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Full text of "History of Stephenson County, Illinois : a record of its settlement, organization, and three-quarters of a century of progress"

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1 I B R A R. Y 









"History is the accumulated experience of the race." JUDSON 













The first people to roam over Stephenson County and Illinois were the 
' Mound Builders. In various parts of Illinois there are evidences that these 
early people lived here in great numbers. In Winnebago County and in White- 
side County, are yet to be found interesting mounds, the homes and burial 
places of this ancient people who undoubtedly at an early day occupied part of 
this County. They have gone and have left little or nothing of value to the 
march of civilization. 

Then came the Indian. Two hundred and fifty years ago, this state, that 
i now has a population of over six million people in the height of civilization, 
| was overrun by only a few thousand red men. They were Algonquins and 
Dakotas, broken up into several subordinate bands, living for the most part on 
wild game. The squaws engaged in a rude and primitive agriculture. The 
- largest and best known Indian tribe was the "Illinois," a division of the Algon- 
^,'quin, who settled along the Illinois River, occupying the state from Joliet to 
Kaskaskia. To the north, and in Stephenson county, were the Winnebagoes, 
a branch of the Dakotas. The state was so large and the Indian population 
small, that it cannot be said that to any great extent they made use of the 
land at all. Friendly, at first, to the French Traders and Missionaries, . the 
Indians opposed the advance of the white settlements. The most bitter opposi- 
tion came from a band of Sacs and Foxes under Black Hawk. With the de- 
feat and almost extermination of this band in 1832, fourteen years after Illi- 
became a state and within the memory of men yet living here, came the 
of Indian occupation and resistance. 
The Indian had gone west from Stephenson County to await the doom of 
extinction that hangs over his head. He left this great, rich and beautiful 
1^ state, no better than he found it. He added nothing to the storehouse of civiliza- 
? tion. Nothing did he add to the stock of our institutions. Aside from an 
interesting tradition and stories of a wild romantic life, it may be safely said 


I 1 09475 


that the only lasting contribution of the Indian to the civilization of today, is 
to be found in the brave, independent and sturdy character of the pioneers, made 
stronger and more self-reliant by the dangers of Indian warfare in the big, 
frank, progressive spirit of the valley of the Mississippi, where there is grow- 
ing up the genuine, distinctive American spirit. 

The first flag of a civilized people to wave over the prairies of Illinois, was 
the flag of France. The French explorations from the mouth of the St. Law- 
rence, up that river, over the Great Lakes, over the portages, down the Illi- 
nois, and on the waters of the Mississippi, have no rival in the history of the 
world. From the discovery of the St. Lawrence in 1534 and the settlement of 
Champlain, in 1608, French love of romantic daring, determined patriotism and 
religious zeal never flagged till the whole of the Mississippi valley was made 
known to the civilized world. The work of exploration was carried on to Lake 
Michigan. It was then taken up by these wonderful men: Marquette, Joliet, 
Hennepin, Allonez, Tonti and La Salle. In birch bark canoes, they went up 
and down the Wisconsin, Illinois, the Rock River and the Mississippi, trading 
with the Indians, preaching Christianity to them, establishing trading posts 
and planting here the flag of France. La Salle built Fort Crevecoeur 
near Peoria, in 1680, and in 1683, Fort St. Louis, between Ottawa and La 
Salle. French settlements were established at Cahokia and at Kaskaskia. 
French settlers came from France and from New Orleans. In 1720, Fort 
Chartres was built on the Mississippi between Kaskaskia and Cahokia. In 1750 
there were eleven hundred French in Illinois about Kaskaskia and three hun- 
dred negroes and sixty red slaves. The negro slaves were brought into Illi- 
nois as a result of edicts by Louis XIII and Louis XIV. The officers in Illi- 
nois then were a commandant and a civil judge. There was no representative 

The European wars between France and England spread to America. Eng- 
lad won America at the battle of Quebec, in 1759, and Illinois and Stephenson 
County passed from France to England by the Treaty of Paris, 1763. The 
dream of a great French empire was gone forever and the French flag gave 
away the banner of Great Britain. 

Illinois was under the actual rule of England from 1763 till the conquest 
by Colonel Geo. Rogers Clarke in 1778-1779. The Revolutionary War came 
in 1776 and the Americans were aroused against the English Forts in Illinois, 
because they felt that the English were stirring up the Indians against the fron- 
tier settlements. Geo. Rogers Clarke, a Virginian, who knew the value of the 
west, secured a commission from Geo. Patrick Henry and in 1778 with about 
one hundred and fifty men equipped largely by his own means, marched to 
Pittsburg, dropped down the Ohio in flat boats, plunged through the wilds of 
Southern Illinois, and captured Kaskaskia and Cahokia. In 1779, he made a 
desperate march across Southern Illinois and captured Vincennes. Thus the 
British flag went down forever in Illinois and the rule of Virginia, the "Old 
Dominion," began with the organization of the "County of Illinois," in 1779. 
The Treaty of 1763 ceded the Northwest to the thirteen United Colonies and, 
Virginia, after an occupation of five years ceded Illinois and the Northwest to 
the United States in 1784. Then over old Fort Chartres, and over Illinois, 


waved the Star Spangled Banner, the flag of the United States. The flags of 
France, of England and of Virginia had passed upon Illinois and the future of 
this great state was henceforth to be identified with the history of America. 

The Ordinance of 1787, passed by the Old Continental Congress, organized' 
the Northwest Territory and prohibited slavery. Illinois was organized as a 
separate territory in 1809, including Wisconsin and a large part of Michigan.^ 
There were, in 1810, 12,282 white people in Illinois and about 600 negro slaves i ( 
indentured servants. The governor was Ninian Edwards of Kentucky. In 1812 j 
tTTe~people were granted a representative assembly. Like the spirit of the west, 
the government was liberal, giving the right to vote to all male taxpayers, and 
providing for the direct election of both branches of the Territorial Legisla- 
ture. The first meeting of the Representative Legislature was held at Kaskas-' 
kia, Nov. 25, 1812. 

In 1818, Illinois, through her delegate to Congress, Wm. Nathaniel Pope, 
asked admission into the Union as a state. The old Northern Boundary Line, 
suggested by the Ordinance of 1787, would have cut off the three northern tiers 
of counties and left Illinois without a foot hold on Lake Michigan. Pope was 
alive to the interests of his state and to the welfare of the nation. Seeing the 
value of Lake Michigan to the state, he secured the adoption of an amendment 
that fixed the boundary line at 42 30', giving the state its present frontage on 
the lake. This change, binding the state to the northern and middle states, 
Pope said, "Would afford added security to the perpetuity of the Union." 
Another amendment by Pope, provided that a part of the proceeds of the pub- 
lic lands should be given to the support of public schools. 

The first state constitution was made at Kaskaskia in 1818, and Shadrach 
Band was elected the first governor of the state of Illinois, Dec. 3, 1818. Con- 
gress formally voted the state into the Union and Dec. 4, Illinois was repre- 
sented in both houses of Congress. Thomas and Edwards were our first sen- 

Several determined attempts had been made by both Indiana and Illinois 
to have Congress repeal that part of the ordinance that prohibited slavery in 
Illinois, but all had failed. However, the Anti-slavery Clause of the ordi- 
nance was flagrantly circumvented. Most of the population was in the southern 
third of the state and had come from Kentucky, Virginia and North Carolina. 
They brought slaves with them and in 1820 there were about 1400 negroes in 
the state, 917 of which were counted as slaves. The total population of the 
state was fifty-five thousand. From 1822 to 1824, there was fought out one of 
the most bitter and hotly contested campaigns known in Illinois politics. The 
proslavery people who were largely a majority of the population, were fight- 
ing for a new Constitutional Convention. The Anti-slavery people, led by 
Edward Coles, believed that the real object was to change the constitution so 
as to legalize slavery. The proslavery party made the mistake of putting two 
candidates in the field and Coles was elected governor. The legislature was 
pro-slavery by about two-thirds majority. A resolution to submit the prop<~>si- 
tion of a new constitutional convention to the people was passed. After a vig- 
orous campaign the resolution was defeated at the polls and thus was ended 
the attempts to make Illinois legally, a slave state. 


The defeat of Tecumseh at the battle of Tippecanoe and the close of the war 
of 1812, opened the way to the settlement of northern Illinois. New counties 
were organized to the north. Peoria, Ottawa, Dixon and Chicago were estab- 
lished and lead mining at Galena attracted settlers to the northwest corner of 
the state. Kellog's Trail was blazed through Stephenson County to Galena and 
Black Hawk's War was fought to a successful issue before there was a single 
permanent settler in Stephenson County. 

The second state constitutional convention in Illinois was convened June 
7, 1847. It was in session eighty-four days. The new constitution was adopted 
by the people in March, 1848, and went into effect April i, 1848. One im- 
portant measure was the provision for a two mill tax to be kept separate to pay 
the state debt. The state's finances were in a bad way because of the wild- 
cat, internal improvements of 1837. 

The new constitution fixed the salary of the governor at $1,500 a year. The 
secretary of state, state auditor and state treasurer at $800; the supreme court 
judges at $1,200 and the circuit judges at $1,000. From 1818 to 1848, the 
governor's salary was $1,000 and the other state officials labored for $600. 
The constitution of 1848 placed the salary of members of the State Legislature 
at $2 per day for 42 days and $i per day thereafter, with 10 cents mileage both 


In an address of July 4, 1876, Gen. Smith D. Atkins gave two explanations 
of the sobriquet, sucker, as applied to the people of Illinois, as follows : "Many 
settlers in Illinois came from Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee. They were 
mostly poor people, unable to own slaves and many of them were in senti- 
ment opposed to slavery, and were seeking a new, country where slavery did 
not exist. Southern Illinois was principally settled by these people, who with 
their families penetrated the wilderness, with all their household goods on pack 
animals and themselves upon foot, depending on their trusty rifles and fishing 
rods for sustenance on the way. They were emigrants from the poorer classes 
of the slave states, and being unable to own slaves came to Illinois to get away 
from slave domination of their wealthy neighbors. The tobacco plant has many 
sprouts from the root and main stem which, if not stripped off, suck up the 
nourishment and destroy the staple. These sprouts are called suckers, and are 
as carefully stripped from the main plant and thrown away as the tobacco worm 
itself. These poor emigrants from the slave states were jeeringly and derisively 
called "suckers," because they were asserted to be a burden on the people of 
wealth ; and when removed to Illinois, they were supposed to have stripped 
themselves from the parent stem, and gave way to perish in the wilderness 
like the suckers stripped from the tobacco plant. But we wear the title proudly 
now, for, the stone rejected by the builders has become the chief stone of the 
corner, and in intelligence, morals, material prosperity and population, Illinois 
has far outstripped her poor old mother, Virginia, and surpassed Kentucky 
and Tennessee. The cognomen was misapplied. Slavery was the "sucker" 
from which they fled and the "subtle corps of sappers and miners," that 


"sucked" the life blood out of the states from which the early settlers of Illi- 
nois emigrated. 

But there is another generally accepted sobriquet of "suckers," the nick- 
name of Illinoisans. Lead was early discovered in the vicinity of Galena, and 
in 1824 Col. James Johnson, of Kentucky, had gone there with a party of 
miners and opened a lead mine about a mile above the present city of Galena. 
Others followed in great numbers. The southern Illinoisans ran up the Mis- 
sissippi in the spring season, worked the lead mines during the warm weather, 
and ran down the river again to their homes in the fall, thus establishing a 
similitude between their migratory habits and the fishy tribe known as "suck- 
ers," that run up a stream in the spring and down the stream in the fall. No 
matter how it came about, the term "sucker" will stick to the people of Illi- 
nois, while wood grows and water runs. 


In this book, "The Government of Illinois," Prof. E. B. Green, of the Uni- 
versity of Illinois, says, "The first great fact in the experience of any people is 
the land on which they live." Certainly what people do is determined largely 
by the streams, the soil, the latitude and the location of the section in which 
they live. These conditions, in a large part, determine whether a people's 
life shall be devoted wholly to agriculture, wholly to manufacturing, or that 
it shall be a life of diversified industries. It is no less true, that people's in- 
terests govern mainly their ideas and their ideals, and these determine their 
politics, their social, moral and religious principles. It is evident that long 
before a section of the country is occupied by the first civilized men much of 
that section's history has been written ; written in the soil ; in the streams ; in 
the hills and valleys ; in the forests and in the prairies ; in its climatic condi- 
tions, and in its relation to present or future natural trade centers and trans- 
portation lines. 

In its location Stephenson County is a part of northern Illinois. The great 
prairie state extends from latitude 37 to a latitude 423O', more than 380 
miles. Illinois extends farther south than Richmond, Virginia, and farther 
north than Boston, Massachusetts. The state has an area of more than 56,000 
square miles. The Wabash, the Ohio and the Mississippi Rivers bind the state, 
geographically, to the south. Lake Michigan, in a like manner, ties Illinois to 
the northern section of the nation. The first explorers came by way of the 
St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes. The first settlers to come in numbers, came 
up the Mississippi from France by way of New Orleans. Illinois geographi- 
cally and politically, has been regarded as the keystone state of the arch of 
the greater union of states. It has been said that the nation never could be 
divided north and south without dividing Illinois. 

The southern triangle of the sate between the Ohio and the Mississippi is 
about three hundred feet above sea level. The highest point in the state, Charles 
Mound, near the 'northern state line in Jo Daviess County, is 1,257 f ee t above 
the level of the Gulf of Mexico, and 951 feet above low water of the Missis- 


sippi at Cairo. The northern part of Stephenson County averages about 800 
feet above sea level. Lake Michigan is about 600 feet above sea level. 

Illinois is the lowest of the North Central States. Its average elevation is 
about 600 feet above tide, while that of Indiana is 700 feet; Michigan, 900 
feet; Wisconsin, 1,050 feet; Iowa, 1,100 feet, and Missouri, 700 feet. The bot- 
tom of Lake Michigan opposite Racine, Wisconsin, it at sea level. 

The altitude of the state decreases in a general way from north to south. 
Four northern counties, Jo Daviess, Stephenson, Boone and McHenry have 
points which rise above 1,000 feet above sea level. The lowest points are in 
the southernmost part of the state, near where the Ohio flows into the Missis- 
sippi, slightly below 300 feet. In Illinois, only 125 square miles, less than four 
townships, have an altitude above 1,000 feet. Only 10,747 square miles, or less 
than one-fifth of the state, is below 500 feet. About 20,000 square miles, or 
one-third of the state, is 600 to 700 feet above tide. The average thickness of 
the drift in Illinois is between 100 and 130 feet. Deducting the drift, the aver- 
age altitude of the state is about 525 feet or 50 feet below the surface of Lake 

The rock surface of Illinois is marked by a few district ridges. The most 
prominent ridge extends from the mouth of the Wabash to Grand Tower. This 
ridge is from 700 to 1047 feet above tide and 5 to 10 miles wide, and forms the 
southern limit to glacial action. The drift of the glacial period is found well 
up on the northern slope but its crest was never passed by the ice fields. An- 
other limestone ridge extends along the Mississippi from Grand Tower to St. 
Louis. This belt separates the river valley from the coal fields. It is 5 to i 
miles wide and 650 to 750 feet above tide. The ridge is cut across by two 
rivers, the Big Muddy and the Kaskaskia. Another ridge extends along the Mis- 
sissippi from St. Louis to the mouth of the Illinois River. Still another lime- 
stone ridge crosses from the Rock River basin into Indiana. At the Illinois- 
Wisconsin line, it is 400 feet above the level of Lake Michigan, while at the 
Indiana line it is only 100 to 200 feet above the lake. This limestone ridge is 
cut across by the Fox, the Kankakee and the Des Plaines Rivers. Aside from 
these ridges, the preglacial surface of Illinois is comparatively level, not marked 
by bold relief forms. 

v Stephenson County is one of the northern tier of Illinois counties, and is 
the second county east of the Mississippi. It is twenty-seven miles wide, 
east to west, and 21 1 /$ miles, north to south. It contains an area of about 573 
square miles or 366,720 acres. The Illinois Central Railroad surveys show that 
the northern part of the county averages about 1,000 feet above the level of the 
sea, about 723 feet above the level of the Mississippi at Cairo and about 415 
feet above the level of Lake Michigan. The southern part of the county aver- 
ages about 750 feet above sea level, showing a 250 foot slope to the south over 
the general surface of the county. 

The surface of Stephenson county is made up of gently rolling prairie land, 
with here and there small groves and belts of timber along the streams. Flow- 
ing across the surface of the county are a number of streams which afford 
abundant natural water and drainage facilities. The Pecatonica River is the 
largest and most important stream. It enters the county from Wisconsin about 


seven miles from its northern corner, follows in a direction southeast to Free- 
port, and then east into Winnebago county not far from the middle of the east- 
ern boundary line of Stephenson County. The waters of the Pecatonica are 
muddy and turbulent, following a wonderfully crooked and winding course. In 
spite of a difference of level of about 200 feet, the current is slow and tortu- 
ous, affording but little water power. The Indians named the River Peca- 
tonica. Just what the word "Pecatonica" meant to the Indians, is not definitely 
known. Some claim it meant "Muddy water" and others "Crooked stream," 
either meaning indicating unmistakable characteristics of the stream. 

The Pecatonica is in process of filling and scarcely ever runs on rock bed. 
This filling up is the cause of the crookedness and consequent cutting off of the 
so-called "oxbows" of which the island, as it is called immediately north of 
town, is now a peninsula and will shortly cease to be water-gi'rt. Many of these 
''sloughs" in various stages of filling are a marked feature of the valleys of both 
the Pecatonica and Yellow Creek. Immense opportunity for the reclamation of 
some of the best soils of the Pecatonica valley awaits the time when through 
mutual cooperation or government help and supervision the river is dyked out 
of these so-called sloughs now occupying hundreds of acres of our most fertile 
soil. Some efforts are being made along this line, particularly at Ridott, but lack of 
cooperation very largely increases the cost and efficiency so far. Hundreds of 
acres of corn were lost last year, 1909, by a rise less than a foot above the danger 

Yellow Creek enters Stephenson County near the middle of the western boun- 
dary line, flows in a direction a little south of east, into the Pecatonica about 
2}/2 miles southeast of Freeport. It is a slow flowing stream, its waters being 
marked by a yellowish color. The creek cuts its way through the Cincinnati 
Shales and this soft yellowish rock dissolving and mingling with the waters 
gives color to the stream. Abandoned mills along its banks are evidence that 
its few water powers, while they served for a time to turn the wheels in an 
earlier day, were not sufficient in power to compete with steam and have long 
since stood idle. 

Cedar and Richland Creeks flow across the northeast part of the county. 
They unite a few miles from the Pecatonica, between Cedarville and Sciota 
Mills, and flow into it a few miles above Freeport. The mills still standing at 
Cedarville and at Sciota, one time made good use of the light water power 
at those places. 

Rock Run enters the county four miles from its northeast corner. Running 
southward about twelve miles, it flows into the Pecatonia i l /2 miles west of 
the Winnebago county line. It has but few very light water powers. 

Cranes Creek is a small stream or brook, that comes into Stephenson County 
near the middle of its southern boundary line and flows into Yellow Creek, 
south of Freeport. Silver Creek is a small stream that flows through Silver 
Creek township, into Yellow Creek. In addition to those above mentioned, there 
are other brooks and creeks, and taken together they afford Stephenson county 
an excellent natural water and drainage system. 

Yellow Creek and the Pecatonica form a line east to west across the county. 
In a large measure, these streams served as a partial barrier against the prairie 


fires that swept toward the north, destroying the timbers. South of these 
water courses, consequently, there is little woodland. Along Yellow Creek' 
and across from Mill Grove to Eleroy and Sciota were groves of white oak. 
There were white oak barrens in Loran Township. Along Cedar and Rich- 
land Creeks were belts of heavy timber. The east bank of the Pecatonica was 
skirted by heavy growths of timber, extending north into the township of Oneco. 

The timber of Stephenson County consists, for the most part, of shell-bark 
and common hickory, black walnut, sugar maple, white, black and burr oak, 
pignut, butternut, elm and poplar. To a less degree are found the ash, the 
wild cherry, honey locust, basswood, cottonwood and white poplar. Sumac 
and hazel are found in the groves and, occasionally, red cedar, white pine and 
the rarer oaks. 

The timber lands of the county are special features, the general character- 
istic of the county's surface being a rolling prairie land. The timber sections 
have been, and are yet, of considerable economic value and by adding variety, 
give the county a beautiful and interesting landscape. Everywhere in the 
county there are drives through the country districts that are unrivaled for 
the beauty of the groves and the grandeur of rich valleys and distant wooded 


The most casual observer cannot fail to be interested in the geological foun- 
dation upon which has grown the civilization of his time. About him is the 
rich soil, producing great fields of grain, and over all a wonderful natural 
drainage system of creeks and rivers over 365,000 acres supporting in plenty 
over 40,000 people, on farms, in villages, towns and the city of Freeport. Curi- 
osity alone would lead the mind to some study of the structure of the earth un- 
derlying the surface of the county. 

In almost every community in Stephenson County, are to be seen the out- 
cropping of the foundation framework of stone. On the country drives, along 
the railroad cuts, along the creeks and rivers, at Eleroy Hill and at Waddams 
Grove, are seen the great layers of limestone. Here and there over the 
country these stony ridges come to the surface. On them the soil is very thin 
or has been washed entirely away, leaving the barren rock. But the depres- 
sions between these ridges and above the hills are filled in with gravel, sand, 
clays and soils. Down through the lower levels of these depressions or val- 
leys run the creeks and the Pecatonica River. 

While the soil and clay and gravel is thin on the hills, it is found to be deeper 
and deeper in the valleys, in places over 150 feet in depth. All over the county 
wells have been dug and driven, showing everywhere the solid rock bed under 
the masses of gravel, clays and soils. Every hillside tells its story of how the 
heavy rainfall washes away the soil, cuts little gulleys through to brooks and 
creeks which carry much of the soil on down to the rivers and to the sea. It 
is not difficult to imagine all that sand and clay and soil which fills the valleys 
and overlays the surface of Stephenson County washed away. There would 
still be the 573 square miles, but no soil, no grass, no timbers, no fields of grain, 

Blue Limestone Cliff 

Galena Limestone Quarry, Freeport 

Cincinnati Limestone Cliff at Crane's Grove 

Niagara Limestone Quarry nt Watldams Wolfs Hock Along Cedar Creek 




no villages and towns just 573 square miles of barren rock surface. There 
would still be the hills, the crags, the ridges and barren plains and valleys, the 
massive, strong framework of the county. 

The hillsides would show that the rock foundation is in layers, placed hori- 
zontally one above the other, just as they are now observed in the quarries, along 
the creeks and in the railroad cuts. The geologist would find different kinds of 
limestone at Waddams, at Eleroy, at Freeport and near Dakota. But it is 
all in layers or strata. At Waddams, the geologist would call the top layers 
of rock, the highest in the county, Niagara limestone. It is about 23 feet deep 
and found nowhere else in the county. At Eleroy and along Yellow Creek he 
would call the layers, Cincinnati limestone or Cincinnati Shales. At Waddams 
he would find it just beneath the Niagara layers. Lower than the Cincinnati 
limestone layers, the geologist would find that part of the county not covered 
by Niagara and Cincinnati layers, to be covered by the three divisions of the 
Trenton limestone. First of these is the Galena limestone, which would make 
up three-quarters of the surface of the barren rocky surface of the county. 
On lower levels, the Galena disappears and the blue limestone covers the sur- 
face. Still lower would be found, the Buff limestone. The blue limestone 
flow would be found around Rock Run ; the Buff being found over a small 
area around Winslow. If all the gravel, sands, clays and soils were removed, 
the rock floor of the county would be made up of these five kinds of limestone 
layers : Niagara, Cincinnati, Galena, Blue and Buff. 

The records from an oil well bored to a depth of 608 feet near Cedarville 
in 1865, give an idea of the rock still deeper than the Buff limestone. After 
passing through 75 feet of Galena limestone, 10 feet of a gray limestone and 
some shales, the well passed through 207 feet of a soft, white sandstone known 
as St. Peter's sandstone. The bottom of St. Peter's sandstone is 375 feet be- 
low the surface at Cedarville. Below that, there are no definite records of the 
rocks under Stephenson County. 

What is true in Stephenson County is true in a certain sense of every 
county in the state; for every state in the nation; and for the entire earth. If 
all the soil, sand, clays, gravel and water were removed from the earth, it 
would be a great globe of barren rock ; mountains, valleys, elevated plains and 
depressions. There would be the layers of limestones and sandstones. The 
geology of Stephenson County is then seen to be a part of the general geology 
of the earth. The geologists have studied the rock layers of all parts 
of the earth. They tell of the Potsdam sandstone still below the St. Peter's 
sandstone, and yet lower the Silurian and the Cambrian rocks of great thick- 
ness. All these layers, from the Niagara down to and including the Cambrian 
rocks, have certain common characteristics. First, they are arranged in lay- 
ers or strata; second, they all contain the remains of animal life, or the evi- 
dences of animal life, fossils. Below the Cambrian rock is the great mass of 
rock, not in layers or stratified form and not bearing evidences of animal life, 
called Archaean or "Ancient" rock. Beginning with this Archaean rock, the 
geologists have made a classification of all the layers of rock above it. By 
studying this table or classification, the relation of Stephenson County geology 
to general geology can be understood. 





Drift, etc. 


Loess, clays, sand, 
gravel, etc. 






Upper Greensand 






Upper Triassic 
Middle Triassic 
Lower Triassic 






Coal Layer 
Coal Layer 
Coal Layer 







Upper Silurian 


Lower Helderberg 
Niagara Limestone 
Cincinnati Limestone 


Lower Silurian 

Trenton Limestones 

Galena Limestone 
Blue Limestone 
Buff Limestone 
St. Peter's Sandstone 



Stratified Sandstones 




Igneous, Unstratiflec 









Clays, sands, gravel, 

(5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 
not found.) 

Upper Silurian 


Niagara Limestone 
Cincinnati Limestone 


Lower Silurian 

Trenton Rock 

Galena Limestone 
Blue Limestone 
Buff Limestone 



Stratified Sandstones 

Potsdam Sandstone 



Igneous, Unstratifled 



So we may begin with the Niagara limestone on the highest point at Wad- 
dams and go down through the earth, strata after strata, layer after layer, 
of limestone, shale, and sandstone till we come to the original rock, the Archaean 
or Precambrian rock of the lifeless or Azoic age. The unstratified, lifeless, 
original rock seems to be the foundation on which the earth's crust is built up, 
layer after layer. 

We may imagine the earth at a time when its surface was everywhere this 
barren, unstratified mass of irregular rock. It was a rough, uneven surface cov- 
ered by the seas and swept by powerful winds. The rocks were broken and 
pulverized into sands by the forces of nature. The sands settled into layers, 
became hardened and are called sandstones. In these early layers of sandstone 
are found the forms or impressions of simple animal life, corals, worms, etc., 
but no back-boned animals. It required ages and ages for these first layers of 
sandstone to be formed. These layers, or groups of layers, are called Cambrian 
and Silurian by the geologists. 

Sandstone is found in greater abundance on land than any other rocks. 
Wind and water wash the sand into great layers or strata. These layers harden 
and new layers are formed above them. The weight of a number of layers 
causes a great pressure which often presses the layers of sand into solid rock. 

Mud is made up of a material finer than sand. It is carried long distances 
in water and covers the bottoms of seas. A sea floor may be covered several 
inches thick. It is subject to pressure by layers above and becomes layers of 
clay, shale or slate. 

Limestone layers are made up of rock containing lime. If we look closely 
at any kind of limestone rock, we find it made up of fine pieces and occasion- 
ally small shells and fragments of shells. The sea contains many small ani- 
mals with lime shells. These shells fall like a shower to the bottom of the 
seas. After ages and ages a great layer of shells would be found at the bot- 
tom of the sea. Other layers may be washed over this and by pressure the 


lime and clay is made into a hard compact layer of limestone. The corals 
are great limestone builders. These, together with myriads of shell animals 
have been making limestone for ages and ages. In fact, the limestones form 
about one-sixth of the surface of the earth. Thus we see that animal life has 
been a great factor in building up the earth's crust. Occasionally there is 
found an almost perfect shell. Often a cast of a shell will be found. Ordinarily 
the shells and skeletons of dead animals decay and mingle with the dust and 
soil. Leaves and wood, bark, skins of animals, likewise, soon decay and are 
lost in the great mass of material that makes up the earth's crust. But under 
certain conditions, both vegetable and animal life may be preserved. A tree 
trunk falling into a pond and sinking to the bottom only partly decays. It 
turns black and is often preserved for thousands of years. In the swamps 
may be found preserved also the bones of animals. 


Comparing the geological formations of Stephenson County with the gen- 
eral geology chart, the simple character of the county's strata will be readily 
observed. There are just five divisions to notice. Spread over the surface of 
the county, we find the Quaternary deposits, the clays, sands, gravels, silt, 
loess, alluvium, surface soils, etc. The average depth of this superficial deposit 
is 32 1/3 feet, according to Mr. Hershey. Below the Quaternary deposits, are 
to be found in geological order : 


1. The Niagara limestone 23 

2. The Cincinnati limestone 40 

3. The Galena limestone 75 

4. The Blue limestone 38 

5. The Buff limestone 40 

These thicknesses are only estimates. All of the above limestone outcrop in 
some part of the county. Below the Buff limestone is the St. Peter's sand- 
stone which outcrops near Winslow and comes almost to the surface at Orange- 
ville. The St. Peter's layer of sandstone is more than two hundred feet in depth. 
A clear idea of the geological framework of the county may be gained from 
the following vertical section, made from a study of the outcroppings and deep 
well borings : 


1. Surface deposits (Inaternary) soil, clays, silts, sand, 

gravel, alluvium, loess, etc., average 321-3 

2. Niagara limestone 23 

3. Cincinnati limestone 40 

4. Galena limestone 75 

5. Blue limestone 38 

6. Buff limestone 40 

7. St. Peter's sandstone 207 

8. Red sandstone ' 109 

9. Yellow sand 3 


10. Quicksand 4 

1 1 . Slate sand 7 

12. Slaty snuff colored rocks 19 

13. Sharp slate colored sand 12 

14. Dark colored stone 32 

15. Bright red stone, oily, 22 

1 6. Dark reddish slate, with impy rites 22 

The above vertical section follows the outcroppings to the St. Peter's sand- 
stone, and the remainder is taken from records of the borings of the rocky 
well near Cedarville. Number 16 is 586 to 608 feet below the surface. The 
last 100 feet, no doubt, belongs to the Potsdam sandstones. 

Comparing this vertical section with the general geology chart, we find this 
county low down in the scale of geological formations. Below the Potsdam 
sandstones are the Cambrian rock layers and just below these, the Archaean 
rocks, known as Huronian or Laurentian. It will also be observed that the 
Carboniferous or coal bearing strata are above the Niagara in general geology 
and therefore not to be found in Stephenson County. 


How came this 32 feet of clays, gravels, soils, etc. to be spread over the 
limestones of Stephenson County. That interesting question has been answered 
by the geologists. At an early period in the earth's history, great ice fields 
spread over the northern part of North America. Snows and ice piled up for 
thousands of feet about Hudson Bay, moved southward in powerful ice fields 
as far as the plateau that runs from the mouth of the Wabash to the Grand 
Tower. From the highlands east of Hudson Bay the great sheet of ice swept 
towards the southwest, across the Great Lakes and over Illinois. The rock 
surface of the limestones, sandstones and shales had ben crumbled and pul- 
verized by freezing and thawing and this debris from the north was carried by 
the ice floes and spread out or piled up in Illinois. This glacial action was so 
powerful that it cut through and tore into fragments the great upper layers of 
limestone. Geologists believe that over 400 feet of stratified rock was removed 
in this way from Wisconsin. The Niagara limestone which is now found only 
on the top of a few high ridges as at Waddams, once covered almost the whole 
of northwestern Illinois and Wisconsin. This massive limestone was worn 
away, carried southward and deposited in the form of boulders, clays, sand 
and gravel, over the surface regions to the south. Great streams of water fol- 
lowed up the receding ice fields and by the power of erosion, kept up the work 
of denudation, sweeping out old preglacial channels and cutting new ones, 
sometimes through solid rock. The old river valleys were wide and as they 
narrowed with the ages, they built up the great rich, alluvial plains that now 
are the richest farming lands of this county. Then later the loess, the fine, 
gray, sandy sediment was blown into the bluffs. The ice field was deeper 
and carried and deposited deeper drift east and south of this county. The mar- 
gin is found over in Jo Daviess County, most of which county was not af- 
fected by glacial action. Along the margin, as about Waddams, are to be 


found great boulders carried to the shore and deposited. Stephenson County, 
being near the shore of the ice field, was subject to more uneven action of the 
flow, and consequently is a varied, rolling section, with many knolls, ridges and 
hills alternating with stretches of level plains. 

The enormous transporting power of an ice sheet is well known. It has 
broken up the solid rocks, reduced them to boulders and carried and distributed 
them over Illinois. The markings, or striation, on the boulders and the scratch- 
ing and polishing of the hard rock surfaces are explained by the floating ice 
with imbedded fragments of harder material, that cut its way through and over 
whatever it came in contact with. 

Dana and other geologists estimate that the glacial ice sheets were 10,000 
feet deep in Canada, and several thousand feet deep as they plowed across 
Wisconsin and Illinois, tearing away over 400 feet of stratified limestone. It 
is almost impossible to conceive of the power of such a mass of moving ice and 
the time required to do its work. 

The order of geological movements in Stephenson County, and the northern 
part of the United States as well, are believed to be as follows : First, the grad- 
ual elevation of the surface above the ocean level at the close of the Carbon- 
iferous period, followed by extensive denudation of limestones and sandstones, 
and the cutting of extensive valleys. Next, in order, was the partial filling of 
the valleys with clay, sand and gravel, and the formation of the lowest bed 
of ancient soil beneath the boulder clays. This was followed by a partial sub- , 
mergence of the surface and the accumulation of the sands, clays, etc., which 
are found below the boulder clays. The next period was a period of elevation 
of the surface, during which were laid down the marshy swamp soil. Next, 
follows a second submergence, and the ice sheets and water currents formed 
the boulder clays. After this, there was another elevation and loess was 
formed. Then came the present order of things, the rivers, alluvial deposits, etc. 


Spread over the limestone stratified rocks of Stephenson County is the 
drift or Quaternary deposits, varying in depth from a thin layer of dust to 
over 100 feet, averaging, over the 573 square miles of the county, a depth pi 
32 1-3 feet. This drift, composed of clays, sands, gravel, boulders, alluvium, 
loess, surface soils, etc., is valuable in two ways. First, these deposits have 
a great economic value because they determine the character and the pro- 
ductive capacity of the soil upon which all other industries are largely de- 
pendent. Mainly, soil consists of pulverized rock, mingled with such organic 
substances as result from the growth and decay of animal and vegetable or- 
ganisms. The drift, being made up of disintegrated limestones, sandstones, 
shales, etc., contains the necessary mineral ingredients to make up a soil of 
great fertility. 

Secondly, the drift deposits are the main source of our water supply and of 
sand, clay and gravel. Every man who builds a road, digs a ditch or cellar, 
drives a well or tills the soil, must deal with the drift deposits, and must be in- 
terested in knowing its possibilities and its origin. 



The 573 square miles of drift in Stephenson County with an average depth 
of 32 1-3 feet is the fact of first importance in the economic and political his- 
tory of the county. Rivers, railroad cuts and wells show this drift to be made 
up of several different masses. According to Hershey, fourteen feet of it 
is silt (Silveria), a finely pulverized sediment carried in suspension in water 
and deposited on the bottom of lakes of the ice age. Next, is the boulder clays, 
usually of small size, partly derived from bed rock of adjacent region and 
partly transported from distant localities. The boulder clays are frequently 
underlaid by a black peaty soil, filled occasionally with twigs and branches and 
sometimes with trunks of trees in a good state of preservation. 

Another part of the drift is the loess deposits. This is a buff or grayish 
marly sand, usually capping river bluffs and terraces. Sometimes it is a brown 
silicious clay. Alluvial deposits are the deposits of fine mud formed by run- 
ning water. They consist mainly of sand and fine silicious sediment. It forms 
the soil of river valleys. Along with the boulder clays are great beds and 
ridges of sand or gravel. On the surface is the soil, containing a large pro- 
portion of decayed animal and plant life. 

Vertical sections of drift would vary with the locality. The following 
vertical section will give a fair idea of the drift material: 


Black soil i to 2 

Yellow fine-grained clay 13 

Gravel 2 

Silt 6 

Boulder clays 15 

Blue clay , 3 

Sand ii 

Clay 5 

A table by Leverett, showing distribution by depths, of glacial drift in Illinois 
follows : 

Depth of Depth if distrib- 

drift, uted over entire 

Feet. state. Feet. 
300 23.50 

200 41.35 

150 10.04 




miles 4,160 

miles 10,975 

miles 3,550 

miles 19,275 

miles 8,190 

miles 6,924 




Total 53,074 


The average thickness of drift in Illinois, including everything which overlies 
the rock, including glacial drift, residuary clay, loess and alluvium, must be be- 
tween one hundred and one hundred and thirty feet, probably about one hun- 
dred and fifteen feet. 


As a result of 1,687 borings, the following proportion of drift materials has 

been approximated : 

Tills, including all glacial clays 69.38% 

Sand, gravel and alluvium 25.25% 

Loess and associated silts 4.25% 

Buried soil, residuary clay, etc 1.12% 

Total 100% 


An esker system is a series of gravelly ridges. They are made up largely 
of coarse gravel, well rounded. It contains also beds of fine gravel and sand. 

Several gravelly belts or eskers in Stephenson County have been studied in 
detail by Mr. Oscar Hershey, and printed in the American Geologist, Vol. XIX, 
1897, PP- I 97~ 2O 9, ar >d 237-253. "The main belt follows the Pecatonica val- 
ley from eastern Stephenson County westward to the mouth of Yellow Creek 
about three miles east of Freeport ; thence it passes up the south side of Yellow 
Creek to the village of Bolton. The length of this belt is over 20 miles and the 
ridges are in places scattered over a width of two or three miles. Sometimes 
there are two and sometimes three parallel ridges, traceable for a few miles. 
The belt is more extensive than usual at the mouth of Yellow Creek and three 
miles farther west and at the western end at Bolton." Mr. Hershey believes 
the gravelly ridges are the boundary lines of glacial fields. At the western end, 
the ridges are 75 to 100 feet above the surrounding plain. Beyond this there 
was, no doubt, a lake. 

Coarse gravel and cobble were found in the upper portion of many of the 
ridges. Some of them are composed largely of sand and fine gravel. The peb- 
bles are chiefly limestone and are largely derived from local rocks. 

Another gravelly belt, called the Cedarville belt, begins i l / 2 miles east of Rock 
City, and extends through Cedarville and Damascus to a point 3 miles north- 
east of Lena. Southeast of Cedarville the sharp knolls rise 80 to 90 feet in 
height. These ridges have so obstructed the old valley of Cedar Creek that 
the stream has been compelled to cut a gorge on the north side of the village. 
The well defined part of this belt is about 12 miles in length. ' It is prominent 
also near the junction of Cedar and Richland Creeks, two miles west of Cedar- 

The Orangeville belt is found best developed south of Orangeville and just 
north of Winslow. At Winslow there is a very prominent knoll and a number 
of parallel ridges. 

Geologists believe that these gravelly ridges, or eskers, were formed dur- 
ing a general recession of a nearly stagnant sheet of ice. The gravelly ridges 
would also indicate that the drainage from the ice sheet was somewhat vigor- 


Leverett and Hershey report several remarkable instances of transporta- 
tion of limestone ledges in Stephenson County. In some cases, they occupy 


an area of several acres. They have been moved westward from the crest 
of rock ridges without destroying their stratification. Hershey believes they 
were swept westward by the powerful action of great glacial ice sheets. He is 
confident they are not the result of landslides. He also found places where 
the limestone strata were folded 10 to 30 degrees by force of glacial action. 

These transported masses are numerous in Dakota Township, Stephenson 
County. Within four miles west and southwest of the village of Dakota, Mr. 
Hershey found at least 30 distinct, transported masses. They are usually coni- 
cal or dome shaped masses a few rods in diameter, and appeared as though 
embossed on the top and slope of high rock ridges. The largest transported 
masses are two or three miles west of Dakota and one of them, about 75 feet 
high, obstructs the valley in which it stands. The smaller one, about 30 feet 
high, is composed of Galena limestone with strata dipping steeply in every 
direction from the center and top. Such masses are scattered widely over Steph- 
enson County, east of the meridian of Freeport. 

Kettle holes are bowl shaped depressions, usually 30 to 50 feet deep and 
100 to 500 feet in diameter. Geologists explain that the kettle hole was caused 
by a huge mass of ice that became detached during the melting of the ice sheets. 
The ice sheets piled drifts about it, after which the ice mass melted away and 
left the kettle hole. 

In his work in Stephenson , County, Hershey found in the drift large quan- 
tites of silt, which he called Silveria Silt. This silt, it seems, was deposited 
by lakes formed in glacial times in the valleys. It is found in thick beds, strati- 
fied and of a nearly uniformly dark blueish-gray color, with bands often sev- 
eral feet in thickness which are of a lighter tint. The upper portion Is a false 
bedded, calcareous and ferruginous, light brown fine sand and silt, and ap- 
pears to represent the shore deposits of an ancient lake in which this forma- 
tion was apparently laid down. Wells show that this silt is found in nearly all 
the valleys of the Pecatonica drainage basin. This silt deposit has considerable 
bulk in Stephenson County. In a well, three miles southwest of Freeport, the 
silt was penetrated a depth of 150 feet without reaching the botton. This 
well is in the old valley of Yellow Creek. 

Mr. Hershey estimates that this silt would make a uniform layer of four- 
teen foot depth if spread out uniformly over the county. Since the average 
depth of all the superficial deposits of the county is 32 1-3 feet, it is seen at 
once that the Silveria silt is about one-half the total drift material. Anyone 
who has observed how slowly silt forms in layers on the bottom of ponds, 
can get some idea of the immensity of time required to build up layers of the 
deposit or sediment to a depth of 50 to 100 feet. 

Several shells and pieces of partly decayed wood have been found in the 
silt. Hershey found shells in the following proportion: Succinea Avara 50; 
Pupa Olandi 5 ; Pyramidula Striatella 2. These were identified by Dr. W. H. 
Dall of the United States Geological Survey. 


The direction of valleys and streams may be determined by preglacial con- 
ditions, glacial conditions, or both. Mr. Hershey says that that part of Illi- 


nois, between the Rock River and the border of the driftless area of Jo Daviess 
County, the drift is so thin that the streams follow in large part the preglacial 
lines. Yet, there are a large number of deflections caused by the glaciers and 
the drift period. In some cases, the streams have been cut off and thrown 
across a divide into another preglacial valley. These streams were forced to 
cut new courses through rock ledges, forming narrow channels which, because 
of their high rock cliffs on their border, are called gorges. 

Mr. Hershey lists the following gorges in Stephenson County: One mile 
north of Freeport is a gorge of a small stream. The length of the cut is 950 
feet; depth, 30 feet; breadth, 140 feet; cubic yards removed, 140,000. An- 
other^ five miles northwest of Freeport, is 850 feet long, 240 feet wide, 44 feet 
deep and displaces 330,000 cubic yards. Three miles south of Freeport is a 
2,050 foot gorge, 235 feet wide, 36 feet deep, having removed 640,000 cubic 
yards. Three miles west of Freeport is a gorge 950 feet long, 100 feet wide, 
25 feet deep, with a displacement of 88,000 cubic yards. Four miles west of 
Freeport is another 1,100 feet in length, 165 feet in breadth and 30 feet deep, 
with cubic contents of 202,000 cubic yards. Hershey says the Cedarville gorge 
is the best illustration in Stephenson County. Just north of Cedarville, Cedar 
Creek was forced out of its preglacial valley which runs around to the south, 
by the sand ridges of the glacial era and was forced to cut through the Galena 
limestone, a gorge 3,250 feet in length, 160 feet broad, 57 feet deep, having 
cut out and removed 1,100,000 cubic yards of limestone. Mr. Hershey be- 
lieves that these gorges were cut for the most part prior to the deposition of 
the loess of the time of the lowan drift sheet. Near Freeport, a gorge cut out 
was later* abandoned by the stream because of the large amount of loess fill- 
ing in, and the stream took a new course. 

These gorges in Stephenson County cut through limestone by small streams, 
afford an excellent opportunity for the study of the tremendous power of ero- 

The power of erosion by a stream of water or a sea is very great. One au- 
thority states that Niagara Falls has cut its way back from Queenstown, seven 
miles, at the rate of about one foot a year. The falls of St. Anthony cut back 
five feet per annum. At Cape May, the coast is worn back at the rate of nine 
feet per year. The Church of Reculver, on the coast of Kent near the mouth 
of the Thames, stood at the time of Henry VIII, one mile inland. In 1804, a 
portion of the church yard fell into the sea and the church was abandoned. 
The Appalachian Mountains have lost as much by weathering as now remains. 

Chamberlain and Leverett agree that in an early part of the glacial period, 
the Rock River flowed into the Illinois River. Then came the kettle Moraine, 
which filled up part of its channel and the river set to work to cut its way to 
the Mississippi. 


Soil is that part of the solid surface of the earth which supports plant life. 
The basis of soil is fragments of pulverized rock, to which are added the 
remains of plants and animals (organic matter) and water. The quality of 
any soil may be determined by the kinds of rock from which it is produced and 

Scene on Cedar Creek 

Pecatonira River, Freeport 

Globe Park 

Globe Park 

i ~> " V 


the amount of water and organic matter it contains. Plants affect the soil in 
three ways. The roots exert a mechanical force breaking up the soil. The 
roots also have a chemical action, taking out of the soil certain elements, thus 
weakening it. The plant at last dies and adds something to the soil. Animals 
add to the soil by their excrements and by the decay of their bodies.. Burrow- 
ing animals aid in weathering and transportation. Earth worms eat earth which 
when excreted contains more or less of organic matter and aids in preparing 
the earth for agriculture. Decaying organic matter forms mold and is called 
humus. The humus gives "heart" or "life" to soil, as its body is furnished by 
pulverized rock, or the mineral elements. Humus provides plant food and also 
improves the physical condition of the soil. It lessens extremes of tempera- 
ture, gives greater water holding capacity, opens up air passages and aids the 
chemical activity of the soil. Humus with clay, forms clay loam; with sand, 
a sandy loam. Exhausted soil is the result of a lack of humus, rather than a 
lack of mineral qualities. Humus is obtained (i) by crops grown for the 
purpose and plowed under; (2) by roots, stubble, sdo, refuse, etc., left on the 
soil; (3) by compost and stable manure directly applied. 

In addition to the above elements of soil, fertile soil is infested by myriads 
of microscopic organisms peculiar to it and without which its various chemical 
purposes could not be carried on. Adametz has calculated that a single grain 
of fertile soil contains 50,000 germs of various kinds. These germs aid in 
the formation of plant foods by assisting in breaking down the soil particles 
and hastening the decay of organic materials. Three factors of soil life must 
be cared for if fertility is to be secured, (i) soil physics; (2) soil chemistry, 
and, (3) development of germ life and germ activity. 

The soil contains a vast amount of plant food. It has been calculated by 
many analyses, that on average agricultural lands the surface, 8 inches on each 
acre, contains over 3,000 pounds of nitrogen, almost 4,000 pounds of phos- 
phoric acid, and over 1,700 pounds of potash. The farmer considers chiefly 
these three elements in maintaining or increasing productivity. This plant food 
is developed in proportion to the excellence of the tillage. 

The soil is indeed a wonderful agency, a mixture of physical and chemical 
forces and a full complete life within itself. As Mr. Bailey says, "It must no 
longer be thought of as mere dirt." 


The soil of this county has not as yet been worked by the Bureau of Soils, 
so our knowledge of it is not so great as in the adjoining counties of Winnebago 
and Jo Daviess. Its eastern half is very largely Marshall and Miami silt loam, 
the former being found on prairie and the latter on timber areas. In those 
localities where the surface soil is the product of the disintegration of the Cin- 
cinnati shale, as in the southern part of Erin Township and the immediate vicin- 
ity, we have our poorest soil. This being a locality of little glaciation, the soil 
is of fine granulation and inclined to "bake," as it is technically called. This 
soil is also quite badly exhausted of its humus, and needs large additions of or- 
ganic matter. 


Most of the land in Harlem, Erin, Jefferson, and the northen part of Flor- 
ence Township is rolling to a marked degree and thinly covered with glacial 
material. Indeed, the northern slopes and the tops of the hills are in many 
places almost entirely denuded of soil. Here weathering is producing a soil 
which, if underlaid by limestone, is fairly productive, and would be exceedingly 
so if it had a deeper subsoil, for it is sure to be sweet, and rich in mineral plant 
food. Some of these residual soils are red in color, owing to the presence of 
oxide of iron, and loose in texture, owing to the presence of sand, for 
the lime has slaked away, leaving these iron silicates more abundant than 
in our glacial soil. The amount of slaking resulting in the lowering of 
the crest of the hill can be judged by the number of flinty fragments present. 
These are the remains of the chirty layers between the former strata of the 
limestone. These spots are marked by finer crop growth in the spring, owing 
to their open texture and freedom from acidity, affording a favorable field for 
soil bacteria, but later the crop is cut short because of want of depth in the soil. 

North of Freeport, largely in Harlem and to some extent in Lancaster Town- 
ship, is located a strip of sandy soil three or four square miles in area, which 
is evidently a dump or out-wash of the glacier, composed of soil from the St. 
Peter's formation of Wisconsin. This soil does not retain the fertilizers ap 
plied as well as does most of Stephenson County land, and tends to leach out 
again quickly. In the northwestern part of the county, including West Point 
and Winslow, with part of Kent, is a fine fertile soil, largely prairie, and yield- 
ing fine crops of corn, oats, wheat, and hay. Although lying along the western 
boundary of the glacial lobe, this land is level enough to prevent heavy loss 
by erosion, and in consequence is blacker than the south central part of the 

Along the Pecatonica River in Winslow, Waddams, Harlem, Lancaster, Sil- 
ver Creek, and Ridott lie wide stretches of alluvial lands of great fertility, the 
upper benches of which yield large crops of corn, while the lower levels suffer 
in times of high water, both in consequence of actual overflow, and also in the 
attempts of owners to farm when the land has been too wet. This has resulted 
in great deterioration in the physical condition of the land. Here is a great op- 
portunity for conservation of resources, for by cooperation or by government help 
the water could be held out by dyking, and hundreds of acres of the best land in 
the county reclaimed. The same is true in a lesser degree of the valley of the 
Yellow Creek. Where there is fall enough for proper outlet, tiling has been or 
is being done, to the great improvement of these lands. In the northern third 
of Ridott Township is a light, gray soil on ground formerly covered by oak 
timber, that is rather too thin and light for corn, as it tends to dry out in Au- 
gust and September. Moderate crops of grain and hay are raised here, but the 
soil washes easily and cannot be heavily manured. 

As the land immediately to the north of us from which our drift material 
came, had but lately emerged from the Silurian seas, and had not as yet pro- 
duced terrestrial life to any large extent, our glaciation was rich in marine and 
poor in animal remains. Hence, as shells produce the carbonate and bones the 
phosphate of lime, the former predominates in our soil to a greater extent than 
in the counties to the east of us. So the limiting factor of our soils is phos- 


phorus, an element which is fast being exhausted on our most productive farms. 
Potash we have in abundance, as the Azoic or crystalline rocks of the Lake 
Superior region as found in the drift are rich in potassium. Another peculiarity 
of our drift is that it is almost wholly composed of till or stiff clay, and not 
nearly so sandy and friable as farther east and north. This renders much of 
the mineral plant food unavailable, and leads to washing, but these soils respond 
to good treatment and are capable of great productiveness when skilfully 
handled, because owing to their heaviness large amounts of straw and other 
coarse organic matter can be plowed in without danger of drying out. 

In the center of Lancaster and in Rock Grove Townships are bodies of silt 
loam that were formerly elm, walnut, and ash timber. This land when well 
farmed will equal the Marshall silts of Ridott or Silver Creek in corn and ex- 
ceed them in small grain production, but require more skill to conserve the 
moisture and prevent erosion. Clover, both medium and alsike, grow readily, 
and offer the farmers an opportunity to replace their lost nitrogen at little ex- 
pense. Experimental tracts of alfalfa do well, and will be easier to start when 
the farmers understand the innoculation of the soil better. Much damage to 
the soil of the county has resulted from defective methods, among which may 
be mentioned shallow plowing, the burning of organic matter, as corn stalks, 
straw, and leaves, fall plowing on rolling land, working land when too wet, 
failure to rotate crops, failure to sow clover, hard pasturing of stubble fields, 
and many others. The worst of all is the penuriousness of the absent landlord 
who rents from year to year for money rent. 


When we trace life and all its concomitants back to their origin we come to 
the soil for therein grow the roots of the plants that feed the world. This soil 
is comprised of several elementary substances, the principles ones of which 
are oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, iron, calcium, magnesium, so- 
dium, phosphorus and potassium. 

The first four constitute by far the larger bulk of all plant food but the 
others are equally essential. The limiting elements in all soil, that is those 
that are likely to be deficient in quantity, are nitrogen, phosphorus or potas- 
sium. The former, the farmer can buy at 15 cents per pound in nitrole of soda 
or raise it in clover at a nominal cost of i cent per pound. Owing to the great 
amount of feldspathic rock in our glaciation potassium will never give out in 
the life of this generation. This reduces the limiting element to phosphorus 
which element is constantly sold off the farm in a greater degree if grain is sold 
and to a lesser degree if animal products are marketed. Many of the soils of this 
county are infertile because of an acidity which presents the proper development 
of soil bacteria, which introduces a new feature in soil study. 

Nitrogen enters into all plant food as nitrates of the other elements as sodium, 
potassium, etc. This nitrifying of the crude soil elements, which in the ground 
are generally oxides and silicates, is the work of certain minute plants so called 
though they very strongly resemble animals in many parts, called bacteria. These 
must be present in any soil in enormous number to make a soil fertile and oxl- 


gen breathing. So an open loose soil is necessary to growth, hence watering on 
the surface during a time of drouth without a frequent subsequent stirring of 
the soil is detrimental in consequence of the fact that a crust is formed, but 
if shallow plowing is done, ditches are allowed to form and hay and straw as 
well as grain are sold, then the black soil grows less and finally disappears. 
Then we have a soil that is unproductive and in which bacteria are helpless, 
and the moisture can not be retained during the period of drouth. 

Some of our soils, especially along the western side, where glaciation was 
thin are formed of slaked limestone. These are never sour and although quite 
red and lacking in humus are friable and very fertile but generally fail to pro- 
duce as much at harvest as they promised in the spring because of the nearness 
to rock and lack of a stiff subsoil. This kind of red clay with cherty flints in 
it is called residua and is formed by the slaking of the limestone, leaving the 
sand, iron (which oxidizing colors it red) and the flints that are the cherty 
white layers that separated the strata in the rock before its disintegration. 

Soils that produced walnut, elm or maple far exceed those that bore oak and 
poplar in fertility. The presence of hazel on land is a good sign, while the ad- 
vent of certain weeds indicate a loss of nitrogen most marked of which is the 
horse sorrel (Rumex Acetosella). This plant springs up in old timothy mead- 
ows when they have exhausted the nitrates. 

Besides the reclamation of overflow lands, to which allusion has already been 
made, other things remain to be done for the conservation of our resources 
and the prevention of the loss of our present fertility, among which are : The pur- 
chase of rock phosphate to replace the loss of phosphorus of which mention 
has been made; better cultivation, to allow aeration of the soil and by means 
of a dust mulch to conserve the moisture until it is needed ; proper rotation is 
also essential, as it is evident that in the selection of plant food the plant leaves 
in the soil something toxic to itself that is of no injury to other plants so the 
more perfect the rotation and the oftener the return to some leguminaceus plant, 
as clover, and the more thorough the cultivation before and after planting the 
greater will be the return in dollars and cents to the agriculturist. And the 
greater the prosperity of the farmer the greater that of everybody. 


The rock surface of Stephenson County is for the most part covered with 
glacial drift. This deposit of clays, alluvium, loess, sands, gravel and silt has 
an average depth of 32 1-3 feet. The drift is not thick enough to conceal the 
main preglacial valleys. In these old valleys and in ridges, eskers and knolls, 
the drift is often over 100 feet in depth. In such places the drift affords a 
sufficient water supply. 

A large number of wells in the county reach down into Galena limestone. 
A few of the deeper wells pass through Galena limestone and find their water 
supply in the St. Peter's sandstone, which, at Freeport, is no to 130 feet below 
the Pecatonica flood plain. The Baier and Ohlendorf well is 186 feet deep, 
and draws its supply from St. Peter's sandstone. It passed through 86 feet 
of drift. The Stover Manufacturing Company has a well through 100 feet of 


drift into St. Peter's sandstone. A well at the vinegar works penetrated 85 
feet of drift. Wells in East Freeport 30 to 50 feet in depth do not reach the 
Galena limestone. 

The following wells will give an idea of the depth of drift and its value as 
a source of water supply in different localities: 

Sec. 12 T 26 R?E depth 100 feet. Drift 98 feet. 

Sec. 14 T 26 R/E depth 100 feet. Drift 100 feet. 

Sec 12 T 26 R7E depth 192 feet. Drift 17 feet. 

Sec. 14 T 26 R;E depth 248 feet. Drift 65 feet. 

Sec. 36 T 26 R/E depth 186 feet. Drift 46 feet. 

St. Peter's sandstone is a good source of water supply. The principal in- 
take of this formation is in southern Wisconsin and southeastern Minnesota. 
The principal source of our water supply is in the cranberry marshes of Wis- 
consin where the St. Peter's and Potsdam sandstones outcrop. There in twenty 
counties in large part, the water is near the surface, and is absorbed by the 
sandy soil. The tilt of the sandstones is in this direction, being about 150 feet 
below the surface here. The water filters its way down into this county and 
rises through faults and crevices in the Trenton limestone, especially the 
Galena. The quality of the water is good, and its quantity copious. The up- 
per Trenton or Galena limestone is a magnesian limestone of more porous char- 
acter and yields an abundance of good water, but is occasionally highly charged 
with hydrogen sulphide, which renders it disagreeable to the taste and lim- 
its its use as a potable water. The Freeport Water Company gets its 
supply from wells in the drift along the Pecatonica and from deep wells 
65 feet into St. Peter's sandstone. The wells are 201 feet deep, passing through 
100 feet of the Trenton limestone, the Galena, the Blue and the Buff. 

In 1895, the water of the Freeport Water Company acquired a bad taste 
and odor. After considerable investigation, Supt. O. T. Smith discovered that 
the cause was. a growth of floating matter in the mains, known as well thread 
or Crenothix Kuhmiana. Mr. Smith also found that such growth required 
about 30% per million of iron solution in the water. The only remedy was to 
prohibit the growth by reducing the amount of iron in the water. The com- 
pany then put in a filter plant, in which lime water, two to four grains of lime 
per gallon, was used. In an address before the 24th annual meeting of the 
American Water Works Association at St. Louis, June, 1904, Supt. Smith 
stated that the result of the filter plant was that the iron was reduced to an 
average of about .04 parts per million, while the carbonic acid gas was re- 
moved and the water softened 13 to 15%. In six months the growth in the 
mains had absolutely stopped. 


A fossil is any evidence of the former existence of a living being. Strati- 
fied rocks are sediments accumulated in ancient seas, lakes, deltas, etc. Shells 
were imbedded in the shore deposits. Leaves, logs and bones of land animals 
were swept into swamps and buried in mud. Tracks were formed on muddy 


shores by animals. These marks, shells logs, etc., have been preserved in 
stratified rocks. 

In the Niagara limestones at Waddams, are found the Cyathophyllum, two 
or three species of Favosites and some imperfect Halysites. In the Cincinnati 
limestones of this county, but few fossils are found. Near Loran are found the 
Orthis Testitudinaria and the Orthis Occidentalis. In the Galena limestone is 
found the characteristic Receptaculites Oweni, commonly called "lead blos- 
som" and "Sunflower Coral." This fossil is found in large numbers at Cedar- 
ville and Freeport. It crumbles readily and good specimens are difficult to 
secure. Receptaculites orbicularis is also found in the Freeport quarry. The 
fossils most commonly found are species of Murchisonia, Orthocera, Orthis, 
Plentomaria, small Bellerophons and Ambonychia. Some of the thin shaly 
strata of the blue limestone are full of small sized Orthis. Fragmentary stems 
of encrinites are found. A specimen of Receptaculites Oweni was found in 
the blue limestone at Rock Run bridge. Many well preserved casts of fossils 
are found in the Buff limestone : Pleurotomaria subconica ; Orthoceras, five or 
six inches in diameter, and some six feet long ; Oncoceras pandion ; two species 
of Tellinomya. 

Hershey collected the following loess fossils which were identified by Dr. 
W. H. Dall of the United States Geological Survey: Vallonia Costata Mull; 
Vallonia perspectiva Sterki ; Zonotoides arboreus ; Vitrea hammonis ; Indentata ; 
Pyramidula Alternata ; Pyramidula Striatella ; Helicodiscus lineatus ; Polygyra 
hirsita ; Strobilops virgo ; Bifidaria Contracta ; Bifidaria Corticaria ; Bifidaria Ar- 
mifera; Bifidaria holzingera; Vertigo tridentata; Succinea avara; Carychium 
exiguum ; Carychium exiguum ; Carychium exile. All the above are Terristial 
species. The following are Fluviatile species (gill bearing) : Pleurocera subu- 
late ; Campeloma decisa ; Bythinella termipes ; Armicola Cincinnattiensis ; Arn- 
nicola porata ; Somatagyrus depressus ; Valvata tricarinata. 

The Fluviatile bivalves (some occasionally in ponds) ; Pissidium compressum ; 
Pissidium Cruciatum ; Pissidium fallax ; Pissidium punctatum ; Pissidium Vari- 
able ; Pissidium risginicum ; Pissidium walkeri ; Spaerium starninaeum ; Sphaerium 
striatinum; Sphaerium simile; Sphaerium solidulum. Of the pond species, ait 
breathing (some Fluviatile): Planobis parous; Planobis bicarinatus ; Physa he- 
terostropha ; Segmentina armigera ; Limnaea humilis ; Ancylus tardus ; Ancylus 
rivularis ; Ancylus parallelus. 


Quaternary Deposits. The Quaternary deposits cover the county to an aver- 
age depth of 32 1/3 feet. Along the narrow bottoms of the Pocatonica there is 
a strip of Alluvium proper. In places it is two miles in width. Alluvium is also 
noticeable along Yellow Creek and some of the smaller streams. Along some of 
the hills and bluffs there is to be found the loess marls. The Alluvium and 
the loess are found in small quantities, the main part of the superficial detritus 
consisting of sands, silt, clays and gravels of the drift period. 

Where the rock surface is near the top of the ground, a part of the deposit 
is of the nature of the underlying rock. In such cases after passing through 


the black soil, there is a clayey subsoil, then reddish brown clay, mixed with 
flints and pieces of cherty limestone, then clay and limestone in regular stratifica- 
tion, the limestone becoming more regular, thicker and harder in the descent till 
solid rock is reached. The clays above the Cincinnati shales are of chocolate 
color, finer in texture and freer from sand. These are evidently residuary soils. 
The county, however, is practically overlaid by the work of the ice sheets of 
the drift period. The prairies north and east of Waddams Grove are marked 
by numberless boulders, some black, some flame colored and others combining 
the colors of metamorphic rock. Many of these boulders are beautiful and 
many colored. These boulders were torn out by the ice sheets in Wisconsin or 
in Canada, and carried along, being finally deposited here. Elsewhere are to be 
found the silt deposits, the eskers, and boulder clays above described. 


The Niagara limestone is found only in the western and southwestern part of 
county. It, no doubt, at one time covered a large part of the county but was 
broken up and carried southward by the great ice sheets. Waddams Grove, a 
high tract of land two or three miles long and a mile or two wide, is capped by 
the Niagara formation. Here quarries have been worked twenty-five feet deep, 
into the Cincinnati shales. The top layers of Niagara are thick, irregular, speck- 
led and porous, but the bottom layers are compact and solid. A slender, rotten 
fossil, Cyathofillum, was found in these quarries. 

Niagara also outcrops in the southwestern part of the county. It is the under- 
lying for most of that part of the county, south of Yellow Creek and west of the 
Illinois Central Railroad. Small streams flowing into Yellow Creek cut through 
Niagara into the Cincinnati shales. At Big Springs, in LaShell Hollow, consid- 
erable Niagara stone has been quarried. Quantities of some of the rougher 
Niagara corals are found strewn over the hills about Loran. These are Favosites 
and Halysites. 


The Cincinnati limestones are found just beneath the Niagara at WaddamSj 
and is about 40 feet thick. Eleroy hill is covered by the Cincinnati layers. Here 
a quarry outcrop is over 40 feet deep. The Catholic church is built out of the 
stone of this quarry. On the north side there is a bold and steep escapment, a 
marked feature of the landscape. The hills about the village of Loran are covered 
to their tops by this formation. Many quarries are opened in the face of the hills 
and fair building stone is secured. Like the Niagara, a large part of the Cincin- 
nati was eroded and carried away by the ice sheets. Just north of Baileyville, 
Crane's Grove, occupying several sections, is underlaid by Cincinnati. Quarries 
afford foundation stone. About Loran the fossils Orthis testutdinaria and Or- 
this Occidentalis are found. 



The Trenton limestones are the Galena, the Blue (Trenton proper) and the 
Buff limestones. All three of the Trentons outcrop in Stephenson County. The 
Galena, the upper division, is essentially a coarse grained granular, crystalline, 
porous dolomite which weathers into exceedingly rough, pitted, irregular forms. 
It is the underlying rock of about 4 of Stephenson County. It is found beneath 
the Cincinnati limestones at Waddams and Eleroy. Quarries and lime kilns have 
been operated near Lena. A heavy section of Galena is found in Freeport, in the 
northwest corner of the city near the Illinois Central Railroads. Three ex- 
tensive quarries have been worked, which have furnished material for lime and 
building purposes. The top layers are soft and crumble in the hand. The quar- 
ries are shaly towards the top but grow massive and solid as they are worked 
into. These quarries are worked 30 ft. or more. Three miles southwest of 
Freeport, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad cuts through Galena. 
Three miles northwest of Freeport is a similar cut. A mile to the west is another 
Galena cut, 1,000 feet long and 24 feet deep. Here the rock is covered by ten 
feet of the usual gravelly clay. About a mile west of Rock City, is another 
cut, 350 yards long and at the deepest point, 15 feet into the solid stone. Here 
the rock is hard, glassy and conchoidal in Fracture and approaches the Blue or 
Trenton proper. One-half mile further on and near Rock City is a 12 foot cut 
through the real Blue limestone. East of Dakota at the railroad bridge is a 24 
footcut through Galena, and Blue limestones. Here may be seen the Yellow 
Galena, passing into the Blue. One-fourth of a mile east of Davis is cut through 
Galena, 1,000 feet long and 31 feet deep, 24 feet of which is solid limestone, 
slightly bluish and conchoidal in fracture. 

The Pecatonica River after about five miles from the Wisconsin line, cuts 
into the Galena limestone. At McConnell an outcrop has been worked. Rich- 
land and Cedar Creeks expose the Galena their entire lengths, at many points 
heavy outcrops and escapements stand out in bold relief. At Cedarville the out- 
crop is 75 feet thick. A large quarry opened here furnished the stone for Adam's 
milldam. There ^is a twenty foot quarry at Buena Vista. There are expostures 
and quarries also at Scioto Mills. Crane's Creek, at the west end of Crane's 
Grove, cuts into the Galena. 

An interesting outcrop of Galena is observed near Burroak Grove, half way 
between Lena and Winslow. Several small quarries have been opened on the hill 
tops west of the grove. Southeast of Rock City a 24 foot exposure is operated. 
There are outcroppings in Ridott and Oneco townships. Stephenson County, be- 
tween the Pecatonica River and Yellow Creek, except a small strip east and south 
of Winslow, and the Niagara at Waddams, the Cincinnati at Eleroy, Kent and 
along the banks of Yellow Creek, is underlaid by Galena limestone. The south- 
eastern part of the county, nearly up to the Pecatonica and almost to the Illinois 
Central, is also underlaid by Galena, with the exception of a strip along the 
southeastern corner and a few points in the eastern part of Silver Creek town- 
ship. Galena limestone fossils found in the county are, Receptaculites Oweni ; 
Receptaculites orbicularis; Nurchisonia; Orthocera; Orthis; Pleurotomania ; 
Bellerophon and Ambonychia. 



The Blue limestone, the middle division of the Trenton group, is not found 
extensively in Stephenson County as surface rock. Rock run cuts into Blue lime- 
stone soon after entering the county and along its banks until within a mile or 
two of its mouth shows Blue outcroppings. Some of the rocky banks are over- 
capped with Galena. At the Milwaukee railroad bridge over Rock run the Blue 
is thirty-nine feet thick. The lower part is very blue. One and a half miles 
below is a quarry opened in a 25 foot cut. 


The only place in the county where Buff limestone is the underlying rock 
is about Winslow. The outcrop is heavier at Martin's Mill in Wisconsin. The 
Winslow quarry is about 30 feet deep and the one at Martin's Mill is 38 feet. 
On either side of this strip are the outcroppings of Galena. The fossils are 
Pleurotomania subconica; a large Orthoceras, five or six inches in diameter, and 
some six feet long; a Cypricardites ; Oncoceras pandion; two species of Telli- 
nomya, and a few others. 


This is a soft, white sandstone, at places over 200 feet thick. It is found 
below the buff of the Trenton series. It is 134 feet below the surface at the 
Freeport Water Company's plant, 168 feet below at Cedarville and comes to 
the surface near Winslow. It outcrops largely in Wisconsin and also in LaSalle 
County, 111., where it is used as a glass sand. 


The chief economic value of the geological formations of Stephenson County 
is in the agricultural resources of the soil. Next in value, probably, is the water 
supply in the drift, the Galena limestone and St. Peter's sandstone. Certain 
portions of the Galena, Blue and Buff limestones have been successfully burned 
into lime of fair quality. The reddish clays over the Galena limestones make 
excellent red brick. A tough, tenacious fireclay which underlies the peat marshes 
has been made into a light colored brick, but this industry has not been developed. 


The Niagara is quarried in several places and is a handsome colored, endur- 
ing, building material. But it is of irregular stratification which makes it un- 
shapely and unmanageable. Barn foundations, houses and bridge abutments 
are made from quarries from Cincinnati rock about Eleroy and Kent. Some 
of the lower strata are massive and very hard. 

Galena limestone is a good material for the heavier kinds of masonry. When 
dressed and well laid, it seasons into great hardness. Almost all the stone work 


in Freeport is of Galena from the Freeport quarries. It is used extensively in 
foundations. Several store buildings are built of it. The best example of Ga- 
lena and probably the most imposing architecture in Freeport is the First Pres- 
byterian church at the corner of Stephenson and Walnut Streets. The Blue and 
the Buff afford as good building stone as is to be found in this part of Illinois, 
but are not used extensively because of the vast amount of useless surface ma- 
terials to be removed. 

The day will come, no doubt, when the greatest value of Stephenson County 
stone will be in road-building. Crushed stone has been used extensively in mak- 
ing the bed for brick streets and in making macadam streets in Freeport. Out- 
croppings of stone are well distributed over the county and in this way nature 
has provided a means for making permanent hard roads. 


There is but little mineral wealth to be found in Stephenson County. A 
little bog-iron ore is to be found in the swamps. Small pieces of float copper 
have been found in the drift, having been carried down from the Lake Superior 
region by the ice sheets. Small quantities of common lead ore have been taken 
from the ground. Considerable prospecting has developed the fact that lead 
mining is not a profitable business in the county because there is no lead. Years 
ago a lead crevice was developed without success near the mouth of Yellow 
Creek. Pieces as large as the fist have been taken out of quafries near Lena, 
A Freeport company secured several hundred pounds in Oneco township thirty 
years ago. 


Peat is a more or less compact mass of vegatable matter formed in swamps 
It is an early stage of coal formation. In Township 26, range 9, a bed of 50 
acres was found by Shaw. It was 3 to 6 feet deep and underlaid by fire clay. 
Almost every swamp south of Yellow Creek has some peat formations. Small 
beds have been found about Lena and Ridott. The best peat bed is in the town- 
ship of Florence, between section 25 and 26. It is 40 rods wide and over 100 
rods long, and contains about 50 acres. It is from 6 to 9 feet deep. Peat may 
be used as fuel and as fertilizer. When mixed with ashes or lime, it becomes 
a good fertilizer. If peat compressing machinery is perfected, these beds may be 
profitably developed. 

A machine has been invented which presses 50 tons of peat a day. Recent 
experiments show that where peat contains over i% of nitrogen, the value of 
ammonia as a by-product will more than pay the expense of extracting the gas, 
leaving the latter as clear profit. Prof. Fernald of the Geological Survey found 
that Europe uses ten million tons of peat annually as fuel. In Sweden, 
power plants are located in the peat bogs, and electric current transferred to 
the cities. Prof. Dans, also of the United Geological Survey, says "The day is 
near at hand when American cities away from the coal fields and near peat 
bogs, will obtain their power and light from peat." Work has already begun 


in Florida on a plant for generating electric power by producer-gas engines, 
using air dried peat as a fuel. The value of peat in the United States is estimated 
at $39,000,000,000. Peat also makes incomparable coke, being nearly free from 
phosphorus and sulphur. It is of utmost value in metallurgical reductions 
iron-smelting, steel making and copper refining. Peat by-products are illuminat- 
ing and lubricating oils, paraffin wax, phenol, asphalt, wood alcohol, acetic acid, 
ammonia sulphate, and combustible gases. In Europe, great quantities of fibrous 
peat are used in bedding live stock. It is superior to straw and an Indiana fac- 
tory is now making a product of this kind that sells for $12.00 a ton. In 
Michigan, paper is made from peat ; in Germany it is used for packing, insula- 
tion, etc., and in Norway is made into ethyl alcohol. 


The Black Hawk War was an inevitable conflict between the advancing tide 
of American civilization and a quarrelsome band of Indians. The Sacs and the 
Foxes had been inependent tribes in Canada near Montreal. Both tribes were 
troublesome and like other American Indians they drifted westward before the 
onward moving wave of frontier settlement. In Wisconsin the remnants of Sacs 
and Foxes united to form a confederation. As a confederacy, they became in- 
volved in frequent wars with their neighbors. They moved southward and lo- 
cated finally in the valley of the Rock River, with headquarters near the present 
site of Rock Island. 

At the close of the Revolutionary War, the settlers from the Thirteen Colonies 
pushed their way over the Appalachian Mountains and out into the great Mis- 
sissippi Valley. The Ordinance of 1787 provided civil government for the 
Northwest Territory and Illinois was admitted as a state in 1818. The northern 
part of the state received many new settlers after the war of 1812. Small bands 
of Indians had occupied almost every part of the state. The United States 
government had bought up the claims of these Indians and had moved most of 
them west of the Mississippi. 

The Indian lands were then open to settlement and as the scattered outposts 
of hardy pioneers pushed farther north and west the inevitable conflict between 
the Rock River Indians and the people of Illinois became evident. The valley of 
the Rock River and its tributaries had long been the undisputed hunting ground 
of the confederacy of the Sacs and the Foxes. Part of this country was occupied 
by the Winnebagoes, the Kickapoos, and other small tribes, all of whom were 
subordinate to the power of the Sacs and Foxes. Following the beautiful val- 
leys of the Rock, the Pecatonica, and the Wisconsin, roamed unmolested, the 
hunting parties of Indians in free enjoyment of the wild life of the savage. 
Here and there in favored fertile spots, the squaws planted their corn and In- 
dian villages prospered. Occasionally, bands of braves in war paint and feathers 
went out to make war on the Sioux, the lowas, the Osages, or the Cherokees. 
Too often murderous bands, many times inspired by British agents, went on 
long journeys to the south and east, robbing and killing among the defenseless 
outlying settlements. Traders, trappers and adventurers had brought the Sacs 
and the Foxes and the Winnebagoes in touch with the skirmish line of advanc- 


ing settlements. But the Indian had come to regard the country as his own. 
Annually the chiefs and braves went over the old "Sauk" trail which ran from 
Rock Island through Joliet, to Maiden, to meet the British father from whom 
they received gifts and gold. But the white man crossed the trail of the surly 
Indian when settlements were made at Galena, and around Ottawa and Joliet. 
Frontier difficulties soon arose that ended only with the final defeat of Black 
Hawk, August 2, 1832. 

The lead mines proved to be the magnet that drew the rapid advance of the 
frontier line to the Rock River. The Indians had already found the lead, and 
in a rude way, the squaws had worked the mines. In 1819, the first white settle- 
ment was made at Galena. Others came in 1820 and soon adventurers poured 
into the lead regions from all quarters of the world. Some came up the Mis- 
sissippi River and some overland from Virginia, North Carolina, Kentucky and 
Tennessee, via Vincennes and Peoria, through the unbroken wilderness. The 
increasing overland travel caused O. W. Kellog to break a trail from Peoria 
to Galena in the spring of 1827. "KellogY' trail crossed the Rock River at 
Dixon, passed near Polo, Ogle County, through "Kellog's Grove" now "Timms 
Grove," Erin Township, Stephenson County, then by way of Apple River Fort 
to Galena. 

In 1828, Joseph Ogee established a ferry at Dixon and this same year, 
John Dixon made a contract with the United States government to carry the 
mail from Peoria to Galena. In 1830, Dixon bought the ferry from Ogee, built 
a house and moved his family to Dixon. He conducted the ferry, a store and 
a hotel. 

Along Kellog's trail came two classes of settlers into northwestern Illinois: 
the soldiers from the Eastern States, released by the close of the War of 1812, 
and the men from North Carolina, Kentucky and Tennessee. They came with 
their families to found permanent homes. They were schooled in the hard- 
ships and dangers of the camp and the frontier, and were not likely to be over- 
patient with Indians who crossed their purposes. Only the brave and the hardy 
dared the perils of pioneer travel and frontier life. In 1829, many settlers occu- 
pied the fertile plains about the mouth of Rock River. President Jackson 
ordered a government survey which included Black Hawk's village and fields. 
A proclamation was issued opening these lands to settlement. Frequent quar- 
rels across between the settlers and the Indians and each in turn devastated the 
fields of the other. 

In April, 1830, a petition signed by thirty-seven settlers was sent to Gov- 
ernor John Reynolds, asking protection from the Indians. Governor Reynolds 
took up the matter with William Clark, the Federal Indian superintendent at 
St. Louis, and with General Gaines, and the Indian agent at Rock Island, Felix 
St. Vrain. These officials testified that every effort had been made to persuade 
the Indians to move across the Mississippi into Iowa. Most of the Indian chiefs 
including Keokuk, Wapello, head chief of the Foxes and Pash-e-pa-ho, of the 
Sacs, had agreed to abandon the Rock River lands peaceably. They also re- 
ported that the opposition arose from a brave, called Black Hawk, who had 
much influence with the quarrelsome element among the Sacs and Foxes. At a 
conference with General Gaines at Rock Island, Keokuk, Wapello and other 







chiefs advised Black Hawk to move into Iowa and to avoid trouble with the 
whites. But because of his hatred for the Americans and his jealousy of Keokuk, 
the warning fell on deaf ears. When General Gaines asked at that conference, 
"Who is Black Hawk?" the old Indian replied: "I will tell you who I am. I 
am a Sac. I am a warrior. Ask those young men who have followed me to 
battle, and they will tell you who Black Hawk is ; provoke our people to war and 
you will learn who Black Hawk is." So, on April 6, 1832, Black Hawk, with 
five hundred braves with their women and children, crossed the Mississippi and 
took possession of their old hunting grounds and cornfields along the banks of 
Rock River in Illinois. Black Hawk said they had come to plant corn. That 
meant war, and the Americans were to know who Black Hawk was. The gaunt- 
let was thrown down to people sure to take it up. 

Black Hawk, or Ma-ka-tai-she-kia-kiak, was now sixty-five years old. He 
was born in a Sac village on the Rock River, three miles from the Mississippi. 
His father, Py-e-sa, was the medicine man of the tribe. Black Hawk was five 
feet, eleven inches tall and weighed one hundred and forty pounds. His features 
were marked by high cheek bones, a Roman nose, a sharp chin and black spark- 
ling eyes. He was a typical Indian fighter, skilled in strategy and magnetic in 
leadership of his braves. Even his severest critics admit that he was an excel- 
lent husband and father and that he was honest with his own people. But he 
was constitutionally an "Insurgent." He was ready to command and to lead, but 
he was loath to obey. Fretted by restraint and envious of chiefs above him, 
he was quarrelsome and a seeker of trouble. He was brave in battle but as an 
organizer, he fell far short of Phillip of Pokanoket, Pontiac or Tecumseh. 

Little is known of Black Hawk's -early life except what he tells in his auto- 
biography. He says he was permitted to wear paint and feathers at fifteen be- 
cause he wounded an enemy in battle. He always possessed a warlike spirit 
and was never so happy as when leading a band of young Indians to battle. 
At sixteen, he killed an Osage in battle and thereafter was permitted to join in 
the scalp dances of the braves. He led frequent expeditions against the Osages, 
the Cherokees, the lowas, the Sioux, the Chippewas and the Kaskaskias, almost 
always returning with many scalps of his own taking, which seems to Rave been 
the sole object of many of his attacks. 

From the Revolutionary War to 1803, Black Hawk's warlike tendencies were 
encouraged from two sources : from his Spanish father at St. Louis and from 
his British father at Maiden. He received presents and money from both. From 
both he drank deep of the hatred of the Americans. When St. Louis passed 
to the Americans in 1803, Black Hawk was sorry because he would see his 
Spanish father no more. All this time along the extended frontier of the New 
Republic, British agents incited Indians to prey upon the American pioneers with 
scalping knife and rifle. Black Hawk earned his share of British gold in these 
murderous enterprises. 

November 3d, 1804, under direction of President Jefferson, General William 
Henry Harrison met the chiefs of the Sacs and Foxes at St. Louis and made a 
treaty by which the confederacy ceded to the United States, all the Sac and Fox 
claims east of the Mississippi, amounting to over fifty million acres. In return 
the Indians were to receive lands in Jowa, $2,000.00 in supplies and a $1,000.00 


annuity. Section 4 of the treaty binds the United States never to interrupt the 
Sacs and Foxes in their Iowa lands. The treaty was signed by William Henry 
Harrison; Layowvois, Pashepaho, the Stabber; Quashquame, the Jumping Fish; 
Outchequaha, the Sun Fish; Hashequavhiqua, the Bear, in the presence of wit- 
nesses and interpreters. The United States had made a treaty of friendship 
with the Sacs and Foxes in 1789, and this treaty of 1804 seemed to be as fair 
a treaty as Indian tribes of that day could expect from Americans or any other 
nation. Besides, frequent hunting expeditions into Iowa had already proved that 
that country was better fishing and hunting land than Illinois. There was no 
general complaint against the treaty by the chiefs of the Sacs and Foxes. 

But the surly Black Hawk did not recognize the treaty of 1804. He claimed 
that the chiefs were made drunk before they signed the treaty. He said the 
American, General William Henry Harrison, said one thing and put another 
thing on the paper. British agents were active at this period and, no doubt, did 
all in their power to foster Black Hawk's discontent and antagonism for the 
Americans. In 1810, over one hundred Sacs visited the British agent at Huron 
and returned with presents, stores, rifles, powder and lead. Acting on the ad- 
vice of the British, Black Hawk joined Tecumseh against General Harrison 
in 1811. On his return from the battle of Tippecanoe, Black Hawk attacked 
Fort Madison, on the Mississippi River below Rock Island. Failing to take the 
Fort by assault, he resorted to treachery and was foiled only by the exposure 
of the plot by a young woman who had formed an attachment for a soldier 
in the Fort. 

During the War of 1812, after the surrender of Detroit by Hull, Black Hawk 
with two hundred braves joined the British against the Americans. He was as- 
signed as aid to Tecumseh. Evidently he did not relish general, open war on the 
battlefield, for he said then that he preferred to descend the Mississippi River 
and make war on the settlements. He soon found, to his sorrow, that the 
Americans could fight although the British had told him they would not. Be- 
cause the British met with poor success and because he received no "plunder," 
he returned to the Rock River in 1814, after the battle of the Thames, deserting 
in the night. 

Black Hawk now satisfied his desire to slay by inciting and leading raids 
against defenseless frontiers. In 1814, he defeated Major Zachary Taylor and 
again defeated the Americans in the battle of the Sink Hole in 1815. At Black 
Hawk's instigation, defenseless men, women and children were murdered in their 
homes and their bodies horribly mutilated. 

Word that General Andrew Jackson was organizing an army to move against 
the Sacs, brought the chiefs to terms in the Treaty Portage des Sioux in 1815. 
This treaty ratified the treaty of 1804. Twenty chiefs signed the treaty but 
Black Hawk again gave evidence of his intense bitterness toward the Americans 
by refusing to affix his mark. The next year, however, 1816, he signed the 
Treaty in St. Louis, thus ratifying the Treaty of Transfer of 1804. Later the 
wily old malcontent said he did not know the contents of the treaty he had 
signed and would not obey its terms. In 1820, he kept the British flag flying 
over his village. In 1822, 24 and 25, he signed other treaties all of which recog- 
nized the Cession Treaty of 1804. 


In 1831, Black Hawk crossed into Illinois. General Gaines and Governor 
Reynolds cooperated to defend the settlements. Volunteer companies were or- 
ganized and marched from Central Illinois to the Mississippi, near Rock Island. 
Black Hawk quickly came to terms and with twenty-seven chiefs and warriors 
representing the British band, some Kickapoos, Pottawattomies and Winne- 
bagoes, and the United Sacs and Fox Nations. In this treaty Black Hawk 
agreed to remain west of the Mississippi in lasting friendship with the United 
States. His women and children were destitute and General Gaines and Gov. 
Reynolds supplied them with provisions to last till the next harvest. 

Soon after signing the treaty of June 30, 1831, Black Hawk again showed 
his perfidy. He began almost at once to attempt to organize an Indian Con- 
federacy to fight the whites. His emissaries, besides visiting nearby tribes, were 
sent to Canada and as far south as the Gulf of Mexico. One of his emissaries, 
Neapope, returning from Canada, stopped at the camp of the Prophet Wa-bo- 
ki-a-shiek, on Rock River, forty miles from its mouth. After going through his 
incantations, the prophet saw a vision and said "If Black Hawk makes war 
against the whites, he will be joined by the Great Spirit and by a great army 
of worldings, and will vanquish the whites." Thus was encouraged the spirit 
of resistance that would not die out in the old enemy of the advancing civilization. 

Against the advice of the chiefs of both Sacs and the Foxes and in viola- 
tion of treaties of his own hand, Black Hawk determined to return to Illinois 
in the spring of 1832. But whatever dreams he may have had of Tjeing another 
Phillip of Pokanoket, or Pontiac, or Tecumseh, vanished. No tribes rallied 
about his standard. His failure as an organizer was followed by an ill-fated 
error in judgment. With a few hundred of his British band, he forced the 
issue against overwhelming odds and led his people to starvation, defeat and 

This was Black Hawk's record when, in 1832, he recrossed the Mississippi 
with his five hundred men, his women and children, and took possession of 
lands along the Rock River. By numerous treaties, the Sacs and Foxes had 
agreed to retire beyond the Mississippi. These tribes had taken up their lands 
in Iowa and for the most part had remained friends of the Americans. They 
had received $27,0x30.00 in supplies Black Hawk never failing to take his share 
from the hated Americans. At this time, 1832, he was advised by his own chiefs 
not to go to war with the United States. He was not a chief, only a brave who 
was always able to rally to his standard the discontented warriors who were bent 
on plunder and murder. He was a chronic grumbler, a mercenary in the pay 
of the British, fought with Tecumseh at Tippecanoe, aided the British in the 
War of 1812, and was a free lance among the Sacs and Foxes whose hands 
were stained with the blood of many a defenseless frontier family. The war 
he chose to begin in 1832 was not a war by the confederated Sacs and Foxes, but 
a personal campaign by Black Hawk and his British band. Nor is it true that 
he was a patriot fighting for the possession of the villages, the hunting grounds 
and the burial places of his people ; for he, himself, says he offered to give up the 
Illinois land for a $10.000.00 cash payment to himself a cheap sort of pa- 
triotism. The history of the dealings of the United States government with this 
Indian, taken together with his own statement, leaves no ground for emotional 


sympathy of Americans who laud him and flaunt his memory before us by erect- 
ing his statue in public places. It was this Black Hawk who brought about this 
final inevitable conflict in 1832 and struck terror to the hearts of the families of 
the pioneers of Northwestern Illinois. 


A few illustrations will give a clear portrayal of the frontier life about the 
borders of Stephenson County at the opening of Black Hawk's War. The set- 
tlers who had built their homes in Southern Wisconsin, in Jo Daviess County and 
along the Rock River, thus bringing civilization to our doors, were not strangers 
to the penalty of frontier life and the havoc of Indian warfare. The family 
history of most of those men and women contained many a sad chapter that told 
of murder of loved ones by marauding bands of stealthy red men. Life was a 
stern reality to these people who lived, for the most part, in close proximity to 
forts to which they frequently fled to escape the hatchet and the scalping knife. 
in the light of the history of those days, the attitude of the men of that day 
towards the Indians is not difficult to understand. General A. C. Dodge gives a 
good illustration. In a public address he said: "In the settlement of Kentucky, 
five of my father's brothers fell under the Indian hatchet. I saw one of my 
uncles bear to the fort on horseback, the dead and bleeding body of his brother. 
My own brother, Henry LaFayette Dodge, was burned to death at the stake." 
In those days in Northwestern Illinois every home was a fort and the farmers 
plowed the field "with a rifle lashed to the" beam." In describing the life of the 
pioneers in his "Sketches of the West," James Hall says: "They left behind 
them all the comforts of life. They brought but little furniture, but few farm- 
ing implements and no store of provisions. At first they depended for subsist- 
ence on the game of the forest. They ate fresh meat without salt, without vege- 
tables and often without bread ; and they slept in cabins hastily erected, of green 
logs, exposed to much of the inclemency of the weather. They found them- 
selves assailed, in situations where medical assistance could not be procured, by 
diseases of sudden development and fatal in character. The savage was watch- 
ing, with malignant vigilance, to grasp every opportunity to harass the intruder 
into the hunting grounds of his fathers. Sometimes he contented himself by seiz- 
ing the horses or driving away the cattle, depriving the wretched family of the 
means of support, reserving the consumation of his vengeance to a future oc- 
casion; sometimes with a subtle refinement of cruelty, the Indian warrior crept 
into the settlement by stealth, and created universal dismay by stealing away a 
child, or robbing the family of the wife and mother; sometimes the father was 
the victim and the widow and the orphans were thrown on the protection of 
friends who were never deaf to the claims of the unfortunate, while as often 
the yelling band surrounded the peaceful cabin at the midnight hour, applied 
the fire brand to the slight fabrics and murdered the whole of its defenseless 

Not far from Ottawa occurred the "Big Indian Creek Massacre," by three 
of Black Hawk's braves and seventy Pottawattamies and Winnebagoes. In 1830, 
William Davis had built a cabin and set up a blacksmith shop on the creek. 


Among the settlers who came later with their families, were John and J. H. 
Henderson, Allen Howard, William Pettigrew and William Hall. Shabona, 
a chief of the Winnebagoes, observed the plot of the Indians and on a perilous 
ride, warned every settler and hastened to the fort at Ottawa. But the warning 
was not heeded. At four o'clock, May 20, 1832, the savages burst into the 
door yards of the settlements. Pettigrew, Hall and Norris were soon killed, 
Davis fought to the end, but fell at last in a determined hand to hand struggle. 
The women were slaughtered with spears and knives and tomahawks, the 
Indians laughing with fiendish glee, as they afterwards said, because the women 
squawked like ducks when run through with a spear or stabbed with a knife. 
One Indian seized a four year old child by the feet and dashed its brains out 
on a stump. Two savages held the hands of the little Davis boy while another 
Indian shot him. Two boys escaped and two girls, Rachel and Sylvia Hall, 
aged seventeen and fifteen respectively, were carried away by the red men. 
Settlers at Ottawa returned with the boys the next day. They found some 
with their hearts cut out and others mutilated beyond description. All were 
buried in one grave, without coffin or box. Young Hall enlisted in a company 
and marched through Stephenson County in search of his sisters, camping 
at Kellog's Grove. After a terrible experience of eleven days, the girls were 
rescued on June ist. 

When Black Hawk returned in 1832, Rev. James Sample and his wife fled 
over the old Sauk Trail, but were overtaken by the Indians. The preacher 
plead in vain for them to spare his wife. Both were tied to trees, fagots were 
piled about them, fire was kindled and as the victims struggled in the flames, the 
red men danced with joy. 

Near Gratiot's Grove, William Aubrey was shot from ambush by a party 
of Sacs. He was returning from a spring with a pail of water. On June i4th, 
five men SpafFord, Searles, Spencer, Mcllwaine, and an Englishman were 
murdered and their bodies mutilated by Indians, six miles southeast of Fort 
Hamilton, near the border of Stephenson County, on Spafford's farm. 

Mr. Franklin Reed of Pontiac wrote in 1877 about the fear of Indian dep- 
redations. His father moved to Buffalo Grove, now Polo, 111., in 1831, built a 
cabin in four days, put out a garden and broke the prairie for crops. Once in 
1831, the family fled to Apple River Fort in Jo Daviess County. In the spring 
of 1832, Black Hawk's warriors were again prowling around, more surly than 
usual and the family fled to Dixon. 

Such was pioneer life in Northwestern Illinois, when Black Hawk's band in 
small parties carried pillage and murder to the scattered settlements. Their 
depredations extended from Rock Island to Rockford and from Ottawa to 
Galena and to Mineral Point, Wisconsin. The issue was sharply drawn. The 
United States and the government of Illinois must drive Black Hawk beyond 
the Mississippi or the settlers must continue to be harassed and murdered by the 

When the old Indian crossed into Illinois in 1832, he sent word to General 
Atkinson that his heart was bad and he would not turn back. Gov. Reynolds 
again called for volunteers. Throughout Central Illinois, the men were aroused. 
Companies were speedily organized and marched to Beardstown. Some were ex- 


perienced Indian fighters, but many were young men anxious as they said to kill 
"Injins." Many of the volunteers furnished their own horses, guns and am- 
munition. The companies elected their officers and marched to Dixon. They 
were the most independent men on earth but wholly lacking in discipline. Im- 
petuous and headstrong, it was impossible for the Governor and the officers to 
organize them into an efficient fighting force, or to restrain them from a rash 
advance into the enemy's country. They fought their "Bull Run" and learned 
an expensive lesson in Stillman's Defeat at Old Man's Creek in LaSalle County, 
the night of the I4th of May, 1832. 

Unable to hold the volunteers in check, Gov. Reynolds and Gen. White- 
side gave orders for an advance up the Rock River by a detachment under 
Majors Stillman and Bailey, May 12, 1832. While at supper on the I4th a few 
Indians appeared, and without waiting for orders, or rather in defiance of orders; 
the soldiers in twos and threes gave chase as fast as they could mount. The 
camp was soon in general disorder, the officers having lost control and the .men 
were straggling out over two or three miles after the red skins, each volunteer 
anxious to shoot an "Injin." It was the same old story of Indian strategy the 
decoys, the ambush, and the defeat. Suddenly Black Hawk's warriors burst 
upon the disorganized volunteers in force and terrifying war whoops drove the 
stragglers pell mell back through the camp and stampeded the main body of 
volunteers. The detachment beat a hasty and disorderly retreat to Dixon, leav- 
ing eleven dead upon the field of battle. The Indians scalped the dead and cut 
off some of their heads. 

From this time on, it was not a question of going on a lark to kill "Injins." 
After Stillman's defeat, Black Hawk's war became serious business. Gov. Rey- 
nolds called for two thousand volunteers, and General Atkinson of the United 
States Army took command. Three Southerners, destined to become dis- 
tinguished men, entered the service and reported to Gen. Atkinson, Major 
Zachary Taylor, Albert Sidney Johnston and Jefferson Davis. Lieutenant Jef- 
ferson Davis marched through Stephenson County, camping at Kellog's Grove 
(Timm's Grove) with a detachment to aid Colonel Strode at Galena. Major 
Taylor and Albert Sidney Johnston served throughout the war and more than 
once passed through Stephenson County, camping at Kellog's Grove. 

May 19, 1832, Colonel Strode started a small detachment under command 
of Sergeant Fred Stahl, from Galena with dispatches to General Atkinson at 
Dixon. They followed Kellog's Trail through this county. At Buffalo Grove, 
near Polo, they were attacked by Indians. The Indians were repulsed, but 
William Durley was left dead on the field. 

On May 23d, General Atkinson sent Felix St. Vrain, the Indian agent, with 
despatches to Fort Armstrong, at Rock Island. St. Vrain and his party, con- 
sisting of Aaron Hawley, Aquilla Floyd, William Hale, Thomas Kenney, John 
Fowler and Alexander Higginbotham, were to go via Kellog's Grove to Galena 
and thence down the Mississippi to Fort Armstrong. About fourteen miles 
from Buffalo Grove, not far from Kellog's Grove, they met a party of Sac In- 
dians under command of "Little Bear" who had been an intimate friend of St. 
Vrain. Because of this friendship, the party felt they had little to fear, but to 
the surprise of all the "Little Bear" and his warriors showed signs of hostility 


and were evidently preparing to murder the entire party. The only chance of 
the seven men against thirty braves lay in flight, and each white man put his 
spurs to his horse and made an independent daring dash for life. Fowler, 
Hale, Hawley and St. Vrain were killed. Floyd, Kenney and Higginbotham 
escaped only to meet another band of Indians soon after. From this band they 
also escaped, after an exciting chase for several miles. At Brush Creek, they 
were attacked again, but hiding by day and moving by night, they made their 
way finally to Galena. Felix St. Vrain was a Frenchman, whose grandfather 
left France for Louisiana during the reign of terror. His father was an 
officer in the French navy and his brother was one time governor of Upper 
Louisiana. After the Louisiana purchase in 1803, Felix St. Vrain cast his lot 
with the United States, and was a brave, tactful and trusted Indian agent for 
the Sacs and Foxes at Fort Armstrong. The sullen Black Hawk had put the 
death mark upon him and "Little Bear" and his party had carried it into 

After killing the three men, the savages cut off the head, arms and feet of 
St. Vrain. They cut out his heart and passed it around in pieces to be eaten 
by the Indians who were intoxicated with joy because they had eaten the heart 
of one of the bravest of Americans. 

General Atkinson sent out Captain lies company July 8th to keep the way 
clear from Dixon to Galena along Kellog's Trail. This company buried St. 
Vrain, Fowler, Hale and Hall near the present site of the Black Hawk monu- 
ment at Timm's Grove. The company reached Galena July loth. In this com- 
pany, on this march through Stephenson County, was Abraham Lincoln, a pri- 
vate from Old Salem, now Petersburg, 111. The mustering officer who mus- 
tered the company in and out of the service was Robert Anderson, who was 
later compelled to surrender Fort Sumter. 

Kellog's Grove, or Timm's Grove in Stephenson County, was the central 
strategic point in this war. Located on Kellog's Trail, thirty-five miles from 
Galena and thirty-seven miles from Dixon, its possession meant the right of way 
between the leading mine settlements about Galena and Fort Hamilton, and 
the settlement about Dixon. It was a midway point between Fort Winnebago 
and Fort Armstrong. If Black Hawk could hold the cabins at Kellog's Grove, 
he could send out his bands on any radius, striking terror and murder into 
the white settlements and getting away before the United States troops could 
concentrate for attack. It was a vital part of the plans of General Atkinson 
to hold Kellog's Grove and keep the trail open. The trail had been blazed by 
O. W. Kellog in 1827. He built the cabins at Kellog's Grove, the first buildings 
erected in Stephenson County and lived there till 1831. The cabins were built 
end to end, about seven feet high and covered with basswood bark. 

General Atkinson decided to make Kellog's cabins a base of operations be- 
tween Galena and Dixon. For this purpose, he sent out Captain Adam Snyder's 
company and two companies of regulars. They reached Kellog's Grove 
June I2th. Captain Snyder pushed on to Galena on the I3th and returned to 
the grove the next day. Sentinels were posted about the cabins. On the night 
of the 1 5th, during a storm, Indians approached. The night was dark and an 
Indian had crawled to within a few feet of a sentinel who saw the red skin 


by the light of a flash of lightning. The Sentinel and the Indian clinched in a 
hand to hand conflict. The white man was strong and was overcoming the 
Indian. Another flash of lightning saved the brave picket, for nearby he saw 
three other Indians approaching. Throwing his combatant to the ground, he 
ran to the cabin and shouted the alarm. All through the night, the Indians 
prowled around the cabins and all night long the men within were held in readi- 
ness to ward off the attack. 

The next morning, the i6th of June, the Indians had withdrawn and Captain 
Snyder followed their trail in pursuit. After pursuing the Indians' trail several 
miles, Captain Snyder came upon four of them in a deep ravine about three 
miles from Kellog's cabins. He charged the red men, killing all four, losing one 
man mortally wounded, William B. Meconson, who was shot twice in this fierce 
hand to hand encounter. Captain Snyder's men now started for the camp, 
carrying Meconson on a litter. The dying man begged for water and two de- 
tachments were sent out to search for it. One squad, composed of Dr. Richard 
Roman, Benjamin Scott, the drummer boy, Corporal Benjamin McDaniels, Dr. 
Francis Jarritt and Dr. McTy Cornelius, was attacked by a large party of In- 
dians concealed in bushes in a ravine at the end of a ridge which the men were 
descending. Benjamin Scott and Benjamin McDaniels were instantly killed and 
Dr. Cornelius was slightly wounded. Roman, Jarritt, and Cornelius beat a hasty 
retreat with over fifty savages in mad pursuit. With murderous yells, they came 
upon the dying Meconson and cut off his head. Snyder's men were scattered 
and fought at a great disadvantage. They soon closed up and engaged the 
Indians in a pitched battle, checking their pursuit. In this battle, the leader 
of the Indians mounted on a white horse exhibited great skill and courage riding 
to and fro among his men, directing the conflict. The aim of the pioneer soldiers 
was good and the red men were repulsed. A riderless white horse, wander- 
ing about the battlefield, plainly showed that the Indian leader had been killed. 
Without a leader, the red men retreated and Captain Snyder held his ground. 

Early in this fray, Major Thomas had volunteered to ride alone to Kellog's 
Grove for reinforcements, an errand full of danger, one of many evidences of 
heroism in this campaign. Just as the battle was over, he returned with rein- 
forcements. Night was approaching and reluctantly Captain Snyder aban- 
doned the pursuit and returned to camp at Kellog's cabins. 

The next day, the i6th, Captain Snyder made a vain attempt to find the In- 
dians and to continue the fight. He buried the dead, and in a few days returned 
to Dixon where his company was mustered out. New levies had arrived to take 
the places of the men and keep up the war. 

Captain Adam Snyder was a native of Pennsylvania. He had walked to 
Illinois in 1817. He was elected to congress in 1836, was presidential elector 
in 1840, and was nominated for governor in 1841, and would have been elected 
had he not died during the campaign. Governor Ford who took his place was 

At this stage of the war, the most effective service was rendered by small 
companies of "rangers," the rough riders of that day. The most distinguished 
of these leaders were Colonel Henry Gratiot, Colonel Dodge, Captain J. W. 
Stephenson, and Colonel Hamilton, son of the great Alexander Hamilton, first 

Cedarville Bridge 

Falls Above the Dam. Cedarville 

Cedarville View 

Near Old Settlers Grounds. Cedarville 





Secretary of the Treasury of the United States. Owing to the slow movements 
of the regular army and the short enlistments of the volunteers, these "rangers" 
alone stood between the settlements and the murderous bands sent out by Black 
Hawk. Located not far from Kellog's Grove, the crafty old Indian was strik- 
ing in all directions at the settlements between the Rock River and the Wisconsin. 
Simultaneous attacks in distant parts of the war zone made effective work by a 
large force impossible. The marauding Indians kept the settlers well within 
the forts, stole their horses, burned their cabins and waiting in ambush, shot 
and scalped defenseless men. 

The Winnebagoes too were restless. Black Hawk used threats and diplomacy 
to drive these more peaceable Indians into the conflict on his side. In protecting 
the stockade forts and the property and lives of the scattered settlements, the 
fearless rangers of Dodge, Hamilton, Gratiot and Stephenson were noted for the 
swiftness of forced marches and for prowess in Indian warfare. Combining di- 
plomacy and daring, these men kept the Winnebagoes neutral. On one occasion 
when the Winnebagoes manifested signs of flight, Colonel Dodge and Captain 
J. B. Gratiot walked alone into the Indian camp and took away with them the 
chief "White Crow" and five others as hostages. An illustration will show the 
rapid movement of these rough riders. On the 8th of June, Colonel Dodge left 
Gratiot's Grove, Wisconsin ; the gth, he was at Kellog's Grove, Stephenson 
County, Illinois ; the loth, he was at Dixon ; the i ith, he was at Ottawa confer- 
ring with General Atkinson and General Brady ; at midnight, he was in Dixon 
again; the i2th, he camped at Kellog's Grove and the I3th, he returned to 
Gratiot's Grove. 


On the i6th of June, Henry Appel was waylaid and shot by a band of In- 
dians near his cabin not far from Fort Hamilton. Colonel Dodge was soon in 
hot pursuit. The Indians crossed the Pecatonica, not far from the Stephen- 
son County line, about thirty minutes ahead of Dodge and his detachment 
of twenty-nine men. Colonel Dodge's own account of this battle is as fol- 
lows : "After crossing the Pecatonica in the open ground, I dismounted my 
men, linked my horses, left four men in charge of them and sent four men 
in different directions to watch for the movement of the Indians, if they 
should atempt to swim the Pecatonica ; the men were placed on high points 
that would give a good view of the enemy, should they attempt to retreat. I 
formed my men on foot at open order and at trailed arms, and we marched 
through the swamps to some timber and undergrowth, where I expected to find 
the enemy. When I found their trail, I knew they were close at hand. They 
had got close to the edge of a lake where the banks were about six feet high, 
which was a complete breastwork for them. They commenced the fire when three 
of my men fell, two dangerously wounded, one severely but not dangerously. I 
instantly ordered a charge on them by my eighteen men, which was promptly 
obeyed. The Indians being under the bank, our guns were brought to within 
ten or fifteen feet of them before we could fire upon them. Their party con- 
sisted of thirteen men. Eleven were killed on the spot and the remaining two 


were killed in crossing the lake, so they were left without one to carry the news 
to their friends." Bouchard says there were seventeen Indians, a French trap- 
per and Colonel Hamilton having found later the bodies of four other Indians in 
the swamp. This battle of the Pecatonica was a type of warfare waged by the 
rangers. The slow work of the muzzle loaders and the uncertainty of the flint- 
locks, caused many a battle to be decided by hand to hand encounters in which 
the determination of the white men more than matched the cunning of the Indian. 
If these rangers were heroic, their wives who remained in the stockades were 
no less so. Mrs. Dodge was urged to go to Galena for safety, but she replied: 
"My husband and sons are between me and the Indians. I am safe as long as 
they live." 

Black Hawk's band made a specialty of stealing horses. If the owner pur- 
sued, he was ambushed, shot and scalped. On June 8th, the Indians got away 
with fourteen horses near the stockade at Apple River Fort, now Elizabeth, 
Illinois. A few days later, ten more were stolen. Captain J. W. Stephenson 
with twenty-one men went out to chastise the Indians and recover the stolen 


Captain Stephenson struck the trail the morning of June i8th and overtook 
the Indians on Yellow Creek about twelve miles east of Kellog's Grove in 
Stephenson County. The Indians were driven in a mad chase for several miles 
and finally secreted themselves in a dense thicket, northeast of Waddams Grove. 
Stephenson's men fired into the thicket, but the crafty red skins refused to expose 
their location by returning the fire. Stephenson left a guard for his horses and 
charged with his men into the thicket, each side losing one man in the encoun- 
ter. Twice more Captain Stephenson charged the hidden foe, losing a man each 
time. After the first volley on the third assault, the whites and the Indians 
fought at close range. Captain Stephenson finally withdrew, so severely wounded 
that he could not continue in charge of his men. Stephen P. Howard, Charles 
Eames and Michael Lovell were killed. The Indians lost only the one man, and 
he was stabbed in the neck by Thomas Sublet. "This battle," says Governor 
Ford, "equaled anything in modern warfare in daring and desperate courage." 

Colonel Strode marched with two companies to the scene of the battle and 
buried the dead June 2Oth. This notable struggle occurred between Waddams 
and McConnell. The country later was settled up and the graves were on the 
road side. The graves were opened, and the bones of the three heroes were 
removed to Kellog's Grove and buried at the foot of the monument to the heroes 
of the Black Hawk War. This recognition was due entirely to the zeal and pa- 
triotism of Mr. J. B. Timms, the present owner of Kellog's Grove. 

Hamilton, Dodge, Gratiot and Stephenson fought with the courage and ef- 
fectiveness of Morgan, Wayne and Stark, and of Sumpter, Marion and Pickens 
of the Revolution. They were the minute men of their day. Stephenson County 
can well afford to erect in appropriate places statues in memory of the daring 
leaders of the "rangers" and to the sturdy riflemen who followed them with 
the old flintlock ; statues that will teach generation after generation of the heroic 


spirits who stood between the settlers and the firebrand and scalping knife of a 
relentless foe, and thus made possible the safe and quiet pursuits of civil life. 

June 24, 1832, about two hundred Indians attacked Apple River Fort, now 
Elizabeth, just over in Jo Daviess County. All the settlers got within the fort 
except Frederick Dickson, who found the door barred just as he arrived. The 
savages were close upon him and he fled into the forest at once. He abandoned 
his horse into the darkness, dashed past the outposts of bloodthirsty Indians 
safely. The Indians were hungry and made a determined attack on the fort. 
Inside the fort, a brave frontier woman kept up the fighting spirit of the occu- 
pants by cheering on the men. She proved a woman's usefulness by having 
one squad of women mold bullets while another reloaded the rifles for the men. 
The Indians were repulsed with loss at every attack. But if aid did not appear 
from Galena, the fort must fall. Early that night, Kirkpatrick, a boy, determined 
to run the gauntlet and ride to Galena for aid, for he feared Dixon had been 
slain. The heavy gates swung out and all alone young Kirkpatrick plunged 
his horse into the darkness, dashed past the outposts of blood thirsty Indians 
and pushed his way through twelve miles of dark wilderness to Galena a ride 
more daring far than that of a Paul Revere. As he arrived at Galena, he met 
Colonel Strode and Dixon on the march to the fort's relief. The Indians, know- 
ing that Strode and Stephenson would soon be upon them, beat a sullen retreat 
and next day attacked Colonel Dement at Kellog's Grove. Once more the 
stealth of Black Hawk's men with scalping knife and British rifles was more 
than matched by the front line of pioneers with a valor that reckoned life after 

The great difficulty still was to keep open the line of communication between 
Dixon and Galena. Reports from the scouts showed that Black Hawk had 
moved his main army from the Rock River into Stephenson County, near 
Kellog's Grove. On June 23d, Major Dement's battalion was ordered by Colonel 
Zachary Taylor to march to Kellog's Grove. The battalion arrived that night 
and the following day hunted about the Grove. Colonel Dement and his men 
were ignorant of the fact that Black Hawk was near by, planning to capture 
the army supplies, which he knew were stored in the cabins. 

Only great courage and a knowledge of Indian ways and wood craft, pre- 
vented a surprise and probable massacre of the party. While on a scouting trip, 
men from Captain Funk's fort had discovered a heavy trail leading from Apple 
River Fort in the direction of Kellog's Grove. Black Hawk had united h's 
army and evidently intended to attack Kellog's Grove. But the uncertainty 
just where the wily old leader would strike, was always one of the hazards 
of the war. Captain Funk was skilled in wood craft and Indian tactics. He 
readily inferred that Black Hawk intended to strike unexpectedly at Kellog's 
Grove, massacre the garrison and capture the stores his people so much needed. 

Funk's Fort was a stockade built around a double log cabin, garrisoned by 
about twenty-five men. It was located over the line in Wisconsin on the trail 
from Kellog's Grove to Mineral Point. In the fort at this time was Mr. J. B. 
Timms, the present owner of Kellog's Grove. He was but a child, his father 
and mother having sought safety in the fort after the Indians became trouble- 
some on the Apple River. In resisting an attack on Funk's Fort, his father 


fought at the stockade, his mother moulded bullets and he rendered such service 
as a child could. 

A frontiersman, Captain Funk instinctively determined that a warning must 
be rushed to Kellog's Grove. He called for volunteers for the perilous jour- 
ney, for Black Hawk's band covered the trail. The risk and the necessity were 
so great that Captain Funk announced that he intended to go himself and Jake 
DeVall, one of his trusted scouts, stepped to his side. The pioneers of the fort 
cheered the men whose courage was equal to their sense of duty. 

Tomorrow would not do. No time was to be lost. All the interest in the 
fort centered in the preparation of the couriers for the dangerous journey. 
Mounted on the best horses and armed in the best fashion, the two heroes rode 
out at sunset to carry the message to Kellog's Grove. On they rode through 
the wilderness into the middle of the night. Sometimes slow, sometimes fast, 
over the ridges, down through the valley, across ravines, through the thickets 
and underbrush, they pushed steadily on, always aware of the danger of ambush 
by a lurking foe. Or surrounded maybe by the murderous red men, they would 
fire the flintlocks then the hand to hand encounter, the tomahawk and the 
scalping knife. But though dangers multiplied as they advanced, they kept 
steadfastly towards the goal. 

In telling of this ride with death, Captain Funk said : "The first signs we 
had of Indians while on this midnight ride was not until we approached the 
cabins at Kellog's Grove, while passing a thicket one mile to the west of the 
grove, at about one o'clock. Here the mare I rode threw up her head and 
sniffed the air. She became very much excited, snorting and becoming almost 
unmanageable. I said to DeVall, "There are Indians in that thicket. This mare 
will smell one half a mile away." We lost no time in reaching the top of the 
hill (where Black Hawk Monument now stands), overlooking the cabins a 
few rods below at the foot of the slope. I called in a loud voice but received 
no answer. I shouted louder, and this time received a response from within, 
which proved to be the voice of Major Dement. Making ourselves known, 
we thus made it safe to approach the cabins, which we lost no time in doing. 
We could not know how soon the crack of a rifle might ring out, or in what 
proximity the foe was hiding. Everything pointed towards haste and vigilance 
for those who had a regard for their scalps." 

Captain Funk and DeVall were met at the door by Major Dement who 
was at once informed of his dangerous situation. The messengers were delighted 
to learn that, instead of fifteen men, the detachment consisted of over two hun- 
dred with officers in charge. Although one o'clock A. M., the cabins were soon 
astir with military activity. The men were in a high state of tensfon, anxious 
for a clash with Black Hawk's British band. Most of the troops were fresh 
recruits, mustered in only eight days before. Many were short term enlist- 
ments, out on a lark fighting "Injins." Except in the minds of a few old In- 
dian fighters, there was little seriousness in the camp of volunteers. 

Black Hawk, the wily old strategist, had laid his plans to capture the entire 
party. He was in a surly mood because he had been repulsed the day before at 
Apple River Fort. His braves were stationed at every point of vantage over- 
looking the camp. Dement's men were surrounded by a determined foe, crouch- 


ing, ready for the surprise of an unexpected assault. As Black Hawk observed 
the movements of Dement's men, he did not fail to notice the weakness that 
lost many a battle to the volunteers, the lack of discipline, over-confidence and 
failure to estimate correctly the fighting qualities of the Indian. Many of those 
lads from the farms of central Illinois, thought that they had only to march 
out in line of battle to see the redskins take to their heels. 

When Captain Funk told Major Dement that he was surrounded by Black 
Hawk and outnumbered two to one, Dement called a council of war and the 
entire command was carefully instructed in plans for defense. At daybreak, 
the Major sent out a scouting party of twenty-five men to verify Funk's report. 
In a short time, a messenger came in at full speed with the exciting news that 
several Indians were in sight. As the scout in a loud voice shouted, "Fivi. 
Indians in sight," the whole camp was at once in commotion. About this time 
on the hill overlooking the camp, a group of Black Hawk's men appeared. 
Everywhere was pandemonium, the anxious, undisciplined volunteers saddling 
their horses in haste to be the first to get a shot at the Indians. As fast as 
they could mount, disobeying orders, they set off in twos and threes in a mad 
rush to get a chance at the red men before the battle was over. 

It was said that Captain Funk at this point urged Dement to form his men 
in line of battle, as not five Indians but Black Hawk's main army was in the 
thicket below. A private, with rifle in hand, overheard that remark and sneer- 
ingly said : "That scout thinks there is an Indian for every tree and stump in 
the grove." Captain Funk replied, "My good fellow, I am afraid you will think 
so too before night." The prophet was soon to be honored in his own country. 
Kellog's Grove was a characteristic frontier battlefield. The ridge swerves 
to the south about two miles west of the cabins. At that point is a ravine run- 
ning to the southeast. Between the ridge and the ravine was a dense thicket, 
V shaped, the point to the west. 

In this V shaped thicket, Black Hawk concealed the main body of his 
braves, hidden by the dense underbrush. The sixty-five year old Indian gave 
final directions to his aids, and riding here and there among his men, per- 
sonally directed the strategy by which he hoped to destroy Dement's troops. 
The Indian warriors, bedaubed with paint and smeared with grease, with feath- 
ers in their scalplocks, were stirred into a feverish valor, ready to spring uwm. 
the unsuspecting battalions. It was the same old plan, Stillman's defeat over 
again. The crafty old enemy of the Americans had set his trap had then seru 
out the five Indians on swift ponies, as a decoy to lure the troops of Major 
Dement into the skillfully planned ambuscade. 

Captain Funk says, that after he had advised Major Dement, he went to 
the top of the hill where he could watch the progress of the battle. The Major 
soon found that he could not keep his forces in order. In a few moments, a 
large part of his men were strung out over the ridge, riding as swiftly as pos- 
sible in pursuit of the decoys and into the trap. The only rule of battle was 
that they who had the swiftest horses were in the lead, the others following 
in small groups. As soon as the first of Dement's men approached, the In- 
dian scouts had wheeled their ponies and riding like the wind trailed the in- 
experienced volunteers into the ambuscade. Dement's men had followed in close 


pursuit and when they were well within the enetny's lines, a heavy volley of 
shot blazed from the thickets, and from every side Indians sprang upon them 
with murderous yells. Two men were killed and almost in an instant Dement's 
horsemen wheeled about and began a fierce race for life. The foremost rider 
ran his horse through the ambuscade and back again with only a bullet through 
his thigh. The rout was complete, the fun of fighting "Injins" was over and 
the disorganized condition of the forces of Dement presented a sad spectacle. 
Along the ridge, some of Dement's men were riding swiftly to battle, not know- 
ing what had happened, while the first arrivals were riding desperately in the 
other direction, back to camp. The red warriors, flushed with victory, painted 
and stripped to the waist, whipped their ponies in swift pursuit. As the Indians 
rode over the dead and wounded, they stopped to scalp and mutilate the bodies 
of the victims. 

Major Dement and Zadock Casey had tried in vain to caution the men and 
form them in military order. That they had failed, was no fault of theirs. 
Major Dement did the next best thing. A short distance to the west of the 
Kellog cabin, he succeeded in halting a part of his command and formed them 
in a line of battle across the ridge to await the attack he was sure would fol- 
low. Following the rout, the Indians swept down on Dement flanking his 
position on both sides and pouring upon his men a gallinng fire from safe places 
behind trees and bushes. Dement fought bravely at the head of his men until 
he was outnumbered and almost surrounded. Seeing that he could not hold 
his position with disorganized troops, he slowly withdrew with the men who 
stood by him, covering the retreat of the panicstricken volunteers who had 
made the first attack. At this point, the Indians turned aside to attack three 
men who had gone out early in the morning in search of their horses that had 
wandered away. The three men were killed and scalped, but not until five 
red men bit the dust beside them. 

This gave Dement time to form his men for another stand. But he could 
not hold his ground. When the yelling savages once more charged upon him, 
his men abandoned him and fled to the cabins. Dement saw the folly of at- 
tempting to stop the Indians in the open field and at the last moment escaped 
to the cabins to make a final stand. Governor Casey's horse had been shot and 
he narrowly escaped after furious fighting. 

The followers of old Black Hawk now surrounded the cabins, confident 
of a complete victory. From behind trees, the red men fired upon the cabins 
and Dement's men returned the fire through the cracks of the log buildings. 
The best marksmen were detailed to pick off the Indians who dared to show 
themselves. Although the flintlocks were in bad order, Dement's men made 
the Indians respect their marksmanship. The Indians shot about two dozen 
horses that huddled in fright about the buildings. 

The men were packed in Kellog's cabins in great confusion. It was a time 
that demanded fast thinking. Dement could keep the Indians back for a time, 
but unless General Posey at Dixon was notified and sent up reinforcements, 
the detachment would be massacred. Dement, who was the coolest man. in 
the lot, saw at once that despatches must be carried to Posey and he called for 
volunteers. It was almost a hopeless task. It was hardihood, to mount swift 


horses, to dash through the enemy's lines, to escape to the Yellow Creek Val- 
ley and to carry the message to Posey. But there is no limit to courage on the 
frontier. The higher the dangers and perils rose, the higher yet rose the valor 
of heroes. Never in American history when there has gone out the call for 
volunteers to risk their owns lives to save others, has that call failed to be 
promptly answered. It was answered by Nathan Hale in the Revolution ; by 
Captain Hobson at Santiago; by Kirkpatrick at Apple River and by Funk and 
DeVall in carrying the warning to Dement. But no situation carried less chance 
of life and success than this. No sooner was Dement's call for volunteers past 
his lips, than Lieutenant Tramrnell Ewing limped to the front with his ban- 
daged leg and said, "Major, I'll go." As another stepped to his side, he asked, 
"What horses shall we take?" "Any ones you please," replied Dement, his 
voice filled with emotion as he observed the heroism of the men. Lieutenant 
Ewing had been the foremost rider in the morning's attack, and had ridden 
through the ambuscade and back again with a bullet in his thigh. 

The two scouts were not strangers to a race with death on the frontier. 
Slipping quietly from the cabins, they rescued two of the best horses animals 
known for their speed, one of them the little black mare belonging to Major 
Dement. They mounted quickly, and with bodies swung low over the horses' 
necks, they dashed down the slope, through the enemy's lines. With a roar 
of yells, the Indians turned to stop the scouts with flying tomahawks and a 
terrific fire from the rifles. But on they rode with charmed lives until they 
appeared into the valley below. 

Black Hawk, the foxy old strategist, was rejoicing at the prospect of a com- 
plete victory with its harvest of stores and scalps, when the scouts made the 
dash towards Dixon. The old Indian shouted his orders in frantic despera- 
tion for if the men escaped, Posey's army would soon be upon him and that 
meant certain defeat. But he was too late. The swift surefooted horses of the 
scouts soon left the Indian ponies far behind. Two hundred lives rested on the 
success of that ride. Through the cracks of the cabin logs, the lookouts kept 
a close watch on a certain spot on the side of a distant hill across the valley. 
After minutes that seemed hours, they saw two horsemen ride into view. They 
turned and waved a signal of triumph to their besieged comrades. The look- 
out shouted that the riders were safe through Black Hawk's lines and the men 
huddled in the cabins gave hurrahs that rang defiantly against the yi-yi-yip- 
yah's of the redskins. 

The tide of battle had turned in a few moments. The two scouts brought 
hope to Dement and despair to old Black Hawk. The stakes were high for 
the old Indian and he lost. This battle at Kellog's (Timms') Grove, in Stephen- 
son County, broke his power and ever afterward, instead of assuming the ag- 
gressive against the Americans, he bent all his energies to beat a safe retreat 
across the Mississippi into Iowa. 

When Black Hawk faced Dement at Kellog's Grove, his four hundred braves 
and his women and children were without food. His braves fought without sup- 
per or breakfast, hoping to dine sumptuously on the stores in the cabins. His 
fierce onslaughts on the cabins had been repulsed and he knew that Posey 
would be upon him before he could reduce the garrison. Sullen and in despair, 


the old leader almost immediately ordered a retreat. Captain Funk said that 
within fifteen minutes there was not a sign of an Indian about the grove. 
Black Hawk's women and children were not far away and as he was com- 
pelled to take them with him, his movement was necessarily slow. He acted 
quickly and in a short time was displaying his troops on the plain below, which 
Captain Funk said was one of the prettiest sights he ever saw, the drill and 
maneuvering being perfect. 

When the Indians had apparently abandoned the scene, Major Dement and 
another man ventured outside at the west end of the cabins. At the same time, 
two Indians appeared on the hill and both fired. The balls struck the logs 
immediately behind Dement and his companion. One of the balls pierced the 
Major's plug hat, cutting his commission which he had placed in his hat for 
safekeeping. For years, it was a great pleasure for Mr. J. B. Timrns, the 
owner of the cabins, to point out these bullet marks to visitors at Kellog's Grove.' 

When the roll was called at the cabins, it was found that Dement had five 
men killed and two wounded. Captain Funk says five were buried. Some 
writers say only four were killed. Four of the killed were William Allen, 
James Black, Abner Bradford and James P. Band. The last named was the 
man who had jested about Funk's alarm. He was cut off and killed near 
where Dement made his first stand. The wounded were Aaron Payne and 
Marcus Randolph. According to Funk and Mr. J. B. Timms, the messengers 
were Aaron Payne and Stephen R. Hicks. They also say that Payne is the 
man who was foremost in the morning's ride into the ambuscade. Stevens in 
his history of the Black Hawk War, substitutes the name of Lieutenant Tra-m- 
mell Ewing for that of Payne. Some writers say that five scouts were sent 
out, but Captain Funk insists that there were but two. 

General Posey arrived just as the sun went down that day, June 25, 1832. 
The burden of the evidence indicates that Posey had already begun his march 
from Dixon and that the scouts met him at Buffalo Grove (Polo). 

After breakfast on the 26th, the dead were buried with military honors. 
This sad duty performed, General Posey started out with part of his command 
on Black Hawk's trail. The Indians had crossed Yellow Creek at a ford on 
the farm owned by Ed Schienburg. After crossing the creek, the trail broke 
into dozens of directions, baffling pursuit. As his commissary wagons had not 
arrived, General Posey returned to Kellog's Grove. The next day his wagons 
arrived and he set out for Fort Hamilton on the Pecatonica River. 

Black Hawk's band of soldiers, women and children were almost destitute. 
W. S. Harney, in an article in The Galenian, July 15, 1832, writes: "I followed 
Black Hawk and his band thirty miles, passing four encampments and found 
many signs of their want of provisions. I found where they had killed and 
butchered horses, dug for roots and scraped the trees for bark." 

Black Hawk had been forced from the Rock River Valley by the approach- 
ing lines of Atkinson and Posey. He had taken refuge in Yellow Creek Val- 
ley and had hoped there to win a decisive victory. But he was outplayed and 
outnumbered and was forced to move into Wisconsin. 

July 21, 1832, General James D. Henry, with his brigade of Illinois volun- 
teers, overtook Black Hawk's band on the Wisconsin River and defeated it with 


great loss to the Indians. The Indians had retreated so precipitately, that for 
several miles the trail was marked by camp kettles and baggage cast aside. 
General Henry fought this battle without orders from General Atkinson, his 
superior, and the victory for the Illinois militia was resented by the regular 
army officers. The battle of July 2ist proved that the volunteers, under a 
capable leader and under rigid discipline, are as efficient soldiers as ever went to 

After July 2ist, Black Hawk was not an aggressive fighter. His power was 
broken and his aim was to cross the Mississippi into Iowa. General Atkinson 
collected his forces and gave pursuit. He brought Black Hawk to his last 
stand on the banks of the Mississippi, just below the mouth of the Bad Axe 
River on August 2, 1832. General Atkinson prepared for battle and assigned 
General Henry and the Illinois volunteers to protect the baggage in the rear. 
It was not desired that the volunteers should win any more glory in this cam- 
paign. But another opportunity was offered the Illinois soldiers to atone for 
the mistakes at Stillman's defeat and Kellog's Grove. 

In order to draw off General Atkinson's army so that his people might- cross 
the Mississippi, Black Hawk picked out about twenty Indians and attacked At- 
kinson's forces. Atkinson charged the Indians and followed them as they re- 
treated, thinking he was in pursuit of Black Hawk's main army. General 
Henry soon observed that the main trail followed to the south to the river. 
As he was left without orders, he led his brigade over the trail and was soon 
engaged in a pitched battle with Black Hawk's main army of over three hun- 
dred braves. General Henry's men charged the Indians and, killing and wound- 
ing many, drove the remainder into the river, many to drown and others to low, 
willow covered islands. 

General Atkinson heard the heavy firing of General Henry's brigade and 
returned in time to order his men to charge the island, killing or capturing the 
remnant of Black Hawk's British band. 

Black Hawk and a few of his men escaped to the north. They were cap- 
tured by friendly Sioux and Winnebagoes and turned over to Colonel Zachary 

General Winfield Scott, who had been sent to take command of the forces 
in the war against Black Hawk, arrived 'in Galena August 3d, the next day after 
the final defeat of the Indians. General Scott came to Galena over the Kel- 
log Trail through Stephenson County. September 21, 1832, he made a treaty 
with the Sacs and Foxes again affirming the treaty of 1804. 

Black Hawk was taken on a trip through the large cities of the east to 
Washington City. In 1833, he returned to his people in Iowa and died at the 
age of eighty, October 3, 1840. 

Black Hawk's War has a manyfold significance in the history of Stephenson 
County, though there was not at that time a single settler in the county. Kel- 
log's Trail was the main line of communication between the settlements about 
Dixon and the lead mines about Galena and Fort Hamilton. Three frontier 
battles were fought in the county: Captain Snyder's Battle, the Battle of KeU 
log's Grove and Captain J. W. Stephenson's Battle near Waddams. Up and 


down Kellog's Trail rode these rough riders: Gratiot, Hamilton, Stephenson 
and Dodge. 

Many of the men who served as regulars or as volunteers, as officers or as 
privates ; men who were destined to become distinguished in the nation's his- 
tory crossed Stephenson County, camping on her soil at Kellog's cabins. Two 
of these men, Colonel Zachary Taylor and Captain Abraham Lincoln, were 
to become presidents of the United States. Albert Sidney Johnston, who kept 
an accurate journal throughout the war, was to be a leading general in the 
Southern Confederacy of which Lieutenant Jefferson Davis was to be president. 
Besides, there were Joseph E. Johnston, Major Robert Anderson, General Win- 
field Scott and many others destined to become famous in the subsequent his- 
tory of the state and nation. 

The greatest significance lay in the fact that the defeat of Black Hawk 
opened Stephenson County to peaceable settlement. Almost immediately, per- 
manent settlements were made. Strong men had conquered the Indian and 
now strong men, the first generation, began a struggle equally heroic the con- 
quest of the wild and native soil to the pursuits of a civilized people. 

In his address at Pearl City, Hon. Henry D. Dement, speaking of the. in- 
dependent rangers said: "It required men like these, with iron nerve, incapable 
of fatigue, yielding to no hardship, to pave the way for the civilization that 
was to follow." 


General Robert Anderson, of Fort Sumter fame, was the United States en- 
rolling officer of the Black Hawk War. He kept the original muster roll of the 
Illinois regiments, battalions and companies in the war. General Anderson's 
widow carefully preserved the roll, and a few years ago, after a conference 
with Congressman Hitt of this district, the original roll was sent to Governor 
John P. Altgeld, to be placed in the archives of the State of Illinois. Early in 
the list of independent companies are the companies of Captain Jacob M. Early 
and Captain Elijah lies. On the former roll, the name of A. Lincoln appears 
as No. 4 in the list of privates. 

In a letter to Samuel Dodds, General Geo. W. Jones, who took part in the 
Black Hawk War, says that during the war, Jefferson Davis visited at his 
home, at Sinsinawa, frequently, and often escorted to his house a young lady 
of this section. General Jones was with General Dodge when the Hall girls 
were taken from the Indians. In another letter, General Jones says, "It was I 
who found the body of Felix StVrain, the Indian agent, who was slain by 
the Indians. General Jones was later a United States senator from Iowa. 

Colonel Hitt, while engaged in a government survey in Stephenson County, 
discovered a charred stake and human bones, at West Point, where, it is be- 
lieved, one of the men who escaped at the time of StV rain's murder, was cap- 
tured and burned at the stake. 



On the site of the battle of Kellog's Grove, stands a monument erected in 
1886. A marble slab on the north side of the monument bears the following 
inscription : 

"Black Hawk War. This monument is reared by Stephenson 
County, A. D., 1886, in grateful remembrance of the heroic dead 
who died that we might live." 

This monument stands on one of the highest points in Illinois and overlooks 
the beautiful valley of Yellow Creek. It can be seen for miles and miles in 
all directions. It is built of yellowish, flinty limestone, taken from the quarry 
nearby on the farm of Mr. J. B. Timms. The monument was built by Mr. 
William Ascher and is eight feet square at the base, three feet square at the 
top and is thirty-four feet high, surmounted by imitation cannon balls. 

The credit for this monument is due to Mr. J. B. Timms, who has lived 
on the site of the battlefield of Kellog's Grove since 1835. Mr. Timms' father 
was a soldier in the Black Hawk War and Mr. Timms, himself, was born in 
Fort Funk, and as a child witnessed the attack on the fort at Apple River by 
Black Hawk in 1832. Mr. Timms has always, maintained an extreme interest 
in the stirring events of the war, and it was he who presented the monument 
proposition to the county commissioners of Stephenson County, 1886. 

In March, 1886, Mr. J. B. Timms appeared before the county commissioners 
of Stephenson County and addressed them on the events of the Black Hawk 
War, about Kellog's Grove, urging the commissioners to make an appropria- 
tion to build a monument there. The commissioners looked upon the proposi- 
tion and appointed a special committee to investigate the matter, consisting of 
H. W. Stocks, H. S. Keck and Isaac Bogenrief, of the board, and Mr. J. B. 
Timms. At the April meeting the committee reported and the commissioners 
voted that a site be secured and the monument built. D. W. Hays, Wm. Dively,- 
Isaac Bogenrief and H. S. Keck, with Mr. Timms, were appointed a commit- 
tee to draft a plan and secure estimates. At the July meeting, plans were 
adopted and the committee was instructed to proceed with the work. The con- 
tract for the monument complete was let to Mr. Wm. Ascher for $535. A con- 
tract for an iron fence was let to Flachtemeier & Bros, for $144. Incidental 
expenses, exhuming and reburying the remains of the soldiers brought teh total 
costs to the county almost to $1,000. The supervisors who voted the funds 
were : William Ascher, W. H. Barnds, Isaac Bogenrief, W. H. Bolender, W. I. 
Brady, J. C. Briggs, Ira Crippen, William Dively, T. J. Foley, D. W. Hays, 
Jacob Jeager, Joseph Kachelhoffer, Henry S. Keck, G. S. Kleckner, J. T. 
Lease, James Musser, J. M. Reese, S. F. Rezner, D. F. Thompson, J. W. Stocks 
and T. B. Young. The monument is the idea of Mr. J. B. Timms, who prose- 
cuted it to its completion. As a boy he had walked over the battlefield and had 
kept in mind the unmarked burial places of the men who fell in battle. In 
1886 he pointed out these places, the bodies were taken up and buried at the 
foot of the monument. Fifty-four years after the war, the remains of these 


men who stood between the Indian and the frontier settlements were decently 

buried and the place was marked by a suitable monument. 
On the east side is inscribed on a tablet : 

"Battlefield of Kellog's Grove, where was fought, June 25, 1832, 
the decisive battle between the forces of the United States and the 
great Indian Chief, Black Hawk." 

The tablet on the west side bears the following: 

"Killed on the field of battle names as far as known Benj. 
Scott, the drummer boy; William B. Makenson and Benj. Mc- 
Daniels of St. Clair County ; Wm. Durley, Charles Eames, Stephen 
P. Howard and Michael Lovell, of Jo Daviess County; Felix 
StVrain, the Indian agent; Messrs. Hale and Fowler, escort to 
StVrain; Wm. Allen, James P. Band, James Black and Abner 
Bradford of Jefferson County, and Wm. Hecklewad of Jo Daviess 

The remains of the soldiers who were killed in Captain Stephenson's battle at 
Prairie Grove between Lena and McConnell, were taken up and interred with 
the bodies of the men who fell about Kellog's Grove. The committee and Mr. 
J. B. Timms, accompanied by W. H. Crotzer, Geo. Roush, S. J. Dodds, Ed. 
Shoesmith, A. Jones, Wm. Dively and sons, C. Shippy and Levi Robey, found 
the bodies of the three men, about eighteen inches underground. One of the 
skeletons was almost intact. The soles and heels of the shoes were well pre- 
served. Pieces of blankets and blue coats were found. With one skeleton 
was found a bullet mould, a jack knife, part of a wooden ramrod, about thirty 
bullets, the handle of a camp knife, several rifle flints, etc. Under another 
body were found several bullets. One of the men killed here, Charles Eames, 
was a brother-in-law of James Mitchel, of Freeport. There is a tradition that 
after the battle, a white man and an Indian were found so tightly clasped in 
each others arms that they could be separated only by severing the head of the 
Indian. These men were Charles Eames, Stephen P. Howard, and Michael 

The bones of the men exhumed at Kellog's Grove were fairly well preserved. 
In one grave, a shattered hip and a flattened bullet were found. The bones 
of fourteen victims of the Black Hawk War, scattered over the county, in 
some cases a dozen miles apart, were exhumed and reburied at the base of the 
monument. Although fifty years had passed, some were in a good state of 
preservation. The lonely grave of Bennie Scott, the drummer boy, was marked 
by his initials, B. S., cut on trees near his burial place. 

The monument was publicly dedicated September 30, 1886. The services 
were conducted by the William R. Goddard Post, No. 258, G. A. R. of Lena, 
G. S. Roush commanding. 


Two thousand people attended the dedication of the monument, September 
30, 1886. At 10:30 A. M. the W. R. Goddard Post and other G. A. R. members 
present fell into line at command of Commander Roush. The remains of the 




fourteen men as they lay in a rough box were viewed for the last time. The 
pallbearers, Messrs. Peter Yeager, A. S. Crotzer, W. W. Lowis, Isaac Bogen- 
rief, Henry Bryman and John Winters lifted the box and, followed by the 
G. A. R. marched with solemn step, following John Van Sickle, fifer, and 
F. J. Harris, snare drummer, playing a military dirge. The coffin was lowered 
into its resting place and three volleys were fired over the open grave by a 
squad of eight from the Lena G. A. R. Post. The post then formed a half 
circle on the north side of the monument and after music by the Kent and 
Ward's Grove band, the president of the day delivered over the monument irv--" 
the following brief words : "Commander of William R. Goddard Post, No. 
258, G. A. R., Department of Illinois : I have been authorized by the people of 
Stephenson County, through their legal representatives, to invite your post to 
dedicate this memorial shaft to the noble purpose for which it had been erected. 
I present it to you for dedication." A guard was then placed at the four cor- 
ners of the monument by Captain Sherry, the flag was raised by the color 
bearer, Mr. Sisson, the army symbol consisting of a musket and accoutrements 
were placed against the shaft and the beautiful dedicatory service of the Grand 
Army of the Republic, appropriately revised for the occasion, was read by Com- 
mander Roush, assisted by Mr. Charles Waite, representing the) navy, and 
Captain W. S. Barnes, representing the army, Captain Geo. Sherry and Chap- 
lain John M. Rees. At the close of the prayer, Commander Roush closed the 
services as follows : "In the name of the Grand Army of the Republic and of 
the people of Stephenson County, I dedicate this monument to the memory of 
the brave men and true, who suffered death but not defeat, at the hands of the 
red men. I dedicate it to the memory of the pioneer soldiers who fell while 
valiantly serving their country in the Black Hawk War." The guard of honor 
with drum, the symbols and the flag was removed ; the salute was given and 
the dedication of the Black Hawk War monument was complete. 

At i :3O after the basket picnic, the people assembled in the grove just 
across the road, north of the monument. A stand had been erected and seats 
provided. A stirring air was played by the band and Dr. Naramore, of Lena, 
called the meeting to order. "America" was rendered by the Yellow Creek 
Quartette, composed of J. P. Betts, Mr. and Mrs. Wm. Goodrich and Mr. 
John Seabold, with Mrs. Hart at the organ. 

Mr. S. J. Dodds, of Lena, explained that not all of the fourteen bodies were 
those of soldiers. Two were bodies of drivers; one, Rogers, dying of illness 
in the cabin and the other, Hallett, being slain in a quarrel by a companion, east 
of the grove, while St. Vrain was an Indian agent of the government. 

Mr. J. B. Timms has frequently advocated that the State of Illinois should 
buy a part, or all, of the site of the battlefield and convert it into a state park. 
The people of Stephenson County, and especially the young people, may well 
afford to make the trip to the battlefield and at the foot of the monument, give 
serious thought to the lives of the men and women of the pioneer days, and 
especially to the sacrifice of those men who drove back Black Hawk's British 
band with flintlock guns, and gave up their lives on the battlefields, about 
Kellog's Grove, now Timms' Grove. 



The first reunion of the survivors of the Black Hawk War was held at 
Lena, on the M. E. camp grounds, August 28, 1891, and an association was 
formed. Mr. J. B. Timms, of Kent, was chairman of the committee on ar^ 
rangements and presided at the meeting. The following officers were elected: 

President, Mr. J. B. Timms, Kent; vice president, H. S. Townsend, War- 
ren; secretary, Samuel J. Dodds, Lena; treasurer, Wm. Lawhorn, Lena. 

The Lena Star Band furnished, the music. Judge Andrew Hinds gave the 
address of welcome. Dr. Monroe, of Monroe, Wisconsin, made a brief response. 
In the afternoon, the principal address was delivered by Mr. S. J. Dodds. 
Other speakers were, Hon. Peter Parkinson, of Fayette, Wisconsin, and Hon. 
Robert R. Hitt, member of Congress from this district. A photograph was 
taken of seventeen survivors of Black Hawk's War. 

Mrs. Wm. Lawhorn, who was in Apple River Fort at the time of the Indian 
attack, gave an interesting account of the event. D. S. Hawley, of Evansville, 
Wisconsin, sang an Indian song and startled the audience with an Indian war- 

The second annual meeting of the survivors of the Black Hawk War was 
held in Lena, June 24, 1892. The day was stormy and the exercises in the after- 
noon were held in the Opera House. President J. B. Timms called the meet- 
ing to order and a welcome address was given by S. J. Dodds. The officers were 
elected as follows : 

President, Henry Dodge Dement, Joliet, Illinois ; vice presidents, J. B. 
Timms, Kent, and H. S. Townsend, Warren, Illinois ; secretary, S. J. Dodds, 
Lena; treasurer, Wm. Lawhorn, Lena. 

Hon. Henry Dodge Dement, of Joliet, delivered eloquently the annual ad- 
dress on the battle of Kellog's Grove. A stirring address was given by Rev. 
B. H. Cartright, Oregon, Illinois. 

The third annual reunion was held in a grove near Pearl City, Illinois, 
June 26 and 27, 1893. The Shannon Cornet Band, and the Pearl City Drum 
Corps furnished the music. The address of the day was made by General Geo. 
W. Jones, of Dubuque, who was an officer in the Black Hawk War. General 
Jones was once senator from Iowa and at this meeting was eighty-nine years 
old. An address was also given by Mr. Henry Mann, of Darlington, Wis- 
consin, who was seven years old at the time of the war. He explained that St. 
Vrains correct name was Savery. An interesting address was given by Gen- 
eral Smith D. Atkins, of Freeport, and another by Hon. R. R. Hitt. 

Officers were elected as follows : 

President, Hon. Peter Parkinson, Fayette, Wisconsin; first vice president, 
J. B. Timms, Kent ; second vice president, Hon. H. S. Townsend, Warren ; 
secretary, S. J. Dodds, Lena; treasurer, Henry Mann, Darlington, Wisconsin. 

The following survivors attended the reunions of the Black Hawk War Sur- 
vivors Association in 1891, 1892, or 1893: 

W. G. Nevitt, L. B. Skeel, J. M. Rees, Jacob Burbridge, Peter Parkinson, 
Cyrus Lichtenberger, Geo. W. Williams, H. S. Townsend, Samuel Hathaway, 
Henson Ireton, W. D. Monroe, D. S. Hawley, Mrs. Sarah Lawhorn, Mrs. 
Eliza Rice, Mrs. Jacob Burbridge, Mrs. L. B. Skeel, J. B. Timms, Fred Chel- 


tain, Robert Hawley, Wm. Lawhorn, Henry Mann, General Geo. W. Jones, 
Samuel L. Dark, D. W. C. Mallory, Samuel Paisley, M. B. Pearsons, W. H. 
Lee, Colonel Daniel F. Hitt. 


During the spring of 1910, Miss Alice Bidwell, head of the department of 
English in the Freeport High School, wrote an historical play based on the 
Black Hawk War. The play was given by the senior class 1910, of the high 
school to crowded houses two nights. 


The first permanent settlement in Stephenson County was made by Wil- 
liam Waddams, in West Point Township, at Waddams Grove, in the summer 
of 1833. Brewster's Ferry was established in the spring of 1834 by Lyman 
Brewster, near Winslow. In the spring of 1835, James Timms and family set- 
tled in the cabins at Kellog's Grove. In 1835, Miller Preston, who had evi- 
dently prospected in the county in 1833, brought a drove of cattle through from 
Galliopolis, Ohio, and settled in what is now Harlem Township, on section 22 
near the old Galena stage road. Benjamin Goddard and family settled between 
Freeport and Cedarville in December, 1835, and December 19, that year, Wil- 
liam Baker came to the present site of Freeport and built a cabin before the 
close of the year on the Pecatonica near the present location of the Illinois 
Central Railroad station. 

The first settlers came from the west. The attraction of lead mining was 
too strong for the time for the simple agricultural and trading life that might 
be offered in Stephenson County. The tide of settler pioneers swept around 
or through this county, and went on to Apple River, Galena, Gratiot Grove 
or Mineral Point. 

The first man to build a cabin in Stephenson County was a man named 
Kirker. It appears that he left St. Louis in 1826 and went to the lead mine 
regions about Galena. Here he was in the employment of Colonel Gratiot for 
a year. Then in 1827, he came into Stephenson County and built a cabin at 
Buffalo Grove. His idea was to establish a trading station there. Nothing is 
known of Kirker after that. He remained in his cabin less than a year and 
it is very probable that he left because of impending trouble with the Indians. 

As far as the definite records go, the first white man to cross Stephenson 
County was Colonel E. H. Gratiot. His father had come to the lead mine district 
soon after the discovery of lead there. In the fall of 1827, Colonel Gratiot with 
a single companion, traveled on horseback from Jacksonville, Illinois, to Gratiot's 
Grove in Wisconsin. After leaving Peoria, Colonel Gratiot and his camp did 
not see a white man until they reached the Apple River district. There was 
no ferry at Dixon, and they forded the Rock River at that place. They rode 
on through Stephenson County by way of Kellog's Grove. 

The outlying settlements of advancing civilization were approaching Steph- 
enson County in all directions from 1825 to 1830. Peoria and Ottawa were set- 


tied and the lead mine regions were overflowed from 1824 to 1832. It is be- 
lieved that there were from seven to ten thousand people in that district in 
the summer of 1827. Dixon was settled in 1827; Polo in 1831; Rockford in 
1835; and Chicago in 1830. 

In 1827 several men, including William Baker and the Prestons, came into 
the county. Their stay was only temporary, but Baker in passing what is now 
Freeport, was impressed with the value of the point as an Indian trading 
station. From the discovery of lead about Galena, no doubt, many traders and 
adventurers crossed the county. It is no more than likely that at times the 
county was visited by those traders and trappers, a kind of Courier de bois, 
which formed the skirmish line of advancing civilization. They took no 
permanent possession of the land. They lived in simple log cabins and only 
to a very small exten engaged in agriculture. They depended mainly 
on fish and game and the Indians for a living. These were men of a 
peculiar type; men who were here to enjoy the solitude of the prairie and the 
forest, and were not cordial to the first permanent settlers who came near 
their cabins. In fact, they were more antagonistic to the advance of civilization 
than the Indians themselves. They were silent men, anti-social, by nature 
constituted in such a way that they preferred life just beyond the frontier set- 
tlements, between the Indian and civilization. As the line of permanent settle- 
ments closed about him, he became restless and suspicious and suddenly and 
quietly, he gathered together his few simple household effects and moved out 
into the wilds, away from what was to him the monotonous life of permanent 
civilization. The rule with them was, "When you hear the shot of your neigh- 
bor's gun, it is time to move on west." 

George Flower, in his "History of the English Settlements in Edwards 
County, Illinois," gives us the best description of the home of one of these 
men who was blazing the way for the advance guard of permanent settlements. 
"Following a trail through a dense grove, I came suddenly on a worm fence 
enclosing a small field of fine corn, but I could see no dwelling. Looking 
closely I observed between two rows of corn a narrow path. In twenty steps, 
I came in sight of a cabin. Looking in the direction of a voice calling back a 
savage dog about to attack me, I saw a naked man fanning himself with a 
branch of a tree. What surprised me as I approached him was the calm, self- 
possession of the man. There was no surprise, no flutter, no hasty movements. 
He quietly said, he had just come from mill 35 miles away and was cooling 

His cabin was 14 feet long, 12 feet wide and 7 feet high. The floor was 
of earth. There was a bedstead made by driving four posts in the ground. 
The posts were sprouting and had buds, branches and leaves growing upon 
them. A small three-legged stool and a rickety clapboard table were the only 
other furniture. Two heavy puncheons made up the door. The culinary ap- 
paratus for this family of seven, consisted of a rim of an old wire sieve fur- 
nished with a piece of buckskin, with holes punched through it for sifting the 
corn meal, a skillet and a coffee pot. There was an axe at the door and a rifle 
leaned against the wall. The man and his boys wore suits of buckskin and the 
wife and her three daughters wore dresses of flimsy calico, sufficiently soiled 




and not without rents. The wife was a dame of some thirty years, square 
built and squat, sallow and smoke-dried, with bare legs and feet. Her pride was 
in her two long braids of shining black hair which hung far down her back. 
Two or three slices of half dried haunch and a few corn pones made us a 
relishing supper. As night advanced, my host, Captain Birk, reached up among 
the clapboards and pulled down a dried hogskin for my especial comfort and re- 
pose. The entire family of seven slept in the one bed and I lay my hogskin 
upon the floor and myself upon it." 

Such was the type of home life among these peculiar men who lived always 
just beyond the borders of our civilization. Yet they served a purpose. They 
broke out the trails. They were experts with the axe and aided the settlers to 
build their cabins. Then, when the settlements crowded about them, they 
moved on to live alone, without neighbors, without law and beyond the irksome 
restraints of law and civil government. Yet in our midst we have after types 
of these men, who yield grudgingly, small pittances to public good, unsocial 
to the end. 

The close of the War of 1812 and the crushing defeat of Tecumseh in 1811 
had paved the way for the great advance. The Winnebago scare gave a slight 
check to the advancing tide, and the Black Hawk's "bad heart," threats of war, 
and the war itself kept back the would-be immigrants. The removal of Keokuk 
and the peaceful Sacs and Foxes into Iowa and the final defeat of Black Hawk 
and the restriction of his power at the battle of the Bad Axe, August 2, 1832, 
removed the last formidable barriers to the permanent occupation of Stephen- 
son County. The settlements followed closely on the defeat of Black Hawk. 
He was defeated August 2, 1832, and in the fall of that year, William Wad- 
dams came into the county and selected the site at Waddams Grove as a good 
place to settle. In the spring of the next year, 1833, as stated above, he built 
his house and brought his family. William Waddams moved from Jo Daviess 
County into Stepljenson County. He had first lived down on the Ohio River, 
then in southern Indiana, then near Peoria, Illinois, then in Galena when he 
built the first water mill, Shullsburg, Wisconsin, Apple River, and White Oak 
Springs. He was evidently pleased with the country at Waddams, for here 
he remained till death. 

The first permanent home built in Stephenson County was the typical fron- 
tier log cabin. It was, in fact, hewed out of the forest. The trees were se- 
lected, cut down and shaped into logs, notched near the ends. The rafters and 
joints were cut and split out of the green saplings. The puncheon floor was of 
the usual order. The boards were rived on the ground and the window frames 
were smoothed up by use of a jack-knife. The great fireplace occupied almost 
all of one end of the house. Such a house could be built, as many of them 
were, with no other tools but an axe and an auger. A thatched roof log barn 
was quickly built and afforded protection for grain and stock. Mr. Waddams 
was a native of the State of New York and Mrs. Waddams of the State of 
Vermont. There were no schools in the first years of Mr. Waddams life in 
Illinois but, being interested in the education of his children, he procured the 
services of a private teacher for his children. He was forty-seven years old 
when he built the first permanent residence in this county on section 13, in 


West Point Township. He was a man of decided opinions and in politics was 
first a whig and then a republican. Mr. Waddams was the pilot who led the 
way for many a family into Stephenson County. Many a settler partook of 
his hospitality while on his way to select a claim here. Frequently he hitched 
his team to the end of the newcomer's wagon tongue and pulled him through 
mud holes or across the fords on the Pecatonica. He was for a long time 
justice of the peace, and earned the title of Squire Waddams. One of his 
specialties as justice was marriages. On such occasions, joy was unrestrained 
and rule was "to let melody flow," and "all was as happy as the marriage 
bells." The "fiddle" played an important part, and the old time "fiddler" who 
knew not one note from another sawed to hearts content way into the morning 
hours on "Fisher's Hornpipe," "The Devil Lookin' up the Lane," "Dan 
Tucker," "The Squawking Hen," etc. The dancing if not as finely polished 
as today was quite as full of glee and vigorous enthusiasm. 

In the fall of 1834 the Robeys came to Stephenson County. Levi settled in 
Waddams Township, February 14, 1835, and his father took up a claim near 
Cedarville. Of the Robeys there were, Wm. Robey and wife, Levi Robey and 
wife and John, Wm. W., Thomas L., Frances L., Elizabeth and Mary, all 
children of Wm. Robey. Levi Robey's grandfather was in George Rogers 
Clarke's army when it conquered the Northwest Territory in 1778-9. 

With an axe and a jack-knife, Levi Robey built a log house on his claim 
in 1835. With a yoke of steers, he hauled the logs over the river on the ice. 
The logs were with great difficulty placed in position, but he persevered until 
he had completed his frontier home. 

George W. Lott had settled in a cabin between Winslow and Oneco. It is 
claimed that a son was born in the Lott family in 1835. If true, this was the. 
first white child born in the county. Others claim that the first white child 
born in the township was Amanda Waddams, born at the Waddams home in 
February, 1836. Lucy, the daughter of Dr. Bankson, was also born early in 
1836, and the honor of being the first white child born in the county is also 
claimed for her. 

In 1835, James Timms and family moved from Jo.Daviess County into 
Stephenson County and settled at Kellog's Grove. Mr. Timms bought the old 
Kellog site from a man named Green, who got his title from Lafayette, a 
French adventurer who was the next in possession after Kellog. Lafayette 
left at the opening of the Black Hawk War. The old house stood till 1862, 
when a new house was built on the site. 

Mr. Timms was a native of South Carolina and his wife a native of New 
York. He was a soldier in the Black Hawk War and his family was pro- 
tected in Funk's Fort and in the Apple River Fort during the war. One son, 
James B. Timms, living at Kellog's Grove, was then a boy four years old. 

Many settlers came into Stephenson County in the year of 1835. Benjamin 
Goddard settled north of Freeport, stopping first with Mr. Robey. Luman and 
Rodney Montague and William Tucker settled near Waddams Grove. Hubb 
and Graves built a cabin near that of Levi Robey in Waddams Township. 
Richard Parriott, Sr., George Trotter, Henry and William Hollenbeck located 
in Buckeye Township. Nelson Waite, Charles Gappen, Alijah Warson, John 


and Thomas Baker and William Willis settled in Waddams. In Winslow 
Township settled Alvah Denton, Lemuel Streator, Hector W. Kneeland, and 
James and W. H. Eels, Jefferson and Louis Van Metre settled in Oneco. 
John B. Kaufmann in Erin; Miller Preston, to Harlem; Jesse Willett, Calvin 
and Jabez Giddings, to Kent; Albert Alberson and Eli Frankenberger, and 
Josiah Blackmore to Rock Grove; Thomas Grain and family to Silver Creek; 
Conrad Vam Brocklin and Mason Dimmick and Otis Love and family to 
Florence. Thomson Wilcoxen spent part of the year in the county and settled 
permanently in Harlem the next year. Harvey P. Waters and Lyman Bennett 
spent the winter near the mouth of Yellow Creek and in the spring settled in 
Ridott township, where they were joined by A. J. Niles. 

Probably the most important settlement in some ways in 1835, was that of 
William Baker, who built a trading post and established his family in a cabin 
on the banks of the Pecatonica River at the foot of Stephenson Street in the 
city of Freeport. Baker had picked out the site earlier and in 1835, with his 
son, Frederick, and his family, began the history of Freeport. 

William Baker came from Orange County, Indiana. He first moved to 
Sangamon County, Illinois, in 1823, and in the spring of 1827 came to the lead 
mine region in Jo Daviess County. In 1829, they went back to Peoria, and in 
1852 went to the lead mine country in Lafayette County, Wisconsin. The 
Bakers had come north just in time to get into the thick of the Black Hawk 
War. To escape the dangers from Indians, the family "forted" in Fort De- 
fiance. Baker and his son, Fred, returned to this county and December 19, 
1835, built the cabin above mentioned which was the first house built in the 
city of Freeport. Mrs. Baker came the following February. Having com- 
pleted a hewn log home, Baker and Benjamin Goddard with an ox team and 
" wagon drove into Wisconsin to bring the family to the new home. -It was a 
long and tedious journey, over unbroken, February roads. But through all the 
difficulties and dangers, there was the inspiration that lifts up every family as 
it moves into a new home. In due time the ox team was back again, and Mrs. 
William Baker was the first white woman to live in the limits of the present"^? 
city of Freeport. Mr. William Baker then entered and owned the land on 
which the city of Freeport now stands. Before his wife arrived Baker, assisted 
by Benjamin Goddard and George Whiteman, erected another log mansion near 
the first. They were assisted in raising it by Fred Baker, Miller Preston and 
Jos. Van Sevit. Baker was favorably impressed with the location and decided 
to establish an Indian trading post and a hotel. A tribe of Winnebagoes was 
still in the community and the tavern would be able to earn something from 
immigrants who were sure to be coming through to the west. He also 
established a ferry, and did a fair business bringing people across the Peca- 
tonica. Mr. Baker was not here long before he became convinced that here 
was a desirable location for a village. That is why he laid claim to all the land 
of the present city. Besides, it cost him only the fee at the Dixon land office. 
The next move was to organize a land company and Baker secured as partners, 
William Kirkpatrick and W. T. Galbraith. This was the first organization in 
Freeport, a real estate firm, under the title of Baker, Kirkpatrick, Galbraith 
& Co. The purpose of this company was to offer inducements to immigrants. 


They anticipated a large increase in westward bound settlers and were prepared 
to exploit the advantages and prospects of the village to be. The town was 
laid out early in 1836, in the north part of the northeast portion of section 31. 
This was later removed because the Indians when they had sold their lands 
had reserved certain tracts to the half-breeds, to be selected in any part of the 
territory they might choose. As soon as it became known that Baker, Kirk- 
patrick & Co. had laid out a town, Mary Myott located her claim on this sec- 
tion and the town builders moved their stakes farther west. Later, John A. 
Clark obtained title to this section and calling it Winneshiek Addition, opened 
it to settlement. 

In 1836, Baker & Co. put up two log cabins, one at the corner of Galena and 
Chicago Streets, and one opposite the monument on Stephenson Street. Mr. 
L. O. Crocker built a small hut on the banks of the river and in the fall occu- 
pied it as a store. The real estate visions of the company seemed to brighten 
in 1836. During the year O. H. Wright, Joel Dodds, Hiram Eads, Jacob Good- 
heart, John Hinkle, James Burns, William, Samuel and Robert Smith, John 
Brown, Benjamin R. Wilmot and several others came in, so that when winter 
arrived there was quite a colony in the new location. F. D. Bulkley came but 
settled on Silver Creek township and E. H. D. Sanborn settled in Harlem. 

A few points of interest have been preserved in regard to these earliest set- 
tlers. Luman Montague, above mentioned, was of English descent. He was 
a native of Bennington, Vermont. He married Miss Elmira Clark in Massa- 
chusetts and, soon after, with his young bride set out on a marvelous honey- 
moon trip. With an ox team and wagon in 1835, they drove the entire 1,000 
miles from Northampton, Massachusetts, to Stephenson County, and settled on 
section 18 in West Point Township. The first Montague to come to America 
was Richard, who settled in Hadley, Massachusetts, 1660. With an ax alone, 
Luman Montague built his log home in this county. He set out the first nursery 
and one time had an orchard of 1,200 trees. 

Hubbard Graves had learned the stone cutter's trade on the Scioto, in Ohio. 
He married and came first to Hennepin, Illinois. He settled in Waddams Town- 
ship, 1835, and built his cabin before the land was surveyed. He sold this claim 
and took two others in Rock Grove Township. He was the first sheriff of 
Stephenson County and was a member of the legislature from 1842-1844. 

Richard Parriott, Sr., was a native of Tyler County, West Virginia. He 
came to southern Illinois in 1826, settled in Indiana a short time, and then 
through Stephenson County to Green Bay, Wisconsin, in 1835, and not finding 
anything to suit him returned to this county and settled in Buckeye township. 
George Trotter, also an early settler in Buckeye was a native of Bourbon County, 
Kentucky, and first came with his father's family to Springfield, Illinois. He 
walked from Springfield to the lead mine region and secured employment in a 
smelter at $16 a month. He enlisted for the Black Hawk War and was in the 
battle of the Wisconsin River and the Bad Axe. After the war, with his wife 
and two children, two horses, two oxen and a wagon, he drove to Honey 
Creek, Wisconsin, but not being pleased there, returned to this county and set- 
tled in Buckeye Township, 1835. Not having money to enter his land, he 
held it as a claim till he secured a title. James and W. H. Eels drove from 


New York to LaSalle County, Illinois, and in 1835 came on to Stephenson 
County, settling in Winslow township and built a double hewed log house. 
In 1836, they moved to Ransomberg and built another log house and made it 
into a tavern, where was held the first election that occurred in that section. 
The nearest mill in 1835 was at Gratiot, Wisconsin, and it was a poor corn 
cracker. Galena was the nearest place for supplies and the nearest post office. 
It often cost 25 cents to get a letter out of the office and this the settlers did 
not always have, as coin was a scarce article. But a letter from the home folks 
way down east was highly prized, and the good natured postmaster frequently 
let the pioneers have the letters on "tick." At the age of 17, W. H. Eels pur- 
chased his "time" from his father for $250. He then worked for $16 a month 
on a farm and in 1838 bought a yoke of oxen. Later he bought a claim of 160 
acres in Winslow Township and married in 1841. He owned the first threshing 
machine in that section. He was a great reader, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1872. T. J. Van Metre came west as a boy from Ohio to the lead mines. 
He served in the Black Hawk War, and in 1836 came to Oneco, paying $100 
for a claim of 150 acres. In 1837 ne made a horseback trip to Cincinnati. 

Thus were laid the foundations for the history of Stephenson County. It 
had its beginning with one family, that of William Waddams in 1833, a t Wa'd- 
dams Grove, 77 years ago. The next year, 1834, saw several new settlements. 
The year 1835 closed with a large number of additional settlers of high quality. 
These settlements formed centers scattered in every direction, around which 
the county was to be built up. In addition to the those mentioned above, there 
were many others whose names have not been preserved. While the popula- 
tion was yet small and the settlements isolated, yet the tide of immigration had 
set in strong, and the rapid occupation of the county was assured. The settlers 
were pleased with the outlook and sent back east glowing reports of the climate 
and the resources of the county, telling in words of praise of "The beautiful 
land, with her broad, billowy prairies, replete with buds and blossoms, with 
her wooded fastnesses, in which the deer and smaller game roamed at pleasure ; 
of the water power that the streams would afford, and many other items of 
interest which conspired to render the country not only fascinating to the 
traveler, but productive under the horny hand of toil." 

The following letter written in 1837 from Damascus to New York, affords 
a good description of the county and the favor with which the new country 
was looked upon by the early settlers. It was written by Nelson Martin, who 
rode through from New York to Damascus on horseback. It was written to 
Norman Phillips, who later that same year settled at Damascus. 

Pekatonica River, Tan. 15, 18^7. 
Dear Friends: 

Agreeable to my promise last fall I will atempt to inform you of our journey, 
healths, and situation. I believe I gave you the outlines of our journey as far 
as Chicago, while I was there, we left there about the first of Dec. ; the ground 
was froze just enough to make good wheeling, and we should have got here 
in four days, but Rock River was impassable which detained us about four 
days longer, but the journey was pleasant all the way through and we saw a 
great many pleasant looking places, but I saw no place on the way that fills 


my eye equal to this. I think Father has made the best choice there is on the 
river for twenty miles. The land lies just as you could wish it, there is a rise 
of land on the south side of the river (or rather on the west for the river runs 
nearly north and south here). It extends up and down the river nearly half a 
mile back fom the river, and between the river and this rise is about three hun- 
dred acres of what is called River Bottom as beautiful as you ever saw. Then 
across the river from this is the timber, but back of this rise I mentioned is 
beautiful rolling prairie as you would wish to see and it's well watered. There 
is some timber on this side of the river, and three or four miles back from us 
is a grove of timber that almost surrounds us. This grove breaks off the north 
and west winds and makes it quite pleasant. The timber land lies the opposite 
side of the river, I think we have the best lot of timber here that I have seen 
since I left York State. The timber land lies beautiful, not only so, but we have 
two as good mill sites as there is in the country. I should like it much if we 
had a good sawmill in operation. Lumber is very high and hard to be got, al- 
most the whole country south of us depends on this river for lumber, but we 
don't think of that at present. We are getting our Rail Stuff acrost to do our 
fencing, we calculate to fence about two hundred acres next spring, we have 
between 20 and 25 acres broke ready for corn and team enough to break as 
much as we can work. Mr. Phillips, I wish you was here to help us till this 
beautiful land, it looks to me as if it would work as easy as a bed of ashes and 
they tell me it produces like a garden, the. whole of it, I think you can't help 
but like it. I have been over the place a great deal, and the more I see of it 
the better I like it. If you come here next summer you will of course come 
by water to Chicago, to this place it is one hundred and twenty miles from 
Chicago. There is a new road laid out from Chicago to Galena. It's much 
nearer than the old road. Father thinks to meet you at Chicago if we get some 
more teams, if not it would be difficult, as we shall have to make use of all we 
have at that season on the farm. Write at all events what time you will be 
there. Phebe Ann, I think if you come out here in less than six months you 
will be as healthy as ever you was. The climate and water here is peculiarly 
adapted to constitutions like yours. It never has failed to cure yet and I have 
heard of a number of cases of the kind and I think you will like our neighbors. 
We have but a few of them but what there is is York State People and they 
are very fine respectable obliging neighbors and I am well pleased with them 
and I think you must be. Tell William we have a claim for him and I think he 
will be pleased with it. It lies handsome and it's well watered. Josephine was 
so pleased with the place that we had to mark a claim for her about the first 
thing. Tell William Stewart if he wants a farm here is the place. There is 
good chances yet but the country is selling so fast that I think it will be all 
taken up in less than a year where there is any chance for timber." 
Respects to all. 

About 1840 a newspaper man passing through the county gave the follow- 
ing description in the Madison Express: "Since I have been here I have been 
about the county considerably, and am well convinced that it is well deserving 
of the high reputation it has attained. From Rockford to Freeport the road 
passes through one continuous prairie, with the exception of a grove about a 

' : - c '-^r : 




mile in length. The prairie is quite rolling, in many places amounting to hifls 
with an uncommonly rich and fertile soil. There is in this county less waste 
land on account of sloughs and marshy places than in most prairie countries 
with which I am acquainted. Yet the land is admirably well watered, there 
being a clear creek nearly every mile, wending its way through the prairie to 
the Pecatonica River. These, I am told, originate in springs, the water always 
being clear and pure and the streams never dry. The banks of the creeks are 
usually high and the land on either side of the water's edge, is perfectly dry. 
A heavy body of timber is to be found on the north side of the Pecatonica 
River, the best growth I have ever found in the state. It is mainly oak, and in 
many places we find a variety of timber." 

Many of the early settlers came from two sources. One was from the men 
who were attracted to the lead mine regions. Many of these men passed through 
Stephenson County by way of the old Kellog trail. They were impressed by 
the beauty and the wealth of the agricultural resources of the county and, in 
due time, when fortunes did not hastily develop in the lead regions, they 
thought of necessity to return to the slower but surer road to competence 
agriculture. Remembering what they had seen of this county and its oppor- 
tunities, they turned back to the eastward along the old trail and from Wad- 
dams and Kellog's Groves, they took up claims along the valleys of Yellow 
Creek and the Pecatonica. 

Another source of settlement was the soldiers of Black Hawk's War. They 
too had crossed and recrossed the county and had not failed to be impressed 
by its opportunities and resources. The Indians were driven out and many of 
the veterans of the war, returned here with their families to take up claims. 
The land down the state was well taken and prices had advanced. But here, 
they could own a quarter section, for a small payment to the land office at 
Dixon. For the most part, they were progressive and courageous men and 
good citizens, who were not afraid to leave a settled community to find larger 
opportunities amidst the dangers and privations of life on the front wave of 

Naturally a few worthless characters drifted into the county. They had 
been undesirable citizens in the east and in the older communities, and had been 
compelled to go towards the west. But here they found too many people of 
the better class and many of them soon moved on to the farther west. The 
settlers here were devoted to industry and to orderly civil government. It 
was not an enticing place for the idle or the outlaw. 

Mr. Lyman Brewster settled in the county and built a ferry near Winslow 
in the spring of 1834. Lyman Brewster was a native of Vermont. He settled 
first in Tennessee. From Tennessee he moved his family to Peru, Illinois, and 
in '1834 settled in Winslow township where he entered a claim, built a cabin, 
cleared 80 acres of ground and opened Brewster's Ferry, the first on the Peca- 
tonica. He soon thereafter rented the ferry to William Robey and returned 
to Peru. In 1835, Lemuel W. Streator purchased the Brewster property, the 
ferry and 640 acres for $4,000, which was paid to the Brewster heirs, Lyman 
Brewster having died at Peru. In 1836, Stewart and McDavel opened a store 
in Ransomberg. Later they moved to Oneco. George Payne also stopped at 


Brewster's Ferry that year, and George W. Lott built a shanty in the present 
limits of Winslow. Others who settled near Winslow were Harry and Jerry 
Waters and A. C. Ransom. 


Mr. Ransom was a real-estate man, a promoter with a powerful imagina- 
tion. He has the honor of having laid out the first town in Stephenson County. 
Of course, it was a paper town, located about 1^/2 miles below Brewster's 
Ferry. At this time, 1834, speculation in western lands was quite general 
throughout the east. The good times dating from 1825 had caused a great 
boom all over the United States. Abundant issues of paper money and wild- 
cat banking schemes and lotteries filled the public mind with a spirit of specu- 
lation. Towns were platted in the wilderness of the west and although the 
location was indefinite, the circulars were so attractive and the spirit of specula- 
tion so high that many men bought corner lots in these paper cities at unwar- 
ranted prices. The country was passing through a period of feverish excite- 

Mr. A. C. Ransom's makeup was such that he was caught up in the wild 
speculation enthusiasm of the day. He entered a tract of land below Brewster's 
Ferry and set his imagination to work building up a modern town in the wilder- 
ness. The land was surveyed and platted. Charts and maps were drawn up 
such as would induce the investor to part with his money. The map of the 
proposed city was illustrated in attractive colors, and showed streets and ave- 
nues in beautiful and regular arrangement. The map showed beautiful parks, 
made attractive by shrubbery, fountains and statuary. Wharves extended into 
the Pecatonica were shown, and on the painted river, a painted steamboat gave 
signs of the commercial advantages of the wilderness. Mr. Ransom added a 
touch of reality to the game by establishing a store in his city. Land agents, 
however, failed to make many sales at fabulous prises, regardless of the great 
inducements offered. The people were too unimaginative and too conservative, 
for they seemed to invest real money in real values. Yet, it is maintained that 
Mr. Ransom sold a corner lot to an eager buyer in St. Louis for $500. The 
scheme failed and Mr. Ransom, disappointed, went to Texas, and a plain, 
unadorned cornfield occupies the site of the once beautifully illustrated paper 
city of Ransomberg. 

Simon Davis, Andrew Clarno and John M. Curtis settled in Oneco town- 
ship in 1834. Some claim an earlier date but this is not certain. Clarno set- 
fled on Honey Creek and Davis near Oneco. In 1835, Lorin and Fred Remay 
opened farms in the same section as did also Ralph Hildebrand and Jonas 
Strohm. In the spring of 1835, John Goddard settled in Buckeye township, 
and Jones and Lucas came in the fall. Andrew St. John, Ira, Job and Daniel 
Holley in 1836. The next year besides those mentioned elsewhere, G. W. 
Clingman, J. Tharp, Jackson Richart, Lazarus Snyder, Jacob Brown and Joseph 
Green opened farms in Buckeye. In 1836, Andrew Jackson and Jefferson Niles 
built a shanty on the east bank of the Pecatonica in Ridott Township. Others 
who settled in Ridott that year were Sawyer Forbes, Daniel Wooten, Horace 


Colburn, Mr. Wickham, John Reed. The Ridott settlement was strengthened 
in 1837 by the arrival of Caleb Thompkins, G. A. Seth, Isaac and Eldridge Far- 
well, Garrett Floyd, Norman, Levi, Isaac and Orsemus Brace. In 1835, in the 
fall, Jesse Willet opened a farm near that of James Timms in Kent. Four 
miles north, Calvin and Jabez Giddings settled; Gilbert Osbern joined the Kent 
colony in the fall of 1836. 

Levi Wilcoxen built a mill on Richard Creek on the present site of Sciota 
Mills in 1836. John Lewis put in the water wheel and Mr. Wilcoxen was as- 
sisted by the following: John Edwards, George Cockerell, William Goddard, 
Alpheus Goddard, Peter Smith, Wesley Bradford, Homer Graves and John As- 
comb. The mill began work in August of 1836. William Kirkpatrick, it is 
believed by many, built a mill on Yellow Creek at Mill Grove, Loran -town- 
ship in 1836. Some say the date is 1839. Kirkpatrick was a member of the 
Freeport firm of Baker, Kirkpatrick, Galbraith & Co. 

Benson Mcllhenny settled near Hickory Grove, Dakota township, in 1836. 
Albert Alberson and Jonathan Corey settled at Rock Grove in 1836. Eli 
Frankenberger came the same year, and Louisa Frankenberger was the first 
white child born in Rock Grove Township. 

The year 1837 stands as a milestone in the history of Stephenson County. 
This year, the county was organized and civil government was established 
within its present boundaries. Up to this time the settlers had been under 
the jurisdiction of Jo Daviess County. The seat of government at Galena, 
however, was so far away that as an old settler put it, "but few of the people 
of Stephenson County knew they were under the government of Jo Daviess 
County." In fact, from the settlement of William Waddams, 'at Waddams in 
1833 tiM J 837, there was no real civil government in Stephenson County. 

That does not mean, however, that there was no government. There was 
little lawlessness and anarchy did not prevail. The people who came into the 
county did what the English settlers have always done. They observed a cer- 
tain "unwritten" law, and when necessary organized to protect their interests 
and rights. During this period, undesirables were piloted beyond the settle- 
ments and warned not to return. 

The State Legislature in session at Vandalia, on March 4th, 1837, passed 
an act providing for the organization of Stephenson County. The act is as 
follows : 

"Be it enacted by the people of the State of Illinois, represented in the 
General Assembly, that all that tract of country within the following boundaries, 
to-wit: Commencing on the northern boundary of the state, where the section 
line between sections three and four, in town 29 North, Range 5, east of the 
principal meridian, strikes said line, and thence east on the northern boundary 
line of the state, to the range line between Ranges 9 and 10 East, thence south 
on said range line to the northern boundary of Ogle County, thence west on the 
northern boundary of Ogle County to and passing the northeast corner of the 
county to the line between sections 33 and 34, in Township 26 North, Range 5, 
east to the place of beginning, shall form a county to be called Stephenson, as 
a tribute of respect to the late Colonel Benjamin Stephenson. 

Section 2. An election shall be held at the house of William Baker, in said 


county on the first Monday of May next, for one sheriff, one coroner, one 
recorder, one county surveyor, three county commissioners, and one clerk of 
the county commissioners court, who shall hold their offices till the next suc- 
ceeding general elections, and until their successors are elected and qualified; 
which said election shall be conducted in all respects agreeable to the law reg- 
ulating elections. Provided that the qualified voters present may elect from 
their own number three qualified voters to act as judges of said election, who 
shall appoint two qualified voters to act as clerks." 


There was great rejoicing in the county over this act -of the State Legislature. 
It meant much to the few struggling settlements. The fact that the county was 
to be organized as a separate political unit, with a county seat and county offi- 
cials would be a big advertisement for the county in the east. That would 
mean that Stephenson County would get her share of immigrants who were 
sure to be coming west. The next step was the election. 

The Legislature had set the first Monday of May as election day and had 
designated the house of William Baker as the voting place. The men selected 
to act as judges of the election were Orleans Daggett, James W. Fowler and 
Thomas J. Turner. They selected Benjamin Goddard and John C. Wickham- 
to act as clerks. The election passed off without excitement. It was too early 
for factions and party organizations to be formed. The number of votes cast 
was 121. William Kirkpatrick was elected sheriff; Lorenzo Lee, coroner; 
Orestes H. Wright, commissioner's clerk and recorder; Lemuel W. Streator, 
Isaac S. Forbes and Julius Smith, commissioners; and Frederick D. Bukley, 
county surveyor. These officials were duly qualified and took up their respect- 
ive duties. 

May 8, 1837, the county commissioners court held its first meeting, accord- 
ing to law, and the officials previously elected were qualified. The first session, 
it is maintained, was held in the residence of O. H. Wright. The court then 
laid off the county in election precincts, as follows : 

Freeport precinct began at the southeast corner of Central precinct, south 
to the south line of the county, west to the east line of Waddams precinct, 
north to the south line of Central precinct and east to he place of beginning. 
Seth Scott, A. O. "Preston and L. O. Crocker were appointed judges of election. 

Central precinct commenced at the northwest corner of Silver Creek pre- 
cinct, south five miles, west 13 miles, north to the southwest corner of Brewster 
precinct, thence east to the place of beginning. Ira Jones, Levi Lucas and 
Alpheus Goddard were appointed judges. 

Brewster precinct commenced at the northwest corner of Rock Grove pre- 
cinct, running south 6 miles, west n miles, north to the state line and east to 
the place of beginning. L. R. Hull, John M. Curtiss and N. E. Ransom were 
appointed judges. 

Rock Grove precinct began at the northeastern corner of the county and 
ran south 6 miles, thence west 9 miles, thence north to the state line, thence 
east to point of starting. J. R. Blackmore, Johnathan Cora and Eli Franken- 
berger were appointed judges. 


Waddams precinct began at the northwest corner of Brewster precinct, south 
to the south line of the county, west on the county line to the west line of the 
county, north to the north line of the county, and east to the point of starting. 
William Waddams, Othmiel Preston and John Garner were appointed judges of 

Silver Creek precinct commenced at the southeast corner of Rock Grove pre- 
cinct, south to the south line of the county, 7 miles west, north to the line of 
Rock Grove precinct, thence east to place of beginning. 

In this manner, the county commissioners laid off the county in six large 
precincts. Each one, however, contained only a small number of straggling set- 
tlers. This act paved the way for local government in the subdivisions of the 

While this first court was in session, a man who had imbibed too freely of 
"Corn juice" became boisterous and started out to paint the town red. The 
fellow was arrested by the newly elected sheriff, Kirkpatrick, and locked up in 
William Baker's root house till he sobered off. He was then released without 
fine or trial. There was, as yet, no jail. Prior to county organization, unde- 
sirables were shown the way out of the settlement, which was less expensive, at 
least, than boarding them in the county bastile. Besides, in those days there was 
an excellent spirit of fair play and there was little necessity for police because 
every man in those frontier settlements was amply able to take care of himself. 
Otherwise, he would have remained east. 

The commissioners evidently were "insurgents." Today they would not 
hesitate to pass laws regulating railroads and other corporations. At their first 
session they undertook to regulate, in the interest of public welfare, the only 
public service institution there doing business, the hotels. The court passed 
an ordinance, prohibiting inn-keepers from charging more than 2>7 1 / 2 cents 
for a meal, 12^4 cents for a night's lodging and 25 cents for a measure of oats 
and the same price for a horse to hay over night. 


The State Legislature had appointed three men, Vance L. Davidson, Isaac 
Chambers and Miner York, to locate the county seat. This kept up consid- 
erable excitemenfc among the settlers till the location was agreed upon. Propo- 
sitions and petitions came in from all parts of the county where any consider- 
able settlement had been made. Each section set forth its particular claims and 
pressed them with great persistence. The two strongest contenders were Cedar- 
ville and Freeport. Cedarville's claim was that it was near the center of the 
county. Its claims were pushed by Thompson and Rezin Wilcoxen. But it 
was a case of an argument of real town against a "paper" town. Cedarville, 
as a village, was yet to be built. It was not surveyed or laid out. Freeport had 
been surveyed and laid out, contained a half dozen houses, a store, a hotel, 
trading post, a kind of ferry and a saloon. Besides, it seems, the business men 
of Freeport got busy. The land company that had laid out the town, offered 
to give $6,500 for the erection of county buildings and William Baker, mer- 
chant, real-estate dealer and promoter, offered the additional argument that 


besides donating the lot for the county buildings each of the commissioners 
should receive a lot. Many, including the Rev. F. C. Winslow, claimed that 
these "inducements" influenced the judgment of the three commissioners and 
prejudiced their decision in locating the county seat. Whatever the truth may 
be, in June, 1837, the commissioners set forth the following proclamation : We, 
the commissioners appointed by the Legislature of the State of Illinois, to lo- 
cate the county seat of Stephenson County and state aforesaid, have located 
said Seat of Justice, on the northwest quarter of section 31, in Township 27, 
North, Range 8, east of the fourth principal Meridian, now occupied and 
claimed by William Kirkpatrick & Co., William Baker and Smith Galbraith. 

Whereunto we have set our hands and seals this I2th day of June, A. D. 1837. 


The real town o'f houses and business had won out against the theoretical. 
Whatever the inducements may have been, if there were any at all, there have 
been few people to criticise the judgment of the commissioners in locating the 
county seat at Freeport. 


Until 1836 the settlement at Freeport was called "Winneshiek," after the 
Winnebago chief of that name who had his village where the Illinois Central 
station now stands. It is not known who named it Winneshiek, it probably 
being taken up by consent. The following origin of the name "Freeport" has 
been handed down by tradition and may be true. William Baker, as beiore 
related, had established a tavern on the river front. Baker was a hospitable 
gentlemen, largely by natural disposition, and in part because he was our first 
real-estate agent. Newcomers were given the glad hand in true frontier fash- 
ion, and the latchstring was always out at Baker's. Many of these strangers 
were entertained by Baker without charge. This process levied heavily upon 
the stock of provisions at Baker's and kept Mrs. Baker hard at work. Mrs. 
Baker finally becoming tired of the business and annoyed by Baker's reck- 
less hospitality, gave vent to her feelings one morning at breakfast and an- 
nounced that henceforth the place should be called free port. The incident 
spread immediately over the community and the citizens thereafter called the 
town Freeport. 

A post-office was established in 1837 in a small room on Galena Street and 
B. R. Wilmot was appointed postmaster, the first in the county. Previous to 
that time, Thomas Grain of Grain's Grove had received mail for Freeport and 
carried it to the settlers, collecting the dues from the recipients of letters. He 
got the mail from the Funk stages. Postage on a letter ran from 18% to 25 
cents. Wilmot was postmaster till 1840. 

The county had now been organized, named, the county seat located and 
named, and officials had been elected. Much county history had been made 
from the time that William Waddams made the first permanent settlement in 
1833 to the first county election in 1837. Stephenson County had passed from 
the "inter-regnum" of rule w ; t''ort Inw into an organized civil government. 

The land company had made considerable improvements in Freeport in 1837, 
reaching to Stephenson Street. Wilmot and the Hollenbecks had built cabins. 







An occasional circuit rider may have held a few meetings in the county and 
in 1836 it is claimed that Father McKean preached the first sermon in Free- 
port. The son of Lemuel Streator died in Winslow township. In 1836 Amanda 
VVaddams was born at Waddams. 

The first marriage is a question of doubt. This distinction is claimed for 
a Mr. Gage and Malindy Eels at Ransomberg in 1836, and by Dr. W. G. Bank- 
son and Phoebe McComber in the fall of 1836. Both, it is claimed, were mar- 
ried by Squire William Waddams. There is absolute evidence of the latter. 
The first marriage after the organization of the county was that of Eunice 
Waddams, daughter of William Waddams, to George Place, July 4, 1837. 
Squire Levi Robey performed the ceremony. The wedding was a quiet af- 
fair. Mrs. Place lived for years in the house built by her father in 1833. 
July 24, 1837, James Blain and Kate Marsh were married at the home of James 
Timms at Kellog's Grove. May 24, 1837, Harvey M. Timms was born at 
Kellog's Grove, being one of the earliest births recorded in the county's his- 
tory. Emma Eads died in Freeport in 1836 in a two-story frame building 
used as a tavern at the foot of Stephenson Street. 

Thomas Milburn and a man named Reed lost their lives in the Pecatonica 
in 1837, a short distance west of Ridott. The men crossed the river in a 
dugout, on their way to work. One morning accompanied by a Mr. Wooten, 
a stepson of Thomas Grain, they started forth in the dugout to cross the river. 
The current was swift and the clumsy boat upset. Reed and Milburn were 
unable to swim and after making vain efforts to cling to the boat, both were 
drowned. Wooten was a fair swimmer and after a desperate struggle, reached 
the opposite shore. The settlers near by were aroused by Wooten, the river 
was dragged and after many laborious hours the bodies were brought to the 
shore. A large emigrant wagon served as a hearse and the men were buried on 
a hillside. After the grave was dug, the bodies were laid in and covered with 
hazel brush, and the grave filled up with dirt. It was a simple, plain burial, 
but in those days lumber for boxes or rude caskets was not easily obtained. 
Such a grave was not secure. A few days later a man passing by found that 
the wolves had dug into the grave and the fustian trousers of one of the men 
were exposed. The passerby threw in some dirt and securing a large block of 
wood, drove it into the opening. The grave was not molested thereafter and 
the place was a point of interest for years. 

The winter of 1836-7 was an exceedingly hard one. The small and scat- 
tered settlements in the county suffered not less than the Pilgrims who landed 
at Plymouth in 1620. The cold was intense and the cabins built without foun- 
dations, and left with many "chinks," were more readily ventilated than 
heated. It is difficult to realize the hardships of the early settlers, and an in- 
sight into their primitive lives is bound to fill this generation with pride for 
the courage and perseverance of those who first settled here. 


It is hardly conceivable that a person who settled in this county as one of 
the pioneers in 1837 would be living today, active and vigorous, and in the 


full possession of the mental faculties. Yet, it is true. In Cedarville there 
lives probably the most remarkable resident of the county, Mrs. Maria Simp- 
son Clingman. She was born in Scioto County, Ohio, December 12, 1809, 
being now in her loist year. She lives in a pleasant home in Cedarville with 
her son, William Clingman, a veteran of the Civil War. When the writer 
called to see her, August 2, 1910, he found her cheerfully pulling a few 
weeds in the garden. It was a rare privilege to sit and listen to her tell the 
story of early days and turn the pages of seventy-three years of history. 

She married Josiah Cling-man in 1830 and in 1835, with two children, the 
family moved first to Putnam and then to LaSalle County, Illinois. The fam- 
ily came by boat down the Ohio and up the Mississippi and the Illinois to La- 
Salle. Jack Ritchie drove the ox team and wagon across the country. Land 
was well settled up about LaSalle and in 1836, on horseback, Josiah Clingman 
came into Stephenson and selected a claim north of Cedarville. In 1837 he brought 
his family to settle on the claim. With a horse hitched on in front of his ox 
team, Mr. Clingman, his wife and three children, George, Mary and Chester, 
the latter being born in LaSalle County, with the simple household goods stored 
in a hogshead, a cow and calf following behind, drove into Cedarville. Mrs. 
Clingman says that at that time, the only evidence of settlers in the present 
village was a little log shack and a mill claim. As they drove past the present 
mill site, Mr. Clingman remarked that a mill was to be built there. When 
asked why he knew that he pointed out two logs that had been cut and laid 
across each other near the rapids, he said it was the mark of a mill claim and 
that was respected on the frontier. The rule was that the man had the right of 
claim who did the first work. These logs had been placed by John Goddard, 
who sold his claim to Dr. Van Valzah that same year. 

Josiah Clingman had begun a log house when he took up his claim the year 
before. While a roof was being put on the house, the family stayed with Levi 
Lucas, whose one room was small enough but whose hospitality was unlimited. 
The one-room log house was crowded and the men slept in a "potato hole," dug 
out under the cabin. 

When the roof was completed, the Clingmans moved into their own, just 
log walls, board roof and a dirt floor. A kind of shelf, made of a slab, laid 
on pins driven into the wall served as a table. While this was placed so that 
it would be the right height when a board floor could be laid, it was far too high 
to be convenient from the dirt floor. Mr. Clingman heard of a place on Yel- 
low Creek where he could get boards for a floor, and after a laborious trip 
with ox-team, he returned with a load of black walnut lumber with which a 
floor was made. 

In such a home housekeeping was simplified. Mrs. Clingman says she got 
along five or six years without a stove. The cooking was done on a fireplace. 
She had brought a few cooking utensils from Ohio, pots, skillets, spiders, etc. 
She made the clothing for the family. She made their hats and caps. She 
picked the wool, spun the yarn, which was fulled and made into cloth at Orange- 
ville, and made for her husband his first overcoat, colored, with two capes. 
All the clothing was home-made. 


They had brought the cow and so had milk and butter. A bee tree was sooq 
found and Mrs. Clingman and her husband hived them in a barrel and al- 
ways had honey thereafter. Flour could not always be had, as it was neces- 
sary to go to Galena or Wolf Creek. When out of flour or meal, corn was 
grated on a grater, and this coarse meal was made into "dodgers." The first 
flour they got came from Galena and was made from spring wheat. Mrs. 
Clingman said it made good biscuits, but would not make loaf bread. The 
flour was brought to Brewster's Ferry from Galena in a wagon drawn by an 
ox and a cow, and Mr. Clingman brought it from Brewster's by ox-team. Other 
supplies were secured from Savannah. Mr. Clingman's father and mother, 
Geo. W. and Polly Clingman, joined them in the new home before the floor 
was laid. They had left an elegant home in Ohio, but after looking around 
Cedarville and killing a deer, the elder Mr. Clingman said, "Polly, I would not 
go back to Ohio for anything," but his wife not yet accustomed to frontier 
life, rebuked him for the enthusiastic expression. Besides a few deer there 
were quail, pheasants, prairie chicken, etc., which afforded a pleasing change 
from salt pork. But Mrs. Clingman is impressive in her earnestness when 
she tells of the generous hospitality of the earlier days. All were obliging 
and there was no envy and jealousy. A splendid spirit of cooperation pre- 
vailed. And however simple and plain the home and equipments; however ar- 
duous the trials and difficulties of the log -cabin days, the people were happy, 
she says, maybe happier than the present generation. Her children always had 
plenty to eat and wear and were well dressed. In closing the interview she 
said: "It was for the children that we left comfortable homes in Ohio in the 
midst of relatives and friends, to make a new home here in the wilds, where 
land was cheap. Here we could find homes and farms for the children and 
they have all done well." 

Mrs. Clingman's life in this county covers the period of 1837 to 1910; from 
the year of the organization of the county to the present day. She is now the 
idol of the community, always a source of inspiration to the young people who 
listen at her knee to the stories of long ago. 

Norman Phillips and wife came to Stephenson County from New York by 
way of the Great Lakes in 1837. At Green Bay, Wisconsin, James Phillips 
was born. The Phillips family settled at Damascus and has been one of the 
prominent families in the county. The Phillips men have always maintained 
a reputation for great height, any of them shorter than 6 feet 2 inches being 
the exception. Norman Phillips' wife was Mary Stout, of Maryland, whose 
ancestry runs backs to Holland and to England. Her mother was a Wolfe, in 
some way related to General James Wolfe, the conqueror of Quebec in 1859. 

So far the "claims" were respected only by the "unwritten law of the set- 
tlers themselves." If a man selected a piece of land to his liking and "blazed" a 
tree around it, or cut a furrow around it, he was secure and guaranteed in its 
possession. The lands were not yet surveyed and not yet open to sale. The 
settler held his claim till the government put the land on the market, and then 
he alone could buy it. Many difficulties and disputes arose when the land of- 
fice at Dixon opened the sale in 1843. 1 general, the rightful claimants won 
out. In the absence of law, claim societies were organized by the settlers to 


protect themselves against speculators and "claim jumpers." Stringent meas- 
ures were sometimes resorted to and strong hints given certain disturbers and 
undesirable citizens to move on to the west. In 1836 a "claim meeting" was 
organized. A president, secretary and board of directors were selected. The 
object of the organization was mutual protection and cooperation. If a mem- 
ber's claim was encroached upon, his complaint was investigated by the officials. 
The trespasser would then be notified and warned to abandon the claim in five 
days. If he did not comply, he would be "carefully removed with his effects 
from the premises." There was a general understanding that two sections, two 
miles square, should be the extreme limit claimed by heads of families. 

A man named John Barker tested the sincerity of the "claims" organiza- 
tion. In 1839 he settled on one of Benjamin Goddard's claims, now a part of 
Freeport, and refused to withdraw. He was brought before a committee of 
which William Baker, the founder, was chairman. The committee, after hear- 
ing the evidence decided that Barker was guilty and ordered him to vacate in 
a certain time or receive 30 lashes. Barker was a poor student of human nature 
and failed to leave on schedule time, taking a long chance with those stern 
frontier men. When his time had expired, he was seized, tied up by his thumbs 
and given the prescribed lashes. He had a change of heart and was willing to 
obey now, but he was escorted to the county line and advised to keep forever 
out of the county or he would be hanged. George Whitman had previously 
been driven out of the county by the citizens because he had been held guilty 
of stealing horses. This "unwritten law" had two very creditable features 
it was prompt and effective. 

It was believed that a big boom was coming in Illinois in 1836 and 1837. Set- 
tlers had been coming into the state in large numbers. Speculation was in- 
dulged in and laws were passed by the State Legislature, providing for a sys- 
tem of internal improvements, based on the faith and credit of the state. A bill 
was passed, providing for the construction of railroads, canals and improve- 
ment of rivers. Great results were expected to follow. Banks overreached their 
resources. People went heavily in debt. The whole structure, practically, fell 
down before it got started. 

Hard times followed, not only in Illinois but all over the country. There 
had been too much flirting with paper money, loose banking and speculation. 
The bottom fell out. The hard times, no doubt, were felt here in this county, 
but the main result was the check given to prospective immigration. 

The year 1836 was a big year in the settlement of this county. Reports 
had had time to get east and the encouraging letters to friends, telling of big 
and sure opportunities here, brought out a large number of settlers. Many of 
them were men of great ability and were destined to take high rank in state and 
nation. For the time being, however, they served well the immediate purpose 
of settling up the country and adding to its social, economic and political life. 
Among the settlers this year were the following, many of whom brought 
their families: Thomas J. Turner, Pells Manny, Alford and Sanford Giddings, 
Washington Perkey, "Widow" Swanson and family, Thomas Flynn, E. Mul- 
larkey, Henry Hulse, M. Welsh, William and Leonard Lee, Nathan Blackmore, 
Aaron Baker, John Pile, Ira Job, Daniel Holly, Lydia Wart and family, Thomas 


Hawkins, John Boyington, M. Phillips, John Lobdell, L. M. and Jeremiah 
Griggsby, Barney Howell, Mr. Veliey Nicholas Marcellus, John Dennison, W. 
P. Bankson, M. D., the first physician to settle in the county, Harmon Cogges- 
hall, James Macumber, Alonzo Denio, Duke Chilton, William Kirkpatrick, Gil- 
bert Osborn, A. J. Niles, Sanford Niles, Sawyer Forbes, Daniel Wooten, John 
Reed, E. H. D. Sanborn, the Ostranders, Garrett Lloyd, Asa Nichols, Lorenzo 
Lee, Madison Carnefix, Phillip Fowler, D. W. C. Mallory, Joseph Norris, Thomas 
Hathaway, his mother-in-law, a Mrs. Brown, James Shinkle, and a few others 
whose names have not been preserved. 

Thomas Grain, who came to Grain's Grove in 1835, was an uncle of At- 
torney J. A. Grain of Freeport. He was of an old English family, the first of 
which came to America in 1645. O ne branch settled in Georgia, later removed 
to Kentucky, then to Randolph County, Illinois. From there, Thomas Grain, at- 
tracted into this section by the lead mines, after serving in the Black Hawk 
War, settled Grain's Grove south of Freeport. 

Conrad Van Brocklin came from New York to Florence township in 1835. 
He was the first settler in what is now Florence Township. Harvey P. Wa- 
ters was of English descent. He came to Stephenson County from New York 
in 1836, and settled in Ridott township. He worked as a farm hand a year 
and then entered a claim of 66 acres in Ridott township. He married Miss 
Mary Lloyd, of Welsh descent, whose home was near Pecatonica and who was 
educated at Mt. Morris College. 

John Brown, 1836, Scotch, was born in Pennsylvania, educated in Ohio, 
moved to Illinois, 1827, served in Black Hawk War, was married in 1834, 
settled in Stephenson County in 1837. He had visited the county in 1834. John 
Brown was a great plowman. He broke prairie land for 16 years. At one 
time he owned over 1,000 acres of land and in 1888 owned 700 acres. Elliot 
Lee and wife drove from Hamilton County, Indiana, to Rock Run Township 
in 30 days in 1836. His father was a native of North Ireland. His wife was 
Rachel Kratzer. The Lees had a family of 12 children. Mrs. Swanson and 
her family had settled in Rock Run Township in 1836. Mullarkey and Thomas 
Foley established a settlement in Rock Run, which has always been called Irish 
Grove. In 1827, Pat Giblin, Miles O'Brien and a Mr. Corcoran joined the 
Irish settlement. T. J. Turner put up a grist mill in Section 34, Rock Run. 

In May, 1836, a young man from the east arrived in Stephenson County, 
who was destined to be a man of deeds and influence in the history of the 
county and State of Illinois. His name was T. J. Turner. He was born in 
Trumbull County, Ohio, but moved with his father's family to Butler County, 
Pennsylvania. He was a young man of spirit and ambition, and at the age of 
18 heard the call of the great west and started for the much talked of lead mine 
district of Illinois and Wisconsin. He stopped in Chicago a time 
and spent three years in La Porte County, Indiana. He then went on to the 
lead mines and earned a livelihood, constructing bellows for the furnaces. He 
then fell in with the ebb tide that brought so many easterners back to Stephen- 
son County after an experience in the lead mines. Young Turner had learned 
the trade of a millwright and going into Rock Run Township, built a mill near 
Farwell's Ferry on the Pecatonica near the mouth of Rock Run. Nearby with 


Julius Smith and B. Thatcher, he built a cabin home. His life here was not a 
little like that of Lincoln, for when not busy at his work in the mill, he was 
studying and laying the foundation of a self gained education. 

Mr. Turner's first visit to Freeport was in search of food. Provisions were 
scarce and he and his associates for days had nothing more to eat than boiled 
corn. This became too monotonous a diet and Turner set out for Galena for 
supplies. He traveled along the Pecatonica till he came to Baker's cabin at 
Freeport. He attracted attention by the usual frontier shouts and soon a boy 
appeared and ferried him across the river in a canoe. Mr. .Baker had gone on 
a trip to Peoria for supplies. Mrs. Baker and the family greeted him in true 
western manner and offered him the hospitality of the home. Having gone 
without his regulation diet of boiled corn, Turner was hungry and asked for 
food. But the larder was almost empty at the Baker home. Mrs. Baker freely 
offered him what was left two small corn dodgers, and what was left of a 
catfish. Turner declined, hungry as he was, to finish the last of the family's pro- 
visions and only on the assurance and insistence of Mrs. Baker that her hus- 
band would return during the night with provisions from Peoria, did he sat- 
isfy the gnawing of a long empty stomach. The barking of dogs during the 
night signalled the return of Baker and Turner slept well with the prospect of 
a good breakfast in sight. Next morning, after a hearty meal, he went on his 
way to Galena, impressed by the generous hospitality of Freeport. He worked 
a while at Galena and returned to the mill with supplies. 

In .1841 Turner went to Freeport and his life was bound up in the history 
of that city till his death. Such was the early life of a man who built the first 
county courthouse, was justice of the peace, lawyer, states attorney, member of 
the State Legislature and a Constitutional Convention, a member of Congress, 
and a colonel in the United States army in the Civil War. If conditions were 
hard, they had, at least, fashioned a great character. 

The county was making headway in 1836. Farms were opened up. These 
were small clearings around the cabins and that accounts for the small crops and 
the scanty supply of provisions. Blacksmith shops, rude affairs indeed, were set 
up. The people had come to stay. There were no roads, no bridges, few fer- 
ries, and it was a long journey to Peoria or Galena for supplies. Thomas Lott 
had begun the work of setting up a sawmill at Winslow, and William Kirk- 
patrick had begun one on Yellow Creek, while Turner had set one up in Rock 
Rin. There were no grist mills north of the Illinois River and Kirkpatrick set 
up a corn-cracking machine at his mill on Yellow Creek. It was a crude mill, 
doing coarse work cracking corn and wheat, but it had to serve the purpose for 
a time. 

A number of men settlers arrived in 1837. Dr. Van Valsah, the forerunner 
of a vast concourse of Pennsylvania Dutch, came into the county and settled on 
a claim near Cedarville, purchased from John Goddard. Other arrivals were Nel- 
son Martin, Joseph Musser, Isaac Develey, Thomas and Samuel Chambers, Wil- 
liam Wallace, a Mr. Moore, Joseph Osborn, Daniel Guyer, Pat Giblin, Miles 
O'Brien, a Mr. Corcoran, Hiram Hill, John Howe, I. Forbes, John Milburn, a 
Mr. Reed, Stewart Reynolds, Sanford Miles, John Tharp, Jackson Richart, 
Saferns Snyder, Joseph Green, Charles MaComber, Rev. Philo Judson, Cornelius 


Judson, S. F. M. Fretville, Alfred Gaylord, Rev. Asa Ballinger, Phillip and War- 
ner Wells, Henry Johnson, Oliver and John R. Brewster, Isaac Kleckner, Ezra 
Gillett, Joab Martin, James Turnbull, Father Ballinger, H. C. Haight, Jacob 
Gable, Valorus Thomas, George W. Babbitt, John Edwards, Levi Lewis, John 
Lewis, Rezin and Levi Wilcoxen, Caleb Thompkins, the Farwell Brothers, the 
Brace family, Garrett Lloyd, Harvey and Jeremiah Webster, Sybil Ann Price, 
Samuel F. Dodds, Robert T. Perry, Robert and Wm. LaShell, James and Oliver 
Thompson, Jacob Burbridge, Samuel and Marshall Bailey, Martin Howard, 
John Harmon, a Mr. Graham, Alonzo Fowler, Major John Howe and others. 

Irish Grove in Rock Run and "Dublin" in Erin townships were settled in 1837. 
Both were progressive settlements and were among the first in the county to es- 
tablish churches. 

In 1837, Nelson Martin opened a school in Freeport. William Waddams, 
Thomas Grain, James Timms and others had hired private teachers, a school 
was begun in Ransomberg in 1836 and thus by 1837, education was making a 
beginning in the county. 

In 1837, many new arrivals of unusual worth strengthened the county's settle- 
ments. Among these were Isaac Stoneman, Daniel Eobrust, Richard Earl, John 
A. McDowell, Major John Howe, Michael Red, Luther and Charles Hall, Richard 
Howe, Chancellor Martin, Richard Hunt, a Mr. Davis, Abraham Johnson, Wil- 
liam Stewart and L. W. Guiteau settled in Freeport. 

Mr. Guiteau was a native of New York. He came west and was in the mer- 
cantile business at Ann Arbor. In October, 1838, he came to Freeport and en- 
tered the mercantile business on the banks of the Pecatonica where the Illinois 
Central depot now stands. In 1840, he was made postmaster by President Har- 
rison. This office he held several years. Later he held positions as clerk of the 
circuit court, cashier and one of the directors of the Second National Bank, com- 
missioner of schools, and police magistrate. 

June 6, 1837, the county commissioners granted Hiram Eads a license to keep 
a tavern, charging him a fee of $12.00. 

June 5, 1837, the county commissioners established the following tolls for 
ferrying across the Pecatonica : 

Four horse wagon and horses $ .75 

Two horse wagon and horses 50 

One horse wagon and horse 25 

Three or more yoke of cattle i.oo 

Wagon with one yoke of cattle or more 75 

Footman o6j4 

Man and horse \2 l / 2 

Head of cattle o6 l / 2 

Hog or sheep 02 

September 5, 1837, the county commissioners voted to ask for bids on county 
jail and county court house. 

The contract between the commissioners and Thomas J. Turner for the county 
jail reads as follows: "Said jail shall be 20 ft. x 24 ft. squair, and stand on a 
stone wall, three feet thick and three feet high, and laid in lime mortar. To be 
hewn oak logs, fourteen inches squair and the lower floor to be laid with sleepers 


hewn on three sides, six inches thick, closely laid and covered with a floor of three 
inches Plank Spiked down with large Iron Spikes. The upper floor is to be of sub- 
stantial joist and a suitable distance apart and covered with inch and one-half 
plank, doubled across each other, well spiked down. The second story to be nine 
feet high, to be covered with good substantial roof with shingles eighteen inches 
long, laid five inches to the weather. Width rafters to be of oak, not more than 
two feet apart. The gable end to be studded with four inch studding and 
weather-boarded with black walnut siding, an outside Stairway to be of white 
oak and a door in the senter of the gable, said door to be of good oak plank 
doubled and well spiked with Iron Spikes and a good strong lock attached to the 
same. There are to be two window^, 14 inches squair, Barred with inch squair. 
There is to be a trap-door in the upper floor, three foot squair, hung with good 
substantial Iron Hinges and an Iron Bar reaching across with Strong Strap and 
Lock attached. The logs are to be doweled together and the work to be done in 
a neat and workman-like manner." For building the jail Mr. Turner was to re- 
ceive $1,000 in good and lawful money, the jail to be completed in 18 months. 

The organization of Stephenson County and the election of county officers in 
$120.00. On this lot the jail was built. 

Page 104 of the County Records of Stephenson County shows a contract to 
build the jail according to specifications, signed by Charles Truax and H. VV. Hol- 
lenbeck. Why Mr. Turner gave up the contract, has not been discovered. The 
records show receipts by Truax & Hollenbeck for building the jail. William 
Baker went on their bond December 22,. 1838. 


The commissioners bought the lot where the first ward school stands for 
1837 began a new period of county history. The county commissioners, Lemuel 
W. Streator, Isaac Forbes and Julius Smith, on December 5, 1837, contracted with 
Thomas J. Turner for the erection of a frame courthouse and a log jail ; the lum- 
ber and logs were prepared during the winter. The courthouse was completed 
in 1840 and served its purpose till 1870 when it was torn down and the present 
building erected. Twice the old courthouse was struck by lightning. The build- 
ing of the courthouse was delayed because of the hard times and because county 
orders were bringing only thirty cents on the dollar. 

At the election held in 1838, Mr. L. O. Crocker who opened the first store 
in Freeport, was elected assessor and Hubbard Graves, tax collector. Both men 
were well fitted for their work. All kinds of personal property were listed for tax- 
ation. Assessments were made as high as the law permitted. A cheap watch 
cost its owner 6%c and three of the wealthier men in the county paid $2.00 tax 
each on their watches. The rate was 45c on the $100.00 and Collector Graves col- 
lected $96 and some cents which would give the assessed valuation in 1838 as 

Election day in 1838 was a kind of holiday in the precincts over the county. 
In Ridott the election was held at Daniel Wooten's home. John Hoag and Wil- 
liam Everts were judges and Horatio Hunt and H. P. Waters were clerks. The 
other voters were seven in number: D. W. C. Mallory, Philo Hammond, Giles 


Pierce, Zebulon Dimmick, William Barlow, Pat Fronne and S. Forbes. Wooten 
had a barrel of whiskey at the house and that added to the joy of the occasion. 
Most of the men had a capacity for liquor that would admit frequent attacks on 
the barrel without losing their equilibrium. One of the men, however, had in- 
dulged beyond reason and was scarcely able to navigate. He crossed the river 
safely but had trouble getting up the hillside that was made slippery by the uown- 
pour of rain, the usual election day rain. Bravely the elector charged up the steep 
and slippery slope, but down he tumbled again to the foot of the hill. His friends 
laughed as he assaulted the hill time and again, only to roll in the mud back to 
the starting point. Finally his neighbors went to his rescue, aided him up the hill 
and to his home. 

In the year 1838 Freeport gave its first Fourth of July celebration. Eads had 
completed his hotel and invited the country around to take dinner with him. Rev. 
F. C. Winslow, O. H. Wright, Benjamin Goddard, Isaac Stoneman, Allen Wiley, 
William Baker and the Truax boys constituted a kind of committee on arrange- 
ments. Rev. Winslow trained a singing class and they sang Revolutionary ballads 
and a national ode. The class consisted of Miss Cornelia Russel (Hazlett), Eliza 
Hunt, Marion Snow, Mrs. Amelia Webb (Jewell) and others. The audience was 
delighted with the singing. The exercises were held in Benjamin Goddard's barn, 
where the Declaration of Independence was read and O. H. Wright delivered the 
address of the day. After the dinner, the exercises closed with dancing. For 
years, this sane Fourth was one of the bright spots in the county's early history. 

In 1837 Demison and Van Zart who had settled at McConnell and built a mill 
in 1836, laid out a town there. In 1838 Robert McConnell drove a number of 
cattle into the county, bought the prospective town and named the place McConnell 
Grove. The place has also been called "Bobtown" and "New Pennsylvania." 

H. G. Eads, in 1838, built a tavern at what is now the corner of Stephenson 
and Liberty streets. The contractor was Julius Smith and the new tavern was 
called the "City Hotel." In the fall Mr. Benjamin Goddard built the "Mansion 
House" which was used as a hotel. It had nine rooms but was one of the won- 
ders of the county at that day. The house was used for years as a pop factory 
by Galloway and Shocks and stood diagonally on what is now the Y. M. C. A. 
tennis court lot, on Walnut Street. The same year John Montgomery and A. 
Wiley built a house on the ground now occupied by the L. L. Munn building. 
This building was later used as a hotel. In 1838, the ferry which had been estab- 
lished by Baker was moved to the foot of Stephenson Street and was conducted 
by H. G. Eads and others till a bridge was built. The first location of the ferry 
was near Goddard's Mill. A new store was opened by Elijah Barrett. Richard 
Hunt erected a frame building on Van Buren Street and also one on the corner 
of Van Buren and Spring Streets, and Michael Red built a house. Many farms 
were opened in the county and production largely increased. 

In 1838 a stage line was opened between Freeport and Chicago by J. B. Win- 
ters. At Freeport connection was made with Frink and Walker's line to Galena. 
The next year Winters went out of business and Frink and Walker ran the line 
through from Chicago to Galena. The clumsy stage came into Freeport three 
times a week. To make the trip from Chicago to Freeport required two days 
and a half and the fare was $5.00. Mrs. Oscar Taylor, who came from Chicago 


in the stage in 1839 says, "The stage was a commodious affair, and left Chicago at 
two o'clock in the morning. There were ten passengers. At daybreak we reached 
a country tavern where we breakfasted on Rio coffee, fried fat pork, potatoes and 
hot saleratus biscuits. We crossed the ferry at Rockford at midnight. We had 
to get out and climb the sand bank after crossing the river." The stage driver of 
that day was in a class by himself. He was engineer, just as much so as the man 
who holds the throttle over the Omaha Limited. He was an expert in handling 
the reins, the whip and several varieties of profanity. The stage, slow as it was, 
was yet an important factor in building up Stephenson County. It brought new 
settlers, supplied a kind of express and carried the mail. It served its purpose 
till the railroad took its place. 


The suicide of one of the early settlers in 1838 caused considerable excitement 
in the county. The unfortunate person was a member of the Lott family in what 
is now Oneco Township. The man in question inherited a form of insanity and 
was subject to constantly recurring moods. He was watched closely by the family 
but in 1838 he evaded them. When his absence was noted, the neighbors and rela- 
tives got up a searching party and set out to find the missing man, fearful of the 
result. After considerable searching, he was found hanging to a tree and when 
cut down by Alonzo Denio, he was almost dead. All efforts made to revive his life 
ended in failure. He hanged himself about 1^2 miles from the village of Oneco, 
and the spot has had about it much mystery and superstition. 

What is known as the first wedding ceremony performed by a preacher oc- 
curred in 1838. The contracting parties were Thomas Chambers and Rebecca 
Moore of Rock Grove township. The marriage was solemnized at the home of 
the bride's father, John Moore, the Rev. James McKean, officiating. The cabin 
was the usual one room log house, 20 feet square, but it is said that forty guests 
witnessed the ceremony. People had come 18 miles to attend the wedding. 

In 1838 larger crops were cultivated. Larger fields had been cleared about 
the cabins and increased production was the result. The struggle for a living was 
yet a little too tense for people to indulge to any great extent in politics. The 
murder of Lovejoy at Alton stirred the settlements, but otherwise the people were 
inclined to be interested more in local than national affairs. 

Many new settlers came in 1838. Many came from Pennsylvania following 
close in the footsteps of Dr. Van Valzah who had located at Cedarville. Among 
the newcomers in 1838 were: John Walsh, Robert Sisson, H. G. Davis, John and 
Thomas Warren, Isaac Scott, Samuel Liebshitz, Christian Strocky and two sons, 
Chauncey Stebbins, F. Rosenstiel, P. L. Wright, William Preston, Louis Preston, 
Mathew Bredendall, Lewis Gitchell, David Gitchell, Philo Hammond, Ezekial and 
Jacob Forsythe, John Floyd, Putnam Perley, Ezekial Brown, John Brazee, Chris- 
tian Clay, J. D. Fowler, James McGhu, Adrian Lucas, Newcomb Kinney, Charles 
A. Gore, Hiram Gaylord, Cornelius and Johnathan Cavan, Alex Allen, John 
Bradford, Thomas Loring, Columbus and Ichabod Thompson and Elias and Ed- 
ward Hunt. About this time, Thomas Carter, Isaac Rand, Samuel Bogenrief, L. 


L. Pitcher, a man named Lathrop and others settled in Kent. This year the first 
house was built in Rock Grove village. Irish Grove in Rock Run and "Dublin" 
in Erin townships were settled in 1837 an< i received several additions in 1838. 

By the close of 1838, the settlements in the county had been extended and 
there was general feeling that the country had a good future ahead. The value 
of claims advanced with the increase of settlers and with the building of mills, 
the stage line and the presence of stores. The store of O. H. Wright in Freeport 
was at this time the largest and busiest in the county. 

In the year 1839 the county made about the same progress as in 1838. This 
year a building was put up on Lyman Montague's farm in West Point township, 
to be used exclusively for school purposes. The courthouse though not entirely 
completed was in service. The log jail yet unfinished was doing duty, with citizens 
on guard to keep the lawbreakers within. 

In the spring of 1839 a Norwegian colony came across the Atlantic and made 
its way into this county, settling in Rock Run township. The location had been 
selected by an advance agent of the colony, who had looked over a considerable 
part of the country only to decide on Stephenson County as best of all. Many of 
the Norwegians were farmers and at once set to work opening up farms. Some 
were tradesmen and began to work at their trades. They were frugal and in- 
dustrious and they and their countrymen who have followed have added to the 
high character of the people of Stephenson County. 

A man who was to influence very largely the history of Stephenson County 
character. He was educated in part, at the Academy at Fredonia, New York, 
arrived in Freeport in 1839. He was a native of New York state and while his 
parents were poor, they gave him a training in childhood that made his a strong 
where he made his own way through school by hard work. The desire to be a 
merchant was strong in him. He was forced to begin in a small way, and started 
west on a peddling trip in 1838, arriving in Freeport in 1839. Here he opened 
up a general store and was successful. In 1842 he bought goods in New York and 
established his credit in New York and Chicago. In 1843 ne bought the land 
which is now known as Knowlton's Addition. He was twelve years a director in 
the Chicago, Galena and Union Railroad. 

Before 1840 the settlers did not understand the wealth that lay in the prairies. 
The settlements had been made along the streams in the groves. This was for 
the double purpose of being near the water and near the timber, to make build- 
ing convenient. A drive in any direction over Stephenson County today will show 
the beautiful pictures of prosperous homes in the groves that follow the winding 
streams. The prairies were then unfenced and stock roamed at will, feeding on 
the wild grasses of the lowlands. Breaking the tough prairie sod was a hard 
proposition. It was usually done with a wheel in front and lever to gauge the 
depth. Five or six yoke of oxen were necessary to pull the plow. It cut a fur- 
row 20 inches wide and from 3 to 5 inches deep. The blade of the plowshare had 
to be kept sharp by grinding and filing at the end of almost every row. When a 
farm was once broken this way its value was greatly increased. 

In 1840 Freeport contained about forty houses. The growth of the town was 
slow, because largely of lack of a convenient market. There were two or three 
hotels, three stores : O. H. Wright, L. W. Guiteau's, corner of Liberty and South 


" Galena Avenue ; and D. A. Knowlton's at the corner of Galena and Van Buren 
Streets. There were no banks. Farmers left their money with merchants who 
deposited it in cities having safe deposits. 

Liquor was sold at saloons conducted by James Rock, James Montgomery and 
Abraham Johnson. It could also be bought at all the hotels except at Goddard's 
Mansion House. Whiskey was sixpence a drink and there was little or no re- 
straint placed on its sale and use. Law enforcement was not rigid and on the 
whole Freeport was not very different from the average western town of that 

Gambling was quite as general as drinking. Faro was dealt openly and was not 
interfered with. James Rock operated the game keno at his place and day and 
night had a good attendance at his bar and around his gaming tables. His place 
was a little room in the building then standing at the corner of Galena and Van 
Buren Streets, where Moogk's drug store now stands. Drinking, it is claimed, 
was almost universal among the citizens, and gambling went on openly with little 
protest. Debauches and disorder were not infrequent. The rougher element was 
augmented by many transients, who were going to or from the lead mine regions. 
These men aided in giving the town a reputation for drinking, gambling and disor- 
der which it was slow to shake off. 

Yet there were a few temperance people in the county. In 1840, owing to the 
increasing gambling, drinking and disorder, Rev. F. C. Winslow and John A. 
Clark saw the necessity of arousing a counteracting influence and commenced 
meetings in the same building where Rock's saloon was located. This was, no 
doubt, the first attempt at a "revival" in the county and in the midst of conditions 
far from the best the faithful few did an excellent work. "Father" McKean 
and Rev. Winslow and others held meetings in the courthouse, schoolhouse and in 
private rooms. /Their congregations were small but they were sincere and faith- 
ful and laid the foundation for the religious and civic work in Freeportf] Speak- 
ing of these early services, Mrs. Oscar Taylor says : "Every Sunday the farmers . 
and the town people assembled in the building which did duty as carpetner shop 
six days in a week, and served as a church on the seventh. Our religious services 
were hearty in spirit, though crude in form. Rev. Mr. Morrell came from Rock- 
ford to conduct services once in two weeks ; alternate Sundays Mr. O. H. Wright 
-F Mr. Guiteau read a sermon. Mr. John Rice offered prayers; Mr. -Clark was 
nominally leader of the congregational singing, but actually each one sang in the 
key best adapted to his or her voice ; the effect was volume of sound rather than 
harmony. But this lack of musical unity resulted in the organization of a singing 
school, for which Mr. Frederick Winslow volunteered his services as leader. The 
singing school was a success. We were trained until we could give with great 
effect, Rochester, Dundee, St. Thomas and Dover, with 'Now be the Gospel Ban- 
ner in Every Land Unfurled' and 'Come Ye Disconsolate,' for special occasions." 

The best description of Freeport in 1839 and '40 is that given by Mrs. Oscar 
Taylor in a paper before the Freeport Woman's Club, and published in the Free- 
port Journal, August 28, 1909: 

When Sunday came the big farm wagon was brought to the door and we 
started for the service in the village. Farm wagons were the only conveyances in 
use ; and those who drove horses instead of oxen were considered fortunate. How 

Old Lena Hotel 

American House 

Pennsylvania House 

Tremont House 






well I remember that first drive to Freeport, fording Yellow Creek near where 
the Breweries now stand, crossing a track of low land called Rattle Snake Bot- 
tom, from which I expected to hear snakes rattling their warning of poison. 
From the lowlands we drove on, gradually ascending a hill and coming down the 
slope on Adams Street, following the state road on a diagonal cut to Galena Street, 
where church was to be held. 

"I looked in vain for the expected town. An unfinished Courthouse, no sign 
of a school house no regular street a few houses apparently dropped hap-hazard 
with paths or roads taking the shortest cut from place to place. Instead of a 
church spire to indicate the place of worship, a carpenter shop, where Moogk's 
drug store now stands, threw wide its hospitable doors ; and the pews consisted 
of boards supported by kegs. There was no sign of either minister or congrega- 
tion, and a small boy announced : "Everybody has gone to a funeral and there 
isn't to be any church today." 

That small boy is now Mr. Wilson Guiteau, of New York City, half brother 
to the honored president of our Woman's Club. 

And this was Freeport! With a sudden sinking of the heart I realized the 
limitations of the new civilization and felt myself worlds apart from my school 
life in Troy and my social life in Rochester. 

Without even being cheered by the sight of "Barr's Tavern," past which 
my brother drove to console me, I turned my back on Freeport, glad to take 
refuge in the farm which had, at least, no associates with society, and under the 
peaceful influence of the calm wide prairie the forlorn little town was forgotten. 

Freeport had apparently failed me, but it happened that one of my girl 
friends from the east was living within walking distance from my father's farm. 
Indeed it was the enthusiastic letters of this friend, Cornelia Russell, which had 
influenced my father in the location of his farm. The day after my drive to 
Freeport, I started in search of my old friend. Following the foothpath across 
a wide pasture I came to the Pecatonica River, and across the water I discovered 
the log house among the trees. Standing upon the bank I called "Over ! Over ! 
Over!" Presently from beneath the branches of a willow a boat shot out; in it 
was my old friend Cornelia, using the oars as skillfully as did Ellen in the Lady 
of the Lake. The delight of our meeting was mutual. It was with many mis- 
givings that I mustered courage to venture into her little boat, but Cornelia in- 
sisted that an upset was impossible as the thing was dug out of the round trunk 
of a big tree. Once seated in this primitive craft I thought it great fun, and we 
spent the morning rowing and floating up and down the muddy, crooked little 
stream with its odd Indian name. Cornelia seemed to have lived on the water all 
summer long, her face was nut brown from exposure to sun and wind, her hair 
hung in curls down her back, her eyes were sparkling with life, health and joy. 
She was wholly in touch with nature. "You are a wood nymph," I announced, 
after calm scrutiny. "No, I am a fisher maiden," she replied, "for every after- 
noon I go up and down the stream setting my fish nets, and every morning I 
look for my catch." But all the same she had formed many a woodland intimacy 
among the wild animals. Half-tamed prairie wolves came to her door and a wild 
fawn always answered her call. 


We took a picnic lunch on shore, cooking fish out of Cornelia's net and roast- 
ing potatoes in the ashes. All the afternoon we lingered out of doors. The sense 
of primeval nature was indescribable, the silence so profound, it was as if we were 
under some spell of enchantment. "Is it always so? And do you never tire of 
it?" I asked Cornelia. "I never tire of it because nature is never twice the same 
but always lovely," she answered. 

When I took the little footpath homeward through the pasture I felt that this 
had been a red letter day, indeed, and looking back through nearly sixty years 
it is still to me a red letter day. 

The compartment store of today is the direct descendant of the general country 
store of early days, for Mr. Guiteau's stock contained a little of everything and 
the post office in addition. The post-master's duties were not arduous in a town 
of fifty inhabitants, with mails but three times a week. It was as the guest of 
Mr. and Mrs. Guiteau that I greatly changed my opinion of the resources of 
Freeport. I made the acquaintance of Mr. and Mrs. D. A. Knowlton, Mr. and 
Mrs. Orestes H. Wright indeed, I think I met everyone in town. 


The people in 1840 were not without their amusements. While different 
from the amusements of today, they were adapted and a part of the life 
of the tissue. Skating and sleighing were common forms of invigorating ex- 
ercise. Besides, there were quiltings, husking-bees, raisings and dances. Danc- 
ing was more general than it is today. The music was furnished by such old- 
time "fiddlers" as Daniel Wooten and "Professor" Clark. A man who under- 
stood his business "called" to dance. After the day's work was done, young 
people, and often times their elders, drove for miles over the snow to dance 
away till the morning hours. "There was sound of revelry by night' in the old 
log cabin home. It was not all privation and hard work in those days. The 
pioneers earned the joy they had, and no people were ever more entitled to the 
relaxation of innocent pleasures. 

Mrs. Oscar Taylor's dscription of early social life of Freeport is a graphic 
account by one who was without a superior in the social life of the county for 
over fifty years: 

The social center of the little colony was the really charming cottage built 
by Mr. John A. Clark. Here were to be found a piano and a library, with many 
of the refinements of an eastern home, and one would need to go far today to 
find three more elegant and interesting women than Mrs. Clark and her sisters, 
Mrs. Thompson Campbell and Mrs. Stephenson, for whose husband Stephenson 
County was named. Brilliant and witty women of the world were all three. At 
the close of my visit with the Guiteaus I spent several weeks with Mrs. Clars, 
and I remember one incident of that time which illustrates the crude and incon- 
gruous social conditions. A man known as Don Wooton, living at Ridott had the 
frame up and the floors laid for a house. Wishing to give a ball before the par- 
titions of the house were up, invitations were sent out far and near. Now Mr. 
Clark as an office-holder must keep his popularity, and therefore insisted that the 
ladies of the household must accept the invitation. "And mind you," he said, 


"no matter what turns up to amuse you, don't let the suspicion of laugh ap- 
pear." Major Howe, who was dignity itself, took all our party with the Guiteau 
family in his bob-sled. Preliminary to the dance we were invited into the kitchen 
of the old log house where supper was given us with utter absence of formality, 
our host informing us by way of apology, that his wife was "powerful weak" 
and had gone to rest before the snow had melted Mrs. Wooton had gone to 
her final rest. After supper we repaired to the dancing hall and ranged our- 
selves on a bench across a corner of the room. The host himself furnished 
the music, twanging away upon an old fiddle, while the dance went on with 
great dash and spirit. Such gyrations, such double-shuffles, such pigeon-wings 
and variations in step as we witnessed that night might have rivalled a planta- 
tion dance in old Virginia. During a lull in the performance a young man with 
a pitcher and one tumbler circulated some beverage among the tired dancers. 
He approached our group and pouring some whiskey into the tumbler offered 
it to Mrs. Stephenson. Without surmising its contents she had taken the tumbler 
into her hands then she looked at the young man in bewilderment as to what to 
do next. Suddenly catching the amusement in Mrs. Clark's eyes, she burst into 
a contagious ripple of laughter, in which, in spite of ourselves we all joined. 

The man gave an angry look and with some threatening murmur left us. 
Fearing some unpleasantness from the episode, Mr. Clark speedily withdrew 
with his party, but nothing came of this flurry to Mr. Clark's disadvantage as 
he was re-elected clerk of the circuit court. 

It was in connection with the circuit court the following April that the first 
dinner party was given in Freeport. The annual session of the court was looked 
forward to as the festal week of the year. There were two resident lawyers in 
Freeport at that time. It was the custom of the day for lawyers in the various 
little towns to travel with the judge on his circuit and great preparations were 
made for enertaining the strangers. During court week Mr. Clark had at his 
home Mr. Thompson Campbell, exrsecretary of the state, said to be at that time, 
the most brilliant man in the west, with Thomas Drummond of Chicago, after- 
wards judge of the United States Court, while several other prominent men 
were entertained at other private houses. I had the good fortune to be one of 
the guests at a dinner given to the presiding judge, Hon. Daniel Stone, of Cin- 
cinnati, and the rest of the legal lights. The dinner was not served in the dozen 
courses of today. An enormous wild turkey was provided, a creature so large 
that it was sent for roasting to a neighbor having an old fashioned brick oven. 
The turkey made a fine appearance when placed before Mr. Clark for carving, 
but upon application of the knife its power of resistance became evident. Im- 
pervious and flexible, the joints baffled every effort of the carver, for only the 
surface of the turkey had been cooked. "Cut the thing into steaks and let it be 
broiled in the kitchen," suggested Mr. Campbell. While this suggestion was fol- 
lowed the interval of waiting was delightful. Judge Stone was at his best with 
anecdotes and stories. Mr. Campbell convulsed the company with brilliant wit 
and sparkling sallies while Mr. Drummond, courteous and grave, added dignity 
to the assembly. In due time the turkey steaks were brought in and proved a 
delicious variation to the ordinary fashion of serving turkey. The rest of the 
dinner gave proof of the ingenuity and skill with which our hostess utilized 


the extremely narrow resources of the market. As a social entertainment I 
doubt if a more successful dinner was ever given in Freeport. In freedom from 
formality, in the frank recognitions of limitations, in the utter absence of the 
critical spirit, there was then a zest and charm and freshness in social intercourse 
which seems to vanish with the development of conventionality. No one was 
homesick or wished to return to the old life of the East or to the trammels of 
fashion. Fashion was indeed forgotten, for each woman was her own milliner 
and dressmaker. 

In the very country itself one felt the buoyancy of youth. I shall never 
forget my own amazement at the careless prodigality with which nature lavished 
her flowers that springtime. Not only were the prairies aglow with colors, 
every road and pathway bordered with flowers, but the little town itself seemed 
like summer houses in the midst of a great garden. I have seen the banks of the 
creek by the Adams Street brewery purple with the lovely liatris, no longer to 
be found in this region, and the green swards aflame with the painted cup. 
Equally generous was mother nature in meeting material needs, for game was to 
be had for the seeking, venison in abundance, quail, wild turkey, prairie chicken, 
fish in the streams and duck in the marshes. This sense of abounding life and 
vigor was in the very air we breathed, our energy was unfailing, either in work 
or in pleasure; and no one considered trouble or recognized the possibility of 

It was at this time that two enterprising young men opened a dancing school ; 
this was short-lived, however, as those in the town inclined to dance considered 
themselves versed in the art. Mr. Bailey, the teacher, turned his energies to 
the manufacture of fanning-mills, resuming his lighter profession of an evening 
when dances were given and he was needed to call the changes in the quad- 
rilles. For years the music of all the dances in the county was furnished by 
Charlie Pratt. Charlie Pratt and his fiddle were inseparable, and supplied music 
as inspiring to young feet as does the Gibler orchestra today. Genial, kind- 
hearted old Charlie Pratt, with his gun and fiddle, was always a happy man, a 
favorite with the men, women and children Peace to his ashes ! I am afraid he 
rests in a nameless grave. 

In those early years all new comers were welcomed with cordial friend- 
liness; but as young men outnumbered the maidens, the advent of each young 
girl was hailed with delight ; in consequence every lassie had many a laddie. 

In each man's anxiety to secure a wife before a rival stepped in, the tender 
question was often popped on the briefest acquaintance and with little ceremony. 
One young man was even rash enough to send a written offer of himself, his log 
house and his broad acres to two girls on the same day, in order to stake his 
claim, as it were, without delay. It happened that the two girls were intimate 
friends and confidents. As a result the over-anxious swain received on the 
same sheet of paper, replies from the two young ladies. The one demanding 
first love, the other demanding constancy. Undaunted the young man, knowing 
of a land in the east where maidens were plenty as strawberries in June, made 
the journey on foot to Chicago, by water to Buffalo and for all I know he walked 
to England; but he returned with a wife. Another young farmer was less 
easy to please. Like Ceolebs of old he started in search of a wife, but he had 


his ideals. He first called upon Miss Snow, then confided to a friend that she 
was agreeable but too black ; the next proved fair but homely ; the third was 
blonde and pretty but too stout. Sorrowing he turned homewards, but stopped 
in on the way at a house where he saw a young girl who pleased him, and 
straightway offering his hand he was accepted, two weeks later was married, 
living happily for many years after. 

Before the period of settled ministers in Freeport the marriage ceremony 
was often arranged without much regard to convention, as when our leading 
physician tucked his sweetheart into a crockery crate well lined with straw, seated 
himself beside her and sped with her to Rockford where the nuptial knot was 
tied. One young couple had the good luck to secure a bishop to officiate at the 
farm house home of the bride. The lady, learning that Bishop Chase was to 
form Zion Parish in the year 1842, set her wedding day accordingly. Wedding 
guests assembled from Rockford and Freeport as well as from neighboring 
farms. The good Bishop, in his full white robes, began the service. When he 
came to the prayer and saw the company still standing he paused, then issued 
the command : "Kneel down, every one of you." And down on their knees 
dropped the astonished guests, some of whom seemed unaccustomed to the posi- 
tion. Having concluded the marriage the bishop proceeded to the next business 
in hand which happened to be a christening, for one of the guests was a young 
mamma who brought her infant to the wedding in order to seize that chance 
of having the baby christened by the bishop. 

The social circle widened steadily, with many delightful additions. Mr. James 
Mitchell had married Miss Kate Clark, establishing a home which still con- 
tinues to be a center of hospitality. Pennsylvania had given us the Shaffer 
family, one of the daughters being Mrs. Jesse Snyder, the other marrying Dr. 
Sterns, and both so long prominent in church and social life; while later the 
brothers, Wilson and William, won distinction in the Civil War. From Cen- 
tral New York came the Clark Brothers, Silas and Warren, with their families ; 
energetic young men they both were, adding to the prosperity of the town. 

Inevitably a gradual transformation was taking place in the simple irtfor- 
mality of social life. We dropped the friendly custom of speaking to a stranger 
without waiting for an introduction. Innovations of fashion had crept in, as the 
more ambitious women sent to Rockford for bonnets or to Chicago for patterns ; 
until finally came the advent of the milliners and dressmakers. Inevitably, too, 
the accent of sectarianism was heard in the religious fold. It was not enougu 
that we were Christians, we must be Presbyterians, Baptists, or Methodists as 
-.veil, unless we happened to be Catholics or Episcopalians. Father Brewster, a 
man of sweet and saintly spirit, with Mr. Wright and Mr. Knowlton, fanned 
the fires of Presbyterianism, as Elder Schofield faithfully cleared the channel for 
the Baptist stream. Mrs. Russell and Father Wilcoxon cultivated the field of 
Methodism, entertaining with unwearied zeal the elders and exhorters who 
builded up its faith. Father Kavanaugh raised the Catholic standard, and the 
German Lutherans were forming the neucleus of St. John's Church. It was 
the Presbyterians who first reared their own place of worship, the brick church 
of 1849, which stood for many years on the present site of the Y. M. C. A. 


building. These years also gave us two weekly papers, the Prairie Democrat 
and the Freeport Journal. 


August 29, 1839, saw the first session of the Circuit Court convened in 
Stephenson County. Hon. Daniel Stone, of the 6th Judicial Circuit was trie 
judge. As there were no local attorneys at that day, the lawyers were imported. 
They came mostly from Galena and Mr. Hoag, Thompson Campbell, and prob- 
ably E. B. Washburne. Others, no doubt, were present who followed the Circuit 
as was the custom in those days. Hubbard Graves was sheriff and John A. 
Clark was clerk. John C. Robey and Wm. H. Hollenbeck were qualified ana 
appointed deputies. Previously a Grand Jury was impanelled. It consisted of 
John Howe, Luther F. Hall, Samuel F. Dodds, Levi Wilcoxen, Joseph Lobdell, 
Pells Manny, A. B. Watson, Mason Dimmick, Levi R. Hull, Robert Barber, 
Newcomb Kinney, Johnathan Corey, Phillip Fowler, Thomas Grain, Loring 
Snow, Elldridge Farwell, Giles Pierce, D. W. C. Mallory, Job. S. Watson, J. K. 
Blackamore, Thompson Wilcoxen, Edward Marsh and Alpheus Goddard. 

The Petit Jury consisted of: Frederick D. Bulkley, John Goddard, John Va- 
nepps, Rodney Montague, Mason Dimmick, J. H. Barber, James Hart, Bartholo- 
meu Fletcher, Samuel Nelson, James Canfil, Thomas Earley and Joseph Green. 

The first case that came up was one of Asa B. Ames vs. Jacob Stroder, on 
appeal. The case was dismissed and plaintiff mulcted of costs. August 27, John 
O'Connor and Jackson Buskirk were indicted for the prevailing crime of horse 
stealing. As they were unable to employ the counsel, the court appointed 
Thompson Campbell and John C. Kimball to defend the accused. In this case, 
however, a change of venue was taken to Jo Daviess County, and the case was 
tried there. Hiram Walker was also tried and convicted of horse stealing. He 
was sent to prison at Alton for a term of four years. Another case was that 
of the State vs. Robert Campton for riot. There being no other business, the 
court adjourned on the same day it convened. On April 7th and September 7th 
the court was in session again for two days in April and three in September, 
with the same officials. 


A man who had stolen a horse in Winnebago County was arrested and brought 
to trial in Freeport. The indictment was defective and on plea of his counsel, it 
was apparent that the criminal would have to be released by the court. The court 
evaded this, however, by adjourning court till next day. At once a man was sent 
on horseback to Rockford to procure a new indictment, and take the man there for 
trial. He arrived at Rockford at midnight and fording the river, came near losing 
his life at the hands of a body of "Regulators" out after horse thieves. He finally 
aroused a justice of the peace and securing a new indictment, again forded the 
Rock River and made his way back to Freeport in time to be present at the opening 
of court next morning. When court opened, the prisoner was discharged but 
immediately re-arrested on the new warrant and taken to Rockford where he was 
tried and convicted. 


Court proceedings in the early times were different from the present system. 
A case of Mike Walsh is a good illustration. Mike was brought before Justice 
Red on a complaint of assault and battery. A jury was duly summoned and the 
case was fully tried. When the case was ready to go to the jury, Mike started a 
little procedure that was not on the program, and a kind of jury "fixing," different 
from that indulged in today. Just as the jury was ready to retire, Mike came in 
with a tin pail of whiskey and a cup. Addressing the jury, he said, "Gentlemen, 
I expect you will hang the little Irishman, but we will have a drink together first." 
After the drinks had been passed around, the jury retired. They were not out long 
before Mike appeared with more whiskey and tried to get into the jury room to 
give the jury further "dustructions." This almost provoked a fight with the 
constable which was forestalled by the appearance of the jury, which rendered a 
verdict of "not guilty," and divided the costs between the parties. The money 
was thus paid to the justice who in turn paid it to the witnesses and others till it 
was all gone. 

Claim jumping was a common crime in the early days. Worden P. Fletcher, 
known as "Pony" Fletcher, was one of the guilty claim- jumpers. He came to the 
county in 1830 and that year was arrested and brought to trial before Justice 
Richard Hunt, at the corner of Galena and Van Buren Streets. At the close of 
the trial, the justice decided "Pony" guilty and meted out to him rather stringent 
punishment. Fletcher objected to the severity of the sentence, pleading that claim- 
jumping was just a common crime and a nominal offense. He was an eccentric 
character and, not having too much respect for the law, decided to take the affair 
into his own hands and at once made an attempt to escape without having com- 
plied with the conditions of the court. But in this he made a bad guess. The au- 
dience, which was composed of men who had no love for claim-jumpers, at once 
took a hand, became a self-appointed posse comitatus, and the guilty man was 
restrained from taking sudden leave. Enraged at his plight and seeing escape 
shut off, Fletcher seized his gun and fired at the justice. The aim of the pris- 
oner was bad, luckily, and no injury was done except the vest of the justice was 
ruined. Fletcher was pounced upon and disarmed and session of court was 
resumed. Finally he gave bail to appear later. Among those present at the 
time were Frederick Baker, Isaac Stoneman, Allen Wiley and others. Fletcher 
then opened a farm in Rock Run township where he later married a daughter of 
the Widow Swanson, and became a good citizen. The case against him was 

At the Old Settlers' Meeting at Cedarville, 1875, Mr. D. A. Knowlton, Sr., 
of Freeport, told the following story which indicates one way of collecting a bad 
bill. He said : "You know that I was always called a sharp collector. One day, 
a man named Charlie Hall came into my store with an order for goods, but he 
wanted more goods than the order called for. I said, 'Charley, I cannot trust 
you; and "no" is a word I can always say in business matters.' 'But,' pleaded 
Hall, 'let me have them, Mr. Knowlton, and I will pay you next week.' I then 
made the following bargain with him : 'If you do not pay me the balance as per 
agreement, I shall have the privilege of kicking you every time I see you till 
the debt is paid.' For several weeks the countenance of Hall did not grace my 
store; but after a while he appeared and walking into my store, I said: "Charles, 


I would like to see you a moment outside,' and when out I gave him a very vio- 
lent kick. Hall turned around and said, 'Knowlton, what is that for?' 'Accord- 
ing to agreement,' said I. The sequel to the case was that in a few days Hall 
brought in a load of corn to me, in payment of the debt which I received and 
placed to his credit. I afterwards learned that he was trusted for the corn by a 
farmer in order to avoid any further indorsements of my contract. It is un- 
necessary to add that the farmer was never paid for the corn. He endeavored 
to wash two hands with one and washed the farmer's." 


Prairie fires are to be added to the list of pests of the early day. In speaking 
of them Mrs. Oscar Taylor says : 

"Country life had also its excitements and nature her dangers as well as 
repose, as I was soon to discover. During the Autumn, particularly, prairie 
fires menaced the pioneers, and children were taught to be always on the lookout 
for smoke along the horizon. One afternoon the smaller boys gave the startling 
alarm of smoke to the south of us, and the wind was sending the fire in our direc- 
tion. House and barns and stacks, the produce of the whole year, would be swept 
away before nightfall unless we could break the onward rush of the flames. The 
whole force of the farm, men, women and children, were set to work under my 
father's direction. We must fight fire with fire and suround the farm buildings 
with a belt of burned grass thus robbing the hungry enemy of fuel in that direc- 
tion. To burn that strip of grass for fifteen feet in width and nearly half a mile 
in length, and to keep this fire from spreading beyond control, taxed skill and 
energy to the utmost. But we fought our battle ; and with torn garments, burned 
hands and blackened face we watched the defeat of the enemy. It was a fear- 
fully magnificent sight, that great line of flames rushing with speed of wild horses, 
roaring, cracking, breathing great volumes of blackened smoke. Onward it came 
until it reached the line of defense; the savage flames flung themselves forward 
and then with one frantic upward flash the fire died instantly, utterly quenched 
along the blackened belt. But on either side of our premises the flames pursued 
their way until again deprived of fuel by the state road cutting its pathway. 
This fire was spoken of for years after as the great fire of '39." 

In the year 1839 tne people of Freeport were stricken with fevers of all va- 
rieties. It was one of the trying times of the early days, when doctors and medi- 
cines were almost a minus quantity and hospitals were not yet thought of. The 
crisis, however, brought out the splendid spirit of co-operation and neighborly 
kindness that happily prevailed. In regard to the "fever year," Mrs. Oscar 
Taylor says : "This year of '39 was remembered also as the fever year, when 
fevers, bilious, intermittent, remitting and I know not what else, visited the 
new-comers without partiality. 

"Dr. Martin in his green overcoat, on horse-back with his saddle-bags, rode 
from farm to farm with little rest by night or day. I was the last member of my 
father's family to succumb to the fever, and the last to recover. As the weather 
was cold during my convalescence, and it was necessary that changes should 
be made in our house, Dr. Martin kindly arranged for me to be taken to Freeport 


as the guest of Mr. and Mrs. Luther Guiteau. Mr. Guiteau, the merchant of the 
town, was keeping store where the Billerbeck building now stands." 

Mrs. Taylor speaks as follows of the celebrating of the 4th of July, 1839: 
"To celebrate the glorious 4th, a number of farm wagons were mustered and the 
patriotically inclined drove off together into the country, not minding board seats 
and joltings, but full of merriment in their determination to honor the day. After 
the drive and return to town the Declaration of Independence was publicly read 
by Mr. Clark, and Mr. M. P. Sweet, whose eloquence as a public speaker was soon 
known through all this vicinity, made a stirring patriotic address. The celebration 
terminated in a dinner at the Mansion House, given by the proprietor, the father 
of Mr. Alpheus Goddard. This Mansion House is still standing where first 
built and is known today as the pop-factory. 


In the year 1840, Stephenson County was deeply stirred by the Mormons. 
Joseph Smith and his followers having made temporary establishments in New 
York, Ohio and Missouri, had found surroundings unpleasant in the last named 
state and had built up a prosperous settlement at Nauvoo, Hancock County, Illi 
nois. This town of Nauvoo was headquarters from which the Mormon mission- 
aries went out proselyting. They came into this county and held public meet- 
ings. These meetings were entirely respectable and were attended by some of 
the best people of the county, for Mormonism was not then understood. There 
was not much public speaking and exhortation. The agents of Mormonism be- 
lieved in individual work. They devoted their time mainly to personal interviews. 
They had great success elsewhere, especially in southern Illinois, but met with 
meagre result in Stephenson County. Hector C. Haight, of Jefferson township, 
and a man named Shumway, from the northern part of the county, joined them 
and went to Nauvoo. Haight and family followed the Mormons in the long 
pilgrimage across the plains to Salt Lake City. Nothing was heard from him 
for years, but finally word came back to Stephenson County that he had been 
very successful. He was well to do and was one of Brigham Young's advisors. 
In this matter of the Mormon invasion, this county manifested early what has 
always been one of its chief characteristics, conservatism. The county has 
never been exceedingly emotional. It has not shown itself to be easily and en- 
thusiastically led first this way, then that. It is rather a stable society, pursuing 
the even tenor of its way, avoiding temporary and transient whims and fads. 

In 1840, seven years after the first permanent settlement was made, Steph- 
enson County had a population of 2,800. Freeport at that time had a population 
of 49. There were then in the county, 9 saw mills and 5 grist mills. There 
were 10 schools with an attendance of 170 students. 

Among the settlers who came after 1839, not including those who settled in 
Freeport, were the following: 

Mr. Martin P. Sweet came to Freeport in 1840 and opened a law office. He 
was born in New York. He came to Winnebago County in 1837, at that time 
being a licensed Methodist minister. From 1840 until his death, he was a 
leader in this county. He took the stump for Wm. Henry Harrison, the log 


cabin campaign of 1840. He was a candidate for congress in 1844 and was de- 
feated by Mr. Hoge, the Mormon from Hancock County. In 1850 he was again 
the Whig candidate, and made a great fight, but lost. As a lawyer, he was re- 
markably successful, and as an orator he had scarcely an equal in all tne west. 
He was a self-made man. With the aid of his wife, he built his cabin-home in 
Winnebago County in 1837. He had the advantage of but little education. He 
made his way from the bottom to the top in his profession. 

William Corning of English descent. He was a native of New Hamp- 
shire and at sixteen worked on a farm for $5.00 a month. Later he drove the 
stage from Londonderry and Fovel to Andover, Mars. In 1842 he caught the 
western fever and went to Galena where he secured a position as stage driver 
on the line from Galena to Freeport. He saved his earnings and bought a farm 
in West Point township, but did not quit the stage till 1853 when it was evident 
that the stage was to be replaced by the railroad. 

In 1840 Oneco, in Oneco township, was platted and there were several men 
who believed that here was to be built up a great town. The town was laid out 
by John K. Brewster. It was the day of water power and Brewster believed 
that Honey Creek had great possibilities along this line. He believed the power 
sufficient to run several mills and that a town would be built around them. For 
two reasons, and more no doubt, the town never materialized. One was that the 
water power was not there, and the other was that Orangeville possessed good 
power. Thus another good paper town went the way of Ransomberg. 

The stage line to Chicago was well established in 1840. It was the only 
regular means of communicating with the outside world. The arrival of each 
stage from Chicago was as much an event as the arrival of a train today in the 
small village. The signal of approach was the lusty notes of the stage bugler, 
and they were greeted with joy by the passengers of the stage, and with antici- 
pations by the town, most of which turned out to see the arrivals and to get the 

In 1839 and '40 the temperance wave that swept over America in 1830 to 1840 
reached Freeport. A temperance society was organized in 1842 and held meet- 
ings in a room over a saloon on the corner of Chicago and Galena streets. Mr. 
Alpheus Goddard was a leader in the movement. It was on his invitation that. 
L. W. Guiteau went to Cedarville and made what is thought to be the first tem- 
perance address in the county. When the rime arrived, Mr. Guiteau found it 
necessary to ride through a terrific snow storm to Cedarville, but he meant to 
keep his engagement, and went and delivered his address to a small but apprecia- 
tive audience. Among the leaders of the movement were John A. Clark and 
Rev. F. C. Winslow. 

From 1840 to 1850 more professional men came into the county, more law- 
yers and doctors, and likewise more merchants. Among the lawyers were Martin 
Sweet, Thomas J. Turner, Horatio C. Buchardt, and Oscar Taylor. 

In 1844, Hon. John H. Adams came to Cedarville and bought the mill. 


AFTER 1837. 

Mathias Hettinger came to Freeport in 1841. He was a native of Keffenach, 
Alsace Loraine. He came to America in 1836, working at the wagon making 
trade in Williamsville, New York, for ten years. He lived a while at Canton, 
Ohio, and then was three years in Portsmouth, Ohio, manufacturing plows. 
After working as a journeyman at the wagon makers trade a few months in 
1841, he opened a small shop, repairing and making wagons, buggies, etc. In 
1865, he was influential in the organization of the German Insurance Company 
and was its first president. In 1876, he entered the banking business. He was 
one of the committee that erected the present courthouse. Mr. John Hoebel, of 
Phenish-Bavaria, came to Freeport in 1842. For several years he was in the 
shoe-making business. He served as city treasurer and was three times elected 

Thomas W. Johnson who came from England to Freeport in 1839, worked 
in the store of D. A. Knowlton and received for his first year's work $50.00 
and his board. He later became a well to do real estate dealer. 

June n, 1838, O. H. Wright was granted a license to sell merchandise for 
one year, he paying $12.00 into the county treasury. 

August 16, 1838, on sworn complaint of William Kirkpatrick, Richard Hunt 
and William Baker, against the county clerk, Wm. H. Hollenbeck, for want of 
qualifications and neglect of official duties, the commissioners removed him from 
office and appointed Richard Hunt as clerk. 

The commissioners qualified in 1838 were L. W. Streator, Robert M. Mc- 
Connell and John Moore. 

October 25, 1838, L. W. Guiteau was granted a permit to retail merchandise 
in Freeport, paying $5.00 to the county treasury. 

December 4, 1838, O. H. Wright gave and took the oath of office of probate 
justice of the peace. 

D. A. Knowlton was granted a permit to vend a retail merchandise March 16, 

In June, 1839, grocer's license fee was raised to $200.00. 
Financial statement of the commissioners in March, 1839, for years 1837 and 
1838 to date: 
Payments : 

Orders issued for service $ 448.04 

Orders issued and not redeemed 154-99 

Orders issued 9 I -55 

Orders issued 121.28 

To T. J. Turner, court house contract 2,500.00 

To Hollenbeck & Truax on jail 750.00 

To James, extra mason work on court house 374-QO 

Total $4,440.00 


Receipts : 

For licenses $ 200.00 

For taxes, 1837 214.00 

For taxes, 1838 94. 50 

From fines , 78.00 

Taxes due for 1838 201.63^ 

Fines due, not collected 86.00 

Bonus received from proprietors of Freeport 3,707.51 

Bonus due from proprietors of Freeport 542.13^ 

Total $5,124.00 


June 19, 1839, the commissioners passed an order: "Resolved, that it is in- 
cumbent upon the commissioners as special agent of the county, to take into their 
special possession the court house as it now stands, the contract having been, 
by said Turner, abandoned." The court house was said to have been completed 
in eighteen months, but the commissioners state, "said Turner has failed and 
absolutely refused to comply with the stipulations of the contract." 

June 19, 1839, the commissioners advertised for bids for the completion 
of the court house. 

June 19, 1839, the commissioners retained Thompson Campbell as attorney 
to bring suit vs. Thomas J. Turner and William Fitzpatrick on contract to 
build court house. For this service and for advice to the commissioners on other 
subjects, Campbell was to receive $100.00. 

July n, 1839, the commissioners entered into a contract with Richard Earl, 
with L. W. Guiteau security, to complete the outside of the court house foi 


Mr. Horace Tarbox, of New York, came to Freeport in 1841 and engaged 
in the hotel and livery business. In 1848 he completed a three-story stone hotel 
building at the corner of Chicago and Stephenson Streets. This hotel was opened 
to the public January i, 1849, an d called the "Winneshiek House." This was 
then credited with being the only first class hotel in the county. The opening 
was celebrated with a grand ball and was attended by people for miles around. 
The ball was one of the big social events of the decade. 

Joseph B. Smith who came to Freeport in 1846, speaks of the society of the 
citizens as follows : 

"The good fellowship that existed among the inhabitants of the small village 
in 1846 was remarkable in its social and friendly intercourse and the confidence 
maintained by the integrity of each other. No breaches of the peace for crimes 
of any magnitude were perpetrated. The doors of the dwellings were seldom 
locked; indeed many of them contained no locks at all. The merchants, whose 
stocks were limited to the necessities of the settlers, all were striving through 
honest effort to better their conditions." 


A. T. Green, an early attorney and prominent citizen of Freeport, came in 
1839. He walked from Rockford and sitting on a stump on a hill near Free- 
port, he counted just forty roofs of all, that being all there were at that time. 
James Hart came in 1836, his family arriving the next year. Thomas Wilcoxen, 
of Georgia, made a prospecting tour through the county in 1835, following the 
Indian trails. In 1837, he settled on a claim near Cedarville. 

O. P. McCool came into Stephenson County with his father in 1840, settling 
first in Lancaster, then in Harlem. 


December 18, 1852, a public meeting was held at the office of William Pres- 
ton to adopt measures calculated to suppress the circulation of illegal currency or 
"shin-plasters." Mr. Preston was elected chairman, and John S. Emmert, secre- 
tary. The following committee was appointed : John Black, John K. Brew- 
ster, W. P. Hunt, E. H. Hyde, Warren Clark, S. D. Knight, J. A. W. Donahoo, 
I. Stoneman, Thomas Egan, G. W. Maynard and William Sanford. Resolutions 
were adopted urging the people to discountenance the circulation of all but specie 
paying bank notes. 


In October, 1853, the Freeport Journal made a strenuous complaint because 
the town bell ceased to ring. The Journal editor said he understood it had ceased 
because the sexton felt that his pay was too small. "Who will take hold of the 
matter," asks the Journal. 


The Journal of December 3, 1852, expresses great joy because the Manny 
Reaper won a gold medal at the annual fair of the Chicago Mechanics Institute, 
over the McCormick Reaper. 

In 1853, September, the following were elected town trustees: Peter B. Fos- 
ter, William D. Oyler, Jacob Mayor, Frederick Baker, and William D. Smith. 

April 15, 1853, the Freeport Journal says the following lawyers attended 
the meeting of the circuit court : Turner, Betts, Clark, Goodhue, Bright, Mea- 
cham, Burke and Kean of Freeport and Marsh, Loop, Brown and Burnap of 
Rockford and Dutcher of Ogle. 


It was in June of 1842 that Freeport had a touch of real life in the form of 
a circus. The first show grounds were on the site of the old Fremont House. 
Settlers for miles around came in and Freeport established a reputation as a 
good circus town, a reputation that holds good with a vengeance to date. This 
first circus did not come in a special train, but it was a "great success" and the 
box office of Levi North, the manager, was liberally patronized. 


A boy lost in the woods in 1842 caused considerable excitement. The boy's 
name was Tripp, and he had gone out to the woods along Yellow Creek to 


hunt butternuts. His companions were evidently full of the "Wild West" and 
sought to have some fun by frightening him. One of the boys with a buffalo 
robe represented a panther and this with the cries of the other boys cause young 
Tripp to take to the woods. He became separated from his companions and 
soon lost his way. At night the party returned, but without young Tripp. Next 
day a meeting of citizens was held and a committee on horses searched the woods 
for the lost boy. The committee kept up the search for several days and nights 
and finally found the lad three miles from his starting point. The boy was ex- 
hausted and almost starved. He soon recovered and the affair that caused so 
much commotion was soon dropped. 


The first brick building was erected in Freeport about 1842. Just where the 
first one was erected and the exact date can not be definitely determined. As 
usual several claims are put forward. One claim refers to a residence of David 
Clay at the corner of Bridge and Van Buren streets. Another refers to a brick 
residence built at the corner of Galena and Cherry streets, about 1845, by John 
Perkins. Still another points to a one-story brick building at the corner of 
Stephenson and Mechanic streets. In 1846 Mr. A. T. Green built a brick build- 
ing at the corner of Stephenson and Chicago streets. The first three-story 
brick building was that built on Stephenson street by O. H. Wright and used 
as a store and warehouse. In 1848, Mr. Horace Tarbox, who came to Free- 
port and established a hotel and livery business, built a large three-story stone 
building at the corner of Chicago and Stephenson streets. This was used by 
Mr. Tarbox as a hotel. It was torn down in 1874. By 1840 other good build- 
ings were erected by D. A. Knowlton, George Purrington, E. Rosenstiel, Wil- 
liam Glover, Emmert & Strohm, I. C. Stoneman and others. 

In 1849 the first church building was erected in Freeport, on the present site 
of the Y. M. C. A. building. The church was to be 40x65 and was built of 
stone and brick and cost $460.00. Owing to difficulties, the building was not 
completed until 1851. In 1851 the Second Presbyterians and the Methodists 
built churches. In 1850, December 25, the First Baptist church was built where 
the German Catholic church now stands. The Episcopal church was built in 
1852. The first Catholic church building was erected near the present site of 
St. Mary's church in 1854. 

Early in the fifties Plymouth Block, at the corner of Van Buren and Steph- 
enson streets was built and the people of Freeport were proud of the structure. 
The building had served its purpose and gave way in 1868 to the present Wil- 
coxen building. In 1852 the Union school was built at a cost of $3,000 on the 
site of the present high school. 


In 1846 O. H. Wright and E. S. Hanchett by act of the Legislature incor- 
porated the Hydraulic & Manufacturing Company of Stephenson County. The 
charter gave Wright & Hanchett legal right to build a dam across the Pecatonica 


River. The race was built by Jacob Zimmerman under the direction of John 
Lerch. The race was 900 feet wide and 6 feet deep. In 1847 Hanchett built a 
saw mill on the site of the old Goddard flour mill. The mill was built of logs, 
square-hewed with the ax. 


In 1842, Stephenson County was still one of the localities of Northern Illi- 
nois that was attractive to the immigrants from the East. About this time the 
unsettled political condition of Europe was the cause of considerable emigration 
to America. The free public land system of America by which the landless of 
the old world could easily become owners of large farms, appealed to the ten- 
ants of England especially. Just as the Norwegians in 1839 had sent an agent to 
look over the public lands of America and pick out a location in 1842, farmers 
in England appointed a man of their own number to visit the United States 
and select a favorable site for settlement. This agent crossed the United States 
to Illinois, came out on the Frink and Walker stage and after making con- 
siderable investigation, was especially pleased with the surroundings in Ridott 
township and, writing to England, advised the colony to settle there. He ex- 
plained to the English farmers the advantages of this county. The farmers began 
at once to make preparations for the journey. They looked to America as the 
country of opportunity and about twenty-two of them left their native land 
August 28, 1842, to cross the continent of America to find new homes. They 
came from that strong class of Englishmen that has always been the basis of 
England's successes in war and peace. They were skilled in agriculture. The 
descendants of many of these people are yet to be found in this county and, 
though assimilated in the mass of our population, they have added something of 
enduring value to the character of the population of Stephenson County. 

An attempt was made to operate the colony on the community of interest plan. 
No doubt, they were influenced by the teachings of Robert Owen, who had 
brought out a colony of Englishmen and founded New Harmony, Indiana. 

After two years the colony was broken up by withdrawals, some going on 
farther west. The settlers came into other parts of the county in 1842, but no- 
where, not even in Freeport, in such numbers as in Ridott township. In fact, 
there was considerable disappointment because the population did not increase 
fast enough to meet the expectations of the people. 

By this time trade was turned largely to Chicago. The lead mine markets 
had fallen and Chicago offered the additional inducement of newly arrived immi- 
grants who wanted to be transported to this section. This was cash business and 
very acceptable to farmers on the return trip. 


A suicide broke the even tenor of the life of the people in 1841. An old 
man, William Wallace, had settled in the county in 1836. From his peculiar 
actions the people who knew him regarded him as insane. Little was known 
about the man and his history. In one of his melancholy moods, he hanged him- 


self to a tree near the village of Rock Grove. His dead body was found swing- 
ing from a limb by some boys who were out hunting for cows in the "common." 
The boys carried the news to the settlers, who hastened to the place, cut down 
the unfortunate man and buried him near the spot of his own execution. The 
suicide caused quite a ripple of excitement over the county. 


The year 1843 brought the first murder in the county after its incorpora- 
tion. The tragedy occurred on a farm in Rock Grove township owned then by 
Daniel Noble. Boardman was a hired man employed by Noble. As the story 
goes, one day in the fall of 1843, Noble and Boardman with their guns started 
off on a hunt. The two were gone several days, when Noble returned without 
Boardman. Noble explained that Boardman had gone in the direction of Wis- 
consin, being discouraged with the prospect in Rock Grove township. Board- 
man gave a watch to Noble and asked him to tell Mrs. Boardman that when 
he was located in a new home he would return for his wife. 

The winter and spring passed and Noble's story of Boardman's disap- 
pearance was not questioned, largely because of the character of the relations 
apparently existing between the two men. Early in the summer, a Mr. Marsh, 
a neighbor of Noble, discovered the remains of a man in the brush. The skull 
showed evidence of violence, and Marsh severing it from the body, took it to 
Noble's farm and in the presence of many men exhibited the "find" to Noble. 
Suspicion already under current, was strengthened against Noble because of his 
appearance and conduct when confronted with the skull. It was agreed that 
Noble should be arrested the following day, or just as soon as a warrant could 
be secured from Justice Frankenberger. Noble took time by the forelock, how- 
ever, and that night disappeared, leaving his wife with her father in Ogle County. 
He was last heard of at Dixon, and was never found or arrested. Consequently 
the story of the murder has never been told. 


A colony of Germans settled in Ridott township in 1850. Henry and Daniel 
Brick had come to America in 1844 from Germany. H. Frylings came from 
Hanover in 1850. John Heeren of Asuaisvaland, and Ulrich Boomgaarden from 
Hanover in 1850. Balster Jelderks, Jacob Molter, Fokke Rewerts and Michael 
Van Oosterloo came from Germany the same year. In 1852 among many others, 
the following joined the German colony in Ridott township: Henry Borchers, 
Bearnd Groveneveld, Peter Herrmann, Charles Rohkar, Henry Scheffner, John 
Scheffner, Abram Schleich and Edward Weik. Niel Johnson came from Han- 
over in 1853. Mathias Timms in 1854 and John Rademaker in 1855. Michael 
Bardell came from Alsace in 1845, having landed in America in 1841. Adam 
Fisher came from Bavaria in 1858. 


It was not all peace and happiness in the county at this periol. The early 
surveys were extremely faulty. Many corner stones were never set at all, and 

Ol'It BAXI> BKFl >!{]: TIIK WAI! 

1. E. KiillutT 

2. W. II. Wanner 

3. J. Kiieflf 

II. Baler 
Mr. Johnson 
J. Decider 

.T. Lcecke 

J. Hotzlcr 



others were incorrectly placed. The surveys were especially faulty along the 
river. Claims overlapped and when the adjustments came to be made in 1844 
to 1850, much strife arose among contesting claimants. Neighborhood contro- 
versies in which the people took sides waxed furiously. Much bad blood was 
stirred up and feuds were developed that continued long after the source of 
the conditions had disappeared. As land values increased and improvements 
were made, the controversies increased in fury. It is claimed to this day that 
some lands along the river are still government lands, but farmed by men who 
own adjacent farms. 


Stephenson County had not been organized ten years when the war with 
Mexico began in 1846. The war grew out of the annexation of Texas, losses 
of Americans by Mexican depredations, and a dispute over the boundary line 
of Texas. Mexico claimed that the Nueces River was the boundary, but Presi- 
dent Polk and Texas insisted that the boundary extended to the Rio Grande. 
Some Americans were slain in the disputed territory and Polk sent General 
Zachary Taylor with an army of about 2500 men to the Rio Grande. Folk's war 
message, "American blood has been spilled on American soil !" aroused the 
fighting spirit of Americans and the wave of warlike enthusiasm spread into the 
sparsely settled communities of Stephenson County. 

The call for volunteers included a call for three regiments from Illinois. 
Enthusiasm ran high in this county and mass meetings of men from all parts 
of the county was held in the court house at Freeport. Major John Howe was 
chairman of the meeting. Stirring, patriotic addresses were made by S. B. Far- 
well and Hon. Thomas J. Turner. Several enlistments were the result, and 
these with enlistments that came in from almost every community, soon ex- 
ceeded the demand. In all, about twenty-five men enlisted and went into the 
war. One of these, William Goddard, won the rank of Captain. The Stephen- 
son County enlistments were placed in the company of Captain McKinney of 
Dixon, and it is believed formed a part of the second regiment of Illinois 
soldiers, under command of J. L. D. Morrison, of St. Clair County. The regi- 
ment was mustered on July 2, 1846, and after taking part in the battle of Buena 
Vista and other battles returned to Springfield, June 4, 1847. 

The Stephenson County volunteers then returned home and were accorded 
an enthusiastic reception. Mass meetings and dinners were given in their honor, 
and eloquent toasts and patriotic addresses, full of praise of the men who had 
fought under "Old Rough and Ready" welcomed the returning heroes. Another 
call for troops came in 1847 an d met with a similar response, but the war soon 
closed by Scott's capture of the City of Mexico. 

The war confirmed the annexation of Texas and annexed California, New 
Mexico, Arizona and part of Nevada, Colorado and Utah. Right or wrong in its 
inception, the Mexican War was right in its results. It rounded out nicely the 
boundary of the United States, gave us a harbor on the Pacific Coast, and gave 
over to Anglo Saxon civilization a great territory, the development and govern- 
ment of which was impossible under the control of the incompetent descendants 
of the Spaniard. 


AFTER 1837. 

Abraham Gund came to Stephenson County from Baden in 1847. Three 
years later he made the trip to California and there engaged in his trade of 
blacksmithing. He succeeded fairly well prospecting and returned to this county 
in 1855. His California earnings were lost in a St. Louis Bank failure, but he 
struggled on and soon bought the old homestead in Silver Creek township. He 
served the county as a member of the board of supervisors and county treas- 
urer. George and Sophia Gund, parents of Frederick and Abraham Gund came 
to America in 1848 settlnng in Silver Creek township where they died of cholera 
in 1850. 


In November, 1847, the first newspaper printed in the county came off 
the press. This was the Prairie Democrat, founded by Hon. Thomas J. Turner, 
and edited by Mr. S. D. Carpenter. The business of the paper was first con- 
ducted in a room in the old court house. Later it was published in a frame 
building at the corner of Galena and Chicago streets and then to the corner 
of Stephenson and Chicago streets. J. A. P. Burnside succeeded Mr. Carpen- 
ter, Mr. George P. Ordway running the paper the year of 1852. In 1853 with a 
new press and new type the paper changed its name and since that date has ap- 
peared as the Freeport Bulletin. For a time the bulletin was run by Bagg and 
Brawley and in 1861 was sold to Giles & Scroggs. The paper, from 1847 to 
1861, had enjoyed a good patronage and was of great influence on the county. 

In politics, the Prairie Democrat and the Bulletin were consistently Demo- 
cratic. Mr. Turner's aim in establishing the Democrat was to have an organ 
which would aid him and his party in managing the politics of the county. 
Democratic successes from 1847 to 1860 were very auspicious for the welfare , 
of the Democratic paper. 

The Prairie Democrat of 1847 contained its own ad as follows: 


Published Weekly. 
Freeport, Wednesday, Jan. 26, 1848. 

Terms Single copy, if paid in advance or within two 

months from the time of subscribing $ 2.00 

If paid within the year 2.50 

The usual rates will be charged to village subscribers who 
receive their papers per carrier. 

5 copies to one post office, in advance 9.10 

10 copies to one post office, in advance l 7-5 

20 copies to one post office, in advance 30.00 


Job and Advertising Prices. 

For 100 half sheet bills $ 4.0x5 

For 100 half sheet bills per 100, over 100 1.50 

For quarter sheet bills 2.00 

For quarter sheet bills, per 100, over 300 i.oo 

All bills less than quarter sheet per 100 2.00 

For Blanks per quire 75 cts i.oo 

For Cards, per pack i .00 

For Cards per pack, each additional pack 75 

Ball tickets one, two, three and 5.00 

Bills with borders and all fancy jobs charged extra. 

Advertising One square one insertion i.oo 

each additional insertion 50 

one month 2.00 

three months , 3.50 

six months 6.00 

one year 10.00 

Patent Medicines one column per year 50.00 

Cards not exceeding six lines per year 5.00 

Job and Book printing of all kinds neatly executed at this office. 
All communications and advertisements should be left at the 
office as early as Saturday next preceding a publication, in order 
to insure a publication the next week. 

N. B. Advertisements should be marked the number of inser- 
tions required, or they will be continued until forbid, and charged 

The first issue of the Freeport Journal appeared November 22, 1848. The 
paper was a six column weekly folio. The Journal was founded by H. G. 
Gratton and A. McFadden. The "office" was an old building at the corner of 
Broadway and Beaver streets. After a year the Journal was published in a 
frame building on Galena street, between Walnut and South Galena Avenue. 
The next place of publication was north of the courthouse and in 1855 the Jour- 
nal was housed in Martin's block on Stephenson street between Van Buren and 
Chicago streets. In 1852 the Journal expanded and became a seven column 
folio, and appeared in a new dress. Mr. Hiram Sheetz, who had purchased a 
part interest in 1851, became sole proprietor in 1853. Mr. Sheetz sold the 
paper to Judson and McClure in 1856, who conducted the paper the next ten 


In 1853 the Deutscher Anzeiger was founded by William Wagner, Sr., 
assisted by William Wagner, Jr. From 1853 to the present time, the Anzeiger 
has been the property of the Wagner family. Mr. Wagner purchased a printing 
outfit at Galena and began with a four page, five column weekly. The office 
was located in the third story of the Wright building on the northeast corner 
of Stephenson and Adam street. In 1854 the paper was domiciled at No. 8 
South Galena Avenue. The paper was printed by a hand press. For a time 


on account of limited means, the paper was published by amateur type setters. 
In 1855 the office was moved to the third story of the Rosenstiel building, now 
93 Stephenson street. In 1859 Mr. William H. Wagner, the present publisher 
and editor, became foreman of the mechanical department. As an apprentice, 
he had mastered the mechanical part of the newspaper business. 

The Anzeiger waxed strong because it had a hard fight for existence and 
because of the ability and persistence of the Wagners. The circulation increased 
rapidly and had always been a boon to the German settlers, who came out 
from the Fatherland. Among these people the paper has exercised a powerful 
influence which it holds to this day. 


A different form of county government was established in 1850. From 1837. 
the date of the first county organization, to 1850 the county was governed by 
three commissioners. The first commissioners were Lemuel G. Streator, Isaac 
Forbes and Julius Smith. Such a system was entirely adequate in the early 
days. But with rapidly growing population, a different plan, better adapted to 
present conditions, was to be desired. 

The Constitutional Convention of 1848 provided for township organization in 
case the voters of the county desired it. The Legislature of 1849 provided fur- 
ther that at the next general election the counties should vote on the proposition 
of township organization. There was some opposition in Stephenson County to 
the proposed change. Public opinion, however, was strongly in favor of it, and 
the opposition was too weak to make much of a contest. The result ofl the 
election of November 5, 1849, was : 

For township government 973 

Against township government 99 

Total votes cast 1,072 

The above vote indicates the result of a one-sided contest. 

At the election of 1849, Hon. George Purrington was elected county judge. 
The county court met in December, Judge Purrington presiding. Levi Robey, 
Robert Foster and Erastus Torrey were appointed to mark off the county into 
townships. After considerable investigation the three commissioners made their 
report, having provided for the following townships : Rock Grove, Oneco, Win- 
slow, West Point, Waddams, Buck Eye, Rock Run, Freeport, Lancaster, Har- 
lem, Erin, Loran, Florence, Silver Creek and Ridott, in all, fifteen townships. 
Commissioner Torrey desired to change the name Harlem to Wayne, but the 
report had been adopted and the change was not made. 

November 5, 1850, the following men were elected supervisors : Lancaster, 
Johnathan Reitzell; Rock Run, C. G. Edley; Rock Grove, James J. Rogers; 
Oneco, George Cadwell ; Winslow, Cornelius Judson ; Waddams, Michael Law- 
ver ; Buck Eye, Montelius ; West Point, Daniel Wilson ; Harlem, William M. 
Buckley ; Erin, John I. F. Harmon ; Florence, Conrad Van Brocklin ; Ridott, 
Gustavus A. Farwell; Silver Creek, Samuel McAffee; Freeport, E. S. Hanchett; 
and Loran, Hiram Hart. 


Three additional townships were added later. In 1856, March 17, Kent 
Township was formed by dividing Erin. The division of Erin aroused intense 
feeling, says an early history, because the residents of Erin were deprived of 
superior wood and water advantages. In 1859 the citizens of the west half of 
Loran Township petitioned for independent organization and Jefferson Township 
was formed by the commissioners, nl September, 1860, Dakota Township was 
formed out of the east half of Buckeye, because of the infinite inconvenience 
and vexation of spirit caused by the residents being compelled to go to a distant 
place to cast the ballot. 

At the first meeting of the Board of Supevisors, November n, 1850, John 
I. F. Harmon was elected chairman. Hanchett of Freeport was not present and 
failed to qualify. Thereupon, John K. Brewster was appointed supervisor for 
Freeport Township. 


From its settlement to 1850 Freeport was governed as a village. From its 
first settlement in 1835 by William Baker to 1850, Freeport had grown slowly to 
a population of 1486. In 1840 the village had a population of forty-nine. In the 
year 1850 there arose a general desire to have the old village organization sup- 
planted by a town organization. During the summer that year the place was in- 
corporated as a town under the laws of the state of Illinois. At the election 
held later in the year, the following persons were elected town trustees : Thomas 
J. Turner, Julius Smith, John K. Brewster, John Rice and Joseph B. Smith. The 
town organization seems to have satisfied the ambitions of the pioneers of the 
future city till about 1855, when the town organization gave way to city gov- 
ernment under the State Charter. 

CENSUS OF 1850. 

December 27, 1850, Mr. Oscar Taylor published his report of the census in 
the Journal: 

Freeport i ,436 

Buck Eye 1,271 

Waddams 1,160 

Rock Run i,O37 

Erin 886 

Oneco 882 

Lancaster 835' 

Rock Grove 727 

Loran 654 

Ridott 652 

Silver Creek 603 

Florence 444 

Harlem w\ 

Winslow 384 

West Point 250 

Total in County in 1850 1 1,666 


Total in County in 1845 6,344 

Total in County in 1840 2,869 

The city of Galena in 1850 had a population of 5, 986, and Jo Daviess County 


The census of 1850 showed that the n,666 inhabitants of Stephenson County 

were born in : 

Pennsylvania 3,360 

Illinois 2,826 

New York 1,485 

Ohio 981 

Vermont 263 

Indiana 177 

Virginia ,. 1 1 1 

Massachusetts 103 

Connecticut 83 

New Hampshire 68 

Kentucky 68 

Wisconsin ' 63 

Maryland 57 

Michigan 54 

New Jersey ' 47 

Tennessee 25 

Rhode Island 24 

North Carolina 19 

Iowa 15 

Maine 10 

Delaware 6 

South Carolina 5 

Missouri 4 

Georgia 2 

Alabama I 

Total 9,827 

Germany 821 

Ireland 409 

Canada 320 

England 206 

Norway 37 

France 23 

Scotland 9 

Nova Scotia 5 

New Brunswick 3 

Wales 3 

Switzerland i 

Brazil i 

West Indies . '. i 

Total in County 1 1 ,666 


ASIATIC CHOLERA, 1850-1852. 

The people of Stephenson County, and especially the people of Freeport, 
suffered from an epidemic of Asiatic Cholera in 1850. People were unprepared 
to fight such a plague. It made rapid inroads on the population and, though 
all common remedies and specifics were applied, the patient usually died. The 
physicians were not familiar with the disease and had no experience in treat- 
ing it. The neighborhood of Nevada, Ridott Township, Kirkpatrick's Mills, 
and Freeport suffered most. A traveler through the county at the time said 
that there was hardly a family on the old state road in which there was not one 
of its members down with cholera, dying or buried. 

But the people stood loyally by. The sick were cared for by physicians, 
and nurses and neighbors hurriedly buried the dead. Duty was stronger than 
fear of the dread disease, and a splendid heroism was manifested among the 
people who time and again took their lives in their hands, in caring for their 
neighbors. The towns were practically abandoned and business was at a stand- 
still. In 1852, the plague returned and wrought great havoc. In 1854 it again 
appeared, but was soon stamped out by the physicians who had learned how 
to treat it. 

There was practically a decrease in the population of the county from 1850 
to 1852. Emigrants went on through or around the county and settled else- 
where. Many went back east and others who had prepared to come west 
remained at the old homes in the east. It was a hard blow and checked* for a 
time, the growth of the county. 

The following by Mrs. Oscar Taylor who lived through the period gives 
a better idea of actual conditions : 

"With a sense of security in the present everyone was looking forward to 
a time of continued prosperity when suddenly, in 1850, across the sunshine of 
our hopes fell the black shadow of the terrible visitation of cholera, remembered 
still with a shudder by all who can look back to it. Like a thief in the night 
it came, striking first in a house near the head of the creek crossing the town. 
In a home where five were living the day before, in the morning all were dead 
except an infant. The woman who took this child, died two days later. A 
great horror settled over the community. The paralysis of fear added greatly 
to the danger from the disease, and an attack meant in most cases death. The 
physicians were almost as ignorant of the treatment for cholera as were the 
citizens. No nurses were to be had and the victims were dependent on friends 
and neighbors for care. When quaking with fear we were often called upon to 
minister to the dying, or to prepare the dead for burial. And we mothers, as 
we closed for the last time the eyes of some neighbor's child, thought with 
sickening dread of the morrow for our own little ones. Not often was there a 
funeral service. The dead were taken quickly to the cemetery by the old 
sexton, Giles Taylor. As far as business went the week days were like Sun- 
days and country people were afraid to come near the infected town. When 
the shadow lifted with the end of summer, one-tenth of the population of Free- 
port had been taken away. The experience was not lost upon our physicians, 


however, for when cholera came here again in '54 it was much more success- 
fully treated." 

Most of the cholera victims in Freeport were along the creek. Eighteen 
deaths occurred in one day in Freeport. Among the more prominent phy- 
sicians were Dr. Chancellor Martin, Dr. L. A. Mease, Dr. F. J. Hazlet, and Dr. 
Robert H. Van Valzah. 

Calamities seldom come singly. It is maintained that while the county was 
under the ban on account of the dreadful result of the cholera, the people suf- 
fered a renewal of thieving and rowdyism. An old settler told the following 
story as an illustration : "A gentleman traveling from St. Louis to Buffalo, 
via stage from Galena of Freeport, was taken ill with cholera at the hotel in 
Freeport. It was quite well known that the stranger had money and he was 
carefully watched by the proprietor of the hotel. One afternoon he walked 
about the town to regain his strength. That night he had a relapse and died. 
Examination of his effects showed that $6,000 had disappeared. He was buried 
in the old cemetery near where Keene's Canning Factory now stands. His 
relatives traced his travels and years later came to Freeport to remove the body, 
but the grave had not been marked and the effort was fruitless." 

The census of September, 1853, by Giles L. Taylor, for the school directors 

Males of all ages l ,5^9 

Females of all ages 1.359 

Total 2,926 

Children under 21 1.233 


In 1849 the California gold fever struck Stephenson County. It produced 
the same excitement here as elsewhere and almost one hundred left the county that 
year to cross the plains to the gold fields. Old and young and men of all profes- 
sions and vocations joined the mad rush for immediate wealth. Outfits and sup- 
plies were loaded into wagons and those drawn by horses and ox teams joined 
the caravans from other sections, and began the long and tiresome journey half 
across a continent. Many men, not over-conservative, put all their eggs in this 
one basket. It was a long chance at best, and fraught with difficulties, privation 
and danger. Some died on the way. Others pressed on to certain failure. A 
few were fortunate and some became permanent settlers in the west, and rose 
to distinction in the farther west. One of them, Cameron Hunt, became gov- 
ernor of Colorado. Loved ones and friends at home were compelled to wait long 
for news, sometimes sad. often not reassuring and seldom good. In all, almost 
200 men, mainly young men, left the county for the west. Men of means, who 
did not go, furnished outfits, for others in return for an agreement to share the 
profits. But the gold fields were far away and these men seldom realized on the 

The purchase of supplies made business in the county good for the time, but 
the ultimate effect was bad. The county could ill afford to spare at that date 


so many vigorous men. Smaller crops were cultivated ; trade was slow and times 
were dull. 

Among the men who went to the gold fields were : John Walz, B. T. Buckley, 
Charles Willet, William Vore, John Kirkpatrick, Elnus Baker, John Mease, O. 
Weaver, J. W. Shaffer, Alfred Caldwell, William Patterson, Mr. Shutz, P. C. 
Shaffer, Joseph Carey, Charles Bogar, S. B. Farwell, Joseph Quest, William 
Young, Robert Hammond, Charles O'Neal, Horatio Hunt, Cameron Hunt and 


William Preston, who settled in the county in 1838, drove an ox team to Cali- 
fornia in 1848. Walking all the way except about 250 miles. He made a stake 
in California and went by steamer to the Isthmus of Panama. He walked from 
Panama to the River Chagras, and went by boat down that river to Chagris, 
then to Havana, then to New Orleans and up the Mississippi to Galena, arriv- 
ing home by stage in 1851. 

The Journal of June n, 1850, had an able editorial on the effect of the 
Free-trade Tariff of 1845. It says, "Furnaces are everywhere closing, mines 
are everywhere being vacated, and the course of things seems to turn towards 
the abandonment of these industries. We trust that Congress will speedily set- 
tle the slavery question and hasten to the relief of the manufactures, the with- 
holding of which cannot much longer be endured." 

In 1851 the Legislature passed an act providing for a new judicial circuit, 
embracing the counties of Jo Daviess, Stephenson and Winnebago. 

About March 21, 1851, two gentlemen with a team visited farmers north of 
Freeport and secured samples of wheat with the evident idea of purchasing. 
While there they passed counterfeit bills. 


March 5, 1849, tne whigs of Stephenson County held a celebration of the 
election of Taylor and Fillmore. Every part of the county was represented. 
"The day was ushered in by a national salute of 30 guns. John A. Clark was 
president of the day, and Hubbard Graves, M. M. Woodin, Dr. Cutler and Lorin 
Snow were vice presidents. Hon. Martin Sweet, was the orator of the day. 
After the speech "which was of great force and eloquence and charmed a de- 
lighted auditory," over 100 sat down to a sumptuous dinner at the Stephenson 
County Hotel. After dinner, toasts were given and letters read. Besides 13 
regular toasts, 23 voluntary toasts were given among which were those by 
Charles Betts, L. W. Guiteau, Hubbard Graves, Oscar Taylor, Dr. Martin, 
M. P. Sweet, E. H. Hatchett, Julius Smith. 

It was a big day for the whigs. 


In 1849, tne whig county convention, according to the Journal, laid aside 
party politics, and nominated the following ticket: For county judge, Major 


John Howe; associate judges, Samuel F. Dodds and Josiah Clingman; clerk 
of county court, Hubbard Graves ; school commissioner, L. W. Guiteau ; sur- 
veyor, Cyrus Clingman; treasurer, Asabel Rice. The democrats were success- 
ful and elected the following: George Purinton, judge; William Preston, clerk; 
Johnathan Reitzell, treasurer; school commissioner, L. W. Guiteau, whig. In 
Freeport, Julius Smith and F. W. S. Brawley were elected justices and James 
B. Barr and Frederick Baker constables. 

Colonel Thomas J. Turner was a "Wilmot Proviso" democrat in Congress. 
He was once stigmatised by the southern leaders as one of the "thirteen fan- 
atics" for resisting the Walker amendment. 



The Journal thus describes a party held at the Freeport House, Monday, 
January 14, 1850: 

"This was truly a fine affair the arrangements were all in excellent taste, 
the company large and highly respectable, and an abundance of agreeable ex- 
citement to render the occasion pleasant and interesting. And the music that 
was a little ahead of anything mortal ear has ever listened to before. Could 
it have been surpassed? No Ole Bull could have discoursed sweeter music 
than did the venerable Charley on that magic instrument of his, neither could 
a Ned Kendall have immortalized himself where Leonard is with that post 
horn, unsurpassed for richness and sweetness of tone. And then there was 
Gitchell, the king of players, sweet, a regular triumph with his clarinet, and 
last, though not least, the juvenile Dutchman, with his father of fiddles. He is 
some, though we dare not attmept to tell how much." 


Freeport celebrated the Fourth of July as follows in 1851 : 

"The procession followed a band to a grove near the public square. Wash- 
ington's Monument was sung by the choir in a very beautiful and impressive 

Prayer by Chaplain M. P. Sweet. 

Reading of the Declaration of Independence by H. Bright in a manner cal- 
culated to awaken memories of 1776. 

An eloquent, instructive and patriotic address by F. W. S. Brawley, Esq.: 
the profound attention with which it was listened to is the best testimony of 
its excellence; and the repeated demonstrations of applause, the best evidence 
that the hearts of the American people are still susceptible to impressions from 
"thoughts that breathe and words that burn." 

The Union Forever, sung by the choir. 

The procession then marched to the tables where a sumptuous dinner was 
spread by D. B. Packer, the host of the Winneshiek House, with the choicest 
viands and the luxuries of the season. 


The following regular toasts were then offered by the toast committee con- 
sisting of John A. Clark, J. D. Turner and Charles Powell: 

1. The 31 stars of our glorious Constitution may they forever move in 
harmony around one common center. 

2. The heroes of the Revolution the heritage of their graves can not be 

3. The memory of George Washington. 

4. The President of the United States. 

5. The Governor of the State of Illinois. 

6. The Army and the Navy of the United States. 

7. The Heroes of the Mexican War we delight to honor them. 

8. The Constitution and the Union. 

9. Freeport, the city of the seven hills may she, like Rome, her great 

prototype be eternal. 

10. The ladies we are their servants. 
Several voluntary toasts were given. 

President of the day, Julius Smith ; secretary, T. E. Champion." 


A Stephenson County agriculture society was organized in Freeport, Feb- 
ruary 23, 1854. Over 150 farmers were present. All sections of the county 
were represented except Rock Grove and Winslow. The following were 
elected officials: President, O. W. Brewster; vice president, Luman Montague; 
secretary, John A. Davis ; treasurer, Wm. M. Buckley ; corresponding secre- 
tary, Wm. Preston. 

March 13, 1854, a Freeport public meeting indorsed the movement for an 
Illinois industrial university and recommended Professor J. B. Turner of Jack- 
sonville as the first state superintendent of schools of Illinois. 


May 3, 1854, the veterans of the War of 1812 held a meeting at the court- 
house in Freeport. The meeting was addressed by T. F. Goodhue, Wm. Baker, 
and David Niles. Resolutions were passed asking for pensions in cash, instead 
of land. The following old soldiers were present : David Niles, Joseph Norris, 
James Van Velt, Marcus Carpenter, Jacob Klontz, Abraham Cole, Jacob Mor- 
ris, Ira H. Sturtevant, George McCoy, William Baker, E. H. Shumway, John 
Malone, Geo. Lattig, Jos. Van Meter, Mary Walter (widow of Aaron Walter), 
Josiah Smith, Henry Shepherd and Thomas Matteson. 

David Niles was chairman and Henry Shepherd secretary. 


One of the organizations of Freeport in 1854 was the Maine Law Alli- 
ance. The purpose of this organization was to secure law enforcement and to 
elevate the moral standing of the city. The Freeport Journal, January 12, 1854, 


said, "The organization of the Maine Law Alliance we regard as one of the 
best movements on the part of the friends of temperance, and the enemies of 
the liquor traffic, that has ever been made in our community. It has instilled 
new life and energy into the hearts of those who for years have been offering 
but a feeble resistance to the frightful and rapid advance of this destructive 
vice. That there is an urgent necessity for such an organization, few can doubt 
when they contemplate the unexampled wretchedness and misery the liquor 
traffic produces ; the demoralization that inseparably attends it, resulting in 
the increase of our poor and county taxes, the spread of crime and debauch- 
ery, and the death of its innumerable victims. We hail the Alliance, believing 
that it will have a tendency to check and ultimately abolish this evil from our 

January 5, 1854, the Journal had a 24 column editorial on "Home Manu- 
factures," in part as follows: "The remark is sometimes made that Freeport 
is not a manufacturing town, but we are certain that one branch thrives wonder- 
fully among us. We mean the manufacture of drunkards and gamblers. A 
license can be got to sell liquor for $50. A room with screens, gaudy painted 
window curtains, lascivious pictures, and a bar set out with rows of glittering 
bottles and tumblers, gives the front view. A little whiskey and some papers 
of logwood and other healthy drugs, make brandy, wine, gin, rum, of the 
best quality. Behind, is the gambling room. The raw material are young and 
innocent boys. At first the novice is shy. He will take a cigar, then a dish 
of oysters with some ale, next joins a game of euchre to see wno treats, and 
becomes familiar with the tainted moral air of the place. Every step of his 
downward course is encouraged by the men who profit by his ruin. A young 
man in Freeport is in peril. The fact is, it is safer here to destroy a young 
man's soul, than it is in Rockford to kill his body. 

We should have a reading room for the boys, a lecture course. Yes, it will 
take money, but is money the God for which we are made. You men of busi- 
ness may hoard up your money, now, but the day will come when, if it is 
locked up against such uses, it will eat like a canker of your happiness." 

Freeport had a 2/3 majority vs. saloons in the spring of 1855. 

A city ordinance was passed prohibiting retailing liquors and permitting only 
gallon sales. The Journal urged the enforcement of the law, but the attempt 
was abandoned. 


A boosting pamphlet on Freeport issued in 1857, in speaking of the advan- 
tages of northern Illinois, says : "As the traveler comes west from Chicago, 
he will find but little that is inviting until he approaches Elgin on the Fox 
River. When he approaches Marengo and is conveyed through the center of 
Garden Prairie, he begins to see some of the loveliest portions of the western 
country and as he passes through the flourishing town of Belvidere, his admira- 
tion for the prairie land will be in no wise diminished. The face of the country 
is a little more uneven, and the soil is allowed to be richer between the Rock 
River and the Mississippi. Throughout Stephenson County the land is suffi- 


ciently rolling to make the prospect diversified without being detrimental to 
agriculture. The soil is so rich that few farmers have begun to think of ro- 
tating their crops. 

Land as fertile as any in existence can be bought for $12 to $25 an acre, and 
in an ordinary season will produce almost enough to pay for its cost. The 
truth is, that aside from the difference in cost of transportation of its crops, 
an acre of land in Stephenson County (1857) is worth just as much as an acre 
of land "away down east." The eastern farmer who will canvass this matter 
thoroughly, can not resist this conclustion, and he who sells his farm at the east 
and comes among us and buys three acres for one and finds himself to all in- 
tents and purposes (excepting in the lack of fruit, which, however, will soon 
grow and is now growing) as well located as regards the comforts of civilized 
society, will act the part of wisdom. We have schools and churches, as good 
as can be found in the east, and we are as much "down east" so far as all 
such privileges are concerned as are our friends to whose good sense we are 
now appealing. Think of it, and come and give the county a visit. Take a look 
at our beautiful prairies and handsome groves, view our busy and crowded 
young city, the pride of our county, and we will venture that you will think 
as we think. There never was a more favorable time to purchase than now. 
Many of that class who always try to keep just ahead of the march of civiliza- 
tion and improvements, are selling and going to Kansas. Good farms can be 
had at fair rates and farms within two miles of the city can be bought for less 
money than is asked for unimproved land lying near paper towns in Kansas 
and Nebraska. There is no more favorable town for real estate investment 
than Freeport no place of its character and prosperity where homesteads can 
be obtained on better terms." 

In the history of Freeport of 1857, by Boss and Burrows, the Illinois Cen- 
tral Railroad has a two page spread advertisement, offering for sale 1,500,000 
acres of choice farm lands, at $6 to $30 per acre, and up, on long credits and 
low rates of interest. A vivid description of Illinois from Cairo to Galena is 
given, picturing in brilliant colors the resources of the state, the fertile soil,, 
stone, coal, lead and timber. They asked 3% interest and gave 20% discount 
for cash. 

The Yankee real estate man of that early day was busy. He sold corner 
lots in paper towns, and many were the victims of his wiles. A story printed 
in a magazine in 1839 illustrates a characteristic of the period. As the story 
goes: "Major Wilkey of Mooseboro, Vermont, traded his New England farm 
for the land and town of Edensburg, Illinois. The real estate man gave Mr. 
Wilkey a beautiful colored plat of the city of Edensburg, with Broadway, Com- 
mercial Street, College Street, the public squares, parks, etc., etc., all located. 
The plot showed 300 acres that would produce 400 bushels to the acre. The 
credulous major drove in a wagon with his family across New York, over the 
mountains, across the great endless Mississippi Valley, building air castles 
broader and higher as he approached his own town of Edensburg. Finally, 
worn out and exhausted, he found Edensburg to be an uninhabitable swamp. 
The city and the major's dream vanished. Hardships unnerved him and he 
returned to the east with a broken down wagon, a broken winded horse, a 


broken hearted wife, a broken legged dog, a broken down constitution, and 
three sons, Johnathan, Jerry and Joe shaking with the ague." 


The De Armit Plow Co. was well established in Freeport in 1857 and doing 
a large business. The company employed 12 men and for power had installed 
a 14 horse power steam engine. The year 1856-7 De Armit manufactured 300 
stirring plows, 50 corn plows, 300 breaking plows, 50 shovel plows, a few drags 
and cultivators. He also did a turning lathe business and his total output ex- 
ceeded $10,000 worth of business. The Boss & Burrough's booklet (1857) 
says that this was very gratifying because it shows that Freeport can sustain 
home industries. 

The F. B. Williams Threshing Machine Company began in 1851 and em- 
ployed ten men in 1857. In 1856 the Company made and sold ten threshing 
machines at about $1,000 apiece. The company made the Fowlersville thresher. 


Pells Manny was a pioneer manufacturer of Stehphenson County. His work 
and fame and the services of his inventive genius was too great to be confined to 
one county, and the world over his name stands far towards the head of the list 
of early inventors and manufacturers of reapers. 

It is said that he got his idea of the Manny reaper from reading a descrip- 
tion of a machine used by the Gauls over 350 years ago. His first machine was 
one which cut off the heads of the grain. After much experimenting, he pro- 
duced the Manny reaper which soon supplanted the header. The new inven- 
tion struck the rocky roads encountered by most inventions. It required time 
and labor and over $20,000 to perfect the machine so that it would work suc- 
cessfully. This was accomplished in 1852 and in 1853. Mr. Manny's son, J. 
N. Manny, began the manufacture of reapers in Rockford. In 1856 the Mannys 
established a factory in Freeport. The company found a great demand for 
its product and the annual output soon rose to several thousands. In 1857 the 
Freeport factory run by Mr. Manny manufactured reapers, hay presses, and the 
Manny Subsoil Plow. The Freeport booklet (Boss & Burrough's) 1857, says 
that the Manny Company had enough orders ahead that year to make it neces- 
sary to employ from 250 to 400 men. It was believed that this company alone 
would increase the population of Freeport 1,200 to 2,000. 

Jacob Walkey in 1853 established a planing mill and furniture factory on 
Chicago Street. In 1857 he was doing a big business and employing a large 
number of men. He used a thirty horse power steam engine to run his ma- 
chinery. His building was a two story, with 60 feet frontage. He had two 
planing machines, scroll saw, four turning lathes, boring and mortising ma- 
chines. In the Exchange Block on Stephenson Street he had a furniture sales 
room, "One of the most creditable features of Freeport" in 1857, and "does 
a $37,000 annual business." 


The Halderman & Company Steam Flour Mill started August, 1856. The 
company has three run of stone and can grind 30,000 barrels a year. In 1857 
J. B. Hazen's Iron Foundry was "doing quite a business in sleigh shoes and iron 
kettles. In 1856, J. Riegard's Flouring Mill, which did mostly a custom busi- 
ness, put in a steam engine. He had three run of stone running night and day, 
and has a capacity of 392 bushels per day. 

In 1857 Benjamin Goddard's Saw Mill had one upright and one buzz saw. 
The company did a business of about 2,000 feet a day on the upright. Four 
men were employed, and the mill "did a business of from $35,000 to $50,000 a 

In 1857 B. Rhode's soap and candle factory on the Galena road did a busi- 
ness of $8,000 to $10,000 annually. Stiles was doing "an extensive business at 
the fanning mill factory in 1857. Brown & Trowbridge were grinding corn 
for export. Washburn and Randall's stone cutting and marble works were do- 
ing a good business. In 1856 the Freeport Mfg. Co. completed a new brick 
building on Liberty Street, three stories high, 160x60, and with room for 500 
workmen. The engine room was a wing 60x30, and contained an 80 horse 
power $6,000 engine to drive the machinery. The building was occupied by 
the Manny Reaper Company and the Williams Threshing Machine Company. 


Panics, like comets, seem to return at more or less regular intervals. 

The history of the United States shows that Stephenson County, with its 
first permanent settlement in 1833, was s ^ m ' ts infancy when the panic of 
1837 struck it. There were men here, however, who well remembered the panic 
of 1818 to 1819 which followed the reorganization of the National Bank of 
1816. There may have been men whose memories reached back to the panic 
of 1783 to 1788. The first panic in America, that of 1783, followed the close 
of the Revolution and the breakdown of the continental currency and state 
paper money. "Rag" money had had its day. Inflation of the currency, the 
boon of high prices, speculation and wildcat banking brought the inevitable 
train of ruin. Out of this chaos and ruin came order and stability in 1791, 
through the financial genius of Alexander Hamilton. But when the National 
Bank's charter expired in 1811, the experimenters refused to charter it. Then 
followed another reign of "Rag" money, wildcat banking by states and individ- 
uals, followed by speculation, fictitious values and the inevitable crash. The 
National Bank was re-chartered in 1816 and a return to specie payments and 
sound finance was accompanied by sheriff's sales and the panic of 1816 to 1819. 
These two lessons were not well learned. The bank was not re-chartered in 1836, 
owing to President Jackson's mania for tinkering with the national finances. 
The result was the same as in 1783 and 1816 "rag money," irresponsible state 
and corporation banking, speculation on fictitious values, high prices and ex- 
travagant living, followed by inevitable redemption and resumption of specie 
payments, scarcity of hard money, sheriff's sales, low prices, low wages, poor 
markets and a mass of unemployed men. This panic of 1837 affected Stephen- 
son County indirectly more than directly. It held back the tide of westward 


immigration and expansion. Then came the panic of 1857, which affected the 
county more directly. In about twenty years followed the panic of 1873, and 
then the panic of 1893, and the so-called "Banker's" panic of 1907 which 
seemed to be ahead of the 20 year schedule. According to schedule the next big 
panic will be due about 1913 to 1916. It may be hoped that the flurry of 1907 
will satisfy the demand for panics. That, however, may well be doubted, for 
history is likely to repeat with a thoroughgoing panic before 1920. Judging 
from the past, this is to be expected, and can be averted only by some such 
financial student as the great Hamilton, who will base a financial and economic 
system on real values. As yet the man has not appeared, and there is no assur- 
ance of a system sound enough to withstand the popular tendency towards 
speculation, overreaching credit (a new form of "rag" money) and the manip- 
ulation of stock gamblers. 

The effect of the panic of 1857 was direct and real. Immigration slacked, 
hard money was scarce, loans were withheld, interest was high, markets were, 
slow, trade declined, business and industry came to a standstill, and laborers 
were thrown out of employment. Land values declined and lots and farms were 
a drug on the market. There was no money to move the crops and farmers, 
in many cases discouraged because of lack of a market, let much of their lands 
lie idle. Merchants bought but little new stock, right glad to avoid bankruptcy 
on stocks in store. All over the country, banks, corporations and individuals 
failed, the doors were closed and business men who had lived in high hopes of 
prosperity went into bankruptcy. 

When the panic struck Stephenson County in 1857 Freeport had forty-eight 
dry goods and grocery stores, ten clothing stores, five drug stores, four furni- 
ture establishments, five saddle and harness shops, two book stores, three banks, 
two confectioneries, four hardware stores, five bakeries, two gun shops, four 
jewelry stores, four meat markets, one hat store, seven boot and shoe stores, 
two cigar and tobacco stores, two paint and oil stores, twelve hotels, three sa- 
loons, six millinery stores, five agricultural implement stores, two daguerreau 
galleries, one brass foundry, nine jobbing houses, one sash and blind factory 
and three auction and commission rooms. There were also several manufac- 
turing establishments, among which were the Manny Reaper Works, the Wil- 
liams Threshing Company, De Armit's Plow Company and Stiles and Grif- 
fith's Fanning Mill Factory. There were also three weekly and one daily news- 
papers. The daily had a short life. In a business and industrial way, Freeport 
was making rapid progress and just at the time when it seemed that the city's 
development might move along by leaps and bounds, the panic dampened the 
ardor of enthusiasts. Money became tighter than ever and business and in- 
dustry practically came to a standstill. 

There was little recovery from this condition till about 1862 and 1863, when 
the demands of Civil War revived a lagging business. The high tide of pros- 
perity came again, only to see the nation, its lessons unlearned, march right up 
to the financial chasm of 1873. 

With the arrival of two railroads, Freeport began a rapid and steady growth. 
In 1855 Judge Farwell put up a building on the south side of the square. Build- 
ings were built by Martin & Karcher on Stephenson Street; by Mitchel & 






Putnam, corner of Stephenson and Chicago ; a block by E. H. Hyde, three stories 
high, the third floor being a public hall. The Hyde Block is believed to have 
been the first building in Freeport heated by steam and lighted by gas. This was 
old Plymouth Hall on the site of the Wilcoxen Block. The Exchange Block, 
by Hoebel & Engle & Strohm was built in 1855-1856. 

The great want in 1855 was hotel facilities. The city had outgrown the 
hotels of the day. In March, 1855, John K. Brewster decided to build a hotel 
at the corner of Stephenson and Mechanic Streets. The foundation was laid 
in 1855. December 4, 1856, the Brewster Hotel was inclosed and on Tuesday, 
August 27, 1857, the hotel was formally opened, and the register showed the 
names of 29 guests. September 2 was the date of the opening. Celebrations 
and addresses were made by Hon. Martin P. Sweet, Rev. Dr. Sunderland and 
others. Music was furnished by the Great Western Band. It was a joyous 
day in Freeport. The building had a 60 foot front and was four stories high. 
The original cost was $75,000. In 1856, J. B. Childs built four buildings on 
Stephenson Street between Chicago and Mechanic. J. P. Spitler put up a three 
story building on Chicago, between Galena and Stephenson Streets. 

The period of 1855 of 1860 was one in which Freeport took on the appearance 
of a city because of extensive building. 


The Crossen murder at Craine's Grove occurred Sunday, March 23, 1856. 
Crossen, who was drunk, beat his wife to death. When arrested he plead 
guilty but denied any intention of killing his wife as he said he had beaten her 
worse than that many times and she had not died. 

Peter Arnd, a German, with his wife and four children settled about five 
miles north of Cedarville in 1859. July 26, 1859, he left his work because he had 
hurt his hand and his wife went to the field and did his work. At noon she 
got dinner and returned to the field. In the evening, accompanied by another 
woman, she returned home. As she neared the house, she saw her husband 
with an axe in his hand, staring at the bloody bodies of the four children whom 
he had slain with the ax. Arnd was arrested and died of softening of the brain 
caused by sunstroke. 

June 7, 1859, a man named Lauth stabbed a William Lander, a German, 
causing instant death. Lander, known as "Butcher Bill," was insisting that 
Lauth pay him what he owed him. Lauth refused and with a butcher knife 
stabbed Lander through the heart. Lauth was sent to the penitentiary for 
a term of eight years. August 8, 1864, a soldier by the name of Walton, in the 
three months' service shot and killed Mrs. George Whitney, wife of another 
soldier, opposite the Stephenson House in Freeport. Both had been drinking. 
Walton was acquitted on a plea of insanity. 

In 1869, Henry Schmidtz, a peddler and a former resident of Freeport, was 
found murdered in a slough in Lancaster Township. Suspicion pointed towards 
an assistant, but the coraner's jury made no indictment. 

June 7, 1872, John L. Thompson shot and killed Frank Wood at the Kraft 
House. Both were drinking and were quarreling over two women of bad 


character. Wood struck Thompson and the latter shot him. He was sen- 
tenced to one year in the state prison. 

In 1874, the county was stirred by the defalcation of George Thompson, ex- 
county clerk. Thompson, by forging numerous county orders, had swindled 
the people out of about $5,000. Most of the loss fell to Knowlton & Sons, 
the Second National Bank, Joseph Emmert, the First National Bank, and James 
Mitchell & Co. Thompson escaped to Canada and California, but returned to 
Freeport, pleaded guilty in 1878, and was sent to the penitentiary. He was 
pardoned after two years service and returned to California. 

A. W. Hall, clerk of the circuit court, defaulted, and cost the county $1,184 
and his bondsmen $2,000. He carried the case to the supreme court and losing, 
left the county. 


In 1855 there was a general sentiment for more efficient government of Free- 
port. It was believed that the place had outgrown the old town organization. 
The advisability of a change to a city charter was argued pro and con for 
months. The more progressive were insistent on the change. These men were 
not only anxious for a change because of present demands but were men who 
were looking far into the future. They argued that the prospects of the town 
were good, that its location was sure to draw to it an ever growing population, 
and that with the general expansion sure to follow the railroad's advent in the 
county would be better secured under a city form of government. The very 
fact that it was a "city" would be a good advertising point, and would attract 
both population and industries. Public meetings were held and speeches were 
made by such men as D. A. Knowlton, O. H. Wright, Judge Farwell, A. T. 
Green, C. S. Bogg, Charles Betts, J. C. Kean, Judge Purrington and others. 
Business and industries were rapidly developing and it was realized that in order 
to hold its place with other localities in the west, its rivals in the race for new 
citizens and new industries, there must be established a more efficient govern- 
ment. Many of the evils and vices too common in early western towns had 
retained and some of these must be eliminated and others put under more vig- 
orous control. It was the same old question of better laws and a more vig- 
orous law enforcement. To meet these demands it was believed a different 
form of government, with increased powers, was necessary. Such additional 
powers, it was argued, could be secured only from the State Legislature in the 
form of a city charter. 

There were citizens, however, who held that such a change was unneces- 
sary. They believed that the town trustees were able to meet the demands for 
some time to come. There was some fear that the new system proposed would 
bring additional burdens in the form of taxation. Opposed to the plan was 
the usual reactionary element always to be found against any progressive move- 
ment. They argued that drunkenness, gambling and disorder could be sup- 
pressed or controlled by the town trustees who had the right to have ample 
power to organize and maintain an efficient police force and fire department. 
But the progressive element won out, as it always must, sooner or later. 


A petition was presented to the State Legislature and a charter was granted 
in 1855. On April 2, 1855, an election was held and the following city officers 
were elected: Mayor, Hon. Thomas J. Turner; treasurer, E. W. Salisbury; 
clerk, H. N. Hibbard; marshall, W. W. Smith. 

The board of aldermen consisted of the following: John A. Clark, W. G. 
Waddell, Jos. B. Smith, John Barfoot, A. Cameron Hunt, John P. Byerley. 

With this organization Freeport began its career as a city. It marked the 
beginning of a distinct period of progress which was soon to be interrupted by 
the Civil War. Under the city charter, new and greater enterprises were 
launched and pushed to a successful conclusion, and Freeport soon became one 
of the most prosperous points west of Chicago. 


October 16, 1856, Freeport was the scene of a great mass meeting of the fol- 
lowers of John C. Fremont. The Daily Journal of October" 17, says in head 
lines, "Grand Republican Mass Convention ; from thirty to fifty thousand Free- 
men in Council ; Procession 5 to 7 miles long." The Journal says : "Yesterday 
was a proud day in the history of northern Illinois and southern Wisconsin. 
About 10 o'clock the cars came in from Galena, and the crowd lead by "OUR" 
band and the Warren band marched up Stephenson Street. Delegations came 
in from all points of the compass with a profusion of banners and devices and 
many with glee clubs and bands. The streets were crowded with teams and 
the sidewalks were crowded with a moving mass of humanity. The main pro- 
cession commenced moving about eleven o'clock from the Pennsylvania House 
under the charge of Holden Putnam the marshall of the day. After parading 
the principal streets, the parade headed for the fair grounds. The Carroll County 
delegation, consisting of 120 wagons, arrived at 12:15. In the procession there 
were 488 wagons, of which a large number were 4 horse and 6 horse. The pro- 
cession was variously estimated at 5 to 7 miles in length. 

The speakers stand had been erected at the head of Chicago Street, on the 
rolling place just west of Judge Purinton's place. About the stands was a sea 
of heads above which were waving banners and devices, presenting a scene long 
to be remembered, and one which filled the hearts of all lovers of freedom and 
human rights with joy and fresh courage." 

At one o'clock Hon. Thomas J. Turner was elected president. There were 
about 20 vice presidents and 6 secretaries. The crowd was so large that three 
orators spoke simultaneously : Hon. David Moogle, of Wisconsin, at the main 
stand. To the right was S. A. Hulbert of Belvidere, to the left Hon. E. B. Wash- 
burn. Mr. N. P. Banks also spoke and according to the Journal it "was one of 
the most eloquent speeches to which we ever listened. Hon. E. B. Washburn made 
part of his addresses to the Germans in their own language. "The Galena Turn- 
ers were here in a body. They were joined by the Freeport Turners and made 
a fine appearance. A company of cavalry, made up of two or three hundred 
young republicans, lead the parade. A large delegation came from Lee County 
on the train. The good order of the day was remarked by all. No drunken 


men were seen staggering about the streets and there was no rowdyism. It was 
a glorious demonstration." 

In the evening a mass meeting was held at the courthouse and the speakers 
were McLean, Turner, Smith and others. 


Banners were the order of the day in political celebrations and this one 
was conspicuous for its wonderful banners and devices. 

Buchanan democracy was represented on one banner by a line, "Collo'd possum 
chained and shackeled, on the top of the banner. The Mt. Carroll Seminary 
was represented by a carriage of young ladies with the banner: "Mt. Carroll 
Seminary, Liberty and Union, Fremont." Among the banners were these: 

"Our Inland Seas : We want a President who knows them." 

"We keep our powder dry for disunionists." 

"Die Deutsches von Ridott for Fremont and Dayton." 

"Freie Arbeit & Freie Kansas." 

"No old bachelors in the White House. Fremont, Jessie and the Union." 

"No more Slave States." 

"No Compromise with Slavery." 

"No Comprise with Slavery." 

"Up Freeman and at em. Music. Star-spangled banner." 

It was estimated the big crowd numbered 35,000 to 50,000 by some of the 
newspapers. Some who attended the Fremont convention and the Lincoln-Doug- 
las debate maintained that the former drew the larger crowd. The great crowd 
was evidence that the newly born republican party was a lusty youngster. 


The enthusiasm of the campaign of 1860 is shown in the headlines in the 
Wide Awake, October 20, 1860 : 

Republican Jubilee. 

Freeport All Ablaze. 

The Douglas Wake Eclipsed, Two to One. 

1,500 to 2,000 Torches. 

Brilliant Illuminations. 

Fire Works. 

Grand Procession. 

Great Enthusiasm. 


German Mounted Rangers. 
400 in Sherman Procession. 
Hon. J. C. Kean Declares For Lincoln. 

Innumerable Banners. 

Seven Bands of Music. 

Speeches by Washburne, Sweet & Shaffer. 

Stephenson Good for 1,000 Majority For Old Abe. 

Oh Ain't I Glad I Joined the Republicans. 

ITEM, 1860. 

The county gave Lincoln nearly 900 majority and Freeport gave him 205 in 


The invention of the steam engine and the building of railroads in the east 
pointed the way for the rapid development of Illinois. Little progress could be 
made in any large way so long as supplies and crops must be hauled to and from 
such a distant market as Chicago by horse and ox teams. The interior coun- 
ties had advanced about as far as they could without a better means of trans- 
portation. The legislature of Illinois was possessed with the idea of internal 
improvements. In 1837 the legislature appropriated ten million dollars for a 
system of railroads and other improvements. The state borrowed money and 
work was begun. A heavy debt was contracted, fifty miles of railroad were 
built and the state rapidly approached bankruptcy. The state's credit was dam- 
aged. There was some talk of repudiating the debt. This disgrace was pre- 
vented largely through the foresight and ability of Governor Thomas Ford, and 
the honor of Illinois was saved. 

The first railroad in the United States was built in 1826, between Albany 
and Schenectady in New York. Illinois jumped early into the railroad business. 
A line was built from Meredosia to Springfield at a cost of $1,000,000, and later 
sold for $100,000. The first locomotive to run in the Mississippi valley ran over 
eight miles of this road in 1838, twelve years after the first railroad was op- 
erated in the United States. But the state indebtedness of $14,666,562.42 ac- 
companied by bank suspensions, a depreciated currency and talk of repudiation, 
gave a decided check to the dream of state railroading. The next undertak- 
ings were to be by private capital with state and national aid. 


By 1850 the Chicago and Galena railroad was completed as far as Elgin. 
Capital was availabe but the people held mass meetings and determined to admit 
no railroads that did not make a terminus on Illinois soil. 

In 1850 Congress passed the bill donating to Illinois, three million acres of 
public lands to aid in railroad construction. This was a turning point and 
broader and saner views of railroad building prevailed. In 1850 there were 
three pieces of railroad in Illinois ; one eight miles long from Meredosia and Na- 
ples to Springfield; one six miles long from the coal fields opposite St. Louis; 
and one from Chicago to Elgin. The act of Congress provided for a right of 
way through the public lands of Illinois two hundred feet wide. The road was 
to run from a point near the junction of the Ohio and the Mississippi to the 
southern terminus of Illinois and Michigan Canal, and from that point in two 
branches to Galena and to Chicago. The railraad company was granted alter- 
nate sections, designated by even numbers, six sections deep from the right of 
way. The road was to begin simultaneously at the northern and southern ter- 
mini, and was to be completed in ten years. The government's odd number sec- 
tions at once rose in price from $1.25 to $2.50 an acre. The land was taken off 
the market for two years and was finally sold at an average of $5 per acre. 
So, although the federal government had made a great donation to Illinois, it 
profited itself, because its treasury was enriched by large sales of public lands 
at a higher rate. 

Davidson and Strive's History of Illinois says: "The capitalists who or- 
ganized the Illinois Central Railroad Company were six men from New York 
and three from Boston. It was one of the most stupendous and ingenious 
speculations of modern times. By means of it, a few sagacious capitalists came 
into possession of a first class railroad, over 700 miles long and millions of 
acres of land worth in the aggregate, perhaps, $40,000,000 without an actual 
outlay of a cent of their own money. After the road is in operation the state is 
to receive 5% of the gross earnings in lien of all state taxes forever. When 
the road was completed the minimum value of the lands donated by the gov- 
ernment was $20,000,000, or $6,000,000 more than the cost of the road. Bonds 
sold readily at par and the road was built. The government realized a profit 
of $9,000,000 as a result of increase in land values. 


The railroad fever reached Freeport and Stephenson County about 1845. 
The people were thoroughly aroused because now they saw a solution to the 
perplexing problem of markets and transportation. Until these problems were 
solved, there was no possibility of rapid progress in the county. But the rail- 
road would be a panacea. Not only would it bring markets and transportation ; 
it would bring new settlers by thousands. The new settlers and the accessible 
markets would cause a rise in land values, and once more the conservative op- 
timism of the county had dreams of a prosperous future. 

There was much railroad sentiment in 1846. But it was not till January 7, 
1847, tnat the movement for railroads took definite form. On that date a rail- 
road convention was held at Rockford. All northern Illinois was represented. 


Stephenson County was instrumental in calling the meeting and was well rep- 
resented at Rockford. Among the delegates from this county were John H. 
Adams, Luman Montague, Jackson Richert, D. A. Knowlton, Martin P. Sweet 
and Adrian P. Lucas. From Chicago came W. B. Ogden, I. N. Arnold and 
Walter Newbury. Chicago parties had already received a charter and this 
company proposed to go ahead and build the Galena and Chicago railroad. 
Several speeches were made at Rockford and each locality was ambitious to 
show why the railroad would profit by passing its way. 

The railroad question soon became a question of cash. Money was scarce 
and capital difficult to obtain. To construct the road, it was absolutely neces- 
sary to sell stock along the right of way. The company told the Stephenson 
County people that $20,000 worth of stock must be subscribed in this county. 
The time had now arrived when people who wanted a railroad, could back the 
desire with cash. 

Solicitors traveled over the county disposing of the stock. They met with a 
response that was quite generous, considering the tight money conditions of 
the times. The appreciation of the necessity of the railroad was general and 
women were as enthusiastic as the men. So apparent was the necessity for 
the railroad that both men and women were willing to sacrifice to aid the cause 
and hasten the day. It is said that women aided in many cases to pay for 
stock subscribed by selling eggs, butter and provisions. Finally the $20,000 was 
subscribed by Stephenson County. 

The railroad was built as far as Elgin in 1850 and finally reached Belvi- 
dere. At this time all the difficulties and discouragements to which such an 
undertaking is susceptible, threatened to stop the progress of construction. In 
the midst of the period of discouragement, an attempt was made to turn the 
course of the road from the original route and send it through to Savannah. 
This change would leave Stephenson County entirely without a railroad. The 
county was at once thrust in gloom and almost in despair. Men who had urged 
the people to subscribe for the stock were alarmed for the blame would be 
fixed largely on them if it developed that the people had put $20,000 in a rail- 
road for some other county. People who had sacrificed by buying stock, were 
beginning to feel that they had been fleeced. 

But there were aggressive leaders in Stephenson County who were deter- 
mined that the county was not to be side-tracked by such a game. A com- 
mittee of citizens was appointed, consisting of J. H. Adams, O. H. Wright, 
D. A. Knowlton, and John A. Clark, to visit Rockford and Chicago to insist 
that the original contract be carried out. The committee visited Rockford and 
made a strong impression on the influential ones there and then went on to Chi- 
cago. In Chicago they met the officers of the road and convinced them that the 
road should come on west through Freeport to Dubuque, for which they al- 
ready had the right of way. The committee was entirely successful, as it 
must have been with such men working together. It was cooperation and unity 
of interest and action that won the day for greater Freeport and Stephenson 
County. The county owes much to these men who aided materially in bring- 
ing the railroad into the county, for it was a question of ox teams or railroads. 
It owes much also to every individual who cooperated by buying stock, by back- 


ing up his ideas with his cash, and by showing a large spirit of concerted social 

Work soon began again on the road and slowly but surely it made its way 
towards Freeport. 


February 10, 1851, the Illinois State Legislature passed a law providing for 
the construction of the Illinois Central Railroad, according to the conditions laid 
down by Congress. Considerable time was spent on a multitude of bills and 
amendments, for such a great enterprise would be naturally a good subject for 
cranks and grafters. Honest men had hard work to keep the transaction clear 
of graft and also to secure to the state its own rights. An understanding was 
entered into by which the Galena and Chicago road was to end at Freeport 
and the Illinois Central was to go on to Galena. Surveys were at once begun 
on the proposed lines and in 1852 made commendable progress. 

To relieve the monotony of the times and to add spice to the situation, a 
strike occurred while the road was being built through Silver Creek Township 
near Grain's Grove. The men had made demands for higher wages, but their 
demands had been passed by unheeded. Finally the gang of workmen quit 
work, drank too much liquor and became disorderly. The situation was threat- 
ening and the company appealed to the authorities for protection of their prop- 
erty. The proper authorities took the matter up promptly and the local militia 
company, under command of Captain J. W. Crane, marched to Grain's Grove, 
destroyed the whiskey and suppressed the disorder. After this show of force 
there was no further trouble with the strikers, and the work went merrily on. 

In 1854 the Galena and Chicago line was completed, through Lena to Warren. 


The original company was chartered in 1852 to build a railroad from Racine 
to Beloit. Racine, Elkhorn, Delevan and Beloit subscribed $490,000 worth of 
stock. Many farmers along the right of way also bought stock, some mortgaging 
their farms. In 1856 the road was completed to Beloit. The company failed to 
meet its obligations and a new company took charge of the road. In the reor- 
ganization the farmers were left out. Considerable litigation followed, but "the 
holders being innocent purchasers, the courts recognized their equities and the 
mortgagors were compelled to pay them." In 1858-9 the work of extension 
through Stephenson County was prosecuted with vigor. A strike occurred at 
"Deep Cut," but Captain Crane and his militia put a quietus on the threatened 
riot and destruction of property. In 1859 the road was completed to Freeport. 
Later it was extended to Savannah and Rock Island. 

The following villages and towns were built up around Chicago, Milwaukee 
& St. Paul stations: Davis, Rock City, Dakota and Florence. The railroad 
passes through the townships of Rock Run, Dakota, Freeport, Silver Creek and 


The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul thus brought steam transportation within 
easy reach of a large part of the county, and added the third railroad for the 
city of Freeport. It did its part after 1859 m developing the county. More 
immigrants came, the county was closely settled up along the line and land values 


A Stephenson County railroad meeting was held in Freeport January 14, 
1850, with Jared Sheetz chairman and F. W. S. Brawley, secretary. O. H. 
Wright was made chairman of a committee to select delegates to the Rock- 
ford Railroad Convention. The following resolution was adopted: "Resolved: 
That we, the citizens of Stephenson County, are in favor of a tax of i% per 
annum, for three years in succession, to aid in the constructing of the Galena 
and Chicago Union Railroad, provided said road is located through this county." 
Another '. mass meeting was held January 26th, with Johnathan Reitzell as 

Journal, January 14, 1850: "A plank road is to be constructed from St. 
Charles to the Rock River." 

The Journal, Monday, January 28, 1850: "The cars are now running to El- 
gin, about % the distance from Chicago to Galena." 

The railroad tax was vigorously opposed at the meeting January 26, 1850. 
The chief arguments against it were: People could not stand an additional 
tax ; unconstitutional, could not make the county a part of an incorporal body ; 
would build up monopoly to enrich the few at the expense of the many. 

The Galena Gazette, May, 1850: "On Friday morning there were ten teams 
loaded with produce here from Stephenson County." 

June 14, 1850, a large and enthusiastic railroad meeting was held at the 
courthouse. John H. Adams was chairman and Charles Betts, secretary. 
Speeches were made by Hon. W. B. Ogden, president of the Galena & Chi- 
cago Union Railroad Co., and by Hon. Thomas J. Turner. By June 24th, 
through the efforts of John A. Holland of Rockford and D. A. Knowlton the 
stock subscription in Stephenson County reached $40,000. 

The Journal, 1850, said : "It usually requires eight days and costs $24 to 
make a trip with grain to Chicago and return. A farmer usually hauls 40 
bushels and gets $32 for it, which leaves him $8.10. This was used as an argu- 
ment for a railroad tax. 


Friday, August 26, 1853, the Freeport Journal had an article under the above 
heading. The article follows : "At last after all the disappointments and diffi- 
culties of reaching us, the cars have at last come. We have seen and heard 
the panting of the iron horse and heard the shrill whistle of the locomotive for 
the first time in Freeport. 

Yesterday the construction train crossed the bridge over the Pecatonica and 
today will probably reach the depot grounds at the lower end of town. Our 


farmers, merchants and business men will rejoice over this event heartily and 
hail with delight this new advance of wealth into our midst. Where, by the 
way, is the celebration we heard so much about? Has it fizzled?" 

September 16, 1853, the Journal says : "During the past two weeks our town 
has been busy, consequently, upon the completion of the railroad. Meanwhile, 
we want more hotels, store rooms and dwelling houses." 


The Chicago Great Western Railroad was completed through Stephenson 
County in 1889. It was believed for a time that the road would enter Free- 
port, but this hope has never been realized and the road runs through the 
county south of Freeport, and along its line several important stations have 
been built up, such as : Bolton, Pearl City, German Valley and South Free- 
port. This is a rich grain section and elevators along the line do a big business. 
The connection with Freeport is by stage and auto-bus, meeting all passenger 
trains at South Freeport, three miles south of Freeport. At present, a ticket 
office is maintained in the "rest room," at the northwest corner of the square. 

The Great Western was at first largely in the hands of English capitalists. 
In 1909, after a heroic struggle by President Stickney, it went into the hands 
of a receiver and was later bought up at a low figure by the Morgan interests 
of New York. This was followed by a reorganization and recapitalization. As 
a consequence of ample financial backing, the road at once began extensive 
improvements, the main feature of which was double tracking from Oelwein 
to Chicago. Grades are being reduced and the entire line is being reballasted 
with a twelve inch bed of gravel ballast under the ties. Double passing tracks 
are laid five miles apart, many of which are lapped sidings, interlocked at the 
lap. The ties are treated with creosote and efficient screw spikes are used. 

A prospective interurban line from Freeport to Dixon, crossing the Great 
Western at South Freeport, is sure to be built some day, and then the Great 
Western will do considerable more passenger business from Freeport. 


The Freeport-Rockford line of the Rockford & Interurban Railroad Co. 
was completed into Freeport in the spring of 1904. The road does a large pas- 
senger and freight business and has been a great advantage to the city and the 
county. Local capital aided in the construction of the road, but some time ago 
the company passed into the control of an eastern syndicate. 

The officials are: President, H. D. Walbridge; first vice president, Emil G. 
Schmidt ; second vice president, T. M. Ellis ; secretary, W. H. Lemons ; treasurer, 
W. H. Bruner; general manager, Chester P. Wilson; general passenger agent, 
C. C. Shockley. 

The local officials are : J. J. Brereton, agent ; and Wm. Holmes, assistant. 


"They builded better than they knew." 

Stephenson County is five hundred, seventy-three square miles of rolling 
prairie in the heart of a continent and makes an interesting theme in the study 







of geology. The most valuable part of the county's geology is its soil of great 
fertility and variety, affording occupation and wealth for its people. Its loca- 
tion too is favorable, being located near the lead region and on the great path- 
way to the west, on the old trail that led from the east to the west, via Chicago 
and the Great Lakes. The county's soil and natural drainage system have 
made it a rich agricultural and stock raising region and its location has made 
it a railroad and manufacturing center. But of more interest than the soil or 
the favored location; of vastly more interest than its agriculture and its in- 
dustries is the change of these five hundred, seventy-three square miles of wild 
prairies and wooded hills and valleys from a land occupied only -by a few roving 
savages and roamed over by the wolf and the deer, with not a white man trodding 
its primeval state the change of five hundred, seventy-three square miles, 
transformed by civilization and affording homes for over 40,000 citizens of 
the United States, with farms, villages, towns and cities and societies, churches, 
schools and organized governments, and all in seventy-eight years. 

Such a people have an interesting history. They came not from one state or 
from one people. Not the Western States alone, but the old Commonwealth 
of the Atlantic Coast, from Massachusetts to Georgia, sent many of their best 
families to lay here the foundations of a new people. Europe, too, contributed 
liberally its daring and progressive spirits. Hardly a state in the nation, or a 
nation in Europe, that did not add its mite to the upbuilding of Stephenson 
County's civil society. 

Indeed, it is a fascinating study to trace to the east to their former homes, 
the trail of the multitude that settled here, following close upon the wake of the 
departing red men and in advance of the railroad. Some walked and some came 
on horseback. Others drove ox or horse teams from the Atlantic seaboard plains 
over the mountains and across the trackless and almost endless valley of the 
Mississippi. Still others came by canal and boat around the Great Lakes, or 
down the Ohio and up the Mississippi and the Illinois, and yet others by way 
of New Orleans and the Father of Waters. 

The old covered wagon, or "Prairie Schooner," was a home on wheels, the 
family unit enroute to new lands of wider opportunity. It was not a breaking 
away from the institutions and the faith of the fathers. Their strange cov- 
ered wagons were loaded down with the institutional ideas of a great people 
and wherever they stopped in the wild west, the family stepped from wagon to 
cabin, primitive agriculture began, schools and churches and trades and civil 
government sprang up round about. The wagons contained a few simple pieces 
of furniture and cooking utensils, the trusty rifle and the family Bible with its 
sacred pages of the family record. Sometimes alone, and sometimes in twos 
and threes, these started westward from far away Vermont or Massachusetts. 
Some came from New York and Pennsylvania, and yet others from Kentucky, 
Virginia and North Carolina. There were weeks and weeks of tedious travel, 
now resting by night at some friendly inn or with a settler, enjoying the un- 
alloyed hospitality of the frontier, or frequently pitching camp under the open 
sky. No road was too long, no hill too steep, no mire too deep, no dangers too 
great to dampen the ardor of those heroic spirits that had heard the call of the 
great west. It was a spirit that would not die out, and may be seen today, flash- 


ing up in its original vigor and vitality through three quarters of a century of 
our history, as we listen reverently to the tales told by the few remaining heroes 
and heroines of that early time. 

Old Europe, too, heard the call. The revolutions of 1830 and 1848 were 
sure indications of restless spirit. Stories of wide fields of opportunity were 
carried cross the Atlantic and passed from the seaport towns to the interior, 
and in taverns and about the firesides, in old England, Scotland, Ireland, France, 
Prussia and Bavaria, plans were made to cast fortunes in the new land. Some- 
times it was a desire for greater political or religious freedom and often be- 
cause of a desire to seek a country of greater industrial opportunities, untram- 
melled by the limiting restrictions of aristocracy and hard and fast rules of 
social traditions. Many were poor, and staked all on this one great struggle to 
get to the land of the free and the land of plenty. From England, France and 
the German states, and later from Norway and Sweden, came hundreds of 
brave, thrifty, honest souls to found families here in the county and to add vastly 
to the richness and variety of our National life. Breaking home ties, they crossed 
the stormy Atlantic, came west by railroad as far as railroad came, and then by 
wagons they pushed on into the new country. The records show that most of 
them were workmen, trained in the apprentice system of the Old World. Wher- 
ever they came, shops sprang up and these shops in a generation have developed 
into our factory system. They gave us lessons in honesty, frugality and industry. 
They were loyal to the new country. In '61, when the flag was assailed and the 
nation threatened, alongside the men from Massachusetts, Vermont, New York, 
Pennsylvania, Virginia, Kentucky, and the Carolinas, marched the men from 
Ireland, Scotland, Norway and Sweden, Alsace, Prussia, Wertemburg and Old 
England, the colors blended in the Star Spangled Banner. 

But particulars and incidents are more valuable and more interesting than 
generalizations. It is when we consider these pioneers as individuals, and not 
the life and experience of each, that we come to appreciate truly the plain and 
simple life, the dangers and the hardships, and the triumph in conquering the 
wilderness, and, above all, the power and influence of the pioneer character 
wrought in adversity. 

One of the best accounts of early travel is that of George Flower, from 
England to Illinois. He spent fifty days on the ocean from Liverpool to New 
York. He arrived in Arnerica alone. "With an ocean behind him and a vast 
continent before him." He went on horseback from Philadelphia to Pittsbuig. 
He joined the Birkbeck family at Richmond, Virginia, and the party consisting 
of Morris Birkbeck, Geo. Flower and Birkbeck's two daughters and another 
young lady, started for Illinois. He had heard the stories of the prairies and 
"shrank from the idea of settling in the midst of the wood to hew and hack 
away to a little farm ever bordered by a gloomy wood." The stage broke down 
and the party walked twelve miles to Pittsburg. Men and women then started 
on horseback for Illinois. Each had a blanket, a saddle and well filled saddle 
bags all secured by a surcingle and a great coat or cloak and an umbrella strapped 
behind. They left Pittsburg and plunged into the wilderness across Ohio and 
Indiana. Once, while crossing a log bridge, a horse leaped and plunged into 
the river, twenty feet below. The excitement and danger of fording streams 


troubled him in his dreams to his old days. Taverns were mere shanties, often 
destitute of windows and doors. They slept on a blanket on the floor. At times, 
they slept on the ground under the open sky. They passed Cincinnati and 
after tedious travel across southern Indiana, they arrived at Vincennes. The 
slow journey had some advantages for, before the journey was many days old, 
Flower and Miss Andrews were frequently riding together, much to the an- 
noyance of widower Birkbeck who had ambitions in that same direction. Youth 
won, and at Vincennes, Flower and Miss Andrews were married. The party 
often followed the dangerous "trace" that ran from Vincennes to St. Louis and 
were soon past the frontier 'cabin on the wild unbroken prairies of Illinois, where 
Flower says, "For once, reality came up to the picture of the imagination." 
In the spring of 1831, John H. Bryant, a brother of William Cullen Bryant, 
the poet, left Cummington, Mass., for Central Illinois. At Albany, he took a 
boat on the Erie canal and reached Buffalo in seven days. The lake was full 
of ice and he hired a team to Dunkirk and then to Warren on the Allegheny 
River in Pennsylvania. There he joined an English family that was making the 
trip down the river to Pittsburg in a craft called the Ark. This required seven 
days. At Pittsburg he came by steamboat to St. Louis, then by boat up the 
Illinois River to Naples. He then walked twenty-two miles to Jacksonville, Illi- 
nois, completing his journey. From Pennsylvania to Illinois, required one 
month or more of tedious travel. The journey was made by wagon, rail, canal, 
stage and steamboat. On the canal, the progress was slow no faster than a 
mule could walk or trot. There was no haste and there seemed to be an 
abundance of time. Mr. W. W. Davis thus describes that part of the trip to 
Illinois : "On rising in the morning, a tin dipper was at hand to dip the water 
from the canal into a basin for the face and hands, and towels were ready to 
complete the toilet. These were limited in number and soon became saturated 
with abundant and indiscriminate patronage. There was a common comb and 
brush which fastidious folks hesitated to employ. The meals were substantial but 
monotonous : breakfast, dinner and supper consisting mainly of tea and coffee, 
bread and butter, ham and bacon, liver and sausage. Perhaps, the most ex- 
citing diversion of the voyage was the gymnastics required of the passengers 
when the lookout warned of the coming obstacles. "Bridge," meant the slight 
ducking of the head, but "Low bridge," meant a violent contraction of the whole 
anatomy to escape contact with some low roadway, crossing the canal. Night 
was our worst trial in the frail bark. There was no sound of revelry. Ex- 
temporaneous shelves were placed along the sides, one above the other, and a 
delicate man below was in danger of being crushed by some stout fellow above. 
A close curtain, swung on wire, separated the sexes. Long before day, the air 
of the narrow cabin had become distressingly foul, and at the earliest streak 
of dawn, there was a generous scramble for the deck and the pure air of heaven. 
We came one hundred and three miles in thirty hours." 

The trip down the Ohio by steamboat was interesting in many ways. Charles 
Dickens made the journey on the "Messenger" in 1842. Thwaites speaks of the 
river as the "Storied Ohio." At the beginning, there was old Fort Pitt, once 
Fort Du Quesne, recalling the struggle for a continent between the English and 
the French. Associated with Du Quesne is the name of Washington, the first 


President. Below Parkersburg Blannerhassett's Island. Here, the young Irish- 
man, the brilliant scholar and his accomplished wife built Castle Blannerhassett. 
And here, too, Blannerhassett was entrapped by the wiles of Aaron Burr. 

Below Cincinnati is North Bend where the tomb of General Harrison could 
be plainly seen. At Louisville, an omnibus carried the travelers around the 
rapids. Thirty miles below Shawneetown, was Cave-in-Rock, the resort of Mason, 
the outlaw. 

It was a three days' journey from Pittsburg to Cincinnati and seven days 
f ron) Pittsburg to St. Louis. Above St. Louis was Alton, where Lovejoy was slain 
while standing for the freedom of the press. 

Some immigrants came on up the Mississippi in steamboats to Savannah. 
Others went by stage to Springfield or Jacksonville. Still others by small 
steamers came up the Illinois River to La Salle, and then by stage or wagon 
struck out for the frontier settlements and the public land offices. 

The poet, William Cullen Bryant, visited northern Illinois in 1832, spending 
a time with his brother at Princeton. The great prairies gave him an inspiration 
that made him write the following lines : 

"These are the gardens of the desert, these, 
The unshorn fields boundless and beautiful, 
For which the speech of England has no name 
The prairies, I behold them for the first, 
And my heart swells, while the dilated sight 
Takes in the encircling vastness : Lo ! they stretch, 
In airy undulations, far away, 
As if the ocean in her gentlest swell, 
Stood still, with all his rounded billows fixed, 
And motionless forever." 

Bryant tells his own experience in frontier travel. He says, "A little before 
sunset, we were about to cross the Illinois Canal. High water had carried away 
the bridge and in attempting to ford, the coach wheels on one side rose upon 
some stones, and on the other sank in mud, and we were overturned in an 
instant. We extricated ourselves as well as we could. The men waded out; 
the women were carried and nobody was drowned or hurt. A passing farm 
wagon carried the female passengers to the next house. To get out the bag- 
gage and set the coach on its wheels, we all had to stand waist deep in the mud. 
At nine, we reached the hospitable farm house, where we passed the night in 
drying ourselves and getting our baggage ready to proceed the next day." 

Samuel Willard says his father went from Boston to Greene County, Illi- 
nois, in 1831. He shipped his household goods by vessel to New Orleans and 
then by boat to St. Louis, where they arrived months afterwards. With his 
wife and three sons, he went 'by stage and steamer to Pittsburg, and then by 
boat down the Ohio and up the Mississippi and the Illinois. Henry Holbrook's 
father and mother traveled from Steuben County, New York, to northern Illi- 
nois in a buggy drawn by one horse, while the family and goods came by wagon. 
After five weeks of suffering from exposure, they arrived in Whiteside County. 
Edward Richardson came the entire distance on foot. 


The difficulties of travel were great. There were no bridges over the smaller 
streams and fording was a hazardous undertaking. Sloughs and swamps added 
danger and delay. It took time to drive around them, and when a wagon and 
team mired in the mud, it required several teams to pull them out. For that 
reason several wagons usually went together. Ten to fifteen miles a day were 
allowed for an ox team. A common mode was to have a yoke of oxen at the 
wheel and a horse in the lead. David Hazard brought his family from Penn- 
sylvania to northern Illinois, nine hundred miles in twenty-eight days, all the 
way by wagon. 

But Stephenson County has an abundance of incident in the account of 
travel to the west to make an interesting volume in itself. One of the earliest 
and best is that of Mrs. Oscar Taylor. On May 9, 1898, Mrs. Taylor read a paper 
before the Freeport Woman's Club, entitled "Reminiscences of life in Free- 
port, sixty years ago." At this point, nothing so well could be done as to quote 
that part of her paper which dealt with her trip to Freeport in 1839. For this, 
the writer is indebted to the Freeport Daily Journal, August 28, 1909. 

"It was in the autumn of 1839 that I began my life in Illinois. I came west 
by way of the lakes and stopped for several days in Chicago. That city 
numbered some 3,000 inhabitants at that time and was proud of its two brick 
buildings. Chicago River was crossed by ferry boats, bridges being things of the 
future. The lake lapped the shores now occupied by the Central Railroad tracks, 
while cows placidly pastured where the Art Institute now stands. Sidewalks 
were an unknown luxury and Michigan Avenue was more or less of a swamp. 
The one object of interest was old Fort Dearborn, at the mouth of the river, 
then the military post under the command of Lieutenant Leavenworth. But 
Chicago was not my ultimate destination, and at 2 o'clock one September morn- 
ing, in a Frink and Walker stage-coach, I left the lakeside town for my future 
home in Stephenson County. The stage was a commodious affair, and I found 
ten fellow-passengers, all young men westward bound, as eager fortune seek- 
ers as those who are today rushing to Alaska. 

In the darkness of the early morning I could see nothing; but the con- 
tinued splashing caused by the four horses gave the impression of low land 
nearly under water. 

At daybreak we reached a country tavern where we breakfasted on the 
Rio coffee, fried fat pork, potatoes boiled with their jackets on, with hot sal- 
eratus biscuits, the color and odor of which warned us what to expect in flavor. 
But the gay spirits and vigorous appetites of jny traveling companions added 
piquant sauce to the emigrant fare. 

On emerging from the stuffy little breakfast room into the fresh air of the 
morning, there before me lay the great prairies of the west, seen for the first 
time in the full splendor of a magnificent sunrise, the sea of green stretching 
unbounded in every direction, the vast expanse unbroken by any sign of habi- 

The curtains of our stage were rolled up, as we drove on through the beau- 
tiful morning, I was perfectly entranced. I had heard of the western prairies, 
I had imagined them, I had read of them with Cooper, my father had written 
of them, but I had not formed the slightest conception of the actual vision of 


this country which was then almost as it had been a century before, when the 
red man roamed over it at will. Gradually the flat levels changed to a more 
billowy surface, and small groves of oak appeared. Sometimes we passed 
through what seemed veritable gardens, so gorgeous were the fields of yellow 
golden-rod, broken by the deep purple and snowy white of the wild aster. And 
the gentians, blue and purple, fringed and closed, bloomed in bewildering beauty, 
while the great cloud-shadows floating across the scene continually altered the 
face of the landscape. I looked to see deer or wolf or some other wild crea- 
ture start up as we passed, but in that I was disappointed. 

Our late lunch had been a repetition of breakfast and I, tired and hungry, 
fell asleep as darkness gathered, to be aroused by a shout from the driver: 
"Rockford, Rockford! Here you can get a good Yankee supper." Most wel- 
come news! It wasn't a Yankee supper after all, but a most delicious supper 
of native prairie chickens, cooked, however, with the skill of the traditional 
eastern housewife. At midnight we left Rockford, crossing the river by ferry, 
to me a frightful experience in the black darkness. Hardly were we on solid 
earth before the driver announced that the passengers must leave the stage and 
climb the sand bank just ahead, as the horses could not pull the load up the 
bank. I think I should have been buried in the sand had not one of the young 
men gallantly assisted me. 

After reentering the stage my journey was unbroken until in the early dawn 
I reached my new home on a farm four miles east of Freeport. What was my 
first home in Illinois? It was one of the low log houses in general use among 
the early settlers, soon to be supplanted by the regulation frame farm house. 

In the joyful excitement of meeting my family, and in the novelty of all 
my surroundings, there was at first no chance for homesickness; but the 
realization of all I had left behind came with my first introduction to Free- 
port. My father had spoken of Freeport as the town of importance, the 
county seat, the centre of interest in the farming community, and I had pic- 
tured an eastern village nestling among trees, with church spires pointing 
heavenward and homes ranged side by side along the streets." 

One of the most interesting records and one that will have increasing value 
and interest as time goes by, is that of Luman Montague, who settled West 
Point Township. He married a Miss Elmira Clark in Massachusetts, and 
soon after began one of the most remarkable honeymoon trips on record, the 
trio driving an ox team from Northampton, Massachusetts, over one thousand 
miles to Stephenson County, Illinois, sleeping in the wagon and camping by 
the way. Only a high hope and a tremendous will set out on such a tedious 
journey of innumerable hardships and faltered not till the goal was reached 
in triumph. Such was the spirit of the men and women who laid the foun- 
dations of this county. 

James H. Eels and family drove through from New York. The Reitzels 
came to this county by two different routes, from Center County, Pennsyl- 
vania. John Reitzel, father of Captain W. H. Reitzel, partly by canal and 
partly by Incline Railroad, came over the Allegheny Mountains to Pittsburg. 
From Pittsburg with his family, household goods and a set of blacksmith tools, 
he traveled by steamer down the Ohio River and up the Mississippi to Sa- 


vannah. The trip from Savannah to this county was made by wagon. At 
Waddams, Pells Manny volunteered to take his team and help pull the Reit- 
zels across the Pecatonica River, one of the many evidences of whole-souled 
frontier generosity. Mr. Reitzel settled on a claim at Buena Vista, June 22, 
1840. Phillip Reitzel accompanied by John Wolford, rode horseback from 
Center County, Pennsylvania, to Stephenson County, via Chicago. Wolford 
was offered eighty acres of land on State Street, Chicago, for his horse, saddle 
and bridle. He declined. It seems that when people start for Stephenson 
County they will not be turned aside even by the offer of a future million. Of 
course, at that time Chicago did not give much evidence of becoming a great 

John Turneaure came from near Meadeville, Crawford County, Pennsyl- 
vania, in two covered wagons, one drawn by two horses and the other by 
three. He brought with him some simple household furniture, a trunk full of 
victuals, his wife and eight children. They drove ocress Ohio to Cleveland and 
across Indiana to Chicago. Owing to the muddy sloughs in Chicago, he drove 
around to the south and avoided the city. Just out of Chicago, his wagons 
mired down to the axles and he had to unhitch his teams and lead the horses 
out to solid ground. He then proved that necessity is the mother of invention, 
by taking off the bed cord, fastening it to the end of the wagon tongue, hitch- 
ing his team to the cord and pulling his wagons out of the mire. A set of 
modern bed springs would have been of little value in such an emergency. Mrs. 
Amanda Head, Mr. Turneaure's daughter, was a girl of twelve, and remem- 
bers how delighted the children were with the prospect of a trip to the west. 
She says the people along the way were always generous and hospitable. At 
the close of a day's drive they would stop at some farm house. Beds were 
made on the floor and her mother cooked the breakfast on the host's stove. 
There were no charges the traveler paying what he pleased. In 1842, Mr. 
Turneaure made the trip to Belvidere in three weeks. Later, in 1848, he bought 
160 acres near Van Brocklyn at $1.50 per acre. 

William Baker, the first resident of Freeport, drove a wagon with his fam- 
ily from Orange County, Indiana, to Sangamon County, Illinois, in 1823. In 
1827, the Bakers moved over the Sucker trail, via Peoria and Dixon, through 
Stephenson County to the lead regions in Jo Daviess County. In 1829 they 
moved to Peoria and in 1832 they came back over the trail to the lead mines of 
Wisconsin. During Black Hawk's War they "forted" in Fort Defiance. After 
the war, the family spent two years in Dubuque and moved to Freeport De- 
cember 19, 1835. Two years after his marriage to Miss Harriett Price, in 
Cortland County, New York, Mr. Auson S. Babcock and his wife drove in a 
one horse sleigh from New York across Ohio and Michigan to Chicago, and then 
on to Stephenson County, settling first in Ridott Township. They left New 
York February 12, 1859, and arrived here after a four weeks' journey. 

Mr. Charles Baumgarten came to America from Lorraine, France, in 1833. 
He lived in Detroit three years and walked to Chicago in 1835, coming to 
Freeport in 1850. W. L. Beebe and wife, formerly of New York, drove from 
Michigan to Ogle County in 1840, bringing with them all their worldly posses- 
sions in a wagon. Mr. Beebe found that he had just $30 when he reached his 


destination. They came to Stephenson County in 1862. Benjamin Goddard 
was born in Graf ton County, New Hampshire, 1804; moved with parents to 
Vermont in 1806; moved to St. Lawrence County, New York, in 1825; drove 
in wagon with his wife, family and household effects from New York to Steph- 
enson County in 1835 and settled three miles from Freeport. Thomas F. 
Goodhue, born in Belfast, Maine; educated in New England; studied law at 
Troy, New York, and after practicing law in New York City four years, came 
to Freeport in 1842. Hon. A. T. Green came to Stephenson County from New 
York in October, 1839, walking from Rockford to Freeport. He stopped on a 
hill and resting on a stump counted in all, forty roofs in the village of Free- 
port. From the Grand Duchy of Baden, came Fred Gund, Sr., in 1848. Cap- 
tain J. R. Harding arrived here from Oxfordshire, England, in 1857. 

Mathias Hettinger, a native of Keffenach, Alsace-Lorraine, came to New 
York with his brother in 1836. He worked at the wagon maker's trade in 
New York and at Canton and Portsmouth, Ohio, driving overland to Stephen- 
son County in 1841 and started a shop in Freeport. John Hoebel, a boy of 
fourteen, came alone to America from Phenish, Bavaria, in 1825. He came 
west and drove to Freeport in 1842. Mr. Hollis Jewell, born in St. Albans, 
Vermont, left home with only $50 at the age of 18; learned the carpenter's trade 
in Albion, New York; in 1835 worked at his trade in Cleveland, Ohio; in 
1837 he built a viaduct in Chillicothe, Ohio, and came to Freeport by wagon 
in 1840. Thomas W. Johnson was born in England, 1825. He landed in 
New Orleans at the age of fourteen, came up the Mississippi River to Galena 
and walked from Galena to Freeport in 1839, and became a successful mer- 
chant. F. E. Josel, once city engineer of Freeport, came in 1866 from Austria, 
where he studied engineering in Vienna. Mr. Louis Jungkunz, Sr., came to 
Freeport in 1854 from Bavaria. In 1856 he married Miss Caroline Lucke of 

Mr. Dexter A. Knowlton started west from Chautauqua County, New York, 
on a peddling trip in 1838. The next year he made his way into Stephenson 
County and settled in Freeport, opening up a general store. Mr. Jacob Krohn, 
a prominent business man, came to America from Prussia and located in Free- 
port in 1855. D. Kuehner came from Germany to Ohio in 1851 and moved to 
this county in 1856. Daniel Kunz, baker, came from Hesse Darmstadt, Ger- 
many. Michael Lawver drove from Pennsylvania to Stephenson County in a 
wagon, arriving at Lena after a seven weeks' trip, May 26, 1846. The parents 
of George and Henry Lichtenberger came from Bavaria to New Orleans in 
1847 and to Freeport the next year. C. H. Little came from Massachusetts in 
1855. John Loos came to America in 1852. He was born in the County Rhei- 
nich, Grand Duchy of Luxemburg, and his wife in Eblington, Groshertzogtum 
Boxburg, Baden. Rev. Thomas F. Mangan, of St. Mary's Catholic Church, 
was born in County Clare, Ireland, and came to Freeport in 1858. Pells Manny 
came from Montgomery County, New York, in 1836, and settled near Wad- 
dams. Edmund Merck is a native of Alsace. Charles E. Meyer came from 
Hanover, Germany, in 1853 and movec? to Freeport in 1855. George Milner 
and Joseph Milner came to Freeport in 1855. They were natives of England. 
James Mitchell came to the Galena lead mines in 1827, took part in the Black 


Hawk War and settled, first in Rockford and then in Freeport. Elias Perkins, 
of Derbyshire, England, arrived in this county in 1849 and began his work 
as brick mason and contractor. J. J. Piers, a native of Hunterdon County, 
N. J., arrived in Freeport and began his trade as blacksmith. Hon. George 
Purinton, a native of Maine, a graduate of Bowdoin College, a professor of 
Baltimore College, heard the call of the western prairies and opened up a law 
office in Freport in 1840. A. V. Richards with his parents moved from Mor- 
gan County, Illinois, to Wisconsin in 1847, l ater moved to Galena and then to 
this county. Henry Rohkar came from Hanover, Germany, 1856, and entered 
the baking business. C. H. Rosenstiel came from Hanover to Waddams Grove, 
1842. D. B. Schulte, who came to Freeport in 1854, was a native of West Pla- 
lon, Prussia. Charles Seyfarth, of Saxony, came to America in 1849 and to 
Stephenson County, 1852. The parents of J. A. Sheetz drove from Pennsyl- 
vania in 1839. Mr. Leonard Stoskopf came here with his parents from Canada 
in 1842. Valentine Stoskopf came from Strasburg to New Jersey, then to 
Canada and then to Freeport. D. H. Sunderland, who came here in 1845, was 
a native of Vermont. D. C. Stover was a native of Franklin County, Penn- 
sylvania. Geo. F. Swarts came from Center County, Pennsylvania, in 1841. 
Horace Tarbox catne here from New York State. Mr. Oscar Taylor drove from 
Saratoga, New York, to Joliet, Illinois, in 1838, settled in Rockford later, and 
came to Freeport in 1842. Mr. William Walton of Birmingham, England, be- 
gan business in Freeport in 1858. John M. Walz, of Germany, started the 
cooper's trade here in 1856. 

Thomas Wilcoxen was born in Milledgeville, Georgia. The family moved 
to Portsmouth, Ohio, where produce was shipped to New Orleans. With a 
brother, on horseback he came over the Indian trails to the northwest. In 1837, 
he settled near Cedarville. 

Mr. Chas. Berhenke came from Lippe Detmold, Germany in 1853. Bryan 
Duffy came from Ireland in 1846 and located in Kent Township. James A. Hughes 
of Kent came to Dutchess County, N. Y., in 1851 and to Kent in 1853. Edward 
Hunt came to Winslow from Norfolk County, Mass., in 1838. Charles Sheard 
of Yorkshire, England, came to New York in 1832; to Canada in 1836; to Jo 
Daviess County in 1849 and in 1858 to his farm in Winslow Township. James 
Turnbull came from Jedburg, Scotland, to New York City in 1833 ; in 1834 to 
North Carolina; in 1835 back to New York; in 1837 to Chicago; and in 1838, 
to Stephenson County. James Coxen came from Desleyshire, England, to Cin- 
cinnati in 1849, and to Waddams Township in 1850. Charles P. Guenther 
was born in Frankfort-on-the-Maine ; came to Dutchess County, N. Y., in 1836; 
1839 to Buffalo, N. Y. ; 1847, to Allegheny County, Pa., and in 1853, to Stephen- 
son County. Alonzo Lusk, of Hartford County, Conn., came to Waddams 
County in 1840. William Shippee came from Bergen County, Pa., in 1839 and 
to Waddams in 1852. In 1843 Robert Sisson came from Cambridgeshire, Eng- 
land, to Waddams township. 

Michael Bastian came from Alsace in 1858, to Florence Township. August 
Fronning, who came to Florence in 1857, is a native of Prussia. August Hoefer, 
also of Prussia, came to this county in 1856. Henry Kruse came to Silver Creek 
Township from Ostsfriesland in 1853. Dr. Van Valseh, and a party, Henry S. 


Barber, Joseph Green, C. Miller, John Fisher, John Glover, Nathan and Isreal 
Sheet, left Union County, Pa., April 18, 1837. They came via Pittsburg, 
Wheeling, followed the National road through Janesville and Columbus, Ohio, 
and through Richmond and Indianapolis, Indiana, crossed the Wabash at Coving- 
ton and then passed through Danville, Peoria, over the Kellog trail, through 
Buffalo Grove, then through Crane's Grove and Freeport, to Cedarville and 
Rock Grove. The party was seven weeks on the road. In 1839, Henry S. Barber 
brought out fourteen teams from Pennsylvania. George J. Bentley, father of 
C. N. Bentley, was born in Massachusetts, moved to New York in 1829 and came 
to Shannon, this county, in 1853. He moved to Winslow and made a trip to 
Des Moines, Iowa, returning with a yoke of oxen and one horse. Mr. E. Bentley 
of Eleroy came from Somerset County, England, to America in May, 1824, and 
worked on farms and in factories in various parts of the east, finally locating in 
Harlem Township. Henry Burkhard, a farmer in Harlem Township, was born 
in Baden, Germany, and came to America at the age of ten. He went on vari- 
ous trips to Minnesota, Kansas, Missouri and Tennessee, but at last settled in 
Stephenson County. Mr. Henry Hill is a native of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, 
Germany. Martin Lawless, Damascus, was born seven miles from the City of 
Dublin, Ireland, in 1822. He came to New York in 1848 and worked his way 
west, arriving in Freeport in 1853 and located on a farm in Harlem in 1865. 

Mr. Joseph McCool, a native of Virginia and father of O. P. McCool, came 
to Stephenson County in 1840. The family came by boat from Pittsburg, Pa., 
and located first at Kiethsbury and then at Lancaster and later in Harlem. John 
Martin came to Harlem from England. In 1849 with his family he drove in a 
wagon from the east, through Chicago, to this county. Smith W. Pickard, born 
in New York in 1795, served in the War of 1812, and came to Stephenson 
County in 1838 with his son Jonas L. Pickard. 

John H. Stout, whose grandfather came from Holland, was born in New 
Jersey and came to this county in 1846. Frederick Watson left Nottinghamshire, 
England, at the age of thirteen and worked his way west to this county in 1845. 

Sometimes people came to Stephenson County in large groups. In 1843, a 
party of about sixty started from Union County, Pa. In this party were Samuel 
Barber's family of five ; John Barber's family of ten ; James W. Barber's family 
of ten ; John Van Dyke and sons family of eleven ; Samuel Wright's family of 
five ; Jacob Gables family of six ; Robert Badger's family of seven, William and 
John Wright. They drove through Mercer County, Pa., crossed the Allegheny 
River at Franklin, through Warren and Cleveland, Ohio, through Adrian and 
Janesville, Michigan, through South Bend, Indiana, Chicago and Rock ford to 
Freeport, arriving here after an arduous journey of five and a half weeks. 
The party had divided at Rockford, one division coming on to Freeport, July 4, 
1843. They stopped at the Main Hotel which then stood on the site of the old 
Pop Factory, now the out-door grounds on Walnut Street. 

Frederick Wagner came from Sondershausen, Germany, in 1862, locating 
on a farm in Kent in 1871. Charles Waterman of Herkimer County, N. Y., 
came west and with his brother laid out Sycamore, 111., in 1838. He was a 
prominent leader in doing away with the "Driscolls," the notorious band of 


horsethieves of that day. In 1840, he came to Freeport and in 1844 to Loran 

Robert Baker left Yorkshire, England, in 1830 and located in Canada. In 
1860, he moved to Jefferson Township, Stephenson County. Peter Kerch, born 
in Wurtemburg, Germany, came to New York in 1846; to Pittsburg in 1848 
and to Jefferson Township in 1855. Simon Tollmeier, Simon Schester, Jacob 
Offenhiser and John Koch, all of Germany, settled in Jefferson Township. 

George D. Babbitt is a typical representative of the westward migration. 
He was born in Goshen, Hampshire County, Massachusetts, 1799; in 1802, the 
family moved to Otsego County, New York; to Susquehanna County in 1820, 
where he learned the trimmers trade; to Pike, Allegheny County in 1825, where 
he was married and had five children ; to Centerville, five years ; to Niagara 
County; to Canada; to Branch County, Michigan; to Ogle County, Illinois; to 
Sugar River, Winnebago County, Illinois ; and settled at last in Erin Township 
in 1854. Daniel Gilman moved from Center County, Pennsylvania, to Eleroy in 

From Old Virginia came Aaron Griggsby. He moved first into Kentucky 
and then to Indiana. Then he moved on into Edgar County, Illinois, in 1829; to 
Iroquois County in 1835 ; and to Stephenson County in 1836. John Manlove, of 
Montgomery County, England, came to Canada in 1841 ; to Chicago in 1845 
and then on to Stephenson County, buying a farm of Thomas Hotchkiss, a 
leader of a band of horsethieves. Dr. E. H. Plasch left Germany because of 
revolutionary troubles in 1845 an< i after teaching and practicing medicine in 
Jo Daviess County, settled in Eleroy. 

B. P. Bellknap, born in Vermont in 1811, came west in 1839, walking from 
Milwaukee to Monroe, Wisconsin, and to Gratiot. In 1841, he settled in Oneco 
Township, where he taught the first school in that township. Michael Bolender 
came from Union County, Pennsylvania, to Orangeville in 1840, with John 
Kleckner, Michael Gift, and George Mowry. The Clarnos of Oneco Township 
came from France to Virginia, from Virginia to Ohio, then to Tazewell County, 
Illinois, and to Stephenson County in 1838. Jacob Fye drove from Center County, 
Pennsylvania, to Oneco Township in 1839. Lewis Gibler was born in Shenandoah 
County, Virginia, moved to Ohio in 1802, came west and worked in the mines 
and settled in Oneco Township in 1839. Emanuel Musser came from Center 
County, Pennsylvania, to Oneco Township in 1857. William Raymond came 
from Canada in 1843. Daniel Sandoe came from Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, 
in 1847. L. D. Van Metre came from Jo Daviess County to Oneco Township 
in 1836. Wm. Wagenhalls, of Wurtemburg, Germany, came to America in 1836 
and to Orangeville in 1847. I fa Winchell of Erie County, New York, settled in 
Oneco in 1843. 

C. T. Barnes, born in Prussia, followed the seas as a sailor four years and 
settled in West Point Township in 1852. Mr. R. Baysinger was born in Ken- 
tucky, came to Edgar County, Illinois, in 1833 and to Stephenson County, Illi- 
nois, in 1846, settling in West Point. Jacob Burbridge, born in Butler County, 
Pennsylvania, lived a while in Kentucky, coming to Springfield, Illinois, in 1829 
and to Stephenson County in 1837. William Corning, born in Rockingham 
County, New Hampshire; moved to Lowell, Massachusetts, 1836; to Jo Daviess 


County in 1842; to West Point Township in 1848. Thomas Davis came from 
Sussex, England, in 1844; Frederick Damert from Prussia; George W. Delgate 
from Maine; Samuel Dodds from Logansport, Indiana; Anthony Doll from 
Canada; B. Doll from Baden; A. F. Foil from Bedfordshire, England; J. D. 
Fowler from Rutland County, Vermont, in 1838, coming by way of canal and 
lake, being 21 days on the way; D. W. Frisby from New York City; John Har- 
rington from Ireland in 1846 ; Joseph Hicks from Ashtabula County, New York, 
in 1840; Hon. Andrew Hinds from New York; Adam Krape from Center 
County, Pennsylvania, in 1846; H. Loomis from Litchfield County, Connecticut, 
in 1840; W. W. Lowis from Lincolnshire, England; John Masters from Mary- 
land in 1857; Dr. W. P. Naramore, Seneca County, New York; John Reeder 
from Frankfort-on-the-Maine, 1856; Captain John Schermerhorn from Fulton- 
ville, New York; A. H. Stahl from Perry County, Pennsylvania, to Ogle County 
in 1859 and to Lena in 1863; Jo Daviess, Waddams from Galena; Charles Walz 
from Kaiserslantern, Germany; and William Yeager from Germany. 

Edward Barker came from Franklin County, Vermont, to Rock Grove Town- 
ship in 1842. Samuel Chambers and Thomas Chambers rode through on horse- 
back from Union County, Pennsylvania, to Jo Daviess County in 1835 and set- 
tled in Rock Grove in 1836. C. J. Cooper, born in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 
moved to Clark County, Illinois, came through Stephenson County as a soldier 
during Black Hawk's War in 1832, and lived in Crawford County till he moved 
to Rock Grove in 1844. W. L. Cooper came from Delaware by way of Pennsyl- 
vania and Crawford County, Illinois. Jacob Fisher came here from; Pennsyl- 
vania in 1839 and entered a claim. Ole O. Gardner, born ninety miles from 
Christiana, Norway, in 1815, came to New York in 1842, then to Wisconsin and 
to Rock Grove Township in 1848; C. T. Kleckner, from Northampton County, 
Pennsylvania, in 1840; Henry Kloepping from Prussia in 1852; George Maurer 
from Pennsylvania in 1840; Edward Pratt, stage driver for Fink and Walker, 
from New York; Lewis and L. W. Schradermaeier from Lippe-Detmold, Ger- 
mony, in 1852; Col. Geo. Walker, made the wagon trip from Pennsylvania to 
Rock Grove with his family, in five weeks in 1849, and Geo. Zimmerman came 
from Union County, Pennsylvania, in 1849. 

J. B. Angle came from Franklin County, Pennsylvania, to buck Eye Town- 
ship, in 1844, settling first on Richland Creek. John Bender came from Baden, 
Germany, and John Boals from Donegal County, Ireland ; John Heser from Ba- 
varia ; Robert Jones from Kent County England ; Ensebius Schadle from Wurtem- 
burg, Germany, and William Stewart, Andrew and John Wilson from Donegal 
county, Ireland. Josiah Clingman and family came to Illinois in 1835, settling in 
Peoria and La Salle Counties and moving to Stephenson near Cedarville in 1837. 
Rev. Geo. J. Donmeyer, a graduate of Pennsylvania College, drove through to Ste- 
phenson County, enduring all the hardships incident to pioneer travel and 
preached his first sermon May 12, 1850, in a school house, three miles North 
of Lena. The father of James Folgate, with a family of ten children, made 
the trip from Pennsylvania to Stephenson County and settled in Buck Eye 
Township in 1841. Jacob Jones came from Maryland, Daniel Kostenbader from 
Pennsylvania by flat boat down the Ohio and up the Mississippi to Savannah, 
then on foot to Cedarville, and John and Thomas Pollock from Ohio. George 


Trotter, born in Bourbon County, Kentucky, came to Sangamon County, Illinois, 
in 1826, passed back and forth through Stephenson County, during Black Hawk's 
War and took a claim in Buck Eye Township, in 1836. 

In 1843, Thomas and Robert Bell rode on horseback from Pennsylvania to 
Stephenson County, settling in Lancaster Township. Corad Dambman came 
from Hesse Darmstadt, Germany, without a dollar and in a few years owned 
over 250 acres in Lancaster. I. N. Mallory of Belmont County, Ohio, settled 
in Lancaster in 1836, and William Smith of Canton, Ohio, in 1835. 

A. O. Anderson left his native home in Norway and settled in Rock Run 
Township in 1839. Michael Blinn came from Bavaria in 1854. Uriah Boyden 
came from New York in 1839. Frederick Buticofer, a carriage maker, came 
from Switzerland in 1854 to Rock Run Township. Louis Germain is a native 
of France; Martin Gillen and John Glynn from Ireland; C. B. Johnson from 
Norway ; Charles Haas and John M. Kaufman from Germany ; Charles J 
Lilliquist came from Sweden and Halleck and Thueston Kundson from Norway. 
S. B. Leach was a native of Maine and John Long of New York. Alexander 
Niblo of Glasgow was an early settler in Rock Run Township. S. Olsen came 
to Rock Run from Norway in 1842. Jacob Orth came from Hesse Darmstadt. 
John Weber came from France in 1844. A large number of settlers in Rock 
Run came from Pennsylvania. 

One of the early settlers of Dakota Township was W. R. Auman, who came 
here from Pennsylvania in 1839. Jacob Dubs and family came to Dakota in 1852. 
His wife died on the journey from Europe. Martin S. Lapp came from Canada 
in 1842. William McElhiney came from Pennsylvania, with his parents in 1829, 
settling first in Edgar County, 111. In 1837, the family moved into Stephenson 
County. Robert F. Mitchel, of Center County, Pennsylvania, came into the 
county in 1842. In 1844, John Nelson and his wife, Mary Nelson, emigrated to 
Dakota Township from the north part of Ireland to Dakota Township. Mr. B. 
Schmeltzer, of Lycoming County, Pennsylvania, made a year's trip through Illi- 
nois and Iowa in 1850 and settled in Dakota Township in 1866. Colonel Geo. 
Walker made the journey from Center County, Pennsylvania, in wagons in 1849, 
being five weeks on the road. Charles Wilson from Ireland and John Wirth 
from Wittenburg, Germany, came to Dakota in 1852. 

The parents of G. S. Babcock came to Ridott Township in 1836. Michael 
Bardell came from Alsace to America in 1841 and in 1845 to Ridott Township. 
Mrs. Bardell was a native of Reubier, Germany. Ulrich Boomgarten came from 
Hanover, Germany, in 1850. Henry Borchers came from Hanover, in 1852. 
Seth Cable came from Ohio in 1844, and Asa Carey from New York 
in 1852. Christian Clay came from Stark County, Ohio, in 1839. Bearnd 
Groeneveld came from Hanover in 1852. Philo Hammond, born in Vermont, 
went to New York, then to Chicago and settled in Silver Creek in 1837 and to 
Ridott in 1848. John Heeren, born in Aswaisraland, Germany, and settled in 
Ridott in 1849. Peter Hermann, born in Baden Baden in 1836 and came to 
America, settling in Ridott in 1852. 

Mr. Thomas Hunt came from Nottingham, England, in 1842. He settled 
in Silver Creek and later in Ridott Township. Jacob Molter came from Baden 
in 1850; John Rademaker from Germany in 1855; Henry Scheffner and John 


Scheffner from Baden in 1852. In the same year Charles Rohkar came over 
from Hanover; Michael Van losterloo came from Hanover in 1849; H. P. 
Waters settled at the mouth of Yellow Creek in 1836. He came from New 
York. David Wilter came from Maryland in 1853. W. G. Woodruff, of 
Berkshire County, Massachusetts, went to Connecticut, to New York, to Car- 
roll County, Illinois, to Rockford, and finally settled in Ridott Township. 

Mr. Fred Bohlender, in 1844, came overland from Union County, Penn- 
sylvania. It was a journey of six weeks, with four horses, two wagons and 
buggy with provisions and cooking utensils for camping by the wayside. They 
brought with them their household furniture. The family of Alpheus God- 
dard drove through this county from the Green Mountain State. They were 
six weeks on the journey, enlivened by many interesting incidents. John Baum- 
gartner and wife and four children drove in a one horse wagon from Columbia 
County, Pennsylvania, to northern Illinois, often through a country unmarked 
by wagon tracks. They sold some of the bedding on the way to raise funds 
for immediate use. He gave the horse as a first payment on a tract of land 
in Loran Township. Martin Doll, wife and six children, with three horses, 
a yoke of oxen and two wagons, drove to this county from Canada. They 
brought household goods and provisions for camping by the wayside, sleeping 
in the wagons. They were seven weeks on the way and arrived in Stephenson 
County with a cash capital of 50 cents. Isaac Dively and family came by way 
of Ohio, Mississippi and Fever Rivers in 1837. From Galena they came in 
wagons to the Pecatonica, where he built a cabin, the first in that section to have 
the luxury of a floor of sawed lumber. Wm. Dively, his son, hauled oats and 
barley to Galena and returned with lumber. Samuel and John A. Wright came 
overland from Pennsylvania to Buckeye Township in 1843. Fourteen teams 
with several families came out together. Thomas Jonas, was born in Paris, 
France, in 1801. He came to America and learned the blacksmith trade in 
Buffalo. In 1839, with wife and four children, he came to Milwaukee by way 
of the Great Lakes and hired two teams to haul his family to Freeport. He 
settled in Waddams Township. Levi Robey, one of the earliest settlers at the 
age of four, came from Maryland over the Appalachian Mountains on pack 
horses with his father's family. They settled on the Sciota River, Ohio. They 
came on west to Brewster's Ferry in 1834. At Dixon, the Indians freightened 
the oxen and one broke away from the wagon. He settled on a claim in Wad- 
dams Township, Section I, in 1835, February 14. While in Ohio, he taught 
school and peddled clocks. His father located near Cedarville after running 
Brewster's Ferry for two years. 

Frederick Gassmann, wife and child left North Germany in 1843. They 
crossed the Atlantic in a small sailing vessel in eighteen weeks, and landed 
at Baltimore. They then went to 'Wheeling, West Virginia, and from there 
by boat down the Ohio and up the Mississippi to St. Louis. At St. Louis, in 
company with Charles, John, Henry, Christian and Frederick Rosenstiel, they 
started overland to Freeport. They hired a team to bring them through for 
$40, but when half way the driver struck and demanded $40 more which, ow- 
ing to the conditions, they had to pay. 






Silas Gage came from Pennsylvania. He came down the Allegheny and the 
Ohio on a raft and by steamer on to Galena. He walked finally into the county 
and settled at Winslow in 1836. 

Ezra B. Gillett of Brooklyn, New York, was an early settler of the county. 
In 1827, at the age of 21, he came to the lead mine regions. He was success- 
ful, but took the cholera which was epidemic in the lead mine country in 1832. 
When he had recovered, he traded his mine for flour and sold the flour, and 
bought a pony on which he intended to start to his home in New York. Black 
Hawk War was on, and he felt that he had little chance to get through. He 
placed his money in the bottom of his powder horn, and with an old 'musket 
across his saddle, he started on his pony across the country to his home. He 
arrived safe, and having married, returned to Stephenson County to take a 
claim in 1834. His first stop was at Reitzell's now Buena Vista, where he built 
a mill on Richland Creek. He then built a mill at Bowertown, now Orange- 
ville, and in 1837 built a board cabin on his claim in Section 20. 

Mr. John Rotzler, at the age of eleven, came with his parents in 1852, and 
landed in Savannah, Georgia. Not liking the climate, the family came to Free- 
port in 1854, by boat from Savannah to Albany, New York, and by railroad to 
Freeport. The Rotzlers came from the same part of Germany as the Wagners. 
Mr. John Rotzler, Sr., met Mr. William Wagner, who had returned for his 
family, and it was Mr. Wagner's praise of America that led the Rotzlers to 
come out in 1852. 

In the fall of 1839, George S. Cadwell, Alfred Cadwell and Z. U. Harding 
came to Oneco from Orange County, New York. They walked from Detroit, 
Michigan, through Chicago and Freeport. After taking a claim in Section 32, 
they walked to Milwaukee and took a boat for New York. In 1841, George S. 
Cadwell married and came west to settle on his claim. 

In a measure the above sketches give an idea of the racial elements of the 
people of Stephenson County, and afford some conception of the courage neces- 
sary for men and women to brave the hardships of pioneer travel. 




It was the day of the log cabin. The carpenter's tools were usually no more 
than an ax and auger. Some may have possessed an adz and a fro, for hewing 
the logs and riving and splitting the clapboards. The earliest cabins were built 
of rough unhewn logs. The cracks were filled with clay mud. The roof was 
covered with thatch or clapboards held in place by poles laid on top. Nails were 
unknown. The floor was laid with puncheons (split logs) or with bark. Augers 
bored holes into the log walls and into these pins were driven. On the pins, 
bark or split logs ewre placed and these served as shelves for kitchen utensils, 
clothing, bedding, etc. Bunks were often constructed in the same way. Home- 
made bedsteads, and chairs were common. The settlers were skilled in prepar- 


ing elm and hickory bark which they wove into chair seats. In the same way 
they made their baskets, and muzzles for horses to prevent them from eating 
the corn while plowing. The fireplace was occassionally made by laying slabs 
of rock. Chimneys were often built by using sticks instead of bricks. Clay 
filled the chinks and held the sticks together. The inside of the chimney was 
then daubed with clay. Fireplaces were made unusually large and in winter 
a great roaring fire was a necessary and cheerful part of the pioneer life. A 
door made of puncheons, hung on wooden, home-made hinges, until replaced 
by a door of sawed lumber. Windows were small. At first there was but 
one window, sometimes none, and that one admitted light through greased 
paper. Glass was a luxury that came later. Blocks of wood set against the 
wall were used for chairs, and a slab or two of these made a settee. Tables 
were made of slabs supported by pegs, driven into auger holes. 

These first homes were one room homes. There was often to be found a 
loft, where things were stored and where members of the family slept. Snow 
and rain could not be kept out and many a morning when the pioneer and 
his family awoke, they found their bed clothing covered with snow. The 
cabin was usually about 12 or 14 feet long and 10 or 12 feet wide and about 
7 feet high. In the earliest cabins, cooking was done on the fireplace. The 
cooking utensils consisted of heavy iron tea-kettle and skillet, a coffee pot and 
maybe a boiling or stew pot. These with contents were placed over red coals 
of the fireplace, supported by pieces of stone or andirons and occasionally a 
crane would be found swinging a steaming pot over the fire. Simple and 
plain? Ah, yes, but what savory meals were thus prepared and set on the 
rude table ! Food for strong men and women who had the world's work to 
do. Venison, pork, squirrel or wild turkey, potatoes baked in the ashes, corn 
pones, and coffee, We breakfast food eaters must envy them. 

The one room home presents a beautiful picture. Here, porch, parlor, sit- 
ting room, library, bed room and kitchen were crowded into one. It is all seen 
at a glance. The rough-hewed logs, clap-board roof, the plain furniture, bed, 
cooking utensils, provisions, pieces of half dried venison and pork, and seed, 
corn hanging from the loft ; the beds, ax and rifle and powder-horn ; the mother 
knitting or darning; the father mending chairs or repairing his flintlock and 
about them children, usually six or more, and all lighted up by the roaring 
blaze of the great fireplace, throwing upon the sometimes beautiful white- 
washed walls a warmth of color and good cheer that make homelife devoted 
and happy. Life then, as now, had its lights as well as its shadows. 

At first, provisions were scarce. Markets were 40 and 50 miles away at 
best and money was scarce. A patient industry cleared away a little patch 
about the house and planted it in grain and garden. The hoe was much in use. 
The farmer made his own plow and drag; in fact, all his farming implements. 
Grain was threshed out with flails, or clubs, or tramped out by horses. The 
grain was cut with sickles, scythes and cradles. There were no mills in the 
county, and have the grain ground into flour and meal meant a long, tiresome 
and dangerous journey over unbroken roads to Gratiot, Dixon or Galena or 
Peoria. At times this was out of the question and the settlers prepared meals 
in most rude and primitive ways, to meet with immediate necessities. One 

Brown's Mill in Early D;iys 

Scioto Mills 

Enleyanna Mills, Rock Run 



Brown's Mill at present 



method was to cut down a large oak tree and build a fire on the center of the 
stump to burn out the heart of the wood. A hole was then chopped into the 
top of the stump, making a simple mortar, which would hold about a peck of 
grain. An ax or an iron wedge was used as a pestle to crush the corn. Occa- 
sionally a "sweep" similar to the old well sweep would be prepared and the 
iron wedge fastened in the end of the rod made a simple crusher. The coarse 
broken grain was sifted in wire or deer-skin sieves, the chaff was blown out, 
and a coarse meal was prepared which made the famous corn pommes that 
were baked in the ashes. Another method was to scrape the corn on "grit- 
ters," which were pieces of tin with holes punched in it. Scraping the corn 
over the rough edges produced a coarse meal which was baked in "dodgers" 
or "pones." 

The farmer made his coat and pants and shirt from the skins of deer shot 
in the vicinity and tanned at home. Coon and fox furnished ample material 
for his caps. Tea and coffee often ran low in supply and peas, wheat and 
barley were used as substitutes. There were periods when game was scarce 
and a bare existence was all that was to be had. Often the hunter would 
be out all day and return empty handed. There are reports that in times when 
meat was scarce, men were glad to get pork enough to grease a griddle. One 
man made a hearty meal on meat rinds that had done service in this way. 
The same man said he had worked hard for weeks at a time on no other 
food than corn meal mixed with water. 

Mr. William Waddam's first farm in this county really consisted of four 
acres, located in the timbers, which he cleared with the ax, fenced, and planted 
in corn and potatoes without the assistance of teams. Some built stables and 
out houses for hogs, cattle and horses, from the tough prairie sod. Wild 
prairie grass afforded an abundance of hay. 


"Going to Mill" was a hard task before 1838. It was a long trip to Peoria 
or Galena. Travel by ox teams was extremely slow, and there were no roads, 
bridges and but few ferries. Such travel was dangerous in rainy seasons and 
in early spring. Many a pioneer found his way blocked by a raging river and 
was compelled to change his course. For wagon and team to get mired in a 
swamp was a frequent and sad experience. After a disheartening journey, the 
traveler found that he had to get in line and take his "turn." "Going to Mill" 
was especially trying because the father never could be sure that all was well 
with his family left at home, in a wild western region with Indians lurking about 
and desperadoes plentiful enough. It was a day of great rejoicing when mills 
were established in the county. History and tradition threads many an inter- 
esting story about the ruins of the old water mills of Stephenson County. They 
served their purpose. They made the county attractive to immigrants and has- 
tened the closer settlement of the county. The county owes much to those 
pioneer mill-builders, Kirkpatrick, Turner, Van Valzah, Wilcoxen and Reitzell. 

William E. Ilgen who came to the county in 1842 said that when the mills 
at Cedarville were inaccessible the corn was dried in a stove and ground in a 


coffee mill. In this tedious way meal was prepared. Reuben Tower ground 
twenty bushels of buckwheat in a coffee mill one winter. 


The barn or house "raisings" were as much a social affair as a matter of in- 
dustry. When a citizen had his logs and timbers ready and on the ground, he 
sent out word to the neighbors that he would "raise" his building on a certain 
day. The preparation meant hard work. The owner had "homesteaded" or 
had bought a "claim" and maybe with his family lived in a shanty while getting 
out the logs. There was zest in the work of the settler as from morning till 
night he swung the ax, felling trees in the grove. He was building a home. 
The trees were chopped into logs and sometimes the only other work was notch- 
ing the ends. Later, men used both axe and adz and hewed the logs on all 
sides. This additional labor made a closer, warmer and more beautiful house. 

Early on the day of the "raising" the settlers for miles around drove in to 
lend a hand and enjoy the day. The women and children came also, and for 
them it was a kind of a holiday. The men set lustily to work, laying the heavy 
foundation logs, placing the puncheon floor and cutting the logs for window 
and door. The older men prepared the clay or mud and with sticks and mud 
they daubed full the cracks between the logs. Others, with sticks and clay, and 
rock sometimes, began the building of the great fireplace. 

At the noon hour all hands stopped to enjoy the feast, an informal banquet. 
The women and girls had work to do and did it with as much spirit and joy as 
the men put into theirs, and none can say that the work of one was more impor- 
tant than the other. The men sat down to a heavily laden table, under the shade 
of some friendly tree and their delight was equaled only by the conscious pleas- 
ure of the women who had prepared the dinner. And such a dinner ! Cabbage, 
potatoes, beans, corn in the ear, corn pommes from the Dutch oven, wheat 
bread, and meat prairie chicken, turkey, venison, fresh pork or beef and always 
coffee, genuine coffee. (There was no necessity for pure food laws.) It was 
a social hour, eating, visiting, joking, story-telling, reports of letters from the 
east, and getting acquainted with new settlers. How the women and the girls 
passed around everything time and again and urged and insisted that the men 
and boys eat and eat and eat. It goes without saying that under such conditions 
the men ate heartily, partly because of the demands of the frontier appetite and 
in part because a wincing, skimpy eater would lose friends among the ladies. A 
frequent figure at these raisings was the circuit rider, who was treated as a 
guest of honor. 

After dinner the men brought forth their pipes and smoked the home-grown 
tobacco to their hearts' content. They talked, told yarns, wrestled and had a 
good time. Then, while the women ate their dinners and "did the dishes" the 
men set to work again, completing the house, roof, door and all. The plain 
household furniture was moved in and a happy family, happier likely than their 
descendants in modern palaces, took possession of a new, clean western home. 

Orangeville ilill 

Hess' Mill 

Addams' Mill, Cedarville 

Mill near Fnnvell's Bridge 






A feature of early socal life was the corn husking and quilting party com- 
bined. For days before the word was passed around that a certain citizen was 
to have a big corn husking and quilting party. It was not an exclusive affair 
and all looked forward with eager anxiety to having a "big time." If sleighing 
was good, so much the merrier. The home "chores" were early done, and at 
nightfall the great sled loads with happy and large families drove over the 
winding trail to the appointed place. Some of the young people went in sleighs 
conveniently built for two. Host and hostess met all comers with a joyous "how 
do you do?" The teams were cared for and when the merry crowd had gath- 
ered and unrestrained greetings were passed around, the program of the evening 
began. The women with needles and thread attacked the quilts cheerfully and 
found that quilting and conversation went well together. The men found at 
the barn a great heap of snapped corn ready for the huskers. Lanterns and 
candles lighted up the scene. Some of the women joined the huskers and were 
good "hands." Girls also found the husking party more interesting than the 
quilting and, just naturally, a young man and young lady would be found husk- 
ing together, both pleased in the extreme. Little children played in the great pile 
of husks, the merry laughter of the little ones adding music to the joyous occa- 
sion. To find a red ear of corn was sure to bring a shout from the busker, for 
it seemed to mean. an extra drink of cider or whatever else was in stock. Husk- 
ing races added excitement to the general course of events. 

At 10.30 the barn floor was cleared of husks. The women joined the men at 
the barn and pumpkin pie and apples, sweet milk, coffee and cider were served. 
When the lunch was over, all were happier than before. The old fiddler had 
already started to tune up, and began to saw away as only the old time fiddler 
can, on the familiar quadrilles and hornpipes of the day. After more or less 
"natural selections" of partners, based on attachments formed at the huskings, 
or of longer standing, the young people and the older people all together joined 
in the "grand promenade," and danced merrily away till the approach of the 
morning hours. Many a woman of fifty was a good dancer in those days and a 
feature now, all but lost, sadly lost, was the dancing of old and young together. 
Of necessity, the social spirit was strongly pervaded by a spirit of co-operation. 
Sociability was free and natural spontaneous as the great democratic life the 
people lived. Social distinctions, narrow-minded exclusiveness, deadening forms 
studied with mathematical precision, artificial social relations, were foreign to 
the pioneers, being reserved for the cold, spiritless manufactured society of a 
later day. 


Small crops were a necessity, not only because of the small clearing, but also 
because of the primitive means of harvesting. For several years the scythe and 
the cradle were the only means of cutting the wheat. The first cradle was a 
straight-handled affair, called the "Turkey-wing." When the "Grapevine" cra- 
dle was first introduced men who were accustomed to the "Turkey-wing" thought 
they could not use the "innovation." 


Captain W. J. Reitzell, who settled Buena Vista June, 1840, says that two 
acres a day was good cradling. Some men cradled two and one-half to three 
and one-half. One dollar a day paid for cradling. Occasionally the life of 
the community was enlivened by a race between two or more "champion" cra- 
dlers. After the cradle came the mower, which was a great improvement be- 
cause horse power was used. Then the "drop" was added to the mower and 
the machine cut the wheat and by foot power the driver dropped it in bunches. 
It kept three or four men busy, usually four, binding the business with the straw 
and throwing the bundles out of the way of the machine on the next round. 
To take his turn and keep out of the way of the machine was one of the tests 
of manhood, strength and endurance, and when a boy could take his place and 
do his part along with the man, he was graduated into a man's work and felt 
the importance of the occasion. Besides a driver and four binders, two men 
were required to shock the grain. Six to ten acres a day was good work. 

After the "drop" came the table rake. This machine had a platform on 
which the grain fell, and a revolving rake swept the bunches to one side out of 
the way of the machine on the next round. The next step was the Marsh Har- 
vester, with an elevated platform upon which the grain was placed by an end- 
less canvas. Two men stood by the platform and bound the grain with straw 
as it came up to them. This was supposed to be the height of man's invention, 
but it was not long till a greater invention followed. This was the self- 
binder. As soon as the Marsh Harvester was set to work, inventors' minds be- 
came busy with the idea of bringing the bundles of grain by machinery. This 
was the most complicated step of all. Machinery had to gather up the straw, 
metal arms had to squeeze it into a tight bundle and a threaded needle had to 
reach around the bundle and tie it tight with wire or twine, making a firm knot. 
It was several years before the knotter was perfected, but it did the work after 
a while better than it was done by human hands. It was only a few more years 
till a "muncher" was added to the machine. With this contrivance the driver 
could drop several bundles at the same spot, and the labor of setting the bundles 
up in shocks was greatly lessened. Now with the self-binder three men can 
cut and shock ten to fifteen acres a day and do it better than seven or eight 
men with the old drop machine. In some communities, laborers were antago- 
nistic to the binder. They felt that soon there would not be a demand for labor 
and what would they do for a living? In places men set out as a kind of "night 
riders" and burned the machines in the field. Time has proved that invention 
and machinery has increased the demand for labor till it is more difficult now 
than ever before to get enough men to do the work. 

Captain Reitzell says that most farm hands worked for $8.00 a month. Some 
of the best got $10.00. Hired girls got SQC a week. Now farm hands get $25.00 
and $40.00 a month, and often keep a horse and buggy and get Saturday after- 
noons off. Hired girls get $3.00 to $5.00 a week. Even at these prices it is 
difficult to get men and girls to work on the farm. 


From the time that the early settlers threshed grain with a flail to the 
traction engine and modern thresher is a long road of history, but it has all been 


seen in Stephenson County from 1833 to 1910. The flail was a simple thresh- 
ing machine. It consisted usually of a stick about like a pitch fork handle, 
with a rope about a yard long to the end of which were attached two slats 
about the same length. Seizing the handle, a man would swing it through 
the air bringing it down on the straws, the slats striking with great force, shat- 
tering out the grain. Sometimes a limb of a tree with branches on it was used. 
Frequently horses were used to tramp it out, walking over the piled up straw. 
The straw was then lifted away, the grain and chaff was gathered up and 
"winded," separating the grain from the chaff. Like most primitive agricul- 
tural processes these were slow and tedious methods. However, in one sea- 
son, W. L. Beebe threshed 2,200 bushel with a flail. Later screens were used 
to separate grain and chaff. Then the old "fanning" was invented. The old 
horse-power thresher invaded the county in 1839. The cylinder for beating 
out the grain was the essential element. At first the "teeth" were made of 
wood, which were soon replaced by metal. The grain dropped through screens 
and the straw was carried on, while a fan blew out the chaff/ When the first 
rude thresher on wheels threshed William Waddam's grain in 1839, it aroused 
considerable criticism and was looked upon by some with suspicion. The pow^r 
was furnished by horses driven around a cylinder, which gained speed by 
means of cog wheels. The cog wheel turned an iron rod which turned the 
cylinder and other machinery of the separator by means of another cog wheel. 
These simple outfits, while made almost entirely in a small shop, contained the 
essential elements of the modern threshing outfit. The traction steam and gaso- 
line engine has taken the place of the horse power; a belt replaces the rod 
cylinder and screens have been perfected ; a "blower" removes the straw instead 
of the endless canvas, and the grain is weighed into sacks or wagons. Until 
about 1890 two men stood on the platform and cut the bands with pocket 
knives and the bundles were thrown from the wagon to the table. Another 
man stood between them and "fed" the machine, reaching to right and left 
and shoveling the wheat or barley into the cylinder. It was hard work, dusty 
and dangerous. He had a chance to get cut with the knives of band cutters, 
to get an arm torn out in the cylinder, or to get killed by flying cylinder teeth 
broken by a rock caught up in a bundle. About 1890 the band cutters and feed- 
ers were replaced by machinery. 

Stacking the straw was another hard and dusty task. Before the day of 
the blower, several men were required to stack the straw. The worst position 
was at the "tail end" of the machine. A man had to stand there under 
an August sun and, smothered in clouds of straw and chaff keep back the straw 
with a pitchfork. This was a position at which many men "shied" and all 
were glad when the "blower" or "cyclone" thresher stacked the straw without 
the use of men. The traction engine, the self band cutters and feeders, the 
automatic weigher and the cyclone stacker have reduced the number of men 
employed by half. 

Threshing was a hard proposition for the women. Thirty years ago it was 
not uncommon for the farmer's wife to feed thirty or forty men while thresh- 
ing. The neighbors joined forces, made a schedule and went through the 
neighborhood threshing. The women co-operated in feeding the men. 


And such threshing dinners as they used to get up. To attempt adequate 
description would be futile. There was a rivalry to some extent among the 
women to see who would get up the best and most elaborate meals. Quanti- 
ties of bread and pies were baked a day or two before. Great fresh beef roasts 
were procured, sometimes mutton, and added to this chicken with soup and 
dumplings. Then there were great pots of string beans, roasting-ears, peas, 
tomatoes, sliced in vinegar, and stewed, baked sweet potatoes and Irish pota- 
toes creamed, mashed and baked. These substantials were heaped into great 
bowls, dishes or tureens and set on a long table, often under the shade of a 
tree. Around the substantials were glasses and dishes of jellies, preserves and 
honey, molasses and stewed fruit. Copius supplies of milk and coffee were 
served, and then came stacks of pies and cake of all makes and descriptions. 

Withal, it was one grand glorious time. When the whistle blew for din- 
ner, the men made a grand stampede for that table. Faces and hands were 
soused in tubs of water, and without ceremony all hands "fell to" with ap- 
petites to be envied. The men joked and laughed and ate. The farmer's wife 
with a half dozen neighbor's wives on her staff superintended the dinner. The 
young girls of the neighborhood, dressed in their best, "waited" on the table, 
and lingered here and there to say a word to some blushing boy who was 
glad to be present. Happy days for them all ! 

It was hard, dirty, dusty work for men and boys, and nerve-wracking labor 
for the women, but it was a grand feature of country life, because an entire 
neighborhood were working together in a common cause. It added unity, in- 
terest and joy to county life. But it has practically passed away and if the 
rural communities do not devise some way of bringing the people of neigh- 
borhood and township in a happy enthusiastic unity, it shall have a lost a re- 
deeming feature of country life. 


Before the railroad came into the county there could be no large town 
The absence of the railroad and towns deprived the people of home and foreign 
markets. Most of the people were farmers. There were but few professional 
men. Consequently the people produced more than they consumed. There 
was no market for the surplus products nearer than Galena, Dixon, Savannah, 
Mineral Point and Chicago. 

Prices were extremely low. Mr. Charles Graves of McConnell says his 
father hauled beef and pork to Galena and sold it dressed at $1.25 a hundred. 
Hogs were so cheap that on one occasion when one jumped out of a wagon on 
the way to market the owner told a man driving on the road he could have it, as 
he did not have time to bother with it. From all points in the county pork was 
hauled to distant markets and sold at $1.25 to $2.00 a hundred. Grain was 
hauled to Savannah, and shipped to New Orleans on flat boats. When the cargo 
was sold the boat was sold for lumber and the owner began his slow and tedious 
return journey. The lead mine region markets soon became over-stocked and 
prices fell to almost nothing. Chicago then was a better market, but over a 
hundred miles through mire and swamp with ox teams to market was not likely 











to be relished by farmers. Yet the early farmers did it. With four or five 
yoke of oxen hitched to a lumber wagon, pastured by night about the wayside 
camp, the pioneer farmer drove through dangerous sloughs and over unbroken 
roads to Chicago, right glad to be able to sell his wheat at 500 a bushel. He 
occasionally made some money by bringing out settlers from Chicago or hauling 
out supplies for the merchants. Usually he received his pay from the merchants 
in goods from the store. Hauling immigrants, however, was a delight, because 
that usually gave the farmer some much to be desired coin of the realm. 

The one thing that was eventually a great aid to the thrifty settler was the 
price of land. Homesteads could be entered and claims partly or wholly 
proved up could be bought from $5.00 to $10.00 an acre. Many men got pos- 
session of good land between 1840 and 1850 at almost nothing and held to it, 
till with the advent of the railroad, the tide towards high prices set in, and the 
log cabin settler found himself a wealthy man. He appropriated the unearned 
increment, which Henry George maintained should belong to society. 

Eggs were sold at 5c a dozen. Often people did not gather them up. Chick- 
ens had no market and farmers gave them little attention, leaving them to roost 
in trees and take care of themselves. Hogs were sometimes as high as $2.00 to 
$3.00 per hundred. Mr. Wm. Waddams sold dressed pork at i l / 2 c a pound. 
He hauled his produce to Galena or to Chicago. 

In driving to market at Galena, Dixon or Chicago the farmers would join 
together and go in considerable numbers. They took provisions and cooking 
utensils to camp at night, sleeping under the wagons protected by blankets. The 
roads were bad and in places the men joined teams to pull one another through 
the mud holes. 

When Mr. Fred Bohlender came to this county in 1844 he built the usual log 
house. Several years later when he decided to build a frame house, he hauled 
the lumber from Chicago, over too miles. Wm. Dively hauled lumber from 
Galena. John A. Wright says wheat was worth 3oc and corn roc and i2c, and 
was hauled to Chicago. Henry Wohlford hauled his first crops to Chicago by 
horse and ox teams. One trip required eleven days and his receipts were not 
enough to pay expenses. Zacharia Gage, of Lena, came from England, and 
landed in Middleport, New York, with $15.00. He and his wife both worked 
for a farmer for $16.00 per month. He cut cord wood at 310 a cord and har- 
vested for $1.25 a day. Levi Robey is authority for the statement that postage 
on a letter cost 25c. The worst of it was that 25c was hard to find, specie being 
a negligible quantity in a frontier community. Richard Parriott, Sr., of Buckeye 
township, made many round trips to Chicago often requiring seven to ten days. 

Anson A. Babcock, who came from New York to Stephenson County in a 
sleigh in 1839, carted three hundred bushels of wheat to Chicago one winter by 
team. W. L. Beebe hauled grain with his team for SQC a day. Benjamin God- 
dard saw wheat sold at 25c a bushel. He has told of a man named Hill who 
carted a load of wheat to Chicago whose expenses amounted to $9.00 more than 
he got for his wheat. John Wright bought land at $1.25 an acre in 1843. ^ n 
1839 Lewis Grigsby plowed where Freeport now stands and in 1835 rafted 
100,000 ponunds of lead down the river from Hamilton's Diggings. Reuben 
Tower, of Massachusetts, settled near Lena in 1844. He ground twenty bushels 


of buckwheat in a coffee mill. Joseph Kramer paid $9.00 an acre for land in 
Rock Grove township in 1846. 

William E. Ilgen, Dakota township, hauled wheat to Chicago and sold it at 
35c a bushel. Joseph Lamm, Silver Creek township, assisted his father to haul 
to Chicago. Their usual load was about 100 bushels, driving five to six yoke 
of oxen. Powell Colby marketed hay at $1.25 a ton. 

The pioneer surroundings had many redeeming features. Wild flowers were 
abundant and of great variety and beauty. There were also hickory nuts, but- 
ternuts, black walnuts, and hazel nuts. For fruits the people had crabapples, 
wild-plums, thorn apples, blackberries, grapes and raspberries. Game was plen- 
tiful. There was an abundance of deer, wolves, wildcats, coon, muskrats, squir- 
rels, woodchucks, wild geese, ducks, quail, loon, gull, pigeons, wild turkeys and 
prairie chickens. Wild honey was found in ample quantities. The streams were 
well stocked with fish and these were readily procured from the Indians. In 
the midst of such surroundings in addition to the garden produce and corn 
bread the pioneer's table was not likely to be lightly laden. However, it is said 
that many a man went to a hard day's work on a breakfast of "suckers fried in 

One of John Tureaure's sons trapped $50.00 worth of prairie chickens and, 
being musically inclined, sent to Buffalo and got a melodion. John A. Wright 
in his diary says game was plentiful in early days and often a settler had only 
to go a few steps from his door, level his gun at deer or turkey. Henry Wohl- 
ford found game plentiful and said that the settlers were never without the 
luxury of fresh, sweet meat. It is told that while some pioneers were attending 
church, pioneer sportsmen shot deer on the site of the courthouse in Freeport. 
George Trotter, a settler in Buckeye, 1835, found game plentiful. He once 
killed two deer with a shot. Herds of deer and flocks of prairie chickens were 
found in abundance about Cedarville and the inhabitants depended mainly on 
the gun for meat. 

In 1836 Silas Gage found deer, turkey, bear, wolves and other wild game so 
plentiful about Winslow that they were almost troublesome. Mr. A. C. Martin, 
who has lived near McConnell since 1854, says that many a time he has seen a 
herd of deer come out of a grove opposite his father's house. Wolves were 
numerous and played havoc with many a flock of sheep. Mr. Charles Graves, 
the McConnell postmaster, says game was plentiful in the early days. The last 
bear that appeared in the community around McConnell, came from the hog- 
back up the river and went on his way across towards the Waddams settle- 


Next to horsethieves, poisonous snakes caused as much trouble as any other 
one factor in the new settlements. Here were the moccasin, the black rattlesnake, 
racers and the massasauga or yellow rattlesnake. The bite of poisonous reptiles 
was fatal if known remedies were not promptly applied. This was not always 
possible and many a boy and man gave up his life on the frontier because of the 
venomous sting of a poisonous reptile. There was some excitement and hus- 


tling when a farmer picked up a sheaf of oats and found a rattlesnake m it. 

With his family and friends a man in Rock Run one day started fishing. One 
of the lads suddenly cried out with great pain, thinking he had stubbed his toe. 
An investigation showed plainly that the boy had been bitten by a venomous 
snake. The father hurried the boy home as fast as possible while another 
summoned a physician, but it was too late. The poison spread through the boy's 
system, and he died before night. 

Another incident related is in regard to an Irishman near Rock City. He 
was plowing in a field and was bitten in the calf of the leg by a rattlesnake. 
Being far away from any medicinal remedy, he "whipped out his knife and 
cutting a piece out of that portion of his leg, continued his plowing." It was a 
radical remedy but saved his life. 


Mr. Franklin Reed of Pontiac, Illinois, wrote in 1877 as follows: "April 29, 
1831, I arrived with my father's family at Buffalo Grove (Polo, Illinois). May 
a we had our cabin ready to move into. It was the typical log cabin cut out of 
the green trees. The floor was laid of bark with the smooth side down. Large 
flat stones were set up against a side of the house in which we could build a 
fire till we had time to make a chimney. 

About the cabin was a wild wilderness of grass-burned prairie as far as the eye 
could see. We made a garden and broke 14 acres and planted it in corn. The 
Indians were lingering around their old hunting grounds. Once we fled by way 
of Kellog's Grove to Apple River Fort for safety. Game was plentiful. I 
have seen twenty or thirty deer in a grove at once. In the spring of 1832 we 
fled again, this time to Dixon on account of the Black Hawk War. In 1833 we 
we forted again. 

Mrs. Jacob Burbridge of Lena, a daughter of William Waddams, who was 
the first permanent settler in Stephenson County, told the following in regard 
to frontier life, in 1891 at the age of 75: "I was born in 1816. My father was 
William Waddams, the founder of Waddams Grove. Our family numbered 
13, but I don't know as we had any particular bad luck because of that. 
We moved to Indiana when I was a year and a half old. There my father owned 
a grist mill and a distillery. Those two went together in early days, for when 
with him some good old rye. The people then always believed in keeping it in 
the farmer brought his maize and wheat to be ground he must needs take back 
the house in case of sickness, you know. 

"Of course we had to move with the tide. I believe some of the people 
never got tired of going West. We settled next near Peoria, Illinois. On our 
journey west, we came across an Indian camp, ran them all out and scared 
them to death. We stayed at Peoria a twelvemonth, and then came northward. 
I rode a horse during the journey and with my brother, who walked, drove the 
family cow towards the promised land. They claimed that milk and honey 
flowed there and I guess they were about right. 

"I went to school at Galena for a time. There were about fifty scholars and 
the Presbyterian minister, a goodly sort of man, instructed us in 'reading', ritin' 


and 'rithmetic' and licking. Being a minister of the Gospel, he thought it not 
becoming for him to do the whipping, so he had someone do it for him. It al- 
ways seemed to me that he picked out the biggest, stoutest, most terrible man in 
the settlement. It appeared, too, that, being paid for his work, he would not 
have it said that he was not worthy of his hire. I always escaped the terrible 
ordeal, but I saw others go through it and that satisfied me. 

"Father dug lead ore in Galena for awhile, and then moved out of town and 
had a vegetable garden and kept bees. One night the Indians came and stole 
all our garden stuff and honey. Then we went to Shullsburg, Wisconsin, where 
father worked in the mines. We lived there two years. We also lived at Apple 
River and at White Oak Springs, keeping a hotel at the latter place. It was 
twelve miles to the nearest neighbor. Mother and I were in the fort when Sylvia 
and Rachel Hall were brought in from the Indian camp, during the Black Hawk 
War. They had no clothes fit to wear and we went to work and made them 
some clothes. During the war people crowded into the fort till about all of them 
were sick. We stayed only one night, as father said he would just as soon be 
killed by the Indians as to go there and get sick and die. My father had some 
exciting encounters with the redskins previous to the war. At one time there 
were three of them in the house. They became angry at him and were going to 
strike him down. He grabbed up a rolling pin and struck three of them to the 

"My father built the first cabin at Waddams Grove. He had seven hundred 
acres of ground where he settled. Our neighbors were all Indians and we 
learned to talk their language as well as our own. I wish I could talk German as 
well as I can Winnebago. 

"One day a party of Indians came to our door-yard and demanded of father 
that we surrender or they would kill us. He made reply that they should come 
on, and that he would pay them well in lead for every step they took. They 
soon after filed off without as much as firing at us. 

"One evening father called us to the door. When we looked out we were 
surprised to see everything as light as day. The heavens were so light you 
could pick up a pin from the ground. From the east and west there arose two 
balls of fire and slowly moved across the heavens towards each other. When 
they had come together the sky darkened as before. This was in the closing 
days of the war and father said it was a sign that the war was over and we 
would have peace. 

X I remember a terrible storm that occurred while we lived in Galena. One 
fellow living near us was flooded out and came over to our house. We had no 
bed for him so he climbed up in the cone of the roof and slept on the cross 
pieces. When morning dawned, he spread out his arms and crowed like a 
rooster. This goes to show that we took things as we found them in those days. 

"The keel boat that brought vegetables up to us from St. Louis was attacked 
at one time by the redskins and all but one man was killed. He took up the dead 
men's gun and kept shooting till he routed the Indians. He reached our settle- 
ment in safety but his hat and coat were riddled with bullets. 

"In the early days we found the skeletons of Indians scattered over the prai- 
ries. You see, they never buried their dead in the ground, but put them on plat- 

Old French Hotel Where Mac-kny Building 
Now Stands 

The Hunt Home an Old Stage Tavern 

Stage Tavern at Eleroy 

Stage Barn at Waddams 





forms supported by poles, which in the course of time would decay, topple down 
and leave the bones bleaching in the sun. 

"The children used to take the skulls of Indians, and using the jaw-bones 
for runners, make sleds of them. In winter time it was a peculiar sight to see 
the children spinning down the hillside, sitting triumphantly on the skulls of 
departed braves." 

Mrs. Matilda Boyle, in a letter read at a meeting of the survivors of the Black 
Hawk war says she was born in Lexington, Kentucky, 1802, and came to Illi- 
nois in 1825. She married Mr. Boyle and settled in the northern part of the 
state. They lived in a one room log cabin, the only light of which came through 
a greased paper. She often left the bread-dough unbaked and rushed to a 
near by fort at the alarm of marauding Indians. "I once remember when 
alone in our cabin in 1831, an armed Indian with hideously painted face, bounded 
in at the open door. So stealthily had he come, that the dog which was asleep 
at the door sill never awakened. The Indian warmed his hands at the fire, 
stared around but said nothing. His face was painted red, striped with black, 
with white about the eyes. We supposed he belonged to Black Hawk's band." 


Seventy-seven years have wrought a wonderful change in Stephenson 
County. Conditions that surrounded the people of the first generation afford 
many sharp contrasts with conditions as they are today. One of the character- 
istics of the early day was the large family. Small families were the exception. 
It was not uncommon before 1860 to find families of ten to fifteen children. 
From six to eight was an average family. Four children were called a small 

There are many reasons, no doubt, that explains the marked contrast with 
the present tendencies toward "race suicide." The early settlers who came 
from the older States or from Europe were a vigorous lot of people. The 
weaker element had not the courage or the initiative to face the dangers and 
trials of frontier travel and settlement. The people here lived largely the out- 
door life. Fortunately they lived in a day in which insipid breakfast foods, cold 
storage eatables, and destructive delicacies were unknown. Their clothing was 
as simple and plain as their log cabin life. The cost of rearing children was not 
great. There was an abundance of work at hand and children were a good 
investment. Besides, land was plentiful and cheap and the chances for children 
to acquire farms and a competence were good. Industrial/ life was developed 
only along a few lines, and the intricate and complicated specialization of today 
was unknown. In fact, parents could look forward to the rearing of large 
families with far less anxiety than in such a social and industrial system as 
now prevails. But generalization is too easy, and too indefinite. A few in- 
stances of large families of the pioneer times, with the observation at hand 
today, will enable the reader to arrive at his own conclusion. Whether the 
old system of large families is a better means of building up a progressive 
civilization, as Mr. Roosevelt seems -to think, or whether a smaller family, with 


more attention paid to the education and training of the children, is the panacea, 
each individual must judge for himself. 

Mr. Frederick Baker, whose father was the first settler in Freeport, had 
eight children. Fred Bauch, florist, a native of Prussia, had ten children; 
Charles Baumgarten's family consisted of six children; W. L. Beebe, eight chil- 
dren, six boys and two girls; Robert Bell, five children; M. D. Chamberlain, 
six children ; Powell Colby, six children ; Albertus Collman, six ; C. O. Collman, 
nine ; John Erf ert, seven ; E. C. Fitch, six ; D. Franz, five sons and four daugh- 
ters; S. B. Harris, seven; E. Heller, six; C. M. Hillebrand, six; Jacob Hime, 
eight ; C. M. Hineline, nine ; John Hoebel, seven ; Daniel Hoover, seven ; M. 
Huber, six ; I. Klein, nine ; Dexter A. Knowlton, six ; John Koehler, six ; Jacob 
Krohn, eight; D. Kuehner, five; Michael Lawver, eleven, five sons and six 
daughters; Henry Lichtenberger, six; John Loos, eight; M. Marvin, seven; 
James Mitchell, seven ; Jacob Molter, seven ; Edwin Perkins, ten ; Elias Per- 
kins, five; J. J. Piersol, seven; Henry Rohkar, eight; C. H. Rosentiel, five; D. B. 
Schulte, five; John Snich, six; Charles P. Snow, nine; J. H. Snyder, six; J. H. 
Stover, six; Valentine Stoskoff, eight; Oscar Taylor, six; John M. Walz, seven; 
L. A. Warner, five ; George Wolf, six ; Charles Berhenke, Kent, eleven chil- 
dren, four sons and seven daughters ; Bryan Duffy, seven ; Henry Faringer, 
six sons ; Jacob Gable, eleven ; William Heyer, six ; James A. Hughes, seven ; 
Peter Kleckner, nine; O. H. Phillips, six; J. W. Rush, seven; David Shearer, 
ten, three daughters and seven sons. 

In Winslow Township, Henry Chawgo had five children; LeGrand M. Cox, 
six ; Silas Gage, eleven ; Barnabus Hinds, six ; George M. Kennedy, seven ; D. B 
Packer, six ; Jeptha Pronty, ten, seven sons and three daughters ; Thomas Rode- 
baugh, six; Charles Sheard, eight; J. M. Staver, six; Thomas P. Steere, seven; 
Orrin Vaughn, eight ; John Wales, seven. 

James Ault, of Waddams Township, had eight children, five boys and three 
girls; W. K. Bechtold, seven; L. B. Churchill, five; J. C. Conaby, five; Trumon 
Cross, six; Martin Fogel, eight; Hiram Fuller, five; J. B. Gates, ten; Hubbard 
Graves, first county sheriff, eleven children ; S. W. Grissinger, seven ; Charles 
P. Guenther, seven ; W. H. Holmes, five ; Thomas Jonas, ten, four sons and 
six daughters ; B. Kleckner, eight ; Alonzo Lush, eleven, six boys and five girls ; 
John Price, six ; James Price, five ; Levi Robey, five ; Sanford S. Sherman, six ; 
William Shippee, thirteen, six sons and seven daughters ; Robert Sisson, six 
sons and five daughters; Andrew St. John, six; Henry Wohlford, ten, four 
sons and six daughters. 

In Florence Township John Q. Adams' family consisted of eight children, 
four boys and four girls; John Aspinwall, seven children; Patrick Barron, five; 
Michael Bastian, five; Andrew Black, seven; John Burchhardt, eight; August 
Froning, seven; George Hamm, ten, fire boys and five girls; Jacob Hoffman, 
seven; Christopher Mayer, eight; Geo. A. Moore, eleven, three girls and eight 
boys; Jacob Pfeil, six; Nathan Sheetz, ten; Conrad VanBrocklyn, eight; Wil- 
helm Wilhelms, five. 

In the township of Silver Creek, Michael Bangasser had eight children, 
four boys and four girls ; Christopher Bennett, fourteen children ; Fred Brock- 
maier, six ; William Brockhausen, ten, five boys and five girls ; Henry C. Brown, 


eight; Henry Dubbert, ten, four sons and six daughters; Andrew Fiest, seven; 
John Fosha, eight; Johann Fuls, five; S. M. Grier, five; Jacob Hoebel, six; 
M. W. Hollingsworth, five; F. P. Koehler, eleven; Henry Kruse, six; Joseph 
Lamm, six ; J. S. Reisinger, seven ; Charles Schoettle, eight ; S. J. Stebbins, 
seven; Nicholas Steffen, ten, four boys and six girls; George Stoenzhorn, five; 
Mene Vanloh, six; William Young, six. 

In Harlem Township, Charles W. Barber, six ; George J. Bentley, eight ; 
E. Bennett, five ; Ludwig Broend, six ; Henry Burkard, six ; Thomas Ewing, 
six ; C. H. Furry, six ; Phillip Herrbrick, nine ; Joseph Hutmacher, twelve chil- 
dren, six boys and six girls ; Aaron Kostenbader, eight ; Levi Law, six ; Martin 
Lawless, six; Oliver P. McCool, eight; Joseph McCool, nine; Edward Mar- 
tin, eleven, nine girls and two boys; John Martin, nine; William Meads, seven; 
Thomas Metz, five ; Lewis Meyers, seven ; E. R. Mulnix, six ; A. B. Munn, six ; 
Joseph Murdock, ten; Frank Pickard, six; R. C. Shofield, seven; George 
Seyler, six; John Steffen, five; John H. Stout, five; Frederick Watson, fifteen, 
six girls and nine boys ; Rezin Wilcoxin, six. 

In Loran Township, John Apgar, eleven children, six girls and five boys; 
Reuben Babb, five; H. M. Barnes, six; Jacob Behringer, eleven; Ira S. Bying- 
ton, seven; John C. Ditzer, six; Mathias J. Ditzler, eleven; Ira Kinman, twelve; 
Charles Kloepping, five ; D. C. Lamm, ten ; William Lahre, nine ; Jacob S. 
Studebaker, fourteen, seven boys and seven girls; Levi Thomas, eleven. 

Isaac Bogenrief, of Jefferson Township, had nine children, six sons and 
three daughters; Samuel Hayes, six; Peter Kerch, six; John Koch, six; G. D. 
Babbit, five; Charles Boeke, five; Francis Boeke, six; Conrad Fautzmeier, ten; 
Conrad Fye, ten; Valentine Gilman, seven; Charles Grossman, five; H. S. 
Jones, six ; Herman Klass, six ; Card Terica, five ; Ludwig Niemeier, five ; Dr. 
E. H. Plasch, eight; August Raders, eleven; John M. Rees, seven; Henry 
Rosenstiel, seven ; Frank R. Tower, nine ; John Winters had a family of seven 
children and his father a family of fourteen. 

D. L. Bear, Oneco Township, had six children ; Willoughby Bear, six ; B. P. 
Belknap, eight ; Franklin Bolender, five ; Aaron Bower, five ; John Bower, eight ; 
W. H. Clarno, nine; J. C. Dorn, eight; George Erb, twelve; David Fye, eight; 
Jacob Fye, nine ; Lewis Gibler, thirteen children ; Charles Lestikow, five ; Daniel 
Moore, nine; E. T. Moore, six; Emanuel Musser, five; Hiram Shons, six; E. S. 
Wagner, five; Ira Winchell, eight; Daniel Woodring, twelve children. 

Jacob Acker, of West Point Township, nine children; H. W. Allen, six; 
C. T. Barnes, seven ; Allen Boyer, eleven ; Jacob Burbridge, eleven ; William. 
Corning, five; Daniel Davis, seven; Thomas Davis, thirteen; Samuel J. Dodds, 
five ; J. T. H. Dobler, eight ; Anthony Doll, six ; A. M. Durkie, five ; J. D. Fow- 
ler, eight ; Thomas S. French, eight ; W. W. Hall, five ; John Herrington, eleven ; 
Andrew Hinds, eleven, six sons and five daughters ; G. L. Howard, six ; Martin 
Howard, five ; George Hoyman, six ; J. T. Leaman, ten ; Jacob Leckington, ten ; 
J. C. Lohr, five ; John McCullough, seven ; John Mahon, seven ; John Metz, five ; 
J. H. Ozburn, five ; John Reeder, eight ; William A. Rice, seven ; Spencer Ris- 
ing, six; J. M. Schermerhorn, five; A. H. Stahl, ten; A. Weaver, five; Moses 
Weaver, seven; Miles White, six. 


N. J. Barrimore, of Rock Grove Township, had nine children ; Hugh Benne- 
hoff, seven ; H. H. Bolender, eleven ; Samuel Chambers, eight ; C. J. Cooper, 
eight; W. L. Cooper, seven; Jacob Fisher, ten; H. O. Frankeberger, twelve; 
Solomon Fisher, eight ; Ole O. Gardner, eight ; Lemuel Goodrich, nine ; George 
Hassenger, ten ; Solomon Hoy, nine ; Harvey Kiester, six ; Levi Kiester, six ; 
Dr. D. H. Kleckner, six; L. L. Marsh, seven; George Maurer, five; Frederich 
Pothast, six; Edward Pratt, six; Calvin Preston, nine; David Zimmerman, 
eight; J. H. Zimmerman, five. 

James H. Adams, of Buckeye Township, had ten children ; J. B. Angle, six ; 
John F. Bender, eight ; John Boals, twelve ; Frederick Bolender, six ; Dr. Chas. 
Brundage, seven; J. B. Clingman, eleven; Josiah Gingtnan, ten; Rev. George 
J. Donmeyer, nine ; John Epley, five ; Jacob Folgate, five ; John Fox, six ; Daniel 
Grimm, seven ; William D. Hartman, six ; John Hartzell, six ; William Herman, 
five; Solomon Hixson, six; William Hoff, five; Thomas Hutchinson, nine; 
Joseph F. Jackson, seven ; Jacob Jones, nine ; Robert Jones, seven ; Daniel Keck, 
six; William K. Kryder, seven; Edwin Lied, seven; John Pollock, eight; 
Thomas Pollock, ten; William Ritzman, twenty-two; Ensebius Schadle, five; 
William Stewart, five; George Trotter, eleven; Phillip Windecker, nine; Jerit 
Wohlford, six. 

In Lancaster Township, Rudolph K. Brubaker's family consisted of nine 
children, seven boys and two girls; Conrad Dambman, five; Samuel Daughen- 
baugh, ten ; Tobias Engle, eleven ; D. G. Fager, eight ; Levi Fahs, nine ; William 
Glasser, eight; George W. Lattig, seventeen, five sons and twelve daughters; 
J. T. McKibbin, eight ; I. N. Mallory, eleven ; Reuben Meyers, six ; Jacob P. 
Mitchel, six; William B. Mitchell, eight; Joseph Myers, five; Jacob W. Rut- 
ter, eleven; R. F. Rezner, seven; William W. Smith, four; Benjamin Snyder, 
thirteen; C. Yarger, five sons and five daughters. 

Joseph Afflerbaugh of Rock Run Township, a blacksmith, had twelve chil- 
dren, six sons and six daughters; A. O. Anderson, eight; D. Bellman, eleven; 
Joseph Binker, seven ; Michael Blimm, thirteen ; David Cable, twelve, five daugh- 
ters and seven sons; Jacob Cable, eight; H. D. Cole, nine; John S. Daughen- 
baugh, six; Christ Feeney, nine; S. R. Foster, five; Louis Germain, nine; Mar- 
tin Gillen, nine ; John Glynn, eight children ; Aaron Gold, ten ; J. H. Graham, 
eleven; John Hoag, nine; C. B. Johnson, six; John F. Kaufman, six; Jacob. 
Keehan, five; Halleck Kundson, seven; Thurston Kundson, nine; M. W. Kurtz, 
seven; J. Lanek, eighteen; S. B. Leach, nine; Henry Maeir, eleven; Alexander 
Niblo, ten ; S. Olsen, seventeen ; Jacob Orth, six ; Henry Schleiter, nine ; Samuel 
Strong, eight; John Weber, eleven; Joseph H. Weir, eight; Michael Wolf, 
twelve; Peter Wolf, twelve; Luther Angle, of Dakota township, had nine chil- 
dren; John Brown, eleven; William E. Ilgen, fifteen; John Kryder, nine; Mar- 
tin S. Lapp, ten ; Robert Nelson, ten ; Samuel Otto, five ; John S. Smith, eight ; 
James A. Templeton, ten; George Walker, eight; O. D. Weaver, eight; John 
Wirth, eight ; Solomon Wise, seven. 

Daniel Brick, in the township of Ridott, had a family of twelve children, 
six boys and six girls ; Ulrich Boomgarten, eight ; Michael Bardell, seven ; Asa 
Carey, seven; Christian Clay, eleven; H. H. De Groot, eleven; L. S. Freeman, 
six; Philo Hammond, five; John Heeren, nine; Thomas Hunt, twelve; Neil 


Johnson, six; Wesley John, six; Jacob Molter, six; A. J. Niles, eight; Henry 
Scheffner, eight; Michael Von Osterloo, ten, four daughters and six sons; 
H. P. Waters, eight; Edward Weik, six; David J. Witter, five; Samuel Mover, 


The above meagre sketch of a few of the large families of pioneer times is 
ample evidence that there were then no strong tendencies towards "race suicide." 
That there has been a remarkable change since the early days is also very evi- 
dent. In 1862 the number of children of school age enumerated in the county 
was 10,609; m l %7 2 > 11,229; m 1882, 10,483; in 1890, 9,867; in 1910, 9,039. 
There were thirty less enumerated in Freeport in 1910 than in 1906. A large 
increase in the population of both Freeport and Stephenson County is accom- 
panied by a decline in the number of children of school age. This chapter sets 
forth some facts that afford food for speculation. 


The annihilation of Black Hawk's army, August 2, 1832, was the end of 
serious Indian troubles. When the first white settlers came into the county in 
1833, 1834 and 1835, a few bands of disorganized Indians still roamed about. 
They were remnants of the Winnebagoes and the fight had all been taken out 
of them. Small hunting parties roamed about and occasionally annoyed the 
settlers by carrying off the garden truck or by rifling an unguarded house. 
Petty thefts and trespassing were the more common misdemeanors of the red 

A small party at one time drove away an entire drove of hogs belonging to 
William Waddams. Another squad entered the bachelor cabin of Robert Jones 
and Levi Lucas near Cedarville and among other things carried away razors, 
game, wild honey and tobacco. The owners returned as the redskins were 
sneaking away from the cabin. The men followed the Indian's trail and over- 
took him in the act of shooting a wild turkey. Jones rushed upon him, seized 
his gun and threatened instant death unless he immediately restored the stolen 
property. After some demurring and pleas in confession and avoidance, the 
Indian offered to restore the articles if the men would go with him to his wig- 
wam. Consenting to do this, they were led through the) wilderness and were 
brought suddenly into the presence of about thirty braves who, with their wo- 
men at once realized their danger, but put up a bold front, entered the circle of 
savages and sat down. There followed a prolonged parley without anger, after 
which the Indian who had stolen the property disappeared in the wilderness. 
Not long after he returned with the tobacco, but assured the men that the razors 
and provisions were in the possession of a band of Winnebagoes on Yellow 
Creek. The old Indian then told his people how Jones and Lucas had assaulted 
him in the forest, how they had taken his rifle away and had prevented him 
from shooting a wild turkey. There were vigorous grunts of displeasure from 
the circle of braves and they became loud and threatening. But Jones was a 
diplomat. He was not prepared to fight thirty armed Indians. He became 
suddenly generous and courteous. He succeeded in calming the enraged redskins 


by dividing his tobacco among the braves and restored tranquility by "tickling 
the Indian maidens under the chin and indulging in other harmless pleasantries 
with them," Jones afterwards said his gallantry was severely taxed in making 
love to the greasy beauties of the Winnebagoes, but he was willing to make the 
sacrifice rather than to take a chance of losing his scalp. 

Jones and Lucas spent the night at the home of Benjamin Goddard, south of 
Cedarville. The next morning they and Mr. Goddard went to the claim of Wil- 
liam Baker and aided the latter in raising his house. While at work here, a 
party of Yellow Creek Indians came up, to hang around and get same of the 
"fire water" usually an article to be found at "raisings" in these days. Jones 
at once accosted the Indians and demanded the return of his stolen property, and 
threatened death if his demands were not complied with. This argument was 
convincing and the Indians pointed to the sky, indicating that at noon they 
would turn over the stolen goods. Promptly at twelve, the band returned and 
gave the razors to the rightful owners. 

Indians were still around the county and subjected the settlers to many petty 
annoyances. On a blustering winter day five redskins came to the cabin of F. 
D. Bulkley and sought shelter. "Wigwams all gone; Indian got no wigwam," 
they said, as they pointed to the naked poles that marked the site of the old 
Winnebago village. They were permitted to dry their clothes about the fireside 
of the paleface and as a mark of gratitude offered Mr. Bulkley some whiskey. 
In the absence of a funnel they had an, Indian boy transfer it from a large jug 
to a small one by means of his mouth. 

A Mr. Kent, the first settler at Rockford, had experience with Indians. Re- 
turning from a visit to his brother at Galena, he had secured a canoe and, laden 
with potatoes ; paddled down the Pecatonica to Baker's cabin, now Freeport. Here 
he tied up his canoe and went ashore. When he returned to his canoe he found 
it surrounded by a mob of squaws and young Indians, who were busy as squir- 
rels carrying away his potatoes. What remained he took with him to Rockford 
and planted some of them, raising a good crop. More hard luck was in store 
for Mr. Kent and his potatoes, for one night the Indians came to his clearing 
and dug up and carried away all of his potatoes. 

On one occasion Indians entered the cabin of a "Widow" Brown and carried 
away her stock of provisions. A party of "Freeporters," William Baker, M. 
Brown, Jake Goodheart and "Wild Gunner" Murphy set out after the thieving 
redskins with William Baker, who had acquired a certain mastery of the Winne- 
bago tongue, as interpreter. The party came up .with the Indians in camp in 
Rock Run Township. The Indians were intoxicated and their fury frightened 
away the first one of the pursuers who came upon them suddenly and alone. 
Baker and the remainder of the party then came up. The Indians asked Baker 
why the white man ran away. Baker's diplomacy again saved the day as he 
replied that the man was running to bring up a party of one hundred whites 
not far away. He made a bold stand and told the Indians that if they did not 
turn over the widow's property at once, the entire party of Indians would be 
killed and scalped. After a parley, the matter was adjusted. The Indians agreed 
to restore what had not been consumed of Mrs. Brown's stores, and gave Baker 
a horse to guide them out of the community and away from the "hundred volun- 


teers" who were bent on destruction of the Indians. Fred Baker was also paid 
four coon skins for his services as interpreter one instance of the practical value 
of the study of a foreign language. 

Mr. Charles Graves, the venerable postmaster at McConnell, remembers the 
wigwams left along the Pecatonica by the Winnebagoes. He and other children 
used them as playhouses. They played Indian just as children do today who 
read Indian stories. The early children had the advantage of seeing real Indians, 
war paints and feathers and heard stories told at first hand. The wigwams were 
ideal "playhouses," and the children added a touch of realism by painting their 
faces and dressing in Indian fashion. They divided into squads, Indians in one 
and whites in the other, and fought sham battles in which warwhoop and 
hatchet were put into play. 

Chief Winneshiek, or "Coming Thunder," had his village on the Pecatonica, 
at the foot of Stephenson Street, Freeport, where the Illinois Central Station 
now stands. Here were the wigwams of his braves and squaws. Here about 
their campfires they held their pow-wows and war dances. While not a trouble- 
some band, yet they looked with distrust upon the steady approach of the white 
settlements. In what is now Taylor's Park, the squaws in a rude way cultiavted 
the cornfields with clam shells. The first settlers saw the peculiar burial methods 
of the Winnebagoes. Four strong poles were planted in the ground on which 
a platform was constructed. The body of a dead Indian with his bow and ar- 
rows and trinkets was placed upon the platform, with such savage rites as were 
customary among the Winnebagoes. When the first settlers built their cabins 
in Freeport these burial grounds still held many of the skeletons of departed 
red men, whose spirits had gone to the happy hunting grounds and whose bodies 
had been destroyed by exposure to the elements. 

While the Indians were not exceedingly troublesome during the earlier pi- 
oneer days, yet their presence, their strange manners and dress and withal the 
everpresent uncertainty of their attitude, added a certain touch of daring and" 
romance that always accompanies dangerous situations to the life of the first 
settlers. People from the east who knew the Indian only from books could 
not fail to be impressed by the presence of real red men. It was no place for 
"mollycoddles." Girls and women were trained in the use of the rifle, the un- 
failing arbiter of early disputes. Neither were these girls and women ignorant. 
Many of them had been educated in eastern academies and colleges and had 
come from homes of plenty and culture and refinement. They were a brave and 
noble band of women, inspired by the spirit of the great west, enlivened by ro- 
mance of danger and made strong by the hardships and privations of the fron- 


Whatever the truth may be, tradition has persistently maintained a story 
of a murder at Kellog's Grove during the summer of 1833. It seems that two 
young men of Virginia had heard glowing reports of the wealth of the lead 
mine district about Galena. They decided to leave the Old Dominion to seek 
their fortunes in the great West. A "Prairie Schooner" was fitted out in 


elaborate style, fully equipped to make the long journey over the Virginia hills, 
across Kentucky, over the Ohio, and finally to Peoria when they struck the 
Kellog Trail for Galena. After a long and tiresome journey with an ox team, 
the young planters encamped for the night in the cabins at Kellog's Grove. 
Tired from the hard trip they ate supper, secured the oxen for the night and 
retired to enjoy the sound sleep that comes to him who has journeyed long in 
the open air. 

When the young adventurers awoke in the morning, they found that their 
oxen had broken loose and had wandered away from the camp. It was 
mutually agreed that one was to prepare the breakfast while the other was to 
find the missing oxen and return them to camp. 

Evidently the long journey from Virginia had for come reason made the 
men quarrelsome. After several hours, the one who had gone in search of the 
oxen returned with them to camp. The other had, however, made no headway 
in the task of the preparation of the breakfast. The delay led to a quarrel and 
finally the blows. During the fight, one of the men seized an ox yoke or some 
other weapon and struck his antagonist over the head causing almost instant 

But the victor quickly realized the awfulness of his crime. They had started 
out from the old home in full harmony and high spirits. Fortunes and a bright 
future awaited them, gaining which, they no doubt hoped to return prosperous 
and happy to the homes they had left behind. But now one lay dead at the 
hands of the other. The survivor at once felt the sting of the conscience stricken 
murderer. To get away from the scene of this crime he punged at once into 
the trackless forests. But he found that even in the wilds of a western wilder- 
ness, he could not lose the consciousness of guilt. It haunted him at every 
turn, till driven to desperation, he returned to the scene of his crime and looked 
with horrified soul upon the dead body of his comrade. Joy had gone from his 
life and hope fled, as with heavy heart he made a grave in the hillside and laid 
away as best he could the remains of his victim. 

In about a week the dejected traveler arrived at Apple River and sadly 
told the settlers the above story. The settlers placed no restraint upon the man 
but not long after, haunted still by a remorseless conscience, he again plunged 
into the wilds in a vain attempt to find relief. 

He was heard from no more by the settlers of Apple River. Years later, 
in the woods of Jo Daviess County there was found the skeleton of a human 
being whose identity could not be fixed. However, it may be, the Apple River 
settlers believed this to be the body of the conscience stricken Virginian, who, 
they believed, finding he could not gain peace of mind in life, sought relief in 
death at his own hands. 


Stephenson County did not suffer as much as the surrounding counties from 
the Prairie Pirates, or the "Banditta of the Prairies." This was because the 
settlement was held back till the close of the War with Black Hawk, after 
which it was rapidly settled up. Yet many a fine horse was swiftly ridden 


out of the county to the secret headquarters of the gang of thieves that preyed 
upon the unorganized community. No less dreaded than the Indians were these 
Pirates, whose organizations spread out all over the frontier settlements of 
Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. They worked in no fear of the law. They were 
the overflow of the criminal class of the East which, driven from the older 
settlements by organized law, hovered over the sparsely settled new communi- 
ties, to live without working, by stealing from their more industrious neighbors. 

Stables were doubly locked and good horses were not to be left unguarded, 
unless a faithful watch dog slept in the barn. Most men never thought of going 
to the stable or to the wood pile after night without his gun. A man often 
slept with the horses with his trusty rifle at his side. 

The leaders about Rock River were John Driscoll, John Brodie, Samuel Ai- 
kens and their sons. They had a secret society and had stations scattered about 
the country. Signals and pass-words perfected the organization of plunderers 
which operated from Wisconsin to Texas, preying on the means of honest 

John Driscoll came from Ohio in 1835 and settled on Killbuck Creek in Ogle 
County. It is said that he came from the Columbus Penitentiary. In physique, 
courage and intellect he was a remarkable man. He was upwards of six feet 
and weighed 200 pounds. Part of his nose had been bitten off in a fight with a 
human ghoul. His hair was iron gray and coarse. He did many acts of kind- 
ness, once finishing the crop of a woman whose husband had died. The Dris- 
colls were sly, secretive, cunning and revengeful. 

John Brodie settled in Dement township, Ogle County, at Brodie's Grove. 
He was a small man, with a low forehead, stiff black hair and deep set eyes, a 
typical prairie pirate. His sons were dare-devils both despised and feared. 

The Log Tavern at Inlet Grove, Lee County, was the distributing point for 
counterfeiters, and a directing point from which the movements of stolen horses 
were controlled as they passed from station to station. The "Pirates" when ap- 
prehended always got bail and were always able to prove an alibi. 

The Ogle County Regulators organized in a school house determined to fight 
the pirates. They numbered from 15 to several hundred and determined to 
do what they law could not do. They called on John Hurd, a horse thief, at 
night, ordered him to strip, tied his hands behind his back and gave him thirty- 
six lashes with a rawhide. He stood the ordeal without flinching. When the 
flogging ceased, he said, "Now, to prove that I am an honest man, I will join 
your company." 

A former Baptist preacher had stolen four horses between Freeport and 
Rockford. He was "tried" by the Regulators, found guilty, and sentenced to re- 
ceive 50 lashes on the bare back. The trial was held at his house, and he was 
stripped for the ordeal, when his daughter, a prepossessing girl of 16, rushed 
to his side and plead with the Regulators to spare her father. With much mur- 
muring, the majority decided to let the preacher off on his promise to flee the 
country. Several hours later, a part of the band returned, tied the reverend horse- 
thief to a Burroak tree and gave him ninety-six lashes on the bare back. 

Driscoll's meanness ran deep. At one time, having decided to burn an enemy's 
barn, he determined at the same time to square off an old account with his own 


son. He secretly took his son's horse from his stable, rode to the barn and set 
fire to it, riding the horse back and tieing it in his son's barn. The young man 
was sent to the penitentiary. 

When Driscoll's son murdered Campbell, a leader of the Regulators, the 
frontier was thoroughly aroused. One hundred and eleven stern men tried the 
Driscolls and sentenced them to die like dogs. The notorious thieves made only 
one request, and that was to be shot, and not to be hanged. They were given one 
hour to prepare for death. Some of the Regulators begged that the Driscolls be 
turned over to the courts, but hot speeches, recounting the losses sustained by the 
surrounding counties and casting doubt on the proposition of leaving the fate of 
the men to the courts, prevailed. Death squads, fifty-five and fifty-six, were de- 
tailed to shoot the men. Old John Driscoll was the first to kneel and fifty-six 
bullets riddled his body. A tradition is handed down that William Driscoll's hair 
turned almost white as fifty-five rifles ended the life of a man who had confessed 
to seven murders. Aikens died from sickness while hiding day and night from 
the "Regulators." 

One leader of the horse thieves who operated in Clinton County, Iowa, and 
through Carroll, Jo Daviess and Stephenson Counties, was a special terror to 
horse owners. After stealing a fine animal, he would knock some of his teeth 
out, paint him a different color and in this way make sure his escape. He had 
a secret hiding place, where he kept his stolen horses till the hunt subsided when 
he would take them into market. This leader, whose name was Warren, was 
finally rounded up by the Regulators and hanged. His wife took the event calmly 
saying that that was the third husband of hers that had been hung. 

Charles Graves, the present postmaster at McConnell, remembers several in- 
cidents of pioneer life that occurred while his father was the first Sheriff of 
Stephenson County. A report came to him one day that some horses had been 
stolen. Sheriff Graves followed their trail all day. Finally he came upon them 
in camp and captured them. About dark that evening he returned with them 
in a wagon. They were not hand-cuffed. It was then too late to take them to 
Freeport, and Mr. Graves said to the men, after supper had been prepared by 
Mrs. Graves, "Boys, I don't know what to do with you fellows but shut you up 
in my root house," "Allright," said the men, and supplying them with bedding Mr. 
Graves locked them up in the temporary jail. Next morning they were still 
there, and the Sheriff took them in a wagon to Freeport where they were placed 
in the old log jail. The old log bastile in Freeport was not very secure and 
they soon escaped. 

An old history of Stephenson County, in the possession of Mr. A. C. 
Martin, of McConnell, tells a good story of the horsethief pest and how relentless 
the pioneer was in dealing with it. A farmer awoke one morning to find one 
of his horses stolen. He immediately mounted another horse and armed with 
his rifle set out on the trail. When he had about lost hope and was riding along 
the river, he suddenly saw a horseman riding along the opposite bank of the 
stream. He saw at once that it was his horse and without ceremony or chal- 
lenge he leveled his rifle at the thief and fired, the rogue tumbling off the stolen 
mount dead. The horse ridden by the owner in pursuit neighed, and the stolen 
horse, recognizing his mate, plunged into the river and swam across to its owner. 


It was necessary to take up the pursuit of a stolen horse at once, because if they 
ever crossed the Mississippi there was no chance for recovery. Besides, there 
was such a perfect organization among the thieves that concealment in caves and 
other out of the way places would soon put the stolen, animals beyond the reach 
of- the owner. 

Horse stealing was a profitable "business." Escape was not difficult and 
the property could usually be converted into cash. But if caught, the thieves 
were summarily dealt with. The trials were brief and the criminals were either 
sent to Alton or driven out of the county with death as a reward if they returned. 
At times, the Block House which stood where the First Ward School now is 
was filled with rioters and horse thieves. 

Horse thieves were particularly active in 1838 to 40. The gang of thieves 
was so well organized that it was difficult to catch 1 or to recapture the stolen 
animals. An early experience of Conrad Van Brocklin in Florence Township 
gives an idea of the excitement and dangers connected with the operation of the 
band 01 thieves. During an afternoon, he suddenly saw thieves making away 
with two of his blooded horses. Assisted by Mason Dimmick, he gave pursuit. 
The thieves had a good start and the chase was desperate. The thieves had 
no bridles and were getting away with the booty easily when they suddenly came 
upon a stream of water. One of the horses had a dread of crossing water and 
could not be forced to enter it by the thieves. While the pirates were making 
heroic afforts to get the horse across, Van Brocklin and Dimmick came up sud- 
denly and the men ran into a nearby swamp. The horses were regained but the 
thieves escaped. 

About the same time, thieves secured the horses of Samuel Smith in Lan- 
caster township and piloted them safely across the Mississippi and sold them. 
Mutual Aid Societies, Regulators and Vigilance Committees were the most ef- 
fective means of fighting the horse thieves in the earlier years. Later, vigorous 
prosecution by such fearless men as States Attorney Thomas J. Turner, broke up 
the operations of the band. Thomas Hotchkiss, Erin Township, was connected 
with the band. He sold his farm to John Manlove in 1845. 


Charles Waterman who came to Freeport in 1840, later settled in Loran 
Township, where he built a mill and a distillery. He first lived in De Kalb 
County and aided in putting an end to the "Driscolls." Bill Driscoll had sworn 
to kill Waterman. Later Waterman overtook Driscoll on the road on horse- 
back, both being heavily armed. Waterman watched the notorious bandit and 
was prepared to shoot at any instant if attacked. While they were riding- along, 
a body of settlers came up and captured Driscoll. 


The following advertisements, news items and business statements give an 
idea of business and advertising of the period 1847 to 1855 : 


A copy of the Prairie Democrat, Vol. I, No. 10, Jan. 26, 1848, is the earliest 
copy of this paper extant. No files were preserved and this copy and a few 
later ones are highly valued. Below the title line was printed the paper's 
motto, "Be Sure You're Right Then Go Ahead." The first item in the 
paper was a suggestion, in rhyme, to subscribers to pay up. The last para- 
graph follows : 

"Your other bills you promptly pay, 

Wherever you do go, sir 

The butcher for his meat is paid, 

For sundries is the grocer, 

The tailor and the shoemaker 

The hatter and the vinter, 

All get their pay, then why neglect 

To settle with the printer." 

The poem was introduced by the editor with the pertinent remark, "A hint 
to the wise is sufficient." 

Almost all the front page was given over to a continued story, entitled, 
"The Three Festivals." About four columns of the second page contained a 
letter by Hon. Lewis Cass, explaining his sentiments in regard to the Wilmot 

The paper has an editorial on Thomas J. Turner, the member of Con- 
gress from this district, speaking of him as "One who was the artificer of his 
own fortune. Who is equally at home in Congress or at the plow." A letter 
from Washington praises Mr. Turner and says the best speech of the session 
was made by Mr. Lincoln, who heretofore had been perfectly mute and took 
Congress by surprise. An editorial lashes the whigs for being "in eternal hostility 
to slavery and willing to nominate a man (General Zachary Taylor) who 
owns the flesh and blood of hundreds of human beings ! Beautiful Consist- 
ency !" "Henry Clay and Tom Cornin," an editorial says, "are in fact the 
greatest of all Mexican heroes." Page 4 with the exception of one column "The 
Farmer's Column," is devoted to advertising. In the Farmer's column is an 
article on "Rotation of Crops," recommending the following order: Corn, oats, 
barley or both with three parts of clover to one of timothy; third and fourth 
years ; mow and pasture ; fourth year wheat, then corn again. 

The paper contained a notice of the meeting of the literary association 
which met at the Red Schoolhouse every Tuesday evening. The subject for de- 
bate was, "Resolved: That war is justifiable." The disputants were T. F. Good- 
hue, M. P. Sweet, C. A. Clark and others. There was also to be a lecture by 
Dr. Hazlit on Phreno-Magnetism. 

The editor inserted the following ad: "Wanted immediately at the office of 
the Prairie Democrat, wood, 5,000 subscribers, grain, butter, lard, potatoes, 
eggs, flour, honey, cash, etc. 

The winter of 1847-8 is described as follows: "This is a curious winter. 
To see a prairie on fire every night, the dust flying in the streets, the boys on 
the common playing ball and clear beautiful days and nights, with a smoky at- 
mosphere resembling the most exquisite Indian summer, is not what we have 
been accustomed to." 

O. II. W 

George Purinton 

P. Manny 

.Tared Sheet/. 

John II. Adda ins 

M. Hettlnger A. A. Krape Horatio C. Burchard 






The advertising pages of the early paper are as interesting and significant 
as the news and editorial columns. There was little display advertising. Most 
of the ads were written full, with much rhyme and humor. 

Mr. O. H. Wright advertised : Wanted, in exchange for goods, 100,000 feet 
of lumber, 10,000 bushels oats and corn, 20,000 bushels wheat, hides, furs and 
skins. He also advised delinquents to pay up at once if they wished to save the 
"costs." Leonard, the jeweler, next door south of O. H. Wright's store, had 
a half column ad with four paragraphs of "poetry" of which the following is 
a sample. 

"Yet for my bounty and your sake, 
Good bank notes in pay I'll take, 
So bring your clocks and watches too, 
And I'll make them run, as well as you." 

Jacob Smith wanted 35,000 barrel staves at once, $6 per thousand for pork 
barrel staves and $4 per thousand for flour barrel staves. D. A. Knowlton's 
ad states that no great battle or poetry is necessary to inform the citizens of 
Stephenson County that his store is filled with dry goods, groceries, crockery, 
hardware, etc. O. H. Wright lists groceries, hardware, crockery, queensware, 
foreign and domestic dry goods, hats, caps, boots and shoes, ready-made coats, 
drugs, medicines, paints, oils, iron, steel, etc., and all kinds of produce wanted. 
He thanks the public for trade for the past eleven years. 

J. M. Baker advertised the ''Eagle Saloon" opposite courthouse. Besides 
all kinds of wines, liquors and tobacco, he offered for sale fresh oysters, sar- 
dines and "various articles in the grocery line." Mr. L. W. Guiteau, then 
school commissioner, advertised a sale of school lands. 

The following tailors advertised : Smith and Johnson, one door east of 
Knowlton's old store; M. L. Shook, northeast of postoffice; Geo. W. New- 
comer, opposite Jackson's grocery ; John F. Baker, first door northwest of O. 
Taylor's store; S. Sweeley, over Knowlton's new store. 

Mr. Knowlton advertised tea, warranted good, at 75 cents a pound, and 
tea, warranted not good, at 12^/2 cents. He offered 65 cents for good winter 
wheat and 60 cents for spring wheat. He states that good men owe him over 
$15,000, and if they do not pay up he will leave the accounts with Major Howe 
for collection. E. H. Hyde advertised to sell sugar at 9 to 12^/2 pounds for $i. 

Mr. Oscar Taylor's ad of patent medicines is interesting as an ad and as 
history. It is as follows: 



Allen's Balsam of Hoarhound, for consumption and liver complaints ; Nerve 
and Bone Liniment, and Indian Vegetable Elixir, for rheumatic affections, Dr. 
Lin's Strengthening Plaster and Comstock & Co.'s Liquid Extract of Sarsa- 
parilla; Oldridge's Balm of Columbia, a restorative of the hair; Hay's Lini- 
ment ; Expectorant Syrup ; Dr. Spohn's Headache Remedy, either nervous or 


bilious; Kline's Tooth Drops; Dr. McNair's Accoustic Oil for Deafness; Long- 
ley's Great Western Indian Panacea, the best family cathartic, and the best 
remedy for asthma, dyspepsia, liver complaints, and all bilious obstructions 
which the combination of medicine affords. Bed Bug Bane; Indian Hair Dye, 
warranted to color the hair brown or black without injury to it or coloring the 
skin; Kolnstock's Vermifuge for worms; stove varnish; cough lozenges; Thomp- 
son's Eyewater; Mother's Relief, which richly deserves its name; Mack Ken- 
zie's Tonic Febrifuge, the best remedy for fever and ague extant. Oil of 
Tannan, unequaled as a preserver and restorer of leather; Liquid Opodeldoc; 
Elmore's, Wright's & Soule's Pills; together with divers other articles in that 
line can be found genuine, and at the lowest prices, at the "Stephenson County 
Cash Store," corner of Exchange and Galena streets. Freeport, January, '47. 


The following ad for Barrett's store will give a good idea of the strenuous 
business of the times and also the nature of the early store, which was, in 
fact, a "department store:" 


Highway robbery, murder, treason, codfish, Loco Foco 
matches, and 4 cent Calico ! ! 

GOODS ! ! ! 

Of fine and noble selections 
All colors, kinds and complexions 
Cheap as the cheapest at that, 
Are being sold now-a-days at 


Going off hourly, in boxes and sacks, 
The richest, finest and best of nic-nacks 
The clerks are busy early and late 
Using the yard stick as well as the slate. 


Groceries of all kinds; (such as) 
Gimps, and window blinds. 
Teas, sugars, and cassimeres; 
Oils, candies, and cashmeres ; 
Indigo, trace chains, and nails; 
Fulled cloths, satinetts and pails. 
Raisins, ribbons and rice; 
Molasses, gimlets and spice. 



Tin-ware, and baby's socks; 
Eggs, boots and brass clocks; 
Ginger, candles and cradles; 
Glauber salts, tobacco and ladles. 
Lanterns, real estate and glues ; 
Lead, shot, spices and shoes. 
Tweedles, brooms and madder red; 
Basins, log chains, red and black lead. 


Razors, perfumery and glass; 
Hand saws, white satin first class! 
Paints, saw-files and silk; 
Butter and cheese made of skim-milk! 


Mill saws, K. jeans, and spades; 
Calicoes, caps and sun shades 
Garden seeds, shovels and forks ; 
Last year's almanacs and corks ; 
Hard times, cotton yarn and files ; 
Silk and woolen goods all styles. 
French goods, "tunnels," buttons ; 
Knives, forks for steak or mutton ! 


Mulls, muslins, laces and tar, 
Cheap as cheapest and cheaper by far 
Clay pipes, whips, shovels and tongs; 
Bonnet strings ballads and songs. 
Lamp oil, lamp-black and black lead; 
Fiddle strings, marbles, greyish and red 
Bleached, unbleached shirting and sheetings 
Songs for whig and democrat meetings. 


Bed cords, ticking, powder and shot, 
Kettles, hair oil, combs and pots; 
Flannels, tin ware, and lady's fans 
Hair combs, loaf sugar and moll-cans 
Mittens, griddles black and blue ink; 
And other things of which I can't think 
Promissory notes, and duns quite stale 
Warranted now due or no sale. 


For all, or any of the above articles, and thousands of others, 
just call at the cheapest store in Freeport directly opposite the 
Stephenson County Hotel don't forget the place, but keep con- 
stantly in your mind that interesting word cheap. 

Freeport, January 15, 1848. 

A. A. Pollock, barber at I Stoneman's inn, says his prices are : Shaving 6*4 
cents, hair-cutting 12^ cents, and adds "These prices will be kept up till some 
barber comes along who will do the business for nothing." In one of his ads 
O. Taylor says: "We have been told that opposition is the life of business, 
therefore, I will pay 65 cents for winter wheat and 60 cents for spring wheat, 
in goods at lower prices than any other store in Freeport. F. A. Stricky had 
a big ad for his Pennsylvania store. Mr. D. A. Knowlton in his ad offered 
great bargains, as he had decided to dispose of his entire stock. His explana- 
tion follows: 


Having spent the last eight years in hard toil and taxed my mind 
day and night with the cares of business, until I have impaired 
my health and broken my constitution, and having been blessed by 
Divine Providence with a reasonable compensation for my labors, 
and now feeling a desire of changing my business, so as to place 
myself more at ease, knowing that all I can get in this world is 
what I can eat, drink and wear. I would now say to the citizens 
of Stephenson County and the public in general that I have re- 
solved to dispose of my entire STOCK OF GOODS. Therefore 
I will pay 65 cents for good Winter Wheat and 60 cents for good 
Spring Wheat, in exchange for goods; and I will pay the highest 
price of Oats, Corn, Hides, Furs, Butter, Cheese, Beeswax, Ginseng 
and most kinds of Country Produce in exchange for goods. There- 
fore, all persons wishing to buy goods will find it much to their 
advantage to call at D. A. KNOWLTON'S well known WHOLE- 
SALE & RETAIL STORE, as Great Bargains will be offered 
there and goods will be sold a little cheaper than the cheapest. 
Also, that I will now sell my Entire Stock of Goods to any Mer- 
chant wishing to locate in Freeport, at a Great Bargain and Rent 
my Store, for a year or a term of years. D. A. KNOWLTON. 

An ad with some evidence of literary genius is the following by Abel Smith 
of Winslow : 


After consuming thousands, Mr. Credit has laid down and died, 
at the "Rough & Ready Store," in Winslow. Call on Abel Smith 
and he will preach his funeral sermon over a lot of choice YANKEE 
NOTIONS, and a fine lot of Groceries, and a smart sprinkling 
of DRY-GOODS, together with White fish, paints, tin-ware, boots 


and shoes, thoroughly made, to order. Bring out your produce ,and 
I will do your work cheaper, or sell you a pile of goods cheap. 

,, r , ABEL SMITH. 

Wmslow, January i. 

L. W. Guiteau advertised his new store and stock at the southeast corner 

of the Public Square. 

One of the unique and significant ads of 1847 was that of J. Howe, the 

hotel man. It follows : 

A few travellers can be quietly entertained at Howe's Cottage 
with poor fare, at high prices if they come sober and remain so. 
N. B. I want it should be distinctly understood, of all the living 
beings, a drunkard, to me is the most detestable ! I can bear with i 
snakes, toads, hedge-hogs and skunks ; because they are as they were 
created ; but an intelligent human being that will make a brute of him 
or herself, by intoxicating drink or those who furnish it to a fel- 
low being, until he or she is intoxicated, and then turn them into 
the streets to the exposure of the frost, and gaping multitude I 
say to such, I have no shelter. J. HOWE. 

Freeport, December, 1847. 

F. A. Strocky's notice to delinquents is a type of the method of asking cred- 
itors to pay up : 

NOTICE. All persons indebted to me buy note, book account, or 
otherwise, are respectfully requested to call and liquidate their in- 
debtedness, on or before the loth of January next, or I shall be 
compelled to assist them by legal process. Gentlemen, I wish to pay 
my debts at maturity, and only ask you to do the same That's 
all! F. A. STROCKY. 

Freeport, December 27, 1847. 

E. H. Hyde's half column ad is similar to that of Barrett's in the long list 
of articles to be found in his store. 


The Journal, December 6, 1848, said, "No more bandits to be sent from 
our country to revolutionize other countries and annex them to our country." 

1848, December 13, J. G. Bedee had taken charge of the Stephenson County 
Hotel. A large addition had been made and fitted up in good style. 

Ad : "Winneshiek House, corner Stephenson and Chicago streets, M. M. 

County finances April 4, 1849: 

Appropriation and expenses $2,727.76 

Revenue for 1848 2,256.75 

Fines and licenses 328.25 

Rent of court house 2 5-6s 

County indebtedness 1,527.05 

1848, J. A. Grain and James Schofield were appointed West Point cadets 
from the 6th district. 


January 24, 1849, J- H. and P. Manny advertised the Manny Harvester in 
the Freeport Journal. The shop was then conducted at Waddams Grove. "The 
machine will cut a level swath at any height the man at the wheel may desire. 
He adjusts the machine to suit the height of the grain. The grain is conveyed 
by the machine directly to the wagon from the knives as it is cut, or it will leave 
the grain in the ? to be bound by hand. Two horses will draw the ma- 
chine. Fifteen acres can be cut in a day, the machine cutting five feet. It will 
pass over stumps not over two feet high. The price of a machine is $250." 

Threshing cost 5 cents a bushel in 1848. 

The following ad explains itself : "Cash paid for hauling wheat to Chicago. 
60 teams wanted immediately, for which the highest price will be paid. D. A. 

"Last Call. All persons indebted to Emmert & Strohm must pay up im- 
mediately, or "Fred" or the constable will be after an introduction." 

In 1852, the circuit court indicted William Peoples and W. M. Denton for 
passing counterfeit money and they were sentenced to years imprisonment. Later 
they were granted a new trial. 

Norton's Book Store established a circulating library in 1852. 

A large addition to Stephenson County Hotel completed, August, 1849. 

A public dinner was served to Hon. Thomas J. Turner, at the Eagle Hotel, 
April 19, 1849. All were invited. Music was furnished by the Freeport Brass 
Band. S. D. Carpenter, editor of the Democrat was orator of the day. Mr. 
Turner responded with an able speech. It was a non-partisan affair. The com- 
mittee on arrangements were: A. T. Green, Charles Beth, D. A. Knowlton, F. 
A. Strocky, M. M. Woodin and Nelson Martin. Mr. E. Torrey was president 
of the day. Eleven regular toasts were given, after the dinner at the Eagle 
Hotel and seven volunteer toasts followed. 

The day was in honor of Mr. Turner as the district's congressman, 1846- 

The Journal, May 23, 1849: "Whig Postmaster at Freeport! It gives us 
great pleasure to announce the appointment of that staunch and reliable whig, 
George Reitzell, to the office of postmaster in this village." 

In the Journal, November 30, 1848, S. D. Knight calls attention to his store 
by the following head-lines : 

"Revolution in Freeport, 
Vive La Republique." 

Emmert & Strohm's ad in 1848, December 13, appealed to young ladies with 
tendencies toward matrimony. It said : "O, Ladies ! Call at Emmert & Strohm's 
and examine those beautiful toilet articles. Purchase some of those perfumes 
that tickle so finely the noses of the sterner sex. Heed this advice if you are 
after a beau, and if you have caught one, heed that you may keep him." 

The "Sons of Temperance" held a public meeting in the Presbyterian church, 
December 15, 1848. Mr. James Turner and Mr. C. A. Clark addressed the 

The third issue of the Freeport Journal, November 30, 1848, made a strong 
appeal for the establishment of factories. It argued that a county and a city 
could not be built up without factories. 


The Journal of 1852, September 25, goes hard after Thompson Campbell. 
It appears that Campbell had pledged 700 abolitionists that he was in favor of 
prohibiting slavery in the territories, abolishing slavery in the District of Col- 
umbia, opposed to admission of Slave States to be made out of Texas or other 
territory, favors the repeal of the Fugitive Slave Law and urges all constitutional 
means to restrict the slave trade. 

Speaking of the old cemetery the Journal said, June 3, 1850: "A great por- 
tion of the grounds are unprotected. Not a single tree is there to spread its quiet 
shades around. There is no fence (except in a few cases) to shield the dust of 
departed friends from being trampled and torn by the beasts of the field." 
The edition then urged the building of an iron fence at a cost of $200.00. 

Mr. Pells Manny advertised his new self-raker, drop reaper and clipper 
February, 1850. The drop became the usual reaper till the binder was per- 
fected many years later. 

Dr. J. V. H. Judd located permanetly in Freeport in 1850. 

Journal, April 29, 1850 : "Wanted, a quantity of wood at this office to apply 
on account." 


Great excitement at the post office ; 
New goods and new prices ! ! 

In this way John Black called attention to the "largest and best stock of 
goods ever offered to the citizens of the county." He stood ready to prove that 
goods were selling cheaper than the high tariff prices of previous years. 

Folloch, the barber, advertised in 1850, "That ladies could have their heads 
shampooed at home if they wished and that gentlemen who were being shaved 
by the month or quarter would be furnished with a lather box and brush ex- 
clusively for their own use." 

January 10, 1851, D. A. Knowlton advertised that he would receive "Span- 
ish quarters" at 25 cents in trade or on debts. He scored merchants who 
were allowing only 20 cents for them. 

John L. Burgers, a son of W. L. Burgers of Rock Run, was bitten by a 
poisonous snake, June 15, 1850. The poison spread rapidly through his sys- 
tem and he died in eleven hours. 

Godey's Lady's Book was the "Ladies Home Journal" of 1850. 

Raymond Co.'s extenstive menagerie, being the largest and rarest collec- 
tion of wild beasts, birds and reptiles, will exhibit at Freeport, Saturday, July 
13, 1850. Admission 25 cents. 

Journal, August 23, 1850: "Our town has been honored the past week by 
a 'traveling theatre company,' with its usual attendants, viz. : rowdyism and 
intemperance. It will be well for good citizens of neighboring towns not to be 
taken in by the boastful pretensions of the 'Robinson Family.' " 

In 1850, Rev. Parker for the Presbyterian and Rev. DeVore for the Metho- 
dists held big revival meetings in Freeport. 

The Messrs. Stowell of Waddams Grove, invented and manufactured a sod 
fence machine. They claimed it would be possible to build a mile of fence per 
day. The machine was drawn by oxen and cut the sod in strips and laid it up 


in a durable fence. Four men and five yoke of oxen were required to operate 
the machine. 


The advertisers in 1852 continued the style of 1847. Block & Lowenthal, 
corner of Stephenson and Adams streets, called attention to their goods as 
follows : 

Look Out, Clear the Track, 

Freeport Railroad 

Clothing Depot. 

Block & Lowenthal Just Arrived, etc. 

J. S. Emmert & Co. attracted attention by: "Spirit Rappings! call and ex- 
amine and if you are not pleased with the elephant, we will charge you nothing 
for the sight." 

Excelsior! in big type announces G. G. Norton's book store bargains. Stib- 
gen & Engle have a big ad for the Stephenson County Hardware Co. A pic- 
ture of a loaded freight train calls attention to D. A. Knowlton's new and up- 
to-date stock of goods. 

"Kossuth in Freeport" In order to procure his arrival you must call at 
the third house below the Winneshiek, for the woodwork of wagons and car- 
riages, by R. Moorland. 

S. Sutherland has a big ad for his "new merchant and grist mill," on Rich- 
land Creek near Wilcoxen's Mill. "The mill will be known as Sciota Mill, 
Pennsylvanians, this is the mill for you! We will only toll a tenth; Buckeyes, 
Yankees, or the hardy sons of Ireland's Isle, you shall be used alike and have 
your turn. Jackson Bower, an experienced miller, will receive your grist in 
English or Dutch. We want our mill enrolled in the memory of the dear 
people of the county who care for the body as well as the soul." 

"Smith O'Brien Escaped! and the Freeport Cabinet Warerooms refitted! is 
the head of a long ad by Snyder & Wade, below the Winneshiek. 

The "Jenny Lind" livery stable, run by Chas. Butler and Daniel Powell, made 
a bid for business but added poetically: 

Don't ride till you're able 
When you ride be sure to pay, 
Credit won't buy oats or hay ! 

There were numerous ads for hair dyes, snuff and "segars." 


Mr. Crouse of Ohio took charge of the Winneshiek House in July, 1852. 

Barna T. Stowell, Esq., of Waddams Grove, invented a self-loading and 
dumping cart, which he exhibited, July 19, 1852. The machine worked ad- 
mirably and fulfilled the most sanguine expectations of the inventor. 

Spalding and Roger's North America Circus showed in Freeport, August 
24, 1852. 


The Journal of June 10, 1850, says, "Last year (1849) tne population of 
Freeport was 1,020. This year a census has been taken and shows an increase 
of 480, making the population 1,500. Sixty new dwelling houses have been 
begun this spring." 

The Journal's circulation in 1851 was 323 and that of the Prairie Demo- 
crat was 348, both weeklies. 

In July, 1851, both the Democrat and the Journal had long discussions on 
the short dress and "bloomer costume" that were then trying to become the 

The Freeport Temperance Society was organized at the Baptist church, 
July ii, 1851. 

In 1851, a movement was under way to build a plank road from Freeport 
to Monroe, Wisconsin. That would bring the trade of southern Wisconsin 
to Freeport and then to Chicago, via the coming railroad. 

Brewster & Wheeler's nursery had 150,000 trees in 1851. 

In J. H. Manny's ad for his reapers and mowers, September 12, 1851, were 
the endorsements of almost 100 citizens of Stephenson County. 

Journal, October 3, 1851: "Psychology. A fellow calling himself Dr. Den^ 
nis, has been endeavoring to lecture to some of our citizens for several evenings 
on this humbug Science." 

A. H. Wise advertised the "Kossuth Hack" from Freeport to the railroad 
in 1852. 

March 19, 1852, there was held in Freeport an Irish patriot mass meeting. 
The meeting was held in the courthouse for the purpose of making a demon- 
stration in behalf of Smith O'Brien, John Mitchel and other Irish exiles and 
prisoners. Thomas Egan was chairman and Phillip Hogan, vice president; and 
Edward Burke, secretary. A committee on resolutions was appointed and H. 
Bright addressed the meeting. 

In June, 1852, Mease & Ely opened a new steam flouring mill in Freeport. 

A terrific storm passed through Oneco Township in June, 1852, blowing 
down John Sheckard's barn, tore up trees, scattered grain and killed hogs, 
sheep and calves. 


J. S. Emmert endeavored to do a little advertising by telegraphy, the line 
being expected from Rockford any day in 1851. His ad was headed: 


The news came by telegraph this morning. The man who 
catches lightning from the wires, was dazzled by its brightness. 
When he recovered his vision, he saw "in characters of living light" 
that the customers of J. S. Emmert will do well, etc. 

^ October 22, 1851, George W. Oyler advertised his Tontine, eating saloon, 
nearly opposite to the Winneshiek House. He served oysters, pig feet, veni- 
son, tripe, beefsteak, quail, ducks, fish, etc., "in short, everything calculated 


to make a person laugh and grow fat." He adds this : P. S. "Buckwheat cakes 
at all hours. Persons attending court, call and try my fixin's." 
Emmert & Burrell ran a soda fountain in 1854-5. 

A Mr. Walker who quarreled with his wife and step-son suicided April, 
1855, by jumping into the Pecatonica River. 

W. C. Clark took charge of the Clark House June, 1855. It was the old 
Stephenson House remodeled. 

Journal, 1855, June 7: "Freeport receives and sells more merchandise than 
Rockford and does a better railroad business than Rockford." Our love for 
Rockford began early. 

Shipments from Freeport in 1855 were: 

Wheat shipped bu. 347,012 

Pork shipped Ib. 3,206,808 

Potatoes shipped bu. 34,000 

Corn shipped bu. 378,758 

Oats shipped bu. 113,029 

Rye shipped bu. 181,323 

Butter shipped Ib. 90,000 

Wool shipped Ib. 16,900 

The Freeport Union Chorus Society gave a concert at Plymouth Hall De- 
cember 31, 1855. 

Hugh Jones was found frozen to death in Silver Creek Township, January 
2, 1856. He was intoxicated and lost his way while returning from Freeport. 
The following were elected supervisors, April, 1854: 

Harlem William Buckley. 

West Point M. Lawyer. 

Silver Creek M. Hettinger. 

Lancaster V. Hemmenway. 

Buckeye F. Bolender. 

Loran G. W. Andrews. 

Florence L. Lee. 

Rock Grove John Voght. 

Waddams Levi Robey. 

Rock Run J. A. Davis. 

Oneco Andrew Hines. 

Ridott G. A. Farwell. 

Erin Wm. Goddard. 

Winslow P. Sweeley. 

Freeport A. W. Rice. 

In 1854 the following erected new buildings in Freeport: Judge Farwell, Mar- 
tin & Karcher, Mitchell & Putnam and E. H. Hyde. The building of the last 
named gentleman included a public hall. 

In February, 1855, a deep snow fell. The Journal says that only four mails 
were received from the east in two weeks. 

The assessed valuation of property in Freeport in 1853 was: 

Real estate $1,789,904 

Personal property 982,096 


Rymal & Wilmot employed about 25 men in 1854, manufacturing plows. 
The annual output was 1,000 plows. 

Horace Mann gave two lectures in Freeport under the auspices of the Liter- 
ary Institute, March 21, 1854. 

In 1855, N. W. Edwards, the first superintendent of schools, made a tour of 
inspection of schools in Stephenson County. 

The Journal, September 2, 1852, gives great praise to the Teacher's Insti- 
tute held at the Union school. 

The Journal, 1855, October 25, announces the law partnership formed by 
T. J. Turner and H. C. Burchard, "the late popular principal of the Union 
school." The Journal paid Mr. Burchard a high compliment and prophesied 
his success at the bar. 


Emmert & Bastress employed literary genius in placing before the public 
their new cleaning preparation in October, 1859, as follows: 
"Awake snakes and come to judgment, 
Glad tidings of great joy !" 

Bring on your dirty clothes and have the filthy scum of human impurities 
rinsed and soaked out of them with one half the usual labor. Old worn-out 
superannuated washer-woman : Ye wives of dirty husbands ! Yes, even those 
beautiful and simpering creatures whose pretty fingers are altogether unac- 
customed to the drudgery of cleansing dirty clothes. Wake up and rejoice in 
the hour of your deliverance from servile drudgery. Emmert & Bastress have 
on hand and for sale what they call "Renovating Mixture," etc., etc. 
December 5, 1849, Journal ad : 

"The Hewes of Buena Vista ! ! 
Adam Franz and Old Jack 1 ! ! 
Have entered into a copartnership to do 
Blacksmithing business on Galena street." 

In the October loth issue of the Journal, 1849, the following ad was in- 
serted : 


A person well qualified to teach in the common school will find employment 
for the coming winter by applying soon. Inquire of Jared Sheetz, James Hart 
or George Miller. Directors of District No. 2, five miles west of Freeport. 

In October, 1849, J- H. Schlott and Jacob Stibgen began the manufacture of 
the J. C. Miller & Co. grain drills at Freeport. The drill was a two horse simple 
affair and sowed five rows. 

Crane & Co.'s circus exhibited in town last Tuesday, said the Journal, August 
8, 1849. 

Journal, August 15, 1849: "Somebody has sheared the mane and tail of Mr. 
Jones' horse, whereas. Friend Carpenter comes down on the whigs like thou- 
sand brick. If true it is contemptible, but not half as contemptible as trying to 
make a neighborhood quarrel out of politics." 



With the pioneers of northern Illinois, the establishment of schools was a 
natural process. A large number of the settlers of Stephenson County from 
1833 to 1835, were from New England, New York and Pennsylvania. Many 
of them were graduates of academies and seminaries of the east. They came 
west because of the greater opportunities. Cheap land meant to them large 
farms and a competence. But they brought with them the wilds of Stephenson 
County, that which could not be lost, the culture and inspiration of those east- 
ern schools. No sooner were the log cabin homes built and a small clearing 
made, than these people set to work with willing hands, to build the log- school 
house. It was by studied plan or new thought that public schools sprang up in 
the county it was the natural spontaneous activity of a people who themselves 
had had the advantages of an education. Like the church, the school was brought 
here and established by the settlers. 

Many of the settlers came from Virginia, Kentucky, and North Carolina. 
Some for a time had remained in Southern Indiana and Illinois. These set- 
tlers, while they had not been so familiar with the free public school idea, yet 
had had the benefit of the system of private instruction prevailing in the South. 
So they, too, were in favor of education. All over the county were a number 
of strong families from Old England, and large colonies of German people from 
the Fatherland. These people in different ways modified the educational spirit 
sentiment of the county. 

With such a population from New England, New York, Pennsylvania, and 
the South, from Old England and Germany, education could not fail to make 

The sparsely settled country, panics and the "Internal Improvement" blunder 
that almost bankrupted the state and made necessary heavy taxes, hindered edu- 
cational progress. In 1844, the legislature made a start in the right direction and 
passed additional legislation in 1847, 1849 and 1851. In 1855, an educational 
measure was passed that comprised all the essential features of former measures 
and included new features among which was "the sovereign rights of the state 
to levy and collect a sufficient tax from real estate and personal property to be 
expended in providing its youth a common school education." 

In a state that squandered millions on wildcat internal improvements, there 
was strong opposition to this measure for public taxation for schools. A vig- 
orous attempt was made to have the law repealed, but all attempts failed. These 
state laws marked the beginning of the end of the "subscription school." A 
voluntary subscription school was not broad enough in its foundation for the 
basis of a school system of a great state. Such a system taxed the well to do, if 
they had children, heavier than the present scheme, and made education pro- 
hibitive to the children of the poor. Besides, in a school maintained by volun- 
tary subscription month by month, the very existence of the school often de- 
pended on the "catering" of the teacher to the whims and prejudices and jeal- 
ousies of the subscribers who withdrew support if the school was not run to 
suit them. This happened occasionally and school stopped in the middle of the 






term. The whole scheme was a mere makeshift, the best that could be done 
for the time, and passed into history with first rude shacks built in the wilds of 
early Illinois. It was not a system at all. 

Today it is generally recognized as the duty of the state to provide free 
public schools for its children. Most men even concede that such a system is an 
economic necessity that it is cheaper in the end to tax all the people for the edu- 
cation of all the state's children, than it is to support them in ignorance and 
crime. A century ago, the old idea that education was a private rather than 
a public interest, was breaking down. The ordinance of 1787, voiced the idea of 
public education when it said : "Religion, morality and knowledge being nec- 
essary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the 
means of education shall forever be encouraged." Besides, as the state is the 
agency through which all the people act, the state is the best means fog es- 
tablishing a state-wide educational system. 

In 1785, the Congress of the Confederation passed an ordinance establishing 
for the northwest territory, the present system of land surveys, laying off the 
county in townships six miles square. This ordinance also decreed that the i6th 
section, or 1 736 of each township, should be set apart for maintaining public 
schools in that township. In 1818, when Illinois became a state, congress gave 
these lands to the new state for the purpose of aiding education. At the same 
time, 1818, congress also promised 3% of the net proceeds of the sale of all 
public lands in Illinois after January i, 1819, to be appropriated by the leg- 
islature for the encouragement of learning. So, indeed, the beginning of the 
great public school system of Illinois is to be found in the foresight and in the 
generous provision of the congress of the United States. 

The state was slow to take advantage of its opportunities. In 1825, a law 
was passed by the state legislature providing for a system of free schools which 
might be supported partly by public taxation. This law was ahead of public 
sentiment and was soon repealed. Persistent agitation was necessary to arouse 
the people and bring public sentiment up to the point of maintaining a system 
of public schools by general taxation. Among the pioneers of this period were 
Newton Bateman and Professor W. J. Turner of Illinois College. Provision was 
made for school township and school district officials. The office of county 
superintendent of schools was created and the secretary of the state was made 
ex-officio state superintendent of schools. In 1854, the office of state superin- 
tendent was created separate from that of secretary of state. Finally, in 1855, 
37 years after Illinois became a state, a general school law was adopted which 
became the foundation of the present school system of the state. The new law 
provided for free schools by local taxation and aided by the state school funds. 
This act made it possible for districts to proceed to build and maintain schools. 
In 1870, a step farther was taken in the new state constitution, which required 
the legislature to "provide a thorough and efficient system of public schools 
whereby the children of this state may receive a good common school education. 
The constitution requires a school system "whereby all the children of the 
state may receive a good common school education." The school board in 
each district must keep a sufficient number of free schools to accommodate all 


the children of the district and "secure to all such children the right and oppor- 
tunities to an equal education in such schools." 

The first school in Stephenson County was taught by Jane Goodhue in Ran- 
somville, a mile or so below Winslow, in 1834. In 1836, Thomas Grain, at 
Grain's Grove, employed Charles Walker to teach his children. Walker was 
to give them the plain 3 R's, the limited rudiments of an education. Walker 
received $25.00 a month, and was not a reliable character. He remained several 
months teaching the children and later developed penchant for stealing horses. 
He kept this up till 1838, when he was caught and sent to the state prison at 
Alton. In the summer of 1837, William Ensign conducted a school at the resi- 
dence of James Timms at Kellog's Grove. During the same year, Nelson Mar- 
tin, brother of Dr. Chancellor Martin, opened a school in the old log store 
building on the Pecatonica River, Freeport, not far from the foot of Galena 
street. This school building was a small log cabin, 14 x 10, seven foot to the 
eaves, puncheon floor and one window. As the storg goes, the cabin was hauled 
up town in 1839 and located on Galena street. 

Mr. Martin's reputation as a disciplinarian has come down to us in a tradi- 
tional way. He was exacting and had forbidden skating on the Pecatonica, 
the penalty being a flogging. A student, John Thatcher, forgot and was caught 
in the act of violating the Professor's commandment. Mr. Martin gave young 
Thatcher the extreme penalty, and the boy received such a flogging, that the 
students all quit school except the children of two families, Davis and Hunt. 
As it was a subscription school, the teacher's income was thus largely cut off and 
in a short time the school stopped. Among the students of this school were 
Frederick, John, Elmus and Thomas Baker ; John, Ellen and Elizabeth Thatcher ; 
Chloe, Ann, Rebecca, Jane, O. P. and W. W. Smith; A. C, Eliza, Sara and 
Hamilton Hunt; Polly Strockey; Enos and Salome Fowler; Michael Reed and 
Levi, William and Olive Davis. In the winter of 1838-9, a Mr. Everett reopened 
the school. Besides the students who had started under Dr. Martin there were 
Rivers Fowler, W. H. and H. W. Hollenbeck, A. P. Goddard and others. The 
winter of 1839-40, Frederick Buckley taught the school. The next school was 
opened by a Miss Wright, in a frame building at the corner of Galena and Chi- 
cago streets, the present site of Moogk's drug store. Rothilda Buck and Lucinda 
and Marilla Williams also taught in this house. For a time William Buckley 
taught a school in Knowlton's addition. 

By 1843, tne increase in population made a demand for a large and better 
school house. There was, as yet, no taxation for school purposes and a build- 
ing was built by popular subscription. It was a frame structure, painted red 
and cost about $300. It was located on Van Buren street, a short distance north 
from the court house. 

This one story, one room building 18 x 30, was Freeport's school house till 
1850 when the Union school was built on the present site of the High school. 


The following from the "Illustrated Freeport, by the Journal, 1896, should 
be preserved in the history of education in Freeport: 


"In April, 1843, a s ^ e f r a school house on the north end of the lot on Van 
Buren street, next north of the present postoffice, was purchased of, and deeded 
by Philip Fowler to the township trustees of schools. Upon this ground was 
erected the same year 


a picture of which, as it appeared in 1850, and of the teachen in charge and 
fifty-five of the scholars attending, appears on the following page. It was 
reproduced from a daguerreotype Mr. John A. Clark, then clerk of the circuit 
court, paid $5.00 to have taken, and which he presented to the teacher, Miss 
Louisa Burchard. This was the only school house owned by the Freeport school 
district until the erection upon the site of the present high school' building of a 
large two-story brick school house calld the Union school building. Having 
purchased this new site and levied taxes to build the Union school house, the di- 
rectors of the district proceeded to organize the Freeport schools upon the graded 
system. They rented the basements of two of the churches and created three 
departments a higher, intermediate and primary. Mr. A. B. Campbell, who 
had previously taught a private school in Freeport, was employed as principal 
and given the general supervision of all the departments. The schools were 
opened April 12, 1850. His assistants in the higher departments with him at 
first were Miss Emily Jackson, who married John K. Brewster, and later Miss 
Mary Burchard, sister of the Hon. H. C. Burchard; in the intermediate, a Mr. 
Lutz and Miss Delia Hyde ; in the primary, Miss Louisa Burchard, now Mrs. H. 
D. Converse, who lives at Maryville, Missouri. The primary department was 
located in "the little red school house." 

It must be difficult to distinguish, and after a lapse of forty-five years, name 
each pupil in the group, but Mrs. Converse recognizes nearly all, and among 
them point out several, now men and women grown, who are well known to our 
citizens. In front of the window, the second boy from the farther end of the 
row on her right, stands Dexter A. Knowlton, Esq., barefooted, shoes and 
stockings in his hands. The middle boy of the three sitting in the front row is 
Steuben Stoneman. On his left, third boy from the end, is John Black, in the 
rear of whom is Urias Mayer, now deceased. In the same second row, next to 
Mayer, and on his left, a dark-haired boy with broadf forehead, is the Hon. 
Michael Stoskopf, and on the right stands Charles Green, who became a mem- 
ber of the Freeport bar, and died two years ago. In the rear, between Green 
and Mayer, is Fred Norton, afterwards a lieutenant in the United States navy. 
In the same row, to the left of Stoskopf, the boy with the white shirt front and 
turn down collar is Peter Lerch, now living in Chicago, and the large boy stand- 
ing on the steps between him and the teacher is John Rice, a nephew of Asahel 
W. Rice, then living in Freeport, now in Iowa. The boy standing in the front row, 
with the belt about his waist, was George Carter, a brother of Mrs. E. L. 
Cronkrite. Of the four small boys sitting on the steps, the first next to him 
is Charles Smith ; the second, Chancellor Martin, who became a West Point 
graduate, a lieutenant in the United States army and now lives in New York 
City; the third is the Rev. David Burrell, the eloquent pastor of one of the 


leading churches of the metropolis; the fourth is Charles Sweet, a brother of 
Mrs. J. A. Grain ; not long afterwards he was drowned in the Pecatonica River. 

Among the girls on the extreme left is Julia Sweet. The third from her, 
dressed in White, is Ellen Clark, a daughter of John A. Clark. On her right, 
just behind her standing between the window and the corner of the school house, 
is Ellen Carter, the mother of Corporation Counsel William N. Cronkrite. The 
girl on her right, her face near and below the corner of the window, was Charles 
H. Rosenstiel's oldest daughter Matilda, who married Dr. Carey, of Beloit, Wis., 
and died there several years ago. The two taller girls on her right, next to 
and in front of the window, are Ellen and Josephine Krinbill, now living in 
Freeport. The girl holding in front of her the large bouquet was Amanda Black, 
now Mrs. William McHenry, of this city. On her left, next to her, stood W. 
W. Smith's daughter Mary, who died at her father's home in Freeport a few 
years later. A glimpse of the face of Mrs. C. H. Chapman (Anna Stibgen) is 
seen, partly hidden by the boy with folded arms on the left of the door. The 
girl standing next to the left, her dark hair covering a portion of her forehead, 
was Eva Tarbox, who afterwards became the wife of the Hon. J. S. Cochran, 
and who died at Freeport in 1777. 

Among the pupils were others who grew up and continued to reside in Free- 
port, and can be pointed out by Mrs. Converse. 


"The first school in Freeport was held in 1839," says Thomas J. Turner, in 
1866 in the "Northwest," "in an unfinished building on Galena street. The pro- 
prietor needed his room and the school, about a dozen children, moved to the 
log store on the river. Later, a breaking team hauled the building up town and 
located it where the Wilcoxen block now stands. The last use of this build- 
ing was as a cow stable in a dirty alley." A similar fate awaited the old red 
school house which was moved away and used as a livery stable. Later, both 
were burned. 


In the "Northwest," April 5, 1866, Hon. T. J. Turner said: "It required 
great labor to get up an interest in schools and education in Freeport. For 
many years all efforts to create a school fund by taxation were successfully re- 
sisted. It was painful and amusing, at elections called for that purpose, to see 
large numbers of poor people who were rich in nothing but children, and who had 
no property to tax, march up and vote against raising any revenue for school 
purposes ; while those who bore the burden generally voted the other way. The 
enemies of taxation for school purposes hoped to win at one election by put- 
ting out a ticket in favor of an enormous tax, so as to divide the friends of 
public schools. They were detected, and those who were in favor of a reason- 
able tax adopted the exhorbitant ticket and it carried." 

Mr. Turner also says, "We have been providentially spared the necessity of 
having academies." He adds, "We were fairly cheated out of the female branch 
of the Wisconsin & Illinois College of Beloit. 


TIIF. I.ITTI.K KKD S( '1 1< )( )l.l K IfSK 





The winter of 1845-6, the teacher was D. H. Sutherland. He received $20.00 
a month and "boarded round." While the pay seems small, yet in proportion to 
the times it was quite equal to the pay of the teachers of most one room schools 
of today. One of the students was a negro boy "Black Abe" employed in the 
Brewster family. Race feeling was aroused when the Professor seated "Abe" 
by a white boy, whose mother at once read the "riot act" to the teacher. The 
teacher found it convenient to change "Abe" and a race war was averted. Abe, 
however, remained in school. One of the students who attended during Pro- 
fessor Sutherlands instruction later won distinction as General James M. 

The first school in Oneco Township was taught by Mr. Bissell P. Bellknapp, 
a native of Vermont. He came to Oneco in 1839. I n 1840, at the house of Anson 
Denio in the village of Oneco, taught the first school in the township of Oneco. 

The first school in Winslow was held in Edward Hunt's wagon shop in 1840. 
In this primitive school, instruction was given in the rudiments of an education. 
A wagon shop for a school would not seem so out of place today when schools 
are paying special attention to industrial training. After a short time a school 
house was. built on a hill southwest of the city, which was used till 1872, when 
a larger building, a frame structure, was erected. Paul Chandler is supposed to 
have taught the first school in Rock Grove about 1841. A permanent school 
was established in section 36, in 1846. About Rock City, the first school was 
located on the Carnefix farm, but when a village was laid out, a stone school 
house was built and was opened by a teacher named Searles. The first teacher 
in Silver Creek Township was Charles Walker who was employed at $75.00 
a quarter to teach the children of Thomas Craine. History is uncertain in 
regard to the first school in Loran Township. It is claimed that the first school 
was taught at Kirkpatrick's in 1840. Others claim that the first school was es- 
tablished in 1841, in section 2, near Babb's church, where a Mr. Allison was 
employed by Reuben Babb, Willian Kirkpatrick and Anson Andrews. Two early 
pedagogues of Jefferson Township were George Truckenmiller and a Mr. Bonne- 
man. The first permanent school was in a log school house near the village 
of Loran. The school at Eleroy was built in 1855. One of the first schools in 
Ridott ownship was the Select school taught in a log house on the farm of 
Horace Colburn. In 1855, a frame school was built on the Harvey P. Water's 
farm and "served 14 years as school, church, lecture room and house of enter- 

In West Point Township, William Waddams first employed a private teacher 
for his children. In 1840, a log school was built on Luman Montague's farm. 
In 1849, a log house on the Samuel F. Dodd's farm, near Lena, served as school, 
with Miss Maria Pickard as teacher. In 1850, a log school was built in what 
is now Lena, and served till 1854 when the old stone school was built. In 1836, 
a school was opened three miles north of Cedarville in Buckeye Township. This 
was a typical log school, no window, puncheon floor and board roof, and in 1840 
a one-story frame school was built in Cedarville. One of the early teachers was 
Isaac Allen of New York, who is still remembered by Capt. Reitzell, one of his 
students, as a teacher of great force of character. Other early teachers were 
Miss Julia Putnam and a Mr. Chadwick. In 1853, a school was conducted in the 


basement of the Lutheran church and in 1855 a two-story brick building was 
erected by taxation. From 1857 to 1865, a Miss Gorham conducted a private 
school in Cedarville. Among the early teachers in Waddams township were 
Fayette Goddard and Adeline Hulbert. In Florence Township, the first school 
was taught in 1840 by Miss Flavilla Forbes in what was known as the "Academy," 
James Hart's old log house. 


The well known "Cornstalk College," sometimes called the "Block School," 
and one now known as Eldorado school, was one of the early schools of Stephen- 
son County. It was located in Township 29, north Range 8, and was in Dis- 
trict No. i. This school district has always been noted for its progressive en- 
thusiasm and loyalty. In 1907, at Gift's Grove, a home coming celebration 
was held, attended by former students, teachers and patrons from far and 
near. At this meeting, C. A. Cadwell read a history of the district, compiled 
after great industry and with commendable accuracy. This history was pub- 
lished and contains pictures of school buildings, teachers and students and citi- 
zens. In this work the district has set an example that should be followed by 
every district in the country. The "History of Eldorado," in its 116 pages con- 
tains a compilation of the history of the district. 

The earliest settler was Ezra B. Gillett in 1837. Joab Marton came the 
same year. A little later came Isaac Kleckner, Mr. Daggett, Mr. Kitchell, 
Mr. Hoffman and a Mr. Loomis. In 1839, Alfred Cadwell and Walter Bel- 
knap entered claims, also B. P. Belknap, G. S. Cadwell, Mr. Strader and Mr. 
Starr. In 1841 Michael Bolender and John Bear entered claims. Ira Winchell 
came in 1843; Andrew Swarts in 1844; and Wm. Krape in 1840. From this 
date the neighborhood was settled up by two classes of people, the Yankee and 
the Dutch. Because of different customs and ideas and more because of a 
difference of language, the two classes were a trifle slow in mixing properly. 

In 1841 a subscription school was opened on the D. C. Gillett claim later pur- 
chased by Mr. Hoffman. The schoolhouse was a quarter mile south and a quar- 
ter mile east of the Rocky residence. The first teacher was E. B. Gillett. The 
following attended the first school : The children of Phillip Wells, Addison, 
Ottis, Judson, Mellissa, Maria and Jane; the children of Warner Wells, George 
Paulina and Sopronia ; Cornelia Wells ; Lorriston and Caleb Roberts ; Levi and 
Matilda Youngs ; Edwin and Mary Gillett ; Cuyler Gillett ; Louis and Frank 
Bolender; John D. and D. L. Bear. Other teachers were Mr. Hudson, Hirarri 
Lilly and a Mr. Jones who taught the last term in that building in 1846. The 
summer of 1847, a Miss Hawley taught a school in Mr. Bolender's cabin. 

In 1847, the settlers decided to build a new schoolhouse. They elected Ezra 
B. Gillett, Joseph Baumgartner and Michael Bolender, directors. Each free- 
holder agreed to furnish the logs round, while others, who were able to use the 
broad axe, hewed them on two sides. William Krape had charge of the building 
and on the day of the "raisin," Michael Gift, Michael Bolender, B. P. Belknap 
and John Bear, Sr., were stationed one on each corner to receive and notch the 
logs as they were skidded up by the others. After the walls were up, Mr. 


Krape finished the building. It was 22x28 feet, with two windows on each side 
and two in each end. To 'make desks, holes were bored in the wall, strong pins 
driven in them and hewn slabs placed on the pins. The seats were of the same 
kind of slabs without backs. In this building school was kept for nine years. 
Cyrus Howe was the first teacher. He began December 24, 1847, an d closed 
March 22, 1848. It was a subscription school till 1849, when on the 5th of May, 
an election was held and the citizens voted a 50 cent tax to maintain a school. Oc- 
tober 6, 1849, G. S. Cad well, Solomon Kleckner and John Hoffman were elected 
directors. Asa G. Hemenway was the first teacher supported by taxation. In 
1856 the walls were sided with lumber, the room was plastered and green blinds 
were hung at the windows. The slab desks were taken out and black walnut 
desks were substituted. 

One of the teachers, Dr. E. W. Byers, of Monroe, Wisconsin, it is said, put 
the bad boys up the hole into a dark attic for punishment. It is also maintained 
that Dr. W. W. Krape of Freeport would be able to explain the appearance of the 
attic. At another time while wrestling, one of the big boys, F. C. Belknap. 
spoiled the teacher's trousers and the professor was compelled to borrow a long 
coat for the afternoon. Mr. J. C. Potts, a fastidious teacher, kept a bottle 
of Lyons Catharian for the hair, on his desk. At an opportune time, some of 
the young lads complicated the oil and used it on their own heads, thinking, no 
doubt, that this would make the brain wheels run smoothly. Then, so the pro- 
fessor might not be disappointed, they filled the bottle with molasses and water. 
When the professor blandly applied the new mixture, the process aroused con- 
siderable amusement among the mischief makers. The old students still remem- 
ber the exciting times at the "spelling matches," and declare that several Corn- 
stalk College students knew Sander's speller from cover to cover. Two of the 
sharks were William Etzler and Addie Cadwell. For years J. H. Stover kept 
a singing school every Saturday night. Occasionally the farmers would come in 
sleds and cutters and haul teacher and school several miles over the snow to 
visit another school. Thus, besides the learning that was acquired, the school 
was the center of the social life of the community. In 1867, a special tax was 
voted to build a new schoolhouse. H. W. Bolender built the structure, which 
was 28x36 and 12 feet high. The first teacher in the new school was H. W. 
Bolender, who built it. In the spring of 1869, the Annual County Institute was 
held in the new school. The patrons of the district furnished gratuitous board 
and lodging for the visiting members. Among the later teachers of the school 
are found the familiar names of C. A. Cadwell, I. E. Kiester, Henry Collier,' 
Cyrus Grove, Carrie A. Musser and M. M. Baumgartner. This school has been 
running for 63 years. The lowest salary paid was $20 a month and the highest 
$55. The largest number of pupils enrolled was 63 and the smallest number 12. 

The law requiring the United States flag to wave over every school build- 
ing was passed in 1893. W. W. Krape, of Freeport, had not forgotten his old 
school, and early on the day the law was to go into effect, he procured a 
beautiful 10 foot flag, drove to the school and aided by F. C. Bejknap, erected 
a flag staff and floated Old Glory over "Cornstalk College." 

The public school was the "melting pot," that brought together the Dutch 
from Pennsylvania and the Yankees from New England and New York. Dif- 


rences that were at first marked and emphatic diminished with time and asso- 
ciation and common interests soon bound all together in mutual cooperation. 
It was not long till Yankees were selecting Dutch wives and the Pennsylvanians 
were marrying into Yankee families. 

The material of the history of the Block school, or Cornstalk College, is 
taken almost entirely from Mr. C. A. Cadwell's excellent sketch of District No. 
I, published in 1907. It is given here at length because it is a type of the edu- 
cational progress of the rural districts of the county. Every one of the steps 
of advancement were much the same. First, there were private instructions 
or subscription schools in the cabins of the settlers. A little later a log school 
was built and a teacher employed, both by voluntary subscription. The next? 
step was district taxation to build and maintain a school. 

It was the custom in the earlier day to engage the teacher at so much a 
month and "found," that is, a teacher was paid, say $20 a month and "boarded 
round," getting his meals and lodging at the homes of the "subscribers" by 
turns. This simple system had its disadvantages and yet had some advantage*.. 
Of necessity, the teacher became better acquainted with the parents and the 
children. The school and the home were brought close together. 

The "log school" education of the early days was in harmony with its sur- 
roundings. Children went gladly from plain log homes to log schools. The edu- 
cation offered was highly prized by parents and students. With all its limita- 
tions, the log school, with slab desks, puncheon seats with no backs, puncheon 
floor, board roof and greased paper windows, if window at all, had some dis- 
tinct advantages. There was lacking an elaborate course of study, but there 
was present the free, unfettered individuality of a strong teacher who was his 
own county and state superintendent and made his own course of studies and 
program. He taught a few things but taught those few well. Few subjects 
were studied, but they were mastered. The children knew what they knew. 
Books were rare and highly appreciated. Like the boy Lincoln, the children 
were fortunate in that they were not subjected to the temptation of tons of 
light fiction to be read rapidly and superficially. A few stories of great char- 
acters took deep hold on their lives, and made strong characters that did the 
work of the second generation of Stephenson County. 

State Superintendent Blair says of the log schools of Illinois: 

"An interesting chapter in the history of education in Illinois, is the story 
of the log school house. Illinois, like most of the western states, was earliest 
settled in the wooded regions. The log cabin and the log schoolhouse met the 
need of the conditions of those early times. As late as 1860 there were 1,447 
of these log school buildings in Illinois. In 1890 the number had decreased to 
114. In 1909, there were reported to this office only u of such schoolhouses 
remaining. Whatever of convenience and improved facilities the modern school 
building has brought will not make us forget the great good which was ac- 
complished in the log schoolhouses of Illinois." 

November 30, 1848, Mr. George Scoville advertised the opening of the Free- 
port high school, a select school, in the basement of the Presbyterian church. 
Tuition for 12 weeks : in spelling, reading, grammar, arithmetic and geography, 
$2.50; in algebra, philosophy, etc., $3; languages, including English studies, $3.50. 


The Freeport Seminary for Young Ladies opened the building erected by 
A. H. Wright for that purpose, July 30, 1849. The ad of the seminary con- 
ducted by Rev. James Bentley, stated that special attention would be given to 
moral and religious instruction, and in addition to the usual studies instruction 
would be given in drawing, music, painting, embroidery, etc. French, Latin and 
Greek were also taught. Board with the principal and teachers, $1.25 a week. 

Mr. A. B. Campbell of the Galena Institute, began as principal of Mr. Sco- 
ville's select school, November 19, 1849. 

In 1850 Jas. Schofield, F. W. S. Brawley and J. K. Brewster were elected 
school directors for Freeport. 

June 3, 1850, the directors of the Freeport schools made an arrangement with 
Professor A. B. Campbell, who was conducting the private school in the base- 
ment of the Presbyterian church, to take charge of the Union school. He still 
maintained his classes in the church but had the use of both district schoolhouses, 
where competent teachers were employed. The Journal of that date said, "By 
this arrangement a proper division of students can be made so that the advance- 
ment of one grade will not conflict with the other; while the higher branches 
can be pursued with equal facility to any of the best regulated academies. If 
this system receives proper encouragement from our citizens, it will render the 
terms of tuition so low that it will be within the reach of everyone to confer a 
liberal education on their children." 

April, 1850, a "citizen" published a column and a quarter article in the Jour- 
nal in favor of a Union school. He said he was not against Select schools, but 
that they were not suitable for a small town. 

The next week a town meeting was held, Julius Smith as chairman. Rev. 
Schofield moved that a location for a Union school be selected. The motion 
carried and it was voted unanimously to select the site of the present High 
school. A motion by D. A. Knowlton and seconded by T. F. Goodhue was 
passed, empowering the directors to secure plans for the building. 

Every issue of the Democrat and the Journal had articles by the citizens fav- 
oring the Union school. One signed "A Friend," was an able article over one 
column in length and made an urgent plea for the tax-payers to vote the tax. He 
gave a vigorous reply to "Close-fistedness." 

The Journal editor remarked that the "Wind Work" had been well done and 
urged the voters to go to the polls and vote the tax. 

The election in Freeport to tax the people to build a Union school was held 
June 8, 1850, and carried by a vote of 125 to 9. Five hundred dollars, the amount 
limited by law, was voted. 

Tuition in the Freeport schools in 1851 was: $1.59 for 60 days. 

The Freeport school directors, John Rice, D. A. Knowlton and E. W. Sals- 
bury advertised for bids for the Union school house, June 13, 1851. 

May 7, 1852, the Journal published an announcement from the school di- 
rectors that the Union school building was completed, teachers selected and 
the school ready to begin. The directors say that it is designed to combine an 
English and Common school education, with a course of instruction in the 
higher branches and languages equal to any of the academies and seminaries. 
Mr. W. J. Johnson, a teacher of acknowledged reputation, is principal, and he 


is assisted by the Misses Pickard, Beckwith and Horder, all teachers of ex- 
perience. The tuition for the term was $1.25 per scholar. L. W. Guiteau, E. 
W. Salsbury and C. Martin were school directors. In 1852, May 28, there were 
over 200 scholars. The Journal Editor, after a visit to the school, said editorially : 
"The citizens can point with pride to the Union school as the noblest and most 
useful of the many public buildings of Freeport, and can boast of having the 
best public school building in the state." 

The Freeport Journal, October 15, 1852, gave an account of the close of the 
first year of the Union school in Freeport. The Journal praised the idea of a 
Union graded school that had been so successful in the east and indicated that 
the first year of the idea had been entirely successful in Freeport. "We have 
witnessed many exhibitions but never a more laudable one than that at the 
close of the first term of the Freeport Union school. The crowd was immense, 
numbering some four or five hundred, and all appeared gratified." 

The school directors were L. W. Guiteau, C. Martin and Julius Smith. On 
October 9, 1852, the directors gave the public the following announcement 
through the Journal : "The fall term will open October 18, under Mr. Wm. 
Johnson, principal, assisted by Mr. James S. Oliver and Miss Maria M. Packard 
in the higher department, and Clara Beckwith and Lydia Orcutt in the primary 
department.The course of instruction will be equal to that of the best academies." 


The Journal of March I, 1855, praises highly the Union school exhibit by 
Professor H. C. Burchard and his classes. The program consisted of dialogues, 
essays and declamations. The Journal says, "Mr. Burchard is earning for 
himself a reputation, by his zeal and industry by making the Union school what 
it is. In spite of the incubus which has always rested upon it. The receipts of 
the exhibition amounted to $28.00 which will be expended for a library." 


Coon and Dickey conducted the Freeport Academy in 1855. The same year 
the Freeport Seminary was conducted by Waldenmeyer and Myers, both of 
the New York State Normal school. 


March 16, 1854, Mr. Bentley of the Freeport Seminary gave an exhibition in 
Concert Hall with his school. "The hall was densely crowded and badly ven- 
tilated," says the Freeport Journal, of March 30, 1854. A large part of the 
program was dispensed with on account of the noise and confusion of a crowded 
house. Mr. Bentley has succeeded in keeping up a school for many years in 

The Lena School, taught by Miss Hyde, also gave an exhibition in March, 
1854. The editor of the Journal said, "The essays showed more originality and 
common sense than is usually shown in such programs." 


In 1857, the booklet "Present Advantages and Future Prospects of the City 
of Freeport" gave the following description of the city schools: "If there is 
any one thing of which the City of Freeport may justly boast as her chief orna- 
ment, it is her schools. In 1856, the first system of graded instruction was put 
in practice. The whole city and its environs is a single school district. The 
schools are free to all and supported by general taxation. Three school com- 
missioners are elected who have supervision of the whole, hire all the teachers, 
and direct the standard of promotion to higher classes. The commissioners are 
(1857) H. N. Hibbard, William Buckley and F. G. Winslow. There are three 
grades : The primary, or ward schools ; the middle schools, and the high school. 
The high school is the upper room of the Union school building. The middle 
schools are in the lower rooms and the primary schools, four in number, are 
scattered about the city. 

The primary schools are open to all without examination. At stated times the 
commissioners name such as they think capable of entering the middle schools. 
All scholars pass to the high school by a thorough examination. In the high 
school all the advantages are presented which can be found in the academies of 
the east, all the higher English branches as well as the Classics being taught there. 
The system has worked admirably and the schools at this time are in popular 

The report of the committee of examination (1857) says: "These results, no 
doubt, have cost earnest, persevering effort, together with a large expenditure of 
money, but the effort has been successful, promising, if continued, to give us 
schools of the highest excellence; and as for the expenditure, no| citizen, we 
think, who attended the examinations, could have wished that a dollar less had 
been expended. We are sure that every dollar expended in this enterprise, is 
so much added to the value of real estate, and helps to make our city more at- 
tractive and desirable as a place of residence. Good schools can not fail to at- 
tract immigrants of the first class to make valuable additions to our population, 
to promote general intelligence and morality, while promising ultimately large 
returns in money." 

Henry Freeman, A. M., was principal of the High school with Mary Noble 
as assistant. 

At this time (1857) there were three other schools. The Female Seminary, 
located in Plymouth Hall conducted by Miss Mary A. Potter of New York, a 
lady of thorough education. The booklet says that several gentlemen propose 
to assist in the purchase of a building. 

Miss F. B. Burchard had a Select school for Misses in successful operation 
in the Pennsylvania Block. 

At this time (1857) a Freeport Commercial College was running in the Bank 
Block. L. D. White was proprietor and teacher of bookkeeping. J. G. Cross, 
teacher of commercial calculations. Hon. T. J. Turner and Hon. M. P. Sweet 
lectured on Commercial Law. 

Friday, October 7, 1853, Rev. J. Coon, assisted by Rev. J. S. Dickson, and 
Miss H. Cornelia Bail opened the Freeport Academy. Tuition, $6.00 for 6 
months in the English branches and $10.00 in Latin and Greek. The school 
was started in the basement of the Second Presbyterian church. 


In 1852, a genius opened a school in a frame building where later stood F. 
Bues stone block. He was a reformer and had a new system of teaching geog- 
raphy in 12 lessons by singing the capes, rivers, mountains, etc., around the world. 
Freeport, strange to say, did not wax enthusiastic over this reformer, and after 
a term he left. His successor was a Mr. Chandler, a good teacher and an up- 
right man, but exceedingly sensitive. One evening a number of young men, 
including Chandler, met at Mr. Knowlton's store to discuss a barrel of cider 
which had just arrived. The temperance people were against cider drinking 
and when it was noised around what they had used for a drinking cup, the 
thing appeared ridiculous and Chandler, who could not stand the laugh, left the 
city in disgrace, as he supposed. 


The pioneer preacher was a product of pioneer conditions, and he adapteJ 
himself, unconsciously no doubt, to the life of the people about him. He was, 
first of all, an exhorter. Seldom was he a scholar or a logician. He appealed 
directly to their emotions and lived and worked on the level with his people 
because usually he was one of them. His strongest point, no doubt, was to point 
vividly beautiful pictures of heaven and the awful scenes of hell. 

One author says of them : "Sometimes their sermons would turn upon mat- 
ters of controversy, arguing, with little learning but much fervor, on free grace, 
baptism, free-will, election, faith, good works, justification, sanctification, ot the 
final perseverance of the saints. Vivid, indeed, were the startling word pic- 
tures drawn of the hereafter, and imagination never failed them in describing 
the bliss of heaven, and the awful terrors of hell." At any rate they were 

They were long-distance speakers. A simple theme would require a sermon 
of i l / 2 or 2 hours. Mr. Parrish says that the sermons were tested in three 
ways, by their length, by flowery, ornate language, and by vigor of action in 
delivery. Oratorical gymnastics played a vital part. But by such preaching the 
people were interested, they were deeply moved and their lives were markedly 

Among the pioneer preachers of Illinois were Peter Acres, Zadoc Casey and 
Peter Cartwright. 


The treatment of disease in the pioneer days was as primitive as the life 
of the people itself. In the earliest days among the outlying settlements there 
were no regular doctors often for fifty or a hundred miles. In this respect, 
as in all others, the early settlers cultivated a spirit of self-reliance. Home- 
made remedies were the vogue and many men and especially the women were 
skilled in their application. 

While the pioneer times always had their characteristic diseases and ail- 
ments, yet the people were fairly free from disease. Of necessity, they lived 
much in the open air. Houses were well ventilated. The log house with its 


crack and poorly fitted doors and windows and the loosely laid clap-board roof 
and puncheon floors, were admirably adapted to the inlet of fresh air. Men and 
women worked much in the fields and gardens, and lived on plain and whole- 
some food. Such a life naturally built up strong constitutions, and strong con- 
stitutions, in the absence of the trained physician, fought the battles with disease 
with probably a better chance for victory than the weaker physical body of this 
day aided by all the science and skill of the physician. 

The settlements were well scattered and the population was not congested. 
For this reason there were few epidemics. Any contagious or infectuous dis- 
eases soon ran their course and disappeared. Neighborly cooperation was the 
prevailing spirit. When any family was stricken, it was an unwritten law that 
the neighbors took turns in sitting up and caring for the afflicted. While there 
were a few known to be especially "good in sickness," the unselfish spirit was 
quite general. 

The bites of poisonous snakes was one difficulty to be encountered. There 
were numerous "cures" for this affliction. Everybody knew them, even the 
children. When a person was biten by a rattle snake or other venomous reptile, 
some simple remedy was at hand and applied at once. One remedy was to 
suck out the poison from the wound and spit it out. A plaster of clay was then 
applied. A more common remedy was the "whiskey" cure. Any person suffer- 
ing a rattle snake bite was given a large quantity of whiskey and made dead 
drunk. This was an effective cure and as liquor was commonly kept! in the 
homes by the gallon, it was always at hand. 

The early community was almost always subject to the "chills," or ague. 
This ailment afflicted the new communities till the swamps were drained out. 
There were numerous remedies for the "chills." It was believed that a person 
must not be permitted to keep still. When at the worst in a sinking chill, they 
would be beaten, rubbed and walked around. The idea was that if not kept 
thoroughly active they would die. The persons "sitting up" with the victim, 
took turns in exercising their patient. The treatment, in some cases, was worse 
than the disease. By means of a strong constitution, many survived both. 

Families did their own work of vaccination. Mrs. Amanda Head, a daugh- 
ter of John Turneaure, tells how, as a girl of fifteen, she vaccinated the children 
in the family. The vaccine was put on a silk thread. She then pinched up a 
place on the arm with her finger nails, and ran a piece of the silk thread through. 
Sore arms were often to be found, but this system long prevailed and served 
its purpose. 

Remedies and specifies were usually at hand. The merchants carried these 
in stock as there were no drug stores. Besides others, two well-known cures for 
"chills" were "Roman's Tonic Mixture" and "Indian Chocalogue." Senna salts, 
quinine and calomel were standard articles and were kept in bulk by the store 


The pioneer newspaper was just as broad and just as narrow as pioneer 
times. The press suffered from the same limitations that affected other insti- 


tutions of that day. The equipment of a printing plant was limited to a small 
hand press, and to type matter set by hand. The slow and tedious process, 
thus made necessary, restricted the amount of matter printed and made daily 
issues impossible. While there were a few expert typesetters, yet a large part 
of the work was done by amateurs. It was difficult to get paper in quantities 
and still more difficult to get it when wanted. It was before the day of mammoth 
paper mills and corporations. Paper was secured at Rockton and at other 
small water mills which had their own difficulties. It was before the railroad 
and paper had to be delivered by ox team or horses, and an issue was some- 
times delayed several days because floods made the fording of streams im- 
possible. The process of gathering news was limited. The telegraph had not 
yet reached its fingers out into the new sections, and when it came the cost of 
its privileges to any great extent was almost prohibitive. Besides, at that time, 
there was not in existence those world-wide news gathering organizations to 
furnish a mass of news each day or each week at a reasonable cost to the pub- 
lisher. The "patent inside" came later as did also the "boiler plate," both of 
which have made it easier and cheaper at later day for newspapers in sparsely 
settled communities to put out a paper containing much news and general 
reading matter. 

The lack of prompt and cheap postal facilities was another limitation. Poor 
roads, the stage that connected with only a few points in the county kept back 
news from districts beyond the immediate vicinity. It was practically impos- 
sible for the early Democrat and Journal to be much more than Freeport news- 
papers. News comes from Europe to Freeport more readily now than then 
it came from Winslow or Lena, or Yellow Creek Village. 

Consequently, the predominating feature of the Democrat and the Journal 
and Anzeiger was not news. An examination of these papers shows that 
from 1847 to 1860, usually 24 columns, apportioned about as follows : Adver- 
tising, 14 columns ; story, 5 columns ; political and editorial discussions, 3 col- 
umns, news, 2 columns. If there is any error in the above apportionment it 
is in allowing as much as two columns for news. Frequently less than one 
column, and often not more than a half column, was given to county news in 
the early weeklies. Much of the news columns was filled with news items from 
the east, often a month late. The story occupied the front page, or most of 
it. On the second page came the columns of political discussions, editorials 
and local news. The politics discussed was usually national politics. This 
might be letters or speeches. Here great national issues were set forth, such 
as the Mexican War, the Wilmot Proviso, the Nebraska Bill, etc. 

The editor of the Journal December 15, 1853, thus paid his regards to J. 
O. P. Burnside of the Bulletin : "In point of silly childless bluster, printless 
blatant nonsense, and low contemptible falsehood, His Sapiency James Oliver 
Perry Burnside ! ! ! the addlepated scribbler of the Bulletin, can take the hats 
of the whole editorial fraternity." 


Stephenson County was organized as a county under the laws of Illinois in 
1837. The Legislature provided for the election of county officials, which oc- 

Thomas J. Turner 

Martin P. Sweet 

Joseph B. Smith 

Thomas P. Goodhue 






curred in May of that year. The same year the courthouse site was selected. 
The new county was a part of the 6th judicial circuit while a part of Jo 
Daviess County, and continued to be a part of that circuit by act of the legisla- 
ture, February 22, 1839. The circuit then included Jo Daviess, Stephenson, 
Boone, Winnebago, Whiteside, Rock Island and Carroll Counties. The first ses- 
sion of the court in this county was held at a special term August 27, 1839. 

Daniel Stone was the first judge of the circuit to preside in Stephenson 
County. Hubbard Graves, father of the present venerable postmaster at Mc- 
Connell, was sheriff and John A. Clark was clerk of the court. This first ses- 
sion lasted three days. Judge Stone presided over the two succeeding terms of 
court in this county when the law was changed. The new law of February 
23, 1841, abolished the offices of circuit judges, and appointed additional su- 
preme court judges and rearranged the districts. Mercer and Henry Counties 
were added to the 6th district and Judge Thomas C. Brown was appointed to 
preside over the district courts. Judge Brown was circuit judge of this county 
till 1846. A new law passed by the State Legislature made the circuit judge- 
ship an elective office, and Benjamin R. Sheldon was elected to the bench. 

In 1848, the adoption of a new state constitution was followed by a reor- 
ganization of the judicial districts. The new fourteenth circuit was made up of 
the counties of Jo Daviess, Stephenson and Winnebago. Judge Sheldon was a 
candidate for the position of circuit judge in the new I4th district, and was 
elected. This position he held from 1848 to 1870, over twenty years, when 
he was elected as one of the judges of the Supreme Court of the State of Illi- 

Hon. H. C. Burchard thus describes the old courtroom: "It was a two story 
frame building with plain clapboard sides and shingle roof, surrounded by a 
rough board fence. The courtroom where Judge Sheldon presided in 1855, sit- 
ting on a raised platform behind a pine desk, had on its right two tier of seats 
for the jury. Fronting the judge and beyond the railing that inclosed the table 
and chairs for the privileged lawyers, were rows of pine benches, ruthlessly 
disfigured by witnesses and spectators whose incessant whittling was only tem- 
porarily checked by the warning of the judge not to mar the courtroom. In 
the winter a hot stove occupied the center of the room. The windows had to 
be raised frequently for ventilation and again lowered to exclude the cold air, 
and bench and bar were alternately roasted and frozen. I can yet hear Judge 
Sheldon give his order, "Mr. Sheriff, raise the window," or "Mr. Sheriff, lower 
the window," as he feared suffocation from odors or dreaded cold chills from 
the sharp winter air. The dilapidated appearance of the building was felt to 
be a discredit to the city and the county. In 1854, the loosened clapboards were 
shaking in the wind and the sky was visible through the broken plastering. 
The room was at that time procured for the use of Fred Douglas, the colored 
orator, to make an abolition speech. Although accustomed to plantation life 
and to uncomfortable and unsightly audience rooms, he said in his opening 
remarks, "I have spoken in England in the finest halls, and in this country 
in churches and where no better accommodations could be had, in barns, but, 
of all the God- forsaken places, this beats them all!" 


One evening at Plymouth Hall, (where the Wilcoxen block now stands) 
while Hon. Martin P. Sweet was making a speech, the cry of "Fire" was 
heard on the streets. It was reported that the courthouse was burning. Mr. 
Sweet paused and said, "It is the old courthouse, let it burn." The audience 
cheered and remained seated, but the fire was extinguished. It was a great 
relief to the members of the bar as well as to the citizens of Freeport, when 
the building was removed in 1870 and the attractive and commodious structure 
that now occupies its site was built." 

At the first session of court in 1839, according to the records, the following 
attorneys were present and connected with cases: Seth B. Farwell, Martin P. 
Sweet, Thomas J. Turner, Campbell, Drummond, Tonlin and Kemble. Mr. 
Sweet still lived in Winnebago County and as Mr. Turner had not yet been 
admitted to practice, Mr. Farwell was the only member of the Freeport bar. 
Mr. Purinton arrived four months later. At that day it was the custom of the 
lawyers to follow the judge around the circuit, and a few were here in 1839 
from other counties. 

There were 35 cases in the docket in 1835, seventeen of which were appeals 
for justice courts. Thirteen were dismissed for want of jurisdiction, because 
the cases had been improperly brought to that court. According to Mr. Bur- 
chards' report, "In the short three days session, the grand jury returned four in- 
dictments, two criminal trials were had, six judgments were taken by default 
and one judgment rendered in an appeal case for $3.18^ and costs. 

The second term of court lasted two days. The attorneys present and be- 
fore the court were Martin P. Sweet and George Purinton of Freeport. States 
Attorney F. S. Hall, and Jason Marsh, of Rockford, and Campbell and Drum- 
mond, of Jo Daviess County. Writing of these early attorneys, Mr. H. C. 
Burchard, in 1896, said, "People who heard Thompson Campbell and E. D. Baker 
in the noted trials at the old courtroom still speak of their wit, readiness in 
repartee, and wonderful power in addressing a jury. Eloquence in those early 
days, as in these later ones, must have exercised its magic influence when 
E. D. Baker, fresh from Springfield, had but to unstrap his trunk at a Galena 
Hotel, and without the aid of patronage or local friends to start his boom, 
could by voice and speech, win as he did his nomination and election to Con- 
gress from this district. It is not more surprising that afterwards a brief so- 
journ on the Pacific coast sent him to the United States Senate, and that he 
there acquired a national reputation as an orator and statesman. 

Thereupon, Campbell became states attorney for the judicial circuit and was 
elected to Congress in 1850. Later he served as secretary of state and moved to 
California. Mr. Drummond must have then exhibited that legal knowledge, 
sound judgment and argumentative ability which later characterized his rul- 
ings as a federal judge. James S.,Loop was able to state his client's case more 
clearly and to present its salient points more concisely than any other advocate 
at the bar. Marsh, Burnop, and Night, considered the ablest chancery lawyers 
in the circuit, attended from term to term. E. B. Washburn prosecuted a suit 
with the same zeal and tenacity that he displayed in after years in political life." 

With such associates and antagonists, it is not surprising that Martin P. 
Sweet and Thomas J. Turner grew to become and ranked among the foremost 


advocates and most successful lawyers in northern Illinois. Their selection as 
candidates of their parties for Congress Sweet in 1844 and again in 1850, 
and Turner in 1846 shows the popularity they attained at this period and 
the high estimation of their abilities. 

By 1850, in addition to Sweet, Turner, Farwell and Purinton and other 
distinguished men joined the Freeport bar. Among these were: Thomas F. 
Goodhue, Charles Betts, F. W. S. Brawley, Charles F. Bagg, John A. Clark, 
John Coates and Charles Clark. Before 1857, they were joined by Hiram 
Bright, U. D. Meacham, J. B. Smith, Samuel Saukey, J. C. Kean, E. P. nar- 
ton, J. M. Bailey and H. C. Burchard. 

At the December term of court in 1857, there were 302 cases at common 
law on the docket and 49 in chancery. At the April term 1858, there were 392 
at common law and chancery cases reached 183 the next year. Many of the 
chancery cases were mortgage foreclosures. These hard times with numerous 
financial entanglements made 1857-1858 the golden period of the bar. Mr. 
Burchard said in 1896: "Although the number of lawyers has considerably in- 
creased, scarcely one-fourth as many cases are now entered upon the docket 
as in 1857 and 1858. It is claimed that there is much less legal business and 
litigation in Stephenson County than in adjourning counties. While this is 
injurious to the profession it is no loss to the community. The discourage- 
ment and the decrease of litigation is beneficial. Many who formerly practiced 
at our bar were noted for compromising and dismissing suits which they com- 
menced. The lawyers deserve the blessing of peacemakers, because they were 
successful in efforts to adjust and settle, rather than litigate conflicting claims." 
Mr. Burchard adds, "The lawyers of Freeport, and especially those who came 
here at an early day and grew up with the county, have always taken a leading 
part in matters that concerned the prosperity of the city. Scarcely one of our 
business enterprises has been planned and consummated without their counsel 
and assistance giving it legal shape. They were associated with business men 
and often selected as spokesmen for them in all efforts to secure the location 
of public buildings, institutions, railroads to be built and manufactories to be 

Brief sketches should here be given of the early leaders of the Freeport 
bar: Thomas J. Turner, born in Ohio, in 1815, lived on a farm in Pennsylvania 
for a while and came west at the age of 18. After spending short periods in 
Chicago, La Porte County, Indiana, and in the lead mine county about Galena, 
he came into Stephenson County in 1836, building a mill in Rock Run. In 
1837, he secured the contract to build the Stephenson County courthouse, and 
it is thought that litgation arising from this contract induced him to take up 
the study of law. He studied law in much the same way as Patrick Henry and 
Abraham Lincoln did, becoming, in fact, a self-made lawyer. Mr. Burchard 
says of him: "He was tall, erect, athletic and graceful. He was most effective 
as a jury lawyer. In 1845 Governor Ford appointed him states attorney for 
the 6th judicial circuit. He managed, or assisted, in the trial at Rock Island, 
of the murderers of Colonel Davenport. His ability and fearlessness in prose- 
cuting the gang of murderers and horse thieves that then infested northern 
Illinois made him hosts of friends in this congressional district. His nomina- 


tion and election to Congress in 1846 was a natural consequence. Upon the 
organization of the town of Freeport in 1850. Mr. Turner was elected presi- 
dent of the board of trustees. In 1854, he became an active opponent of those 
who supported the repeal of the Missouri Compromise and the Kansas and 
Nebraska Bill. He replied briefly to a four hours' speech in its justification 
made by Stephen A. Douglas in front of the old Pennsylvania House, then 
standing on the present site of Munn's building. He was sent the following 
fall to the Legislature as an Anti-Nebraska democrat, and voted first for Lin- 
coln and then for Trumbull for senator. He procured the passage of a bill 
introduced by him to create the city of Freeport by special charter, and was 
afterwards elected the city's first mayor. Early in 1861, he was a member 
of the Peace Conference at Washington, and later was elected and commissioned 
colonel of the Fifteenth Illinois Volunteers. He resigned the service in 1862 
on account of ill health. He was chairman of the republican state central 
committee in 1864, a member of the State Constitutional Convention in 1870, 
and in the Legislature in 1871. He died on the third day of April, 1874, at 
Hot Springs, where hopeless of other relief, he had gone for the purpose of 
regaining health. He will always be remembered as one of the pioneers in 
the early settlements of Stephenson County, and as contributing, by his per- 
sonal efforts, as much, or more, than any other citizen of the prosperity and 
permanent growth of Freeport." 


Hon. Martin P. Sweet was one of the early leaders of the Stephenson County 
Bar. He was a native of New York and after farming and preaching, he began 
the practice of law in Freeport in 1840. He was a noted whig leader and twice 
was honored by his party as its candidate for Congress. The best summary of 
his career as a lawyer is that given by his centemporary, Hon. Thomas J. Turner, 
at a meeting of the Stephenson County Bar Association, after Mr. Sweets 
death: "It is difficult for me to find words to express what we all feel on this 
solemn occasion. Hon. Martin P. Sweet is dead. We shall not again hear 
from his lips the burning eloquence that in times past has thrilled the court and 
the bar, as he held up to view the enormities of crimes which he had been called 
on to prosecute ; or, the melting pathos with, which he captivated the sympathies 
of jury and people, while defending those he regarded innocent. Few men 
ever possessed that magnetic power which chains an audience in a greater degree 
than did our departed friend. It is not alone at the bar that he has left his 
impress as a leading mind. In the arena of politics, and in the sacred desk, he 
was alike conspicuous. Logical in argument, terrible in invective and quick in 
repartee, he carried the judgments of a jury or an audience; or, failing here, 
his quick sympathies and deep pathos led them along against the conviction of 
judgment. Such was Martin P. Sweet as an orator and an advocate. A self- 
made man, he surmounted difficulties which would discourage and defeat others 
and reach a position at the bar. Second to none, and established a reputation as 
an orator of which any men among us might feel proud. 


On opening an office in Freeport, he soon secured a remunerative practice, 
and took a first rank at the bar throughout the circuit. His services were sought 
whenever important cases were to be tried, or legal ability was required. Among 
the traits of character which endeared Mr. Sweet to the members of his pro- 
fession, were his urbane manners, his nice sense of professional honor and his 
kind and cautious bearing toward those who were opposed to him. In these re- 
spects, he has done much to raise the standard of professional ethics. 

In private life, he was generous and urbane and had many friends, with few, 
if any, enemies. In death, the bar has lost one of its brightest ornaments, the 
city a good citizen and a zealous friend, and the county and the state an able 
defender of their rights. There is still another circle that mourns him with 
a deeper grief the charmed circle of the home. 

Let us, my brethren of the bar, while our eyes are suffused with tears, and 
our hearts bowed with sorrow over his grave, resolve to emulate his virtues, to 
follow his example and avoid and forget his faults, if he had any, so that when 
our work on earth is done and when our names may be mentioned, as the name 
of our departed friend is mentioned today, with baled breath and choked ut- 
terance, it may be said of us, our work is finished ; it is well done." 

At the close of Mrs. Turner's eulogy, the judge of the circuit court said: 
"As an effective speaker and legal orator, he had no superior, and at times he 
was the leading genius, outstripping all others in the circuit. It is probable, 
we may never look upon his like again." 


Hon. Horatio C. Burchard was one of the distinguished members of the Ste- 
phenson County bar for over fifty-two years. He was born in Marshall, Oneida 
County, New York, in 1825. His father came west to Beloit, Wisconsin, in 1840. 
Mr. Burchard was graduated from Hamilton College, New York, in 1850. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1852, and began practice in Monroe, Wisconsin. In 
1854, he came to Freeport and was principal of the Union school. In 1855 he 
resumed the practice of law, the firm being Turner and Burchard, his partner 
being Thomas J. Turner. In 1856, the firm was Turner, Burchard & Barton. 
From 1864 to 1874, the firm was Burchard, Barton & Barnum. In 1857, Mr. 
Burchard was county school commissioner; in 1862, and 1864, he was elected 
to the legislature. For four years he was a trustee of the Illinois Industrial Uni- 
versity, now the University of Illinois. 

In 1869, when Hon. E. B. Washburn was given a post in the Cabinet, Mr. 
Burchard was elected to Congress. The speaker, James G. Elaine, appointed 
him a member of the Committee on Banking and Currency, of which James 
A. Garfield was chairman. Later, for eight years he served on the committee 
on ways and means. For ten years, 1869 to 1879, Mr. Burchard was recognized 
as one of the able men in Congress. 

In 1879, Mr. Burchard was appointed director of the United States Mints 
by President Hayes. In this department he distinguished himself by his thor- 
ough mastery of the finances of the United States, and by his five elaborate re- 
ports to Congress. As director of the United States Mints, Mr. Burchard served 


from 1879 to 1885; when a democratic president made a change in the appoint- 
ment. In 1886 he was appointed by Governor Oglesby on a commission to re- 
vise the revenue laws of Illinois. He was elected to the membership in the 
International Statistical Institute in 1837. 

In 1886 Mr. Burchard resumed his law practice in Freeport. In ? , he 
formed a partnership with Hon. Louis H. Burrell, the firm name being Burchard 
& Burrell. Mr. Burchard continued his law business till his death in ? . 
He was a man of whom Stephenson County was always proud, having won 
distinction as a teacher, as a lawyer, as a statesman and an administrator. 

Judge Charles Belts was an active member of the Freeport bar from 1848 to 
1880 when he retired. Born in Batavia, New York, in 1824. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in that state in 1847. He came to Freeport in 1848 and was 
successful from the start. In 1852 he was the nominee of the whig party for 
State Auditor. During the political revolution of 1856-1858, when many dem- 
ocrats became republicans, Mr. Betts, being a great admirer of Stephen A. Doug- 
las, became a democrat. In 1870 he was the democratic candidate for Congress 
in the district and reduced the republican majority from 10,000 to 5,000 

H. M. Barnum, a native of Vermont, has graduated from Middlebury Col- 
lege in 1858, came to Freeport in 1859 and was admitted to the bar in 1861. 
From 1861 to 1864 he was a teacher in the city schools, part of that time principal 
of the high school. In 1864 he entered the law firm of Burchard & Barton. In 
1867 he was city attorney, was a member of the board of education and the 
library board. 

Hon. James S. Cochran, born in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 1834, educated at 
Bethany College, Virginia, Jefferson College, Pennsylvania, and the law school of 
Judge Brockenbaugh at Lexington, Kentucky, was admitted to the bar in Pitts- 
burg, in 1858, and that year came to Freeport. He entered upon the practice of 
his profession here at once and was eminently successful. He was state's at- 
torney for the county from 1872 to 1884, when he was elected to the state senate 
from the district of Stephenson, Jo Daviess and Carroll Counties. Eight of 
his nineteen bills became laws during the 35th session of the legislature. One 
law established "Arbor Day" and another provided that teachers could attend 
institutes without the deduction of pay. He was one of the ablest men this dis- 
trict ever sent to the state legislature. He was distinguished as a lawyer and as 
a legislator. 

Judge John Coates came to Stephenson County in 1847 an d entered the law 
office of Hon. T. J. Turner. He was elected county judge in 1853. He aided 
in the organization of the Second Presbyterian church. Throughout his long 
legal career, he was recognized as an able and conscientious attorney. 


The first generation in Stephenson County had time for things intellectual. 
Through all the turmoil and hardships with Indians and wild animals, rude 
equipment and simple homes, the struggle with a wild soil and the dangers and 
perils of distant mills and markets, burst the spirit of culture from the old 
academies of the east. The education of the old academy of the east was the 






leaven that lifted up the frontier society from the lower levels of "mere" busi- 
ness and the struggle for daily bread. It was this irrepressible spirit that brought 
organized local lecture course committees, and brought to early the greatest 
stars of the American platform, musicians, lecturers, poets, reformers and states- 
men. Old Plymouth Hall audiences saw and heard, Ole Bull and Patti ; Starr 
King and Bayard Taylor; E. P. Willett, Lowell and Emerson, and Giddings, 
Chase, Horace Greeley and Horace Mann. It is to be regretted that no later 
period has even approached to decade of 1850 to 1860 in the matter of Lyceum 
talent in this county. This is in part because the first generation contained that 
element of culture and the spirit of intellectualism that had been stimulated by 
a contact in the academies and colleges of the older states. 


Mrs. Oscar Taylor's explanation of Freeport's early lecture courses is full 
of interest and should serve as an inspiration to the people of today. "Where 
the Wilcoxen opera house now stands Mr. E. H. Hyde had erected a three 
story brick building, the upper story of which was intended for lectures, con- 
certs and other public gatherings. This was old Plymouth Hall, of which the 
town was justly proud. It was here that the Lombard brothers and the Baker 
family gave their musical entertainment as they traveled through this region 
season after season ; and always welcome were the Hutchinson family, who 
came almost every year, bringing with them their old melodeon, opening every 
performance with "We're a band of brothers from the old Granite State." 
Strong anti-slavery men were all of them, and when they sang "There's a 
Good Time Coming Boys," there was a ring of faith and feeling in their voices 
that stirred the enthusiasm of their hearers, and in humorous parts the drollery 
of the brother Judson was irresistible. Dr. and Mrs. Beaumont, both sincere 
lovers of music, assisted in many of the home concerts of those days. The 
walls of Plymouth Hall, one never-to-be forgotten night, echoed to the tunes 
of Ole Bull's violin, and to the supremely beautiful voice of Adelina Patti, 
when that voice was the voice of a young girl of fourteen, even then so won- 
derful that her future world-wide fame seemed already assured. She was a 
lovely picture as she stood before the audience in a low-necked gown of light 
blue silk, ruffled from waist line to hem. Her great Italian eyes were velvety 
in their soft blackness and her black hair was worn in thick braids, while her 
features were of that delicate clear-cut beauty so familiar to us all in later 
years. The "Little Patti," as she was then called, was most friendly with 
her audience all the evening, and at the close of the concert she invited two 
young girls, whom she joined as the audience was dispering, to visit her at 
the Pennsylvania House next day. The invitation was, of course, joyfully 
accepted, but the unsophisticated western girls were amazed by the young prima 
donna's desperate flirtation with the handsome pianist who played her accom- 

In the autumn of 1854 the Young Men's Association secured for us a 
course of lectures from some of the most eminent literary men of the country. 
As the hotel accommodations were not above criticism, it was thought desirable 


that the lecturers should be entertained at private houses, and as Mr. Taylor 
was a member of the association he was among the first to proffer this hospi- 
tality. It so happened that when Horace Mann opened this lecture course he 
was for three days a guest in our old home on Adams street. I must own to 
being in quite a flurry over the thought of entertaining so distinguished a per- 
son, but well I remember how I was at once put at ease by the kindly smile and 
winning tones with which the stranger greeted me. There was something 
saint-like in his appearance, so frail was his health, so snowy his hair, and so 
gentle his whole bearing. His heart was in the educational work, which formed 
the subject of his lecture; but even more interesting to me was his quiet con- 
versation during the two following days. I almost felt myself one of the Con- 
cord circle as Mr. Mann shared with me his intimate acquaintance with Emer- 
son, Thoreau, Margaret Fuller and Hawthorne. Hawthorne's wife and Mrs. 
Mann were sisters, and Mr. Mann told me of Hawthorne's excessive shyness, 
how he would seldom join in conversation, but liked to sit apart, sometimes even 
getting behind a door. 

Thoreau and his new book "Walden," then in press, received enthusiastic 
praise, as did Mr. Howe, the philanthropist, whom Mr. Mann dearly loved. 
He thought Mrs. Howe, who had been greatly admired as a society belle in 
New York, not altogether in sympathy with her husband's work for the blind, 
but has she not really proved herself a fitting wife for her noble husband? 
The Saturday Club of Boston, where the literary lights of New England 
gathered weekly for informal discussions, was also opened to me for the first 
time, so vividly that I seemed to know personally Longfellow, Whittier and 
Holmes, with other men whose names are now historic, but whose biographies 
had not then been lived. 

Following Horace Mann came Bayard Taylor, who drew a crowded au- 
dience, and gave a most graphic and entertaining lecture upon his travels in 
Europe. There was great charm in his picturesque and magnetic personality, 
and pure cosmopolitan as he was, he seemed to bring his whole audience in 
touch with the great world. He was also a delightful guest, genial and witty, 
instantly at home with the friends whom I had asked to the house to meet him. 

A little girl to whom he seemed the most wonderful man in the world, had 
listened with wide open eyes to all that he was relating of far-away lands, when, 
thinking it time that Freeport was heard from, she remarked : "Mr. Taylor, 
I don't believes you saw in Europe anything prettier than the egg my chicken 
laid." With quick responsiveness, Mr. Taylor admitted that an egg was really 
more wonderful than anything the art of man could produce. 

When Horace Greeley came the farmers flocked to hear the man who ad- 
vised everyone to go west. Plymouth Hall could not hold the crowd that 
gathered. To my mind, the disappointed ones did not lose much. Socially, 
Greeley was brusque and repellent, receiving with evident indifference the young 
men who called upon him. "What did those men come here for?" he asked 
when they left. "They came to see the great mogul," I answered which seemed 
to please him, as he laughed heartily. After his stay with us, and I had seen 
him carefully turn his necktie awry before sitting for his daguerrotype, I con- 
cluded that his reputed accentricities were but affectations. 


Later in the season we had George Sumner, of Boston, brother to Charles 
Sumner. For many years a resident in Dresden and Paris, he had the cap- 
tivating polish of manner acquired in continental cities but his lecture, upon the 
political conditions of Europe, did not particularly appeal to his audience. Be- 
fore the lecture I had called Mr. Sumner's attention to an article in Putnam's 
Magazine on the Crimean war, giving a most vivid description of the battle of 
Sebastopol. "Is not that article wonderfully written," I asked him. "I did not 
find it so," he replied. In the dash to my enthusiasm I thought him over-critical, 
not dreaming, until he laughingly told me so the following year, that he was the 
writer of the brilliant article. 

The lecture course of 1855 was opened by Starr King, who was entertained 
by Mr. Taylor and myself. I remember that Mr. King surprised me early in 
our conversation by the question, "How old do you think I am?" "From your 
appearance I should judge you to be a boy in your teens, but, of course, I know 
you must be older or you could not have achieved your reputation," I replied. 
"I am a long way of my teens," he said, "but my youthful aspect affords me 
great fun, as I had today when your husband walked through the car looking 
on either side but evidently seeing no one whom he could believe was the ex- 
pected individual. When I asked if he was looking for Mr. King you should 
have seen his look of surprise." 

The editor of the Journal, in speaking of Ralph Waldo Emerson's lecture at 
Plymouth Hall, Freeport, said : "What we understood of it was excellent, and 
what we did not understand we suppose was excellent." 


The Addams Institute, an association of young men, was organized in 1852, 
and held its first meeting November 25, that year in the basement of the First 
Presbyterian church. J. C. Howells, president of the club, gave an inaugural 
address in "Danger and Weakness of Ignorance." At the second meeting the 
following question was discussed : "Resolved ; that the intervention policy ad- 
vocated by Kossuth, is just and should be adopted by the United States." 

The officers were: President, W. J. Johnston; Vice President, J. Burrell; 
Secretary, J. S. Oliver. J. S. Oliver and W. J. Johnston debated against H. M. 
Sheetz and J. C. Howells. J. Burrell gave a declamation. Professor 1 Daniels 
gave a series of lectures on Geology. The Journal says, "The efforts of the 
Addams Institute to introduce these lectures deserves credit." 


The Freeport Literary Institute was organized at Hon. T. J. Turner's office 
January n, 1853. Mr U. D. Meacham was chairman of the meeting. The 
following officers were elected for one year : President, Judge Coats ; Vice Presi- 
dent, P. D. Fisher ; Secretary, S. D. Knight ; Treasurer, John Barfoot ; Librarian, 
Dr. O. E. Stearns. The business committee consisted of John K. Brewster, Dr. 
C. Bartin, and D. C. Wilmot, part of whose duties were the employment of 
lecturers, and purchase of books, papers and scientific apparatus. The mem- 


bership fee was one dollar. Mr. F. W. S. Brawley was to deliver the first lec- 
ture. The Journal says, "Mr. Brawley is an easy and beautiful writer and a 
ripe scholar." Mr. Brawley being absent, Hon. T. J. Turner gave one of his 
characteristic speeches. Mr. C. A. Clark also addressed the meeting. 


In 1853, the following citizens volunteered to deliver public lectures : F. W. 
S. Brawley, T. J. Turner, Rev. A. J. Warner, D. E. Markle, C. A. Clark, Rev. 
J. Coon, U. D. Meacham, Dr. C. Martin, J. C. Howells, Rev. James Bentley, H. 
M. Sheetz, Dr. R. Van Valzah, E. Hunt, Dr. O. E. Stearns and C. E. Berry. 

Cassius M. Clay spoke in Freeport in 1854, for the whigs, before an audience 
of 2,000 to 3,yco people. Later came Joshua R. Giddings, the Anti-Slavery war 
horse of the Western Reserve, Salmon P. Chase, George W. Julian, followed by 
Stephen A. Douglas. 


Wm. Stark New Hampshire. 

E. P. Whipple ._ Boston. 

Park Benjamin New York. 

Parke Goodwin New York. 

T. Starr King Boston. 

R. W. Emerson Concord. 

John G. Saxe Vermont. 

B. F. Taylor Chicago. 

J. K. Doolittle Racine. 

E. H. Chapin New York. 


The greatest political event in Stephenson County was the Lincoln and 
Douglas Debate at Freeport, August 27, 1858. Both Lincoln and Douglas were 
candidates for the United States Senate. Douglas had been in the senate since 
1847 an d his second term would expire in 1859. In order to be elected in 1858, 
Douglas knew he must control the election to the state legislature. Douglas had 
broken with Buchanan in the Kansas troubles and found that he had a hard fight 
before him in Illinois. When Buchanan threatened Douglas, the "Little Giant" 
told the president that Andrew Jackson was dead. This meant that Douglas 
would take his own course on his idea of 'Popular Sovereignty.' " 

Mr. Lincoln, as a candidate, however, found that Douglas was a strong op- 
ponent, for in over eleven years Douglas had planted an army of federal 
officials, postmasters, revenue collectors, etc., over the state. He had back of him 
an interested organization, composed of the old wheelhorses of his party. As 
Lincoln said of Douglas : "All anxious politicians have seen in his round, jolly, 







fruitful face, post-offices, land-offices, marshall-ships, cabinet appointments, 
charge-ships and foreign missions, bursting and sprouting out in wonderful 
exuberance, ready to be laid hold of by their greedy hands. On the contrary, 
nobody ever expected me to be president. In my poor lean, lank face nobody has 
ever seen that any cabbages were sprouting out. We have to fight this battle 
upon principle, and principle alone." 

Some claimed that John Wentworth of Chicago was the real republican can- 
didate and that Lincoln was just a stalking-horse to beat Douglas in the leg- 
islative elections. 

Douglas received the indorsement of the Democratic State Convention April 
21, 1858. A number of democrats bolted, held a "rump" convention on June gth 
and denounced Douglas. The Republican Convention was held June 16, at 
Springfield. Lincoln was unanimously nominated with wild applause. Chicago 
took the lead in securing Lincoln's nomination. 

It was Lincoln's carefully written speech of acceptance that brought him 
at once into national prominence. It was in this speech that he broke away 
from the old compromise idea and said, "The Government cannot exist half 
salve and half free ; it must become all one thing or all the other." Future events 
justified the wisdom of Lincoln going to the root of the whole slavery question. 
But the politicians of his own party felt that he had made a mistake. Truly 
enough, from the standpoint of immediate politics, he lost, for Douglas beat 
him in the race for the senate. But Lincoln was looking far into the muture. 
He grasped the great fundamentals and essentials of the slavery question, and 
in 1860 he became the logical candidate for the presidency of the United States. 

The campaign really opened in Chicago, where Douglas was given a great 
oration. Democratic newspapers said 30,000 people heard him. Republican 
papers said 12,000. In this speech Douglas attacked Lincoln's Springfield speech. 
Lincoln then went to Chicago and replied to Douglas. The Illinois Journal then 
said : "The war has begun. In sound manly argument Lincoln is too much for 
Douglas. While the former shakes his black locks vaingloriously, and ex- 
plodes in mere fustion of sound and smoke, the latter, quietly, unassumingly but 
effectively, drives home argument after argument, heavy as cannon balls and 
sharp as two-edged swords, until his adversary is so thoroughly riddled, cut up 
and used up, that in the view of discriminating men, nothing remains of him but 
a ghastly appearance." The Louisville Democrat said : "The debate in Illinois 
is the ablest and most important that has ever taken place in any of the states, 
on the great question which has so .long agitated the country, elected and de- 
feated presidential candidates, built up and broken down parties. It is the 
opening for the question of 1860. In Illinois the real battle has begun, by broad- 
sides too, from the heaviest artillery. Douglas is matchless in debate and stands 
upon the only national platform. Lincoln is able and does full justice to the 
cause he advocates." The New York Tribune commented on the fact that Douglas 
was born in Free Vermont and Lincoln in slave-holding Kentucky, and observes 
that these gentlemen would seem respectively to have "conquered their preju- 
dices" found in early impressions. The Philadelphian North America said 
August 25, 1858, "The administration of Buchanan has been at work with all 
its power and influence to prevent the election of Douglas to the Senate. Mr. 


Lincoln follows Douglas wherever he goes, and has the best of the argument." 
Trumbull also stumped the state against Douglas and Mr. Edwin Ensle Sparks 
says : "Without a formal nomination or indorsement by the people of Illinois, 
ridiculed as a "My party" candidate, and facing the loss of Federal patronage, 
Douglas entered on the greatest of his many battles for supremacy, a contest 
surpassing that waged two years later for the presidency. Alone and un- 
aided he forced in the lists Trumbull and Lincoln, the best debaters afforded 
by the Republicans in the West and probably equaled by Seward in the East." 

The Quincy Whig had an idea that Douglas was done for. It said, "Judge 
Douglas has left the Democratic party or it has left him. He sees that his 
fate is sealed, but he is determined to die hard." The Pittsfield Democrat took 
up Lincoln's statement that he would rather be a live dog than a dead lion. The 
Democrat said, "Abe Lincoln who compared himself to a living dog and Doug- 
las to a dead lion will rapidly discover that instead of 'living,' he is one of the 
smallest of defunct puppies. His comparison in some degree was true it is 
very much like a puppy-dog fighting a lion." 

Douglas began a tour of the state after his oration in Chicago. He had a 
special train, and a flat car at the rear on which was a small cannon. It was 
reported that Douglas mortgaged his Chicago home and borrowed funds in New 
York to carry on his campaign. Republicans said he carried a cannon so as to 
announce his entrance to a city, provided there was no reception for him. On 
the baggage car in large letters were the words, "S. A. Douglas, the Champion 
of Popular Sovereignty." At Bloomington Douglas attacked Lincoln's ideas. 
He said Lincoln was in favor of negro equality. That he defied the Supreme 
Court in opposing the Dred Scott Decision and that Lincoln's "House Divided 
Against Itself" speech beautiful the spirit of disunion. 

July 19, 1858, Douglas spoke in Springfield in the afternoon and Lincoln 
replied at night. Lincoln also had an invitation to go to Bloomington and reply 
to Douglas. Douglas made out a schedule of speeches indicating his itinerary, 
after his Springfield speech. Lincoln's friends made a corresponding schedule 
closely following that of Douglas, sometimes at the same place on the same date, 
but more often a day or so following. Douglas' friends claimed that Lincoln 
was violating the ethics of campaigning by following Douglas. The Illinois 
State Journal approved, saying: "We hope that Mr. Lincoln will continue to 
follow up Mr. Douglas with a sharp stick, even if it does make his organ (the 
Chicago Times) howl with rage." Another paper said: "Wherever the Little 
Giant happens to be, Abe is sure to turn up and be a thorn in his side." The 
Chicago Times said Lincoln's Chicago and Springfield meetings were failures. 
"The cringing, crawling creature is hanging at the outskirts of Douglas' meet- 
ings, begging the people to come and hear him. He rode to Monticello yesterday 
on Douglas' train ; poor deseperate creature, he wants an audience ! The people 
won't turn out and hear him, and he must do something, even if it is mean, 
sneaking and disreputable! We suggest that Lincoln's managers make an ar- 
rangement with a Circus Company now touring the State, to include a speech 
by Lincoln in the program. In this way Lincoln could get good audiences." In 
reply the Chicago Journal said : "We suppose Douglas owns neither the railroad 
trains he travels on nor the people whom he addresses." The Chicago Times said : 


"Lincoln attended the Douglas Meeting at Clinton screened behind a man in 
green goggles, whom he used as a shield and cover. When Douglas was through, 
Lincoln gradually lengthened out his long lank proportions till he stood upon his 
feet, and with a desperate attempt to look pleasant, said that he would not take 
advantage of Judge Douglas' crowd but would address 'sich' as like to hear him 
in the evening at the Courthouse." 


In his speeches Douglas was paying particular attention to Trumbull's 
speeches. Lincoln's friends feared that in this way he would be a minor attrac- 
tion in the campaign and would lose force as a candidate. Lincoln was anxious 
for a series of joint debates with Douglas and after consulting the Republican 
leaders, he sent the following challenge to Douglas : 

Hon. S. A. Douglas. ' D1 " 

My Dear Sir: Will it be agreeable to you to make an arrangement for you 
and myself to divide time, and address the same audiences the present canvas? 
Mr. Judd, who will hand you this, is authorized to receive your answer; and if 
agreeable to you, to enter into terms of such agreement. 

Your obedient servant, A. LINCOLN. 

That very day Douglas answered the challenge, accepting it and suggesting 
places where the debates were to be held. Mr. Douglas expressed surprise that 
Lincoln had delayed so long in sending the challenge as he had already made out 
his schedule and had arranged with candidates for Congress and State offices 
to speak from the same platform. "However," Mr. Douglas said, "I will take 
the responsibility of making an arrangement with you for a discussion between 
us at one prominent point in each Congressional District except the second and 
the sixth where both have spoken and you had the last speech. If agreeable to 
you, I will indicate to you the following places as those most suitable in the sev- 
eral congressional districts in which we should speak, to wit : Freeport, Ottawa, 
Galesburg, Quincy, Alton, Jonesboro, and Charleston. I will confer with you 
at the earliest opportunity in regard to the mode of conducting the debate. 
Very respectfully, your most obedient servant, 


Republican papers claimed that Douglas evaded the conflict in limiting the 
number of debates and that he lacked courtesy when he selected the places 
where the debates were to be held, if any were to be held. The Chicago Daily 
Journal, July 27, says : "Every canvass for the last twenty years has found these 
two champions of their respective parties side by side with each other, and often 
addressing the same audience, and Mr. Lincoln never asked any favor of his 
adversary. He does not now. Douglas shows the white feather and, like a 
trembling Felix, skulks behind the appointments of the emasculate Democratic 
State Central Committee!" The Chicago Times believed, or pretended to be- 
lieve that Lincoln's challenge was due to the fact that Lincoln could not get 
audiences to come out to hear him. It expressed the opinion that about two 


joint discussions would satisfy Mr. Lincoln's ambitions along this line. The 
paper doubted Mr. Lincoln's acceptance, but stated that if he did he would get 
enough of debate and discomfiture to last him a life-time. The Peoria Tran- 
script and other papers took the position that Lincoln's delay in issuing the chal- 
lenge was due to the fact that out of courtesy, in accordance with a western cus- 
tom, Lincoln expected and hoped that Judge Douglas would challenge him to 
stump the state. 


In discussing the debate the Freeport Journal said, "Mr. Lincoln having 
challenged Senator Douglas to meet him on the stump all over the state. The 
latter . declines the general invitation, but agrees to meet him at seven different 
places as follows: Freeport, Galesburg, Ottawa, Quincy, Jonesboro, Alton and 
Charleston, provided Lincoln will come at the time Douglas' friends may have 
chosen, if any. Though this is a half-way evasion of the challenge, we are 
glad that we in Freeport, at least, will have an opportunity to hear these two 
champions from the same stand. We bespeak for them the largest gathering 
ever known here, and are willing to let the people judge for themselves who 
shall be their choice after a fair hearing of them both in person." 

The Illinois State register defended Douglas and hoots at the idea that 
Douglas is afraid to meet Lincoln. It said, "The idea that a man who has 
crossed blades in the Senate with the strongest intellects of the country, who 
has as the champion of Democratic principles in the senatorial arena, routed 
all opposition that such a man dreads encounter with A. Lincoln is an ab- 
surdity that can be uttered by Lincoln's organs only with a ghastly phiz. If 
Lincoln was good for fifty or a hundred encounters, he ought to be good for 

On July 29, Lincoln met Douglas near Monticello, Illinois, and offered him 
his answer to Douglas' reply to the challenge. A St. Louis paper gives the 
following account of that meeting on a prairie road. It is needless to say the 
account was written by a Douglas reporter. "On the way to the railroad, the 
judge's procession was met by Abe, who in a kind of nervous, excited manner 
tumbled out of his carriage, his legs appearing sadly in the way or out of 
place. He got to the judge's carriage with a kind of hop, skip and a jump, 
and then with considerable bowing and scraping, he told the judge he had the 
answer to the judge's letter; that it was long, that he had not compared it 
with the original letter, and could the judge just wait that the comparison 
might be made by the roadside. Just think of staying out in the middle of a 
vast prairie to compare notes. Douglas, of course, declined, requesting Mr. 
Lincoln to compare to his own satisfaction, and then forward the communica- 
tion." Lincoln's reply is dated Springfield, July 29. In it, Mr. Lincoln an- 
swers several insinuations in Mr. Douglas' letter. Concluding Mr. Lincoln 
says, "I agree to an arrangement for us to speak at the seven places you men- 
tion, and at your own times, provided you name the times at once, so that I, 
as well as you, can have to myself the time not covered by the arrangement. 


As to the other details, I wish perfect reciprocity and no more. I wish as 
much time as you and that conclusions shall alternate. That is all. 

Your obedient servant, A. LINCOLN. 

P. S. As matters now stand, I shall be at no more of your exclusive meet- 
ings. A. L. 

Douglas received Lincoln's letter at Bement, and replied the next day, July 
30, 1858, as follows: 

Dear Sir: Your letter dated yesterday, accepting my proposition for a joint 
discussion at one prominent point in each district except, as stated in my pre- 
vious letter, was received this morning. The times and places designated are 
as follows: Ottawa, LaSalle County, August 21, 1858; Freeport, Stephenson 
County, August 2j, 1858; Jonesboro, Union County, September 15, 1858; 
Charleston, Coles County, September 18, 1858; Galesburg, Knox County, Octo- 
ber 7, 1858; Quincy, Adams County, October 13, 1858; Alton, Madison County, 
October 15, 1858. 

I agree to your suggestion that to alternately open and close the discussion, 
I will speak at Ottawa one hour, you can reply, occupying one hour and a half, 
and I will then follow for one-half hour. We will alternate in like manner at 
each successive place. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 


On July 31, Lincoln replied: "Yours of yesterday, naming places, times and 
terms for joint discussions between us was received this morning. Although 
by the terms, as you propose, you take four openings and closes to my three, I 
accede, and thus close the arrangement. I direct this to you at Hillsboro, and 
shall try to have both your letter and this appear in the Journal and Register 
Monday morning. 

Your obedient servant, A. LINCOLN. 

The Springfield Journal said on July 31, "It is clear that Senator Douglas 
is not fond of Mr. Lincoln's rough-handling and is anxious to get out of an ugly 
scrape on any terms. He had to run away from Lincoln in 1854 and dares not 
stand his broadsides now." 

Thus on July 31, the last word had been written between these two great sons 
of Illinois, and a series of joint debates arranged that have no parallel in the 
history of the United States. The whole state was aroused and all looked for- 
ward eagerly to the opening of the series at Ottawa, August 21, 1858. 


The special Chicago train of 14 cars, leaving at 8:00, arrived at Ottawa with 
Lincoln at 1 1 145. The railroad gave a half-fare rate. Twenty thousand people 
assembled to hear the contest. Douglas was met at Peru and brought to Ottawa 
in a carriage drawn by four horses. He was escorted into the city by shouts 
of the thousands, the booming of cannons and the music of brass bands, says 
one of the reporters, while the Lincoln delegation made a sorrowful appear- 
ance. Another paper said that Lincoln was met at the depot by an immense 
crowd with flying banners, while Douglas' turnout was less noisy. 


At Ottawa the surging crowd two or three times almost drove the reporters 
off the platform. People climbed to the roof of the speakers stand and it broke 
through on the heads of the reception committee. The Chicago Press and the 
Tribune said, "Fully two-thirds of the crowd were with Lincoln and cheered 
him wildly all through his speech." It says, "When Lincoln had finished his 
speech, Douglas sprang to his feet to reply. His face was lined with passion and 
excitement. We have never seen a human face so distorted with rage. He re- 
sembled a wild beast in looks and gesture, and a maniac in language and argu- 
ment. He called everybody liars who believed the charges Lincoln made against 
him. He boasted that he had won the victory and threatened what awful things 
he would do to Lincoln at Freeport." 

The Missouri Republican's reporter wrote in his paper that Douglas' speech 
was received calmly, but "Lincoln in one of his characteristic efforts, inter- 
larding his address with funny anecdotes, droll expressions and frequent witti- 
cisms, soon brought outbursts of applause which his clever hits brought forth. 
He punched the Little Giant right and left and dealt him many a well aimed 
thrust of keen satire. But the aforesaid Giant did not seem to be otherwise af- 
fected than as a young bull by an attack of gad flies. Douglas was aroused, and 
when it came his turn to reply, "perhaps" he didn't make the "hair" "fly." The 
Peoria Transcript said "Douglas" whole speech was delivered in a coarse, vulgar, 
boisterous style. Lincoln's speech was high-toned and honorable, bold pungent 
and powerful." The Illinois State Register, Springfield, said, "Compared with 
the hearty welcome of Douglas the efforts of the Republicans to make a show 
for Lincoln was a sickly affair. Lincoln did not 'face the music.' He only blun- 
dered and broke down lacking fifteen minutes of making out the time al- 
lotted to him. Lincoln withered before the bold, lucid, eloquent argumentation, 
and writhed under the sharp invective of Douglas." The Chicago Times said 
"Lincoln broke down, his heart, his legs, his tongue, his arms failed him, and 
he failed all over." The Chicago Journal : "Since the flailing Senator Douglas 
got at Ottawa on Saturday we suggest that his friends address him as the late 
Mr. Douglas." The Quincy Whig: "Among other equally eloquent expressions, 
Douglas said he intended to bring Lincoln to his milk, that Lincoln advocated 
that 'niggers' were equal to white men and that he was going to 'trot' Lincoln 
down to Egypt. Isn't this beautiful language for a United States senator?" 

The newspapers gave such conflicting reports of the debate at Ottawa that 
the only way to form an unbiased opinion is to read the speeches. 


Friday, August 2.7, at Freeport was a chilly day, threatening rain. But the 
crowds came from all directions to hear the great debate, the second of the 
series between Lincoln and Douglas. At 9 o'clock the Carroll County delegations 
arrived with a brass band and banners. An hour later a special train of twelve 
crowded cars came in from Dixon. Mr. Lincoln arrived on this train and was 
met at the station by two thousand citizens of Stephenson County. They met 
him with tremendous cheering and the multitude, headed by a band, marched' 
to the Brewster Hotel where Hon. Thomas J. Turner delivered the welcome ad- 


dress. A special train of sixteen cars, carrying over one thousand persons, 
came in from Rockford, with a banner "Winnebago County for Old Abe." 
They swept up Stephenson Street to the hotel and yelled till Lincoln came out 
and made a brief speech. A train of eight cars brought a crowd from Galena 
and Lincoln again had to appear on the balcony at the Brewster. Douglas 
reached Freeport Thursday evening and was escorted to the Brewster by a 
torchlight procession. The New York Evening Post's special correspondent 
said the crowd was larger than at Ottawa. "All prairiedom lias broken loose. 
Everywhere are banners, cotton mottoes and small flags. The streets are black 
with people. The weather is cool and cloudy. Mr. Douglas was greeted last 
evening by a turnout of torches, salutes of artillery and a stunning illumination 
of the hotel." A Republican Chicago newspaper said there were seventy-five in 
the torchlight procession and the Missouri Republican (Democratic) said there 
were one thousand. 

The Freeport Journal (September 21, 1858) said: "The people began coming 
the day before. The crowd was estimated at from ten thousand to twenty 
thousand. Douglas was met at the depot Thursday evening and made a brief 
speech at the Brewster Hotel. Lincoln arrived from the South at ten o'clock 
and was met at the train by an immense assemblage of Republicans. All away 
along the procession to the Brewster Hotel he was received with the most un- 
bounded enthusiasm. It was plainly evident that the great majority of the peo- 
ple had no sympathy with the party that endorsed the Dred Scott Decision or 
its unprincipled leader." 


The Lincoln-Douglas debate in Freeport was held not far from the Brewster 
Hotel, the site being marked by a large boulder. The platform was three or 
four feet high and had room on it for about a dozen people. The crowd formed 
a vast semi-circle about the stand. 

It had been planned to take Douglas to the speaking place in a handsome 
carriage. Lincoln's men, hearing of this, decided to produce a contrast, explained 
as follows from the recollection of General Smith D. Atkins: "Laming that it 
was the intention to convey the Democratic champion in a splendid equipage from 
Mr. Brawley's residence to the place of speaking, the Republican Committee sent 
out into Lancaster township for Uncle John Long to come to Freeport with his 
splendid team of six enormous horses and his conestoga wagon in which he had 
recently driven from Pennsylavnia. Lincoln stoutly protested against the plan, 
but finally consented. Amid the cheers of Republicans and Democrats alike, he 
climbed into the wagon, followed by a dozen of his enthusiastic supporters from 
the farming contingent and was drawn to the place of speaking. The driver of 
the teams sat on the nigh wheel horse and drove the six horses with a single 
rein." When Douglas was informed of Lincoln's conveyance, he decided to 
abandon the fine carriage and the dapple grays and walked to the speaker's plat- 
form Vvith Colonel Mitchel. 

The New York Evening Post has the following from its special correspond- 
ent on the method of handling the crowd at Freeport: "After dinner the crowd 


hurried to a grove near the hotel, where the speakers' stand and seats for listen- 
ers had been arranged. Here also was confusion and disorder. They have a 
wretched way in Illinois of leaving the platform unguarded and exposed to the 
forcible entry of the mob, who seize upon it an hour before the notabilities ar- 
rive and turn a deaf ear to all urgent appeals to evacuation. Hence, orators, 
committee of reception, invited guests and last, but not least, the newspaper 
gentry have to fight a hand to hand conflict for even the meagerest chance for 
standing room. This consumes a half hour or so, during which the crowd tak- 
ing their cue from those of high places, improvise a few scuffles for position 
among themselves." 


The correspondent of the New York Evening Post gave the following de- 
scription of Douglas and Lincoln : 

"Two men presenting wider contrasts could hardly be found as representa- 
tives of the two great political parties. Everybody knows Douglas, a short, 
thick-set, burly man, with large round head, heavy hair, dark complexion, and 
fierce bull-dog bark. Strong in his own real power, and skilled in a thousand 
conflicts in all the strategy of a hand to hand or a general fight. Of towering 
ambition, restless in his desire for notoriety: proud, defiant, arrogant, unscrupu- 
lous, 'Little Doug' ascended the platform and looked out impudently and care- 
lessly on the immense throng which surged and struggled before him. A native 
of Vermont, reared on soil where no slave ever trod, trained to hard manual 
labor and schooled in hardships, he came to Illinois a teacher, and from one 
post to another had arisen to his present eminence. 

"The other, Lincoln, is a native of Kentucky, and of poor white parentage 
and from his cradle he has felt the blighting influence and cruel shadow which 
rendered labor dishonorable. Reared in poverty and the humblest aspirations, 
he came to Illinois and began his career of honorable toil. At first a laborer, 
splitting rails for a living, deficient in education, and applying himself even to the 
rudiments of knowledge he, too, felt the expanding power of manhood and be- 
gan to achieve the greatness to which he has succeeded. With great difficulty, 
struggling through the tedious formularies of legal lore, he was admitted to the 
bar and rapidly made his way to the front ranks of his profession. He has 
been always, in every relation of life, the pure and honest man. Built on the 
Kentucky type, he is very tall, slender and angular, awkward, even in gait and 
attitude. His face is sharp, large featured and unprepossessing. His eyes are 
deep set, under heavy brows ; his forehead is high and retreating and his hair is 
dark and heavy. In repose, 'Long Abe's' appearance is not comely. But stir him 
up and the fire of his genius plays on every feature. His eye glows and sparkles, 
every lineament, now so ill-formed, grows radiant and expressive, and you have 
before you a man of rare power and of strong magnetic influence. He is clear, 
concise, and logical ; his language is eloquent and at perfect command. He is 
altogether a more fluent speaker than Douglas, and in all the arts of debate fully 
his equal." 


A description of Lincoln in the Vincennes Sun, July 3, 1858, is as follows: 

"Lincoln is popular, the strongest man the opposition have, is nearly fifty 
years old, six feet two, slightly stoop-shouldered, very muscular and powerful, 
dark eyes, a quizzical, pleasant, raw-boned face, tells a story better than anybody 
else, is a good lawyer, and is what the world calls a devilish good fellow. He 
would have been Senator before had not Trumbull's superior cunning over- 
reached him. But in dignity, intellect and majesty of mind, it is not pretended 
that he is Douglas's equal." Douglas said that he considered Lincoln "a kind, 
amiable, kindhearted gentleman, a good citizen, and an honorable opponent," but 
that he took exception to his principles. 

An eye witness of the Freeport debate gives the following description of the 
"two men : "Lincoln was tall and ungainly, with a lean face. Homely and sor- 
rowful looking, while Douglas was short and fat, easy of manner and his full 
face seemed to be that of a man whose life had been one of success and sun- 
shine. Douglas was dressed in what might have been called plantation style. 
He was richly dressed. He wore a ruffled shirt, a dark blue coat closed with 
shiny buttons, light trousers and shiny shoes, with a wide-brimmed soft hat, like 
that still worn by the prosperous politicians of Southern Illinois. He made a 
picture fitted for the stage. 

Lincoln wore an old stove-pipe hat with a coarse looking coat with sleeves 
far too short, and baggy trousers, so short that they showed his rough boots. 
To tell the truth, the Lincoln men couldn't brag much on their man for exhibi- 
tion purposes. 

The correspondent of the New York Tribune criticised Douglas for his 
abuse of opponents. It says, "Trumbull in particular came in for a good share 
of these compliments. Douglas is rather more cautious how he talks about Lin- 
coln, 'Long Abe' being a man of Kentucky raising, and one who might fight and 
'Little Doug' is well known to be a bully who insults only peaceable men." The 
Tribune reporter also sent his paper the following story about Lincoln's good 
looks. The story goes as follows : "Lincoln was out hunting in the woods when 
he fell in with a most truculent looking hunter who immediately took a sight 
on Lincoln with a rifle. 'Halloo!' says Lincoln, 'whatever you going to do 
stranger?' 'See here, friend, the folks in my settlement told me if I ever saw a 
man uglier than I was, then I must shoot him ; and I've found him at last.' 
'Well,' says Lincoln, after a good look at the man, 'Shoot away, for if I am 
really uglier than you are, I don't want to live any longer.' " 

The Chicago Times said, October i, 1858: "It will be remembered that 
after Lincoln had been listened to attentively, and when Douglas went upon 
the stand, some villian threw at Douglas a melon, hitting him upon one shoulder. 
Nor was that the only indecent act perpetrated by the enemies of Democracy at 
that place. From that day to this the ruffianism of black Republicanism has 
steadily increased." 

Mr. Ingalls Carleton, one of the pioneers of Freeport who witnessed the 
great debate, says that on Friday A. M. the people crowded the street in front 
of the Brewster Hotel and yelled for both Douglas and Lincoln. Finally both 
Lincoln and Douglas appeared on the balcony, arm in arm, and bowed to the 


people again and again. At the debate each side thought its man did the best, 
but a majority thought Lincoln had Douglas on the hip." 

William Askey says Hon. Martin P. Sweet had a vantage position on a box 
car when Lincoln's train came into Freeport and shouted, "Make the welkin ring 
when the train arrives." He adds, "they cheered as though bedlam had an 


During the Ottawa debate Douglas put several question to Mr. Lincoln. At 
Freeport, Lincoln answered these questions and then said that he had a few 
questions he wanted to put to Judge Douglas. At Freeport, he confined himself 
to four questions, as follows : 

1. If the people of Kansas shall, by means entirely unobjectionable in all 
other respects, adopt a state constitution and ask admission into the Union under 
it, before they have the requisite number of inhabitants according to the English 
bill same 93,000, will you vote to admit them? (Applause.) 

2. Can the people of a United States territory in a lawful way, against the 
wish of any citizen of the United States, exclude slavery from its limits prior 
to the formation of a state constitution? (Applause.) 

3. If the supreme court of the United States shall decree that states cannot 
exclude slavery from their limits, are you in favor of aquiescing in, adopting 
and following such decision as a rule of political action? (Loud applause.) 

4. Are you in favor of acquiring additional territory in disregard of how 
such acquisition may affect the nation on the slavery question? (Cries of good! 

Judge Douglas answered the questions as follows: 

i. I, therefore, answer at once that it having been decided that Kansas has 
people enough for a slave state, it has enough for a free state. 

' 2. In my opinion the people of a territory can, by lawful means, exclude 
slavery from their limits, prior to the formation of a state constitution. It mat- 
ters not what way the supreme court may hereafter decide as the abstract ques- 
tion whether slavery may go into the territory under the constitution, the people 
have the lawful means to introduce it or exclude it as they please, for the reason 
that slavery cannot exist a day or an hour anywhere unless it is supported by 
local police regulations. 

3. I tell him that such a thing is not possible. 

4. I answer that whenever it becomes necessary, in our growth and progress, 
to acquire more territory, that I am in favor of it without reference to the ques- 
tion of slavery ; and when we have acquired it, I will leave the people free to 
do as they please, either to make it slave or a free territory as they prefer. 

It was the second question that caused so much comment before and after the 
debate. It seemed to put Douglas in a dilemma because if he answered yes, 
he .would seem to be denying the principle of the Dred Scott decision which he 
supported. If he answered no, then he shattered his own creation, popular 
sovereignty. However, that may be, Douglas answered the question, yes, and 


lost the votes of the southern delegation in the Democratic National Convention 
of 1860. 

That Lincoln's advisors were against his asking this second question is 
clear. Joseph Medill, of the Chicago Tribune, was with Lincoln from Ottawa 
to Freeport. Between the two debates Lincoln addressed three or four meetings. 
Lincoln showed his four questions to Medill on the train coming up from Dixon, 
and asked Medill's opinion of them. Medill objected to the second question, 
because, as he said, it would give Douglas a chance to square himself on his popu- 
lar sovereignty idea. Lincoln replied, "I won't change it, and I intend to spear 
it at Judge Douglas this afternoon." Medill told E. B. Washburn and Norman 
B. Judd, the former the congressman from the Freeport district and the latter, 
chairman of the Republican State Central Committee, about Lincoln's questions 
and they decided to attempt to convince Lincoln that the celebrated question 
should be left out. They made the attempt and failed to change his purpose. 

After Lincoln had been elected president of the United States, he asked 
Medill if he remembered that question he asked Douglas at Freeport? Medill, 
of course, remembered it and replied that, while it hurt Douglas for the presi- 
dency, it elected him to the senate. Lincoln replied with a smile, "Now, I have 
won the place he was playing for." 

Hon. Clark E. Carr, who knew Lincoln and Douglas well, in speech before 
the Bar Association, July n, 1907, denied that Lincoln drove Douglas into a cor- 
ner by his question. He stated that Douglas had taken the same ground on that 
point at Bloomington six weeks before, and that Lincoln heard that speech. Mr. 
Carr adds : "Senator Douglas has never been driven into a corner. In all his de- 
bates with the greatest American, he was never driven into a corner. His views 
on slavery were wrong, but there was no concealment about them. He was 
always outspoken, and it is an unwarrantable and an outrageous imputation 
against him to say that he was forced to take a position through being driven 
into a corner." However, the Bloomington speech by Douglas received little at- 
tention, while the Freeport debates were read and discussed all over the nation, 
and the wide publicity of that idea expressed in the answer by Douglas made it 
impossible for him to be the candidate of the United Democracy for the presi- 
dency of the United States in 1860. The division thus caused, made Lincoln's 
election both possible and probable. 

Rhodes quotes Horace Greeley as authority for the statements of the cost 
of the campaign to the two candidates. "Lincoln," Greeley said, in the Century 
Magazine, July, 1891, p. 375, "spent less than $1,000, while Douglas spent no 
less than $80,000, and incurred a debt which weighed him down to the grave." 

When the legislature met to elect a senator, Douglas had a majority of eight 
votes. But the Republican state ticket was elected by a majority of almost four 
thousand votes. In 1854 Lincoln lacked only four votes of being elected to the 

After the contest of 1858 was over Douglas paid Lincoln the compliment in 
Washington by saying that there was not a man in the senate he would not 
rather meet in debate than Lincoln and that included such men as Seward, Sum- 
ner and Chase. 



Freeport, August 27, 1858. 

Mr. Lincoln was introduced by Hon. Thomas J. Turner, and was greeted 
with loud cheers. When the applause had subsided he said: 


Ladies and Gentlemen : On Saturday last, Judge Douglas and myself first 
met in public discussion. He spoke one hour, I an hour and a half, and he 
replied for half an hour. The order is now reversed. I am to speak an hour, 
he an hour and a half, and then I am to reply for half an hour. I propose to 
devote myself during the first hour to the scope of what was brought within the 
range of his half-hour speech at Ottawa. Of course there was brought within 
the scope of 1 that half-hour's speech something of his own opening speech. 

In the course of that opening argument Judge Douglas proposed to me seven 
distinct interrogatories. In my speech of an hour and a half, I attended to some 
other parts of his speech, and incidentally, as I thought, answered one of the 
interrogatories then. I then distinctly intimated to him that I would answer the 
rest of his interrogatories. He made no intimation at the time of the proposi- 
tion, nor did he in his reply allude at all to that suggestion of mine. I do him no 
injustice in saying that he occupied at least half of his reply in dealing with me 
as though I had refused to answer his interrogatories. I now propose that I 
will answer any of the interrogatories upon condition that he will answer ques- 
tions from me not. exceeding the same number. I give him an opportunity to 
respond. The judge remains silent. I now say 2 that I will answer his interrog- 
atories whether he answers mine or not; (applause) and after that I have done 
so, I shall propound mine to him. (Applause.) 

(Owing to the press of people against the platform our reporter did not 
reach the stand until Mr. Lincoln had spoken to this point. The previous re- 
marks were taken by a gentleman in Freeport, who has politely furnished them 
to us.) 

I have supposed myself, since the organization of the Republican party at 
Bloomington, in May, 1856, bound as a party man by the platform of the party, 
then and since. If in any interrogatories which I shall answer I go beyond the 
scope of what is within these platforms, it will be perceived that no one is re- 
sponsible but myself. 

Having said thus much, I will take up the judge's interrogatories as I find 
them printed in the Chicago Times, and answer them seriatim. In order that 
there may be no mistake about it, I have copied the interrogatories in writing, 
and also my answers to it. 3 The first otic of these interrogatories is in these 
words : 

Question I. "I desire to know whether Lincoln today stands as he did in 
1854, in favor of the unconditional repeal of the Fugitive- Slave law?" 

i Reads : "in 1 ' for 'of." 

- Inserts : "to you" after "say." 

s Reads : "them" for "it." 






Answer. I do not now, nor ever did, stand in favor of the unconditional 
repeal of the Fugitive-Slave law. (Cries of "Good! Good!") 

Q. 2. "I desire him to answer whether he stands pledged today, as he did 
in 1854, against the admission of any more slave states into the Union, even if 
the people want them?" 

A. I do not now, nor ever did, stand pledged against the admission of any 
more slave states into the Union. 

Q. 3. "I want to know whether he stands pledged against the admission of 
a new state into the Union with such a constitution as the people of that state 
may see fit to make ?" 

A. I do not stand pledged against the admission of a new state into the 
Union, with such a constitution as the people of that state may see fit to make. 
(Cries of "Good! Good!") 

Q. 4. "I want to know whether he stands today pledged to the abolition of 
slavery in the District of Columbia?" 

A. I do not stand today pledged to the abolition of slavery in the District 
of Columbia. 

Q. 5. "I desire him to answer whether he stands pledged to the prohibition 
of the slave trade between the different states?" 

A. I do not stand pledged to the prohibition of the slave trade between the 
different states. , 

Q. 6. "I desire to know whether he stands pledged to prohibit slavery in 
all the territories of the United States, north as well as south of the Missouri 
Compromise Line?" 

A. I am impliedly, if not expressly, pledged to a belief in the right and 
duty of Congress to prohibit slavery in all the United States territories. (Great 

Q. 7. "I desire him to answer whether he is opposed to the acquisition of 
any new territory unless slavery is first prohibited therein?" 

A. I am not generally opposed to honest acquisition of territory ; and, in 
any given case, I would or would not oppose such acquisition, accordingly as I 
might think such acquisition would or would not aggravate 1 the slavery question 
among ourselves. (Cries of "Good! Good!") 

Now, my friends, it will be perceived, upon an examination of these questions 
and answers that, so far, I have only answered that I was not pledged to this 
or the other. The judge has not framed his interrogatories to ask me anything 
more than this, and I have answered in strict accordance with the interrogatories 
and have answered truly, that I am not pledged at all upon any of the points to 
to which I have answered. But I am not disposed to hang upon the exact form 
of his interrogatory. I am rather disposed to take up at least some off these 
questions and state what I really think upon them. 

As to the first one, in regard to the Fugitive- Slave Law, I have never hesi- 
tated to say, and I do not now hesitate to say, that I think, under the Constitution 
of the United States, the people of the southern states are entitled to a congres- 
sional fugitive-slave law. Having said that, I have had nothing to say in regard 
to the existing Fugitive- Slave Law, further than that I think it should have been 
framed so as to be free from some of the objections that pertain to it, without 

i Reads : "them" for "it" 


lessening its efficiency. And inasmuch as we are not now in an agitation in re- 
gard to an altercation or modification of that law, I would not be the man to 
introduce it as a new subject of agitation upon the general question of slavery. 

In regard to the other question, of whether I am pledged to the admission of 
any more slave states into the Union, I state to you very frankly that I would 
be exceedingly sorry ever to be put in a position of having to pass upon that 
question. I should be exceedingly glad to know that there would never be an- 
other slave state admitted into the Union; (applause) but I must add that if 
slavery shall be kept out of the territories during the territorial existence of any 
one given territory and then the people shall, having a fair chance and a clear 
field, when they come to adopt the constitution do such an extraordinary thing 
as to adopt a slave constitution, uninfluenced by the actual presence of the insti- 
tution among them, I see no alternative, if we own the country, but to admit 
them into the Union. (Applause.) 

The third interrogatory is answered by the answer to the second, it being, 
as I conceive, the same as the second. 

The fourth one is in regard to the abolition of slavery in the District of Co- 
lumbia. In relation to that, I have my mind very distinctly made up. I should 
be exceedingly glad to see slavery abolished in the District of Columbia. (Cries 
of "Good! Good!") I believe that Congress possesses the constitutional power 
to abolish it. Yet as a member of Congress I should not, with my present views, 
be in favor of endeavoring to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia, unless 
it would be upon these conditions : First, that the abolition should be gradual , 
second, that it should be on a vote of the majority of qualified voters in the 
district ; and third, that compensation should be made to unwilling owners. With 
these three conditions, I confess I would be exceedingly glad to see Congress 
abolish slavery in the District of Columbia and, in the language of Henry Clay, 
"sweep from our capital that foul blot upon our nation." (Loud applause.) 

In regard to the fifth interrogatory, I must say here, that as to the question 
of the abolition of the slave trade between the different states, I can truly an- 
swer, as I have, that I am pledged to nothing about) it. It is a subject to which 
I have not given that mature consideration that would make me feel authorized 
to state a position so as to hold myself entirely bound by it. In other words, that 
question has never been prominently enough before me to induce me to investi- 
gate whether we really have the constitutional power to do it. I could investi- 
gate it if I had sufficient time to bring myself to a conclusion upon that subject; 
but I have not done so, and I say so frankly to you here, and to Judge Douglas. 
I must say, however, that if I should be of opinion that Congress does pos- 
sess the constitutional power to abolish the slave-trade 1 among the different 
states, I should still not be in favor of the exercise of that power unless 
upon some conservative principle as I conceive it, akin to what I have said 
in relation to the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia. 

My answer as to whether I desire that slavery should be prohibited in all 
the territories of the United States, is full and explicit within itself, and cannot 
be made clearer by any comments of mine. So I suppose in regard to the ques- 
tion whether I am opposed to the acquisition of any more territory unless slavery 

i Reads : "slavery" for "the slave trade." 


is first prohibited therein, my answer is such that I could add nothing by way 
of illustration, or making myself better understood, than the answer which I 
have placed in writing. 

Now in all this the judge has me, and he has me on the record. I suppose 
he had flattered himself that I was really entertaining one set of opinions for 
one place, and another set for another place; that I was afarid to say at one 
place what I uttered at another. What I am saying here I suppose I say to a 
vast audience as strongly tending to abolitionism as any audience in the State 
of Illinois, and I believe I am saying that which, if it would be offensive 2 to any 
persons and render them enemies to myself, would be offensive to persons in 
this audience. 

I now proceed to propound to the judge the interrogatories, so far as I have 
framed them. I will bring forward a new installment when I get them ready. 
(Laughter.) I will bring them forward now, only reaching to number fcur. 

The first one is : 

Question I. If the people of Kansas shall, by means entirely unobjection- 
able in all other respects, adopt a state constitution and ask admission into the 
Union under it, before they have the requisite number of inhabitants according 
to the English bill, some ninety-three thousand, will you vote to admit them? 

Q. 2. Can the people of a United States Territory in any lawful way, 
against the wish of any citizen of the United States, exclude slavery from its 
limits prior to the formation of a State constitution ? ( Renewed applause. ) 

Q. 3. If the Supreme Court of the United States shall decree that states 
cannot exclude slavery from their limits, are you in favor of acquiescing in, 
adopting and following such decision as a rule of political action? (Loud 
applause. ) 

Q. 4. Are you in favor of acquiring additional territory, in disregard of 
how such acquisition may affect the nation on the slavery question? (Cries of 
"Good! Good!") 

As introductory to these interrogatories which Judge Douglas propounded to 
me at Ottawa, he read a set of resolutions which he said Judge Trumbull and 
myself had participated in adopting, in the first Republican State Convention, 
held at Springfield in October, 1854. He insisted that I and Judge Trumbull, 
and perhaps the entire Republican party, were responsible for the doctrines con- 
tained in the set of resolutions which he read, and I understand that it was from 
that set of resolutions that he deduced the interrogatories which he propounded 
to me, using these resolutions as a sort of authority for propounding those 
questions to me. Now, I say here to-day that I do not answer his interrogatories 
because of their springing at all from that set of resolutions which he read. I 
answered them because Judge Douglas thought fit to ask them. (Applause.) I 
do not now, nor never did, recognize any responsibility upon myself in that set 
of resolutions. When I replied to him on that occasion. I assured him that I 
never had anything to do with them. I repeat here to-day that I never in any 
possible form had anything to do with that set of resolutions. 

- Reads : "affirmed" for "offensive." 


It turns out, I believe, that those resolutions were never passed in any con- 
vention held in Springfield. (Cheers and laughter.) It turns out that they were 
never passed at any convention or any public meeting that I had any part in. I 
believe it turns out, in addition to all this, that there was not, in the fall of 1854, 
any convention holding a session in Springfield, calling itself a Republican State 
Convention ; yet it is true there was a convention or assemblage of men calling 
themselves a convention, at Springfield, that did pass some resolutions. But so 
little did I really know of the proceedings of that convention, or what set or reso- 
lutions they had passed, though having a general knowledge that there had been 
such an assemblage of men there, that when Judge Douglass read the resolutions, 
I really did not know but they had been the resolutions passed then and there 
I did not question that they were the resolutions adopted. For I could not 
bring myself to suppose that Judge Douglas could say what he did upon this 
subject with out knoimng that it was true. (Cheers and laughter.) I contented 
myself, on that occasion, with denying, as I truly could, all connection with them, 
not denying or affirming whether they were passed at Springfield. Now, it 
turns out that he had got hold of some resolutions passed at some convention or 
public meeting in Kane County. (Renewed laughter.) I wish to say here, that 
I don't conceive that in any fair and just mind this discovery relieves me at all. 
I had just as much to do with the convention in Kane County as that at Spring- 
field. I am just as much responsible for the resolutions at Kane County as 
those at Springfield, the amount of the responsibility being exactly nothing in 
either case ; no more than there would be in regard to a set of resolutions passed 
in the moon. (Laughter and loud cheers.) 

I allude to this extraordinary matter in this canvass for some further pur- 
pose than anything yet advanced. Judge Douglas did not make his statement 
upon that occasion as matters that he believed to be true, but he stated them 
roundly as being true, in such form as to pledge his veracity for their truth. 
When the whole matter turns out as it does, and when we consider who Judge 
Douglas is, that he is a distinguished Senator of the United States ; that he has 
served nearly twelve years as such ; that his character is not at all limited as an 
ordinary Senator of the United States, but that his name has become of world- 
wide renown, it is most extraordinary that he should so far forget all the sug- 
gestions of justice to an adversary, or of prudence to himself, as to venture 
upon the assertion of that which the slightest investigation would have shown 
him to be wholly false. (Cheers.) I can only account for his having done so 
upon the supposition that that evil genius which has attended him through his 
life, giving to him an apparent astonishing prosperity, such as to lead very many 
good men to doubt there being any advantage in virtue over vice. (Cheers and 
laughter.) I say I can only account for it on the supposition that that evil genius 
has at last made up its mind to forsake him. (Continued cheers and laughter. ) 

And I may add that another extraordinary feature of the Judge's conduct 
in this canvass made more extraordinary by this incident is, that he is in 
the habit, in almost all the speeches he makes, of charging falsehood upon his 
adversaries, myself and others. I now ask whether he is able to find in any- 
thing that Judge Trumbull, for instance, has said, or in anything that I have 


said, a justification at all compared with what we have, in this instance, for that 
sort of vulgarity. (Cries of "Good! Good!") 

I have been in the habit of charging as a matter of belief on my part that, 
in the introduction of the Nebraska bill into Congress, there was a conspiracy to 
make slavery perpetual and national. I have arranged from time to time the 
evidence which establishes and proves the truth of this charge. I recurred to 
this charge at Ottawa. I shall not now have time to dwell upon it at very great 
length ; but inasmuch as Judge Douglas, in his reply of half an hour, made some 
points upon me in relation to it, I propose noticing a few of them. 

The Judge insists, that, in the first speech I made, in which I very distinctly 
made that charge, he thought for a good while I was in fun ; that I was playful ; 
that I was not sincere about it; and that he only grew angry and somewhat ex- 
cited when he found that I insisted upon it as a matter of earnestness. He says 
he characterized it as a falsehood as far as I implicated his moral character in 
that transaction. Well, I did not know, till he presented that view, that I had 
implicated his moral character. He is very much in the habit, when he argues 
me up into a position I never thought of occupying, of very cosily saying he has 
no doubt Lincoln is "conscientious" in saying so. He should remember that I 
did not know but what he was ALTOGETHER "CONSCIENTIOUS" in the 
matter. (Great laughter.) I can conceive it was possible for men to conspire 
to do a good thing, and I really find nothing in Judge Douglas' course or argu- 
ments that is contrary to, or inconsistent with, his belief of a conspiracy to 
nationalize and spread slavery as being a good and blessed thing; (continued 
laughter) and so I hope he will understand that I do not at all question but that 
in all this matter he is entirely "conscientious." (More laughter and cheers.) 

But to draw your attention to one of the points I made in this case, beginning 
at the beginning. When the Nebraska bill was introduced, or a short time after- 
ward, by an amendment, I believe, it was provided that it must be considered 
"the true intent and meaning of this act not to legislate slavery into any state or 
territory, or to exclude it therefrom, but to leave the people thereof perfectly 
free to form and regulate their own domestic institutions in their own way, sub- 
ject only to the constitution of the United States." I have called his attention 
to the fact that when he and some others began arguing that they were giving 
an increased degree of liberty to the people of the territories over and above 
what they formerly had on the question of slavery, a question was raised whether 
the law was enacted to give such unconditional liberty, to the people ; and to 
test the sincerity of this mode of argument, Mr. Chase, of Ohio, introduced an 
amendment in which he made the law if the amendment were adopted ex- 
pressly declare that the people of the territory should have the power to exclude 
slavery if they saw fit. 

I have asked attention also to the fact that Judge Douglas and those who 
acted with him voted that amendment down, notwithstanding it expressed ex- 
actly the thing they said was the true intent and meaning of the law. I have 
called attention to the fact that in subsequent times a decision of the Supreme 
Court has been made, in which it has been declared that a territorial legislature 
has no constitutional right to exclude slavery. And I have argued and said that 
for men who did intend that the people of the territory should have the right to 


exclude slavery absolutely and unconditionally, the voting down of Chase's 
amendment is wholly inexplicable. It is a puzzle, a riddle. But I have said that 
with men who did look forward to such a decision, or who had it in contempla- 
tion that such a decision of the Supreme Court would or might be made, the 
voting down of that amendment would be perfectly rational and intelligible. It 
would keep Congress from coming in collision with the decision when it was 

Anybody can conceive that if there was an intention or expectation that such 
a decision was to follow, it would not be a very desirable party attitude to get 
into, for the Supreme Court all or nearly all its members belonging to the same 
party to decide one way, when the party in Congress had decided the other 
way. Hence it would be very rational for men expecting such a decision to keep 
the niche in that law clear for it. After pointing this out, I tell Judge Douglas 
that it looks to me as though here was the reason why Chase's amendment was 
voted down. I tell him that, 'as he did it, and knows why he did it, if it was, 
done for a reason different from this, he knows what that reason was, and can 
tell us what it zvas. I tell him, also, it will be vastly more satisfactory to the 
country for him to give some other plausible, intelligible, reason why it was 
voted down than to stand upon his dignity and call people liars. (Loud cheers.) 

Well, on Saturday he did make his answer; and what do you think it was? 
He says if I had only taken upon myself to tell the whole truth about that 
amendment of Chase's no explanation would have been necessary on his part - 
or words to that effect. Now, I say here that I am quite unconscious of having 
suppressed anything material to the case, and I am very frank to admit if there 
is any sound reason other than that which appeared to one national, it is quite 
fair for him to present it. What reason does he propose? That when Chase 
came forward with his amendment expressly authorizing the people to exclude 
slavery from the limits of every territory, General Cass proposed to Chase, if 
he (Chase) would add to his amendment that the people should have the power 
to introduce or exclude, they would let it go. (That is substantially all of his 
reply.) And because Chase would not do that, they voted his amendment down. 
Well, it turns out, I believe, upon examination, that General Cass took some 
part in the little running debate upon that amendment, and then ran away and 
did not vote on it at all. (Laughter.) Is not that the fact? So confident, as 
1 think, was General Cass, that there was a snake somewhere about, he chose to 
run away from the whole thing. This is an inference I draw from the fact 
that, though he took part in the debate, his name does not appear in the ayes 
and noes. But does Judge Douglas's reply amount to a satisfactory answer? 
(Cries of "Yes, Yes," and "No, No.") There is some little difference of 
opinion here. (Laughter.) 

But I ask attention to a few more views bearing on the question of whether 
it amounts to a satisfactory answer. The men who were determined that that 
amendment should not get into the bill and spoil the place where the Dred Scott 
decision was to come in, sought an excuse to get rid of it somewhere. One of 
these ways one of these excuses was to ask Chase to add to his proposed 
amendment a provision that the people might introduce slavery if they wanted 
to. They very well knew Chase would do no such thing, that Mr. Chase was one 


of the men differing from them on the broad principle of his insisting that free- 
dom was -better than slavery, a man who would not consent to enact a law, 
penned with his own hand, by which he was made to recognize slavery on the 
one hand and liberty on the other, as precisely equal; and when they insisted on 
his doing this, they very well knew they insisted on that which he would not for 
a moment think of doing, and that they were only bluffing him. I believe (I 
have not, since he made his answer, had a chance to examine the journals or 
Congressional Globe and therefore speak from memory) I believe the state of the 
bill at that time, according to parliamentary rules, was such that no member could 
propose an additional amendment to Chase's amendment. I rather think this is 
the truth, the Judge shakes his head. Very well. I would like to know, then, 
if they wanted Close's amendment fixed over, why somebody else could not have 
offered to do it? If they wanted it amended, why did they not offer the amend- 
ment? Why did they stand there taunting and quibbling at Chase? (Laughter.) 
Why did they not put it in themselves? 

But to put it on the other ground : Suppose that there was such an amend- 
ment offered, and Chase's was an amendment to an amendment; until one is 
disposed of, by parliamentary law you cannot pile another on. Then all these 
gentlemen had to do was to vote Chase's on, and then, in the amended form in 
which the whole stood, add their own amendment to it, if they wanted to put it 
in that shape. This was all they were obliged to do, and the ayes and noes 
show that there were thirty-six who voted it down, against ten who voted in 
favor of it. The thirty-six held entire sway and control. They could in some 
form or other have put that bill in the exact shape they wanted. If there was a 
rule preventing their amending it at the time, they could pass that, and then, 
Chase's amendment being merged, put it in the shape they wanted. They did 
not choose to do so, but they went into a quibble with Chase to get him to add 
what they knew he would not add, and because he would not, they stand upon 
that flimsy pretext for voting down what they argued was the meaning and in- 
tent of their own bill. They left room thereby for this Dred Scott decision, 
which goes very far to make slavery national throughtuot the United States. 

I pass one or two points I have, because my time will very soon expire; but 
I must be allowed to say that Judge Douglas recurs again as he did upon one 
or two other occasions, to the enormity of Lincoln, an insignificant individual 
like Lincoln upon his ipse dixit charging a conspiracy upon a large number of 
members of Congress, the Supreme Court and two presidents, to nationalize 
slavery. I want to say that, in the first place, I have made no charge of this sort 
upon my ipse dixit. I have only arrayed the evidence tending to prove it, and 
presented it to the understanding of others, saying what I think it proves, but 
giving you the means of judging whether it proves it or not. This is precisely 
what I have done. I have not placed it upon my ipse dixit at all. 

On this occasion, I wish to recall his attention to a piece of evidence which 
I brought forward at Ottawa on Saturday, showing that he had made substan- 
tially the same charge against substantially same persons, excluding his dear self 
from the category. I ask him to give some attention to the evidence which I 
brought forward that he himself had discovered a "fatal blow being struck" 
against the right of the people to exclude slavery from their limits, which fatal 


blow he assumed as in evidence in an article in the Washington Union, pub- 
lished "by authority." I ask by whose authority? He discovers a similar or 
identical provision in the Lecompton constitution. Made by whom? The 
f ramers of that constitution. Advocated by whom ? By all the members of the 
party in the nation, who advocated the introduction of Kansas into the Union 
under the Lecompton constitution. 

I have asked his attention to the evidence that he arrayed to prove that 
such a fatal blow was being struck, and to the facts which he brought forward in 
support of that charge, being identical with the one which he thinks so vil- 
lainous 1 in me. He pointed it, not at a newspaper editor merely, but at the 
president and his cabinet and the members of Congress advocating the Lecomp- 
ton constitution and those framing that instrument. I must again be permitted 
to remind him that although my ipse dixit may not be as great as his, yet it some- 
what reduces the force of his calling my attention to the enormity of my making 
a like charge against him. (Loud applause.) 

Go on, Judge Douglas. 


Ladies and Gentlemen: The silence with which you have listened to Mr. 
Lincoln during his hour is creditable to this vast audience, composed of men of 
various political parties. Nothing is more honorable to any large mass of peo- 
ple assembled for the purpose of a fair discussion than that kind and respectful 
attention that is yielded, not only to your political friends, but to those who are 
opposed to you in politics. 

I am glad that at last I have brought Mr. Lincoln to the conclusion that he 
had better define his position on certain political questions to which I called his 
attention at Ottawa. He there showed no disposition, no inclination, to answer 
them. I did not present idle questions for him to answer, merely for my grati- 
fication. I laid the foundation for those interrogatories by showing that they 
constituted the platform of the party whose nominee he is for the senate. I 
did not presume that I had the right to chatechise him as I saw proper, unless 
I showed that his party, or a majority of it, stood upon the platform 
and were in favor of the proposition, upon which my questions were based. 
I desired simply to know, inasmuch as he had been nominated as the first, 
last, and only choice of his party, whether he concurred in the platform 
which that party had adopted for its government. In a few moments I 
will proceed to review the answers which he has given to these interrogatories ; 
but, in order to relieve his anxiety, I will first respond to these 2 which he has 
presented to me. Mark you, he has not presented interrogatories which have 
ever received the sanction of the party with which I am acting, and hence he 
has no other foundation for them than his own curiosity. ("That's a fact.") 

First, he desired to know if the people of Kansas shall form a constitution 
by means entirely proper and objectionable, and ask admission into the Union as 
a state, before they have the requisite population for a member of Congress, 

1 Reads : "Villainous." 

2 Reads : "those" for "these." 


whether I will vote for that admission. Well, now, I regret exceedingly that he 
did not answer that interrogatory himself before he put it to me, in order that 
we might understand, and not be left to infer, on which side he is. ("Good, 
good.") Mr. Trumbull, during the last session of Congress, voted from the 
beginning to the end against the admission of Oregon, although a free state, 
because she had not the requisite population for a member of Congress. ("That's 
it.") Mr. Trumbull would not consent, under any circumstances, to let a 
state, free or slave, come into the Union until it had the requisite population. 
As Mr. Trumbull is in the field, fighting for Mr. Lincoln, I would like to have 
Mr. Lincoln answer his own question, and tell me whether he is fighting Trum- 
bull on that issue or not. ("Good, put it to him," and cheers.) 

But I will answer his question. In reference to Kansas, it is my opinion 
that as she has population enough to constitute a slave state, she has people 
enough for a free state. (Cheers.) I will not make Kansas an exceptional case 
to the other states of the Union. ("Sound," and "Hear, hear.") I hold it 
to be a sound rule, of universal application, to require a territory to contain the 
requisite population for a member of Congress before it is admitted as a state 
into the Union. I made that proposition in the senate in 1856, and I renewed 
it during the last session, in a bill providing that no territory of the United 
States should form a constitution and apply for admission until it had the requi- 
site population. On another occasion I proposed that neither Kansas nor 1 any 
other territory should be admitted until it had the requisite population. Congress 
did not adopt any of my propositions containing this general rule, but did make 
an exception of Kansas. I will stand by that exception. (Cheers.) Either 
Kansas must come in as a free state, with whatever population she may have, 
or the rule must be applied to all the other territories alike. (Cheers.) I 
therefore answer at once, that, it having been decided that Kansas has people 
enough for a slave state, I hold that she has enough for a free state. ("Good," 
and applause.) 

I hope Mr. Lincoln is satisfied with my answer; ("He ought to be/' and 
cheers.) and now I would like to get his answer to his own interrogatory 
whether or not he will vote to admit Kansas before she has the requisite popu- 
lation. ("Hit him again.") I want to know whether he will vote to admit 
Oregon before that territory has the requisite population. Mr. Trumbull will 
not, and the same reason that commits Mr. Trumbull against the admission of 
Oregon, commits him against Kansas, even if she should apply for admission 
as a free state. ("You've got him," and cheers.) If there is any sincerity, any 
truth, in the argument of Mr. Trumbull in the senate against the admission 
of Oregon because she had not ninety-three thousand, four hundred and twenty 
people, although her population was larger than that of Kansas, he stands 
pledged against the admission of both Oregon and Kansas until they have 
ninety-three thousand, four hundred and twenty inhabitants. I would like Mr. 
Lincoln to answer this question. I would like him to take his own medicine. 
(Laughter.) If he differs with Mr. Trumbull, let him answer his argument 
against the admission of Oregon, instead of poking questions at me. ("Right, 
good, good," laughter and cheers.) 

i Reads : "or" for "i:or." 


The next question propounded to me by Mr. Lincoln is : Can the people of, 
a territory in any lawful way, against the wishes of any citizen of the United 
States exclude slavery from their limits prior to the formation of a state con- 
stitution? I answer emphatically, as Mr. Lincoln has heard me answer a hun- 
dred times, from every stump in Illinois, that in my opinion the people of a 
territory can, by lawful means, exclude slavery from their limits prior to the 
formation of a state constitution. (Enthusiastic applause.) Mr. Lincoln knew 
that I had answered that question over and over again. He heard me argue the 
Nebraska Bill on that principle all over the state in 1854, in 1855, and in 1856, 
and he has no excuse for pretending to be in doubt as to my position on that 
question. It matters not what way the supreme court may hereafter decide as 
to the abstract question whether slavery may or may not go into a territory 
under the constitution, the people have the lawful means to introduce it or exclude 
it as they please, for the reason that slavery cannot exist a day or an hour any- 
where, unless it is supported by local police regulations. ("Right, right.") Those 
police regulations can only be established by the local legislature; and if the people 
are opposed to slavery, they will elect representatives to that body who will by 
unfriendly legislation effectually prevent the introduction of it into their midst. 
If, on the contrary, they are for it, their legislation will favor its extension. 
Hence, no matter what the decision of the supreme court may be on that ab- 
stract question, still the right of the people to make a slave territory or a free 
territory is perfect and complete under the Nebraska Bill. I hope Mr. Lin- 
coln deems my answer satisfactory on that point. 

In this connection I will notice the charge which he has introduced in rela- 
tion to Mr. Chase's amendment. I thought that I had chased that amendment 
out of Mr. Lincoln's brain, at Ottawa; (laughter) but it seems that it still haunts 
his imagination, and he is not yet satisfied. I had supposed that he would be 
ashamed to press that question further. He is a lawyer, and has been a member 
of Congress, and has occupied his time and amused you by telling you about 
parliamentary proceedings. He ought to have known better than to try to palm 
off his miserable impositions upon this intelligent audience. ("Good," and 
cheers.) The Nebraska Bill provided that the legislative power and authority 
of the said territory should extend to all rightful subjects of legislation consistent 
with the organic act and the Constitution of the United States. It did not 
make any exception as to slavery, but gave all the power that it was possible 
for Congress to give, without violating the constitution to the territorial legis- 
lature, with no exception or limitation on the subject of slavery at all. The lan- 
guage of that bill which I have quoted, gave full power and the full authority 
over the subject of slavery, affirmatively and negatively, to introduce it or ex- 
clude it, so far as the Constitution of the United States would permit. What 
more would Mr. Chase give by his amendment? Nothing. He offered his 
amendment for the identical purpose for which Mr. Lincoln is using it to en- 
able demagogues in the country to try and deceive the people. ("Good, hit him 
again," and cheers.) 

(Deacon Bross spoke.) 

His amendment was to this effect. It provided that the legislature should 
have the power to exclude slavery and General Cass suggested : "'Why not 


give the power to introduce as well as exclude?" The answer was: "They have 
the power already in the bill to do both." Chase was afraid his amendment 
would be adopted if he put the alternative proposition, and so make it fair both 
ways, but would not yield. He offered it for the purpose of having it rejected. 
He offered it, as he has himself avowed over and over again, simply to make 
capital out of it for the stump. He expected that it would be capital for small 
politicians in the country, and that they would make an effort to deceive the 
people with it ; and he was not mistaken, for Lincoln is carrying out the plan 
admirably. ("Good, good.") Lincoln knows that the Nebraska Bill, without 
Chase's amendment, gave all the power which the constitution would permit. 
Could Congress confer any more? ("No, no.") Could Congress go beyond 
the constitution of the country ? We gave all a full grant, with no exception in 
regard to slavery one way or the other. We left that question as we left all 
others, to be decided by the people for themselves, just as they pleased. I will 
not occupy my time on this question. I have argued it before, all over Illinois. 
I have argued it in this beautiful city of Freeport ; I have argued it in the north, 
the south, the east and the west, avowing the same sentiments and the same 
principles. I have not been afraid to avow my sentiments up here for fear I 
would be trotted down into Egypt. (Cheers and laughter.) 

The third question which Mr. Lincoln presented is, If the supreme court of 
the United States shall decide that a state of this Union cannot exclude slavery 
from its own limits will I submit to it? I am amazed that Lincoln should ask 
such a question. ("A schoolboy knows better.") Yes, a schoolboy knows bet- 
ter. Mr. Lincoln's object is to cast an imputation upon the supreme court. He 
knows that there never was but one man in America, claiming any degree of 
intelligence or decency, who ever for a moment pretended such a thing. It is 
true that the Washington Union, in an article published on the i7th of last De- 
cember, did put forth that doctrine, and I denounced the article on the floor of 
the senate, in a speech which Mr. Lincoln now pretends was against the presi- 
dent. The Union had claimed that slavery had a right to go into the free states, 
and that any provision in the constitution or laws of the laws of the free states 
to the contrary were null and void. I denounced it in the senate, as I said 
before, and I was the first man who did. Lincoln's friends, Trumbull, and 
Seward, and Hale, and Wilson, and the whole Black Republican side of the 
senate, were silent. They left it to me to denounce it. (Cheers.) 

And what was the reply made to me on that occasion? Mr. Toombs, of 
Georgia, got up and undertook to lecture me on the ground that I ought not to 
have deemed the article worthy of notice, and ought not to have replied to it; 
that there was not one man, woman or child south of the Potomac, in any slave 
state, who did not repudiate any such pretension. Mr. Lincoln knows that 
that reply was made on the spot, and yet now he asks this question. He might 
as well ask me, Suppose Mr. Lincoln should steal a horse, would I sanction it. 
(Laugher.) And it would be as genteel in me to ask him, in the event he stole 
a horse, what ought to be done with him. He casts an imputation upon the su- 
preme court of the United States, by supposing that they would violate the 
Constitution of the United States. I tell him that such a thing is not possible. 
(Cheers.) It would be an act of moral treason that no man on the bench could 


ever descend to. Mr. Lincoln himself would never in his partisan feelings so 
far forget what was right as to be guilty of such an act. (Good, good.") 

The fourth question of Mr. Lincoln is, Are you in favor of acquiring addi- 
tional territory, in disregard as to how such acquisition may affect the Union on 
the slavery question ? J This question is very ingeniously and cunningly put. 

(Deacon Bross here spoke, sotto voce the reporter understood him to 
say, "Now we've got him/') 

The Black Republican creed lays it down expressly that under no circum- 
stances shall we acquire any more territory, unless slavery is first prohibited in 
the country. I ask Mr. Lincoln whether he is in favor of that proposition. 
Are you (addressing Mr. Lincoln) opposed to the acquisition of any more ter- 
ritory, under any circumstances, unless slavery is prohibited in it? That he 
does not like to answer. When I ask him whether he stands up to that article in 
the platform of his party, he turns, Yankee-fashion, and without answering it, 
asks me whether I am in favor of acquiring territory without regard to how it 
may affect the Union on the slavery' question. 1 ("Good.") I answer that when- 
ever it becomes necessary, in our growth and progress, to acquire more territory, 
that I am in favor of it, without reference to the question of slavery ; and when 
we have acquired it, I will leave the people free to do as they please, either to 
make it slave or free territory as they prefer. (Hear Deacon Bross spoke; 
the reporter believes that he said, "That's bold." It was said solemnly.) It 
is idle to tell me or you that we have territory enough. Our fathers supposed 
that we had enough when our territory extended to the Mississippi River; but 
a few years' growth and expansion satisfied them that we needed more, and 
the Louisiana Territory, from the west branch of the Mississippi to the British 
possessions, was acquired. Then we acquired Oregon, then California and New 
Mexico. We have enough now for the present; but this is a young and grow- 
ing nation. It swarms as often as a hive of bees; and as new swarms are 
turned out each year, there must be hives in which they can gather and make 
their honey. ("Good.") 

In less than fifteen years, if the same progress that has distinguished this 
country for the last fifteen years continues, every foot of vacant land between 
this and the Pacific Ocean, owned by the United States, will be occupied. Will 
you not continue to increase at the end of fifteen years as well as now? I tell 
you, increase, and multiply, and expand, is the law of this nation's existence. 
("Good.") You cannot limit this great republic by mere boundary lines, saying, 
"Thus far shalt thou go, and no farther." Any one of you gentlemen might 
as well say to a son twelve years old that he is big enough, and must not grow 
any larger; and in order to prevent his growth, put a hoop around him to keep 
him to his present size. What would be the result ? Either the hoop must burst 
and -be rent asunder, or the child must die. So it would be with this great na- 
tion. With our natural increase, growing with a rapidity unknown in any other 
part of the globe, with the tide of emigration that is fleeing from despotism in 
the old world to seek refuge 2 in our own, there is a constant torrent pouring 
into this country that requires more land, more territory upon which to settle; 

1 Reads : "(iwestioiis" for "question." 

2 Reads "Peek a refuge." 


and just as fast as our interests and our destiny require additional territory in 
the north, in the south, or on the islands of the ocean, I am for it ; and when we 
acquire it, will leave the people, according to the Nebraska Bill, free to do as 
they please on the subject of slavery and every other question. ("Good, good;" 
"Hurrah for Douglas.") 

I trust now that Mr. Lincoln will deem himself answered on his four points. 
He racked his brain so much in devising these four questions that he exhausted 
himself, and had not strength enough to invent the others. (Laughter.) As 
soon as he is able to hold a council with his advisers, Lovejoy, Farnsworth and 
Fred Douglass, he will frame and propound others. ("Good, good." Renewed 
laughter, in which. Mr. Lincoln feebly joined, saying that he hoped with their 
aid to get seven questions, the number asked him by Judge Douglas, and to 
make conclusions even.) You Black Republicans who say good, I have no 
doubt think that they are all good men. ("White, white.") 

I have reason to recollect that some people in this country think that Fred 
Douglas is a very good man. The last time I came here to make a speech, while 
talking from the stand to you, people of Freeport, as I am doing today, I saw 
a carriage and a magnificent one it was drive up and take a position on the 
outside of the crowd ; a beautiful young lady was sitting on the box-seat, whilst 
Fred Douglas and her mother reclined inside, and the owner of the carriage 
acted as driver. (Laughter, cheers, cries of "right," "what have you to say 
against it," etc.) I saw this in your own town. ("What of it?") All I have 
to say of it is this, that if you, Black Republicans, think that the negro ought 
to be on a social equality with your wives and daughters, and ride in a carriage 
with your wife, whilst you drive the team, you have a perfect right to do so. 
("Good, good," and cheers, mingled with hooting and cries of "white, white.") 

I am told that one of Fred Douglas' kinsmen, another rich black negro is 
now traveling in this part of the state, making speeches for his friend Lincoln, 
as the champion of black men. ("White men, white men," and "What have 
you to say against it? "That's right, etc). All I have to say on that sub- 
ject is, that those of you who believe that the negro is your equal and ought 
to be on an equality with you socially, politically, and legally, have a right to 
entertain those opinions, and of course will vote for Mr. Lincoln. ("Down with 
the negro," "no, no," etc.) 

I have a word to say on Mr. Lincoln's answer to the interrogatories con- 
tained in my speech at Ottawa, and which he has pretended to reply to here 
today. Mr. Lincoln makes a great parade of the fact that I quoted a platform 
as having been adopted by the Black Republican party at Springfield in 1854, 
which, it turns out, was adopted at another place. Mr. Lincoln loses sight 
of the thing itself in his ecstasies over the mistake I made in stating the place 
where it was done. He thinks that that platform was not adopted on the right 

When I put the direct question to Mr. Lincoln to ascertain whether he now 
stands pledged to that creed- to the unconditional repeal of the Fugitive-Slave 
Law, a refusal to admit any more slave states into the Union, even if the people 
want them, a determination to apply the Wilmot proviso, not only to all the 
territory we now have, but all that we may hereafter acquire he refused to 


answer; and his followers say, in excuse, that the resolutions upon which I 
based my interrogatories were not adopted at the "right spot." (Laughter and 
applause.) Lincoln and his political friends are great on "spots." (Renewed 
laughter.) In Congress, as a representative of this state, he declared the Mexi- 
can War to be unjust and infamous, and would not support it, or acknowledge 
his own country to be right in the contest, because he said that American blood 
was not shed on American soil in the "right spot." ("Lay on to him.") And 
now he cannot answer the questions I put to him at Ottawa because the reso- 
lutions I read were not adopted at the "right spot." It may be possible that I 
was led into an error as to the spot on which the resolutions I then read were 
proclaimed, but I was not, and am not, in error as to the fact of their forming 
the basis of the creed of the Republican party when that party was 1 first organ- 
ized. (Cheers.) 

I will state to you the evidence I had, and upon which I relied for my 
statement that the resolutions in question were adopted at Springfield on the 
5th of October, 1854. Although I was aware that such resolutions had been 
passed in this district, and nearly all the northern congressional districts and 
county conventions, I had not noticed whether or not they had been adopted 
by any state convention. In 1856, a debate arose in Congress between Major 
Thomas L. Harris, of the Springfield District, and Mr. Norton, of the Joliet 
District, on political matters connected with our state, in the course of which 
Major Harris quoted those resolutions as having been passed by the first Re- 
publican state convention that ever assembled in Illinois. I knew that Major 
Harris was remarkable for his accuracy, that he was a very conscientious and 
sincere man, and I also noticed that Norton did not question the accuracy of 
this statement. I therefore took it for granted that it was so; and the other 
day when I concluded to use the resolutions at Ottawa, I wrote to Charles L. 
Lanphier, editor of the State Register, at Springfield, calling his attention to 
them, telling him that I had been informed that Major Harris was lying sick 
at Springfield, and desiring him to call upon him and ascertain all the facts con- 
cerning the resolutions, the time and place where they were adopted In reply, 
Mr. Lanphier sent me two copies of his paper, which I have here. The first 
is a copy of the State Register, published at Springfield, Mr. Lincoln's own 
town, on the i6th of October, 1854, only eleven days after the adjournment 
of the convention, from which I desire to read the following: 

The material of this was gathered from a variety of sources, including the 
files of the Freeport Journal, the Woodburn's Orations ; the Illinois Historical 
Society's Volume by Sparks and Rhodes' History of the United States. 

"During the late discussion in this city, Lincoln made a speech, to which 
Judge Douglas replied. In Lincoln's speech he took the broad ground that, ac- 
cording to the Declaration of Independence, the whites and blacks are equal. 
From this he drew the conclusion, which he several times repeated, that the 
white man had no right to pass laws for the government of the black man with- 
out the nigger's consent. This speech of Lincoln's was heard and applauded by 
all the Abolitionists assembled in Springfield. So soon as Mr. Lincoln was 
done speaking, Mr. Codding arose, and requested all the delegates to the Black 
Republican Convention to withdraw into the senate chamber. They did so; and 


after long deliberation, they laid down the following Abolition platform on 
which they stood. We call the particular attention of all our readers to it." 

Then follows the identical platform, word for word, which I read at Ottawa. 
(Cheers.) Now, that was published in Mr. Lincoln's own town, eleven days 
after the convention was held, and has remained on record up to this day 
never contradicted. 

When I quoted the resolutions at Ottawa and questioned Mr. Lincoln in re- 
lation to them, he said that his name was on the committee that reported them, 
but he did not serve, nor did he think he served, because he was, or thought he 
was, in Tazewell County at the time the convention was in session. He did not 
deny that the resolutions were passed by the Springfield Convention. He did 
not know better, and evidently thought that they were; but afterwards his 
friends declared that they had discovered that they varied in some respects 
from the resolutions passed by the convention. I have shown you that I had 
good evidence for believing that the resolutions had been passed at Springfield. 
Mr. Lincoln ought to have known better; but not a word is said about his 
ignorance on the subject, whilst I, notwithstanding the circumstances, am ac- 
cused of forgery. 

Now, I will show you that if I have made a mistake as to the place where 
these resolutions were adopted and when I get down to Springfield I will in- 
vestigate the matter, and see whether or not I have that the principles they 
enunciate were adopted as the Black Republican platform, ("White, white.") 
in the various counties and congressional districts throughout the north end 
of the state in 1854. This platform was adopted in nearly every county that 
gave a Black Republican majority for the Legislature in that year, and here 
is a man (pointing to Mr. Denio, who sat on the stand near Deacon Bross) 
who knows as well as any living man that it was the creed of the Black Re- 
publican party at that time. I would be willing to call Denio as a witness, or 
any other honest man belonging to that party. I will now read the resolution 
adopted at the Rockford Convention on the 3Oth of August, 1854, which nomi- 
nated Washburne for Congress. You elected him on the following platform : 

"Resolved, That the continued and increasing aggressions of slavery in our 
country are destructive of the best rights of .a free people, and that such ag- 
gressions cannot be successfully resisted without the united political action of 
all good men. 

"Resolved, That the citizens of the United States hold in their hands peace- 
ful, constitutional, and efficient remedy against the encroachments of the slave 
power the ballot-box ; and if that remedy is boldly and wisely applied, the 
principles of liberty and eternal justice will be established. 

"Resolved, That we accept this issue forced upon us by the slave power, 
and, in defense of freedom, will cooperate and be known as Republicans, 
pledged to the accomplishment of the following purposes: 

"To bring the administration of the government back to the control of 
first principles; to restore Kansas and Nebraska to the position of free terri- 
tories ; to repeal and entirely abrogate the Fugitive-Slave Law ; to restrict sla- 
very to those states in which it exists ; to prohibit the admission of any more 
slave states into the Union ; to exclude slavery from all the territories over which 


the general government has exclusive jurisdiction; and to resist the acquisi- 
tion of any more territories, unless the introduction of slavery therein forever 
shall have been prohibited. 

"Resolved, That in furtherance of these principles we will use such condi- 
tional and lawful means as shall seem best adapted to their accomplishment, 
and that we will support no man for office under the general or state govern- 
ment who is not positively committed to the support of these principles, and 
whose personal character and conduct is not a guarantee that he is reliable, 
and shall abjure all party allegiance and ties. 

"Resolved, That we cordially invite persons of all former political parties 
whatever, in favor of the object expressed in the a'bove resolutions to unite 
with us in carrying them into effect." (Senator Douglas was frequently in- 
terrupted in reading these resolutions by loud cries of "Good, good," "that's 
the doctrine," and vociferous applause.) 

Well, you think that is a very good platform, do you not? ("Yes, yes, 
all right," and cheers.) If you do, if you approve it now, and think it is all 
right, you will not join with those men who say that I libel you by calling these 
your principles, will you 1 ("Good, good, hit him again," and great laughter 
and cheers.) Now, Mr. Lincoln complains; Mr. Lincoln charges that I did 
you and him injustice by saying that this was the platform of your party. (Re- 
newed laughter.) I am told that Washburne made a speech in Galena last night, 
in which he abused me awfully in bringing to light this platform, on which he 
was elected to Congress. He thought that you had forgotten it, as he and Mr. 
Lincoln desires to. (Laughter.) He did not deny but that you had adopted 
it, and that he had subscribed to and was pledged by it, but he did not think 
it was fair to call it up and remind the people that it was their platform. ( Here 
Deacon Bross spoke.) 

But I am glad to find that you are more honest in your abolitionism than 
your leaders, by avowing that it is your platform, and right in your opinion. 
(Laughter, "You have them, good, good.") 

In the adoption of that platform, you not only declared that you would re- 
sist the admission of any more slave state, and work for the repeal of the Fugi- 
tive-Slave Law, but you pledged yourselves not to vote for any men for state 
or federal offices who was not committed to these principles. ("Exactly so, 
exactly so," cheers.) You were thus committed. Similar resolutions to those 
were adopted in your county convention here, and now with your admissions 
that they are your platform and embody your sentiments now as they did 
then, what do you think of Mr. Lincoln, your candidate for the United States 
Senate, who is attempting to dodge the responsibility of this platform, because 
it was not adopted in the right spot. ( Shouts of laughter, "Hurrah for Doug- 
las.") I thought that it was adopted in Springfield, but it turns out it was 
not, that it was adopted at Rockford, and in the various counties which com- 
prise this congressional district. When I get into the next district, I will 
show that the same platform was adopted there, and so on through the state, 
until I nail the responsibility of it upon the back of the Black Republican party 
throughout the state. ("White, white," "Three cheers for Douglas.") 

A voice. Couldn't you modify, and call it brown? (Laughter.) 


Mr. Douglas. Not a bit. I thought that you were becoming a little brown 
when your members in Congress voted for the Crittenden-Montgomery bill; 
but since you have backed out from that position and gone back to Abolition- 
ists, you are black, and not brown. (Shouts of laughter, and a voice, "Can't 
you ask him another question?) 

Gentlemen, I have shown you what your platform was in 1854. You still 
adhere to it. The same platform was adopted by nearly all the counties where 
the Black Republican party had a majority in 1854. I wish now to call your 
attention to the action of your representatives in the Legislature when they 
assembled together at Springfield. In the first place, you must remember that 
this was the organization of a new party. It so declared in the resolutions 
themselves, which say that you are going to dissolve all old party ties and call 
the new party Republican. The old Whig party was to have its throat cut 
from ear to ear, and the Democratic party was to be annihilated and blotted 
out of existence, whilst in lieu of these parties the Black Republican party 
was to be organized on this Abolition platform. You know who the chief lead- 
ers were in breaking up and destroying these two great parties. Lincoln on the 
one hand and Trumbull on the other, being disappointed politicians, (laughter) 
and having retired or been driven to obscurity by an outraged constitutency 
because o.f their political sins, formed a scheme to ' abolitionize the two par- 
ties, and lead the old Line Whigs and old Line Democrats captive, bound hand 
and foot, into the Abolition camp. Giddings, Chase, Fred Douglass, and Love- 
joy were here to christen them whenever they were brought in. (Great laugh- 
ter.) Lincoln went to work to dissolve the Old Line Whig party. Clay was 
dead ; and although the sod was not yet green on his grave, this 'man undertook 
to bring into disrepute those great compromise measures of 1850, with which 
Clay and Webster were identified. 

Up to 1854 the Old Whig party and the Democratic party had stood on a 
common platform so far as this slavery question was concerned. You Whigs 
and we Democrats differed about the bank, the tariff, distribution, the specie 
circular, and the sub-treasury, but we agreed on this slavery question, and 
the true mode of preserving the peace and harmony of the Union. The com- 
promise measures of 1850 were introduced by Clay, were ' defended by Web- 
ster, and supported by Cass, and were approved by Fillmore, and sanctioned 
by the national men of both parties. They constituted a common plank upon 
which both Whigs and Democrats stood. In 1852 the Whig party, in its last 
national convention at Baltimore, indorsed and approved these measures of 
Clay, and so did the national convention of the Democratic party held that 
same year. Thus the Old Line Whigs and the Old Line Democrats stood 
pledged to the great principle of self-government, which guarantees to the peo- 
ple of each territory the right to decide the slavery question for themselves. In 
1854, after the death of Clay and Webster, Mr. Lincoln, on the part of the 
Whigs, undertook to abolitionize the Whig party by dissolving it, transfer- 
ring the members into the Abolition camp, and making them train under Gid- 
dings, Fred Douglass, Lovejoy, Chase, Farnsworth, and other Abolition lead- 
ers. Trumbull undertook to dissolve the Democratic party by taking old Demo- 
crats into the Abolition camp. Mr. Lincoln was aided in his efforts by many 
leading Whigs throughout the state, your member of Congress, Mr. Washburne, 


being one of the most active. (Good fellow.) Trumbull was aided by many 
renegades from the Democratic party, among whom were John Wentworth, 
(laughter) Tom Turner, and others, with whom you are familiar. 

(Mr. Turner, who was one of the moderators, here interposed, and said that 
he had drawn the resolutions which Senator Douglas had read.) 

Mr. Douglas. Yes, and Turner says that he drew these resolutions. ("Hur- 
rah for Turner," "Hurrah for Douglas.") That is right; give Turner cheers for 
drawing the resolutions if you approve them. If he drew those resolutions, he 
will not deny that they are the creed of the Black Republican party. 

Mr. Turner. They are our creed exactly. (Cheers.) 

Mr. Douglas. And yet Lincoln denies that he stands on them. ("Good, 
good," and laughter.) Mr. Turner says that the creed of the Black Republican 
party is the admission of no more slave states, and yet Mr. Lincoln declares that 
he would not like to be placed in a position where he would have to vote for 
them. All I have to say to frie.nd Lincoln is, that I do not think that there is 
much danger of his being placed in such a position. (More laughter.) As Mr. 
Lincoln would be very sorry to be placed in such an embarrassing position as 
to be obliged to vote on the admission of any more slave states, I propose, out 
of mere kindness, to relieve him from any such necessity. (Renewed laughter 
and cheers.) 

When the bargain began Lincoln and Trumbull was completed for abolition- 
izing the Whig and Democratic parties, they "spread" over the state, Lincoln 
still pretending to be an Old Line Whig, in order to "rope in" the Whigs, and 
Trumbull pretending to be as good a Democrat as he ever was, in order to coax 
the Democrats over into the Abolition ranks. ("That's exactly what we want.") 
They played the part that "decoy ducks" play down on the Potomac River. In 
that part of the country they make artificial ducks, and put them on the water 
where the wild ducks are to be found, for the purpose of decoying them. Well, 
Lincoln and Trumbull played the part of these "decoy ducks" and deceived 
enough Old Line Whigs and Old Line Democrats to elect a Black Republican 
Legislature. When that Legislature met, the first thing it did was to elect as 
speaker of the House the very man who is now boasting that he wrote the 
Abolition platform on which Lincoln will not stand. ("Good, hit him again," 
and cheers.) I want to know of Mr. Turner whether or not, when he was 
elected he was a good embodiment of Republican principles. 

Mr. Turner. I hope I was then, and am now. 

Mr. Douglas. He swears that he hopes he was then, and is now. He wrote 
that Black Republican platform, and is satisfied with it now. ("Hurrah for 
Turner," "Good," etc.) I admire and acknowledge Turner's honesty. Every 
man of you knows that what he says about these resolutions being the plat- 
form of the Black Republican party is true, and you also know that each one 
of these men who are shuffling and trying to deny it are only trying to cheat 
the people out of their votes for the purpose of deceiving them still more after 
the election. ("Good," and cheers.) I propose to trace this thing a little 
further, in order that you can see what additional evidence there is to fasten 
this revolutionary platform upon the Black Republican party. When the Legis- 
lature assembled there was a United States Senator to elect in the place of 


General Shields, and before they proceeded to ballot, Lovejoy insisted on lay- 
ing down certain principles by which to govern the party. 

It has been published to the world and satisfactorily proven that there was, 
at the time the alliance was made between Trumbull and Lincoln to abolitionize 
the two parties, an agreement that Lincoln should take Shields' place in the 
United States Senate, and Trumbull should have mine so soon as they could 
conveniently get rid of me. When Lincoln was beaten for Shields' place, in a 
manner I will refer to in a few minutes, he felt very sore and restive ; his friends 
grumbled, and some of them came out and charged that the most infamous 
treachery had been practiced against him; that the bargain was that Lincoln 
was to have had Shields' place, and Trumbull was to have waited for mine, but 
that Trumbull, having the control of a few Abolitionized Democrats, he pre- 
vented them from voting for Lincoln, thus keeping him within a few votes of an 
election until he succeeded in forcing the party to drop him and elect Trumbull. 
Well, Trumbull having cheated Lincoln, his friends made a fuss, and in order 
to keep them and Lincoln quiet, the party were obliged to come forward, in ad- 
vance, at the last state election, and make a pledge that they would go for Lin- 
coln and nobody else. Lincoln could not be silenced in any other way. 

Now, there are a great many Black Republicans of you who do not know this 
thing was done. ("White, white," and great clamor.) I wish to remind you 
that while Mr. Lincoln was speaking there was not a Democrat vulgar and 
blackguard enough to interrupt him. (Great applause and cries of, "Hurrah 
for Douglas.") But I know that the shoe is pinching you. I am clinching Lin- 
coln now, and you are scared to death for the result. (Cheers.) I have seen 
this thing before. I have seen men make appointments for joint discussions, 
and the moment their man has been heard, try to interrupt and prevent a fair 
hearing of the other side. I have seen your mobs before, and defy your wrath. 
(Tremendous applause.) My friends, do not cheer, for I need my whole time. 
The object of the opposition is to occupy my attention in order to prevent me 
from giving the whole evidence and nailing this double dealing on the Black 
Republican party. 

As I have before said, Lovejoy demanded a declaration of principles on 
the part of the Black Republicans of the Legislature before going into election 
for United States Senator. He offered the following preamble and resolutions 
which I hold in my hand : 

"Whereas, Human slavery is a violation of the principles of natural 
and revealed right ; and whereas the fathers of the Revolution, fully imbued with 
the spirit of these principles, declared freedom to be the inalienable birthright 
of all men ; and whereas the preamble to the Constitution of the United States 
avers that that instrument was ordained to establish justice, and secure the 
blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity ; and whereas, in furtherance 
of the above principles, slavery was forever prohibited in the old Northwest 
Territory, and more recently in all that territory lying west and north cf the 
state of Missouri, by the act of the federal govenment; and whereas the re- 
peal of the prohibition last referred to was contrary to the wishes of 
the people of Illinois, a violation of an implied compact long deemed sa- 
cred by the citizens of the United States, and a wide departure from the uni- 


form action of the general government in relation to the extension of slavery; 

"Resolved, by the House of Representatives, the Senate concurring therein, 
That our senators in Congress be instructed, and our representatives requested 
to introduce, if not otherwise introduced, and to vote for, a bill to restore such 
prohibition to the aforesaid territories, and also to extend a similar prohibition 
to all territory which now belongs to the United States, or which may here- 
after come under their jurisdiction. 

"Resolved, That our senators in Congress be instructed, and our represen- 
tatives requested, to vote against the admission of any state into the Union, 
the Constitution of which does not prohibit slavery, whether the territory out 
of which such state may have been formed shall have been acquired by con- 
quest, treaty, purchase, or from original territory of the United States. 

"Resolved, That our senators in Congress be instructed, and our represen- 
tatives requested to introduce and vote for, a bill to repeal an act entitled 'an 
act respecting fugitives from justice and persons escaping from the service of 
their masters ;' and, failing in that, for such a modification of it as shall secure 
the right of habeas corpus and trial by jury before the regularly constituted 
authorities of the state, to all persons claimed as owing service or labor." 

(Cries of "good," "good," and cheers.) Yes, you say "good," "good," 
and I have no doubt you think so. 

Those resolutions were introduced by Mr. Lovejoy immediately preceding 
the election of senator. They declared, first that the Wilmot Proviso must be 
applied to all territory north of 36 degrees 30 minutes. Secondly, that it must 
be applied to all territory south of 36 degrees 30 minutes. Thirdly, that it must 
be applied to all territory now owned by the United States; and finally, that 
it must be applied to all territory hereafter to be acquired by the United States. 
The next resolution declares that no more slave states shall be admitted into 
this Union under any circumstances whatever, no matter whether they are 
formed out of territory now owned by us or that we may hereafter acquire, by 
treaty, by Congress or in any other manner whatever. (A voice, "That is 
right.") You say that is right. We will see in a moment. The next resolu- 
tion demands the unconstitutional repeal of the Fugitive-Slave Law, although 
its unconstitutional repeal would leave no provision for carrying out that clause 
of the Constitution of the United States which guarantees the surrender of 
fugitives. If they could not get an unconstitutional repeal they demanded 
that that law should be so modified as to make it as nearly useless as possible. 

Now, I want to show you who voted for these resolutions. When the vote 
was taken on the first resolution it was decided in the affirmative yeas, 41, 
nays, 32. You will find that this is a strict party vote, between the Democrats 
on the one hand, and the Black Republicans on the other. (Cries of "White, 
white," and clamor.) I know your name and always call things by their right 
name. The point I wish to call your attention to is this : that these resolutions 
were adopted on the 7th day of February, and that on the 8th they went into 
an election for a United States senator, and that day every man who voted for 
these resolutions, with but two exceptions, voted for Lincoln for the United 
States Senate. (Cries of "Good, good," and cheers. "Give us their names.") 


I will read the names over to you if you want them, but I believe your object 
is to occupy my time. (Cries of "That is it") 

On the next resolution the vote stood yeas 33, nays 40; and on the third 
resolution yeas 35, nays 47. I wish to impress it upon you that every nation 
who voted for those' resolutions, with but two exceptions, voted on the next 
day for Lincoln for United States senator. Bear in mind that the members who 
thus voted for Lincoln were elected to the Legislature pledged to vote for no 
man for office under the state or federal government who was not committed 
to this Black Republican platform. (Cries of "White, white," and "good for 
you.") They were all so pledged. Mr. Turner who stands by me, and who 
then represented you, and who says that he wrote those resolutions, voted 
for Lincoln when he was pledged not to do so unless Lincoln was in favor of 
those resolutions. I now ask Mr. Turner (turning to Mr. Turner), did you 
violate your pledge in voting for Mr. Lincoln, or did he commit himself to your 
platform before you cast your vote for him? (Mr. Lincoln here started for 
ward and grasping Mr. Turner shook him nervously and said, "Don't answer, 
Turner, you have no right to answer.") 

I could go through the whole list of names here, and show you that all the 
Black Republicans in the Legislature, ("White, white.") who voted for Mr. 
Lincoln, had voted on the day previous for these resolutions. For instance, 
here are the names of Sargent, and Little, of Jo Daviess and Carroll ; Thomas 
J. Turner of Stephenson ; Lawrence, of Boone and McHenry ; Swan, of Lake ; 
Pinckney, of Ogle County; and Lyman, of Winnebago. Thus you see every 
member from your congressional district voted for Mr. Lincoln, and they were 
pledged not to vote for him unless he was committed to the doctrine of no more 
slave states, the prohibition of slavery in the territories, and the repeal of the 
Fugitive-Slave Law. Mr. Lincoln tells you today that he is not pledged to any 
such doctrine. Either Mr. Lincoln was then committed to these propositions, 
or Mr. Turner violated his pledges to you when he voted for him. Either Lin- 
coln was pledged to each one of these propositions, or .else every Black Re- 
publican (cries of "\Vhite, white") representative from this congressional 
district violated his pledge of honor to his constituents by voting for him. 

I ask you which horn of the dilemma will you take? Will you hold Lin- 
coln up to the platform of his party, or will you accuse every representative 
you had in the Legislature of violating his pledge of honor to his constituents? 
(Voices: "We go for Turner," We go for Lincoln," "Hurrah for Douglas," 
"Hurrah for Turner.") There is no escape for you. Either Mr. Lincoln was 
committed to those propositions, or your members violated their faith. Take 
either horn of the dilemma you choose. There is no dodging the question ; I 
want Lincoln's answer. He says he was not pledged to repeal the Fugitive- 
Slave Law, that he does not quite like to do it; he will not introduce a law 
to repeal it, but thinks there ought to be some law; he does not tell what it 
ought to be; upon the whole he is altogether undecided, and don't know what 
to think or do. That is the substance of his answer upon the repeal of the 
Fugitive-Slave Law. I put the question to him distinctly, whether he indorsed 
that part of the Black Republican platform which calls for the entire abrogation 
and repeal of the Fugitive-Slave Law. He answers, No! that he does not in- 


dorse that ; but he does not tell what he is for, or what he will vote for. His 
answer is, in fact, no answer at all. Why cannot he speak out, and say what 
he is for, and what he will do? (Cries of "That's right") 

In regard to there being no more slave states, he is not pledged to that. He 
would not like, he says, to be put in a position where he would have to vote 
one way or another upon that question. I pray you, do not put him in a posi- 
tion that would embarrass him so much. (Laughter.) Gentlemen, if he goes 
to the Senate, he may be put in that position, and then which way will he 

A voice. How will you vote? 

Mr. Douglas. I will vote for the admission of just such a state as by 
the form of their constitution the people show they want ; if they want slavery, 
they shall have it; if they prohibit slavery, it shall be prohibited. They can 
form their institutions to please themselves, subject only to the Constitution; 
and I, for one, stand ready to receive them into the Union. ("Three cheers 
for Douglas.") Why cannot your Black Republican candiates talk out as 
plain as that when they are questioned? (Cries of "Good, good.") 

(Here Deacon Bross spoke.) 

I do not want to cheat any man out of his vote. No man is deceived in 
regard to my principles if I have the power to express myself in terms ex- 
plicit enough to convey my ideas. 

Mr. Lincoln made a speech when he was nominated for the United States 
Senate which covers all these Abolition platforms. He there lays down a 
proposition so broad in its Abolitionism as to cover the whole ground. 

"In my opinion the slavery agitation will not cease until -a crisis shall have 
been reached and passed. 'A house divided against itself cannot stand.' I 
believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. 
I do not expect the house to fall, but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It 
will become all one thing or all the other. Either the opponents of slavery 
will arrest the further spread of it, and place it where the public mind shall 
rest in the belief that it is in the course of ultimate extinction, or its advocates 
will push it forward till it shall become alike lawful in all the states old as 
well as new, north as well as south." 

There you find that Mr. Lincoln lays down the doctrine that this Union can- 
not endure divided as our fathers made it, with free and slave state. He says 
they must all become one thing, or all the other; that they must all be free 
or all slave, or else the Union cannot continue to exist; it being his opinion 
that to admit any more slave states, to continue to divide the Union into free 
and slave states will dissolve it. I want to know of Mr. Lincoln whether he 
will vote for the admission of another slave state. (Cries of "Bring him out.") 

He tells you that the Union cannot exist unless the states are all free or all 
slave; he tells you that he is opposed to making them all slave and hence he is 
for making them all free, in order that the Union may exist; and yet he will 
not vote against another slave state, knowing that the union must be dissolved if 
he votes for it. (Great laughter.) I ask you if that is fair dealing? The true 
intent and inevitable conclusion to be drawn from his first Springfield speech 
is, that he is opposed to the admission of any more slave states under any 


circumstances. If so opposed, why not say so? If he believes this Union 
cannot endure divided into free and slave states, that they must all become free 
in order to save the Union, he is bound as an honest man to vote against any 
more slave states. If he believes it, he is bound to do it. Show me that it 
is my duty in order to save the Union, to do a particular act, and I will do 
it if the Constitution does not prohibit it. (Applause.) I am not for the dis- 
solution of the Union under any circumstances. (Renewed applause.) I will 
pursue no course of conduct that will give just cause for the dissolution of the 
Union. The hope of the friends of freedom throughout the world rests upon 
the perpetuity of this Union. The down-trodden and oppressed people who are 
suffering under European despotism all look with hope and anxiety to the Ameri- 
can Union as the only resting place and permanent home of freedom and self- 

Mr. Lincoln says that he believes that this Union cannot continue to endure 
with slave states in it, and yet he will not tell you distinctly whether he will 
vote for or against the admission of any more slave states but says he would 
not like to be put to the test. (Renewed laughter.) I do not think that the 
people of Illinois desire a man to represent them who would not like to be put 
to the test on the performance of a high constitutional duty. (Cries of "Good.") 
I will retire in shame from the Senate of the United States when I am not will- 
ing to be put to the test in the performance of my duty. I have been put to 
severe tests. ("That is so.") I have stood by my principles in fair weather and 
in foul, in the sunshine and in the rain. I have defended the great principles of 
self-government here among you when northern sentiment ran in a torrent 
against me, (A voice, "That is so.") and I have defended that same great prin- 
ciple when southern sentiment came down like an avalanche upon me. I was 
not afraid of any test they put to me. I knew I was right; I knew my prin- 
ciples were sound; I knew that the people would see in the end that I had 
done right, and I knew that the God of heaven would smile upon me if I was 
faithful in the performance of my duty. (Cries of "Good," cheers and 'laugh- 

Mr. Lincoln makes a charge of corruption against the supreme court of 
the United States and two presidents of the United States, and attempts to bol- 
ster it up by saying that I did the same against the Washington Union. Suppose 
I did make that charge of corruption against the Washington Union, when it 
was true, does that justify him in making a false charge against me and others? 
That is the question I would put. He says that at the time the Nebraska Bill 
was introduced, and before it was passed, there was a conspiracy between the 
judges of the supreme court, President Pierce, President Buchanan, and myself, 
by that bill and the decision of the court, to break down the barrier and estab- 
lish slavery all over the Union. 

Does he not know that that charge is historically false as against President 
Buchanan? He knows that Mr. Buchanan was at that time in England, repre- 
senting this country with distinguished ability at the court of St. James, that 
he was there for a long time before, and did not return for a year or more 
after. He knows that to be true, and that fact proves his charge to be false 
as against Mr. Buchanan. (Cheers.) Then, again, I wish to call his atten- 


tion to the fact that at the time the Nebraska Bill was passed, the Dred Scott 
case was not before the supreme court at all ! it was not upon the docket of the 
supreme court; it had not been brought there; and the judges in all probability 
knew nothing of it. Thus the history of the country proves the charge to be 
false as against them. 

As to President Pierce, his high character as a man of integrity and honor 
is enough to vindicate him from such a charge; (laughter and applause) and 
as to myself, I pronounce the charge an infamous lie, whenever and wherever 
made, and by whomsoever made. I am willing that Mr. Lincoln should go 
and rake up every public act of mine, every measure I have introduced, report 
I have made, speech delivered, and criticise them ; but when he charges upon me 
a corrupt conspiracy for the purpose of perverting the institutions of the coun- 
try, I brand it as it deserves. I say the history of the country proves it to be 
false ; and that it could not have been possible at the time. 

But now he tries to protect himself in this charge, because I made a charge, 
against the Washington Union. My speech in the Senate against the Wash- 
ington Union was made because it advocated a revolutionary doctrine, by de- 
claring that the free states had not the right to prohibit slavery within their own 
limits. Because I made the charge against the Washington Union Mr. Lincoln 
says it was a charge against Mr. Buchanan. Suppose it was ; is Mr. Lincoln 
the peculiar defender of Mr. Buchanan ? Is he so interested in the federal admin- 
istration, and so bound to it that he must jump to the rescue and defend it from 
every attack that I may make against it? (Great laughter and cheers.) I 
understand the whole thing. Ihe Washington Union, under that most corrupt 
of all men, Cornelius Wendell, is advocating Mr. Lincoln's claim to the Senate. 
Wendell was the printer of the last Black Republican House of Representatives ; 
he was a candidate before the present Democratic House, but was ignomini- 
ously kicked out; and then he took the money which he had made out of the 
public printing by means of the Black Republicans, bought the Washington 
Union, and is now publishing it in the name of the Democratic party, and advo- 
cating Mr. Lincoln's election to the Senate. Mr. Lincoln therefore considers an 
attack upon Wendell and his corrupt gang as a personal attack upon him. 
(Immense cheering and laughter.) This only proves what I have charged 
that there is an alliance between Lincoln and his supporters, and the federal 
office-holders of this state, and presidential aspirants out of it, to break me down 
at home. (A voice "That is impossible," and cheering.) 

Mr. Lincoln feels bound to come in to the rescue of the Washington Union. 
In that speech which I delivered in answer to the Washington Union, I made 
it distinctly against the Union, and against the Union alone. I did not choose 
to go beyond that. If I have occasion to attack the President's conduct. I will 
do it in a language that will not misunderstood. When I differed with the 
President, I spoke out so that you all heard me. ("That you did," and cheers.) 
That question passed away ; it resulted in the triumph of my principle, by al- 
lowing the people to do as they please ; and there is an end of the controversy. 
("Hear, hear.") Whenever the great principle of self-government the right 
of the people to make their own Constitution, and come into the Union with 
slavery or without it, as they see proper shall again arise, you will find me 


standing firm in the defense of that principle, and fighting whoever fights it. 
("Right, right," "Good, good" and cheers.) If Buchanan stands, I doubt not 
he will, by the recommendation contained in his message, that hereafter all 
state constitutions ought to be submitted to the people before the admission 
of the state into the Union, he will find me standing by him firmly shoulder to 
shoulder, in carrying it out. I know Mr. Lincoln's object; he wants to di- 
vide the Democratic party, in order that he may defeat me and get to the 

Mr. Douglas' time here expired, and he stopped on the moment. 


As Mr. Lincoln arose he was greeted with vociferous cheers. He said : 

My Friends : It will readily occur to you that I cannot, in half an hour, 
notice all the things that so able a man as Judge Douglas can say in an hour 
and a half ; and I hope, therefore, if there be anything he has said upon which 
you would like to hear something from me, but which I omit to comment upon, 
you will bear in mind that it would be expecting an impossibility for me to 
go over his whole ground. I can but take up some of the points that he has 
dwelt upon, and employ my half hour especially upon them. 

The first thing I have to say to you is a word in regard to Judge Douglas' 
declaration about the "vulgarity and blackguardism" in the audience that no 
such thing, as he says, was shown by any Democrat while I was speaking. 
Now, I only wish, by way of reply on this subject, to say that while I was 
speaking, I used no "vulgarity or blackguardism" toward any Democrat. (Laugh- 
ter and applause.) 

Now, my friends, I come to all this long portion of the judge's speech 
perhaps half of it which he has devoted to the various resolutions and plat- 
forms that have been adopted in the different counties in the different congres- 
sional districts, and in the Illinois Legislature, which he supposes are at vari- 
ance with the positions I have assumed before you today. It is true that many 
of these resolutions are at variance with the positions I have here assumed. 
All I have to ask is that we talk reasonably and rationally about it. I happen 
to know, the judge's opinion to the contrary notwithstanding, that I have never 
tried to conceal my opinions, nor tried to deceive any one in reference to them. 
He may go and examine all the members who voted for me for the United 
States Senator in 1855, after the election in 1854. They were pledged to cer- 
tain things here at home, and were determined to have pledges from me ; and if 
he will find any of these persons who will tell him anything inconsistent with 
what I say now, I will resign, or rather retire from the race, and give him no 
more trouble. (Applause.) 

The plain truth is this : At the introduction of the Nebraska policy, we be- 
lieved there was a new era being introduced in the history of the Republic, 
which tended to the spread and perpetuation of slavery. But in our opposi- 
tion to that measure we did not agree with one another in everything. The 
people in the north end of the state were for stronger measures of opposition 
than we of the central and southern portions of the state, but we were all op- 


posed to the Nebraska doctrine. We had that one feeling and that one senti- 
ment in common. You at the north end met in your conventions and passed 
your resolutions. We in the middle of the state and further south did not 
hold such conventions and pass the same resolutions, although we had in gen- 
eral a common view and a common sentiment. So that these meetings which 
the judge has alluded to, and the resolutions he has read from, were local, and 
did not spread over the whole state. We at last met together in 1850, from all 
parts of the state, and we agreed upon a common platform. You who held 
more extreme notions, either yielded those notions, or, if not wholly yielding 
them, agreed to yield them practically, for the sake of embodying the oppo- 
sition to the measures which the opposite party were pushing forward at that 
time. We met you then and if there was anything yielded, it was for practical 
purposes. We agreed then upon a platform for the party throughout the entire 
state of Illinois, and now we are all bound, as a party to that platform. And. 
I say here to you, if anyone expects of me in the case of my election that 
I will do anything not signified by our Republican platform and my answers 
here today, I tell you very frankly that person will be deceived. 

I do not ask for the vote of any one who supposes that I have secret pur- 
poses or pledges that I dare not speak out. Cannot the judge be satisfied? If 
he fears, in the unfortunate case of my election (laughter) that my going to 
Washington will enable me to advocate sentiments contrary to those which I 
expressed when you voted for and elected me, I assure him that his fears are 
wholly needless and groundless. Is the judge really afraid of any such 
thing? (Laughter.) I'll tell you what he is afraid of. He is afraid 
we'll all pull together. (Applause and cries of "We will! we will!") 
This is what alarms him more than anything else. (Laughter.) For my part, 
I do hope that all of us, entertaining a common sentiment in opposition to 
what appears to us a design to nationalize and perpetuate slavery, will waive 
minor differences on questions which either belong to the dead past or the dis- 
tant future, and all pull together in this struggle. What are your sentiments? 
("We will! we will!" Loud cheers.) If it be true that on the ground which I 
cupy, ground which I occupy as frankly and boldly as Judge Douglas does his 
my views, though partly coinciding with yours, are not as perfectly in accord- 
ance with your feelings as his are, I do say to you in all candor, go for him, and 
not for me. I hope to deal in all things fairly with Judge Douglas, and with 
the people of the state, in this contest. And if I should never be elected to any 
office, I trust I may go down with no stain of falsehood upon my reputation, 
notwithstanding the hard opinions Judge Douglas chooses to entertain of me. 

The judge has again addressed himself to the Abolition tendencies of a 
speech of mine made at Springfield in June last. I have so often tried to answer 
what he is always saying on that melancholy theme that I almost turn with 
disgust from the discussion from the repetition of an answer to it. I trust 
that nearly all of this intelligent audience have read that speech. ("We have! we 
have.") If you have, I may venture to leave it to you to inspect it closely, and 
see whether it contains any of those "bugaboos" which frighten Judge Douglas. 


The judge complains that I did not fully answer his questions. If I have 
the sense to comprehend and answer those questions, I have done so fairly. 
If it can be pointed out to me how I can more fully and fairly answer him, I 
will do it ; but I aver I have not the sense to see how it is to be done. He says I 
do not declare I would in any event vote for the admission of a slave state into 
the Union. If I have been fairly reported, he will see that I did give explicit 
answer to his interrogatories ; I did not merely say that I would dislike to be 
put to the test, but I said clearly, if I were put to the test, and a territory from 
which slavery has been excluded should present herself with a state consti- 
tution, sanctioning slavery a most extraordinary thing, and wholly unlikely 
to happen I did not see how I could avoid voting for her admission. But he 
refuses to understand that I said so and he "wants this audience to understand 
that I did not say so. Yet it will be so reported in the printed speech that he 
cannot help seeing it. 

He says if I should vote for the admission of a slave state I would be vot- 
ing for a dissolution of the Union, because I hold that the Union cannot per- 
manently exist half slave and half free. I repeat that I do not believe this 
government can endure permanently half slave and half free; yet I do not 
admit, nor does it at all follow, that the admission of a single slave state will 
permanently fix the character and establish this as a universal slave nation. 
The judge is very happy indeed at working up these quibbles. (Laughter and 
cheers.) Before leaving the subject of answering questions, I aver as my 
confident belief, when you come to see our speeches in print, that you will 
find every question which he has asked me more fairly and boldly and fully 
answered than he has answered those which I put to him. Is not that so? 
(Cries of "Yes, Yes.") The two speeches may be placed side by side, and I 
will venture to leave it to impartial judges whether his questions have not 
been more directly and circumstantially answered than mine. Judge Douglas 
says he made a charge upon the editor of the Washington Union, alone, of 
entertaining a purpose to rob the states of their power to exclude slavery from 
their limits. I undertake to say, and I make the direct issue, that he did not 
make his charge against the editor of the Union alone. (Applause.) I will 
undertake to prove by the record here that he made the charge against more 
and higher dignitaries than the editor of the Washmington Union. I am quite 
aware that he was shirking and dodging around the form in which he put it, 
but I can make it manifest that he levelled his "fatal blow" against more per- 
sons than this Washington editor. Will he dodge it now by alleging that I 
am trying to defend Mr. Buchanan against the charge? Not at all. Am I 
not making the same charge myself? (Laughter and applause.) I am try- 
ing to show that you, Judge Douglas, are a witness on my side. (Renewed 
laughter.) I am not defending Buchanan, and I will tell Judge Douglas that 
in my opinion, when he made that charge, he had an eye farther north than 
he has today. He was then fighting against people who called him a Black 
Republican and an Abolitionist. It is mixed all through his speech, and it is 
tolerably manifest that his eye was a great deal farther north than it is today. 
(Cheers and laughter.) The judge says that though he made this charge, 
Toombs got up and declared there was not a man in the United States, except 


the editor of the Union, who was in favor of the doctrines put forth in that 
article. And thereupon I understand that the judge withdrew the charge. Al- 
though he had taken extracts from the newspaper, and then from the Lecomp- 
ton Constitution, to show the existence of a conspiracy to bring about a "fatal 
blow," by which the states were to be deprived of the right of excluding sla- 
very, it all went to pot as soon as Toombs got up and told him it was not 
true. (Laughter.) 

It reminds me of the story that John Phoenix, the California railroad sur- 
veyor, tells. He says they started out from the Plaza to the Mission of Do- 
lores. They had two ways of determining distances. One was by a chain and 
pins-taken over the ground. The other was by a "go-it-ometer" an invention 
of his own a three-legged instrument, with which he computed a series of 
triangles between the points. At night he turned to the chain-man to ascertain 
what distance they had come, and found that by some mistake he had merely 
dragged the chain over the ground without keeping any record. By the "go- 
it-ometer" he found he had made ten miles. Being skeptical about this, he 
asked a drayman who was passing how far it was to the Plaza. The drayman 
replied it was just half a mile; and the surveyor put it down in his book just 
as Judge Douglas says, after he had made his calculations and computations, 
he took Toomb's statement. (Great laughter.) I have no doubt that after 
Judge Douglas had made his charge, he was as easily satisfied about its truth 
as the surveyor was of the drayman's statement of the distance to the Plaza. 
( Renewed - laughter. ) Yet it is a fact that the man who put forth all that 
matter which Douglas deemed a "fatal blow" at state sovereignty, was elected 
by the Democrats as public printer. 

Now, gentlemen, you may take Judge Douglas' speech of March 22, 1858,1 
beginning about the middle of page twenty-one, and reading to the bottom of 
page twenty-four, and you will find the evidence on which I say that he did 
not make his charge against the editor of the Union alone. I cannot stop to 
read it, but I will give it to the reporters. Judge Douglas said : 

"Mr. President, you here find several distinct propositions advanced boldly 
by the Washington Union editorially, and apparently authoritatively, and every 
man who questions any of them is denounced as an Abolitionist, a free-soiler, 
a fanatic. The propositions are, first that the primary object of all govern- 
ment at its original institution is the protection of persons and property; sec- 
ond, that the Constitution of the United States declares that the citizens of 
each state shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of citizens in 
the several states; and that, therefore, thirdly, all state laws, whether organic 
or otherwise, which prohibit the citizens of one state from settling in another 
with their slave property, and especially declaring it forfeited, are direct viola- 
tions of the original intention of the government and Constitution of the 
United States ; and fourth, that the emancipation of the slaves of the northern 
states was a gross outrage on the rights of property, inasmuch as it was invol- 
untarily done on the part of the owner. 

"Remember that this article was published in the Union on the iyth of No- 
vember, and on the i8th appeared the first article, giving the adhesion of the 
Union to the Lecompton Constitution. It was in these words: 


" 'Kansas and Her Constitution. The vexed question is settled. The prob- 
lem is solved. The dead point of danger is passed. All serious trouble to Kan- 
sas affairs is over and gone ' 

"And a column, nearly, of the same sort. Then, when you come to look 
into the Lecompton Constitution, you find the same doctrine incorporated in it 
which was put forth editorially in the Union. What is it? 

" 'Article J, Section i. The right of property is before and higher than any 
constitutional sanction ; and the right of the owner to a slave to such slave and 
its increase is the same and as invariable as the right of the owner of any 
property whatever.' 

"Then in the schedule is a provision that the Constitution may be amended 
after 1864 by a two-thirds vote. 

" 'But no alteration shall be made to affect the right of property in the owner- 
ship of slaves.' 

"It will be seen by these clauses in the Lecompton Constitution that they are 
identical in spirit with this authoritative article in the Washington Union of the 
day previous to its indorsement of this Constitution. 

"When I saw that artcle in the Union of the I7th of November, followed by the 
glorification of the Lecompton Constitution on the i8th of November, and this 
clause in the Constitution asserting the doctrine that a state has no right to pro- 
hibit slavery within its limits, I saw that there was a fatal blow being struck at 
the sovereignty of the states of the Union." 

Here, he says, "Mr. President, you here find several distinct propositions ad- 
vanced boldly, and apparently authoritatively." By whose authority, Judge 
Douglas? (Great cheers and laughter.) Again, he says in another place, "It 
will be seen by these clauses in the Lecompton Constitution that they are identi- 
cal with this authoritative article." By whose authority? (Renewed cheers.) 
Who do you mean to say authorized the publication of these articles ? He knows 
that the Washington Union is considered the organ of the Administration. I 
demand of Judge Douglas by whose authority he meant to say those articles were 
published, if not by the authority of the President of the United States and his 
Cabinet? I defy him to show whom he referred to, if not to these high func- 
tionaries in the Federal Government. More than this, he says the articles in that 
paper and the provisions of the Lecompton Constitution are "identical" and, be- 
ing identical, he argues that the authors are co-operating and conspiring together. 
He does not use the word "conspiring" but what other construction can you put 
upon it ? He winds up with this : 

"When I saw that article in the Union of the I7th of November, followed 
by the glorification of the Lecompton Constitution on the i8th of November, 
and this clause in the Constitution asserting the doctrine that a state has no right 
to prohibit slavery within its limits, I saw there was a fatal blow being struck 
at the sovereignty of the states of this Union." 

I ask him if all this fuss was made over the editor of this newspaper. 
(Laughter.) It would be a terribly "fatal blow" indeed which a single man 
could strike, when no President, no Cabinet officer, no member of Congress, was 
giving strength and efficiency to the movement. Out of respect to Judge Doug- 
las' good sense I must believe he did not manufacture his idea of the "fatal" 


character of that blow out of such a miserable scapegrace as he represents that 
editor to be. But the judge's eye is farther south now. (Laughter and cheers.) 
Then, it was very peculiarly and decidedly north. His hope rested on the idea 
of enlisting the great "Black Republican" party, and making it the tail of his 
new kite. (Great laughter.) He knows he was then expecting from day to 
day to turn Republican, and place himself at the head of our organization. He 
has found that these despised "Black Republicans" estimated him by a standard 
which he has taught them only too well. Hence he is crawling back into his old 
camp, and you will find him eventually installed in full fellowship among those 
whom he was then battling, and with whom he now pretends to be at such fear- 
ful variance. (Loud applause and cries of "Go on, go on,") I cannot, gentle- 
men, my time has expired. 


The firing upon Fort Sumter and the overt attempt to break up the Union 
in 1861, was not a surprise to the people of Stephenson County. Since 1848, 
there had been a great amount of public discussion on the slavery question ; in 
the two newspapers, on the stump and in great public meetings, culminating in 
the debate between Lincoln and Douglas in 1858. The lines were sharply 
drawn between Whigs and Democrats and later between Democrats and Re- 
publicans. In the press and on the stump, each side assailed the policy of the 
other as leading toward disunion. Both sides were honest and sincere. Each 
believed the policy of the other to lead to disunion. On the question of per- 
petuity of the Union, there was no difference of opinion in this county. 

Events followed fast upon each other, the repeal of the Missouri Com- 
promise in the Kansas-Nebraska bill, the Civil war in Kansas, the Lincoln- 
Douglas debates, John Brown's raid, the Dred Scott decision, the nomination of 
Lincoln and the split in the Democratic party in 1860, all of which prepared 
the public mind for the approaching struggle. The conflict had raged for twenty 
years, and its intensity had raised up a mass of men of powerful conviction. 
The issues had passed from the abstract to the concrete and by 1860, the line of 
demarcation was geographical. 

The firing on Fort Sumter, while not a surprise, presented a new situation. 
The issue was no longer slavery, it was the preservation of the National Union. 
While Stephenson County had been sharply divided on the various issues aris- 
ing out of the slavery question, her people stood almost a unit on the greater 
question of the preservation of the Union, and how well they did their part in 
the greatest crisis of the nation, is written in the history of her fighting men on 
the battlefield. Party lines were practically obliterated and Democrats and Re- 
publicans went to the front side by side, not to free the negroes, but to save a 

Douglas, in his Chicago speech, revealed his true greatness by coming out 
strongly on the side of Lincoln and the Union. 

Old Plymouth Hall, where the Wilcoxen building now stands, was Free- 
port's Fanueil Hall. April 18, Thursday evening, 1861, a mass meeting was 
called for Plymouth Hall. The people rallied to the hall in great numbers and 


in feverish excitement and with a spirit of determination. Hon. F. W. S. 
Brawley was elected chairman ; J. R. Scroggs and C. K. Judson, secretaries. 
On motion of J. W. Shaffer, Thomas Wilcoxen, J. M. Smith, W. P. Malburn, 
H. H. Taylor, Capt. Crane and Dr. Martin were elected vice presidents. A com- 
mitee on resolutions was appointed. It consisted of J. W. Shaffer, James Mit- 
chell, C. K. Judson, J. R. Scroggs and A. H. Stone. Stirring speeches were 
made by Smith D. Atkins, Charles Betts, C. S. Bagg and William Wagner of 
the Anzeiger. Resolutions straight to the point, declaring love for the Union 
and for the enforcement of the law, were adopted. 

When a telegram came, April 17, 1861, that Lincoln had issued his first call 
for troops, Mr. Smith D. Atkins, then state's attorney for the district, at once 
drafted an enlistment roll and wrote his own name at the head of the list, the 
first to enlist from the county. Largely through his efforts a company was 
raised, a company organization perfected. Mr. Atkins was elected captain; 
M. E. Newcomer, first lieutenant; S. W. Field, second lieutenant; E. T. Good- 
rich, H. A. Sheetz, William Polk and R. W. Hulbert, sergeants; C. T. Dunham, 
J. O. Churchill, R. H. Rodearmel and W. W. Lott, corporals; C. E. Cotton, 
drummer; and J. R. Harding, fifer. 

The officers and the following privates took the oath April 20, 1861 : W. W. 
Allen, J. W. Brewster, Robert Brennan, W. N. Blakeman, A. S. Best, H. P. 
Parker, W.. H. Brown, Frank Bellman, J. S. Chambers, J. M. Chown, Thomas 
Chattaway, A. Coppersmith, F. Dreener, J. W. Duncan, J. P. Davis, M. Eshel- 
man, William Eddy, J. Geiser, J. R. Hayes, E. J. Hurlburt, W. J. Hoover, L. 
Hall, T. J. Hathaway, J. E. Hershey, J. F. Harnish, F. M. DeArmit, W. W. 
Hunt, W. J. Irvin, S. H. Ingham, Nicholas Kassel, D. L. Fanner, O. F. Lamb, 
T. H. Loveland, S. Lindeman, S. Lebkicker, J. H. McGee, U. B. McDowell, 
W. T. McLaughlin, F. Murphy, D. McCormick, J. M. Miller, F. R. McLaugh- 
lin, J. P. Owen, J. Pratt, A. Patterson, G. L. Piersol, N. Smith, L. Strong, 
J. S. Stout, O. F. Smith, M. Slough, C. Sched, J. S. Sills, C. G. Stafford, T. 
Wishart, W. P. Waggoner, M. S. Weaver, J. Walton, Stephens Waterbury, J. 
Walkey and J. Work. 

May i, 1861, the company left for Springfield. It was a stirring day in old 
Freeport. Three thousand people were out to see the first company of Stephen- 
son county boys leave for the front. The company was escorted to the station 
by the Union Cornet Band and by Capt. W. B. Mills Company. At Springfield, 
Capt. Atkins' Company was assigned as Company A, the Eleventh Regiment of 
Illinois Volunteers. 

A second company was soon organized, with W. J. McKimm, captain ; Henry 
Settlee and Philip Arno, lieutenants; Carl F. Wagner, Jacob Hoebel, D. A. 
Golpin and Theodore Grove, sergeants. The company included : Joseph Meyer, 
Jacob Fiscus, E. Wike, John Bauscher, L. Lehman, Amos D. Hemming, Joseph 
Boni, George Moggly, Dietrich Sweden, John Kruse, Meinhard Herren, C. H. 
Gramp, Jacob Steinhauer, Mat Allard, John Berry, Peter E. Smith, James 
Holmes, Henry Groenewald, Albert Kocher, Thomas Burling, C. Protexter, 
David Stocks, Henry Luttig, Thomas Shuler, Adam Haiser, Andrew Oln- 
hausen, E. Neese, David French, J. M. Maynard, A. Borches, Jacob Doll, John 
A. Raymer, Jacob Ernst, Leonard Sherman, Frederick Deusing, John T. 


Palmer, John Wheeler, Martin Aikey, R. Harberts, A. V. L. Roosa, Emanuel 
Evee, C. F. A. Kellogg, John Niemeyer, Thomas Willan, James Vore, August 
Temple, Jacob Rohrback, Henry Spies, Charles Entorff, Isaac Kephart, James 
Barron, Herman Froning, Daniel F. Shirk, James Kenneg, Albert J. Miller, 
William H. Hennich, John Wiefenbach, William Morris, Henry Kasper, Mar- 
tin D. Rollison, Henry D. Black, John F. Black, Henry Rubald, Bernard 
O'Brien, George Philbrick, William Quinn, John B. Yoder, John Ginther, M. D. 
Miller, John Yordy, Moses Burns, Gotlieb Vollmer, Garrison Haines and Max 
Lamprecht, privates. 

A company organized at Lena went to the front in the Fifteenth Illinois. 
Camp Scott had been opened on what is now Taylor's Park and to this company 
came volunteers from all points of the compass. Hon. Thomas J. Turner was 
colonel of the Fifteenth Regiment recruited at Camp Scott, and the regiment 
left for Alton, June 19, 1861. An immense crowd gathered at the railroad sta- 
tion to see the regiment leave for the war. Such a scene beggars description, 
the parting of friends, relatives and loved ones, the martial music of fife and 
drum, and through all a deep stirred patriotism and loyalty. 

At the close of the three months' service, Capt. Atkins and his company re- 
enlisted, as Company A, Eleventh Illinois Volunteer Infantry, at Birds Point. 

At least three regiments containing Stephenson County volunteers were in 
the battle at the capture of Fort Donelson. In September, 1862, the Ninety- 
second Illinois was organized, with volunteers from Lancaster, Kent, Erin, 
Buckeye and Jefferson townships. In June, 1862, a company of three months' 
men was organized under Capt. James !W. Crane; lieutenants, Stephen Allen 
and Lorenzo Williard ; sergeants, John Stine, James R. Bake, Charles A. Dodge, 
John D. Lamb and Harrison W. Sigworth ; and corporals, C. D. Bentley, Am- 
brose Martin, Sidney Robins, H. S. Ritz, W. H. Heyt and W. H. Battle. In 
1862, an enrollment of the county showed 3,000 men able for duty. 

War meetings were held at Freeport, Lena, Cedarville, Winslow and other 
places in the county in 1862 and 1863. 

Besides sending a large percentage to the fighting line, the people of the 
county loyally aided the needy at the front and at home. Fairs were held and 
money was donated to support families whose heads had gone to war. Dr. 
W. P. Narramore, of Lena, and other physicians gave their services freely to 
the families of soldiers. Through all there was a magnificent spirit of co- 
operation born of necessity. 

The draft was enforced but once, and during the war this county furnished 
3,168 soldiers. 


Mr. Luther B. Angle wrote the following article which was published in the 
Freeport Daily Journal, May 31, 1910. It is a good explanation of the part 
Cedarville played in the Civil War : 

"Cedarville was represented in thirteen different regiments during the Civil 
War. The village had men in the Third and Seventh Illinois Cavalry ; the Elev- 
enth, Twelfth, Fifteenth, Twenty-sixth, Thirty-second, Forty-sixth, Ninety-sec- 


ond (mounted), Ninety-third, One Hundred and Forty-second, One Hundred 
and Forty-sixth and One Hundred and Forty-seventh Regiments of Illinois 
Volunteer Infantry and in one battery. 

We would like to mention all of the families, but will mention only a few 
notable large ones. 

Aikey Three brothers. 

Hiram Clingman Five brothers. 

John Clingman Four brothers. 

Josiah Clingman Three brothers. 

Carman Father and three sons. 

Humphrey Three brothers. 

Haines Three brothers. 

Helm Three brothers. 

Ilgen Two brothers and one brother-in-law. 

Kostenbader Three brothers. 

Kahley Three brothers. 

Piersol Father and two sons. 

Rutter Father and two sons. 

Vore Father and three sons. 

Diemer Three brothers. 

Patten Three brothers. 

From the little stream south and east of the village in a distance of one mile, 
there came thirteen soldiers; one family (Heck) furnished three sons and one 
son-in-law; another family (Kryder) three sons and two sons-in-law and one 
brother-in-law. So we think we have a record hard to beat at any time or place, 
or in any war. Eighteen families furnished sixty-three soldiers. 

In Company G, Captain Joseph Reel's company of the Ninety-third, fifty of 
the company went from Cedarville, including the other captain, Samuel Daugh- 
enbaugh, and the two first lieutenants, Jerimiah Piersol, who was succeeded by 
his son, George Piersol. 

The Forty-sixth Illinois Infantry was represented by more than sixty mem- 
bers : one field officer, Major Joseph Clingman ; twelve members of Company K, 
including Captain William Stewart and First Lieutenant J. Wilson ; twenty-one 
members of Company G, including Captain Samuel Buchanan, First Lieutenant 
Thomas B. Jones of Company B, and six members of his company. 

Cedarville also furnished First Lieutenant Jason Clingman of the Tenth 
Iowa Infantry. 

Thus we have a total of ten commissioned officers from Cedarville, one 
major, four captains and five first lieutenants. 

A few years ago Major General Nelson A. Miles, in a speech in Freeport, said 
that after consulting the census reports of Stephenson County, he found that 
this county sent 72 per cent of the adult male population into the army. 


In the History of the Forty-sixth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, the author, 
Lieutenant T. B. Jones, writing of the life of the volunteers in camp, says: "We 


were put to drill at once, and toes and heels were soon sore from the treading 
of the men before and kicks of those behind, as we marched by file, by flank and 
in line. Not having any arms at first we held our hands at our sides, directing 
our mental faculties to the task of keeping our little fingers on the seams of our 
trouser legs and the more difficult requirements of keeping step. As duty was 
then impressed upon us, the salutation of the Union seemed to depend on our 
fidelity in just covering the seams and keeping step with our front rank men or 
file leaders, eyes fifteen paces to front on the ground. The men were a motley 
host, mostly between the ages of eighteen and twenty-five, full of animal life, 
light hearted, disposed to see fun in everything, and what witty things one did 
not think of some one else did. There were men of all trades and professions. 
There were athletes, who could "do" all the feats of the circus ring. There were 
clowns, too, full of a waggery that kept the camp in a roar. Tailors, barbers, 
expert clerks, to keep company records, teamsters, lumbermen, skilled with the 
axe; in short, the regiment could find in its ranks men adapted to any service, 
from running or repairing a locomotive to butchering an ox. Only a few were 
slaves of drink. They became frequent tenants of the guard house and soon, in 
one way or another, got out of the service. Their pranks and stratagems to get 
liquor were many and witty; amusing to men and annoying to officers. One 
scape-grace would make shoulder straps out of orange peel, pin them on his coat 
and stride out of the guard house, past the innocent sentry with the consequen- 
tial air of a major general, only to turn up a little later roaring drunk in camp. 

Life in camp was very regular. At five o'clock the reveille sounded and all 
must rise at once and bound from the little A tent in which six men slept in 
straw and blankets. As soon as straw and chaff could be combed from the hair 
and the soldier properly clad, the line was formed in each company street for roll 
call. A half hour was then spent in "policing" camp, that is, in cleaning up the 
streets, airing tents, blankets, etc. At half past six the companies formed to 
march to breakfast, each man armed with a knife, fork and tin cup. Thus they 
marched to the mess table, opened files to surround the table ; the command "in- 
ward face" brought the company in line of battle in front of rations. "Touch 
hats" "Seats," was next ordered and executed. The rattle of knives, forks, 
cups and tin plates and the roar of a thousand voices calling in every key for 
"bread," "coffee," "water," presented a scene of very active service. 

At half past seven a tap of the drum called for squad drill. For an hour 
squads of men, nearly all the regiment, marched, filed, faced, turned, double- 
quicked, invariably holding on to the seam of the trouser legs, and soon became fa- 
miliar with the simple movements in the schools of the soldier. At nine the guard 
mount, a pompous ceremony in which the sergeant-major and adjutant figured 
as great dignitaries. At eleven battalion drill for an hour gave all an insight 
into how much our company commanders did not know about war. Then dinner 
and some lolling about in the heat of the day ; but two o'clock found the battalion 
again formed and executing many movements, the command and executions of 
which are long forgotten. We drilled in Hardee's tactics, then thought to be 
the perfection of simple direct evolution. We formed line, advanced and re- 
treated, changed front forward and to the rear. We marched in close column, 
formed square; we charged at double-quick and retreated slowly as if yielding 


the field inch by inch, and we kept the little finger on the seam of our trousers, 
though the sweat tickled our faces and the flies tortured our noses. A grateful 
country never fully appreciates the services and sufferings of the raw recruit. 
Company drill of one hour was one of the most important of all, for here the 
commanding officers were supposed to impart to their men complete instructions, 
according to Hardee, in all the maneuvers in military instruction. This was 
not always done, for the officers, most of them, were only beginners in their 
military education, and after they had acquired some knowledge, the putting into 
practice the different evolutions was in many case a difficult task. Diligent 
application to this work, with the aid of a few instructors, soon gave them the 
necessary knowledge and with practice the most of them became well informed. 
Some of them made the best commanders of the army and made their mark 
in after-time in all the duties of army life. 

Dress parade came off at five o'clock. The guard ceremonial of the day, de- 
scribed by one of the wags of the regiment as a "hard job o' standing still." At 
six o'clock supper and then the play spell of the day. Usually a circus was or- 
ganized and the athletes of the regiment vied with each other, while the wags 
made the welkin ring with their drolleries. As darkness stole on the noise sub- 
sided into a hum of conversation in the tents, or the singing of plaintive songs, 
for the hallowing influence of eve steals over the rough soldier as well as the 
sentimental poet. 

At nine o'clock the tattoo was beaten, the evening roll called, then camp was 
in slumber. Boots and shoes for pillows, straw and a blanket, worse than a 
white horse in coat-shedding time, made us comfortable beds, whatever our opin- 
ion may have been of them in those days of our callow experience. 


The regiment was called into service under proclamation of the president, 
April 16, 1861 ; organized at Springfield, and mustered into serivce April 30, 
1 86 1, by Capt. Pope, for three months. 

During this term of service, the regiment was stationed at Villa Ridge, 
Illinois, to June 2Oth, then removed to Bird's Point, Missouri, where it re- 
mained, performing garrison and field duty, until July 3Oth, when the regiment 
was mustered out, and re-enlisted for three years' service. During the three 
months' term, the lowest aggregate was eight hundred and eighty-two and the 
highest nine hundred and thirty-three, and at the muster-out was nine hundred 
and sixteen. 

Upon the re-muster, July I3th, the aggregate was two hundred and eighty- 
eight. During the months of August, September, October and November, the 
regiment was recruited to an aggregate of eight hundred and one. In the mean- 
time were doing garrison and field duty, participating in the following expedi- 
tions : September gth to I ith, expedition toward New Madrid ; October 6th to 
nth, to Charleston, Missouri; November 3rd to i2th, to Bloomfield, Missouri, 
via Commerce, returning via Cape Girardeau ; January 7th and 8th, expedition 
to Charleston, Missouri, skirmished with a portion of the command of Jeff 
Thompson; January I3th to 2Oth, reconnoissance of Columbus, Kentucky, under 


Gen. Grant; January 25th to 28th, to Sikestown, Missouri, February 2nd em- 
barked on transports to Fort Henry, participating in campaign against that 
place, February nth moved toward Fort Donelson; February I2th, I3th and 
I4th occupied in investing that place, 1 2th heavily engaged with the enemy about 
five hours, losing three hundred and twenty-nine killed, wounded and missing, 
out of about five hundred engaged, of whom seventy-five was killed and one 
hundred and eighty-two wounded ; March 4th and 5th, en route to Fort Henry ; 
5th to 1 3th en rounte to Savannah, Tennessee, in transports; 23d to 25th, en 
route for Savannah to Pittsburg landing; April 6th and 7th, engaged in battle 
of Shiloh, losing twenty-seven killed and wounded, out of one hundred and fifty 
engaged ; April 24th to June 4th, participated in siege of Corinth, thence marched 
to Jackson, Tennessee, making headquarters here to August 2d, participating 
in two engagements; July ist and 2d toward Trenton, Tennessee; July 23rd to 
28th, to Lexington, Tennessee ; August 2d moved to Cairo, Illinois, for purpose 
of recruiting; remained at that point until August 23d, thence to Puducah, 
Kentucky, remaining there until November 2Oth ; in the meantime engaged in 
two expeditions ; August 23rd to September i6th, to Clarksville, Tennessee, via 
Forts Henry and Donelson; October 3ist to November i3th, expeditions to 
Hopkinsville, Kentucky; November 2Oth to I4th, en route to La Grange, Ten- 
nessee, where the regiment reported and was assigned to Brig. Gen. McArthur's 
Division, Left Wing, I3th Army Corps. From this time to January I2th, 1863, 
participated in campaign in Northern Mississippi, marching via Tallahatchie 
(where the regiment was engaged in a sharp skirmish) ; from thence to Abbe- 
ville ; thence seven miles below Oxford ; thence to Holly Springs, Moscow and 
Memphis, Tenn., remaining in Memphis until the i/th, when it embarked on 
transport and en route to Young's Point until 24th, remaining there until Feb- 
ruary nth, then moved to Lake Providence, and assigned to the seventeenth 
Army Corps, making headquarters there until April 2oth, participating in ex- 
pedition to American Bend, from March I7th to 28th. April 23, 1863, the One 
Hundred and Ninth Illinois Infantry was transferred to the Eleventh, five hun- 
dred and eighty-nine being the aggregate gained by the transfer. April 26th, 
regiment moved with column to rear to Vicksburg, via Richmond, Perkins 
Landing, Grand Gulf, Raymond and Black River, arriving before the works 
May i8th; May igth and 22d engaged in assaults on the enemy's works; then 
in the advance siege works to July 4th, at time of surrender; the regiment los- 
ing in the siege and assault and field officer (Col. Garrett Nevins) killed; three 
line officers wounded, and forty men killed and wounded; July I7th moved with 
expedition to Natchez, Mississippi, participating in expedition to Woodville, 
Mississippi, making headquarters there to July 29, 1864; in the meantime en- 
gaged in the following expeditions: February ist to March 8th, up Yazoo River 
to Greenwood, Mississippi, having a skirmish at Liverpool Heights, February 
5th, losing four killed and nine wounded ; action at Yazoo City March 5th, los- 
ing one line officer killed, eight men killed, twenty-four wounded and twelve 
missing; April 6th to 28th, at Black River Bridge; May 4th to 2ist, expedition 
to Yazoo City, Benton and Vaughn's Station, Mississippi, taking a prominent 
part in three important skirmishes; July ist to 7th, with an expedition to Jack- 
son, Mississippi, under Maj. Gen. Slocum, engaged with the enemy three times; 






July agth, moved to Morganza and was assigned to nineteenth Army Corps, 
staying there to September 3d ; in the meantime participating in an expedition to 
Clinton, Louisiana, August 24th to 2Qth ; September 3d moved to mouth of White 
River, Arkansas ; October 8th moved to Memphis, Tennessee, returning to 
White River October 2/th; November 6th and 7th, expedition to Games' Land- 
ing ; November the 8th, moved to Duvall's Bluff, Arkansas ; November 3Oth to 
December 4th, en route to Memphis, Tennessee; December 2Oth to 3ist, ex- 
pedition to Moscow, Tennessee; January ist to 5th, en route to Kenner, Louis- 
iana ; February 4th to 7th, en route to Dauphine Island, via Lake Pontchartrain ; 
March i7th to April i2th, engaged in operations against Mobile, Alabama, 
marching from Fort Morgan, participating in the investment and siege, and final 
capture of Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely, and in the assault -on the latter; 
April 1 2th marched into and took possession of the city of Mobile, staying there 
until the 27th of May, when embarked in transport and moved via Lake Pont- 
chartrain to New Orleans, from thence to Alexandria, Louisiana, remaining 
there until June 22d ; thence to Baton Rouge, Louisiana, to be mustered out of 
service; mustered out July 14, 1865, and left for Springfield, Illinois, for pay- 
ment and final discharge. 

Killed in the field and died of wounds 149 

Aggregate three-months' service 933 

Aggregate three-years' service I >&79 

Field and staff, three-years' service 53 

The following general officers have been in the regiment : Gen. W. H. L. 
Wallace, Gen. T. E. G. Ransom, Gen. Smith D. Atkins. 

The following field officers of other regiments were members of- this regU 
ment : Col. Hotchkiss, Col. Hopeman, Col. H. H. Dean, Col. G. L. Fort, Lieut. 
Col. McCalb, Maj. S. B. Dean, Maj. Widmer. 

Line officers from this regiment to other regiments, thirty-three (33). 

Maj. Smith D. Atkins, Com. Capt. Co. A, May 14, 1861, prmtd. Maj. Feb. 
15, 1862, prmtd. Col. 92nd Regt. 

Quartermaster Guyan J. Davis, com. ist. lieut. Co. A. July 4, 1860, prmtd. 
quartermaster Aug. 31, 1861, term exp. July 29, 1864. 

Quartermaster Joseph W. Brewester, e. as private Co. A, July 30, 1862, 
prmtd. 2nd lieut. Oct. 31, 1863, prmtd quartermaster July 29, 1864. 


Capt. Smith D. Atkins, com. May 14, 1861. 

First Lieut. Martin E. Newcomer, com. May 14, 1861. 

Second Lieut. Silas W. Fileds, com. May 14, 1861. 

First Sergt. Richardson W. Hurlburt, e. July 30, 1861, prmtd. second lieut. 

Sergt. James O. Churchill, e. July 30, 1861, prmtd. 2nd lieut. 

Sergt. Orton Ingersol, e. July 30, 1861, prmtd. 2d lieut. 

Sergt. F. T. Goodrich, e. July 30, 1861, kid. bat. Shiloh. 

Sergt. F. R. Bellman, e. July 30, 1861, kid. at Ft. Donelson. 

Corp. Hugh Q. Staver, e. July 30, 1861, disd. for promotion. 

Corp. John R. Hayes, e. July 30, 1861, disd. Nov. 24, 1862, disab. 


Corp. O. F. Lamb, e. July 30, 1861, disd. Aug. 3, 1862, disab. 

Corp. John D. Waggner, e. July 30, 1861, disd. May 17, 1862. 

Corp. H. B. Springer, e. July 30, 1861, died July 14, 1863, wd. 

Corp. William N. Blakeman, e. July 30, 1861, disd. July 30, 1864, term ex- 

Corp. John Cronemiller, e. July 30, 1861, kid. at Ft. Donelson. 

Corp. Jason Clingman, e. July 30, 1861, disd. for promotion June 6, 1863. 

Musician C. E. Cotton, e. July 30, 1861, trans, to noncom. staff. 

Musician John R. Harding, e. July 30, 1861, disd. for promotion June 6, 1863. 

Addams, S. J., e. July 30, 1861, disd. April, 1862, disab. 

Alexander, Joseph, e. July 30, 1861, died August 3, 1862. 

Adams, John H., e. July 30, 1861, disd. Nov. 20, 1862, wd. 

Bradford, John, e. Dec. 15, 1861, disd. May 17, 1862. 

Brewster, John W., e. July 30, 1861, trans, to non-com, staff. 

Brooks, E. L., e. July 30, 1861. 

Bobb, Isaac, e. July 30, 1861, disd. Dec. 25, 1862. 

Brace, S. N., e. July 30, 1861, vet. 

Bamberger, E., e. July 30, 1861, disd. for promotion, Oct. 20, 1863. 

Chown, Joseph N., e. July 30, 1861. 

Cross, Levi, e. July 30, 1861, disd. Aug. 30, 1862, disab. 

Clingman, William, e. July 30, 1861, kid. at Ft. Donelson. 

Cramer, D. N., e. July 30, 1861, kid. at Ft. Donelson. 

Cradler, Joseph, e. July 30, 1861, as vet. 

Dersham, David, e. Dec. n, 1861, trans, from 109 111. Inf., disd. May 5, 
1863, disab. 

Dunham, Christopher, e. July 30, 1861, trans, to cav. 

Frain, William, e. July 30, 1861, disd. May 17, 1862. 

Fry, John W., e. July 30, 1861, died Oct. 17, 1862. 

French, D. H., e. July 30, 1861, disd. May 17, 1862. 

Figely, William, e. July 30, 1861. 

Ferrin, Harvey, e. July 30, 1861, disd. May 17, 1862. 

Forbes, John, e. July 30, 1861. 

Graham, D. F., e. July 30, 1861, kid. at Ft. Donelson. 

Gillet, John, e. July 30, 1861. 

Gillap, Henry, e. July 30, 1861, disd. July 18, 1862, disab. 

Gravenwold, Henry, e. July 30, 1861, kid. at Ft. Donelson. 

Hurlburt, E. D., e. July 30, 1861, as vet. 

Hayes, Russell, e. July 30, 1861, disd. Aug. 9, 1862, disab. 

Hall, Luther, e. July 30, 1861, disd. Sept. 22, 1864, term expired. 

Hay, Jonathan, e. July 30, 1861, disci. Oct. 13, 1861. 

Hanman, John M., e. July 30, 1861, kid. at Shiloh. 

Hartman, F. D., e. July 30, 1861, kid. at Shiloh. 

Hile, Samuel, e. July 30, 1861, disd. Nov. 20, 1863, disab. 

Hays, Samuel P., e. Jan. 26, 1865, trans, to 46th 111. Inf. 

Hayes, William, e. July 30, 1861, vet. 

Haight, Samuel, e. July 30, 1861, disd. Feb. 9, 1864. 

Ingham, Samuel H., e. July 30, 1861, trans. 


Inman, Seth, e. July 30, 1861. 

Kassell, Nicholas, e. July 30, 1861, disd. Aug. 14, 1862, disab. 

Kearney, Francis, e. July 30, 1861, m. o. Nov. 4, 1861, term expired. 

Kline, Eli, e. July 30, 1861, disd. Aug. 21, 1862, disab. 

Kailey, Jos., e. July 30, 1861, kid. at Ft. Donelson. 

Lamb, John, e. Sept. 27, 1861, disd. May 17, 1863. 

Loveland, J. H., e. July 30, 1861, vet. 

Lambert, F., e. July 30, 1861, kid. Vicksburg, May 22, 1863. 

Lamb, Thomas, e. July 30, 1861. 

Lutz, Charles H., e. July 30, 1861, vet. 

Lied, Edwin, e. July 30, 1861, disd. Nov. 20, 1862, disab. 

Lyon, George W., e. July 30, 1861. 

Lynch, Jos. J., e. July 30, 1861, disd. Sept. 14, 1864, term expired.' 

McGhee, James J., e. July 30, 1861, vet. 

McCormick, D., e. July 30, 1861, disd. Aug. 14, 1862, disab. 

McGlouthling, R., e. July 30, 1861, disd. Sept. 30, 1862, disab. 

Marion, Jacob, e. July 30, 1861, vet. 

Pratt, Joseph, e. July 30, 1861. 

Patterson, Arthur, e. July 30, 1861, vet. 

Parker, H. M., e. July 31, 1861, disd. for promotion. 

Pope, H. H., e. July 30, 1861, disd. May 17, 1862. 

Roe, John M., e. July 30, 1861, vet. 

Ross, Isaac M., e. July 30, 1861, kid. Ft. Donelson. 

Smith, O. F., e. July 30, 1861, m. o. July 29, 1864, term expired. 

Slough, M., e. July 30, 1861, trans, to corps. 

Stoner, H. C., e. July 30, 1861, vet. 

Stoner, Saul, e. July 30, 1861. 

Shoemaker, Anson, e. July 30, 1861, disd. May 17, 1862. 

Smith, Benj., e. July 30, 1861, disd. Feb., 1862, disab. 

Sidle, John, e. July 30, 1861, disd. July 30, 1864, term expired. 

Syphep, Annias, e. Sept. 27, 1861, disd. Nov. 24, 1861, disab. 

Thompson, John A., e. July 30, 1861, kid. Ft. Donelson. 

Templeton, David, e. July 30, 1861, disd. May 17, 1862. 

Trimper, John, e. July 30, 1861, kid. Ft. Donelson. 

Taylor, John B., e. July 30, 1861, disd. July 30, 1863, disab. 

Weaver, M. S., e. July 30, 1861, died Sept. 2, 1861. 

Woodring, Uriah, e. July 30, 1861, disd. May 17, 1862. 

Wohlford, Aaron, e. July 30, 1861. 

Wohlford, Jerit, e. July 30 ,1861. 

Wohlfort, Geo., e. July 30, 1861, prmpt. Corp., died Aug. 29, 1863. 

Wohlford, Jos., e. July 30, 1861, prmptd. Corp. 

Wenz, James, e. July 30, 1861. 

Williams, F. J., e. Sept. 27, 1861, disd. Oct. 14, 1862, disab. 


Clement, Louis, e. Aug. 15, 1861, died July 27, 1864, wd. 



The Fifteenth Regiment Infantry, Illinois Volunteers, was organized at Free- 
port, Illinois, and mustered into the United States service May 24, 1861, being 
the first regiment organized for the state for the three-year service. It then 
proceeded to Alton, Illinois, remaining there six weeks for instruction. Left 
Alton for St. Charles, Missouri, thence by rail to Mexico, Missouri. Marched 
to Hannibal, Missouri ; thence by steamboat to Jefferson Barracks ; then by rail 
to Rolla, Missouri. Arrived in time to cover Gen. Siegel's retreat for Wilson's 
Creek; thence to Tipton, Missouri, and thence joined Gen. Fremont's army. 
Marched from there to Springfield, Missouri ; thence back to Tipton ; then to 
Sedalia, with Gen. Pope, and assisted in the capture of one thousand three hun- 
dred of the enemy a few miles from the latter place ; then marched to Otterville, 
Missouri, where it went into winter quarters December 26, 1861. Remained 
there until February i, 1862, then marched to Jefferson City; thence to St. Louis 
by rail; embarked on transports for Fort Donelson, arriving there the day of 
the surrender. 

The regiment was then assigned to the fourth division, General Hurlbut 
commanding and marched to Fort Henry. Then embarked on transports for 
Pittsburg' Landing. Participated in the battles of the 6th and 7th of April, los- 
ing two hundred and fifty-two men killed and wounded. Among the former 
were Lieutenant Colonel E. T. W. Ellis, Major Goddard, Captains Brownell and 
Wayne, and Lieutenant John W. Puterbaugh. Captain Adam Nase, wounded 
and taken prisoner. The regiment then marched to Corinth, participating in 
various skirmishes and the siege of that place, losing a number of men killed 
and wounded. 

After the evacuation of Corinth, the regiment marched to Grand Junction; 
thence to Holly Springs ; back to Grand Junction ; thence to La Grange ; thence 
to Memphis, arriving there July 21, 1862, and remaining there until September 
6th. Then marched to Bolivar; thence to the Hatchie River. Lost, fifty killed 
and wounded in that engagement. Then returned to Bolivar; from thence to 
La Grange; thence with General Grant down through Mississippi to Coffeeville, 
returning to La Grange and Memphis ; thence to Vicksburg, marched with Sher- 
man to Jackson, Mississippi, then returned to Vicksburg and embarked for 
Natchez. Marched thence to Kingston ; returned to Natchez ; then to Harrison- 
burg, Louisiana, capturing Fort Beauregard, on the Washita River. Returned 
to Natchez, remained there until November 10, 1863. Proceeded to Vicksburg 
and went into winter quarters. Here the regiment re-enlisted as veterans, re- 
maining until February i, 1864, when it moved with General Sherman through 
Mississippi. On Champion Hills had a severe engagement with rebel Carney. 
Marched to Meridian; thence south to Enterprise; thence back to Vicksburg. 
Was then ordered to Illinois on veteran furlough. On expiration of furlough-, 
joined seventeenth army corps, and proceeded up the Tennessee River to Clin- 
ton ; thence to Huntsville. Alabama ; thence to Decatur and Rome, Georgia ; 
thence to Kingston, and joined General Sherman's army, marching to Atlanta. 


At Allatoona Pass, the fifteenth and the fourteenth infantry was consolidated, 
and the organization was known as the Veteran Battalion Fourteenth and Fif- 
teenth Illinois Infantry Volunteers, and numbering six hundred and twenty-five 
men. From Allatoona Pass it proceeded to Ackworth and was then assigned to 
duty, guarding the Chattanooga & Atlanta Railroad. While engaged in this 
duty the regiment being scattered along the line of road, the rebel General Hood, 
marched north struck the road at Big Shanty and Ackworth, and captured about 
three hundred of the command. The remainder retreated to Marietta, were 
mounted and acted as scouts for General Vandever. They were afterward trans- 
ferred to General F. P. Blair, and marched with General Sherman through 

After the capture of Savannah, the regiment proceeded to Beaufort, South 
Carolina; thence to Salkahatchie River, participating in the various skirmishes 
in that vicinity Columbia, South Carolina, Fayetteville, North Carolina, battle 
of Bentonville losing a number wounded; thence to Goldsboro and Raleigh. 
At Raleigh, recruits sufficient to fill up both regiments were received, and the 
organization of the Veteran Battalion discontinued, and the fifteenth re-organ- 
ized. The campaign of General Sherman ended by the surrender of General 
Johnston, The regiment then marched with the army to Washington, D. C., 
via Richmond and Fredericksburg, and participated in the grand review of 
Washington, May 24, 1865; remained there two weeks. Proceeded by rail and 
steamboat to Louisville, Kentucky; remained at Louisville two weeks. The regi- 
ment was then detached from the Fourth Division, Seventeenth Army Corps, and 
proceeded by steamer to St. Louis; from thence to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 
arriving there July i, 1865. Joined the army serving on the plains. Arrived 
at Fort Kearney August i4th ; then ordered to return to Fort Leavenworth 
September i, 1865, where the regiment was mustered out of the service and 
placed en route for Springfield, Illinois, for final payment and discharge, having 
served four years and four months. 

Number of miles marched 4,299 

Number of miles by rail 2,403 

Number of miles by steamer 4,310 

Total miles traveled 11,012 

Number of men joined for organization 1,963 

Number of men at date of muster out 640 

Colonel Thomas J. Turner, com. May 14, 1861, res. Nov. 2, 1862. 
Maj. William R. Goddard, com. June 26, 1861, kid. Pittsburg Landing. 
Maj. Rufus C. McEathorn, com. ist lieut. Co. G., April 24, 1861 ; prmtd. 
capt. April 2, 1862; prmtd. maj. July 7, 1863. 

Surgeon William J. McKim, com. May 14, 1861, hon. disd. March 21, 1865. 
First Asst. Surg. John W. Van Valzah, com. April u, 1862, died about Au- 
gust 9, 1863. 

Fife Maj. John H. Griffith, e. Dec. 21, 1863. 
Hospital Steward, H, H. McAfee. 
Assistant Surgeon, J. iN. DeWitt. 



Henry Williams, Warren W. Armstrong, John S. Smith, George W. Whit- 
ney, James Hodges and Charles S. Page. 

Samuel Aikey, Joseph H. Fleaury, Patrick McNichols. 

Alfred Broadee, Joseph Clark. 


Hotchkiss, W. N., e. may 24, 1861, vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 
Barnes, William G., e. May 24, 1861, vet. Jan. 24, 1864, Co. E. 
Deye, Emanuel, e. May 24, 1861, died May 25, 1862, wd. 
Freman, Alfred, e. May 24, 1861, vet. Jan. i, 1864. 
Smith, William H., e. May 24, 1861, vet. Jan. i, 1864. 
Giltner, Conrad, e. May 26, 1862, vet. Jan. i, 1864. 
Hyortas, Julius O., e. May 24, 1861, disd. Aug. n, 1862, disab. 
Hawkins, John H., March 26, 1862, vet. Jan. i, 1864. 
Protexter, Christian, e. May 26, 1861, vet. Jan. i, 1862. 
Shattuck, Abner, e. May 26, 1861, disd. Dec. 15, 1862, disab. 
Smith, Charles, e. May 26, 1861, died April 22, 1862. 
Krink, Jonas, e. June 3, 1861, vet. Jan. i, 1864. 
Miers, Oscar, e. June 3, 1861. 
Prouse, William H., e. Sept. 12, 1861. 
Wilson, Robert B., e. June 3, 1861, vet. Jan. i, 1864. 


Sweden, Dietrich, e. May 24, 1861. 

Luttig, Henry, e. Jan. i, 1864. 

Jordan, Frank A., e. Nov. 2, 1861, disd. Nov. 14, 1863, disab. 


Capt. James O. P. Burnside, com. May 15, 1861, m. o. April 2, 1862. 

Capt. Albert Bliss, Jr., com. 2d lieut. April 24, 1861, prmtd. ist lieut. April 
2, 1862; prmtd. capt. July 7, 1863; m. o. at Consolidation. 

First Lieut. Hubbard P. Sweet, e. as First Sergt. May 24, 1861 ; prmtd. 2d 
lieut. April 2, 1862; prmtd. 1st lieut. July 7, 1863; m. o. at Consolidation. 

Sergt. Robert Reeder, e. May 24, 1861, disd. Oct. 27, 1861, disab. 

Sergt. Waterman Ells, e. May 24, 1861, vet. trans, to Co. B, Vet. Bat. 

Sergt. John W. Foil, e. May 24, 1861, disd. May 24, 1863, disab. 

Sergt. Lansing Ells, e. May 24, 1861, disd. Oct. 17, 1861, disab. 

Corp. William T. House, e. May 24, 1861. 

Corp. James Aurand, e. May 24, 1861, disd. Jan. i. 1862, disab. 

Corp. Albert V. S. Butler, e. May 24, 1861, died Jan. 4, 1864. 

Corp. Thomas J. Kaufman, e. May 24, 1861. 

Corp. George L. Stevens, e. May 24, 1861, disd. Oct. 19, 1862, disab. 

Corp. Hood Hazlett, e. May 24, 1861. 

Corp. Daniel J. Kelley, e. May 24, 1861. 

Allen, William E. Dec. i, 1863, trans, to Co. B, Vet. Bat. 


Auk, Jacob, e. May 24, 1861. 

Addis, Jacob R., e. May 24, 1861, disd. Jan. i, 1862, disab. 

Aikey, Martin, e. May 24, 1861. 

Aurand, George C., e. May 24, 1861. 

Bailey, R. B., e. May 24, 1861, kid. at Shiloh April 6, 1862. 

Brigham, Lewis D., e. May 21, 1861, disd. Jan. n, 1862, disab. 

Braham, August, e. May 24, 1861, died Dec. 19, 1863. 

Bowker, Homer H., e. May 24, 1861. 

Bowker, James M., e. May 24, 1861, died Aug. 17, 1861. 

Barnes, William G., e. May 24, 1861, trans, to Co. E. 

Ballinger, Borroughs W., e. Sept. 23, 1861, disd. Aug. 15, 1862, disab. 

Burrell, Henry, e. Sept. 30, 1861. 


Barden, George R., e. March 31, 1864. 
Barber, Geo. E., e. March 31, 1864. 
Buswell, Wm. J., e. May 24, died Oct. 14, 1863. 
Bahan, John, e. May 24, 1861, vet. trans, to Go. B, vet. bat. 
Brien, B. O., e. May 24, 1861, disd. Oct. 17, 1861, disab. 
Brown, Alex., e. May 24, 1861, disd. May i, 1863, disab. 
Cox, James H., e. May 24, 1861, disd. Oct. 17, 1861, disab. 
Christenson, Claus, e. May 24, 1861. 

Cassidy, William J., e. May 24, 1861, disd. Nov. i, 1862, wd. 
Calhoun, John P., e. May 24, 1861, disd, Jan. i, 1862, disab. 
Cair, Geo., e. May 24, 1861, disd. Aug. 20, 1862, disab. 
Callen, John, e. May 24, 1861. 

DeWitt, N. J., e. June 23, 1861, vet. prmtd. hospital steward. 
Davenport, Lucius, e. May 24, 1861, disd. Oct. 17, 1861. 
Denton, E. S., e. May 24, 1861, vet. trans, to Co. B, vet. bat. 
Denton, Chas. E., e. May 24, 1861. 

Doyle, Mathew, e. May 24, 1861, kid. at Shiloh, April 6, 1862. 
Ehrman, Florence, e. May 24, 1861, disd. Feb. 4, 1863, disab. 
Ferguson, N. M., e. May 24, 1861, disd. Jan. 17, 1862. 
French, Geo. W., e. May 24, 1861. 

Fox, John C., e. May 24, 1861, disd. May 18, 1862, disab. 
Feely, Duncan MacD., e. May 24, 1861, disd April 17, 1863, disab. 
Gardner, Jerome, e. Oct. I, 1861, disd. Oct. 19, 1862. 
Garner, John D. F., e. May 24, 1861, vet., trans, to vet. bat., Co. B. 
Gittner, John C., e. May 24, 1861. 

Gittner, R. D., e. May 24, 1861, disd. July 28, 1862, disab 
Girton, John W., e. May 24, 1861. 

Gintter, John, e. May 24, 1861, disd. Feb. 7, 1862, disab. 
Hayes, Charles G., e. May 24, 1861. 

Heiser, William H., e. May 24, 1861, vet. Jan. i, 1864, trans, to Co. B, vet. 

Hoag, Leonard H., e. May 24, 1861. 

Hoffe, John, e. Dec. i, 1863, vet. trans, to Co. B, vet. bat. 

Hackman, John W., e. May 24, 1861. 


Hays, A. A., e. May 24, 1861, m. o. May 24, 1864. 
Hays, Martin, e. May 19, 1864, trans, to Co. B, vet. bat. 
Hayes, Wm., e. May 24, 1861, trans, to invalid corps. 
Illingsworth, Jos., e. June 17, 1861, disd. Jan. i, 1862, disab. 
Kline, M. V., e. May 24, 1861, died Nov. 8, 1861. 

Kinsman, Richard, e. May 24, 1861, vet. Jan. i, 1864, trans, to Co. B, vet. 

Lawver, M. A., e. March 31, 1861, trans, to Co. B, vet, bat 

Laurer, Lewis, e. May 24, 1861, disd. April 8, 1862, disab. 

Landon, Lyman, e. May 24, 1861. 

Ling, E. W., e. May 24, 1861, died Aug. 15, 1862. 

Lambrecht, Max, e. May 24, 1861. 

Milhollin, Daniel, e. Oct. 4, 1861, died June 24, 1862, wd. 

Moll, Wm. R, e. May 24, 1861, vet. trans, to Co. B, vet. bat. 

Mack, John, e. Dec. 5, 1863. 

Minns, Chas., e. May 24, 1861. 

Mack, Samuel, e. Dec. 5, 1863. 

Murphy, Thomas, e. May 24, 1861. 

Moist, E., e. Dec. 24, 1863, trans to Co. B, vet. bat. 

Morley, Marshall, e. May 24, 1861, disd. Dec. 16, 1862, disab. 

Maloney, Michael, e. April 23, 1864, trans, to Co. B, vet. bat. 

Mullen, James, e. May 24, 1861. 

Mathison, Alex., e. May 24, 1861, vet., trans, to Co. B, vet. bat. 

McAfee, Henry H., e. May 24, 1861, prmtd. to hospital steward. 

Miller, John H., e. May 24, 1861, disd. Oct. 17, 1861, disab. 

Noble, Geo. W., e. May 24, 1862, vet. 

Niemeyer, John, e. May 24, 1861, kid. at Shiloh April 6, 1862. 

Philips, Hugh, e. May 24, 1861, died Jan. 6, 1862. 

Pickel, Henry, e. May 24, 1861, vet., trans, to vet. bat., Co. B. 

Patton, Wm. P., e. May 24, 1861, disd. Dec. 10, 1862, disab. 

Preston, George L., March 31, 1864, trans, to Co. B, vet. bat. 

Palmer, John T., e. May 24, 1861, disd. Oct. 17, 1861, disab. 

Reeder, John, disd. June 14, 1862, disab. 

Randall, Geo. H., e. May 24, 1861, disd. Sept. 2, 1862. 

Ross, Walter J., e. May 24, 1861. 

Rush, Peter, e. May 24, 1861, disd. Oct. 17, 1861, disab. 

Rishel, John G., e. May 24, 1861, disd. Oct. 17, 1861. 

Rees, Daniel J., e. May 24, 1861. 

Rohback, Jacob, e. May 24, 1861, disd. Aug. 20, 1862, disab. 

Seymour, Oliver, e. May 31, 1861. 

Sasman, D. W., e. May 24, 1861, disd. Oct. 18, 1862. 

Sigler, John B., e. May 24, 1861. 

Shiney, Sylvester, e. May 24, 1861, vet. trans, to Co. B, vet. bat. 

Shinkle, Geo. W., e. May 24. 1861, vet.. Jan. i, 1864. trans, to Co. B, vet, bat. 

Stites, David R. P., e. Sept. 23, 1861, kid. at Shiloh, April 6, 1862. 

Shrove, Wm. H., e. May 24, 1861, disd. Oct. 17, 1861, disab. 

Snyder, Egbert, e. Sept. 30, 1861, disd. Dec. 18, 1862, disab. 


Shinkle, E. R., e. May 24, 1861. 

Stull, James, e. Sept. i, 1862, trans, to Co. B, vet. bat. 

Shrove, Daniel, e. May 24, 1861, disd. Feb., 1862, disab. 

Sturn, Henry, e. May 31, 1864, trans, to Co. B, vet. bat. 

Solace, E. D., e. May 24, 1861, died April 28, 1862, wd. 

Savidge, Robt. S., e., May 24, 1861, disd. July 28, 1862, wd. 

Tull, Chas. H., e. Sept. 23, 1861, vet. 

Tenant, Owen, May 24, 1861, died April, 1862, wd. 

Trepus, Daniel, Sept. 2, 1862, trans, to vet. bat. 

Twogood, Luther J., e. May 23, 1861. 

Wite, John E., e., March 30, 1864, trans, to vet. bat. 

Wheeler, John S., e. May 24, 1861, kid. at Shiloh. 

Yoder, John B., e. May 24, 1861. 


Blankenship, John,.e. March 9, 1865. 
Rollins, Solomon W., e. March 9, 1865. 


Maj. Rufus O. McEathorn, com. July 7, 1863, m. o. Aug. i, 1864. 
Surg. Wm. J. McKim, com. May 14, 1861. 


Surg. Wm. J. McKim, com. May 14, 1861, hon. disd. Dec. 22, 1864, 


Sergt. Waterman Ells, e. Jan. i, 1864. 
Sergt. William F. Mall, e. Jan. i, 1864. 
Corp. John D. F. Garner, e. Jan. i, 1864. 
Corp. Erastus Denton, e. Jan. i, 1864, vet. 
Musician Oliver Seymour, e. Jan. i, 1864. 
Allen, William, e. Dec. i, 1863. 
Beham, John, e. March i, 1864. 
Barden, Geo. R., e. March 31, 1864. 
Barber, Geo. E., e. March 31, 1864. 
Foreman, Alfred, e. Jan. i, 1864. 
Huffee, John, e. Dec. i, 1863. 
Hayes, Martin, e. March 19, 1864. 
Heiser, Henry, e. Jan. i, 1864. 
Kinsman, Richard, e. Jan. i, 1864. 
Lawyer, M. A., e. March 31, 1864. 
Maloney, Michael, e. April 23, 1864. 
Mook, Samuel, e. Dec. 5, 1863. 
Moist, Ephraim, e. Dec. 24, 1863. 
Noble, George W. 

Preston, Geo. L., e. March 31, 1864 
Potter, Samuel. 
Shuler, Thomas. 


Stull, James, e. Sept. i, 1862. 
Starn, Henry, e. March 31, 1864. 
Trepus, Daniel, e. Sept. 26, 1862. 
White, John E., e. March 31, 1864. 


Hotchkiss, W. N., e. Dec. 16, 1863. 
Perry, James H., e. March 17, 1862. 
Price, William, e. Dec. 18, 1863. 
Staplin, George W., e. April i, 1862. 


Armstrong, W. W., e. Jan. i, 1864. 

Hawkins, John H., e. March 26, 1864, died Sept. 14, 1864. 

Luttig, Henry, e. Jan. I, 1864. 

Protexter, Chris., e. Jan. i, 1864. 

Prouse, William H., e. Sept. 12, 1861, m. o. Sept. 23, 1864. 

Page, Chas. S., e. April 27, 1864. 

Pabst, Charles H. C., e. Jan. i, 1864. 

Steekle, Ruben, e. Jan. i, 1864. 

Smith, William H., e. Jan. i, 1864. 

Steves, Thomas M., e. Jan. i, 1864. 

Smith, John H., e. Jan. i, 1864. 

Whitney, George W., e. Jan. i, 1864, disd. March 27, 1865. 


Fessenden, E. A., e. March 2, 1865. 
Gill, Richard H., e. March 2, 1865. 


Fowler, William, e. March 2, 1865. 


The Twenty-sixth Illinois Volunteer Infantry was mustered into the United 
States service, with seven companies at Camp Butler, Illinois, August 31, 1861, 
and were ordered to Quincy, Illinois, for the protection of that place. Not hav- 
ing been armed the regiment did guard duty with hickory clubs. During the 
autumn the regiment did guard duty on the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad, and 
were armed with old English Tower muskets Colonel John Mason Loomis 
commanding post at Hannibal. Prior to January i, 1862, three more companies 
were raised, completing the organization. February 19, 1862, they left Han- 
nibal, Missouri, for the south, stopping at Commerce, where the regiment was 
assigned to Brigadier General J. B. Plummer's brigade, Brigadier General 
Schuyler Hamilton's division, Major General John Pope's corps. They arrived 
in New Madrid, March 3, and were engaged in action there; marched to Point 
Pleasant, and arriving on the 6th, engaged rebel gunboats with sharp-shooters 
and prevented the landing of the enemy; marched to intercept the flying enemy 
from island number ten, and assisted in capturing many prisoners. After re- 


maining some time at New Madrid, joined an expedition against Fort Pillow; 
returning, proceeded up the Ohio and Tennessee Rivers to Hamburg Landing; 
took part in the siege at Corinth ; May 8th and gth were engaged at Farmington, 
the regiment losing five killed and thirty wounded, Lieutenant Colonel Charles 
J. Tinkham was among the wounded ; Colonel Loomis commanded the bri- 
gade, and General Stanley the division. May 28th, engaged the enemy one 
mile from Corinth, the regiment losing four killed and twenty-five wounded ; 
Major Gilmore was wounded. Company G of the Twenty-sixth was the first 
to enter Corinth on evacuation by the enemy ; engaged in the pursuit to Boone- 
ville, and returned to Clear Creek, four miles from Corinth. June 23d, ordered 
to Danville, Mississippi, where we remained until August 18, 1862, at which 
time we joined the brigade commanded by Colonel R. C. Murphy, Eighth Wis- 
consin, and marched for Tuscumbia, arrived 2ist; September 8th, with Forty- 
seventh and Twenty-sixth, Lieutenant Colonel Tinkham commanding, marched to 
Clear Creek; September i8th, marched for luka; igth, were engaged with the 
enemy in a brigade commanded by Lieutenant Colonel J. A. Mower, of the Elev- 
enth Missouri ; the enemy evacuating in the night, we joined in the pursuit, arriv- 
ing at Corinth October 3d, and participating in the battle of Corinth ; after the 
battle followed the retreating enemy as far as Ripley. Ten days afterward, ar- 
rived again at Corinth, where we stayed' until November 2d. Marched via Holly 
Junction, Holly Springs and Lumpkin's Mill toward Tallahatchie River, the 
enemy being fortified on the south side of the river. The regiment was here 
detailed to guard a commissary train to Hudsonville, during the trip, losing two 
men killed and two wounded by guerrillas ; ordered to Holly Springs for guard 
duty; thence to Oxford, Mississippi, where we remained until December 2Oth; 
ordered to Holly Springs, to prevent the capture of that place; on the 2ist 
reached that place, the enemy having fled ; remained here during the year, Colo- 
nel Loomis commanding the post, and Lieutenant Colonel Gilmore as chief of 

In the beginning of the year 1863, the post of Holly Springs was broken 
up and the army fell back to La Grange, Tennessee, where the regiment was 
assigned to duty as provost guard, Colonel Loomis commanding the post. Here 
it remained until March 8th. 

March 3d the regiment was brigaded with the Ninetieth Illinois, Twelfth and 
One Hundredth Indiana, Colonel Loomis commanding. March 9th the bri- 
gade marched from La Grange to Collierville, Tennessee, where they remained 
three months, engaged in fortifying the place and defending the railroad against 
guerrillas and bushwhackers. June Jth, left Colliersville for Memphis. The 
following day they embarked for Haines' Bluff. The regiment subsequently 
went into camp at Oak Ridge, where it remained until after the fall of Vicks- 
burg. On the afternoon of July 4th, started in pursuit of the retreating forces 
of General Johnston. The siege of Jackson was marked by severe skirmishing 
in one of which Captain James A. Dugger, of Company C, was instantly killed 
by a round shot through the breast, and a number of men were killed and wounded. 
About the 22d of July, began the march back to Vicksburg, and when the troops 
crossed Black River they went into camp for the summer. September 28, the 
encampment was broken up and the regiment marched into Vicksburg and there 


embarked for Memphis, where it arrived on the 7th of October. Here a 
few days were given for the purpose of outfitting the men, preparatory for the 
long march across the country from Memphis to Chattanooga, to relieve the 
besieged army of the Cumberland. The march began at 8 A. M., October nth; 
arrived at Bridgeport November i5th, and on the 24th and 25th took an active 
part in the battle of Mission Ridge, losing, in killed and wounded, one hundred 
and one officers and men. Among the officers severely wounded were Lieutenant 
Colonel Gilmore, Captain James P. Davis, Company B. ; Adjutant Edward A. 
Tucker and Lieutenant William Polk, Company B. The next morning, started 
before daylight, in pursuit of the defeated and flying enemy ; followed them to 
Ringgold, Georgia, burnt the bridges and destroyed the railroad; then turned to 
make the march of two hundred miles, without supplies, cooking utensils, camp 
equipage, or change of clothing, to the relief of General Burnside, at Knox- 
ville; returned to Bridgeport in the latter part of December; were reclothed, 
paid off, and marched to Scottsboro, Alabama, and went into winter quarters. 

January i, 1864, there were five hundred and fifteen men present for duty 
of whom four hundred and sixty- three re-enlisted as veterans. Of sixty- 
one men present in Company K, sixty re-enlisted. 

January i2th, started home on veteran furlough. At the expiration of fur- 
lough, returned to the field with ranks well filled with recruits. Arrived at old 
camp at Scottsboro, March 3d, and remained there until May ist, when it 
started on the great Atlanta campaign. The regiment was actively engaged 
in all the marches, skirmishes and battles which finally resulted in the capture 
of Atlanta. On the 3d of August, a detail of nine hundred men was made on 
the division, to charge the enemy's skirmish line. The charge was to be made 
over an old field, covered with high grass, a distance of about four "hundred 
yards. When the signal was given the men started on a keen run for the rebel 
works. Private John S. Wilson of Company D, Twenty-sixth Illinois, a stout 
active fellow, outrun the rest, and suddenly found himself alone in front of a~ 
rebel pit, which had been concealed by the tall grass, filled with seventeen men 
and a commissioned officer. He drew up his musket and told them to "fight or 

run, and that d d quick." All surrendered except the officer, who started 

to run, and he shot him. It was laughable to see "Buck," as he was called, 
marching back with his seventeen prisoners. By order of General Logan, he 
retained the officer's sword and a fine Whitney rifle, found in the pit, and now 
has them at home as mementoes of his gallantry. After the fall of Atlanta 
most of the old officers were mustered out at the expiration of their term of 
service. Only two of the original officers remained, one of whom, Captain Ira 
J. Bloomfield, Company K, was made colonel of the regiment. About the 
same time the fourth division, Fifteenth Army corps, was broken up and the 
regiment was transferred to the first division of the same corps with which it 
remained until the close of the war. 

The regiment did some hard marching, following Hood up toward Chatta- 
nooga, and off into northern Alabama ; then returned to Atlanta ; were paid and 
reclothed, preparatory to "marching through Georgia." 

The twenty-sixth were engaged in the action of Griswoldville, siege of Sa- 
vannah, and capture of Fort McAlister. A short time after the fall of Sa- 


vannah, the regiment was ordered to Beaufort, South Carolina, and remained 
on duty there and at Port Royal Ferry until the commencement of the north- 
ward march through the Carolinas ; were among the first regiments into Colum- 
bia, and were hotly engaged in the battle of Bentonville. Here the regiment 
was ordered to carry the bridge across Mill Creek, which was strongly guarded 
by the enemy. The regiment charged and carried it but lost a number of good 
men. Sergeant Smith of Company K, color bearer, was charging at the head 
of the column across the bridge and was shot, the colors falling into the stream. 
The enemy rushed forward to secure them, but Lieutenant Webster, with 
Company E, charged, drove them back and saved the colors. Colonel Bloom- 
field had his horse shot under him, and narrowly escaped himself. 

Remained at Goldsboro, North Carolina, a few days, and April 10, began 
to march against Raleigh. Left Raleigh May I for Washington, via Richmond ; 
participated in the grand review at Washington ; transported by rail to Parkers- 
burg, Virginia; thence by boat to Louisville, Kentucky, where it remained in 
camp until July 20, 1865, when it was mustered out of service and started for 
Springfield, Illinois, for final payment and discharge. July 28th the regiment 
was paid off and disbanded. 

The regiment had marched during its four years of service, six thousand 
nine hundred and thirty-one miles, fought twenty-eight hard battles, besides 
innumerable skirmishes. They were permitted by the order of the commanding 
general to place upon their banners "New Madrid," "Island No. 10," "Farming- 
ton," "Siege of Corinth," "luka," "Corinth 3d and 4th October, 1862," "Holly 
Springs," "Vicksburg," "Jackson, Miss.," "Mission Ridge," "Reseca," "Kene- 
saw", "Ezra Church," "Atlanta," "Jonesboro," "Griswoldville," "McAllister," 
"Savannah," "Columbia," "Bentonville.' 

Lieut. Col. George H. Reed, com. ist lieut. Co. B, August 28, 1861 ; prmtd. 
capt. May 17, 1864; prmtd. Maj. June 6, 1865. 


Capt. James P. Davis, com. May 28, 1861, hon. disd. March 30, 1864. 

Capt. Theodore Schernerhorn, e. as ( ?) corp. Aug. 15, 1861 ; prmtd. ist 
lieut. May 14, 1863; res. May 14, 1864. 

First Lieut. David Layser, e. as corp. Aug. 15, 1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; prmtd. 
ist lieut. June 6, 1865. 

Sergt. William Quinn, e. Aug. 15, 1861, disd. Oct. 31, 1862, disab. 

Sergt. William P. Dursk, e. Aug. 15, 1861 ; prmtd. Q. M. Sergt. vet. 

Sergt. William J. Irvin, e. Aug. 15, 1861, vet. 

Sergt. Jonas Andrew, e. Aug. 15, 1861, vet. Jan. i, 1864. 

Corporal James P. Winters, e. Aug. 15, 1861, died Oct. 10, 1862. 

Addams, C. H., e. Aug. 15, 1861, vet. Jan. i, 1864. 

Buckley, Daniel, e. Aug. 15, 1861, trans, to Co. H. 

Buckley, Patrick, e. Aug. 15, 1861, trans, to Co. H. 

Buckley, John, e. Aug. 15, 1861, trans, to Co. H. 

Berry, Edwin, e. Feb. 12, 1864. 

Bentley, William, e. Aug. 15, 1861, disd. July 16, 1862. 

Blake, F. W., e. Aug. 15, 1861, trans, to Co. L. 

Bear, F. H., e. Aug. 15, 1861, vet. Jan. i, 1864. 


Burns, Francis, e. Aug. 15, 1861, trans, to Co. L. 

Butcher, James, e. Aug. 15, 1861, prmtd. corp. ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; died Oct. 
31, 1864. 

Burk, John J., e. Aug. 15, 1861, disd. Aug. 18, 1864, term expired. 

Baker, Philip, e. Aug. 15, 1861, kid. Farmington, Miss., May 9, 1862. 

Bokof, Harmon, e. Aug. 15, 1861, vet. Jan. 15, 1864; m. o. as corp. 

Cornelius, Samuel, e. Aug. 15, 1861, vet. Jan. i, 1864. 

Cawley, William, e. Aug. 15, 1861, trans, to Co. I. 

Choppy, Charles, died May 31, 1864, wds. 

Derling, Isreal, e. Aug. 15, 1861, vet. Jan. i, 1864; m. o. as corp. 

Dow, Edward, e. Aug. 15, 1862. 

Doll, Dogebert, e. Sept. 18, 1862. 

Fehr, William, e. Oct. 10, 1864. 

Fleekson, Peter, e. Feb. 7, 1864. 

Fannon, Andrew, e. Nov. 3, 1862. 

Eastland, A. J., e. Aug. 15, 1861, trans, to Co. I. 

Eshlerman, William, e. Aug. 15, 1861, died July 27, 1862. 

Eaton, N. H., e. Aug. 15, 1861, vet. Jan. i, 1864. 

Frisby, Julius, e. Aug. 15, 1861, died April 2, 1862. 

Forbs, Nathan, e. Aug. 15, 1861, disd. Aug. 28, 1864; term expired. 

Foster, R. J., vet. Jan. i, 1864, m. o. corp. 

Gold, Charles, e. Aug. 15, 1861, died Jan. 9, 1864, wd. 

Gartman, Nicholas, e. Aug. 31, 1864. 

Gates, Simon, e. Aug. 15, 1861, died Sept. 17, 1863. 

Geiser, John, e. Aug. 20, 1862, died Jan. 2, 1864, wd. 

Garrison, Freeborn, e. Aug. 15, 1861, disd. Aug. 28, 1864; term expired. 

Greer, John, e. Aug. 15, 1861, disd. Oct. 13, 1864. 

Hennick, William H., vet. Jan. i, 1864; m. o. as sergt. 

Hunt, A. B., e. Aug. 15, 1861, trans, to Co. H. 

Heise, John, vet. Jan. i, 1864, died Aug. 19, 1864, wd. 

Henry, John, e. Aug. 15, 1861, trans, to Co. I. 

Hoag, Theodore G., e. Feb. 22, 1864, disd. Nov. 12, 1864, disab. 

Hanson, Christopher, e. Aug. 15, 1861, disd. July 12, 1862, disab. 

Heise, Aaron, e. Feb. 22, 1864. 

Haines, Howard, e. Aug. 15, 1861, Jan. i, 1864 m. o. as corp. 

Haines, Garrison, e. Aug. 15, 1861, disd. Aug. 28, 1864; term expired. 

Heller, Jacob E., Jan. 29, 1864. 

Hiatt, William W., e. Aug. 15, 1861, trans, to Co. I. 

Kane, John, e. Aug. 15, 1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; disd. July 2, 1865. 

Kummerrer, Tieghman, e. Aug. 15, 1861, disd. March 6, 1863, disab. 

Kraymer, William H., e. Aug. 15, 1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864. 

Keegan, James, e. Aug. 15, 1861, trans, to Co. I. 

Kramer, Benj. F., e. Feb. 2, 1864. 

Kruntzler, William, e. Aug. 15, 1861 ; re-e. vet. Jan. i, 1864; m. o. as corp 

Kouth, Micheal, e. Aug. 16, 1862. 

Leonard, Arthur, e. Aug. 15, 1861, trans, to Co. I. 

Lilley, William E., e. Nov. 17, 1863. 


Long, William, e. Aug. 15, 1861 ; died at luka Aug. 28, 1862. 

Long, John, e. Aug. 15, 1861, disd. Oct. 13, 1864; term expired. 

Long, Jacob H. 

Mieley, Samuel P., e. Aug. 15, 1861, vet. Jan. i, 1864; m. o. as drummer. 

McCoy, Lemuel, e. Aug. 15, 1862, died July 22, 1864, wd. 

Messenger, J. C, e. Aug. 15, 1861 ; prmtd, corp., vet. 

Montague, Patrick F., e. Aug. 18, 1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; kid. April 30, 1864. 

Morris, D., e. Aug. 18, 1861 ; died May 29, 1864; wd. 

Mallick, Franklin, e. Feb. 13, 1864. 

Miller, Bernard, e. Sept. 28, 1861, trans, to V. R. C. May i, 1864. 

Miller, A. J., e. Jan. i, 1864; trans, to i47th inf. as ist. lieut. Co. G. 

Melody, Thomas, e. Sept. 28, 1861, vet. Jan. i, 1864. 

Needham, Dennison, Sept. 8, 1861, trans, to Co. I. 

Needham, Thomas, Sept. 8, 1861, vet. Jan. i, 1864. 

Nicholas, Thomas, Aug. 15, kid. at Cornith, Miss., Oct. 4, 1862. 

Paul, V. A., Aug. 15, 1861, vet. Jan. i, 1864. 

Robnett, James, e. Aug. 15, 1861, disd. Jan. 13, 1863. 

Rice, Frank, e. Feb. 3, 1864; m. o. May 26, 1865, wd. 

Robinold, S. J., e. Aug. 15, 1861, died May 22, 1862. 

Raymer, Chas., e. Feb. 3, 1864; m. o. July 20, 1865. 

Reardon, John, e. Sept. 8, 1861. 

Ryan, James, e. Feb. 2, 1864. 

Smith, Peter E., Sept. 8, 1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; kid. May 13, 1864. 

Smith, Jesse L., e. Feb. 10, 1864. 

Stage, Theo., e. Sept. 8, 1861, vet. March 9, 1864. 

Sting, Rasper, e. Feb. 10, 1864. 

Sigman, Wilson, e. Sept. 8, 1861, prmtd. corp. vet. Jan. i, 1864; m. o. as corp. 

Sumner, James R., e. Aug. 19, 1862. 

Seiferman, B., e. Sept. 8, 1861, died Sept. 12, 1862, wd. 

Schmidt, John, e. Aug. 29, 1862, kid. Nov. 25, 1863. 

Sharp, Harwood, e. Feb. 10, 1864. 

Schreader, Frederick, e. Sept. 12, 1862. 

Sturdevant, Jacob, Jan. i, 1862. 

Thompson, John F., e. Sept. 8, 1861 ; disd. Aug. 28, 1864; term expired. 

Thompson, Loren, e. Feb. 2, 1864. 

Thompson, Joseph D., Sept. 8, 1861 ; disd. Aug. 28, 1864; term expired. 

Wishart, Thomas, e. Aug. 15, 1861, died Nov. 27, 1863. 

Walkey, Joseph, e. Aug. 15, 1861, died March 22, 1862. 

Wright, N. F., e. Aug. 15, 1861, trans, to Co. D. 

Walton, John, e. Aug. 30, 1862, kid. March 7, 1865. 

Wertz, C. F. 


First Lieut. John Irvin, com. Aug. 31, 1862; died Oct. 6, 1863. 


Capt. Chas. F. Wertz, com. 2d lieut. Jan. i, 1862; prmtd, ist lieut. Feb. 16, 
1862; prmtd. capt. Aug. 22, 1863. 


Capt. Win. W. Allen, e. as sergt. Aug. 15, 1861 ; prmtd. ist lieut. Feb. 16, 
1863; prmtd, ist lieut. Aug. 22, 1863; prmtd, capt., delined commission. 

Capt. Robt. Salisbury, e. as corpl. Nov. i, 1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; prmtd. 
sergt., then capt. May 19, 1865. 

Sergt. Chas. H. Edmonds, e. Nov. i, 1861. 

Buckley, John, e. Jan. i, 1864. 

Beaury, Albert, e. Nov. i, 1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864. 

Black, John F., e. Jan. i, 1864, died Sept. 11, 1864, wd. 

Black, H. L., e. Feb. 3, 1864. 

Buckley, Daniel, e. Aug. 15, 1861 ; m. o. Sept. 3, 1864; term expired. 

Buckley, Patrick, e. Aug. 15, 1861, dis. July 11, 1862, disab. 

Cross, Hiram A., e. Nov. i, 1861, m. o. Oct. 31, 1864; term expired. 

Deagon, Jos., e. Nov. i, 1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864. 

Fye, Daniel, e. Jan. 26, 1864. 

Fye, J. D., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Fye, David. 

Grey, Robt, e. Jan. i, 1864. 

Heintz, Micheal, e. Nov. i, 1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864. 

Hunt, A. B., e. Aug. 15, 1861. 

Mayer, John, e. Nov. i, 1861, m. o. Oct. 31, 1864; term expired. 

Rice, A. L., e. Nov. i, 1861, died Oct. 15, 1864, wds. 

Reef, Jos. S., e. March 23, 1864, m. o. corpl. 

Rees, Enos S., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Rees, John M., e. Jan. 31, 1865. 

Wertz, Jacob, e. Nov. i, 1861, wd. ; m. o. Dec. 2, 1864. 

Winters, Abraham, e. Nov. i, 1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864. 

Winters, Cyrus, e. Nov. i, 1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; absent, wd. at m. o. of 

Wagoner, Geo., e. Nov. i, 1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; absent sick at m. o. of 


Eastland, A. J., died Aug., 1863. 

Blake, F. W., e. Jan. i, 1864. 

Keegan, James, e. March 12, 1864; kid. July 22, 1864. 

Leonard, Arthur, e. Jan. i, 1864; absent sick at m. o. of regiment. 

Ruff, F. C., e. Jan. i, 1864. 

Reider, Jos., e. Jan. i, 1864. 


Allison, W. W. 

Cooper, Wm. e. Jan. i, 1864. 

Sheppard, Charles. 


The Washburne Lead Mine Regiment was organized at Chicago, Illinois, 
December 25, 1861, by Colonel John E. Smith, and mustered into the United 
States service as the Forty-fifth Infantry Illinois Volunteers, January 15, 1862. 


Moved to Cairo, Illinois, February i, assigned to brigade of Colonel W. H. L. 
Wallace division of Brigadier General McClernand. February 4 landed below 
Fort Henry, on the Tennessee, and on the 6th marched into the fort, it having 
been surrendered to the gun-boats. February nth moved toward Fort Donelson, 
and during the succeeding days bore its part of the suffering and of the battle. 
The flag of the forty-fifth was the first planted on the enemy's works. Loss, 
two killed and twenty-six wounded. March 4th moved to the Tennessee River, 
and nth arrived at Savannah. Was engaged in the expedition to Pine Hook. 
March 2$th moved to Pittsburg Landing, and encamped near Shiloh Church. 

The Forty-fifth took a conspicuous and honorable part in the two days' 
battle of Shiloh, losing twenty-six killed and one hundred and ninety-nine 
wounded and missing, nearly one-half of the regiment. April I2th, Colonel 
John E. Smith, of the Forty-fifth, took command of the brigade. During the 
siege of Corinth, the regiment was in the first brigade, Third Division, Reserve 
Army of the Tennessee and bore its full share of the labors and dangers of the 
campaign. June 4th, the regiment was assigned to Third Brigade, and moved 
toward Purdy, fifteen miles. On the 5th, marched to Bethel ; 7th, to Monte- 
zuma, and on the 8th, to Jackson, Tennessee, the enemy flying on its approach. 

During the months of June and July, engaged in garrison and guard duty. 
August nth, assigned to guarding railroad, near Toon's Station. On the 3ist, 
after much desperate fighting, Companies C and D were captured. The re- 
mainder of the regiment, concentrating at Toon's Station, were able to resist 
the attack of largely outnumbering forces. Loss, three killed, thirteen wounded 
and forty-three taken prisoners. September i/th, moved to Jackson; November 
2d, to Bolivar, and was assigned to First Brigade, Third Division, Right Wing, 
Thirteenth Army Corps. November 3, 1862, marched from Bolivar to Van 
Buren; 4th, to La Grange, and was assigned to Provost duty; 28th, marched to 
Holly Springs; December 3d, to Waterford; 4th, Abbeville; 5th, to Oxford, to 
Yocano River, near Spring Dale. 

Communications with the north having been cut off, foraged on the country 
for supplies. December I7th, notice received of the promotion of Colonel 
John E. Smith to Brigadier General, ranking from November 29th ; December 
22d, returned to Oxford ; 24th moved to a camp three miles north of Abbeville, 
on the Tallahatchie River, where the regiment remained during the month. 
Mustered out July 12, 1865, at Louisville, Kentucky, and arrived at Chicago, 
July 15, 1865, for final payment and discharge. 


Capt. Thomas J. Prouty, e. as private; Aug. 30, 1861, prmtd. sergt; prmtd. 
2d lieut. Nov. 29, 1862; prmtd ist lieut. Dec. 25, 1864; prmtd. capt. July 9, 1865. 
Hollenbeck, Chas. H., e. Aug. 30, 1861 ; disd. April 16, 1863, wd. 
Prouty, Elijah; e. Aug. 30, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 19, 1863. 
Cressler, Alfred, e. Jan. 5, 1864. 


Sergt. Orrin L. Williams, e. Oct. i, i86i,-m. o. Dec. 24, 1864; term expired. 
Corp. Ephraim Percy, e. Oct. 2, 1861. 
Beaumont, H. E., e. Oct. 7, 1861. 


Foley, Michael, e. Oct. 3, 1861. 

Green, James M., e. Oct. 5, 1861, vet. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Jordan, James, e. Oct. 3, 1861, disd. March 2, 1862. 

Kepheart, Isaac, e. Oct. 3, 1861, disd. for disab. 

Lasier, Silas D., e. Dec. 20, 1861. 

Mourn, Andrew, e. Sept. 20, 1861, reported dead. 

Morrison, John H., e. Oct. i, 1861, m. o. Nov. 20, 1864. 

Mitchell, Robert M., e. Oct. 7, 1861. 

Mugley, Geo., e. Oct. 8, 1861. 

McGrath, Patrick, e. Oct. i, 1861, trans, to V. R. C. 

Stocks, Jos. e. Oct. 9, 1861. 

Verly, John, e. Oct. 5, 1861, disd. Jan. 31, 1863, disab. 


McLaughlin, Thos. W., e. Oct. 19, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 19, 1863; m. o. July 12, 

McLoughlin, W. T. 

Wilder, Albert A., e. Oct. 19, 1861, disd. April 23, 1863, diseb. 


Second Lieut. Chas. F. Dube, e. as sergt. Sept. 14, 1861 ; prmtd. 2d. lieut. 
May 22, 1863; term expired Dec. 25, 1864. 

Corp. Samuel R. Machamer, e. Sept. 14, 1861, disd. May 2, 1862. 
Boop, Wm. H., e. March 30, 1864. 

Brandt, Abraham, e. Sept. 18, 1861, vet. Dec. 19, 1863; m. o. as corp. 
Boop, Jacob, e. March 30, 1864. 

Bowersox, Chas., e. Sept. 18, 1861, disd. May 2, 1862. 
Dubs, Henry, e. March 24, 1864. 
Frasher, Wm., e. Sept. 18, 1861, vet. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Flickenger, E. O., e. Sept. 14, 1861, vet. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Kiester, Chris., e. Sept. 18, 1861, trans, to inv. corps. 
Miller, Henry, e. Sept. 7, 1861, vet. March i, 1864. 
Spellman, Thomas, e. Sept. 24, 1861, m. o. Sept. 29, 1864; term expired. 
Wingard, Jacob, e. Sept. 14, 1861, vet. Jan. 5, 1864. 


The forty-six Infantry Illinois volunteers was organized at Camp Butler, 
Illinois, December 28, 1861, by Colonel John A. Davis, ordered to Cairo, Illinois, 
February n, 1862; from thence proceeded via the Cumberland River to Fort 
Donelson, Tennessee, arriving on the 141)1 and was assigned to the command of 
General Lew. Wallace ; on the 1 5th lost one man killed and two wounded ; 
i6th, moved through the works and to Dover; igth, moved to Fort Henry. 
March 6th, embarked to Pittsburg Landing, where it arrived on the i8th. The 
regiment was now in Second Brigade, Fourth Division, and Fourteenth and 
Fifteenth and Forty-sixth Illinois, and Twenty-fifth Indiana, Colonel James C. 
Veatch, Twenty-fifth, Indiana, commanding brigade, and Brigadier General 
S. A. Hurlbut, of Illinois, commanding division. In the battle of Shiloh the 


46th took a most conspicuous and honorable part, losing over half of its offi- 
cers and men in killed and wounded and receiving the thanks of the commanding 
generals. Among the wounded were Colonel John A. Davis, Major Dorn- 
blasser, Captains Musser, Stephens, Marble and McCracken; Lieutenants Hood, 
Barr, Arnold, Ingraham and Howell. In this action the "Fighting Fourth Divis- 
ion" of General Hurlbut achieved a reputation for bravery to which it added 
on every field in which it was engaged until the close of the war. Was engaged 
in the siege of Corinth, in the month of May. June 2, camped six miles west 
of Corinth; on the loth marched to the Hatchie River; isth, past through Grand 
Junction, and camped three miles from town; 24th moved to Collarbone Hill, 
near La Grange; on the 3Oth moved to Old Lamer Church. July i, marched to 
Cold 'Water, and returned on the 6th; on the i/th, moved toward Memphis, 
marching via Moscow, Lafayette, Germantown and White's Station, and camp- 
ing two miles south of Memphis on the 2ist of July. August 27th, engaged in 
the scout to Pigeon Roost. September the 6th, moved from Memphis towards 
Brownsville ; 7th, marched through Raleigh and Union Stations ; 9th, marched 
to Big Muddy River; nth, via Hampton Station, to Danville; I2th, via White- 
ville to Pleasant Creek; I4th, via Bolivar to Hatchie River. September 27, all 
the troops on the river at this place, were reviewed by General. McPherson. 
October 4, moved toward Corinth ; 5th, met the enemy at Metamore. The forty- 
sixth was in position at the right of second brigade supporting Bolton's Battery. 
After an hour of shelling by the batteries, the infantry was ordered forward, 
and at a double quick, advanced, driving the enemy across the river. The First 
Brigade coming up, "Hurlbut's Fighting Fourth Division" advanced and drove the 
enemy from the field, compelling their fight. Colonel John A. Davis, of the forty- 
sixth was mortally wounded in this action, and Lieutenant M. R. Thompson 
also both dying on the roth. After the battle returned to Bolivar. November 
3, marched to La Grange ; 28th, -moved to Holly Springs ; 3Oth, toward Talla- 
hatchie River, and camped near Waterford, Miss., where splendid winter quar- 
ters with mud chimneys and bake ovens complete, were fitted up in time to 
move away from them. December the nth, to Hurricane Creek, and I2th, to 
Yocona Station, where it remained until December 22, when it marched to Tay- 
lor's Station. Van Dorn, having captured Holly Springs, marched on the 23d, 
via Oxford, to Hurricane Creek; 24th, the Forty-sixth Illinois and Thirty-third 
Wisconsin moved, as train guard, to north side of Tallahatchie River; 26th, 
moved camp four miles nearer Holly Springs, between Waterford and Wyatt 
Stations. January 6, 1863, moved to Holly Springs; loth, Fifteenth and Forty- 
sixth Illinois were escorted to ammunition train to La Grange; I3th, marched 
to Moscow, where it remained until February 5, when it moved to Lafayette. 
The garrison of Moscow was First Brigade, Fourth Division, the Forty-sixth 
and Seventy-sixth Illinois of the Second Brigade, and two batteries ; and the 
garrison of Lafayette the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Illinois and one battery, 
Colonel Cyrus Hall commanding. After rejoining brigade at Lafayette, marched 
on the gth of March, via Collierville and Germantown, to Memphis. April 2-, 
1863, engaged in the expedition to Hernando, and returned on the 24th. May 
13, embarked for Vicksburg, and on the i5th, landed at Young's Point; i8th, 
marched to Bower's landing; ipth moved to Sherman's landing; 2Oth moved 


by steamer up Yazoo to Chickasaw Bayou ; disembarked and moved across the 
swamp to the bluff. May 21, proceeded to the right of General Grant's army, and 
were then ordered to- Snyder's Bluff ; 24th, marched in the direction of Vicks- 
burg; 25th, marched to the extreme left of the line. The regiment was de- 
tailed on picket duty, and during the night the outpost, consisting of five com- 
panies of the regiment, were captured by the enemy ; 104 men and 7 officers 
were captured, 70 escaping. The remainder of the regiment took an active part 
in the siege of Vicksburg ; July 5th, moved to Clear Creek ; 6th, to Bolton Sta- 
tion; 8th, to Clinton; gth, to Dickens' Plantation, where it remained guarding 
train; I2th, moved into position on the extreme right of the line near Pearl 
River; engaged in the siege until the i6th, when the enemy evacuated Jackson, 
after which the regiment returned to Vicksburg. The division was now trans- 
ferred to the I7th corps, and Brigadier General M. M. Crocker assigned to com- 
mand. August 12, moved to Natchez. September i, went on an expedition into 
Louisiana, returning on the 8th. September the i6th, moved to Vicksburg. No- 
vember 28, moved to Camp Cowan, on Clear Creek. January 4, 1863, the Forty- 
sixth was mustered as a veteran regiment; i2th, started north for veteran 
furlough ; 23, arrived at Freeport, Illinois ; and on the 27th, the regiment was 

Col. John A. Davis, com. Sept. 12, 1861, died at Bolivar, Tenn., Oct. 10, 
1862, of wounds received at battle of Hatchie. 

Col. Benj. Dornblazer, com. adjt. Oct. n, 1861, prmtd. Major Feb. 8, 1862, 
prmtd. col. Oct. n, 1862, brevt. brig, gen, Feb. 20, 1865. 

Maj. John M. McCracken, com. capt. Co. K, Dec. 30, 1861, prmtd. maj. Oct. 
n, 1862, term expired Dec. 23, 1864. 

Maj. Jos. Clingman, com. capt. April 24, 1862, prmtd. maj. Dec. 23, 1864. 

Quarter Master Edwin R. Gillett, com. September, 1862, res. Oct. 5, 1864. 

Quarter Master James B. Wright, com. Oct. 5, 1864. 

Sergt. Elias C. De Puy, com. Sept. 23, 1861, res. Nov. i, 1864. 

First Asst. Sergt. Julius N. DeWitt, com. 2d. asst. sergt. March 5, 1864, 
prmtd. ist asst. sergt. Nov. i, 1864. 

Chaplain David Teed, com. Oct. 11, 1861, res. Sept. i, 1862. 

Sergt. Maj. Wm. Swanzey, e. Dec. 1861, disd. May 29, 1862, disab. 

Sergt. Maj. Henry A. Ewing, disd. Oct. 25, 1863, for promotion. 

Sergt. Maj. John E. Hershey, disd. Sept. i, 1864, disab. 

Sergt. Maj. Edgar Butterfield, vet., m. o. Sept. 20, 1866. 

Sergt. Maj. F. H. Whipple, trans, from nth inf., m. o. July 8, 1865. 

Quarter Master Sergt. James Duncan, e. Sept. 14, 1861, disd. May 29, 1862, 

Quarter Master Sergt. Julius T. Weld, m. o. June 20, 1866. 

Comsy. Sergt. E. R. Gillett, e. Sept. 14, 1861, disd. for promotion as regi- 
mental quartermaster. 

Comsy, Sergt, W. H. Barnds, vet., m. o. Jan. 20, 1866. 

Hospital Steward Thos. Walcott, vet. 

Hospital Steward Jos. Chambers, e. Sept. 14, 1861, disd. August, 1862, disab. 

Hospital Steward James Steels, disd. March i, 1864, for promotion. 


Hospital Steward Thos. J. Allen, vet., m. o. Jan. 20, 1866. 

Principal Musician Geo. W. Trotter, vet., reported dead Oct.(?), 1865. 


Capt. John Musser, com. Sept. 10, 1861, died April 24, 1862. 

Capt. Isaac A. Arnold, com. 2d lieut. Sept. 10, 1861. prmtd., ist lieut. April 
i, 1862. prmtd. capt. Dec. 23, 1864. 

First Lieut. Wm. O. Saxton, com. Sept. 10, 1861, prmtd. 2d lieut. Oct. 15, 
1861 ; prmtd. ist lieut. Dec. 23, 1864. 

Wm. Reynolds, e. as sergt. Sept. 10, 1861, prmtd. 2d. lieut. Oct. 15, 1861, 
prmtd. ist lieut. Dec. 23, 1864. 

Second Lieut. Geo. S. Dickey, e. as sergt. Sept. 10, 1861, prmtd. 2d. lieut. 
April i, 1862, res. Oct. 15, 1864. 

Second Lieut. Wm. M. Moore, prmtd. ist. lieut. Dec. 23, 1864. 

Sergt. Horace D. Purinton, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Dec. 12, 1863. 

Corp. Daniel M. Hart, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. July 8, 1862, disab. 

Corp. Thomas S. Clingman, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Aug. 2, 1862, wds. 

Corp. Andrew M. Fellows, e. Sept. 10, 1861, died May 2, 1862. 

Corp. Albert M. Lull, e. Sept. 10, 1861, kid. at Shiloh. 

Corp. Benj. Musser, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Nov. 24, 1862, disab. 

Corp Wesley J. Best, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. 

Corp. Q. E. Pollack, e. Sept. 10, 1861, as ist lieut, died at Mound City April 
9, 1862, wds. 

Arnold, A. F., e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Sept. 4, 1862, disab. 

Andrew Wm., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863, died at Duvall's Bluff, 
Dec. 10, 1864. 

Andrea, Jacob D., e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. 

Ambrose, DeWitt, C., e. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Allen, John A. 

Allison, Wm. W., e. Oct. 10, 1861, died March 16, 1863. 

Belknap, C. A., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Bruner, Robt. D., e. Jan. 5, 1864, as corpl., died Oct. 6, 1864. 

Barrett, Edw., e. Jan. 25, 1864, died Aug. 12, 1864. 

Babcock, James, M., e. Aug. 10, 1862, disd. Nov. 25, 1863, for promotion. 

Best, Hiram C., e. Jan. 24, 1865, disd. June 19, 1865. 

Bolander, H. W., e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Aug. 25, 1862, disab. 

Bates, A. J., e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. July 9, 1862, disab. 

Bolander, Geo. W., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863, m. o. as corpl. 

Best, Robt. T., e. Sept. 10, 1861, died Nov. 7, 1861. 

Barrett, Chas., e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Aug. 13, 1862, wd. 

Best, Wesley J., e. Dec. 22, 1863, died Aug. 19, 1864, wds. 

Benter, Martin, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Nov. 14, 1862, wds. 

Buss, Hillery, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863, m. o. as corp. 

Cearn, William, e. Sept. 10, 1861, trans, to inv. corps. 

Clingman, Abner, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863, m. o. July 14, 1865. 

Clingman, Hiram, e. Sept. 10, 1862, kid. battle of Shiloh. 

Clingman, George R., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 


Clouse, Charles, e. Sept. 10, 1861, died Sept. 7, 1862. 

Clingman, Charles, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Clingman, John T., e. Jan. 26, 1865. 

Clingman, William M., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Cadwell, Horace, e. Jan. 24, 1867. 

Clow, Benjamin, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Clause, William, e. Jan. 27, 1865. 

Deriges, John P., e. Feb. 7, 1865. 

Daughenbaugh, C., e. Oct. 15, 1864, m. o. Oct. 8, 1865. 

Derrick, James E., e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. May 28, 1862, disab. 

Descaven, D. P., e. Sept. 10, 1861, died Sept. 22, 1862. 

Davidson, George W., e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. April 28, 1863, disab. 

Elliott, John, e. Sept. 10, 1861, kid. bat. Shiloh. 

Erley, William F., e. Sept. 10, 1861,; vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 

Evans, Thomas W., e. January 5, 1854. 

Ellis, Elias, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Faurer, Robert A., e. Oct. 10, 1062, vet. 

French, D. H., e. Jan. 28, 1864. 

Ford, William D., e. Jan. 27, 1865. 

Fellows, George E., e. Feb. 27, 1864; m. o. May 15, 1865. 

French, S. A., e. Sept. 10, 1861, ( ?) m. o. as sergt. 

Garrison, D. W., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Gibbons, Thomas, e Sept. 10, 1861. 

Galpin, Daniel A., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; term expired. 

Gibbens, William, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 

Garrard, W., e. Jan. 24, 1865 ; absent, sick at m. o. 

Glynn, James, e. Jan. 25, 1864. 

Carman, Lawrence G., e. Feb. 8, 1864. 

Green, Chris, e. Oct. 10, 1861. 

Hunting, George H., e. Jan. 5, 1864, disd. for promotion in U. S. C. H. Art. 

Hartzel, William, e. Dec. 30, 1863, vet., absent at m. o. 

Hart, Joseph E., e. Jan 31, 1865. 

Hill, John, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Hills, H. M., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Hoot, John, e. Sept. 10, 1861; kid. at Shiloh. 

Hunting, Charles H., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 7, 1863 ; disd. July 14, 1864. 

Hollenbeck, H. W., me. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died May 3, 1862; wd. 

Hunting, William A., e. Sept 10, 1861. 

Hart, James H., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Holsinger, William H., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died April I, 1862. 

Hoyman, Henry, e. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Hadsell, N. A., e. ( ?) ; disd. March 9, 1866. 

Hadsell, A. C., '- . 

Hart, John, e. Aug. 30, 1862; m. o. June 19, 1865; as sergt. 

Hart, Thomas J., e. Aug. 30, 1862; m. o. June 19, 1865. 

Hathaway, Homer H., e. ? . 

Joy, Benedict, e. Feb. 20, 1864. 


Jefferies, Jos. G., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 10, 1863 ; absent at m. o. 
Kemper, Adam, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; ist sergt., disd. for promotion. 
Krape, Wm. W., e. Feb. 29, 1864. 
Law, John H., e. Jan. 26, 1865. 
Lee, L. H., e. Jan. 26, 1865. 
Miller, I., e. Dec. 23, 1863; absent at m. o. 
Moore, George W., e. Jan. 25, 1863. 
Moser. Wm., e. Feb. 29, 1864. 
McAfee, R. L. H., e. Jan. 4, 1864. 
Musser, Chas., e. Jan. 31, 1865. 
Moser, E. A., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 
Morgan, H. A., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 
May, Willard, e. Feb. 24, 1864, died May 18, 1864. 
McCarthey, James C., e. Feb. i, 1864, vet. 

Moore, Wm. R., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 7, 1863 ; disd. March 19, 1865, 

Miller, H. W., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. 

Musser, James, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1862. 

McHoes, John, e. Sept. 10, 1861, trans, to inv. corps. 

More, Chas F., e. Sept. 10, 1861, died April 2, 1863. 

Mason, John H., e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Nov. 24, 1862, wd. 

Mack, James H., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Neil, Wm. R., e. Feb. 20, 1864. 

Peck, Theo., e. Sept. 10, 1861, died Jan. 8, 1862. 

Patten, John, e. Sept. 10, 1861, kid. Shiloh. 

Plowman, Charles, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Patten Robert, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863, m. o. as corp. 

Parrish, Pleasant, e. Sept. 10, 1861, trans, to Co. B. 

Peck, A., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; m. o. Nov. 12, 1864. 

Parker, John., e. Feb. 18, 1864, absent (sick) at m. o. 

Rogers, H. G., e. Oct. 10, 1861 ; kid. at Shiloh April 6, 1862. 

Reiniger, Samuel J., e. Dec. 17, 1863. 

Rice, M. A., e. Feb. i, 1864. 

Ritzman, John, e. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Rubendall, D. R., e. Jan. 4, 1864, m. o. June 10, 1865. 

Rudy, John, e. Dec. 23, 1863, m. o. May 22, 1865. 

Quiggle, Robert H., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863, m. o. July 14, 1865. 

Ritzman, Robert, D., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Riem, James, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863 ; died March 22, 1864. 

Rush, John, e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Aug. 16, 1862, disab. 

Rogers, D. F., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863, died Dec. 12, 1864. 

Rodimer, Wm. H., e. Sept. 10, 1861, kid. at bat. Shiloh. 

Rollins, E. W., e. Sept. 10, 1861, died June 29, 1862. 

Smith, C. H., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 

Solomon, John C., e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. May 8, 1862, disab. 

Sheckler, John, e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 

Scovill, Daniel A., e. Sept. 10, 1861, vet. Dec. 22, 1863, m. o. as corps. 


Sleight, Samuel A., e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. May 8, 1862, disab. 
Smith, E. W., Sept. 10, 1861, trans, to inv. corps. 
Scovill, Nelson, e. Sept. 10, 1861, died April 18, 1862, wd. 
Stephens, James N., e. Sept. 10, 1861, died May 9, 1862. 
Smith, James C., e. Jan. 4, 1864. 
Scovill, Alfred B., e. Jan. 25, 1864. 
Shadell, Samuel P., e. Dec. 17, 1863. 
Shadell, A. C., e. Oct. 30, 1863. 
Swartz, John L., e. Oct. 30, 1863. 
Shellenberger, John, e. Jan. 8, 1864. 
Sheets, George W., e. Jan. 25, 1864, 
Sanborn, Charles G., e. Feb. 6, 1865. 
Sills, Thomas, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Seidle, Charles H., e. Dec. 23, 1863, died Nov. 20, 1864. 
Sherman, Leonard. 
Tomlins, John W., Dec. 16, 1863. 
Taft, Jos. A., e. March 4, 1865. 
Thompson, L. B., e. Oct. 8, 1864. 

Taylor, John W., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 7, 1863 ; disd. for prom. 53d U. 
S. C. I. 

Thompson, James M., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died April i, 1862. 

Van Brocklin, James M., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. December 22, 1863. 

Vincen, Thomas, e. Sept. to, 1861 ; vet. December 22, 1863. 

Walker, John /W., e. Sept. 10, 1861. 

Winchell, H. P., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 

Wieland, John M., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died Nov. 2, 1862. 

Woodring, John M., e. Sept. 10, 1861, disd. Nov. 22, 1862, disab. 

Wilson, Benjamin F., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died Dec. 30, 1861. 

Whisler John B., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died Dec. 30, 1861. 

Wilson, R. P., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Waddell, John R., e. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Woodring, U., e. Feb. 27, 1864. 

Wall, Thomas, e. March 21, 1865, disd. 

Winters, Darius, e. Aug. 10, 1862; m. o. July 7, 1865. 

Wetzol, F. F., e. Feb. 17, 1864. 

Windecker, William, e. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Waddell, William W., e. Jan. 28, 1865. 

Woodring, John M., e. Feb. 7, 1865. 


Capt. Rollin V. Ankeny, com. Sept. 14, 1861 ; res. Dec. 31, 1862. 

Capt. William J. Reitzell, e. as sergt. Sept. 10, 1861 ; prmtd. 2d lieut. June 
10, 1862; prmtd. ist lieut. July 10, 1862; prmtd, capt Jan. i, 1863; term expired 
Dec. 23, 1864. 

Capt. Robert F. Cooper, e. as sergt. Sept. 10, 1861 ; prmtd. 2d lieut. Jan. i, 
1863; prmtd. ist lieut. Sept. 27, 1864; prmtd. capt. Dec. 23, 1864. 

First Lieut. Henry Roush, com. Sept. 14, 1861 ; res. April 18, 1862. 


First Lieut. Emanuel Faust, e. as sergt. Sept. 10, 1861 ; prmtd. 2d lieut. 
July 10, 1862; prmtd. 1st lieut. Jan. i, 1863; res. Sept. 27, 1864. 

First Lieut. George S. Rousch, e. as corp. Sept. 10, 1861 ; prmtd. 2d. lieut. 
Sept. 27, 1864; prmtd ist. lieut. Dec. 23, 1864; res. June 19, 1865. 

First Lieut. Thomas B. Jones, e. as corp. Sept. 10, 1861 ; prmtd. 2d lieut. 
Dec. 23, 1864; prmtd. first lieut. July 31, 1865. 

Second Lieut. Thomas J. Hathaway, com. Sept. 14, 1861 ; res. June 10, 1862. 

Second Lieut. Aaron McCaley, e. as private Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. prmtd. 2d 
lieut. July 31, 1865. 

First Sergt. Thomas J. Hood, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; trans, to Co. G. 

Sergt. Robt. Smith, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; trans, to Co. G. 

Corp. George Cox, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died October 9, 1862, wds. 

Corp. Leonard Shook, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. July 10, 1862; as sergt. disab. 

Corp. John E. Hershey, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; prmtd sergt. maj. 

Corp. John Y. Haughey, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 5, 1864; m. o. May 30, 

Corp. J. W. Barker, e. Sept. 10, 1865; disd. Feb. 12, 1863; as private disab. 

Corp. Isaac F. Kleckner, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. June 14, 1862; disab. 

Musician Isaac Bolander, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 

Musician Casper Long, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; trans, to Co. G. 

Wagoner Isaac N. Mallory, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. Aug. 12, 1862; disab. 

Ashenfelter, Cyrus, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died Dec. 6, 1861. 

Arnold, Adam, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 

Askey, Samuel, e. Feb. 5, 1864. 

Arnold, Charles, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

Askey, John e. Feb. 5, 1864. 

Andre, Jacob, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. December 23, 1863; trans, to Co. A. 

Artley, Abram, e. Feb. 15, 1864; trans, to Co. K. 

Alshouse, Jacob, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. Sept. 21, 1862; disab. 

Ansberger, S., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 

Barr, John W., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; prmtd. sergt. maj. 

Boyd, Franklin, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

Brenizer, J. K., e. Feb. i, 1864; m. o. as corp. 

Barker, A. J., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. Dec. 28, 1863 ; disab. 

Brayman, E P., e. Dec. 26, 1863. 

Barker, S. S., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

Bloss, Joseph L., e. Feb. 8, 1864. 

Bowen, John T., e. Sept. 10. 1861 ; vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

Bolender, Jackson, e. Feb. i, 1864. 

Bolander, Aaron, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 23, 1864; m. o. June 19, 1865. 

Burgess, Solon S., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. June 30, 1863 ; disab. 

Bolander, John P., e. Feb. i, 1864. 

Bovver, Charles F., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died April 23, 1862; wds. 

Butterfield, Edgar, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 1863 : prmtd. sergt. maj. 

Collins, Thomas, e. ? ; trans, from ggth 111. 

Crawford, Franklin, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; m. o. Sept. 9. 1864. 
Carroll, Henry, e. Feb. 2, 1864. 


Chambers, Joseph, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; prmtd. hospital steward. 

Cooper, George W., e. Feb. i, 1864. 

Cantrell, Joseph T., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Decmber 23, 1863; trans, to Co. K. 

Clark, Siias W., e. Dec. 16, 1863. 

Cooper, A. J., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Cade, Charles, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. Aug. 12, 1862; disab. 

Chase, L. W., trans, from 99th 111. 

Dubois, William W., e. Dec. 26, 1863. 

Duncan, O. P. e. Jan. 26, 1865. 

Duncan, James. ? . 

Daniels, Willis, m. o. Jan. 8, 1866. 

Dougherty, Geo., e. Jan. 2, 1864; disd. Sept. 17, 1864; disab. 

Ernst, Jacob, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 

Eli, Marion, e. Dec. 18, 1863; trans, to Co. K. 

Erb, Ira, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. December 7, 1863; m. o. as corp. 

Frankeberger, Aaron, e. Feb. 22, 1864, 

Forbes, A. W., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 

Foster, Geo., e. Feb. i, 1864. 

Frankeberger, E. B., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 

From, James, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 

Prize, Henry, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died March 31, 1862. 

Gallagher, H. C, e. Dec. 17, 1863. 

Guiter, Adam, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

George, Wm., e. Feb. 12, 1864; died Sept. 10, 1864. 

Gibler, Hiram, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; m. o. Sept. 9, 1864. 

Gibler, Jos. H., e. Sept. 10, 1864. 

Hess, Andrew, e. Feb. 4, 1865; died April 24, 1865; wd. 

Henrich, Cornelius, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 

Hinies, Jos., e. Feb. 19, 1864. 

Hay, John, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 23, 1863 ; m. o. as sergt. 

Hartman, H. J., e. Jan. 28, 1865. 

Hathaway, H. H., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; trans, to Co. A. 

Hartman, Jos. W., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Hathaway, J. J., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 

Hinds, Erastus, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Hathaway, Jas. B., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. April 23, 1862; disab. 

Hamilton, Thos., trans, from 99th 111. 

Hess, Andrew, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

Hofmerster, Aug. W., m. o. Oct. 9, 1865. 

Hill, Langford, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Feb. 15, 1864. 

Hendrickson, A. m. o. Oct. 9, 1865. 

Henderson, W. J., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 7, 1863; m. o. July 15, 1865. 

Hartzel, John, e. Oct. 13, 1864; m. o. Oct. 12, 1865. 

Henderson, Francis, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

Henderson, Francis, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 23, 1863 ; m. o. as sergt. 

Hathaway, Phillip, e. Jan. 30, 1864; disd. Dec. 31, 1866. 

Hoag, Chas., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. 


Howe, James, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Hinds, Erastus, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. July 30, 1862; disab. 

Inman, H. L., e. Feb. 2, 1864. 

Johnson, Wm. T. e. Dec. 27, 1863; died June 17, 1865. 

Kaup, Geo. S., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. July 30, 1862; disab. 

Kryder, Jacob N., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

King, Edwin, e. Feb. 3, 1864. 

King, Robt., e. Feb. i, 1864. 

Kerr, Wm. e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; kid. at battle of Shiloh. 

Kellog, E. V., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. December 23, 1863; died Oct. 4, 1864. 

Lauck, Jacob, e. Feb. 2, 1864. 

Mingle, D. J., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 5, 1864. 

McKee, Robert, e. Oct. 21, 1861; vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

Mather, A., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 

McKee, David, e. Nov. 13, 1863. 

McElhaney, Wm., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. April 4, 1862. 

Mogle, Samuel, e. Feb. 2, 1864. 

McCurdy, Francis, e. Sept. 10, 1861; vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

Mogle, Jacob, e. Feb. 2, 1864. 

Mitchell, Norton, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

McCauley, Isaac, e. Feb. 2, 1864. 

Moses, John N., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

Mitchell, C, trans, from 99th 111. 

McLenahan, George, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 7, 1863. 

Mogle, L. W., e. Feb. i, 1864; m. o. Oct. 21, 1865. 

Malory, Daniel, e Sept. 10, 1861 ; m. o. Sept. 9, 1864. 

Mack, Harry A., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died June 15, 1862. 

Mallory, John W., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died May 17, 1862. 

McGinnis, Jos., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died Sept. 28, 1862. 

Mingle, John H., Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

Nicholas, John, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. Nov. 7, 1862 ; disab. 

Pentecoff, Levi, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. December 23, 1863 ; prmtd. serg. maj. 

Parrish, P. P., disd. Feb. 3, 1863; disab. 

Pieter, John, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Pierce, James, e. Dec. 9, 1863. 

Potter, Francis, e. Sept. 10, 1861. 

Potter, Julius, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died Feb. 6, 1862. 

Pierce, James, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. Nov. n, 1862; disab. 

Rockwell, Charles W., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died May 14, 1862. 

Rishel, Daniel L. 

Reed, W. D., e. Jan. 27, 1864. 

Reed, John P., e. Jan. 27, 1864. 

Runkle? John H., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

Roush, Henry, e. Feb. i, 1864; died July 10, 1864. 

Seibold, Calhoun, e. Feb. i, 1864. 

Stottler, Jacob, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died May, 1862; wd. 

Skinner, W. W., e. Feb. 8, 1864. 


Segin, Theo., e. Dec. 17, 1863. 

Snyder, F. M., e. Dec. 24, 1863. 

Shaffer, W. F., e. Jan. 24, 1865; m. o. June 20, 1865. 

Stanley, John, e. Feb. i, 1864; m. o. Sept. 8, 1865. 

Shane, Charles N., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died July 26, 1863. 

Stone, E. L., e. Feb. 9, 1864; died Nov. 27, 1864. 

Shane, Thomas J., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; m. o. Sept. 9, 1864; corp. 

Smith, Henry, trans, from 99th 111. 

Sprague, George D., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. Feb. 28, 1863; disab. 

Taft, H. C., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Turrinzo, Anson, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

Thompson, I. E., e. Feb. 4, 1864. 

Tyler, Dayton D., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 7, 1863; trans, to Co. D. 

Thompson, Robert S., e. Feb. 4, 1864. 

Tomlins, J. W. 

Van Meter, John C., e. Sept. 19, 1861 ; disd. July 7, 1862; disab. 

Vocht, Levi S., e. Jan. 24, 1864. 

Vinson, George, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 7, 1863; trans, to Co. H. 

Vinson, John, e. Jan. 8, 1864; died Aug. 12, 1864. 

Wilson, George, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died April 30, 1862. 

Wunshel, George, e. Feb. i, 1864. 

Wright, Charles F., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

Wohlford, Franklin, e. Feb. 2, 1864. 

Webb, Oliver P., e. Feb. 4, 1864. 

Wagner, P. R., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Wilson, Henry, m. o. Oct. 9, 1865. 

Yoder, Andrew B., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

Zigler, Miller, e. Feb. 2, 1864; trans, to Co. K. 


Capt. Frederick Khrumme, com. Sept. 10, 1861 ; res. April 23, 1862. 

Capt. Philip Arno, com. ist lieut. Sept. 10, 1861 ; prmtd. capt. April 23, 1862; 
term expired Dec. 23, 1864. 

Capt. Edward Wilke, e. as sergt. Sept. 10, 1861 ; prmtd, 2d lieut. Sept. 29, 
1862; prmtd. ist lieut. Dec. 17, 1863; prmtd, capt. Dec. 23, 1864. 

First Lieut. Harbcrt Harberts, e. as sergt. Sept 10, 1861 ; prmtd. 1st lieut. 
April 23, 1862, m. o. for promotion 2d Miss. Dec. 17, 1863. 

First Lieut. Andrew Ohlenheusen, e. as private Dec. 22, 1863; prmtd. 2d 
lieut. Dec. 17, 1863; ;---.ntd. ist lieut. Dec. 23, 1864. 

Second Lieut. Ad< ;> iiorchers, com. Sept. 10, 1861 ; res. Sept. 29, 1862. 
Second Lieut. En ! Neese, e. as corp. Sept. 10, 1861 ; prmtd. 2d lieut. March 
30, 1865. 

Sergt. Adolph Wa!';recht, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disa. for promotion in U. S. C. 
H. art. 

Sergt. Carl H. G e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. Sept. 9, 1864; term expired. 

Sergt. Ferdinand ' e tz, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; m. o. Sept. 16, 1864. 

Corp. Albert Koch e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died May 15, 1862. 


Corp. Arnold Rader, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. Sept. 22, 1862; disab. 

Corp. Carl Lipinski, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. March 19, 1864. 

Corp. John Ochxle, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Corp. Peter Steinmetz, e. Sept. 19, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863; died Oct. 15, 1864. 

Corp. C. Michealson, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Feb. 21, 1864. 

Musician Conrad Kahn, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died May 15, 1862. 

Musician Albert Stacker, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. July 3, 1862 ; disab. 

Arens, Peter, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Altmann, Henry, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Abels, Johann, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. September 14, 1864; term expired. 

Adams, Geo. W., trans, from gyih 111. 

Bauer, Anton, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Burkhart, John, e. Dec. 31, 1863. 

Berg, Alfred, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Burkhardt, A., e. died July 24, 1865. 

Berg, Alfred, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Backes, Jacob, e. Feb. 4, 1864. 

Benton, John L., e. Feb. 29, 1864 ; m. o. May 22, 1865. 

Bonn, Jos., e. Sept. 10, 1861. 

Byrne, Martin, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Barmington, F., e. Feb. 26, 1865. 

Baker, Jacob. 

Bagger, Heinrich, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died Oct. 15, 1862. 

Burkhardt, A., e. died July 22, 1865. 

Bles, Jacob, e. Dec. 20, 1863 ; dis. May 27, 1865. 

Cruse, John, e. Sept. 10, 1861. 

Cohlstedt Henry, e. Jan. 15, 1864. 

Christian, John. 

Crueger, Henry, e. Jan. 15, 1864. 

Dreesman. Ubbo, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died April n, 1864. 

Diller, Michael, e. Dec. 25, 1861 ; trans, to V. R. C. 

Durken, N. H. Van., e. Sept. to, 1861 ; died April 25, 1862. 

Davis, Philip. 

Dobble, W., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Dede, Henry, e. Jan. 27, 1865. 

Duitsman, W., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; Dec. 22, 1863. 

Dennis, Thomas, died Oct. 7, 1865. 

Denzing, F., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd, September 9, 1864; term expired. 

Dillin, Michael, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Egnsen, B. W., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died May 19, 1862. 

Eickle, Anton, e. Jan. 25, 1864. 

Esch, J. J., e. Sept. 10, 1861. 

Friday, Philip, e. Jan. 28, 1864. 

Froning, Herman, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. Oct. 14, 1863; disab. 

Farley, Thomas, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; trans, to Co. K. 

Friedman, Valentine, e. Dec. 31, 1863. 

Freivert, F., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. Jan. 12, 1863 ; disab. 


Franz, Safrin, e. Feb. 9, 1864. 

Foster, John, e. Jan. 27, 1865. 

Frey, Johann, e. Jan. i, 1862; died at Vicksburg, July 5, 1862. 

Frewart, Charles, e. Nov. 26, 1863; died Dec. 19, 1864. 

Giboni, H., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; kid. at Bat. Shiloh. 

Getz, Andrew, e. Feb. 3, 1865. 

Gretzley, Gottleib, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died April 26, 1862; wds. 

Gasteger, A., e. Jan. i, 1864. 

Heeron, W., e. Sept. 10, 1864; vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Hoebel, Jacob, e. Jan. 29, 1864. 

Hasselmann, Fred, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; kid. at Battle of Shiloh. 

Hofwimer, Jos., e. Jan. 18, 1864. 

Harberts, Johann, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. Feb. 4, 1863 ; disab. 

Held, Frederick. 

Hencke, W., e. Jan. 28, 1864. 

Heine, Frederick, Feb. 29, 1864; kid. July 8, 1864. 

Husenger, O., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died May 5, 1862. 

Jaeger, John, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Roller, Johann, e. Sept 10, 1861 ; disd. Sept. 9, 1864 ; term expired. 

Roller, William, e. Nov. 25, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Ruhlmeier, H., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. Sept. 13, 1864; term expired. 

Rohle, Jacob, e. Dec. 26, 1863. 

Rraemer, Jacob, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died July 19, 1862. 

KJock, H., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died July 4, 1862. 

Rrueger, Rlaas, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. Feb. 5, 1863 ; disab. 

Rrumme, H., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; trans, to Co. G. 

Rnock, Harm, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. September 13, 1864; term expired. 

Rraemer, F., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died May 26, 1862. 

Rnock, Andreas, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; kid. at Shiloh. 

Rnoeller, George, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Rauner, Christ, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. June 19, 1862; disab. 

Rohle, Jos., e. Jan. 4, 1864. 

Raemer, George, e. Jan. 27, 1865. 

Rastler, Nicholas, e. Jan. 26, 1864. 

Ruhler, August, e. Jan. 29, 1864. 

Raubenberger, P. G., e. Jan. 26, 1864. 

Rnecht, Philip, e. Jan. 28, 1864. 

Rom, Lewis, e. Jan. i, 1864. 

Royn, Frederick, e. Feb. 12, 1864. 

Roehler, Fred, e. Jan. 30, 1864. 

Roller, Fred, e. Jan. 27, 1864. 

Raemer, George N. 

Rleger, George, e. March 2, 1865. 

Retlerer, John, e. Jan. 1864; died Sept. 18, 1864. 

Rrueger, Carl, e. Jan. 5, 1864 ; died Nov. 29, 1864. 

Latour, Charles, e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Lapp, Aaron, e. Sept. 10, 1862 ; died May 4, 1862. 


Ludicke, Henry, e. Feb. 4, 1864. 

Lahre, John, e. Dec. 18, 1863. 

Lahre, Isaac, e. Dec. 26, 1863. 

Lahre, Elias, e. Jan. 25, 1865. 

Long, Charles M., e. Jan. 27, 1865. 

Long, Jacob, e. Jan. 27, 1865. 

Leter, Nicholas, e. Oct. 6, 1864; m. o. Oct. 4, 1865. 

March, James, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; trans, to V. R. C. 

Mueller. Gottfried, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Metzger, Richard, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. Nov. 7, 1862; disab. 

Metzen, Nielaus, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; trans, to V. R. C. 

Marbeth, Leons, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; kid. at Shiloh. 

Marks, J. F., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; kid. at Shiloh. 

Marks, Marius, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. June 19, 1862; wd. 

Meisencamp, C., Feb. 15, 1864; m. o. as corp. 

Miller, R. Wm., e. Dec. 16, 1863. 

Miller, Wm., e. Dec. 18, 1863. 

Meise, Comrad, e. Feb. 10, 1864, drowned Aug. 24, 1864. 

Miller, Frederick, e. Feb. 7, 1862; vet. Feb. 12, 1864; 46th I. V. I. Co. C. 

Neef, Johann, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. Sept. 4, 1862; disab. 

Neef, Hermann, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. Sept. 13, 1864; term expired. 

Nurgen, Jacob Van, e. Oct. 29, 1861 ; m. o. Nov. 12, 1864. 

O'Konas, Cornelius, e. Jan. 27, 1865. 

O'Konas, Peter, e. Jan. 27, 1865; died June 12, 1865. 

Otto, Charles, e. Jan. 25, 1865. 

Olthoff, William, e. Oct. 29, 1861 ; disd. Oct. 20, 1864; term expired. 

Olnhausen, Andreas, e. Oct. 29, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Plumer, Johann, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Penning, Wiard, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died Sept. 31, 1861. 

Perstin, F., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. Sept. 13, 1864; term expired. 

Polmann, Albert, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. Oct. 19, 1862, as corp. 

Prince, Jacob, e. Jan. 24, 1865 ; m. o. June 20, 1865. 

Peppering, Chris, e. Oct. 29, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Raden, John Van, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Rebel, Johan, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; kid. bat. Shiloh. 

Reichemeier, C., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died January r, 1862; wds. 

Rader, Arnold, e. Feb. 29, 1864. 

Romelfauger, Jacob, e. Jan. 28, 1864. 

Borback, Jacob, e. Feb. 26, 1864. 

Rach, Ernest, e. Jan. 28, 1864. 

Rippberger, John, e. Jan. 28, 1865. 

Reinecke, Joseph, e 

Restine, George, e 

Schneider, H., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. Dec. n, 1862; disab. 
Stohr, John, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. Nov. 13, 1862; disab. 
Schmaltzhaf, H., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died April 24, 1862; wds. 
Steifenhofer, M., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died Jan. 25, 1862. 


Stober, William, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. December 22, 1863 ; m. o. as sergt. 

Steinhauer, Jacob, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. May 24, 1862 ; disab. 

Sclimidt, Johann, e. Feb. 2, 1864. 

Schvenstein, Burkhardt, e. Feb. 9, 1864; m. o. Jan. 20, 1866. 

Streeger, Peter, e. Feb. 27, 1864. 

Stork, Henry, e. Feb. 10, 1864. 

Schwartz, H., e. Jan. 26, 1864. 

Schneider, A. C., e. Feb. 4, 1865. 

Seiferman, L., e. Feb. 2, 1865. 

Saur, Julius, e. Feb. i, 1865. 

Spies, Jacob, e. Oct. 29, 1861 ; kid. Oct. 5, 1862. 

Schlueker, H. A., e. Feb. 4, 1864; drowned Aug. 26, 1864. 

Schneider, Joseph, e. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Schroeder, Frank, e. Dec. 29, 1863; m. o. Oct. 3, 1865, as corp. 

Seidenburg, Frederick, e. Oct. 29, 1861 ; disd. Feb. 7, 1862. 

Stoehr, John, e , disd. May 31, 1865. 

Steffer, Michael, e. Feb. 4, 1864; m. o. June 7, 1865. 

Schroeder, Charles, e ; m, o. June 7, 1865. 

Schweitzer, John Geo., e. Oct. 29, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Thei, Fredrich, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; died May 9, 1863. 

Trivel, W., e. Feb. 8, 1864. 

Vacopp, Philip, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863; died May 21, 1864. 

Vollmer, Gottleib, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; drowned May 14, 1863. 

Weifenbach, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. July 10, 1862 ; disab. 

Wolff, Johann, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Weggenhausen, Max, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Wagner, H. L., e. Jan. i, 1864, 

Weik, Louis, e. Jan. 26, 1864. 

Wagner, W., e. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Wernick, H. A., e. Jan. 18, 1864. 

Werner, Jacob, e. Jan. 26, 1865. 

Wepel, H., e. Jan. 27, 1865. 

Wyarda, Theodore, e. Feb. 13, 1864. 

Wunderlin, Saver, e. Feb. 2, 1864; m. o. May 22, 1865. 

Zeibrich, Paulus, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; disd. Nov. 23, 1862; disab. 

(New Company.) 

Capt. James W. Crane, com. Feb. 3, 1864; disd. March 25, 1865. 

Capt. Francis O. Miller, com. ist lieut. Feb. 3, 1864; prmtd, capt. June 6, 

First Lieut. Isaac Bobb, com. 2d lieut. Jan. 30, 1864; prmtd, ist lieut. June 
6, 1865. 

Second Lieut. Benjamin F. Hayhurst, e. as private, Dec. 24, 1863; prmtd. 
first sergt; prmtd. second lieut. June 6, 1865. 

Aurand, John J., e. Dec. 17, 1863; m. o. June 22, 1865. 


Adams, John H., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Atkins, Lewis E., e. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Avery, William N., e. Nov. 30, 1863. 

Brady, Frederick, e. Oct. 10, 1864; m. o. Oct. 9, 1865. 

Brown, William W., e. Feb. 26, 1865. 

Brown, John W., e. Oct. 25, 1864. 

Beswick, A. W., e. Feb. 27, 1864. 

Bolick, Henry, e. Dec. 26, 1863. 

Benton, Levi, e. Dec. n, 1863; m. o. July 3, 1865. 

Bates, A. J., e. Dec. n, 1863; disd. Feb. 14, 1865; sergt. disab. 

Brown, James E., e. Dec. 23, 1863 ; m. o. as corp. 

Boyer, George, e. Dec. 26, 1863. 

Belden, Arthur, e. Dec. 28, 1863. 

Bentley, William, e. Dec. 24, 1863. 

Bentley, Lewis D., e. Dec. 28, 1863. 

Beck, John, e. Dec. 20, 1863. 

Branard, Benjamin, e. Dec. 30, 1863; died July 20, 1864. 

Bundy, Ambrose A., e. Dec. 30, 1863. 

Bundy, Christopher, e. Jan. 18, 1864. 

Bistine, Daniel, e. Jan. 2, 1864. 

Qade, Levi, Jan. 24, 1865. 

Clark, William A., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Clark, Charles B., e. Dec. 31, 1863. 

Clade, Charles, e. Dec. 18, .1863. 

Cook, S. M., e. Dec. 28, 1863. 

Culling, H. P., e. Dec. 25, 1863 ; trans, to V. R. C. 

Cross, Levi, e. Jan. 2, 1864. 

Clark, John, e. Jan. 2, 1864. 

Daugenbaugh, John N., e. Dec. 5, 1863 ; absent sick at m. o. 

Denton, Levi A., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Demer, Levi, e. Jan. 2, 1864. 

Edgars, William, e. Dec. 12, 1863. 

Eister, Daniel W., e. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Ells, Lansing, e. Jan. 22, 1863; died May 14, 1862; wds. 

Eshelmann, M. N., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Furray, William, e. Jan. 27, 1865. 

Fiss, Thomas J., e. Dec. 30, 1863 ; absent, sick at m. o. 

Fogel, John D., e. Dec. n, 1863; disd. Sept. 28, 1864; wd. 

Fry Joel, e. Dec. 30, 1863. 

Felt, William W., e. Dec. 28, 1863. 

Feltzer, Christopher, e. Jan. 28, 1863. 

Flory, John, e. Dec. 30, 1863. 

Gross, Theo., e. Feb. 2, 1865. 

Grissinger, Wm. B., e. Dec. n, 1863. 

Gardner, Brayton, e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Grimmel, Wm. D., e. Dec. 30, 1863. 

Hurlburt, R. W.. e. Dec. 29. 1863. 


Hayden, Luther ., e. Dec. 25, 1863; died Jan. 5, 1865. 

Hammond, Marion, e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Hayhurst, B. F. 

Jones, Robert A., e. Dec. 28, 1863. 

Johnson, James W., e. Dec. 28, 1863. 

Kleckner, John P., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Kaley, Jos., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Keller, Henry, e. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Keohler, John, e. Feb. 24, 1865. 

King Henry, e. Dec. 31, 1863; m. o. June 26, 1865. 

Knight, H. R., e. Jan. 2, 1864; died June 3, 1864. 

Kleckner, Jacob, e. Dec. 15, 1863. 

Keeler, Chris., e. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Lincoln, Albert, e. Dec. 9, 1863 ; disd. July 7, 1864. 

Lightheart, Warren, e. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Lee, Samuel, e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Leverton, Isaac, e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Luts, Wm., e. Jan. 14, 1864. 

Lenart, Elias, e. Dec. 30, 1863. 

Melton, L. L., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Minnick, N., e. Dec. 26, 1863. 

Musser, J. W., e. Dec. 28, 1863. 

Moorehouse, W. E., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

McGilligan, Wm. K. P., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Maxwell, Jos. W., e. Dec. 31 ; died Aug. 23, 1864. 

Mattingley, James, e. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Messinger, George, e. Dec. 31, 1863; disd. May 31, 1865. 

Messinger, Wm., e. Dec. 21, 1863. 

Mudy, Geo. W., e. Jan. 4, 1864; died Oct. 9, 1864. 

Musser, Raymond, e. Jan. 2, 1864. 

Mechamer, A. E., e. Jan. 2, 1864. 

McGilligan, Jos. N., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Pangborn, Geo. E., e. Jan. i, 1864. 

Parker, Wm., e. Dec. 31, 1864. 

Rush, Jos., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Rush, Emanuel, e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Reed, James H., e. Dec. 30, 1863 ; trans, to Co. E. 

Rogers, M., e. Jan. 4, 1864. 

Reed, S. A., e. Jan. 2, 1864. 

Randal, James, e. Dec. 24, 1863; absent at m. o. of regt. 

Shumaker, John A., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Simcox, A. R., e. Jan. 24, 1865 ; died Aug. 6, 1865. 

Stine, John, e. Dec. 28, 1863 ; m. o. as sergt. 

Spitler, W. H., e. Dec. 30, 1863 ; m. o. as corpl. 

Solace, C. L., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Shumaker, George, e. Dec. 19, 1863. 

Scrambling, Wm. H., e. Dec. 28, 1863. 


Spofford, Ghas. F., e. Jan. 2, 1864. 

Tyler, D. D., e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; m. o. Sept. 22, 1865. 

Towl, Henry E., e. Dec. 12, 1863. 

Vaughan, O. O., e. Dec. 12, 1863. 

Verguson, John S., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Vance, O. C., e. Jan. 4, 1864. 

Wagnor, J. P., e. Dec. 24, 1863. 

Williams, Edward, e. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Warren, Wm., e. Dec. 29, 1863; m. o. June 26, 1865. 

Winner, Jacob, e. Jan. i, 1864; disd. Oct. 7, 1865. 

Wittenmeyer, J. H. 

Young, Wm., e. Dec. n, 1863. , 

Zerby, Jacob, e. Jan. 2, 1864. 


Cassady, John, e. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Demuth, Fred, e. Jan. 28, 1865, m. o. Aug. 9, 1865. 

Hammond, A. J., e. Feb. 24, 1865. > 

O'Neal, Patrick, e. Feb. 16, 1864. 

Koin, John W., e. Feb. 29, 1864. 

Law, John W., e. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Long, Isaac, e. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Leslie, Edw., e. Jan. 28, 1865. 

Marion, Jos. 

Moses, Lewis. 

Moshier, Lorenzo, e. Feb. 7, 1865. 

Peaslie, Cornelius, e. Feb. 2, 1865. 

Phillips, Chris. 

Reed, I. W., e. Feb. 7, 1865. 

Reed, James H. 

Runkle, John D., e. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Rishel, John G., e. Jan. 31, 1865; m. o. May 27, 1865. 

Shane, Wm. E., e. Feb. 7, 1865. 

Syler, Peter, e. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Saxby, Wm. R., e. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Sidles, Charles, e. Feb. 24, 1865. 

Springer, David S., e. Jan. 26, 1865 ; m. o. May 27, 1865. 

Shaw, John W. 

Trotter, James, e. Feb. 6, 1864. 

Waddell, W. W. 


First Lieut. John W. Barr, com. Oct. 15, 1861 ; m. o. for promotion 2d 
Miss. Nov. 22, 1863. 

Hays, Thomas, e. Oct. 4, 1861 ; m. o. Dec. 29, 1864. 
Hays, James, e. Oct. 4, 1861. 
Otto, Simon, e. Oct. 4, 1861. 
Gettich, Aaron, e. Feb. 6, 1865. 


Gross, Josiah, e. Feb. 2, 1865. 

Hellman, M., e. Sept. 13, 1863 ; trans, to V. R. C. 

Little, Ira G., e. Sept. 8, 1863; disd. Sept. 5, 1864. 

Mallory, James C., e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; died Aug. 10, 1862. 

Messenger, Theo. 

Petty, Stephen, e. Jan. 4, 1864. 

Stoll, Frederick, e. Feb. 27, 1864. 


Capt. William Young, com. Oct. 15, 1861 ; res. April 12, 1863. 

Capt. Robert Smith, e. as ist sergt, Oct. 8, 1861 ; prmtd. 2d lieut. April 7, 1862; 
prmtd. ist lieut. Oct. 6, 1862; prmtd. capt. April 12, 1863; term expired Dec. 23, 

Capt. Samuel Buchanan, e. as private, Oct. 8, 1861 ; prmtd. 2d lieut. Aug n, 
1863; prmtd. ist lieut. June 24, 1864; prmtd. capt. Dec. 28, 1864; res. July 21, 

Capt. Daniel D. Diffenbaugh, e. as private Oct. 8, 1861 ; prmtd. 2d lieut. 
June 24, 1864; prmtd. ist lieut. Dec. 28, 1864; prmtd. capt. Sept. 5, 1865. 

First Lieut. Thomas M. Hood, com. Oct. 15, 1861 ; killed at Shiloh. 

First Lieut. Moses R. Thompson, com. 2d lieut. Oct. 15, 1861 ; prmtd. ist 
lieut. April 7, 1862 ; kid. Bat. Hatchie. 

First Lieut. Robert Smith. 

First Lieut. Thomas Allen, e. as private Oct. 8, 1861 ; prmtd. 2d lieut. Oct. 
6, 1862; prmtd. ist lieut. April 12, 1863; res. Aug. n, 1863. 

First Lieut. Michael J. Cooper, e. as private Oct. 8, 1861 ; prmtd. 2d lieut. 
April 12, 1863; prmtd. ist lieut. Aug. n, 1863; res. June 24, 1864. 

First Lieut. Thomas C. Laird, e. as private Oct. 8, 1861 ; prmtd. 2d lieut. 
March 30, 1865; prmtd. ist lieut. Sept. 5, 1865. 

Second Lieut. Thomas E. Joiner, e. as private Oct. 8, 1861 ; prmtd. 2d lieut. 
Sept. 5, 1865. 

Sergt. Swauzery, e. Oct. 8, 1861. 

Sergt. Joseph McKibben, e. Oct. 8, 1861. 

Sergt. Joseph Stamp, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; died June 16, 1862. 

Sergt. James B. Smith, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; disd. Aug. 22, 1862; private. 

Corp. S. E. Hershey, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; trans, to inv. corps. 

Corp. Jos. S. Brown, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; died April 28, 1862 ; wds. 

Corp. Thomas Snyder, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; disd. Dec. n, 1862; disab. 

Corp. John W. Rowrey, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; disd. June 21, 1862; disab. 

Musician James Cole, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; disd. Aug. 18, 1862; disab. 

Albright, William, e. Jan. 21, 1864. 

Aikey, Abram, e. Jan. 28, 1865. 

Angle, Luther, e. Jan. 31, 1865. 

Aikey, Robert, e. Feb. i, 1862; kid. bat. Shiloh. 

Albright Jacob, e. Feb. I, 1862; vet. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Allison, D., e. Feb. I, 1862; vet. Dec. 23, 1863; m. o. as sergt. 

Auman, John, e. Feb. i, 1862; vet. Jan 5, 1864; disd. March 12, 1865; for 

Butler, E. M., e. Jan. 9, 1865 ; trans, from 99th Inf. 


Bush, William, e. Dec. 15, 1861. 
Baker, John M., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 
Baker, Joseph, e. Jan. 25, 1865. 
Brubacker, William H., e. Feb. 26, 1864. 
Beedy, E. K., e. Feb. 27, 1864. 
Benton, George, e. Feb. 29, 1864. 
Barfoot, F. R., e. Feb. 24, 1865. 
Bordner, Henry, e. Feb. 28, 1865. 
Bren, Ferdinand, e. Feb. 27, 1865. 
Bellman, John, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 
Boyer, Owen, e. Feb. 23, 1865. 
Baker, E. H., e. Aug. 30, 1862. 

Baker, Solomon S., e. Feb. 26, 1864; m. o. May 23, 1865. 
Brubacker, Reuben, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; died May 9, 1862. 
Beeler, George D., e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; killed Battle Shiloh. 
Brown, Win., e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; disd. June 30, 1863. 
Benton, George, e., Oct. 8, 1861 ; disd. Dec. n, 1861 ; disab. 
Bradshaw, B. H., e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; disd. Sept. 12, 1862, to accept promo- 
tion to asst. sergt. 

Baker, Elias, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 24, 1863. 

Bates, B. L., e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; died July 12, 1862. 

Craig, E. W., e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; disd. June, 21, 1862; disab. 

Cable, Seth, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 24, 1863. 

Cable, David, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; m. o. Oct. 19, 1864. 

Clubine, D., e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; disd. June 30, 1863. 

Clark, Ezekiel S., e. Dec. 7, 1863 ; m. o. as corp. 

Cable, Wm., e. Feb. 26, 1864. 

Cole, John, e. Jan. 21, 1864. 

Chambers, James S., e. Jan. 27, 1864. 

Campbell, Richard, e. Feb. 2, 1865. 

Curtis, H. H., e. Nov. 30, 1861 ; disd. Nov. n, 1862; disab. 

Christman, F., m. o. May 22, 1865. 

Correl, Daniel, e. March 9, 1865 ; m. o. June 9, 1865. 

Driesbach, Daniel, e. Sept. 10, 1864; died March 12, 1865. 

Drake, Edward, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; m, o. Nov. 12, 1864. 

Daughenbaugh, S. A., e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 23, 1863 ; disab. 

Dunn, Thomas, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Davis, Alfred, e. Dec. 9, 1863. 

Fiscus, D. W., e. Feb. 29, 1864. 

Frisbie, C. G., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Frisbie, Wm. D., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Fehr, Aaron, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

Foster, Harry, e. Oct. 8, 1861. 

Gage, Isaac, e. Oct. 8, 1862. 

Groken, S. H.. e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; died April 6, 1862. 

Groff, John, e. Feb. i, 1864. 

German, H. C., e. Feb. 6, 1864. 


Carman, Wm. A., e. Feb. 10, 1864. 
Gardner, John, e. Dec. 9, 1863. 
Goodrich, Jerome, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 
Hathaway, Earl, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; disd. Jan. 4, 1863. 
Hulet, Henry, e. Oct. 8, 1861. 
Hickle, Elias, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 24, 1863. 
Helm, (Wm., e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; died June 26, 1863. 
Hood, Jos. R., e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 24, 1863. 
Hood, Thomas J., e. Oct. 8, 1861. 
Haughey, Jas. H., e. Feb. 24, 1864. 
Hathaway, Robert, e. Feb. 27, 1864; m. o. July i, 1865. 
Hains, John H., e. Dec. 7, 1863. 
Haughey, Samuel J., e. Feb. 22, 1864. 
Haines, Wm., e. Sept. 18, 1863; died Feb. 16, 1865. 

Hay, Jonathan, e. Feb. 29, 1864; disd. March 30, 1865; for promotion in 
United States army. 

Hall, Thomas W., m. o. Oct. 10, 1865. 

Howard, Wm., e. Dec. 7, 1861 ; trans, to Co. K. 

Kittner, George, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; died April 12, 1862; wd. 

Klontz, George, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 23, 1863; m - - J u ty *5> 1865- 

Kancke, R., e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 24, 1863. 

Klonez, Peter, e. Feb. 19, 1864; disd. May 15, 1865; disab. 

Krumme, Henry, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; m, o. Sept. 13, 1864. 

Lee, Ion, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Lee, Isaac S., e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Larne, John, e. Oct. 8, 1861. 

Linsley, Newton, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863 ; m. o. as corp. 

Long, Casper, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; disd. July 9, 1862; disab. 

LaBell, Peter, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; died June 2, 1862. 

Law, Rolandus, e. Feb. 6, 1864. 

Lowe, Thomas A., e. Dec. 7, 1863. 

Lapp, Joseph, e. Feb. i, 1865. 

Lahay, James, e. Dec. 25, 1861 ; trans, to Co. K. , 

Loehle, F., e. Jan. i, 1862; vet. Jan. i, 1864. 

Mayer, Isaac, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Moothart, P., e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; disd. May 9, 1862. 

Moothart, John F., e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; died Feb. 9, 1864. 

McLeese, Robert, e. Jan. 21, 1865. 

Maker, J., e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 23, 1863; sick at m. o. of regt. 

McClintic, John, e. Aug. 14, 1862; disd. March 17, 1863; disab. 

Meinert, C., e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; m. o. Nov. 12, 1861. 

McLaughlin, Thomas, e. Dec. 15, 1861 ; trans, to Co. K. 

McMurry, J., e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; disd. May 20, 1863 ; corp. 

McMurry, Chambers, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; disd. May 20, 1863; corp. 

McMurray, George, e. Feb. I, 1864. 

Preising, George, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 5, 1864; kid. July 7, 1864. 

Petrick, Paul, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 5, 1864. 


Paul, William, e. Feb. i, 1865; m. o. Jan. 20, 1866. 

Redinger, Francis, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863. 

Richards, William D., e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; m. o. Oct. 21, 1864. 

Richards, Uriah, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 23, 1863; m. o. as corp. 

Richmond, Lewis B., e. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Rubold, Henry, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863 ; disd. March 8, 1865. 

Reiter, W., e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; m. o. Nov. 12, 1864. 

Rutter, Jacob, e. Oct. 8, 1861. 

Riddle, Samuel, e. Feb. 29, 1864. 

Riddle, Wm., e. March 18, 1865; trans, to 99th Inf. 

Raymer, John A., e. Jan. 27, 1865. 

Raymer, Wm. H., e. Feb. 27, 1865. 

Reirmeyer, Henry, e. Dec. 15, 1861. 

Reatt, Ed., e. Sept. 13, 1862; m. o. Aug. 8, 1865. 

Risshell, Elias, e. Feb. 10, 1864; m. o. Aug. 8, 1865. 

Steel, James, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; prmtd. hospital steward. 

Shively, John, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; died April 23, 1863. 

Smith, Wm., e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 5, 1864; m, o. Jan. 20, 1866. 

Smith, August L., e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; disd. Dec. 11, 1862. 

Sindlinger, Wm. M., e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; disd. July 9, 1862 ; disab. 

Schawb, Thomas, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; disd. Nov. 26, 1862; disab. 

Smith, Martin, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 5, 1864; died March 21, 1864. 

Sheffer, Jacob, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; died July 17, 1862. 

Sausman, John L., e. Dec. 12, 1863. 

Springman, Adam, e. Feb. 27, 1864. 

Sherman, Leonard, e. March 4, 1865. 

Sindlinger, William M., e. Jan. 27, 1865. 

Seely, Orin, e. Jan. 26, 1865. 

Shinkle, John T., e. Jan. 28, 1864; died Aug. 28, 1864. 

Stamm, William D., e. Dec. i, 1863; died at Vicksburg, Sept. 24, 1864. 

Shippy, Joseph, e. Jan. 28, 1864; died Nov. 28, 1864. 

Shearer, John, e. Feb. 29, 1864; died Sept. 26, 1864. 

Shirk, Daniel F., e. Feb. 5, 1862 ; vet. Feb. 6, 1864. 

Stamm, Amos A., e. Oct. 4, 1864; m. o. July i, 1865. 

Spooner, Charles, e. Nov. i, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 24, 1863. 

Smith, E. O. W., e. Feb. 29, 1864. 

Thomas, William H., e. Feb. 23, 1865. 

Tool, Eugene T., Oct. n, 1864. 

Tool, A. S., e. Oct. 11, 1864; m. o. Oct. 10, 1865. 

Thombleson, Silas W., e. Oct. 4, 1864; m. o. Oct. 5, 1865. 

Vore, John, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 24, 1865. 

Ward, Sidney, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863 ; died July 8, 1864. 

Williams, Peter, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 22, 1863 ; died March 5, 1865. 

Wilson, F. T., e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

Wyre, John, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; disd. April 26, 1863 ; disab. 

Wilson, John, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 23, 1863. 

Wentz, Philip, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 24, 1863. 


Walters, Samuel, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Williams, William, e. Jan. 28, 1864; died Dec. 14, 1864. 

Wolfanger, Aaron, e. Jan. 24, 1865 ; died July 19, 1865. 

Wootan, James E., e. Feb. i, 1862; vet. Feb. 6, 1864; disd. 

Weaver, William, e. Dec. 15, 1861 ; m. o. Dec. 5, 1864. 

Wike, Peter, trans. Ind. corps. 

Young, D. D., e. Feb. i, 1864. 

Young, Robert C, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; m. o. Nov. 12, 1864. 

Young, F. M., e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; m. o. Oct. 19, 1864. 


Carter, S. E., e. Oct. 16, 1861. 


Capt. Wm. Stewart, com. ist lieut. Oct. 15, 1861 ; prmtd. capt. Oct. n, 1862; 
term expired Dec. 28, 1864. 

First Lieut. Jos. M. McKibben, e. as - , prmtd. 2d lieut. July 16, 1862; 
prmtd. ist lieut. Oct. n, 1862; term expired Dec. 23, 1864. 

First Lieut. Louis E. Butler, e. as sergt. Nov. 7, 1861 ; vet. prmtd. ist lieut. 
Dec. 23, 1864; died at Salubrity Springs, La., Oct. 5, 1865. 

First Lieut. John Wilson, e. as corp. Nov. 7, 1861 ; vet. prmtd. 2d lieut. 
March 20, 1865; prmtd. ist lieut. Oct. 26, 1865. 

First Sergt. James C. Mallory, e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; trans, to Co. F. 

Sergt. Oscar H. Osborne, e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; disd. July 27, 1862; disab. 

Sergt. George Barton, e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; disd. Nov. 21, 1863; disab. 

Corp. Walter G. Barnes, e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; disd. May 31, 1862; disab. 

Corp. Benj. R. Feisbie, e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; m. o. Dec. 29, 1864. 

Corp. T. S. Felton, e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; died March 17, 1862. 

Corp. R. C. Hardy, e. Oct. 4, 1861 ; disd. Nov. 7, 1863; disab. 

Corp. E. H. Gardner, e. Oct. 7, 1862; died June 18, 1864. 

Corp. Thos. Woodcock, e. Dec. 26; vet. 

Musician Thos. Slade, e. Oct. 4, 1861 ; vet. 

Apker, John, e. Jan. 2, 1865 ; died May 8, 1865. 

Artley, A., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Artley, Charles, e. Jan. 28, 1865. 

Allen, Thomas H., e. Feb. 10, 1864; prmtd. hospital steward. 

Butler, James A., e. Oct. 4, 1861 ; died July 13, 1862. 

Berns, Moses, e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; disd. May 25, 1862; disab. 

Brown, Geo. F., e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; disd. May 25, 1862; disab. 

Brid, Geo. H., e. Feb. 2, 1865. 

Barker, Dudley, e. Feb. 2, 1865; died June 17, 1865. 

Brace, John. e. Jan. 13, 1862; died May 22, 1862; wds. 

Boyle, L., e. Jan. 21, 1862; trans, to inv. corps. 

Baker, John, e. Oct. 4, 1864; m. o. Oct. 3, 1865. 

Babb, A. W., e. Feb. 27, 1865. 

Butterfield, Chas. W., e. Feb. 26. 1865 ; absent, sick at m. o. of regt. 

Cramton, Aaron, e. Oct. 4, 1861 ; disd. Sept. 9, 1862. 

Curran, John, e. Nov. 20, 1861 ; trans, to inv. corps. 

Carter, S. E., e. Dec. 26; trans, to Co. A. 


Cantrill, J. T., e. Sept. 10, 1861. 

Cosier, Ammon, e. Jan. 25, 1865. 

Canvill, Calvin, e. Feb. 4, 1865. 

Coolidge, Nelson, e. Jan. 25, 1864; disd. Oct. 5, 1864; wds. 

Carroll, Patrick, e. Feb. 23, 1864. 

Cade, Alfred, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Daughenbaugh, Wm. J., e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; vet. 

Diemar, Josiah, e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; vet. 

Dodson, Thomas H., e. Nov. 15, 1861 ; died June i, 1862. 

Dillon, George W., e. Feb. 19, 1864. 

Dillon, Zachariah, e. Feb. 29, 1864. 

Decker, Z., e. Feb. 3, 1865. 

Devore, Espy, e. Jan. 16, 1864; disd. Aug. 23, 1865. 

Dinsmore, Wm., e. March 27, 1865; sick at m. o. of regt. 

Diller, Michael, e. Dec. 25, 1861 ; trans, to Co. C. 

Doan, Jos., e. Feb. i, 1864; died May 28, 1864. 

Dobson, Jacob, e. Feb. i, 1864; died Oct. 30, 1864. 

Dolan, John, e. Feb. 4, 1864. 

Ely, Marion, e. Oct. 18, 1863. 

Flood, Bartholomew, e. Feb. 3, 1865. 

Farley, Thomas, e. Sept. 10, 1861 ; trans, to inv. corps. 

Fry, Conrad, e. Jan. 5, 1864; m. o. June 19, 1865. 

Gibler, H., e. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Gregsby, Uriah, e. Feb. 13, 1864. 

Garrison, I. T., e. Dec. 5, 1863. 

Gillespie, P., e. Nov. 5, 1861 ; disd. May 22, 1865; disab. 

Gregsby, W. C., e. Feb. 13, 1864; m. o. June 12, 1865. 

Gregsby, Samuel, e. Jan. 27, 1865. 

Hays, Thomas J., e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; trans, to inv. corps. 

Hills, E. P., e. Dec. 26, 1861. 

Hiatt, John, e. Nov. 13, 1861 ; disd. Feb. n, 1863, as sergt; disab. 

Heiter, Monroe, e. Feb. 7, 1865. 

Hartman, Amon, e. Jan. 13, 1865 ; m. o. July 17, 1865. 

Hand, Barney, e. Nov. 30, 1861 ; died Dec. 23, 1861. 

Kinney, Daniel, e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; vet. 

Kessling or Keeling, William, e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; vet. 

Kamrar, David, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Kraft, Jacob, e. Feb. 5, 1864. 

Kelly, Zebedee, e. Feb. 7, 1865. 

Keck, H. S., e. Feb. 4, 1865. 

Kamrar. Saul H., e. Jan. 13, 1862; vet. 

Lamb, Samuel F., e. No. 7, 1861 ; vet. 

Latour, Charles, e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; trans, to Co. C. 

Lahay, James, e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; vet. 

Lamb, Samuel D., e. Jan. 22, 1865. 

Leibhart, Henry, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Lower, Reuben, e. Jan. 26, 1865. 


Linscott, Abram, e. Feb. 29, 1864; m. o. May 31, 1865. 
Logan, William, e. Jan. 21, 1864. 
Mishler, Barton, e. Jan. 28, 1864. 
Miller, John H., e. Dec. 30, 1863. 
Mullin, D., e. Feb. 16, 1864. 
McCay, George, e. Feb. 6, 1865. 
Muffly, Charles T., e. Jan. 28, 1865. 
McKibben, James H., e. Jan. 27, 1865. 
Myron, Thomas, e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; died June 12, 1862. 
Miller, Aaron, e. Dec. 26, 1861 ; died June 6, 1862. 
Martin, William H., e. Dec. 26, 1861. 
McLaughlin, Thomas, e. Dec. 6, 1861 ; vet. 
McKee, Robert, e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; trans, to Co. B. 
McKinsom, John S., e. Jan. i, 1862; m. o. Dec. 31, 1864. 
Miller, A., Feb. 2, 1865; m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Mallory, D. C., e. Jan. 24, 1865 ; m. o. June 23, 1865. 
McGuirk, James, e. Jan. i, 1862; vet. 
Needham, R. N. e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; vet. 
Nicholas, Charles H., e. Feb. 6, 1865. 
Owen, A. R., e. Jan. 22, 1864. 
Osborn, O. H., e. Jan. 30, 1864. 

Patten, Lawrence, e. Dec. n, 1861 ; disd. March 7, 1862; disab. 
Plotner, Frank, e. Feb. 7, 1865. 
Quinn, William, e. Jan. 2, 1864. 
Reber, Levi M., e. Dec. 30, 1861 ; vet. 
Reber, M. V. B., e. Nov. 7, 1861. 
Reagle, Jacob, e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; died Oct. 26, 1862. 
Rutter, W. H. 
Rudel, L. 

Read, James H., e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; disd. Aug. 31, 1863, for promotion in U. 
S. C. T. " 

Runner, Z. T. F., Jan. 25, 1865. 

Richards, Willam D., e. Jan. 30, 1865. 

Richards, Levi, e. Jan. 30, 1865. 

Segin, Theo, e. Dec. 26, 1861 ; disd. August 27, 1862; disab. 

Shook, Robert, e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; disd. Aug. 26, 1862 ; disab. 

Snow, A. L. F. M., e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; disd. Aug. 29, 1862; disab. 

Scott, George W., e. Feb. 29, 1864. 

Star, F. H., e. Feb. 4, 1864. 

Scott, Isaac, e. Feb. 20, 1864. 

Shefry, Levi W., e. Jan. 26, 1865. 

Sloan, Thomas, e. Feb. 7, 1865. 

Shane, Mathias, e. Feb. 7, 1865. 

Smith, Charles, e. Jan. 26, 1865. 

Shane, John W., e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Sneely, Lewis Z., e. Feb. 7, 1865. 

Shaffer, Thomas J., e. Feb. 3, 1865. 


Sponage, William, e. Feb. 2, 1865. 

Train, L. R., e. Feb. 2, 1865. 

Winney, Daniel, e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; m. o. Dec. 29, 1864. 

Thomas, William, e. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Wagner, William N., e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; vet 

Wood, Thomas, e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; vet. 

Wardwell, William G., e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; vet. 

Warner, D. J., e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; vet. 

Walbridge, Thomas, e. Dec. 26, 1861 ; vet. 

Woodruff, Isaac, e. Nov. 7, 1861 ; vet. 

Warner, William W., e. Jan. 25, 1865. 

Willy, Andrew, e. Dec. 10, 1861 ; trans, to Co. A. 

Withneck, William, e. Feb. 7, 1862; died May 17, 1862. 

Winne, Abraham, e. Jan. 26, 1865; died June 16, 1865. 

Watson, Henry, e. Feb. 3, 1865. 

Zweifel, Albert, e. Feb. 19, 1864; m. o. as crop. 

Zeigler, Miller, e. Feb. 2, 1864. 

Barker, Jack, e. Feb. 27, 1865. 

Brown, Charles M., e. Jan. 25, 1864. 

Butler, B. F., e. Feb. 6, 1864. 

Cable, L. M., e. Feb. 22, 1864. 

Grossman, George W., e. March 9, 1865; m. o. June 29, 1865. 

Cochran, D., e. March 29, 1865 ; m. o. May 21, 1865. 

Davis, Philip, e. Feb. 3, 1865. 

Driggs, John A., e. March 4, 1865 ; m. o. May 21, 1865. 

Frund, Julius L., March n, 1865; m. o. May 23, 1865. 

Getlish, Adison. 

Harkell, William, e. Dec. 30, 1863. 

Helder, John W., e. Oct. 3, 1864. 

Mareau, Joseph, e. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Phillips, C. Y. 

Prain, L. R. 

Richardson, James, e. March 9, 1865; m. o. June 8, 1865. 

Richardson, Joshua, e. March 9, 1865. 

Rishel, Daniel L., e. Dec. i, 1863. 

Sprader, Charles, e. Jan. 31, 1865. 

Tegar, or Yeager, John, e. Jan. 24, 1865. 

Umphreys, A. R., e. Jan. 24, .1865. 

Van Buren, George E., e. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Weldon, Sidney, e. Dec. 7, 1863. 

Wendecker, William. 

William, Thomas, e. Jan. 5, 1864. 


(Three Months.) 


Capt. James W. Crane, com. June 13, 1862. 
First Lieut. Stephen Allen, com. June 13, 1862. 


Second Lieut. Alonzo Hilliard, com. June 13, 1862. 

First Sergt. John Stine, e. June 2, 1862. 

Sergt. James R. Baker, e. June 2, 1862. 

Sergt. Charles A. Dodge, e. June 2, 1862. 

Sergt. John D. Lamb, e. June 2, 1862. 

Sergt. H. W. Sigworth, e. June 2, 1862. 

Corp. O. T. P. Steinmetz, e. June 2, 1862. 

Corp. Ambrose Martin, e. June 2, 1862. 

Corp. Sidney Robins, e. June 2, 1862. 

Corp. Hazilas S. Ritz, e. June 2, 1862. 

Corp. William H. Hoyt, e. June 2, 1862. 

Corp. William H. Butler, e. June 2, 1862. 

Wagoner, Jacob W. Pells, e. June 2, 1862: 

Armstrong, John T., e. June 2, 1862. 

Allen, T. M., e. June 2, 1862. 

Allen, N., e. June 2, 1862. 

Albright, Harrison, e. June 2, 1862. 

Adams, Taylor, e. June 2, 1862. 

Bitts, Jacob, e. June 2, 1862. 

Bollman, George. 

Clark, C. H., e. June 2, 1862. 

Cross, T. L., e. June 2, 1862. 

Carpenter, Horace, e. June 2, 1862. 

Denure, W., e. June 2, 1862. 

Dryer, Edward, e. June 2, 1862. 

Davenport, Lucius, e. June 2, 1862. 

Denton, Levi, e. June 2, 1862. 

Evans, L. A., e. June 2, 1862. 

Farley, James, e. June 2, 1862. 

Fain, John P., e. June 2, 1862. 

Friedman, V., e. June 2, 1862. 

Fye, Benjamin, e. June 2, 1862. 

Fye, Josiah, e. June 2, 1862. 

Griffing, D. J., e. June 2, 1862. 

Gilmore, George, e. June 2, i86e. 

Gafney, Michael. 

Gundy, A. M., e. June 2, 1862. 

Gates, H. H., e. June 2, 1862. 

George, John E., e. June 2, 1862. 

Grant, Smith H., e. June 2, 1862. 

Grant, R. C., e. June 2, 1862. 

Hagart, Sidney, e. June 2, 1862. 

Hagart, William, e. June 2, 1862. 

Hustin, William T., e. June 2, 1862. 

Hersey, Daniel, e. June 2, 1862. 

Jones, Robert, e. June 2, 1862. 

Kelly, Mathew, e. June 2, 1862. 


Layr, M., e. June 2, 1862. 
Lauver, George, e. June 2, 1862. 
Leverton, Isaac, e. June 2, 1862, 
Lee, Samuel, e. June 2, 1862. 
Lunt, A. M., e. June 2, 1862. 
Linderman, S., e. June 2, 1862. 
Martin, W. H., e. June 2, 1862. . 
Martin, A. ]., e. June 2, 1862. 
Maher, Ed., e. June 2, 1862. 
Mullen, John, e. June 2, 1862. 
Mock, Henry, e. June 2, 1862. 
Miller, John H., e. June 2, 1862. 
McEathron, John S., e. June 2, 1862. 
Miller, J. C, e. June 2, 1862. 
Messinger, George, e. June 2, 1862. 
Miller, Zeri, e. June 2, 1862. 
Pickard, John S., e. June 2, 1862. 
Price, William, e. June 2, 1862. 
Phillips, Reuben, e. June 2, 1862. 
Rice, David E., e. June 2, 1862. 
Stout, Syrus, e. June 2, 1862. 
Solace, Chester L., e. June 2, 1862. 
Stewart, Thomas M., e. June 2, 1862. 
Steckler, Daniel, e. June 2, 1862. 
Shoemaker, George, e. June 2, 1862. 
Van Sickles, John, e. June 2, 1862. 
Walsh, F. A., e. June 2, 1862. 
Williams, George, e. June 2, 1862. 
Warner, Henry, e. June 2, 1862. 
Walton, A. D., e. June 2, 1862. 
Wulliams, L., e. June 2, 1862. 


(Three Months.) 


Capt. Luther W. Black, com. July 22, 1862. 

Sergt. W. A. St. John, e. July 7, 1862. 

Sergt. John J. M. Brown, e. July 7, 1862. 

Corp. Jas. H. Cox, e. July 10, 1862. 

Andre, George W., e. July 2, 1862. 

Bunce, Danforth, e. July n, 1862. 

Barrott, Marion. 

DeFrain, Samuel, e. July 5, 1862. 

Durkee, D. M. 

Ells, Wm. A., e. July 15, 1862. 

Gettig, Aaron M., e. July 5, 1862. 


Hicks, James R. 

Hoflinger, Jacob, e. July 15, 1862. 
Klecker, John P., e. July 14, 1862. 
Klouts, John, e. July 7, 1862. 
Mitchell, Levi. 

Ritzman, Martin, e. July 8, 1862. 
Stites, George W., e. July 10, 1862. 
Shippy, Charles, e. July 7, 1862. 
Shinkle, John, e. July 10, 1862. 
Snyder, William H., e. July 14, 1862. 
Smith, Ellis, e. July 14, 1862. 
Snyder, John, e. July 12, 1862. 
Smith, James C, e. July 10, 1862. 
Stace, J. E. W., e. July 14, 1862. 
Stands, Jos. H., e. July 5, 1862. 
Soliday, Hy. 
Wilson, Henry, e. July 14, 1862. 


Organized at Rockford and mustered into the United States service Sep- 
tember 6, 1862. Companies G. and I. were from Ogle and Stephenson Coun- 
ties; all the rest were from Winnebago County. Left Rockford September 27 
for Jeffersonville, Indiana. Arrived there October i, and moved to Louisville, 
Kentucky, immediately. Assigned to Army of the Cumberland, First Brigade, 
Second Division, under General Buell. Moved from Louisville, October 7, 
and was in the battle of Chaplain Hills, Kentucky, October 13, from there to 
Crab Orchard, Kentucky, pursuing Bragg, participating in many skirmishes. Re- 
turned from Lebanon, Kentucky, October 25 ; from there it went to Nashville, 
Tennessee, where a re-organization was effected, under General Rosecrans, De- 
cember 25, received marching orders, with three days' rations. Participated in 
the battle of Stone River, December 30-31, 1862, and January i, 1863, the regi- 
ment losing sixteen men killed and wounded. Went into winter quarters at 
Camp Little, south of Murfreesboro, and were engaged in numerous raids in 
the surrounding country. Moved from winter quarters July 15, was in the 
battle of Liberty Gap, July 20, one man killed ; was engaged at Tullahoma, 
Tennessee; from here it was ordered to Winchester, Tennessee, where it en- 
camped. Moved August 20, to Stevenson, Alabama. Engaged at Chickamauga, 
September 18, 19 and 20; lost five men. The regiment on the latter date was in 
charge of hospital and supply trains, arriving at Chattanooga, Tennessee, Sep- 
tember 22. While here it had very short allowances until November 22, when 
they participated in the fight of Mission Ridge, November 25, their colors be- 
ing the first to pass over the rebel lines, capturing a battery of four pieces at 
Bragg's headquarters ; loss to regiment, six privates, Colonel Jason Marsh, 
wounded, Lieutenant Colonel Kerr wounded in the arm. 

Returned to Chattanooga on the 26th, and marched to Knoxville, Tennessee, 
to relieve General Burnside, and then went into winter quarters about December 
13. May 2, 1864, it joined the main army of the Cumberland at Chattanooga, 
where it arrived on the 3d; on the 5th, marched under orders, and was in the 


battle of Rocky Face, or Buzzard Roost, Georgia; was at Resaca, Georgia, May 
14 and 15; Calhoun, May 17; Adairsville, Georgia, May 18; Dallas, Georgia, 
May 25 to June 5 ; Lost Mountain, Georgia, June 16 ; was in the battle at Kene- 
saw Mountain, Georgia, June 20 and June 27 ; lost fifty-two men and six com- 
missioned officers, Lieutenant Colonel J. B. Kerr being among the number. 
Battle of Smyrna ; Camp Ground, Georgia, July 4, lost sixteen men ; was also 
at Peach Tree Creek, July 20; Atlanta, July 22, and was continually engaged 
until the battle of Jonesboro, Georgia, September i, 1864, and Lovejoy Station, 
September 2; then returned to Chattanooga, Tennessee, where it was assigned 
to the army of the Tennessee. Engaged the enemy November the 28th at Col- 
umbia, Tennessee; Spring Hill, Nov. 29; Franklin, Tennessee, November 30; 
Nashville, Tennessee, December 15 and 16, following Hood to Huntsville, Ala- 
bama, fighting him all the time until he crossed the Little Tennessee, and then 
went into winter quarters. March 26, 1865, it marched to Bull's Gap, Tennessee, 
to intercept Lee, leaving there April 17, for Nashville, Tennessee, where the 
regiment was mustered out June 20, 1865. Returned to Rockford with one 
hundred and fifty-seven enlisted men and thirteen officers. Colonel Jason Marsh 
was at the head of the regiment until about January i, 1865, when Lieutenant 
Colonel Thomas J. Bryan took command. 

First Asst. Surg. Chesseldon Fisher, com. 2d asst, surg. Sept. 28, 1862; 
prmtd. March 24, 1863, surg. 75th reg. 


Capt. Wm. Irvin, com. Sept. 4, 1862; res. Jan. 28, 1863. 

Capt. Frederick W. Stegner, com ist lieut. Sept. 4, 1862; prmtd. capt. Jan. 
28, 1863 ; killed in battle June 27, 1864. 

Capt. Daniel Cronemiller, com. 2d lieut. Sept. 4, 1862; prmtd. ist lieut. Jan. 
28, 1863; prmtd. capt. June 27, 1864. 

First Lieut. Edgar Warner, e. as sergt. August n, 1862; prmtd. 2d lieut. 
Jan. 28, 1863; prmtd. ist lieut. June 27, 1864; disd. Sept. i, 1864. 

First Lieut. Robert P. Gift, e. as sergt. Aug. 14, 1862; prmtd. ist lieut. 
June 27, 1864. 

Sergt. Johnson Porter, e. Aug. 14, 1862; disd. June 17, 1863. 

Sergt. John A. Mullarky, e. Aug. 14, 1862; died June 28, 1864; wd. 

Corp. James B. Rowray, e. Aug. 14, 1862; disd. for disab. 

Corp. J. Steward, e. Aug. 14, 1862 ; trans, to V. R. C. 

Corp. Charles Hunt, e. Aug. 14, 1862 ; m. o. June 10, 1865. 

Corp. Uriah Boyden, e. Aug. 14, 1862; disd. Dec. 20, 1862; disab. 

Corp. Jacob Kehm, e. Aug. 14, 1862; disd. for disab. 

Hensey, John, e. Aug. 14, 1862, disd. June 16, 1864; wd. 

Wagoner, Wm. Vere, e. Aug. 14, 1862; disd. March 4, 1863; disab. 

Andrews, Jacob, e. Aug. 14, 1862 ; m. o. as corp. 

Anderson, Ole, e. Aug. 14, 1862; disd. March 31, 1863; disab. 

Ashenfelter, Franklin, e.'Aug. 14, 1862; disd. Dec. 6, 1862; disab. 

Bellman, Wm., e. Aug. 14, 1862; died Dec. 14, 1862. 

Bener, Jos., e. Aug. 14, 1862; died March n, 1865. 

Benning, Gottleib, e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Bingman, Robert, e. Aug. 14, 1862; died May 16, 1864. 


Boos, Wm., e. Aug. 14, 1862; missing in action. 
Bokhoff, Wm., e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Boughton, George W., e. Aug. 14, 1862; trans, to V. R. C. 
Boughthampt, Jacob, e. Aug. 14, 1862; disd. March n, 1863, disab. 
Bramin, Edwin, e. Aug. 14, 1862 ; disd. June 27, 1863 ; disab. 
Burrell, Robert, e. Aug. 14, 1862. 
Clark, Orla, e. Aug. 14, 1862; missing in action. 
Cole, Sidney, e. Aug. 14, 1862; died Nov. 5, 1862. 
Ebling, Peter, e. Aug. 14, 1862; trans, to V. R. C. 
Englot, Gregory, e. Aug. 14, 1862; m. o. June 10, 1866. 
Feeny, John, e. Aug. 14, 1862; trans, to V. R. C. 
Feeney, Henry. 

Ferico, John, e. Aug. 14, 1862; died March 22, 1863. 
Flinn, Jos., e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Fuoss, Daniel, e. Aug. 14, 1862; disd. March 7, 1865; disab. 
Hensey, Fred, e. Aug. 14, 1862; died in battle June 27, 1864; corp. 
Henderson, O. P., e. Aug. 14, 1862; disd. July 18, 1863; disab. 
Hultz, Benj., e. Aug. 14, 1862; disd. Dec. 27, 1862; disab. 
Inman, Austin, e. Aug. 15, 1862; died June 27, 1864. 
Jennewine, Thomas, e. Aug. 14, 1862; died Jan. 2, 1864, wd. 
Keagle, Wm. H., e. Aug. 14, 1862; died Dec. 13, 1862. 
Keagle, James G., e. Aug. 14, 1862; died May 22, 1865. 
Keagle, F. B., e. Aug. 14, 1862 ; trans, to U. S. Engs. 
Keller, Adam, e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Knudson, Nels, e. Aug. 14, 1862; died Nov. 26, 1862. 
Laber, Levi, e. Aug. 14, 1862; disd. March 15, 1863; disab. 
Lapp, Samuel, e. Aug. 14, 1862; died Jan. 5, 1863. 
Masmin, Fred, e. Aug. 14, 1862; kid. June 18, 1864. 
McCarty, Thomas, e. Aug. 14, 1862; disd". June 27, 1863; disab. 
Miller, Fredk., e. Sept. 25, 1862. 

McGrane, Peter, e. Aug. 14, 1862; disd. Dec. 18, 1862; disab. 
Mullarkey, Chas., e. Aug. 14, 1862; disd. Nov. 5, 1862; disab. 
Mullarkey, John, e. Aug. 14, 1862; disd. Nov. 5, 1862; disab. 
Neidle, Rudolph, e. Aug. 14, 1862; m. o. as corp. 
Miller, Frederick. 

O'Mealy, Patrick, e. Aug. 14, 1862 ; m. o. as corp. 
Oleson, Talliff , e. Aug. 14, 1862 ; disd. March 22, 1863 ; disab. 
Peterson, Elias E., e. Aug. 14, 1862; disd. Feb. 2, 1863; disab. 
Richardson, Henry, e. Aug. 9, 1862; disd. March 26, 1863. 
Schoolcraft, Whitney, e. Aug. 15, 1862; trans, to V. R. C. 
Seward, John, e. Aug. 14, 1862 ; prmtd. corp. then sergt. ; pris. ; m. o. June 
27, 1866. 

Sheckler, James W., e. Aug. 21, 1862; disd. Feb. 12, 1863; disab. 
Sheckler, Thomas, e. Aug. 14, 1862; disd. Jan. 27, 1863; disab. 
Snyder, Perry, e. Aug. 14, 1862 ; m. o. as corp. 
Snyder, Jackson, e. Aug. 14, 1862; disd. March 26, 1863; disab. 
Stinson, E. H., e. Aug. 14, 1862 ; trans, to 36th Inf. 


Spaulding, D. G., e. Aug. g, 1862; trans, to V. R. C. 
Spaulding, A. C., e. Aug. 14, 1862; disd. Feb. 10, 1865; disab. 
Tunks, Alfred, e. Aug. 14, 1862; disd. July 6, 1863; disab. 
Van Valkenburg, L. H., e. Aug. 14, 1862; kid. June 27, 1864. 
Waggoner, Jacob, e. Aug. 15, 1862; m. o. as sergt. 
Webb, E. Boone, e. Aug. 14, 1862 ; trans, to V. R. C. 
Winkle, Fredk., e. Aug. 15, 1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Webster, O. B., e. Sept. 30, 1864. 


The Ninetieth Infantry Illinois Volunteers, was organized at Chicago, Illi- 
nois, in August, September and October, 1862, by Colonel Timothy O'Meara. 
Moved to Cairo November 27, and to Columbus, Kentucky, on the 3Oth. From 
thence, proceeded to La Grange, Tennessee, where the regiment arrived De- 
cember 2. On the 4th, ordered to Cold Water, Mississippi, where it relieved 
the Twenty-ninth Wisconsin Infantry. On the morning of December 20, a 
detachment of Second Illinois Cavalry arrived at Cold Water, having cut their 
way through Van Dorn's forces, out of Holly Springs. Soon after, four com- 
panies of the One Hundred and First Illinois came in and were followed by the 
enemy to our lines. The demonstrations made by the Ninetieth deterred the 
enemy from making any severe attack, although he was 4,000 or 5,000 strong, 
and after some skirmishing, he withdrew. The regiment was mustered out of 
service June 6, 1865, at Washington, D. C., and arrived at Chicago, June 12, 
1865, where it received final pay and discharge. 


Barrett, Patrick, Aug. 5, 1862. 

Barn, Michael, Sr., e. Aug. 5, 1862; disd. March i, 1865; disab. 
Broderick, David, e. Aug. 5, 1862; kid. July 12, 1863, at Jackson, Mississippi. 
Carroll, John, e. Aug. 5, 1862. 
Caton, Wm., e. Aug. 5, 1862; kid. Nov. 25, 1863. 
Cranney, Patrick, e. Aug. 5, 1862 ; died March 28, 1863. 
Crawley, John, e. Aug. 5, 1862, died May 18, 1863. 
Foley, James, e. Aug. 5, 1862. 

Kennelly, Edward, e. Aug. 5, 1862; absent at m. o. of regt; wd. 
McCormick, J., e. Aug. 5, 1862. 

McCarty, Dennis, e. Aug. 15, 1862; kid. Nov. 25, 1863. 


First Lieut. William Brice, com. April 7, 1865; m. o. June 6, 1865. 

Second Lieut. John J. O'Leary, com. Oct. 31, 1862; res. Feb. I, 1863. 

Sergt. John Doogan, e. Aug. 16, 1862; died Sept. 2, 1864; wd. 

Sergt. William Brice, e. Aug. 14, 1862; prmtd. lieut. 

Sergt. Neil O'Garrey, Aug. 16, 1862; died Jan. 22, 1863. 

Corp. William Con well, e. Aug. 16, 1862; m. o. as sergt. 

Corp. Thomas B. Eagan, e. Aug. 17, 1862. 

Corp. Elisha N. Strong, e. Aug. 14, 1862 ; disd. Sept. 4, 1863. 


Brennan, Edw., e. Aug. 16, 1862. 

Burns, Cornelius, e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Coughlin, John, e. Aug. 8, 1862. 

Cooney, Francis, e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Crawford, John, e. Aug. 16, 1862; died June 18, 1864. 

Cane, James, e. Aug. g, 1862. 

Chichester, Merit, e. Aug. 7, 1862; disd. March 13, 1864; disab. 

Enright, James, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Flanningham, M., e. Aug. 8, 1862; trans, to V. R. C. 

Frost, H. O., e. Aug. 15, 1862. 

Gallaher, Charles, e. Aug. 16, 1862. 

Griffin, Patrick, e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Laughran, James, e. Aug. n, 1862; died Aug. 21, 1864. 

McAndrews, M., e. Aug. 12, 1862; disd. April 16, 1864; disab. 

McSweeney, E., e. Aug. 12, 1862. 

Mclntyre, Timothy, e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Moynahan, Anthony, e. Aug. 10, 1862. 

Mooney, Thomas, e. Aug. 17, 1862. 

Moonahan, John, e. Aug. 18, 1862. 

Moynahan, John, e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Mulhgan, James, e. Aug. 17, 1862; m. o. as musician. 

O'Connell, Daniel, e. Aug. 11, 1862. 

O'Conner, Charles, e. Aug. 18, 1862; died Sept. 16, 1863. 

O'Brien, Bernard, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Powers, James, e. Aug. 16, 1862; died Sept. 14, 1863. 

Ryan, John, e. Aug. 12, 1862. 

Wilkinson, John, e. Aug. 15, 1862. 

Whalen, M., e. Aug. 16, 1862; died Aug. 21, 1864. 


The Ninety-second Regiment Infantry Illinois Volunteers was organized at 
Rockford, Illinois, and mustered into the United States service September 4, 
1862. It was composed of five companies from Ogle County, three from Ste- 
phenson County, and two from Carroll County. The regiment left Rockford, 
October n, 1862, with orders to report to General Wright, at Cincinnati, where 
it was assigned to General Baird's Division, army of Kentucky. It marched 
immediately into the interior of the state and during the latter part of October 
was stationed at Mount Sterling, to guard that place against rebel raids, and 
afterward at Danville, Kentucky. On the 26th of January, 1863, the regi- 
ment with General Baird's Division, was ordered to the army of the Cum- 
berland. Arriving at Nashville the command moved to Franklin, Tennessee, 
and was engaged in the pursuit of the rebel General Van Dorn. Advanced to 
Murfreesboro, and occupied Shelbyville June 27. On July the 25th, the regi- 
ment was engaged in re-building a wagon-bridge, over Duck River; July 6 
was ordered by General Rosecrans to be mounted and armed with the Spencer 
rifle, and attached to Colonel Wilder's Brigade of General Thomas' Corps, where 


it remained while General Rosecrans had command. The regiment crossed the 
mountains at Dechard, Tennessee, and took part in the movements opposite and 
above Chattanooga, when it recrossed the mountains and joined General Thomas 
at Trenton, Alabama. On the morning of the gth of September, it was in the 
advance to Chattanooga, and participated in driving the rebels from Point Look- 
out, and entered the rebel stronghold, unfolding the Union banner on the Crutch- 
field House, and kept in pursuit of the rebels. At Ringgold, Georgia, was at- 
tacked by a brigade of cavalry, under command of General Forrest, and drove 
them from the town, killing and wounding a large number. During the Chicka- 
mauga battle, the regiment took part in General Reynolds' Division of General 
Thomas' Corps. In April, 1864, it was again at Ringgold, Georgia, doing picket 
duty. April 23, Captain Scovil, with twenty-one men, was captured at Nicka- 
jack Gap, nine miles from Ringgold, and one man killed. Of the men thus 
taken prisoners, twelve were shot down, and six died of wounds, after being 
taken prisoners. The remainder was taken to Andersonville ; and very few ever 
left that place, having died from the cruel treatment received there. From 
Ringgold, May 7, 1864, the regiment entered upon the Atlanta campaign, and 
was assigned to General Kilpatrick's command, and participated in the battles 
of Resaca, raid around Atlanta, Bethesda, Fleet River Bridge and Jonesboro, 
one-fifth of the men engaged. From Mount Gilead Church, west of Atlanta, 
October i, the regiment moved and took an active part in the operations against 
Hood's army. At Power Springs it had a severe engagement, losing a large 
number of men killed and wounded. The regiment then returned to Marietta, 
and participated in the various engagements and skirmishes in Sherman's march 
to the sea. At Swift Creek, North Carolina, Captain Hawk, of Company C, 
was severely wounded, losing a leg. The regiment, during its term of service, 
was in some forty battle and skirmishes. It was mustered out at Concord, 
North Carolina, and paid and discharged from the service, at Chicago, Illinois, 
July 10, 1865. 

In July, 1862, President Lincoln called for 300, troops. In August, the 
same year, he directed a draft of 300,000 more. In speaking of the recruiting 
of the Ninety-second Illinois, General Smith D. Atkins in the History of the 
Ninety-second, says: 

"Then the people with an impulse that was grand took hold of the work in 
earnest. In every schoolhouse in the three counties from which the Ninety-sec- 
ond was recruited meetings were held; the fife sent out its shrill notes and the 
drum its roll, and the old flag was displayed ; the harvest hands gathered at the 
meetings after their days of toil. Patriotic songs were sung: "We will rally 
round the flag, boys, rally once again, shouting the battle-cry of freedom," and 
patriotism took up the refrain and answered it, "We are coming, Father Abra- 
ham, six hundred thousand more." Gray haired fathers who had already sent 
one or more sons to battle, attended the meetings and saw their remaining sons 
enlist. Many who went only to hear the speeches and songs were touched with 
the prevailing spirit of patriotism, and signed their names to the msuter rolls. 
Eloquent speakers, many of whom did not say, "Go, boys," but "Come boys," 
told the story of the nation's peril. Many who had seen the battle's terrible car- 
nage and were not dismayed, were ready to go again to the front, and elo- 


quently plead with the people to "fill up the ranks of their brothers gone be- 
fore." The sacred fires of liberty were kindled in those meetings and the 
people lifted up to the high resolve of demonstrating to the world the strength 
of republican government, that a free people of their own will, with courage 
sublime, would not halt in a battle for the nation's existence, but march forward, 
filling the battle-broken ranks of the army in the field. It was in these meet- 
ings that "party was sunk in patriotism." No one who witnessed the recruit- 
ing in the summer of 1862 in northern Illinois, will ever forget it; the people ral- 
lying from the harvest fields, leaving the ripened grain ungathered, to fill the 
ranks of the new regiments. It was grand, beyond all powers of our to tell. It 
was thought at first that one regiment might be raised in the counties of Stephen- 
son, Ogle, Jo Daviess, Carroll, Winnebago, Lake, McHenry and Boone. But it 
was found that four regiments and three companies were ready to muster when 
finally put into camp at Rockford." 

Major Smith D. Atkins had charge of the enlistments in Stephenson, Jo 
Daviess, Carroll and Ogle Counties, and Major Atkins was elected colonel of one 
regiment and was appointed by Governor Richard Yates, the War Governor. 

Col. Smith D. Atkins, com. Sept. 4, 1862; prmtd, brvt. brig. gen. 

Lieut. Col. Christopher T. Dunham, com. capt. Co. F, Sept. 4, 1862; prmtd. 
maj. April 21, 1864; com. declined. 

Adjt. Isan C. Lawver, com. Sept. 6, 1862; res. Oct. i, 1864. 

Adjt. Charles C. Treeguard, prmtd. ist lieut. Co. G, Feb. 14, 1863; prmtd. 
adjt. Oct. i, 1864. 

Quartermaster Phillip Sweeley, e. as private Sept. 3, 1861 ; prmtd. quarter- 
master June 4, 1864. 

Sergt. Maj. Noah Perrin, e. Aug. 9, 1862; disd. Feb. 25, 1863. 

Hospital Steward David C. Grier, disd. Dec. 6, 1862. 


Capt. William J. Bellinger, com. Sept. 4, 1862; res. Dec. 25, 1862. 

Capt. Harvey W. Timms, com. ist lieut. Sept. 4, 1862; prmtd. capt. Dec. 
25, 1862; trans, to Co. I. Sixty-fifth inf. 

First Lieut. William Cox, com. 3d. lieut. Sept. 4, 1862; prmtd, ist lieut. 
Dec. 25, 1862; hon. disd. May 15, 1865. 

Second Lieut. William H. Frost, e. as ist sergt. August 9, 1862; prmtd. 2d 
lieut. Dec. 25, 1862. 

Sergt. Legrand M. Cox, e. Aug. 9, 1862; disd. Jan. 27, 1865; disab. 

Sergt. W. C. Goddard, e. Aug. n, 1862; died Nov. 7, 1862. 

Sergt. Jesse R. Leigh, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Corp. Charles S. Vincent, e. Aug. 13, 1862. 

Corp. M. P. Eldridge, e. Aug. 9, 1862; disd. April 12, 1863; disab. 

Corp. Henry Rudy, e. Aug. n, 1862; died July 27, 1863. 

Corp. William W. Smith, e. Aug. 11, 1862; died Feb. 17, 1863. 

Sergt. George Metcalf, e. Aug. 12, 1862; died March 3, 1863. 

Corp. H. Dusenbury, e. Aug. 9, 1862; disd. April 3, 1864; disab. 

Corp. Roswell Eldrige, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Corp. Daniel Deneere, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Musician George Boop, e. Aug. 7, 1862. 


Musician John L. Lower, e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Wagoner George C. Mack, e. Aug. 13, 1862; kid. Feb. n, 1865. 

Armagast, Hugh S., e. Aug. 15, 1862; died Nov. 20, 1862. 

Armagast, James C., e. Aug. 15, 1862; m. o. as corp. 

Butler, D. W., e. Aug. 9, 1862; disd. April 8, 1865; disab. 

Beach, Jay A., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Boddy, William, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Baker, William H. H., e. Aug. 26. 1862; disd. April 13, 1863; disab. 

Balliett, D. M., e. Oct. 17, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Balliett, Henry, e. Oct. 7, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Buchanan, Charles, e. Jan. 20, 1865 ; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Baker, Lambert, e. Aug. n, 1862; disd. April 13, 1863; disab. 

Basinger, W. H., e. Aug. 15, 1862; disd. Aug. 29, 1863; disab. 

Beverly, William H., e. Aug. 15, 1862. 

Babcock, John S., e. Aug. 14, 1862; disd. March 13, 1863; disab. 

Babbitt, C. W., e. Aug. 7, 1862. 

Baum, S. Y., e. Aug. 13, 1862; disd. March 23, 1865, as corp. 

Churchill, E. S.. e. March 22, 1864. 

Caldwell, J., e. Aug. 15, 1862; m. o. as corp. 

Churchill, George W., e. Sept. 20, 1862. 

Cheney, Chester, e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Cheney, M., e. Aug. 15, 1862. 

Cole, W. D., e. Aug. 14, 1862 ; disd. Aug. 9, 1863. 

Denure, W. J., e. Feb. 8, 1864. 

Demons, John, Aug. 9, 1862; died Sept. 23, 1864; wds. 

Dunn, Joseph I., e. Aug. n, 1862; died Sept. 23, 1864; wd. 

Egleston, Charles W., e. Aug. 9, 1862 ; disd. May 26, 1865 ; disab. 

Erb, William, e. Aug. 9, 1863; kid. Dec. 4, 1864. 

Gaylord, D. C., e. Aug. 13, 1862; disd. Sept. 9, 1863; disab. 

Gaylord, F. H., e. Aug. n, 1862. 

Gunsaul, Joseph, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Giddings, H. M., e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Gossman, Charles, e. Aug. 13, 1864. 

Gelz, Leonard, e. Aug. 22, 1862. 

Harshbarger, Samuel, e. Feb. 8, 1864; trans, to 65th inf. 

Hatch, Wellington, e. Aug. n, 1862; died Dec. 23, 1862. 

Hoppe, Ernst, e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Havnes, W. E., e. Aug. 15, 1862. 

Judson, Cha?. O., e. Aug. n, 1862; disd. May 26, 1863; disab. 

Johnson, Geo., e. Aug. n, 1862; died Feb. 27, 1863. 

Knox, H. B., e. Aug. n, 1862. 

Mack, H. B., e. Aug. n, 1862. 

Miller, M. R., e. Aug. n, 1862; died Sept. 26, 1864. 

Moothart, Wm. P., e. Feb. 29, 1864; trans, to 6sth inf. 

Miller, G. D., e. Feb. 8, 1864; died May 26, 1865. 

McCarty, Thomas, e. Jan. 20, 1865; trans, to 65th inf. 

Merrill, E. A., e .Aug. 13, 1862; disd. March 31, 1863; disab. 


Marshall, Chas. F., e. Aug. 9, 1862; sick at m. o. 
McCracken, John H., e. Aug. 14, 1862 ; sick at m. o. 
Newman, R., e. Jan. 18, 1864; trans, to 65th inf. 
Pickard, Luther, e. Feb. 8, 1864; trans, to 65th inf. 

Prouty, Jas. N., e. Aug. 9, 1862; disd. March 30, 1863, to enlist in naval 

Plase, R. R., e. Aug. 11, 1862; disd. March i, 1863; disab. 

Pencil, Wm. L., e. Aug. 11, 1862; disd. Sept. u, 1863. 

Rand, N. A., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Reeder, John P., e. Aug. n, 1862. 

Robbins, Henry, e. Aug. n, 1862; disd. April 28, 1863; disab. 

Richardson, George W., e. Aug. 12, 1862. 

Robins, S. L., e. Feb. 8, 1864. 

Stocks, H. W., e. Feb. 12, 1864. 

Stover, S. G., Aug. 13, 1862; sick at m. o. 

Sweeley, Philip. 

Thompson, John R., e. Aug. 9, 1862 ; trans, to inv. corps. 

Tyler, Dolphus, e. Aug. 9, 1862; disd. March 20, 1863; disab. 

Tyler, N. C, e. Aug. 21, 1862; m. o. June 14, 1866. 

Taylor, James, e. Aug. n, 1862; sick at m. o. 

Tumbleson, John K., e. Aug. n, 1862. 

Welden, L. A., e. Aug. 13, 1862. 

Wright, W. W., e. Aug. n, 1862, sick at m. o. 

Wickwire, W. H., e. Aug. n, 1862. 

Wire, Valson, e. Aug. 13, 1862; disd. Feb. 8, 1863; disab. 

Wire, Jasper A., e. Aug. 15, 1862. 

Withey, Wm. F., e. Aug. n, 1862; disd. Feb. 23, 1863; disab. 

Williams, A. R., e. Aug. 15, 1862; died March 13, 1863. 

Wendling, M., e. Sept. 20, 1862 ; sick at m. o. 


Capt. William B. Mayer, e. as ist sergt. Aug. 2, 1862; prmtd. 2d lieut. Dec. 
24, 1862; prmtd. capt. April 21, 1864; m. o. as 2d. lieut. 

Second Lieut. William C. Dove, com. Sept. 4, 1862; res. Dec. 24, 1862. 

Second Lieut. Chas. M. Knapp, e. as sergt. Aug. 10, 1862; prmtd. to 2d. lieut. 
April 21, 1864, commission canceled. 

Second Lieut. James M. Work, e. as sergt. Aug. 12, 1862; prmtd. 2nd lieut 
April 21, 1864; m. o. as sergt. June 21, 1865. 

Sergt. Samuel G. Trine, e. Aug. 12, 1862; disd. 

Sergt. George Acker, e. Aug. 6, 1862; disd. March 20, 1863. 

Corp. Charles Purinton, e. Aug. 15, 1862; died Feb. 10, 1863. 

Corp. E. C. Winslow, e. Aug. 15, 1862. 

Corp. Harvey Ferrin, e. Aug. 7, 1862. 

Corp. J. C. Bigger, e. Aug. 10, 1862; disd. Dec. 29, 1863. 

Corp. A. Hemmenway, e. Aug. 13, 1862. 

Corp. A. H. Ferman, e. Aug. n, 1862; disd. April 27, 1864. 

Corp. D. R. Voight, e. Aug. 10, 1862; died Feb. 6, 1863. 

Musician Jacob M, Turneaure, e. Aug. 10, 1862. 


Musician William H. H. Turneaure, e. Aug. 10, 1862. 

Aurand, Thomas J., e. Aug. 6, 1862; kid. Oct. 6, 1864. 

Aurand, Joel, e. Aug. 6, 1862 ; sick at m. o. 

Allen Hiram, e. Aug. n, 1862. 

Anderson, Charles A., e. Aug. 15, 1862; disd. March 23, 1864; disab. 

Adams, B. F., e. Aug. n, 1862; died Aug. 25, 1863. 

Allard, M., e. Aug. 22, 1862. 

Allard, Stephen, e. Aug. 21, 1862. 

Atkins, John C, e.-Feb. 8, 1864; disd. March 30, 1865. 

Atkins, George G., disd. Feb. 3, 1863. 

Baker, P. G., e. Aug. 9, 1862 ; captd. June 22, 1864. 

Buckman, Z. S., e. Aug. n, 1862. 

Burgess, D. R., e. Aug. 14, 1862; trans, to Elliet's Ram Fleet. 

Branenger, D., e. Aug. 15, 1862. 

Babb, D. P., e. Aug. 15, 1862. 

Berry, John, e. Aug. 19, 1862. 

Baker, Elmus, e. Feb. 3, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Bentley, N. S., e. Jan. 29, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Colby, A. H., e. Aug. 14, 1862 ; sick at m. o. 

Colton, John, e. Aug. 15, 1862; disd. Feb. 14, 1864. 

Cuff, John, e. Aug. 15, 1862. 

Clark, Thomas, e. Aug. 14, 1862; sick at m. o. 

Clark, S. J., e. Feb. 3, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Countryman, Adam, e. Feb. 29, 1864; kid. Oct. 28, 1864. 

Dummal, H., e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Engleman, Solomon, e. Feb. 12, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Engleman, Jacob, e. Feb. 12, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Eaton, Urias H., e. Aug. 10, 1862; disd. March 29, 1863. 

Fox, James, e. Aug. 15, 1862. 

Friery, John, e. Aug. 15, 1862; died Dec. 29, 1863. 

Fox, Henry, e. Oct. 10, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Grier, David C. 

Giddlings, Luther, e. Aug. 15, 1862. 

Gregory, John, e. Feb. 8, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Holmes, Spencer, e. Aug. 2, 1862; disd. Feb. 23, 1863. 

Hoy, Henry, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Hetherton, James, e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Haum, Valentine, e, Aug. II, 1862; died Jan. 10, 1863. 

Hodgess, James P., e. Jan. 5, 1864; m. o. Oct. 9, 1864, for promotion. 

Krotzer, Jacob, e. Aug. 2, 1862; sick at m. o. 

Kester, Asa, e. Aug. 14, 1862; died Feb. 28, 1863. 

Lambert, E., e. Aug. 14, 1862; died Nov. 13, 1863. 

Lambert, Jere, e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Long, Benj. F., e. Aug. 14, 1862; died Jan. 30, 1863. 

Long, Jonathan, e. Aug. 6, 1862. 

Lamme, Jacob, e. Aug. 10, 1862. 

Mitchell, O. J., e. Aug. 9, 1862; died Feb. 17, 1863. 


Miller, A. W., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Mowry, John, e. Feb. 3, 1864, trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Morris, Wellington, e. Feb. 3, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Metz, L., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Marl, George E., e, Aug. 10, 1862. 

McNeal, Thomas, e. Oct. 10, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Owen, Henry, e. Aug. 15, 1862. 

Pope, Wm. W., e. Aug. 12, 1862. 

Preston, Charles A., e. Aug. 12, 1862. 

Penticoff, Daniel, e. Aug. 13, 1862. 

Penticoff, Samuel, e. Aug. 10, 1862 ; trans, to inv. 

Pope, Abraham, e. Aug. n, 1862. 

Petermire, Fred, e. Aug. 21, 1862. 

Reese, A. G., e. Feb. 18, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Reese, W. H. S., e. Feb. 24, 1865; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Rodgers, Edw., e. Oct. 10, 1862 ; died Feb. 28, 1863. 

Sanders, James, e. Aug. 30, 1862. 

Sager, Conrad, e. Aug. 15, 1862. 

Sedam, L. H., e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Small wood, James, e. Aug. 12, 1862. 

Schlott, John H., e. Jan. 23, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Sweet, Noah, e. Oct. 10, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Sweet, M. A., e. Dec. 24, 1863 ; disd. 

Truckemiller, E. G., e. Aug. 19, 1862. 

Thompson, George, e. Aug. 14, 1862; died Oct. n, 1863. 

Tarbert, Andrew, e. Aug. 15, 1862; died June 18, 1863. 

Thomas, E., e. Aug. 29, 1863 ; m. o. as sergt. 

Ventevier, George W., e. Feb. 26, 1864, 

Wilson, John A., e. Aug. 10, 1862. 

Work, W., e. Aug. 15, 1862. 

Wilcoxen, O. D., e. Feb. 12, 1864; died June 5, 1865. 

Williams, F. J., e. Feb. 3, 1864. 

Whiteside, Thomas F., e. Aug. 12, 1862; died Feb. 20, 1863. 

Whiting, Warren, e. Aug 12, 1862. 

Wright, William, e. Aug. 6, 1862; died Feb. 21, 1863. 

Young, Elias, e. Aug. 15, 1863. 


Capt. John M. Schermerhorne, com. Sept. 4, 1862. 

First Lieut. John Gishwiller, com. Sept. 4, 1862; res. Feb .14, 1863. 

First Lieut. Harry G. Fowler, e. as sergt. Aug. 9, 1862; prmtd ist lieut. May 
10, 1865. 

Second Lieut. Justin N. Parker, com. Sept. 4, 1862; res. Feb. 6, 1863. 

Second Lieut. W. McCammon, e. as sergt. Aug. 9, 1862; prmtd. 2d lieut. 
Feb. 6, 1863. 

Sergt. Noah Perrin. 

First Sergt. Charles C. Fragard, e. Aug. 9, 1862 ; prmtd. lieut. 

Sergt. G. G. Manny, e. Aug. 9, 1862; m. o. as sergt. 


Corp. George Byrum, e. Aug. 9, 1862; died April 22, 1863. 

Corp. J. L. Doxsee, e. Aug. 9, 1862; m. o. as sergt. 

Corp. Albert Van Epps, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Corp. Wallace R. Giddings, e. Aug. 9, 1862; died Aug. 30, 1864. 

Corp. Joseph B. Train, e. Aug. 9, 1862; trans, to inv. corps. 

Corp. Wm. Back, e. Aug. 9, 1862; missing in action. 

Corp. Wm. E. Stewart, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Wagoner Thomas Fleming, e. Aug. 8, 1862; disd. March i, 1863; disab. 

Austin, H. M., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Andrews, Silas, e. Oct. 10, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Armagast, A., e. Aug. 9, 1862; disd. Feb. 13, 1865. 

Beine, Carl F., e. Aug. 9, 1863; disd. Aug. 26, 1864; wds. 

Bunker, Hollis M., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Bennett, Thomas J.; e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Baysinger, Alex., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Bunker, Hiram, e. Jan. 29, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Betz, Jacob, e. Feb. 29, 1864; kid. June 22, 1864. 

Burbridge, W. M., e. Feb. 3, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Butler, Wm. H., e. Feb. 12, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Best, Jacob, e. Feb. 8, 1864; died Feb. 22, 1865. 

Bennett, M. L., e. Feb. 11, 1865; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Bartholomew, W., e. Feb. 24, 1865 ; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Best, Jacob S. 

Bartlett, Thomas H. 

Clark, Henry H., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Cornforth, John, e. Aug. 9, 1862; died May 18, 1865; wds. 

Curtis, Wm. U., e. Aug. 9, 1862 ; sick at m. o. 

Clark, R. M., e. Aug. 9, 1862; trans, to inv. corps. 

Cox, H., e. Aug. 9, 1862; trans, to inv. corps. 

Corning, N., e. Aug. 9, 1862; kid. Sept. 19, 1863. 

Clair, Davis B., e. Aug. 9, 1862; disd. Feb. 18, 1863; disab. 

Crouch, J., e. Dec. 26, 1863; died Feb. 13, 1865. 

Cox, Jas. H., e. Dec. 21, 1863; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Colton, John C, e. Dec. 19, 1863 ; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Chambers, John B., trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Delong, A., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Dalrymple, S. L., e. Aug. 9, 1862; disd. Nov. 8, 1864; disab. 

Dall, Chas. A., e. Aug. 9, 1862; disd. Feb. 3, 1863; disab. 

Drew, Jos., e. Aug. 9, 1863 ; m. o. as corp. 

Dickhomer, Wm., e. Aug. 9, 1862; died June, 30, 1863. 

Empfield, Wm. J., e. Aug. 9, 1862; died March 14, 1863. 

Feeley, D. M., e. ; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Fisk, Amos, e. Aug. 9, 1862 ; died June 13, 1863. 

Ford, L. A., e. Aug. 9, 1862; died Jan. 2, 1863. 

Foreman, James, e. Aug. 9, 1862; sick at m. o. 

Fair, L. W., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Foley, Patrick, e. Aug. 9, 1862; disd. June 24, 1863; disab. 


Fair, H. L., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Gates, H. H., e. Dec. 19, 1863; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Glanz, Chris, e. Dec. 26, 1863; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Grinnel, P. L., e. Oct. 7, 1864, trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Giltner, James W., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Grossman, D., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Graves, C. S., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Galbraith, Joseph, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Gailgraith, William, e. Aug. 9, 1862; disd. Dec. 28, 1864. 

Honser, Chris, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Hillard, William J., e. Aug. 9, 1862; sick at m. o. 

Hawkins, William, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Hawkins, George S., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Houser, Samuel, e. Aug. 9, 1862; m. o. as corp. 

Haggart, Darius, e. Aug. 9, 1862; corp, sick at m. o. 

Houser, Abram, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Haggart, William H., e. Dec. 30, 1863; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Houston, William T., e. Dec. 30, 1863; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Hays, S. E. e. Dec. 19, 1863; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Henderson, Joseph, e. Feb. 12, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Harrington, John, e. Feb. 5, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Hampugh, Gustav, e. 

Isaacson, Isaac, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Keeler, N. F., e. Aug., 9, 1862. 

Kena, Charles, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Koller, Earnest, e, Aug. 9, 1862. 

Klass, August, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Kliplinger, James E., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Keiser, Charles, N., e. Aug. 9, 1862; died Oct. 14, 1863. 

Ladd, John, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Lawver, George, e. Jan. 29, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Moor, Emanuel, e. Aug., 1862; sick at m. o. 

Mahony, D. L., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

McCausland, A. L., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

McStay, Edward, e. Aug. 9, 1862; disd. Sept. 8, 1864; disab. 

Mahany, William G., e. Aug. 9, 1862; disd. June 2, 1863; disab. 

Mathews, John G., e. Dec. 23, 1863 ; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

McEathron, M., e. Dec. 30, 1863 ; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Mathews, S. R., e. Feb. 12, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Nunn, Thomas, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Phillips, Jas. M., e. Aug. 9, 1862; m. o. as corp. 

Playford, H. R., e. Feb. 4, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Phillips, P. A., e. Feb. 13, 1865; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Rees, George W., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Reber, Jacob A., e. Aug. 9, 1862; disd. Jan. 31, 1863, to re-e. 

Rathbun, Parris, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Richardson, L., e. Dec. 19, 1863 ; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 


Royer, Isaac, e. Jan. 29, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Rea, Geo. W., e. Feb. 13, 1865; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Rea, John W., e. Feb. 13, 1865; died April 13, 1865. 

Shligel, Julius, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Smith, Thomas A., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 
- Smith, John I., e. Aug. 9, 1862; died April 22, 1865. . 

Seizhorn, H., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Sisson, Wm. e. Aug. 9, 1862 ; sick at m. o. 

Smith, Robt. D., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Seabury, Jerome, e. Aug. 9, 1862 ; m. o. as corp. 

Stout, Thomas U., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Shearer, Edward, e. Aug. 9, 1862; died Jan. 23, 1863. 

Simpson, John M., e. Aug. 9, 1862. < 

Skeels, A. S., e. Feb. 8, 1864, trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Sindlinger, Geo. W., e. Oct. 28, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 

Tomlinson, Geo. H., e. Aug. 9, 1862; disd. April i, 1863; disab. 

Train, Samuel S., e. Aug. 9, 1862; disd. Feb. 3, 1863; disab. 
. Vanalstine, D. W., e. Aug. 9, 1862 ; sick at m. o. 

Verbee, Benj. E., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Wales, Thomas, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

West, Philip, e. Aug. 9, 1862; disd. Sept. 30, 1863; disab. 

West, Ezra, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Workheiser, Wm., e. Aug. 9, 1862; died Oct. 6, 1864. 

Workheiser, E., e. Aug. 2, 1862; disd. Aug. 5, 1865; disab. 

Walter, A. B., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Wyckoff, E., e. Aug. 9, 1862; died April 14, 1863. 

Westcott, John, e. Feb. 3, 1864; trans, to Sixty-fifth inf. 


The Ninety-third Infantry Illinois Volunteers, was organized at Chicago, Illi- 
nois, in September, 1862, by Colonel Holden Putnam, and mustered in October, 
13, nine hundred and ninety-eight strong. Was ordered to Memphis, Tennes- 
see, November 9, and, arriving on the I4th, moved with General Grant's army, 
in the northern Mississippi campaign, to Yocona Creek, and thence via Lump- 
kin's Mills, to Memphis, arriving December 30. Marched again immediately 
to La Fayette, Tennessee, and returned to Ridgeway where the regiment re- 
mained during January and February, 1863. Embarked to Lake Providence, 
March 3, and from there moved to Helena on the loth. From there moved 
down the river on the Yazoo Pass expedition. Entered Moon Lake on the 22d, 
and landed near Greenwood. After reconnoitering the enemy's position, re- 
embarked and returned to Helena. April 13, moved to Milliken's Bend, and 
on the 25th, commenced the Vicksburg campaign. Marched via Bruinsburg, 
Port Gibson, Raymond and Clinton, and arrived at Jackson, May 14. The 
Ninety-third was first under fire here. Participated in the advance, losing three 
killed and four wounded. Remained at Jackson until the I5th, and then moved 
toward Vicksburg. On the i6th was engaged in the battle of Champion Hills. 


The Ninety-third was in the Third Brigade, Seventh Division, Seventeenth 
Army Corps. At 2 P. M., Brigadier General Hovey's Division being severely 
pressed, the brigade was ordered forward and placed on the extreme left. After 
twenty minutes' fighting, it was flanked on the left, and retiring steadily changed 
front to the left. Being again flanked, it again retired, and in this position 
held its ground against a most furious attack, after which the enemy retreated 
to Black River Bridge. The loss of the regiment was one officer and thirty- 
seven men killed, six officers and one hundred and seven men wounded, and 
one officer and ten men missing. On the i7th, again moved towards Vicks- 
burg. At noon of the igth, came on the enemy's line, about three miles from 
the city. May 22 was engaged in the assault on the enemy's works, on the 
left of Fort Fisher, losing ten or twelve men killed and wounded. In the after- 
noon was ordered to reenforce General McClernand's command, near the rail- 
road. At 4 o'clock P. M., charged the enemy. Loss in this charge, five enlisted 
men killed, and one officer and forty-nine enlisted men wounded. June 22, 
moved to the rear and on July 4, was stationed at McCalFs plantation. July 
13, 1863, started for Jackson. Arrived on the 15th and immediately moved 
to Vicksburg, arriving on the 25th. September 12, moved to Helena, Arkansas, 
and on the 3Oth, to Memphis. Moved to Glendale, October 3, marched to 
Burnsville, Mississippi, October 8. On the igth marched toward Chattanooga, 
via luka ; Florence, Alabama ; Winchester, Tennessee, and Bridgeport, Alabama ; 
arriving November 19. November 24, the regiment crossed the Tennessee 
River ,and threw up a tete de pont, occupying the works until the pontoon 
bridge was built. November 25, was heavily engaged at Mission Ridge, losing 
Colonel Holden Putnam and nineteen men killed, one officer and forty-four 
enlisted men wounded, and two officers and twenty-five men missing. Pur- 
sued the enemy, November 26 and 27, to Grayson, and returned to Chatta- 
nooga. Moved toward Bridgeport, Alabama, December 3. On the 22d moved 
toward Larkinsville, Alabama, and January 17, 1864, to Huntsville. Febru- 
ary I2th, participated in the reconnaissance to Dalton. On the 24th and 25th, 
lay in line of battle all day near Dalton. Returned to Huntsville, March 6. 
Moved by rail to Decatur, Alabama, and, June 14, marched via Huntsville, 
and Larkinsville, to Stephenson, Alabama, arriving on the 25th. On the 27th 
moved by rail to Chattanooga, and 28th to Kingston. One mile north of Dalton, 
the train collided with an uptrain, and one officer and thirty men were wounded. 
July 2, moved to Etowah to guard crossings until the i ith, when the regiment 
returned to Kingston. August 2 and 3, marched to Allatoona. On the eve- 
ning of the 1 5th, moved by rail to Resaca, and on the I7th, marched to Spring 
Place; but, Wheeler's cavalry having retreated, the command returned to 
Resaca and to Allatoona. On September 3, ten men were captured while out 
foraging. On October 5, the Ninety-third was a part of the force, 2,100 strong, 
which so signally defeated General French's rebel division of 7,000 men. At 
I o'clock A. M. the picket firing commenced. At 7 A. M. the artillery on both 
sides opened, and at 9 A. M., the enemy made its first charge, and after des- 
perate fighting succeeded in pressing the Union forces back, from the outer 
line of works, into the forts. Until 3 P. M. the battle raged with intense fury, 
when the enemy hastily withdrew in the direction of Dallas. The Ninety-third 


lost twenty-one killed, three officers and forty-nine men wounded, and ten 
missing. November 12, 1864, the regiment started on "the march to the sea," 
and marched, via Atlanta, McDonough> Jackson, Planter's Factory, Hillsboro, 
Clinton, Gordon, Irwinton, Summerville and Eden, reaching the enemy's lines 
around Savannah, December 10. On the nth, skirmished with the enemy at 
Ogeechee Canal, losing one killed and two wounded. On the i2th, moved to 
"Station i" on the Gulf Railroad, and remained till the 2ist, when it marched 
into the city, and there remained until January 19, 1865. Commenced the cam- 
paign of the Carolinas on January 19. Marched across the Savannah River, 
and two miles into the swamp. On the 2Oth, returned to Savannah, and on 
the 23d, embarked for Beaufort, S. C. Landed on the 24th, and on the 29th, 
marched northward, via McPhersonville, Hickory Hill, Owens' Cross Roads, 
Baneburg, Graham (destroying one and one-half miles of railroad), Binnaker's 
Bridge, Orangeburg, Bates' Ferry, on the Congaree (where skirmished with 
the enemy, February 15) and to Columbia arriving on the I7th. While here 
one man was mortally wounded by the accidental explosion of shells. From 
Columbia, marched, via Muddy Springs, Peay's Ferry on the Wateree, Liberty 
Hill, West's Corner (here had one man wounded by enemy's cavalry) to 
Cheraw, S. C., thence, via Laurel Hill, Big Raft Swamp, Fayetteville, Jack- 
son's Cross Roads, Cox's Bridge and Bentonville, arriving at Goldsboro, March 
24. April 10, moved to Raleigh, arriving on the I4th. After the surrender of 
Johnston's army, marched, via Petersburg and Richmond, Va., to Washing- 
ton City. Participated in the grand review May 24, and on the 3ist, moved 
to Louisville, Kentucky. June 23, 1865, was mustered out of service, and on 
the 25th, arrived at Chicago, Illinois. Received final payment and discharge 
July 7, 1865. During two years and seven months' service, the casualties in 
battle of the Ninety-third were four hundred and forty-six, and one officer and 
thirty-one men accidentally wounded. The regiment has marched two thou- 
sand, five hundred and fifty-four miles, traveled by water two thousand, two 
hundred and ninety-six miles, and by railroad one thousand, two hundred and 
thirty-seven miles. Total, six thousand and eighty-seven miles. 

Col. Holden Putnam, com. Oct. 13, 1862; kid. Nov. 25, 1863. 

Adjt. Henry G. Hicks, com. Nov. 15, 1862; hon, disd. Feb. 26, 1864. 


Capt. Charles F. Taggart, com. Oct. 13, 1862; hon. disd. Jan. 10, 1865. 

Capt. George S. Kleckner, com. 2d lieut. Oct. 13, 1862; prmtd. ist lieut. 
Feb. 9, 1864; prmtd. capt. April n, 1865. 

First Lieut. Alphens P. Goddard, com. Oct. 13, 1862; res. Feb. 9, 1864. 

First Lieut. James W. Newcomer, e. as private Aug. 7, 1862; prmtd. ist 
Heut. June 6, 1865; m. o. as Q. M. sergt. 

Sergt. Lansing Ells, e. July 28, 1862 ; disd. May 31, 1863 ; disab. 

Sergt. Edward P. Renolds, e. Aug. 7, 1862; died March 12, 1863. 

Sergt. John B. Newcomer, e. Aug. 2, 1862; died June 21, 1862; wds. 

Sergt. Benjamin E. Goddard, e. Aug. 12, 1862; trans, to Fortieth inf. 

Corp. Samuel Shriver, e. Aug. 6, 1862; disd. Aug. n, 1865; disab. 

Corp. James Hickey, e. Aug. 5, 1862; kid. May 16, 1863. 

Corp. George Lills, e. Aug. 6, 1862; died May 22, 1863. 


Corp. John Rima, e. Aug. 5, 1862; kid. Nov. 25, 1863. 

Corp. Walker Templeton, e. Aug. 15, 1862. 

Musician M. W. Lyman, e. Aug. 7, 1862; trans, to brigade band. 

Musician George B. Turneaure, e. Aug. 6, 1862; prmtd. principal musician. 

Wagoner Silas Andrews, e. Aug. 7, 1862, disd. Aug. 5, 1863; disab. 

Andrews, Charles J., e. Aug. 6, 1862; trans, to Fortieth inf. 

Brandt, Benjamin F., e. Aug. 5, 1862. 

Brillhart, William F., e. Aug. 9, 1862; trans, to inv. corps. 

Bender, Charles, e. Aug. 9, 1862; died Feb. 27, 1863. 

Brown, E. S., e. Aug. 6, 1862; disd. Aug. 5, 1863; disab. 

Brewer, E. B., e. Aug. 6, 1862; died April 17, 1863. 

Brillhart, Henry, e. Aug. 9, 1862; disd. Aug. 5, 1863; disab. 

Bergstresser, James, e. Aug. 9, 1862; m. o. as corp. 

Birtlin, Balser, e. Aug. 5, 1862. 

Bender, Chris, e. Aug. 14, 1862; trans, to V. R. C. 

Bogenreif, David, e. Aug. 7, 1862; disd. Feb. i, 1864; disab. 

Cornville, M. L., e. Aug. 7, 1862; disd. May 25, 1864; disab. 

Davis, George, e. Aug. 5, 1862. 

Devore, Samuel F., e. Aug. 8, 1862; died July 27, 1863. 

Erwin, Rudy, e. Aug. 10, 1862; kid. May 16, 1863. 

Frey, George W., e. Aug. 5, 1862. 

Fry, Isaac, e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Garrett, James, e. Oct. 3, 1864; trans. 

Giddings, Calvin, e. Aug. 5, 1862. 

Goodwill, Frederick, e. July 26, 1862; disd. Jan. 10, 1863; disab. 

Gable, Jacob, e. Aug. 7, 1862. 

Hopkins, H. L. e. Aug. 7, 1862. 

Hahn, Isaac, e. Aug. 7, 1862. 

Hahn, Jacob, e. Aug. 7, 1862. 

High, H. W., e. Aug. 10, 1862. 

Hood, E. E., e. Aug. 14, 1862; disd, term expired. 

Jewell, John G., e. Aug. 13, 1862; died July 12, 1863. 

Kiester, David, e. Aug. 9, 1862; sick at m. o. 

Klotz, John, e. Oct. 3, 1864; trans. 

Kaufman, Adam E., Aug. 14, 1862; sick at m. o. 

Knedler, Samuel, e. Aug. 6, 1862; died Sept. i, 1863. 

Kleuhner, Geo. W., e. Aug. 5, 1862; died Oct. 13, 1864. 

Lansing, Ezra, e. Aug. 8, 1862; disd. for disab. 

Liscomb, N., e. Aug. 10, 1862 ; died Aug. 3, 1863. 

Lenhart, George C., e. Aug. 14, 1862 ; disd. Jan. 5, 1863, disab. 

Lusk, George F., e. Aug. 5, 1862 ; trans, to the 4Oth inf. 

Lusk, Franklin. 

Lahr, Paul, Aug. 7, 1862; m. o. as corp. 

Metz, Henry, e. Aug. 9, 1862; disd. Feb. 23, 1863, disab. 

McKibben, Foster B., e. Aug. 7, 1862. 

McKibben, R., e. Aug. 15, 1862; m. o. as sergt. 

Plush, Thomas, e. Aug. 6, 1862; sick at m. o. 


Pattern, T. M. C, e. Aug. 6, 1862; m. o. as corp. 

Phillips, Thomas, e. Aug. 7, 1862; kid. May 16, 1863. 

Pittinger, William, e. Aug. 15, 1862. 

Robert, Cyrus A., e. Aug. 5, 1862; disd. June 8, 1865, disab. 

Reeder, Peter, Oct. 3, 1864; trans. 

Rotzler, John, e. Aug. 6, 1862; trans, to brigade band. 

Solace, C. S., e. Aug. 5, 1862; disd. Feb. 5, 1865, disab. 

Sprague, Carson, e. Aug. 9, 1862; disd. Aug. 15, 1863, disab. 

Shearer, Peter, e. Aug. 6, 1862. 

Shearer, David, e. Aug. 5, 1862; died April 18, 1865. 

Shearer, Andrew, e. Aug. 7, 1862; absent at m. o. 

Shippey, Hiram, e. Aug. 10, 1862; sick at m. o. 

Templeton, D. H., e. Aug. 15, 1862; died Oct. 30, 1862. 

Thomas, George, e. Aug. 9, 1862 ; captd. at Champlain Hills. 

Unangust, Franklin, e. Aug. 6, 1862. 

Whitehorn, John, e. July 28, 1862; disd. March 7, 1865, disab. 

Washburn, C., e. Aug. n, 1862. 

Ward, Wm. B., e. Aug. 14, 1862; died June 29, 1863. 

White, John D., e. Aug. 8, 1862; disd. May 28, 1864, disab. 

Yordy, Chris., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Young, John, e. Aug. u, 1862; m. o. March n, 1863. 

Young, Henry, e. Aug. 5, 1862. 

Young, Simon, e. Aug. 5, 1862. 


Capt. Jos. P. Reel, com. Oct. 13, 1862; res. July 20, 1864. 

Capt. Samuel M. Daughenbaugh, e. as sergt. Aug. n, 1862; prmtd. 2d lieut. 
Jan. 24, 1864; prmtd. ist lieut. Jan. 5, 1864; prmtd. capt. July 20, 1864. 

First. Lieut. George W. Hartsough, com. Oct. 13, 1862; res. Jan. 24, 1863. 

First Lieut. Jeremiah J. Piersol, com. 2d lieut. Oct. 13, 1862; prmtd. ist 
lieut. Jan. 24, 1863; hon. disd. Jan. 5, 1864. 

First Lieut. George L. Piersol, e. as private Aug. n, 1862; prmtd. ist lieut. 
July 20, 1864. 

Sergt. Abner H. Howe, e. Aug. 10, 1862. 

Sergt. Elias Castenbader, e. Aug. n, 1862. 

Sergt. Hugh Moser, e. Aug. 21, 1862; absent at m. o. 

Sergt. Chas. Yunt, e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Corp. Daniel I. Cobb, e. Aug. 12, 1862; disd. Aug. n, 1863, disab. 

Corp. N. Wartman, e. Aug. 6, 1862 ; disd. Aug. 16, 1863, wd. 

Corp. Daniel Keiser, e. Aug. n, 1862. 

Corp. Henry Shoemaker, e. Aug. 11, 1862. 

Corp. John B. Bollman, e. Aug. 2, 1862; kid at Champion Hills. 

Corp. D. W. Jones. 

Corp. Luther Hays. 

Corp. O. M. Broughter. 

Musician Wm. Ware, e. Aug. 12, 1862; trans, to inv. corps. 

Musician Edward Owen, e. Aug. 6, 1862 ; disd. March 2, 1863. 

Wag. John Templeton, e. Aug. 4, 1862; died Feb. 25, 1865, wd. 


Addams, Alvin, e. Aug. 11, 1862; died May 24, 1863, wd. 

Andre, John J., e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Brown, John, e. Aug. n, 1862. 

Bordner, D. M., e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Bennethine, John G., e. Aug. II, 1862. 

Cade, Levi, e. Aug. 7, 1862. 

Clams, Jos., e. Aug. n, 1862. 

Cari, H. C, e. Aug. 14, 1862; died Oct. 22, 1864, wd. 

Collier, Wm. H., e. Aug. 15, 1862; died March 30, 1864. 

Diemar, Ames, e. Aug. 15, 1862; disd. Sept. n, 1863, disab. 

Dinges, Adam K., e. Aug. 12, 1862. 

Duhart, Henry, e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Danber, Daniel, e. Aug. 22, 1862. 

Eastman, H. C., e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Erb, Isaac, e. Aug. u, 1862; kid. May 16, 1863. 

Erb, Henry, e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Eisenhour, Wm. H., Aug. n, 1862; died May 19, 1863, wd. 

Frank, Wm., e. Aug. 9, 1862; sick at m. o. 

Forney, David, e. Aug. 14, 1862; died June 27, 1864. 

Fogel, Robert, e. Aug. 14, 1862; died Dec. 26, 1862. 

Fogel, Jos. W., Aug. 14, 1862. 

Folgate, Thomas, e. Aug. n, 1862. 

Graham, George W., e. Aug. n, 1862. 

Garman, J. P., e. Oct. 14, 1862. 

Carman, Wm., e. Oct. 15, 1864. 

Grane, Jos. F., e. Aug. 9, 1862. 

Greenwalt, Benj., e. Aug n, 1862; sick at m. o. 

Grissinger, F. B., Aug. 12, 1862. 

Granzo, Aug., e. Aug. n, 1862; sick at m. o 

Hockman, Henry, e. Aug. n, 1862. 

Humphrey, Charles, e. Aug. n, 1862. 

Humphrey, John M., e. Aug. n, 1863. 

Hulbert, Lyman, e. Aug. 10, 1862; kid. Oct. 15, 1864. 

Helm, Tobias, e. Aug. 14, 1862; died May i, 1863. 

Hartsell, Samuel, e. Aug. 20, 1862. 

Haas, W. G., e. Aug. 19, 1862; kid. May 23, 1865. 

Ilgen, Daniel G., e. Aug. n, 1862. 

Ilgen, David M., e. Aug. n, 1862. 

Kostenbader, S. S., e. Aug. n, 1862. 

Kahlj, Henry, e. Aug. n, 1862. 

Kryder, John J., e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Kahli, Emanuel, e. Aug. n, 1862; disd. March 28, 1865, disab. 

Klapp, Chas. B., e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Knock, Jas. E., e. Aug. 7, 1862. 

Krise, Wm., e. Aug. 14, 1862; died Sept. 27, 1863. 

Logan, Jas. N., e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Logan, S. W. 


Lott, Geo. W., e. Aug. 14, 1862; disd. March 31, 1865, disab. 

Law, Henry, e. Aug. 14, 1862; died May 29, 1864. 

Lattig, Geo. M., e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Leibe, D., e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Myers, Reuben, e. Aug. 15, 1862. 

Matteo, Moses, e. Aug. 14, 1862 ; trans, to inv. corps. 

McHolt, Oliver, e. Aug. n, 1862; died Nov. 30, 1863. 

Morse, Jefferson, e. Aug. 12, 1862. 

McConnell, John P., e. Aug. 12, 1862; died Oct. 4, 1863. 

Nickles, Lester, e. Aug. n, 1862. 

Nicklas, A. M., e. Aug. n, 1862; disd. April 2, 1863, disab. 

Nickles, Geo. W., e. Aug. 14, 1862; trans, to inv. corps. 

Reiser, Conrad, e. Aug. n, 1862; died March 28, 1863. 

Rosweiler, Henry, e. Aug. 14, 1862; kid. May 16, 1863. 

Reubendall, R. R., e. Aug. n, 1862; trans, to inv. corps. 

Sindlinger, John W., e. Aug. 12, 1862; dis. July 23, 1863, disab. 

Stewart, Jas. C, e. Aug. n, 1862. 

Shockley, Benj., e. Aug. 12, 1862; died May 19, 1863. 

St. John, Thomas K., e. Aug. 14, 1862; died Oct. 22, 1862. 

Seigley, D. Y., e. Aug. 15, 1862; trans, to inv. corps. 

Smith, Sanford, e. Aug. 15, 1862; sick at m. o. 

Sands, Wm., e. Aug. 15, 1862. 

Shekler, Levi, e. Aug. 10, 1862. 

Vantilburg, T., e. Aug. 14, 1862; died Aug. 14, 1862. 

Vantilburg, N. H., e. Aug. 14, 1862; disd. Feb. 15, 1863, disab. 

Werkheiser, John H., e. Aug. 14, 1862. 

Wolf, Daniel, e. Aug. 10, 1862; kid. May 16, 1863. 

Wetzel, Peter, e. Aug. n, 1862. 

Wilson, Wm. J., e. Aug. 12, 1862; died May 25, 1863, wd. 

Wertman, Jos., e. Aug. 12, 1862. 

Wickwire, F. M., e. Aug. 12, 1862; died Aug. 17, 1863. 

Wagner, J. R., Aug. 12, 1861 ; m. o. as corp. 

Wagner, Joel, e. Aug. 14, 1862; died Nov. 29, 1863, wds. 

Wardlow, Robt, e. Aug. 21, 1862; dis. for wds. 

Zerle, Geo., e. Aug. 14, 1862; trans, to V. R. C. 

Zerle, Wm., e. Aug. 10, 1862. 

Youndt, Albert, e. Dec. 29, 1863 ; trans, to 4Oth inf. 


(One Hundred Days.) 

The One Hundred and Forty-second Infantry Illinois Volunteers was or- 
ganized at Freeport, Illinois, by Colonel Rollin V. Ankeney, as a battalion, of 
eight companies, and ordered to Camp Butler, Illinois, where two companies 
were added and the regiment mustered June 18, 1864, for one hundred days. 


On June 21 the regiment moved to Memphis, via Cairo, and the Mississippi 
River, and arrived on the 24th; on the 26th, moved to White's Station, eleven 
miles from Memphis, on the Memphis & Charleston railroad, where it was as- 
signed to guarding railroad. 

Mustered out of the United States service October 27, 1864, at Chicago. 

Col. Rollins V. Ankeney, com. June 18, 1864. 

Adjt. Albert W. Brewster, com. June 9, 1864. 

Sergt. Asa E. Shephard, com. June 18, 1864. 


First Lieut. Denison C. Frisbie, com. June 18, 1864. 

Sergt. John McEathron, e. May i, 1864; m. o. as ist sergt. 

Corp. Herbert W. Allen, e. May 2, 1864; m. o. as sergt. 

Corp. Dennis H. Reynolds, e. May i, 1864. 

Corp. Lewis P. Clingman, e. May 10, 1864. 

Corp. Ira Peckard, e. May 4, 1864. 

Boyer, John, e. May i, 1864. 

Baum, Samuel, e. June i, 1862. 

Bailey, Horace, e. May i, 1864. 

Barklow, Frederick, e. May 5, 1864. 

Biehl, Frank, e. June 16, 1864; died Sept. n, 1864. 

Cosier, Ammon, May 16, 1864. 

Clingman, W. 

Draws, George, e. June i, 1864. 

Hill, Eugene, O., e. May 25, 1864. 

Ludeke, Charles, e. May 21, 1864; died Sept. 26, 1864. 

McGloughlin, Joseph, e. May 10, 1864. 

Williams, John, e. May 10, 1864. 


Second Lieut. James R. Baker, com. June 18, 1864. 

First Sergt. William Trude, e. May i, 1864. 

Musician William H. Baker, e. May 10, 1864. 

Buisman, John, e. May 14, 1864; died Sept. 9, 1864. 

Cobie, John, e. May 12, 1864. 

Dean, Israel, e. May 30, 1864; died Sept. 12, 1864. 

Gifford, Henry. 

Heddens, Roelf, e. May 14, 1864. 

Higgins, Frank, e. May 28, 1864. 

Kohl, George, e. May i, 1864. 

Lizer, Andrew, e. May 30, 1864. 

Long, David, e. May 2, 1864. 

Seibels, D. B., e. May 16, 1864; died Aug. 12, 1864. 

Turbett, Thomas M., e. May 25, 1864. 

Wepel, Bertus, e. May 14, 1864. 

Wepel, H., e. Aug. 14, 1864. 



Capt. Henry Burrell, com. June 18, 1864. 

First Lieut. Francis A. Darling, com. June 18, 1864. 

Second Lieut. Josiah D. Fye, com. June 18, 1864. 

First Sergt. Graham M. Woods, e. May 5, 1864. 

Sergt. John H. Tandy, e. May 5, 1864. 

Sergt. Dolphus Tyler, e. May 6, 1864. 

Sergt. Thomas M. Bradshaw, e. May 5, 1864. 

Corp. Charles F. Bulkley, e. May 6, 1864. 

Corp. Henry Brillhart, e. May 12, 1864. 

Corp. William Liebhart, e. May 12, 1864. 

Corp. Josiah F. May, e, May 9, 1864. 

Corp. George B. Stephens, e. May 5, 1864. 

Corp. Edward P. Johnson, e. May 5, 1864. 

Corp. Thomas C. Strunk, e. May 13, 1864. 

Corp. John L. French, e. May 12, 1864. 

Wagoner Daniel W. Jennings, e. May 24, 1862. 

Adair, George, e. May 25, 1864; died Sept. i, 1864. 

Ballinger, Aquilla, e. May 25, 1864. 

Brownley, H., e. May 6, 1864. 

Brown, George W., e. May 25, 1864. 

Buchanan, John H., e. May 9, 1864. 

Burrell, Daniel, e. May 5, 1864. 

Dilly, Jacob, e. May 11,1864. 

Ells, William A., e. May 9, 1864. 

Eyre, John H., e. May 24, 1864. 

Freese, I. T., e. May 24, 1864. 

Frisbie, William D., e. May 9, 1864. 

Fuller, Lorenzo, e. May 9, 1864. 

Galpin, William C., e. May 10, 1864. 

Gates, Norman, e. May 20, 1864. 

Getteg, Aaron, e. May 19, 1864. 

Goldin, John A., e. May 9, 1864. 

Hall, Archer, e. May 9, 1864. 

Hawkins, Wesley, e. May 29, 1864. 

Hazen, Gustavus E., e. May 9, 1864. 

Heinsler, Frederick, e. May 17, 1864; died Aug. 26, 1864. 

Hitchcock, F., e. May 23, 1864. 

Jones, August D., e. May 5, 1864. 

Kanawell, William, e. May n, 1864. 

Kuley, William, e. May u, 1864. 

Lapp, Isaac, e. May 24, 1864. 

Madden, William, e. May 5, 1864. 

Martin, William A., e. May 24, 1864. 

McAffe, Torrance, e. May 18, 1864. 


McLees, William, e. May 5, 1864. 

Merely, Robert, e. May 15, 1864. 

Murdaugh, Thomas, e. May i, 1864; died Oct. 9, 1864. 

Nesbit, Alexander, e. May 31, 1864. 

Ochk, Alpha, e. May 10, 1864. 

Ochk, Omega, e. May 14, 1864. 

Otto, Charles, e. May 17, 1864. 

Packard, Eleroy, e. May 6, 1864. 

Pender, Thomas, e. May 4, 1864. 

Raudecker, James C., e. May 9, 1864. 

Rippbarger, John, e. May 8, 1864. 

Shane, William, e. May 12, 1864. 

Sheldon, C. D., e. May 9, 1864. 

Stunk, Peter, May 16, 1864. 

Sterling, Robert, e. May 10, 1864. 

Sullivan, ( Patrick, e. May n, 1864. 

Turneaure, Charles H., e. May 12, 1864. 

Thomas, William H., e. May 20, 1864. 

Townes, Edw., e. May 6, 1864. 

Vanalst, Martin, e. May 4, 1864. 

Wagner, William H., e. May 24, 1864. 

Wallace, William, e. May 31, 1864. 

Warner, A. J., e. May 14, 1864. 

Warner, C. F., e. May 12, 1864. 

Warner, John, e. May 28, 1864. 

White, Wallace, e. May 10, 1864. 

Wilson, Charles M., e. May 20, 1864. 

Winters, John C., e. May 14, 1864. 

Winters, William, e. May 25, 1864. 

Young, Thomas B., e. May 18, 1864. 

Zimmerman, H. O., e. May 7, 1864. 


Sergt. John F. Whitley, e. June i, 1864. 

Brownley, S., e. June 2, 1864. 

Bessinger, John, e. May 27, 1864. 

Barry, John, e. May 16, 1864. 

Davidson, Joseph, e. May 21, 1864. 

George, Lawson E., e. June i, 1864. 

Kenneson, T. E., e. March 9, 1864. 

Kanrai, David, e. May 10, 1864. 

Mooney, Edw., e. June i, 1864. 

McGlaughlin, James, e. May 10, 1864. 

Wood, Cyrus A., e. June 2, 1864; m. o. for re-enlistment. 

Wilson, Charles, e. May 16, 1864. 



(One Year.) 

The One Hundred and Forty-sixth Infantry Illinois Volunteers was organ- 
ized at Camp Butler, Illinois, September 18, 1864, for one year, and Henry H. 
Dean appointed colonel. Companies C and B were ordered to Brighton, Illi- 
nois, Companies D and H to Quincy, Illinois, and Company F to Jacksonville, 
Illinois, and were assigned to duty guarding drafted men and substitutes. The 
remaining companies were assigned to similar duty at Camp Butler, Illinois. 
On the 5th of July, 1865, the regiment was mustered out of service at Camp 
Butler, Illinois. 

Adjt. James P. Hodges, com. Oct. 10, 1864. 


Capt. John R. Jones, com. Sept. 19, 1864; res. April 7, 1865. 

Capt. Russell A. Hays, com. ist lieut. Sept. 19, 1864; prmtd. capt. May 10, 

Second Lieut. John L. Kamrar, com. Sept. 19, 1864; disd. March 9, 1865. 

Second Lieut. Lewis D. Brigham, e. as ist sergt. Sept. 2, 1864; prmtd. 2d 
lieut. May 10, 1865. 

Sergt. James Frost, e. Sept. 2, 1864; disab. 

Sergt. Samuel Hayes, e. Sept. 3, 1864. 

Sergt. David Schreiak, e. Sept. 3, 1864. 

Sergt. Edw. L. Bruce, e. Sept. 2, 1862. 

Corp. Jerome A. Butts, e. Sept. 2, 1864. 

Corp. Samuel Whitemeyer, e. Sept. 2, 1864. 

Corp. Stephen Clingman, e. Sept. 2, 1864. 

Corp. John Boyer, e. Sept. 2, 1864. 

Corp. Lewis Lawyer, e. Sept. 2, 1864. 

Corp. Thomas McGhee, e. Sept. 2, 1864. 

Musician Edw. Owen, e. Sept. 5, 1864. 

Wagoner Andrew Harnish, e. Sept. 2, 1864. 

Andrews, Isaac F., e. Sept. 2, 1864. 

Auman, Edw., e. Sept. 3, 1864. 

Burd, Benjamin F., e. Sept. 3, 1864; m. o. as corp. 

Burd, George W., e. Sept. 2, 1864. 

Bogenreif, Samuel, e. Sept. 3, 1864. 

Briel, Reuben C., e. Sept. 5, 1864; disd. May 12, 1865, disab. 

Bowen, Samuel, e. Sept. 5, 1864. 

Bortzfield, John, e. Sept. 5, 1864; died Sept. 13, 1864. 

Bollman, George, e. Sept. 2, 1864. 

Childs, Lewis C., e. Sept. 2, 1864. 

Cornville, M. L., e. Sept. 3, 1864; died Oct. 7, 1864. 

Clingman, H. C., e. Sept. 3, 1864. 

Foster, Robert, e. Sept. 3, 1864. 

Graham, E. W., e. Sept. 3. 1864. 


Haggart, Sydney, e. Sept. 3, 1864. 

Hutchison, Samuel, e. Sept. 3, 1864. 

Ingraham, Orlin, e. Sept. 3, 1864. 

Keagan, Nicholas, e. Sept. 3, 1864. 

Kleckner, William, e. Sept. 2, 1864. 

Knoll, Thomas, e. Sept. 2, 1864. 

Kryder, William H., e. Sept. 2, 1864. 

Kuns, N., e. Sept. 2, 1864. 

Kailey, George W., e. Sept. 2, 1864. 

Kenison, Thomas J., e. Sept. 3, 1864; disd. May 20, 1865, disab. 

Kearn, Richard, e. Sept. 2, 1864. 

Larkins, M., e. Sept. 3, 1864. 

Wendenhall, William, e. Sept. 3, 1864. 

Murray, James S., e. Sept. 3, 1864; died Feb. i, 1865. 

McDowell, E. R., e. Sept. 5, 1864; prmtd. principal musician. 

Rees, John, e. Sept. 3, 1864. 

Patten, Lawrence, e. Sept. 5, 1864; disd. April 4, 1865, disab. 

Rath, A. B., e. Sept. 3, 1864. 

Springer, Nathan, e. Sept. 3, 1864; died Oct. 19, 1864. 

Schroeder, H., e. Sept. 3, 1864. 

Stoeger, Adam, e. Sept. 3, 1864. 

Stiles, R. A., e. Sept. 2, 1864. 

Sheckler, O. P., e. Sept. 5, 1864. 

Twogood, Daniel, e. Sept. 2, 1864. 

Vocht, John L., e. Sept. 5, 1864. 

Williams, F. E., e. Sept. 2, 1864. 

Wells, Orsen, e. Sept. 3, 1864. 

Yeaman, Thomas J., e. Sept. 3, 1864. 

Yeager, Peter, e. Sept. 5, 1864. 

Yarger, William A., e. Sept. 3, 1864. 


(One Year.) 

The One Hundred and Forty-seventh Infantry Illinois Volunteers was or- 
ganized at Camp Fry, Illinois, by Colonel Hiram F. Sickles, and mustered in 
for one year on the i8th and igth of February, 1865. On the 2ist of Febru- 
ary moved, via Louisville, Kentucky, to Nashville, Tennessee, arriving on the 
25th. On the 28th moved to Chattanooga, and thence to Dalton, Georgia, Col- 
onel Sickles commanding post. On March I3th went on an expedition to Mill 
Creek, on Cleveland Road, and broke up a nest of guerrillas. On the 2Oth 
under command of Major Bush, went on an expedition to Spring Place. March 
I5th the regiment was assigned to First Brigade, Second Division, Army of the 
Cumberland, Brigadier General H. M. Judah commanding. On March 28th 
went on an expedition to Ringgold. On April 23d moved to Pullen's Ferry, 
on Coosawhatchie River, and had several skirmishes with the enemy, killing 
Major Edmeston, their commander, and several officers and men. On May 2d 


the regiment moved to Resaca, Georgia, and were engaged in repairing the 
railroad. On May i2th Wofford, commanding rebel forces in Northern Georgia, 
surrendered his forces to General Judah. May I4th Colonel Sickles took com- 
mand of the brigade. Marched to Calhoun June 26th, and July 27th moved to 
Marietta. From there ordered to Macon, Georgia, and to Albany, Georgia, ar- 
riving July 3 1 st. October i6th brigade organization dissolved. October 28th 
ordered to Hawkinsville, Georgia. November 25th the regiment was ordered 
to Savannah, Georgia, via Macon, Atlanta and Augusta, where it remained 
until December 31, 1865. Mustered out January 20, 1866, at Savannah, Georgia, 
and ordered to Springfield, Illinois, where it received final pay and discharge. 


Capt. Francis A. Darling, com. Feb. 18, 1865. 

First Lieut. Denison C. Frisbie, com. Feb. 18, 1865; res. Sept. 2, 1865. 

First Lieut. Jacob M. Martin, com. 2d lieut. Feb. 18, 1865; prmtd. st 
lieut. Oct. 4, 1865. 

Second Lieut. Daniel J. Kelley, e. as ist sergt. Feb. 9, 1865; prmtd. 2d 
lieut. Oct. 4, 1865. 

Sergt. Richard M. Rockey, e. Feb. 10, 1865; m. o. as ist. sergt. 

Sergt. John J. Thomas, e. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Sergt. C. B. White, e. Feb. 4, 1865 ; dis. Dec. 16, 1865, disab. 

Sergt. Jonathan Small, e. Feb. 7, 1865. 

Corp. N. M. Ferguson, e. Feb. 10, 1865. 

Corp. Peter Slear, e. Feb. 4, 1865. 

Corp. John L. Rockey, e. Feb. 10, 1865. 

Corp. Henry Phelps, e. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Corp. A. W. Kaup, e. Feb. 8, 1865. 

Corp. Alfred F. Miller, e. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Corp. Charles Wilson, e. Feb. 9, 1865. 

Musician William H. Baker, e. Feb. 7, 1865. 

Wagoner D. W. Jennings, e. Feb. 3, 1865. 

Allen, John S., e. Feb. 4, 1865. 

Allen, T. M., e. Feb. 8, 1865. 

Boyer, Isaac, e. Feb. 17, 1865. 

Buss, Thankful, e. Feb. 15, 1865. 

Buss, Isaac, e. Feb. 13, 1865. 

Buffington, C. H., e. Feb. 13, 1865. 

Beegle, A. H., e. Feb. u, 1865; m. o. Sept. 21, 1865. 

Baker, Lewis, e. Feb. 9, 1865. 

Boyer, Joseph L., e. Feb. 8, 1865. 

Baniger, Peter, e. Feb. 9, 1865. 

Burnham, N. S., e. Feb. 4, 1865. 

Bangs, M., e. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Bobb, Cyrus, e. Feb. 10, 1865. 

Blake. William, e. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Bolinger, D., e. Feb. 8, 1865. 


Caffee, James L., e. Feb. 6, 1865. 

Carter, L. H., e. Feb. 4, 1865. 

Cooper, B. G., e. Feb. 8, 1864. 

Carpenter, D., e. Feb. 9, 1864. 

Davenport, Lucius, e. Feb. 7, 1864. 

Durfee, R. S., e. Feb. 6, 1864. 

Darling, Francis S. 

Frisbie, D. C. 

Farrell, Charles, e. Feb. 17, 1864; disd. Aug. 30, 1865, disab. 

Folgate, Daniel, e. Feb. 10, 1864; disd. Dec. 26, 1865, disab. 

French, George, e. Feb. 9, 1864. 

Frank, John W., e. Feb. 7, 1864. 

Fisher, George, e. Feb. 6, 1864. 

Fischer, Charles, e. Feb. 6, 1864. 

Flickinger, Wm., e. Aug. 10, 1864. 

Foster, Fred, e. Feb. 8, 1864. 

Galbraith, Benj., e. Feb. 17, 1864. 

Gearry, John, e. Feb. 4, 1864. 

Hallensleben, H, W., e. Feb. 4, 1864. 

Harwood, Wm. N., e. Feb. 6, 1864; died Aug. 5, 1865. 

Hkk, H. V., e. Feb. 4, 1864. 

Harris, Charles B., e. Feb. 4, 1864. 

In man, John, e. Feb. 17, 1864. 

Kibner, Wm., e. Feb. 4, 1864. 

Keyser, John E., e. Feb. 6, 1864. 

Kelly, John, e. Feb. 10, 1864; died May 2, 1865. 

Kahl, Thomas J., e. Feb. 7, 1864. 

Lims, Jos., e. Feb. 10, 1864. 

Lashell, H. F., e. Feb. 6, 1864. 

Leigh, Wm. H. e. Feb. 9, 1864. 

Lower, Solomon, e. Feb. 15, 1864. 

McLain, Isaac, e. Feb. 9, 1864. 

Moore, John T., e. Feb. 10, 1864. 

Price, David, e. Feb. 4, 1864. 

Patterson, Arthur, e. Feb. 8, 1864. 

Rhoades, I. P., e. Feb. 17, 1864. 

Reed, Hugh, e. Feb. 6, 1864. 

Smith, Charles A., e. Feb. 7, 1864. 

Stickney, H. J., e. Feb. 6, 1864. 

Sisson, James R., e. Feb. 8, 1864. 

Snyder, John S., e. Feb. 8, 1864. 

Small, Samuel, e. Feb. 8, 1864. 

Tyler, Andrew, e. Feb. 17, 1864. 

Van Epps, James W., e. Feb. 7, 1864. 

Wood, Wm. H., e. Feb. 4, 1864. 

Carpenter, H., e. Feb. 9, 1865. 

Cox, Abel, e. Feb. 6, 1865. 



Lieut. Col. Henry C. Forbes, com. ist lieut. Co. B, Aug. n, 1861 ; prmtd. 
capt. Nov. 18, 1861 ; prmtd. maj. Feb. 10, 1863; prmtd. lieut. col. March i, 1865. 


Capt. Henry C. Forbes. 

Capt. William McCausland, e. as (?) sergt. Sept. 5, 1861 ; prmtd. ist lieut. 
Nov. 18, 1861 ; prmtd. capt. Feb. 10, 1863; died Dec. 25, 1864. 

Capt. Stephen A. Forbes, e. as ( ?1 private Sept. 5, 1861 ; prmtd. 2d lieut. 
Feb. 10, 1863; prmtd. capt. March 28, 1865. 

First Sergt. Josiah T. Noyes, e. Sept. 5, 1861 ; prmtd. bat. Q. M. 

Addler, Charles, e. Sept. 5, i86i;-disd. Oct. 23, 1864. 

Barnes, George H., e. Sept. 5, 1861 ; died June 15,, 1862. 

Clark, John W., e. March 4, 1865 ; m. o. Nov. 4, 1865. 

Combs, H. D., e. Sept. 5, 1861 ; m. o. April 21, 1865. 

Cuff, Thomas, e. Feb. 10, 1864. 

Davis, T. H., e.-Sept. 5, 1861 ; m. o. Oct. 15, 1864, as corp. 

Goddard, S. N., e. Sept. 5, 1861 ; disd. April 9, 1862, disab. 

Hill, Thomas, e. Sept. 5, 1861 ; died Nov. 15, 1863. 

Jenkins, George I., e. Sept. 5, 1861 ; disd. April 25, 1863, disab. 

McCausland, S. A., e. Sept. 5, 1861 ; m. o. Oct. 15, 1864. 

Myers, Charles, e. Sept. 5, 1861 ; vet. Feb. 10, 1864; m. o. Nov. 4, 1865. 

Noyes, Lucius A., e. Sept. 5, 1861 ; disd. Oct. 28, 1862, ist sergt. 


Kleckner, Aaron, e. Jan. 25, 1865. 

Long, Caspar, e. Oct. n, 1862; disd. May 23, 1865. 

Massler, David D., e. March 2, 1865. 

Nolan, Thomas, e. Feb. 20, 1865. 

Sherman, Leonard. 


Sergt. Chalmers Ingersoll, e. Sept. 14, 1862; vet. 
Coppersmith, A., e. Sept. 14, 1861 ; kid. in action Sept., 1863. 
Chambers, James S., e. Sept. 14, 1861 ; prmtd. regt. comsy. sergt. 
Daniel, Joseph, e. Sept. 14, 1861 ; vet. 
Diffenbaugh, David, e. Sept. 14, 1861 ; kid. July i, 1863. 
Hollenbeck, A., e. Sept. 14, 1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; m. June 19, 1865. 
Langdon, D. L., e. Sept. 14, 1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; trans, to Co. K; m. o. 
July 17, 1865. 

Miller, S. H., e. Sept. 14, 1861 ; m. o. Sept. 28, 1864. 

High, Samuel, e. Sept. 30, 1864; m. o. July 17, 1865. 


Langdon, David. 

Margritz, George O., e. Oct. 3, 1864; m. o. July 17, 1865. 



Woodcock, D. R., e. Dec. 5, 1863; m. o. July 17, 1865. 



Brooks, R. H., e. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Bronsum, John H., e. Dec. n, 1863. 
Calvin, Francis M., e. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Corns tock, George R., e. Dec. 17, 1863. 
Erlewine, Samuel, e. Dec. 22, 1863. 
Fitzpatrick, William, e. Dec. 31, 1863. 
Fuller, Eli C, Jan. 5, 1864. 
Green, Charles, e. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Gardner, Ed., e. Dec. 31, 1863. 
Giltner, R. D., e. Dec. 24, 1863. 
Hyde, D., e. Jan. 15, 1864. 
Martzall, S., e. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Mclaughlin, R., e. Jan. 15, 1864. 
McGill, William, e. Dec. 31, 1863. 
Mullarkey, John, e. Dec. 31, 1863. 
Peterson, John, e. Dec. n, 1863. 
Ryan, Henry, e. Dec. 24, 1863. 
Shaffer, George J., e. Dec. u, 1863. 



Gardner, Brayton, e. Oct. 7, 1861 ; disd. in 1862. 
Smallwood, Jr., Charles, e. Sept. 25, 1861. 


High, Henry A., e. Dec. 21, 1863; died Oct. 31, 1864. 

Johnson, R. W. 

Kleckner, H. C., e. Dec. 31, 1863; m. o. Aug. 31, 1865. 

Kleckner, J. M. 

Lamb, O. F., e. March 17, 1864. 

Lamb, J. D. 

Lamb, D. C. 

Miller, H. G., e. Dec. 31, 1863; disd. June 13, 1865. 

Smith, John G., e. Dec. 21, 1863; sick at m. o. 

Shrove, Daniel, e. Dec. 21, 1863; sick at m. o. 

Sindlinger, John, e. Jan. 29, 1864; died July 8, 1864. 

Sheldon, O. D., e. Feb. 2, 1864. 

Studebaker, Henry. 

Strange, W. 



Capt. Francis M. Hagaman, com. Jan. 7, 1863; res. May 25, 1864. 
Capt. Francis Boeke, com. ist lieut. Jan. 7, 1863; prmtd. capt. May 25, 1864. 
First Lieut. Wm. H. Puckett, e. as private Oct. 14, 1862; prmtd. 2d lieut. 
Oct. 19 1864; prmtd. ist lieut. March 28, 1865. 

Addis, Mattenly, e. Aug. 6, 1862; disd. Oct. 3, 1864, disab. 

Allen, Nelson, e. Oct. 22, 1862. 

Bardin, John, e. Oct. 4, 1862; disd. July 21, 1863. 

Butterfield, Wm. D., e. Nov. 4, 1862; disd. July 21, 1863. 

Berininger, B., e. Dec. i, 1862; missing in action. 

Clare, David S., e. Oct. 14, 1862; m. o. July 31, 1865, as sergt. 

Clair, Wm., Oct. 4, 1862; m. o. July 31, 1865. 

Chapin, K. W., e. Nov. 18, 1862; missing in action. 

Donahoo, Wm. J., e. Feb. 18, 1864; m. o. July 31, 1865. 

Donahoo, Robert, e. March 31, 1864; m. o. July 31, 1865. 

Eby, Richard R., e. Oct. 20, 1862; m. o. July 31, 1865. 

Elliott, D. M., e. Nov. 7, 1862; died Dec. 8, 1863. 

Fouke, R. R., e. Jan. 16, 1863; m. o. July 31, 1865. 

Gogan, John, e. Oct. 18, 1862; missing in action. 

Gregsby, James M., e. Nov. 5, 1862. 

Gandy, Alex M., e. Nov. 10, 1862; died Oct. 9, 1864. 

Glass, Henry, e. Nov. 25, 1862; m. o. July 31, 1865. 

Ginther, John, e. Nov. 22, 1862; m. o. June 21, 1865. 

Humphrey, A., e. Sept. 27, 1862 ; trans, to Co. E. 

Haggart, Charles, e. Nov. 5, 1862; tn. o. July 31, 1865. 

Hollenbeck, H. W., e. Oct. i, 1862; m. o. July 31, 1865, as corp. 

Lenan, M., e. Sept. 15, 1862; died Jan. 12, 1863. 

Martin, Robert L., e. Feb. 12, 1862; m. o. July 31, 1865. 

Miller, A. C., e. Oct. 14, 1862. 

Martin, A. W., e. Feb. 18, 1864; m. o. Aug. 4, 1865. 

Miller, Anton, e. Aug. 4, 1862; disd. April 5, 1865. 

Morris, Wm. F., e. Oct. 17, 1862; disd. May 18, 1865. 

Mellois, John, e. Sept. 15, 1862; missing in action. 

Miller, John H., e. Oct. 14, 1862; disd. June 21, 1865. 

McNicholas, James, e. Dec. 2, 1862; missing in action. 

O'Brien, James, e. Oct. 17, 1862; m. o. July 31, 1865, as sergt. 

Pardee, A. W., e. Feb. 18, 1862; disd. June 23, 1865. 

Pickard, John S., e. Nov. 6, 1862; died March 29, 1863. 

Rollinson, M. D., e. Oct. 14, 1862; missing in action. 

Stewart, Wm. H., e. Sept. 24, 1862; died Aug. 10, 1863. 

Strange, John W., e. Nov. 24, 1862; disd. Sept. 17, 1863. 

Schlimmer, K., e. Dec. 13, 1862; died May 23, 1863. 

Strange, Wm., e. Dec. 24, 1864; disd. 

Scott, Alfred M., e. Feb. 18, 1864; disd. March 28, 1865. 


Thompson, Alex., e. Dec. i, 1864. 

Vandeburg, H., e. Oct. i, 1864; missing in action. 


Newcomer, A. C., e. Feb. 14, 1862; disd. March 16, 1863, disah 
Sinclair, George S., e. Feb. 15, 1862. 


Black, E. O., e. Feb. 5, 1864; m. o. Dec. 18, 1865. 

Bowden, Hiram, e. Dec. 10, 1863; drowned July 3, 1864. 

Clark, H. R., e. Jan. 25, 1864. 

Delate, L. W., e. Dec. 25, 1863; died July 26, 1864. 

Davis, E. H., e. Dec. 15, 1864; m. o. Dec. 18, 1865. 

Delate, William D., e. Dec. 15, 1864; m. o. June 12, 1865, disab. 

Horton, Geo. E., e. Jan. 23, 1864; m. o. Dec. 18, 1865. 

Hall, James H., e. Jan. 4, 1864; trans, to inv. corps. 

Justice, Charles T., e. Jan. 23, 1864. 

Luke, Moses H., e. Jan. 25, 1864; m. o. Dec. 18, 1865. 

Mapes, William, e. Jan. 4, 1864; m. o. Dec. 18, 1865. 

Phifer, John W., e. Dec. 15, 1863; m. o. Dec. 18, 1863. 


Redder, Bernard, e. Jan. 5, 1864; m. o. May 23, 1865. 


Bolster, William A., e. Feb. 5, 1864 ; m. o. Nov. 23, 1865. 

Brooks, R, H., e. Jan. 5, 1864; m. o. Nov. 23, 1865. 

Carver, Mellen. 

Calvin, F. M., e. Jan. 5, 1864. 

Fitzpatrick, William, e. Dec. 31, 1863; m. o. Nov. 23, 1865. 

Fuller, E. C., e. Jan. 5, 1864; m. o. May 25, 1864. 

Green, Charles, e. Jan. 5, 1864; disd. July 14, 1864. 

Gardner, Edw., e. Dec. 31, 1863; m. o. Nov. 23, 1865. 

Giltner, R. D., e. Dec. 24, 1863. 

Hyde, Daniel, e. Jan. 15, 1864. 

Harmon, William, e. Jan. 5, 1864; m. o. Nov. 23, 1865. 

Harvey, Albert. 

McLaughlin, Richard, e. Jan. 15, 1864. 

Martzall, Solomon, e. Jan. 5, 1864; m. o. July 18, 1865. 

McGill, William, e. Dec. 31, 1863; m. o. Nov. 23, 1865. 



Adams, John H., e. Dec. 29, 1863. 
Lynds, H., e. Sept. 28, 1864. 
Reuter, Peter, e. Aug. 24, 1864. 



Burkhard, Casper, e. Aug. 31, 1862. 

Shillibg, Frederick, e. Aug. 31, 1862; died March 20, 1863. 


Adjt. Leander A. Sheetz, com. March 20, 1865; m. o. May 4, 1866. 
Second Lieut. Daniel A. Sheetz, com. Sept., 1861 ; kid. in bat. 



Capt. Urias H. Eaton, com. ist lieut. March 18, 1865, prmtd. capt. July 17, 
1865; res. Oct. 12, 1865. 


Forbes, Edwin, e. Dec. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 27, 1863 ; m. o. July 7, 1865. 
Rodmire, Joseph, e. Dec. 10, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 27, 1863; m. o. July 7, 1865. 


Bauer, Peter, e. Nov. 30, 1861 ; supposed to be dead. 
James, Phillip, e. Nov. 20, 1861 ; died Feb., 1862, wds. 
Koller, Jacob, e. Nov. 28, 1861. 


Reisch, Chris, e. Dec. i, 1861. 


Stoddard, Farrell, e. ; died Sept. 4, 1864. 

Surg. Chesseldon Fisher, com. July 28, 1863; res. Nov. 22, 1864. 


Ayers, John, e. Nov. 28, 1863 ; trans, to 39th. inf. 
Koym, William, e. Oct. 26, 1863 ; kid. June 22, 1864. 
Creschance, Case, e. Aug. 7, 1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Conner, Michael, e. July 31, 1862; disd. Jan. 29, 1865, disab. 
Roe, Chas. E., e. Aug. 14, 1862; prmtd. Q. M. Sergt. 
Snyder, Chris, e. Aug. 7, 1862. 

Wadsworth, O. T., e. July 31, 1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Stitle, Henry, e. 


Soon after the close of the war for the Union, there was considerable dis- 
cussion among the leading citizens of Stephenson County, "without regard to 
party affiliations, as to the propriety of erecting a suitable monument to com- 
memorate the heroism of the noble sons of Stephenson County who had vol- 
untarily laid down their lives upon the altar of their country, and the opinion 


was universal that the living owed such a lasting memento to the memory of 
their gallant dead." No steps were taken, however, until the winter of 1868, 
when a mass meeting was called on Saturday, February 19, 1868, at the hall of 
the Grand Army of the Republic, in Freeport. The meeting was well attended. 
General Smith D. Atkins was elected chairman, and C. C. Shuler, Esq., secretary. 
A constitution for forming the Stephenson County Soldiers' Monument Asso- 
ciation was reported and unanimously adopted, of which Articles I and II read 
as follows: 


Section i. This Association shall be known as "The Stephenson County 
Soldiers' Monument Association." 


Section i. The object of this association shall be the erection of a suitable 
monument, or memorial, to the memory of the gallant dead of Stephenson 
County, who have laid down their lives while serving in the armies of the 
United States during the rebellion, in order to rescue their names from forget- 
fulness, and suitably honor their heroic devotion to country and liberty, when 
country and liberty were in peril. 

Articles III and IV provided for the proper officers of the association, and 
minutely defined their duties, which were those usual to such associations, and 
we omit them here. 

On motion, the following officers were elected as provided for by the con- 
stitution ; President, Hon. John H. Addatns, of Cedarville ; vice presidents, Gen- 
eral Wilson Shaffer, of Freeport; Ross Babcock, of Ridott; Major J. W. Mc- 
Kim, of Freeport, and Captain J. P. Reel, of Buckeye; recording secretary-, 
General Smith D. Atkins, of Freeport; corresponding secretary, James S. Mc- 
Call, of Freeport; treasurer, Captain William Young, of Silver Creek. Execu- 
tive committee: C. C. Shuler, Freeport; Captain William Cox, Winslow; B. 
P. Belknap, Oneco; Daniel Bellman, Rock Grove; Captain J. M. Schermerhorn, 
West Point ; Levi Robey, Waddams ; Captain William Stewart, Buckeye ; Cap- 
tain Robert T. Cooper, Rock Run; Captain George S. Kleckner, Kent; Captain 
F. A. Darling, Erin ; Perez A. Tisdell, Harlem ; Captain W. J. Reitzel, Lancas- 
ter; Hon. James S. Taggart, Ridott; Frederick Baker, Silver Creek; Conrad 
Van Brocklin, Florence; Major H. M. Timms, Loran; John R. Hayes, Jeffer- 
son, and Harrison Diemer, Dakota. 

Immediately thereafter, a meeting of the executive committee was called 
in the parlors of the Second National Bank in Freeport, which was fully at- 
tended, and an address was prepared and published to the citizens of the county 
inviting them to subscribe to the fund for building the monument. It was de- 
cided to have a membership certificate engraved, with correct likenesses of 
Colonel Holden Putnam, Ninety-third Illinois Volunteers, Colonel John A. Da- 
vis, Forty-sixth Illinois Volunteers, and Major William R. Goddard. Fifteenth 
Illinois Volunteers, engraved thereon, they being the only field officers from 
Stephenson County who had given their lives in the war; such membership 
certificate to be issued to each subscriber of $1.00 or more. A meeting was ap- 
pointed for each township in the county to urge the citizens to take hold of the 
work, all of which meetings were addressed by the secretary of the association, 


General S. D. Atkins, and at many of the meetings he was accompanied by Hon, 
J. M. Bailey and Major I. C. Lawver. In the newspaper report of one of 
these meetings held at Ridott, we find the following pleasant reference: "At 
Ridott, a small audience subscribed a little upward of $100. The meeting was 
addressed by General Atkins and Major Lawver. The Major referred to the 
fact that before the war he was a Democrat in sentiment, while General Atkins 
was a Republican. They went to war in the same regiment and fought side 
by side ; neither has changed his political sentiments, and now they are side by 
side in honoring their dead comrades. So it should be with Democrats and 
Republicans. The soldiers lost their lives for their country, and all parties 
should join in erecting a monument to their heroism." The meetings held in 
the townships resulted in a very thorough organization in all parts of the county, 
but, after pretty thorough canvassing, only $3,500 had been pledged on the va- 
rious township subscriptions. The officers of the association therefore resolved 
to ask the Board of Supervisors to make an appropriation to be added to the 
voluntary subscriptions that altogether would be sufficient for the completion 
of a suitable soldiers' monument in commemoration of the heroic dead of the 
entire county. On Tuesday, June 29, 1869, the Board of Supervisors being 
in special session, Hon. John H. Addams, the president of the association, Cap- 
tain William Young, treasurer, and General S. D. Atkins, secretary, as a com- 
mittee on the part of the Soldiers' Monument Association, waited upon the 
Board of Supervisors and requested from them permission to erect the monu- 
ment on the Court House Square in the city of Freeport, and also a suitable 
donation to aid in its erection. Permission was granted by the Board to erect 
the monument on the public square as requested, and the sum of $6,000 voted to 
aid in the erection of the monument by an almost unanimous vote, only one dis- 
senting, and from that hour the completion of the Stephenson County soldiers' 
monument was assured. The following members of the Board of Supervisors 
were added to the execvitive committee of the monument association : S. K. 
Fisher, of Waddams; James McFatrich, of West Point, and James A. Grimes, 
of Lancaster. 

The funds for erecting the monument having been provided, the secretary 
was instructed to advertise in the New York, Philadelphia, Cincinnati and Chi- 
cago papers for designs and plans for a monument to be submitted at a meeting 
of the association on July 28, 1869, at which time there were artists present 
with plans from all the cities named. General Atkins also submitted a plan 
designed by himself, for a monument of Joliet marble, 12 x 12 at base, eighty- 
three feet high, to be surmounted on the top with a statue of "Victory" in 
bronze, thirteen feet high, making the monument ninety-six feet from the base 
to the top of the statue of "Victory," with life-size soldiers on the four corners 
of the lower base of the monument, in bronze, representing the four arms of 
the service infantry, cavalry, artillery and navy. After full discussion of the 
various plans submitted, on motion of Daniel Bellman, of Rock Grove, the de- 
sign prepared and submitted by General S. D. Atkins was adopted. H. H. Upp 
was appointed superintendent of the building of the monument, with authority to 
make all contracts. Hon. John H. Addams, James A. Grimes, Samuel K. Fisher, 
Dr. W. J. McKim, Captain William Young and Gen. Smith D. Atkins were 


appointed a sub-building committee, to approve all contracts before they should 
be in force. 

The contracts were immediately let and the erection of the monument pro- 
ceeded with. Under the superintendence of Mr. H. H. Upp, Mr. Adolph Beo- 
diker prepared the foundation; Elias Perkins contracted to lay up the Joliet 
stone and the Chicago Terra Cotta Company contracted to furnish the statue 
of "Victory" and the four soldiers, which were especially prepared by the cele- 
brated artist, Sig. Giovanni Meli. The Terra Cotta Company contracted to 
furnish the statuary in bronze, but, hoping to do better, covered them with 
copper by an electric bath, and failed to make the deposit of copper sufficiently 
heavy, so that the copper cracked and scaled off, and the statuary was after- 
ward painted by Mr. Daniel Adamson in imitation of Joliet marble, the material 
out of which the monument was constructed. The colossal statue of "Victory" 
surmounting the monument, designed by the celebrated artist, Sig. Giovanni 
Meli, is an original conception of the artist, and is a work of very great artistic 
merit. The Chicago Republican of Friday, December 17, 1869, thus refers to 
it: "But the last great work of this artist is the colossal statue of 'Victory,' 
which he has made from an original design and which is intended to render in 
terra cotta for the soldiers' monument at Freeport. The 'Victory' is the largest 
sculptural work ever composed in America, being thirteen feet high. It is, even 
to the minutest detail, finished as perfectly as the finest marble statue. While 
the imposing dignity and majestic pose of the figure at once impress the be- 
holder, yet the proportions are so nicely observed and such is the careful and 
artistic handling of the drapery, which sweeps in broad, massive folds to the feet 
of the figure, that its colossal height and great size do not at once appear. The 
figure stands in a strong and confident, though not bold, posture, with its right 
foot slightly advanced, and a portion of the weight of the body thrown upon 
the right hand, which rests on the staff of a large flag. The flag is gathered up 
in large folds by the sweep of the right arm, while, as if caught by some passing 
breeze, the fluttering ends swell out behind in broad waves of graceful drapery, 
so light and silken that they seem almost to apple in the air. The left hand 
hangs by the side with an easy grace and holds the symbolic olive. The head 
ah ! there is the imposing dignity which, like an atmosphere, is rather felt than 
seen in the figure. Set on a neck which suggests rather than impresses power, 
is the grand head which crowns the statue, and which in its benignant dignity 
blends the imperial justice of the conqueror with the melting mercy of an in- 
jured though pardoning ruler. The head is thrown back as if a glorious sense 
of triumph thrilled it through with joy; and, though the eyes are raised as if a 
gleam of the battle fire still lit them with a glorious passion, yet the lips are 
parted with a smile of calm, satisfied peace that softens the sternness of the 
upper face. There is a curious interblending of the ancient and modern in the 
face, which, though at first sight incongruous, has been made by the artist to 
secure an effect that could not otherwise have been produced. The eyes and 
forehead are purely Grecian, and have an imperious, almost a hard boldness 
of expression, while the cheek, chin and mouth are rounded with a sweet and 
tender grace that relieves the face from that otherwise stern and strong look, 
and gives to it a modern type or cast of countenance seldom before introduced 


in sculpture. Thus, while the full face view gives to the beholder the impres- 
sion of an imperious and proud queen, calm in her self-poised dignity, and 
strong in her self-reliant nature, the profile contrary to all precedent seems 
melted with the sunshine of a happy spirit, which suffuses the whole face with 
a smile. Usually the character is shown by the profile, which is more pro- 
nounced than the open face, but the artist says that the subject demanded the 
blending of Grecian features with American, and the happy effect produced by 
this combination has united dignity with grace, and sweetness with strength." 
On Tuesday, October 19, 1869, the corner-stone was laid with great cere- 
mony, under the auspices of the Masonic bodies of Freeport, participated in 
by the Odd Fellows, Turnvereins, Fire Department and Citizens. Dr. W. J. 
McKim was Grand Marshal. After the Masonic ceremonies were concluded, 
the Freeport Journal says : "The Senior Grand Warden introduced Sir Knight 
General Smith D. Atkins, who, owing to the absence of Sir Knight Colonel 
Thomas J. Turner, orator of the day, was invited and delivered an effective 
and eloquent address of some twenty minutes' duration." The lower base of 
the monument is 12x12 feet and twelve feet high. On each of the four sides 
are two niches, in which a panel of white marble is inserted, on which are cut 
the names of those soldiers of Stephenson County who are known to have given 
their lives for their country, as follows : 

Eighth Regiment, I. V. I. F. Benglesdorff, Co. E; A. A. Berryhill, Co. F, 
killed at Vicksburg, May 22, 1863 ; Joseph Berger, Co. I, died at Marshall, 
Texas, September 12, 1865; Lieutenant H. A. Sheets, Co. , killed at Fort 
Donelson, February 15, 1862. 

Eleventh Regiment, I. V. I. J. Alexander, Co. A, died August 31, 1861 ; 
F. R. Bellman, Co. A, killed at Fort Donelson, February 15, 1862; John Brad- 
ford, Co. A, died of disease contracted in service, ; John 

Cronemiller, Co. A, killed at Fort Donelson, February 15, 1862; William ding- 
man, Co. A, killed at Fort Donelson, February 15, 1862; Louis Clement, Co. 
D, died of wounds, July 27, 1864; Thomas Chattaway, Co. A, drowned at 

Bird's Point, Missouri, - ; William Eddy, Co. A, died at Camp 

Hardin ; Captain Silas W. Field, Co. A, died of wounds, May 9, 1862 ; John W. 
Fry, Co. A, died October 17, 1862; Franklin T. Goodrich, Co. A, killed at 
Shiloh, April 6, 1862; David F. Graham, Co. A, killed at Fort Donelson, Febru- 
ary 15, 1862; Henry Greenwold, Co. A, killed at Fort Donelson, February 15, 
1862; John M. Hauman, Co. A, killed at Shiloh, April 6, 1862; Franklin -D. 
Hartman, Co. A, killed at Shiloh, April 6, 1862; B. N. Kramer, Co. A; Joseph 
Kailey, Co. A, killed at Fort Donelson, February 15, 1862; Franklin D. Lambert, 
Co. A, killed at Vicksburg, May 22, 1863; S. McGinnis, Co. A; R. Clothin, 

Co. A ; David McCormick, Co. A, died of wounds, - ; Isaac 

N. Ross, Co. A, killed at Fort Donelson, February 15, 1862; Hial B. Springer, 
Co. A, died of wounds, July 14, 1862; John A. Thompson, Co. A, killed at Fort 
Donelson, February 15, 1862; John Trimper, Co. A, killed at Fort Donelson, 
February 15, 1862; Milton S. Weaver, Co. A, died September 2, 1861 ; George 
Wohlford, Co. A, died August 26, 1863 ; James Wentz, Co. A, died of wounds, 
May 19, 1862. 

Twelfth Regiment G. Smith. 


Fifteenth Regiment, I. V. I. B. W. Ballenger, Co. G; George A. Barton, 
Co. A, died February 27, 1862; A. V. S. Butler, Co. G, died January 4, 1864; 
R B. Bailey, Co. G, killed at Shiloh, April 6, 1862; A. Brahm, Co. G, died De- 
cember 15, 1862; J. H. Bowker, Co. G, died August 17, 1861 ; W. J. Buswell, 
Co. G, died October 14, 1863; E. S. Denton, Co. G; J. Clingman, Co. G; E. A. 
V. S. Butler, Co. G ; R. B. Bailey, Co. G ; A. Brahm, Co. G ; J. H. Bowker, Co. 

G; J. Clingman, Co. G; Deye, Co. E, died of wounds, May 5, 

1862; M. Doyle, Co. G, killed at Shiloh, April 6, 1862; Major William R. God- 
dard, killed at Shiloh, April 6, 1862; W. Ells, Co. G; J. H. Hawkins, Co. E; 
J. Illingworth, Co. G; M. V. Kline, Co. G, died November 8, 1861 ; F. Kline, 
Co. E, died at Andersonville, September 10, 1864; E. W. Ling, Co. G, died 
August 15, 1863 ; C. Lashell, Co. H, died July 12, 1865 ; J. Mook, Co. G; S. Mook, 
Co. G; J. Murphy, Co. G; D. Milholin, Co. G, died'of wounds, June 24, 1862; 
John Niemeyer, Co. G, killed at Shiloh, April 6, 1862 ; Hugh Phillips, Co. G, died 
June 6, 1862; H. Stamm, Co. G; J. H. Ross, Co. I; Charles Smith, Co. E, died 
April 22, 1862; David Stocks, Co. I, died of wounds, June 24, 1869; E. D. Solace, 
Co. I, died of wounds, April 8, 1862 ; D. R. P. Stites, Co. G, killed at Shiloh, April 
6, 1862; O. Tenant, Co. G, died of wounds, April 6, 1862; J. S. Weeler, Co. G, 
killed at Shiloh, April 6, 1862 ; J. W. Van Valzah, assistant surgeon, died Au- 
gust 9, 1863; J. Wier, Co. B, 

Eighteenth Regiment, I. V. I. Cyrus Paden, Co. G, died at Camp Butler, 
April 6, 1865; J. Maxwell, Co. I. 

Twenty-sixth Regiment, I. V. I. Philip Baker, Co. B, killed at Farmington, 
May 9, 1862; Jans. Butcher, Co. B, died at Chattanooga, October 13, 1864; 
John F. Black, Co. H, died of wounds at Marietta, September n, 1863; Aaron 
Clay, Co. B, died at Danville, Mississippi, July n, 1862; Charles Choppy, Co. 
B, died of wounds at Chattanooga, May 3, 1864; J. P. Ditty, Co. B, died at 
Keokuk, August 17, 1863; William Eshelman, Co. B, died July 27, 1862; William 

A. Eggert, Co. B, died June 14, 1862; A. J. Eastland, Co. I, died at Camp Sher- 
man, August 18, 1863 ; Julius Frisbee, Co. B, died at Point Pleasant, April 2, 
1862; Charles Gold, Co. B, died of wounds, January 9, 1864; Simon Gates, Co. 

B. died September 17, 1863 ; John Geiser, Co. B, died of wounds at Chattanooga, 
January 2, 1864; Aaron Heise, Sr., Co. B, died at Scottsboro, March 24, 1864; 
John Heise, Co. B, died of wounds at Marietta, August 9, 1864; Moses Heise, 
Co. B, died at Scottsboro, March 22, 1864; George H. Hettle, Co. B, killed at 
Scottsboro, May i, 1864; Lieutenant John Irvin, Co. G, died October 6, 1863; 

C. D. Jinks, Co. B, died at Scottsboro, March 20, 1864; W. Knauss, Co. G, 
died at Resaca, August 13, 1864; J. Kinney, Co. B, died at Atlanta, July 22, 
1864; J. Keigan, Co. I; Wm. Long, Co. E, died at luka, August 28, 1862; D. 
Morris, Co. B, died of wounds at Dallas, May 29, 1864; P. E. Montague, Co. B, 
killed at Scottsboro, April 30, 1864; L. McCoy, Co. B, died of wounds, Chat- 
tanooga, July 22, 1864; Thomas Nicholas, Co. B, died at Corinth, October 4, 
1862; John J. Nigg, Co. B, died of wounds at Danville, July 7, 1862; William 

Quinn, Co. B, died - .; S. J. Robinold, Co. B, died at Farmington, 

May 22, 1862; A. L. Rice, Co. H, died of wounds at Marietta, October 14, 
1864; P. E. Smith, Co. B, killed at Reseca, May 13, 1864; John Schmidt, Co. 
B, killed at Mission Ridge, November 25, 1863 ; Egbert Snyder, Co. B, died at 


Scottsboro, March 17, 1864; J. P. Winters, Co. B, died at Corinth, October 10, 
1862 ; Thomas Wishart, Co. B, died at Memphis, November 27, 1863 ; J. 
Walkey, Co. B, died at New Madrid, March 22, 1862; John Walton, Co. B, 
killed March 7, 1865. 

Thirty-second Regiment, I. V. I. J. P. Walker, Co. C, died at Annapolis, 
March 10, 1865 ; F. J. Erickson, Co. A. 

Thirty-fourth Regiment, I. V. I. J. H. Brown, Co. H, died of wounds, 
May n, 1862. 


Thirty-seventh Regiment, I. V. I. N. G. Wire, Co. D, killed at Pea Ridge, 
March 7, 1862; A. W. Tarbert, Co. . 

Thirty-ninth Regiment, I. V. I. W. Agney, Co. G, killed in Virginia, Octo- 
ber 13, 1864. 

Forty-second Regiment, I. V. I. Samuel Kohl, Co. G, died of wounds, 

December , 1864; L. Mossman, Co. G, died at Andersonville, March i, 

1865; L. Warner, Co. G, died of wounds, January n, 1865; W. Bunte, Jr. 

Forty-fifth Regiment, I. V. I. J. Jordan, Co. C; Andrew Mourn, Co. C, 
killed - -; W. T. McClothlin, Co. B; J. Watterson, Co. G, killed 

at Shiloh, April 6, 1862. 

Forty-sixth Regiment, I. V. I. A. F. Arnold, Co. A, killed at Shiloh, April 
6, 1862; William Andre, Co. A, died at Duval's Bluff, December 10, 1864; 
William W. Allison, Co. A, died at Memphis, March 16, 1863; A. E. Arnold, 

Co. A, died at ; Cyrus Ashenfelter, Co. B, died at Camp Butler, 

December 6, 1861 ; F. Ashenfelter, Co. D; Robert G. Aikey, Co. G, killed at 
Shiloh, April 6, 1862; John Apker, Co. K, died at Mobile, May 6, 1865; Robert 
T. Best, Co. A, died at Camp Butler, November 7, 1861 ; Wesley J. Best, Co. 
A, died of wounds at Vicksburg, August 19, 1864; R. D. Bruner, Co. A, died 
at Cairo, October 6, 1864; Edward Barrett, Co. A, died at Vicksburg, August 
12, 1864; Charles F. Bower, Co. B, died of wounds, April 23, 1862; A. Bauer, 

Co. C, died - ; H. Bagger, Co. C, died at Bolivar, October 15, 1862; 

A. Buckhardt, Co. C, died at Salubriety Springs, July 24, 1865 ; J. S. Brown, 
Co. G, died of wounds, April 28, 1862; R. Brubaker, Co. G, died of wounds, 
August 9, 1862; George D. Beeler, Co. G, killed at Shiloh, April 6, 1862; B. L. 

Bates, Co. G, died at La Grange, July 12, 1862; L. C. Butler, Co. K, died ; 

James A. Butler, Co. K, died at La Grange, July 12, 1862; George F. Brown, 
Co. K, died at St. Louis, May 18, 1862 ; Dudley Barker, Co. K, died in Shreve- 
port, June 17, 1865 ; A. Barker, Co. B ; John Brace, Co. K, died of wounds, 
May 22, 1862 ; Lieutenant Louis E. Butler, Co. K, died at Salubriety Springs, 
October 5, 1865; J. Backus, Co. K; Hiram Clingman, Co. A, killed at Shiloh, 
April 6, 1862; Charles Clouse, Co. A, died at Mound City, September 7, 1862; 
George Cox, Co. B, died of wounds, October 9, 1862; Henry Cruger, Co. B, 
died at Big Black, April n, 1864; Thomas A. Clingman, Co. F, died of wounds, 
; W. Cramer, Co. K; J. Chambers, Co. B; Colonel John A. Davis, 
died of wounds, Bolivar, October 10, 1862; D. P. DeHaven, Co. A, died at 
Memphis, September 22, 1862; Daniel Dreisbach, Co. G, died at Memphis, May 


12, 1863; Thomas H. Dodson, Co. K, died June i, 1862; Joseph Doan, Co. K, 
died at Vicksburg, May 28, 1864; Jacob Dobson, Co. K, died October 30, 1864; 
J. E. Derrick, Co. A; John Elliott, Co. A, killed at Shiloh, April 6, 1862; B. W. 
Eghusen, Co. C, died at St. Louis, May 19, 1864; Lansing Ells, Co. D, died of 
wounds, May 14, 1864; Marion Ely, Co. K, died at Vicksburg, August 8, 1864; 
Johann J. Esh, Co. C, died - -; W. Elliott, Co. A; A. M. Fellows, Co. 

A, died of wounds, Quincy, May 2, 1862; R. A. Fawver, Co. A, drowned Au- 
gust 20, 1864; Henry Prize, Co. B, died May 31, 1862; C. Frewart, Co. C, died 
at Duval's Bluff, December 19, 1864; T. S. Felton, Co. K, died at Freeport, 

March 17, 1862; J. D. Fogle, Co. D; Charles H. Gramp, Co. C, died - ; 

Hiram C. Galpin, Co. A, died July 8, 1862; William A. George, Co. B, died at 
New Orleans, September 10, 1864; H. Giboni, Co. C, killed at Shiloh, April 6, 
1862; Gotlieb Greetzley, Co. C, died of wounds at Louisville, April 26, 1862; 
Samuel H. Groken, Co. G, died about April 6, 1862; E. H. Gardener, Co. K, 
died at Corinth, June 18, 1862; John Hoot, Co. A, killed at Shiloh, April 6, 
1862 ; H. W. Hollenbeck, Co. A, died of wounds, May 3, 1862 ; W. H. Holsinger, 
Co. A, died at Pittsburg Landing, April i, 1862; Sergeant Major J. E. Hershey, 
died ; Langford Hill, Co. B, died ; Lieu- 
tenant H. Harbert, Co. C, died ; Andrew Hess, Co. B, died 

of wounds at New Orleans, April 24, 1865 ; F. Hasselman, Co. C, killed 
at Shiloh, April 6, 1862; F. Heine, Co. C, killed near Jackson, July 8, 1864; 
O. Husinga, Co. C, died at Pittsburg Landing, May 5, 1862; H. H. Hay- 
den, Co. D, died at Memphis, January 6, 1865 ; Henry H. Hulet, Co. G, died at 
Hamburg, May 30, 1862; William Helm,- Co. G, died at Vicksburg, June 26, 
1863; William Haines, Co. G, died in Stephenson County, February 16, 1863; 
Barney Hand, Co. K, died at Camp Butler, December 26, 1861 ; Lieutenant 
Thomas M. Hood, Co. G, killed at Shiloh, April 6, 1862; Samuel E. Hershey, 

Co. B, died -; O. Kittleson, Co. K; W. T. Johnson and J. Y. 

Haughney, Co. B; Eugene V. Kellogg, Co. B, killed at Shiloh, April 6, 1862; 
Albert Kocher, Co. C, died at Louisville, May 15, 1862; C. Kahn, Co. C, died 
at St. Louis, May 15, 1862; Jacob Kramer, Co. C, died at St. Louis, July 19, 
1862; H. Klock, Co. C, died in Kentucky, July 4, 1862; F. Kraemer, Co. C, died 
at Corinth, May 26, 1862; A. Knock, Co. C, killed at Shiloh, April 6, 1862; 
John Katlerer, Co. C, died at New Orleans, September 18, 1864; Carl Krueger, 
Co. C, died at Duval's Bluff, November 29, 1864; Hiram R. Knight, Co. D, 
died at Vicksburg, June 3, 1864; George Kettner, Co. G, died of wounds, 
April 12, 1862; F. J. LeFevre, Co. C, died of wounds, April 9, 1862; Daniel 
Lobdell, Co. B, died at Cairo, October 3, 1864; Aaron Lapp, Co. C, died at 
Fort Henry, May 4, 1862; John Larve, Co. G, died at Vicksburg, June 27, 1863; 
Peter LaBell, Co. G, died at Louisville, June 2, 1862; James LaHay, Co. K, died 
at New Orleans, February 19, 1865; Captain John Musser, Co. A, died of 
wounds, April 24, 1862; Charles F. More, Co. A, died of wounds at Memphis, 
April 2, 1863 ; J. C. McCarthy, Co. A, died at Freeport, March 9, 1865 ; D. J. 
Mingle, Co. B, died - - ; J. H. Mingle, Co. B, died - - ; 

Willard F. May, Co. A, died at Vicksburg, May 18, 1864; Harry A. Mack, Co. 
B, died at Winslow, June 15, 1862; John W. Mallory, Co. B, died in Corinth, 
May 17, 1862; Joseph McGinnis, Co. B, died at Camp Butler, October 9, 1861 ; 


Leons Marbeth, Co. C, killed at Shiloh, April 6, 1862; J. F. Marks, Co. C, 
killed at Shiloh, April 6, 1862; C. Meise, Co. C; J. W. Maxwell, Co. D, died at 
Morganzia, August 23, 1864; G. W. Mudy, Co. D, died at Mound City, Septem- 
ber 9, 1864; James C. Mallory, Co. F, died at St. Louis, August 10, 1862; John 

F. Moothart, Co. G, died in Stephenson County, February 9, 1864; Thomas 
Myron, Co. K, died at Corinth, June 12, 1862; Aaron Miller, Co. K, died at Cor- 
inth, June 12, 1862; E. Mueller, Co. C; Peter O'Konas, Co. C, died at Shreve- 
port, June 12, 1865 ; Q. E. Pollock, Co. A, died January 6, 1862; Theodore Peck, 
Co. A, died at Camp Butler, Janu