Smith, Jesse L., e. Feb. 10, 1864. 
Stage, Theo., e. Sept. 8, 1861, vet. March 9, 1864. 
Sting, Rasper, e. Feb. 10, 1864. 
Sigman, Wilson, e. Sept. 8, 1861, prmtd. corp. vet. Jan. 1, 

1864, m. o. as corp. 
Sumner, James R., e. Aug. 19, 1862. 
Seiferman, B., e. Sept. 8, 1861, died Sept. 12, 1862, wd. 
Schmidt, John, e. Aug. 29, 1862, kid. Nov. 25, 1863. 
Sharp, Harwood, e. Feb. 10, 1864. 
Schraeder, Frederick, e. Sept. 2, 1862. 
Sturdevant, Jacob, Jan. 1, 1862. 
Thompson, John F., e. Sept. 8, 1861, disd. Aug. 28, 1864, 

term expired. 
Thompson, Loren, e. Feb. 2, 1864. 
Thompson, Joseph D., Sept. 8, 1861, disd. Aug. 28, 1864, 

term expired. 
Wishart, Thomas, e Aug. 15, 1861, died Nov. 27, 1863. 
Walkey, Joseph, e. Aug. 15, 1861 , died March 22, 1862. 
Wright, N. F., e. Aug. 15, 1861, trans, to Co. D. 
Walton, John, e. Aug. 30. 1862, kid. March 7, 1865. 
Wertz, C. F. 

Company G. 

First Lieut. John Irvin, com. Aug. 31, '62, died Oct. 6, '63. 

Company H. 

Capt. Chas. F. Wertz, com. 2d lieut. Jan. 1, 1862, prmtd. 

1st lieut. Feb. 16, 1862, prmtd. capt. Aug. 22, 1863. 
Capt. Wm. W. Allen, e. as sergt. Aug. 15, 1861, prmtd. 2d 

lieut. Feb. 16, 1863, prmtd. 1st lieut. Aug. 22, 1863, 

prmtd. capt.. declined commission. 
Capt. Robt. Salisbury, e. as corpl. Nov. 1, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 

1864, prmtd. sergt., then capt. May 19, 1865. 
Sergt. Chas. H. Edmonds, e. Nov. 1, 1861. 
Buckley, John, e. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Beaury, Albert, e. Nov. 1, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Black, John F., e. Jan. 1, 1864, died Sept. 11, 1864, wds. 
Black, H. L., e. Feb. 3, 1864. 
Buckley, Daniel, e. Aug. 15, 1861, m. o. Sept. 3, 1864, term 

Buckley, Patrick, e. Aug. 15,1861, dis. July 11, '62, disab. 
Cross, Hiram A., e. Nov. 1, 1861, m. o. Oct. 31, 1864, term 

Deagon, Jos., e. Nov. 1, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Fye, Daniel, e. Jan. 26, 1864. 
Fye, J. D., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 
Fye, David. 

Grey, Robt, e. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Heintz, Michael, e. Nov. 1, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Hunt, A. B., e. Aug. 15, 1861. 
Mayer, John, e Nov. 1, 1S61, vet. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Michner, C. W., e. Nov. 1, 1861, m. o. Oct. 31, 1864, term 

Rice, A. L.. e. Nov. 1, 1861, died Oct. 15, 1864, wds. 
Reef, Jos. S., e. March 23, 1864, m. o. corpl. 
Rees, Enos S., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 
Rees. John M., e. Jan. 31, 1865. 

Wertz, Jacob, e. Nov. 1, 1861, wd., m. o. Dec. 2, 1864. 
Winters, Abraham, e. Nov. 1, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Winters. Cyrus, e. Nov. 1, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1864, absent, 

wd. at m. o. of regiment. 
Wagoner, Geo., e. Nov. 1, 1861, vet. Jan. 1, 1864, absent 

sick at m. o. of regiment. 

Company I. 

Eastland, A. J., , died August, 1863. 

Blake, F. W., e. Jan. 1, 1864. 

Keegan, James, e. March 12, 1864. kid. July 22, 1864. 

Leonard, Arthur, e. Jan. 1, 1864, absent sick at m. o. of 

Ruff, F. O, e. Jan. l, 1864. 
Reider, Jos., e. Jan. 1, 1864. 

Company K. 

Allison, W. W. 

Cooper, Wm., e. Jan. 1, 1864. 

Sheppard, Charles. 


The Washburne Lead Mine Regiment was or- 
ganized at Chicago, 111., December 25, 1861, by 
Col. John E. Smith, and mustered into the 
United States service as the Forty-fifth In- 
fantry Illinois Volunteers. January 15, 1862, 
moved to Cairo, 111. February 1, assigned 
to brigade of Col. W. H. L. Wallace, division 
of Brig. Gen. McClernand. February 4, 
landed below Fort Henry, on the Tennessee, 
and on the 6th marched into the fort, it hav- 
ing been surrendered to the gun-boats. Feb- 
ruary 11, moved toward Fort Donelson, and 
during the succeeding days bore its part of 
the suffering and of the battle. The flag of 
the Forty-fifth was the first planted on the 
enemy's works. Loss — 2 killed and 26 
wounded. March 4, moved to the Tennes- 
see River, and 11th, arrived at Savannah. 
AVas engaged in the expedition to Pin Hook. 
March 25' moved to Pittsburg Landing, and 
encamped near Shiloh Church. 

The Forty-fifth took a conspicuous and hon- 
orable part in the two days' battle of Shiloh, 
losing 26 killed and 199 wounded and miss- 
ing — nearlv one-half of the regiment. April 
12, Col. John E. Smith, of the Forty-fifth, 
took command of the brigade. During the 
siege of Corinth, the regiment was in the First 
Brigade, Third Division, Reserve Army of the 
Tennessee, and bore its full share of the labors 
and dangers of the campaign. June 4, the 
regiment was assigned to Third Brigade, and 
moved toward Purdy, fifteen miles. On the 
5th, marched to Bethel ; 7th, fro Montezuma, 
and on the 8th, to Jackson, Tenn., the enemy 
flying on its approach. 

During the months of June and July, en- 
gaged in garrison and guard duty. August 
11, assigned to guarding railroad, near Toon's 
Station. On the 31st, after much desper- 
ate fighting, Companies C and D were cap- 
tured. The remainder of the regiment, con- 
centrating at Toon's Station, were able to 
resist the attack of largely outnumbering 
forces. Loss — 3 killed, 13 wounded, and 43 
taken prisoners. September 17, moved to 
Jackson ; November 2, to Bolivar, and was 
assigned to First Brigade, Third Division, Right 
Wing, Thirteenth Army Corps. November 3, 
1862, marched from Bolivar to Van Buren ; 
4th, to La Grange, and was assigned to Provost 
duty ; 28th, marched to Holly Springs ; De- 
cember 3, to Waterford ; 4th, Abbeville ; 5th, 
to Oxford, to Yocono River, near Spring Dale. 

Communications with the north having been 
cut off, foraged on the country for supplies. 
December 17; notice received of the promo- 
tion of Col. John E. Smith to Brigadier Gen- 
eral, ranking from November 29 ; December 
22, returned to Oxford ; 24th, moved to a 
camp three miles north of Abbeville, on the 
Tallahatchie River, where the regiment re- 
mained during the month. Mustered out 
July 12, 1865, at Louisville, Ky., and arrived 
at Chicago July 15, 1865, for final payment, 
and discharged. 



Company B. 

Capt. Thomas J. Prouty, e. as private, Aug. 30, 1861 ; 

pmtd. sergt.; prmtd. 2d lieut. Nov. 29, 1862 ; pmtd. 

1st lieut. Dec. 25, 1864 ; prmtd. capt. July 9, 1865. 
Hollenbeck, Chas. H., e. Aug. 30, 1861, disd. April 16, 1863, 

Prouty, Elijah, e. Aug. 30, 1861, vet. Dec 19, 1863. 
Cressler, Alfred, e. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Company C. 

Sergt. Orrin L. Williams, e. Oct. 1, 1861, m. o. Dec. 24 

1864, term expired. 
Corp. Ephraim Percy, e. Oct. 2, 1861. 
Beaumont, H. E., e. Oct. 7, 1861. 
Foley, Michael, e. Oct. 3, 1861. 
Green, James M., e. Oct. 5, 1861, vet. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Jordan, James, e. Oct. 3, 1861, disd. March 2, 1862. 
Kepheart, Isaac, e. Oct. 3, 1861, disd. for disab. 
Lasier, Silas D., e. Dec. 20, 1861. 
Mourn, Andrew, e. S«p. 20, 1861, reported dead. 
Morrison, John H., e. Oct. 1, 1861, m. o. Nov. 20, 1864. 
Mitchell, Robert M., e. Oct. 7, 1861. 
Mugley, Geo-., e. Oct. 8, 1861. 

McGrath, Patrick, e. Oct. 1, 1861, trans, to V. B. C. 
Stocks, Job., e. Oct. 9, 1861. 
Verly, John, e. Oct. 5, 1861, disd. Jan. 31, 1863, disab. 

Company D. 

McLaughlin, Thos. W., e. Oct. 19, 1861, vet. Dec. 19, 1863- 

m o. July 12, 1865. 
McLoughlin, W. T. 
Wilder, Albert A., e. Oct. 19, '61, disd. April 23, '63, disab, 

Company E. 

Second lieut. Chas. F. Dube, e. as sergt. Sept. 14, 1861, 

prmtd. 2d lieut. May 22, 1863, term expired Dec. 25, 

Oorp. Samuel E. Machamer, e. Sept. 14, 1861, disd. May 

2, 1862. 
Boop, Wm. H., e. March 30, 1864 
Brandt, Abraham, e. Sept. 18, 1861, vet. Dec. 19, 1863, m. 

o. as Corp. 
Boop, Jacob, e. March 30, 1864. 
Bowersox, Chas., e. Sept. 18, 1861, disd May 2, 1862. 
Dubs, Henry, e. March 24, 1864. 
Frasher, Win., e. Sept. 18, 1861, vet. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Flickenger, E. 0., e. Sept. 14, 1861, vet. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Keister, Chris., e. Sept. 18, 1861, trans, to inv corps. 
Miiler, Henry, e. Sept. 7, 1861, vet. March 1, 1864. 
Spellman, Thomas, e. Sept. 24, 1861, m. o. Sept. 29, 1864, 

term expired. 
Wingard, Jacob, e. Sept. 14, 1861, vet. Jan. 5, 1864. 


The Forty-sixth Infantry Illinois Volunteers 
was organized at Camp Butler, Illinois, Decem- 
ber 28, 1861, by Col. John A. Davis. Ordered 
to Cairo, 111., February 11, 1862; from there, 
proceeded, via the Cumberland River, to Fort 
Donelson, Tenn., arriving on the 14th, and was 
assigned to the command of Gen. Lew Wallace ; 
on the 15th, lost one man killed and two 
wounded; 16th, moved through the works and 
to Dover; 19th, moved to Fort Henry. March 
6, embarked for Pittsburg Landing, where it 
arrived on the 18th. The regiment was now 
in Second Brigade, Fourth Division, with Four- 
teenth. Fifteenth and Forty-sixth Illinois, and 
Twenty-fifth Indiana, Col. James C. Veatch, 
Twenty-fifth Indiana, commanding brigade, 
and Brig. Gen. S. A. Hurlbut, of Illinois, com- 
manding division. In the battle of Shiloh, the 
Forty-sixth took a most conspicuous and hon- 
orable part, losing over half of its officers and 
men in killed and wounded, and receiving the 
thanks of the commanding Generals. Among 
the wounded were Col. John A. Davis, Maj. 
Dornblasser, Capts. Musser, Stephens, Marble 

and McCracken ; Lieuts. Hood, Barr, Arnold, 
Ingraham and Howell. In this action, the 
"Fighting Fourth Division" of Gen. Hurlbut 
achieved a reputation for bravery, to which it 
added on every field in which it was engaged 
until the close of the war. Was engaged in 
the siege of Corinth, in the month of May. 
June 2, camped six miles west of Corinth ; on 
the 10th, marched to the Hatchie River; loth, 
passed through Grand Junction, and camped 
three miles from town ; 24th, moved to Collar- 
bone Hill, near La Grange; on the 30th, moved 
to Old Lamar Church. July 1, marched to 
Cold Water, and returned on the 6th ; on the 
17th, moved toward Memphis, marching via 
Moscow, Lafayette, Germantown and White's 
Station, and camping two miles south of Mem- 
phis, on the 21st of July. August 27, engaged 
in the scout to Pigeon Roost. September 6, 
moved from Memphis toward Brownsville; 7th, 
marched through Raleigh and Union Stations ; 
9th, marched to Big Muddy River; 11th, via 
Hampton Station, to Danville ; 12th, via White- 
ville, to Pleasant Creek ; 14th, via Bolivar, to 
Hatchie River. September 27, all the troops 
on the river, at this place, were reviewed by 
Gen. McPherson. October 4, moved toward 
Corinth ; 5th, met the enemy at Metamora. 
The Forty-sixth was in position on the right of 
Second Brigade, supporting Bolton's Battery. 
After an hour of shelling by the batteries, the 
infantry were ordered forward, and at a double 
quick, advanced, driving the enemy across the 
river. The First Brigade coming up, " Hurl- 
but's Fighting Fourth Division" advanced and 
drove the enemy from the field, compelling 
their flight. Col. John A. Davis, of the Forty- 
sixth, was mortally wounded in this action, and 
Lieut. M. R. Thompson also, both dying on the 
10th. After the battle, returned to Bolivar. 
November 3, marched to La Grange ; 28th, 
moved to Holly Springs ; 30th, toward Talla- 
hatchie Paver, and camped near Waterford, 
Miss., where splendid winter quarters, with 
mud chimneys and ba'ie ovens complete, were 
fitted up in time to move away from them. 
December 11, to Hurricane Creek, and 12th, to 
Yocona Station, where it remained until Decem- 
ber 22, when it marched to Taylor's Station. 
Van Dorn, having captured Holly Springs, 
marched on the 23d, .via Oxford, to Hurricane 
Creek ; 24th, the Forty-sixth Illinois and 
Thirty. third Wisconsin moved, as train guard, 
to north side of Tallahatchie River ; 26th, 
moved camp four miles nearer Holly Springs, 
between Waterford and Wyatt Stations. Jan- 
uary 6, 1863, moved to Holly Springs; 10th, 
Fifteenth and Forty-sixth Illinois were escort 
to ammunition train to La Grange ; 13th, 
marched to Moscow, where it remained until 
February 5, when it moved to Lafayette. The 
garrison of Moscow was First Brigade, Fourth 
Division, the Forty-sixth and Seventy-sixth 
Illinois of the Second Brigade, and two batter- 
ies : and the garrison of Lafayette the Four- 
teenth and Fifteenth Illinois and one battery, 
Col. Cyrus Hall commanding. After rejoining 
brigade at Lafayette, marched on the 9th of 



March, via Collierville and Germantown, to 
Memphis. April 21, 1863, engaged in the ex- 
pedition to Hernando, and returned on the 
'J4th. May 13, embarked for Vicksburg, and 
on the 15th, landed at Young's Point; 18th, 
marched to Bower's Landing ; 19th, moved to 
Sherman's Landing ; 20th. moved by steamer 
up Yazoo to Chickasaw Bayou ; disembarked, 
and moved across the swamp to the bluff. May 
21. proceeded to the right of Gen. Grant's 
Army, and were then ordered to Snyder's 
Bluff; 24th, marched in the direction of Vicks- 
burg ; 25th, marched to the extreme left of the 
line. The regiment was detailed on picket 
duty, and during the night the outpost, con- 
sisting of five companies of the regiment, were 
captured by the enemy ; 101 men and 7 officers 
were captured, 70 escaping. The remainder of 
the regiment took an active part in the siege of 
Vicksburg; July 5, moved to Clear Creek; 6th, 
to Bolton Station ; 8th, to Clinton ; 9th, to 
Dickens' Plantation, where it remained guard- 
ing train : 12th, moved into position on the 
extreme right of the line near Pearl River ; 
engaged in the siege until the 16th, when the 
enemy evacuated Jackson, after which the reg- 
iment returned to Vicksburg. The division 
was now transferred to the Seventeenth Corp3, 
and Brig. Gen. M. M. Crocker assigned to com- 
mand. August 12, moved to Natchez. Sep- 
tember 1, went on an expedition into Louisiana, 
returning on the 8th. September 16, moved 
to Vicksburg. November 28, moved to Camp 
. Cowan, on Clear Creek. January 4, 1863, the 
Forty-sixth was mustered as a veteran regi- 
ment ; 12th, started north for veteran furlough ; 
23d, arrived at Freeport. 111., and on the 27th, 
the regiment was furlougheu. 

Col. John A. Davis, com. Sept. 12, 1861, died at Bolivar, 

Tenn., Oct. 10, 1862, of wounds received at battle of 

Col. Benj. Dornblazer, com. adjt. Oct. 11, 1861, prmtd. 

Major Feb. 8, 1862, prmtd col. Oct. 11, 1862, brevt. 

brig. gen. Feb. 20, 1865. 
Maj. John M. McCracken, com. capt. Co. K Dec. 30, 1861, 

prmtd. maj. Oct. 11, 1862, term expired Dec. 23, 1864. 
Maj. Jos. Clingman, com. capt. April 24, 1862, prmtd. 

maj. Dec. 23, 1864. 
Quarter Master Edwin R. Gillett, com. September, 1862, 

res. Oct. 5, 1864. 
Quarter Master Jas. B. Wright, com. Oct. 5, 1864. 
Sergt. Elias C. De Puy, com. Sept. 23, '61, res. Nov. 1, '64. 
Sergt. Benj. H. Bradshaw, com. 1st asst. sergt. Sept. 12, 

1862, prmtd. sergt. Nov. 1, 1864. 
First Asst. Sergt. Julius N. DeWitt, com. 2d asst. sergt. 

March 5, 1864, prmtd. 1st. asst. sergt. Nov. 1, 1864. 
Chaplain David Teed, com. Oct. 11, 1861, res. Sept. 1,1862. 
Sergt. Maj. Wm. Swanzey, e. Dec. 7, 1861, dis. May 29, 

1862, disab. 
Sergt. Maj. Henry A. Ewing, dis. Oct. 25, 1863, for pro- 
S>T£t. Maj. John E. Hersheydis. Sept. 1, 1864, disab. 
Sergt. Maj. Edgar Buttei field, vet., m. o. Sept. 20, 1866. 
Sergt. Maj. F. H. Whipple, trans, from 11th inf., m. o. 

July 8, 1865. 
Quarter Master Sergt. James Duncan, e. Sept. 14, 1861, 

dis. May 29, 1862, disab. 
Quarter Master Sergt. Julius T. Weld, in. o. Jan. 20, 1866. 
'Comsy. Sergt. E. R. Gillett, e. Sept. 14, 1861, dis. for pro- 
motion as regimental quarter master. 
Comsy. Sergt. W. H. Barnds, vet., m. o. Jan. 20, 1866. 
Hospital Steward Thos. Wolcott, vet. 
Hospital Steward Jos. Chambers, e. Sept. 14, 1861, dis. 

August, 1862, disab. 
Hospital Steward James Steele, dis. March 1, 1864, for 

Hospital Steward Thos. J. Allen, vet., m. o. Jan. 20, 1866. 

Principal Musician Geo. W. Trotter, vet., reported died 
Oct. — , 1865. 

Company A. 

Capt. John Musser, com. Sept. 10, 1861, died April 24, '62. i 
Capt. Isaac A. Arnold, com. 2d lieut. Sept. 10, 1861, prmtd. 

1st lieut. April 1, 1862, prmtd. capt. Dec. 23, 1864. 
^irst Lieut. Wm. O. Saxton, com. Sept. 10, 1861, res. 

April 1, 1862. 
Wm. Reynolds, e. as sergt. Sept. 10, 1861, prmtd. 2d lieut. 

Oct. 15, 1861, prmtd. 1 lieut l'ec.23, 1864. 
Second Lieut. Geo. S. Dickey, e. as sergt. Sept. 10, 1861, 

prmtd. 2d lieut. April 1, 1862, res. Oct. 15, 1864. 
Second Lieut. Wm. M. Moore, prmtd. 1st. lieut. Dec. 23,'64. 
Sergt. Horace D. Purinton, e. Sept. 10, '61, dis. Dec.12,'63. 
Corp. Daniel M. Hart. e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. July 8, 1862, 

Corp. Thos. S. Clingman, e. Sept. 10, 1861, dis. Aug. 2, 

1862, wds. 
Corp. Andrew M. Fellows, e. Sept. 10, '61, died May 2,'62. 
Corp. Albert M. Lull, e. Sept. 10, 1861, kid at Shiloh. 
Corp. Benj. Musser, e. Sept. 10, 1861, dis. Nov. 24, 1862, 

Corp. Wesley J. Best, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. 
Corp. Q. E. Pollock, e. Sept. 10, 1861, as 1st lieut. died 

at Mound City, April 9, 1862, wds. 
Arnold, A. F., e. Sept. 10, 1861, dis. Sept. 4, 1862, disabi 
Andre, Wm., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863, died at 

Duvall's Blufi, Dec. 10, 1864. 
Andrea Jacob D., e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. 
Ambrose, Dewitt C, e. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Allen, John A. 

Allison, Wm. W., e. Oct. 10, 1861, died March 16, 1863. 
Belknap, C. A., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Bruner, Robt. D., e. Jan. 5, '64, as corpl., died Oct. 6, '64. 
Barrett, Edw., e. Jan. 25, 1864, died Aug. 12, 1864. 
Babcock, James M., e. Aug. 10, 1862, dis. Nov. 25, 1863, 

for promotion. 
Best, Hiram C, e. Jan. 24, 1865, dis. June 19, 1865. 
Bolander, H. W., e. Sept. 10, 1861, dis. Aug. 25, '62, disab. 
Bates, A. J., e. Sept. 10, 1861, dis July 9, 1862, disab. 
Bolander, Geo. W., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863, m. 

o. as corpl. 
Best, Robt. T., e. Sept. 10, 1861, died Nov. 7, 1861. 
Barrett, Chas., e. Sept. 10, 1861, dis. Aug. 13, 1862, wds. 
Best Wesley J., e. Dec. 22, 1863, died Aug. 19, 1864, wds. 
Benter, Martin, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Nov. 14, 1862, wds. 
Buss, Hillery, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863, m. o. as 

Cearn, William, e. Sept. 10, 1861, trans, to inv. corps. 
Clingman, Abner, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863, m. o. 

July 14,1865. 
Clingman, Hiram, e. Sept. 10, 1861, kid. bat. Shiloh. 
Clingman, George R., e. Sept. lo, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 
Clouse, Charles, e. Sept. 10, 1861, died Sept. 7, 1862. 
Clingman, Charles, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 
Clingman, John T., e. Jan. 26, 1865. 
Clingman, William M., e. Jan. 24. 1865. 
Cadwell, Horace, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 
Olow, Benjamin, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 
Clause, William, e. Jan. 27, 1865. 
Deriges, John P., e. Feb. 7, 1865. 

Daughenbaugh. C, e. Oct. 15, 1864, m. o. Oct. 8, 1865. 
Derrick, James E., e. Sept, 10, 1861, disd. May 28, 1862, 

Descaven, D. P., e. Sept. 10, 1861, died Sept. 22, 1862. 
Davidson, George W., e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. April 28, 1863, 

Elliott, John, e. Sept. 10, 1861, kid. bat. Shiloh. 
Erley, William F., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 
Evans, Thomas W., e. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Ellis, Elias, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 
Faurer, Robert A., e. Oct. 10, 1862, vet. 
Faurer, Amos, e Dec. 12, 1863. 
French, D. H., e. Jan. 28, 1864. 
F<ird, William D., e. Jan. 27. 1865. 

Fellows, George E., e. Feb. 27, 1864, m. o. May 15, 1865. 
French, S. A., o. Sept. 10, 1861, — m. o. as sergt. 
Garrison, D. W., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 
GibbOIlS, Thomas, e. Sept. Ill, 1861. 
Galpin, Daniel A., e. Sept. lo, 1861, term expired. 
Gibbens, William, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 
Garrard, W., e. Jan. 24, 1865, absent sick at m. o. 
Glynn, James, e Jan. 25, 1864, 
Garman, Lawrence G., e. Feb. 8, 1864. 
Green, Chris, e. Oct. 10, 1861. 
Hunting, George H., e. Jan. 5, 1864, disd. for promotion in 

U. S. C. H. Art. 
Hartzel, William, e. Dec. 30, 1863, vet. absent at m. o. 



Hart, Joseph E., e. Jan. 31, 1865. 

Hill, John, e. Jan. 24, 1805. 

Hills, H. M., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Hoot, John, e. Sept. 10, 1861, kid. bat. Shiloh. 

Hunting, Charles H., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863, 

disd. July 14, 1864. 
Hollenbeck, H. \V., e.Sept. 10, 1861, died May3, 1862, was. 
Hunting, William A., e. Sept. 10, 1861 
Hart, James H., e. Sept. 10, 1861, Vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 
Holsinger, William H ,e. Sept. 10, 1861, died April 1,1862. 
Hoyman, Henry, e. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Hadsell, N. A., e. , disd. March 9, 1866. 

Hadsell, A. C, e. . 

Hart, John, e. Aug. 30, 1862, m. o. June 19, 1865 as sergt. 
Hart, Thomas J., e. Aug. 30, 1862, m. o. June 19, 1865. 

Hathaway, Homer H., e. . 

Joy, Benedict, e. Feb. 20. 1864. 

Jefferies, Jos. G., e. Sept. 10, 1861. vet. Dec. 7, 1863, absent 

at m. o. 
Kemper, Adam, e. Sept. 10, 1861, 1st. sergt., disd. for pro- 
Krape, Wm. W., e. Feb. 29, 1864. 
Law, John H., e. Feb. 6, 1865 
Lee, L. H., e. Jan. 26, 1865. 
Miller, I., e. Dec. 23, 1863, absent at m. o. 
Moore, Geo. W., e. Jan. 25, 1864. 
Moser, Wm., e. Feb. 29, 1864. 
McAfee, R. L. H., e. Jan 4, 1864. 
Musser. Obas., e. Jan. 31, 1865. 
Moser, E. A., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 
Morgan, H. A. e. Jan. 24, 1865. 
May, Willard, e. Feb. 24, 1864, died May 18, 1864. 
McCarthey, James C, e. Feb. 1, 1864, vet. 
Moore, Wm. R., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863, disd. 

March 19, 1865, sergt. 
Miller, H. W., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. 
Musser, James, e, Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 
McHoes, John, e. Sept. 10, 1861, trans, to inv. corps. 
More, Chas. F., e. Sept. 10, 1861, died April 2, 1863. 
Mason, John H., e. Sept 10, 1861, disd Nov. 24, 1862, wd 
Mack, James H., e. Sept 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 
Neil, Wm. R., e. Feb. 20, 1864. 
Peck, Theo., e. Sept. 10, 1861, died Jan. 8, 1862. 
Patten, John, e. Sept. 10, 1861, kid. Shiloh. 
Plowman, Charles, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 
Patten, Robert, e. Sept. 10. 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863, m. o. 

as Corp. 
Parrish, Pleasant, e. Sept. 10, 1861, trans, to Co. B. 
Peck, A., e. Sept. 10, 1861, m. o. Nov. 12, 1864. 
Parker, John, e. Feb. 18, 1864, absent (sick) at m. o. 
Rodgers, H. G , e. Oct. 10, 1861, kid at Shiloh April 6, '62. 
Beiniger, Samuel J., e. Dec. 17, 1863. 
Rice, M. A., e. Feb. 1, 1864. 
Ritzman, John, e. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Rubendall, D. R., e. Jan. 4, 1864, m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Rudy, John, e. Dec. 23, 1863, m. o. May 22, 1865 
Quiggle, Robert H., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863, m. 

o. July 14, 1865. 
Ritzman, Robert D., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 
Riem, James, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863, died 

March 22, 1864. 
Rush, John, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd Aug. 16, 1862, disab. 
Rodgers, D. E., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863, died 

Dec. 12, 1864. 
Rodimer, Wm. H., e Sept. 10, 1861, kid. at bat. Shiloh. 
Rollins, E. W., e Sept. In, 1861, died June 29, 1862. 
Smith, C. H., e Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 
Solomou, John C, e. Sept. 10, '61, disd. May 8, '62, disab. 
Sheckler, John, e. Sept. 10,1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 
Scovill, Daniel A., e. Sept. 10, 861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863, 

m. o. as Corp. 
Sleight, Samuti A., e. Sept. 10, '61, disd. May 8, '62, disab. 
Smith, E. W , e. Sept. 10, 1861, trans, to inv. corps. 
Scovill, Nelson, e Sept. 10, 1861, died April, is, 1862, wd, 
Stephens, James N., e. Sept. 10, 1861, died May 9, 1862. 
Smith, James C , e. Jan. 4, 1864. 
Scovill, Alfred B„ e. Jan. 25, 1864. 
Shadell, Samuel P., e. Dec. 17, 1863. 
Shadell, A. C, e. Oct. 30, 1863 
Swartz, John L , e. Oct 30, 1863. 
Sheltenberger, John, e. Jan 8, 1864 
Sheets, George W., e. Jan 25, 1864. 
Sanborn, Charles G., e. Feb 6, 1865. 
Sills, Thomas, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Seidle, Charles H., e. Dec. 23, 1863, died Nov. 20, 1864. 
Sherman, Leonard. 
Tomlins, John W., Dec. 16, 1863. 
Taft, Jos. A., e. March 4, 1865. 
Thompson, L. B., e. Oct. 8, 1864. 

Taylor, John W., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863, disd. 
for prom. 53d U. S. C. I. 

Thompson, James M., e. Sept. 10, 1861, died April 1, 1862. 
Van Brocklin, James M., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec 22 

Vincen, Thomas, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 
Walker, John \V\, e. Sept .0, 1861. 
Winchell, H. P., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 
Wieland, John M., e. Sept. 10, 1861, died Nov. 2, 1861. 
Woodring, John M., e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Nov. 24, 1862, 

Wilson, Benjamin F., e. Sept. 10, 1861, died Dec. 30, 1861. 
Whisler, John B., e. Sept. 10, 1861, kid. bat. Shiloh. 
Wilson, R. P., e. Sept. in, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 
Windecker, John, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 
Waddell, John R., e. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Woodring, U., e. Feb. 27, 1864. 
Wall, Thomas, e. March 21, 1865, disd. 
Winters, Darius, e. Aug. 10, 1862, m. o. July 7, 1865. 
Wetzol, F. F., e. Feb. 17, 1864. 
Windecker. William, e. Feb. 6, 1865. 
Waddell, William W., e. Jan. 28, 1865. 
Woodring, John M., e. Feb. 7, 1805. 

Company B. 

Capt. Rollin V. Ankeny, com. Sept. 14, 1861, res. Dec. 31, 

Capt. William J. Reitzell, e. as sergt. Sept. 10, 1861, prmtd. 

2d lieut. June 10,1862, prmtd. 1st lieut. July 10, 1862, 

prmtd. capt. Jan. 1, 1863. term expired Dec. 23, 1864. 
Capt. Robert F. Cooper, e. as sergt. Sept. 10, 1861, prmtd. 

2d lieut. Jan. 1, 1863, prmtd 1st lieut. Sept. 27, 1864, 

prmtd. capt. Dec. 23, 1864. 
First Lieut. Henry Roush, com. Sept. 14, 1861, res. April 

18, 1862. 
First Lieut. Emanuel Faust, e. as sergt. Sept. 10, 1861, 

prmtd. 2d lieut. July 10, 1862, prmtd. 1st lieut. Jan. 

1, 1863, res. Sept. 27, 1864. 
First Lieut. George S. Rousch, e. as corp. Sept. 10, 1861, 

prmtd. 2d lieut, Sept. 27, 1864, prmtd 1st lieut. Dec. 

23, 1864, res. June 19, 1865. 
First Lieut. Thomas B. Jones, e. as corp. Sept. 10, 1861, 

prmtd. 2d lieut. Dec. 23, 1864, prmtd. 1st lieut. July 

31, 1865. 
Second Lieut. Thomas J. Hathaway, com. Sept. 14, 1861, 

res. June 10, 1862. 
Second Lieut, Aaron McCaley, e. as private Sept. 10, 

1861, vet. prmtd 2d lieut. July 31, 1865. 

First Sergt. Thomas J. Hood, e. Sept. 10, 1861, trans, to 

Co. G. 
Sergt. Robert Smith, e. Sept. 10, 1861, trans, to Co. G. 
Corp. George Cox, e. Sept. 10, 1861, died Oct. 9, 1862, wds. 
Corp. Leopold Shook, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. July 10, 1862, 

as sergt., disab. 
Corp. John E. Hershey, e. Sept. 10, 1861, prmtd. sergt. maj. 
Corp. John Y. Haughey, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Jan. 5, 1864, 

m. o. May 30, 1865. 
Corp. J. W. Barker, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Feb. 12, 1863 

as private, disab. 
Corp. Isaac F. Kleckner, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. June 14, 

1862, disab. 

Musician Isaac Bolander, e. Sept. 10,1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 
Musician Caspar Long, e. Sept. 10, 1861, trans, to Co. G. 
Wagoner Isaac N. Mallory, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Aug. 12, 

1862, disab. 
Ashenfelter, Cyrus, e. Sept. 10, 1861. died Dec. 6, 1861. 
Arnold, Adam, e. Sept. 10, 1861. vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 
Askey, Samuel, e. Feb. 5, 1864. 
Arnold, Charles, e.Sept. 10, 1861, vet Dec. 23, 1863. 
Askey, John, e. Feb. 5, 1864. 
Andre, Jacob, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863, trans. 

to Co. A. 
Artley, Abram, e.'Feb. 15, 1864, trans, to Co. K. 
Alshouse, Jacob, e.Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Sept. 21, 1862, disab. 
Ansl.erger, S., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 
Barr, John W., e. Sept. 10, 1861, prmtd. sergt. maj. 
Boyd, Franklin, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 
Brenizer, J. K., e. Feb. 1, 1864, no. o. as corp. 
Barker, A. J., e. Sept. In, 1861, disd. Dec. 28, 1863, disab. 
Brayman, E. P., e. Dec. 26, 1863. 
Barker, S. S., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 
Bloss, Joseph L., e. Feb. 8, 1861. 
Bowen, John T., e. Sept. 10. 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 
Bolender, Jackson, e. Feb. 1, 1864. 
Bolander, Aaron, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1864, m. o. 

June 19, 1865. 
Burgess, Solon S., e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. June 30, 1863, 

Bolander, John P., e. Feb. 1, 1864. 
Bower, Charles F., e. Sept. 10, 1861, died April 23, 1862, 




Butterfield, Edgar, e. Sept 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863, 
prmtd. sergt. maj. 

Collins, Thomas, e. , traDS. from 99th 111. 

Crawford, Franklin, e. Sept. Id, 1861, in. o. Sept. 9, 1864. 

Carroll, Henry, «. Feb. 2, 1864. 

Chambers, Joseph, e. Sept. 10, 1861, prmtd. hospital stew- 

Cooper, George W., e. Feb. 1, 1864. 

Cantrell, Joseph T., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863, 
trans, to Co. K. 

Clark, Silas \\\, e. Dec. 16, 1863. 

Cooper, A. J., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Cade, Charles, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Aug. 12, 1862, disab. 

Chase, L. W., trans, from 99th 111. 

Dubois, William W., e. Dec. 26, 1863. 

Duncan, 0. P., e. Jan. 26, 1865. 

Duncan, James. 

Daniels, Willis, m. o. Jan. 8, 1866. 

Dougherty, Geo., e. Jan. 2, 1864, dis. Sept. 17, 1864, disab. 

Ernst, Jacob, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 

Eli, Marion, e. Dec. 18, 1863, trans, to Co. K. 

Erb, Ira, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863, m. o. as corpl. 

Frankeberger, Aaron, e. Feb. 22, 1864. 

Forbes, A. W., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 

Foster, Geo., e. Feb. 1, 1864. 

Frankeberger, E. B., e Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 

From, James, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 

Frize, Henry, e. Sept. 10, 1861, died March 31, 1862. 

Gallagher, H. C, e. Dec. 17, 1863. 

Guitt-r, Adam, e. Sept. 10, 1861. vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

George, Wm. A., e. Feb. 12, 1864, died Sept. 10, 1864 

Gibler, Hiram, e. Sept. 10, 1861, m. o. Sept. 9, 1864. 

Gibler, Jos. H., e. Sept. 10, 1864. 

Hess, Andrew, e. Feb. 4, 1865, died April 24, 1865, wds. 

Henrich. Cornelius, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 

Hinies, Jos., e. Feb. 19, 1864. 

Hay, John, e. Sept. 10, '61, vet. Dec. 23, '63, m. o. as sergt. 

Hartman, H. J., e. Jan. 28. 1865. 

Hathaway, H. H., e. Sept. 10, 1861, trans, to Co. A. 

Hartman, Jos. W., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Hathaway, J. J., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863-. 

Hinds, Erastus, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Hathaway, Jas. B., e. Sept. 10,'61, disd. April 23,'62, disab. 

Hamilton, Thos., trans, from 99th 111. 

Hess, Andrew, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

Hofmerster, Aug. W\, m. o. Oct. 9, 1865. 

Hill, Langford, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Feb. 15, 1864. 

Hendrickson, A., m. o. Oct. 9, 1865. 

Henderson, W. J., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863, m. o. 
July 15, 1865. 

Hartzel, John, e. Oct. 13, 1864, m. o. Oct. 12, 1865. 

Henderson, Francis, e. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

Hathaway, Earl, e. Sept. 10, 1861, trans, to Co. G. 

Henderson, U. H., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863, m. 
o. as sergt. 

Hathaway, Phillip, e. Jan. 30, 1864, dis. Dec. 31, 1866. 

Hoag, Chas., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. 

Howe, James, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Hinds, Erastus, e. Sept. 10, 1861, dis. Dec. 10, 1862, disab. 

Inman, H. L., e. Feb. 2, 1864. 

Kaup, Geo. S., e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. July 30, 1862, disab. 

Johnson, Wm. T., e. Dec. 27, 1863, died June 17, 1865. 

Kryder, Jacob N., e.Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

King, Edwin, e. Feb. 3, 1864. 

King, Robert, e. Feb. 1, 1864. 

Kerr, Wm., e. Sept. 10, 1861, m. o. Dec. 20, 1864. 

Kellog, E. V., e. Sept, 10, 1861, kid. at battle of Shiloh. 

Lobdell, Daniel, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863, died 
Oct. 4, 1864. 

Lauck, Jacob, e. Feb. 2, 1864. 

Mingle, D. J., e. Sept. Pi, 1861, vet. Jan. 5, 1864. 

McKee, Robert, e. Oct. 25, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

Mather A., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 

McKee, David, e. Nov. 13, 1863. 

McElhaney, Wm., e. Sept. 10, 1861, dis. April 4, 1S62. 

Mogle, Samuel, e. Feb. -A, 1864. 

McCurdy, Francis, e. Sept, 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

Mogle. Jacob, e. Feb. 2, 1864. 

Mitchell, Norton, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

McCauley, Isaac, e. Feb. 2, 1864. 

Moses, John N., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

Mitchell, C, trans, from 99th 111. 

Mclenahan, Geo., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 

Mogle, L. W., e. Feb. 1, 1864, m. o. Oct, 21, 1865. 

Malory, Daniel, e. Sept. 10, 1861, m. o. Sept. 9, 1864. 

Mack, Harry A., e. Sept. 10, 1861, died June 15, 1862. 

Mallory, John W., e. Sept. 10, 1861, died Mav 17, 1862. 

McGinnis, Jos., e. Sept 10, 1861, died Sept. 28, 1862. 

Mingle, John H.. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

Nicholas, John, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd Nov. 7, 1862, disab. 

Pentecoff, Levi, e. Sept. 10, 1861, died Oct. 19, 1862. 

Parrish, P. P., disd. Feb. 3, 1863, disab. 

Pieter, John, e Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Pierce, James, e. Dec. 9, 1863. 

Potter, Francis, e. Sept. 10, 1861. 

Potter, Julius, e. Sept. 10, 1861, died Feb. 6, 1862. 

Pierce, James, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Nov. 11, 1862, disab. 

Rockwell, Charles W., e. Sept. 10, 1861, died May 14, '62. 

Rishel, Daniel L. 

Reed, W. D., e. Jan. 27, 1864. 

Reed, John P., e. Jan. 27, 1864. 

Runkle, John H., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

Roush, Henry, e. Feb. 1, 1864, died July 10, 1864. 

Seibold, Calhoun, e. Feb. 1, 1864. 

Stottler, Jacob, e, Sept. 10, 1861, died May, 1862, wd. 

Skinner, W. W., e. Feb. 8, 1S64. 

Segin, Theo., e. Dec. 17, 1863. 

Snyder, F. M., e. Dec. 24, 1863. 

Shaffer, W. F., e Jan. 24, 1865, m. o. June 20, 1865. 

Stanley, John, e. Feb. 1, 1864. m. o. Sept. 8, 1865. 

Shane, Charles N., e. Sept. 10, 1861, died July 26, 1863. 

Stone, E. L., e. Feb. 9, 1864, died Nov. 27, 1864. 

Shane, Thomas, J., e. Sept. 10, 1861, m. o. Sept. 9, 1864, 

Smith, Henry, trans, from 99th 111. 
Sprague, George D., e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Feb. 28, 1863, 

Taft, H. C, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Turrinzo, Anson, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 
Thompson, 1. E., e. Feb. 4, 1864. 
Tyler, Dayton D, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863, 

trans, to Co. D. 
Thompson, Robert S.. e. Feb. 4, 1864. 
Tomlins, J. W. 
Van Meter, John C, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. July 7, 1862, 

Vocht, Levi S., e. Jan. 22, 1864. 
Vinson. George, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863, trans. 

to Co. H. 
Vinson, John, e. Jan. 8, 1864, died Aug. 12, 1S64. 
Wilson, George, e. Sept. 10, 1861, died April 30, 1862. 
Wunshel, George, e. Feb. 1, 1864. 
Wright, Charles F., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 
Wohlford, Franklin, e. Feb. 2, 1864. 
Webb, Oliver P., e. Feb. 4, 1864. 
Wagner, P. R., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 
Wilson, Henry, m. o. Oct. 9, 1865. 
Yoder, Andrew B., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 
Zigler, Miller, e. Feb. 2, 1864, trans, to Co. K. 

Company C. 

Capt. Frederick Khrumme, com. Sept. 10, 1861, res. April 

23, 1862. 
Capt. Philip Arno, com. 1st lieut., Sept. 10, 1861, prmtd. 

capt. April 23, 1862, term expired Dec. 23, 1864. 
Capt. Edward Wike, e. as sergt. Sept. 10, 1861,'prmtd. 2d 

lieut. Sept. 29, 1862, prmtd. 1st lieut. Dec. 17, 1863, 

prmtd. capt. Dec. 23, 1864. 
First Lieut. Harbert Harberts, e. as sergt. Sept. 10, 1861, 

prmtd. 1st lieut. April 23, 1862, m. o. for promotion 

2d Miss Dec. 17, 1863. 
First Lieut, Andrew Ohlenheusen, e. as private Dec. 22, 

1863, prmtd. 2d lieut. Dec. 17, 1863, prmptd. 1st 

lieut. Dec. 23, 1864. 
Second Lieut. Addo Borchers, com. Sept. 10, 1861, res. 

Sept. 29, 1862. 
Second Lieut. Emil Neese. e. as corp. Sept 10, '61, prmtd. 

2d Lieut. March 20, 1865. 
Sergt. Adolph Walbrecht, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. for pro 

motion in U. S. C. H. art. 
Sergt. Carl H. Gramp, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Sept. 9, 1864, 

term expired. 
Sergt. Ferdinand Beutz, e. Sept. 10, '61, m. o. Sept. 16,'64. 
Corp. Albert Kocher, e. Sept, 10, 1861, died May 15, '62. 
Corp. Arnold Rader, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Sept. 22, 1862, 

Corp. Carl. Lipinski, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. March 19, '64. 
Corp. John Ochxle, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 
Corp. Peter Steinmetz, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 

1863, died Oct. 15, 1864. 
Corp. C. Michaelson, e. Sept 10, 1861, vet. Feb. 21, 1864. 
Musician Conrad Kahn, e. Sept. 10,1861, died May 15, '62. 
Musician Albert Stacker, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. July 3, 

1862, disab. 
Arena, Peter, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet, Dec. 22, 1863. 
Altmann, Henry, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 



Abels, Johann, e. Sept. 10, 1861, dis. Sept. 14, 1864, term 

Adams, Geo. W., trans, from 99th 111. 

Bauer Anton, e. Sept. 10, 1801, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Burkhart, John, e. Dec. 31, 1863. 

Berg, Alfred, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Backes, Jacob, e. Feb. 4, 1864. 

Benton, John L., e. Feb. 29, 1864, m. o. May 22, 1865. 

Bonn, Jos., e. Sept. 10, 1861. 

Byrne, Martin e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Barmington, i ., e. Feb. 26, 1865. 

Baker, Jacob. 

Bagger, Heinrich, e. Sept. 10, 1861, died Oct. 15, 1862. 

Burkhardt, A., died July 24, 1865. 

Bles, Jacob, e. Dec. 20, 1863, dis. May 27, 1865. 

Cruse, John, e. Sept. 10, 1861. 

Cohlstedt, Henry, e. Jan. 15, 1864. 

Christian, John. 

Crueger, Henry, e. Jan. 15, 1864. 

Dreesman Ubbo, e. Sept. 10, 1861, died April 11, 1864. 

Diller, Michael, e. Dec. 25, 1861, trans, to V. R. C. 

Durken, N. H. Van., e. Sept. 10, 1861, died April 25, 1862. 

Davis, Philip. 

Dobbie, W., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Dede, Henry, e. Jan. 27, 1865. 

Duitsman, W., e. Sept. 10, 1801, Dec. 22, 1863. 

Dennis, Thomas, died Oct. 7, 1865. 

Deuzing, F., e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Sept. 9, 1864, term ex- 

Dillin. Michael, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Egnsen, B. W., e. Sept. 10, 1861, died May 19, 1862. 

Eickle, Anton, e. Jan. 25, 1864. 

Each, J. J., e. Sept. 10, 1861. 

Froning, Herman, e. Sept. 10, 1861, dis. Oct. 14, '63, disab. 

Friday, Philip, e. Jan. 28, 1864. 

Farley, Thomas, e. Sept. 10, 1861, trans, to Co. K. 

Friedman, Valentine, e. Dec. 31, 1863. 

Freivert, F., e. Sept. 10, 1861, dis. Jan. 12, 1803, disab. 

Franz, Safrin, e. Feb. 9, 1804. 

Foster, John, e. Jan. 27, 1865. 

Frey, Johann, e. Jan. 1,'02, died at Vicksburg, July 5,'62. 

Frewart, Charles, e. Nov. 26, 1863, died Dec. 19, 1864. 

Giboni, H., e. Sept. 10, 1861, kid. at battle of Shiloh. 

Getz, Andrew, e. Feb. 3, 1805. 

Gretzly Gottleib, e. Sept. 10, 1801, died April 20, '62, wds. 

Gasteger, A., e. Jan. 1, 1864. 

Heeron, W., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Hoebel, Jacob, e. Jan. 29, 1864. 

Hasselmann, Fred., e. Sept. 10. 1801, kid. at battle of 

Hofwimer, Jos., e. Jan. 18, 1804. 

Harberts, Johann, e. Sept. 10, 1861, dis. Feb. 4, '63, disab. 

Held, Frederick. 

Hencke, W., e. Jan. 28, 1864. 

Heine, Frederick, Feb. 29, 1864, kid. July 8, 1864. 

Husenger, 0., e. Sept. 10, 1801, died May 5, 1862. 

Jaegar, John, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Koller, Johann, e. Sept 10, 1861, disd. Sept. 9, 1804, term 

Koller, William, e. Nov. 25, 1861, vet. Jan. 5, 1804. 

Kuhlmeier H., e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Sept. 13, 1804, term 

Kohle, Jacob, e. Dec. 26, 1863. 

Kraemer, Jacob, e. Sept. 10, 1861, died July 19, 1862. 

Klock, H., e. Sept. 10, 1861, died July 4, 1862. 

Krueger, Klaas, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Feb. 5, 1863, disab. 

Krumme, H., e. Sept. 10, 1861, trans, to Co. G. 

Kuock, Harm, e. Sept. lo, 1861, disd. Sept. 13, 1864, term 

Kraemer, F., e. Sept. 10, 1863, died May 26, 1862. 

Knock, Andreas, e. Sept. 10, 1861, kid. at Shiloh. 

Knoeller, George, e. Sept. 10, 1801, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Kauner, Christ, e. Sept. 10, 1801, disd. June 19, 1862, disab. 

Kohle, Jos., e. Jan. 4, 1864 

Kaenier, George, e. Jan. 27, 1865. 

Kastler, Nicholas, e. Jan., 26, 1864. 

Kuhler, August, e. Jan. 29, 1S64. 

Kaubenberger, P. G., e. Jan. 26, 1364. 

Knecht, Philip, e. Jan. 28, 1864. 

Korn, Lewis, e Jan. 1, 1864. 

Koyn, Frederick, e. Feb. 12, 1864. 

Koehler, Fred, e. Jan. 30, 1864. 

Koller, Fred, e. Jan 27, 1864. 

Kaenier, George N. 

Klefer, George, e. March 2, 1865. 

Ketlerer, John, e. Jan. 1864, died Sept. 18, 1804. 

Krueger, Carl, e. Jan. 5, 1864, died Nov. 29, 1864. 

Lttour, Charles, e. Nov. 7, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Lapp Aaron, e. Sept. 10, 1862, died May 4, 1862. 

Ludicke, Henry, e. Feb. 4, 1864. 

Lahre, John, e. Dec. 18, 1803. 

Lahre, Isaac, e. Dec. 26, 1863. 

Lahre, Elias, e. Jan. 25, 1865. 

Long, Charles M.,e. Jan. 27, 1805. 

Long, Jacob, e. Jan. 27, 1865. 

Leter, Nicholas, e. Oct. 6, 1804, m. o. Oct. 4, 1805. 

March, James, e. Sept. 10, 1801, trans, to V. R. C. 

Mueller, Gottfried, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Metzger, Richard, e. Sept. 10, '61, disd. Nov. 7, '62, disab. 

Metzen, Nielaus, e. Sept. 10, 1861, trans, to V. R. C. 

Marbeth, Leons, e. Sept. 10, 1801, kid. at Shiloh. 

Marks, J. F., e. Sept. 10, 1801, kid. at Shiloh. 

Marks, Marius, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. June 19, 1802, wd„ 

Meisencamp, C, Feb. 15, 1804, m. o. as corp. 

Miller, R. Tm., e. Dec. 16, 1803. 

Miller, Wm., e. Dec. 18, 1863. 

Meise, Conrad, e. Feb. 10, 1864, drowned Aug. 24, 1864. 

Miller, Frederick, e. Feb. 7, 1862, vet. Feb. 12, 1864, 46th 

I. V. I., Co. C. 
Neef, Johann, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Sept. 4, 1862, disab. 
Neef, Hermann, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Sept. 13, 1864, term 

Nurgen, Jacob Van, e. Oct. 29, 1801, m. o. Nov. 12, 1804. 
O'Konas, Cornelius, e. Jan. 27, 1865. 
O'Konas, Peter, e. Jan. 27, 1865 died June 12, 1865. 
Ot)x>, Charles, e. Jan. 25, 1865. 
Olthoff, William, e. Oct. 29, 1801, disd. Oct. 20, 1804, term 

Olnhausen, Andreas, e. Oct. 29, 1801, vet. Dec. 22, 1803. 
Plumer, Johann, e. Sept. 10, 1801, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 
Penning, Wiard, e. Sept. 10, 1861, died Dec. 31, 1861. 
Perstin, F., e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Sept. 13, 1864, term 

Polmann, Albert, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Oct. 13, 1862 as 

Prince, Jacob, e. Jan. 24, 1865, m. o. Jan. 20, 1865. 
Peppering, Christ, e. Oct. 29, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 
Raden, Johu Van, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 
Rebel, Joham, e. Sept. 10, 1861, kid. bat. Shiloh. 
Reichemeier, C, e. Sept. 10, 1861, died Jan. 1, 1862, wjs. 
Rader, Arnold, e. Feb. 29, 1864. 
Romelfauger, Jacob, e. Jan. 28, 1864. 
Rorback, Jacob, e. Feb. 26, 1804. 
Rach. Ernest, e. Jan. 28, 1864. 
Rippberger, John, e. Jan. 26, 1865. 

Reinecke, Joseph, e. . 

Restine, George, e. . 

Schneider, H., e. Sept. 10, 1801, disd. Dec. 11, 1862, disab. 
Stohr, John, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Nov. 13, 1862. disab. 
Schmaltzhaf, H., e. Sept. 10, 1861, died April 24, 1862, wds. 
Steifenhofer, M., e. Sept. 10, 1801, died Jan. 25, 1802. 
Stober, William, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863, m. o. 

as sergt. 
Steinhauer, Jacob, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. May 24, 1802, 

Schmidt, Johann, e. Feb. 2, 1804. 

Schvenstein, Burkhardt, e. Feb. 9, 1804, m. o. Jan. 20, 1866. 
Streeger, Peter, e. Feb. 27, 1864. 
Stork, Henry, e. Feb. 10, 1864. 
Schwartz, H., e. Jan. 26, 1864. 
Schneider, A. C, e Feb. 4, 1805. 
Seiferman, L., e. Feb. 2, 1865. 
Saur, Julius, e. Feb. 1, 1865. 
Spies, Jacob, e. Oct. 29, 1861, kid. Oct. 5, 1862. 
Schlueker, H. A., e. Feb. 4, 1864, drowned Aug. 26, 1864. 
Schneider, Joseph, e. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Schroeder, Frank, e. Dec. 29, 1863, m. o. Oct. 3, 1805 as 

Seidenburg, Frederick, e. Oct. 29, 1861. disd. Feb. 7, 1862 

Stoehr, John, e. , disd. May 31, 1865. 

Steffer, Michael, e. Feb. 4. 1804, m. o. June 7, 1865. 

Schroeder, Charles, e. , m. o. June 7, 1865. 

Schweitzer, John Geo, e. Oct. 29, 1861, vet. Jan. 5, 1804. 
Trei, Friedrich, e. Sept. lo, 1861, died May 9, 1863. 
Trivel, W., e. Feb. 8, 1804. 
Vacopp, Philip, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1803, died 

May 21, 1804. 
Vollmer, Gottleib, e. Sept. 10, 1801, drowned May 14, 1803. 
Weifenbach, e. Sept. 10. 1801, disd. July 10, 1802, disab. 
Wolff, Johann, e. Sept. 10, 1801, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 
Weggenhausen, Max, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1803. 
Wagner, H. L„ e. Jan 1, 1864, 
Weik, Louis, e. Jan. 26, 1804. 
Wagner, W., e. Feb. 0, 1805. 
Wernick, H. A., e. Jan. 18, 1864. 
Werner, Jacob, e. Jan. 26, 1865. 
Wepel, H., e. Jan. 27, 1865. 
Wyarda, Theodore, e. Feb. 13, 1864. 
Wunderlin, Saver, e. Feb. 2, 1864. m. o. May 22, 1805. 
Zeibrich, Paulus, e. Sept. 10, 1801, disd. Nov. 23, 1862, 




Company D. 

(New Company.) 

Capt. James W. Crane, com. Feb. 3, 18G4, disd. March 25, 

Capt. Francis 0. Miller, com. 1st lieut. Feb. 3, '64, prmtd. 

capt. June G, 1865. 
First Lieut. Isaac liobb, com. 2d lieut. Jan. 30, 1864, 

prmtd. 1st lieut. June C, 1865. 
Second Lieut. Benjamin F. Hayhurst, e. as private, Dec. 
24, 1863, prmtd. 1st sergt., prmtd. 2d lieut. June 6, 
Aurand, John J., e. Dec 17. 1863. in. o. June 22, 1865. 
Adams, John H., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 
Atkins, Lewis E., e. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Avery, William N., e. Nov. 30, 1863. 
Brady, Frederick, e. Oct. 10, 1864, m. o. Ocf. 9, 1865. 
Brown, William \V., e. Feb. 26, 1865. 
Brown, John W., e. Oct. 25, 1864. 
Beswick, A. W., e. Feb. 27, 1864. 
Bolick, Henry, e. Dec. 26. 1863. 
Benton, Levi, e. Dec. 11,1863, m. o. July 3, 1865. 
Bates, A. J., e. Dec. 11, 1863, disd. Feb. 14, 1865, sergt. 

Brown, James E., e. Dec. 23, 1863, m. o. as corp. 
Boyer, George, e. Dec. 26, 1863. 
Belden, Arthur, e. Dec. 28, 1863. 
Benth v, William, e. Dec. 24, 1863. 
Bentlev, Lewis D., e. Dec. 28, 1863. 
Beck, John, e. Dec. 20, 1863. 

Branard, Benjamin, e. Dec. 30, 1863, died July 2, 1864. 
Bundy, Ambrose A., e. Dec. 30, 1863. 
Bundy, Christopher, e. Jan. 18, 1864. 
Bistline, Daniel, e. Jan. 2. 1864. 
Clade, Levi, Jan. 24, 1865. 
Clark, William A., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 
Clark, Charles B., e. Dec. 31, 1863. 
Clade, Charles, e. Dec. 18, 1863. 
Cook, S. M., e. Dec. 28, 1S63. 
Culting, n. P., e. Dec. 25, 1863, trans, to V. R. C. 
Cross, Levi, e. Jan. 2, 1864. 
Clark, John, e. Jan. 2, 1864. 

Daugenbaugh, John N., e. Dec. 5,' 63, absent sick, at m. o. 
Denton, Levi A., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 
Demer, Levi, e. Jan. 2, 1864. 
Edgars, William, e. Dec. 12, 1863. 
Eister, Daniel W., e. Dec. 22, 1863. 
Ells, Lansing, e. Jan. 22, 1863, died May 14, 1864, wds. 
Eshelmann, M. N., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 
Furray, William, e. Jan. 27, 1865. 
Fiss, Thomas J., e. Dec. 30, 1863, absent sick at m. o. 
Fogel, John D., e. Dec. 11, 1863, disd. Sept. 28, 1864, wd. 
Fry, Joel. e. Dec. 30, 1863. 
Felt, William W., e. Dec. 28, 1863. 
Feltzer, Christopher, e. Jan. 28, 1863. 
Flory, John, e. Dec. 30, 1863. 
Gross. Theo., e. Feb. 2, 1865. 
Grissinger, Wm. B. e. Dec. 11, 1863. 
Gardner, Bray ton, e. Dec. 29, 1-63. 
Grimmel, Wm. D., e. Dec. 30, 1863. 
Hurlburt, K. W., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Hayden, Luther H., e. Dec. 28, 1863, died Jan. 5, 1865. 
Hammond, Marion, e. Dec. 29, 1863. 
Havhurst, B. F. 

Jon'e», Robert A., e. Dec. 28, 1863. 
Johnson, James W., e. Dec. 28, 1863. 
Kleckner, John P., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 
Kalev, Jos., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 
Keller, Henry, e. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Keohler, John, e. Feb. 24, 1865. 
King, Henry, e. Dee. 31, 1863, m. o. June 26, 1865. 
Knigut, H. B., e. Jan. 2, 1864, died June 3, 1864. 
Kleckner, Jacob, e. Dec. 15, 1863. 
Keeler. Chris., e. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Lincoln, Albert, e. Dec. 29, 1863, dis. July 7, 1863. 
Lightheart, Warren, e. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Lee, Samuel, e. Dec. 29, 1863. 
Leverton, Isaac, e. Dec. 29, 1863. 
Lults, Wm., e. Jan. 14, 1864 
Lenart, Elias, e. Dec. 30, 186::. 
Melton, L. L.,.e. Dec. 29, 1863. 
Minnick, N., e. Dec. 26, 186:',. 
Musser, J. W., e. Dec. 28, 1863. 
Moorehouse, W. E„ e. Dec. 29, 1863. 
McGilligan, Win. K. P., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 
Maxwell, Job. W.. e. Dec. 31, died Aug. 23, 1864. 
Mattingley, James, e. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Messinger, George, e. Dec. 31. 1863, dis. May 31, 1865. 
Mespinger, Wm., e. Dec. 21, 1863. 
Mudy, Gto. W., e. Jan. 4, 1S64, died Oct. 9, 1864. 

Musser, Raymond, e. Jan. 2, 1864. 

Machamer/A. E., e. Jan. 2, 1864. 

McGilligan, Jos. N., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Pangborn, Geo. E., e. Jan. 1, 1864. 

Parker, Wm., e. Dec. 31, 1863. 

RuBh, Jos., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Rush, Emanu-1, e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Reed, James H., e. Dec. 30, 1863, trans, to Co. E. 

Rogers, M., e. Jan. 4, 1864. 

Reed, S. A., e. Jan. 2, 1864. 

Randal, James, e. Dec. 24, 1863, absent at m. o. of regt. 

Shumaker, John A., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Simc#x, A. R., e. Jan. 24. 1865, died Aug. 6, 1865. 

Stiue, John, e. Dec. 28, 1863, m. o. as sergt. 

Spitler, W. H., e. Dec. 30, 1863, m. o. as corpl. 

Solace, C. L., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Shumaker, George, e. Dec. 19, 1863. 

Scrambling, Wm. H., e. Dec. 28, 1863. 

Spofford, Chas. F., e. Jan. 2, 1864. 

Tyler, D. D., e. Sept. 10, 1861, m. o. Sept. 22, 1865. 

Towl, Henry E., e. Dec. 12, 1863. 

Vaughan, 0. 0., e. Dec. 12, 1863. 

Verguson, John S., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Vance, 0. C, e. Jan. 4, 1864. 

Wagnor, J. P., e. Dec. 24, 1863. 

Williams, Edward, e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Warren, Wm., e. Dec. 29, 1863, m. o. June 26, 1865. 

Winner, Jacob, e. JaD. 1, 1864, dis. Oct. 7, 1865. 

Wittenmever, J. H. 

Young, Wm., e. Dec. 11, 1863. 

Zerby, Jacob, e. Jan. 2, 1864. 

Company E. 

Cassady, John, e. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Demuth, Fred, e. Jan 28, 1865, m. o. Aug. 9, 1865. 

Hammond, A. J., e. Feb. 24, 1865. 

O'Neal, Patrick, e. Feb. 16. 1864. 

Koin, John W., e. Feb. 29, 1864. 

Law, John W., e. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Long, Isaac, e. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Leslie Edw., e. Jan. 28, 1S65. 

Marion, Jos. 

Moses, Lewis. 

Moshier, Lorenzo, e. Feb. 7, 1865. 

Peaslie, Cornelius, e. Feb. 2, 1865. 

Phillips, Chris. 

Reed, I. W., e. Feb. 7, 1865. 

Reed, James H. 

Runkle, John D., e. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Rishel. John G., e. Jan. 31, 1865, m. o. May 27, 1865. 

Shane Wm. E., e. Feb. 7, 1865. 

Syler Peter, e. Feb. 6. 1865. 

Saxby, Wm. R., e. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Sidles, Charles, e. Feb. 24, 1865. 

Springer, David S.. e. Jan 26, 1865, m. o. May 27, 1865. 

Shaw, John W. 

TrotW James, e. Feb. 6, 1864. 

Waddell, W. W. 

Company F- 

First Lieut. John W. Barr. com. Oct. 15, 1861, m. o. fo 

promotion 2d Miss. Nov. 22, 18G3. 
Havs, Thomas, e. Oct, 4, 1861, m. o. Dec. 29, 1864. 
Hays, James, e. Oct. 4, 1861. 
Otto, Simon, e. Oct. 4, 1861. 
Gettich, Aaron, e. Feb. 6, 1865. 
Gross, J siah, e. Feb. 2, 1865. 
Hellman, M., e. Sept. 13, 1863, trans, to V. R. C. 
Little, Ira G., e. Sept. 8, 1863, disd. Sept. 5, 1S63. 
Mallory, James C, e. Nov. 7, 1861, died Aug. 10, 1862. 
Messenger, Theo. 
Petty, Stephen, e. Jan. 4, 1864. 
Stolf, Frederick, e. Feb. 27, 1864. 

Company C. 

Cftpt. William Young, com. Oct, 15,1861, res. April 12,1863. 
('apt. Robert Smith, e. as 1st sergt. Oct. 8, 1861, prmtd. 2d 

lieut April 7, 1862, prmtd. 1st lieut. Oct. 6, 1862, prmtd. 

capt. April 12, 1S63, term expired Dec, 23, 1864. 
<'apt. Samuel Buchanan, e. as private Oct. 8. 1861, prmtd. 

2d lieut. Aug. 11, 1863, prmtd. 1st lieut. June 24,1864, 

prmtd. capt. Dec, 28. 1864, res. July 21, 1865. 
Capt, Dani-1 D. Diffeobaugh, e. as private Oct. 8, 1861, / 

prmtd. 2d lieut. June 24, 1864, prmtd 1st lieut, Dec. 28, 

1S64, prmtd. capt. Sept. 5, 1865. 
First Lieut. Thomas M. Hood, com. Oct. 15, 1861, killed 

at Shiloh. 
First Lieut. Moses R. Thompson, com. 2d lieut. Oct. 15, 

1861, prmtd. 1st lieut. April 7,1862, kid. bat. Hatchie. 
First Lieut. Robert Smi'h. 



First Lieut. Thomas Allen, e. as private Oct. 8, 1861, 

prmtd. 2d lieut. Oct. 6. 1862, prmtd. 1st lieut. April 

12, 1863, res. Aug. 11, 1863. 
First Lieut. Michael J. Cooper, e. as private Oct. 8, 1861, 

prmtd. 2d lieut. April 12, 1863, prmtd. 1st lieut. Aug. 

11, 1863, res. June 24, 1864. 
First Lieut. Thomas C. Laird, e. as private Oct. 8, 1861. 

prmtd. 2d lieut. March 20. 1865, prmtd. 1st lieut. Sept, 

5, 1865. 
Second Lieut. Thomas E. Joiner, e. as private Oct. 8, 1861, 

prmtd. 2d lieut. Sept. 5, 1865. 
Sergt. W. Swauzry, e. Oct. S, 1861. 
Sergt. Joseph McKibben, e. Oct. 8, 1861. 
Sergt. Joseph Stamp, e. Oct. 8, 1861, died June 16, 1862. 
Sergt. James B. Smith, e. Oct. 8, 1861, disd. Aug. 22, 1862, 

Corp. S. E. Hershey, e. Oct. 8, 1861, trans, to Inv. Corps. 
Corp. Joseph S. Brown, e. Oct. 8,1861, died April 28, 1862, 

Corp. Thomas Snyder, e. Oct. 8, 1861, disd. Dec. 11, 1862, 

Corp. John W. Rowray, e. Oct, 8, 1861, disd. June 21, 1862, 

Musician James Cole, e. Oct. 8, 1861, disd. Aug. 18, 1862, 

Albright, William, e. Jan. 28, 1864. 
Aikev, Abram, e. Jan. 28, 1865. 
Angle, Luther, e. Jan. 31, 1865. 
Aikev, Robert, e. Feb. 1, 1862, kid. bat. Shiloh. 
Albright. Jacob, e. Feb. 1, 1862, vet. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Allison, D., e. Feb. 1, 1862, vet. Dec. 23, 1863, m. o. as sergt. 
Auman, John, e. Feb. 1, 1862, vet. Jan. 5, 1864, disd. 

March 12, 1865, for prmtn. 
Butler, E. M„ e. Jan. 9. 1865, trans, from 99th inf. 
Bush, William, e. Dec. 15, 1861, disd. Nov. 9, 1863, disab. 
Baker, John M., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 
Baker, Joseph, e. Jan. 25, 1865. 
Brubacker, William H., e. Feb. 26, 1864. 
Beedy, E. K., e. Feb. 27, 1861. 
Benton, George, e. Feb. 29, 1864. 
Barfoot, F. R,, e. Feb. 24, 1865. 
Bordner, Henry, e. Feb. 28, 1865. 
Bren. Ferdinand, e. Feb. 27, 1865. 
Bellman, John, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 
Boyer, Owen, e. Feb. 23, 1865. 
Baker, E. H., e. Aug. 30, 1862, m. o. June 19, 1865. 
Baker, Solomon S., e. Feb. 26, 1864, m. o. May 23, 1865. 
Brubacker, Reuben, e. Oct. 8, 1861, died May 9, 1862. 
Beeler, George D., e. Oct. 8, 1861, kldbat. Shiloh. 
Brown, Wm., e. Oct. 8, 1861, disd. June 30,1863. 
Benton, George, e. Oct. 8, 1861, disd. Dec. 11, 1862, disab. 
Bradshaw, B. H., e. Oct. 8, 1861, disd. Sept. 12, 1862, to 

accept promotion to asst. sergt. 
Baker, Elias, e. Oct. 8, 1861, vet. Dec. 24, 1863. 
Bates, B. L., e. Oct. 8, 1861, died July 12, 1862. 
Craig, E. W., e. Oct. 8, 1861, disd. June 21, 1862, disab. 
Cable Seth, e. Oct. 8, vet. Dec. 24, 1863. 
Cable, David, e. Oct. 8, 1861, m. o. Oct. 19, 1864. 
Clubiue,D., e. Oct. 8, 1861, disd. June 30, 1863. 
Clark, Ezekiel S., e. Dec. 7, 1863, m. o. as corp. 
Cable, Wm., e. Feb. 26. 1864. 
Cole, John, e. Jan. 28, 1864. 
Chambers, James S., e. Jan. 27, 1864. 
Campbell, Richard, e. Feb. 2, 1865. 

Curtis, H. H., e. Nov. 30, 1861, dis. Nov. 11, 1862, disab. 
Christman, F.. m. o. May 22, 1865. 
Correl, Daniel, e. March 9, 1865, m. o. June 9, 1865. 
Driesbach, Daniel, e. Sept. 4, 1862, died March 12, 1863. 
Drake, Edward, e. Oct. 8, 1861, m. o. Nov. 12, 1864. 
Daughenbaugh, S. A., e. Oct. 8, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, '63, 

Dunn, Thomas, e. Oct. 8, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 
Davis, Alfred, e. Dec. 9, 1863. 
Fiscus, D. W., e. Feb. 29, 1864. 
Frisbie, C. G., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 
Frisbie, Wm. D., e. Jan. 24, 1865, dis. Dec. 31, 1866. 
Fehr. Aaron, e. Oct. 8. 1861, vet. Dec. '.3, 1863. 
Foster, Hanv. e. Oct. S, 1861. 
Gage, Isaac, e. Oct. 8, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 
Groken, S. H., e. Oct. 8, 1861, died April 6, 1862. 
Groff, John, e. Feb. 1,1864. 
Garman, H. ('., e. Feb. 6, 1864. 
Garman, Wm. A., e. Feb. 1U. 1864. 
Gardner, John, e. Dec. 9. I 
Goodrich, Jerome, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 
Hathaway, Earl, e. Oct. 8, 1861, disd. Jan. 4, 1864. 
Hulet, Henry, e. Oct. 8, 1861, died May 30, 1862. 
Hickle, Elias, e. Oct. 8, 1861, vet. Dec. 24, 1863. 
Helm, Wm., e. Oct. 8, 1861, died June 26, 1863. 
Hood, Jos. R., e. Oct. 8, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 
Hood, Thomas J., e. Oct. 8, 1861. 

Haughey, Jas. H., e. Feb. 24, 1864. 

Hathaway, Robert, e. Feb. 27, 1864, m. o. July 1, 1865. 

Hains, John H., e. Dec. 7, 1863. 

Haughey, Samuel J., e. Feb. 22, 1864. 

Haines, Wm., e. Sept. 18, 1863, died Feb. 15, 1865. 

Hay, Jonathan, e. Feb. 29, 1864, dis. Match 30, 1865, for 

promotion in United States Army. 
Hall, Thomas W., m. o.Oct. 10, 1865. 
Howard, Wm., e. Dec. 7, 1861, trans, to Co. K. 
Kittner, George, e. Oct. 8, 1861, died April 12, 1862, wd. 
Klontz, George, e. Oct. 8, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863, m. o 

July 15, 1865. 
Kancke, R., e. Oct. 8, 1861, vet Dec. 24, 1863. 
Klonez, Peter, e. Feb. 19, 1864, disd. May 5, 1865, disab. 
Krumme, Henry, e. Sept. 10, 1861, m. o. Sept, 13, 1804 
Lee, Ion, e. Oct. 8, 1861, vet. Dec 22, 1863. 
Lee, Isaac S., e. Oct. S, i861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 
Larne John, e. Oct. 8, 1861, died June 27, 1862. 
Linsley, Newton, e. Oct. 8, 1861, vet, Dec. 22, 1863, m. o. 

as corp. 
Long, Caspar, e. Oct, 8, 1861, disd. July 9, 1862, disab. 
LaBell, Peter, e. Oct. 8, 1861, died June 2, 1862. 
Law, Rolandus, e. Feb. 6, 1864. 
Lowe, Thomas A., e. Dec. 7, 1863. 
Lapp, Joseph, e. Feb. 1, 1866. 
Lahay, James, e. Dec. 25, 1861, trans, to Co. K. 
Loehle F., e. Jan. 1, 1862, vet. Jan. 1, 1864. 
Mayer, Isaac, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 
Moothart, P., e. Oct. 8, 1861, disd. May 9, 1862. 
Moothart John F., e. Oct. 8, 1861, died Feb. 9, 1864. 
McLeese, Robert, e. Jan. 21, 1805. 
Malter, J., e. Oct. 8, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863, sick at m. o. 

of regt. 
McClintic. John, e. Aug. 14, '62, disd. March 17, '63disab. 
Meinert, C, e. Oct. 8, 1861, m. o. Nov. 12, 1861. 
McLaughlin, Thomas, e. Dec. 15, 1861, trans, to Co. K. 
McMurry, J., e. Oct. 8, 1861, disd. May 20, 1863, corpl. 
McMurry, Chambers, e. Oct. 8, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863, 

m. o. July 15, 1865. 
McMurray, George, e. Feb. 1, 1864. 
Preising, George, e. Oct. 8, 1861, vet. Jan. 5, 1864, kid. 

July 7, 1864. 
Petrick, Paul, e. Oct. 8, 1861, vet. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Paul, William, e. Feb. 1, 1865, m. o. Jan. 20, 1866. 
Redinger, Francis, e. Oct. 8, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 
Richards, William D., e. Oct. 8, 1861, m. o. Oct. 21, 1864. 
Richards, Uriah, e. Oct. 8. 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863, m. o. 

as corp. 
Richmond, Lewis B., e. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Rubold, Henry, e. Oct. 8, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863, disd. 

March 8, 1865. 
Reiter, W., e. Oct. 8, 1861, m. o. Nov. 12, 1864. 
Rutter, Jacob, e. Oct. 8, 1861. 
Riddle, Samuel, e. Feb. 29, 1864. 
Riddle, Wm., e. March 18, 1865, trans. 99th inf. 
Raymer, John A., e. Jan 27, 1865. 
Raymer, Wm. H., e. Feb. 27, 1865. 
Reirmeyer, Henry, e. Dec. 15, 1861, died July 10, 1864. 
Reatt, Ed., e. Sept. 13, 1862, m. o. Aug. 8, 1865. 
Risshell, Elias, e. Feb. 10, 1864, m. o. Aug. 8, 1865. 
Steel, James W., e. Oct. 8, 1861, prmtd. hospital steward. 
Shively, John, e. Oct. 8, 1861, died April 23, 1862. 
Smith, Wm., e. Oct. 8, 1861, vet. Jan. 5, 1864, m. o. Jan. 

20, 1866. 

Smith, Aug. L., e. Oct. 8, 1861, disd. Dec. 11, 1862. 
Sindlinger, Wm. M., e. Oct. 8, '61, disd. Julv 9, '62 disab. 
Schawb, Thomas, e. Oct. 8, 1861, disd, Nov. 26, '62, diBab. 
Smith, Martin, e. Oct. 8, 1861, vet. Jan. 5, 1864, died March 

21, 1864. 

Shelter, Jacob, Oct. 8, 1861, died July 17, 1862. 

Sausman. John L., e. Dec. 12, 1863. 

Springman, Adam, e. Feb. 27, 1864. 

Sherman, Leonard, e. March 4, 1865. 

Sindlinger, William M., e. Jan. 27, 1865. 

Sindlinger, Samuel, e. Jan. 28, 1865. 

Seely, Orin, e. Jan. 26, 1865. 

Shinkle, John T . e. Jan. 28, 1864, died Aug. 28, 1864. 

Stamm, William D., e. Dec. 1, 1863, died at Vicksburg, 

Sept. 24, 1864. 
Shippy, Joseph, e. Jan. 28, 1864, died Nov. 28, 1864. 
Shearer, John, e. Feb. 2!l, 1861. died Sept. 20, 1864. 
Shirk, Daniel F., e. Feb. 5, 1862, vet. Feb. 6, 1864. 
Stamm, Amos A., e. Oct. 4, 1864, m. o. July 1, 1865. 
Bpoonar, Charles, e. Nov. 1, 1861, vet. Dec. 24, 1863. 
Smith, E. 0. W., e. Feb. 29, 1864. 
Thomas, William H., e. Feb. 23, 180".. 
Tool, Eugene T., Oct. 11, 1864. 
Tool, A. 8., e. Oct. 11, 1864, m. o. Oct. 10, 1865. 
Tonibleson. Silas \\ '., e. Oct. 4, 1864, m. o. Oct. 5, 1865. 
Vore. John. e. Oct. 8, 1861, vet. Dec. 24, 1863. 



Ward, Sidney, e. Oct. 8, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863, died July 

8, 1864. 
Williams, Peter, e. Oct. 8, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863, died 

March 5, 1865. 
Wilson, F. T., e. Oct. 8, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 
Wyre, John, e. Oct. 8, 1861, disd. April 26, 1863, disab. 
Wilson, John, e. Oct. 8, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 
Wentz, Philip, e. Oct. 8, 1861, vet. Dec. 24, 1863. 
Walters, Samuel, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Williams, William, e. Jan. 28, 1864, died Dec. 14, 1864. 
Wolfanger, Aaron, e. Jan. 24, 1865, died July 19, 1865. 
Wootan, James E., o. Feb. 1, 1862, vet. Feb. 6, '64, disd. 
Weaver, William, e. Dec. 15, 1861, m. o. Dec. 5, 1864. 
Wike, Peter, trans. Ind. Corps. 
Young, D. D., e. Feb. 1, 1864. 

Young, Robert C, e. Oct. 8, 1861, m. o. Nov. 12, 1864. 
Young, F. M., e. Oct, 8, 1861, m. o. Oct. 19, 1864. 

Company I. 

Carter, S. E., e. Oct. 16, 1861. 

Company K. 

Capt. Wm. Stewart, com. 1st lieut. Oct. 15, 1861, prmtd. 

capt. Oct. 11, 1862. term expired Dec. 28, 1864 
First Lieut. Jos. M. McKibben, e. as , prmtd. 2d 

lieut. July 16, 1862, prmtd 1st. lieut. Oct. 11, 1862, 

term expired Dec. 23, 1864. 
First Lieut. Louis E. Butler, e. as sergt. Nov. 7, 1861, 

vet. prmtd. 1st lieut. Dec. 23, 1864, died at Salubrity 

Springs, La., Oct. 5, 1865. 
First Lieut. John Wilson, e. as Corp. Nov. 7, 1861,' vet. 

prmtd. 2d lieut. March 20, 1865, prmtd. 1st. lieut. 

Oct. 26, 1865. 
First Sergt. James C. Mallory, e. Nov. 7, 1861, trans, to 

Co. F. 
Sergt. Oscar H. Osborne, e. Nov. 7, 1861, dis. July 27, 

1862, disab. 
Sergt. Geo. Barton, e. Nov. 7, '61, dis. Nov. 21, '63, disab. 
Corp. Walter G. Barnes, e. Nov. 7, 1861, dis. May 31, 

1862, disab. 
Corp. Benj. R. Frisbie, e. Nov. 7, 1861, m. o. Dec. 29, '64. 
Corp. T. S. Felton, e. Nov. 7, 1861, died March 17, 1862. 
Corp. R. C. Hardy, e. Oct. 4, 1861, dis. Nov. 7, '63, disab. 
Corp. E. H. Gardner, e. Nov. 7, 1861, died June 18, 1862. 
Corp. Thos. Woodcock, e. Dec. 26, vet. 
Musician Thos. Slade, e. Oct. 4, 1861, vet. 
Apker, John, e. Jan. 26, 1865, died May 8, 1865. 
Artley, A., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 
Artley, Charles, e. Jan. 28, 1865. 

Allen, Thomas H., e. Feb. 10,'64, prmtd. hospital steward. 
Butler, James A., e. Oct. 4, 1861, died July 13, 1862. 
Berns, Moses, e. Nov. 7, 1861, dis. May 25, 1862, disab. 
Brown, Geo. F., e. Nov. 7, 1861, died May 18, 1862. 
Brid, Geo. H., e. Feb. 2, 1865. 

Barker, Dudley, e. Feb. 7, 1865, died June 17, 1865. 
Brace, John, e. Jan. 13, 1862, died May 22, 1862, wds. 
Boyle, L., e. Jan. 21. 1862, trans, to inv. corps. 
Baker, John, e. Oct, 4, 1864, m. o. Oct. 3, 1865. 
Babb, A. W., e. Feb. 27, 1865. 
Butterneld, Chas. W., e. Feb. 26, 1865, absent sick at m. 

o. of regt. 
Cramton, Aaron, e. Oct. 4, 1861, dis. Sept. 9, 1862. 
Curran, John, e. Nov. 20, 1861, trans, to inv. corps. 
Carter, S. E., e. Dec. 26, trans, to. Co. A. 
Cantrill, J. T., e. Sept. 10, 1861. 
Cosier, Ammon, e, Jan. 25, 1865. 
Canvill, Calvin, e. Feb. 4, 1865. 

Coolidge, Nelson, e. Jan. 25, 1864, dis. Oct. 5, '64, wds. 
Carroll, Patrick, e. Feb. 23, 18G4. 
Cade, Alfred, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 
Daughenbaugh, Wm. J., e. Nov. 7, 1861, vet. 
Diemar, Josiah, e. Nov. 7, 1861, vet. 
Dodson, Thomas H., e. Nov. 15, 1861, died June 1, 1862. 
Dillon, Geo. W., e. Feb. 19, 1864. 
Dillon, Zachariah, e. Feb. 29, 1864. 
Decker, Z., e. Feb. 3, 1865. 

Devore, Espy, e. Jan. 16, 1864, dis. Aug. 23, 1865. 
Dinsruore Wm., e. March 27, 1865, sick at m.o. of regt. 
Diller, Michael, e. Dec. 25, 1861, trans, to Co. C. 
Doan, Jos., e. Feb. 1, 1864, died May 28, 1864. 
Dobson, Jacob, e. Feb. 1, 1864, died Oct. 30, 1864. 
Dolan, John, e. Feb. 4, 1864. 
Ely, Marion, e. Oct. 18, 1863. 
Flood, Bartholomew, e. Feb. 3, 1865. 
Farley, Thomas, e. Sept. 10, 1861, trans, to Inv. Corps. 
Fry, Conrad, e. Jan. 5. 1864, m. o. June 19, 1865. 
Gibler, H., e. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Gregsby, Uriah, e. Feb. 13, 1864. 

Garrison, 1. T., e. Dec. 5, 1863. 

Gillespie, P., e. Nov. 5, 1861, disd. May 22, 1865, disab. 

Gregsby, W. C, e. Feb. 13, 1864, m. o. June 12, 1865. 

Gregsby, Samuel, e. Jan. 27, 1865. 

Hays, Thomas J., e. Nov. 7, 1861, trans, to Inv. Corps. 

Hills, E. P., e. Dec. 26, 1861. 

Hiatt, John, e. Nov. 15, 1861, disd. Feb. 11, 1863, as sergt., 

Heiter, Monroe, e. Feb. 7, 1865. 
Hartman, Anion, e. Jan. 31, 1865, m. o. July 17, 1865. 
Hand, Barney, e. Nov. 20, 1861, died Dec. 23, 1861. 
Kinney, Daniel, e. Nov. 7, 1861, vet. 
Kessling or Keeling, William, e. Nov. 7, 1861, vet. 
Kamrar, David, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 
Kraft, Jacob, e. Feb. 5, 1864. 
Kelly, Zebedee, e. Feb. 7, 1865. 
Keck, H. S., e. Feb. 4, 1865. 
Kamrar, Saul H., e. Jan. 13, 1862, vet. 
Lamb, Samuel F., e. Nov. 7, 1861, vet. 
Latour, Charles, e. Nov. 7, 1861, trans, to Co. 0. 
Lahay, James, e. Nov. 7, 1861, vet. 
Lamb, Samuel D., e. Jan. 22, 1865. 
Leibhart, Henry, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 
Lower, Reuben, e. Jan. 26. 1865. 
Linscott, Abrani, e. Feb. 29, 1864, m. o. May 31, 1865. 
Logan, William, e. Jan. 21, 1864. 
Mishler, Barton, e. Jan. 28, 1864. 
Miller, John H, e. Dec. 30, 1863. 
Mullin, D., e. Feb. 16, 1864. 
McCay, George, e. Feb. 6, 1865. 
Mufrly, Charles T., e. Jan. 28, 1865. 
McKibben, James H., e. Jan. 27, 1865. 
Myron, Thomas, e. Nov. 7, lt61, died June 12, 1862. 
Miller, Aaron, e. Dec. 26, 1861, died June 6, 1862. 
Martin, William H., e. Dec. 26, 1861. 
McLaughlin, Thomas, e. Dec. 6, 1861, vet. 
McKee, Robert, e. Nov. 7, 1861, trans, to Co. B. 
McKimsom, John S., e. Jan. 1, 1862, m. o. Dec. 31, 1864. 
Miller, A., e. Feb. 2, 1865, m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Mallory, D. C, e. Jan. 24, 1865, m. o. May 23, 1865. 
McGuirk, James, e. Jan. 1, 1862, vet. 
Needham, R. N., e. Nov. 7, 1861, vet. 
Nicholas, Charles H., e. Feb. 6, 1865. 
Owen, A. R.. e. Jan. 22, 1864. 
Osborn, 0. H., e. Jan. 30, 1864. 
Patten, Lawrence, e. Dec. 1, 1861, disd. March 7, 1862, 

Plotner, Frank, e. Feb. 7, 1865. 
Quinn, William, e. Jan. 2, 1864. 

Reber, Levi M., e. Dec. 30, 1861, vet. 

Reber, M. V. B., e. Nov. 7, 1861. 

Reagle, Jacob, e. Nov. 7, 1861, died Oct. 26, 1862. 

Rutter, W. H. 

Rudel, L. 

Read, James H., e. Nov. 7, 1861, disd. Aug. 31, 1863 for 
promotion in U. S. C. T. 

Runner, Z. T. F., Jan. 25, 1865. 

Richards, William D., e. Jan. 30, 1865. 

Richards, Levi, e. Jan. 30, 1865. 

begin, Theo., e. Dec. 26, 1861, disd. Aug. 27, 1862, disab. 

Shook, Robert, e. Nov. 7, 1861, disd. Aug. 26, 1862, disab. 

Snow, A. L. F. M. e. Nov. 7, '61, disd. Aug. 29, '62, disab. 

Scott, George W., e. Feb 29, 1864. 

Star, F. H., e. Feb. 4, 1864. 

Scott, Isaac, e. Feb. 29, 1864. 

Sheffy, Levi W., e. Jan. 26, 1865. 

Sloan, Thomas, e. Feb. 7, 1865. 

Shane, Mathias, e. Feb. 7, 1865. 

Smith, Charles, e. Jan. 26, 1865. 

Shane, John W , e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Sneely, Lewis Z., e. Feb. 7, 1865. 

Shaffer, Thomas J., e. Feb. 3, 1805. 

Sponage, William, e. Feb. 2, 1865. 

Train, L. R., e. Feb. 2, 1865. 

Winney, Daniel, e. Nov. 7, 1861, m. o. Dec. 29, 1864. 

Thomas, William, e. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Wagner, William N , e. Nov. 7, 1861, vet. 

Wood, Thomas, e. Nov. 7, 1861, vet. 

Wardwell, William G., e. Nov. 7, 1861, vet. 

Warner, D. J., e. Nov. 7, 1861, vet. 

Walbridge. Thomas, e. Dec. 26, 1861, vet. 

Woodruff, Isaac, e. Nov. 7, 1861, vet. 

Warner, William W., e. Jan. 25, 1865. 

Willy, Andrew, e Dec. 10, 1861, trans, to Co. A. 

Withneck, William, e. Feb. 7, 1862, died May 17,1862. 

Winne, Abraham, e. Jan. 26, 1865, died June 16, 1865. 

Watson, Henry, e. Feb. 3, 1865. 

Zweifel, Albert, e. Feb 19, 1864, m. o. as Corp. 

Zeigler, Miller, e. Feb. 2, 1864. 





Barker, Jack. e. Feb. 27, 1865. 

Brown, Charles M., e. Jan. 25, 1864. 

Butler, B. F., e. Feb. 6, 1864. 

Cable, L. M., e. Feb. 22, 1864. 

Crossman, George W., e. March 9, 1865, m. o. June 29, '65. 

Cochran, D., e. March 29, 1865, m. o. May 21, 1865. 

Davis, Philip, e. Feb. 3, 1865. 

Driggs, John A., e. March 4, 1865, m. o. May 21, 1865. 

Frund, Julius L., e. March 11, 1865, in. o. May 23, 1865. 

Getlish, Addison. 

Harkell, William, e. Dec. 30, 1863. 

Helder, John W., e. Oct. 3, 1864. 

Mareau, Joseph, e. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Phillips, C. Y. 

Prain, L. R. 

Richardson, James, e. March 9, 1865, m. o. June 8, 1865. 

Richardson. Joshua, e. March 9, 1865. 

Rishel, Daniel L., e. Dec. 1, 1863. 

Sprader, Charles, e. Jan. 31, 1865. 

Tegar or Yeager, John, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Umphreys, A. R., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Van BureD, George E., e. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Weldon, Sidney, e. Dec. 7, 1863. 

Wendecker, William. 

William, Thomas, e. Jan. 5, 1864. 


(Three Months.) 

Company H. 

Capt. James W. Crane, com. June 13, 1862. 

First Lieut. Stephen Allen, com. June 13, 1862. 

Second Lieut. Alonzo Hilliard, com. June 13, 1862. 

First Sergt. John Stine, e. June 2, 1862. 

Sergt. James R. Baker, e. June 2, 1862. 

Sergt. Charles A. Dodge, e. June 2, 1862. 

Sergt. John D. Lamb, e. June 2, 1862. 

Sergt. H. W. Sigworth, e. June 2, 1862. 

Corp. 0. T. P. Steinmetz, e. June 2, 1862. 

Corp. Ambrose Martin, e. June 2, 1862. 

Corp. Sidney Robins, e. June 2, 1862. 

Corp. Hazilas S. Ritz, e. June 2, 1862. 

Corp. William H. Hoyt, e. June 2, 1862. 

Corp. William H. Butler, e. June 2, 1862. 

Wagoner Jacob W. Pells, e. June 2, 1862. 

Armstrong, John T., e. June 2, 1862. 

Allen, T. M., e. June 2, 1862. 

Allen, N., e. June 2, 1862. 

Albright, Harrison, e. June 2, 1862. 

Adams, Taylor, e. June 2, 1862. 

Bitts, Jacob, e. June 2, 1862. 

Bollman, George. 

Clark, C. H., e. June 2, 1862. 

Cross, T. L. e. June 2, 1862. 

Carpenter, Horace, e. June 2, 1862. 

Denure, W., e. June 2, 1862. 

Dryer, Edward, e. June 2, 1862. 

Davenport, Lucius, e. June 2, 1862. 

Denton, Levi, e. June 2, 1862. 

Evans, L. A., e. June 2, 1862. 

Farley, James, e. June 2, 1862. 

Fain, John P., e. June 2, 1862. 

Friedman, V., e. June 2, 1862. 

Fye. Benjamin, e. June 2, 1862. 

Fye. Josiah. e. June 2, 1862. 

Griffing, D. J., e. June 2, 1862. 

Gilmore, George, e. June 2, 1862. 

Gafney, Michael. 

Gundy, A. M., e. June 2, 1862. 

Gates, H. H., e. June 2, 1862. 

George. John E., e. June 2, 1862. 

Grant, Smith H., e. June 2, 1862. 

Grant, R. C, e. June 2, 1862. 

Hagart, Sidney, e. June 2, 1862. 

Hagart, William, e. June 2, 1862. 

Hustin, William T., e. June 2, 1862. 

Hersey, Daniel, e. June 2, 1862. 

Jones, Robert, e. June 2, 1862. 

Kelly, Mathew, e. June 2, 1862. 

Layr, M., e. June 2, 1862. 

Lauver, George, e. June 2, 1862. 

Leverton, Isaac, e. June 2, 1862. 

Lee, Samuel, e. June 2, 1862. 

Lunt, A. M., e. June 2, 1862. 

Linderman, S., e. June 2, 1862. 

Martin, W. H., e. June 2, 1862. 

Martin, A. J., e. June 2, 1862. 

Maher, Ed. e. June 2, 1862. 
Mullen, John, e. June 2, 1862. 
Mock, Henrv, e. June 2, 1862. 
Miller, John H., e. June 2, 1862. 
McEathron, John S., e.June 2, 1862. 
Miller, J. C, e. June 2, 1862. 
Messinger, George, e. June 2, 1862. 
Miller, Zeri, e. June 2, 1862. 
Pickard, John S., e. June 2, 1862. 
Price, William, e. June 2, 1862. 
Phillips, Reuben, e. June 2, 1862. 
Rice, David E., e. June 2, 1862. 
Stout, Cyrus, e. June 2, 1862. 
Solace, Chester L., e. June 2, 1862. 
Stewart, Thomas M., e. June 2, 1862. 
Steckler, Daniel, e. June 2, 1862. 
Shoemaker, George, e. June 2, 1862. 
Van Sicklas, John, e. June 2, 1862. 
Walsh, F. A., e. June 2, 1862. 
Williams, George, e. June 2, 1862. 
Warner, Henry, e. June 2, 1862. 
Walton, A. D., e. June 2, 1862. 
Williams, L., e. June 2, 1862 


(Three Months.) 

Company B. 

Capt. Luther W. Black, com. July 22, 1862. 

Sergt. Wm. A. St. John, e. July 7, 1862. 

Sergt. John J. M. Brown, e. July 7, 1862. 

Corp. Jas. H. Cox, e. July 10, 1862. 

Andre, Geo. W., e. July 2, 1862. 

Bunce, Danforth, e. July 11, 1862. 

Barrott, Marion. 

DeFrain, Samuel, e. July 5, 1862. 

Durkee, D. M. 

Eells, Wm. A., e. July 15, 1862. 

Gettig, Aaron M., e. July 5, 1862. 

Hicks, James R. 

Hoflinger, Jacob, e. July 15, 1862. 

Klecker, John P., e. July 14, 1862. 

Klouts, John, e. July 7, 1862. 

Mitchell, Levi. 

Ritzman, Martin, e. July 8, 1862. 

Stites, Geo. W., e. July 10, 1862. 

Shippy, Chas., e. July 7, 1862. 

Shinkle, John, e. July 10, 1862. 

Snyder, Wm. H., e. July 14, 1862. 

Smith, Ellis, e. July 14, 1862. 

Snyder, John, e. July 12, 1862. 

Smith, James C, e. July 10, 1862. 

Stace, J. E. W , e. July 14, 1862. 

Sands, Jos. H., e. July 5, 1862. 

Soliday, Hy. 

Wilson, Henry, e. July 14, 1862. 


Organized at Rockford and mustered into 
the United States service September 6, 1862. 
Companies G and I were from Ogle and Ste- 
phenson Counties ; all the rest were from Win- 
nebago County. Left Rockford September 27 
for Jeffersonville, Ind. Arrived there October 
1, and moved to Louisville, Ky., immediately. 
Assigned to Army of the Cumberland, First 
Brigade, Second Division, under Gen. Buell. 
Moved from Louisville October 7, and was in the 
battle of Chaplain Hills, Ky., October 13 ; from 
there to Crab Orchard, Ky., pursuing Bragg, 
participating in many skirmishes. Returned 
from Lebanon, Ky., October 25 ; from there it 
went to Nashville, Tenn., where a re-organiza- 
tion was effected, under Gen. Rosecrans. De- 
cember 25, received marching orders, with 
three days' rations. Participated in the battle 
of Stone River, December 30, 31, 1862, and Jan- 
uary 1, 1863, the regiment losing sixteen men 
killed and wounded. Went into winter quarters 
at Camp Little, south of Murfreesboro,and were 



engaged in numerous raids in the surrounding 
country. Moved from winter quarters July 
15; was in battle of Liberty Gap, July 20; 
one man killed ; was engaged at Tullahoma, 
Tenn. ; from here it was ordered to Winches- 
ter, Tenn., where it encamped. Moved August 
20, to Stevenson, Ala. Engaged at Chicka- 
mauga, September 18, 19 and 20; lost five 
men. The regiment on the latter date was in 
charge of hospital and supply trains, arriving 
at Chattanooga, Tenn., September 22. While 
here it had very short allowances until Novem- 
ber 22, when they participated in the fight of 
Mission Ridge, November 25, their colors being 
the first to pass over the rebel lines, capturing 
a battery of four pieces at Bragg' s headquar- 
ters ; loss to regiment, six privates. Col. Jason 
Marsh wounded, Lieut. Col. Kerr wounded in 
the arm. 

Returned to Chattanooga on the 26th, and 
marched to Knoxville, Tenn., to relieve Gen. 
Burnside, and then went into winter quarters 
about December 13. May 2, 1864, it joined the 
main army of the Cumberland at Chattanooga, 
where it arrived on the 3d ; on the 5th, marched 
under orders, and was in the battle of Rocky 
Face, or Buzzard Roost, Ga. ; was at Resaca, 
Ga., May 14 and 15; Calhoun, May 17; 
Adairsville, Ga., May 18; Dallas, Ga., May 
25 to June 5; Lost Mountain, Ga., June 16 ; 
was in the battle at Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., 
June 20 and June 27 ; lost fifty-two men and 
six commissioned officers, Lieut. Col. J. B. 
Kerr being among the number. Battle of 
Smyrna; Camp Ground, Ga., July 4, lost six- 
teen men ; was also at Peach Tree Creek, July 
20 ; Atlanta. July 22, and was continually 
engaged until the battle of Jonesboro, Ga., 
Sept. 1,1864, aud Lovejoy Station, Sept. 2; 
then returned to Chattanooga, Tenn., where it 
was assigned to the Army of the Tennessee. 
Engaged the enemy, November 28, at Colum- 
bia, Tenn. ; Spring Hill, November 29; Frank- 
lin, Tenn., November 30; Nashville, Tenn, 
December 15 and 16, following Hood to Hunts- 
ville, Ala., fighting him all the time until he 
crossed the Little Tennessee and then went 
into winter quarters. March 26, 1865. it 
marched to Bull's Gap, Tenn., to intercept 
Lee, leaving there April 17, for Nashville, 
Tenn., where the regiment was mustered out 
June 20, 1865. Returned to Rockford with 
157 enlisted men and thirteen officers. Col. 
Jason Marsh was at the head of the regiment 
until about Jan. 1, 1865, when Lieut. Col. 
Thomas J. Bryan took command. 

First Asst. Surg. Chesseldon Fisher, com. 2d asst. surg. 
Sept. 28, 1862, prmtd. March 24, 1863, surg. 75th regt. 

Company 1. 

C'apt. Wm, Irvin, com. Sept. 4, 1862, res. Jan. 28, 1863. 
Cap*. Frederick W. Stegner, com. 1st lieut. Sept. 4, 1862, 

prmtd. Capt. Jan. 28, 1863, kid. in battle June 27, '64. 
Capt. Daniel Cronemillur, com. 2d lieut. Sept. 4, 1862, 

prmtd 1st lieut. Jan. 28, 1863, prmtd. capt. June 27, 

First Lieut. Edgar W Warner, e. as sergt. Aug. 11, 1862, 

prmtd 2d lieut. Jan. 28, 1863, prmtd. 1st lteut. June 

27, 1864, disd. Sept. 1, 1864. 
First Lieut. Robert P. Gift, e. as sergt. Aug. 14, 1862, 

prmtd. 1st lieut. June 27, 1864. 

Sergt. Johnson Porter, e. Aug. 14, 1862, disd. June 17, '63. 
Sergt. John A. Mullarkey, e. Aug. 14 1862, died June 28, 

1864, wd. 
Corp. James B. Rowray, e. Aug. 14, 1862, disd. for disab. 
I k>rp. J. Steward, e. Aug. 14, 1862, trans to V. R. ('. 
Corp. Charles Hunt, e. Aug. 14, 1862, m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Corp. Uriah Boyden, e. Aug. 14, 1862, disd. Dec. 20, 1862, 

Corp. Jacob Kehm, e. Aug. 14, 1862, disd. for disab. 
Hi-nsey, John. e. Aug. 14, 1862, disd. June 16, 1864, wd. 
Wagoner Wm. Vore, e. Aug. 14, 1862, disd. March 4 '63, 

Andrews, Jacob, e. Aug. 14, 1862, m. o. as corp. 
Anderson, Ole, e. Aug. 14, 1862, disd. March 31, '63, disab. 
Ashenfelter, Moses, e. Aug. 14, 1862. 
Ashenfelter, Franklin, e. Aug. 14. 1862, disd. Dec. 6, 1862, 

Bellman, Wm., e. Aug. 14, 1862, died Dec. 4, 1862. 
Bener, Jos., e. Aug. 14, 1862, died March 11, 1865. 
Benning, Gottleib, e. Aug 14. 1862. 
Bingman, Robert, e. Aug. 14, 1862, died May 16, 1864. 
Boos, Wm , e. A tig. 14, 1862, missing in action. 
Bokhoff, Wm., e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Boughton, George W., e. Aug. 14, 1862, trans, to V. R. O. 
Bough thampt, Jacob, e. Aug. 14, 1862, disd. March 11, 

1863, disab. 

Bramin. Edwin, e. Aug. 14, 1862, disd. June 27, '63, disab 

Burrell, Robert, e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Clark, Orla, e. Aug. 14, 1862, missing in action. 

Cole, Sidney, e. Aug 14, 1862, died Nov. 5, 1862. 

Ebling, Peter, e. Aug. 14, 1862, trans, to V. R. C. 

Englot, Gregory, e. Aug. 14 1862, m. o. June 10, 1866 

Feeny, John, e. Aug. 14, 1862, trans, to V. R. C. 

Feeney, Henry. 

Ferico, John, e. Aug. 14, 1862 .died March 22, 1863. 

Flinn, Jos., e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Fuoss, Daniel, e. Aug. 14, 1862, disd March 7, 1865, disab. 

Hensev, Fred., e. Aug. 14, 1862, died in battle June 27, 

1864, corp. 

Henderson, O. P., e. Aug. 14, '62, disd. July 18, '63, disab. 
Hultz, Benj., e. Aug. 14, '62, disd. December 27, '62, disab. 
Inman Austin, e. Aug. 15, 1862, died June 27, 1864. 
Jennewine, Thomas, e. Aug. 14, 1862, died Jan. 2, '63, wd. 
Keagle, Wm. H , e. Aug. 14, 1862, died Dec. 13, 1862. 
Keagle, James G., e. Aug. 14, 1862, disd. May 22, 1865. 
Keagle, F. B., e. Aug 14, 1862. trans, to U. S. EngB. 
Keller, Adam, e. Aug. 14, 1862. 
Knudson, Nels, e. Aug. 14, 1862, died Nov. 26, 1S62. 
Laber. Levi, e. Aug. 14, 1862, disd. March, 15, 1863, disab. 
Lapp, Samuel, e. Aug. 14, 1862, died Jan. 5, 1863. 
Masmin, Fred, e. Aug. 14, 1862, kid. June 18, 1864. 
McCarty, Thomas, e. Aug. 14, 1862, disd. Jan. 27, 1863, 

Miller, Fredk., e. Sept. 25, 1862. 

McGrane, Peter, e. Aug. 14, 1862, disd. Dec. 18, '62, disab. 
Mullarkev, Chas., e. Aug. 14, 1862, disd. Nov. 5, 1862, disab. 
Mullarkey, John, e. Aug. 14, 1862,disd. Nov. 5, 1862, disab. 
Neidle, Rudolph, e. Aug. 14, 1862, m. o. as corp. 
Miller, Frederick. 

O'Mealy, Patrick, e. Aug. 14, 1862, m. o. as corp. 
Oleson, Talliff, e. Aug. 14, 1862, disd. March 22, '63, disab. 
Peterson, Elias E., e. Aug. 14, '62, disd. Feb. 2, '63, disab. 
Richardson, Henry, e. Aug. 9, 1862, disd. March 26, 1863. 
Schoolcraft, Whitney, e. Aug. 15. 1862, trans, to V. R. C. 
Seward, John, e. Aug. 14, 1862, prmtd. corp., then sergt. 

pris., m. o. June 27, 1866. 
Sheckler. James W., e. Aug. 21, 1862, disd. Feb. 12, 1863, 

Sheckler. Thomas, e, Aug. 14, '62, disd. Jan. 27, '63, disab. 
Snyder, Perry, e. Aug. 14, 1862, m. o. as corp. 
Snyder, Jackson, e. Aug. 14, '62, disd. March 26, '63, disab. 
Stinson, E. H., e. Aug. 14, 1862, trans, to 36th inf. 
Spaulding, D. G., e. Aug. 9, 1862, trans, to V. R. C. 
Spaulding, A. C, e. Aug. 14, 1862, disd. Feb. 10, '65, disab. 
Tunks, Alfred, e. Aug. 14, 1862, disd July 6, 1863, disab. 
Van Valkenburg L. H., e. Aug. 14, 1862, kid. June 27,'64. 
Waggoner, Jacob, e. Aug. 15. 1862. m. o. as sergt. 
Webb, E. Boone, e. Aug. 14, 1862, trans, to. V. R. C. 
Winkle, Fredk., e. Aug. 15, 1862, m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Webster, 0. B., e. Sept. 30, 1864. 


The Ninetieth Infantry, Illinois Volunteers, 
was organized at Chicago, 111., in August, Sep- 
tember and -October, 1862, by Col. Timothy 
O'Meara. Moved to Cairo November 27, and 
to Columbus, Ky., on the 30th. From thence, 



proceeded to La Grange. Tenn., where the reg- 
iment arrived December 2. On the 4th, or- 
dered to Cold Water, Miss., where it relieved 
the Twenty-ninth Wisconsin Infantry. On the 
morning of December 20, a detachment of Sec- 
ond Illinois Cavalry arrived at Cold Water, 
havingcut their way through Van Dorn's forces, 
out of Holly Springs. Soon after, four com- 
panies of the One Hundred and First Illinois 
came in. and were followed by the enemy to 
our lines. The demonstrations made by the 
Ninetieth deterred the enemy from making any 
severe attack, although he was 4,000 or 5,000 
strong, and after some skirmishing, he with- 
drew. The regiment was mustered out of 
service June 6, 18G5, at Washington, D. C, and 
arrived at Chicago. June 12, 1865, where it 
received final pay and discharge. 

Company A. 

Barrett, Patrick, Aug. 5, 1862. 

Barn, Michael, Sr., e. Aug. 5, 1862, disd. March 1, 1865, 

Broderick, David, e. Aug. 5, 1862, kid. July 12, 1863, at 

Jackson, Miss. 
Carroll, John, e. Aug. 5, 1862. 
Caton, Wm., e. Aug. 5, 1862, kid. Nov. 25, 1863. 
Cranney, Patrick, e. Aug. 5,1862. died March 28, 1863. 
Crawley, John, e. Aug. 5, 1862, died May 18, 1863. 
Foley, James, e. Aug. 5, 1862. 
Kennelly, Edward, e. Aug. 5, 1862, absent at m. o. of 

regt. wd. 
McCormick, J., e. Aug. 5, 1862. 

Company C. 

McCarty, Dennis, e. Aug. 15, 1862, kid. Nov. 25, 1863. 

Company I. 

First Lieut. William Brice, com. April 7, 1865, m. o. June 

6, 1865. 
Second Lieut. John J. O'Leary, com. Oct. 31, 1862, res. 

Feb. 1,1863. 
Sergt. John Doogan, e. Aug. 16, 1862, died Sept. 2, '64, wd. 
Sergt. Willia m Brice, e. Aug. 14, 1862, prmtd. lieut. 
Sergt. Neil. O'Garrey, Aug. 16, 1862, died Jan. 21, 1863. 
Corp. William Con well, e. Aug. 16, 1862, m. o. as sergt. 
Coip. Thomas B. Eagan, e. Aug. 17, 1862. 
Corp. Elisha N. Strong, e. Aug. 14, 1862, disd. Sept. 4, '63. 
Brennan, Edw., e. Aug. 16, 1862. 
Burns, Cornelius, e. Aug. 14, 1862. 
Coughlin, John, e. Aug. 8, 1862. 
Cooney, Francis, e. Aug. 14, 1862. 
Crawford. John, e. Aug. 16, 1862, died June 18, 1864. 
Cane, James, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 
Chichester, Merit, e. Aug. 7, 1862, disd. March 13, 1864, 

Enright, James, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 
Flannighan, M., e, Aug. 8, 1862, trans, to V. E. *'. 
Frost, H. 0., e. Aug. 15, 1862. 
Gallaher, Charles, e. Aug. 16, 1862. 
Griffin Patrick, e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Laughran, James, e. Aug. 11, 1862, died Aug. 21, 1864. 
McAndrews, M., e. Aug. 12, 1862, disd. April 16, 1864, 

McSweenev, E., e. Aug. 12, 1862. 
JVlcIntyre, Timothy, e. Aug. 14, 1862. 
Moynahan, Anthony, e. Aug. 10, 1862. 
Moonev, Thomas, e. Aug. 17, 1862. 
Meena'han, John. e. Aug. 18, 1862. 
Moynahan, John, e. Aug. 14, 1862. 
Mulligan, James, e. Aug. 17, 1S62, m. o. as musician. 
O'Connell, Daniel, e. Aug. 11, 1862. 
O'Connor, Charles, e. Aug. 18, 1862, died Sept. 16, 1863. 
O'Brien B-rnarrt, e. Aug 9, 1862. 
Powers, James, e. Aug. Hi. 1862. died Sept. 14, 1863. 
Ryan, John, e. Aug. 12, 1862. 
Wilkinson, John, e. Aug. 15, 1862. 
Whalen, M., e. Aug. 10, 1862, died Aug. 21, 1864. 


The Ninety-second Regiment Infantry Illi- 
nois Volunteers was organized at Rockford, 

[ 111., and mustered into the United States serv- 
| ice September 4, 1862. It was composed of five 
{ compares from Ogle County, three from Ste- 
phenson ' ounty, and two from Carroll County. 
j The regiment left Rockford, October 11, 1862, 
with orders to report to Gen. Wright, at Cin- 
! cinnati. where it was assigned to Gen. Baird's 
Division. Army of Kentucky. It inarched 
immediately into the interior of the State, and 
during the latter part of October was stationed 
at Mt. Sterling, to guard that place against 
rebel raids, and afterward at Danville, Ky. 
On the 26th of January, 1863, the regiment, 
with Gen. Baird's Division, was ordered to the 
Army of the Cumberland. Arriving at Nash- 
ville, the command moved to Franklin, Tenn., 
and was engaged in the pursuit of the rebel 
Gen. Van Dorn. Advanced to Murfreesboro, 
and occupied Shelbyville, June 27. On July 
5, the regiment was engaged in rebuilding a 
wagon-bridge over Duck River ; July 6, was 
ordered by Gen. Rosecrans to be mounted and 
armed with ^he Spencer rifle, and attached to 
Col. Wilder' s Brigade of Gen. Thomas' Corps, 
where it remained while Gen. Rosecrans