Skip to main content

Full text of "History of Steuben County, Indiana, together with... biographies of representative citizens"

See other formats

'.t^, ,,■; 

^:^r^^;;^• ;:;;.: ;.•■■■ 

•■•V;, j,-,y.' ,- .'• '.' ■ 

.' ',■ ■•>. •jL'.-.-.vv.} 

** *v », f 

• ■•''■ t « 

-:Ot'./ .V.!.-.\'y;juv. 

■ ^■■" 

,. .^^ .... . . .„,,, . 

rj.'.,-^r.-,'it;''.; .. ■ ;■•;• 

vv^J-v',- .:■,: 
■ 'W' ■ '. ■ 

H.; ,•;:■;. -:,■■ 







k^ ^-«- 
















S^3 /. 









Although Indiana, which has been styled the Eden of the new 
world, is destined in her strides to empire to become one of the 
first States of the Union, her history has been strangely neglected. 
Fragments have been written at different times, but only of de- 
tached periods and embracing but a small part of the century and 
a half which has elapsed since the first explorations. To supply 
this deficiency and furnish a history commensurate with her 
present advancement in power and civilization, it is necessary that 
the different localities in the State do their respective shares in 
compiling the material from which a suitable work may sooner or 
later be made up. 

To do this work for Steuben County, and furnish a history that 
may be of interest to the present generation, and of increasing 
value to those yet unborn, has been the aim of the publishers of 
this volume. In presenting it to subscribers, confidence is felt 
that it will meet with a cordial reception, j^o trouble nor expense 
has been spared to make it a complete and reliable history, and 
any errors or inaccuracies it may contain are due to the inability 
of the compilers to obtain the necessary information. 

Perfection is not claimed for the book, for " to err is human;" 
and although sci*upalous care has been observed, there is no doubt 
that the critic will find something to fill his hungry soal with de- 
light. Thanks are due to the editors of the RejpiMican and 
Herald for courtesies extended; to all the county officers, for 
innumerable favors; to public societies and churches for data 
furnished; and to the citizens generally for their ready co- 
operation and the interest they have taken. It has been our 
aim to give at least the name, if not more extended notice, of 
every " old pioneer," and if any are omitted, it is owing to the 






slight importance placed on the preservation of records in the early- 
days of our history, and failure on the part of those having the 
knowledge to impart it to the compiler. In the spelling of proper 
names, vs^e have found in this as in other counties that members 
of a family disagree; and where such is the case, who shall decide? 
In the personal sketches we of course "followed copy," but in the 
general history we have tried to give the preference to the forms 
used by the majority. Also, members of the same family differ 
often as 'to dates and places. In public records, too, we have 
found a single name spelled no less than twelve different ways. 

The desire expressed by many citizens for an outline history of 
Indiana induced us to add that feature to our prospectus, and we 
have accordingly prepared a history which we are willing to have 
compared with any yet published. But a review of the contents 
of this volume is not necessary. Our readers must be the judges 
of its value. We trust they will pronounce as their verdict that 
the book is not one to be read to day and then laid on the shelf; 
that, as other sources of information diminish, it will stand as a 
monument to tell to coming generations the noble part their fore- 
fathers took in the settlement of the grand State of Indiana, and 
the beautiful little county of Steuben. 


Chicago, September, 1885. 


i \ 



Pre-Historic Races— First 



Immigration-Second Immigration-The Tartars-Relics of the 

'Mound BuUders-The Indians-Manners and Customs 




Against Kaskaskia-Vincennes-Ingenious Ruse Against the Indians-Subsequent Career ^^^ 

of Hamilton- Gibault— Vigo 


„ . ^ 67-74 

Ordinance of 1787— Liquor and Gaming Laws 


Expedition 01 Harmar,Scott and Wilkinson- Expeditions of St-^lair and Wayne-Gen- ^_^^ 

eral Wayne's Great Victory. 


Organization of Indiana Territory-First Territorial Legislature--The Western Sun-Indl-^^^^^ 

ana in 1810 


87 100 
Treaties of Peace-Harrison's Campaign-Battle of Tippecanoe 

Declaration of War-Siege of Fort Wayne-Expedition Against the Indians-Close of the ^^^ 




CIVIL MATTERS OF 1812-1815. 

Messaee of John Gibson-Message of Governor Posey-Hospitality Toward the Indians-- 
Popu?ation of TsiS-General View-Close of Territorial History "^ 1^ 


Constitutional Convention-First General Assembly-Governor's Message-Rush of Im'^i-^,^^^ 
grants to the New State— General Prosperity 


Removal of Indians West of the Mississippi-Unwilling to Leave T^id' , hunting Grounds- 
An Attempt to Defy the Decrees of Government-Tlie Militia Called ^^'i*-*-^?^'''^® i^J_i3o 

Black Hawk 


Emigration under Command of Colonel Pepper and General Tipton-Indian Title8-6,000,-^_^^^ 
000 Acres Ceded to the United States 





First Land Sale— Settlers vs. Land Speculators— An Indian Scare— Harmony Com- 
munity 133-135 


Cause of the War-Troops Called Out— Incidents of the War— Bravery of the Soldiers— The 
Troops from Indiana— Cost of the War 136-143 


Fifteenth Amendment— Indiana Patriots Among the First to Respond to the Call for Troops 
—Indiana's "War Governor" to the Front— 10,000 Men from Indiana— Three Months' Keg- 
iments- Three Years' Regiments— Minute Men— Six Months' Regimentg— One Hundred 
Days Volunteers-The President's Call of July, 1864— Call of December, 1864— Inde- 
pendent Cavalry Company— Colored Troops— Light Artillery— Battles in v?hich Indiana 
Soldiers Fought— After the War 144193 


Early Taxes— State Bank— Wealth and Progress— Internal Improvements— Canals— Turn- 
pikes— Railroads 194 205 

Developments of Mineral Resources— Rich Iron Mines— Coal— Lime 205-209 


State Board of Agriculture— Exposition -Indiana Horticultural Society— Indiana Pomo- 
logical Society 209-215 


Public Schools— Indiana State University— Purdue University— Indiana State Normal 
School- Northern Indiana Normal School and Business Institute, Valparaiso— Denom- 
inational and Private Institutions 315-232 


Institute for the Education of the Blind— Institute for the Deaf and Dumb— Hospital for the 
Insane-The State Prison South— The State Prison North— Female Prison and Reforma- 
tory-Indiana House of Refuge 233-244 




Importance of Local History— Life in the Backwoods— Courage of the Pioneers— Their 
Labor and Rewards— Change of Fifty Years— Integrity and Generosity of the Early Set- 
tlers-Grand Achievements 245-351 



Geography and Topography— Geology-Zoology 252-372 


First Settlement and First Land Entries— Organization of County— Location of County 
Seat -Name ol County— First Officials— First Session Board of Commissioners— Bond 
of Joseph Pierce— Erection of Jamestown Township— First Treasurer of County— Erec- 
tion of Otsego Township— Assessor and Collector Appointed— County Buildings, Court- 
house, Jail and Asylum— Pioneer Reunions— Organization of Society— Proceedings of 
Meetings from 1873 to 1884— D. B. Griffin's Reminiscences— Mrs. J. B. Wisel's Reminis- 
cences 273-313 


Political History. 

Whig, then Republican— Early Majorities— Presidential Vote from 1840 to 1884— Politi- 
cal Complexion of Townships— Total Vote at Each Presidential Election— Local Inde- 
pendence of Party Fetters— Personal Campaigns— Underground Railway Station at 
Orland— Official Vote from 1830 to 1884— Official List 314-338 



Q a^ 

^- «6) 



The Cival War. 


Opening of the Strife— Springing to Arms— First Company in Steuben County— Early 
Enlistments- S-ott Township Guards— Regimental Sketches— Twenty-ninth— History 
of Company A, by Irenus McGowan— Forty-fourth— Forty-eighth— One Hundredth- 
One Hundred and Twenty-seventh (Twelfth Cavalry)— One Hundred and Twenty-ninth— 
One Hundred and Fifty-second- List of Steuben County's Volunteers— Soldiers' Reun- 
ion at Angola 339-406 

Thb Bar. 


Early Lawyers— First Resident Attorney— Sketches of Those Who have Practiced Here 
—Present Bar— Sketches of Prominent Attorneys— G. B. Adams— E. A. Bratton— Cvrus 
Cline— A. W. Hendry— J. B. Langworthy— E. G. Melendy— J. K. Morrow— F. M Powers 
— L. H. Stocker— Stephen Powers ' 407 418 



Pioneer Physicians— Union Medical Society— Steuben County Medical Society— Orn-an- 
ization-Requir-ments— First Officers— Changes in Membership— Present Officers- 
Steuben County Medical and Surgical Society— Organization— First Officers— Member- 
ship— Sketches of Prominent Physicians— T. E. Bierl y— J. B. Blue— D N E Brown— 
J. M. Browu-H. M. Byall— J. F. Cameron— A. P. Clark— M. T. Clay— Albert Eastman— 
S. H. Fuller— C. W Goodale— D. P. Hathaway— G. W. McConnell— James McConnell— 
W. H. Miller— J. H. Moore— A. G. Parsell- E. S. Robison— M. F. Shaw— Frederick Sher 
man— E. B. Simmons— Robert Smith— E. A. Taylor— W. H. Waller— T B Williams— 
H. D. Wood— T. F. Wood 419 444 

The Press. 

Indiana Review 
W. Ferrier, 


view— Hoosier Banner— Truth Seeker— Steuben Republican— Sketches of W 
, O. F. Rauestraw aud F, T. Burnham— Angola Herald— Sketch of W. k! 




Introductory— Progress in Methods and Standards— Importance of Good Schools— Early 
Schools— Text Books— Northeastern Indiana Literary Institute, or Orland Academy-- 

Tri-State Normal College. 



Steuben an Agricultural County— Steuben Agricultural Society— Fairs— Pleasant Lake 
Agricultural Society— Fairs at Orland— Agricultural Statistics 458-465 



Postofflces and Postal Service in Steuben County— Property and Taxation— United 
Brethren Church— Red Ribbon Movement— Drowned in the Lak 38— Steuben's Oldest 
Inhabitant— A Lucky Find— Spelling Matches— Silas Doty 466-494 

Mill Grove Township. 


Geographical and Descriptive— First Settlement— Arrivals in 18,35 and 1836— Naming of 
Orland— First Mill and Dwellings— First Store— First Births, Marriages and Deaths- 
Early School-houses and Religious Meetings— Early Physicians— Churches and Pastors 
—Lodges— Political— Biographical 495-518 

Jamestown Township. 


Position— Geography andTopography— First Settlers— First Land Entries— Postmasters 
and Post Routes— First Events— Independence Day in 1841— Jamestown's Early Days- 
Michael Depue— Barton Collins-Population— Agricultural Statistics— Politics— Town- 
ship Officials— Biographical 519-540 


Fremont Township, 

Fir?t Known as Brockville— Geography and Topography— Earlv Settlement— Those 
Who Came Before 1810— R. A. Gaines and His Career— Platting of Brockville, afterward 
Fremont— Mail Routes— Ad. Knott's Store— Fourth of July, 1838— First Dwellin<T8 
School-houses and Churches— First Land Entries— Fremont— Societies— Business Firms 
— S.atiStical-Politics— Biographical 541-583 


Clfau Lake Township. 

Tiie Northeastern Corner of Indiana— Description— Geography — Clear Lake— First Set- 
tljrs and Land Eutries-First Birth, Marriage and Death— Early Religious Services— 
Population- Agricultural Statistics— Property and Taxation— Politics— Official— Bio- 
graphical 533-593 






Geographical— DeBcriptive— First Land Entries and Settlers— Immigrants Prior to 1840 
-First Events— Population and Agricultural Statistics— Property and Taxation— Polit- 
ical— Official— Biographical 594-631 

Scott Township. 

Formation— Boundaries— Description-First Land Entries— First Settlers— Oldest In- 
habitant, Willard Dewitt— First Mill, School, Teacher and School-house— Population- 
Statistics— Politics— Official— Biographical 632-646 

Pleasant Township. 


Geography— Description— First Land Entries and Settlers— First Religions Services and 
Schools— First Marriage and Birth— Living Pioneers— Population— Statistics— Politics 
—Official— Angola— Survey— County Seat — Postofflce- First Lawyers and Physician— 
Banks— Angola Incorporated— Additions— Business Directory— Banks— Officials — Pro- 
fessional— Churches— Societies-Biographical 647-697 


Jackson Township. 

Geography— Description — Oldest Settled Township in County— First Comers and Land 
Entries— Name— First Events— Pioneers from 1831 to 1840— Flint— Popnlation-Statis- 
tlcs- Politics— Biographical 698-721 

Salem Township. ' 

Situation— Geography— Description— First Entries and Settlers— First Church and 
School-house— Postofflces— SaUm Center— Hudson— Turkey Creek-Population —Sta- 
tistics— Politics— Biographical 722-765 

Steuben Township. 

Geography— Description-First Events— Steubenville—Steubenville, Jr.— Pleasant Lake 
— Founders- Societies, Churches and Business— Population— Statistical — Political— Offi- 
cial— Biographical 766-805 

Otsego Township. 

Geography-Description— Lakes— First Land Entries— First Settlers— First School- 
house- First Birth and Death— Enterprise, or Hamilton— Population of the Township — 
Agricultural Statistics— Property and Taxation— Politics-Presidential Vote, 1840- '84— 
Biographical 806-850 

Richland Township. 
Position— Geography 


Description— First Land Entries— Early Settlers — First Frame 
Dwelling— First School house. Mill, Ctiurch— Richland Center, or Alvarado- Pioneers- 
Population— Statistics— Politics— Biographical 851-868 


Chandler, M. L 586 

Davenport, G. H 587 

Lash, Samuel 588 

Burdick, J. L 557 

Callen, William 558 

Caswell, A. M 559 

Dougherty, C. H 560 

Failing, Adam 561 

P^ollett, A. R .561 

Fox, J.K 562 

Gleason, Wakefield 563 

Goff, B. J 563 

Goodell, W. M 564 

Hall, J. H 565 


McElroy, Robert 588 

OberRt, Christopher 589 

Rathbun, V. W 589 


Heath, W.T 566 

Holcomb, B. B 566 

Johnston, Thomas 567 

McCuen, Robert 56'^ 

McNaughton, J. S. C .'569 

Michael, Philip 569 

Miller, Daniel 570 

Milnes,G.A 571 

Noyes, J. W 572 

Shaeffer, Daniel 573 

Shaefler, John 574 

Teeters, D. B 590 

Teeters, Elisha .591 

Young, L. I. C ...591 

Scott, W. L 574 

Shenk, Jacob 575 

Stephens, Joshua 576 

Straw, Elias 577 

Straw, Frederick 577 

Tillotson, Demary 578 

Trecarten, Henry 579 

White, Charles .^80 

Wolf, Jacob 581 







Alcott, C. L 703 

Barr, Luke 70:i 

Boweiman, Michael 704 

BrowD, George 704 

Browu, Morris ..*,.... 704 

Butler, Justus 705 

Cleveland, (i. D 706 

Coleman, John 707 

Davie. David 707 

Doudt, Levi 708 

Baker, U. W 531 

Brown, Hon. Ezekiel 531 

Brown, Ruesel.... 532 

Collins, Barton 529 

Collins, G.W 532 

Cory,C. H 533 

Depue, Michael !i29 

Dewey, C.T 533 

Bennett, J. U 50fi 

Haokett,John 507 

Hunter, J. A 50S 

Johnson, Peter 508 

Linquist, Nelson 509 

Lyons, O. E 509 

Aldrich, D. W 810 

Baker, Christopher 810 

Baker, Jacob 811 

Baker, J. S 811 

Baker, Nathaniel 812 

Baker, Samuel 813 

Beard, Elijah 813 

Beard, Franklin 814 

Beaid, L. H ..814 

Bland, William 815 

Brooks, S. S 810 

Browu, W.H. L 81ti 

Buret), Chester 817 

Bnrch, Henry 817 

Cameron, William 818 

Carpenter G. H 818 

Carpenter, H. J 819 

Chard, Levi 819 

Clark, James 820 

Cox,S. M 821 

Anspaugh, Samuel 665 

Batlielder, Charles Bti5 

Bar jarow , A . J 6H6 

Beard, W. H 6G7 

Bigler, Levi 637 

Cameron, John 6ti8 

Carlin, K. V 668 

Carpenter, J. H 669 

Carpenter, J. N 669 

Carr, W. M 670 

Carter, Harrison 671 

Carver, Orville 673 

Cole, Capt. W.H 672 

Crain, A. D 673 

Dunnam, Alonzo 674 

Fast, Allen 675 

AUman, Barnabas 8.54 

AUomon^, Jo:^eph 854 

Anspaugh, J. A. J 855 

Antipaugh, John 855 

Beebe, A. T 856 

Gary, W. S ..857 

Croy, Andrew 858 


Golden, George 708 

Haines, T. W 709 

Huffman, John 709 

Hulls, Guernsty 710 

Jarvis, I>rael 711 

Jones, H. S 711 

Mariette, Daniel 712 

Mundy, George 713 

Mundy, Lewis 713 

Ousterhout, J. N 714 


Failing, Thomas 534 

Goodfellow, G. W 534 

Haiijht, Frank 534 

Lemmon, W.H..' 535 

Mallory, Asa 536 

Mallory, Clayton 536 

Mallory, Ellas 537 

Miller, H. C 538 


Parsell, A. D 715 

Richner, J. B 715 

Rysn, Robert. 716 

Sams, David 717 

Shaff stall, Nathaniel 717 

Shank, N. C 718 

Spangle, Henry 718 

Sqniers, C. S 719 

Siayner, Periy 719 

Twichell, Jonas, Jr 720 

Mugs;, Thomas 530 

Pereing, L. P .538 

Shutts, H. C 538 

Touslev, Joseph 530 

Ward, D. C 539 

Wheaton, Daniel 539 

Wilder, J. H 539 

McNelt, Jacob 510 i Slllabaugh, Elias 515 

Partridge, A Win 511 LSmith, Hezekiah 515 

Patterson, Adam 513 

Pocock, Levi 512 

Salisbury, C. D 513 

Schneider, C. F 514 


Crain, L. H 823 

Davie, D. H 822 

Parnum, G. R 823 

Faruum,Q.V 823 

Fee, John 824 

Pifer, Lewis 825 

Gilbert, J. A 835 

Griffith, B. P 826 

Griffith, John 827 

Griffith, Capt. Lewis 827 

Humphreys, R. H 828 

Ingalle, W. R 829 

Jackman, Robert 830 

Jackson, Andrew 830 

Jackson, Edwin 831 

Johnson, E. C 832 

Johnson, James 832 

Keyeb-, W. H e33 

Lemmon, Clay 834 

Lemmon, D. R 836 


Fast, Christian 676 

Ferrier, William . .. .676 

Frey gang, Herman 678 

Goodale, Orville 678 

Green, George 679 

Hathaway,!!. P 679 

Hinwood, Peter 680 

Hcff,J. B 681 

Johnson, R.H 681 

Kemery, lirael 682 

Legg,T. E 683 

Loug, A. W 684, James 684 

Macartney, Francis 685 

Palireyman, William 686 

Phenicie, D. L 687 


Douglas, John 859 

Gaskill, Melvin 860 

Uoadley, E. B 860 

Ireland, James, Sr 861 

Llut, J. S 862 

Money, Albert 863 

Morley, R. G 864 

Spear, Rev. E. R 516 

Thomson, W. W 516 

Wilder, G. K 516 

Wilder, Orlando 517 

Lininger, John 836 

Markley, Jonas 837 

Pelre, Chrictopher 838 

Reuner, K. G 839 

Rummel, Henry 840 

Ruu.mel, George 840 

Sauxter, Christopher 841 

Sewell, Andrew 841 

SiBson, L. P 843 

Slaybaugh, Isaac 843 

'Smith, L. 0-. 843 

Sweet, Hiram 844 

Switt,G. W 845 

Thomas, J. W 845 

Thomae, Rev. Jonathan 847 

Wtjlberry, G. H 847 

Williams, E. B 848 

Zimmer, Peter 849 

Poland, G.W 688 

Scoville, David 689 

Sesur, J. A 690 

Wowle, A. W. A 690 

Sowle, Francis 691 

Snyder, A. J 693 

Stealy, Lewis 693 

Slevens, Francis 693 

Voorhecs, J. S 694 

Ward, Ancil 694 

Waugh, J. E 695 

Welch, Rawson 695 

Wiggins, Endress 696 

Wiggins, Nathan 696 

Williams, L. R 696 

Musser, W. A 864 

Omstead, A. H 865 

Scoville, S. W 866 

Scoville, W. D 867 

Waller, Garrett 867 



Bodley, L.N 737 

Brown, Charles 737 

Brown, S. W 738 

Brugli, Lcander 738 

Butler, II. P. &M. B 789 

Butler, .S. S 740 

Clink, Charles 741 

Conkliu, Calvin 741 

Oifflnbaugh, Abraham ... .742 

Emersouj Avery 74^ 

Fereusoii, Samuel 744 

Fisher, David 741 

FuUerton, Alexander 74.i 

Gilles-pie, D. S 74."> 

Goneor, Moses 74() 

GunsauUus, E. D 74ti 

Brown, Eobert 63(5 

Carpenter, Urial 636 

Covell.L. G 637 

Ewiu?. A. H ,63S 

Ewing, F. U H38 

Folck, J. K ()39 

Abbey, J. I> 771 

Aldrith, K. .S 773 

Ball, Julius 773 

Ball, A. V 773 

Birr, S.imuel 774 

BrooUs, George 775 

Carter, Samuel 776 

Chadvvick, F. H 777 

Charlton, William 777 

Clink, JohM 778 

Closson, G. W 778 

Grain, J. M 7S8 

Crampton, William 779 

CrOiion, Hiram 779 

Barron, Elmns L 602 

Barron, Fayette 603 

Boyer, Harmon 603 

Brooks, Willinni 604 

Couri. O. A 604 

Dunham Chester 60.") 

Duoliam, Lorenzo 60.") 

>;ilinti, J.C 1)06 

Elliott, S. H 607 

Elli*, H. D 60S 

Ferrier, John tiOH 

Frot^t, Leverett 60H 

Frost, Solomon 6(9 

Giliicrt, W. S 610 


Haines, E. Ti 747 

Hammond, A. K 748 

Harpster, John 748 

Hay ward, Francis 748 

Ketch uni, Joseph 749 

Kimmel, J. R 7."i0 

Kimsey. W. E 7.')0 

Kirlin, John 750 

Lewis, Ha:vey 751 

Loughrey, John 7.'>2 

McLBiu,L.N 752 

Noll, Samuel 753 

Parker, Samuel 754 

Sams, Abdalla 755 

Shade, Christopher 7.55 

Shade, Marion ,..756 


Gasser, Benedict 639 

Gilford, Anauiah 640 

Goddard, R. H 640 

Greeuamyer, Jesse 641 

Harmon, L. D 611 

tiutchin8;Nelson t)42 


Deller, Aaron 780 

Gardner, I. A 781 

Gaylord, D. W 781 

iieorge, Capt. S. B 782 

Gilbert, D. S 783 

Harpham, John, Sr 784 

Harpham, John, Jr 784 

Hottinnii, Daniel 785 

Huffman, A. F 785 

Jackson, Tlieophilas 786 

Lacy.N. M 787 

Lacy. T, S 787 

Lochwood, J. S 788 

Menges, Samuel 789 


Gundnim, Larry. .. 610 i 

Gundrum, Michael 611 

Hall, W. II 612 

Ueadloy, John 612 1 

Hemry Charles 613 

His.R.B 613 

Johnson, G. W 614 

Knieely, J, B 614 

Mitchell, W^.R 615 

Musser, J. F 616 

Phillips, A. C 616 

Porter, J. W 617 

Porter, S. D 617 

Powers, Calvin 618 

ShafEstall, Adam 7."6 

Shaffstall, Franklin 757 

Shaffstall, J. A 758 

Shields, Jesse 7.58 

Stover, Georg(» 7.59 

Stover, Samu 1 759 

Strawser, G. W 76() 

Sutherland, A. J 760 

Tubbs, Leroy 761 

Wagner, J. H 761 

Wilson, John 761 

Wisel, Otis 762 

Whysong, J. C 763 

Wright, Hhcry 764 

Wright, M. F 765 

Jones, J. W 613 

Jonts, Ziba H43 

Sharitl, John 644 

Segur, C. A 644 

Tasker, Thomas 645 

Murray, G. S 7t*9 

Ritter, Henry 789 

Ritter, Pi.ilip 790 

Robertson, Cyrus 79u 

Simmons, J. C 7'91 

•Smith, Isaiah 791 

Snyder, Jo: n 792 

Tuttle, C. V 793 

Van rt uken, F. B 794 

Van Auken, J. II 796 

Van All ken, Nancy 800 

Williams, S. R 803 

Wiusor, Ab;.er 80 » 

Wolf, William 805 

Powers, C.P 619 

Powers, Hon. Clark 620 

Powers, G. R 621 

Powers, J. Clark C'i2 

Powers, Myron 623 

Powers, S .' A 623 

Powers, Winn 626 

Rose, M. F 627 

Rummel, D. P, 628 

SattisoD, J ohn 629 

•Souder, G. A 629 

Weiss, W. L 6:',0 

Wicoff, William 630 


Carpenter, H J 818 

(;lark, Gen. Geo. Rogers... E3 
Early Explorers of Indiana 

Territory ... 25 

nioros;iyphiC8 of the Mound 

Builders 29 

Hunting Prairie Wolves 191 

Indians Attacking Front- 
ier-men 43 

Ma'> of Steuben County.. ..245 

McConuell, G. W 433 

Opening an Indiana Forest. 123 

Pioneer Dwelling 179 

Scene on the Ohio River.... 233 

Scene on the Wabash 145 

Tecumseh 109 

The Shawnee Prophet 88 

Van Anken.J. II 796 

Van Auken, Nancy 7's)7 

Vertical Section of the 
Rocks 257 

^ m> ^ 






Scientists have ascribed to the Mound Builders varied origins^ 
and though their divergence of opinion may for a time seem incom- 
patible with a thorough investigation of the subject, and tend to 
a confusion of ideas, no doubt whatever can exist as to the compar- 
ative accuracy of conclusions arrived at by some of them. Like 
the vexed question of the Pillar Towers of Ireland, it has caused 
much speculation, and elicited the opinions of so many learned 
antiquarians, ethnologists and travelers, that it will not be found 
beyond the range of possibility to make deductions that may 
suflSce to solve the problem who were the prehistoric settlers of 
America. To achieve this it will not be necessary to go beyond the 
period over which Scripture history extends, or to indulge in those 
airy flights of imagination so sadly identified with occasional 
writers of even the Christian school, and all the accepted literary 
exponents of modern paganism. 

That this continent is co-existent with the world of the ancients 
cannot be questioned. Every investigation, instituted under the 
auspices of modern civilization, confirms the fact and leaves no 
channel open through which the skeptic can escape the thorough 
refutation of his opinions. China, with its numerous living testi- 
monials of antiquity, with its ancient, though limited literature 
and its Babelish superstitions, claims a continuous history from 
antediluvian times; but although its continuity may be denied 
with every just reason, there is nothing to prevent the transmission 
of a hieroglyphic record of its history prior to 1656 anno mundi, 
since many traces of its early settlement survived the Deluge, and 
became sacred objects of the first historical epoch. This very sur- 
vival of a record, such as that of which the Chinese boast, is not 
at variance with the designs of a God who made and ruled the 
universe; but that an antediluvian people inhabited this continent. 





will not be claimed; because it is not probable, though it may be 
possible, that a settlement in a land which may be considered a 
portion of the Asiatic continent, was eifected bj the immediate 
followers of the first progenitors of the human race. Therefore, on 
entering the study of the ancient people who raised these tumu- 
lus monuments over large tracts of the country, it will be just 
sufficient to wander back to that time when the flood-gates of 
lieaven were swung open to hurl destruction on a wicked world; 
and in doing so the inquiry must be based on legendary, or rather 
upon many circumstantial evidences; for, so far as written narra- 
tive extends, there is nothing to show that a movement of people 
too far east resulted in a Western settlement. 


The first and most probable sources in which the origin of the 
Builders must be sought, are those countries lying along the east- 
ern coast of Asia, which doubtless at that time stretched far bevond 
its present limits, and presented a continuous shore from Lopatka 
to Point Cambodia, holding a population comparatively civilized, 
and all professing some elementary form of the Boodhism of later 
days. Those peoples, like the Chinese of the present, were bound 
to live at home, and probably observed that law until after the con- 
fusion of languages and the dispersion of the builders of Babel in 
1757, A. M. ; but subsequently, within the following century, the 
old Mongolians, like the new, crossed the great ocean in the very 
paths taken by the present representatives of the race, arrived on 
the same shores, which now extend a very questionable hospitality 
to them, and entered at once upon the colonization of the country 
south and east, while the Caucasian race engaged in a similar move- 
ment of exploration and colonization over what may be justly 
termed the western extension of Asia, and both peoples growing 
stalwart under the change, attained a moral and physical eminence 
to which they never could lay claim under the tropical sun which 
shed its beams upon the cradle of the human race. 

That mysterious people who, like the Brahmins of to-day, wor- 
shiped some transitory deity, and in after years, evidently embraced 
tlie idealization of Boodhism, as preached in Mongolia early in the 
35th century of the world, together with acquiring the learning of 
the Confucian and Pythagorean schools of the same period, spread 
all over the land, and in their numerous settlements erected these 
raths, or mounds, and sacrificial altars whereon they received their 





periodical visiting gods, surrendered their bodies to natural absorp- 
tion or annihilation, and watched for the return of some transmi- 
grated soul, the while adoring the universe, which with all beings 
they believed would be eternally existent. They possessed religious 
orders corresponding in external show at least with the Essenes or 
Theraputse of the pre-Christian and Christian epochs, and to the 
reformed Theraputae or monks of the present. Every memento 
of their coming and their stay which has descended to us is an evi- 
dence of their civilized condition. The free copper found within 
the tumuli ; the open veins of the Superior and Iron Mountain 
copper-mines, with all the modus operandi of ancient mining, such 
as ladders, levers, chisels, and hammer-heads, discovered by the 
French explorers of the jSTorthwest and the Mississippi, are conclu- 
sive proofs that those prehistoric people were highly civilized, and 
that many flourishing colonies were spread throughout the Missis- 
sippi valley, while yet the mammoth, the mastodon, and a hundred 
other animals, now only known by their gigantic fossil remains, 
guarded the eastern shore of the continent as it were against sup- 
posed invasions of the Tower Builders who went west from Babel; 
while yet the beautiful isles of the Antilles formed an integral 
portion of this continent, long years before the European l!Torthman 
dreamed of setting forth to the discovery of Greenland and the 
northern isles, and certainly at a time when all that portion of 
America north of latitude 45* was an ice-incumbered waste. 

Within the last few years great advances have been made toward 
the discovery of antiquities whether pertaining to remains of organic 
or inorganic nature. Together with many small, but telling 
relics of the early inhabitants of the country, the fossils of pre- 
historic animals have been unearthed from end to end of the land, 
and in districts, too, long pronounced by geologists of some repute 
to be without even a vestige of vertebrate fossils. Among the 
collected souvenirs of an age about which so very little is known, 
are twenty-five vertebrae averaging thirteen inches in diameter, 
and three vertebrae ossified together measure nine cubical feet; a 
thigh-bone five feet long by twenty-eight, by twelve inches in 
diameter, and the shaft fourteen by eight inches thick, the entire 
lot weighing 600 lbs. These fossils are presumed to belong to the 
cretaceous period, when the Dinosaur roamed over the country from 
East to West, desolating the villages of the people. This animal 
is said to have been sixty feet long, and when feeding in cypress 
and palm forests, to extend himself eighty-five feet, so that he may 




devour the budding tops of those great trees. Other efforts in this 
direction may lead to great results, and culminate probably in the 
discovery of a tablet engraven by some learned Mound Builder, 
describing in the ancient hieroglyphics of China all these men and 
beasts whose history excites so much speculation. The identity of 
the Mound Builders with the Mongolians might lead us to hope 
for such a consummation; nor is it beyond the range of probability, 
particularly in this practical age, to find the future labors of some 
industrious antiquarian requited by the upheaval of a tablet, written 
in the Tartar characters of lYOO years ago, bearing on a subject 
which can now be treated only on a purely circumstantial basis. 


may have begun a few centuries prior to the Christian era, and 
unlike the former expedition or expeditions, to have traversed north- 
eastern Asia to its Arctic confines, and then east to the narrow 
channel now known as Behring's Straits, which they crossed, and 
sailing up the unchanging Yukon, settled under the shadow of 
Mount St. Elias for many years, and pushing South commingled 
with their countrymen, soon acquiring the characteristics of the 
descendants of the first colonists. Chinese chronicles tell of such 
a people, who went North and were never heard of more. Circum- 
stances conspire to render that particular colony the carriers of a 
new religious faith and of an alphabetic system of a representative 
character to the old colonists, and they, doubtless, exercised a most 
beneficial influence in other respects ; because the influx of immi- 
grants of such culture as were the Chinese, even of that remote 
period, must necessarily bear very favorable results, not only in 
bringing in reports of their travels, but also accounts from the 
fatherland bearing on the latest events. 

With the idea of a second and important exodus there are many 
theorists united, one of. whom says: "It is now the generally 
received opinion that the first inhabitants of America passed over 
from Asia through these straits. The number of small islands 
lying between both continents renders this opinion still more 
probable; and it is yet farther confirmed by some remarkable traces 
of similarity in the physical conformation of the northern natives 
of both continents. The Esquimaux of North America, the 
Samoieds of Asia, and the Laplanders of Europe, are supposed to 
be of the same family; and this supposition is strengthened by the 
affinity which exists in their languages. The researches of Hum- 






boldt have traced the Mexicans to the vicinity of Behring's Straits; 
whence it is conjectured that they, as well as the Peruvians and 
other tribes, came originally from Asia, and were the Hiongnoos, 
who are, in the Chinese annals, said to have emigrated under Puno, 
and to have been lost in the North of Siberia." 

Since this theory is accepted by most antiquaries, there is every 
reason to believe that from the discovery of what may be called an 
overland route to what was then considered an eastern extension of 
that country which is now known as the " Celestial Empire," many 
caravans of emigrants passed to their new homes in the land of 
illimitable possibilities until the way became a well-marked trail 
over which the Asiatic might travel forward, and having once 
entered the Elysian fields never entertained an idea of returning. 
Thus from generation to generation the tide of immigration poured 
in until the slopes of the Pacific and the banks of the great inland 
rivers became hives of busy industry. Magnificent cities and 
monuments were raised at the bidding of the tribal leaders and 
populous settlements centered with happy villages sprung up 
everywhere in manifestation of the power and wealth and knowl= 
edge of the people. The colonizing Caucasian of the historic 
period walked over this great country on the very ruins of a civil- 
ization which a thousand years before eclipsed all that of which he 
could boast. He walked through the wilderness of the West over 
buried treasures hidden under the accumulated growth of nature, 
nor rested until he saw, with great surprise, the remains of ancient 
pyramids and temples and cities, larger and evidently more beauti- 
ful than ancient Egypt could bring forth after its long years of 
uninterrupted history. The pyramids resemble those of Egypt in 
exterior form, and in some instances are of larger dimensions. The 
pyramid of Cholula is square, having each side of its base 1,335 
feet in length, and its height about 172 feet. Another pyramidj 
situated in the north of Vera Cruz, is formed of large blocks 
of highly-polished porphyry, and bears upon its front hiero- 
glyphic inscriptions and curious sculpture. Each side of its 
square base is 82 feet in length, and a flight of 57 steps conducts to 
its summit, which is 65 feet in height. The ruins of Palenque are 
said to extend 20 miles along the ridge of a mountain, and the 
remains of an Aztec city, near the banks of the river Gila, are 
spread over more than a square league. Their literature consisted 
of hieroglyphics; but their arithmetical knowledge did not extend 
farther than their calculations by the aid of grains of corn. Yet, 

-J ® 




notwithstanding all their varied accomplishments, and they were 
evidently many, their notions of religious duty led to a most demo- 
niac zeal at once barbarously savage and ferociously cruel. Each 
visiting, god instead of bringing new life to the people, brought 
death to thousands; and their grotesque idols, exposed to drown 
the senses of the beholders in fear, wrought wretchedness rather 
than spiritual happiness, until, as some learned and humane Monte- 
zumian said, the people never approached these idols without fear, 
and this fear was the great animating principle, the great religious 
motive power which sustained the terrible religion. Their altars 
were sprinkled with blood drawn from their own bodies in large 
quantities, and on them thousands of human victims were sacri- 
ficed in honor of the demons whom they worshiped. The head 
and heart of every captive taken in war were offered up as a bloody 
sacrifice to the god of battles, while the victorious legions feasted 
on the remaining portions of the dead bodies. It has been ascer- 
tained that during the ceremonies attendant on the consecration of 
two of their temples, the number of prisoners offered up in sacri- 
fice was 12,210; while their own legions contributed voluntary 
victims to the terrible belief in large numbers. Nor did this 
horrible custom cease immediately after 1521, when Cortez entered 
the imperial city of the Montezumas; for, on being driven from 
it, all his troops who fell into the hands of the native soldiers were 
subjected to the most terrible and prolonged suffering that could be 
experienced in this world, and when about to yield up that spirit 
which is indestructible, were offered in sacrifice, their hearts and 
heads consecrated, and the victors allowed to feast on the yet warm 

A reference is made here to the period when the Montezumas 
ruled over Mexico, simply to gain a better idea of the hideous 
idolatry which took the place of the old Boodhism of the Mound 
Builders, and doubtless helped in a great measure to give victory 
to the new comers, even as the tenets of Mahometanism urged the 
ignorant followers of the prophet to the conquest of great nations. 
It was not the faith of the people who built the mounds and the 
pyramids and the temples, and who, 200 years before the Christian 
era, built the great wall of jealous China. No : rather was it that 
terrible faith born of tlie Tartar victory, which carried the great 
defenses of China at the point of the javelin and hatchet, who 
afterward marched to the very walls of Rome, under Alaric, and 




spread over the islands of Polynesia to the Pacific slopes of South 


came there, and, like the pure Mongols of Mexico and the Missis- 
sippi valley, rose to a state of civilization bordering on that attained 
by them. Here for centuries the sons of the fierce Tartar race con- 
tinued to dwell in comparative peace until the all-ruling ambition 
of empire took in the whole country from the Pacific to the Atlan- 
tic, and peopled the vast territory watered by the Amazon with a 
race that was destined to cojiquer all the peoples of the Orient, 
and only to fall before the march of the arch-civilizing Caucasian. 
In course of time those fierce Tartars pushed their settlements 
northward, and ultimatelv entered the territories of the Mound 
Builders, putting to death all who fell within their reach, and 
causing the survivors of the death-dealing invasion to seek a refuge 
from the hordes of this semi-barbarous people in the wilds and fast- 
nesses of the North and JSTorthwest. The beautiful country of the 
Mound Builders was now in the hands of savage invaders, the quiet, 
industrious people who raised the temples and pyramids were gone; 
and the wealth of intelligence and industry, accumulating for ages, 
passed into the possession of a rapacious horde, who could admire 
it only so far as it ofifered objects for plunder. Even in this the 
invaders were satisfied, and then having arrived at the height of 
their ambition, rested on their swords and entered upon the luxury 
and ease in the enjoyment of which they were found when the van- 
guard of European civilization appeared upon the scene. Mean- 
time the southern countries which those adventurers abandoned 
after having completed their conquests in the North, were soon 
peopled by hundreds of people, always moving from island to 
island and ultimately halting amid the ruins of villages deserted 
by those who, as legends tell, had passed eastward but never returned; 
and it would scarcely be a matter for surprise if those emigrants 
were found to be the progenitors of that race found by the Spaniards 
in 1532, and identical with the Araucanians, Cuenches and Huil- 
tiches of to-day. 


One of the most brilliant and impartial historians of the Republic 
stated that the valley of the Mississippi contained no monuments. 
So far as the word is entertained now, he was literally correct, but 





in some hasty effort neglected to qualify his sentence by a refer- 
ence to the numerous relics of antiquity to be found throughout 
its length and breadth, and so exposed his chapters to criticism. 
The valley of the Father of Waters, and indeed the country from 
the trap rocks of the Great Lakes southeast to the Gulf and south- 
west to Mexico, abound in tell-tale monuments of a race of people 
much farther advanced in civilization than the Montezumas of the 
sixteenth century . The remains of walls and fortifications found 
in Kentucky and Indiana, the earthworks of Vincennes and 
throughout the valley of the "Wabash, the mounds scattered over 
Alabama, Florida, Georgia and Virginia, and those found in Illi- 
nois, Wisconsin and Minnesota, are all evidences of the univer- 
sality of the Chinese Mongols and of their advance toward a com- 
parative knowledge of man and cosmology. At the mouth of 
Fourteen-Mile creek, in Clark county, Indiana, there stands one of 
these old monuments known as the "-Stone Fort." It is an 
unmistakable heirloom of a great and ancient people, and must 
have formed one of their most important posts. The State Geolo- 
gist's report, filed among the records of the State and furnished 
by Prof. Cox, says: "At the mouth of Fourteen-Mile creek, and 
about three miles from Charleston, the county-seat of Clark county, 
there is one of the most remarkable stone fortifications which has 
ever come under my notice. Accompanied by my assistant, Mr. 
Borden, and a number of citizens of Charleston, I visited the 'Stone 
Fort' for the purpose of making an examination of it. The locality 
selected for this fort presents many natural advantages for making 
it impregnable to the opposing forces of prehistoric times. It 
occupies the point of an elevated narrow ridge which faces the 
Ohio river on the east and is bordered by Fourteen-Mile creek on 
the west side. This creek empties into the Ohio a short distance 
below the fort. The top of the ridge is pear-shaped, with the 
part answering to the neck at the north end. This part is not 
over twenty feet wide, and is protected by precipitous natural walls 
of stone. It is 280 feet above the level of the Ohio river, and the 
slope is very gradual to the south. At the upper field it is 240 feet 
high and one hundred steps wide. At the lower timber it is 120 
feet high. The bottom land at the foot of the south end is sixty 
feet above the river. Along the greater part of the Ohio river 
front there is an abrupt escarpment rock, entirely too steep to be 
scaled, and a similar natural barrier exists along a portion of the 
northwest side of the ridge, facing the creek. This natural wall 




is joined to the neck of an artificial wall, made by piling up, mason 
fashion but without mortar, loose stone, which had evidently been 
pried up from the carboniferous layers of rock. This made wall, at 
this point, is about 150 feet long. It is built along the slope of the 
hill and had an elevation of about 75 feet above its base, the upper 
ten feet being vertical. The inside of the wall is protected by a 
ditch. The remainder of the hill is protected by an artificial stone 
wall, built in the same manner, but not more than ten feet high. 
The elevation of the side wall above the creek bottom is 80 feet. 
Within the artificial walls is a string of mounds which rise to the 
height of the wall, and are protected from the washing of the hill- 
sides by a ditch 20 feet wide and four feet deep. The position of 
the artificial walls, natural clifiPs of bedded stone, as well as that of 
the ditch and mounds, are well illustrated. The top of the enclosed 
ridge embraces ten or twelve acres, and there are as many as five 
mounds that can be recognized on the flat surface, while no doubt 
many others existed which have been obliterated by time, and 
though the agency of man in his eflforts to cultivate a portion of 
the ground. A trench was cut into one of these mounds in search 
of relics. A few fragments of charcoal and decomposed bones, and 
a large irregular, diamond-shaped boulder, with a small circular 
indentation near the middle of the upper part, that was worn quite 
smooth by the use to which it had been put, and the small pieces 
of fossil coral, comprised all the articles of note which were revealed 
by the excavation. The earth of which the mound is made resem- 
bles that seen on the hillside, and was probably in most part taken 
from the ditch. The margin next to the ditch was protected by 
slabs of stone set on edge, and leaning at an angle corresponding to 
the slope of the mound. This stone shield was two and one-half 
feet wide and one foot high. At intervals along the great ditch 
there are channels formed between the mounds that probably served 
to carry off the surplus water through openings in the outer wall. 
On the top of the enclosed ridge, and near its narrowest part, there 
is one mound much larger than any of the others, and so situated 
as to command an extensive view up and down the Ohio river, as well 
as affording an unobstructed view east and west. This is designated 
as ' Look-out Mound.' There is near it a slight break in the cliff 
of rock, which furnished a narrow passage way to the Ohio river. 
Though the locality afforded many natural advantages for a fort or 
stronghold, one is compelled to admit that much skill was displayed 
and labor expended in making its defense as perfect as possible at 




all points. Stone axes, pestles, arrow-heads, spear-points, totums, 
charms and flint flakes have been found in great abundance in 
plowing the field at the foot of the old fort." 

From the " Stone Fort " the Professor turns his steps to Posey 
county, at a point on the Wabash, ten miles above the mouth, 
called "Bone Bank," on account of the number of human bones 
continually washed out from the river bank. " It is," he states 
"situated in a bend on the left bank of the river; and the ground 
is about ten feet above high-water mark, being the only land along 
this portion of the river that is not submerged in seasons of high 
water. The bank slopes gradually back from the river to a slough. 
This slough now seldom contains water, but no doubt at one time 
it was an arm of the "Wabash river, which flowed around the Bone 
Bank and afl'orded protection to the island home of the Mound 
Builders. The Wabash has been changing its bed for many years, 
leaving a broad extent of newly made land on the right shore, and 
gradually making inroads on the left shore by cutting away the 
Bone Bank. The stages of growth of land on the right bank of the 
river are well defined by thecottonwood trees, which increase in size 
as you go back from the river. Unless there is a change in the cur- 
rent of the river, all trace of the Bone Bank will be obliterated. 
Already within the memory of the white inhabitants, the bank has 
been removed to the width of several hundred yards. As the bank 
is cut by the current of the river it loses its support, and when the 
water sinks it tumbles over, carrying with it the bones of the 
Mound Builders and the cherished articles buried with them. No 
locality in the country furnishes a greater number and variety of 
relics than this. It has proved especially rich in pottery of 
quaint design and skillful workmanship. I have a number of jugs 
and pots and a cup found at the Bone Bank. This kind of work 
has been very abundant, and is still found in snch quantities that 
we are led to conclude that its manufacture formed a leading indus- 
try of the inhabitants of the Bone Bank. It is not in Europe 
alone that we find a well-founded claim of high antiquity for the 
art of making hard and durable stone by a mixture of clay, lime, 
sand and stone; for I am convinced that this art was possessed by 
a race of people who inhabited this continent at a period so remote 
that neither tradition nor history can furnish any account of them. 
They belonged to the Neolithic, or polished-stone, age. They lived 
in towns and built mounds for sepulture and worship and pro- 
tected their homes by surrounding them with walls of earth and r 

, g I ' _ ■ — - rr^ 




stone. In some of these mounds specimens of various kinds of 
pottery, in a perfect state of preservation, have from time to time 
been found, and frap^raents are so common that every student of 
archaeology can have a bountiful supply. Some of these fragments 
indicate vessels of very great size. At the Saline springs of Gal- 
latin I picked up fragments that indicated, by their curvature, ves- 
sels five to six feet in diameter, and it is probable they are frag- 
ments of artificial stone pans used to hold brine that was manufac- 
tured into salt by solar evaporation. 

" Now, all the pottery belonging to the Mound Builders' age, 
which I have seen, is composed of alluvial clay and sand, or a mix- 
ture of the former with pulverized fresh-water shells. A paste 
made of such a mixture possesses, in high degree, the properties of 
hydraulic Puzzuoland and Portland cement, so that vessels formed 
of it hardened without being burned, as is customary with modern 

The Professor deals very aptly with this industry of the aborig- 
ines, and concludes a very able disquisition on the Bone Bank in 
its relation to the prehistoric builders. 


The great circular redoubt or earth-work found two miles west ot 
the village of New Washington, and the " Stone Fort," on a ridge 
one mile west of the village of Deputy, ofier a subject for the anti- 
quarian as deeply interesting as any of the monuments of a 
decayed empire so far discovered. 



From end to end of Indiana there are to be found many other rel- 
ics of the obscure past. Some of them have been unearthed and now 
appear among the collected antiquities at Indianapolis. The highly 
finished sandstone pipe, the copper ax, stone axes, flint arrow-heads 
and magnetic plummets found a few years ago beneath the soil of 
Cut- Off Island near New Harmony, together with the pipes of rare 
workmanship and undoubted age, unearthed near Covington, all 
live as it were in testimony of their owner's and maker's excel- 
lence, and hold a share in the evidence of the partial annihilation 
of a race, with the complete disruption of its manners, customs 
and industries; and it is possible that when numbers of these relics 
are placed together, a key to the phonetic or rather hieroglyphic 
system of that remote period might be evolved. 

It may be asked what these hieroglyphical characters really are. 
Well, they are varied in form, so much so that the pipes found in 
the mounds of Indians, each bearing a distinct representation of 
some animal, may be taken for one species, used to represent the 
abstract ideas of the Mound Builders. The second form consists 
of pure hieroglyphics or phonetic characters, in which the sound is 
represented instead of the object; and the third, or painted form of 
the first, conveys to the mind that which is desired to be repre- 
sented. This form exists among the Cree Indians of the far North- 
west, at present. They, when departing from their permanent vil- 
lages for the distant hunting grounds, paint on the barked trees in 
the neighborhood the figure of a snake or eagle, or perhaps huskey 
dog; and this animal is supposed to guard the position until the 
warrior's return, or welcome any friendly tribes that may arrive 
there in the interim. In the case of the Mound Builders, it is un- 
likely that this latter extreme was resorted to, for the simple reason 
that the relics of their occupation are too high in the ways of art to 
tolerate such a barbarous science of language; but the sculptured 
pipes and javelins and spear-heads of the Mound Builders may be 
taken as a collection of graven images, each conveying a set of 
ideas easily understood, and perhaps sometimes or more generally 
used to designate the vocation, name or character of the owner. 
That the builders possessed an alphabet of a phonetic form, and 
purely hieroglyphic, can scarcely be questioned; but until one or 
more of the unearthed tablets, which bore all or even a portion of 
such characters, are raised from their centuried graves, the mystery 
which surrounds this people must remain, while we must dwell in 
a world of mere suecujation. 


.\h ^ "> dL 



Vigo, Jasper, Sullivan, Switzerland and Ohio counties can boast 
of a most liberal endowment in this relation; and when in other 
days the people will direct a minute inquiry, and penetrate to the 
very heart of the thousand cones which are scattered throughout 
the land, they may possibly extract the blood in the shape of metal- 
lic and porcelain works, with liieroglyphic tablets, while leaving 
the form of heart and body complete to entertain and delight un- 
born generations, who in- their time will wonder much when they 
learn that an American people, living toward the close of the 59th 
century, could possibly indulge in such an anachronism as is im- 
plied in the term "New World." 


The origin of the Red Men, or American Indians, is a subject 
which interests as well as instructs. It is a favorite with the eth- 
nologist, even as it is one of deep concern to the ordinary reader. 
A review of two works lately published on the origin of the Indians 
treats the matter in a peculiarly reasonable light. It says: 

" Recently a German writer has put forward one theory on the 
subject, and an English writer has put forward another and directly 
opposite theory. The difference of opinion concerning our aborig- 
inals among authors who have made a profound study of races is at 
once curious and interesting. Blumenbach treats them in his 
classifications as a distinct variety of the human family; but, in the 
threefold division of Dr. Latham, they are ranked among theMon- 
golidse. Other writers on race regard them as a branch of the great 
Mongolian family, which at a distant period found its way from 
Asia^to this continent, and remained here for centuries separate 
from the rest of mankind, passing, meanwhile, through divers 
phases of barbarism and civilization. Morton, our eminent eth- 
nologist, and his followers, Nott and Gliddon, claim for our native 
Red Men an origin as distinct as the flora and fauna of this conti- 
nent. Prichard, whose views are apt to differ from Morton's, finds 
reason to believe, on comparing the American tribes together, that 
they must have formed a separate department of nations from the 
earliest period of the world. The era of their existence as a distinct 
and insulated people must probably be dated back to the time 
which separated into nations the inhabitants of the Old World, and 
gave to each its individuality and primitive language. Dr. Robert 
Brown, the latest authority, attributes, in his " Races of Mankind," 
an Asiatic origin to our aboriginals. He says that the Western In- 
dians not only personally resemble their nearest neighbors — the 
Northeastern Asiatics— but they resemble them in language and 
traditions. The Esquimaux on the American and the Tchuktchis 
on the Asiatic side understand one another perfectly. Modern an- 

c — ■ 

- * 


thropologists, indeed, are disposed to think that Japan, the Kuriles, 
and neighboring regions, may be regarded as the original home of 
the greater part of the native American race. It is also admitted 
by them that between the tribes scattered from the Arctic sea to 
Cape Horn there is more uniformity of physical features than is 
seen in any other quarter of the globe. The weight of evidence 
and authority is altogether in favor of the opinion that our so- 
called Indians are a branch of the Mongolian family, and all addi- 
tional researches strengthen the opinion. The tribes of both Korth 
and South America are unquestionably homogeneous, and, in all 
likelihood, had their origin in Asia, though they have been altered 
and modified by thousands of years of total separation from the 
parent stock." 

The conclusions arrived at by the reviewer at that time, though 
safe, are too general to lead the reader to form any definite idea on 
the subject. No doubt whatever can exist, when the American In- 
dian is regarded as of an Asiatic origin; but there is nothing in the 
works or even in the review, to which these works were subjected, 
which might account for the vast difference in manner and form 
between the Hed Man, as he is now known, or even as he appeared 
to Columbus and his successors in the field of discovery, and the 
comparatively civilized inhabitants of Mexico, as seen in 1521 by 
Cortez, and of Peru, as witnessed by Pizarro in 1532. The fact is 
that the pure bred Indian of the present is descended directly 
from the earliest inhabitants, or in other words from the survivors 
of that people who, on being driven from their fair possessions, re- 
tired to the wilderness in sorrow and reared up their children under 
the saddening influences of their unquenchable griefs, bequeathing 
them only the habits of the wild, cloud-roofed home of their de- 
clining years, a sullen silence, and a rude moral code. In after 
years these wild sons of the forest and prairie grew in numbers and 
in strength. Some legend told them of their present sufferings, of 
the station which their fathers once had known, and of the riotous 
race which now reveled in wealth which should be theirs. The 
fierce passions of the savage were aroused, and uniting their scat- 
tered bands marched in silence upon the villages of the Tartars, 
driving them onward to the capital of their Incas, and consigning 
their homes to the flames. Once in view of the great city, the 
hurrying bands halted in surprise; but Tartar cunning took in the 
situation and offered pledges of amity, which were sacredly ob- 
served. Henceforth Mexico was open to the Indians, bearing pre- 
cisely the same relation to them that the Hudson's Bay Company's 



villages do to the Northwestern Indians of the present; obtaining 
all, and bestowing very little. The subjection of the Mongolian 
race represented in North America by that branch of it to which 
the Tartars belonged, represented in the Southern portion of the con- 
tinent, seems to have taken place some five centuries before the 
advent of the European, while it may be concluded that the war of 
the races which resulted in reducing the villages erected by the 
Tartar hordes to ruin took place between one and two hundred 
years later. These statements, though actually referring to events 
which in point of time are comparatively modern, can only be sub- 
stantiated by the facts that, about the periods mentioned the dead 
bodies of an unknown race of men were washed ashore on the Eu- 
ropean coasts, while previous to that time there is no account 
whatever in European annals of even a vestige of trans-Atlantic hu- 
manity being transferred by ocean currents to the gaze of a won- 
dering people. Towards the latter half ot the 15th century two 
dead bodies entirely free from decomposition, and corresponding 
with the Red Men as they afterward appeared to Columbus, were 
cast on the shores of the Azores, and confirmed Columbus in his be- 
lief in the existence of a western world and western people. 

Storm and flood and diseatie have created sad havoc in the ranks 
of the Indian since the occupation of the country by the white man. 
These natural causes have conspired to decimate the race even more 
than the advance of civilization, which seems not to aflfect it to any 
material extent. In its maintenance of the same number of rep- 
resentatives during three centuries, and its existence in the very 
face of a most unceremonious, and, whenever necessary, cruel con- 
quest, the grand dispensations of the unseen Ruler of the universe 
is demonstrated; for, without the aborigines, savage and treach- 
erous as they were, it is possible that the explorers of former times 
would have so many natural difficulties to contend with, that their 
work would be surrendered in despair, and the most fertile regions 
of the continent saved for the plowshares of generations yet un- 
born. It is questionable whether we owe the discovery of this con- 
tinent to the unaided scientific knowledge of Columbus, or to the 
dead bodies of the two Indians referred to above; nor can their ser- 
vices to the explorers of ancient and modern times be over-esti- 
mated. Their existence is embraced in the plan of the Divinity 
for the government of the world, and it will not form subject for 
surprise to learn that the same intelligence which sent a thrill of 
liberty into every corner of the republic, will, in the near future, 


\ Q ^ i • v>- 


devise some method under which the remnant of a great and an- 
cient race may taste the sweets of public kindness, and feel that, 
after centuries of turmoil and tyranny, they have at last found a 
shelter amid a sympathizing people. Many have looked at the In- 
dian as the pessimist does at all things; they say that he was never 
formidable until the white man supplied him with the weapons of 
modern warfare; but there is no mention made of his eviction from 
his retired home, and the little plot of cultivated garden which 
formed the nucleus of a village that, if fostered instead of being 
destroyed, might possibly hold an Indian population of some im- 
portance in the economy of the nation. There is no intention what- 
ever to maintain that the occupation of this country by the favored 
races is wrong even in principle; for where any obstacle to advanc- 
ing civilization exists, it has to fall to the ground; but it may be 
said, with some truth, that the white man, instead of a policy of 
conciliation formed upon the power of kindness, indulged in bel- 
ligerency as impolitic as it was unjust. A modern writer says, 
when speaking of the Indian's character: "He did not exhibit that 
steady valor and efficient discipline of the American soldier; and 
to-day on the plains Sheridan's troopers would not hesitate to 
attack the bravest band, though outnumbered three to one." This 
piece of information applies to the European and African, as well 
as to the Indian. The American soldier, and particularly the 
troopers referred to, would not fear or shrink from a very legion of 
demons, even with odds against them. This mode of warfare seems 
strangely peculiar when compared with the military systems of 
civilized countries; yet, since the main object of armed men is to 
defend a country or a principle, and to destroy anything which may 
oppose itself to them, the mode of warfare pursued by the savage 
will be found admirably adapted to their requirements in this con- 
nection, and will doubtless compare favorably with the systems of 
the Afghans and Persians of the present, and the Caucasian people 
vf the first historic period. 


The art of hunting not only supplied the Indian with food, but, 
like that of war, was a means of gratifying his love of distinction. 
The male children, as soon as they acquired sufficient age and 
strength, were furnished with a bow and arrow and taught to shoot 
birds and other small game. Success in killing a large quadruped 
required years of careful study and practice, and the art was as 




sedulously inculcated in the minds of the rising generation as are 
the elements of reading, writing and arithmetic in the common 
schools of civilized communities. The mazes of the forest and the 
dense, tall grass of the prairies were the best fields for the exercise 
of the hunter's skill. No feet could be impressed in the yielding 
soil but that the tracks were the objects of the most searching 
scrutiny, and revealed at a glance the animal that made them, the 
direction it was pursuing, and the time that had elapsed since it 
had passed. In a forest country he selected the valleys, because 
they were most frequently the resort of game. The most easily 
taken, perhaps, of all the animals of the chase was the deer. It is 
endowed with a curiosity which prompts it to stop in its flight and 
look back at the approaching hunter, who always avails himself of 
this opportunity to let fly the fatal arrow. 

Their general councils were composed of the chiefs and old men. 
When in council, they usually sat in concentric circles around the 
speaker, and each individual, notwithstanding the fiery passions 
that rankled within, preserved an exterior as immovable as if cast 
in bronze. Before commencing business a person appeared with 
the sacred pipe, and another with fire to kindle it. After being 
lighted it was first presented to heaven, secondly to the earth, 
thirdly to the presiding spirit, and lastly the several councilors, 
each of whom took a whiff". These formalities were observed with 
as close exactness as state etiquette in civilized courts. 

The dwellings of the Indians were of the simplest and rudest 
character. On some pleasant spot by the bank of a river, or near 
an ever-running spring, they raised their groups of wigwams, con- 
structed of the bark of trees, and easily taken down and removed 
to another spot. The dwelling-places of the chiefs were sometimes 
more spacious, and constructed with greater care, but of the same 
materials. Skins taken in the chase served them for repose. 
Though principally dependent upon hunting and fishing, the 
uncertain supply from those sources led them to cultivate small 
patches of corn. Every family did everything necessary within 
itself, commerce, or an interchange of articles, being almost unknown 
to them. In cases of dispute and dissension, each Indian relied 
upon himself for retaliation. Blood for blood was the rule, and 
the relatives of the slain man were bound to obtain bloody revenge 
for his death. This principle gave rise, as a matter of course, to 
innumerable and bitter feuds, and wars of extermination where such 
were possible. War, indeed, rather than peace, was the Indian's 


— 1 (Ci 


glory and delight, — war, not conducted as civilization, but war 
where individual skill, endurance, gallantry and cruelty were prime 
requisites. For such a purpose as revenge the Indian would make 
great sacrifices, and display a patience and perseverance truly heroic; 
but when the excitement was over, he sank back into a listless, un- 
occupied, well-nigh useless savage. During the intervals of his 
more exciting pursuits, the Indian employed his time in decorating 
his person with all the refinement of paint and feathers, and in the 
manufacture of his arms and of canoes. These were constructed of 
bark, and so light that they could easily be carried on the shoulder 
from stream to stream. His amusements were the war-dance, ath- 
letic games, the narration of his exploits, and listening to the ora- 
tory of the chiefs; but during long periods of such existence he 
remained in a state of torpor, gazing listlessly upon the trees of 
the forests and the clouds that sailed above them ; and this vacancy 
imprinted an habitual gravity, and even melancholy, upon his gen- 
eral deportment. 

The main labor and drudgery of Indian communities fell upon 
the women. The planting, tending and gathering of the crops, 
making mats and baskets, carrying burdens, — in fact, all things of 
the kind were performed by them, thus making their condition but 
little better than that of slaves. Marriage was merely a matter of 
bargain and sale, the husband giving presents to the father of the 
bride. In general they had but few children. They were sub- 
jected to many and severe attacks of sickness, and at times famine 
and pestilence swept away whole tribes. 




The State of Indiana is bounded on the east bj the meridian line 
which forms also the western boundary of Ohio, extending due 
north from the mouth of the Great Miami river; on the south by 
the Ohio river from the mouth of the Great Miami to the mouth 
of the "Wabash; on the west by aline drawn along the middle of 
the "Wabash river from its mouth to a point where a due north 
line from the town of Vincennes would last touch the shore of said 
river, and thence directly north to Lake Michigan; and on the north 
by said lake and an east and west line ten miles north of the ex- 
treme south end of the lake, and extending to its intersection with 
the aforesaid meridian, the west boundary of Ohio. These bound- 
aries include an area of 33,809 square miles, lying between 37° 
47' and 41° 50' north latitude, and between 7° 45' and 11° 1' west 
longitude from "Washington. 

After tlie discovery of America by Columbus in 1492, more than 
150 years passed away before any portion of the territory now com- 
prised within the above limits was explored by Europeans. Colo- 
nies were established in Florida, Virginia and Nova Scotia by the 
principal rival governments of Europe, but not until about 1670-'2 
did the first white travelers venture as far into the Northwest as 
Indiana or Lake Michigan. These explorers were Frenchmen by 
the names of Claude Allouez and Claude Dablon, who then visited 
what is now the eastern part of "Wisconsin, the northeastern portion 
of Illinois and probably that portion of this State north of the Kan- 
kakee river. In the following year M. Joliet, an agent of the 
French Colonial government, and James Marquette, a good and 
simple-hearted missionary who had his station at Mackinaw, ex- 
plored the country about Green Bay, and along Fox and "Wiscon- 
sin rivers as far westward as the Mississippi, the banks of which 
they reached June 17, 1673. They descended this river to about 
33° 40', but returned by way of the Illinois river and the route 
they came in the Lake Region. At a village among the Illinois In- 
dians, Marquette and his small band of adventurers were received 





in a friendly manner and treated hospitably. They were made the 
honored guests at a great feast, where hominy, fish, dog meat and 
roast buffalo meat were spread before them in great abundance. In 
1682 LaSalle explored the "West, but it is not known that he entered 
the region now embraced within the State of Indiana. He took 
formal possession, however, of all the Mississippi region in the 
name of the King of France, in whose honor he gave all this Mis- 
sissippi region, including what is now Indiana, the name " Louisi- 
ana." Spain at the same time laid claim to all the region about 
the Gulf of Mexico, and thus these two great nations were brought 
into collision. But the country was actually held and occupied by 
the great Miami confederacy of Indians, the Miamis proper (an- 
ciently the Twightwees) being the eastern and most powerful tribe. 
Their territory extended strictly from the Scioto river west to the 
Illinois river. Their villages were few and scattering, and their 
occupation was scarcely dense enough to maintain itself against in- 
vasion. Their settlements were occasionally visited by Christian 
missionaries, fur traders and adventurers, but no body of white men 
made any settlement sufficiently permanent for a title to national 
possession. Christian zeal animated France and England in mis- 
sionary enterprise, the former in the interests of Catholicism and 
the latter in the interests of Protestantism. Hence their haste to 
preoccupy the land and proselyte the aborigines. No doubt this 
ugly rivalry was often seen by Indians, and they refused to be 
proselyted to either branch of Christianity . 

The " Five Nations," farther east, comprised the Mohawks, 
Oneidas, Cayugas, Onondaguas and Senecas. In 1677 the number 
of warriors in this confederacy was 2,150. About 1711 the Tusca- 
roras retired from Carolina and joined the Iroquois, or Five Na- 
tions, which, after that event, became known as the " Six Nations." 
In 1689 hostilities broke out between the Five Nations and the 
colonists of Canada, and the almost constant wars in which France 
was engaged until the treaty of Eyswick in 1697 combined to 
check the grasping policy of Louis XIY., and to retard the plant- 
ing of French colonies in the Mississippi valley. Missionary efforts, 
however, continued with more failure than success, the Jesuits 
allying themselves with the Indians in habits and customs, even 
encouraging inter-marriage between them and their white fol- 






The Wabash was first named by the French, and spelled by them 
Ouabache. This river was known even before the Ohio, and was 
navigated as the Ouabache all the way to the Mississippi a long time 
before it was discovered that it was a tributary of the Ohio (Belle 
Riviere). In navigating the Mississippi they thought they passed 
the mouth of the Ouabache instead of the Ohio. In traveling from 
the Great Lakes to the south, the French always went by the way of 
the Ouabache or Illinois. 


Francois Morgan de Yinsenne served in Canada as early as 1720 
in the regiment of " De Carrignan " of the French service, and 
again on the lakes in the vicinity of Sault Ste. Marie in the same 
service under M. de Vaudriel, in 1725. It is possible that his ad- 
vent to Yincennes may have taken place in 1732; and in proof of 
this the only record is an act of sale under the joint names of him- 
self and Madame Yinsenne, the daughter of M. Philip Longprie, 
and dated Jan. 5, 1735. This document gives his military position 
as commandant of the post of Ouabache in the service of the French 
King. The will of Longprie, dated March 10, same year, bequeaths 
him, among other things, 408 pounds of pork, which he ordered to 
be kept safe until Yinsenne, who was then at Ouabache, returned 
to Kaskaskia. 

There are many other documents connected with its early settle- 
ment by Yinsenne, among which is a receipt for the 100 pistoles 
granted him as his wife's marriage dowry. In 1736 this officer was 
ordered to Charlevoix by D'Artagette, viceroy of the King at New 
Orleans, and commandant of Illinois. Here M. St. Yinsenne re- 
ceived his mortal wounds. The event is chronicled as follows, in 
the words of D'Artagette: " We have just received very bad news 
from Louisiana, and our war with the Chickasaws. The French 
have been defeated. Among the slain is M. de Yinsenne, who 
ceased not until his last breath to exhort his men to behave worthy 
of their faith and fatherland." 

Thus closed the career of this gallant officer, leaving a name 
which holds as a remembrancer the present beautiful town of Yin- 
cennes, changed from Yinsenne to its present orthography in 1749. 

Post Yincennes was settled as early as 1710 or 1711. In a letter 
from Father Marest to Father Germon, dated at Kaskaskia, Nov. 9, 
1712, occurs this passage: "Xes Francois itoieiit itabli -an fort sur 



) \ 



lefleuve Ouabache / ih deinanderent un missionaire / et le Pere 
Mermet leur fat envoy e. Ce Pere crut devoir travailler a la 
conversion des Mascoutens qui avoient fait un village sur les 
bords dumeme jleuve. Cest une nation Indians qui entend la 
langue mi/noise." Translated: " The French have established a 
fort upon the river "Wabash, and want a missionary; and Father 
Mermet has been sent to them. That Father believes he should 
labor 'for the conversion of the Mascoutens, who have built a vil- 
lage on the banks of the same river. They are a nation of Indians 
who understand the language of the Illinois." 

Mermet was therefore the first preacher of Christianity in this 
part of the world, and his mission was to convert the Mascoutens, 
a branch of the Miamis. "The way I took," says he, " was to con- 
found, in the presence of the whole tribe, one of these charlatans 
[medicine men], whose Manitou, or great spirit which he wor- 
shiped, was the buffalo. After leading him on insensibly to the 
avowal that it was not the buffalo that he worshiped, but the Man- 
itou, or spirit, of the buffalo, which was under the earth and ani- 
mated all buffaloes, which heals the sick and has all power, I asked 
him whether other beasts, the bear for instance, and which one of 
bis nation worshiped, was not equally inhabited by a Manitou, 
which was under the earth. ' Without doubt,' said the grand medi- 
cine man. ' If this is so,' said I, ' men ought to have a Manitou 
who inhabits them.' ' Nothing more certain,' said he. ' Ought 
not that to convince you,' continued I, ' that you are not very 
reasonable? For if man upon the earth is the master of all animals, 
if he kills them, if he eats them, does it not follow that the Mani- 
tou which inhabits him must have a mastery over all other Mani- 
tous? Why then do you not invoke him instead of the Manitou 
of the bear and the buffalo, when you are sick?' This reasoning 
disconcerted the charlatan. But this was all the effect it 

The result of convincing these heathen by logic, as is generally 
the case the world over, was only a temporary logical victory, and 
no change whatever was produced in the professions and practices 
of the Indians. 

But the first Christian (Catholic) missionary at this place whose 
name we find recorded in the Church annals, was Meurin, in 1849. 

The church building used by these early missionaries at Yin- 
cennes is thus described hy the " oldest inhabitants:" Fronting on 
Water street and running back on Church street, it was a plain 


building with a rou^h exterior, of upright posts, chinked and 
daubed, with a rough coat of cement on the outside; about 20 feet 
wide and 60 long; one story high, with a small belfry and an equally 
small bell. It was dedicated to St. Francis Xavier. This spot is 
now occupied by a splendid cathedral. 

Yincennes has ever been a stronghold of Catholicism. The 
Church there has educated and sent out many clergymen of her 
faith, some of whom have become bishops, or attained other high 
positions in ecclesiastical authority. 

Almost contemporaneous with the progress of the Church at 
Vincennes was a missionary work near the mouth of the Wea river, 
among the Ouiatenons, but the settlement there was broken up in 
early day. 



Soon after the discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi by La- 
Salle in 1682, the government of France began to encourage the 
policy of establishing a line of trading posts and missionary 
stations extending through the West from Canada to Louisiana, 
and this policy was maintained, with partial success, for about 75 
years. The traders persisted in importing whisky, which cancelled 
nearly every civilizing influence that could be brought to bear upon 
the Indian, and the vast distances between posts prevented that 
strength which can be enjoyed only by close and convenient inter- 
communication. Another characteristic of Indian nature was to 
listen attentively to all the missionary said, pretending to believe 
all he preached, and then offer in turn his theory of the world, of 
religion, etc., and because he was not listened to with the same 
degree of attention and pretense of belief, would go off disgusted. 
This was his idea of the golden rule. 

The river St. Joseph of Lake Michigan was called " the river 
Miamis" in 1679, in which year LaSalle built a small fort on its 
bank, near the lake shore. The principal station of the mission 
for the instruction of the Miamis was established on the borders of 
this river. The first French post within the territory of the 
Miamis was at the mouth of the river Miamis, on an eminence 
naturally fortified on two sides by the river, and on one side by a 



—I /£> 


deep ditch made by a fall of water. It was of triangular form. 
The missionary Hennepin gives a good description of it, as he was 
one of the company who built it, in 1679. Says he: " We fell the 
trees that were on the top of the hill; and having cleared the same 
from bushes for about two musket shot, we began to build a 
redoubt of 80 feet long and 40 feet broad, with great square pieces 
of timber laid one upon another, and prepared a great number of 
stakes of about 25 feet long to drive into the ground, to make our 
fort more inaccessible on the riverside. We employed the whole 
month of November about that work, which was very hard, though 
we had no other food but the bear's flesh our savage killed. These 
beasts are very common in that place because of the great quantity 
of grapes they find there; but their flesh being too fat and luscious, 
our men began to be weary of it and desired leave to go a hunting 
to kill some wild goats. M. LaSalle denied them that liberty, 
which caused some murmurs among them; and it was but unwill- 
ingly that they continued their work. This, together with the 
approach of winter and the apprehension that M. LaSalle had that 
his vessel (the Griffin) was lost, made him very melancholy, though 
he concealed it as much as he could. We made a cabin wherein 
we performed divine service every Sunday, and Father Gabriel and 
I, who preached alternately, took care to take such texts as were 
suitable to our present circumstances and fit to inspire us with 
courage, concord and brotherly love. * * * The fort was at 
last perfected, and called Fort Miamis." 

In the year 1711 the missionary Chardon, who was said to be 
very zealous and apt in the acquisition of languages, had a station 
on the St. Joseph about 60 miles above the mouth. Charlevoix, 
another distinguished missionary from France, visited a post on 
this river in 1721. In a letter dated at the place, Aug. 16, he says: 
" There is a commandant here, with a small garrison. His house, 
which is but a very sorry one^ is called the fort, from its being sur- 
rounded with an indifierent palisado, which is pretty near the case 
in all the rest. We have here two villages of Indians, one of the 
Miamis and the other of the Pottawatomies, both of them mostly 
Christians; but as they have been for along time without any pas- 
tors, the missionary who has been lately sent to them will have no 
small difficulty in bringing them back to the exercise of their re- 
ligion." He speaks also of the main commodity for which the lut 
dians would part with their goods, namely, spirituous liquors, 
which they drink and keep drunk upon as long as a supply lasted. 





, 4^ 



More than a century and a half has now passed since Charlevoix 
penned the above, without any change whatever in this trait of In- 
dian character. 

In 1Y65 the Miami nation, or confederacy, was composed of four 
tribes, whose total number of warriors was estimated at only 1,050 
men. Of these about 250 were Twightwees, or Miamis proper, 
300 Weas, or Ouiatenons,300 Piankeshaws and 200 Shockeys; and 
at this time the principal villages of the Twightwees were situated 
about the head of the Maumee river at and near the place where 
Fort Wayne now is. The larger Wea villages were near the banks 
of the Wabash river, in the vicinity of the Post Ouiatenon ; and 
the Shockeys and Piankeshaws dwelt on the banks of the Vermil- 
lion and on the borders of the Wabash between Yincennes and 
Ouiatenon. Branches of the Pottawatomie, Shawnee, Delaware and 
Kickapoo tribes were permitted at different times to enter within 
the boundaries of the Miamis and reside for a while. 

The wars in which France and England were engaged, from 1688 
to 1697, retarded the growth of the colonies of those nations in 
North America, and the efforts made by France to connect Canada 
and the Gulf of Mexico by a chain of trading posts and colonies 
naturally excited the jealousy of England and gradually laid the 
foundation for a struggle at arms. After several stations were estab- 
lished elsewhere in the West, trading posts were started at the 
Miami villages, which stood at the head of the Maumee, at the Wea 
villages about Ouiatenon on the Wabash, and at the Piankeshaw vil- 
lages about the present sight of Yincennes. It is probable that before 
the close of the year 1Y19, temporary trading posts were erected at the 
sites of Fort Wayne, Ouiatenon and Yincennes. These points were 
probably often visited by French fur traders prior to 1700. In the 
meanwhile the English people in this country commenced also to 
establish military posts west of the Alleghanies, and thus matters 
went on until they naturally culminated in a general war, which, 
being waged by the French and Indians combined on one side, was 
called " the French and Indian war." This war was terminated in 
1763 by a treaty at Paris, by which France ceded to Great Britain 
all of North America east of the Mississippi except New Orleans 
and the island on which it is situated; and indeed, France had the 
preceding autumn, by a secret convention, ceded to Spain all the 
country west of that river. 






In 1Y62, after Canada and its dependencies had been surrendered 
to the English, Pontiac and his partisans secretly organized a pow- 
erful confederacy in order to crush at one blow all English power 
in the West. This great scheme was skillfully projected and cau- 
tiously matured. 

The principal act in the programme was to gain admittance into 
the fort at Detroit, on pretense of a friendly visit, with short- 
ened muskets concealed under their blankets, and on a given signal 
suddenly break forth upon the garrison; but an inadvertent remark 
of an Indian woman led to a discovery of the plot, which was con- 
sequently averted. Pontiac and his warriors afterward made many 
attacks upon the English, some of which were successful, but the 
Indians were finally defeated in the general war. 


In 1765 the total number of French families within the limits of 
the Northwestern Territory did not probably exceed 600. These 
were in settlements about Detroit, along the river Wabash and the 
neighborhood of Fort Chartres on the Mississippi. Of these fami- 
lies, about 80 or 90 resided at Post Yincennes, 14 at Fort Ouiate- 
non, on the Wabash, and nine or ten at the confluence of the St. 
Mary and St. Joseph rivers. 

The colonial policy of'the British government opposed any meas- 
ures which might strengthen settlements in the interior of this 
country, lest they become self-supporting and independent of the 
mother country; hence the early and rapid settlement of the North- 
western territory was still further retarded by the short-sighted 
selfishness of England. That fatal policy consisted mainly in hold- 
ing the land in the hands of the government and not allowing it to 
be subdivided and sold to settlers. But in spite of all her efforts 
in this direction, she constantly made just such efforts as provoked 
the American people to rebel, and to rebel successfully, which was 
within 15 years after the perfect close of the French and Indian 


Thomas Jefferson, the shrewd statesman and wise Governor of 
Yirginia, saw from the first that actual occupation of Western lands 
was the only way to keep them out of the hands of foreigners and 



Indians. Therefore, directly after the conquest of Yincennes by 
Clark, be engaged a scientific corps to proceed under an escort to 
the Mississippi, and ascertain by celestial observations the point 
on that river intersected by latitude 36° 30', the southern limit of 
the State, and to measure its distance to the Ohio. To Gen. Clark 
was entrusted the conduct of the military operations in that quar- 
ter. He was instructed to select a strong position near that point 
and establish there a fort and garrison ; thence to extend his conquests 
northward to the lakes, erecting forts at different points, which 
might serve as monuments of actual possession, besides affording 
protection to that portion of the country. Fort "Jefferson" was 
erected and garrisoned on the Mississippi a few miles above the 
southern limit. 

The result of these operations was the addition, to the chartered 
limits of Virginia, of that immense region known as the " North- 
western Territory." The simple fact that such and such forts were 
established by the Americans in this vast region convinced the Brit- 
ish Commissioners that we had entitled ourselves to the land. But 
where are those " monuments " of our power now? 


As a striking example of the inhuman treatment which the early 
Indians were capable of giving white people, we quote the follow 
ing blood-curdling story from Mr. Cox' " Recollections of the 
Wabash Yalley": 

On the 11th of February, 1781, a wagoner named Irvin Hinton 
was sent from the block-house at Louisville, Ky., to Harrodsburg 
for a load of provisions for the fort. Two young men, Richard 
Rue and George Holraan, aged respectively 19 and 16 years, were 
sent as guards to protect the wagon from the depredations of any 
hostile Indians who might be lurking in the cane-brakes or ravines 
through which they must pass. Soon after their start a severe 
snow-storm set in which lasted until afternoon. Lest the melting 
snow might dampen the powder in their rifles, the guards fired 
them off, intending to reload them as soon as the storm ceased. 
Hinton drove the horses while Rue walked a few rods ahead and 
Holman about the same distance behind. As they ascended a hill 
about eight miles from Louisville Hinton heard some one say "VVlioa 
to the horses. Supposing that something was wrong about the 
wagon, he stopped and asked Holman why he had called him to 
halt. Holman said that he had not spoken; Rue also denied it, 



but said that he had heard the voice distinctly. At this time a voice 
cried out, " I will solve the mystery for you; it was Simon Girty that 
cried Whoa, and he meant what he said," — at the same time emerg- 
ing from a sink-hole a few rods from the roadside, followed by 13 
Indians, who immediately surrounded the three Kentuckians and 
demanded them to surrender or die instantly. The little party, 
making a virtue of necessity, surrendered to this renegade white 
man and his Indian allies. 

Being so near two forts, Girty made all possible speed in making 
fast his prisoners, selecting the lines and other parts of the harness, 
he prepared for an immediate flight across the Ohio. The panta- 
loons of the prisoners were cut off about four inches above the 
knees, and thus they started through the deep snow as fast as the 
horses could trot, leaving the wagon, containing a few empty bar- 
rels, standing in the road. They continued their march for sev- 
eral cold days, without fire at night, until they reached Wa-puc-ca- 
nat-ta, where they compelled their prisoners to run the gauntlet as 
they entered the village. Hinton first ran the gauntlet and reached 
the council-house after receiving several severe blows upon the head 
and shoulders. Rue next ran between the lines, pursued by an 
Indian with an uplifted tomahawk. He far outstripped his pursuer 
and dodged most of the blows aimed at him. Holman complaining 
that it was too severe a test for a worn-out stripling like himself, 
was allowed to run between two lines of squaws and boy s, and was 
followed by an Indian with a long switch. 

The first council of the Indians did not dispose of these young 
men; they were waiting for the presence of other chiefs and war- 
riors. Hinton escaped, but on the afternoon of the second day he 
was re-captured. Now the Indians were glad that they had an 
occasion to indulge in the infernal joy of burning him at once. 
Soon after their supper, which they shared with their victim, they 
drove the stake into the ground, piled up the fagots in a circle 
around it, stripped and blackened the prisoner, tied him to the 
stake, and applied the torch. It was a slow fire. The war-whoop 
then thrilled through the dark surrounding forest like the chorus 
of a band of infernal spirits escaped from pandemonium, and the 
scalp dance was struck up by those demons in human shape, who 
for hours encircled their victim, brandishing their tomahawks and 
war clubs, and venting their execrations upon the helpless sufferer, 
who died about midnight from the effects of the slow heat. As 
soon as he fell upon the ground, the Indian who first discovered 




him in the woods that evening sprang in, sunk his tomahawk into 
his skull above the ear, and with his knife stripped off the scalp, 
which he bore back with him to the town as a trophy, and which 
was tauntingly thrust into the faces of Rue and Holman, with the 
question, " Can you smell the fire on the scalp of your red-headed 
friend? We cooked him and left him for the wolves to make a 
breakfast upon; that is the way we serve runaway prisoners." 

After a march of three days more, the prisoners, Rue and Hol- 
man, had to run the gauntlets again, and barely got through with 
their lives. It was decided that they should both be burned at the 
stake that night, though this decision was far from being unani- 
mous. The necessary preparations were made, dry sticks and 
brush were gathered and piled around two stakes, the faces 
and hands of the doomed men were blackened in the customary 
manner, and as the evening approached the poor wretches sat look- 
ing upon the setting sun for the last time. An unusual excitement 
was manifest in a number of chiefs who still lingered about the 
council-house. At a pause in the contention, a noble-looking In- 
dian approached the prisoners, and after speaking a few words to 
the guards, took Holman by the hand, lifted him to his feet, cut the 
cords that bound him to his fellow prisoners, removed the black from 
his face and hands, put his hand kindly upon his head and said: " I 
adopt you as my son, to till the place of the one I have lately buried ; 
you are now a kinsman of Logan, the white man's friend, as he has 
been called, but who has lately proven himself to be a terrible 
avenger of the wrongs inflicted upon him by the bloody Cresap and 
his men." With evident reluctance, Girt}' interpreted this to Hol- 
man, who was thus unexpectedly freed. 

But the preparations for the burning of Rue went on. Holman 
and Rue embraced each other most affectionately, with a sorrow too 
deep for description. Rue was then tied to one of the stakes; but 
the general contention among the Indians had not ceased. Just as 
the lighted fagots were about to be applied to the dry brush piled 
around the devoted youth, a tall, active young Shawnee, a son of 
the victim's captor, sprang into the ring, and cutting the cords 
which bound him to the stake, led him out amidst the deafening 
plaudits of a part of the crowd and the execrations of the rest. Re- 
gardless of threats, he caused water to be brought and the black to 
be washed from the face and hands of the prisoner, whose clothes 
were then returned to him, when the young brave said: " I take 
this young man to be my brother, in the place of one I lately lost;, 





I loved that brother well; I will love this one, too; my old mother 
■will be glad when I tell her that I have brought her a son, in place 
of the dear departed one. We want no more victims. The burning 
of Ked-head [Hinton] ought to satisfy us. These innocent young 
men do not merit such cruel fate; I would rather die myself than 
see this adopted brother burned at the stake." 

A loud shout of approbation showed that the young Shawnee had 
triumphed, though dissension was manifest among the various 
tribes afterward. Some of them abandoned their trip to Detroit, 
others returded to Wa-puc-ca-nat-ta, a few turned toward the Mis- 
sissinewa and the Wabash towns, while a portion continued to De- 
troit. Ilolman was taken back to Wa-puc-ca-nat ta, where he re- 
mained most of the time of his captivity. Rue was taken first to 
the Mississinewa, then to the Wabash towns. Two years of his 
eventful captivity were spent in the region of the Wabash and Illi- 
nois rivers, but the last few months at Detroit; was in captivity 
altogether about three years and a half. 

Rue effected his escape in the following manner: During one of 
the drunken revels of the Indians near Detroit one of them lost a 
purse of $90; various tribes were suspected of feloniously keeping 
the treasure, and much ugly speculation was indulged in as to who 
was the thief. At length a prophet of a tribe that was not suspected 
was called to divine the mystery. He spread sand over a green 
deer-skin, watched it awhile and performed various manipulations, 
and professed to see that the money had been stolen and carried 
away by a tribe entirely different from any that had been 
suspicioned; but he was shrewd enough not to announce who the 
thief was or the tribe he belonged to, lest a war might arise. His 
decision quieted the belligerent uprisings threatened by the excited 

Rue and two other prisoners saw this display of the prophet's 
skill and concluded to interrogate him soon concerning their fami- 
lies at home. The opportunity occurred in a few days, and the In- 
dian seer actually astonished Rue with the accuracy with which he 
described his family, and added, "You all intend to make your 
escape, and you will effect it soon. Ton will meet with many trials 
and hardships in passingover so wild a district of country, inhabited 
by so many hostile nations of Indians. You will almost starve to 
death; but about the time you have given up all hope of finding 
game to sustain you in your famished condition, succor will come 
when you least expect it. The first game you will succeed in taking 





will be a male of some kind; after that you will have plenty of 
game and return home in safety." 

The prophet kept this matter a secret for the prisoners, and the 
latter in a few days set off upon their terrible journey, and had 
just such experience as the Indian prophet had foretold; they 
arrived home with their lives, but were pretty well worn out with the 
exposures and privations of a three weeks' journey. 

On the return of Holman's party of Indians to Wa-puc-ca-nat-ta, 
much dissatisfaction existed in regard to the manner of his release 
from the sentence of condemnation pronounced against him by the 
council. Many were in favor of recalling the council and trying 
him again, and this was finally agreed to. The young man was 
again put upon trial for his life, with a strong probability of his 
being condemned to the stake. Both parties worked hard for vic- 
tory in the final vote, which eventually proved to give a majority of 
one for the prisoner's acquittal. 

"While with the Indians, Holman saw them burn at the stake a 
Kentuckian named Richard Hogeland, who had been taken prisoner 
at the defeat of Ool. Crawford. They commenced burning him at 
nine o'clock at night, and continued roasting him until. ten o'clock 
the next day, before he expired. During his excruciating tortures he 
begged for some of them to end his life and sufferings with a gun 
or tomahawk. Finally his cruel tormentors promised they would, 
and cut several deep gashes in his flesh with their tomahawks, and 
shoveled up hot ashes and embers and threw them into the gaping 
wounds. When he was dead they stripped off his scalp, cut him 
to pieces and burnt him to ashes, which they scattered through the 
town to expel the evil spirits from it. 

After a captivity of about three years and a half, Holman saw an 
opportunity of going on a mission for the destitute Indians, namely, 
of going to Harrodsburg, Ky., where he had a rich uncle, from 
whom they could get what supplies they wanted. They let him go 
with a guard, but on arriving at Louisville, where Gen. Clark was 
in command, he was ransomed, and he reached home only three 
days after the arrival of Rue. Both these men lived to a good old 
age, terminating their lives at their home about two miles south of 
Richmond, Ind. 





In the summer of 1778, Col. George Rogers Clark, a native of 
Albemarle county, Ya., led a memorable expedition against the 
ancient French settlements about Kaskaskia and Post Vincennes. 
With respect to the magnitude of its design, the valor and perse- 
verance with which it was carried on, and the memorable results 
which were produced by it, this expedition stands without a parallel 
in the early annals of the valley of the Mississippi. That portion 
of the West called Kentucky was occupied by Henderson & Co., 
who pretended to own the land and who held it at a high price. 
Col. Clark wished to test the validity of their claim and adjust the 
government of the country so as to encourage immigration. He 
accordingly called a meeting of the citizens at Harrodstown, to 
assemble June 6, 1776, and consider the claims of the company and 
consult with reference to the interest of the country. He did not 
at first publish the exact aim of this movement, lest parties would 
be formed in advance and block the enterprise; also, if the object 
of the meeting were not announced beforehand, the curiosity of the 
people to know what was to be proposed would bring out a much 
greater attendance. 

The meeting was held on the day appointed, and delegates were 
elected to treat with the government of Virginia, to see whether 
it would be best to become a county in that State and be protected 
by it, etc. Various delays on account of the remoteness of the 
white settlers from the older communities of Virginia and the hos- 
tility of Indians in every direction, prevented a consummation of 
this object until some time in 1778. The government of Virginia 
was friendly to Clark's enterprise to a certain extent, but claimed 
that they had not authority to do much more than to lend a little 
assistance for which payment should be made at some future time, 
as it was not certain whether Kentucky would become a part of Vir- 
ginia or not. Gov. Henry and a few gentlemen were individually 
so hearty in favor of Clark's benevolent undertaking that they 
assisted him all they could. Accordingly Mr. Clark organized his 
expedition, keeping every particular secret lest powerful parties 
would form in the West against him. He took in stores at Pitts- 









burg and "Wheeling, proceeded down the Ohio to the " Falls," 
where he took possession of an island of a about seven acres, and 
divided it among a small number of families, for whose protection 
he constructed some light fortifications. At this time Post Yin- 
cennes comprised about 400 militia, and it was a daring undertak- 
ing for Col. Clark, with his small force, to go up against it and Kas- 
kaskia, as he had planned. Indeed, some of his men, on hearing of 
his plan, deserted him. He conducted himself so as to gain the 
sympathy of the French, and through them also that of the 
Indians to some extent, as both these people were very bitter 
against the British, who had possession of the Lake Region. 

From the nature of the situation Clark concluded it was best to 
take Kaskaskia first. The fact that the people regarded him as a 
savage rebel, he regarded as really a good thing in his favor; for 
after the first victory he would show them so much unexpected 
lenity that they would rally to his standard. In this policy he was 
indeed successful. He arrested a few men and put them in irons. 
The priest of the village, accompanied by five or six aged citizens, 
waited on Clark and said that the inhabitants expected to be separ- 
ated, perhaps never to meet again, and they begged to be permitted 
to assemble in their church to take leave of each other. Clark 
mildly replied that he had nothing against their religion, that they 
might continue to assemble in their church, but not venture out of 
town, etc. Thus, by what has since been termed the "Rarey" 
method of taming horses, Clark showed them he had power over 
them but designed them no harm, and they readily took the oath 
of allegiance to Virginia. 

After Clark's arrival at Kaskaskia it was difficult to induce the 
French settlers to accept the "Continental paper" introduced by 
him and his troops. Nor until Col. Yigo arrived there and guar- 
anteed its redemption would they receive it. Peltries and piastres 
formed the only currency, and Yigo found great difficulty in ex- 
plaining Clark's financial arrangements. "Their commandants 
never made money," was the reply to Yigo's explanation of the 
policy of the old Dominion. But notwithstanding the guarantees, 
the Continental paper fell very low in the market. Yigo had a 
trading establishment at Kaskaskia, where he sold cofffee at one 
dollar a pound, and all the other necessaries of life at an equally 
reasonable price. The unsophisticated Frenchmen were generally 
asked in what kind of money they would pay their little bills. 




"Douleur," was the general reply; and as an authority on the sub 
ject says, "It took about twenty Continental dollars to purchase a 
silver dollar's worth of coffee; and as the French word "douleur" sig- 
nifies grief or pain, perhaps no word either in the French or Eng- 
lish languages expressed the idea more correctly than the douleur 
for a Continental dollar. At any rate it was truly douleur to the 
Colonel, for he never received a single dollar in exchange for the 
large amount taken from him in order to sustain Clark's credit. 

Now, the post at Vincennes, defended by Fort Sackville, came 
next. The priest just mentioned, Mr. Gibault, was really friendly 
to "the American interest;" he had spiritual charge of the church 
at Yincennes, and he with several others were deputed to assemble 
the people there and authorize them to garrison their own fort like 
a free and independent people, etc. This plan had its desired effect, 
and the people took the oath of allegiance to the State of Virginia 
and became citizens of the United States. Their style of language 
and conduct changed to a better hue, and they surprised the numer- 
ous Indians in the vicinity by displaying anew flag and informing 
them that their old father, the King of France, was come to life 
again, and was mad at them for fighting the English; and they ad- 
vised them to make peace with the Americans as soon as they 
could, otherwise they might expect to make the land very bloody, 
etc. The Indians concluded they would have to fall in line, and 
they offered no resistance. Capt. Leonard Helm, an American, 
was left'in charge of this post, and Clark began to turn his atten- 
tion to other points. But before leaving this section of the coun- 
try he made treaties of peace with the Indians; this he did, how- 
ever, by a different method from what had always before been 
followed. By indirect methods he caused them to come to him, 
instead of going to them. He was convinced that inviting them to 
treaties was considered by them in a different manner from what 
the whites expected, and imputed them to fear, and that giving 
them great presents confirmed it. He accordingly established 
treaties with the Piankeshaws, Ouiatenons, Kickapoos, Illinois, 
Kaskaskias, Peorias and branches of some other tribes that inhab- 
ited the country between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi. 
Upon this the General Assembly of the State of Virginia declared 
all the citizens settled west of the Ohio organized into a county of 
that State, to be known as " Illinois " county ; but before the pro- 
visions of the law could be carried into effect, Henry Hamilton, the 
British Lieutenant-Governor of Detroit, collected an army of about 







30 reofulars, 50 French volunteers and 400 Indians, went down and 
re-took the post Yincennes in December, 1778. No attempt was 
made by the population to defend the town. Capt. Helm and a 
man named Henry were the only Americans at the fort, the only 
members of the garrison. Capt. Helm was taken pi'isoner and a 
number of the French inhabitants disarmed. 

Col. Clark, hearing of the situation, determined to re-capture the 
place. He accordingly gathered together what force he could in 
this distant land, 170 men, and on the 5th of February, started from 
Kaskaskia and crossed the river of that name. The weather was 
very wet, and the low lands were pretty well covered with water. 
The march was difficult, and the Colonel bad to workhard to keep 
his men in spirits. He suffered them to shootgame whenever they 
wished and eat it like Indian war-dancers, each company by turns 
inviting the others to their feasts, which was the case every night. 
Clark waded through water as much as any of them, and thus stimu- 
lated the men by his example. They reached the Little Wabash 
on the 13th, after suffering many and great hardships. Here a camp 
was formed, and without waiting to discuss plans for crossing the 
river, Clark ordered the men to construct a vessel, and pretended 
that crossing the stream would be only a piece of amusement, al- 
though inwardly he held a different opinion. 

The second day afterward a reconnoitering party was sent across 
the river, who returned and made an encouraging report, A scaf- 
folding was built on the opposite shore, upon which the baggage 
was placed as it was tediously ferried over, and the new camping 
ground was a nice half acre of dry land. There were many amuse- 
ments, indeed, in getting across the river, which put all the men in 
high spirits. The succeeding two or three days they had to march 
through a great deal of water, having on the night of the 17th to 
encamp in the water, near the Big Wabash. 

At daybreak on the 18th they heard the signal gun at Yincennes, 
and at once commenced their march. Reaching the Wabash about 
two o'clock, they constructed rafts to cross the river on a boat-steal- 
ing expedition, but labored all day and night to no purpose. On 
the 19th they began to make a canoe, in which a second attempt to 
steal boats was made, but this expedition returned, reporting that 
there were two "large fires" within a mile of them. Clark sent a 
canoe down the river to meet the vessel that was supposed to be on 
her way up with the supplies, with orders to hasten forward day and 
night. This was their last hope, as their provisions were entirely 


aN : ° > V-, 

—^—— 1 fi^ 


gone, and starvation seemed to be hovering about them. The next 
day they commenced to make more canoes, when about noon the 
sentinel on the river brought a boat with five Frenchmen from the 
fort. From this party they learned that they were not as yet dis- 
covered. All the army crossed the river in two canoes the next 
day, and as Clark had determined to reach the town that night, he 
ordered his men to move forward. They plunged into the water 
sometimes to the neck, for over three miles. 

Without food, benumbed with cold, up to their waists in water, 
covered with broken ice, the men at one time mutinied and refused 
to march. All the persuasions of Clark had no eifect upon the 
half-starved and half-frozen soldiers. In one company was a small 
drummer boy, and also a sergeant who stood six feet two inches in 
socks, and stout and athletic. He was devoted to Clark. The Gen- 
eral mounted the little drummer on the shoulders of tlie stalwart 
sergeant and ordered him to plunge into the water, half-frozen as it 
was. He did so, the little boy beating the charge from his lofty 
perch, while Clark, sword in hand, followed them, giving the com- 
mand as he threw aside the floating ice, "Forward." Elated and 
amused with the scene, the men promptly obeyed, holding their 
rifles above their heads, and in spite of all the obstacles they reached 
the high land in perfect safety. But for this and the ensuing days 
of this campaign we quote from Clark's account: 

" This last day's march through the water was far superior to any- 
thing the Frenchmen had any idea of. They were backward in 
speaking; said that the nearest land to us was a small league, a 
sugar camp on the bank of the river. A canoe was sent off and re- 
turned without finding that we could pass. I went in her myself 
and sounded the water and found it as deep as to my neck. I returned 
with a design to have the men transported on board the canoes to 
the sugar camp, which I knew would expend the whole day and en- 
suing night, as the vessels would pass slowly through the bushes. 
The loss of so much time to men half starved was a matter of con- 
sequence. I would have given now a great deal for a day's provis- 
ion, or for one of our horses. I returned but slowly to the troops, 
giving myself time to think. On our arrival all ran to hear what 
was the report; every eye was fixed on me; I unfortunately spoke 
in a serious manner to one of the officers. The whole were alarmed 
without knowing what I said. I viewed their confusion for about 
one minute; I whispered to those near me to do as I did, immedi- 
ately put some water in my hand, poured on powder, blackened my 


face, gave the war-whoop, and marched into the water without say- 
ing a word. The party gazed and fell in, one after another without 
saying a word, like a flock of sheep. I ordered those near me to 
begin a favorite song of theirs; it soon passed through the line, and 
the whole went on cheerfully. 

" I now intended to have them transported across the deepest 
part of the water ; but when about waist-deep, one of the men in- 
formed me that he thought he felt a path ; we examined and found 
it so, and concluded that it kept on the highest ground, which it did, 
and by taking pains to follow it, we got to the sugar camp with no 
difficulty, where there was about half an acre of dry ground, — at 

least ground not under water, and there we took up our lodging. 
* -St * * * * 

" The night had been colder than any we had had, and the ice in 
the morning was one-half or three-quarters of an inch thick in still 
water; the morning was the finest. A little after sunrise I lectured 
the whole; what I said to them I forget, but I concluded by in- 
forming them that passing the plain then in full view, and 
reaching the opposite woods would put an end to their fatigue; 
that in a few hours they would have a sight of their long wished-for 
object; and immediately stepped into the water without waiting 
for any reply. A huzza took place. As we generally marched 
through the water in a line, before the third man entered, I called to 
Major Bowman, ordering him to fall in the rear of the 25 men, and 
put to death any man who refused to march. This met with a cry 
of approbation, and on we went. Getting about the middle of the 
plain, the water about mid-deep, I found myself sensibly failing; 
and as there were no trees nor bushes for the men to support them- 
selves by, I feared that many of the weak would be drowned. I or- 
dered the canoes to make the land, discharge their loading, and play 
backward and forward with all diligence and pick up the men ; and 
to encourage the party, sent some of the strongest men forward, 
with orders when they got to a certain distance, to pass the word 
back that the water was getting shallow, and when getting near the 
woods, to cry out land. This stratagem had its desired effect; the 
men exerted themselves almost beyond their abilities, the weak 
holding by the stronger. The water, however, did not become 
shallower, but continued deepening. Getting to the woods where 
the men expected land, the water was up to my shoulders; but 
gaining the woods was of great consequence; all the low men and 
weakly hung to the trees and floated on the old logs until they were 





taken off by the canoes; the strong and tall got ashore and built 
tires. Many would reach the shore and fall with their bodies half 
in the water, not being able to support themselves without it. 

"This was a dry and delightful spot of ground of about ten acres. 
Fortunately, ^.s if designed by Providence, a canoe of Indian squaws 
and children was coming up to town, and took through this part of 
the plain as a nigh way; it was discovered by our canoe-men as they 
were out after the other men. They gave chase and took the Indian 
canoe, on board of which was nearly half a quarter of buffalo, some 
corn, tallow, kettles, etc. This was an invaluable prize. Broth was 
immediately made and served out, especially to the weakly; nearly 
all of us got a little; but a great many gave their part to the 
weakly, saying something cheering to their comrades. By the 
afternoon, this refreshment and fine weather had greatly invigor- 
ated the whole party. 

" Crossing a narrow and deep lake in the canoes, and marching 
some distance, we came to a copse of timber called ' Warrior's 
Island.' We were now in full view of the fort and town; it was 
about two miles distant, with not a shrub intervening. Every man 
now feasted his eyes and forgot that he had suffered anything, say- 
ing that all which had passed was owing to good policy, and noth- 
ing but what a man could bear, and that a soldier had no right to 
think, passing from one extreme to the other, — which is common in 
such cases. And now stratagem was necessary. The plain between 
us and the town was not a perfect level ; the sunken grounds were 
covered with water full of ducks. We observed several men within 
a half a mile of us shooting ducks, and sent out some of our active 
young Frenchmen to take one of these men prisoners without 
alarming the rest, which they did. The information we got from 
this person was similar to that which we got from those taken on the 
river, except that of the British having that evening completed the 
wall of the fort, and that there were a great many Indians in town. 

"Our situation was now critical. JSTo possibility of retreat in 
case of defeat, and in full view of a town containing at this time 
more than 600 men, troops, inhabitants and Indians. The crew of the 
galley, though not 60 men, would have been now a re-enforcement 
of immense magnitude to our little army, if I may so call it, but 
we would not think of them. We were now in the situation that I 
had labored to get ourselves in. The idea of being made prisoner 
was foreign to almost every man, as they expected nothing but tor- 
ture from the savages if they fell into their hands. Our fate was 



now to be determined, probably in a few hours; we knew that 
nothing but the most daring conduct would insure success; 1 knew 
also that a number of the inhabitants wished us well. This was a 
favorable circumstance; and as there was but little prooability of our 
remaining until dark undiscovered, I determined to begin opera- 
tions immediately, and therefore wrote the following placard to the 

To the Inhabitants of Post Yincennes: 

Gentlemen: — Being now within two miles of your village with 
my army, determined to take your fort this night, and not being 
willing to surprise you, I take this method to request such of you 
as are true citizens and willing to enjoy the liberty I bring you, to 
remain still in your houses; and those, if any there be, that are 
friends to the king, will instantly repair to the fort and join the 
hair-buyer general and fight like men ; and if any such as do not go 
to the fort shall be discovered afterward, they may depend on 
severe punishment. On the contrary, those who are true friends 
to liberty may depend on being well treated; and I once more 
request them to keep out of the streets; for everyone I find in 
arms on my arrival I shall treat as an enemy. 

[Signed] G. R. Clark. 

" I had various ideas on the results of this letter. I knew it 
could do us no damage, but that it would cause the lukewarm to 
be decided, and encourage our friends and astonish our enemies. 
We anxiously viewed this messenger until he entered the town, and 
in a few minutes we discovered by our glasses some stir in every 
street we could penetrate, and great numbers running or riding out 
into the commons, we supposed to view us, which was the case. 
But what surprised us was that nothing had yet happened that had 
the appearance of the garrison being alarmed, — neither gun nor 
drum. We began to suppose that the information we got from our 
prisoners was false, and that the enemy had already knew of us and 
were prepared. A little before sunset we displayed ourselves in 
full view of the town,— crowds gazing at us. We were plunging 
ourselves into certain destruction or success ; there was no midway 
thought of. We had but little to say to our men, except inculcat- 
ing an idea of the necessity of obedience, etc. We moved on 
slowly in full view of the town; but as it was a point of some con- 
sequence to us to make ourselves appear formidable, we, in leaving 
the covert we were in, marched and counter- marched in such a 
manner that we appeared numerous. Our colors were displayed to 
the best advantage; and as the low plain we marched through was 


-— 9\ 


not a perfect level, but had frequent risings in it, of 7 or 8 
higher than the common level, which was covered with water; and 
as these risings generally run in an oblique direction to the town, 
we took the advantage of one of them, marching through the water 
by it, which completely prevented our being numbered. We gained 
the heights back of the town. As there were as yet no hostile 
appeai'ance, we were impatient to have the cause unriddled. Lieut. 
Bayley was ordered with 14 men to march and fire on the fort; 
the main body moved in a different direction and took possession 
of the strongest part of the town." 

Clark then sent a written order to Hamilton commanding 
him to surrender immediately or he would be treated as a 
murderer; Hamilton replied that he and his garrison were not 
disposed to be awed into any action unworthy of British sub- 
jects. After one hour more of fighting, Hamilton proposed a 
truce of three days for conference, on condition that each side 
cease all defensive work; Clark rejoined that he would "not 
agree to any terms other than Mr, Hamilton surrendering himself 
and garrison prisoners at discretion," and added that if he, Hamil- 
ton, wished to talk with him he could meet him immediately at the 
church with Capt. Helm. In less than an hour Clark dictated the 
terms of surrender, Feb, 24, 1779. Hamilton agreed to the total 
surrender because, as he there claimed in writing, he was too far 
from aid from his own government, and because of the " unanimity" 
of his officers in the surrender, and his "confidence in a generous 

"Of this expedition, of its results, of its importance, of the merits of 
those engaged in it, of their bravery, their skill, of their prudence, of 
their success, a volume would not more than suffice for the details. 
Suffice it to say that in my opinion, and I have accurately and criti- 
cally weighed and examined all the results produced by the con- 
tests in which we were engaged during the Revolutionary war, 
that for bravery, for hardships endured, for skill and consummate 
tact and prudence on the part of the commander, obedience, dis- 
cipline and love of country on the part of his followers, for the 
immense benefits acquired, and signal advantages obtained by it 
for the whole union, it was second to no enterprise undertaken dur- 
ing that struggle. I might add, second to no undertaking in an- 
cient or modern warfare. The whole credit of this conquest be. 
longs to two men; Gen. George Rogers Clark and Col. Francis 
Vigo. And when we consider that by it the whole territory now 





covered by the three great states of Indiana, Illinois and Michigan 
waa added to the union, and so admitted to be by the British commis- 
sioners at the preliminaries to the treaty of peace in 1783; (and but 
for this very conquest, the boundaries of our territories west would 
have been the Ohio instead of the Mississippi, and so acknowledged 
by both our coipmissioners and the British at that conference;) a 
territory embracing upward of 2,000,000 people, the human mind 
is lost in the contemplation of its effects; and we can but wonder 
that a force of 170 men, the whole number of Clark's troops, 
should by this single action have produced such important results." 
[John Law. 

The next day Clark sent a detachment of 60 men up the river 
Wabash to intercept some boats which were laden with provisions 
and goods from Detroit. This force was placed under command of 
Capt. Helm, Major Bosseron and Major Legras, and they proceeded 
up the river, in three armed boats, about 120 miles, when the 
British boats, about seven in number, were surprised and captured 
without firing a gun. These boats, which had on board about 
$50,000 worth of goods and provisions, were manned by about 
40 men, among whom was Philip Dejean, a magistrate of Detroit. 
The provisions were taken for the public, and distributed among 
the soldiery. 

Having organized a military government at Vincennes and 
appointed Capt. Helm commandant of the town. Col. Clark return- 
ed in the vessel to Kaskaskia, where he was joined by reinforce- 
ments from Kentucky under Capt. George. Meanwhile, a party of 
traders who were going to the falls, were killed and plundered by 
the Delawares of "White River; the news of this disaster having 
reached Clark, he sent a dispatch to Capt. Helm ordering him to 
make war on the Delawares and use every means in his power to 
destroy them; to show no mercy to the men, but to save the 
women and children. This order was executed without delay. 
Their camps were attacked in every quarter where they could be 
found. Many fell, and others were carried to Post Yincennes and 
put to death. The surviving Delawares at once pleaded for mercy 
and appeared anxious to make some atonement for their bad con- 
duct. To these overtures Capt. Helm replied that Col. Clark, the 
" Big Knife," had ordered the war, and that he had no power to lay 
down the hatchet, but that he would suspend hostilities until a 
messenger could be sent to Kaskaskia. This was done, and the 
crafty Colonel, well understanding the Indian character, sent a 




message to the Delawares, telling them that he would not accept 
their friendship or treat with them for peace; but that if thev 
could get some of the neighboring tribes to become responsible for 
their future conduct, he would discontinue the war and spare their 
lives; otherwise thej must all perish. 

Accordingly a council was called of all the Indians in the neigh- 
borhood, and Clark's answer was read to the assembly. After due 
deliberation the Piankeshaws took on themselves to answer for the 
future good conduct of the Delawares, and the " Grand Door " in a 
long speech denounced their base conduct. This ended the war 
with the Delawares and secured the respect of the neighboring 

Clark's attention was next turned to the British post at Detroit, 
but being unable to obtain sufficient troops he abandoned the en- 

CLABK's ingenious ruse against the INDIANS. 

Tradition says that when Clark captured Hamilton and his gar- 
rison at Fort Sackville, he took possession of the fort and kept the 
British flag flying, dressed his sentinels with the uniform of the 
British soldiery, and let everything about the premises remain as 
they were, so that when the Indians sympathizing with the British 
arrived they would walk right into the citadel, into the jaws of 
death. His success was perfect. Sullen and silent, with the scalp- 
lock of his victims hanging at his girdle, and in full expectation of 
his reward from Hamilton, the unwary savage, unconscious of 
danger and wholly ignorant of the change that had just beeneflected 
in his absence, passed the supposed British sentry at the gate of the 
fort unmolested and unchallenged; but as soon as in, a volley from 
the rifles of a platoon of Clark's men, drawn up and awaiting his 
coming, pierced their hearts and sent the unconscious savage, reek- 
ing with murder, to that tribunal to which he had so frequently, 
by order of the hair-buyer general, sent his American captives, 
from the infant in the cradle to the grandfather of the family, tot- 
tering with age and infirmity. It was a just retribution, and few 
men but Clark would have planned such a ruse or carried it out 
successfully. It is reported that fiftj'- Indians met this fate within 
the fort; and probably Hamilton, a prisoner there, witnessed it all. 


Henry Hamilton, who had acted as Lieutenant and Governor of 
the British possessions under Sir George Carleton, was sent for- 



ward, with two other prisoners of war, Dejeaii and LaMothe, to 
Williamsburg, Ya., early in June following, 1779. Proclamations, 
in his own handwriting, were found, in which he had offered a 
specific sum for every American scalp brought into the camp, either 
by his own troops or his allies, the Indians; and from this he was 
denominated the "hair-buyer General." This and much other tes- 
timony of living witnesses at the time, all showed what a savage he 
was. Thomas Jefferson, then Governor of Virginia, being made 
aware of the inhumanity of this wretch, concluded to resort to a 
little retaliation by way of closer confinement. Accordingly he 
ordered that these three prisoners be put in irons, confined in a 
dungeon, deprived of the use of pen, ink and paper, and be ex- 
cluded from all conversation except with their keeper. Major 
General Phillips, a British officer out on parole in the vicinity of 
Charlottesville, where the prisoners now were, in closer confine- 
ment, remonstrated, and President Washington, while approving 
of Jefferson's course, requested a mitigation of the severe order, 
lest the British be goaded to desperate measures. 

Soon afterward Hamilton was released on parole, and he subse- 
quently appeared in Canada, still acting as if he had jurisdiction 
in the United States. 


The faithful, self-sacrificing and patriotic services of Father 
Pierre Gibault in behalf of the Americans require a special notice 
of him in this connection. He was the parish priest at Vincennes, 
as well as at Kaskaskia. He was, at an early period, a Jesuit mis- 
sionary to the Illinois. Had it not been for the infiiience of this man, 
Clark could not have obtained the influence of the citizens at either 
place. He gave all his property, to the value of 1,500 Spanish 
milled dollars, to the support of Col. Clark's troops, and never re- 
ceived a single dollar in return. So far as the records inform us, 
he was given 1,500 Continental paper dollars, which proved in the 
end entirely valueless. He modestly petitioned from the Govern- 
ment a small allowance of land at Cahokia, but we find no account 
of his ever receiving it. He was dependent upon the public in his 
older days, and in 1790 Winthrop Sargent "conceded" to him a lot 
of about "14 toises, one side to Mr. Millet, another to Mr. Vaudrey, 
and to two streets," — a vague description of land. 

(f^ — "^ "■"• & \ 




Col. Francis Yigo was born in Mondovi, in the kingdom of Sar- 
dinia, in 1747. He left his parents and guardians at a very early 
age, and enlisted in a Spanish regiment as a soldier. The regiment 
was ordered to Havana, and a detachment of it subsequently to 
New Orleans, then a Spanish post; Col. Vigo accompanied this de- 
tachment. But he left the army and engaged in trading with the 
Indians on the Arkansas and its tributaries. Next he settled at St. 
Louis, also a Spanish post, where he became closely connected, both 
in friendship and business, with the Governor of Upper Louisiana, 
then residing at the same place. This friendship he enjoyed, though 
he could only write his name; and we have many circumstantial 
evidences that he was a man of high intelligence, honor, purity of 
heart, and ability. Here he was living when Clark captured Kas- 
kaskia, and was extensively engaged in trading up the Missouri. 

A Spaniard by birth and allegiance, he was under no obligation 
to assist the Americans. Spain was at peace with Great Britain, 
and any interference by her citizens was a breach of neutrality, and 
subjected an individual, especially one of the high character and 
standing of Col. Vigo, to all the contumely, loss and vengeance 
which British power could inflict. But Col. Vigo did not falter. 
With an innate love of liberty, an attachment to Republican prin- 
ciples, and an ardent sympathy for an oppressed people struggling 
for their rights, he overlooked all personal consequences, and as 
soon as he learned of Clark's arrival at Kaskaskia, he crossed the 
line and went to Clark and tendered him his means and influence, 
both of which were joyfully accepted. 

Knowing Col. Vigo's influence with the ancient inhabitants of 
the country, and desirous of obtaining some information from 
Vincennes, from which he had not heard for several months, Col. 
Clark proposed to him that he might go to that place and learn the 
actual state of affairs. Vigo went without hesitation, but on the 
Embarrass river he was seized by a party of Indians, plundered of 
all he possessed, and brought a prisoner before Hamilton, then in pos- 
session of the post, which he had a short time previously captured, 
holding Capt. Helm a prisoner of war. Being a Spanish subject, 
and .consequently a non-combatant, Gov. Hamilton, although he 
strongly suspected the motives of the visit, dared not confine him, 
but admitted him to parole, on the single condition that he 
should daily report himself at the fort. But Hamilton was embar- 





rassed by his detention, being besieged by the inhabitants of the 
town, who loved Yigo and threatened to withdraw their support 
from the garrison if he would not release him. Father Gibault was 
the chief pleader for Yigo's release. Hamilton finally yielded, on con- 
dition that he, Vigo, would do no injury to the British interests on 
his way to St. Louis. He went to St. Louis, sure enough, doing no 
injury to British interests, but immediately returned to Kaskaskia 
and reported to Clark in detail all he had learned at Vincennes, 
without which knowledge Clark would have been unable to ac- 
complish his famous expedition to that post with final triumph. 
The redemption of this country from the British is due as much, 
probably, to Col. Vigo as Col. Clark. 


Col. John Todd, Lieutenant for the county of Illinois, in the 
spring of 17T9 visited the old settlements at Vincennes and Kas- 
kaskia, and organized temporary civil governments in nearly all the 
settlements west of the Ohio. Previous to this, however, Clark 
had established a military government at Kaskaskia and Vincennes, 
appointed commandants in both places and taken up his headquar- 
ters at the falls of the Ohio, where he could watch the operations 
of the enemy and save the frontier settlements from the depreda- 
tions of Indian warfare. On reaching the settlements, Col. Todd 
issued a proclamation regulating the settlement of unoccupied 
lands and requiring the presentation of all claims to the lands set- 
tled, as the number of adventurers who would shortly overrun the 
country would be serious. He also organized a Court of civil and 
criminal jurisdiction at Vincennes, in the month of June, 1779. 
This Court was composed of several magistrates and presided over 
by Col. J. M. P. Legras, who had been appointed commandant at 
Vincennes. Acting from the precedents established bj'- the early 
French commandants in the West, this Court began to grant tracts 
of land to the French and American inhabitants; and to the year 
1783, it had granted to difierent parties about 26,000 acres of land; 
22,000 more was granted in this manner by 1787, when the practice 
was prohibited by Gen. Harmer. These tracts varied in size from 
a house lot to 500 acres. Besides this loose business, the Court 
entered into a stupendous speculation, one not altogether creditable 
to its honor and dignity. The commandant and the magistrates 
under him suddenly adopted the opinion that they were invested 

o V 





with the authority to dispose of the whole of that large region 
which in 1842 liad been granted by the Piankeshaws to the French 
inhabitants of Yincennes. Accordingly a very convenient arrange- 
ment was entered into by which the whole tract of country men- 
tioned was to be divided between the members of the honorable 
Court. A record was made to that effect, and in order to gloss over 
the steal, each member took pains to be absent from Court on the 
day that the order was made in his favor. 

In the fall of 1780 La Balme, a Frenchman, made an attempt to 
capture the British garrison of Detroit by leading an expedition 
against it from Kaskaskia. At the head of 30 men he marched to 
Vincennes, where his force was slightly increased. From this 
place he proceeded to the British trading post at the head of the 
Maumee, where Fort Wayne now stands, plundered the British 
traders and Indians and then retired. While encamped on the 
bank of a small stream on his retreat, he was attacked by a band 
of Miamis, a number of his men were killed, and his expedition 
against Detroit was ruined. 

In this manner border war continued between Americans and 
their enemies, with varying victory, until 1783, when the treaty of 
Paris was concluded, resulting in the establishment of the inde- 
pendence of the United States. Up to this time the territory now 
included in Indiana belonged by conquest to the State of Yirginia; 
but in January, 1783, the General Assembly of that State resolved 
to cede to the Congress of the United States all the territory north- 
west of the Ohio. The conditions offered by Yirginia were 
accepted by Congress Dec. 20, that year, and early in 1784 the 
transfer was completed. In 1783 Virginia had platted the town of 
Clarksville, at the falls of the Ohio. The deed of cession provided 
that the territory should be laid out into States, containing a suita- 
ble extent of territory not less than 100 nor more than 150 miles 
square, or as near thereto as circumstances would permit; and that 
the States so formed shall be distinct Republican States and 
admitted members of the Federal Union, having the same rights of 
sovereignty, freedom and independence as the other States. The 
other conditions of the deed were as follows: That the necessary 
and reasonable expenses incurred by Yirginia in subduing any 
British posts, or in maintaining forts and garrisons within and for 
the defense, or in acquiring any part of the territory so ceded or 
relinquished, shall be fully reimbursed by the United States; that 
the French and Canadian inhabitants and other settlers of the Kas- 



kaskia, Post Yincennes and the neighboring villages who have pro- 
fessed themselves citizens of Virginia, shall have their titles and 
possessions confirmed to them, and be protected in the enjoyment 
of their rights and privileges; that a quantity not exceeding 150,- 
000 acres of land, promised by Yirginia, shall be allowed and 
granted to the then Colonel, now General, George Rogers Clark, 
and to the officers and soldiers of his regiment, who marched with 
him when the posts and of Kaskaskia and Yincennes were reduced, 
and to the officers and soldiers that have been since incorporated 
into the said regiment, to be laid oft' in one tract, the length of 
which not to exceed double the breadth, in such a place on the 
northwest side of the Ohio as a majority of the officers shall 
choose, and to be afterward divided among the officers and soldiers 
in due proportion according to the laws of Yirginia; that in case 
the quantity of good lands on the southeast side of the Ohio, upon 
the waters of Cumberland river, and between Green river and Ten. 
nessee river, which have been reserved by law for the Yirginia 
troops upon Continental establishment, should, from the North 
Carolina line, bearing in further upon the Cumberland lands than 
was expected, prove insufficient for their legal bounties, the defi- 
ciency shall be made up to the said troops in good lands to be laid 
off between the rivers Scioto and Little Miami, on the northwest 
side of the river Ohio, in such proportions as have been engaged 
to them by the laws of Yirginia; that all the lands within the ter- 
ritory so ceded to the United States, and not reserved for or appro- 
priated to any of the before-mentioned purposes, or disposed of in 
bounties to the officers and soldiers of the American army, shall be 
considered as a common fund for the use and benefit of such of the 
United States as have become, or shall become, members of the 
confederation or federal alliance of the said States, Yirginia included, 
according to their usual respective proportions in the general 
charge and expenditure, and shall be faithfully and honafide dis- 
posed of for that purpose and for no other use or purpose whatever. 
After the above deed of cession had been accepted by Congress, 
in the spring of 1784, the matter of the future government of the 
territory was referred to a committee consisting of Messrs. Jeffer- 
son of Yirginia, Chase of Maryland and Howell of Rhode Island, 
which committee reported an ordinance for its government, provid- 
ing, among other things, that slavery should not exist in said terri- 
tory after 1800, except as punishment of criminals; but this article 
of the ordinance was rejected, and an ordinance for the temporary 




government of the county was adopted. In 1785 laws were passed 
by Congress for the disposition of lands in the territory and pro- 
hibiting the settlement of unappropriated lands by reckless specu- 
lators. But human passion is ever strong enough to evade the law 
to some extent, and large associations, representing considerable 
means, were formed for the purpose of monopolizing the land busi- 
ness. Millions of acres were sold at one time by Congress to asso- 
ciations on the installment plan, and so far as the Indian titles 
could be extinguished, the work of settling and improving the 
lands was pushed rapidly forward. 


This ordinance has a marvelous and interesting history. Con- 
siderable controversy has been indulged in as to who is entitled to 
the credit for framing it. This belongs, undoubtedly, to Nathan 
Dane; and to Rufus King and Timothy Pickering belong the 
credit for suggesting the proviso contained in it against slavery, 
and also for aids to religion and knowledge, and for assuring for- 
ever the common use, without charge, of the great national high- 
ways of the Mississippi, the St. Lawrence and their tributaries to 
all the citizens of the United States. To Thomas Jeflferson is also 
due much credit, as some features of this ordinance were embraced 
in his ordinance of ITSi. But the part taken by each in the long, 
laborious and eventful struggle which had so glorious a consum- 
mation in the ordinance, consecrating forever, by one imprescript- 
ible and unchangeable monument, the very heart of our country to 
Freedom, Knowledge, and Union, will forever honor the names of 
those illustrious statesmen. 

Mr. Jefferson had vainly tried to secure a system of government 
for the Northwestern territory. He was an emancipationist and 
favored the exclusion of slavery from the territory, but the South 
voted him down every time he proposed a measure of this nature. 
In 1787, as late as July 10, an organizing act without the anti- 
slavery clause was pending. This concession to the South was 
expected to carry it. Congress was in session in New York. On 
July 5, Rev. Manasseh Cutler, of Massachusetts, came into New 
York to lobby on the Northwestern territory. Everything seemed 
to fall into his hands. Events were ripe. The state of the public 
credit, the growing of Southern prejudice, the basis of his mission, 
his personal character, all combined to complete one of those sudden 





and marvelous revolutions of public sentiment that once in five or 
ten centuries are seen to sweep over a country like the breath of the 

Cutler was a graduate of Yale. He had studied and taken de- 
grees in the three learned professions, medicine, law, and divinity. 
He had published a scientific examination of the plants of New 
England. As a scientist in America his name stood second only to 
that of Franklin. He was a courtly gentleman of the old style, a 
man of commanding presence and of inviting face. The Southern 
members said they had never seen such a gentleman in the North. 
He came representing a Massachusetts company that desired to 
purchase a tract of land, now included in Ohio, for the purpose of 
planting a colony. It was a speculation. Government money was 
worth eighteen cents on the dollar. This company had collected 
enough to purchase 1,500,000 acres of land. Other speculators in 
Kew York made Dr. Cutler their agent, which enabled him to 
represent a demand for 5,500,000 acres. As this would reduce the 
national debt, and Jefferson's policy was to provide for the public 
credit, it presented a good opportunity to do something. 

Massachusetts then owned the territory of Maine, which she was 
crowding on the market. She was opposed to opening the North- 
western region. This fired the zeal of Yirginia. The South caught 
the inspiration, and all exalted Dr. Cutler. The entire South ral. 
lied around him. Massachusetts could not vote against him, be- 
cause many of the constuitents of her members were interested 
personally in the Western speculation. Thus Cutler, making 
friends in the South, and doubtless using all the arts of the lobby, 
was enabled to command the situation. True to deeper convic- 
tions, he dictated one of the most compact and finished documents 
of wise statesmanship that has ever adorned any human law book. 
He borrowed from Jefierson the term "Articles of Compact," which, 
preceding the federal constitution, rose into the most sacred char- 
acter. He then followed very closely the constitution of Massa- 
chusetts, adopted three years before. Its most prominent points 

1. The exclusion of slavery from the territory forever. 

2. Provision for public schools, giving one township for a semi- 
nary and every section numbered 16 in each township; that is, one 
thirty-sixth of all the land for public schools. 

3. A provision prohibiting the adoption of any constitution or 
the enactment of any law that should nullify pre-existing contracts. 

15 I— 


Be it forever remembered that this compact declared that " re- 
ligion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to good govern- 
ment and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of edu- 
cation shall always be encouraged." Dr. Cutler planted himself 
on this platform and would not yield. Giving his unqualified dec- 
laration that it was that or nothing, — that unless they could make 
the land desirable they did not want it, — he took his horse and buggy 
and started for the constitutional convention at Philadelphia. On 
July 13, 1787, the bill was put upon its passage, and was unani- 
mously adopted. Thus the great States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan and Wisconsin, a vast empire, were consecrated to free 
dom, intelligence, and morality. Thus the great heart of the nation 
was prepared to save the union of States, for it was tliis act that was 
the salvation of the republic and the destruction of slavery. Soon 
the South saw their great blunder and tried to have the compact 
repealed. In 1803 Congress referred it to a committee, of which 
John Randolph was chairman. He reported that this ordinance 
was a compact and opposed repeal. Thus it stood, a rock in the 
way of the on-rushing sea of slavery. 

The " Northwestern Territory " included of course what is now 
the State of Indiana; and Oct 5, 1787, Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair 
was elected by Congress Governor of this territory. Upon 
commencing the duties of his office he was instructed to ascertain 
the real temper of the Indians and do all in his power to remove 
the causes for controversy between them and the United States, 
and to effect the extinguishment of Indian titles to all the land 
possible. The Governor took up quarters in the new settlement of 
Marietta, Ohio, where he immediately began the organization of 
the government of the territory. The first session of the General 
Court of the new territory was held at that place in 1788, the 
Judges being Samuel H. Parsons, James M. Varnum and John C. 
Symmes, but under the ordinance Gov. St. Clair was President of 
the Court. After the first session, and after the necessary laws for 
government were adopted, Gov. St. Clair, accompanied by the 
Judges, visited Kaskaskia for the purpose of organizing a civil gov- 
ernment there. Full instructions had been sent to Maj. Hamtramck, 
commandant at Yincennes, to ascertain the exact feeling and temper 
of the Indian tribes of the Wabash. These instructions were ac- 
companied by speeches to each of the tribes. A Frenchman named 
Antoine Gamelin was dispatched with these messages April 5, 1790, 
who visited nearly all the tribes on the Wabash, St, Joseph and St. 





Mary's rivers, but was coldly received; most of the chiefs being 
dissatisfied with the policy of the Americans toward them, and 
prejudiced through English misrepresentation. Full accounts of 
his adventures among the tribes reached Gov. St. Clair at Kaskas- 
kia in June, 1790. Being satisfied that there was no prospect of 
effecting a general peace with the Indians of Indiana, he resolved 
to visit Gen. Harmar at his headquarters at Fort Washington and 
consult with him on the means of carrying an expedition against 
the hostile Indians; but before leaving he intrusted Winthrop 
Sargent, the Secretary of the Territory, with the execution of the 
resolutions of Congress regarding the lands and settlers on the 
"Wabash. He directed that officer to proceed to Vincennes, lay 
out a county there, establish the militia and appoint the necessary 
civil and military officers. Accordingly Mr. Sargent went to Yin- 
cennes and organized Camp Knox, appointed the officers, and noti- 
fied the inhabitants to present their claims to lands. In establish- 
ing these claims the settlers found great difficulty, and concerning 
this matter the Secretary in his report to the President wrote as 
follows : 

" Although the lands and lots which were awarded to the inhabi- 
tants appeared from very good oral testimony to belong to those 
persons to whom they were awarded, either by original grants, pur- 
chase or inheritance, yet there was scarcely one case in twenty 
where the title was complete, owing to the desultory manner in 
which public business had been transacted and some other unfor- 
tunate causes. The original concessions by the French and British 
commandants were generally made upon a small scrap of paper, 
which it has been customary to lodge in the notary's office, who 
has seldom kept any book of record, but committed the most im- 
portant land concerns to loose sheets, which in process of time 
have come into possession of persons that have fraudulently de- 
stroyed them; or, unacquainted with their consequence, innocently 
lost or trifled them away. By French usage they are considered 
family inheritances, and often descend to women and children. In 
one instance, and during the government of St. Ange here, a royal 
notary ran off with all the public papers in his possession, as by a 
certificate produced to me. And I am very sorry further to observe 
that in the office of Mr. Le Grand, which continued from 1777 to 
1787, and where should have been the vouchers for important land 
transactions, the records have been so falsified, and there is such 
gross fraud and forgery, as to invalidate all evidence and informa- 
tion which I might have otherwise acquired from his papers." 






Mr. Sargent says there were about 150 French families at Yin- 
cennes in 1790. The heads of all these families had been at some 
time vested with certain titles to a portion of the soil ; and while 
the Secretary was bnsy in straightening out these claims, he re- 
ceived a petition signed by 80 Americans, asking for the confirma- 
tion of grants of land ceded by the Court organized by Col. John 
Todd under the authority of Virginia. With reference to this 
cause, Congress, March 3, 1791, empowered the Territorial Governor, 
in cases where land had been actually improved and cultivated 
under a supposed grant for the same, to confirm to the persons wlio 
made such improvements the lands supposed to have been granted, 
not, however, exceeding the quantity of 400 acres to any one per- 


The General Court in the summer of 1790, Acting Governor 
Sargent presiding, passed the following laws with reference to 
vending liquor among the Indians and others, and with reference 
to games of chance: 

1. An act to prohibit the giving or selling intoxicating liquors 
to Indians residing in or coming into the Territory of the United 
States northwest of the river Ohio, and for preventing foreigners 
from trading with Indians therein. 

2. An act prohibiting the sale of spirituous or other intoxicat- 
ing liquors to soldiers in the service of the United States, being 
within ten miles of any military post in the territory; and to pre- 
vent the selling or pawning of arms, ammunition, clothing or 

3. An act prohibiting every species of gaming for money or 
property, and for making void contracts and payments made in 
consequence thereof, and for restraining the disorderly practice 
of discharging arms at certain hours and places. 

Winthrop Sargent's administration was highly eulogized by the 
citizens at Yincennes, in a testimonial drawn up and signed by a 
committee of ofiicers. He had conducted the investigation and 
settlement of land claims to the entire satisfaction of the residents, 
had upheld the principles of free government in keeping with the 
animus of the American Eevolution, and had established in good 
order the machinery of a good and wise government. In the same 
address Major Hamtramck also received a fair share of praise for 
his judicious management of afiairs. 

) ""V ' 




Gov. St. Clair, on his arrival at Fort Washington from Kas- 
kaskia, had a long conversation with Gen. Harmar, and concluded 
to send a powerful force to chastise the savages about the head- 
waters of the Wabash. He had been empowered by the President 
to call on V^irginia for 1,000 troops and on Pennsylvania for 500, 
and he immediately availed himself of tiiis resource, ordering 300 
of the Yirginia militia to muster at Fort Steuben and march with 
the garrison of that fort to Vincennes, and join Maj. Hamtramck, 
who had orders to call for aid from the militia of Yincennes, march 
up the Wabash, and attack any of the Indian villages which he 
might think he could overcome. The remaining 1,200 of the mi- 
litia were ordered to rendezvous at Fort Washington, and to join 
the regular troops at that post under command of Gen. Harmar. 
At this time the United States troops in the West were estimated 
by Gen. Harmar at 400 effective men. These, with the militia, 
gave him a force of 1,450 men. With this army Gen. Harmar 
marched from Fort Washington Sept. 30, and arrived at the Mau- 
mee Oct. 17. They commenced the work of punishing the Indians, 
but were not very successful. The savages, it is true, received a 
severe scourging, but the militia behaved so badly as to be of little 
or no service. A detachment of 340 militia and 60 regulars, under 
the command of Col. Hardin, were sorely defeated on the Maumee 
Oct. 22. The next day the army took up the line of march for 
Fort Washington, which place they reached Nov. 4, having lost in 
the expedition 183 killed and 31 wounded; the Indians lost about 
as many. During the progress of this expedition Maj. Hamtramck 
marched up the Wabash from Yincennes, as far as the Yermillion 
river, and destroyed several deserted villages, but without finding 
an enemy to oppose him. 

Although the savages seem to have been severely punished by 
these expeditions, yet they refused to sue for peace, and continued 
their hostilities. Thereupon the inhabitants of the frontier settle- 
ments of Yirginia took alarm, and the delegates of Ohio, Monon- 



. •M » — *^ ^ 


gahela, Harrison, Randolph, Greenbrier, Kanawha and Mont- 
gomery counties sent a joint memorial to the Governor of Vir- 
ginia, saying that the defenseless condition of the counties, form- 
ing a line of nearly 400 miles along the Ohio river, exposed to the 
hostile invasion of their Indian enemies, destitute of every kind of 
support, was truly alarming; for, notwithstanding all the regula- 
tions of the General Government in that country, they have reason 
to lament that they have been up to that time ineffectual for their 
protection; nor indeed could it be otherwise, for the garrisons kept 
by the Continental troops on the Ohio river, if of any use at all, 
must protect only the Kentucky settlements, as they immediately 
covered that country. They further stated in their memorial: "We 
beg leave to observe that we have reason to fear that the conse- 
quences of the defeat of our army by the Indians in the late expe- 
dition will be severely felt on our frontiers, as there is no doubt 
that the Indians will, in their turn, being flushed with victory, in- 
vade our settlements and exercise all their horrid murder upon the 
inhabitants thereof whenever the weather will permit them to 
travel. Then is it not better to support us where we are, be the ex- 
pense what it may, than to oblige such a number of your brave 
citizens, who have so long supported, and still continue to support, 
a dangerous frontier (although thousands of their relatives in the 
flesh have in the prosecution thereof fallen a sacrifice to savage in- 
ventions) to quit the country, after all they have done and sufiered, 
when you know that a frontier must be supported somewhere?" 

This memorial caused the Legislature of Virginia to authorize 
the Governor of that State to make any defensive operations neces- 
sary for the temporary defense of the frontiers, until the general 
Government could adopt and carry out measures to suppress the 
hostile Indians. The Governor at once called upon the military 
commanding officers in the western counties of Virginia to raise by 
the first of March, 1791, several small companies of rangers for this 
purpose. At the same time Charles Scott was appointed Brigadier- 
General of the Kentucky militia, with authority to raise 226 vol- 
unteers, to protect the most exposed portions of that district. A 
full report of the proceedings of the Virginia Legislature being 
transmitted to Congress, that body constituted a local Board of 
War for the district of Kentucky, consisting of five men. March 9, 
1791, Gen. Henry Knox, Secretary of War, sent a letter of instruc- 
tions to Gen. Scott, recommending an expedition of mounted men 
not exceeding 750, against the Wea towns on the Wabash. With 


this force Gen. Scott accordingly crossed the Ohio, May 23, 1791, 
and reached the Wabash in about ten days. Many of the Indians, 
having discovered his approach, fled, but he succeeded in destroy- 
'inar all the villaijes around Oaiatenon, together with several Kick- 
apoo towns, killing 32 warriors and taking 58 prisoners. He 
released a few of the most infirm prisoners, giving them a " talk," 
which they carried to the towns farther up the Wabash, and which 
the wretched condition of his horses prevented him from reaching. 

March 3, 1791, Congress provided for raising and equipping a 
regiment for the protection of the frontiers, and Gov. St. Clair was 
invested with the chief command of about 3,000 troops, to be raised 
and employed against the hostile Indians in the territory over 
which his jurisdiction extended. He was instructed by the Secre- 
tary of War to march to the Miami village and establish a strong 
and permanent military post there; also such posts elsewhere along 
the Ohio as would be in communication with Fort Washington. 
The post at Miami village was intended to keep the savages in that 
vicinity in check, and was ordered to be strong enough in its gar- 
rison to afford a detachment of 500 or 600 men in case of emer- 
gency, either to chastise any of the Wabash or other hostile Indians 
or capture convoys of the enemy's provisions. The Secretary of 
War also urged Gov. St. Clair to establish that post as the first and 
most important part of the campaign. In case of a previous 
treaty the Indians were to be conciliated upon this point if possible; 
and he presumed good arguments might be offered to induce their 
acquiescence. Said he: " Having commenced your march upon the 
main expedition, and the Indians continuing hostile, you will use 
every possible exertion to make them feel the effects of your superi- 
ority; and, after having arrived at the Miami village and put your 
works in a defensible state, you will seek the enemy with the whole 
of your remaining force, and endeavor by all possible means to 
strike them with great severity. -h- * * -h- 

In order to avoid future wars, it might be proper to make the Wa- 
bash and thence over to the Maumee, and down the same to its 
mouth, at Lake Erie, the boundary between the people of the 
United States and the Indians (excepting so far as the same should 
relate to the Wyandots and Delawares), on the supposition of their 
continuing faithful to the treaties; but if they should join in the 
war against the United States, and your array be victorious, the 
said tribes ought to be removed without the boundary mentioned." 

Previous to marching a strong force to the Miami town. Gov. St. 



Clair, June 25, 1791, authorized Gen Wilkinson to conduct a second 
expedition, not exceeding 500 mounted men, against the Indian 
villages on the Wabash. Accordingly Gen. Wilkinson mustered 
his forces and was ready July 20, to march with 525 mounted vol- 
unteers, well armed, and provided with 30 days' provisions, and 
with this force he reached the Ke-na-pa-com-a-qua village on the 
north bank of Eel river about six miles above its mouth, Aug. 7, 
where he killed six warriors and took 34 prisoners. This town, 
wliich was scattered along the river for three miles, was totally de- 
stroyed. Wilkinson encamped on the ruins of the town that night, 
and the next day he conimenced his march for the Kickapoo town 
on the prairie, which he was unable to reach owing to the impassa- 
ble condition of the route which he adopted and the failing condi- 
tion of his horses. He reported the estimated results of the expe- 
dition as follows: "I have destroyed the chief town of the Ouiate- 
non nation, and have made prisoners of the sons and sisters of the 
king. I have burned a respectable Kickapoo village, and cut down 
at least 400 acres of corn, chiefly in the milk." 


The Indians were greatly damaged by the expeditions of Harmar, 
Scott and Wilkinson, but were far from being subdued. They 
regarded the policy of the United States as calculated to extermi- 
nate them from the land; and, goaded on by the English of Detroit, 
enemies of the Americans, they were excited to desperation. At 
tliis time the British Government still supported garrisons at 
Niagara, Detroit and Michilimackinac, although it was declared by 
the second article of the definitive treaty of peace of 1783, that 
the king of Great Britain would, " with all convenient speed, and 
without causing any destruction or carrying away any negroes or 
property of the American inhabitants, withdraw all his forces, 
garrisons and fleets from the United States, and from every post, 
place and harbor within the same." That treaty also provided that 
the creditors on either side should meet with no lawful impedi- 
ments to the recovery of the full value, in sterling money, of all 
bona fide debts previously contracted. The British Government 
claimed that the United States had broken faith in this particular 
understanding of the treaty, and in consequence refused to with- 
draw its forces from the territory. The British garrisons in the 
Lake Region were a source of much annoyance to the Americans, 
as they afforded succor to hostile Indians, encouraging them to 




make raids among the Americans. This state of affairs in the 
Territory Northwest of the Ohio continued from the commence- 
ment of the Revolutionary war to 1796, when under a second 
treaty all British soldiers were withdrawn from the country. 

In September, 1791, St. Clair moved from Fort Washington 
with about 2,000 men, and November 3, the main army, consisting 
of about 1,400 effective troops, moved forward to the head- waters 
of the Wabash, where Fort Recovery was afterward erected, and 
here the army encamped. About 1,200 Indians were secreted a few 
miles distant, awaiting a favorable opportunity to begin an attack, 
which they improved on the morning of Nov. 4, about half an hour 
before sunrise. The attack was first made upon the militia, which 
immediately gave way. St. Clair was defeated and he returned to 
Fort Washington with a broken and dispirited army, having lost 
39 officers killed, and 539 men killed and missing; 22 officers and 
232 men were wounded. Several pieces of artillery, and all the 
baggage, ammunition and provisions were left on the field of bat- 
tle and fell into the hands of the victorious Indians. The stores 
and other public property lost in the action were valued at $32,800. 
There were also 100 or more American women with the army of 
the whites, very few of whom escaped the cruel carnage of the sav- 
age Indians. The latter, characteristic of their brutal nature, 
proceeded in the flush of victory to perpetrate the most horrible 
acts of cruelty and brutality upon the bodies of the living and the 
dead Americans who fell into their hands. Believino; that the 
whites had made war for many years merely to acquire land, the 
Indians crammed clay and sand into the eyes and down the throats 
of the dj'ing and the dead! 

GEN. Wayne's gee at victory. 

Although no particular blame was attached to Gov. St. Clair for 
the loss in this expedition, yet he resigned the office of Major-Gen- 
erai, and was succeeded by Anthony Wayne, a distinguished 
officer of the Revolutionary war. Early in 1792 provisions were 
made by the general Government for re-organizing the army, so 
that it should consist of an efficient degree of strength. Wayne 
arrived at Pittsburg in June, where the army was to rendezvous. 
Here he continued actively engaged in organizing and training his 
forces until October, 1793, when with an army of about 3,600 men 
he moved westward to Fort Washington. 

While Wayne was preparing for an offensive campaign, every 




possible means was employed to induce the hostile tribes of the 
Northwest to enter into a general treaty of peace with the Ameri- 
can Grovernment; speeches were sent among them, and agents to 
make treaties were also sent, but little was accomplished. Major 
Hamtramck, who atill remained at Vincennes, succeeded in con- 
cluding a general peace with the Wabash and Illinois Indians; but 
the tribes more immediately under the influence of the British 
refused to hear the sentiments of friendship that were sent among 
them, and tomahawked several of the messengers. Their courage 
had been aroused by St. Clair's defeat, as well as by the unsuccess- 
ful expeditions which had preceded it, and they now felt quite pre- 
pared to meet a superior force under Gen. Wayne. The Indians 
insisted on the Ohio river as the boundary line between their lands 
and the lands of the United States, and felt certain that they could 
maintain that boundary. 

Maj. Gen. Scott, with about 1,600 mounted volunteers from 
Kentucky, joined the regular troops under Gen. Wayne July 26, 
1794, and on the 28th the united forces began their march for the 
Indian towns on the Maumee river. Arriving at the mouth of 
the Auglaize, they erected Fort Defiance, and Aug. 15 the army 
advanced toward the British fort at the foot of the rapids of the 
Maumee, where, on the 20th, almost within reach of the British, 
the American array gained a decisive victory over the combined 
forces of the hostile Indians and a considerable number of the 
Detroit militia. The number of the enemy was estimated at 2,000, 
against about 900 American troops actually engaged. This horde 
of savages, as soon as the action began, abandoned themselves to 
flight and dispersed with terror and dismay, leaving Wayne's vic- 
torious army in full and quiet possession of the field. The Ameri- 
cans lost 33 killed and 100 wounded; loss of the enemy more than 
double this number. 

The army remained three days and nights on the banks of the 
Maumee, in front of the field of battle, during which time all the 
houses and cornfields were consumed and destroyed for a considera- 
ble distance both above and below Fort Miami, as well as within 
pistol shot of the British garrison, who were compelled to remain 
idle spectators to this general devastation and conflagration, among 
which were the houses, stores and property of Col. McKee, the 
British Indian agent and " principal stimulator of the war then 
existino- between the United States and savages." On the return 
march to Fort Defiance the villages and cornfields for about 50 






miles on each side of the Maumee were destroyed, as well as those 
for a considerable distance around that post, 

Sept. 14, 1794, the army under Gen. Wayne commenced its 
march toward the deserted Miami villages at the confluence of St. 
Joseph's and St. Mary's rivers, arriving Oct. 17, and on the follow- 
ing day the site of Fort Wayne was selected. The fort was com- 
pleted Xov. 2'2, and garrisoned by a strong detachment of infantry 
and artillery, under the command of Col. John F. Hamtramck, who 
gave to the new fort the name of Fort Wayne. In 1814 a new fort 
was built on the site of this structure. The Kentucky volunteers 
returned to Fort Washington and were mustered out of service. 
Gen. Wayne, with the Federal troops, marched to Greenville and 
took up his headquarters during the winter. Here, in August, 
1795, after several months of active negotiation, this gallant officer 
succeeded in concluding a general treaty of peace with all the hos- 
tile tribes of the Northwestern Territory. This treaty opened the 
way for the flood of immigration for many years, and ultimately 
made the States and territories now constituting the mighty North- 

Up to the organization of the Indiana Territory there is but little 
history to record aside from those events connected with military 
afiairs. In July, 1796, as before stated, after a treaty was con- 
cluded between the United States and Spain, the British garrisons, 
with their arms, artillery and stores, were withdrawn from the 
posts within the boundaries of the United States northwest of the 
Ohio river, and a detachment of American troops, consisting of 65 
men, under the command of Capt. Moses Porter, took possession 
of the evacuated post of Detroit in the same month. 

In the latter part of 1796 Winthrop Sargent went to Detroit and 
organized the county of Wayne, forming a part of the Indiana 
Territory until its division in 1805, when the Territory of Michigan 
was organized. 


\U — ^ - — -^ I -^ , 




On the final success of American arms and diplomacy in 1796, 
the principal town within the Territory, now the State, of Indiana 
was Yincennes, which at this time comprised about 50 houses, all 
presenting a thrifty and tidy appearance. Each house was sur- 
rounded by a garden fenced with poles, and peach and apple-trees 
grew in most of the enclosures. Garden vegetables of all kinds 
were cultivated with success, and corn, tobacco, wheat, barley and 
cotton grew in the fields around the village in abundance. During 
the last few years of the 18th century the condition of society at 
Vincennes improved wonderfully. 

Besides Yincennes there was a small settlement near where the 
town of Lawrenceburg now stands, in Dearborn county, and in the 
course of that year a small settlement was formed at " Armstrong's 
Station," on the Ohio, within the present limits of Clark county. 
There were of course several other smaller settlements and trading 
posts in the present limits of Indiana, and the number of civilized 
inhabitants comprised within the territory was estimated at 4,875. 

The Territory of Indiana was organized by Act of Congress May 
7, 1800, the material parts of the ordinance of 1787 remaining in 
force; and the inhabitants were invested with all the rights, privi- 
leges and advantages granted and secured to the people by that 
ordinance. The seat of government was fixed at Yincennes. May 
13, 1800, Wm. Henry Harrison, a native of Yirginia, was appoint- 
ed Governor of this new territory, and on the next day John Gib- 
son, a native of Pennsylvania and a distinguished Western pioneer, 
(to whom the Indian chief Logan delivered his celebrated speech in 
1774), was appointed Secretary of the Territory. Soon afterward 
Wm. Clark, Henry Yanderburgh and John Grifiin were appointed 
territorial Judges. 

Secretary Gibson arrived at Yincennes in July, and commenced, 
in the absence of Gov. Harrison, the administration of government. 
Gov. Harrison did not arrive until Jan. 10, 1801, when he imme- 
diately called together the Judges of the Territory, who proceeded 





to pass such laws as they deemed necessary for the present govern- 
ment of the Territory. This session began March 3, 1801. 

From this time to 1810 the principal subjects which attracted the 
attention of the people of Indiana were land speculations, the 
adjustment of land titles, the question of negro slavery, the purchase 
of Indian lands by treaties, the organization of Territorial legis- 
latures, the extension of the right of suffrage, the division of 
Indiana Territory, the movements of Aaron Burr, and the hostile 
views and proceedings of the Shawanee chief, Tecumseh, and his 
brother, the Prophet. 

Up to this time the sixth article of the celebrated ordinance of 
1787, prohibiting slavery in the Northwestern Territory, had been 
somewhat neglected in the execution of the law, and many French 
settlers still held slaves in a manner. In some instances, according 
to rules prescribed by Territorial legislation, slaves agreed by 
indentures to remain in servitude under their masters for a certain 
number of years; but many slaves, with whom no such contracts 
were made, were removed from the Indiana Territory either to the 
west of the Mississippi or to some of the slaveholding States. 
Gov. Harrison convoked a session of delegates of the Territory, 
elected by a popular vote, who petitioned Congress to declare the 
sixth article of the ordinance of 1787, prohibiting slavery, suspend- 
ed; but Congress never consented to grant that petition, and many 
other petitions of a similar import. Soon afterward some of the 
citizens began to take colored persons out of the Territory for the 
purpose of selling them, and Gov. Harrison, by a proclamation 
April 6, 1804, forbade it, and called upon the authorities of the 
Territory to assist him in preventing such removal of persons 
of color. 

During the year 1804 all the country west of the Mississippi and 
north of 33** was attached to Indiana Territory by Congress, but in 
a few months was again detached and organized into a separate ter- 
ritory . 

When it appeared from the result of a popular vote in the Terri- 
tory that a majority of 138 freeliolders were in favor of organizing 
a General Assembly, Gov. Harrison, Sept. 11, 1804, issued a procla- 
mation declaring that the Territory had passed into the second grade 
of government, as contemplated by the ordinance of 1787, and 
fixed Thursday, Jan. 3, 1805, as the time for holding an election in 
the several counties of the Territory,to choose members of a House 
of Representatives, who should meet at Yincennes Feb. 1 and 


jVj« — fy- 


adopt measures for the orgaaization of a Territorial Council. These 
delegates were elected, and met according to the proclamation, and 
selected ten men from whom the President of the United States, 
Mr. Jefferson, should appoint five to be and constitute the Legisla- 
tive Council of the Territory, but he declining, requested Mr. Har- 
rison to make the selection, which was accordingly done. Before 
the first session of this Council, however, was held, Michigan Ter- 
ritory was set off, its south line being one drawn from the southern 
end of Lake Michigan directly east to Lake Erie. 


The first General Assembly, or Legislature, of Indiana Territory 
met at Vincennes July 29, 1805, in pursuance of a gubernatorial 
proclamation. The members of the House of Representatives were 
Jesse B. Thomas, of Dearborn county; Davis Floyd, of Clark county; 
Benjamin Parke and John Johnson, of Knox county; Shadrach 
Bond and "William Biggs, of St. Clair county, and George Fisher, 
of Randolph county, July 30 the Governor delivered his first mes- 
sage to "the Legislative Council and House of Representatives of 
the Indiana Territory." Benjamin Parke' was the first delegate 
elected to Congress. He had emigrated from New Jersey to In- 
diana in 1801. 

THE "western sun" 

was the first newspaper published in the Indiana Territory, now 
comprising the four great States of Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and 
"Wisconsin, and the second in all that country once known as the 
"Northwestern Territory." It was commenced at Yincennes in 
1803, by Elihu Stout, of Kentucky, and first called the Indiana 
Gazette, and July, 4, 1804, was changed to the Westerri Sun. Mr. 
Stout continued the paper until 1845, amid many discouragements, 
when he was appointed postmaster at the place, and he sold out 
the office. 


The events which we have just been describing really constitute 
the initiatory steps to the great military campaign of Gen. Harrison 
which ended in the "battle of Tippecanoe;" but before proceeding 
to an account of that brilliant affair, let us take a glance at the re- 
sources and strength of Indiana Territory at this time, 1810: 

Total population, 24,520 ; 33 grist mills; 14 saw mills; 3 horse 
mills; 18 tanneries; 28 distilleries; 3 powder mills; 1,256 looms ^ 

^ d — 

VI (5 eK 

< * — 



1,350 spinning wheels; value of manufactures — woolen, cotton 
hempen and flaxen cloths, $159,062; of cotton and wool spun in 
mills, $150,000; of nails, 30,000 pounds, $4,000; of leather tanned, 
$9,300; of distillery products, 35,950 gallons, $16,230; of gun- 
powder, 3,600 pounds, $1,800; of wine from grapes, 96 barrels, 
$6,000, and 5 0,000 pounds of maple sugar. 

During the year 1810 a Board of Commissioners was established 
to straighten out the confused condition into which the land-title 
controversy had been carried by the various and conflicting admin- 
istrations that had previously exercised jurisdiction in this regard. 
This work was attended with much labor on the part of the Commis- 
sioners and great dissatisfaction on the part of a few designing specu- 
lators, who thought no extreme of perjury too hazardous in their 
mad attempts to obtain lands fraudulently. In closing their report 
the Commissioners used the following expressive language: " We 
close this melancholy picture of human depravity by rendering our 
devout acknowledgment that, in the awful alternative in which we 
have been placed, of either admitting perjured testimony in sup- 
port of the claims before us, or having it turned against our char- 
acters and lives, it has as yet pleased that divine providence which 
rules over the afiairs of men, to preserve us, both from legal mur- 
der and private assassination." 

The question of dividing the Territory of Indiana was agitated 
from 1806 to 1809, when Congress erected the Territory of Illinois, 
to comprise all that part of Indiana Territory lying west of the 
Wabash river and a direct line drawn from that river and Post 
Yincennes due north to the territorial line between the United 
States and Caaada. This occasioned some confusion in the govern- 
ment of Indiana, but in due time the new elections were confirmed, 
and the new territory started off on a journey of prosperity which 
this section of the United States has ever since enjoyed. 

From the first settlement of Vincennes for nearly half a century 
there occurred nothing of importance to relate, at least so far as 
the records inform us. The place was too isolated to grow very 
fast, and we suppose there was a succession of priests and com- 
mandants, who governed the little world around them with almost 
infinite power and authority, from whose decisions there was no 
appeal, if indeed any was ever desired. The character of society 
in such a place would of course grow gradually different from the 
parent society, assimilating more or less with that of neighboring 
tribes. The whites lived in peace with the Indians, each under- 




Standing the other's peculiarities, which remained fixed long 
enough for both parties to study out and understand them. The 
government was a mixture of the military and the civil. There 
was little to incite to enterprise. Speculations in money and prop- 
erty, and their counterpart, beggary, were both unknown; the nec- 
essaries of life were easily procured, and beyond these there were 
but few wants to be supplied; hospitality was exercised by all, as 
there were no taverns; there seemed to be no use for law, judges 
or prisons; each district had its commandant, and the proceedings 
of a trial were singular. The complaining party obtained a notifi- 
cation from the commandant to his adversary, accompanied by a 
command to render justice. If this had no effect he was notified 
to appear before the commandant on a particular day and answer; 
and if the last notice was neglected, a sergeant and file of men 
were sent to bring him, — no sheriff and no costs. The convicted 
party would be fined and kept in prison until he rendered justice 
according to the decree; when extremely refractory the cat-o'-nine- 
tails brought him to a sense of justice. In such a state of society 
there was no demand for learning and science. Few could read, 
and still fewer write. Their disposition was nearly always to deal 
honestly, at least simply. Peltries were their standard of value. 
A brotherly love generally prevailed. But they were devoid of 
public spirit, enterprise or ingenuity. 

"^ rv 


Immediately after the organization of Indiana Territory Governor 
Harrison's attention was directed, bj necessity as well as by in- 
structions from Congress, to settling affairs with those Indians who 
still held claims to lands. He entered into several treaties, by 
which at the close of 1805 the United States Government had ob- 
tained about 46,000 square miles of territory, including all the 
lands lying on the borders of the Ohio river between the mouth of 
the Wabash river and the State of Ohio. 

The levying of a tax, especially a poll tax, by the General Assem- 
bly, created considerable dissatisfaction among many of the inhabit- 
ants. At a meeting held Sunday, August 16, 1807, a number of 
Frenchmen resolved to " withdraw their confidence and support 
forever from those men who advocated or in any manner promoted 
the second grade of government." 

In 1807 the territorial statutes were revised and under the new 
code, treason, murder, arson and horse-stealing were each punish- 
able by death. The crime of manslaughter was punishable by the 
common law. Burglary and robbery were punishable by whip- 
ping, fine and in some cases by imprisonment not exceeding forty 
years. Hog stealing was punishable by fine and whipping. Bigamy 
was punishable by fine, whipping and disfranchisement, etc. 

In 1804 Congress established three land offices for the sale of 
lands in Indiana territory; one was located at Detroit, one at Yin- 
cennes and one at Kaskaskia. In 1807 a fourth one was opened at 
Jefferson ville, Clark county; this town was first laid out in 1802, 
agreeably to plans suggested by Mr. Jefferson then President of 
the United States. 

Governor Harrison, according to his message to the Legislature 
in 1806, seemed to think that the peace then existing between the 
whites and the Indians was permanent; but in the same document 
he referred to a matter that might be a source of trouble, which in- 
deed it proved to be, namely, the execution of white laws among 
the Indians — laws to which the latter had not been a party in their 
enactment. The trouble was aggravated by the partiality with 
which the laws seem always to have been executed; the Indian 





was nearly always the sufferer. Ail along from 180.5 to 1810 the 
Indians complained bitterly against the encroachments of the white 
people upon the lands that belonged to them. The invasion of their 
hunting grounds and the unjustifiable killing of many of their peo- 
ple were the sources of their discontent. An old chief, in laying 
the trouble of his people before Governor Harrison, said : " You 
call us children ; why do you not make us as happy as our fathers, 
the French, did? They never took from us our lands; indeed, they 
were common between us. They planted where they pleased, and 
they cut wood where they pleased; and so did we; but now if a 
poor Indian attempts to take a little bark from a tree to cover him 
from the rain, up comes a white man and threatens to shoot him, 
claiming the tree as his own." 

The Indian truly had grounds for his complaint, and the state of 
feeling existing among the tribes at this time was well calculated 
to develop a patriotic leader who should carry them all forward to 
victory at arms, if certain concessions were not made to them by the 
whites. But this golden opportunity was seized by an unworthy 
warrior. A brother of Tecumseh, a "prophet" named Law-le-was-i- 
kaw, but who assumed the name of Pems-quat-a-wah (Open Door), 
was the crafty Shawanee warrior who was enabled to work upon 
both the superstitions and the rational judgment of his fellow In- 
dians. He was a good orator, somewhat peculiar in his appearance 
and well calculated to win the attention and respect of the savages. 
He began by denouncing witchcraft, the use of intoxicating liquors, 
the custom of Indian women marrying white men, the dress of the 
whites and the practice of selling Indian lands to the United States. 
He also told the Indians that the commands of the Great Spirit re- 
quired them to punish with death those who practiced the arts of 
witchcraft and magic; that the Great Spirit had given him power 
to find out and expose such persons; that he had power to cure all 
diseases, to confound his enemies and to stay the arm of death in 
sickness and on the battle-field. His harangues aroused among 
some bands of Indians a high degree of superstitious excitement. 
An old Delaware chief named Ta-te-bock-o-she, through whose in- 
fluence a treaty had been made with the Delawares in 1804, was 
accused of witchcraft, tried, condemned and tomahawked, and 
his body consumed by fire. The old chief's wife, nephew 
("Billy Patterson ") and an aged Indian named Joshua were next 
accused of witchcraft and condemned to death. The two men were 
burned at the stake, but the wife of Ta-te-bock-o-she was saved from 







death by her brother, who suddenly approached her, took her by the 
hand, and, without meeting any opposition from the Indians present, 
led her out of the council- house. He then immediately returned and 
checked the growing influence of the Prophet by exclaiming in a 
strong, earnest voice, " The Evil Spirit has come among us and we 
are killing each other." — {^Dillon's History of Indiana. 

When Gov. Harrison was made acquainted with these events he 
sent a special messenger to the Indians, strongly entreating them to 
renounce the Prophet and his works. This really destroyed to som'e 
extent the Prophet's influence; but in the spring of 1808, having 
aroused nearly all the tribes of the Lake Region, the Prophet with 
a large number of followers settled near the mouth of the Tippe- 
canoe river, at a place which afterward had the name of "Prophet's- 
Town." Taking advantage of his brother's influence, Tecumseh 
actively engaged himself in forming the various tribes into a con- 
federacy. He announced publicly to all the Indians that the 
treaties by which the United States had acquired lands northwest 
of the Ohio were not made in fairness, and should be considered 
void. He also said that no single tribe was invested with power to 
sell lands without the consent of all the other tribes, and that he 
and his brother, the Prophet, would oppose and resist all future 
attempts which the white people might make to extend their set- 
tlements in the lands that belonged to the Indians. 

Early in 1808, Gov. Harrison sent a speech to the Shawanees, 
in which was this sentence: " My children, this business must be 
stopped ; I will no longer suffer it. You have called a number of 
men from the most distant tribes to listen to a fool, who speaks 
not the words of the Great Spirit but those of the devil and the 
British agents. My children, your conduct has much alarmed the 
white settlers near you. They desire that you will send away those 
people; and if they wish to have the impostor with them they can 
carry him along with them. Let him go to the lakes; he can hear 
the British more distinctly." This message wounded the pride of 
the Prophet, and he prevailed on the messenger to inform Gov. 
Harrison that he was not in league with the British, but was speak- 
ing truly the words of the Great Spirit. 

In the latter part of the summer of 1808, the Prophet spent sev- 
eral weeks at Vincennes, for the purpose of holding interviews 
with Gov. Harrison. At one time he told the Governor that he 
was a Christian and endeavored to persuade his people also to 
become Christians, abandon the use of liquor, be united in broth- 






erly love, etc., making Mr. Harrison believe at least, that he was 
honest; but before long it was demonstrated that the "Prophet" 
was designing, cunning and unreliable; that both he and Tecumseh 
were enemies of the United States, and friends of the English; and 
that in case of a war between the Americans and English, they 
would join the latter. The next year the Prophet again visited 
Vincennes, with assurances that he was not in sympathy with the 
English, but the Governor was not disposed to believe him; and in 
a letter to the Secretary of War, in July, 1809, he said that he 
regarded the bands of Indians at Prophet's Town as a combination 
which had been produced by British intrigue and influence, in antic- 
ipation of a war between them and the United States. 

In direct opposition to Tecumseh and the prophet and in spite 
of all these difficulties, Gov. Harrison continued the work of extin- 
guishing Indian titles to lands, with very good success. By the 
close of 1809, the total amount of land ceded to the United States, 
under treaties which had been effected by Mr. Harrison, exceeded 
30,000,000 a -res. 

From 1805 to 1807, the movements of Aaron Burr in the Ohio 
valley created considerable excitement in Indiana, It seemed that 
he intended to collect a force of men, invade Mexico and found a 
republic there, comprising all the country west of the Alleghany 
mountains. He gathered, however, but a few men, started south, 
and was soon arrested by the Federal authorities. But before his 
arrest he had abandoned his expedition and his followers had 

Harrison's campaign. 

While the Indians were combining to prevent any further trans- 
fer of land to the whites, the British were using the advantage as a 
groundwork for a successful war upon the Americans. In the 
spring of 1810 the followers of the Prophet refused to receive their 
annuity of salt, and the officials who offered it were denounced as 
"American dogs," and otherwise treated in a disrespectful manner. 
Gov. Harrison, in July, attempted to gain the friendship of the 
Prophet by sending him a letter,offering to treat with him person- 
ally in the matter of his grievances, or to furnish means to send 
him, with three of his principal chiefs, to the President at Wash- 
ington; but the messenger was coldly received, and they returned 
word that they would visit Vincennes in a few days and interview 
the Governor. Accordingly, Aug. 12, 1810, the Shawanee chief 
with 70 of his principal warriors, marched up to the door of the 

J ® 




Governor's house, and from that day until the 22d held daily inter- 
views with His Excellency. In all of his speeches Tecuinseh was 
haughty, and sometimes arrogant. On the 20th he delivered that 
celebrated speech in which he gave the Governor the alternative of 
returning their lands or meeting them in battle. 

While the Governor was replying to this speech Tecumseh inter- 
rupted him with an angry exclamation, declaring that the United 
States, through Gov. Harrison, had "cheated and imposed on the 
Indians." When Tecumseh first rose, a number of his party also 
sprung to their feet, armed with clubs, tomahawks and spears, and 
made some threatening demonstrations. The Governor's guards, 
who stood a little way off, were marched up in haste, and the In- 
dians, awed by the presence of this small armed force, abandoned 
w^hat seemed to be an intention to make an open attack on the Gov- 
ernor and his attendants. As soon as Tecumseh's remarks were 
interpreted, the Governor reproached him for his conduct, and com- 
manded him to depart instantly to his camp. 

On the following day Tecumseh repented of his rash act and re- 
quested the Governor to grant him another interview, and pro- 
tested against any intention of offense. The Governor consented, 
and the council was re-opened on the 21st, when the Shawanee 
chief addressed him in a respectful and dignified manner, but re- 
mained immovable in his policy. The Governor then requested 
Tecumseh to state plainly whether or not the surveyors who might 
be sent to survey the lands purchased at the treaty of Fort Wayne 
in 1809, would be molested by Indians. Tecumseh replied: 
"Brother, when you speak of annuities to me, I look at the land 
and pity the women and children. I am authorized to say that they 
will not receive them. Brother, we want to save that piece of land. 
We do not wish you to take it. It is small enough for our purpose. 
If you do take it, you must blame yourself as the cause of the 
trouble between us and the tribes who sold it to you. I want the 
present boundary line to continue. Should you cross it, I assure 
you it will be productive of bad consequences." 

The next day the Governor, attended only by his interpreter, 
visited the camp of the great Shawanee, and in the course of along 
interview told him that the President of the United States would 
not acknowledge his claims. "Well," replied the brave warrior, 
"as the great chief is to determine the matter, I hope the Great 
Spirit will put sense enough into his head to induce him to direct 
you to give up this land. It is true, he is so far off he will not be 





injured by the war. He may sit still in bis town and drink his 
wine, while you and I will have to fight it out." 

In his message to the new territorial Legislature in 1810 Gov. 
Harrison called attention to the dangerous views held by Tecumseh 
and the Prophet, to the pernicious influence of alien enemies 
among the Indians, to the unsettled condition of the Indian trade 
and to the policy of extinguishing Indian titles to lands. The 
eastern settlements were separated from the western by a consider- 
able extent of Indian lands, and the most fertile tracts within the 
territory were still in the hands of the Indians. Almost entirely 
divested of the game from which they had drawn their subsistence, 
it had become of little use to them; and it was the intention of 
-the Government to substitute for the precarious and scanty sup- 
plies of the chase the more certain and plentiful support of agri- 
culture and stock-raising. The old habit of the Indians to hunt 
so long as a deer could be found was so inveterate that they would 
not break it and resort to intelligent agriculture unless they were 
compelled to, and to this they would not be compelled unless they 
were confined to a limited extent of territory. The earnest lan- 
guage of the Governor's appeal was like this: "Are then those 
extinguishments of native title which are at once so beneficial to 
the Indian and the territory of the United States, to be suspended on 
account of the intrigues of a few individuals? Is one of the fair- 
est portions of the globe to remain in a state of nature, the haunt 
of a few wretched savages, when it seems destined by the Creator 
to give support to a large population, and to be the seat of civili- 
zation, of science and true religion?" 

In the same message the Governor also urged the establishment 
of a system of popular education. 

Among the acts passed hy this session of the Legislature, one 
authorized the President and Directors of the Yincennes Public 
Library to raise $1,000 by lottery. Also, a petition was sent to 
Congress for a permanent seat of government for the Territory, and 
commissioners were appointed to select the site. 

With the beginning of the year 1811 the British agent for 
Indian affairs adopted measures calculated to secure the support of 
the savao^es in the war which at this time seemed almost inevitable. 
Meanwhile Gov. Harrison did all in his power to destroy the influ- 
ence of Tecumseh and his brother and break up the Indian confed- 
eracy which was oeing organized in the interests of Great Britain. 
Pioneer settlers and the Indians naturally grew more and more 

.♦ ^' — 

^ <s ^ ^ SI'S- 





aggressive and intolerant, committing depredations and murders, 
until the Governor felt compelled to send the following speech^ 
substantially, to the two leaders of the Indian tribes: "This is the 
third year that all the white people in this country have been 
alarmed at your proceedings; you threaten us with war; you invite 
all the tribes north and west of you to join against us, while your 
warriors who have lately been here deny this. The tribes on the 
Mississippi have sent me word that you intended to murder me 
and then commence a war upon my people, and your seizing the salt 
I recently sent up the Wabash is also sufficient evidence of such 
intentions on your part. My warriors are preparing themselves, 
not to strike you, but to defend themselves and their women and 
children. You shall not surprise us, as you expect to do. Your 
intended act is a rash one: consider well of it. What can induce 
you to undertake such a thing when there is so little prospect of 
success'^ Do you really think that the handful of men you have 
about you are able to contend with the seventeen 'fires?' or even 
that the whole of the tribes united could contend against the Ken- 
tucky 'fire' alone? I am myself of the Long 'Knife fire.' As soon 
as they hear my voice you will see them pouring forth their swarms 
of hunting-shirt men as numerous as the musquitoes on the shores 
of the Wabash. Take care of their stings. It is not our wish to 
hurt you; if we did, we certainly have power to do it. 

" You have also insulted the Government of the United States, 
by seizing the salt that was intended for other tribes. Satisfaction 
must be given for that also. You talk of coming to see me, attend- 
ed by all of your young men; but this must not be. If your inten- 
tions are good, you have no need to bring but a few of your young 
men with you. I must be plain with you. I will not suff'er you 
to come into our settlements with such a force. My advice is that 
you visit the President of the United States and lay your griev- 
ances before him. 

" With respect to the lands that were purchased last fall I can 
enter into no negotiations with you; the affair is with the Presi- 
dent. If you wish to go and see him, I will supply you with the 

" The person who delivers this is one of my war officers, and is a 
man in whom I have entire confidence; whatever he says to you, 
although it may not be contained in this paper, you may believe 
comes from me. My friend Tecumseh, the bearer is a good man 
and a brave warrior; I hope you will treat him well. You ar? 




yourself a warrior, and all such should have esteem for each other." 

The bearer of this speech was politely received by Tecumseh, 
who replied to the Governor briefly that he should visit Yincennes 
in a few days. Accordingly he arrived July 27, 1811, bringing 
with him a considerable force of Indians, which created much 
alarm among the inhabitants. In view of an emergency Gov. 
Harrison reviewed his militia — about 750 armed men — and station- 
ed two companies and a detachment of dragoons on the borders of 
the town. At this interview Tecumseh held forth that he intended 
no war against the United States; that he would send messengers 
among the Indians to prevent murders and depredations on the 
white settlements; that the Indians, as well as the whites, who had 
committed murders, ought to be forgiven; that he had set the white 
people an example of forgiveness, which tliey ought to follow; 
that it was his wish to establish a union among all the Indian 
tribes; that the northern tribes were united; that he was going to 
visit the southern Indians, and then return to the Prophet's town. 
He said also that he would visit the President the next spring and 
settle all difficulties with him, and that he hoped no attempts would 
be made to make settlements on the lands which had been sold to 
the United States, at the treaty of Fort "Wayne, because the Indians 
wanted to keep those grounds for hunting. 

Tecumseh then, with about 20 of his followers, left for the South, 
to induce the tribes in that direction to join his confederacy. 

By the way, a lawsuit was instituted by Gov. Harrison against a 
certain Wm. Mcintosh, for asserting that the plaintiff had cheated 
the Indians out of their lands, and that by so doing he had made 
them enemies to the United States. The defendant was a wealthy 
Scotch resident of Yincennes, well educated, and a man of influence 
among the people opposed to Gov. Harrison's land policy. The 
jury rendered a verdict in favor of Harrison, assessing the damages 
at $4,000. In execution of the decree of Court a large quantity of 
the defendant's land was sold in the absence of Gov. Harrison; 
but some time afterward Harrison caused about two-thirds of the 
land to be restored to Mr. Mcintosh, and the remainder was given 
to some orphan children. 

Harrison's first movement was to erect a new fort on the Wabash 
river and to break up the assemblage of hostile Indians at the 
Prophet's town. For this purpose he ordered Col. Boyd's regiment 
of infantry to move from the falls of Ohio to Yincennes. "When 
the military expedition organized by Gov, Harrison was nearly 




ready to march to the Prophet's town,several Indian chiefs arrived 
at Vincennes Sept. 25, 1811, and declared that the Indians 
would comply with the demands of the Governor and disperse; but 
this did not check the military proceedings. The army under com- 
mand of Harrison moved from Vincennes Sept. 26, and Oct. 3, en- 
countering no opposition from the enemy, encamped at the place 
where Fort Harrison was afterward built, and near where the city 
of Terre Haute now stands. On the night of the 11th a few hos- 
tile Indians approached the encampment and wounded one of the 
sentinels, which caused considerable excitement. The army was 
immediately drawn up in line of battle, and small detachments 
were sent in all directions; but the enemy could not be found. 
Then the Governor sent a message to Prophet's Town, requiring 
the Shawanees, Winnebagoes, Pottawatomies and Kickapoos at 
that place to return to their respective tribes; he also required the 
Prophet to restore all the stolen horses in his ]iossession, or to give 
satisfactory proof that such persons were not there, nor had lately 
been, under his control. To this message the Governor received 
no answer, unless that answer was delivered in the battle of Tip- 

The new fort on the Wabash was finished Oct. 28, and at the re- 
quest of all the subordinate officers it was called "Fort Harrison," 
near what is now Terre Haute. This fort was garrisoned with a 
small number of men under Lieutenant-Colonel Miller. On the 
29th the remainder of the army, consisting of 910 men, moved 
toward the Prophet's town; about 270 of the troops were mounted. 
The regular troops, 250 in number, were under the command of 
Col. Boyd, With this array the Governor marched to withm a 
half mile of the Prophet's town, when a conference was opened 
with a distinguished chief, in high esteem with the Prophet, and 
he informed Harrison that the Indians were much surprised at the 
approach of the army, and had already dispatched a message to 
him by another route. Harrison replied that he would not attack 
them until he had satisfied himself that they would not comply 
with his demands; that he would continue his encampment on the 
Wabash, and on the following morning would have an interview 
with the prophet. Harrison then resumed his march, and, after 
some difficulty, selected a place to encamp — a spot not very desir- 
able. It was a piece of dry oak land rising about ten feet above 
the marshy prairie in front toward the Indian town, and nearly 
twice that height above a similar prairie in the rear, through which 

"?i(9 — - "^ «>Fr 

-V e «^ i^ > 

'•"^ If, * 


and near this bank ran a small stream clothed with willow and 
brush wood. Toward the left flank this highland widened consid- 
erably, but became gradually narrower in the opposite direction, 
and at the distance of 150 yards terminated in an abrupt point. 
The two columns of infantry occupied the front and rear of this 
ground, about 150 yards from each other on the left, and a little 
more than half that distance on the right, flank. One flank was 
filled by two companies of mounted riflemen, 120 men, under com- 
mand of Major-General Wells, of the Kentucky militia, and one 
by Spencer's company of mounted riflemen, numbering 80 men. 
The front line was composed of one battalion of United States in- 
fantry, under command of Major Floyd, flanked on the right by 
two companies of militia, and on the left by one company. The 
rear line was composed of a battalion of United States troops, 
under command of Capt. Bean, acting as Major, and four companies 
of militia infantry under Lieutenant-Colonel Decker. The regular 
troops of this line joined the mounted riflemen under Gen. Wells, 
on the left flank, and Col. Decker's battalion formed an angle with 
Spencer's company on the left. Two troops of dragoons, about 60 
men in all, were encamped in the rear of the left flank, and Capt. 
Parke's troop, which was larger than the other two, in rear of 
the right line. For a night attack the order of encampment was 
the order of battle, and each man slept opposite his post in the 
line. In the formation of the troops single flle was adopted, in 
order to get as great an extension of the lines as possible. 


No attack was made by the enemy until about 4 o'clock on the 
morning of Nov. 7, just after the Governor had arisen. The 
attack was made on the left flank. Only a single gun was tired by the 
sentinels or by the guard in that direction, which made no resist- 
ance, abandoning their posts and fleeing into camp; and the first 
notice which the troops of that line had of the danger was the yell 
of the savages within a short distance of them. But the men 
were courageous and preserved good discipline. Such of them as 
were awake, or easily awakened, seized arms and took their stations; 
others, who were more tardy, had to contend with the enemy in 
the doors of their tents. The storm first fell upon Capt. Barton's 
company of the Fourth United States Regiment, and Capt. Geiger's 
company of mounted riflemen, which formed the left angle of the 
rear line. The fire from the Indians was exceedingly severe, and 

" -A 9 — ^ *,, « "''' » ^• 




men in these companies suffered considerably before relief could be 
brought to them. Some few Indians passed into the encampment 
near the angle, and one or two penetrated to some distance before 
they were killed. All the companies formed for action before they 
were fired on. The morning was dark and cloudy, and the fires of 
the Americans afforded only a partial light, which gave greater 
advantage to the enemy than to the troops, and they were there- 
fore extinguished. 

As soon as the Governor could mount his horse he rode to the 
angle which was attacked, where he found that Barton's company had 
suffered severely, and the left of Geiger's entirely broken. He 
immediately ordered Cook's and Wentworth's companies to march 
up to the center of the rear line, where were stationed a small com- 
pany of U. S. riflemen and the companies of Bean, Snelling and 
Prescott. As the General rode up he found Maj, Daviess forming 
the dragoons in the rear of these companies, and having ascertained 
that the heaviest fire proceeded from some trees 15 or 20 paces in 
front of these companies, he directed the Major to dislodge them 
with a part of the dragoons; but unfortunately the Major's gal- 
lantry caused him to undertake the execution of the order with a 
smaller force than was required, which enabled the enemy to avoid 
him in front and attack his flanks. He was mortally wounded and 
his men driven back. Capt. Snelling, however, with his company 
immediately dislodged those Indians. Capt. Spencer and his Ist 
and 2nd Lieutenants were killed, and Capt. Warwick mortally 
wounded. The soldiery remained brave. Spencer had too much 
ground originally, and Harrison re-enforced him with a company 
of riflemen which had been driven from their position on the left 

Gen. Harrison's aim was to keep the lines entire, to prevent the 
enemy from breaking into the camp until daylight, which would 
enable him to make a general and effectual charge. With this view 
he had re-enforced every part of the line that had suffered much, 
and with the approach of morning he withdrew several companies 
from the front and rear lines and re-enforced the right and left 
flanks, foreseeing that at these points the enemy would make their 
last effort. Maj. Wells, who had commanded the left flank, charged 
upon the enemy and drove them at the point of the bayonet into 
the marsh, where they could not be followed. Meanwhile Capt. 
Cook and Lieut. Larrabee marched their companies to the right 
flank and formed under fire of the enemy, and being there joined 

^ lofC. — - 

— J9^ 



by the riflemen of that flank, charged upon the enemy, killing a 
number and putting the rest to a precipitate flight. 

Thus ended the famous battle of Tippecanoe, victoriously to the 
whites and honorably to Gen. Harrison. 

In this battle Mr. Harrison had about 700 efficient men, while 
the Indians had probably more than that. The loss of the Ameri- 
cans was 37 killed and 25 mortally wounded, and 126 wounded; the 
Indians lost 38 killed on the field of battle, and the number of the 
wounded was never known. Among the whites killed were Daviess, 
Spencer, Owen, Warwick, Randolph, Bean and White. Standing on. 
an eminence near by, the Prophet encouraged his warriors to battle 
by singing a favorite war-song. He told them that they would gain 
an easy victory, and that the bullets of their enemies would be made 
harmless by the Great Spirit. Being informed duringthe engagement 
that some of the Indians were killed, he said that his warriors must 
fight on and they would soon be victorious. Immediately after 
their defeat the surviving Indians lost faith in their great (?) Proph- 
et, returned to their respective tribes, and thus the confederacy 
was destroyed. The Prophet, with a very few followers, then took 
up his residence among a small band of Wyandots encamped on 
Wild-Cat creek. His famous town, with all its possessions, was 
destroyed the next day, Nov. 8. 

On the 18th the American army returned to Vincennes, where 
most of the troops were discharged. The Territorial Legislature, 
being in session, adopted resolutions complimentary to Gov, Harri- 
son and the officers and men under him, and made preparations for 
a reception and celebration. 

Capt. Logan, the eloquent Shawanee chief who assisted our 
forces so materially, died in the latter part of November, 1812, 
from the effects of a wound received in a skirmish with a recon- 
noitering party of hostile Indians accompanied by a white man in 
the British service, Nov. 22. In that skirmish the white man was 
killed, and Winamac, a Pottawatomie chief of some distinction, 
fell by the rifle of Logan. The latter was mortally wounded, when 
he retreated with two warriors of his tribe, Capt. Johnny and 
Bright-Horn, to the camp of Gen. Winchester, where he soon after- 
ward died. He was buried with the honors of war. 

■^ (S ^~ ^* Q V 




The victory recently gained by the Americans at the battle of 
Tippecanoe insured perfect peace for a time, bat only a short time 
as the more extensive schemes of the British had so far ripened as 
to compel the United States again to declare war against them. 
Tecumseh had fled to Maiden, Canada, where, counseled by the 
English, he continued to excite the tribes against the Americans. 
As soon as this war with Great Britain was declared (June 18, 
1812), the Indians, as was expected, commenced again to commit 
depredations. During the summer of 1812 several points along 
the Lake Region succumbed to theBritish, as Detroit, under Gen. 
Hull, Fort Dearborn (now Chicago), commanded by Capt. Heald 
under Gen. Hull, the post at Mackinac, etc. 

In the early part of September, 1812, parties of hostile Indians 
began to assemble in considerable numbers in the vicinity of Forts 
Wayne and Harrison, with a view to reducing them. Capt. Rhea, 
at this time, had command of Fort Wayne, but his drinking pro- 
pensities rather disq^ualified him for emergencies. For two weeks 
the fort was in great jeopardy. An express had been sent to Gen. 
Harrison for reinforcements, but many days passed without any 
tidings of expected assistance. At length, one day, Maj. Wm. 
Oliver and four friendly Indians arrived at the fort on horseback. 
One of the Indians was the celebrated Logan. They had come in 
defiance of " 500 Indians," had "broken their ranks" and reached 
the fort in safety. Oliver reported that Harrison was aware of the 
situation and was raising men for a re-enforcement. Ohio was also 
raising volunteers; 800 were then assembled at St. Mary's, Ohio, 
60 miles south of Fort Wayne, and would march to the relief of 
the fort in three or four days, or as soon as they were joined by re- 
enforcements from Kentucky. 

Oliver prepared a letter, announcing to Gen. Harrison his safe ar- 
rival at the besieged fort, and giving an account of its beleaguered 
situation, which he dispatched by his friendly Shawanees, while he 
concluded to take his chances at the fort. Brave Logan and his 
companions started with the message, but had scarcely left the fort 
when they were discovered and pursued by the hostile Indians, yet 
passing the Indian lines in safety, they were soon out of reach. 
The Indians now began a furious attack upon the fort; but the little 
garrison, with Oliver to cheer them on, bravely met the assault, re- 
pelling the attack day after day, until the army approached to their 

relief. During this siege the commanding officer, whose habits of 
" Z tion : 


1 fi) 


intemperance rendered him unfit for the command, was confined in 
the " black hole," while the junior officer assumed charge. This 
course was approved by the General, on his arrival, but Capt. Rhea 
received very little censure, probably on account of his valuable ser- 
vices in the Revolutionary war. 

Sept. 6, 1812, Harrison moved forward with his army to the re- 
lief of Fort "Wayne; the next day he reached a point within three 
miles of St. Mary's river; the next day he reached the river and 
was joined at evening by 200 mounted volunteers, under Col. Rich- 
ard M. Johnson; the next day at "Shane's Crossing" on the St. 
Mary's they were joined by 800 men from Ohio, under Cols. Adams 
and Hawkins. At this place Chief Logan and four other Indians 
offered their services as spies to Gen. Harrison, and were accepted. 
Logan was immediately disguised and sent forward. Passing 

through the lines of the hostile Indian8,he ascertained their number 
to be about 1,500, and entering the fort, he encouraged the solaiers 
to hold out, as relief was at hand. Gen. Harrison's force at this 
time was about 3,500. 

After an early breakfast Friday morning they were under march- 
ing orders; it had rained and the guns were damp; they were dis- 
charged and reloaded ; but that day only one Indian was encount- 
ered ; preparations were made at night for an expected attack by 
the Indians, but no attack came; the next day, Sept. 10, they ex- 
pected to fight their way to Fort Wayne, but in that they were hap- 
pily disappointed; and "At the first grey of the morning," as Bryce 
eloquently observes, "the distant halloos of the disappointed sav- 
ages revealed to the anxious inmates of the fort the glorious news 
of the approach of the army. Great clouds of dust could be seen 
from the fort, rolling up in the distance, as the valiant soldiery 
under Gen. Harrison moved forward to the rescue of the garrison 
and the brave boys of Kentucky and Ohio." 

This siege of Fort Wayne of course occasioned great loss to the 
few settlers who had gathered around the fort. At the time of its 
commencement quite a little village had clustered around the mili- 
tary works, but during the siege most of their improvements and 
crops were destroyed by the savages. Every building out of the reach 
of the guns of the fort was leveled to the ground, and thus the in- 
fant settlement was destroyed. 

During this siege the garrison lost but three men, while the 
Indians lost 25. Gen. Harrison had all the Indian villages for 25 
miles around destroyed. Fort Wayne was nothing but a military 
post until about 1819. 






Simultaneously with the attack on Fort Wayne the Indians also 
besieged Fort Harrison, which was commanded by Zachary Taylor. 
The Indians commenced firing upon the fort about 11 o'clock one 
night, when the garrison was in a rather poor plight for receiving 
them. The enemy succeeded in firing one of the block-houses, 
which contained whisky, and the whites had great difficulty in pre- 
venting the burning of all the barracks. The word " fire " seemed 
to have thrown all the men into confusion; soldiers' and citizens' 
wives, who had taken shelter within the fort, were crying; Indians 
were yelling; many of the garrison were sick and unable to be on 
duty; the men despaired and gave themselves up as lost; two of 
the strongest and apparently most reliable men jumped the pickets 
in the very midst of the emergency, etc., so that Capt. Taylor was 
at his wit's end what to do; but he gave directions as to the many 
details, rallied the men by a new scheme, and after about seven 
hours succeeded in saving themselves. The Indians drove up the 
horses belonging to the citizens, and as they could not catch th-^ra 
very readily, shot the whole of them in the sight of their owners, 
and also killed a number of the hogs belonging to the whites. 
They drove ofi^ all of the cattle, 65 in number, as well as the public 

Among many other depredations committed by the savages dur- 
ing this period, was the massacre of the Pigeon Roost settlement, 
consisting of one man, five women and 16 children ; a few escaped. 
An unsuccessful effort was made to capture these Indians, but 
when the news of this massacre and the attack on Fort Harrison 
reached Yincennes, about 1,200 men, under the command of Col. 
Wm. Russell, of the 7th U. S. Infantry, marched forth for the re- 
lief of the fort and to punish the Indians. On reaching the fort 
the Indians had retired from the vicinity; but on the 15th of Sep- 
tember a small detachment composed of 11 men, under Lieut. Rich- 
ardson, and acting as escort of provisions sent from Vincennes to 
Fort Harrison, was attacked by a party of Indians within the pres- 
ent limits of Sullivan county. It was reported that seven of these 
men were killed and one wounded. The provisions of course fell 
into the hands of the Indians. 


By the middle of August, through the disgraceful surrender of 
Gen. Hull, at Detroit, and the evacuation of Fort Dearborn and 
massacre of its garrison, the British and Indians were in possession 
of the whole Northwest. The savages, emboldened by their buc- 






cesses, penetrated deeper into the settlements, committing great 
depredations. The activity and success of the enemy aroused the 
people to a realization of the great danger their homes and families 
M^ere in. Gov. Edwards collected a force of 350 men at Camp 
Russell, and Capt. Hussell came from Vincennes with about 50 more. 
Being officered and equipped, they proceeded about the middle of 
October on horseback, carrying with them 20 day's rations, to 
Peoria. Capt. Craig was sent with two boats up the Illinois, with 
provisions and tools to build a fort. The little army proceeded to 
Peoria Lake, where was located a Pottawatomie village. They 
arrived late at night, within a few miles of the village, without 
their presence being known to the Indians. Four men were sent 
out that night to reconnoiter the position of the village. The four 
brave men who volunteered for this perilous service were Thomas 
Carlin (afterward Governor), and Robert, Stephen and Davis White- 
side. They proceeded to the village, and explored it and the ap- 
proaches to it thoroughly, without starting an Indian or provoking 
the bark of a dog. The low lands between the Indian village and 
the troops were covered with a rank growth of tall grass, so high 
and dense as to readily conceal an Indian on horseback, until within 
a few feet of him. The ground had become still more yielding by 
recent rains, rendering it almost impassable by mounted men. To 
prevent detection the soldiers had camped without lighting the 
usual camp-fires. The men lay down in their cold and cheerless 
camp, with many misgivings. They well remembered how the 
skulking savages fell upon Harrison's men at Tippecanoe during 
the night. To add to their fears, a gun in the hands of a soldier 
was carelessly discharged, raising great consternation in the camp. 
Through a dense fog which prevailed the following morning, the 
army took up its line of march for the Indian town, Capt. Judy 
with his corps of spies in advance. In the tall grass they came up 
with an Indian and his squaw, both mounted. The Indian wanted 
to surrender, but Judy observed that he " did not leave home to take 
prisoners," and instantly shot one of them. "With the blood 
streaming from his mouth and nose, and in his agony " singing the 
death song," the dying Indian raised his gun, shot and mortally 
wounded a Mr. Wright, and in a few minutes expired! Many guns 
were immediately discharged at the other Indian, not then known 
to be a squaw, all of which missed her. Badly scared, and her hus- 
band killed by her side, the agonizing wails of the squaw were 
heart-rending. She was taken prisoner, and afterward restored 
to her nation. 




On nearing the town a general charge was made, the Indians 
fleeing to the interior wilderness. Some of their warriors made a 
stand, when a sharp engagement occurred, but the Indians were 
routed. In their flight they left behind all their winter's store of 
provisions, which was taken, and their town burned. Some Indian 
children were found who had been left in the hurried flight, also 
some disabled adults, one of whom was in a starving condition, and 
with a voracious appetite partook of the bread given him. He is 
said to have been killed by a cowardly trooper straggling behind, 
after the main army had resumed its retrograde march, who wanted 
to be able to boast that he had killed an Indian. 

September 19, 1812, Gen. Harrison was put in command of the 
Northwestern army, then estimated at 10,000 men, with these 
orders: "Having provided for the protection of the western front- 
ier, you will retake Detroit; and, with a view to the conquest of 
upper Canada, you will penetrate that country as far as the force 
under your command will in your judgment justify." 

Although surrounded by many difficulties, the General began 
immediately to execute these instructions. In calling for volun- 
teers from Kentucky, however, more men ofiered than could be 
received. At this time there were about 2,000 mounted volunteers 
at Yincennes, under the command of Gen, Samuel Hopkins, of the 
Revolutionary war, who was under instructions to operate against 
the enemy along the Wabash and Illinois rivers. Accordingly, 
early in October, Gen. Hopkins moved from Vincennes towards the 
Kickapoo villages in the Illinois territory, with about 2,000 troops; 
but after four or five days' march the men and officers raised a 
mutiny which gradually succeeded in carrying all back to Vin- 
cennes. The cause of their discontent is not apparent. 

About the same time Col. Russell, with two small companies of 
U. S. rangers, commanded by Capts. Perry and Modrell, marched 
from the neighborhood of Vincennes to unite with a small force of 
mounted militia under the command of Gov. Edwards, of Illinois, 
and afterward to march with the united troops from Cahokia 
toward Lake Peoria, for the purpose of co-operating with Gen. 
Hopkins against the Indian towns in that vicinity; but not find- 
ing the latter on the ground, was compelled to retire. 

Immediately after the discharge of the mutinous volunteers, 
Gen. Hopkins began to organize another force, mainly of infantry, 
to reduce the Indians up the Wabash as far as the Prophet's town. 
These troops consisted of three regiments of Kentucky militia, 






commanded by Cols. Barbour, Miller and Wilcox; a small company 
of regulars commanded by Capt. Zacliary Taylor; a company of 
rangers commanded by Capt. Beckes; and a company of scouts or 
spies under the command of Capt. Washburn. The main body of 
this army arrived at Fort Harrison Nov. 5; on the 11th it pro- 
ceeded up the east side of the Wabash into the heart of the Indian 
country, but found the villages generally deserted. Winter set- 
ting in severely, and the troops poorly clad, they had to return to 
Yincennes as rapidly as possible. With one exception the men 
behaved nobly, and did much damage to the enemy. That 
exception was the precipitate chase after an Indian by a detach- 
ment of men somewhat in liquor, until they found themselves sur- 
rounded by an overwhelming force of the enemy, and they had to 
retreat in disorder. 

At the close of this campaign Gen. Hopkins resigned his 

In the fall of 1812 Gen. Harrison assigned to Lieut. Col. John 
B, Campbell, of the 19th U. S. Inf., the duty of destroying the 
Miami villages on the Mississinewa river, with a detachment of 
about 600 men. Nov. 25, Lieut. Col. Campbell marched from 
Franklinton, according to orders, toward the scene of action, cau- 
tiously avoiding falling in with the Delawares, who had been ordered 
by Gen. Harrison to retire to the Shawanee establishment on the 
Auglaize river, and arriving on the Mississinewa Dec. 17, when 
they discovered an Indian town inhabited by Delawares and 
Miamis This and three other villages wer.e destroyed. Soon 
after this, the supplies growing short and the troops in a suffering 
condition, Campbell began to consider the propriety of returning 
to Ohio; but just as he was calling together his officers early one 
morning to deliberate on the proposition, an army of Indians 
rushed upon them with fury. The engagement lasted an hour, 
with a loss of eight killed and 42 wounded, besides about 150 horses 
killed. The whites, however, succeeded in defending themselves 
and taking a number of Indians prisoners, who proved to be Mun- 
sies, of Silver Heel's band. Campbell, hearing that a large force 
of Indians were assembled at Mississinewa village, under Tecum- 
seh, determined to return to Greenville. The privations of his 
troops and the severity of the cold compelled him to send to that 
place for re-enforcements and supplies. Seventeen of the men had 
to be carried on litters. They were met by the re-enforcement 
about 40 miles from Greenville. 


Lieut. Col. Campbell sent two messages to the Delawares, who 
lived on White river and who had been previously directed and 
requested to abandon their towns on that river and remove into 
Ohio. In these messages he expressed his regret at unfortunately 
killing some of their men, and urged them to move to the Shaw- 
anee settlement on the Auglaize river. He assured them that their 
people, in his power, would be compensated by the Government 
for their losses, if not found to be hostile; and the friends of those 
killed satisfied by presents, if such satisfaction would be received. 
This advice was heeded by the main body of the Delawares and a 
few Miamis. The Shawanee Prophet, and some of the principal 
chiefs of the Miamis, retired from the country of the Wabash, and, 
with their destitute and suffering bands, moved to Detroit, where 
they were received as the friends and allies of Great Britain. 

On the approach of Gen. Harrison with his army in September, 
1813, the British evacuated Detroit, and the Ottawas, Chippewas, 
Pottawatomies, Miamis and Kickapoos sued for peace with the 
United States, which was granted temporarily by Brig. Gen. Mc- 
Arthur, on condition of their becoming allies of the United States 
in case of war. 

In June, 1813, an expedition composed of 137 men, under com- 
mand of Col. Joseph Bartholomew, moved from Yalonia toward 
the Delaware towns on the west fork of White river, to surprise 
and punish some hostile Indians who were supposed to be lurking 
about those villages. Most of these places they found deserted; 
some of them burnt. They had been but temporarily occupied for 
the purpose of collecting and carrying away corn. Col. Bartholo- 
mew's forces succeeded in killing one or two Indians and destroy- 
ing considerable corn, and they returned to Valonia on the 21st of 
this month. 

July 1, 1813, Col. William Russell, of the 7tb U. S., organized 
a force of 573 effective men at Valonia and marched to the Indian 
villages about the month of the Mississinewa. His experience was 
much like that of Col. Bartholomew, who had just preceded him. 
He had rainy weather, suffered many losses, found tlie villages de- 
serted, destroyed stores of corn, etc. The Colonel reported that he 
went to every place where he expected to find the enemy, but they 
nearly always seemed to have fled the country. The march from 
Valonia to the mouth of the Mississinewa and return was about 
250 miles. 

Several smaller expeditions helped to "checker" the surrounding 


, ■^'k 



country, and find that the Indians were very careful to keep them- 
selves out of sight, and thus closed this series of campaigns. 


The war with England closed on the 24th of December, 1814, 
when a treaty of peace was signed at Ghent. The 9th article of 
the treaty required the United States to put an end to hostilities 
with all tribes or nations of Indians with whom they had been at 
war; to restore to such tribes or nations respectively all the rights 
and possessions to which they were entitled in 1811, before the 
war, on condition that suph Indians should agree to desist from all 
hostilities against the United States. But in February, just before 
the treaty was sanctioned by our Government, there were signs of 
Indians accumulating arms and ammunition, and a cautionary 
order was therefore issued to have all the white forces in readiness 
for an attack by the Indians; but the attack was not made. During 
the ensuing summer and fall the United States Government ac- 
quainted the Indians with the provisions of the treaty, and entered 
into subordinate treaties of peace with the principal tribes. 

Just before the treaty of Spring Wells (near Detroit) was signed, 
the Shawanee Prophet retired to Canada, but declaring his resolu- 
tion to abide by any treaty which the chiefs might sign. Some 
time afterward he returned to the Shawanee settlement in Ohio, and 
lastly to the west of the Mississippi, where he died, in 1834. The 
British Government allowed him a pension from 1813 until his 
death. His brother Tecumseh was killed at the battle of the 
Thames, Oct. 5, 1813, by a Mr, Wheatty, as we are positively in- 
formed by Mr. A. J. James, now a resident of La Harpe township, 
Hancock county. III., whose father-in-law, John Pigman, of Co- 
shocton county, Ohio, was an eye witness. Gen. Johnson has gener- 
ally had the credit of killing Tecumseh. 





If one should inquire who has been the greatest Indian, the most 
noted, the " principal Indian " in North America since its discov- 
ery by Columbus, we would be obliged to answer, Tecumseh. For 
all those qualities which elevate a man far above his race; for talent, 
tact, skill and bravery as a warrior; for high-minded, honorable and 
chivalrous bearing as a man; in a word, for all those elements of 
greatness which place him a long way above his fellows in savage 
life, the name and fame of Tecnmseh will go down to posterity in 
the West as one of the most celebrated of the aborigines of this 
continent, — as one who had no equal among the tribes that dwelt 
in the country drained by the Mississippi, Born to command him- 
self, he used all the appliances that would stimulate the courage 
and nerve the valor of his followers. Always in the front rank of 
battle, his followers blindly followed his lead, and as his war-cry 
rang clear above the din and noise of the battle-field, the Shawnee 
warriors, as they rushed on to victory or the grave, rallied around 
him, foemen worthy of the steel of the most gallant commander 
that ever entered the lists in defense of his altar or his home. 

The tribe to which Tecumseh, or Tecumtha, as some write it, be- 
longed, was the Shawnee, or Shawanee. The tradition of the nation, 
held that they originally came from the Gulf of Mexico; that they 
wended their way up the Mississippi and the Ohio, and settled at 
or near the present site of Shawneetown, 111., whence they removed 
to the upper Wabash. In the latter place, at any rate, they were 
found early in the 18th century, and were known as the " bravest 
of the brave." This tribe has uniformly been the bitter enemy of 
the white man, and in every contest with our people has exhibited 
a degree of skill and strategy that should characterize the most 
dangerous foe. 

Tecumseh's notoriety and that of his brother, the Prophet, mutu- 
ally served to establish and strengtiien each other. While the 
Prophet had unlimited power, spiritual and temporal, he distributed 
his greatness in all the departments of Indian life with a kind of 
fanaticism that magnetically aroused the religious and superstitious 

passions, not only of his own followers, but also of all the tribes in 
^ (111) 




this part of the country; but Tecuraseh concentrated his greatness 
upon the more practical and business affairs of military conquest. 
It is doubted whether he was really a sincere believer in the preten- 
sions of his fanatic brother; if he did not believe in the pretentious 
feature of them he had the shrewdness to keep his unbelief to him- 
self, knowin^^ that religious fanaticism was one of the strongest im- 
pulses to reckless bravery. 

During his sojourn in the Northwestern Territory, it was Tecum- 
seh's uppermost desire of life to confederate all the Indian tribes of 
the countrv together against the whites, to maintain their choice 
hunting-grounds. All his public policy converged toward this sin- 
gle end. In his vast scheme he comprised even all the Indians in 
the Gulf country, — all in America west of the Alleghany moun- 
tains. He held, as a subordinate principle, that the Great Spirit 
had given the Indian race all these hunting-grounds to keep in 
common, and that no Indian or tribe could cede any portion of the 
land to the vt^hites without the consent of all the tribes. Hence, in 
all his councils with the whites he ever maintained that the treaties 
were null and void. 

When he met Harrison at Yincennes in council the last time, 
and, as he was invited by that General to take a seat with him on 
the platform, he hesitated; Harrison insisted, saying that it was the 
"wish of their Great Father, the President of the United States, 
that he should do so." The chief paused a moment, raised his tall 
and commanding form to its greatest height, surveyed the troops 
and crowd around him, fixed his keen eyes upon Gov. Harrison, 
and then turning them to the sky above, and pointing toward 
heaven with his sinewy arm in a manner indicative of supreme 
contempt for the paternity assigned him, said in clarion tones: " My 
father? The sun is my father, the earth is my mother, and on her 
bosom I will recline." He then stretched himself, with his war- 
riors, on the green sward. The effect was electrical, and for some 
moments there was perfect silence. 

The Governor, then, through an interpreter, told him that he un- 
derstood he had some complaints to make and redress to ask, etc., 
and that he wished to investigate the matter and make restitution 
wherever it might be decided it should be done. As soon as the 
Governor was through with this introductory speech, the stately 
warrior arose, tall, athletic, manly, dignified and graceful, and with 
a voice at first low, but distinct and musical, commenced a reply. 
As he warmed up with his subject his clear tones might be heard, 






as if '' trumpet-tongued," to the utmost limits of the assembly. 
The most perfect silence prevailed, except when his warriors gave 
their guttural assent to some eloquent recital of the red man's 
wrong and the white man's injustice. Tecumseh recited the wrongs 
which his race had suffered from che of the massacre of the 
Moravian Indians to the present; said he did not know how he 
could ever again be the friend of the white man; that the Great 
Spirit had given to the Indian all the land from the Miami to the 
Mississippi, and from the lakes to the Ohio, as a common property 
to all the tribes in these borders, and that the land could not and 
should not be sold without the consent of all; that all the tribes on 
the continent formed but one nation; that if the United States 
would not give up the lands they had bought of the Miamis and 
the other tribes, those united with him were determined to annihi- 
late those tribes; that they were determined to have no more chiefs, 
but in future to be governed by their warriors; that unless the 
whites ceased their encroachments upon Indian lands, the fate of 
the Indians was sealed; they had been driven from the banks of 
the Delaware across the Alleghanies, and their possessions on the 
Wabash and the Illinois were now to be taken from them; that in 
a few years they would not have ground enough to bury their war- 
riors on this side of the "Father of Waters;" that all would perish, 
all their possessions taken from thera by fraud or force, unless they 
stopped the progress of the white man westward; that it must be 
a war of races in which one or the other must perish; that their 
tribes had been driven toward the setting sun like a galloping 
horse (ne-kat a-kush-e ka-top-o-lin-to). 

The Shawnee language, in which this most eminent Indian states- 
man spoke, excelled all other aboriginal tongues in its musical ar- 
ticulation; and the effect of Tecumseh's oratory on this occasion 
can be more easily imagined than described. Gov. Harrison, 
although as brave a soldier and General as any American, was over- 
come by this speech. He well knew Tecumseh's power and influ- 
ence among all the tribes, knew his bravery, courage and determi- 
nation, and knew that he meant what he said. When Tecumseh 
was done speaking there was a stillness throughout the assembly 
which was really painful ; not a whisper was heard, and all eyes were 
turned from the speaker toward Gov. Harrison, who after a few 
moments came to himself, and recollecting many of the absurd 
statements of the great Indian orator, began a reply which was 
more logical, if not so eloquent. The Shawnees were attentive un- 




til Harrison's interpreter began to translate his speech to the Mia- 
mis and Pottawatomies, when Tecuniseh and his warriors sprang 
to their feet, brandishing their war-clubs and tomahawks. "Tell 
him," said Tecumseh, addressing the interpreter in Shawnee, " he 
lies." The interpreter undertook to convey this message to the 
Governor in smoother language, but Tecumseh noticed the effort 
and remonstrated, " No, no; tell him belies." The warriors began 
to grow more excited, when Secretary Gibson ordered the Ameri- 
can troops in arms to advance. This allayed the rising storm, and 
as soon as Tecuraseh's " He lies " was literally interpreted to the 
Governor, the latter told Tecumseh through the interpreter to tell 
Tecumseh he would hold no further council with him. 

Thus the assembly was broken up, and one can hardly imagine a 
more exciting scene. It would constitute the finest subject for a 
historical painting to adorn the rotunda of the capitol. The next 
day Tecumseh requested another interview with the Governor, 
which was granted on condition that he should make an apology to 
the Governor for his language the day before. This he made 
through the interpreter. Measures for defense and protection were 
taken, however, lest there should be another outbreak. Two com- 
panies of militia were ordered from the country, and the one in 
town added to them, while the Governor and his friends went into 
council fully armed and prepared for any contingency. On this oc- 
casion the conduct of Tecumseh was entirely difierent from that of 
the day before. Firm and intrepid, showing not the slightest fear 
or alarm, surrounded with a military force four times his own, he 
preserved the utmost composure and equanimity. No one would 
have supposed that he could have been the principal actor in the 
thrilling scene of the previous day. He claimed that half the 
Americans were in sympathy with him. He also said that whites 
had informed him that Gov. Harrison had purchased land from the 
Indians without any authority from the Government; that he, 
Harrison, had but two years more to remain in office, and that if 
he, Tecumseh, could prevail upon the Indians who sold the lands 
not to receive their annuities for that time, and the present Gover- 
nor displaced by a good man as his successor, the latter would re- 
store to the Indians all the lands purchased from them. 

The Wyandots, Kickapoos, Pottawatomies, Ottawasand the Win- 
nebagoes, through their respective spokesmen, declared their 
adherence to the great Shawnee warrior and statesman. Gov. Harri- 
son then told them that he would send Tecuraseh's speech to thePresi- 



' Vl 


dent of the United States and return the answer to the Indians as soon 
as it was received. Tecumseh then declared that he and his allies were 
determined that the old boundary line should continue; and that 
if the whites crossed it, it would be at their peril. Gov. Harrison re- 
plied that he would be equally plain with him and state that the 
President would never allow that the lands on the Wabash were the 
property of any other tribes than those who had occupied them 
since the white people first came to America; and as the title to 
the lands lately purchased was derived from those tribes by a fair 
purchase, he might rest assured that the right of the United States 
would be supported by the sword. " So be it," was the stern and 
haughty reply of the Shawnee chieftan, as he and his braves took 
leave of the Governor and wended their way in Indian file to their 
camping ground. 

Thus ended the last conference on earth between the chivalrous 
Tecumseh and the hero of the battle of Tippecanoe. The bones of 
the first lie bleaching on the battle-field of the Thames, and those 
of the last in a mausoleum on the banks of the Ohio; each strug- 
gled for the mastery of his race, apd each no doubt was equaUy 
honest and patriotic in his purposes. The weak yielded to the 
strong, the defenseless to the powerful, and the hunting-ground of 
the Shawnee is all occupied by his enemy, 

Tecumseh, with four of his braves, immediately embarked in a 
birch canoe, descended the Wabash, and went on to the South to 
unite the tribes of that country in a general system of self-defense 
against the encroachment of the whites. His emblem was a dis- 
jointed snake, with the motto, "Join or die!" In union alone was 

Before Tecumseh left the Prophet's town at the mouth of the 
Tippecanoe river, on his excursion to the South, he had a definite 
understanding with his brother and the chieftains of the other tribes 
in the Wabash country, that they should preserve perfect peace 
with the whites until his arrangements were completed for a con- 
federacy of the tribes on both sides of the Ohio and on the Missis- 
sippi river; but it seems that while he was in the South enijagQd 
in his work of uniting the tribes of that country some of the North- 
ern tribes showed signs of fight and precipitated Harrison into that 
campaign which ended in the battle of Tippecanoe and the total 
route of the Indians. Tecumseh, on his return from the South, 
learning what had happened, was overcome with chagrin, disappoint- 
ment and anger, and accused his brother of duplicity and cov/ard- 





ice; indeed, it is said that he never forgave him to the day of his 
death. A short time afterv^ard, on the breaking out of the war of 
Great Britain, he joined Proctor, at Maiden, with a party of his 
warriors, and finally suffered the fate mentioned on page 108. 


Owing to the absence of Gov. Harrison on military duty, John 
Gibson, the Secretary of the Territory, acted in the administration 
of civil affairs. In his message to the Legislature convening on the 
1st of February, 1813, he said, substantially: 

" Did I possess the abilities of Cicero or Demosthenes, I could 
not portray in more glowing colors our foreign and domestic politi- 
cal situation than it is already experienced within our own breasts. 
The United States have been compelled, by frequent acts of injus- 
tice, to declare war against England. For a detail of the causes of 
this war I would refer to the message of President Madison; it 
does honor to his head and heart. Although not an admirer of 
war, I am glad to see our little but inimitable navy riding triumph- 
ant on the seas, but chagrined to find that our armies by land are 
so little successful. The spirit of '76 appears to have fled from our 
continent, or, if not fled, is at least asleep, for it appears not to 
pervade our armies generally. At your last assemblage our politi- 
cal horizon seemed clear, and our infant Territory bid fair for rapid 
and rising grandeur; but, alas, the scene has changed; and whether 
this change, as respects our Territory, has been owing to an over 
anxiety in us to extend our dominions, or to a wish for retaliation 
by our foes, or to a foreign influence, I shall not say. The Indians, 
our former neighbors and friends, have become our most inveterate 
foes. Our former frontiers are now our wilds, and our inner settle- 
ments have become frontiers. Some of our best citizens, and old 
men worn down with age, and helpless women and innocent 
babes, have fallen victims to savage cruelty, I have done my duty 
as well as I can, and hope that the interposition of Providence will 
protect us." 

The many complaints made about the Territorial Government 
Mr. Gibson said, were caused more by default of officers than of the 
law. Said he: " It is an old and, I believe, correct adage, that 
' good officers make good soldiers.' This evil having taken root, I do 
not know how it can be eradicated ; but it may be remedied. In 
place of men searching after and accepting commissions before they 

Vis -^ -aV 





are even tolerably qualified, thereby subjecting themselves to ridi- 
cule and their country to ruin, barely for the name of the thing, I 
think may be remedied by a previous examination." 

Durino" this session of the Legislature the seat of the Territorial 
Government was declared to be at Corydon, and immediately acting 
Governor Gibson prorogued the Legislature to meet at that place, 
the first Monday of December, 1813. During this year the Terri- 
tory was almost defenseless; Indian outrages were of common 
occurrence, but no general outbreak was made. The militia-men 
were armed with rifles and long knives, and many of the rangers 
carried tomahawks. 

In 1813 Thomas Posey, who was at that time a Senator in Con- 
gress from Tennessee, and who had been oflacer of the army of the 
Revolution, was appointed Governor of Indiana Territory, to suc- 
ceed Gen. Harrison. He arrived in Yincennes and entered upon 
the discharge of his duties May 25, 1813. During this year several 
expeditions against the Indian settlements were set on foot. 

In his first message to the Legislature the following December, 
at Corydon, Gov. Posey said: " The present crisis is awful, and big 
with firreat events. Our land and nation is involved in the common 
calamity of war; ,but we are under the protecting care of the benefi- 
cent Being,who has on a former occasion brought us safely through 
an arduous struggle and placed us on a foundation of independence, 
freedom and happiness. He will not suffer to be taken from us 
what He, in His great wisdom has thought proper to confer and 
bless us with, if we make a wise and virtuous use of His good 
gifts. •» * * Although our afiairs, at the commencement of 
the war, wore a gloomy aspect, they have brightened, and promise 
a certainty of success, if properly directed and conducted, of which 
I have no doubt, as the President and heads of departments of the 
general Government are men of undoubted patriotism, talents and 
experience, and who have grown old in the service of their country. 
* * * It must be obvious to every thinking man that we were 
forced into the war. Every measure consistent with honor, both 
before and since the declaration of war, has tried to be on amicable 
terms with our enemy, * * * You who reside in various parts 
of the Territory have it in your power to understand what will tend 
to its local and general advantage. The judiciary system would 
require a revisal and amendment. The militia law is very defective 
and requires your immediate attention. It is necessary to have 

"*^s ^ ^^ &^- 




good roads and highways in as many directions through the Terri- 
tory as the circumstances and situation of the inhabitants will 
admit; it would contribute very much to promote the settlement 
and improvement of the Territory. Attention to education is highly 
necessary. There is an appropriation made by Congress, in lands, 
for the purpose of establishing public schools. It comes now with- 
in your province to carry into operation the design of the appro- 

This Legislature passed several very necessary laws for the wel- 
fare of the settlements, and the following year, as Gen. Harrison 
was generally successful in his military campaigns in the ISTorth- 
west, the settlements in Indiana began to increase and improve. 
The fear of danger from Indians had in a great measure subsided, 
and the tide of immigration began again to flow. In January, 
1814, about a thousand Miamis assembled at Fort Wayne for the 
purpose of obtaining food to prevent starvation. They met with 
ample hospitality, and their example was speedily followed by 
others. These, with other acts of kindness, won the lasting friend- 
ship of the Indians, many of whom had fought in the interests of 
Great Britain. General treaties between the United States and the 
Northwestern tribes were subsequently concluded, and the way 
was fully opened for the improvement and settlement of the lands. 


The population of the Territory of Indiana, as given in tlie 
official returns to the Legislature of 1815, was as follows, by 

COUNTIES. White males of 21 and over. TOTAL. 

Wayne... 1,225 0,407 

Franklin 1,430 7,370 

Dearborn 903 4,424 

Switzerland 377 1,833 

Jefferson--- 874 4,370 

Clark 1,387 7,150 

Washington 1,420 7,317 

Harrison 1,05G 6,975 

Knox 1,391 .. 8,068 

Gibson 1,100 5,3i0 

Posey 320 1,6 19 

Warrick 280 , 1,415 

Perry 350 1,730 

Grand Totals 13,112, 63,897 


The well-known ordinance of 1787 conferred many " rights and 
privileges " upon the inhabitants of the Northwestern Territory, and 


^ (s ^ ^^ a V 





consequently upon the people of Indiana Territory, but after all it 
came far short of conferring as many privileges as are enjoyed at 
the present day by our Territories. They did not have a full form 
of Republican government. A freehold estate in 500 acres of land 
was one of the necessary qualifications of each member of the legis- 
lative council of the Territory; every member of the Territorial House 
of Representatives was required to hold, in his own right, 200 acres 
of land; and the privilege of voting for members of the House 
of Representatives was restricted to those inhabitants who, in addi- 
tion to other qualifications, owned severally at least 50 acres of 
land. The Governor of the the Territory was invested with the 
power of appointing officers of the Territorial militia, Judges of the 
inferior Courts, Clerks of the Courts, Justices of the Peace, Sheriff's, 
Coroners, County Treasurers and County Surveyors. He was also 
authorized to divide the Territory into districts; to apportion 
among the several counties the members of the House of Represent- 
atives; to prevent the passage of any Territorial law; and to con- 
vene and dissolve the General Assembly whenever he thought best. 
None of the Governors, however, ever exercised these extraordinary 
powers arbitrarily. Nevertheless, the people were constantly agi- 
tating the question of extending the right of suffrage. Five years 
after the organization of the Territory, the Legislative Council, in 
reply to the Governor's Message, said: "Although we are not as 
completely independent in our legislative capacity as we would 
wish to be, yet we are sensible that we must wait with patience for 
that period of time when our population will burst the trammels 
of a Territorial government, and we shall assume the character more 
consonant to Republicanism, * * * The confidence which our 
fellow citizens have uniformly had in your administration has been 
such that they have hitherto had no reason to be jealous of the un- 
limited power which you possess over our legislative proceedings. 
"We, however, cannot help regretting that such powers have 
been lodged in the hands of any one, especially when it is recol- 
lected to what dangerous lengths the exercise of those powers may 
be extended." 

After repeated petitions the people of Indiana were empowered 
by Congress to elect the members of the Legislative Council by popu- 
lar vote. This act was passed in 1809, and defined what was known 
as the property qualification of voters. These qualifications were 
abolished by Congress in 1811, which extended the right of voting 
for members of the General Assembly and for a Territorial delegate 






to Congress to every free white male person who had attained the 
age of twenty -one years, and who, having paid a county or Terri- 
torial tax, was a resident of the Territory and had resided in it for 
a year. In 1814 the voting qualification in Indiana was defined by 
Congress, " to every free white male person having a freehold in 
the Territory, and being a resident of the same." The House of 
Representatives was authorized by Congress to lay off the Territory 
into five districts, in each of which the qualified voters were era- 
powered to elect a member of the Legislative Council. The division 
was made, one to two counties in each district. 

At the session in August, 1814, the Territory was also divided 
into three judicial circuits, and provisions were made for holding 
courts in the same. The Governor was empowered to appoint a 
presiding Judge in each circuit, and two Associate Judges of the 
circuit court in each county. Their compensation was fixed at 
$700 per annum. 

The same year the General Assembly granted charters to two 
banking institutions, the Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank of Madi- 
son and the Bank of Yincennes. The first was authorized to raise 
a capital of $750,000, and the other $500,000. On the organization 
of the State these banks were merged into the State Bank and its 

Here we close the history of the Territory of Indiana. 




The last regular session of the Territorial Legislature was held at 
Corydon, convening in December, 1815. The message of Governor 
Posey congratulated the people of the Territory upon the general 
success of the settlements and the great increase of immigration, 
recommended light taxes and a careful attention to the promotion 
of education and the improvement of the State roads and highways. 
He also recommended a revision of the territorial laws and an 
amendment of the militia system. Several laws were passed pre- 
paratory to a State Government, and December 14, 1815, a me- 
morial to Congress was adopted praying for the authority to adopt 
a constitution and State Government. Mr. Jennings,the Territorial 
delegate, laid this memorial before Congress on the 28th, and April 
19, 1816, the President approved the bill creating the State of In- 
diana. Accordingly, May 30 following, a general election was held 
for a constitutional convention, which met at Corydon June 10 to 
29, Johathan Jennings presiding and Wm. Hendricks acting as 

"The convention that formed the first constitution of the State 
of Indiana was composed mainly of clear-minded, unpretending 
men of common sense, whose patriotism was unquestionable and 
whose morals were fair. Their familiarity with the theories of the 
Declaration of American Independence, their Territorial experience 
under the provisions of the ordinance of 1787, and their knowledge of 
the principles of the constitution of the United States were sufficient, 
when combined, to lighten materially their labors in the great work 
of forming a constitution for a new State. With such landmarks 
in view, the labors of similar conventions in other States and Ter- 
ritories have been rendered comparatively light. In the clearness 
and conciseness of its style, in the comprehensive and just pro- 
visions which it made for the maintainance of civil and religious 
liberty, in its mandates, which were designed to protect the rights 
of the people collectively and individually, and to provide for the 
public welfare, the constitution that was formed for Indiana in 1816 
was not inferior to any of the State constitutions which were in ex- 
istence at that time." — Dillon'' s History of Indiana. 



— 1 /O 


The first State election took place on the first Monday of August, 
1816, and Jonathan Jennings was elected Governor, and Christo- 
pher Harrison, Lieut. Governor. Wm. Hendricks was elected to 
represent the new State in the House of Representatives of the 
United States. 

The first General Assembly elected under the new constitution 
began its session at Corydon, Nov. 4, 1816. John Paul was called 
to the chair of the Senate protem., and Isaac Blackford was elected 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

Among other things in the new Governor's message were the 
following remarks: "The result of your deliberation will be con- 
sidered as indicative of its future character as well as of the future 
happiness and prosperity of its citizens. In the commencement 
of the State government the shackles of the colonial should be for- 
gotten in our exertions to prove, by happy experience, that a uni- 
form adherence to the first principles of our Government and a 
virtuous exercise of its powers will best secure efificiency to its 
measures and stability" to its character. Without a frequent recur- 
rence to those principles, the administration of the Government 
will imperceptibly become more and more arduous, until the sim- 
plicity of our Republican institutions may eventually be lost in 
dangerous expedients and political design. Under every free gov- 
ernment the happiness of the citizens must be identified with their 
morals; and while a constitutional exercise of their rights shall 
continue to have its due weight in discharge of the duties required 
of the constituted authorities of the State, too much attention can- 
not be bestowed to the encouragement and promotion of every 
moral virtue, and to the enactment of laws calculated to restrain 
the vicious, and prescribe punishment for every crime commensu- 
rate with its enormity. In measuring, however, to each crime its 
adequate punishment, it will be well to recollect that the certainty 
of punishment has generally the surest eflPect to prevent crime; 
while punishments unnecessarily severe too often produce the ac- 
quittal of the guilty and disappoint one of the greatest objects of 
legislation and good government -5^ * * The dissemination of 
useful knowledge will be indispensably necessary as a support to 
morals and as a restraint to vice; and on this subject it will only 
be necessary to direct your attention to the plan of education as 
prescribed by the constitution. * * * I recommend to your 
consideration the propriety of providing by law, to prevent more 
eflectually any unlawful attempts to seize and carry into bondage 

^ <5 . ^^ 5> 






persons of color legally entitled to their freedom; and at the same 
time, as far as practicable, to prevent those who rightfully owe ser- 
vice to the citizens of any other State or Territory from seeking 
within the limits of this State a refuge from the possession of their 
lawful owners. Such a measure will tend to secure those who are 
free from any unlawful attempts (to enslave them) and secures the 
rights of the citizens of the other States and Territories as far as 
ought reasonably to be expected." 

This session of the Legislature elected James Noble and Waller 
Taylor to the Senate of the United States; Robert A. New was 
elected Secretary of State; W. H. Lilley, Auditor of State; and 
Daniel C. Lane, Treasurer of State. The session adjourned Janu- 
ary 3, 1817. 

As the history of the State of Indiana from this time forward is 
best given by topics, we will proceed to give them in the chronolog- 
ical order of their origin. 

The happy close of the war with Great Britain in 1814 was fol- 
lowed by a great rush of immigrants to the great Territory of the 
Northwest, including the new States, all now recently cleared of 
the enemy; and by 1820 the State of Indiana had more than 
doubled her population, having at this time 147,178, and by 1825 
nearly doubled this again, that is to say, a round quarter of a mil- 
lion, — a growth more rapid probably than that of any other section 
in this country since the days of Columbus. 

The period 1825-'30 was a prosperous time for the young State. 
Immigration continued to be rapid, the crops were generally good 
and the hopes of the people raised higher than they had ever been 
before. Accompanying this immigration, however, were paupers 
and indolent people, who threatened to be so numerous as to 
become a serious burden. On this subject Governor Ray called for 
legislative action, but the Legislature scarcely knew what to do 
and they deferred action. 

<s "^ 



In 1830 tliere still lingered within the bounds of the State two 
tribes of Indians, whose growing indolence, intemperate habits, 
dependence upon their neighbors for the bread of life, diminished 
prospects of living by the chase, continued perpetration of murders 
and other outrages of dangerous precedent, primitive igno- 
rance and unrestrained exhibitions of savage customs before the 
children of the settlers, combined to make them subjects for a more 
rigid government. The removal of the Indians west of the Missis- 
sippi was a melancholy but necessary duty. The time having 
arrived for the emigration of the Pottawatomies, according to the 
stipulations contained in their treaty with the United States, they 
evinced that reluctance common among aboriginal tribes on leav- 
ing the homes of their childhood and the graves of their ancestors. 
Love of country is a principle planted in the bosoms of all man- 
kind. The Laplander and the Esquimaux of the frozen north, 
who feed on seals, moose and the meat of the polar bear, would not 
exchange their country for the sunny clime of "Araby the blest." 
Color and shades of complexion have nothing to do with the 
heart's best, warmest emotions. Then we should not wonder that the 
Pottawatomie, on leaving his home on the Wabash, felt as sad as 
-^schines did when ostracised from his native land, laved by the 
waters of the classic Scamander; and the noble and eloquent Nas- 
waw-kay, on leaving the encampment on Crooked creek, felt his 
banishment as keenly as Cicero when thrust from the bosom of his 
beloved Rome, for which he had spent the best efforts of his life, 
and for which he died. 

On Sunday morning, May 18, 1832, the people on the west side 

of the Wabash were thrown into a state of great consternation, on 

account of a report that a large body of hostile Indians had 

approached within 15 miles of Lafayette and killed two men. The 

alarm soon spread throughout Tippecanoe, Warren, Vermillion, 

Fountain, Montgomery, and adjoining counties. Several brave 

commandants of companies on the west side of the Wabash in 

Tippecanoe county, raised troops to go and meet the enemy, and 

dispatched an express to Gen. Walker with a request that he should 



si I ~ — ' — : — ■ — '—^ 


make a call upon the militia of the county to equip themselves 
instantly and march to the aid of their bleeding countrymen. 
Thereupon Geu. Walker, Col. Davis, Lieut-Col. Jenners, Capt. 
Brown, of the artillery, and various other gallant spirits mounted 
their war steeds and proceeded to the army, and thence upon a 
scout to the Grand Prairie to discover, if possible, the number, 
intention and situation of the Indians. Over 300 old men, women 
and children flocked precipitately to Lafayette and the surrounding 
country east of the Wabash. A remarkable event occurred in this 
stampede, as follows: 

A man, wife and seven children resided on the edge of the 
Grand Prairie, west of Lafayette, in a locality considered particu- 
larly dangerous. On hearing of this alarm he made hurried 
preparations to fly with his family to Lafayette for safety, Imao-. 
ine his surprise and chagrin when his wife told him she would not 
go one step; that she did not believe in being scared at trifles, and 
in her opinion there was not an Indian within 100 miles of them. 
Importunity proved unavailing, and the disconsolate and frightened 
husband and father took all the children except the youngest, bade 
his wife and babe a long and solemn farewell, never expecting to 
see them again, unless perhaps he might find their mangled re- 
mains, minus their scalps. On arriving at Lafayette, his acquaint- 
ances rallied and berated him for abandoning his wife and child in 
that way, but he met their jibes with a stoical indifference, avowing 
that he should not be held responsible for their obstinacy. 

As the shades of the first evening drew on, the wife felt lonely; 
and the chirping of the frogs and the notes of the whippoorwill only 
intensified her loneliness, until she half wished she had accom- 
panied the rest of the family in their flight. She remained in the 
house a .ew hours without striking a light, and then concluded 
that " discretion was the better part of valor," took her babe and 
some bed-clothes, fastened the cabin door, and hastened to a sink- 
hole in the woods, in which she afterward said that she and her 
babe slept soundly until sunrise next morning. 

Lafayette literally boiled over with people and patriotism. A 
meeting was held at the court-house, speeches were made by 
patriotic individuals, and to allay the fears? of the women an armed 
police was immediately ordered, to be called the " Lafayette Guards." 
Thos. T. Ben bridge was elected Captain, and John Cox, Lieutenant. 
Capt. Benbridge yielded the active drill of his guards to the 
Lieutenant, who had served two years in the war of 1812. After 



the meeting adjourned, the guards were paraded on the green 
wliere Purdue's block now stands, and put through sundry evolu- 
tions by Lieut. Cox, who proved to be an expert drill officer, and 
whose clear, shrill voice rung out on the night air as he marched 
and counter-marched the troops from where the paper-mill stands 
to Main street ferry, and over the suburbs, generally. Every old 
gun and sword that could be found was brought into requisition, 
with a new shine on them. 

Gen. Walker, Colonels Davis and Jenners, and other officers 
joined in a call of the people of Tippecanoe county for volunteers to 
march to the frontier settlements, A large meeting of the citizens 
assembled in the public square in the town, and over 300 volunteers 
mostly mounted men, left for the scene of action, with an alacrity 
that would have done credit to veterans. 

The first night they camped nine miles west of Lafayette, near 
Grand Prairie. They placed sentinels for the night and retired to 
rest. A few of the subaltern officers very injudiciously concluded 
to try what effect a false alarm would have upon the sleeping sol- 
diers, and a few of them withdrew to a neighboring thicket, and 
thence made a charge upon the picket guards, who , after hailing 
them and receiving no countersign, fired off their guns and ran for 
the Colonel's marqnee in the center of the encampment. The aroused 
Colonels and staff sprang to their feet, shouting "To arms! to arras!" 
and the obedient, though panic-stricken soldiers seized their guns 
and demanded to be led against the invading foe. A wild scene of 
disorder ensued, and amid the din of arras and loud commands of 
the officers the raw militia felt that they had already got into the 
red jaws of battle. One of the alarm sentinels, in running to the 
center of the encampment, leaped over a blazing camp fire, and 
alighted full upon the breast and storaach of a sleeping lawyer, wlio 
was, no doubt, at that moment dreaming of vested and contingent 
remainders, rich clients and good fees, which in legal parlance was 
suddenly estopped by the hob-nails in the stogas of the scared 
sentinel. As soon as the counselor's vitality and consciousness 
sufficiently returned, he put in some strong demurrers to the con- 
duct of the affrighted picket men, averring that he would greatly 
prefer being wounded by the enemy to being run over by a cowardly 
booby. Next morning the organizers of the ruse were severely 

May 28, 1832, Governor Noble ordered General Walker to call 
out his whole command, if necessary, and supply arms, horses and 



provisions, even though it be necessary to seize them. The next 
day four baggage vragons, loaded with camp equipments, stores, 
provisions and other articles, were sent to the little army, who were 
thus provided for a campaign of five or six weeks. The following 
Tliursday a squad of cavalry, under Colonel Sigler, passed through 
Lafayette on the way to the hostile region ; and on the 13th of June 
Colonel Russell, commandant of the 40th Regiment, Indiana Militia, 
passed through Lafayette with 340 mounted volunteers from the 
counties of Marion, Hendricks and Johnson. Also, several com- 
panies of volunteers from Montgomery, Fountain and W"arren 
counties, hastened to the relief of the frontier settlers. The troops 
from Lafayette marched to Sugar creek, and after a short time, 
there being no probability of finding any of the enemy, were 
ordered to return, They all did so except about 45 horsemen, who 
volunteered to cross Hickory creek, where the Indians had com- 
mitted their depredations. They organized a company by electing 
Samuel McGeorge, a soldier of the war of 1812, Captain, and Amos 
Allen and Andrew W. Ingraham, Lieutenants, 

Crossing Hickory creek, they marched as far as O'Plein river 
without meeting with opposition. Finding no enemy here they 
concluded to return. On the first night of their march home they 
encamped on the open prairie, posting sentinels, as usual. About 
ten o'clock it began to rain, and it was with difficulty that the sen- 
tinels kept their guns dry. Capt. I. H. Cox and a man named Fox 
had been posted as sentinels within 15 or 20 paces of each other. 
Cox drew the skirt of his overcoat over his gun-lock to keep it dry; 
Fox, perceiving this motio7i, and in the darkness taking him for an 
Indian, fired upon him and fractured his thigh-bone. Several sol- 
diers immediately ran toward the place where the flash of the gun 
had been seen; but when they cocked and leveled their guns on the 
figure which had fired at Cox, the wounded man caused them to 
desist by crying, " Don't shoot him, it was a sentinel who shot me." 
The next day the wounded man was left behind the company in 
care of four men, who, as soon as possible, removed him on a litter 
to Col. Moore's company of Illinois militia, then encamped on the 
O'Plein, where Joliet now stands. 

Although the main body returned to Lafayette in eight or nine 
days, yet the alarm among the people was so great that they could 
not be induced to return to their farms for some time. The pres- 
ence of the hostiles was hourly expected by the frontier settlements 
of Indiana, from Yincennes to La Porte. In Clinton county the= 



inhabitants gatliered within the forts and prepared for a regular 
siege, while our neighbors at Crawfordsville were suddenly 
astounded bj the arrival of a courier at full speed with the announce- 
ment that the Indians, more than a thousand in number, were then 
crossing the Nine-Mile prairie about twelve miles north of town, 
killing and scalping all. The strongest houses were immediately 
put in a condition of defense, and sentinels were placed at the prin- 
cipal points in the direction of the enemy. Scouts were sent out to 
reconnoitre, and messengers were dispatched in different directions 
to announce the danger to the farmers, and to urge them to hasten 
with their families into town, and to assist .in fighting the moment- 
arily expected savages. At night-fall the scouts brought in the 
news that the Indians had not crossed the "Wabash, but were hourly 
expected at Lafayette. The citizens of Warren, Fountain and Ver- 
million counties were alike terrified bvexaocgrerated stories of Indian 
massacres, and immediately prepared for defense. It turned out 
that the Indians were not within 100 miles of these temporary 
forts; but this by no means proved a want of courage in the citizens. 

After some time had elapsed, a portion of the troops were 
marched back into Tippecanoe county and honorably discharged ; 
but the settlers were still loth for a long time to return to their 
farms. Assured by published reports that the Miamis and Potta- 
watomies did not intend to join the hostiles, the people by degrees 
recovered from the panic and began to attend to their neglected 

During this time there was actual war in Illinois. Black Hawk 
and his warriors, well nigh surrounded by a well-disciplined foe, 
attempted to cross to the west bank of the Mississippi, but after 
being chased up into Wisconsin and to the Mississippi again, he 
was in a final battle taken captive. A few years after his liberation, 
about 1837 or 1838, he died, on the banks of the Des Moines river, 
in Iowa, in what is now the county of Davis, where his remains 
were deposited above ground, in the usual Indian style. His re- 
mains were afterward stolen and carried away, but they were re- 
covered by the Governor of Iowa and placed in the museum of the 
Historical Society at Burlington, where they were finally destroyed 
by fire. 




In July, 1837, Col. Abel C. Pepper convened the Pottawatomie 
nation of Indians at Lake Ke-waw-nay for the purpose of remov- 
ing them west of the Mississippi. That fall a small party of some 
80 or 90 Pottawatomies was conducted west of the Mississippi 
river by George Proffit, Esq. Among the number were Ke-waw- 
nay, Nebash, Nas-waw-kay, Pash-po-ho and many other leading 
men of the nation. The regular emigration of these poor Indians, 
about 1,000 in number, took place under Col. Pepper and Gen. Tip- 
ton in the summer of 1838. 

It was a sad and mournful spectacle to witness these children of 
the forest slowly retiring from the home of their childhood, that 
contained not only the graves of their revered ancestors, but also 
many endearing scenes to which their memories would ever recur 
as sunny spots along their pathway through the wilderness. They 
felt that they were bidding farewell to the hills, valleys and streams 
of their infancy; the more exciting hunting-grounds of their ad- 
vanced youth, as well as the stern and bloody battle-fields where 
they had contended in riper manhood, on which they had received 
wounds, and where many of their friends and loved relatives had 
fallen covered with gore and with glory. All these they were leav- 
ing behind them, to be desecrated by the plowshare of the white 
man. As they cast mournful glances back toward these loved 
scenes that were rapidly fading in the distance, tears fell from the 
cheek of the downcast warrior, old men trembled, matrons wept, 
the swarthy maiden's cheek turned pale, and sighs and half-sup- 
pressed sobs escaped from the motley groups as they passed along, 
some on foot, some on horseback, and others in wagons, — sad as a 
funeral procession. Several of the aged warriors were seen to cast 
glances toward the sky, as if they were imploring aid from the 
spirits of their departed heroes, who were looking down upon them 
from the clouds, or from the Great Spirit, who would ultimately 
redress the wrongs of the red man, whose broken bow had fallen 
from his hand, and whose sad heart was bleeding within him. 
Ever and anon one of the party would start out into the brush and 
break back to their old encampments on Eel river and on the Tippe- 




canoe, declaring that they would rather die than be banished from 
their country. Thus, scores of discontented emigrants returned 
from different points on their journey ; and it was several years 
before they could be induced to join their countrymen west of the 

Several years after the removal of the Pottawatoraies the Miami 
nation was removed to their Western home, by coercive means, un- 
der an escort of United States troops. They were a proud and 
once powerful nation, but at the time of their removal were far 
inferior, in point of numbers, to the Pottawatomie guests whom 
they had permitted to settle and hunt upon their lands, and fish in 
their lakes and rivers after they had been driven southward by 
powerful and warlike tribes who inhabited the shores of the North- 
ern lakes. 


In 1831 a joint resolution of the Legislature of Indiana, request- 
ing an appropriation by Congress for the extinguishment of the 
Indian title to lands within the State, was forwarded to that body? 
which granted the request. The Secretary of War, by authority, 
appointed a committee of three citizens to carry into effect the pro- 
visions of the recent law. The Miamis were surrounded on all 
sides by American settlers, and were situated almost in the heart 
of the State on the line of the canal then being made. The chiefs 
were called to a council for the purpose of making a treaty; they 
promptly came, but peremptorily refused to go westward or sell 
the remainder of their land. The Pottawatomies sold about 
6,000,000 acres in Indiana, Illinois and Michigan, including all 
their claim in this State. 

In 1838 a treaty was concluded with the Miami Indians through 
the good offices of Col. A. C. Pepper, the Indian agent, by which 
a considerable of the most desirable portion of their reserve was 
ceded to the United States. 

V^|< i) ^ ' -^ i) \ 




As an example of the manner in which land speculators were 
treated by the early Indian ians, we cite the following instances 
from Cox's " Itecollections of the Wabash Yalley." 

At Crawfordsville, Dec. 24, 1824, many parties were present 
from the eastern and southern portions of the State, as well as from 
Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee and even Pennsylvania, to attend a 
land sale. There was but little bidding against each other. The 
settlers, or " squatters," as they were called by the speculators, had 
arranged matters among themselves to their general satisfaction. 
If, upon comparing numbers, it appeared that two were after the 
same tract of land, one would ask the other what he would take 
not to bid against him ; if neither would consent to be bought off 
they would retire and cast lots, and the lucky one would enter the 
tract at Congress price, $1.25 an acre, and the other would enter the 
second choice on his list. If a speculator made a bid, or showed a 
disposition to take a settler's claim from him, he soon saw the 
white of a score of eyes glaring at him, and he would " crawfish" 
out of the crowd at the first opportunity. 

The settlers made it definitely known to foreign capitalists that 
they would enter the tracts of land they had settled upon before 
allowing the latter to come in with their speculations. The land 
was sold in tiers of townships, beginning at the southern part of 
the district and continuing north until all had been ofiered at 
public sale. This plan was persisted in, although it kept many on 
the ground for several days waiting, who desired to purchase land 
in the northern part of the district. 

In 1827 a regular Indian scare was gotten up to keep specu- 
lators away for a short time. A man who owned a claim on Tippe- 
canoe river, near Pretty prairie, fearing that some one of the 
numerous land hunters constantly scouring the country might 
enter the land he had settled upon before he could raise the money 
to buy it, and seeing one day a cavalcade of land hunters riding 
toward where his land lay, mounted his horse and darted off at 
full speed to meet them, swinging his hat and shouting at the top 

of his voice, '' Indians! Indians! the woods are full of Indians, 




murdering and scalping all before them!" They paused a moment, 
but as the terrified horseman still urged his jaded animal and cried, 
"Help! Longlois, Cicots, help!" they turned and fled like a troop of 
retreating cavalry, hastening to the thickest settlements and giving 
the alarm, which spread like fire among stubble until the whole 
frontier region was shocked with the startling cry. The squatter 
who fabricated the story and started this false alarm took a cir- 
cuitous route home that evening, and while others were busy 
building temporary block-houses and rubbing up their guns to 
meet the Indians, he was quietly gathering up money and slipped 
down to Crawfordsville and entered his land, chuckling to himself, 
" There's a Yankee trick for you, done up by a Hoosier." 


In 1814 a society of Germans under Frederick Rappe, who had 
originally come from Wirtemberg, Germany, and more recently 
from Pennsylvania, founded a settlement on the Wabash about 50 
miles above its mouth. They were industrious, frugal and honest 
Lutherans. They purchased a large quantity of land and laid ofi" 
a town, to which they gave the name of "Harmony," afterward 
called "New Harmony." They erected a church and a public 
school-house, opened farms, planted orchards and vineyards, built 
flouring mills, established a house of public entertainment, a public 
store, and carried on all the arts of peace with skill and regularity. 
Their property was " in common," according to the custom of an- 
cient Christians at Jerusalem, but the governing power, both tem- 
poral and spiritual, was vested in Frederick Rappe, the elder, who 
was regarded as the founder of the society. By the year 1821 the 
society numbered about 900. Every individual of proper age con- 
tributed his proper share of labor. There were neither spendthrifts, 
idlers nor drunkards, and during the whole 17 years of their sojourn 
in America there was not a single lawsuit among them. Every 
controversy arising among them was settled by arbitration, expla- 
nation and compromise before sunset of the day, literally according 
to the injunction of the apostle of the New Testament. 

About 1825 the town of Harmony and a considerable quantity 
of land adjoining was sold to Robert Owen, father of David Dale 
Owen, the State Geologist, and of Robert Dale Owen, of later 
notoriety. He was a radical philosopher from Scotland, who had 
become distinguished for his philanthropy and opposition to 

^ S ^ "^ 5) \ 


Christianity, He charged the latter with teaching false notions 
regarding human responsibility — notions which have since been 
clothed in the language of physiology, mental philosophy, etc. 
Said he: 

"That which has hitherto been called wickedness in our fellow 
men has proceeded from one of two distinct causes, or from some 
combination of those causes. They are what are termed bad or 

"1. Because they are born with faculties or propensities which 
render them more liable, under the same circumstances, than other 
men, to commit such actions as are usually denominated wicked; 

" 2. Because they have been placed by birth or other events in 
particular countries, — have been influenced from infancy by par- 
ents, plajj^mates and others, and have been surrounded by those 
circumstances which gradually and necessarily trained them in the 
habits and sentiments called wicked; or, 

" 3. They have become wicked in consequence of some particu- 
lar combination of these causes. 

" If it should be asked, Whence then has wickedness pro- 
ceeded? I reply. Solely from the ignorance of our forefathers. 

" Every society which exists at present, as well as every society 
which history records, has been formed and governed on a belief 
in the following notions, assumed as first principles: 

" 1. That it is in the power of every individual to form his own 
character. Hence the various systems called by the name of religion, 
codes of law, and punishments; hence, also, the angry passions 
entertained by individuals and nations toward each other. 

" 2. That the affections are at the command of the individual. 
Hence insincerity and degradation of character; hence the miseries 
of domestic life, and more than one-half of all the crimes of man- 

" 3. That it is necessary a large portion of mankind should ex- 
ist in ignorance and poverty in order to secure to the remaining part 
such a degree of happiness as they now enjoy. Hence a system of 
counteraction in the pursuits of men, a general opposition among 
individuals to the interests of each other, and the necessary efifects 
of such a system, — ignorance, poverty and vice. 





During the administration of Gov. Whitcomb the war with 
Mexico occurred, which resulted in annexing to the United States 
vast tracts of land in the south and west. Indiana contributed her 
full ratio to the troops in that war, and with a remarkable spirit^ of 
promptness and patriotism adopted all measures to sustain the gen- 
eral Government. These new acquisitions of territory re-opened 
the discussion of the slavery question, and Governor Whitcomb 
expressed his opposition to a further extension of the " national 

The causes which led to a declaration of war against Mexico in 
1846, must be sought for as far back as the year 1830, when the 
present State of Texas formed a province of New and Independent 
Mexico. During the years immediately preceding 1830, Moses 
Austin, of Connecticut, obtained a liberal grant of lauds from the 
established Government, and on his death his son was treated in an 
equally liberal manner. The glowing accounts rendered by Aus- 
tin, and the vivid picture of Elysian fields drawn by visiting jour- 
nalists, soon resulted in the influx of a large tide of immigrants, 
nor did the movement to the Southwest cease until 1830. The 
Mexican province held a prosperous population, comprising 10,00C 
American citizens. The rapacious Government of the Mexicans 
looked with greed and jealousy upon their eastern province, and, 
under the presidency of Gen. Santa Anna, enacted such measures, 
hoth unjust and oppressive, as would meet their design of goading 
the people of Texas on to revolution, and thus alFord an opportu- 
nity for the infliction of punishment upon subjects whose only 
«rime was industry and its accompaniment, prosperity. Precisely 
in keeping with the course pursued by the British toward the col- 
onists of the Eastern States in the last century, Santa Anna's 
Government met the remonstrances of the colonists of Texas with 
threats; and they, secure in their consciousness of right quietly 
issued their declaration of independence, and proved its literal 

meaning on the field of Gonzales in 1836, having with a force of 



— — : IS 


500 men forced the Mexican army of 1,000 to fly for refuge to their 
strongholds. Battle after battle followed, bringing victory always 
to the Colonists, and ultimately resulting in the total rout of the 
Mexican army and the evacuation of Texas. The routed army 
after a short term of rest reorganized, and reappeared in the Terri- 
tory, 8,000 strong. On April 21, a division of this large force 
under Santa Anna encountered the Texans under General Samuel 
Houston on the banks of the San Jacinto, and though Houston 
could only oppose 800 men to the Mexican legions, the latter were 
driven from the field,nor could they reform their scattered ranks until 
their General was captured next day and forced to sign the declaration 
of 1835. The signature of Santa Anna, though ignored by the 
Congress of the Mexican Republic, and consequently left unratified 
on the part of Mexico, was effected in so much, that after the sec- 
ond defeat of the army of that Republic all the hostilities of an 
important nature ceased, the Republic of Texas was recognized by 
the powers, and subsequently became an integral part of the United 
States, July 4, 1846. At this period General Herrera was pres- 
ident of Mexico. He was a man of peace, of common sense, and 
very patriotic; and he thus entertained, or pretended to enter- 
tain, the great neighboring Republic in high esteem. For this 
reason he grew unpopular with his people, and General Paredes 
was called to the presidential chair, which he continued to occupy 
until the breaking out of actual hostilities with the United States, 
when Gen. Santa Anna was elected thereto. 

President Polk, aware of the state of feeling in Mexico, ordered 
Gen. Zachary Taylor, in command of the troops in the Southwest, to 
proceed to Texas, and post himself as near to the Mexican border 
as he deemed prudent. At the same time an American squadron was 
dispatched to the vicinity, in the Gulf of Mexico. In November, 
Genera] Taylor had taken his position at Corpus Christi, a Texan 
settlement on a bay of the same name, with about 4,000 men. On 
the 13th of January, 1846, the President ordered him to advance 
with his forces to the Rio Grande; accordingly he proceeded, and 
in March stationed himself on the north bank of that river, wit;h- 
in cannon-shot of the Mexican town of Matamoras. Here he 
hastily erected a fortress, called Fort Brown. The territory ly- 
ina: between the river N^ueces and the Rio Grande river, about 
120 miles in width, was claimed both by Texas and Mexico; ac- 
cording to the latter, therefore, General Taylor had actually 
invaded her Territory, and had thus committed ,an open 



act of war. On the 26th of April, the Mexican General, Ampudia, 
gave notice to this eflPect to General Taylor, and on the same day a 
party of American dragoons, sixty-three in number, being on the 
north side of the Rio Grande, were attacked, and, after the loss of 
sixteen men killed and wounded, were forced to surrender. Their 
commander. Captain Thornton, only escaped. The Mexican forces 
had now crossed the river above Matamoras and were supposed to 
meditate an attack on Point Isabel, where Taylor had established a 
depot of supplies for his array. On the 1st of May, this officer left 
a small number of troops at Fort Brown, and marched with his 
chief forces, twenty-three hundred men, to the defense of Point 
Isabel. Having garrisoned this place, he set out on his return. 
On the Sth of May, about noon, he met the Mexican army, six 
thousand strong, drawn up in battle array, on the prairie near Palo 
Alto. The Americans at once advanced to the attack, and, after an 
action of five hours, in which their artillery was very efiective, 
drove the enemy before them, and encamped upon the field. The 
Mexican loss was about one hundred killed; that ot the Americans, 
four killed and forty wounded. Major Ringgold, of the artillery, 
an officer of great merit, was mortally wounded. The next day, as 
the Americans advanced, they again met the enemy in a strong 
position near Resaca de la Palma, three miles from Fort Brown. 
An action commenced, and was fiercely contested, the artillery on 
both sides being served with great vigor. At last the Mexicans 
gave way, and fled in confusion. General de la Yega having fallen 
into the hands of the Americans. They also abandoned their guns 
and a large quantity of ammunition to the victors. The remain- 
ing Mexican soldiers speedily crossed the Rio Grande, and the next 
day the Americans took up their position at Fort Brown. This 
little fort, in the absence of General Taylor, had gallantly sustained 
an almost uninterrupted attack of several days from the Mexican 
batteries of Matamoras. 

When the news of the capture of Captain Thornton's party was 
spread over the United States, it produced great excitement. The 
President addressed a message to Congress, then in session, declar- 
ing " that war with Mexico existed by her own act;" and that body, 
May, 1846, placed ten millions of dollars at the President's dispo- 
sal, and authorized him to accept the services of fifty thousand 
volunteers. A great part of the summer of 1846 was spent in prep- 
aration for the war, it being resolved to invade Mexico at several 
points. In pursuance of this plan. General Taylor, who had taken 







possession of Matamoras, abandoned by the enemy in May, marched 
northward in the enemy's country in August, and on the 19th of 
September he appeared before Monterey, capital of the Mexican 
State of New Leon. His army, after having garrisoned several 
places along his route, amounted to six thousand men. The attack 
began on the 21st, and after a succession of assaults, during the 
period of four days, the Mexicans capitulated, leaving the town 
in possession of the Americans. In October, General Taylor 
terminated an armistice into which he had entered with the 
Mexican General, and again commenced offensive operations. 
Various towns and fortresses of the enemy now rapidly fell into 
our possession. In November, Saltillo, the capital of the State 
of Coahuila was occupied by the division of General Worth; 
in December, General Patterson took possession of Victoria, 
the capital of Taraaulipas, and nearly at the same period. 
Commodore Perry captured the fort of Tampico. Santa Fe, 
the capital of New Mexico, with the whole territory of the State 
had been subjugated by General Harney, after a march of one 
thousand miles through the wilderness. Events of a startling char- 
acter had taken place at still earlier dates along the Pacific coast. On 
the 4th of Jul V, Captain Fremont, having repeatedly defeated su- 
perior Mexican forces with the small band under his command, de- 
clared California independent of Mexico. Other important places 
in this region had yielded to the American naval force, and in Au- 
gust, 1846, the whole of California was in the undisputed occupa- 
tion of the Americans. 

The year 1847 opened with still more brilliant victories on the 
part of our armies. By the drawing off of a large part of 
General Taylor's troops for a meditated attack on Vera Cruz, he 
was left with a comparatively small force to meet the great body of 
Mexican troops, now marching upon him, under command of the 
celebrated Santa Anna, who had again become President of Mexico. 

Ascertaining the advance of this powerful army, twenty thou- 
sand strong, and consisting of the best of the Mexican soldiers, 
General Taylor took up his position at Buena Vista, a valley a few 
miles from Saltillo. His whole troops numbered only four thousand 
seven hundred and fifty-nine, and here, on the 23d of February, he 
was vigorously attacked by the Mexicans. The battle was very 
severe, and continued nearly the whole day, when the Mexicans fled 
from the field in disorder, with a loss of nearly two thousand men. 
Santa Anna speedily withdrew, and thus abandoned the region of 






the Rio Grande to the complete occupation of oar troops. This left 
our forces at liberty to prosecute the grand enterprise of the cam- 
paign, the capture of the strong town of Yera Cruz, with its re- 
nowned castle of San Juan d'Ulloa. On the 9th of March, 1847, 
General Scott landed near the city with an army of twelve thousand 
men, and on the 18tli commenced an attack. For four days and 
nights an almost incessant shower of shot and shells was poured 
upon the devoted town, while the batteries of the castle and the city 
replied with terrible energy. At last, as the Americans were pre- 
paring for an assault, the Governor of the city offered to surrender, 
and on the 26th the American flag floated triumphantly from the 
walls of the castle and the city. General Scott now prepared to 
march upon the city of Mexico, the capital of the country, situated 
two hundred miles in the interior, and approached only through a 
series of rugged passes and mountain fastnesses, rendered still more 
formidable by several strong fortresses. On the 8th of April the 
army commenced their march. At Cerro Gordo, Santa Anna had 
posted himself with fifteen thousand men. On the 18th the Amer- 
icans began the daring attack, and by midday every intrenchment 
of the enemy had been carried. The loss of the Mexicans in this 
remarkable battle, besides one thousand killed and wounded, was 
three thousand prisoners, forty-three pieces of cannon, five 
thousand stand of arms, and all their amunitions and mate- 
rials of war. The loss of the Americans was four hundred 
and thirty-one in killed and wounded. The next day our forces 
advanced, and, capturing fortress after fortress, came on the 
18th of August within ten miles of Mexico, a city of two hun- 
dred thousand inhabitants, and situated in one of the most 
beautiful valleys in the world. On the 20th they attacked and 
carried the strong batteries of Contreras, garrisoned by 7,000 men, 
in an impetuous assault, which lasted but seventeen minutes. On 
the same day an attack was made by the Americans on the fortified 
post of Churubusco, four miles northeast of Contreras, Here 
nearly the entire Mexican army — more than 20,000 in number — 
were posted; but they were defeated at every point, and obliged to 
seek a retreat in the city, or the still remaining fortress of Chapul- 
tepec. While preparations were being made on the 21st by Gen- 
eral Scott, to level his batteries against the city, prior to summon- 
ing it fo surrender, he received propositions from the enemy, which 
terminated in an armistice. This ceased on the 7th of September. 
On the 8th the outer defense of Chapul tepee was successfully 





stormed by General "Worth, though he lost one-fourth of his men 
in the desperate struggle. The castle of Chapultepec, situated on 
an abrupt and rocky eminence, 150 feet above the surrounding 
country, presented a most formidable object of attack. On the 
12th, however, the batteries were opened against it, and on the 
next day the citadel was carried by storm. The Mexicans still strug- 
gled along the great causeway leading to the city, as the Americans 
advanced, but before nightfal a part of our army was within the 
gates of the city. Santa Anna and the officers of the Government 
fled, and the next morning, at seven o'clock, the flag of the Ameri- 
cans floated from the national palace of Mexico. This conquest of 
the capital was the great and final achievement of the w^ar. The 
Mexican republic was in fact prostrate, her sea-coast and chief 
cities being in the occupation of our troops. On the 2d of Feb- 
ruary, 1848, terms of peace were agreed upon by the American 
commissioner and the Mexican Government, this treaty being rati- 
fied by the Mexican Congress on the 30th of May following, and 
by the United States soon after. President Polk proclaimed peace 
on the 4th of July, 1848. In the preceding sketch we have given 
only a mere outline of the war with Mexico. We have necessarily 
passed over many interesting events, and have not even named 
many of our soldiers who performed gallant and important ser- 
vices. General Taylor's successful operations in the region of the 
Rio Grande were duly honored by the people of the United States, 
by bestowing upon him the Presidency. General Scott's campaign, 
from the attack on Vera Cruz, to the surrender of the city of 
Mexico, was far more remarkable, and, in a military point of view, 
must be considered as one of the most brilliant of modern times. It 
is true the Mexicans are not to be ranked with the great nations of 
the earth; with a population of seven or eight millions, they have 
little more than a million of the white race, the rest being half-civ- 
ilized Indians and mestizos, that is, those of mixed blood. Their 
government is inefficient, and the people divided among them- 
selves. Their soldiers often fought bravely, but they were badly 
officered. While, therefore, we may consider the conquest of so 
extensive and populous a country, in so short a time, and attended 
with such constant superiority even to the greater numbers of the 
enemy, as highly gratifying evidence of the courage and capacity 
of our army, still we must not, in judging of our achievements, fail 
to consider the real weakness of the nation whom we vanquished. 

•4— ' 'i^ 


One thing we may certainly dwell upon with satisfaction — the ad- 
mirable example, not only as a soldier, but as a man, set by our com- 
mander, Gen. Scott, who seems, in the midst of war and the ordinary 
license of the camp, always to have preserved the virtue, kindness, 
and humanity belonging to a state of peace. These qualities 
secured to him the respect, confidence and good-will even of the 
enemy he had conquered. Among the Generals who effectually 
aided General Scott in this remarkable campaign, we must not 
omit to mention the names of Generals Wool, Twiggs, Shields, 
Worth, Smith, and Quitman, who generally added to the high 
qualities of soldiers the still more estimable characteristics of 
good men. The treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo stipulated that the 
disputed territory between the Xueces and the Rio Grande should 
belong to the United States, and it now forms a part of Texas, as 
has been already stated; that the United States should assume and 
pay the debts due from Mexico to American citizens, to the amount 
of $3,500,000; and that, in consideration of the sum of $15,000,000 
to be paid by the United States to Mexico, the latter should 
relinquish to the former the whole of New Mexico and Upper 

The soldiers of Indiana who served in this war were formed into 
five regiments of volunteers, numbered respectively, 1st, 2d, 3rd, 
4th and 5th. The fact that companies of the three first-named reg- 
iments served at times with the men of Illinois, the New York 
volunteers, the Palmettos of South Carolina, and United States 
marines, under Gen. James Shields, makes for them a history; be- 
cause the campaigns of the Rio Grande and Chihuahua, the siege 
of Vera Cruz, the desperate encounter at Cerro Gordo, the tragic 
contests in the valley, at Contreras and Churubusco, the storming 
of Chapultepec, and the > planting of the stars and stripes upon 
every turret and spire within the conquered city of Mexico, were 
all carried out by the gallant troops under the favorite old General, 
and consequently each of them shared with him in the glories at- 
tached to such exploits. The other regiments under Cols. Gorman 
and Lane participated in the contests of the period under other com- 
manders. The 4th Regiment of Indiana Volunteers, comprising 
ten companies, was formally organized at Jefiersonville, Indiana, 
by Capt. R. C. Gatlin, June 15, 1847, and on the 16th elected 
Major Willis A. Gorman, of the 3rd Regiment, to the Colonelcy; 
Ebenezer Dumont, Lieutenant-Colonel, and W. McCoy, Major. On 
the 27th of June the regiment left Jejffersouville for the front, and 





subsequently was assigned to Brigadier-General Lane's command, 
which then comprised a battery of five pieces from the 3rd Regi- 
ment U. S. Artillery; a battery of two pieces from the 2nd Regiment 
U. S. Ertillery, the 4th Regiment of Indiana Volunteers and the 4th 
Regiment of Ohio, with a squadron of mounted Louisianians and 
detachments of recruits for the U. S. army. The troops of this 
brigade won signal honors at Passo de Ovegas, August 10, 1847- 
National Bridge, on the 12th; Cerro Gordo, on the 15th; Las Ani- 
mas, on the 19th, under Maj. F. T. Lally, of General Lane's staff, 
and afterward under Lane, directly, took a very prominent part in 
the siege of Puebla, which began on the 15th of September and 
terminated on the 12th of October. At Atlixco, October 19th; 
Tlascala, November 10th; Matamoras and Pass Galajara, Novem- 
ber 23rd and 24th; Guerrilla Ranche, December 5th; Napaloncan, 
December 10th, the Indiana volunteers of the 4th Regiment per- 
formed gallant service, and carried the campaign into the following 
year, representing their State at St. Martin's, February 27, 1848; 
Cholula, March 26th; Matacordera, February 19th; Sequalteplan, 
February 25th; and on the cessation of hostilities reported at 
Madison, Indiana, for discharge, July 11, 1848; while the 5th In- 
diana Regiment, under Col. J. H. Lane, underwent a similar round 
of duty during its service with other brigades, and gained some 
celebrity at Yera Cruz, Churubusco and with the troops of Illinois 
under Gen. Shields at Chapultepec. 

This war cost the people of the United States sixty-six millions 
of dollars. This very large amount was not paid away for the at- 
tainment of mere glory; there was something else at stake, and 
this something proved to be a country larger and more fertile than 
the France of the Napoleons, and more steady and sensible than 
the France of the Republic. It was the defense of the great Lone 
Star State, the humiliation and chastisement of a q uarrelsome 



We have already referred to the prohibition of slavery in the 
Northwestern Territory, and Indiana Territory by the ordinance of 
1787; to the imperfection in the execution of this ordinance and the 
troubles which the authorities encountered ; and the complete estab- 
lishment of the principles of freedom on the organization of the State. 
The next item of significance in this connection is the following lan- 
guage in the message of Gov. Ray to the Legislature of 1828: " Since 
our last separation, while we have witnessed with anxious solicitude 
the belligerent operations of another hemisphere, the cross contend- 
ing against the crescent, and the prospect of a general rupture among 
the legitimates of other quarters of the globe, our attention has 
been arrested by proceedings in our own country truly dangerous 
to liberty, seriously premeditated, and disgraceful to its authors 
if agitated only to tamper with the American people. If such ex- 
periments as we see attempted in certain deluded quarters do not 
fall with a burst of thunder upon the heads of their seditious pro- 
jectors, then indeed the Republic has begun to experience the days 
of its degeneracy. The union of these States is the people's only 
sure charter for their liberties and independence. Dissolve it and 
each State will soon be in a condition as deplorable as Alexander's 
conquered countries after they were divided amongst his victorious 
military captains." 

In pursuance of a joint resolution of the Legislature of 1850, a 
block of native marble was procured and forwarded to Washington, 
to be placed in the monument then in the course of erection at the 
National Capital in memory of George Washington. In the 
absence of any legislative instruction concerning the inscription 
upon this emblem of Indiana's loyalty, Gov. Wright ordered the 
following words to be inscribed upon it: Indiana Knows No 
North, No South, Nothing but the Union. Within a dozen 
years thereafter this noble State demonstrated to the world her loy- 
alty to the Union and the principles of freedom by the sacrifice of 
blood and treasure which she made. In keeping with this senti- 
ment Gov. Wright indorsed the compromise measures of Congress 
on the slavery question, remarking in his message that " Indiana 
takes her stand in the ranks, not of Southern destiny, nor yet of 

(144) ^ 

■ .iX. I ■■ 1 1 will ■ p- — ■ I ■ ■ ■■ -III L a 

^ 4 ^ ""^ • > 








Northern destiny: she plants herself on the basis of the Consti- 
tution and takes her stand in the ranks of American destiny." 


At the session of the Legislature in January, 1869, the subject 
of ratifying the fifteenth amendment to the Federal Constitution 
allowing negro suffrage, came up with such persistency that neither 
party dared to undertake any other business lest it be checkmated 
in some way, and being at a dead lock on this matter, they adjourn- 
ed in March without having done much important business. The 
Democrats, as well as a portion of the conservative Republicans, 
opposed its consideration strongly on the ground that it would be 
unfair to vote on the question until the people of the State had had 
an opportunity of expressing their views at the polls; but most of 
the Republicans resolved to push the measure through, while the 
Democrats resolved to resign in a body and leave the Legislature 
without a quorum. Accordingly, on March 4, 17 Senators and 36 
Representatives resigned, leaving both houses without a quorum. 

As the early adjournment of the Legislature left the benevolent 
institutions of the State unprovided for, the Governor convened 
that body in extra session as soon as possible, and after the neces- 
sary appropriations were made, on the 19th of May the fifteenth 
amendment came up; but in anticipation of this the Democratic 
members had all resigned and claimed that there was no quorum 
present. There was a quorum, however, of Senators in ofiice, 
though some of them refused to vote, declaring that they were no 
longer Senators; but the president of that body decided that as he 
had not been informed of their resignation by the Governor, they 
were still members. A vote was taken and the ratifying resolution 
was adopted. When the resolution came up in the House, the 
chair decided that, although the Democratic members had resigned 
there was a quorum of the de-facto members present, and the 
House proceeded to pass the resolution. This decision of the chair 
was afterward sustained by the Supreme Court. 

At the next regular session of the Legislature, in 1871, the 
Democrats undertook to repeal the ratification, and the Republican 
members resigned to prevent it. The Democrats, as the Republi- 
cans did on the previous occasion, proceeded to pass their resolu- 
tion of repeal; but while the process was under way, before the 
House Committee had time to report on the matter, 34 Republican 
members resigned, thereby preventing its passage and putting a 
stop to further legislation. 





The events of the earlier years of this State have been reviewed 
down to that period in the nation's history when the Republic de- 
manded a first sacrifice from the newly erected States; to the time 
when the very safety of the glorious heritage, bequeathed by the 
fathers as a rich legacy, was threatened with a fate worse than death 
— a life under laws that harbored the slave— a civil defiance of .he 
first principles of the Constitution. 

Indiana was among the first to respond to the summons of patri- 
otism, and register itself on the national roll ol honor, even as she 
was among the first to join in that song of joy which greeted a Re- 
public made doubly glorious within a century by the dual victory 
which won liberty for itself, and next bestowed the precious boon 
upon the colored slave. 

The fall of Fort Sumter was a signal for the uprising of the State. 

The news of the calamity was fiashed to Indianapolis on the 14th of 

April, 1861, and early the next morning the electric wire brought 

the welcome message to Washington: — 

Executive Department of Indiana, ) 
Indianapolis, April 15, 1861. ) 

To Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States:— On behalf of the State 
of Indiana, I tender to you for the defense of the Nation, and to uphold the au- 
thority of the Government, ten thousand men. 

Governor of Indiana. 

This may be considered the first official act of Governor Morton, 
who had just entered on the duties of his exalted position. The 
State was in an almost helpless condition, and yet the faith of the 
" War Governor " was prophetic, when, after a short consultation 
with the members of the Executive Council, he relied on the fidelity 
of ten thousand men and promised their services to the Protectorate 
at Washington. This will be more apparent when the military 
condition of the State at the beginning of 1861 is considered. At 
that time the armories contained less than five hundred stand of 
serviceable small arms, eight pieces of cannon which might be use- 
ful in a museum of antiquities, with sundry weapons which would 
merely do credit to the aborigines of one hundred years ago. The 
financial condition of the State was even worse than the military. 

(148) * 

. ol -^ . % 
^ vie -. ^ '^ s V 





The sum of $10,368.58 in trust funds was the amount of cash in the 
hands of the Treasurer, and this was, to all intents and purpo ses 
unavailable to meet the emergency, since it could not be devoted 
to the military requirements of the day. This state of affairs was 
dispiriting in the extreme, and would doubtless have militated 
against the ultimate success of any other man than Morton; yet 
he overleaped every difficulty, nor did the fearful realization of 
Floyd's treason, discovered during his visit to Washington, damp 
his indomitable courage and energy, but with rare persistence he 
urged the claims of his State, and for his exertions was requited 
with an order for five thousand muskets. The order was not exe- 
cuted until hostilities were actually entered upon, and consequently 
for some days succeeding the publication of the President's procla- 
mation the people labored under a feeling of terrible anxiety min- 
gled with uncertainty, amid the confusion which followed the crim- 
inal negligence that permitted the disbandment of the magnificent 
corps c?' armee (51,000 men) of 1832 two years later in 1834, Great 
numbers of the people maintained their equanamity with the result 
of beholding within a brief space of time every square mile of their 
State represented by soldiers prepared to fight to the bitter end iu 
defense of cherished institutions, and for the extension of the prin- 
ciple of human liberty to all States and classes within the limits of 
the threatened Union. This, their zeal, was not animated by hos- 
tility to the slave holders of the Southern States, but rather by a 
fraternal spirit, akin to that which urges the eldest brother to cor- 
rect the persistent follies of his juniors, and thus lead them from 
crime to the maintenance of family honor; in this correction, to 
draw them away from all that was cruel, diabolical and inhuman in 
the Republic, to all that is gentle, holy and sublime therein. Many 
of the raw troops were not only unimated by a patriotic feeling, 
but also by that beautiful idealization of the poet, who in his un- 
conscious Republicanism, said: 

" I would not have a slave to till my ground, 

To carry me, to fan me while I sleep, 

And tremble when I wake, for all the wealth 

That sinews bought and sold have ever earned 

No : dear as freedom is — and, in my heart's 

Just estimation, prized above all price — 

I had much rather be myself the slave, 

And wear the bonds, than fasten them on him." 

Thus animated, it is not a matter for surprise to find the first 
call to arms issued by the President, and calling for 75,000 men, 





answered nobly by the people of Indiana. The quota of troops to 
be furnished by the State on the first call was 4,683 men for three 
years' service from April 15, 1860. On the 16th of April, Gov- 
ernor Morton issued his proclamation calling on all citizens of the 
State, who had the welfare of the Republic at heart, to organize 
themselves into six regiments in defense of their rights, and in 
opposition to the varied acts of rebellion, charged by him against 
the Southern Confederates. To this end, the Hon. Lewis Wallace, 
a soldier of the Mexican campaign was appointed Adjutant-General, 
Col. Thomas A, Morris of the United States Military Academy, 
Quartermaster-General, and Isaiah Mansur, a merchant of Indian- 
apolis, Commissary-General. These general officers converted the 
grounds and buildings of the State Board of Agriculture into a 
military headquarters, and designated the position Camp Morton, 
as the beginning of the many honors which were to follow the pop- 
ular Governor throughout his future career. Now the people, im- 
bued with confidence in their Government and leaders, rose to the 
grandeur of American freemen, and with an enthusiasm never 
equaled hitherto, flocked to the standard of the nation; so that 
within a few days (19th April) 2,400 men were ranked beneath 
their regimental banners, until as the oflicial report testifies, the 
anxious question, passing from mouth to mouth, was, " Which of 
us will be allowed to go? " It seemed as if Indiana was about to 
monopolize the honors of the period, and place the 75,000 men 
demanded of the Union by the President, at his disposition. Even 
now under the genial sway of guaranteed peace, the features of 
Indiana's veterans flush with righteous pride when these days — re- 
membrances of heroic sacrifice — are named, and freemen, still un- 
born, will read their history only to be blessed and glorified in the 
possession of such truly, noble progenitors. Nor were the ladies 
of the State unmindful of their duties. Everywhere they partook 
of the general enthusiasm, and made it practical so far as in their 
power, by embroidering and presenting standards and regimental 
colors, organizing aid and relief societies, and by many other acts 
of patriotism and humanity inherent in the high nature of woman. 
During the days set apart by the military authorities for the or- 
ganization of the regiments, the financiers of the State were en- 
gaged in the reception of munificent grants of money from pri- 
vate citizens, while the money merchants within and without the 
State oifered large loans to the recognized Legislature without even 
imposing a condition of payment. This most practical generosity 


— -j p 


strengthened the hands of the Executive, and within a very few days 
Indiana had passed the crucial test, recovered some of her military 
prestige lost in 1834, and so was prepared to vie with the other 
and wealthier States in making sacrifices for the public welfare. 

On the 20th of April, Messrs, I. S. Dobbs and Alvis D. Gall re- 
ceived their appointments as Medical Inspectors of the Division, 
while Major T. J. Wood arrived at headquarters from Washington 
to receive the newlj'^ organized regiments into the service of the 
Union. At the moment this formal proceeding took place, Morton, 
unable to restrain the patriotic ardor of the people, telegraphed to 
the capitol that he could place six regiments of infantry at the dis- 
posal of the General Government within six days, if such a pro- 
ceeding were acceptable; but in consequence of the wires being cut 
between the State and Federal capitols, no answer came. Taking 
advantage of the little doubt which may have had existence in re- 
gard to future action in the matter and in the absence of general 
orders, he gave expression to an intention of placing the volunteers 
in camp, and in his message to the Legislature, who assembled three 
days later, he clearly laid down the principle of immediate action 
and strong measures, recommending a uote of $1,000,000 for there- 
organization of the volunteers, for the purchase of arms and supplies, 
and for the punishment of treason. The message was received most 
enthusiastically. The assembly recognized the great points made 
by the Governor, and not only yielded to them in toto, but also made 
the following grand appropriations: 

General military purposes $1,000,000 

Purchase of arms • 500,000 

Contingent military expenses 100,000 

Organization and support of militia for two years 140,000 

These appropriations, together with the laws enacted during the 
session of the Assembly, speak for the men of Indiana. The celerity 
with which these laws were put in force, thediligince and economy 
exercised by the officers, entrusted with their administration, and 
that systematic genius, under which all the machinery of Govern- 
ment seemed to work in harmony, — all, all, tended to make for the 
State a spring-time of noble deeds, when seeds might be cast along 
her fertile fields and in the streets of her villages of industry to 
grow up at once and blossom in the ray of fame, and after to bloom 
throughout the ages. Within three days after the opening of the 
extra session of the Legislature (27th April) six new regiments were 
organized, and commissioned for three months' service. These reg- 




•V •s »- -- £> >^ 



iments, notwithstanding the fact that the first six regiments were 
already mustered into the general service, were known as "The 
First Brigade, Indiana Yolunteers," and with the simple object of 
making the way of the future student of a brilliant history clear, 
were numbered respectiv^ely 

Sixth Regiment, commanded by Col. T. T. Crittenden. 
Seventh " " " " Ebenezer Dumont. 

Eighth " « " " W. P. Benton. 

Ninth " « " " R. H. Milroy. 

Tenth " " " " T. T. Reynolds. 

Eleventh " " " " Lewis Wallace. 

The idea of these numbers was suggested by the fact that the 
military representation of Indiana in the Mexican Campaign was 
one brigade of five regiments, and to observe consecutiveness the 
regiments comprised in the first division of volunteers were thus 
numbered, and the entire force placed under Brigadier General T. 
A. Morris, with the following staif: John Love, Major; Cyrus C* 
Hines, Aid-de-camp; and J. A. Stein, Assistant Adjutant General. 
To follow the fortunes of these volunteers through all the vicissi- 
tudes of war would prove a special work; yet their valor and endur- 
ance during their first term of service deserved a notice of even more 
value than that of the historian, since a commander's opinion has 
to be taken as the basis upon which the chronicler may expatiate. 
Therefore the following dispatch, dated from the headquarters of the 
Army of Occupation, Beverly Camp, W. Virginia, July 21, 1861, 
must be taken as one of the first evidences of their utility and 
valor: — 

"Governor O. P. Morton, Indianapolis, Indiana- 

Governor :— I have directed the three months' regiments from Indiana to 
move to Indianapolis, there to be mustered out and reorganized for three years' 

I cannot permit them to return to j-^ou without again expressing my high 
appreciation of the distinguished valor and endurance of the Indiana troops, and 
my hope that but a short time will elapse before I have the pleasure of knowing 
that they are again ready for the field. ******* 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

George B. McClellan, 
Major-Oeneral, U. 8. A. 

On the return of the troops to Indianapolis, July 29, Brigadier 
Morris issued a lengthy, logical and well-deserved congratulatory 
address, from which one paragraph may be extracted to characterize 



the whole. After passing a glowing eulogium on their military 
qualities and on that unexcelled gallantry displayed at Laurel Hill, 
Phillipi and Carrick's Ford, he says: — 

" Soldiers ! You have now returned to the friends whose prayers went with you 
to the field of strife. They welcome you with pride and exultation. Your State 
and country acknowledge the value of your labors. May your future career be as 
your past has been, — honorable to yourselves and serviceable to your country." 

The six regiments forming Morris' brigade, together with one 
composed of the surplus volunteers, for whom there was no reo-i- 
ment in April, now formed a division of seven regiments, all reor- 
ganized for three years' service, between the 20th August and 20th 
September, with the exception of the new or 12th, which was ac- 
cepted for one year's service from May 11th, under command of 
Colonel John M. Wallace, and reorganized May 17, 1862, for three 
years' service under Col. W. H. Link, who, with 172 officers and 
men, received their mortal wounds during the Richmond (Ken- 
tucky) engagement, three months after its reorganization. 

The 13th Kegiment, under Col. Jeremiah Sullivan, was mus- 
tered into the United States in 1861 and joined Gen. McClellan's 
command at Rich Mountain on the 10th July. The day following it 
was present under Gen. Rosencrans and lost eight men killed; three 
successive days it was engaged under Gen. I. I. Reynolds, and won 
its laurels at Cheat Mountain summit, where it participated in the 
decisive victory over Gen. Lee. 

The 14th Regiment, organized in 1861 for one year's service, and 
reorganized on the 7th of June at Terre Haute for three years' ser- 
vice. Commanded by Col, Kimball and showing a muster roll of 
1,134 men, it was one of the finest, as it was the first, three years' 
regiment organized in the State, with varying fortunes attached to 
its never ending round of duty from Cheat Mountain, September, 
1861, to Morton's Ford in 1864, and during the movement South in 
May of that year to the last of its labors, the battle of Cold Har- 

The 15th Regiment, reorganized at La Fayette 14th June, 1861, 
under Col, G, D. "Wagner, moved on Rich Mountain on the 11th 
of July in time to participate in the complete rout of the enemy. 
On the promotion of Col. Wagner, Lieutenant-Col. G. A. Wood 
became Colonel of the regiment, November, 1862, and during the 
first days of January, 1863, took a distinguished part in the severe 
action of Stone River. From this period down to the battle of Mis- 
sion Ridge it was in a series of destructive engagements, and was, 


* ' — frr-^ 


after enduring terrible hardships, ordered to Chattanooga, and 
thence to Indianapolis, where it was mustered out the 18th June, 
1864, — four days after the expiration of its term of service. 

The 16th Regiment, organized under Col. P. A. Hackleman at 
Richmond for one year's service, after participating in many minor 
military events, was mustered out at Washington, D.C., on the 14th 
of May, 1862. Col. Hackleman was killed at the battle of luka, 
and Lieutenant-Col. Thomas I. Lucas succeeded to the command. 
It was reorganized at Indianapolis for three years' service. May 27, 
1862, and took a conspicuous part in all the brilliant engagements 
of the war down to June, 1865, when it was mustered out at New 
Orleans. The survivors, numbering 365 rank and file, returned to 
Indianapolis the 10th of July amid the rejoicing of the populace. 

The 17th Regiment was mustered into service at Indianapolis 
the 12th of June, 1861, for three years, under Col. Hascall, who 
on being promoted Brigadier General in March, 1862, left the 
Colonelcy to devolve on Lieutenant Colonel John T. Wilder. This 
regiment participated in the many exploits of Gen. Reynold's army 
from Green Brier in 1862, to Macon in 1865, under Gen. Wilson. 
Returning to Indianapolis the 16th of August, in possession of a 
brilliant record, the regiment was disbanded. 

The 18th Regiment, under Colonel Thomas Pattison, was organ- 
ized at Indianapolis, and mustered into service on the 16th of 
August, 1861. Under Gen. Pope it gained some distinction at 
Blackwater, and succeeded in retaining a reputation made there, 
by its gallantry at Pea Ridge, February, 1862, down to the moment 
when it planted the regimental flag on the arsenal of Augusta, 
Georgia, where it was disbanded August 28, 1865. 

The 19th Regiment, mustered into three years' service at the 
State capital July 29, 1861, was ordered to join the army of the 
Potomac, and reported its arrival at Washington, August 9. Two 
days later it took part in the battle of Lewinsville, under Colonel 
Solomon Meredith. Occupying Falls Church in September, 1861, 
it continued to maintain a most enviable place of honor on the 
military roll until its consolidation with the 20th Regiment, October, 
1864, under Colonel William Orr, formerly its Lieutenant Colonel. 

The 20th Regiment of La Fayette was organized in July. 1861, 
mustered into three years' service at Indianapolis on the 22d of the 
same month, and reached the front at Cockeysville, Maryland, 
twelve days later. Throughout aJ its iirilliant actions from Hat- 
teras Bank, on the 4th of October, to Clover Hill, 9th of April, 1865, 

. . Is 

^1 _ .. ir-»- 


including the saving of the United States ship Congress, at New- 
port News, it added daily some new name to its escutcheon. This 
regiment was mustered out at Louisville in July, 1865, and return- 
ing to Indianapolis was welcomed by the great war Governor of 
their State. 

Tlie 21sT Kegiment was mustered into service under Colonel I. 
W. McMilhin, July 24, 1861, and reported at the front the third 
day of August. It was the first regiment to enter New Orleans. 
The fortunes of this regiment were as varied as its services, so that 
its name and fame, grown from the blood shed by its members, are 
destined to live and flourish. In December, 1863, the regiment 
was reorganized, and on the 19th February, 1864, many of its 
veterans returned to their State, where Morton received them with 
that spirit of proud gratitude which he was capable of showing to 
those who deserve honor for honors won. 

The 22d Regiment, under Colonel Jeff. C. Davis, left Indian- 
apolis the 15th of August, and was attached to Fremont's Corps at 
St. Louis on the 17th. From the day it moved to the support of 
Colonel Mulligan at Lexington, to the last victory, won under 
General Sherman at Bentonville, on the 19th of March, 1865, it 
gained a high military reputation. After the fall of Johnston's 
southern army, this regiment was mustered out, and arrived at 
Indianapolis on the 16th June. 

The 23d Battalion, commanded by Colonel W. L. Sanderson, 
was mustered in at New Albany, the 29th July, 1861, and moved 
to the front early in August. From its unfortunate marine ex- 
periences before Fort Henry to Bentonville it won unusual honors, 
and after its disbandment at Louisville, returned to Indianapolis 
July 24, 1865, where Governor Morton and General Sherman 
reviewed and complimented the gallant survivors. 

The 24th Battalion, under Colonel Alvin P. Hovey, was 
mustered at Vincennes the 31st of July, 1861. Proceeding imme- 
diately to the front it joined Fremont's command, and participated 
under many Generals in important affairs during the war. Three 
hundred and ten men and officers returned to their State in August, 
1865, and were received with marked honors by the people and 

Tiie 25th Regiment, of Evansville mustered into service there 
for three years under Col. J. C. Veatch, arrived at St. Louis on the 
26th of August, 1861. During the war this regiment was present 
at 18 battles and skirmishes, sustaining therein a loss of 352 men 

-^ — , T^ 


and officers. Mustered out at Louisville, July 17, 1865, it returned 
to Indianapolis on the 21st amid universal rejoicing. 

The 26th Battalion, under W. M. Wheatley, left Indianapolis 
for the front the 7th of September, 1861, and after a brilliant cam- 
paign under Fremont, Grant, Heron and Smith, may be said to 
disband the 18th of September, 1865, when the non-veterans and 
recruits were reviewed by Morton at the State capital. 

The 27th Regiment, under Col. Silas Colgrove, moved from 
Indianapolis to Washington City, September 15th, 1861, and in 
October was allied to Gen. Banks' army. From Winchester 
Heights, the 9th of March 1862, through all the affairs of General 
Sherman's campaign, it acted a gallant and faithful part, and was 
disbanded immediately after returning to their State. 

The 28th or 1st Cavalry was mustered into service at Evans- 
ville on the 20th of August, 1861, under Col. Conrad Baker. From 
the skirmish at Ironton, on the 12th of September, wherein three 
companies under Col. Gavin captured a position held by a 
few rebels, to the battle of the Wilderness, the First Cavalry per- 
formed prodigies of valor. In June and July, 1865, the troops 
were mustered out at Indianapolis. 

The 29th Battalion of La Porte, under Col. J. F. Miller, left 
on the 5tli of October, 1861, and reaching Camp Nevin, Kentucky, 
on the 9th, was allied to Rosseau's Brigade, serving with McCook's 
division at Shiloh, with Buell's army in Alabama, Tennessee and 
Kentucky, with Rosencrans at Murfreesboro, at Decatur, Alabama, 
and at Dalton, Georgia. The Twenty-ninth won many laurels, 
and had its Colonel promoted to the rank of Brigadier General. 
This officer was succeeded in the command by Lieutenant-Col. 

The 30th Regiment of Fort Wayne, under Col. Sion S. Bass, 
proceeded to the front via Indianapolis, and joined General Rosseau 
at Camp Nevin on the 9th of October, 186 L At Shiloh, Col. 
Bass received a mortal wound, and died a few days later at 
Paducah, leaving the Colonelcy to devolve upon Lieutenant-Col. J. 
B. Dodge. In October 1865, it formed a battalion of General Sheri- 
dan's army of observation in Texas. 

The 31st Regiment, organized at Terre Haute, under Col. Charles 
Cruft, in September 1861, was mustered in, and left in a few days 
for Kentucky. Present at the redaction of Fort Donelson on the 
13th, 14th, and 15th of February, 1862, its list of killed and 
wounded proves its desperate fighting qualities. The organization 






was subjected to many changes, but in all its phases maintained a 
fair fame won on many battle fields. Like the former regiment, 
it passed into Gen. Sheridan's Army of Observation, and held the 
district of Green Lake, Texas. 

The 32d Regiment of German Infantry, under Col. August 
Willich, organized at Indianapolis, mustered on the 24th of August, 

1861, served with distinction throughout the campaign Col.* 
Willich was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General, andLieut.- 
Col. Henry Yon Trebra commissioned to act, under whose com- 
mand the regiment passed into General Sheridan's Army, hold- 
ing the post of Salado Creek, until the withdrawal of the corps of 
observation in Texas. 

The 33d Regiment of Indianapolis possesses a military history 
of no small proportions. The mere facts that it was mustered in 
under Col. John Coburn, the 16th of September, won a series of 
distinctions throughout the war district and was mustered out at 
Louisville, July 21, 1865, taken with its name as one of the most 
powerful regiments engaged in the war, are sufficient here. 

The 34:Tii Battalion, organized at Anderson on the 16th Sep- 
tember, 1861, under Col. Ashbury Steele, appeared among the in- 
vesting battalions before New Madrid on the 30th of March, 1862. 
From the distinguished part" it took in that siege, down to the 
13th of May, 1865, when at Palmetto Ranche, near Palo Alto, it 
fought for hours against fearful odds the last battle of the war for 
the Union. Afterwards it marched 250 miles up the Rio Grande, 
and was the first regiment to reoccupy the position, so long in 
Southern hands, of Ringold barracks. In 1865 it garrisoned Bea- 
consville as part of the Army of Observation. 

The 35th or First Irish Regiment, was organized at Indian- 
apolis, and mustered into service on the 11th of December, 1861, 
under Col. John C. Walker. At ISTashville, on the 22d of May, 

1862, it was joined by the organized portion of the Sixty-first or 
Second Irish Regiment, and unassigned recruits. Col. Mullen now 
became Lieut. -Colonel of the 35th, and shortly after, its Colonel, 
From the pursuit of Gen. Bragg through Kentucky and the affair 
at Perryville on the 8th of October, 1862, to the terrible hand to 
hand combat at Kenesaw mountain, on the night of the 20th of 
June, 1864, and again from the conclusion of the Atlanta campaign 
to September, 1865, with Gen. Sheridan's army, when it was mus- 
tered out, it won for itself a name of reckless daring and unsur- 
passed gallantry. 




•Vj<5 ^ ^ g > J- 

— m 


The 36th Eegiment, of Eichmond, Ind., under Col. William 
Grose, mustered into service for three years on the 16th of Sep- 
tember, 1861, went immediately to the front, and shared the for- 
tunes of the Army of the Ohio until the 27th of February, 1862, 
when a forward movement led to its presence on the battle-field of 
Shiloh. Following up the honors won at Shiloh, it participated in 
some of the most important actions of the war, and was, in October, 
1865, transferred to Gen. Sheridan's army. Col. Grose was pro- 
moted in 1864 to the position of Brigadier-General, and the 
Colonelcy devolved on Oliver H. P. Carey, formerly Lieut.-Colonel 
of the regiment. 

The 37th Battalion, of Lawrenceburg, commanded by Col. 
Geo. W. Hazzard, organized the 18th of September, 1861, left for 
the seat of war early in October. From the eventful battle of 
Stone river, in December, 1862, to its participation in Sherman's 
march through Georgia, it gained for itself a splendid reputation. 
Tliis regiment returned to, and was present at, Indianapolis, on the 
30th of July, 1865, where a public reception was tendered to men 
and officers on the grounds of the Capitol. 

The 38th Regiment, under Col. Benjamin F. Scribner, was mus- 
tered in at New Albany, on the 18th of September, 1861, and 
in a few days were en route for the front. To follow its continual 
round of duty, is without the limits of this sketch; therefore, it 
will suffice to say, that on every well-fought field, at least from 
February, 1862, until its dissolution, on the 15th of July, 1865, it 
earned an enviable renown, and drew from Gov. Morton, on return- 
ing to Indianapolis the 18th of the same month, a congratulatory 
address couched in the highest terms of praise. 

The 39th Regiment, or Eighth Cavalry, was mustered in as 
an infantry regiment, under Col. T. J. Harrison, on the 28th of 
August, 1861, at the State capital. Leaving immediately for the 
front it took a conspicuous part in all the engagements up to April, 
1863, when it was reorganized as a cavalry regiment. The record of 
this organization sparkles with great deeds which men will extol 
while language lives; its services to the Union cannot be over esti- 
mated, or the memory of its daring deeds be forgotten by the un- 
happy people who raised the tumult, which culminated in their 
second shame. 

The 40th Regiment, of Lafayette, under Col. W. C. Wilson, 
subsequently commanded by Col. J. W. Blake, and again by Col. 
Henry Learning, was organized on the 30th of December, 1861, and 


— 1 p 


at once proceeded to the front, where some time was necessarily spent 
in the Camp of Instruction at Bardstown, Kentucky. In February, 
1862, it joined in Buell's forward movement. During the war the 
regiment shared in all its hardships, participated in all its honors, 
and like many other brave commands took service under Gen. 
Sheridan in his Army of Occupation, holding the post of Port 
Lavaca, Texas, until peace brooded over the land. 

The 41st Regiment or Second Cavalry, the first complete regi- 
ment of horse ever raised in the State, was organized on the 3d of 
September, 1861, at Indianapolis, under Col. John A. Brido-land, 
and December 16 moved to the front. Its first war experience was 
gained en route to Corinth on the 9th of April, 1862, and at Pea 
Eidge on the 15th. Gallatin, Vinegar Hill, and Perryville, and 
Talbot Station followed in succession, each battle bringing to the 
cavalry untold honors. In May, 1864, it entered upon a glorious 
career under Gen. Sherman in his Atlanta campaign, and again 
under Gen. Wilson in the raid through Alabama during April, 
1865. On the 22d of July, after a brilliant career, the regiment was 
mustered out at Kashville, and returned at once to Indianapolis for 

The 42d, under Col J. G. Jones, mustered into service at Evans- 
ville, October 9, 1861, and having participated in the principal 
military affairs of the period, Wartrace, Mission Eidge, Altoona, 
Kenesaw, Savannah, Charlestown and Bentonville, was discharged 
at Indianapolis on the 25th of July, 1865. 

The 43d Battalion was mustered in on the 27tli of September, 
1861, under Col. George K. Steele, and left Terre Haute enroute to 
the front within a few days. Later it was allied to Gen. Pope's 
corps, and afterwards served with Commodore Foote's marines in 
the reduction of Fort Pillow. It was the first Union reeiment to 
enter Memphis. From that period until the close of the war it was 
distinguished for its unexcelled qualifications as a military body, 
and fully deserved the encomiums passed upon it on its return to 
Indianapolis in March, 1865. 

The 44th or the Eegimentof the 10th Congressional District 
was organized at Fort Wayne on the 24th of October, 1861, under 
Col. Hugh B. Eeed. Two months later it was ordered to the front, 
and arriving in Kentucky, was attached to Gen. Cruft's Brigade, 
then quartered at Calhoun. After years of faithful service it was 
mustered out at Chattanooga, the 14th of September, 1865. 

The 45th, or Third Cavalry, comprised ten companies 


- « 



organized at different periods and for varied services in 1861- 
'62, under Colonel Scott Carter and George H. Chapman. The 
distinguished name won by the Third Cavalry is established in 
every village within the State. Let it suffice to add that after its 
brilliant participation in Gen. Sheridan's raid down the James' 
river canal, it was mustered out at Indianapolis on the 7th of Au- 
gust, 1865. 

The 46th Regiment, organized at Logansport under Colonel 
Graham N. Fitch, arrived in Kentucky the 16th of February, 1862, 
and a little later became attached to Gen. Pope's army, then quar- 
tered at Commerce. The capture of Fort Pillow, and its career 
under Generals Curtis, Palmer, Hovey, Gorman, Grant, Sherman, 
Banks and Burbridge are as truly worthy of applause as ever fell to 
the lot of a regiment. The command was mustered out at Louis- 
ville on the 4th of September, 1865, 

The 47th was organized at Anderson, under Col. I. R. Slack, early 
in October, 1862. Arriving at Bardstown, Kentucky, on the 21st 
of December, it was attached to Gen. Buell's army; but within two 
months was assigned to Gen. Pope, under whom it proved the first 
regiment to enter Fort Thompson near New Madrid. In 1864 the 
command visited Indianapolis on veteran furlough and was enthu- 
siastically received by Governor Morton and the people. Return- 
ing to the front it engaged heartily in Gen. Banks' company. In 
December, Col. Slack received his commission as Brigadier-General, 
and was succeeded on the regimental command by Col. J. A. Mc- 
Laughton ; at Shreveport under General Heron it received the sub- 
mission of General Price and his army, and there also was it mus- 
tered out of service on the 23d of October, 1865. 

The 48th Regiment, organized at Goshen the 6th of December, 
1861, under Col. Norman Eddy, entered on its duties during the 
siege of Corinth in May, and again in October, 1862. The record 
of this battalion may be said to be unsurpassed in its every feature, 
so that the grand ovation extended to the returned soldiers in 
1865 at Indianapolis, is not a matter for surprise. 

The 49th Regiment, organized at Jefferson ville, under Col. J. W 
Ray, and mustered in on the 21st of November, 1861, for service, 
left 671 route for the camp at Bardstown. A month later it arrived 
at the unfortunate camp-ground of Cumberland Ford, where dis- 
ease carried off a number of gallant soldiers. The regiment, how- 
ever, survived the dreadful scourge and won its laurels on many 




a well-fought field until September, 1865, when it was mustered out 
at Louisville. 

The 50i'H Eegiment, under Col. Cyrus L. Dunham, organized 
during the month of September, 1861, at Seymour, left e)i route to 
Bardstown for a course of military instruction. On the 20th of 
August, 1862, a detachment of the 50th, under Capt. Atkinson, was 
attacked by Morgan's Cavalry near Edgefield Junction ; but the 
gallant few repulsed their oft-repeated onsets and finally drove 
them from the field. The regiment underwent many changes in 
organization, and may be said to muster out on the 10th of Septem- 
ber, 1865. 

The 51sT Regiment, under Col. Abel. D. Streight, left Indianap- 
olis on the 14th of December, 1861, for the South. After a short 
course of instruction at Bardstown, the regiment joined General 
Buell's and acted with great efi'ect during the campaign in Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee. Ultimately it became a participator in the 
work of the Fourth Corps, or Army of Occupation, and held the post 
of San Antonio until peace was doubly assured. 

The 52d Regiment was partially raised at Rushville, and the 
organization completed at Indianapolis, where it was consolidated 
with the Railway Brigade, or 56th Regiment, on the 2d of Feb- 
ruary, 1862. Going to the front immediately after, it served with 
marked distinction throughout the war, and was mustered out at 
Montgomery on the 10th of September, 1865. Returning to Indian- 
apolis six days later, it was welcomed by Gov. Morton and a most 
enthusiastic reception accorded to it. 

The 53kd Battalion was raised at New Albany, and with the 
addition of recruits raised at Rockport formed a standard regi- 
ment, under command of Col. "W. Q. Gresham. Its first duty was 
that of guarding the rebels confined on Camp Morton, but on 
going to the front it made for itself an endurable name. It was mus- 
tered out in July, 1865, and returned to Indiananoplis on the 25th 
of the same month. 

The 54th Regiment was raised at Indianapolis on the 10th of 
June, 1862, for three months' service under Col. D. G. Rose. The 
succeeding two months saw it in charge of the prisoners at Carnp 
Morton, and in August it was pushed forward to aid in the defense 
of Kentucky against the Confederate General, Kirby Smith. The 
remainder of its short term of service was given to the cause. On the 
muster out of the three months' service regiment it was reorgau- 

- » 

■V <2 ^ -^ *' I x^ 




ized for one year's service and gained some distinction, after which 
it was mustered out in 1863 at New Orleans. 

The 55th Kegiment, organized for three months' service, retains 
the brief history applicable to the first organization of the 54:th. 
It was mustered in on the 16th of June, 1862, under Col. J. R. 
Mahon, disbanded on the expiration of its term and was not reor- 

The 56th Regiment, referred to in the sketch of the 52nd, was 
designed to be composed of railroad men, marshalled under J, M. 
Smith as Colonel, but owing to the fact that many railroaders had 
already volunteered into other regiments. Col. Smith's volunteers 
were incorporated with the 52nd, and this number left blank in the 
army list. 

The 57th Battalion, actually organized by two ministers of the 
gospel,— the Rev. I. W. T. McMuUen and Rev. F. A. Hardin, of 
Richmond, Ind., mustered into service on the ISth of Novem- 
ber, 1861, under the former named reverend gentleman as Colonel, 
who was, however, succeeded by Col. Cyrus C. Haynes, and he in 
turn by G. W. Leonard, Willis Blanch and John S. McGrath, the 
latter holding command until the conclusion of the war. The 
history of this battalion is extensive, and if participation in a num- 
ber of battles with the display of rare gallantry wins fame, the 57th 
may rest assured of its possession of this fragile yet coveted prize. 
Like many other regiments it concluded its military labors in the 
service of General Sheridan, and held the post of Port Lavaca in 
conjunction with another regiment until peace dwelt in the land. 

The 58th Regiment, of Princeton, was organized there early in 
October, 1861, and was mustered into service under the Colonelcy 
of Henry M. Carr. In December it was ordered to join Gen- 
eral Buell's army, after which it took a share in the various 
actions of the war, and was mustered out on the 25tli of July, 1805, 
at Louisville, having gained a place on the roll of honor. 

The 59th Battalion was raised under a commission issued by 
Gov. Morton to Jesse I. Alexander, creating him Colonel. Owing 
to the peculiarities hampering its organization, Col. Alexander could 
not succeed in having his regiment prepared to muster in before 
the 17th of February, 1862. However, on that day the equipment 
was complete, and on the 18th it left en route to Commerce, where 
on its arrival, it was incorporated under General Pope's command. 
The list of its casualties speaks a history, — no less than 793 men 
were lost during the campaign. The regiment, after a term char- 

_______ ——___-_ 


acterized by distinguished service, was mustered out at Louisville 
on the 17th of July, 1865. 

The 60th Eegiment was partially organized under Lieut. -Col. 
Kichard Owen at Evansville during November 1861, and perfected 
at Camp Morton during March, 1862. Its first experience was its 
gallant resistance to Bragg' s army investing Munfordsville, which 
culminated in the unconditional surrender of its first seven com- 
panies on the 14th of September. An exchange of prisoners took 
place in November, which enabled it to joine the remaining com- 
panies in the field. The subsequent record is excellent, and forms, 
as it were, a monument to their fidelity and heroism. The main 
portion of this battalion was mustered out at Indianapolis, on the 
21st of March, 1865. 

The 61sT was partially organized in December, 1861, under Col. 
B. F. Mullen. The failure of thorough organization on the 22d of 
May, 1862, led the men and oflicers to agree to incorporation with 
the 35th Regiment of Yolunteers. 

The 62d Battalion, raised under a commission issued to Wil- 
liam Jones, of Rockport, authorizing him to organize this regiment 
in the First Congressional District was so unsuccessful that consoli- 
dation with the 53d Regiment was resolved upon. 

The 63d Regiment, of Covington, under James McManomy, 
Commandant ot Camp, and J. S. Williams, Adjutant, was partially 
organized on the 31st of December, 1861, and may be considered 
on duty from its very formation. After guarding prisoners at 
Camp Morton and Lafayette, and engaging in battle on Manassas 
Plains on the 30th of August following, the few companies sent 
out in February, 1862, returned to Indianapolis to find six new 
companies raised under the call of July, 1862, ready to embrace 
the fortunes of the 63d. So strengthened, the regiment went forth 
to battle, and continued to lead in the paths of honor and fidelity 
until mustered out in May and June, 1865. 

The 64th Regiment failed in organization as an artillery corps ; 
but orders received from the War Department prohibiting the con- 
solidation of independent batteries, put a stop to any further move 
in the matter. However, an infantry regiment bearing the same 
number was afterward organized. 

The 65th was mustered in at Princeton and Evansville, in July 
and August, 1862, under Col. J. W. Foster, and left at once e7i 
route for the front. The record of this battalion is creditable, not 
only to its members, but also to the State which claimed it. Its 


last action during the war was on the 18th and 20th of February, 
1865, at Fort Anderson and Town creek, after which, on the 22d 
June, it was disbanded at Greensboro. 

The 66th Regiment partially organized at New Albany, under 
Commandant Roger Martin, was ordered to leave for Kentucky on 
the 19th of August, 1862, for the defense of that State against the 
incursions of Kirby Smith. After a brilliant career it was mus- 
tered out at Washington on the 3d of June, 1865, after which it 
returned to Indianapolis to receive the thanks of a grateful people. 

The 67th Regiment was organized within the Third Congressional 
District under Col. Frank Emerson, and was ordered to Louisville 
on the 20tli of August, 1862, whence it marched to Munfordville,. 
only to share the same fate with the other gallant regiments en- 
gaged against Gen. Bragg's advance. Its roll of honor extends 
down the years of civil disturbance, — always adding garlands, un- 
til Peace called a truce in the fascinating race after fame, and insured 
a terra of rest, wherein its members could think on comrades forever 
vanished, and temper the sad thought with the sublime mem- 
ories born of that chivalrous fight for the maintenance and integri- 
ty of a great Republic. At Galveston on the 19th of July, 1865, the 
gallant 67th Regiment was mustered out, and returning within a 
few days to its State received the enthusiastic ovations of her citi- 

The 68th Regiment, organized at Greensburg under Major Ben- 
jamin C. Shaw, was accepted for general service the 19th of August, 
1862, under Col. Edward A. King, with Major Shaw as Lieutenant 
Colonel; on the 25th its arrival at Lebanon was reported and with- 
in a few days it appeared at the defense of Munfordville; but shar- 
ing in the fate of all the defenders, it surrendered unconditionally to 
Gen. Bragg and did not participate further in the actions of that 
year, nor until after the exchange of prisoners in 1863. From this 
period it may lay claim to an enviable history extending to the end 
of the war, when it was disembodied. 

The 69th Regiment, of Richmond, Ind., under Col. A. Bickle, 
left for the front on the 20th of August, 1862, and ten days later 
made a very brilliant stand at Richmond, Kentucky, against 
the advance of Gen. Kirby Smith, losing in the engagement two 
hundred and eighteen men and officers together with its liberty. 
After an exchange of prisoners the regiment was reorganized under 
Col. T. "W. Bennett and took the field in December, 1862, under 




Generals Sheldon, Morgan and Sherman of Grant's army. Chick- 
asaw, Vicksburg, Blakely and many other names testify to the valor 
of the 69th. The remnant of the regiment was in January, 1865, 
formed into a battalion under Oran Perry, and was mustered out in 
July following. 

The 70th Regiment was organized at Indianapolis on the 12th of 
August, 1862, under Col. B. Harrison, and leaving for Louisville on 
the 13th, shared in the honors of Bruce's division at Franklin 
and Eussellville. The record of the regiment is brimful of honor. 
It was mustered out at Washington, June 8, 1865, and received at 
Indianapolis with public honors. 

The 71sT OR Sixth Cavalry was organized as an infantry regi- 
ment, at Terre Haute, and mustered into general service at Indian- 
apolis on the 18th of August, 1862, under Lieut. -Col. Melville D. 
Topping. Twelve days later it was engaged outside Richmond, 
Kentucky, losing two hundred and fifteen officers and men, includ- 
ing Col. Topping and Major Conklin, together with three hundred 
and forty-seven prisoners, only 225 escaping death and capture. 
After an exchange of prisoners the regiment was re-formed under 
Col. I. Bittle, but on the 28th of December it surrendered to Gen. 
J. H. Morgan, who attacked its position at Muldraugh's Hill with a 
force of 1,000 Confederates. During September and October, 1863, 
it was organized as a cavalry regiment, won distinction throughout 
its career, and was mustered out the 15th of September, 1865, at 

The 77th Regiment was organized at Lafayette, and left enroute 
to Lebanon, Kentucky, on the 17th of August, 1862. Under Col. 
Miller it won a series of honors, and mustered out at Kashville on 
the 26th of June, 1865. 

The 73rd Regiment, under Col. Gilbert Hathaway, was mustered 
in at South Bend on the 16th of August, 1862, and proceeded im- 
mediately to the front. Day's Gap, Crooked Creek, and the high 
eulogies of Generals Rosencrans and Granger speak its long and 
brilliant history, nor were the welcoming shouts of a great people 
and the congratulations of Gov. Morton, tendered to the regiment 
on its return home, in July, 1865, necessary to sustain its well won 

The 74th Regiment, partially organized at Fort Wayne and made 
almost complete at Indianapolis, left for the seat of war on the 22d 
of August, 1862, under Col. Charles W. Chapman. The desperate 
opposition to Gen. Bragg, and the magnificent defeat of Morgan, 

"71 s- 




together with the battles of Dallas, Chattahoochie river, Kenesaw 
and Atlanta, where Lieut. Col. Myron Baker was killed, all bear evi- 
dence of its never surpassed gallantry. It was mustered out of ser- 
vice on the 9tli of June, 1865, at Washington. On the return of the 
regiment to Indianapolis, the war Governor and people tendered it 
special honors, and gave expression to the admiration and regard 
in which it was held. 

The Y5th Regiment was organized within the Eleventh Congress- 
ional District, and left Wabash, on the 21st of August, 1862, for the 
front, under Col. I. W. Petit. It was the first regiment to enter 
Tullahoma, and one of the last engaged in the battles of the Repub- 
lic. After the submission of Gen. Johnson's army, it waa mustered 
out at Washington, on the 8th of June 1865. 

The 76th Battalion was solely organized for thirty days' service 
under Colonel James Gavin, for the purpose of pursuing the rebel 
guerrilas, who plundered Newburg on the 13th July, 1862. It was 
organized and equipped within forty-eight hours, and during its 
term of service gained the name, " The Avengers of Newburg." 

The 77th, or Fourth Cavalry, was organized at the State capi- 
tal in August, 1862, under Colonel Isaac P. Gray. It carved its 
way to fame over twenty battlefields, and retired from service at 
Edgefield, on the 29th June, 1865. 

The 79th Regiment was mustered in at Indianapolis on the 2nd 
September, 1862, under Colonel Fred Knefier. Its history may be 
termed a record of battles, as the great numbers of battles, from 
1862 to the conclusion of hostilities, were participated in by it. 
The regiment received its discharge on the 11th Jnne, 1865, at 
Indianapolis. During its continued round of field duty it captured 
eighteen guns and over one thousand prisoners. 

The 80th Regiment was organized within the First Congress- 
ional District under Col. C. Denby, and equipped at Indianapolis, 
when, on the 8th of September, 1862, it left for the front. During 
its term it lost only two prisoners; but its list of casualties sums 
up 325 men and officers killed and wounded. The regiment may 
be said to muster out on the 22nd of June, 1865, at Saulsbury. 

The 81sT Regiment, of New Albany, under Colonel W. W. 
Caldwell, was organized on the 29th August, 1862, and proceeded 
at once to join Buell's headquarters, and join in the pursuit of 
General Bragg. Throughout the terrific actions of the war its 
infiuence was felt, nor did its labors cease until it aided in driving 
the rebels across the Tennessee. It was disembodied at Nashville 


1 '■Z/ 




on the 13th June, 1865, and returned to Indianapolis on the 15th, 
to receive the well-merited congratulations of Governor Morton, 
and the people. 

The 82nd Regiment, under Colonel Morton C. Hunter, was 
mustered in at Madison, Ind,, on the 30th August, 1862, and 
leaving immediately for the seat of war, participated in many of 
the great battles down to the return of peace. It was mustered out 
at Washington on the 9th June, 1865, and soon returned to its 
State to receive a grand recognition of its faithful service. 

The 83rd Regiment, of Lawrenceburg, under Colonel Ben. J. 
Spooner, was organized in September, 1862, and soon left en route 
to the Mississippi. Its subsequent history, the fact of its being 
under fire for a total term of 4,800 hours, and its wanderings over 
6,285 miles, leave nothing to be said in its defense. Master of a 
thousand honors, it was mustered out at Louisville, on the 15th 
July, 1865, and returned home to enjoy a well-merited repose. 

The 84th Regiment was mustered in at Richmond, Ind., on the 
8th September, 1862, under Colonel Nelson Trusler. Its first 
military duty was on the defenses of Covington, in Kentucky, and 
Cincinnati; but after a short time its labors became more con- 
genial, and tended to the great disadvantage of the slaveholding 
enemy on many well-contested fields. This, like the other State 
regiments, won many distinctions, and retired from the service on 
the 14th of June, 1865, at Nashville. 

The 85th Regiment was mustered at Terre Haute, under Colonel 
John P. Bayard, on the 2d September, 1862. On the 4th March, 
1863, it shared in the unfortunate aifair at Thompson's Station, 
when in common with the other regiments forming Coburn's Bri- 
gade, it surrendered to the overpowering forces of the rebel 
General, Forrest. In June, 1863, after an exchange, it again took 
the field, and won a large portion of that renown accorded to 
Indiana. It was mustered out on the 12th of June, 1865. 

The 86th Regiment, of La Fayette, left for Kentucky on the 26th 
August, 1862, under Colonel OrvilleS. Hamilton, and shared in the 
duties assigned to the 84th. Its record is very creditable, particu- 
larly that portion dealing with the battles of Nashville on the 15th 
and 16th December, 1864. It was mustered out on the 6th of June,. 
1865, and reported within a few days at Indianapolis for discharge. 

The 87th Regiment, organized at South Bend, under Colonels 
Kline G. Sherlock and N. Gleason, was accepted at Indianapolis 
on the 31st of August, 1862, and left on the same day en route to 



^\ h *K - 



the front. From Springfield and Perryville on the 6th and 8th of 
October, 1862, to Mission Ridge, on the 25th of November, 1863, 
thence through the Atlanta campaign to the surrender of the South- 
ern armies, it upheld a gallant name, and met with a true and en- 
thusiastic welcome* home on the 21st of June, 1865, with a list of 
absent comrades aggregating 451. 

The 88th Regiment, organized within the Fourth Congressional 
District, under Col. Geo. Humphrey, entered the service on the 
29th of August, 1862, and presently was found among the front 
ranks in war. It passed through the campaign in brilliant form 
down to the time of Gen. Johnson's surrender to Gen. Grant, after 
which, on the Vth of June, 1865, it was mustered out at Washing- 

The 89th Regiment, formed from the material of the 
Eleventh Congressional District, was mustered in at Indianapolis, 
on the 28th of August, 1862, under Col. Chas. ' D. Murray, and 
after an exceedingly brilliant campaign was discharged by Gov. 
Morton on the 4th of August, 1865. 

The 90th Regiment, or Fifth Cavalry, was organized at 
Indianapolis under the Colonelcy of Felix W. Graham, between 
August and November, 1862. The different companies, joining 
headquarters at Louisville on the 11th of March, 1863, engaged in 
observing the movements of the enemy in the vicinity of Cumber- 
land river until the 19th of April, when a first and successful 
brush was had with the rebels. The regiment had been in 22 en- 
gagements during the term of service, captured 640 prisoners, and 
claimed a list of casualties mounting up to the number of 829. 
It was mustered out on the 16th of J une, 1865, at Pulaski. 

The 91st Battalion, of seven companies, was mustered into 
service at Evansville, the 1st of October, 1862, under Lieut.-Colonel 
John Mehringer, and in ten days later left for the front. In 
1863 the regiment was completed, and thenceforth took a very 
prominent position in the prosecution of the war. During its ser- 
vice it lost 81 men, and retired from the field on the 26th of June, 

The 92d Regiment failed in organizing. 

The 93d Regiment was mustered in at Madison, Ind., on the 
20th of October, 1862, under Col. De Witt C. Thomas and Lieut.- 
Col. Geo. W. Carr. ' On the 9th of November it began a move- 
ment south, and ultimately allied itself to Buckland's Brigade of 



^ ■ — 


Gen. Sherman's. On the 14th of May it was among the first regi- 
ments to enter Jackson, the capital of Mississippi; was next pres- 
ent at the assault on Yicksburg, and made a stirring campaign 
down to the storming of Fort Blakely on the 9th of April, 1865. 
It was discharged on the 11th of August, that year, at Indianapo- 
lis, after receiving a public ovation. 

The 94th and 95th Regiments, authorized to be formed within 
the Fourth and Fifth Congressional Districts, respectively, were 
only partially organized, and so the few companies that could be 
mustered were incorporated with other regiments. 

The 96th Regiment could only bring together three companies, 
in tlie Sixth Congressional District, and these becoming incoroo- 
rated with the 99th then in process of formation at South Bend, the 
number was left blank. 

The 97th Regiment, raised in the Seventh Congressional Dis- 
trict, was mustered into service at Terre Haute, on the 20th of 
September, 1861, under Col. Robert F. Catterson. Reaching the 
front within a few days, it was assigned a position near Memphis, 
and subsequently joined in Gen. Grant's movement on Vicksburg, 
by overland route. After a succession of great exploits with the 
several armies to which it was attached, it completed its list of 
battles at Bentonville, on the 21st of March, 1865, and was dis- 
embodied at Washington on the 9th of June following. During its 
term of service the regiment lost 341 men, including the three 
Ensigns killed during the assaults on rebel positions along the 
Augusta Railway, from the 15th to the 27th of June, 1864. 

The 98th Regiment, authorized to be raised within the Eighth 
Congressional District, failed in its organization, and the number 
was left blank in the army list. The two companies answering to 
the call of July, 1862, were consolidated with the 100th Regiment 
then being organized at Fort Wayne. 

The 99th Battalion, recruited within the Ninth Congressional 
District, completed its muster on the 21st of October, 1862, under 
Col. Alex. Fawler, and reported for service a few days later at 
Memphis, where it was assigned to the 16th Army Corps. The va- . 
ried vicissitudes through which this regiment passed and its remark- 
able gallantry upon all occasions, have gained for it a fair fame. 
It was disembodied on the 5th of June, 1865, at Washington, and 
returned to Indianapolis on the 11th of the same month. 

The 100th Regiment, recruited from the Eighth and Tenth 
Congressional Districts, under Col. Sandford J. Stoughton, mustered 

Q fc^ » ^ 



into the service on the 10th of September, left for the front on the 
11th of November, and became attached to the Army of Tennessee 
on the 26th of that month, 1862. The regiment participated in 
twentj'iive battles, together v^ith skirmishing during fully one-third 
of its term of service, and claimed a list of casualties mounting up 
to four hundred and sixty-four. It was mustered out of the ser- 
vice at "Washington on the 9th of June, and reported at Indianapolis 
for discharge on the 14th of June, 1865. 

The lOlsT Regiment was mustered into service at "Wabash on 
the 7th of September, 1862, under Col. William Garver, and pro- 
ceeded immediately to Covington, Kentucky. Its early experiences 
were gained in the pursuit ofBragg's army and John Morgan's 
cavalry, and these experiences tendered to render the regiment one 
of the most valuable in the war for the Republic. From the defeat 
of John Morgan at Milton on the 18th of March, 1863, to the fall 
of Savannah on the 23rd of September, 1863, tlie regiment won 
many honors, and retired from the service on the 25th of June, 
1865, at Indianapolis. 


The 102d Regiment, organized under Col. Benjamin M. Gregory 
from companies of the Indiana Legion, and numbering six hun- 
dred and twenty-three men and officers, left Indianapolis for the 
front early in July, and reported at North Yernon on the 12th of 
July, 1863, and having completed a round of duty, returned to In- 
dianapolis on the 17th to be discharged. 

The 103d, comprising seven companies from Hendricks county, 
two from Marion and one from "Wayne counties, numbering 681 
men and officers, under Col. Lawrence S. Shuler, was contemporary 
with the 102d Regiment, varying only in its service by being mus- 
tered out one day before, or on the 16th of July, 1863. 

The 104th Regiment of Minute Men was recruited from mem- 
bers of the Legion of Decatur, La Fayette, Madison, Marion and Rush 
counties. It comprised 714 men and officers under the command 
of Col. James Gavin, and was organized within forty hours after the 
issue of Governor Morton's call for minute men to protect Indiana 
and Kentucky against the raids of Gen. John H Morgan's rebel 
forces. After Morgan's escape into Ohio the command returned 
and was mustered out on the 18th of July, 1863. 

The 105th Regiment consisted of seven companies of the Legion 
and three of Minute Men, furnished by Hancock, Union, Randolph, 




Putnam, Wayne, Clinton and Madison counties. The command 
numbered seven hundred and thirteen men and officers, under Col. 
Sherlock, and took a leading part in the pursuit of Morgan. Re- 
turning on the 18th of July to Indianapolis it was mustered out. 

The 1 06th Regiment, under Col. Isaac P. Gray, consisted of 
onecompany of the Legion and nine companies of Minute Men, 
aggregating seven hundred and ninety-two men and officers. The 
countres of Wayne, Randolph, Hancock, Howard, and Marion were 
represented in its rank and file. Like the other regiments organized 
to repel Morgan, it was disembodied in July, 1863. 

The IOTth Regiment, under Col. De Witt C. Rugg, was organ- 
ized in the city of Indianapolis from the companies' Legion, or 
Ward Guards. The successes of this promptly organized regiment 
were unquestioned. 

The 108th Regiment comprised five companies of Minute Men, 
from Tippecanoe county, two from Hancock, and one from each of 
the counties known as Carroll, Montgomery and Wayne, aggregat- 
ing TIO men and officers, and all under the command of Col. W. C. 
Wilson. After performing the only duties presented, it returned 
from Cincinnati on the 18th of July, and was mustered out. 

The 109th Regiment, composed of Minute Men from Coles 
county. 111., La Porte, Hamilton, Miami and Randolph counties, 
Ind., showed a roster of 709 officers and men, under Col. J. K 
Mahon. Morgan having escaped from Ohio, its duties were at an 
end, and returning to Indianapolis was mustered out on the 17th 
of July, 1863, after seven days' service. 

The 110th Regiment of Minute Men comprised volunteers from 
Henry, Madison, Delaware, Cass, and Monroe counties. The men 
were ready and willing, if not really anxious to go to the front. But 
happily the swift-winged Morgan was driven away, and conse- 
q uently the regiment was not called to the field. 

The 111th Regiment, furnished by Montgomery, Lafayette, 
Rush, Miami, Monroe, Delaware and Hamilton counties, number- 
ing 733 men and officers, under Col. Robert Canover, was not 

requisitioned. . 

The 112th Regiment was formed from nine companies ot Min- 
ute Men, and the Mitchell Light Infantry Company of the Legion. 
Its strength was 703 men and officers, under Col. Hiram F. Brax- 
ton Lawrence, Washington, Monroe and Orange counties were 
represented on its roster, and the historic names of North Vernon 
and Sunman's Station on its banner. Returning from the South 




after seven days' service, it was mustered out oil the ITtli of 
July, 1863. 

The 113th E.EGIMENT, furnished by Daviess, Martin, Washington, 
and Monroe counties, comprised 526 rank and lile under Col. Geo. 
W. Burge. Like the 112th, it was assigned to Gen. Hughes' 
Brigade, and defended North Vernon against the repeated attacks 
of John H. Morgan's forces. 

The 114th Regiment was wholly organized in Johnson county, 
under Col. Lambertson, and participated in the afiair of North 
Yernon. Returning on the 21st of July, 1863, with its brief but 
faithful record, it was disembodied at Indianapolis, 11 days after 
its organization. 

All these regiments were brought into existence to meet an 
emergency, and it must be confessed, that had not a sense of 
duty, military instinct and love of country animated these regi- 
ments, the rebel General, John H. Morton, and his 6,000 cavalry 
would doubtless have carried destruction as far as the very capital 
of their State. 

SIX- months' regiments. 

The 115th Regiment, organized at Indianapolis in answer to the 
call of the President in June, 1863, was mustered into service on 
the 17th of August, under Col. J. R. Mahon. Its service was short 
but brilliant, and received its discharge at Indianapolis the 10th 
of February, 1864. 

The 116th Regiment, mustered in on the 17th of August, 1863, 
moved to Detroit, Michigan, on the 30th, under Col. Charles Wise. 
During October it was ordered to Nicholasville, Kentucky, where it 
was assigned to Col. Mahon's Brigade, and with Gen. Willcox's 
entire command, joined in the forward movement to Cumberland 
Gap. After a term on severe duty it returned to Lafayette and 
there was disembodied on the 24th of February, 1864, whither Gov. 
Morton hastened, to share in the ceremonies of welcome. 

The 117th Regiment of Indianapolis was mustered into service 
on the 17th of September, 1863, under Col. Thomas J. Brady. 
After surmounting every obstacle opposed to it, it returned on the 
6th of February, 1864, and was treated to a public reception on 
the 9 th. 

The 118th Regiment, whose organization was completed on the 
3d of September, 1863, under Col. Geo. W. Jackson, joined the 
116th at Nicholasville, and sharing in its fortunes, returned to the 






State capital on the 14th of February, 1864. Its casualties were 
comprised in a list of 15 killed and wounded. 

The 119th, or Seventh Cavalry, was recruited under Col. John 
P. C. Shanks, and its organization completed on the 1st of Octo- 
ber, 1863. The rank and tile numbered 1,213, divided into twelve 
companies. On the 7th of December its arrival at Louisville was 
reported, and on the 14th it entered on active service. After the 
well-fought battle of Guntown, Mississippi, on the 10th of June, 
1864, although it only brought defeat to our arms. General Grier- 
son addressed the Seventh Cavalry, saying: " Yoar General con- 
gratulates you upon your noble conduct during the late expedition. 
Fighting against overwhelming numbers, under adverse circum- 
stances, your prompt obedience to orders and unflinching courage 
commanding the admiration of all, made even defeat almost a vic- 
tory. For hours on foot you repulsed the charges of the enemies' in- 
fantry, and again in the saddle you met his cavalry and turned his 
assaults into confusion. Your heroic perseverance saved hundreds 
of your fellow-soldiers from capture. You have been faithful to 
your honorable reputation, and have fully justified the confidence, 
and merited the high esteem of your commander." 

Early in 1865, a number of these troops, returning from impris- 
onment in Southern bastiles, were lost on the steamer "Sultana." 
The survivors of the campaign continued in the service for a long 
period after the restoration of peace, and finally mustered out. 

The 120th Regiment. In September, 1863, Gov. Morton re- 
ceived authority from the War Department to organize eleven regi- 
ments within the State for three years' service. By April, 1864, 
this organization was complete, and b6ing transferred to the com- 
mand of Brigadier General Alvin P. Hovey, were formed by him 
into a division for service with the Army of Tennessee. Of those 
regiments, the 120th occupied a very prominent place, both on ac- 
count of its numbers, its perfect discipline and high reputation. 
It was mustered in at Columbus, and was in all the great battles 
of the latter years of the war. It won high praise from friend 
and foe, and retired with its bright roll of honor, after the success 
of Right and Justice was accomplished. 

The 121sT, OR Ninth Cavalry, was mustered in March 1, 1864, 
under Col. George W. Jackson, at Indianapolis, and though not 
numerically strong, was so well equipped and possessed such excel- 
lent material that on the 3rd of May it was ordered to the front. 
The record of the 121st, though extending over a brief period, is- 


• * — -^ '• -^ » K. * 




pregnant with deeds of war of a high character. On the 26th of 
April, 1865, these troops, while returning from their labors in the 
South, lost 55 men, owing to the explosion of the engines of the 
steamer " Sultana." The return of the 386 survivors, on the 5th of 
September, 1865, was hailed with joy, and proved how well and 
dearly the citizens of Indiana loved their soldiers. 

The 122d Kegiment ordered to be raised in the Third Congres- 
Bional District, owing to very few men being then at home, failed 
in organization, and the regimental number became a blank. 

The 123d Kegiment was furnished by the Fourth and Seventh 
Congressional Districts during the winter of lS63-'64, and mus- 
tered, March 9, 1864, at Greensburg, under Col. John C. McQuis- 
ton. The command left for the front the same day, and after win- 
ning rare distinction during the last years of the campaign, par- 
ticularly in its gallantry at Atlanta, and its daring movement to 
escape Forrest's 15,000 rebel horsemen near Franklin, this regi- 
ment was discharged on the 30th of August, 1865, at Indianapolis, 
being mustered out on the 25th, at Raleigh, North Carolina. 

The 121th Regiment completed its organization by assuming 
three companies raised for the 125th Regiment (which was intended 
to be cavalry), and was mustered in at Richmond, on the 10th of 
March, 1864, under Colonel James Burgess, and reported at Louis- 
ville within nine days. From Buzzard's Roost, on the 8th of May, 
1864, under General Scholield, Lost Mountain in June, and the 
capture of Decatur, on the 15th July, to the 21st March, 1865, in 
its grand advance under General Sherman from Atlanta to the 
coast, the regiment won many laurel wreaths, and after a brilliant 
campaign, was mustered out at Greensboro on the 31st August, 

The 125th, oe Tenth Cavalry, was partially organized during 
November and December, 1862, at Yincennes, and in February, 
1863, completed its numbers and equipment at Columbus, under 
Colonel T. M. Pace. Early in May its arrival in Nashville was 
reported, and presently assigned active service. During September 
and October it ensaged rebel contino;ents under Forrest and Hood, 
and later in the battles of Nashville, Reynold's Hill and Sugar 
Creek, and in 1865 Flint River, Courtland and Mount Hope. The 
explosion of the Sultana occasioned the loss of thirty-five men with 
Captain Gaffney and Lieutenants Twigg and Reeves, and in a 
collision on the Nashville & Louisville railroad, May, 1864, lost 
five men killed and several wounded. After a term of service un- 

(J) ' — 



surpassed for its utility and character it was disembodied at Yicks- 
burg, Mississippi, on the 31st August, 1865, and returning to 
Indianapolis early in September, was welcomed by the Executive 
and people. 

The 126th, or Eleventh Cavalry, was organized at Indian- 
apolis under Colonel Robert R. Stewart, on the 1st of March, 1864, 
and left in May for Tennessee. It took a very conspicuous part in 
the defeat of Hood near Nashville, joining in the pursuit as far as 
Gravelly Springs, Alabama, where it was dismounted and assigned 
infantry duty. In June, 1865, it was remounted at St. Louis, and 
moved to Fort Riley, Kansas, and thence to Leavenworth, where it 
was mustered out on the 19th September, 1865. 

The 127th, or Twelfth Cavalry, was partially organized at 
Kendallville, in December, 1863, and perfected at the same place, 
under Colonel Edward Anderson, in April, 1864:. Reaching the 
front in May, it went into active service, took a prominent part in 
the march through Alabama and Georgia, and after a service bril- 
liant in all its parts, retired from the field, after discharge, on the 
22d of November, 1865. 

The 128th Regiment was raised in the Tenth Congressional Dis- 
trict of the period, and mustered at Michigan City, under Colonel 
R. P. De Hart, on the 18th March, 1864. On the 25th it was 
reported at the front, and assigned at once to Schofleld's Division. 
The battles of Resaca, Dallas, New Hope Church, Lost Mountain, 
Kenesaw, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Dalton, Brentwood Hills, Nashville. 
and the six days' skirmish of Columbia, were all participated in by 
the 128th, and it continued in service long after the termination 
of hostilities, holding the post of Raleigh, North Carolina. 

The 129th Regiment was, like the former, mustered in at 
Michigan City about the same time, under Colonel Charles Case, 
and moving to the front on the 7th April, 1864, shared in the for- 
tunes of the 128th until August 29, 1865, wheu it was disembodied 
at Charlotte, Notrh Carolina. 

The 130th Regiment, mustered at Kokomo on the 12th March, 
1864, under Colonel C. S. Parrish, left en route to the seat of war 
on the 16th, and was assigned to the Second Brigade, First Division, 
Twenty-third Army Corps, at Nashville, on the 19th. During the 
war it made for itself a brilliant history, and returned to Indian- 
apolis with its well-won honors on the 13th DecemDer, 1865. 

The 13 1st, or Thirteenth Cavalry, under Colonel G. M L. 
Johnson, was the last mounted regiment recruited within the State. 



It left Indianapolis on the 30th of April, 1864, in infantry trim, 
and gained its first honors on the Ist of October in its magnificent 
defense of Huntsville, Alabama, against the rebel division of 
General Buford, following a line of first-rate military conduct to 
the end. In January, 1865, the regiment was remounted, won 
some distinction in its modern form, and was mustered out at 
Yicksburg on the 18th of November, 1865. The morale and 
services of the regiment were such that its Colonel was promoted 
Brevet Brigadier-General in consideration of its merited honors. 


Governor Morton, in obedience to the ofier made under his auspices 
to the general Government to raise volunteer regiments for one hun- 
dred days' service, issued his call on the 23rd of April, 1864. This 
movement suggested itself to the inventive genius of the war Gov- 
ernor as a most important step toward the subjection or annihila- 
tion of the military supporters of slavery within a year, and thus 
conclude a war, which, notwithstanding its holy claims to the name 
of Battles for Freedom, was becoming too protracted, and proving 
too detrimental to the best interests of the Union. In answer to 
the esteemed Governor's call eight regiments came forward, and 
formed The Grand Division of the Volunteers. 

The 132d Regiment, under Col. S. C. Yance, was furnished by 
Indianapolis, Shelbyville, Franklin and Danville, and leaving on 
the IStliof May, 1864, reached the front where it joined the forces 
acting in Tennessee. 

The 133d Regiment, raised at Richmond on the 17th of May, 
1864, under Col. R. N. Hudson, comprised nine companies, and 
followed the 132d. 

The 134th Regiment, comprising seven companies, was organ- 
ized at Indianapolis on the 25th of May, 1864, under Col. James 
Gavin, and proceeded immediately to the front. 

The 135th Regiment was raised from the volunteers of Bedford, 
Noblesville and Goshen, with seven companies from the First Con- 
gressional District, under Col. W. C. "Wilson, on the 25th of May, 
1864, and left at once en route to the South. 

The 136th Regiment comprised ten companies, raised in the 
fame districts as those contributing to the 135th, under CoL J. W. 
Foster, and left for Tennessee on the 24th of May, 1864. 

The 137th Regiment, under Col. E. J. Robinson, comprising 
volunteers from Kokomo, Zanesville, Medora, Sullivan, Rockville, 







and Owen and Lawrence counties, left en- route to Tennessee on the 
28tli of May, 1864, having completed organization the day previous. 

The 138th Regiment was formed of seven companies from the 
Ninth, with three from the Eleventh Congressional District (un- 
reformed), and mustered in at Indianapolis on the 27th of May, 
1864, under Col. J. H. Shannon. This fine regiment was re- 
ported at the front within a few days. 

The 139th Regiment, under Col. Geo. Humphrey, was raised from 
volunteers furnished by Kendallville, Lawrenceburg, Elizaville, 
Knightstown, Connersville, Newcastle, Portland, Yevay, New 
Albany, Metamora, Columbia City, New Haven and New Phila- 
delphia. It was constituted a regiment on the 8th of June, 1864, 
and appeared among the defenders in Tennessee during that month. 

All these regiments gained distinction, and won an enviable po- 
sition in the glorious history of the war and the no less glorious 
one of their own State in its relation thereto. 

THE president's CALL OF JULY, 1864. 

The 140th Regiment was organized with many others, in response 
to the call of the nation. Under its Colonel, Thomas J. Brady, it pro- 
ceeded to the South on the 15th of November, 1864. Havino- taken 
a most prominent part in all the desperate struggles, round Nash- 
ville and Murfreesboro in 1864, to Town Creek Bridge on the 20th 
of February, 1865, and completed a continuous round of severe duty 
to the end, arrived at Indianapolis for discharge on the 21st of July, 
where Governor Morton received it with marked honors. 

The 14 1st Regiment was only partially raised, and its few com- 
panies were incorporated with Col. Brady's command. 

The 142d Regiment was recruited at Fort Wayne, under Col. I. 
M. Comparet, and was mustered into service at Indianapolis on the 
jl of November, 1864. After a steady and exceedingly effective 
service, it returned to Indianapolis on the 16th of July, 1865. 

the president's call of DECEMBER, 1864, 

Was answered by Indiana in the most material terms. No less 
than fourteen serviceable regiments were placed at the disposal of 
the General Government. 

The 143d Regiment was mustered in, under Col J. T. Grill, on 
the 21st February, 1865, reported at Nashville on the 24th, and af- 
ter a brief but brilliant service returned to the State on the 21st 
October, 1865. 






TJie 144tii Regiment, under Col. G. W. Riddle, was mustered in 
on the 6tli March, 1865, left on the 9th for Harper's Ferry, took an 
effective part in the close of the campaign and reported at Indian- 
apolis for discharge on the 9th August, 1865. 

The 145th Regiment, under Col. W, A. Adams, left Indianapolis 
on the 18th of February, 1865, and joining Gen. Steadman's division 
at Chattanooga on the 23d was sent on active service. Its duties 
were discharged with rare fidelity until mustered out in January, 

The 11:6th Regiment, under Col. M. C. Welsh, left Indianapolis 
on the 11th of March en route to Harper's Ferr}'^, where it was i.s- 
signed to the army of the Shenandoah. The duties ot this regiment 
were severe and continuous, to the period of its muster out at Bal- 
timore on the 31st of August, 1865. 

The 147th Regiment, comprised among other volunteers from 
Benton, Lafayette and Henry counties, organized under Col. Milton 
Peden on the 13th of March, 1865, at Indianapolis. It shared a 
fortune similar to that of the 146th, and returned for discharge on 
the 0th of August, 1865. 

The 148th Regiment, under Col. N. R. Ruckle, left the State 
capital on the 28th of February, 1865, and reporting at Nashville, 
was sent on guard and garrison duty into the heart of Tennessee. 
Returning to Indianapolis on the 8th of September, it received a 
final discharge. 

The 149th Regiment was organized at Indianapolis by Col. W. 
H. Fairbanks, and left on 'the 3d of March, 1865, for Tennessee, 
where it had the honor of receiving the surrender of the rebel 
forces, and military stores of Generals Roddy and Polk. The reg- 
iment was welcomed home by Morton on the 29tli of September. 

The 150th Regiment, under Col. M. B. Taylor, mustered in on the 
9th of March, 1865, left for the South on the 13th and reported at 
Harper's Ferry on the 17th. This regiment did guard duty at 
Charleston, Winchester, Stevenson Station, Gordon's Springs, and 
after a service characterized by utility, returned on the 9th of 
August to Indianapolis for discharge. 

The 151sT Regiment, under Col. J. Healy, arrived at Nashville on 
the 9th of March, 1865. On the 14th a movement on Tullahoma 
was undertaken, and three months later returned to Nashville for 
garrison duty to the close of the war. It was mustered out on the 
2-2d of September, 1865. 

The 152d Regiment was organized at Indianapolis, under Col. 










W. W Griswold, and left for Harper's Ferry on the 18th of March, 
1865. It was attached to the provisional divisions of Shenandoah 
Army, and engaged until the 1st of September, when it was dis- 
charged at Indianapolis. 

The 153d Regiment was organized at Indianapolis on the 1st of 
March, 1865, under Col. O. H. P. Carey. It reported at Louis- 
ville, and by order of Gen. Palmer, was held on service in Ken- 
tucky, where it was occupied in the exciting but very dangerous 
pastime of fighting Southern guerrillas. Later it was posted at 
Louisville, until mustered out on the 4th of September, 1865. 

The 151th Regiment, organized under Col. Frank Wilcox, left 
Indianapolis under Major Simpson, for Parkersburg, W. Virginia, 
on the 28th of April, 1865. It was assigned to guard and garrison 
duty until its discharge on the 4th of August, 1865. 

The 155th Regiment, recruited throughout the State, left on the 
26th of April for Washington, and was afterward assigned to a 
provisional Brigade of the Ninth Army Corps at Alexandria. The 
companies of this regiment were scattered over the country, — at 
Dover, Centreville, Wilmington, and Salisbury, but becoming re- 
united on the 4th of August, 1865, it was mustered out at Dover, 

The 156th Battalion, under Lieut.-Colonel Charles M. Smith, 
left en route to the Shenandoah Valley on the 27th of April, 1865, 
where it continued doing guard duty to the period of its muster 
out the 4th of August, 1865, at Winchester, Virginia. 

On the return of these regiments to Indianapolis, Gov. Morton 
and the people received them with all that characteristic cordiality 
and enthusiasm peculiarly their own. 

independent cavalry company of INDIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

The people of Crawford county, animated with that inspiriting 
patriotism which the war drew forth, organized this mounted com- 
pany on the 25th of July, 1863, and placed it at the disposal of 
the Government, and it was mustered into service by order of the 
War Secretary, on the 13th of August, 1863, under Captain L. 
Lamb. To the close of the year it engaged in the laudable pursuit 
of arresting deserters and enforcing the draft; however, on the 
18th of January, 1864, it was reconstituted and incorporated with 
the Thirteenth Cavalry, with which it continued to serve until the 
treason of Americans against America was conquered. 

< < 




The 2Sth Regiment of Colored Troops was recruited throuo-h- 
out the State of Indiana, and under Lieut.-Colonel Charles S. 
Russell, left Indianapolis for the fronton the 24th of April, 1864. 
The regiment acted very well in its first engagement with the 
rebels at White House, Virginia, and again with Gen. Sheridan's 
Cavalry, in the swamps of the Chickahominy. In the battle of 
the "Crater," it lost half its roster; but their place was soon filled 
by other colored recruits from the State, and Russell promoted to 
the Colonelcy, and afterward to Brevet Brigadier-General, when he 
was succeeded in the command by Major Thomas II. Logan. 
During the few months of its active service it accumulated quite a 
history, and was ultimately discharged, on the 8th of January, 
1866, at Indianapolis. 

batteries of light artillery. 

First Battery, organized at Evansville, under Captain Martin 
Klauss, and mustered in on the 16th of August, 1861, joined Gen. 
Fremont's army immediately, and entering readily upon its salu- 
tary course, aided in the capture of 950 rebels and their position 
at Blackwater creek. On March the 6th, 1862 at Elkhorn Tavern, 
and on the 8th at Pea Ridge, the battery performed good service. 
Port Gibson, Champion Hill, Jackson, the Teche country, Sabine 
Cross Roads, Grand Encore, all tell of its efficacy. In 1864 it was 
subjected to reorganization, when Lawrence Jacoby was raised to 
the Captiancy, vice Klauss resigned. After a long term of useful 
service, it was mustered out at Indianapolis on the 18th of August, 

Second Battery was organized, under Captain D, G. Rabb, at 
Indianapolis on the 9th of August, 1861, and one month later pro- 
ceeded to the front. It participated in the campaign against Col. 
Cofiee's irregular troops and the rebellious Indians of the Cherokee 
nation. From Lone Jack, Missouri, to Jenkin's Ferry and Fort 
Smith it won signal honors until its reorganization in 1864, and 
even after, to June, 1865, it maintained a very fair reputation. 

The Third Battery, under Capt. W. W. Frybarger, was organ- 
ized and mustered in at Connersville on the 24th of August, 1861, 
and proceeded immediately to join Fremont's Army of the Mis- 
souri. Moon's Mill, Kirksville, Meridian, Fort de Russy, Alex- 
andria, Round Lake, Tupelo, Clinton and Tallahatchie are names 



whicli may be engraven on its gnns. It participated in the affairs 
before Nashville on the 15th and 16th of December, 1864, when 
General Hood's Army was put to route, and at Fort Blakely, out- 
side Mobile, after which it returned home to report for discharge, 
August 21, 1865. 

The Fourth Battery, recruited in La Porte, Porter and Lake 
counties, reported at the front early in October, 1861, and at once 
assumed a prominent place in the army of Gen. Buell. Again 
under Rosencrans and McCook and under General Sheridan at 
Stone Kiver, the services of this battery were much praised, and it 
retained its well-earned reputation to the very day of its muster out 

the 1st of August, 1865. Its first organization was completed 

under Capt. A. K. Bush, and reorganized in Oct., 1864, under Capt 
B. F. Johnson. 

The Fifth Battery was furnished by La Porte, Allen, Whitley 
and Noble counties, organized under Capt. Peter Simonson, and mus- 
tered into service on the 22d of November, 1861. It comprised 
four six pounders, two being rifled cannon, and two twelve-pounder 
Howitzers with a force of 158 men. Reporting at Camp Gil- 
bert, Louisville, on the 29th, it was shortly after assigned to the 
division of Gen. Mitchell, at Bacon Creek. During its term, it 
served in twenty battles and numerous petty actions, losing its Cap- 
tain at Pine Mountain. The total loss accruing to the battery was 
84 men and officers and four guns It was mustered out on the 
20th of July, 1864. 

The Sixth Battery was recruited at Evansville, under Captain 
Frederick Behr, and left, on the 2d of Oct., 1861, for the front, 
reporting at Henderson, Kentucky, a few days after. Early in 
1862 it joined Gen. Sherman's army at Paducah, and participated 
in the battle of Shiloh, on the 6th of April. Its history grew in 
brilliancy until the era of peace insured a cessation of its great 


The Seventh Battery comprised volunteers from Terre Haute, 
Arcadia, Evansville, Salem, Lawrenceburg, Columbus, Vin- 
cennes and Indianapolis, under Samuel J. Harris as its first 
Captain, who was succeeded by G. R. Shallow and O. H. Mor- 
gan after its reorganization. From the siege of Corinth to the 
capture of Atlanta it performed vast services, and returned to 
Indianapolis on the 11th of July, 1865, to be received by the peo- 
ple and hear its history from the lips of the veteran patriot and 
Governor of the State. 

J£^ ■ ^« s v 




The Eighth Battery, under Captain G. T. Cochran, arrived at 
the front on the 26th of February, 1862, and subsequently entered 
upon its real duties at the siege of Corinth. It served with dis- 
tinction throughout, and concluded a well-made campaign under 
Will Stokes, who was appointed Captain of the companies with 
which it was consolidated in March, 1865. 

The ISTiNTH Battery. The organization of this battery was 
perfected at Indianapolis, on the 1st of January, 1862, under Capt. 
N. S. Thompson. Moving to the front it participated in the affairs 
of Shiloh, Corinth, Queen's Hill, Meridian, Fort Dick Taylor, Fort 
de Russy, Henderson's Hill, Pleasant Hill, Cotile Landing, Bayou 
Rapids, Man sura, Chicot, and many others, winning a name in 
each engagement. The explosion of the steamer Eclipse at Johnson- 
ville, above Paducah, on Jan. 27, 1865, resulted in the destruction of 
58 men, leaving only ten to represent the battery. The survivors 
reached Indianapolis on the 6th of March, and were mustered out. 

The Tenth Battery was recruited at Lafayette, and mustered in 
under Capt. Jerome B, Cox, in January, 1861. Having passed 
through the Kentucky campaign against Gen. Bragg, it partici- 
pated in many of the great engagements, and finally returned to 
report for discharge on the 6th of July, 1864, having, in the mean- 
time, won a very fair fame. 

The Eleventh Battery was organized at Lafayette, and mus- 
tered in at Indianapolis under Capt. Arnold Sutermeister, on the 
I7th of December, 1861. On most of the principal battle-fields, 
from Shiloh, in 1862, to the capture of Atlanta, it maintained a high 
reputation for military excellence, and after consolidation with the 
Eighteenth, mustered out on the Tth of June, 1865. 

The Twelfth Battery was recruited at Jeffersonville and sub- 
sequently mustered in at Indianapolis. On the 6th of March, 1862, 
it reached Nashville, having been previously assigned to Buell's 
Army, In April its Captain, G. W. Sterling, resigned, and the 
position devolved on Capt. James E. White, who, in turn, was suc- 
ceeded by James A. Dunwoody. The record of the battery holds 
a first place in the history of the period, and enabled both men and 
officers to look back with pride upon the battle-fields of the land. 
It was ordered home in June, 1865, and on reaching Indianapolis, 
on the 1st of July, was mustered out on the Yth of that month. 

The Thirteenth Battery was organized under Captain Sewell 
Coulson, during the winter of 1861, at Indianapolis, and proceeded 
to the front in February, 1862. During the subsequent months it 





was occupied Id the pursuit of John H. Morgan's raiders, and 
aided eflfectively in driving them from Kentucky. This artillery 
company returned from the South on the 4th of July, 1865, and 
were discharged the day following. 

The Fourteenth Battery, recruited in Wabash, Miami, Lafay- 
ette, and Huntington counties, under Captain M. H. Kidd, and 
Lieutenant J. W. H. McGuire, left Indianapolis on the 11th of 
April, 1862, and within a few months one portion of it was cap- 
tured at Lexington by Gen. Forrest's great cavalry command. The 
main battery lost two guns and two men at Guntown, on the Mis- 
sissippi, but proved more successful at Nashville and Mobile. It 
arrived home on the 29th of August, 1865, received a public wel- 
come, and its final discharge. 

The Fifteenth Battery, under Captain I. C. H. Von Sehlin, 
was retained on duty from the date of its organization, at Indian- 
apolis, until the 5th of July, 1862, when it was moved to Harper's 
Ferry. Two months later the gallant defense of Maryland Heights 
was set at naught by the rebel Stonewall Jackson, and the entire 
garrison surrendered. Being paroled, it was reorganized at Indian- 
apolis, and appeared again in the field in March, 1863, where it 
won a splendid renown on every well-fought field to the close of 
the war. It was mustered out on the 24th of June, 1865. 

The Sixteenth Battery was organized at Lafayette, under 
Capt. Charles A. Nay lor, and on the Ist of June, 1862, left for 
"Washington. Moving to the front with Gen. Pope's command, it 
participated m the battle of Slaughter Mountain, on the 9th of 
August, and South Mountain, and Antietam, under Gen. McClel- 
lan. This battery was engaged in a large number of general en- 
gagements and flying column affairs, won a very favoi-able record, 
and returned on the 5th of July, 1865. 

The Seventeenth Battery, under Capt. Milton L. Miner, was 
mustered in at Indianapolis, on the 20th of May, 1862, left for the 
front on the 5th of July, and subsequently engaged in the Gettys- 
burg expedition, was present at Harper's Ferry, July 6, 1863, and 
at Opequan on the 19th of September. Fisher's Hill, New Mar- 
ket, and Cedar Creek brought it additional honors, and won from 
Gen. Sheridan a tribute of praise for its service on these battle 
grounds. Ordered from Winchester to Indianapolis it was mus- 
tered out there on the 3d of July, 1865. 

The Eighteenth Battery, under Capt. Eli Lilly, left for the 






front in August, 1862, but did not take a leading part in the cam- 
paign until 1863, when, under Gen. Rosencrans, it appeared prom- 
inent at Hoover's Gap. From this period to the affairs of West 
Point and Macon, it performed first-class service, and returned to 
its State on the 25th of June, 1865. 

The Nineteenth Battery was mustered into service at Indian- 
apolis, on the 5th of August, 1862, under Capt. S. J. Harris, and 
proceeded immediately afterward to the front, where it participated 
in the campaign against Gen. Bragg. It was present at every post 
of danger to the end of the war, when, after the surrender of John- 
son's army, it returned to Indianapolis. Reaching that city on 
the 6tli of June, 1865, it was treated to a public reception and 
received the congratulations of Gov. Morton. Four days later it 
was discharged. 

The Twentieth Battery, organized under Capt. Frank A. Rose, 
left the State capital on the 17th of December, 1862, for the front, 
and reported immediately at Henderson, Kentucky. Subsequently 
Captain Rose resigned, and, in 1863, under Capt. Osborn, turned 
over its guns to the 11th Indiana Battery, and was assigned to the 
charge of siege guns at Nashville. Gov. Morton had the battery 
supplied with new field pieces, and by the 5th of October, 1863, it 
was again in the field, where it won many honors under Slierman, 
and continued to exercise a great influence until its return on the 
23d of June, 1865. 

The Twenty-first Battery recruited at Indianapolis, under the 
direction of Captain W. W. Andrew, left on the 9th of September, 
1862, for Covington, Kentucky, to aid in its defense against the 
advancing forces of Gen. Kirby Smith. It was engaged in numerous 
military afiairs and may be said to acquire many honors, although 
its record is stained with the names of seven deserters. The battery 
was discharged on the 21st of June, 1865. 

The Twenty-second Battery was mustered in at Indianapolis 
on the 15th of December, 1862, under Capt. B. F. Denning, and 
moved at once to the front. It took a very conspicuous part in the 
pursuit of Morgan's Cavalry, and in many other affairs. It threw 
the first shot into Atlanta, and lost its Captain, who was killed in 
the skirmish line, on the 1st of July. While the list of casualties 
numbers only 35, that of desertions numbers 37. This battery was 
received with public honors on its return, the 25th of June, 1865, 
and mustered out on the 7th of the same month. 





The Twenty-third Battery, recruited in October 1862, and 
mustered in on the 8th of November, under Capt. I. II. Myers, pro- 
ceeded south, after having rendered very efficient services at home 
in guarding the camps of rebel prisoners. In Julj', 1865, the battery 
took an active part, under General Boyle's command, in routing 
and capturing the raiders at Brandenburgh, and subsequently to 
the close of the war performed very brilliant exploits, reaching 
Indianapolis in June, 1865. It was discharged on the 27th of that 

The Twenty-fourth Battery, under Capt. I. A. Simms, was 
enrolled for service on the 29th of November, 1862; remained 
at Indianapolis on duty until the 13th of March, 1863, when 
it left for the field. From its participation in the Cumberland 
River campaign, to its last engagement at Columbia, Tennessee, it 
aided materially in bringing victory to the Union ranks and made 
for itself a widespread fame. Arriving at Indianapolis on the 2Sth 
of July, it was publicly received, and in five days later disembodied. 

The Twenty-fifth Battery was recruited in September and Oc- 
tober, 1864, and mustered into service for one year, under Capt. 
Frederick C. Sturm. December 13th, it reported at Nashville, and 
took a prominent part in the defeat of Gen. Hood's army. Its 
duties until July, 1865, were continuous, when it returned to 
report for final discharge. 

The Twenty-sixth Battery, or "Wilder's Battery," was re- 
cruited under Capt. I. T. Wilder, of Greensburg, in May, 1861; but 
was not mustered in as an artillery company. Incorporating itself 
with a regiment then forming at Indianapolis it was mustered as 
company "A," of the 17th Infantry, with Wilder' as Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the regiment. Subsequently, at Elk Water, Virginia, 
it was converted into the "First Independent Battery," and became 
known as " Rlgby's Battery." The record of this battery is as 
brilliant as any won during the war. On every field it has won a 
distinct reputation; it was well worthy the enthusiastic reception 
given to it on its return to Indianapolis on the 11th and 12th of 
July, 1865. During its term of service it was subject to many 
transmutations; but in every phase of its brief history, areputation 
for gallantry and patriotism was maintained which now forms a 
living testimonial to its services to the public. 

The total number of battles in the " War of the Rebellion " in 
which the patriotic citizens of the great and noble State of Indiana 
were more or less engaged, was as follows: 





Locality. No. of Battles. 

Virginia 90 

Tennessee 51 

Georgia. , 41 

Mississippi 24 

Arkaasas 19 

Kentucky 16 

Louisana 15 

Missouri 9 

Locality. No of Battles. 

Maryland 7 

Texas 3 

Soutti Carolina 2 

Indian Territory 2 

Pennsylvania 1 

Ohio 1 

Indiana 1 

North Carolina. 

8 Total 


The regiments sent forth to the defense of the Republic in the 
hour of its greatest peril, when a host of her own sons, blinded by 
some unholy infatuation, leaped to arras that they might trample 
upon the liberty-giving principles of the nation, have been passed 
in very brief review. The authorities chosen for the dates, names, 
and figures are the records of the State, and the main subject is 
based upon the actions of those 267,000 gallant men of Indiana 
who rushed to arms in defense of all for which their fathers bled, 
leaving their wives and children and homes in the guardianship of 
a truly paternal Government. 

The relation of Indiana to the Republic was then established; 
for when the population of the State, at the time her sons went 
forth to participate in war for the maintenance of the Union, is 
brought into comparison with all other States and countries, it will 
be apparent that the sacrifices made by Indiana from 1861-'65 
equal, if not actually exceed, the noblest of those recorded in the 
history of ancient or modern times. 

Unprepared for the terrible inundation of modern wickedness, 
which threatened to deluge the country in a sea of blood and rob, 
a people of their richest, their most prized inheritance, the State 
rose above all precedent, and under the benign influence of patriot- 
ism, guided by the well-directed zeal of a wise Governor and 
Government, sent into the field an army that in numbers was 
gigantic, and in moral and physical excellence never equaled 

It is laid down in the official reports, furnished to the War De- 
partment, that over 200,000 troops were specially organized to aid 
in crushing the legions of the slave-holder; that no less than 50,000 
militia were armed to defend the State, and that the large, but abso- 
lutely necessary number of commissions issued was 17,114. All 
this proves the scientific skill and military economy exercised by 
the Governor, and brought to the aid of the people in a most terri- 
ble emergency; for he, with some prophetic sense of the gravity of 
the situation, saw that unless the greatest powers of the Union 
were put forth to crush the least justifiable and most pernicious 


-» V 


of all rebellions holding a place in the record of nations, the best 
blood of the country would flow in a vain attempt to avert a catas- 
trophe which, if prolonged for many years, would result in at least 
the moral and commercial ruin of the country. 

The part which Indiana took in the war against the Rebellion is 
one of which the citizens of the State may well be proud. In the 
number of troops furnished, and in the amount of voluntary con- 
tributions rendered, Indiana, in proportion and wealth, stands 
equal to any of her sister States. " It is also a subject of gratitude 
and thankfulness," said Gov. Morton, in his message to the Legis- 
lature, " that, while the number of troops furnished by Indiana 
alone in this great contest would have done credit to a first-class 
nation, measured by the standard of previous wars, not a single 
battery or battalion from this State has brought reproach upon the 
national flag, and no disaster of the war can be traced to any want 
of fidelity, courage or efiiciency on the part of any Indiana officer. 
The endurance, heroism, intelligence and skill of the officers and 
soldiers sent forth by Indiana to do battle for the Union, have shed 
a luster on our beloved State, of which any people might justly be 
proud. Without claiming superiority over our loyal sister States, 
it is but justice to the brave men who have represented us on 
almost every battle-field of the war, to say that their deeds have 
placed Indiana in the front rank of those heroic States which 
rushed to the rescue of the imperiled Government of the nation. 
The total number of troops furnished by the State for all terms of 
service exceeds 200,000 men, much the greater portion of them 
being for three years; and in addition thereto not less than 50,000 
State militia have from time to time been called into active service 
to repel rebel raids and defend our southern border from inva- 



In 1867 the Legislature comprised 91 Republicans and 59 Dem- 
ocrats. Soon after the commencement of the session. Gov. Morton 
resigned his office in consequence of having been elected to the U. 
S. Senate, and Lieut.-Gov. Conrad Baker assumed the Executive 
chair during the remainder of Morton's term. This Legislature, 
by a very decisive vote, ratified the 14th amendment to the Federal 
Constitution, constituting all persons born in the country or sub- 
ject to its jurisdiction, citizens of the United States and of the 
State wherein they reside, without regard to race or color; reduc- 



(3 »_ .^ ? ^ 


ing the Congressional representation in any State in which there 
should be a restriction of the exercise of the elective franchise on 
account of race or colpr; disfranchising persons therein named 
wlio shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the 
United States; and declaring that the validity of the public debt 
of the United States authorized by law, shall not be questioned. 

This Legislature also passed an act providing for the registry of 
votes, the punishment of fraudulent practices at elections, and for 
the apportionment and compensation of a Board of Registration; 
this Board to consist, in each township, of two freeholders appointed 
by the County Commissioners, together with the trustee of such 
township; in cities the freeholders are to be appointed in each 
ward by the city council. The measures of this law are very strict, 
and are faithfully executed. No cries of fraud in elections are 
heard in connection with Indiana. 

This Legislature also divided the State into eleven Congressional 
Districts and apportioned their representation; enacted a law for 
the protection and indemnity of all officers and soldiers of the 
United States and soldiers of the Indiana Legion, for acts done in 
the military service of the United States, and in the military ser- 
vice of the State, and in enforcing the laws and preserving the 
peace of the country; made definite appropriations to the several 
benevolent institutions of the State, and adopted several measures 
for the encouragement of education, etc. 

In 1868, Indiana was the first in the field of national politics, 
both the principal parties holding State conventions early in the 
year. The Democrats nominated T. A. Hendricks for Governor, 
and denounced in their platform the reconstruction policy of the 
Republicans; recommended that United States treasury notes be 
substituted for national bank currency; denied that the General 
Government had a right to interfere with the question of suflfrage 
in any of the States, and opposed negro suffrage, etc.; while the 
Republicans nominated Conrad Baker for Governor, defended its 
reconstruction policy, opposed a further contraction of the currency, 
etc. The campaign was an exciting one, and Mr. Baker was 
elected Governor by a majority of only 96L In the Presidential 
election that soon followed the State gave Grant 9,572 more than 

During 1868 Indiana presented claims to the Government for 
about three and a half millions dollars for expenses incurred in the 
war, and $1,958,917.94 was allowed. Also, this year, a legislative 







commission reported that $413,599.48 were allowed to parties suf- 
fering loss by the Morgan raid. 

This year Governor Baker obtained a site for the House of 
Refuge. (See a subsequent page.) The Soldiers' and Seamen's 
Home, near Knightstown, originally established by private enter- 
prise and benevolence, and adopted by the Legislature of the 
previous year, was in a good condition. Up to that date the insti- 
tution had afforded relief and temporary subsistence to 400 men 
who had been disabled in the war. A substantial brick building 
had been built for the home, while the old buildings were used for 
an orphans' department, in which were gathered 86 children of 
deceased soldiers. 


By some mistake or liberal design, the early statute laws of 
Indiana on the subject of divorce were rather more loose than those 
of most other States in this Union; and this subject had been a 
matter of so much jest among the public, that in 1870 the Governor 
recommended to the Legislature a reform in this direction, which 
was pretty effectually carried out. Since that time divorces can 
be granted only for the following causes: 1. Adultery. 2. Impo- 
tency existing at the time of marriage. 3. Abandonment for two 
years. 4. Cruel and inhuman treatment of one party by the other. 
5. Habitual drunkenness of either party, or the failure of the hus- 
band to make reasonable provision for the family. 6 The failure 
of the husband to make reasonable provision for the family for a 
period of two years. 7. The conviction of either party of an infamous 



Were it not for political government the pioneers would have got 
along without money much longer than they did. The pressure of 
governmental needs was somewhat in advance of the monetary 
income of the first settlers, and the little taxation required to carry 
on the government seemed great and even oppressive, especially at 
certain periods. 

In November, 1821, Gov. Jennings convened the Legislature in 
extra session to provide for the payment of interest on the State 
debt and a part of the principal, amounting to $20,000. It was 
thought that a sufficient amount would be realized in the notes of 
the State bank and its branches, although they were considerably 
depreciated. Said the Governor: "It will be oppressive if the 
State^ after the paper of this institution (State bank) was author- 
ized to be circulated in revenue, should be prevented by any assign' 
ment of the evidences of existing debt, from discharging at least 
so much of that debt with the paper of the bank as will absorb the 
collections of the present year; especially when their notes, after 
being made receivable by the agents of the State, became greatly 
depreciated by great mismanagement on the part of the bank 
itself. It ought not to be expected that a public loss to the State 
should be avoided by resorting to any measures which would not 
comport with correct views of public justice; nor should it be 
anticipated that the treasury of the United States would ultimately 
adopt measures to secure an uncertain debt which would inter- 
fere with arrangements calculated to adjust the demand against the 
State without producing any additional embarrassment," 

The state of the public debt was indeed embarrassing, as the 

bonds which had been executed in its behalf had been assigned. 

The exciting cause of this proceeding consisted in the machinations 

of unprincipled speculators. Whatever disposition the principal 

bank may have made of the funds deposited by the United States, 

the connection of interest between the steam-mill company and the 

bank, and the extraordinary accommodations, as well as their amount, 

effected by arrangements of the steam-mill agency and some of 

the officers of the bank, were among the principal causes which 




had prostrated the paper circulating medium of the State, so far as it 
was dependent on the State bank and its branches. An abnormal 
state of affairs like this very naturally produced a blind disburse- 
ment of the fund to some extent, and this disbursement would be 
called by almost every one an " unwise administration." 

During the first 16 years of this century, the belligerent condi- 
tion of Europe called for agricultural supplies from America, and 
the consequent high price of grain justified even the remote pio- 
neers of Indiana in undertaking the tedious transportation of the 
products of the soil which the times forced upon them. The large 
disbursements made by the general Government among the peo- 
ple naturally engendered a rage for speculation; numerous banks 
with fictitious capital were established; immense issues of paper 
were made; and the circulating medium of the country was in- 
creased fourfold in the course of two or three yearSo This infla- 
tion produced the consequences which always follow such a scheme, 
namely, unfounded visions of wealth and splendor and the wild 
investments which result in ruin to the many and wealth to the 
few. The year 1821 was consequently one of great financial panic, 
and was the first experienced by the early settlers of the West. 

In 1822 the new Governor, William Hendricks, took a hopeful 
view of the situation, referring particularly to the " agricultural 
and social happiness of the State." The crops were abundant this 
year, immigration was setting in heavily and everything seemed to 
have an upward look. But the customs of the white race still com- 
pelling them to patronize European industries, combined with the 
remoteness of the surplus produce of Indiana from European mar- 
kets, constituted a serious drawback to the accumulation of wealth. 
Such a state of things naturally changed the habits of the people 
to some extent, at least for a short time, assimilating them to those 
of more primitive tribes. This change of custom, however, was 
not severe and protracted enough to change the intelligent and 
social nature of the people, and they arose to their normal height 
on the very first opportunity. 

In 1822-'3, before speculation started up again, the surplus 
money was invested mainly in domestic manufactories instead of 
other and wilder commercial enterprises. Home manufactories 
were what the people needed to make them more independent. 
They not only gave employment to thousands whose services were 
before that valueless, but also created a market for a great portion 





of the surplus produce of the farmers. A part of the surphis cap- 
ital, however, was also sunk in internal improvements, some of 
which were unsuccessful for a time, but eventually proved remu- 

Nuah Noble occupied the Executive chair of the State from 1831 
to 1837, commencing his duties amid peculiar embarrassments. 
The crops of 1832 were short, Asiatic cholera came sweeping along 
the Ohio and into the interior of the State, and the Black Hawk war 
raged in the Northwest, — all these at once, and yet the work of 
internal improvements was actually begun . 


The State bank of Indiana was established by law January 28, 
1834, The act of the Legislature, by its own terms, ceased to be a 
law, January 1, 1857. At the time of its organization in 1834, its 
outstanding circulation was $4,208,725, with a debt due to the insti- 
tution, principally from citizens of the State, of $6,095,368. During 
the years 1857-'58 the bank redeemed nearly its entire circulation, 
providing for the redemption of all outstanding obligations; at this 
time it had collected from most of its debtors the money which they 
owed. The amounts of the State's interest in the stock of the bank 
was $1,390,000, and the money thus invested was procured by the 
issue of five per cent bonds, the last of which was payable July 1, 1866. 
The nominal profits of the bank were $2,780,604.36. By the law 
creating the sinking fund, that fund was appropriated, first, to pay 
the principal and interest on the bonds; secondly, the expenses of 
the Commissioners; and lastly the cause of common-school educa- 

The stock in all the branches authorized was subscribed by indi- 
viduals, and the installment paid as required by the charter. The 
loan authorized for the payment on the stock allotted to the State, 
amounting to $500,000, was obtained at a premium of 1.05 per 
per cent, on five per cent, stock, making the sum of over $5,000 on 
the amount borrowed. In 1836 we find that the State bank was 
doing good service; agricultural products were abundant, and the 
market was good; consequently the people were in the full enjoy- 
ment of all the blessings of a free government. 

By the year 1843 the State was experiencing the disasters and 
embarassment consequent upon a system of over-banking, and its 
natural progeny, over-trading and deceptive speculation. Such a 
state of tilings tends to relax the hand of industry by creating false 





notions of wealth, and tempt to sudden acquisitions by means as delu- 
sive in their results as they are contrary to a primary law of nature. 
The people began more than ever to see the necessity of falling 
back upon that branch of industry for which Indiana, especially 
at that time, was particularly fitted, namely, agriculture, as the 
true and lasting source of substantial wealth. 

Gov. Whitcomb, 1843-'49, succeeded well in maintaining the 
credit of the State. Measures of compromise between the State 
and its creditors were adopted by which, ultimately, the public 
works, although incomplete, were given in payment for the claims 
against the Government. 

At the close of his term, Gov. Whitcomb was elected to the 
Senate of the United States, and from December, 1848, to Decem- 
ber, 1849, Lieut-Gov. Paris C. Dunning was acting Governor. 

In 1851 a general banking law was adopted which gave a new 
impetus to the commerce of the State, and opened the way for a 
broader volume of general trade; but this law was the source of 
many abuses; currency was expanded, a delusive idea of wealth 
again prevailed, and as a consequence, a great deal of damaging 
speculation was indulged in. 

In 1857 the charter of the State bank expired, and the large 
gains to the State in that institution were directed to the promotion 
of common-school education. 


During the war of the Kebellion the financial condition of the 
people was of course like that of the other Northern States generally. 
1870 found the State in a very prosperous condition. October 31 
of this year, the date of the fiscal report, there was a surplus of 
$373,249 in the treasury. The receipts of the year amounted to 
$3,605,639, and the disbursements to $2,943,600, leaving a balance 
of $1,035,288. The total debt of the State in November, 1871, was 

At the present time the principal articles of export from the State 
are flour and pork. Nearly all the wheat raised within the State 
is manufactured into flour within its limits, especially in the north- 
ern part. The pork business is the leading one in the southern 
part of the State. 

When we take into consideration the vast extent of railroad lines 

'in this State, in connection with the agricultural and mineral 

resources, both developed and undeveloped, as already noted, we can 

^ g I 1 to 

♦* ,^ ~ — I » 



see what a substantial foundation exists for the future welfare of 
this great commonwealth. Almost every portion of the State is 
coming up equally. The disposition to monopolize does not exist 
to a greater degree than is desirable or necessary for healthy compe- 
tition. Speculators in flour, pork and other commodities appeared 
during the war, but generally came to ruin at their own game. 
The agricultural community here is an independent one, under- 
standing its rights, and " knowing them will maintain them." 

Indiana is more a manufacturing State, also, than many imagine. 
It probably has the greatest wagon and carriage manufactory in the 
world. In 1875 the total number of manufacturing establishments 
in this State was 16,812; number of steam engines, SjGSi, with a 
total horse-power of 114,961; the total horse-power of water wheels, 
38,614; number of hands employed in the manufactories, 86,402; 
capital employed, is $117,462,161; wages paid, $35,461,987; cost of 
material, $104,321,632; value of products, $301,304,271. These 
figures are on an average about twice what they were only five years 
previously, at which time they were about double what they were 
ten years before that. In manufacturing enterprise, it is said that 
Indiana, in proportion to her population, is considerably in advance 
of Illinois and Michigan. 

In 1870 the assessed valuation of the real estate in Indiana was 
$460,120,974; of personal estate, $203,334,070; true valuation of 
both, $1,268,180,643. According to the evidences of increase at 
that time, the value of taxable property in this State must be double 
the foregoing figures. This is utterly astonishing, especially when 
ws consider what a large matter it is to double the elements of a 
large and wealthy State, compared with its increase in infancy. 

The taxation for State purposes in 1870 amounted to $2,943,078; 
for county purposes, $4,654,476; and for municipal purposes, 
$3,193,577. The total county debt of Indiana in 1870 was $1,127,- 
269, and the total debt of towns, cities, etc., was $2,523,934. 

In the compilation of this statistical matter we have before us the 
statistics of every element of progress in Indiana, in the U. S. 
Census Reports; but as it would be really improper for us further 
to burden these pages with tables or columns of large numbers, we 
will conclude by remarking that if any one wishes further details in 
these matters, he can readily find them in the Census Reports of 
the Government in any city or village in the country. Besides, 
almost any one can obtain, free of charge, from his representative in 



(5| — _ p 


Congress, all these and other public documents in which he may be 


This subject began to be agitated as early as 1818, during the 
administration of Governor Jennings, who, as well as all the 
Governors succeeding him to 1843, made it a special point in their 
messages to the Legislature to urge the adoption of measures for 
the construction of highways and canals and the improvement of 
the navigation of rivers. Gov. Hendricks in 1822 specified as the 
most important improvement the navigation of the Falls of the 
Ohio, the "Wabash and White rivers, and other streams, and the 
construction of the National and other roads through the State. 

In 1826 Governor Eay considered the construction of roads and 
canals as a necessity to place the State on an equal financial footing 
with the older States East, and in 1829 he added: "This subject 
can never grow irksome, since it must be the source of the bless- 
ings of civilized life. To secure its benefits is a duty enjoined upon 
the Legislature by the obligations of the social compact." 

In 1830 the people became much excited over the project of con- 
necting the streams of the country by " The National New York 
& Mississippi railroad." The National road and the Michigan 
and Ohio turnpike were enterprises in which the people and Legis- 
lature of Indiana were interested. The latter had already been the 
cause of much bitter controversy, and its location was then the 
subject of contention. 

In 1832 the work of internal improvements fairly commenced, 
despite the partial failure of the crops, the Black Hawk war and 
the Asiatic cholera. Several war parties invaded the Western 
settlements, exciting great alarm and some snfifering. This year 
the canal commissioners completed the task assigned them and had 
negotiated the canal bonds in New York city, to the amount of 
$100,000, at a premium of 13J- per cent., on terms honorable to the 
State and advantageous to the work. Before the close of tnis year 
$54,000 were spent for the improv^ement of the Michigan road, and 
$52,000 were realized from the sale of lands appropriated for its 
construction. In 1832, 32 miles of the Wabash and Erie canal was 
placed under contract and work commenced. A communication 
was addressed to the Governor of Ohio, requesting him to call the 
attention of the Legislature of that State to the subject of the 
extension of the canal from the Indiana line through Ohio to the 

\o ■ " *=> /• 

— ~ fl 


Lake. In compliance with this request, Governor Lucas promptly; 
laid the subject before the Legislature of the State, and, in a spirit 
of courtesy, resolutions were adopted by that body, stipulating that 
if Ohio should ultimately decline to undertake the completion of 
that portion of the work within her limits before the time fixed by 
the act of Congress for the completion of the canal, she would, on 
just and equitable terms, enable Indiana to avail herself of the bene- 
fit of the lands granted, by authorizing her to sell them and invest 
the proceeds in the stock of a company to be incorporated by Ohio; 
and that she would give Indiana notice of her final determination 
on or before January 1, 1838. The Legislature of Ohio also 
authorized and invited the agent of the State of Indiana to select, 
survey and set apart the lands lying within that State. In keeping 
with this policy Governor Noble, in 1834, said: "With a view of 
engaging in works of internal improvement, the propriety of 
adopting a general plan or system, having reference to the several 
portions of the State, and the connection of one with the other, 
naturally suggests itself. No work should be commenced but such 
as would be of acknowledged public utility, and when completed 
would form a branch of some general system. In view of this 
object, the policy of organizing a Board of Public Works is again 
respectfully suggested." The Governor also called favorable atten- 
tion to the Lawrenceburg & Indianapolis railway, for which a 
charter had been granted. 

In 1835 the Wabash & Erie canal was pushed rapidly forward. 
The middle division, extending from the St. Joseph dam to the 
forks of the Wabash, about 32 miles, was completed, for about 
$232,000, including all repairs. Upon this portion of the line nav- 
igation was opened on July 4, which day the citizens assembled 
"to witness the mingling of the waters of the St. Joseph with 
those of the Wabash, uniting the waters of the northern chain of 
lakes with those of the Gulf of Mexico in the South." On other 
parts of the line the work progressed with speed, and the sale of 
canal lands was unusually active 

In 1836 the first meeting of the State Board of Internal Im- 
provement was convened and entered upon the discharge of its 
numerous and responsible duties. Having assigned to each mem- 
ber the direction and superintendence of a portion of the work, 
the next duty to be performed preparatory to the various spheres of 
active service, was that of procuring the requisite number of 
engineers. A delegation was sent to the Eastern cities, but returned 



without engaging an Engineer-in-Chief for the roads and railways, 
and without the desired number for the subordinate station; but 
after considerable delay the Board was fully organized and put in 
operation. Under their management work on public improve- 
ments was successful; the canal progressed steadily; the naviga- 
tion of the middle division, from Fort Wayne to Huntington, was 
uninterrupted; 16 miles of the line between Huntington and La 
Fontaine creek were filled with water this year and made ready for 
navigation ; and the remaining 20 miles were completed, except a 
portion of the locks; from La Fontaine creek to Logansport prog- 
ress was made; the line from Georgetown to Lafayette was placed 
under contract; about 30 miles of the Whitewater canal, extending 
from Lawrenceburg through the beautiful valley of the White- 
water to Brookville, were also placed under contract, as also 23 
miles of the Central canal, passing through Indianapolis, on which 
work was commenced; also about 20 miles of the southern divis- 
ion of this work, extending from Evansville into the interior, 
were also contracted for; and on the line of the Cross-Cut canal, 
from Terre Haute to the intersection of the Central canal, near 
the mouth of Eel river, a commencement was also made on all the 
heavy sections. All this in 1836. 

Early in this year a party of engineers was organized, and 
directed to examine into the practicability of the Michigan & 
Erie canal line, then proposed. The report of their operations 
favored its expediency. A party of engineers was also fitted out, 
who entered upon the field of service of the Madison & Lafayette 
railroad, and contracts were let for its construction from Madison 
to Vernon, on which work was vigorously commenced. Also, con- 
tracts were let for grading and bridging the New Albany & Vin- 
cennes road from the former point to Paoli, about 40 miles. 
Other roads were also undertaken and surveyed, so that indeed a 
stupendous system of internal improvement was undertaken, and 
as Gov. Noble truly remarked, upon the issue of that vast enter- 
prise the State of Indiana staked her fortune. She had gone too 
far to retreat. 

In 1837, when Gov. Wallace took the Executive chair, the 
reaction consequent upon ''over work" by the State in the internal 
improvement scheme began to be felt by the people. They feared 
a State debt was being incurred from which they could never be 
extricated; but the Governor did all he could throughout the terra 
of his administration to keep up the courage of the citizens. He 



■: — >- 




told them that the astonishing success so far, surpassed even the 
hopes of the most sanguine, and that the flattering auspices of the 
future were sufiicient to dispel every doubt and quiet every fear. 
Notwithstanding all his efforts, however, the construction of pub- 
lic works continued to decline, and inhislast message he excJaimed: 
" Never before — I speak it advisedly — never before have you wit- 
nessed a period in our local history that more urgently called for 
the exercise of all the soundest and best attributes of grave and 
patriotic legislators than the present. * * ■» ^\yQ 

truth is — and it would be folly to conceal it — we have our hands 
full — full to overflowing; and therefore, to sustain ourselves, to 
preserve the credit and character of the State unimpaired, and to 
continue her hitherto unexampled march to wealth and distinction, 
we have not an hour of time, nor a dollar of money, nor a hand 
employed in labor, to squander and dissipate upon mere objects of 
idleness, or taste, or amusement." 

The State had borrowed $3,827,000 for internal improvement pur- 
poses, of which $1,327,000 was for the Wabash & Erie canal and 
the remainder for other works. The five per cent, interest on 
debts — about $200,000 — wiiich the State had to pay, had become 
burdensome, as her resources for this purpose were only two, 
besides direct taxation, and they were small, namely, the interest 
on the balances due for canal lands, and the proceeds of the third 
installment of the surplus revenue, both amounting, in 1838, 
to about $45,000. 

In August, 1839, all work ceased on these improvements, with 
one or two exceptions, and most of the contracts were surrendered 
to the State. This was done according to an act of the Legislature 
providing for the compensation of contractors by the issue of 
treasury notes. In addition to this state of affairs, the Legisla- 
ture of 1839 had made no provision for the payment of interest on 
the State debt incurred for internal improvements. Concerning 
this situation Gov. Bigger, in 1840, said that either to go ahead 
with the works or to abandon them altogether would be equally 
ruinous to the State, the implication being that the people should 
wait a little while for a breathing spell and then take hold again. 

Of course much individual indebtedness was created during the 
progress of the work on internal improvement. When operations 
ceased in 1839, and prices fell at the same time, the people were 
left in a great measure without the means of commanding money 
to pay their debts. This condition of private enterprise more than 






ever rendered direct taxation inexpedient. Hence it became the 
policy of Gov. Bigger to provide the means of paying the interest 
on the State debt without increasing the rate of taxation, and to 
continue that portion of the public works that could be immedi- 
ately completed, and from which the earliest returns could be 

In 1840 the system embraced ten different works, the most im- 
portant of which was the Wabash & Erie canal. The aggregate 
length of the lines embraced in the system was 1,160 miles, and 
of this only 140 miles had been completed. The amount expended 
had reached the sum of $5,600,000, and it required at least $14,000,- 
000 to complete them. Although the crops of 1841 were very 
remunerative, this perquisite alone was not sufficient to raise the 
State again up to the level of going ahead with her gigantic 

We should here state in detail the amount of work completed and 
of money expended on the various works up to this time, 1841, 
which were as follows : 

1. The Wabash & Erie canal, from the State line to Tippe- 
canoe, 129 miles in length, completed and navigable for the whole 
length, at a cost of $2,041,012. This sum includes the cost of the 
steamboat lock afterward completed at Delphi. 

2. The extension of the Wabash & Erie canal from the mouth 
of the Tippecanoe to Terre Haute, over 104 miles. The estimated 
cost of this work was $1,500,000; and the amount expended for the 
same $408,855. The navigation was at this period opened as far 
down as Lafayette, and a part of the work done in the neighbor- 
hood of Covington. 

3. The cross-cut canal from Terre Haute to Central canal, 
49 miles in length; estimated cost, $718,672; amount expended, 
$420,679; and at this time no part of the course was navigable. 

4. The White Water canal, from Lawrenceburg to the mouth 
of Nettle creek, 76^ miles; estimated cost, $1,675,738; amount 
expended to that date, $1,099,867; and 31 miles of the work 
was navigable, extending from the Ohio river to Brookville. 

5. The Central canal, from the Wabash & Erie canal, to 
Indianapolis, including the feeder bend at Muncietown, 124 miles 
in length; total estimated cost, $2,299,853; amount expended, 
$568,046; eight miles completed at that date, and other portions 
nearly done. 






6. Central canal, from Indianapolis to Evansville on the Ohio 
river, 194 miles in length; total estimated cost, $3,532,394; amount 
expended, $831,302, 19 miles of which was completed at that date, 
at the southern end, and 16 miles, extending south from Indianau- 
olis, were nearly completed. 

7. Erie & Michigan canal, 182 miles in length; estimated cost, 
$2,624,823; amount expended, $156,394. No part of this work 

8. The Madison & Indianapolis railroad, over 85 miles in 
length; total estimated cost, $2,046,600; amount expended, $1,493,- 
013. Hoad finished and in operation for about 28 miles; grad- 
ing nearly finished for 27 miles in addition, extending to Eden- 

9. Indianapolis & Lafayette turnpike road, 73 miles in length; 
total estimated cost, $593, 737; amount expended, $72,118. The 
bridging and most of the grading was done on 27 miles, from 
Crawfordsville to Lafayette. 

10. New Albany & Vincennes turnpike road, 105 miles in 
length; estimated cost, $1,127,295; amount expended, $654,411. 
Eorty-one miles graded and macadamized, extending from New 
Albany to Paoli, and 27 miles in addition partly graded. 

11. Jeffersonville & Crawfordsville road, over 164 miles long; 
total estimated cost, $1,651,800; amount expended, $372,737. 
Forty-five miles were partly graded and bridged, extending from 
Jefi*ersonville to Salem, and from Greencastle north. 

12. Improvement of the Wabash rapids, undertaken jointly by 
Indiana and Illinois; estimated cost to Indiana, $102,500; amount 
expended by Indiana, $9,539. 

Grand totals: Length of roads and canals, 1,289 miles, only 
281 of which have been finished; estimated cost of all the works, 
$19,914,424; amount expended, $8,164,528. The State debt at 
this time amounted to $18,469,146. The two principal causes 
which aggravated the embarrassment of the State at this juncture 
were, first, paying most of the interest out of the money borrowed, 
and, secondly, selling bonds on credit. The first error subjected 
the State to the payment of compound interest, and the people, 
not feeling the pressure of taxes to discharge the interest, natu- 
rally became inattentive to the public policy pursued. Postpone- 
ment of the payment of interest is demoralizing in every way. 
During this period the State was held up in an unpleasant manner 
before the gaze of the world; but be it to the credit of this great 



5 \ 




aud glorious State, she would not repudiate, as many other States 
and municipalities have done. 

By the year 1850, the so-called "internal improvement" system 
having been abandoned, private capital and ambition pushed for- 
ward various "public works." During this year about 400 miles 
of plank road were completed, at a cost of $1,200 to $1,500 per 
mile, and about 1,200 miles more were surveyed and in progress. 
There were in the State at this time 212 miles of railroad in suc- 
cessful operation, of which 124 were completed this year. More 
than 1,000 miles of railroad were surveyed and in progress. 

An attempt was made during the session of the Legislature in 
1869 to re-burden the State with the old canal debt, and the matter 
was considerably agitated in the canvass of 1870. The subject of the 
Wabash & Erie canal was lightly touched in the Republican plat- 
form, occasioning considerable discussion, which probably had 
some effect on the election in the fall. That election resulted in 
an average majority in the State of about 2,864 for the Democracy. 
It being claimed that the Legislature had no authority under the 
constitution to tax the people for the purpose of aiding in the con- 
struction of railroads, the Supreme Court, in Aoril, 1871, decided 
adversely to such a claim. 


In 1869 the development of mineral resources in the State 
attracted considerable attention. Rich mines of iron and coal were 
discovered, as also fine quarries of building stone. The Yincennes 
railroad passed through some of the richest portions of the mineral 
region, the engineers of which had accurately determined the 
quality of richness of the ores. Near Brooklyn, about 20 miles 
from Indianapolis, is a fine formation of sandstone, yielding good 
material for buildings in the city; indeed, it is considered the best 
building stone in the State. The limestone formation at Gosport, 
continuing 12 miles from that point, is of great variety, and 
includes the finest and most durable building stone in the world. 
Portions of it are susceptible only to the chisel; other portions are 
soft and can be worked with the ordinary tools. At the end of this 
limestone formation there commences a sandstone series of strata 
which extends seven miles farther, to a point about 60 miles from 
Indianapolis. Here an extensive coal bed is reached consisting of 
seven distinct veins. The first is about two feet thick, the next 
three feet, another four feet, and the others of various thicknesses. 


\ *^ ■ .— ? J- 


These beds are all easily worked, having a natural drain, and they 
yield heavy profits. In the whole of the southwestern part of the 
State and for 300 miles up the Wabash, coal exists in good quality 
and abundance. 

The scholars, statesmen and philanthropists of Indiana work- 
ed hard and long for the appointment of a State Geologist, with 
sufficient support to enable him to make a thorough geological 
survey of the State. A partial survey was made as early as 1837-'8, 
by David Dale Owen, State Geologist, but nothing more was done 
until 1869, when Prof. Edward T. Cox was appointed State Geolo- 
gist. For 20 years previous to this date the Governors urged and 
insisted in all their messages that a thorough survey should be 
made, but almost, if not quite, in vain. In 1852, Dr. Ryland T. 
Brown delivered an able address on this subject before the Legis- 
lature, showing how much coal, iron, building stone, etc., there 
were probably ; in the State, but the exact localities and qualities 
not ascertained, and how millions of money could be saved to the 
State by the expenditure of a few thousand dollars; but "they 
answered the Doctor in the negative. It must have been because 
they hadn't time to pass the bill. They were very busy. They had 
to pass all sorts of regulations concerning the negro. They had to 
protect a good many white people from marrying negroes. And as 
they didn't need any labor in the State, if it was ' colored,' they 
had to make regulations to shut out all of that kind of labor, and 
to take steps to put out all that unfortunately got in, and they didn't 
have time to consider the scheme proposed by the white people" — 
W. W. Clayton. 

In 1853, the State Board of Agriculture employed Dr. Brown to 
make a partial examination of the geology of the State, at a salary 
of $500 a year, and to this Board the credit is due for the final 
success of the philanthropists, who in 1869 had the pleasure of 
witnessing the passage of a Legislative act " to provide for a Depart- 
ment of Geology and Natural Science, in connection with the State 
Board of Agriculture." Under this act Governor Baker immedi- 
ately appointed Prof. Edward T. Cox the State Geologist, who has 
made an able and exhaustive report of the agricultural, mineral 
and manufacturing resources of this State, world-wide in its celeb- 
rity, and a work of which the people of Indiana may be very 
proud. "We can scarcely give even the substance of his report in a 
work like this, because it is of necessity deeply scientific and made 
up entirely of local detail. 







The coal measures, says Prof. E. T. Cox, cover an area of about 
6,500 square miles, in the southwestern part of the State, and 
extend from Warren county on the north to the Ohio river on the 
south, a distance of about 150 miles. This area comprises the fol- 
lowing counties: Warren, Fountain, Parke, Yertnillion, Vigo, Clay, 
Sullivan, Greene, Knox, Daviess, Martin, Gibson, Pike, Dubois, 
Vanderburg, Warrick, Spencer, Perry and a small part of Crawford, 
Monroe, Putnam and Montgomery. 

This coal is all bituminous, but is divisible into three well-marked 
varieties: caking-coal, non-caking-coal or block coal and cannel 
coal. The total depth of the seams or measures is from 600 to 800 
feet, with 12 to 14 distinct seams of coal; but these are not all to 
be found throughout the area; the seams range from one foot to 
eleven feet in thickness. The caking coal prevails in the western 
portion of the area described, and has from three to four workable 
seams, ranging from three and a half to eleven feet in thickness. 
At most of the places where these are worked the coal is mined by 
adits driven in on the face of the ridges, and the deepest shafts in 
the State are less than 300 feet, tlie average depth for successful 
mining not being over 75 feet. This is a bright, black, sometimes 
glossy, coal, makes good coke and contains a very large percentage 
of pure illuminating gas. One pound will yield about 4|- cubic feet 
of gas, with a power equal to 15 standard sperm candles. The 
average calculated calorific power of the caking coals is 7,745 heat 
units, pure carbon being 8,080. Both in the northern and southern 
portions of the field, the caking coals present similar good qualities, 
and are a great source of private and public wealth. 

The block coal prevails in the eastern part of the field and has an 
area of about 450 square miles. This is excellent, in its raw state, 
for making pig iron. It is indeed peculiarly fitted for metal- 
lurgical purposes. It has a laminated structure with carbonaceous 
matter, like charcoal, between the lamina, with slaty cleavage, and 
it rings under the stroke of the hammer. It is " free-burning," 
makes an open fire, and without caking, swelling, scaffolding in the 
furnace or changing form, burns like hickory wood until it is con- 
sumed to a white ash and leaves no clinkers. It is likewise valuable 
for generating steam and for household uses. Many of the principal 
railway lines in the State are using it in preference to any other 
coal, as it does not burn out the fire-boxes, and gives as little trouble 
as wood. 





There are eight distinct seams of block coal in this zone, three of 
. which are workable, having an average thickness of four feet. In 
some places this coal is mined by adits, but generally from shafts. 
40 to 80 feet deep. The seams are crossed by cleavage lines, and 
the coal is usually mined without powder, and may be taken out in 
blocks weio:hing a ton or more. When entries or rooms are driven 
angling across the cleavage lines, the walls of the mine present a 
zigzag, notched appearance resembling a Virginia worm fence. 

In 1871 there were about 24 block coal mines in operation, and 
about 1,500 tons were mined daily. Since that time this industry 
has vastly increased. This coal consists of 81|- to 83^ percent, of 
carbon, and not quite three fourths of one per cent, of sulphur. 
Calculated calorific power equal to 8,283 heat units. This coal also 
is equally good both in the northern and southern parts of the field. 

The great Indiana coal field is within 150 miles of Chicago or 
Michigan City, by railroad, from which ports the Lake Superior 
specular and red hematite ores are landed from vessels that are able 
to run in a direct course from the ore banks. Considering the 
proximity of the vast quantities of iron in Michigan and Missouri 
one can readily see what a glorious future awaits Indiana in respect 
to manufactories. 

Of the cannel coal, one of the finest seams to be found in the 
country is in Daviess county, this State. Here it is three and a 
half feet thick, underlaid by one and a half feet of a beautiful, jet- 
black caking coal. There is no clay, shale or other foreign matter 
intervening, and fragments of the caking coal are often found 
adhering to the cannel. There is no gradual change from one to 
the other, and the character of each is homogeneous throughout. 

The cannel coal makes a delightful fire in open grates, and does 
not pop and throw oif scales into the room, as is usual with this 
kind of coal. This coal is well adapted to the manufacture of 
illuminating gas, in respect to both quantity and high illuminating 
power. One ton of 2,000 pounds of this coal yields 10,400 feet of 
gas, while the best Pennsylvania coal yields but 8,680 cubic feet. 
This gas has an illuminating power of 25 candles, while the best 
Pennsylvania coal gas has that of only 17 candles. 

Cannel coal is also found in great abundance in Perry, Greene, 
Parke and Fountain counties, where its commercial value has already 
been demonstrated. 

Numerous deposits of bog iron ore are found in the northern part 
of the State, and clay iron-stones and impure carbonates and brown- 



oxides are found scattered in the vicinity of the coal field. In some 
places the beds are quite thick and of considerable commercial 

An abundance of excellent lime is also found in Indiana, espe- 
cially in Huntington county, where many large kilns are kept in 
profitable operation. 


In 1852 the Legislature passed an act authorizing the organization 
of county and district agricultural societies, and also establishing a 
State Board, the provisions of which actare substantially as follows: 

1. Thirty or more persons in any one or two counties organizing 
into a society for the improvement of agriculture, adopting a consti- 
tution and by-laws agreeable to the regulations prescribed by the 
State Board, and appointing the proper officers and raising a sum 
of $50 for its own treasury, shall be entitled to the same amount 
from the fund arising from show licenses in their respective 

2. These societies shall offer annual premiums for improvement 
of soils, tillage, crops, manures, productions, stock, articles of 
domestic industry, and such other articles, productions and improve- 
ments as they may deem proper; they shall encourage, by grant 
of rewards, agricultural and household manufacturing interests, and 
so regulate the premiums that small farmers will have equal 
opportunity with the large; and they shall pay special attention to 
cost and profit of the inventions and improvements, requiring an 
exact, detailed statement of the processes competing for rewards. 

3. They shall publish in a newspaper annually their list of 
awards and an abstract of their treasurers' accounts, and they shall 
report in full to the State Board their proceedings. Failing to do 
the latter they shall receive no payment from their county funds, 


The act of Feb. 17, 1852, also established a State Board of Agri- 
culture, with perpetual succession; its annual meetings to be held 
at Indianapolis on the first Thursday after the first Monday in 
January, when the reports of the county societies are to be received 
and agricultural interests discussed and determined upon; it shall 
make an annual report to the Legislature of receipts, expenses, 
proceedings, etc., of its own meeting as well as of those of the local 



-— ; — — — ■ I » 



societies; it shall hold State fairs, at such times and places as they 
may deem proper; may hold two meetings a year, certifying to the 
State Auditor their expenses, wlio shall draw his warrant upon the 
Treasurer for the, same. 

In 1861 the State Board adopted certain rules, embracing ten 
sections, for the government of local societies, but in 1868 they 
were found inexpedient and abandoned. It adopted a resolution 
admitting delegates from the local societies. 


As the Board found great difficulty in doing justice to exhibitors 
without an adequate building, the members went earnestly to work 
in the fall of 18Y2 to get up an interest in the matter. They 
appointed a committee of five to confer with the Councilor citizens 
of Indianapolis as to the best mode to be devised for a more 
thorough and complete exhibition of the industries of the State. 
The result of the conference was that the time had arrived for a 
regular " exposition," like that of the older States. At the Janu- 
ary meeting in 1873, Hon. Thomas Dowling, of Terre Haute, 
reported for the committee that they found a general interest in 
this enterprise, not only at the capital, but also throughout the 
State. A sub-committee was appointed who devised plans and 
specifications for the necessary structure, taking lessons mainly 
from the Kentucky Exposition building at Louisville. All the 
members of the State Board were in favor of proceeding with the 
building except Mr. Poole, who feared that, as the interest of the 
two enterprises were somewhat conflicting, and the Exposition being 
the more exciting show, it would swallow up the State and county 

The Exposition was opened Sept. 10, 1873, when Hon. John 
Sutherland, President of the Board, the Mayor of Indianapolis, 
Senator Morton and Gov. Hendricks delivered addresses. Senator 
Morton took the high ground that the money spent for an exposi- 
tion is spent as strictly for educational purposes as that which goes 
directly into the common school. The exposition is not a mere 
show, to be idly gazed upon, but an industrial school where one 
should study and learn. He thought that Indiana had less untill- 
able land than any other State in the Union; 'twas as rich as any 
and yielded a greater variety of products; and that Indiana was 
the most prosperous agricultural community in the United States. 





The State had nearly 3,700 miles of railroad, not counting side- 
track, with 400 miles more under contract for building. In 15 
or 18 months one can go from Indianapolis to every county in 
the State by railroad. Indiana has 6,500 square miles of coal field) 
450 of which contain block coal, the best in the United States for 
manufacturing purposes. 

On the subject of cheap transportation, he said: " By the census 
of 1870, Pennsylvania had, of domestic animals of all kinds, 4,006,- 
589, and Indiana, 4,511,094. Pennsylvania had grain to the amount 
of 60,460,000 bushels, while Indiana had 79,350,454. The value of 
the farm products of Pennsylvania was estimated to be $183,946,- 
000; those of Indiana, $122,914,000. Thus you see that while 
Indiana had 505,000 head of live stock more, and 19,000,000 
bushels of grain more than Pennsylvania, yet the products of Penn- 
sylvania are estimated at $183,946,000, on account of her greater 
proximity to market, while those of Indiana are estimated at only 
$122,914,000. Thus you can understand the importance of cheap 
transportation to Indiana. 

" Let us see how the question of transportation affects us on the 
other hand, with reference to the manufacturer of Bessemer steel. 
Of the 174,000 tons of iron ore used in the blast furnaces of Pitts- 
burg last year, 84,000 tons came from Lake Superior, 64,000 tons 
from Iron Mountain, Missouri, 20,000 tons from Lake Champlain, 
and less than 5,000 tons from the home mines of Pennsylvania. 
They cannot manufacture their iron with the coal they have in 
Pennsylvania without coking it. "We have coal in Indiana with 
which we can, in its raw state, make the best of iron; while we are 
250 miles nearer Lake Superior than Pittsburg, and 430 miles 
nearer to Iron Mountain. So that the question of transportation 
determines the fact that Indiana must become the great center for 
the manufacture of Bessemer steel." 

" What we want in this country is diversified labor.'' 

The grand hall of the Exposition buildings is on elevated ground 
at the head of Alabama street, and commands a fine view of the 
city. The structure is of brick, 308 feet long by 150 in width, and 
two stories high. Its elevated galleries extend quite around the 
building, under the roof, thus affording visitors an opportunity to 
secure the most commanding view to be had in the city. The 
lower floor of the grand hall is occupied by the mechanical, geologi- 
cal and miscellaneous departments, and by the offices of the Board, 
which extend along the entire front. The second floor, which is 

\ <5! fc^ _^ 9 J- 



approached by three wide stairways, accommodates the fine art, 
musical and other departments of light mechanics, and is brilliantly 
lighted by windows and skylights. But as we are here entering 
the description of a subject magnificent to behold, we enter a 
description too vast to complete, and we may as well stop here as 

The Presidents of the State Fairs have been: Gov. J. A. Wright, 
1852-'4; Gen. Jos. Orr, 1855; Dr. A. C. Stevenson, 1856-'8; G. D. 
Wagner; 1859-60; D. P. Rolloway, 1861; Jas. D.Williams, 1862, 
1870-'l; A. D. Hamrick, 1863, 1867-'9; Stearns, Fisher, 1864-'6; 
John Sutherland, 1872-'4; Wm. Crim, 1875. Secretaries: John B. 
Dillon, 1852-'3, 1855, 1858-'9; Ignatius Brown, 1856-'7; W.T. Den- 
nis, 1854, 1860-'l; W.H. Loomis, 1862-'6; A. J. Holmes, 1867-'9;. 
Joseph Poole, 1870-'l ; Alex. Heron, 1872-'5. Place of fair, Indian- 
apolis every year except: Lafayette, 1853; Madison, 1854; New 
Albany, 1859,- Fort Wayne, 1865; and Terre Haute, 1867. In 
1861 there was no fair. The gate and entry receipts increased from 
$4,651 in 1852 to $45,330 in 1874. 

On the opening of the Exposition, Oct. 7, 1874, addresses were 
delivered by the President of the Board, Hon. John Sutherland, 
and by Govs. Hendricks, Bigler and Pollock. Yvon's celebrated 
painting, the " Great Republic," was unveiled with great ceremony,, 
and many distinguished guests were present to witness it. 

The exhibition of 1875 showed that the plate glass from the 
southern part of the State was equal to the finest French plate; that 
the force-blowers made in the eastern part of the State was of a 
world-wide reputation; that the State has within its bounds the 
largest wagon manufactory in the world; that in other parts of the 
State there were all sorts and sizes of manufactories, including roll- 
ing mills and blast furnaces, and in the western part coal was mined 
and shipped at the rate of 2,500 tons a day from one vicinity; and 
many other facts, which " would astonish the citizens of Indiana 
themselves even more than the rest of the world." 


This society was organized in 1842, thus taking the lead in the 
West. At this time Henry Ward Beeclier was a resident of Indian- 
apolis, engaged not only as a minister but also as editor of the 
Indiana Farmer and Gardener^ and his influence was very exten- 
sive in the interests of horticulture, floriculture and farming. 
Prominent among his pioneer co-laborers were Judge Coburn^ 


. *K 



Aaron Aldridge, Capt. James Sigarson, D. Y. Culley, Reuben 
Ragan, Stephen Hampton, Cornelius Ratliff, Joshua Lindley, 
Abner Pope and many others. In the autumn of this year the 
society held an exhibition, probably the first in the State, if not 
in the West, in the hall of the new State house. The only pre- 
mium offered was a set of silver teaspoons for the best seedling 
apple, which was won by Reuben Ragan, of Putnam county, for 
an apple christened on this occasion the " Osceola." 

The society gave great encouragement to the introduction of 
new varieties of fruit, especially of the pear, as the soil and cli- 
mate of Indiana were well adapted to this fruit. But the bright 
horizon which seemed to be at this time looming up all around the 
field of the young society's operations was suddenly and thoroughly 
darkened by the swarm of noxious insects, diseases, blasts of win- 
ter and the great distance to market. The prospects of the cause 
scarcely justified a continuation of the expense of assembling from 
remote parts of the State, and the meetings of the society therefore 
soon dwindled away until the organization itself became quite 

But when, in 1852 and afterward, railroads began to traverse the 
State in all directions, the Legislature provided for the organization 
of a State Board of Agriculture, whose scope was not only agri- 
culture but also horticulture and the mechanic and household arts. 
The rapid growth of the State soon necessitated a differentiation of 
this body, and in the autumn of 1860, at Indianapolis, there was 
organized the 


October 18, Reuben Ragan was elected President and Wm H. 
Loomis, of Marion county. Secretary. The constitution adopted 
provided for biennial meetings in January, at Indianapolis. At 
the first regular meeting, Jan. 9, 1861, a committee-man for each 
congressional district was appointed, all of them together to be 
known as the " State Fruit Committee," and twenty-five members 
were enrolled during this session. At the regular meeting in 1863 
the constitution was so amended as to provide for annual sessions, 
and the address of the newly elected President, Hon. I. G. D. Nel- 
son, of Allen county, urged the establishment of an agricultural 
college. He continued in. the good cause until his work was 
crowned with success. 



In 1864 there was but little done on account of the exhaust- 
ive demands of the great war; and the descent of mercury 60° in 
eighteen hours did so much mischief as to increase the discourage- 
ment to the verge of despair. The title of the society was at this 
meeting, Jan., 1864 changed to that of the Indiana Horticultural 

The first several meetings of the society were mostly devoted to 
revision of fruit lists; and although the good work, from its vast- 
ness and complication, became somewhat monotonous, it has been 
no exception in this respect to the law that all the greatest and 
most productive labors of mankind require perseverance and toil. 

In 1866, George M. Beeler, who had so indefatigably served as 
secretary for several years, saw himself hastening to his grave and 
showed his love for the cause of fruit culture by bequeathing to 
the society the sum of $1,000. This year also the State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction was induced to take a copy of the 
Society's transactions for each of the township libraries in the State, 
and this enabled the Society to bind its volume of proceedings in 
a substantial manner. 

At the meeting in 1867 many valuable and interesting papers 
were presented, the office of corresponding secretary was created, 
and the subject of Legislative aid was discussed. The State Board 
of Agriculture placed the management of the horticultural depart- 
ment of the State fair in the care of the Society. 

The report for 1868 shows for the first time a balance on hand, 
after paying expenses, the balance being $61.55. Up to this time 
the Society had to take care of itself, — meeting current expenses, do- 
ing its own printing and binding, "boarding and clothing itself," 
and diflusing annually an amount of knowledge utterly incalcu- 
lable. During the year called meetings were held at Salem, in the 
peach and grape season, and evenings during the State fair, which 
was held in Terre Haute the previous fall. The State now assumed 
the cost of printing and binding, but the volume of transactions 
was not quite so valuable as that of the former year. 

In 1870 $160 was given to this Society by the State Board of 
Agriculture, to be distributed as prizes for essays, which object 
was faithfully carried out. The practice has since then been con- 

In 1871 the Horticultural Societv brouo^ht out the best volume 
of papers and proceedings it ever has had published. 




In 1872 the oflSce of corresponding secretary was discontinued ; 
the appropriation by the State Board of Agriculture diverted to 
the payment of premiums on small fruits given at a show held the 
previous summer; results of the exhibition not entirely satisfac- 

In 1873 the State officials refused to publish the discussions of 
the members of the Horticultural Society, and the Legislature 
appropriated $500 for the purpose for each of the ensuing two 

In 1876 the Legislature enacted a law requiring that one of the 
trustees of Purdue University shall be selected by the Horticultu- 
ral Society. 

The aggregate annual membership of this society from its organ- 
ization in 1860 to 1875 was 1,225. 



The subject of education has been referred to in almost every 
gubernatorial message from the organization of the Territory to 
the present time. It is indeed the most favorite enterprise of the 
Hoosier State. In the first survey of Western lands, Congress set 
apart a section of land in every township, generally the 16th, for 
school purposes, the disposition of the land to be in hands of the 
residents of the respective townships. Besides this, to this State 
were given two entire townships for the use of a State Seminary, 
to be under the control of the Legislature. Also, the State con- 
stitution provides that all fines for the breach of law and all com- 
mutations for militia service be appropriated to the use of county 
seminaries. In 1825 the common-school lands amounted to 
680,207 acres, estimated at $2 an acre, and valued therefore at 

[,216,044. At this time the seminary at Bloomington, supported 
in part hy one of these township grants, was very fiourishing. The 
common schools, however, were in rather a poor condition. 


In 1852 the free-school system was fully established, which has 
resulted in placing Indiana in the lead of this great nation. Al- 
though this is a pleasant subject, it is a very large one to treat in 
a condensed notice, as this has to be. 

The free-school system of Indiana first became practically oper- 
ative the first Monday of April, 1853, when the township trustees 




for school purposes were elected through the State. The law com- 
mitted to them the charge of all the educational affairs in their 
respective townships. As it was feared by the opponents of the 
law that it would not be possible to select men in all the town- 
ships capable of executing the school laws satisfactorily, the 
people were thereby awakened to the necessity of electing their 
very best men ; and although, of course, many blunders have been 
made by trustees, the operation of the law has tended to elevate the 
adult population as well as the youth; and Indiana still adheres to 
the policy of appointing its best men to educational positions. 
The result is a grand surprise to all old fogies, who indeed scarcely 
dare to appear such any longer. 

To instruct the people in the new law and set the educational 
machinery going, a pamphlet of over 60 pages, embracing the law, 
with notes and explanations, was issued from the office of a super- 
intendent of public instruction, and distributed freely throughout 
the State. The first duty of the Board of Trustees was to establish 
and conveniently locate a sufficient number of schools for the edu- 
cation of all the children of their township. But where were the 
school -houses, and what were they? Previously they had been 
erected by single districts, but under this law districts were abol- 
ished, their lines obliterated, and houses previously built by dis- 
tricts became the property of the township, and all the houses were 
to be built at the expense of the township by an appropriation of 
township funds by the trustees. In some townships there was not 
a single school-house of any kind, and in others there were a few 
old, leaky, dilapidated log cabins, wholly unfit for use even in sum- 
mer, and in " winter worse than nothing." Before the people could 
be tolerably accommodated with schools at least 3,500 school-houses 
had to be erected in the State. 

By a general law, enacted in conformity to the constitution of 
1852, each township was made a municipal corporation, and every 
Toter in the township a member of the corporation ; the Board of 
Trustees constituted the township legislature as well as the execu- 
tive body, the whole body of voters, however, exercising direct con- 
trol through frequent meetings called by the trustees. Special 
taxes and every other matter of importance were directly voted 


Some tax-payers, who were opposed to special townships' taxes, 
retarded the progress of schools by refusing to pay their assess- 
ment. Contracts for building school-houses were given up, houses 



half finished were abandoned, and in many townships all school 
operations were suspended. In some of them, indeed, a rumor was 
circulated bj the enemies of the law that the entire school law from 
beginning to end had been declared by the Supreme Court uncon- 
stitutional and void; and the Trustees, believing this, actually dis- 
missed their schools and considered themselves out of office. Hon. 
"W. C. Larrabee, the (first) Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
corrected this error as soon as possible. 

But while the voting of special taxes was doubted on a constitu- 
tional point, it became evident that it was weak in a practical point; 
for in many townships the opponents of the system voted down every 
proposition for the erection of school-houses. 

Another serious obstacle was the great deficiency in the number 
of qualified teachers. To meet the newly created want, the law 
authorized the appointment of deputies in each county to examine 
and license persons to teach, leaving it in their judgment to lower 
the standard of qualification sufficiently to enable them to license 
as many as were needed to supply all the schools. It was therefore 
found necessary to employ many "unqualified " teachers, especially 
in the remote rural districts. But the progress of the times 
enabled the Legislature of 1853 to erect a standard of qualifica- 
tion and give to the county commissioners the authority to license 
teachers; and in order to supply every school with a teacher, while 
there might not be a suflficient number of properly qualified teach- 
ers, the commissioners were authorized to grant temporary licenses 
to take charge of particular schools not needing a high grade of 

In 1854 the available common-school fund consisted of the con- 
gressional township fund, the surplus revenue fund, the saline 
fund, the bank tax fund and miscellaneous fund, amounting in all 
to $2,460,G00. This amount, from many sources, was subsequently 
increased to a very great extent. The common-school fund was 
intrusted to the several counties of the State, which were held 
responsible for the preservation thereof and for the payment of the 
annual interest thereon. The fund was managed bv the auditors 
and treasurers of the several counties, for which these officers were 
allowed one-tenth of the income. It was loaned out to the citizens 
■of the county in sums not exceeding $300, on real estate securitj'^. 
The common-school fund was thus consolidated and the proceeds 
equally distributed each year to all the townships, cities and towns 

< <5 »- ^'•^ a »v 




of the State, in proportion to the number of children. This phase 
of the law met with considerable opposition in 1854. 

The provisions of the law for the establishment of township 
libraries was promptly carried into effect, and much time, labor 
and thought were devoted to the selection of books, special atten- 
tion being paid to historical works. 

The greatest need in 1854 was for qualified teachers; but never- 
theless the progress of public education during this and following 
years was very great. School-houses were erected, many of theni 
being fine structures, well furnished, and the libraries were consid- 
erably enlarged. 

The city school system of Indiana received a heavy set-back in 
1858, by a decision of the Supreme Court of the State, that the 
law authorizing cities and townships to levy a tax additional to the 
State tax was not in conformity with that clause in the Constitu- 
tion which required uniformity in taxation. The schools were 
stopped for want of adequate funds. For a few weeks in each year 
thereafter the feeble " uniform " supply from the State fund en- 
abled the people to open the schools, but considering the returns 
the public realizes for so small an outlay in educational matters, 
this proved more expensive than ever. Private schools increased, 
but the attendance was small. Thus the interests of popular edu- 
cation languished for years. But since the revival of the free 
schools, the State fund has grown to vast proportions, and the 
schools of this intelligent and enterprising commonwealth compare 
favorably with those of any other portion of the United States. 

There is no occasion to present all the statistics of school prog- 
ress in this State from the first to the present time, but some 
interest will be taken in the latest statistics, which we take from the 
9th Biennial Report (for ]877-'8) by the State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, Hon. James H. Smart. This report, by the 
way, is a volume of 480 octavo pages, and is free to all who desire 
a copy. 

The rapid, substantia] and permanent increase which Indiana 
enjoys in her school interests is thus set forth in the above report. 


of School No of 

Year. In Days. Teachers. 

1855 61 4,016 

1860 65 7,649 

1865 66 9,493 

1870 97 11,826 

1875 130 13,133 

1878 139 13,676 




Am't Paid 

at School. 





$ 239.924 




















The increase of school population during the past ten years baa 
been as follows: 

Total in 1868, 592,865. 

Increase for year ending Increase for year ending 
Qp^t 1 18fiQ 17,699 May 1,1874 13,922 

^'?S'i8?o :::;::■.::: 9063 -1,1875 13.373 

a 1 1Q71 .. . 3,101 " 1,1876 11,494 

" }'i872""":.';:::.":'..:... 8;8ii -1,1877 15,476 

May i;i873'(8 months) 8,903 " 1,1878 ^,447 

Total, 1878 699,153 


Twenty- nine per cent, of the above are in the 49 cities and 212 
incorporated towns, and 71 per cent, in the 1,011 townships. 

The number of white males enrolled in the schools in 1878 was 
267,315, and of white females, 237,739; total, 505,054; of colored 
males, 3,794; females, 3,687; total, 7,481; grand total, 512,535. 

The average number enrolled in each district varies from 51 to 56, 
and the average daily attendance from 32 to 35; but many children 
reported as absent attend parochial or private schools. Seventy- 
three per cent, of the white children and 63 per cent, of the colored, 
in the State, are enrolled in the schools. 

The number of days taught vary materially in the different town- 
ships, and on this point State Superintendent Smart iterates: " As 
lono- as the schools of some of our townships are kept open but 60 
da>^s and others 220 days, we do not have a uniform system,— such 
as was contemplated by the constitution. The school law requires 
the trustee of a township to maintain each of the schools m his 
corporation an equal length of time. This provision cannot be so 
easily applied to the various counties of the State, for the reason 
that there is a variation in the density of the population, m the 
wealth of the people, and the amount of the township funds, i 
think, however, there is scarcely a township trustee in the State 
who cannot, under the present law, if he chooses to do so, bring his 
schools up to an average of six months. I think it would be wise 
to require each township trustee to levy a sufhcient local tax to 
maintain the schools at least six months of the year, provided this 
can be done without increasing the local tax beyond the amount 
now permitted by law. This would tend to bring the poorer schools 
np to the standard of the best, and would thus unify the system, 
and make it indeed a common-school system." 




The State, however, averages six and a half months school per 
year to each district. 

The number of school districts in the State in 1878 was 9,380, in 
all but Si of which school was taught during that year. There are 
396 district and 151 township graded schools. Number of white 
male teachers, 7,977, and of female, 5,699; colored, male, 62, and 
female, 43; grand total, 13,781. For the ten years ending with 
1878 there was an increase of 409 male teachers and 811 female 
teachers. All these teachers, except about 200, attend normal 
institutes, — a showing which probably surpasses that of any other 
State in this respect. 

The average daily compensation of teachers throughout the 
State in 1878 was as follows: In townships, males, $1.90; females, 
$1.70; in towns, males, $3.09; females, $1.81; in cities, males, 
$4.06; females, $2.29. 

In 1878 there were 89 stone school -houses, 1,724 brick, 7,608 
frame, and 124 log; total, 9,545, valued at $11,536,647.39. 

And lastly, and best of all, we are happy to state that Indiana has 
a larger school fund than any other State in the Union. In 1872, 
according to the statistics before us, it was larger than that of any 
other State by $2,000,000 ! the figures being as follows : 

Indiana $8,437,593.47 Michigan $2,500,214.91 

Oliio 6,614,816.50 Missouri 2,525,252.52 

Illinois 6,348,538.33 Minnesota 2,471,199.31 

New York 2,880,017.01 Wisconsin 2,237,414.37 

Connecticut 2,809,770.70 Massachusetts 2,210,864.09 

Iowa 4,274.581.93 Arkansas 2,000,000.00 

Nearly all the rest of the States have less than a million dollars 
in their school fund. 

In 1872 the common-school fund of Indiana consisted of the 

Non-negotiable bonds $3,591,316.15 Escheated estates 17.866.55 

Common-school fund, 1,666,^24.50 Sinking fund, last distrib- 

Sinking fund, at 8 per cent 569,139.94 ution 67,068.72 

Congressional township Sinking fund undistrib- 

fund 2,281,076.69 uted 100,165.92 

Value of unsold Congres- Swamp land fund 42,418.40 

sional township lands.. 94,245.00 

Saline fund 5,727.66 $8,437,593 47 

Bank tax fund 1,744.94 

In 1S78 the grand total was $8,974,455.55. 

The origin of the respective school funds of Indiana is as follows: 

1. The " Congressional township " fund is derived from the 

proceeds of the 16th sections of the townships. Almost all of these 

a ' — — — _ ! to 


J \^ 



have been sold and the money put out at interest. The amount of 
this fund in 1877 was $2,452,936.82. 

2. The "saline" fund consists of the proceeds of the sale of 
salt springs, and the land adjoining necessary for working them to 
the amount of 36 entire sections, authorized by the original act of 
Congi;ess. By authority of the same act the Legislature has made 
these proceeds a part of the permanent school fund. 

3. The " surplus revenue '° fund. Under the administration of 
President Jackson, the national debt, contracted by the Revolutionary 
war and the purchase of Louisiana, was entirely discharged, and a 
large surplus remained in the treasury. In June, 1836, Congress 
distributed this money amcng the States in the ratio of their repre- 
sentation in Congress, subject to recall, and Indiana's share was 
$860,254. The Legislature subsequently set apart $573,502.96 of 
this amount to be a part of the school fund. It is not probable that 
the general Government will ever recall this money. 

4. " Bank tax " fund. The Legislature of 1834 chartered a State 
Bank, of which a part of the stock was owned by the State and a 
part by individuals. Section 15 of the charter required an annual 
deduction from the dividends, equal to 12|^ cents on each share not 
held by the State, to be set apart for common-school education. 
This tax finally amounted to $80,000, which now bears interest in 
favor of education. 

5. " Sinking " fund. In order to set the State bank under 
good headway, the State at first borrowed $1,300,000, and out of 
the unapplied balances a fund was created, increased by unapplied 
balances also of the principal, interest and dividends of the amount 
lent to the individual holders of stock, for the purpose of sinking 
the debt of the bank; hence the name sinking fund. The 114th 
section of the charter provided that after the full payment of the 
bank's indebtedness, principal, interest and incidental expenses, the 
residue of said fund should be a permanent fund, appropriated to 
the cause of education. As the charter extended through a period 
of 25 years, this fund ultimately reached the handsome amount of 

The foregoing are all interest-bearing funds; the following are 
additional school funds, but not productive: 

6. " Seminary " fund. By order of the Legislature in 1852, all 
county seminaries were sold, and the net proceeds placed in the 
common-school fund. 



7. All fines for the violation of the penal laws of the State are 
placed to the credit of the common-school fund 

8. All recognizances of witnesses and parties indicted for crime, 
when forfeited, are collectible bj law and made a part of the 
school fund. These are reported to the office of the State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction annually. For the five years ending 
with 1872, they averaged about $34,000 a year. 

9. Escheats. These amount to $17,865.55, which was still in 
the State treasury in 1872 and unapplied. 

10. The "swamp-land" fund arises from the sale of certain 
Congressional land grants, not devoted to any particular purpose 
by the terms of the grant. In 1872 there was $42,418.40 of this 
money, subject to call by the school interests. 

11. Taxes on corporations are to some extent devoted by the 
Constitution to school purposes, but the clause on this subject is 
somewhat obscure, and no funds as yet have been realized from this 
source. It is supposed that several large sums of money are due 
the common-school fund from the corporations. 

Constitutionally, any of the above funds may be increased, but 
never diminished. 


So early as 1802 the U. S. Congress granted lands and a charter 
to the people of that portion of the Northwestern Territory resid- 
ing at Vincennes, for the erection and maintenance of a seminary 
of learning in that early settled district; and five years afterward 
an act incorporating the Vincennes CTniversity asked the Legisla- 
ture to appoint a Board of Trustees for the institution and order the 
sale of a single township in Gibson county, granted by Congress in 
1802, so that the proceeds might be at once devoted to the objects 
of education. On this Board the following gentlemen were ap- 
pointed to act in the interests of the institution: William H. Har- 
rison, John Gibson, Thomas H. Davis, Henry Vanderburgh, Wal- 
ler Taylor, Benjamin Parke, Peter Jones, James Johnson, John 
Eice Jones, George Wallace, William Bullitt, Elias McNamee, 
John Badolett, Henry Hurst, Gen. W. Johnston, Francis Vigo, 
Jacob Kuykendall, Samuel McKee, Nathaniel Ewing, George 
Leech, Luke Decker, Samuel Gwathraey and John Johnson. 

The sale of this land was slow and the proceeds small. The 
members of the Board, too, were apathetic, and failing to meet, the 
institution fell out of existence and out of memory. 






In 1816 Congress granted another township in Monroe county, 
located within its present limits, and the foundation of a university 
was laid. Four years later, and after Indiana was erected into a 
State, an act of the local Legislature appointing another Board of 
Trustees and authorizing them to select a location for a university 
and to enter into contracts for its construction, was passed. The 
new Board met at Bloomington and selected a site at that place for 
the location of the present building, entered into a contract for the 
erection of the same in 1822, and in 1825 had the satisfaction of being 
present at the inauguration of the university. The first session was 
commenced under the Kev. Baynard R. Hall, with 20 students, and 
when the learned professor could only boast of a salary of $150 a 
year; yet, on this very limited sum the gentleman worked with 
energy and soon brought the enterprise through all its elementary 
stages to the position of an academic institution. Dividing the 
year into two sessions of five months each, the Board acting under 
his advice, changed the name to the " Indiana Academy," under 
which title it was duly chartered. In 1827 Prof. John H. Harney 
was raised to the chairs of mathematics, natural philosophy and 
astronomy, at a salary of $300 a year; and the salary of Mr. Hall 
raised to $400 a year. In 1828 the name was again changed by the 
Legislature to the " Indiana College," and the following professors 
appointed over the difi'erent departments; Rev. Andrew Wylie, 
D. D., Prof, of mental and moral philosophy and belles lettres; 
John H. Harney, Prof, of mathematics and natural philosophy ; and 
Rev. Bayard R. Hall, Prof, of ancient languages. This year, also, 
dispositions were made for the sale of Gibson county lands and for 
the erection of a new college building. This action was opposed 
by some legal difficulties, which after a time were overcome, and 
the new college building was put under construction, and continued 
to prosper until 1854, when it was destroyed by fire, and 9,000 
volumes, with all the apparatus, were consumed The curriculum 
was then carried out in a temporary building, while a new struct- 
ure was going up. 

In 1873 the new college, with its additions, was completed, and 
the routine of studies continued. A museum of natural history, 
a laboratory and the Owen cabinet added, and the standard of the 
studies and morale generally increased in excellence and in strict- 

Bloomington is a fine, healthful locality, on the Louisville, New 
Albany & Chicago railway. The University buildings are in the 







collegiate Gothic style, simply and truly carried out. The building, 
frontins: Colleo-e avenue is 145 feet in front. It consists of a 
central building 60 feet by 53, with wings each 38 feet by 26, and 
the whole, three stories high. The new building, fronting the 
west, is 130 feet by 50. Buildings lighted by gas. 

The faculty numbers thirteen. Number of students in the col- 
legiate department in 1879-'80, J83; in preparatory, 169; total, 
349, allowing for three counted twice. 

The university may now be considered on a fixed founaation, car- 
rying out the intention of the President, who aimed at scholarship 
rather than numbers, and demands the attention of eleven pro- 
fessors, together with the State Geologist, who is ex-officio member 
of the faculty, and required to lecture at intervals and look after 
the geological and mineralogical interests of the institution. The 
faculty of medicine is represented by eleven leading physicians 
of the neighborhood. The faculty of law requires two resident 
professors, and the other chairs remarkably well represented. 

The university received from the State annually about $15,000, 
and promises with the aid of other public grants and private dona- 
tions to vie with any other State university within the Republic. 


This is a " college for the benefit of agricultural and the mechanic 
arts," as provided for by act of Congress, July 2, 1862, donating 
lands for this purpose to the extent of 30,000 acres of the public 
domain to each Senator and Representative in the Federal assem- 
bly. Indiana having in Congress at that time thirteen members, 
became entitled to 390,000 acres; but as there was no Congress 
land in the State at this time, scrip had to be taken, and it was 
upon the following condition (we quote the act): 

" Section 4, That all moneys derived from the sale of land 
scrip shall be invested in the stocks of the United States, or of 
some other safe stocks, yielding no less than five per centum upon 
the par value of said stocks; and that the moneys so invested shall 
constitute a perpetual fund, the capital of which shall remain undi- 
minished, except so far as may be provided in section 5 of this act, 
and the interest of which shall be inviolably appropriated by each 
State, which may take and claim the benefit of this act, to the 
endowment, support and maintenance of at least one college, where 
the leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and 




classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such 
branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic 
arts, in such a manner as the Legislatures of the States may re- 
spectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical 
education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and pro- 
fessions of life. 

" Sec. 5. That the grant of land and land scrip hereby author- 
ized shall be made on the following conditions, to which, as well as 
the provision hereinbefore contained, the previous assent of the 
several States shall be signified by Legislative act: 

"■ First. If any portion of the funds invested as provided by the 
foregoing section, or any portion of the interest thereon, shall by 
any action or contingency be diminished or lost, it shall be replaced 
by the State to which it belongs, so that the capital of the fund 
shall remain forever undiminished, and the annual interest shall be 
regularly applied, without diminution, to the purposes mentioned 
in the fourth section of this act, except that a sum not exceeding ten 
per centum upon the amount received by any State under the pro- 
visions of this act may be expended for the purchase of lands for 
sites or experimental farms, whenever authorized by the respective 
Legislatures of said States. 

" Second. No portion of said fund, nor interest thereon, shall 
be applied, directly or indirectly, under any pretence whatever, to 
the purchase, erection, preservation or repair of any building or 

" Third. Any State which may take and claim the benefit of 
the provisions of this act, shall provide, within five years at least, 
not less than one college, as provided in the fourth section of this 
act, or the grant to such State shall cease and said State be bound 
to pay the United States the amount received of any lands pre- 
viously sold, and that the title to purchase under the States shall 
be valid. 

" Fourth. An annual report shall be made regarding the prog- 
ress of each college, recording any improvements and experiments 
made, with their cost and result, and such other matter, including 
State industrial and economical statistics, as may be supposed use- 
ful, one copy of which shall be transmitted by mail free, by each, 
to all other colleges which may be endowed under the provisions 
of this act, and also one copy to the Secretary of the Interior. 

"Fifth. When lands shall be selected from those which have 
been raised to double the minimum price in consequence of railroad 





grants, that they shall be computed to the States at the maximum 
price, and the number of acres proportionately diminished. 

"Sixth. No State, while in a condition of rebellion or insur- 
rection against the Government of the United States, shall be 
entitled to the benefits of this act. 

"Seventh. No State shall be entitled to the benefits of this act 
unless it shall express its acceptance thereof by its Legislature 
within two years from the date of its approval by the President." 

The foregoing act was approved by the President, July 2, 1862. 
It seemed that this law, amid the din of arms with the great Rebel- 
lion, was about to pass altogether unnoticed by the next General 
Assembly, January, 1863, had not Gov. Morton's attention been 
called to it by a delegation of citizens from Tippecanoe county, who 
visited him in the interest of Battle Ground. He thereupon sent 
a special message to the Legislature, upon the subject, and then 
public attention was excited to it everywhere, and several localities 
competed for the institution; indeed, the rivalry was so great that 
this session failed to act in the matter at all, and would have failed 
to accept of the grant within the two years prescribed in the last 
clause quoted above, had not Congress, by a supplementary act, 
extended the time two years longer. 

March 6, 1865, the Legislature accepted the conditions ot the 
national gift, and organized the Board of " Trustees of the Indiana 
Agricultural College." This Board, by authority, sold the scrip 
April 9, 186Y, for $212,238.50, which sum, by compounding, has 
increased to nearly $400,000, and is invested in IT. S. bonds. Not 
until the special session of May, 1869, was the locality for this col- 
lege selected, when John Purdue, of Lafayette, ofiered $150,000 
and Tippecanoe county $50,000 more, and the title of the institution 
changed to " Purdue University." Donations were also made by 
the Battle Ground Institute and the Battle Ground Institute of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

The building was located on a 100-acre tract near Chauncey, 
which Purdue gave in addition to his magnificent donation, and to 
which 86^ acres more have since been added on the north. The 
boarding-house, dormitory, the laboratory, boiler and gas house, 
a frame armory and gymnasium, stable with shed and work-shop 
are all to the north of the gravel road, and form a group of build- 
ings within a circle of 600 feet. The boiler and gas house occupy 
a rather central position, and supply steam and gas to the boarding- 
house, dormitory and laboratory. A description of these buildings 



\\ 9 >.- 

G\ I ' 1'^ 


may be apropos. The boarding-house is a brick structure, in the 
modern Italian style, planked by a turret at each of the front angles 
and measuring 120 feet front by 68 feet deep. The dormitory is a 
quadrangular edifice, in the plain Elizabethan style, four stories 
high, arranged to accommodate 125 students. Like the other build- 
ings, it is heated by steam and lighted by gas. Bathing accommo- 
dations are in each end of all the stories. The laboratory is almost 
a duplicate of a similar department in Brown University, R. I. It 
is a much smaller building than the boarding-house, but yet suffi- 
ciently large to meet the requirements. A collection of minerals, 
fossils and antiquities, purchased from Mr. Richard Owen, former 
President of the institution, occupies the temporary cabinet or 
museum, pending the construction of a new building. The military 
hall and gymnasium is 100 feet frontage by 50 feet deep, and only 
one story high. The uses to which this hall is devoted are exer- 
cises in physical and military drill. The boiler and gas house is an 
establishment replete in itself, possessing every facility for supply- 
ing the buildings of the university with adequate heat and light. 
It is further provided with pumping works. Convenient to this 
department is the retort and great meters of the gas house, capable 
of holding 9,000 cubic feet of gas, and arranged upon the principles 
of modern science. The barn and shed form a single building, 
both useful, convenient and ornamental. 

In connection with the agricultural department of the university, 
a brick residence and barn were erected and placed at the disposal 
of the farm superintendent, Maj. L. A. Burke. 

The buildings enumerated above have been erected at a cost 
approximating the following: boarding-house, $37,807.07; labora- 
tory, $15,000; dormitory, $32,000; military hall and gymnasium, 
$6,410.47; boiler and gas house, $1,814; barn and shed, $1,500; 
work-shop, $1,000; dwelling and barn, $2,500. 

Besides the original donations, Legislative appropriations, vary- 
ing in amount, have been made from time to time, and Mr. Pierce, 
the treasurer, has donated his official salary, $600 a year, for the time 
he served, for decorating the grounds, — if neoessary. 

The opening of the university was, owing to varied circumstan- 
ces, postponed from time to time, and not until March, 1874, was a 
class formed, and tMs only to comply with the act of Congress in 
that connection in its relation to the university. However, in 
September following a curriculum was adopted, and the first regu- 
lar term of the Purdue University entered upon. This curriculum. 



comprises the varied subjects generally pertaining to a first-class, 
university course, namely: in the school of natural science — 
physics and industrial mechanics, chemistry and natural history; 
in the school of engineering — civil and mining, together with the 
principles of architecture; in the school of agriculture — theoret- 
ical and practical agriculture, horticulture and veterinary science; 
in the military school — the mathematical sciences, German and 
French literature, free-hand and mechanical drawing, with all the 
studies pertaining to the natural and military sciences. Modern 
languages and natural history embrace their respective courses ta 
the fullest extent. 

There are this year (1880) eleven members of the faculty, 86 
students in the regular courses, and 117 other students. In respect 
to attendance there has been a constant increase from the first. 
The first year, 1874-'5, there were but 64 students. 


This institution was founded at Terre Haute in 1870, in accord- 
ance with the act of the Legislature of that year. The building is 
a large brick edifice situated upon a commanding location and 
possessing some architectural beauties. From its inauguration 
many obstacles opposed its advance toward efficiency and success; 
but the Board of Trustees, composed of men experienced in edu- 
cational matters, exercised their strength of mind and body to 
overcome every difficulty, and secure for the State Normal School 
every distinction and emolument that lay within their power, 
their efibrts to this end being very successful; and it is a fact that 
the institution has arrived at, if not eclipsed, the standard of their 
expectations. Not alone does the course of study embrace the 
legal subjects known as reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, 
geograph}', United States history, English grammar, physiology, 
manners and ethics, but it includes also universal history, the 
mathematical sciences and many other subjects foreign- to older 
institutions. The first studies are prescribed by law and must be 
inculcated; the second are optional with the professors, and in the 
case of Indiana generally hold place in the curriculum of the nor- 
mal school. 

The model, or training school, specially designed for the training 
of teachers, forms a most important factor in State educational 
matters, and prepares teachers of both sexes for one of the most 
important positions in life; viz., that of educating the youth of the 

* % , [ _ , ^^-t r-^ 

• y s' ^ 


State. The advanced course of studies, toorether with the hio-her 
studies of the normal school, embraces Latin and German, and pre- 
pares young men and women for entrance to the State University. 

The efficiency of this school may be elicited from the following 
facts, taken from the official reports: out of 41 persons who had 
graduated from the elementary course, nine, after teaching success- 
fully in the public schools of this State from two terms to two 
years, returned to the institution and sought admission to the 
advanced classes. They were admitted; three of them were gentle- 
men and six ladies. After spending two years and two terms in the 
elementary course, and then teaching in the schools during the 
time already mentioned they returned to spend two and a half or 
three years more, and for the avowed purpose of qualifying them- 
selves for teaching in the most responsible positions of the public 
school service. In fact, no student is admitted to the school who 
does not in good faith declare his intention to qualify himself for 
teaching in the schools of the State. This the law requires, and 
the rule is adhered to literally. 

The report further says, in speaking of the government of the 
school, that the fundamental idea is rational freedom, or that free- 
dom which gives exemption from the power of control of one over 
another, or, in other words, the self-limiting of themselves, in their 
acts, by a recognition of the rights of others who are equally free. 
The idea and origin of the school being laid down, and also the 
means by which scholarship can be realized in the individual, the 
student is left to form his own conduct, both during session hours 
and while away from school. The teacher merely stands between 
this scholastic idea and the student's own partial conception of it, 
as expositor or interpreter. The teacher is not legislator, executor 
or police officer; he is expounder of the true idea of school law, so 
that the only test of the student's conduct is obedience to, or 
nonconformity with, that law as interpreted by the teacher. This 
idea once inculcated in the minds of the students, insures industry, 
punctuality and order. 



This institution was organized Sept. 16, 1873, with 35 students 
in attendance. The school occupied the building known as the 
Valparaiso Male and Female College building. Four teachers 

^ e) 1 1 1 1 Is 

' ^ « ^ -^ ® \ 



were employed. The attendance, so small at first, increased rap- 
idly and steadily, until at the present writing, the seventh year 
in the history of the school, the yearly enrollment is more than 
three thousand. The number of instructors now employed is 23. 

From time to time, additions have been made to the school 
buildings, and numerous boarding halls have been erected, so that 
now the value of the buildings and grounds owned by the school 
is one hundred thousand dollars. 

A large library has been collected, and a complete equipment of 
philosophical and chemical apparatus has been purchased. The 
department of physiology is supplied with skeletons, manikins, 
and everything necessary to the demonstration of each branch of 
the subject. A large cabinet is provided for the study of geology. 
In fact, each department of the school is completely furnished 
with the apparatus needed for the most approved presentation of 
every subject. 

There are 15 chartered departments in the institution. These 
are in charge of thorough, energetic, and scholarly instructors, and 
send forth each year as graduates, a large number of finely cultured 
young ladies and gentlemen, living testimonials of the efliciency 
of the course of study and the methods used. 

The Commercial College in connection with the school is in itself 
a great institution. It is finely fitted up and furnished, and ranks 
foremost among the business colleges of the United States. 

The expenses for tuition, room and board, have been made so 
low that an opportunity for obtaining a thorough education is 
presented to the poor and the rich alike. 

All of this work has been accomplished in the short space of 
seven years. The school now holds a high place among educational 
institutions, and is the largest normal school in the United States. 

This wonderful growth and development is wholly due to the 
energy and faithfulness of its teachers, and the unparalleled exec- 
utive ability of its proprietor and principal. The school is not 


Nor is Indiana behind in literary institutions under denomina- 
tional auspices. It is not to be understood, however, at the present 
day, that sectarian doctrines are insisted upon at the so-called 
" denominational" colleges, universities and seminaries; the youth at 
these places are influenced only by Christian example. 





Notre Dame University, near South Bend, is a Catholic institu- 
tion, and is one of the most noted in the United States. It was 
founded in 1842 by Father Sorin. The first building was erected 
in 1843, and the university has continued to grow and prosper until 
the present time, now having 35 professors, 26 instructors, 9 tutors, 
213 students and 12,000 volumes in library. At present the main 
building has a frontage of 224 feet and a depth of 155. Thousands 
of young people have received their education here, and a large 
number have been graduated for the priesthood. A chapter was 
held here in 1872, attended by delegates from all parts of the world. 
It is worthy of mention that this institution has a bell weighing 
13,000 pounds, the largest in the United States and one of the finest 
in the world. 

The Indiana Ashury University, at Greencastle, is an old and 
well-established institution under the auspices of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, named after its first bishop, Asbury. It was 
founded in 1835, and in 1872 it had nine professors and 172 

Howard College, not denominational, is located at Kokomo, and 
was founded in 1869. In 1872 it had five professors, four instructors, 
and 69 students. 

Union Christian College, Christian, at Merom, was organized in 
1858, and in 1872 had four resident professors, seven instructors 
and 156 students. 

Moore'' s Hill College, Methodist Episcopal, is situated at Moore's 
Hill, was founded in 1854, and in 1872 had five resident professors, 
five instructors, and 142 students. 

EarlhanCs College, at Richmond, is under the management of 
the Orthodox Friends, and was founded in 1859. In 1872 they 
had six resident professors and 167 students, and 3,300 volumes in 

Wahash College, at Crawfordsville, was organized in 1834, and 
had in 1872, eight professors and teachers, and 231 students, with 
about 12,000 volumes in the library. It is under Presbyterian 

Concordia College, Lutheran, at Fort "Wayne, was founded in 
1850; in 1872 it had four professors and 148 students: 3,000 volumes 
in library, 

Hanover College, Presbyterian, was organized in 1833, at Han- 
over, and in 1872 had seven professors and 118 students, and 7,000 
volumes in library. 



Hartsville University, United Brethren, at Hartsville, was 
founded in 1854, and in 1872 had seven professors and 117 students. 

Northwestern Christian University, Disciples, is located at 
Irvington, near Indianapolis. It was founded in 1854, and by 
1872 it had 15 resident professors, 181 students, and 5,000 volumes 
in library. 


By the year 1830, the influx of paupers and invalid persons was 
80 great that the Governor called upon the Legislature to take 
steps toward regulating the matter, and also to provide an asylum 
for the poor, but that body was very slow to act on the matter. 
At the present time, however, there is no State in the Union which 
can boast a better system of benevolent institutions. The Benevo- 
lent Society of Indianapolis was organized in 1843. It was a 
pioneer institution; its field of work was small at first, but it has 
grown into great usefulness. 


In behalf of the blind, the first efibrt was made by James M. Ray, 
about 1846. Throuo-h his efforts William H. Churchman came 
from Kentucky with blind pupils and gave exhibitions in Mr. 
Beecher's church, in Indianapolis. These entertainments were 
attended by members of the Legislature, for whom indeed they 
were especially intended; and the effect upon them was so good, 
that before they adjourned the session they adopted measures to es- 
tablish an asylum for the blind. The commission appointed to carry 
out these measures, consisting of James M. Ray, Geo. W. Mears, 
and the Secretary, Treasurer and Auditor of State, engaged Mr. 
Churchman to make a lecturing tour through the State and collect 
statistics of the blind population. 

The " Institute for the Education of the Blind " was founded by 
the Legislature of 1847, and first opened in a rented building Oct. 
1, of that year. The permanent buildings were opened and occu- 
pied in Februar}', 1853. The original cost of the buildings and 
ground was $110,000, and the present valuation of buildings and 
grounds approximates $300,000. The main building is 90 feet 
long by 61 deep, and with its right and left wings, each 30 feet in 
front' and 83 in depth, give an entire frontage of 150 feet. The 
main building is five stories in height, surmounted by a cupola of 






the Corinthian style, while each wing is similarly overcapped 
The porticoes, cornices and verandahs are gotten up with exquisite 
taste, and the former are molded after the principle of Ionic archi- 
tecture. The building is very favorably situated, and occupies a 
space of eight acres. 

The nucleus of a fund for supplying indigent graduates of the 
institution with an outfit suitable to their trades, or with money in 
lieu thereof, promises to meet with many additions. The fund is 
the out-come of the benevolence of Mrs. Fitzpatrick, a resident of 
Delaware, in this State, and appears to be suggested by the fact 
that her daughter, who was smitten with blindness, studied as a 
pupil in the institute, and became singularly attached to many of 
its inmates. The following passage from the lady's will bears 
testimony not only to her own sympathetic nature but also to the 
efficiency of the establishment which so won her esteem. "I give 
to each of the following persons, friends and associates of my blind 
daughter, Margaret Louisa, the sum of $100 to each, to wit, viz: 
Melissa and Phoebe Garrettson, Frances Cundiif, Dallas Newland, 
Naomi Unthunk, and a girl whose name before marriage was 
Kachel Martin, her husband's name not recollected. The balance 
of my estate, after paying the expenses of administering, I give to 
the superintendent of the blind asylum and his successor, in trust, 
for the use and benefit of the indigent blind of Indiana who may 
attend the Indiana blind asylum, to be given to them on leaving 
in such sums as the superintendent may deem proper, but not more 
than $50 to any one person. I direct that the amount above direct- 
ed be loaned at interest, and the interest and principal be distributed 
as above, agreeably to the best judgment of the superintendent, 
so as to do the greatest good to the greatest number of blind 

The following rules, regulating the institution, after laying down 
in preamble that the institute is strictly an educational estab- 
lishment, having its main object the moral, intellectual and phys- 
ical training of the young blind of the State, and is not an asylum 
for the aged and helpless, nor an hospital wherein the diseases of 
the eye may be treated, proceed as follows : 

1. The school year commences the first Wednesday after the 
15th day of September, and closes on the last Wednesday in June, 
showing a session of 40 weeks, and a vacation term of 84 days. 

2. Applicants for admission must be from 9 to 21 years of age; 
but the trustees have power to admit blind students under 9 or 



< * — — hr- 


over 21 years of age; but this power is extended only in very 
extreme cases. 

3. Imbecile or unsound persons, or confirmed imraoralists, 
cannot be admitted knowingly; neither can admitted pupils who 
prove disobedient or incompetent to receive instruction be retained 
on the roll. 

4. No charge is made for the instruction and board given to 
pupils from the State of Indiana; and even those without the State 
have only to pay $200 for board and education during the 40 weeks' 

5. An abundant and good supply of comfortable clothing for 
both summer and winter wear, is an indispensable adjunct of the 

6. The owner's name must be distinctly marked on each article 
of clothing. 

7. In cases of extreme indigence the institution may provide 
clothing and defray the traveling expenses of such pupil and levy the 
amount so expended on the county wherein his or her home is 

8. The pupil, or friends of the pupil, must remove him or her 
from the institute during the annual vacation, and in case of their 
failure to do so, a legal provision enables the superintendent to 
forward such pupil to the trustee of the township where he or she 
resides, and the expense of such transit and board to be charged to 
the county. 

9. Friends of the pupils accompanying them to the institution, 
or visiting them thereat, cannot enter as boarders or lodgers. 

10. Letters to the pupils should be addressed to the care of the 
Superintendent of the Institute for the Education of the Blind, so as 
the better to insure deliverv. 

11. Persons desirous of admission of pupils should apply to the 
superintendent for a printed copy of instructions, and no pupil 
should be sent thereto until the instructions have been complied 


In 1843 the Governor was also instructed to obtain plans and 
information respecting the care of mutes, and the Legislature also 
levied a tax to provide for them. The first one to agitate the subject 
was William Willard, himself a mute, who visited Indiana in 1843, 
and opened a school for mutes on his own account, with 16 pupils. 







The next year the Legislature adopted this school as a State insti- 
tution, appointing a Board of Trustees for its management, consist- 
ing of the Governor and Secretary of State, ex-officio,and Revs. Henry 
Ward Beecher, Phineas D. Gurley, L. H. Jameson, Dr. Dunlap, 
Hon. James Morrison and Rev. Matthew Simpson. They rented the 
large building on the southeast corner of Illinois and Maryland 
streets, and opened the first State asylum there in 1844; but in 1846, 
a site for a permanent building just east of Indianapolis was selected, 
consisting first of 30 acres, to which 100 more have been added. 
On this site the two first structures were commenced in 1849, and 
completed in the fall of 1850, at a cost of $30,000. The school 
was immediately transferred to the new building, where it is still 
fiourishing, with enlarged buildings and ample facilities for instruc- 
tion in agriculture. In 1869-70, another building was erected, 
and the three together now constitute one of the most benefi- 
cent and beautiful institutions to be found on this continent, at 
an aggregate cost of $320,000. The main building has a fagade of 
260 feet. Here are the offices, study rooms, the quarters of officers 
and teachers, the pupils' dormitories and the library. The center 
of this building has a frontage of eighty feet, and is five stories high, 
with wings on either side 60 feet in frontage. In this Central 
structure are the store rooms, dining-hall, servants' rooms, hospital, 
laundry, kitchen, bakery and several school-rooms. Another struct- 
ure known as the " rear building " contains the chapel and another 
set of school-rooms. It is two stories high, the center being 50 feet 
square and the wings 40 by 20 feet. In addition to these there are 
many detached buildings, containing the shops of the industrial 
department, the engine-house and wash-house. 

The grounds comprise 105 acres, which in the immediate vicinity 
of the buildings partake of the character of ornamental or pleasure 
gardens, comprising a space devoted to fruits, flowers and veget- 
ables, while the greater part is devoted to pasture and agriculture. 
The first instructor in the institution was Wm. Willard, a deaf 
mute, who had up to 1844 conducted a small school for the instruc- 
tion of the deaf at Indianapolis, and now is employed by the State, 
at a salary of $800 per annum, to follow a similar vocation in its 
service. In 1853 he was succeeded by J. S. Brown, and subse- 
quently by Thomas Mclutire, who continues principal of the 






The Legislature of 1832-'3 adopted measures providing for a 
State hospital for the insane. This good work would have been 
done much earlier had it not been for the hard times of 1837, 
intensified by the results of the gigantic scheme of internal improve- 
ment. In order to survey the situation and awaken public sympa- 
thy, the county assessors were ordered to make a return of the 
insane in their respective counties. During the year 1842 the 
Governor, acting under the direction of the Legislature, procured 
considerable information in regard to hospitals for the insane in 
other States; and Dr. John Evans lectured before the Legislature 
on the subject of insanity and its treatment. As a result of these 
efforts the authorities determined to take active steps for the estab- 
lishment of such a hospital. Plans and suggestions from the 
superintendents and liospitals of other States were submitted to the 
Legislature in 1844, which body ordered the levy of a tax of one 
cent on the $100 for the purpose of establishing the hospital. In 
1845 a commission was appointed to obtain a site not exceeding 
200 acres. Mount Jackson, then the residence of Nathaniel Bolton, 
was selected, and the Legislature in 1846 ordered the commissioners 
to proceed with the erection of the building. Accordingly, in 
1847, the central building was completed, at a cost of $75,000. It 
has since been enlarged by the addition of wings, some of which 
are larger than the old central building, until it has become an 
immense structure, having cost over half a million dollars. 

The wings of the main building are four stories high, and entirely 
devoted to wards for patients, being capable of accommodating 

The grounds of the institution comprise 160 acres, and, like 
those of the institute for the deaf and dumb, are beautifully laid 

This hospital was opened for the reception of patients in 1848. 
The principal structure comprises what is known as the central 
building and the right and left wings, and like the institute for the 
deaf and dumb, erected at various times and probably under various 
adverse circumstances, it certainly does not hold the appearance of 
any one design, but seems to be a combination of many. ISTot- 
withstanding these little defects in arrangement, it presents a very 
imposing appearance, and shows what may be termed a frontage 




of 624 feet. The central building is five stories in height and con- 
tains the store-rooms, offices, reception parlors, medical dispensing 
rooms, mess-rooms and the apartments of the superintendent and 
other officers, with those of the female employes. Immediately 
ia the rear of the central building, and connected with it by a 
corridor, is the chapel, a building 50 by 60 feet. This chapel 
occupies the third floor, while the under stories hold the kitchen, 
bakery, employes' dining-room, steward's office, employes' apart- 
ments and sewing rooms. In rear of this again is the engine- 
house, 60 by 50 feet, containing all the paraphernalia for such an 
establishment, such as boilers, pumping works, fire plugs, hose, 
and above, on the second floor, the laundry and apartments of male 


Theflrst penal institution of importance is known as the "State 
Prison South," located at Jefiersonville, and was the only prison 
until 1859. It was established in 1821. Before that time it was 
customary to resort to the old-time punishment of the whipping- 
post. Later the manual labor system was inaugurated, and the 
convicts were hired out to employers, among whom were Capt. 
Westover, afterward killed at Alamo, Texas, with Crockett, James 
Keigwin, who in an aff'ray was fired at and severely wounded by a 
convict named Williams, Messrs. Patterson Hensley, and Jos. 
E. Pratt. During the rule of the latter of these lessees, the atten- 
tion of the authorities was turned to a more practical method of 
utilizing convict labor; and instead of the prisoners being per- 
mitted to serve private entries, their work was turned in the direc- 
tion of their own prison, where for the next few years they were 
employed in erecting the new buildings now known as the " State 
Prison South." This structure, the result of prison labor, stands 
on 16 acres of ground, and comprises the cell houses and work- 
shops, together with the prisoners' garden, or pleasure-ground. 

It seems that in the erection of these buildings the aim of the 
overseers was to create so many petty dungeons and unventilated 
laboratories, into which disease in every form would be apt to 
creep. This fact was evident from the high mortality character- 
izing life within the prison; and in the efforts made by the 
Government to remedy a state of things which had been permitted 
to exist far too long, the advance in prison reform has become a 
reality. From 1857 to 1871 the labor of the prisoners was devoted 




to the manufacture of wagons and farm implements; and again the 
old policy of hiring the convicts was resorted to; for in the latter 
year, 1871, the Southwestern Car Company was organized, and 
every prisoner capable of taking a part in the work of car- building 
was leased out. This did very well until the panic of 1873, when 
the company suffered irretrievable losses; and previous to its final 
down-fall in 1876 the warden withdrew convict labor a second time, 
leaving the prisoners to enjoy a luxurious idleness around the 
prison which themselves helped to raise. 

In later years the State Prison South has gained some notoriety 
from the desperate character of some of its inmates. Daring the 
civil war a convict named Harding mutilated in a most horrible 
manner and ultimately killed one of the jailors named Tesley. In 
1874, two prisoners named Kennedy and Applegate, possessing 
themselves of some arms, and joined by two other convicts named 
Port and Stanley, made a break for freedom, swept past the guard, 
Chamberlain, and gained the fields. Chamberlain went in pursuit 
but had not gone very far when Kennedy turned on his pursuer, 
fired and killed him instantly. Subsequently three of the prisoners 
were captured alive and one of them paid the penalty of death, 
while Kennedy, the murderer of Chamberlain, failing committal for 
murder, was sent back to his old cell to spend the remainder of his 
life. Bill Rodifer, better known as "The Iloosier Jack Sheppard," 
effected his escape in 1875, in the very presence of a large guard, 
but was recaptured and has since been kept in irons. 

This establishment, owing to former mismanagement, has fallen 
very much behind, financially, and has asked for and received an 
appropriation of $20,000 to meet its expenses, while the contrary 
is the case at the Michigan City prison. 


In 1859 the first steps toward the erection of a prison in the 
northern part of the State were taken, and by an act of the Legis- 
lature approved March 5, this -year, authority was given to construct 
prison buildings at some point north of the National road. For this 
purpose $50,000 were appropriated, and a large number of convicts 
from the Jeffersonville prison were transported northward to 
Michigan City, which was just selected as the location for the new 
penitentiary. The work was soon entered upon, and continued to 
meet with additions and improvements down to a very recent 
period. So late as 1875 the Legislature appropriated $20,000 






toward the construction of new cells, and in other directions also 
the work of improvement has been going on. The system of 
government and discipline is similar to that enforced at the Jeffer- 
sonville prison; and, strange to say, by its economical working has 
not only met the expenses of the administration, but very recently 
had amassed over $11,000 in excess of current expenses, from its 
annual savings. This is due almost entirely to the continual 
employment of the convicts in the manufacture of cigars and 
chairs, and in their great prison industry, cooperage. It differs 
widely from the Southern, insomuch as its sanitary condition has 
been above the average of similar institutions. The strictness of its 
silent system is better enforced. The petty revolutions of its 
inmates have been very few and insignificant, and the number of 
punishments inflicted comparatively small. From whatever point 
this northern prison may be looked at, it will bear a very favorable 
comparison with the largest and best administered of like establish- 
ments throughout the world, and cannot fail to bring high credit to 
its Board of Directors and its able warden. 


The prison reform agitation which in this State attained telling 
proportions in 1869, caused a Legislative measure to be brought 
forward, which would have a tendency to ameliorate the condition 
of female convicts. Gov. Baker recommended it to the General 
Assembly, and the members of that body showed their appreciation 
of the Governor's philanthropic desire by conferring upon the bill 
the authority of a statute; and further, appropriated $50,000 to aid 
in carrying out the objects of the act. The main provisions con- 
tained in the bill may be set forth in the following extracts from 
the proclamation of the Governor: 

"Whenever said institution shall have been proclaimed to be 
open for the reception of girls in the reformatory department 
thereof, it shall be lawful for said Board of Managers to receive 
them into their care and management, and the said reformatory 
department, girls under the age of 15 years who may be committed 
to their custody, in either of the following modes, to- wit: 

" 1. When committed by any judge of a Circuit or Common 
Pleas Court, either in term time or in vacation, on complaint and 
due proof by the parent or guardian that by reason of her incorrig- 
ible or vicious conduct she has rendered her control beyond the 
power of such parent or guardian, and made it manifestly requisite 




that from regard to the future welfare of such infant, and for the 
protection of society, she should be placed under such guardianship. 

"2. "When such infant has been committed by such judge, as 
aforesaid, upon complaint by any citizen, and due proof of such 
complaint that such infant is a proper subject of the guardianship 
of such institution in consequence of her vagrancy or incorrigible 
or vicious conduct, and that from the moral depravity or other- 
wise of her parent or guardian in whose custody she may be, 
such parent or guardian is incapable or unwilling to exercise the 
proper care or discipline over such incorrigible or vicious infant. 

"3. When such infant has been committed by such judge as 
aforesaid, on complaint and due proof thereof by the township 
trustee of the township where such infant resides, that such infant 
is destitute of a suitable home and of adequate means of obtaining 
an honest living, or that she is in danger of being brought up to 
lead an idle and immoral life." • 

In addition to these articles of the bill, a formal section of 
instruction to the wardens of State prisons was embodied in the 
act, causing such wardens to report the number of all the female 
convicts under their charge and prepare to have them transferred 
to the female reformatory immediately after it was declared to be 
ready for their reception. After the passage of the act the 
Governor appointed a Board of Managers, and these gentlemen, 
securing the services of Isaac Hodgson, caused him to draft a plan 
of the proposed institution, and further, on his recommendation, 
asked the people for an appropriation of another $50,000, which 
the Legislature granted in February, 1873. The work of construc- 
tion was then entered upon and carried out so steadily, that on the 
6th of September, 1873, the building was declared ready for the 
reception of its future inmates. Gov. Baker lost no time in 
proclaiming this fact, and October 4 he caused the wardens of the 
State prisons to be instructed to transfer all the female convicts in 
their custody to the new institution which may be said to rest on 
the advanced intelligence of the age. It is now called the 
" Indiana Reformatory Institution for Women and Girls." 

This building is located irariiediately north of the deaf and 
dumb asylum, near the arsenal, at Indianapolis. It is a three- 
story brick structure in the French style, and shows a frontage of 
174 feet, comprising a main building, with lateral and transverse 
wings. In front of the central portion is the residence of the 
superintendent and his associate reformatory officers, while in the 

■*7 s •- ^- s\ 


rear is the engine house, with all the ways and means for heating 
the buildings. Enlargements, additions and improvements are 
still in progress. There is also a school and library in the main 
building, which are sources of vast good. 

October 31, 1879, there were 66 convicts in the " penal" depart- 
ment and 147 in the " girls' reformatory " department. The 
" ticket-of-leave " system has been adopted, with entire satisfaction, 
and the conduct of the institution appears to be up with the 


In 1867 the Legislature appropriated $50,000 to aid in the 
formation of an institution to be entitled a house for the correction 
and reformation of juvenile defenders, and vested with full powers 
in a Board of Control, the members of which were to be appointed 
by the Governor, and with the advice and consent of the Senate. 
This Board assembled at the Governor's house at Indianapolis, 
April 3, 1867, and elected Charles F. CoflBn, as president, and 
visited Chicago, so that a visit to the reform school there might 
lead to a fuller knowledge and guide their future proceedings. 
The House of Kefuge at Cincinnati, and the Ohio State Eeform 
school were also visited with this design; and after full consider- 
ation of the varied governments of these institutions, the Board 
resolved to adopt the method known as the " family " system, 
which divides the inmates into fraternal bodies, or small classes, 
each class having a separate house, house father and family oflBces, 
— all under the control of a general superintendent. The system 
being adopted, the question of a suitable location next presented 
itself, and proximity to a large city being considered rather 
detrimental to the welfare of such an institution. Gov. Baker 
selected the site three-fourths of a mile south of Plainfield, and 
about fourteen miles from Indianapolis, which, in view of its 
eligibility and convenience, was fully concurred in by the Board 
of Control. Therefore, a farm of 225 acres, claiming a fertile soil 
and a most picturesque situation, and possessing streams of running 
water, was purchased, and on a plateau in its center a site for the 
proposed house of refuge was fixed. 

The next movement was to decide upon a plan, which ultimately 
met the approval of the Governor. It favored the erection of one 
principal building, one house for a reading-room and hospital, two 
large mechanical shops and eight family houses. January 1, 1868, 


\ Q_ 


three family houses and work-shop were completed; in 1869 the 
main building, and one additional family house were added; but 
previous to this, in August, 1867, a Mr. Frank P. Ainsworth and 
his wife were appointed by the Board, superintendent and matron 
respectively, and temporary quarters placed at their disposal. In 
1869 they of course removed to the new building. This is 64 by 
128 feet, and three stories high. In its basement are kitchen, 
laundry and vegetable cellar. The first floor is devoted to offices, 
visitors' room, house father and family dining-room and store- 
rooms. The general superintendent's private apartments, private 
offices and five dormitories for officers occupy the second floor; 
while the third floor is given up to the assistant superintendent's 
apartment, library, chapel and hospital. 

The family houses are similar in style, forming rectangular build- 
ings 36 by 58 feet. The basement of each contains a furnace 
room, a store-room and a large wash-room, which is converted into 
a play-room during inclement weather. On the first floor of each 
of these buildings are two rooms for the house father and his 
family, and a school-room, which is also convertible into a sitting- 
room for the boys. On the third floor is a family dormitory, a 
clothes-room and a room for the " elder brother," who ranks next 
to the house father. And since the reception of the first boy, from 
Hendricks county, January 23, 1868, the house plan has proved 
equally convenient, even as the management has proved efficient. 

Other buildings have since been erected. 

^ (5 ^ ■"■ & V 



il j ^l 









Importance of Local History. — Life in the Backwoods. — Cour- 
age OF THE Pioneers. — Their Labor and Rewards, — Change 
of Fifty Years. — Integrity and Generosity of the Early 
Settlers. — Grand Ac hievements. 

All history is essentially local. No record of events, however 
important, can make a vivid or lasting impression upon a reader's 
mind if the locality of the occurrences is not given due prominence. 
By association the scenes of great events become sanctified and 
endeared in the hearts of a people. Who, for instance, can gaze 
unmoved upon the house which was the home or the birthplace of 
an illustrious man? Who can give expression to his emotions as 
he stands upon the ground where some decisive struggle for liberty 
took place? 

Even the most prosaic places, even the simplest of every-day 
occurrences, are sometimes elevated beyond their natural condition, 
becoming illustrious and important on account of the memories 
which surrounded them. And even within the narrow limits of a 
county, events, perhaps of little moment in themselves, are con- 
stantly transpiring, which growing venerable through age become 
invested with peculiar interest, and are rightfully worthy of perpet- 
ual remembrance. A small community has its place in history as 
well as a large one. Every intelligent and public-spirited citizen 
feels a degree of pride in the achievements, the industrial growth 
the religious, social, and intellectual progress of his county. 

Thus it is that in almost every section of the Union efforts are 
now being made to perpetuate local history. No cause is more 
worthy of popular attention. Centuries hence, when a history ot 
the American people shall be written, the historian will gather his 
data largely from the facts which are now being collected and put 
16 (245) 




in preservable form. But the greatest importance of local history 
lies in the interest which we may expect posterity to entertain for 
it. The work of the pioneers— humble in its details yet magnifi 
cent in its results; the first rudely built church or school-house; 
the founding of a village; the inception of an industry— each mark 
an epoch in the history of any locality. The nationality and char- 
acteristics of the early settlers; their lives, adventures and hard- 
ships; the part performed by them in civil, judicial or military 
affairs— all these are topics in which their descendants can never 
cease to have an interest. 


The life of the pioneer is humble yet glorious. He prepares the 
way for advancing civilization, endures poverty and hardship, toils 
without recompense, that his posterity may enjoy the full fruition 
of his labors. He is the adventurer in fields untried, the path- 
finder, the discoverer, the advance agent leading others to a land 
of promise. In all ages and countries he has been honored and 
remembered on account of his self-sacrificing labor. 

Pioneer life in Steuben County finds its almost exact counter- 
part in every part of the West. When the first settlers arrived 
here, they found a fair and beautiful region, but just left by the 
aboriginal inhabitants. Forests were to be felled, prairies broken 
cabins built, mills, school-houses, churches, roads— the labor of a 
lifetime rose before them. But were these bold spirits dismayed? 
Not they! They had journeyed from their far distant homes, 
through a rough country, over bad roads, rivers, swamps and 
marshes, passing nights with no shelter above them, and toiling 
forward by day, meeting new obstacles ever and anon. Now they 
had reached the land for which they had started, and fair and 
pleasant was the prospect. 

In Steuben County the settlement is of so recent date that al- 
most every one is familiar with pioneer ways either from actual 
experience or from hearsay. Nevertheless, for the benefit of pos- 
terity, who may be interested in knowing what was the real nature 
of pioneer life and the character of the work of the early settlers 
we devote a portion of this chapter to a description of primitive 
manners, customs and labor. 

Such has been the change since the days of our fathers and 
grandfathers in this State, it is almost as though a new race of 
beings had come into possession of the land. Clothing, diet, 



dwellings, social customs, individual habits, have all been trans- 
formed. Old ways are notour ways; but they were good ways, 
and served their purpose admirably, and the memory of them is 
full of tender interest to us. The earliest settlers, upon their ar- 
rival, constructed hastily what they called " three-faced camps; " 
that is, buildings with three walls, and the front open. These 
camps were usually about seven feet high, without floors, and 
roofed with poles upon which bark or shingles lay, held in place 
by weight-poles. No windows, doors or chimneys were needed in 
these dwellings, which were not built for temporary residences, 
but usually merely to serve as shelter while the cabin was being 

The cabin of round logs was a material advance upon the camp. 
The interstices between the logs were filled with chips, or sticks, 
then daubed abundantly with clay mortar. A log "house" — in 
distinction from a cabin — was constructed of hewed logs, and was 
the prevailing style of residence for rich and poor. The building 
was often without a floor, but more commonly one was built of 
" puncheons," or split logs, made smooth as possible on one side 
by the adze or the ax. The roof was covered with lone: shingles. 
or " shakes," held in place by weight-poles. For a flre-place, a 
space about six feet long was cut out of the logs at one end of the 
room, and three sides were built up with logs, making an offset in 
the wall. This was lined with stone when convenient, and plenti- 
fully daubed with clay. The chimney was built of small split 
sticks, plastered together with clay, and rose but little above the 

A space for a doorway was cut in one side of the cabin, and in 
it was hung a door made of split shingles or puncheons, fastened 
together with cleats and wooden pins. The hinges were also of 
wood, and the latch. The latch-string was of leather, extending 
through a hole a few inches above the latch, to the outside, so that 
a pull lifted the latch from the catch enabling the door to open. 
It was only necessary for those inside to pull the latch-string in to 
lock the door securely against all comers. 

The living-room was of good size, as it ought to be — for it was 
parlor, dining-room, sitting-room, kitchen, pantry and bed-room, 
all in one. The rafters were usually adorned with flitches of bacon 
or festoons of dried pumpkins. In one corner of the apartment 
were seen the loom and, perhaps, the spinning wheel, while the 
kitchen utensils were grouped about the ample fire-place. One 



»*~J ----- ■ ■ " " ~~ 

248 HisTOKi: OF steuben county. 

side of the room was devoted to the family wardrobe, which hung 
suspended from pegs driven into the wall. 

The trusty rifle usually hung of er the door, and near it the 
powder-horn and hunting-pouch. Well-to-do families had a spare 
room for guests — that is, a space in the loft of sufficient size to contain 
a bed, besides serving usually the purpose of a lumber-room. The loft 
was reached by a ladder from the main room . Sleeping apartments 
were sometimes separated from the sitting-room by partitions made 
by suspending quilts, coverlets or sheets from the upper floor. 

This mode of living was not so irksome as might be supposed. 
People soon became accustomed to it, and patiently put up with it 
until their means had increased sufficiently to enable them to enlarge 
their domicile by a lean-to, or, better yet, to construct a double log 
cabin — a happy distinction to which only the wealthy could attain. 
The furniture of the cabin was as primitive as the house itself. 
Bedsteads, chairs and tables were of home manufacture, and the 
makers were not always skilled workmen. The articles used in the 
kitchen were few and simple ; a " Dutch oven," a skillet, or long- 
handled frying pan, an iron pot or kettle, and sometimes a coffee- 
pot were all that the best furnished kitchen contained. When a 
stone-wall formed the base of the fire-place a long iron crane on which, 
attached to a pot-hook, hung a large pot or kettle, was one of the 
indispensable features. The style of cooking was necessarily sim- 
ple, as all of it had to be done at the fire-place and in the fire. Corn 
meal, cooked in various forms, such as "mush," " Johnnycake," 
" hoe-cake" and " pone," was one of the staple articles of diet. 
The "pone'' and "corn-dodger" were cooked in the Dutch oven, 
set upon a bed of glowing coals. The oven being filled with dough, 
the cover, already heated on the fire, was placed over it and cov- 
ered with hot embers. After the bread was cooked, it was taken 
from the oven and placed near the fire to keep it warm, while the 
oven was again pressed into use in the preparation of some other 
article of food. The "hoe-cake" was cooked upon a board or flat 
stone placed in front of the fire, a thick dough of meal and water 
having first been prepared. Cooked pumpkin was sometimes added 
to the dough to give it richness and flavor. Venison or ham was 
fried in the Dutch oven. Hominy or hulled corn was often added 
to the frugal meal. Wild honey was found in abundance; game 
was plenty, and although flour was at first scarce, the pioneer's 
bill of fare was usually a good one, containing a plenty, if not a 
variety, of good wholesome food, well cooked. 

"S \ 



The pioneers were true-hearted and hospitable. Strangers were 
never denied shelter or food, though often the family were much 
discommoded by furnishing such entertainment. The early set- 
tlers of Steuben County were mainly from the older States of the 
Union — New Tork, the New England States and Virginia — though 
there were some English and Irish. They were generally poor, and 
understanding the hardships and disadvantages of poverty them" 
selves, they sympathized with, and aided the more readily, those 
whom they found in need of assistance. Selfishness was not in 
their nature. They were bold, brave, free-hearted, and led useful and 
upright lives. Of course there were exceptions — now and then a self- 
ish man, and once in a great while a rascal — but the great body of the 
early settlers was composed of men fearless in the right, honest, 
generous, truthful, and independent even though they were poor- 
Their situation was one calculated to beget feelings of friendliness 
and helpfulness. They were all situated alike; all had left the asso- 
ciations and the friends of other days, and were seeking the accom- 
plishment of a difficult task. There was no room for idlers, but 
newcomers were looked upon as helpers, and the watch-word ap- 
peared to be, "The more the merrier." Says an early writer: 
" Men must cleave to their kind and must be dependent upon each 
other. Pride and jealousy give way to the natural yearnings of 
the human heart for society. They begin to rub off the neutral 
prejudices; one takes a step and then the other; they meet half 
way and embrace, and the society thus newly organized and con- 
stituted is more liberal, enlarged, unprejudiced, and, of course, more 
affectionate than a society of people of like birth and character who 
bring all their early prejudices as a common stock to be transmitted 
as an inheritance to posterity." 

The life of toil and hardship was one well calculated to develop 
a strong character and a self-reliant, trustful spirit. Many men of 
eminence have risen from humble homes; have studied by the fire- 
light, or in the old-fashioned log school-houses, and become distin- 
guished far above those reared in homes of luxury and schooled in 
aftiuence. The best citizens of Steuben County to day are those 
who have cleared the forests and subdued the prairies, or the 
descendants of these early settlers. The boys in early times were 
early taught to put their hands to every kind of farm work; they 
plowed and grubbed; pulled flax, broke and " hackled" it; wore tow 
shirts, coon-skin caps; picked and carded wool; and " spooled" and 
carded wool. The girls were taught to make and mend their own 




clothes; to cook, wash and scrub; to lend a hand in the harvest field 
if necessary. They were not injured by the exercise. It gave 
them strength and muscle, and fitted them for useful wives and 

Such industry, coupled necessarily with energy and frugality, 
brought its own certain reward. The men grew prematurely old 
while sustaining their burdens, but they saw the forests pass away 
and beautiful fields of grain take their place. Marvelous indeed 
has been the change wrought in a half century. Many an aged pi- 
oneer, as he sits in his easy chair and overlooks the past, involun- 
tarily exclaims, "Is it possible that all these things have been 
wrought by the hand of man within the space of one life-time?'' 

" The voice of Nature's very self drops low, 
As though she whispered of the long ago, 
When down the wandering stream the rude canoe 
Of some lone trapper glided into view 
And loitered down the watery path that led 
Thro' forest depths that only knew the tread 
Of savage beasts and wild barbarians 
That skulked about with blood upon their hands 
And murder in their hearts. The light of day 
■ Might barely pierce the gloominess that lay 
Like some dark pall across the water's face 
And folded all the land in its embrace. 
The panther's screaming and the bear's low growl, 
The snake's sharp rattle and the wolfs wild howl, 
The owl's grim chuckle, as it rose and fell 
In alternation with the Indian's yell. 
Made fitting prelude for the gory plays 
That were enacted in the early days. 

" Now o'er the vision like a mirage, falls 
The old log cabin with its dingy walls 
And crippled chimney, with the crutch-like prop 
Beneath, a sagging shoulder on the top. 
The 'coon-skin battened fast on either side ; 
The whisps of leaf tobacco, cut and dried; 
The yellow strands of quartered apples hung 
In rich festoons, that tangle in among 
The morning-glory vines that clamber o'er 
The little clapboard rcof above the door; 
Again through mists of memory rise 
The simple scenes of home before the eyes : 
The happy mother, humming with her wheel 
The dear old melodies that used to steal 
So drowsily upon the summer air; 
The house-dog hid his bone, forgot his care 





And nestled at her feet, to dream, perchance, 

Some cooling dream of winter-time romance. 

The square of sunshine through the open door 

That notched its edge across the puncheon floor, 

And made a golden coverlet, whereon 

The god of slumber had a picture drawn 

Of babyhood, in all the loveliness 

Of dimpled cheek and limb and linsey dress. 

The bough-filled fire-place and the mantle wide, 

Its fire-scorched ankles stretched on either side, 

Where, perchance upon its shoulders neath the joists 

The old clock hiccoughed, harsh and husky-voiced; 

Tomatoes red and yellow, in a row, 

Preserved not then for diet, but for show ; 

The jars of jelly, with their dainty tops ; 

Bunches of pennyroyal and cordial drops ; 

The flask of camphor and vial of squills, 

The box of buttons, garden seeds and pills. 

And thus the pioneer and helpsome, aged wife 

Reflectively review the scenes of early life." 

The clothing of the early settlers was simple, being usually en- 
tirely of home manufacture. The supply brought with the family 
into the new country was made to serve until flax could be raised 
from which to make more. It was with difiiculty that sheep could 
be kept, owing to the prairie wolves; but after sheep had been in 
troduced and flax and hemp raised in sufiicient quantities, it still 
remained a difficult task for the women of the household to make 
cloth and fashion clothing for the entire family. Flannel and lin- 
sey were woven and made into garments for women and children, 
and jeans for the men. The wool was usually colored with wal- 
nut or some other kind of bark; or else black and white wool mixed 
made "pepper and salt" cloth. Every household was a factory in 
which every branch of clothing manufacture was carried on — card- 
ing, spinning, weaving, cutting and sewing. Before carding ma- 
chines were introduced all the wool used was carded by hand on 
cards about four inches wide and eight or ten inches long. Flax, 
after being dried, broken and "scutched," was spun on a small 
wheel, worked by a treadle, such as may now be seen once in a 
while among the lumber of an ancient garret. Tow and linen 
cloth was worked into shirts and dresses, or pantaloons for summer 
wear. Tow, the coarse part of flax, formed the filling of the cloth, 
the strong linen threads being the warp. A tow and linen shirt 
was not a thing of beauty, and it had a tendency to irritate the 
skin, but the boys of that day were satisfied with it. 






Geography and Topography. — Geology. — ^Zoology. 

Steuben is smaller than a " model" county of sixteen townships, 
such as is frequently the size of the new counties in the West 
made by legislators with the aid of a map and pocket rule. It 
comprises six whole and six fractional congressional townships, 
or scarcely more than ten townships altogether. The county lies 
just in the northeastern corner of Indiana, and is bounded as 
follows : On the north by Branch and Hillsdale counties, Mich., 
on the east by Hillsdale County, Mich., and Williams County, 
Ohio; on the south by De Kalb County, Ind., and on the west 
by Lagrange County, Ind. The county contains the usual 
physical characteristics of the Northwestern States, having a 
gently rolling surface, originally covered with hard-wood timber. 
It is situated on the "divide" between the tributaries of the 
Mississippi and those of Lake Erie. Within the borders of 
Steuben County are between sixty and seventy clear water lakes, 
most of them having gravelly or sandy bottoms and fine beaches, 
and it is safe to say that no county in the Northwest offers greater 
advantages to the sportsman or to the weary city family seeking 
rest from their hot and dusty homes. All that this county needs 
is advertising. But one lake in the county has ever been adver- 
tised to any great extent, and that is hardly known outside of 
Northern Indiana and Southern Michigan. That is Pleasant Lake, 
which for two or three years past has attracted a large number of 
persons, and become a favorite resort of excursionists. Owing to 
the scarcity of hotel accommodations, very few have remained 
more than a day or two, but if plans recently formed be carried 
out it will doubtless become in the course of a few years a popular 
place for summer gatherings. The village of Pleasant Lake is 
situated between two bodies of water — Pleasant and Long lakes. 
It is proposed to dredge the channel connecting these lakes with 
Golden, Hogback and Silver, thus enabling steamers to pass from 




one to another with perfect freedom. The shores of all these 
lakes are quite bold and afford many beautiful sites for the build- 
ing of cottages and club-houses. All of these bodies of water are 
plentifully stocked with fish, such as pickerel, black bass, rock 
bass, perch, etc. Disciples of Kimrod can find no better place 
for their sport than in this vicinity, game such as ducks, quails, 
etc., being very plentiful. 

Six miles southeast of Pleasant Lake is Fish Lake, which has the 
reputation of containing as fine specimens of the finny tribe as 
can be found anywhere. Being situated several miles from a 
railroad, it is not so well known as many other lakes, but in case 
a railroad is ever completed on the Canada Southern grade, it 
would doubtless be within about two-hours ride of Toledo, and 
five ot Chicago. There are many beautiful building places on its 
banks, all of which will be utilized sometime when the communi- 
cation with the outside world is improved. 

In the extreme northeastern corner of the county is situated 
Clear Lake, which, next to Pleasant, is the best known of any ot 
the lakes of the county. It is situated two and a half miles from 
Ray station, on the Fort Wayne branch of the Lake Shore Road. 
There has been some talk of building a railroad from the nearest 
point on the Lake Shore, but the prospect has seemingly been 

Lake George, situated near the village of Jamestown, part of 
the lake being in the State of Michigan, is a favorite resort for 
parties who desire to spend a few days camping out and fishing. 
The water is clear, and experienced anglers claim to have better 
luck here than at any other place. 

Of all the lakes in the county, James and Crooked are the 
largest, and were they nearer a railroad, would present unrivaled 
attractions; and, as it is, they will doubtless within a few years 
have their banks dotted with summer residences and club-houses, 
negotiations having already been entered into by Fort Wayne parties 
for the purchase of building sites on the banks of Crooked Lake. 

Of the dozens of lovely lakes in the county, it is probable that, 
all things considered, Lake Gage, eleven miles northwest of 
Angola and five miles from Orland, presents the most attractions 
and never fails to excite the unqualified admiration of visitors. 
Being surrounded on every side but one with high gravel banks 
and entirely free from marshes, it presents an appearance which 
can find few equals anywhere. 

"71 s »~ ^^ ©Pv^ 




There are many other bodies of water in the county deserving 
of note. The water found in these lakes is remarkably free from 
mineral matter. A few years ago the State Geologist made an 
analysis of the water in Lake James, and in an imperial gallon 
found only ten and one-half grains of mineral substance, there 
being of bicarbonate of lime seven grains; iron, alumina and 
silica, two and one-tenth grains, and magnesia one and four-tenths 
grains. From the bottom of any of the lakes, water may be 
drawn in the middle of summer with a temperature of fifty degrees 

The ancient shores of many of these lakes are composed of 
carbonate of lime, which is of a creamy tint, almost white. The 
water area of these lakes is constantly diminishing, thus adding 
to the agricultural surface. The carbonate of lime is due to or- 
ganic matter, since it contai ns only a trace of oxide of iron, and 
the discoloration disappears when it is burned. At one time this 
chalk was in common use for the manufacture of quick-lime, for 
which purpose it answers very well. Samples of this fresh-water 
chalk have been collected from various localities by members of 
the geological survey corps. An analysis of a sample taken from 
section 4, township 37, range 13, resulted as follows : 

Water at 212° F , . 8.00 per cent. 

Carbonic Acid and Combined Acid 41.50 " 

Insoluble Silicates .30 " 

Oxid of Iron, a trace 

Alumina 1.50 " 

Lime , 45.36 " 

Magnesia 3.42 " 

Sulphuric Acid , 10 " 

Phosphoric Acid 38 " 

Total 100.56 " 

A heavy deposit of lime or marl lies along the west margin of 
James Lake, and in the early settlement of the region it was 
worked for lime for making mortar, the pits being still visible. 
Aquatic plants are now encroaching on the water in almost all di- 
rections, which give the margins a marshy appearance. 

Coal has been discovered in one or two places in Steuben County, 
and indications exist in other localities; but it is not likely that 
much can be found in the way of mineral wealth. The State 
Geologist says in regard to coal and petroleum in this county that 




coal was brought down here in the early drift period by the ice 
along with the boulders and material that now enrich the soil. 
Beneath bituminous shales and deposits of the Devonian age 
there is often found a small quantity of petroleum which oozes out, 
but after a time is exhausted and ceases This is the case in all 
counties in Northern Indiana. He pronounces such discoveries 
as have been made here to be of no economic importance whatever. 


Having in mind the thousands of pupils who receive instruction 
in the excellent schools of Steuben County, and conscious that the 
greater part of those who have come to maturer years are unac- 
quainted with the subject of general geology, I desire, in the first 
place, to describe the formation of the world as a whole and give 
such an account of the great periods of the earth's history that 
we may be able to find our place in that history, and thus, as in 
locating a place upon a map first, we may be the better able after- 
ward to study it more satisfactorily and understandingly. Indeed, 
without this method of procedure, all our ideas are vague and the 
entire work unsatisfactory and unscientific. 

Omitting the nebular hypothesis, which assumes the earth, to- 
gether with all our bodies of the solar system, to have been in 
primeval times in the form of an incandescent gas of incompre- 
hensible dimensions, and the second step derived from the former, 
through long cycles of whirling motion, radiation, and condensa- 
tion, the liquid or molten earth, with its wonderful processes of 
crust formation, we begin oar brief description with the process of 


The first or original rock is what was first formed as a crust, igne- 
ous rock, rock without form or strata — a mere slag. The earth, 
losing heat by radiation and becoming smaller, the crust, in ac- 
commodating itself to the smaller sphere, must necessarily rise in 
some places and sink in others, just as by the shrinking of an 
orange the rind becomes wrinkled. Then the water, having been 
previously formed as the result of the great world formation, the 
residue, the ash-Aeap of the great conflagration, obeying the law of 
gravity, is gathered together into the depressed areas and thus the 
dry land, or rather the dry rock, appears. 




Now, by the action of winds, rains, waves and the various chem- 
ical and mechanical agencies, tlie exposed rock is decomposed, 
carried to the sea, and deposited in horizontal strata, which, in 
process of time, becomes stratified rock, jnst as is being done at the 
mouths of the rivers and the beach and bottom of the oceans of 
to day. 


From the. preceding, we may conclude that there is everywhere 
beneath the waters and soil of the earth's surface a basement of 
rock, sometimes called hed-rock. The outcropping of rock above 
the surface, the rocky bluiFs forming the sides of many valleys, the 
ledges projecting from the sides of mountains, and the cliffs of the 
sea-shore are portions of this rock exposed to view, Now, the 
various strata which compose the stratified rocks of the globe, 
with their included fossils, are the leaves of that great book which 
unfolds to us the history of the earth through its incomprehensibly 
long periods of time. Tlie lowest strata, of course, furnish us the 
first chapter in that history. In no part of the earth's surface is 
the record complete, but all have their long blanks — periods in 
which no strata occur. This is caused by the elevating of the 
crust above the waters of the ocean, and, when this is continental, 
■fim& is appended to the chapter and the history of the rocks is 
finished forever. 

In North America we have an excellent example of the unfold- 
ing and development of geological hist<n'y, and as the continent 
gradually emerged from the ocean, it left us the record almost 
complete. The following section is a representation of the succes- 
sive geological ages, with the corresponding formations and periods 
of the globe, by the side of which is placed that of Steuben County 
with its many and immensely long blanks between the Devonian 
and Quaternery or Psychozoic Ages. 

Thus a glance at the section will show us our place in the history 
of the formation of the globe, not the least interesting part of 
which is the long blank between the Devonian and Quarternery 
Ages, showing us conclusively that our soil rests upon the Devo- 
nian. At the close of the above-named period, all Northern Indi- 
ana and a strip extending through the central part of the State to 
the Ohio River emerged from beneath the sea and the history of 
the rocks of Steuben County was finished forever. 

o S- 


A gj:s. 













So named by Sedgwick and Murchison from Devonshire, Eng- 
land, where it occurs well developed and abounds in fossils, and 
its age, the Age of Fishes, so called because in it the first known 
fishes are found, is in no part of the county exposed to view, 
neither has it been reached in the sinking of wells; hence all our 
knowledge of it must be gained from exposed areas and sections in 
other localities. Omitting the rock formation, because completely 
hidden from view, we come to the study of that wliich is apparent 
to all, that in which the farmer plows, upon which our wagon roads 
and railroads are builded, and upon which we all depend for our 
daily bread — the immense superincumbent mass of soil known as 


The farmer boy, as he walks over the meadow with its carpet of 
green and wanders beside the babbling brook, or, as with sturdy 
hand he turns the grassy sward, uncultured though he be, asks 
himself the question, "From whence came all this that is spread 
out so beautifully around me ? These huge stones which I see ly- 
ing upon the surface or imbedded within the soil, how came they 
here? Do they grow? 'The hills, rock-ribbed and ancient as the 
sun,' how were they formed? and what is their history?" Ah ! If 
they could speak and tell us what scenes they have witnessed, the 
story would be of far more interest than that of Belzoni's mummy, 
for it could tell us of the world not merely as it was " three thou- 
sand years ago," but stretching far back into the illimitable past, 
they could tell much of the Creator's plans in fitting up the earth 
as the abode of man. 

All soil, with the trifling exception of the thin stratum of vege- 
table mold that covers the ground in many localities, is formed 
from the disintegration of rocks. Now, there are two great classes 
of soil, to one of which every kind of soil may be referred, that is, 
soil formed m situ — in the place where found — and that which has 
been transported, when formed, to places more or less remote from 
the parent rock. It is to the latter of these that our soil belongs 
and hence that which we wish to treat. 

* For a description of the rocks of this age, and also of its Life-System, both 
animal and vegetable, the reader is referred to the three excellent works of Prof 
Dana, the " Geological Story," the " Text-Book," and the" Manual," the masterly 
work of Prof. Le Conte, and to the many and valuable Geological Reports of 
Ohio and Indiana. 




Strewed all over the northern part of North America, over hill 
and dale, over field and plain, covering alike, in places, all the 
country rock to a depth of thirty to three hundred feet, thus largely 
concealing them from view, and extending in general from the 
Kocky Mountains eastward, and southward to the fortieth parallel 
of latitude, is found this peculiar surface soil or deposit. It consists 
of a heterogeneous mixture of clay, sand, gravel, pebbles, sub-an- 
gular stones of all sizes, un sorted, unsifted, unfossiliferous. The 
lowest part lying in immediate contact with the subjacent rock is 
often a stiff clay including sub-angular stones; hence this is often 
called the boulder clay or hard pan. ''These included boulders," 
says Prof. Geikie, "are scattered higgledy-piggledy, pell-mell, 
through the clay so as to give the whole deposit a highly confused 
and tumultuous appearance." On examining many of these stones, 
they will be found to be angular in shape, but the sharp corners 
and edges are invariably smoothed away, their faces will be 
smoothed and frequently grooved with parallel scratches. Indeed 
in concretionary stones and others having an egg shape, often one 
whole end has been ground off, showing conclusively its history. 
On the other hand, lying all over this drift soil, in clusters, in iso- 
lated rocks, and in belts varying in width from a single line to two 
or three miles, are found many boulders of all sizes; in some lo- 
calities they are of huge dimensions and weigh hundreds of tons. 
These unscratched, or erratic blocks, as they are sometimes called 
have attracted the attention and excited the wonder of those in the 
humblest walks of life, and since they are composed of materials 
foreign to the local geology, were regarded by them as foreigners 
which had been brought from a distance and strewed over the sur- 
face or perched upon declivities in some incomprehensible way. 
It is now very appropriate to investigate the causes for all this 
phenomena spread out before us. 

Whenever the underlying rock is of sufficient hardness to retain 
an impression, and for any cause is exposed to view, it is always 
found to be plowed and planed and grooved with long parallel 
striae and ruts. Thus, these scratches, with the superincumbent 
drift, the boulder-clay, and the surface boulders, furnish for us phe- 
nomena, the exact counterpart of which is found on a smaller scale 
in all the glaciated regions of the world to-day — Alaska, Green- 
land, Switzerland, the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and the Antarctic 
continent. Given identical phenomena, we must conclude there 
was an identical cause. Given identical phenomena in the one 






case on a much larger and grander scale, we must conclude there 
was a cause of far greater and grander proportions. There was. 
then, a time in the past, when for hundreds of years the winters 
grew steadily both longer and colder; the equatorial current, be- 
ing pressed southward at Cape St. Eoque, was pouring more and 
more of its waters into the South Atlantic. The moisture was all 
precipitated as snow, and these all mutually reacting upon each 
other so that each effect strengthened the cause, brought about the 
period known as the great Ice Age, and formed an immense con- 
tinental ice-sheet or Polar Ice Cap which extended in general to 
the fortieth degree of latitude, with local extensions of its icy 
fingers down river valleys far to the southward. 

In the beginning of the Archaean Age, at the time of the first 
known continental emergence in the history of the world, there 
was formed a high mountain range north of the great lakes, ex- 
tending from Labrador to the Lakes of the Woods and thence north- 
ward to the Arctic Ocean, the degradation of which has furnished 
the material for the stratified rocks that surround it, and, being 
especially active in the glacial period, it also furnished the greater 
part of our drift material. Thus through the lapse of countless ages 
down to the present time, all the mountain peaks and chains of this 
Laurentian continent, as it is frequently called, have been removed 
and carried into the sea, and, as a result, there remain only the 
truncated bases of the various arches and folds to testify to their 
former existence and magnitude. Thus we see that these archtean 
mountains are the means, and the Ice Cap, together with what 
follows, the melting of the ice, are the agents in performing the 
final work in fitting up this part of our earth-home. For with its 
ponderous mass of ice a mile in thickness and constantl}^ increas- 
ing as it approaches the pole, moving southward, it gjround the 
softer rocks to powder, brought hither our soil, scooped out the 
great lakes and the multitude of smaller ones in their latitude, and 
by the retreating of the glacier, the immense floods and the conse- 
quent hosts of icebergs, the river valleys were hollowed out, the 
hills and the gravel beds formed, and the surface boulders were 
dropped by the river's side and over the fields and plains. 

The glacier in forming the Erie basin, as is indicated by the fur- 
rows made at difterent points, moved from east to west along the 
line of its way or axis. It plowed up the Huron and Erie shales, 
in the east end, to a great depth, but moving westward it came 
upon the hard floor of corniferous limestone and but a shallow basin 


•V| g ' fc- ^ O) ^ 



was formed. Here the many beautiful and fertile islands particu- 
larly testify to the unyielding hardness of the rocks. Thence pass- 
ing southwest to New Haven and Fort Wayne, and from New 
Haven on down the Wabash Yalley, it determined the valleys of 
two rivers which would, in turn, one day, through long periods of 
time, drain the waters of Lake Erie to the gulf and convey to itself 
all of the waters of the great Maumee basin. Now, by a process the 
exact reverse of that which produced the glacial epoch, there was 
brought about a period of much warmer climate known as the 


This was characterized by melting of ice and snow, a far more 
extended and higher condition of the great lakes, by multitudes of 
icebergs floating southward over these inland seas and dropping 
their loads of earth, sand, gravel and boulders, by numerous floods 
which broadened and deepened the river valleys and the pell-mell 
dumping of gravel and stones over hills and valleys, with the strat- 
ification of whatever was deposited by the water. 

As proof of the greater extent and elevation of the lakes we have, 
for example, about Lake Erie five successive margins up to the 
elevation of 250 feet above its present level. Of these, the first 
and highest passes. from Adrian, Mich., through Fayette, Ohio, 
Hamar, West Unity, Pulaski, Bryan and Farmer Center. ' From' 
the latter place it passes into Defiance County and is divided into 
two nearly parallel lines west of Farmer Center, and continues its 
course southwesterly through Hicksville into the southeast corner 
of De Kalb County, thence on to New Haven and Fort Wayne. 
Here it forms parallel lines on the opposite sides of that old river 
which never had a name and no man ever saw; thence it passes 
eastward through Yan Wert, Delphos and Findley. 

A higher and equally continuous ridge lies back of this, passing 
from Hudson, Mich., on the left bank of the St. Joseph River, 
through Pioneer, Montpelier and Edgerton to Fort Wayne, and on 
the right bank of the St. Mary's running southeasterly to Lima 
and Kenton. 

This is not usually regarded as an old lake beach, but rather as 
a swell of the Erie clay determined by a buried moraine.* 

* The formation of the lake b aches and ridges constitute the last scenes in 
the great geological drama; nor should we look upon them as taking place in 
rapid succession, but slowly through long periods of time, just as in the near 
future, geologically speaking, the present margins of Lake Erie will be left far 
inland by the wearing away of Niagara's rocky bed and the retreating of the 




This ridge, commonly called the St. Mary's Ridge, though it 
seems to me it would better be called the St. Joseph and St. Mary's 
JRidge, exerts a very controlling influence over the drainage of the 
country; for it determines the basin of the two noble rivers, the St. 
Joseph and the St. Marj^'s. 

These properly have tributaries flowing into them from one di- 
rection only, in the St. Joseph from the right, and in the St, Mary's 
from the left, and by their confluence at Fort Wayne, the one flow- 
ing in a southwesterly course, the other in a northwesterly course, 
they form the Mauraee, which flows back to Toledo, Ohio — not the 
resultant of the two forces, but directly the opposite of it. Thus 
this system of drainage, of which Steuben County furnishes an 
honorable part, has two most interesting features, the like of which, 
except the Tiffin and Auglaize and the second lake beach, so far as 
we know, is not to be found elsewhere upon the globe. Now, if 
the reader will refer to the section, he will be able to see our place 
more clearly. Far beneath us is the original or crust rock. Super- 
imposed upon this we have formed chiefly by the degradation of 
the Laurentian Mountains, the many and diverse strata that con- 
stitute the periods of the Silurian and Devonian ages. At the close 
of the last-named age, our county arose from beneath the ancient 
sea and its rock formation was at an end. It will also be observed 
that simultaneous with these formations there were formed in Scot- 
land and Wales the strata of the Old Red Sandstone, by the study 
of which, with chisel and hammer, Hugh Miller rendered both 
them and himself immortal. Thus, with the long blanks before 
us, it would be idle to look for coal or any of the interesting and 
useful formations of the Carboniferous, Reptilian and Tertiary 
ages; but while these phenomena were taking place, our county, 
with its head above the waves, like a silent and lonely sentinel, 
gazed upon these wonderful transformations, including the emer- 
gence of the continent southward and the gradual yet wonderful 
formation of the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains. After all 
this was accomplished, the ponderous and mighty glacier, moving 
southward with grandeur and irresistible force, brought hither our 
300 feet of drift-soil, rich in the elements of the old granitic rocks, 
and consisting of alternate layers of yellow and blue clay, sand and 
gravel of varying thickness. Thus there is formed for us the best 
of conditions for obtaining good water. There are three strata of 
sand with impervious clay on either side, having an average depth 
of twelve, twenty -five, and forty -five feet. This is known by the 






many excellent wells all over the country, the greater number and 
best of which are generally obtained by sinking the tube to the 
second stratum of sand, having an average depth of twenty-five 
feet. On the retiring of the glacier, tliere was left upon the sur- 
face in the northwestern part of De Kalb County numerous 
boulders which may be traced northward through Steuben County 
and the State of Michigan, increasing both in size and number to 
the place of their origin — the region beyond the lakes. About 
this time, or just subsequent to it, was formed the St. Joseph, and, 
for the first time in its history, the waters of this phenomenal river 
are coursing southward, not yet to Lake Erie, but through the chan- 
nel of the Wabash on to the Gulf. Following this began the dep- 
osition of the alluvial bottom lands on either side of the river 
and its tributaries, of which are formed our most beautiful and 
fertile farms. Now, the margins of Lake Erie crossing the south- 
eastern part of the county, through the action of winds and waves, 
formed those beautiful ridges, previously described. These, "being 
composed chiefly of sand and fine gravel with sufficient clay to pack 
well, and yet sufficiently porous to drain well," have from the first 
afforded the people in their vicinity the best of roads, known here 
and wherever found as the "Ridge E.oads." 

Proceeding from below upward in our investigations, we arrive at 
last at the thin stratum of vegetable mold, covering the drift, which 
has been formed by the annual coating of leaves for untold years. 
This, together with the pulverized and partially decomposed granitic 
rock, the enormous drift covering, furnishes for the farmer a soil that 
is^at once fertile and inexhaustible; for if he will but " plow deep, 
while sluggards sleep, he will have plenty of corn to sell and keep." 

Thus, though we are not blessed with mines of the precious 
metals, nor coal, nor iron, nor copper, yet we have in our soil an 
inexhaustible mine of true wealth, the foundation of a nation's 
true greatness, the basis, the hidden spring that sets in motion the 
wheels of trade and commerce throughout the world. And the 
farmer, in his high and time-honored calling, holds in his hand the 
electric key, by means of which he sends the thrill of life-giving 
pulsations throughout the whole world of human industry and sets 
in motion its countless spindles and wheels the sweet music of 
whose hum is heard in every clime. 


Although no large body of water exists within or near the bor- 





ders of Steuben County it formerly had a respectable number of 
both species and individuals of the animal' kingdom. It afforded 
the Indian and the pioneer an abundance of wholesome wild meats, 
and in great variety, as well as a plentiful supply of useless or 
mischievous animals. According to the rule the world over, the 
larger animals disappeared first before the advancing tread of human 
occupation, and then the next in size, and so on, down to the rac- 
coon, opossum, etc., which still exist, though in diminishing num- 
bers. The buffalo and elk were the largest, and they disappeared 
on the very first approach of the white man, with his deadly rifle 
and indefatigable hound. 


The common deer, which was abundant in pioneer times, is now 
very scarce in Indiana, being occasionally seen in some of the 
wildest portions of the State. The last one known to be in Steuben 
County was killed as much as twenty years ago. 

The panther {Felix concolor) and two species of wild cat {Lynx 
Canadensis and rufus) used to infest the woods, and render travel- 
ing somewhat dangerous to the early settler, but the last seen in 
the county were about a third of a century ago. 

The black bear, porcupine and beaver have not been seen here 
for a still longer period. 

Minks, weasels and skunks, once common, are diminishing. 
Twenty to thirty years ago there was a brisk trade here in their 
furs and other peltry which perceptibly thinned out the fur-bearing 

Fox and gray squirrels keep up their proportion with the dimin- 
ishing forest. The gray species is the most numerous, among 
which a black specimen is occasionally met with. Flying squirrels 
are still here, but as they are entirely nocturnal in their habits 
they are seldom seen. There are also ground squirrels in abundance. 

Moles, rabbits and bats are of course still common. 

No others have been seen for many years, though they were fre- 
quent in early days. There are still a good many muskrats. 

Occasionally there is a gray fox met with, but no red foxes have 
been seen for a long time. 

Wolves, of the large gray or " timber" species, were plentiful 
in early times, and more annoying and mischievous than all other 
animals put together; but they are now, of course, extinct. 

Groundhogs, or " woodchucks," were never plentiful, and are so 
scarce now that seldom can one be found. 







" Wild hogs," or domestic liogs escaped and running wild, were 
abundant in pioneer times. In a few generations these animals 
became as furious and dangerous as wolves. 


Of the 250 species of birds found in Steuben County, either con- 
stantly or occasionally in emigration, the group of singers exceeds 
in number all others, though the really excellent musicians among 
them number but fifteen or twenty. The most numerously repre- 
sented division, the wood warblers {Tanagridce) are not fine singers. 
The best songsters of the forest belong to the thrush and mocking- 
bird family. 

Thrush Family. — The superior singing bird of Steuben County 
is the superior singer of all the world, namely, the wood-thrush. It 
is really more entertaining than the famous nightingale of Europe, 
Its melodious, flute-like tones are altogether "too sweet" for de- 
scription. They are grouped into short tunes of eight, ten or 
twelve notes each, and there are six or eight tunes sung by this 
bird, with intervals of five to six or seven seconds between them. 

Next to this prima donna of the forest are the olive-backed (or 
Swainson's) thrush, Wilson's thrush, the northern mocking-bird 
(or cat-bird), the brown thrush and the robin. These are all migra- 
tory birds, spending the summer here but the winter in the South. 
The robin sometimes remains all winter. The hermit and the 
olive-backed thrushes are more common in the spring and fall. 
The robin and the cat-bird frequent the orchards and gardens, nest- 
ing about the door-yards, and prefer these places to the woods, 
probably because of greater security from birds or other animals 
of prey. The brown thrush is found in the thickets of hazel-brush, 
briers, etc., which skirt old fences and the edge of woods, and gen- 
erally nests in brush heaps. The remainder of this family is con. 
fined to the woodland. Their food consists of beetles, grasshoppers, 
snails, spiders, caterpillars, etc, together with small fruits and 

Bluebird Family. — The bluebird is the only representative of 
this family in the county. It is common from spring to fall, nest- 
ing in bird-houses, fence-posts, decayed trees, and feeds on winged 
insects, worms, grasshoppers, spiders and a scant proportion of 

Kinglets. — The ruby-crowned and the golden-crowned kinglets 
and the blue-gray gnat-catcher are all common during the spring 





and fall. The first-mentioned is frequently found in winter, and 
the gnat-catcher is abundant during the summer. These are con- 
fined to the woods. The kinglets nest in the lake region, but the 
gnat-catcher nests here, building a wonderful structure high up on 
the oaks. It is somewhat purse-shaped, and often at the extrem- 
ity of a bough, so as to sway with the wind, secure from enemies. 
It is placed in a concealed situation, and artistically, as well as 
substantially, finislied. 

Chickadee. — The titmouse, or black-capped chickadee, the only 
member of this family here, feeds upon insects, seeds, berries, 
crumbs, meat, etc., and generally nests in the woods, where it 
makes its home most of the year, but during the winter it is seen 
near the house, feeding upon sweepings from the table. 

NatkatGlies. — The white-bellied and the red-bellied nuthatch are 
common, especially the former. These birds are found in wood- 
lands and orchards. Their nests are built in holes in trees. Food 
— ants, eggs of insects and seeds. 

Brown Creeper. — A common spring, fall and winter resident, 
and a woodland bird, is to be mentioned in this connection. 

Wren Family. — The Carolina wren is a very rare straggler from 
the South. The house wren is common locally. The winter wren 
is a common spring and fall visitor, often remaining during the 
open winters. The long-billed marsh wren is a common summer 
resident of the marshes, building a large globular nest of coarse 
sand-grass, suspended to reeds or flag stems. The short-billed 
marsh-wren is a common summer resident, generally found on low 
meadow lands. The wrens feed on insects only. 

Larh Family. — The horned lark is a winter resident, but some- 
times breeds here. It frequents barren and gravelly fields, feed- 
ing on seeds and insects. When the ground is covered with snow 
they may be seen feeding upon the droppings of stock about the 

The Titlark is an abundant migrant in late fall and early spring, 
frequenting the same localities and subsisting on the same food as 
the preceding. There are sometimes large flocks of this species 
of bird. 

Warblers. — These are numerous. The black and white creeper 
is a common summer resident, nesting on the ground, generally 
beside a fallen log. The blue yellow-backed warbler, a rare mi- 
gratory bird, is sometimes found in the tree-tops of the wild forest. 
The blue-winged yellow warbler is rare. The blue golden-winged 



warbler is common in spring and fall. The Nashville and Tennessee 
warblers are very common. The orange-crowned warbler is rare. 
The yellow, the black-throated green, the black-throated blue, the 
blue, the yellow-rumped, the blackburnian, the black-poll, the yellow 
red-poll, and the chestnut-sided warblers are all common — some of 
them abundant; all migrants. The bay-breasted, the Cape May, 
the prairie, the yellow-throated and Kirtland's warblers are rare. 
The golden-crowned thrush {Soiurus atiricipillus) is a common 
summer resident, frequenting low open woods. The water thrush 
(xS'. Naevius) is rare, bat breeds here. The large-billed water 
thrush is common in swampy timber lands. The Connecticut war- 
bler is rare, but may become common. It is a fine songster. The 
Mar^'land yellow-throat is found occasionally. The black-capped 
fly-catching warbler is common during the spring and autumn. 
Canada fly-catching warbler, common. Red start, very common. 

Tanagers. — The scarlet tanager is common, and the summer red- 
bird (sometimes kept in cages) rare, accidentally straying from the 

Swallow Family. — The barn, cliff or eave, white-bellied, and 
the bank or sand swallows are common. The purple martin, for- 
merly common, is being driven out by the English sparrow. The 
swallows feed exclusively upon winged insects. 

Wax-wings. — The Carolina wax-wing or cherry bird is a com- 
mon resident, breeding in August and September, and feeding on 
the cultivated fruits. 

Vireos. — There are a half-dozen species of these in this section 
of the country, inhabiting woodlands, some of them common, some 
of them rare. 

Shrikes or Butcher Birds. — The great Northern shrike is rare; 
the logger-head shrike, two varieties, is common. These form a 
small but interesting family ot bold and spirited birds, quarrel- 
some among themselves. They form a kind of connecting link 
between insect-eating birds and birds of prey. Their food con- 
sists of large insects, mice and small birds and snakes. They are 
noted for impaling their prey on thorns or sharp twigs and leaving 
it there — for what purpose is not yet known. 

Finch and Sparrow Family. — Numerous; pine grosbeak,an oc- 
casional winter visitor; purple finch, a common migrant; white- 
winged and red cross-bills, rare winter visitors; red-poll linnet, an 
irregular winter visitor; pine linnet, a rare winter visitor from the 
North; goldfinch, or yellow bird, common and well-known; has the 

' "/Is — ~^ '■ ^ g\ 



appearance of a canary; snow-bunting, a common but irregular 
winter visitor; Lapland long-spur, a common winter visitor; Savan- 
nah sparrow, a common migrant; bay-winged bunting, very com- 
mon from spring to fall; yellow-winged, Henslow's and Lincoln's 
sparrows, are summer residents; swamp and song sparrows, 
common, the latter abundant all the warm season; snow-bird, 
common in winter; mountain sparrow, common in winter; chip- 
ping and field sparrows, common in summer; white-throated 
and white-crowned sparrows, common migrants; English sparrow, 
abundant in the towns, driving out our native song-birds; fox 
sparrow, a very common spring and fall visitor; black-throated 
bunting, growing common; rose-breasted grosbeak, a common sum- 
mer resident; breeds along the water-courses in low trees and 
shrubs; indigo bird, abundant in summer, frequenting low wood- 
lands overrun with briers; towhee bunting orchewink, abundant. 

Birds of this family feed entirely upon seeds except during the 
breeding season. Those which are residents all the year and those 
which are summer residents only subsist during the breeding sea- 
son and feed their young almost exclusively upon insects. At 
other times their food consists of the seeds of grass and weeds. 

The rose-breasted grosbeak is the only bird known to feed on the 
potato bug, and the white-crowned sparrow feeds on the grape-vine 
flea-beetle. The common yellow bird, or goldfinch, prefers the 
seeds of the thistle and lettuce. The fox sparrow and chewink 
scratch the ground for hibernating insects and snails. The cross- 
bills feed on the seeds in pine cones, and the English sparrow 
feeds on the seeds contained in the droppings of animals. 

BlacJcbird Family. — Bobolink, common and well-known; a 
fine and cheerful songster; cow-bird, or cow blackbird, a summer 
visitor, frequenting old pasture land and the edge of woods; like the 
European cuckoo, it builds no nest, but lays its eggs in the nests 
of smaller birds, such as warblers, vireos and sparrows. Red-winged 
black-bird, abundant in summer; meadow-lark, well known; or- 
chard and Baltimore orioles are very common; rusty blackbird, or 
grackle, is common for a week or two in spring; crow blackbird, 
common and well known. 

With the exception of one or two species, this family is decidedly 
gregarious. Insects and grains constitute their food. The cow- 
bird destroys the eggs and young of other birds. The orioles feed 
largely on hairy caterpillars and also on some of the small fruits, 
green peas, etc. 





Orow Family. — The raven was common, but is now rare. The 
common crow, well-known, emigrates southward during the cold- 
est weather. Blue jay is the gayest plumaged and harshest-voiced 
bird of the American forests. Birds of this family are omnivorous. 

Fly-catcher Family. — The king-bird is abundant in summer, fre- 
quenting orchards and the edge of the woods; great crested fly- 
catcher, abundant in the forest; uses snake-skins as a part of its 
nest material; pewee, or Phcebe bird, common; wood pewee, a 
common bird of the orchard and woodland; least fly-catcher, com- 
mon in summer; yellow-bellied flj'-catcher, a common migrant, 
but rare summer resident. The king-bird and pewee frequent 
open places; the others of this family dwell in the forest. They 
all subsist upon winged insects. 

Goatsucker Family. — Whippoorwill and night-hawk, well- 
known and common. These birds are nocturnal in their habits 
and feed upon insects. 

The Chimney Swallow is the only member of the family Cypse- 
lidcB that is found in this latitude. It is sometimes seeu in large 
flocks, roosting in unused chimneys, barns and hollow trees. 

Humming-bird Family. — The ruby-throated is the only species 
found here. It feeds upon insects, which it captures within 

King-fifsher Family. — The belted king-fisher is a common sum- 
mer resident in suitable localities. It feeds upon small fish. 

Cuckoo Fandly. — The black-billed species is common; has been 
called "rain crow." The yellow-billed cuckoo is not common. 

Woodpecker Family. — There are half a dozen species of wood- 
pecker found in this locality, all common, viz. : The hairy, downy, 
yellow-bellied, red-bellied, red-headed and golden-winged. Omniv- 

Owl Family. — The great horned, the mottled, the screech, the 
long-eared and the short-eared are abundant. The barn owl is a 
rare straggler from the South. Possibly one or two other species 
may occasionally be found here. 

Hawk Family. — The marsh hawk, the sharp shinned. Cooper's, 
the sparrow, the red-tailed, the red-shouldered, the broad-winged, 
the rough-legged or black, and the fish hawks are all common. The 
white-tailed kite, the goshawk, the pigeon hawk, Swainson's hawk 
and the bald eagle are more rare. 

The Turkey Buzzard^ belonging to a distinct family, is rare. 








Pigeon Family. — The wild pigeon, au abundant migrant, some- 
times breeds here. The Carolina dove'is a common resident here 
most of the year. 

The Wild TuvTcey once abundant but now rare, is the only- 
member of its family native to this region. 

Grouse Family. — Prairie chicken, once occasional, none now; 
ruffed grouse, or partridge, occasional; quail, common. 

Plover Family. — The golden plover, the killdeer and the semi- 
palmated are common about unfrequented ponds. The black-bel- 
lied plover is rare, if ever seen at all. 

Sandpiper Family. — The most common species of this family 
are the semi-palmated, least, pectoral, red-breasted, Willst, solitary, 
spotted and upland sandpipers, the snipe and the woodcock. Less 
common are the buff-breasted and red-backed sandpipers, long- 
billed curlew and perhaps occasionally two or three other unim- 
portant species. 

Heron Family. — The green and night herons, the bittern and 
the least bittern are common residents. The great blue heron 
is a common migrant and the great white heron a rare summer 

Cranes. — The whooping and sand-hill cranes are sometimes seen 
in migration. 

Bail Family. — The Virginia and Carolina rails and the coot 
are often seen in the vicinity of the streams and in the margin of 
ponds; the clapper, king, yellow and black rails, very rarely; the 
Morida gallinule, occasional. 

Duck Family. — The common species are the mallard, black, big 
black-head, little black-head, ring-necked, red-head (or pochard), 
golden-eye, butter ball, ruddy and fish (gosander) ducks, the brant 
and Canada geese, widgeon, golden-winged and blue-winged teal, 
and the hooded merganser. Rarely are seen the pintail, gadwall 
shoveler, wood duck, canvas-back duck, long-tailed duck and red 
breasted merganser. All the duck family are migratory. 

Gull Family. — About ten species may rarely be seen in passing. 

Loon. — One species sometimes strays into this locality from the 

Grebes. — The horned and the pied-bill grebes are occasional. 
One or two other species very rare. 


Stichlehack Family. — This furnishes the chief game fish, as bass 





and sun-fish. The local names of these fish are so various that we 
scarcely know how to refer to them; but we may venture to name 
the black bass, the green or Osage bass, the big black sun-fish or 
rock bass, goggle-eye and the two common sun-fish, all of which 
have materially diminished within the last five years. 

Perch Family. — There are no perch, or "jack salmon," in the 
county. They were once common throughout the State, but now 
are only to be found occasionally in some of the most favored 
places. They are among the finest fishes, and ought to be culti- 
vated. The salmon sometimes attains a weight of forty pounds. 

Pike Family. — The larger pike, sometimes called "grass pike," 
used to be met with, especially in draining ofi" the marshes. The 
pickerel was also native here, but none are to be found at the 
present day. Kor have gar pike ("gars") existed here since the 
advent of mill-dams. 

Sucker Family. — To this family belong the buffalo (rare), red- 
horse (occasional) and the white sucker (also occasional). Black 
suckers and mullets still thrive in some parts of Indiana, but not 
here. / 

Catfish Family. — Fish of this family are still common, but are 
small, weighing only a pound or two. We can scarcely name the 
species in English. Perhaps we may say the channel, or mud cat- 
fish, the blue and the yellow, the bull-head and one or two other 
small species are found here. The yellow are the most common. 

Minor Sorts. — Besides the above, there are several varieties of 
chubs, silver-sides, and large numbers of other species denomi- 
nated minnows, which are found in the smallest spring branches, 
as well as the larger streams. 

Fish planting has not yet been introduced into this county. 


Of the twenty-three species of Snakes that have existed in this 
State, and probably in this county, several of the largest have been 
about exterminated. Only two of them are venomous, namely, the 
copperhead and the massasanga. Yery few of these are to be 
found at the pfesent day. The smaller species are useful animals, 
like toads, in destroying mice, moles and other vermin, and are 
preserved by intelligent farmers on this account. 

Of Lizards there are very few in this section. Those creatures 
which resemble them are innocent salamanders, and are really as 
useful as toads in the destruction of flies and other insects. There 






are eighteen species of these animals in Indiana. The largest 
attains a length of eight inches, and is black, with large, irregular 
yellow spots. Another large species is entirely yellow; another of 
a brilliant vermilion haunts cold springs. The second in size is 
the "mud alligator," or "water dog," a frequent annoyance to 
fishermen. Still another species has external gills, for respiration 
in water, thus resembling pollywogs. 

Of Frogs there are five species, and of toads five. Four are tree 
toads. One species of frog is subterranean, excavating its burrows 
backward with its hind feet, which are shovel formed. It comes 
to the surface early to breed, after thunder showers in April, in the 
evening, when it is easily recognized by its loud, discordant notes. 





First Settlers and Land Entries. — Organization of County. — 
Location of County Seat. — Name of County. — First Offi- 
cials. — First Session Board of Commissioners. — Bond of 
Joseph Pierce. — Proceedings of Board. — Erection of James- 
town Township. — Joseph Pierce First Treasurer of County. — 
His Bond. — Erection of Otsego Township. — Assessor and Col- 
lector Appointed. — Indians. — County Buildings, Court-House 
Jail and Asylum. — Pioneer Reunions. — Organization of So- 
ciety. — Condensed Proceedings of Annual Meetings from 
1873 to 1884. — Addresses, Reminiscences and Anecdotes. — D. 
B. Griffin's Reminiscences. — Mrs. J. B, Wisel's Reminiscences. 

first settlers and land entries. 

The first permanent white settlers of Steuben County were Gideon 
Langdon and John and Jacob Stayner, who located in 1831 on what 
is now known as Jackson Prairie. On the 17th of September, in 
the same year, Langdon made the first entry of land in the county, 
it being the east half of the southwest quarter of section 5, town- 
ship 37, range 12 east. Ten days later, John Stayner entered the 
west half of the southeast quarter of the same section. 

organization of county. 

The county of Lagrange was organized by an act of the General 
Assembly, approved Feb. 2, 1832, and " all the territory lying east 
of said county to the State line and south of said county and said 
territory to the line between townships 33 and 34," was attached 
thereto for civil and judicial purposes. The county of Steuben was 
organized in pursuance of an act of the General Assembly, ap- 
proved Jan. 18, 1837, which provided that from and after the 
first day of May, 1837, the county of Steuben should " enjoy all 
the rights and jurisdictions which belong to separate and inde- 
pendent counties." 

John W. Yiolet, of Elkhart County; Henry Hosteller, Sr., of 




Noble; Isaac Eaton, of St. Joseph ; Benjamin Jones, of Lagrange; 
and John Mcintosh, of Allen, were appointed Commissioners for 
the purpose of locating the permanent seat of justice of said county. 
These commissioners were required to meet, as soon as a majority 
of them could agree, at the house of Cornelius Gilmore, at or near 
the center of said county. 


Isaac Glover, Abner Winsor and others made strong efforts to 
secure the location of the county seat at Steubenville, a few miles 
south of Angola, near the present village of Pleasant Lake. They 
offered to donate $16,200, providing the county seat was lo- 
cated at that place. Messrs. Thomas Gale and Cornelius Gilmore, 
of Angola, agreed to give the site for the court-house and erect 
the buildings. Their offer was accepted, and, in accordance with 
the agreement, they completed a substantial frame court-house in 
1841 at a cost of $2,000. This selection has never since been se- 
riously questioned, and the people have never been disturbed by 
" county-seat wars," such as have agitated the inhabitants of many 


The county was named in honor of Baron Frederick de Steuben, 
a noted soldier who served under the great King Frederick, of 
Prussia. He came to America during the war of the Kevolution, and 
tendered his services to the patriot cause. He was commissioned, 
and rendered efficient aid to the army by greatly improving its 
discipline. He was killed at the battle of Camden, S. C, in 1780. 


William M. Cary was appointed by the Governor, Jan. 30, 1837, 
as Sheriff of Steuben County, to serve until the first Monday of 
August following. A writ of election was issued by the Governor 
April 11, 1837, for the election of clerk, sheriff, recorder, two 
associate judges and three commissioners. An election was held 
a lew weeks afterward, but the precise date cannot be determined. 
The Board of Commissioners was authorized by the organic act to 
meet in special session, when elected and qualified, "to appoint a 
lister and make other necessary appointments." 


The first meeting of the Board of Commissioners was held June 
26, 1837, the Commissioners being Seth W. Murray, James Clark 


and Jonas Twichell. James McConnell was also present as Clerk, 
and William M. Gary as Sheriff. We copy the following proceed- 
ings from the record of this first session: 

"Joseph Pierce presented his bond for the faithful discharge of 
his duties as Agent of the Surplus Eevenue for the county of Steu- 
ben for the present year, and until his successor shall be chosen 
and qualified, which reads as follows, to wit: 

"Know all men by these presents, That we, Joseph Pierce, Cor- 
nelius Gilmore and William M. Gary, of Steuben County, are held 
and firmly bound unto the State of Indiana in the sum of $4,300, 
lawful money of the United States, for the payment of which,' well 
and truly to be made and done, we bind ourselves, our heirs, ex- 
ecutors and administrators, jointly and severally, firmly by these 
presents. Sealed with our seal, and dated this 24th day of June 

"The condition of the above obligation is such that if the above 
bound Joseph Pierce will faithfully discharge the duties of his office 
as Agent of said State of Indiana for loaning that part of the surplus 
revenue of the United States, to which said co unty of Steuben is 
entitled by virtue of an act of the General Assembly approved Feb- 
ruary, 1837, according to the provisions of said act, and the act 
that may be amendatory thereto, then the above obligation to be 
void and of no e ffect, otherwise to be and remain in full force and 
virtue in law. 


" Signed, sealed and delivered ^ 

Joseph Piekce, 

Cornelius Gilmore, 
William M. Cary. 

by the obligors and approved 
by the Board of Commissioners 
of Steuben County. 

' ' James Mc Connell, Clerk. 

" [This document calls to mind the distribution of surplus revenue 
among the several States by the United States in 1837, the only 
instance of the kind in our history.] 

" It is ordered that there be an election for two justices of the 
peace for Jackson Township, said election to be holden the 24th 
day of July next at the usual place of holding elections in said 
township. And also appointed to said township James Hardy and 
Orrin Goodrich, Constables; Benjamin Twichell, Supervisor of the 
second road district ; Abner Davis and M. Carver, Pence- Viewers; 
George Hendry, Inspector of Elections. 

"It is ordered that E. M. Has kins be licensed to vend foreign 
merchandise and groceries by paying into the county treasury 
five dollars. 






" On petition of Theron Storrs and others, it is ordered that 
congressional township 38 north, range 13 east, be set off and organ- 
ized as prescribed by law in such cases made and provided, and 
that said township be called Jamestown. And that there be notice 
given of an election in said township for a justice of the peace, 
and that Yalorns Baker be appointed Constable; Theron Storrs, In- 
spector of Elections, and John Bell, Jr., Supervisor. 

"On petition of Aaron B. Goodwin and others for the setting 
apart and organization of the congressional township 36, ranges 14 
and 15 east, it is therefore ordered that said township be set off 
and organized as other civil townships, and that notice of an elec- 
tion for two justices of the peace be given, and that Hiram S. Parker 
and James Winters be Constables for said township, and that they 
qualify themselves according to law; also, that Aaron B. Goodwin 
be Inspector of Elections. 

"It is ordered that Joseph Pierce be, and he is hereby, appointed 
County Treasurer. 

" Know all men by these presents. That we, Joseph Pierce, Cor- 
nelius Gilmore and William M. Cary, of Steuben County, are held 
and firmly bound unto the State of Indiana in the sum of $2,500, 
lawful money of the United States, for the payment of which well 
and truly to be made and done, we bind ourselves, our heirs, exec- 
utors and administrators, jointly and severally, firmly by these 
presents. Sealed with our seals, and dated this 4th day of Septem- 
ber, A. D. 1837. 

"The conditions of the above obligation is such that if the 
above bound Joseph Pierce will faithfully discharge the duties of 
his office as County Treasurer, for the County of Steuben, for the 
term of one year, and will render a true and just account of all 
moneys which may come into his hands by virtue of his said office, 
and will at the expiration of his term of service deliver over to 
his successor in office all books, papers, documents and other 
things belonging to said office, and which may be in his hands and 
possession, and will moreover pay to his successor all moneys 
which may be in his hands belonging to the county, then the 
above obligation to be void and of no effec!", otherwise to be and 
remain in full force and virtue in law. 

"Signed, sealed and delivered ] Joseph Pierce, 
by the obligors, and allowed by I Cornelius Gilmore, 
the Board of Commissioners [ William M. Cary. 
of Steuben County. 

James McConnell, Clerk. 



-5> x"- 


"It is ordered that congressional township 36, ranges 14 
and 15, be set off and organized with the privileges of other 
civil townships, and be called Otsego. And also ordered that the 
following person be and is hereby appointed a township officer : 
James Clark, Inspector of Elections. Also an election for a 
justice of the peace to be holden on the first Monday of August 

" It is ordered that David Sams be, and he is hereby, appointed 
Assessor for the county the present year, and that he be notified 
of his appointment. 

" It is ordered that William M. Gary be, and he is hereby, ap- 
pointed Collector of the county revenue the present year." 

Thus was the governmental machinery of the county fully set 
in motion. At subsequent meetings, other townships were erected. 


During the first few years after the settlement of the county, 
the native Americans were very numerous, this region being then 
occupied by the Pottawatomies as a hunting ground. They were 
at peace with the " pale-faces," consequently no serious depreda- 
tions were committed upon the scattered settlements. Their 
chief's name was Baw Beese, who is reputed to have adminis- 
tered the affairs of his little kingdom with a sense of justice 
almost Koman in its sternness. His usual residence was in Branch 
County, Mich. In 18i0 the Indians were removed to a reserva- 
tion in the far West. 


On the organization of Steuben County, strong efforts were 
made by Isaac Glover, Abner Winsor and others, to secure the 
location of the county seat at Steubenville, a few miles 
south of Angola, near the present village of Pleasant Lake. 
They offered, as stated before, to donate $16,200, provided 
the county seat was located at that place. Messrs. Gale and 
Gilraore, founders of Angola, agreed to give the site for the 
court-house and erect the buildings. Their offer was accepted 
and in accordance with the agreement they completed a substan- 
tial frame court-house in 1841, at a cost of $2,000. The building 
was upon the site of the present court-house, from which it was 
moved in 1868, and it now stands on the south side of Maumee 
street, a short distance east of the public square. The present 








court-house, a very substantial structure, was erected in 1868, at 
a cost of $27,000. On the first floor are the offices of the auditor, 
treasurer, clerk and recorder, while in the second story sessions 
of court are held, as well as occasional public meetings. The 
four offices are provided with commodious fire-proof vaults. 

The first county jail was constructed of hewn lo^s. In 1839 a 
frame jail was erected over and around the old one, the log build- 
ing answering as a cell for the frame one after the latter was built. 
The first prisoners confined in this jail were a couple of horse 
thieves who were captured in the northern part of the county. 
"When they were brought here the jail was full of lumber which 
the sheriff had stored there for the purpose of drying. As the 
jail could not be put in readiness very well that night, the prison- 
ers were taken to the hotel and S. A. Powers, uncle of S. A. 
Powers, Esq., of Angola, volunteered to help guard them. In 
the morning the sheriff cleared the jail and the prisoners were 
duly incarcerated in the log cell. The following morning they 
were gone; and it was said that when Mr. Powers heard of it, he 
indulged in language more forcible than polite. Some one had 
very kindly helped the prisoners to escape. It was in this cell 
that the notorious Silas Doty was confined. In 1877 a new stone 
and brick jail, of beautiful design, was built at a cost of $22,000. 
The old frame structure was moved toward the depot and con- 
verted into a livery barn. The new jail is one of the handsomest 
structures of its kind in Northern Indiana, and attracts favorable 
comment from all visitors to Angola. 

The county asylum is located near Crooked Lake, three miles 
northwest of Angola, on a fine farm of 315 acres, which is valued 
at $60 per acre. The old building now in use is composed of 
three different structures joined together, and is not very im- 
pressive as to beauty. Across the road a fine brick building has 
just been erected, which will last a generation, and as to appear- 
ance is in harmony with the other county buildings. Its contract 
cost is $14,853. Including furniture, etc., the cost will reach 
$19,000. It was occupied early in 1885. The number of per- 
sons dependent on the county for support is at present twenty. 
The present efficient Superintendent is Samuel A. Anspaugh, who 
began his duties March 8, 1878. He was preceded by Alexander 
Moore, who was in charge for eleven years; and his predecessor, 
Alonzo Cobb, who served three or four years, was the first Super- 
intendent of the county poor. Under Mr. Anspaugh the farm is 

— — 1 



well cared for, supplied with good stock, and the institution is 



In nearly every community in our now populous Northwest the 
old settlers have formed associations for the purpose of holding 
annual meetings and renewing memories of the past. The Steu- 
ben County pioneers were not so prompt in taking this step as 
those of surrounding counties. In the summer of 1873 a call was 
published in the I^epuhlican, as follows: 

"The old settlers of Steuben County are fast passing away and 
their children, many of them, have sought new homes in other 
States, or become like their fathers, pioneers in Territories. A few 
years more and every one of the early settlers and their children 
will have " passed beyond the flood," and no record of their early 
history will be known to those who will reap the benefits and enjoy 
the luxuries and blessings of our county, made fruitful and wealthy 
by the industry, energy and self-sacrificing privations of the first 
settlers. Let there be a meeting of all the old settlers and their 
children to compare notes, revive old reminiscences and appoint 
some competent person to write up the incidents, anecdotes and 
land marks of early days that their children may know, while they 
are enjoying the blessings of life, what it cost to produce them. 
The following are among the early pioneers, and there are doubt- 
less many more with whom we are not acquainted, and we ask them 
as many as can, to meet us at the court-house at Angola on Saturday 
Aug. 9, 1873, at one o'clock p. m., that we may perfect an organiza- 
tion and take the initiatory steps for an ' old settlers' Jubilee.' Let 
every one that can attend and inform all within their neighbor- 
hood of the time and place of meeting." Here followed a list of 
about eighty pioneers. 

OLD settlers' JUBILEE. 

At that called meeting the following township committees were 
appointed to awaken interest in their respective localities, and to 
prepare historical reports with a view to a " jubilee" on the 25th of 
September following: Millgrove, Nelson Newton, George Hard- 
ing and Orlando Wilder; Jamestown, Clayton Mallory, Cephas 
McCuUer and John McClue; Fremont, Jeremiah Tillotson, Theron 
Storrs and Willard L. Scott; Clear Lake, George Hotchkiss, David 
Harris and D. B. Teeters; York, Calvin Powers, David Hansel man 
and H. P. Hathaway; Scott, Augustus Wood worth, Jas. A. Segur 

^ o> lite 





and Nelson Hutchins; Pleasant, George W. Baldwin, Able Sowle 
and Lewis Stealey; Jackson, Zepbaniah Stayner, Amasa Sams and 
Porter Gleason; Salem, Eli M. Teal, Elbridge Wrigbt and H. P. 
Butler; Steuben, Samuel Carter, Jacob Abby and Capt. S. B. 
George; Otsego, Henry R. Williams, A. J. Corbin and Ed, C. 
Jobnson; Kicbland, M. B. Gordon, S. W. Scoville and Jobn Cam- 
eron. Tbe jubilee was beld at the appointed time, and was a com- 
plete success. Tbe day was favorable and the attendance large. 
Among those present were John Slick and wife, of Salem Town- 
ship. The former was a soldier under Bonaparte, and came to this 
county at an early day. Mrs. Slick never heard a brass band play 
until this reunion. Speeches were made by several persons and 
some historical reports were read, but no set programme was fol- 
lowed, everything being spontaneous. 


The second reunion was held Aug. 2T, 1874, in McConnelPs 
Park and was well attended. The day was pleasant in every re- 
spect. As on the previous occasion, there was no formal order of 
exercises, but prayers, music, conversation, recitals of incidents, 
reminiscences, expressions of regard, regrets for absentees — all 
terse, timely and interesting — made up the day's entertainment. 


Aug 19, 1875, was appointed for the next meeting. The day 
opened cloudy and threatening, and many were doubtless deterred 
from attending. Still, by noon 2,000 persons were assembled. 
The procession to the park was 'made up by townships, tbe oldest 
settlers, so far as they could be arranged, bearing the banner which 
indicated the place of settlement. Mrs. Alexander Chapin carried 
Millo-rove, leading the concourse. On arriving at the grove the 
crowd, so far as possible, was seated, with the "old folks" nearest 
and around the stands. After preliminary exercises and dinner 
volunteer speeches were called for. 

The first respondent, Kussell Brown, of Orland, stated that he 
removed from Onondaga County, N. Y., to Lagrange County, this 
State, in 1836. At that time Steul)en was a part of Lagrange! 
County, with the seat of justice at Lima. He assisted in locating' 
a road to Lagrange Center, and on reaching the place found noth- 
ing but a brush heap where the town now stands. 

Elder Blanchard, of Wolcottville, was next introduced. He lik- 


ened the meeting of the early settlers of Steuben County to a re- 
union of the alumni of some college; all had met together to call 
to mind the experiences of the past and to note the changes the 
finger of time had wrought on the county and its inhabitants. The 
speaker's father settled at Orland in the year 1835, the second 
house at that place being erected by him, a rude structure, indeed, 
to say the best of it. At that early day persons living many miles 
away in adjacent townships were styled neighbors, and in the full 
sense of the term were such. It was highly essential in those days 
for the people of these sparsely settled townships to be neighborly 
and help each other. They used to assist one another in building 
and raising the log cabins. In those days we would pride our- 
selves on being iirst-rate log-house carpenters, and we were not 
only good log-cabin carpenters, but also masons. Masons suffi- 
ciently skilled to plaster shut the gaping cracks between the logs 
and mechanically build up the customary old-fashioned stick chim- 
neys. In those days necessity ir.ade mechanics of men. Most 
every man could make a plow-beam or an ox-yoke The speaker 
took occasion to refer to the country as being not an unpleas- 
ant one to locate in and clear up at the earliest period of its his- 
tory. It took but a few months to clear off a few acres of ground 
and to have a heavy crop of corn or potatoes therefrom. No won- 
der Steuben has some of the largest and most productive farms in 
the State. Nature has done everything for the county. The 
young people should cherish the memories of their ancestors by 
retaining the old homesteads handed down to them. Mr. Blan- 
cbard then closed his remarks with a few touching words relating 
to the reunions of early settlers as having a natural tendency to 
wed the hearts of the old folks closer together and to produce that 
natural flow of harmony and good feeling only resulting from 
these happy yearly gatherings. 

Dr. Geo. W. McConnell stated briefly that he settled in Steuben 
during the fall of 1836. Mother Chapin was the first person that 
made him a coat. Remembered the time very well when Elder 
Blanchard earned his daily bread by the sweat of his brow splitting 
rails at 50 cents per thousand. Right well he did his work, too. 

In response to loud calls Mrs. Alexander Chapin next came 
upon the platform. She had been prominently identified with the 
early settling of the county, as appeared from the course of her 
short speech. She, with a large family, moved into a house 
14 X 14: feet near Orland, and well remembered the cordiality 




with which she was greeted by her few neighbors in that then 
sparsely settled locality. 

Joseph Tousley, sixty-one years of age, here came forward. He 
had settled in Jamestown over thirty-nine years previously. At 
that time the red man of the forest still lingered in portions of 
Northern Indiana. Late in the fall he had frequently met squads 
of Indians carrying cranberries to Coldwater to market. The first 
bedstead Mr. Tonsley slept on in Jamestown he constructed of poles 
with tapered ends stuck into holes made in the logs of his cabin. 

Mr. and Mrs. Slick were next assisted upon the platform. Mr. 
Slick, at this meeting over ninety years old, fought under Napoleon 
I., after which he removed from France to England, where he was 
soon pressed into the British army and sent to Canada. During 
the war of 1812, while in a conflict, he deserted the English army 
and joined the American forces, from which time he resided in the 
United States. 

George Harding, of Orland, now arose. He settled in James- 
town Township in 1835. For many years he was engaged in carry- 
ing passengers and merchandise from Cleveland, Ohio, to various 
points in Northern Indiana, and consequently was quite familiar 
with the intervening country. 

Leland H. Stocker, in response to a call, said he settled in Steu- 
ben in 1835, when there were but ten white families in the county. 
He remarked that about all the recollection he had of early things, 
was that he was a boy, and felt as though he was one yet. He well 
remembered the trips he, in company with others, some of whom 
long since passed from earth, had made over the country by moon- 
light, during the long winter evenings. They would meet together, 
construct a rude sled, and jumping aboard, start for a neighbor's 
shanty to spend the evening. They thought nothing of journeying 
ten miles through the woods in this manner, many times not reach- 
ing home before the sun was peering through the tree-tops around 
their houses. Now, while gazing upon the faces of so many who 
were his associates in the early [history of the county, the 
speaker felt like taking each one by the hand and calling them 
brothers and sisters. 

Captain C. C. Bodley, measuring six feet seven inches in height, 
was next presented to the audience, but owing to a throat afiection 
did not speak except through Dr. McConnell. In the early days of 
the county, Captain Bodley, being an expert musician, made most 
of the music for the country dances; in fact, whenever a party was 






announced, he was always the first to receive an invitation accom- 
panied by a request to bring along his flute for the edification of 
the company. 

We extract the following from a speech made on this occasion 
by Rev. John Paul Jones, one of the pioneer preachers of this re- 
gion, and present Auditor of Lagrange County. 

" I came to your county in 1842, having been appointed as junior 
preacher of the Steuben Circuit by the Indiana Conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, the session being held that year at 
Centerville, Wayne County. The conference then comprised the 
entire State of Indiana, which was subsequently divided and is now 
under the jurisdiction of four conferences. The circuit then embraced 
all the settled portions of Steuben County and part of the c ounty 
of Branch, in Michigan. There were twenty-eight appointments or 
preaching places to be filled by my colleague, Rev. E. I. Blue, and 
myself, alternately once a fortnight. I came among you almost an 
entire stranger, having had no acquaintance with any of your citi- 
zens, except Dr. Madison Marsh, whom I met at Auburn the year 
previous, S. W. Scoville, Esq., then a young farmer of Richland 
Township, afterward County Auditor, who is present with us to- 
day, and Newton D. Canfield, who died a few years since. 

"The winter of 1812-3 was remarkable for the severity of the 
weather and will be remembered by the early settlers as the long 
and dreary winter, reminding us vividly of Longfellow's graphic 
description in 'Hiawatha.' Toward spring, feed for stock became 
very scarce. Those who had the means wherewith to purchase, re- 
sorted to our more highly favored neighbors of the prairies for sup- 
plies, going down, as they said, to Egypt; and those too poor to do 
so felled the trees of the forest, upon which to browse the cattle, as a 
substitute for hay and grain. In consequence of this scarcity of 
provender much of the stock perished. The excitement of William 
Miller's prediction, about this time of the end of the world, caused 
a gloom to settle upon the minds of many of the people. Several 
itinerant lecturers visited this part of the country, fixing the time 
for the great conflagration in the month of April, 1843. 

"The gatherings for religious services were well attended, the 
people coming from far and near, eager to receive instruction and 
glad to join in such revivals. The names of those engaged in min- 
isterial work among you that year, whom I now recall, were 
Stocker, Stealy, Minor, Kellogg, Littlefield and Blanchard. Our 
work being so extensive, we seldom met, having but little time 




for social gatherings; we knew, however, by report, how matters 
were progressing, and with fraternal regard pursued our plans. I 
assisted in the construction of the first meeting house in the 
county, a hewed log structure near the farm of E. T. Ham- 
mond, in Salem Township. Our preaching places were private 
dwellings and barns, and frequently the groves were resorted to 
and seats were improvised for the accommodation of the assembled 
'multitudes,' so regarded at that time. Our log cabins with but one 
window were quite convenient and could be used as parlor, sitting- 
room, drawing room, bed-chamber and kitchen as well as chapel, 
and here as well as in the more commodious and beautiful temples 
we could worship the Father in spirit and in truth. 

" The preachers of those times rarely took part in political affairs, 
having but little inclination in that direction, save that of exercis- 
ing the freeman's right, dear to the heart of every true patriot, to 
vote. When, however, in later years questions involving the most 
sacred rights of the citizen, affecting public morals and the 
safety of the republic arose, it was deemed eminently proper that 
the pulpit as well as the press, the minister and the private citizen 
alike should actively participate in political affairs. 

" This county has obtained no little notoriety growing out of the 
action of several of her people upon these questions. The impor- 
tance of a single vote has been frequently alluded to, and this 
county designated as an illustrious example in this regard. The true 
version of the story appears to be substantially this: Dr. Marsh 
and Captain Beal, both residents of this county, were candidates for 
the office of Kepresentative in the General Assembly for the coun- 
ties of Steuben and De Kalb. Mr. Beal received the certifi- 
cate of election, but the seat was contested, the result being that 
Dr. Marsh was declared duly elected by one vote, it having been as- 
certained that the Board of Canvassers had improperly, on account 
of some informality, thrown out a vote intended for Marsh. At the 
ensuing session of the Legislature, 184:5, Edward A. Hannegan was 
chosen United States Senator by a majority of one, Dr. Marsh 
casting his vote for Hannegan. It is claimed that Texas was ad- 
mitted into the Union in consequence of Hannegan's vote, and now 
the great results of this affair are attributed to Steuben. 

" Your people gained further political notoriety when some of 
the oldest and most respectable citizens were prosecuted for al- 
leged violation of the Fugitive Slave Law, in aiding and abetting 
some liberty -loving people of dusky hue in their flight toward the 



Queen's dominions, under the stars and stripes of their own land, 
where it is asserted that ' all men are created equal.' I speak of 
these thin^^s not in a partisan sense, but refer to them as incidents 
ofthe time and as part of the history of our country, strangely 
contrasting with the spirit and practice of the present time. An 
indignation meeting, largely attended, was held at Orland, when 
those who were regarded as instrumental in these prosecutions 
were denounced in unmeasured terms. The results of the war 
have, however, settled these questions forever, and it is pleasing 
now to contemplate the fact that the scenes which gave rise to sush 
feelings are no more to be enacted. We respond to the sentiment 
' let the dead past bury its dead.' To-day, it is true, we have ques- 
tions of vital importance, but they are not calculated to disturb 
fraternal feelings, 

"But I must close. When I first came among you, being but a 
little past twenty years of age, and not having the advantages of 
a liberal education, either literary or theological, with a few books 
in my saddle bag?, and but little time to study, it was with much 
timidity that I attempted the duties of my calling. I call to 
mind with pleasure and gratitude the many marks of favor received 
at the hands of those with whom I mingled, both in and out of. 
the church of my choice, and shall ever have them in grateful re- 
membrance. They are not all here who were living then. Many 
have crossed to the other side, and some are now 

" Brushing the dews on Jordan's banks, 
The crossing t ) whom is near. 

We shall not all meet again at a reunion like this to-day. Let me 
say to the children of the early settlers, as you shall perchance go 
forth to become pioneers of other lands, emulate the example and 
virtues of your noble fathers and mothers; be thankful for the 
superior advantages you enjoy; and live so as to be useful, hon- 
ored and respected, wherever you may dwell. To all let me say, 
farewell! May God continue to bless the pioneers of Steuben 
County, and bring them to the inheritance incorruptible, undefiled, 
and that shall never fade away." 


The third annual reunion was held at McConnell's Grove, Aug. 
17, 1876. The day was pleasant, and the attendance was variously 
estimated at from 2,000 to 3,000. The people gathered at tlie 
public square and marched to the grove, headed by the Angola 






silver cornet band. Arrived at the grove, appropriate public ex- 
ercises were held, including prayer by Rev. H. J. Carpenter, of 
Otsego, the oldest settled clergyman of the county then living. 
The election of officers resulted as follows: President, Abner 
Winsor; Yice-President, Calvin Powers; Secretary, Orlando Wil- 
der; Treasurer, George Harding. The following were named as 
an executive committee: Millgrove, Chester D. Salisbury; James- 
town, Clayton Mallory; Fremont, Demary Tillitson; Clear Lake, 
David Harris; York, William Wicoff; Scott, James Segur; Pleas- 
ant, Jesse M. Gale; Jackson, Robert Ryan; Salem, Henry P. But- 
ler; Steuben, James Carter; Otsego, Ransom Gates; Richmond, 
Samuel W. Scoville. In the afternoon able addresses were made 
by Hon. John B. Howe, of Lima, and A. Ellison, of Lagrange. 


The next annual meeting was held Aug. 16, 1877, and was one 
of the best ever held, though it was as informal as the preceding 
ones. L. H. Stocker gave the address of welcome, and off-hand 
speeches were made by a number. Dr. G. W. McConnell and A. 
S. Sherwood acted as Marshals. 


In 1878, the meeting was held June 20. Notwithstanding a 
shower of rain in the morning, and an evident promise of more 
rain during the day, people came in from the surrounding 
country in considerable numbers during the forenoon. At eleven 
o'clock the bands paraded the streets, and the procession was 
formed which proceeded to the upper park in McConnell's Addi- 
tion. The grounds had been nicely and conveniently arranged 
with suitable seats and a large, commodious stand built for officers 
and speakers. The weather had cleared off somewhat, and it was 
thought it would not be a bad day after all. A. S. Sherwood acted 
as Marshal, and President G. W. McConnell called the meeting to 
order. An appropriate address of welcome was delivered by Le- 
land H. Stocker. Music was furnished during the day by the An- 
gola silver cornet band, the Angola ladies' band, and a martial 
band, of drums and fife. After dinner Hon. Cyrus G. Luce was 
introduced. He at once took the undivided attention of the 
assemblage and talked to them of the olden time, and of the by- 
gone incidents, and of the changes wrought by the years in their 
onward roll. Before he had finished, and when the interest was 



•vjo >- ' ^k, 


at its height, the clouds broke forth with sudden and heavy rain, 
and all further enjoyment was brought to a close. Hurriedly the 
meeting proceeded to elect George Harding, President, and Leland 
H. Stocker, Secretary, for the ensuing year, and then adjourned. 


Thursday, June 12, 1879, the pioneers again assembled on the 
square, and about noon, under the raarshalship of A. S. Sherwood, 
they marched to McConnell's Park. The proceedings were opened 
in the usual manner, and an address of welcome was delivered by 
William B. McConnell. Then came recess for dinner. The after- 
noon was allotted to impromptu speeches by old settlers. The 
first speaker introduced was James W. Jefferd. He said he would 
soon arrive at the allotted age of man, threescore and ten years; 
and this was one of the happiest periods of his whole life, for now 
he could meet face to face with the few pioneers who are still liv- 
ing. Continuing, he said: 

"I settled in this county in 1837. No one knows the hard- 
ships we endured. I earned ten or twelve dollars at Hamilton, 
and went to the prairies north of Lima for wheat," There was so 
much filth in it that the miller at Union Mills refused to grind it 
unless it was washed; so he cleaned it and then obtained some 
nice flour, but only sixty pounds. Mr. Jeflerd exhibited a hoe 
he made in 1837. That and another he made weighed six pounds. 
They knew nothing then of cast steel. Mr. J., also related about 
the first surgical operation performed in the county. In closing 
his remarks, the speaker said: " This is the last time I shall ever 
be permitted to appear before you; but as long as Hive, I shall 
hold these old settlers as my best friends. They are dearer tj me 
than my own kindred are. We suffered here together. Some had 
more money than others, but I earned my bread by the sweat of 
my brow. I presume I cleared as much, if not more land than 
anybody else. If I had not been so foolish, and overtaxed my 
strength, I would not be as weak as I am now, and might have 
lived to be a hundred years old." 

After Mr. Jefferd had been led to his seat, the audience sang 
"Come, thou fount of every blessing," after which music was 
furnished by the martial band present. 

Winn Powers, nearly eighty years old, and the only survivor of 
four brothers who settled near the eastern boundary of the county, 
in what is now known as the Powers settlement, was next introduced. 

^\( 3 ^ ~~ "• oPv" 





He said his brother came to this county in 1836, and entered some 
land for himself and many others, and while he was here he was 
on English Prairie and engaged twenty-five bushels of wheat to be 
had the next spring, in 1837, when he expected his brothers to be 
here in the wilderness. " It was the first of July before we arrived 
here, and we expected that the wheat would all be gone b}'^ that 
time. We went to the house of the man we had bought it of, but 
did not think he would have any, for wheat was scarce and high; 
but he had it. My brother asked what it was worth, and was 
told $1 per bushel. Another man who was there offered to give 
him twenty shillings, but he told him to go and get it of some 
one else. He would not take any more. * * * Mr. Jefferd has 
spoken of hard times, but I never thought it was any hardship. 
The work had to be done. To be sure, it was rather difficult to 
get a living. We had deer's tallow, beeswax and honey, but were 
troubled sometimes to get anything to go with them. Bread was 
hard to get. My brothers hated hunting and dogs, but were very 
glad to get a venison ham occasionally; I used to provide turkeys 
and venison for them to a considerable extent." 

James W. Lockwood came forward after the music ceased, and 
said he had formerly been a resident of Steuben County, but had 
been absent for many years, until quite recently. His niece mar- 
ried Kobert L. Douglass, the prosecuting attorney at the time of 
the Doty trial. Mr. Lockwood arrived in the county June 8, 
1837. He said he was poor when he came here, and had to depend 
upon some particular friends. His land was entered. He endured 
the hardships in early days common to all the old settlers. His 
wife died some time since, and now he had no home, but was 
waiting to be called " to that Eden home on high." At the con- 
clusion of Mr. Lockwood's remarks, Mr. Helme, of Orland, and 
his little four-vear-old son Bennie favored the audience with some 


really good music, the father playing on the fife and the child 
using the snare drum. The little fellow was not much taller than 
the drum, but performed his part with credit. 

G. W. McConnell then came forward and said that as the audience 
had had a specimen of "Young America," he would now intro- 
duce " Old America" in the person of Willard Dewitt, aged 104 
years. [He was in his lOtttli year at this time but had not 
completed that age. He has since died, nearly 105 years old. A 
sketch of this centenarian is given in the Scott Township chapter.] 
Mr. Dewitt did not make any remarks, being too feeble. Mrs. 







Stephen A. Powers, widow of a former county surveyor, was next 
presented to the audience, and then Mrs. Brown, sister of Major 
Wright, who settled on the Beaver Dam Lake, in Lagrange County, 
was introduced. She was nearly ninety years of age. She and her 
husband came here with Judge Gale. Mr. Brown built the first 
shanty in Angola. Mr. and Mrs. Michael Depue, of Hall's Cor- 
ners, Mich., who were among the pioneer settlers in Jamestown 
Township, were next introduced as being the only couple amono- 
the old settlers who were married when they came into the county, 
and who were still living. Their ages at this time were seventy- 
five and sixty-nine. They were married in 1831. Their daughter 
was the first child born in Jamestown Township. 

Abel Craine next spoke, and closed by singing a verse of an 
Indian song. Harvey Olmstead, President of the Lagrange County 
Old Settlers' Association, was introduced and made a few remarks 
which were well received. Nelson Newton, of Orland, then re- 
lated his experience of early days. K. Gould, eighty-seven years 
of age, next stepped forward and spoke for several minutes in a 
remarkably clear voice and said he could walk six miles in a day 
and not feel the effects at all. He said his health was better than 
when he was fifty years of age. Some thirty-seven years before 
this meeting he had a shock of the palsy which destroyed his speech 
to a great extent for many years. It was now over fortv years 
since the denomination to which he belonged said he must go to 
preaching, and during the greater portion of the time since then he 
has been at work for the Master. Three times during his life he 
has been moved to where the Indians roamed through the forest. 
When he was quite young his parents moved from Washincyton 
County, JST. Y., to Cayuga County in the same State. There were 
Indians there. In a few years they came to Sandusky County, 
Ohio, and found Indians again. A third time they followed the 
star of empire into the untrodden forests of the West and settled 
in Indiana, where he was once more brought face to face w'ith the 
red men. 

Moses Sanborn came to this country in 1841, but didn't arrive 
on the cars. When his party reached the river, they found it so 
high that they could not ford it. A raft was made, and the most 
valuable load (the ladies) sent over first. In about twelve hours they 
got everything across and came on to Steuben County. President 
Harding then made a few remarks. He said that in 1835 about 
2,200 acres of land had been taken up in Jamestown Township, and 






in 1836 almost 7,000 acres were entered. When he first came here 
there were no houses between Mill Grove and Bean Creek, or Mo- 
rencie, Mich. 

For the ensuing year the society chose G. W. McConnell as 
President, George Harding as Yice- President, and L. H. Stocker 
as Secretary. The exercises closed with music, and a farewell ad- 
dress by A. W. Hendry. 


The seventh annual reunion was appointed for Thursday, June 
10, 1880, at the court-house. Threatening weather forbade the 
exercises being held at McConnell's Park, as planned. At half 
past eleven the meeting was called to order in the court-house by 
President McConnell, and the usual opening exercises were per- 
formed, after which the address of welcome was delivered by Rev. 
W. P. Aylsworth. At the afternoon session a paper was read con- 
taining some recollections by Rev. Aaron Wood, at that time in 
charceofan asylum for feeble-minded children at Knightstown, 
Henry County, but who formerly was a pioneer preacher in this 
reo-ion, and who traveled through Steuben County as Presiding 
Elder as early as 1839. He wrote as follows: 

" In the year of our Lord 1805 I first crossed the Ohio River at 
Marietta, Athens [now Washington] County, and though then but 
three years old I remember the river and town. This place was 
settled by educated Puritans and Huguenots, and was at the time 
the best educated society west of the Ohio. From 1806 to 1814 I 
lived near Chillicothe, then the seat of government for the State of 
Ohio. Governors Tiflin, Worthington , Meigs and McArthur were 
intimate acquaintances of my father at the age when, as a boy, I 
would admire great men. When ten years of age I read the news- 
papers and learned the incidents of the war of 1812, especially 
as all the able-bodied men were in the army, and only the old men 
and boys were at home. 

" In 1814: the family moved to Champaign Cjunty, and as Ur- 
bana had been an outpost and Columbus was now the capital, it 
increased my acquaintances with the men of those towns. North 
of Piqua, Urbana and Columbus to the lakes was a wilderness, un- 
inhabited by American civilization west of the Connecticut reserve, 
but from 1815 to 1820 it settled up very rapidly. The same was 
true of the southern counties of the then new State of Indiana. 
But the garden of Indiana was still in the possession of the untu- 




tored savage. The first I learned of that country was in 1818. Our 
neighbor, Benjamin Cheney, collected a drove of cattle and grazed 
them from the plains of Darby to Green Bay (now in Wisconsin), 
for the army at that garrison. The neighbor boys, older than my- 
self, had what I envied, the privilege of that romantic trip around 
Lake Michigan to Green Bay. 

" The raw materials essential to an agricultural and mechanical 
population are distributed over Indiana more than in any other 
State in the Union. Soil, water, rock and lumber are better distrib- 
uted over the entire State than in any of the other States. There 
are no precious metals, but the useful is inexhaustible— iron, coal 
and lime; of forest trees I have seen fifty varieties; of medical 
plants there are many, too tedious to mention. 

"It seems strange that forty-two years have passed since I went 
as a Presiding Elder to a camp-meeting near Shallow Lake. But I 
have a distinct recollection of its social standing. The church 
members and campers were not homogeneous. Each preacher and 
member had a veneration for the manner of conducting the meet- 
ing according to his own experience in the country from whence 
he came, and they were there from as far north as Troy, N. Y., and 
south as far as Yirginia. There was a stand large enough for a' buz- 
zard roost and high enough for a gallows. The altar was enclosed 
by a pen of poles inside the cross aisles. Knowing as I did that a 
promiscuous crowd could not be controlled with such scafifoldino-, I 
took official charge, had the poles carried away, the stand redu'c'ed 
in size and lowered nearer the seats, and promised if the preachers 
and the members would do as I told them we would have good 

order throughout the meeting 



" To the few acquaintances remaining I would say, be content 
with your evening of life in your well-chosen homes; and to the 
young I would say, utilize the resources that are within your reach. 
There is no better country than Indiana." 

Eev. C. H. Blanchard, of Wolcottville, a member of the La- 
grange Bioneer Association, appeared as a delegate from that 
organization and related many incidents of pioneer life in Mill 
Grove Township, this county. 

Russell Brown, of Orland, father of Hon. E. Brown, who came 
west from Onondaga County, N. Y., and settled in Lagrange 
County in 1836, was introduced. He was once a strong, irealthy 
man, but he was now tottering with age. He reviewed some of 
his early experiences and hardships of the early settlers of the 

"^ ^ ^ - — ^vr 





county, and referred with pride to the churclies, free schools and 
benevolent institutions of our State to-day. He also told of at- 
tending the State pioneers' meeting the year previous. 

The next speaker was Eben Thayer, of Union City, Mich., 
who came from the Empire State in 1836; and after music the next 
one introduced was Mr. Kimble, of Orland, who came from the 
East and settled near Cold water in 1832. 

Kev. E. Holdstock, who was a "circuit rider" in the wilds ot 
Indiana as early as 1839, related some experiences. He came 
here when a young man, and so delicate in frame that the people 
predicted he would not live to come around again, having thirty 
appointments to fill. He told how his horse was stolen by Indians 

he remembered it well, for he had important business on hand; 

walked to Angola, got his license, and went to Orland to be mar- 
ried. This was June 15, 1840. He endured many more hard- 
ships worthy the early pioneer, but outlived them all; had grown 
fat and felt like a young man yet. His salary was in the early 
days about $40 a year. 

The centenarian of Scott Township, Willard Dewitt, was then 
introduced, and Rev. Mr. Carpenter delivered the closing address. 
For the ensuing year the following officers were chosen : Presi- 
dent, A. S. Sherwood; Vice-President, Jesse M. Gale; Secretary 
and Treasurer, Stephen A. Powers. 


The next meeting was held Aug. 18, 1881, at the court-house. 
Threatening weather and competing attractions caused the attend- 
ance to be rather small. The opening address was delivered by 
Elder Blanchard, of Wolcottville, Lagrange County. He was one 
of the first settlers of Steuben County, and helped raise the first 
log cabin. He toiled hard on harder diet. He shared the ague 
of 1838. He was by the dying and helped return earth to earth. 
George Harding gave an account of the time the first land entries 
were made in Jamestown Township. A few of them still own 
their farms, he being one. Cephas McCullough was at the meet- 
ing and stated that he still resided in Jamestown, on the land he 
bought at the United States land-oflice, Fort Wayne. 

Winn Powers, of York Township, gave an account of himself 
and brother moving from Allegany County, N. Y., to this county, 
the wagons being drawn by oxen, with a stock of cows, a journey 
of 500 miles. A. W. Wood worth was with the earliest settler of 



York Township. His ax and muscle let the sun shine where 
there was too much shade, tie also made roads, bridged mud and 
morass. He obtained the sobriquet of the " racking pony," on 
Jackson Prairie, because of his beating others in cradling wheat. 
After York Township was divided, he lived in Scott Township; 
but he was now arranging to move to Kansas, and took this op- 
portunity of saying good-by to the old settlers. A number of 
others made short speeches. For the ensuing year Jesse M. Gale 
was chosen President, and S, A. Powers was elected Secretary and 


The next meeting was held Aug. 17, 1882, at McConnell's Park. 
It was called to order by President Jesse M. Gale, and the ad- 
dress of welcome was delivered by Elder A. S. Hale. Russell 
Brown, of Orland, also made a speech before dinner. In the 
afternoon the speakers were Dr. McConnell, A. S. Sherwood, 
Russell Rrown, L. B. Eaton, Rev. H. J. Carpenter and others. 
At the business meeting, Dr. G. "W. McConnell received the honor 
of being elected President of the society "to serve during the re- 
mainder of his natural life." Henry P. Hathaway was elected 
Secretary for the ensuing year. Russell Brown, of Orland, and 
Myron Powers, of York, were appointed delegates to the Lagrange 
County pioneers' meeting, and F. Macartney and A. S. Sherwood 
were appointed as delegates to De Kalb County. 


The tenth annual reunion of the old settlers of Steuben County 
was held Aug. 16, 1883, and was largely attended. The openino- 
address was delivered by General Lewis J, Blair. At dinner, a space 
at one end of the long table was reserved for those who had set- 
tled in the county previous to 1836. Next came those who settled 
between 1836 and 1838, then those in 1838 — '40, and lastly those 
in 1810 — '5. In the afternoon the first speaker was Hon. Andrew 
Ellison, of Lagrange County, who has been for more than forty, 
eight years a resident of Northern Indiana. In the course of his 
interesting speech he gave a brief biography of himself, statin »■ 
that he was born in Ireland and when but two and a half years old 
came with his parents to New York. While off the banks of New- 
foundland their vessel was wrecked and beached upon the shores 
of that inhospitable island, a large number of the passengers being 
lost. Up to the time Mr. Ellison was twenty-four years old, he was 





a hard worker, helping to clear two farms in New York before 
coming to Indiana. When about twenty-five years old he com- 
menced the study of law, since which time he has followed that 

Dr. Griffin, of Angola, next made a few remarks, and he was fol- 
lowed by George Harding, of Orland. In early days the latter 
named gentleman was engaged in teaming, hauling the first loads 
of goods into Hamilton, Lexington and Lima. For a number of 
years he traveled over the territory as far east as Cleveland, Ohio, 
and west to Rock Island, 111. 

For the ensuing year Alanson W. Hendry was elected President, 
and Francis Macartney, Secretary. 

The 1884 meeting was held Aug. 21, at the usual place. The 
first speaker was Bart. Bigler, who held the attention of all by an 
excellent address of welcome. He was followed by Nelson Prentiss, 
of Noble County, who gave what was pronounced one of the finest 
addresses ever delivered in Angola. Forty-six years had passed 
since Mr. Prentiss had been in the capital of Steuben County. John 
Paul Jones, the pioneer preacher, and present Auditor of Lagrange 
County, was present and made a speech. Rev. Caleb H. Blan- 
chard, of Lagrange County, was also present. In his early years 
he was rail splitter, carpenter and preacher. He built the first 
house in Jamestown. He has preached not less than 1,500 funeral 
sermons, and in 1883 he married twentv-two couples. 

Russell Brown, of Orland, seventy-nine years old, next made 
some interesting remarks. He was followed by George W. Hard- 
ins:, who referred to the condition of the cemeteries wherein most 
of the pioneers are buried, and suggested that the Legislature be 
petitioned to enact a law empowering the townships to purchase and 
keep them in repair, showing that the expense would be very 
small. Other speakers followed, among whom was Cyrus Fillmore, 
of Lagrange County. Among the pioneers present were Demary 
Tillitson, Harvey Olmstead and William Carver. For the ensuing 
year Alanson W. Hendry was chosen President, and Francis Ma- 
cartney, Secretary. 



I first came into Steuben County when it was quite new, in 
March, 1839. I stopped first at Willow Prairie. Brockville wt-s 
the name of the postoifice, and the site for the village which was 
laid out and recorded, and which is now Fremont. The village 






then consisted of six or seven small houses, part of them frame 
and the others log cabins of humble mien. 

Among the settlers who then resided in and about Brock ville I 
call to mind the following: Jeremiah Tillitson, Demary TillitsonVa 
nephew of Jeremiah), Joseph Terrj, Ichabod H. Burdick Jared 
Burdick, Beriah Burdick, Jacob Eoop, Abraham Walters John 
McMahan, Newman Havens, Elijah Salisbury, Chester Salisbury 
and Peter Beam. Matthew Coffin was Postmaster at the village 
and Truman P. Gilbert kept the tavern. The latter afterward went 
to Hillsdale, where he carried on business for some time, and finally 
put an end to his existence by committing suicide. Enos Beall 
afterward Judge Beall, and his brother Eufus, who afterward served 
two terms as Sheriff of this county, and two terms in the same 
capacity in Hillsdale County, Mich., were both livino- in this 
vicmity. Peter Cluck was the village blacksmith, though he re- 
sided a mile and a half from town. His son Peter succeeded him 
in the same business at Fremont. Joseph Cluck, a brother of 
Peter, was a carpenter and joiner. He subsequently moved back 
to the East. Thomas N. Brown, afterward known as Judge Brown 
was a farmer. He was the father of Mrs. Joseph A. Woodhull 
(since deceased), and his widow and son Myron are at present resi- 
dents of Angola. Avery Farnham, father of Erastus Farnham 
now a gram speculator in Chicago, resided on the old homestead 
near the site of the village until his death, the last few years bring- 
ing feeble health. His son-in-law, William Hopkins, had charge 
of the farm, and he, too, is in Chicago. Erastus Farnham, brother 
of Avery, afterward filled the office of County Surveyor. He died 
some years ago. 

Just outside the limits of the village Jeremiah Tillitson, Esq 
had erected a neat two-story frame house with a large " L" L story 
and a half high, which added much to the appearance of the village 
as it was approached from the east. There was no blacksmith 
wagon, shoe, tailor, tin, or any other shop of any kind at that time 
m the place. There was a blacksmith a mile and a half south, and 
a tailor one mile east. A man named Kichard Gaines had fust 
traded for a few goods at Lima, Lagrange County, and put them up 
m a small room at BrockviUe, and he sold his merchandise out 
readily at fabulous prices, so that in the course of the season he 
built a good-sized two-story building, the front part of which was 
done off into a store, and the remainder into a dwelling. This 
buildmg is there yet. He went East that fall and got his father to 








help him to $1,000, with which he purchased and brought on a 
line stock of goods for that time and place. More of him hereafter. 

The improvements were some ways apart. The land was much 
of it oak openings, the trees were some distance apart and the fire 
ran through them every year and kept down the young trees so 
that one could see a long ways in the smooth, level ground, and I 
frequently saw large herds of deer running through these openings, 
which was a splendid sight. Wild turkeys were also quite common, 
and I have seen large flocks of them many a time. If I had been 
a hunter I could have gotten all I wanted, but I was no hunter 
and never killed a deer or a turkey. 

The Pottawatomie Indians were all over this country, and fre- 
quently centered around Brockville. They would encamp and 
build their wigwams, then come to the village with their deer- 
skins, furs, and fresh venison, and if they could not get what 
whisky they wanted for these commodities, they would sell a pony 
for a few gallons of that beverage. Then if the pony was not 
taken away or secreted, they would steal it the next night, or as 
soon after as they could. There was a case in Brockville of that 
kind, that I knew of. The young man who bought the pony was 
much pleased with his good luck. He was told by men who knew 
the habits of the Indians that they would get the pony again if 
they could. He kept watch so closely, however, that they did not 
get it while they were there. But they did get it soon after; at 
least the pony was missing and he had to stand the loss. 

The Indians were quite peaceable when sober, but if they could 
get whisky they would fight among themselves sometimes. There 
was an Indian by the name of Johnese, an under-chief, who was 
very quiet and dignified when sober. He came to town one day 
much intoxicated and greatly excited. He had a large wound on 
the side of his neck and about three on his head — all long, deep 
gashes. He came up to me and said an Indian had killed a squaw 
and that he was going to kill the Indian, as he was a chief. Another 
Indian^ talked to him in their own language, then he turned to me 
and said all he had told me was a lie; that there had been no kill- 
ing, and that he was not going to kill the Indian, At the time he 
had a number of bars of lead in his hand, and powder, which he 
had juit bought for that purpose, so he said. It was currently re- 
ported that they put an Indian to death and burned him, where 
they were encamped. At another time an Indian came riding into 
town on a run, all excitement, frothing at the mouth — the most 







frightful looking object I ever saw— and said thej were all fight- 
ing, and he wanted us to go out there and stop them from killing 
each other. But the man was crazy drunk and we kept away. A 
man came to town soon after, from the same direction, and said the 
Indians were trying to kill each other, or at least were having a 
general row; that he saw a squaw running and screaming, her hair 
streaming out behind her, and an Indian running after her. He 
thought the Indian meant to kill her if he could7 The other In- 
dians were talking very loud and were apparently excited, and he 
thought they were all quarreling, being divided into two parties. 
It was believed that the squaw was killed and buried there, and 
that the Indian who killed her was punished with death also, and 
buried near the scene of the tragedy. 

I said I would say more about Ei chard A. Gaines, which will 
show what some men will do for money. After he filled his new 
store, he traded some years with apparent prosperity and happi- 
ness in his domestic relations. His wife was his double cousin 
She was very much attached to him, and appeared to think him' 
just right. She was always happy, always cheerful, always antici- 
pating his slightest wish, and having all things ready for his hap- 
piness and comfort that was possible. Thus things went on for 
about six or seven years, when Gaines went East and stayed all 
summer; got his father to sell all his property, real and personal, 
and come to this county with him. His own mother having died 
when he was only about ten years old, his father married again, 
and Kichard was very angry about it, thinking he would get less 
help or less property from his father on that account. He was an 
only son until after the second marriage, by which his father had 
a daughter and son. This made Eichard so angry that he left 
home and never had any intercourse with his folks until he went 
to get the $1,000 of which I spoke before. 

Eichard married when he was only eighteen years old, and he 
made out but poorly for some time. His wife worked out, took 
boarders, helping along until about two years before he got those 
first goods, when he got some gunsmith's tools and went to work 
at guns. There being no gunsmith in the country, and much call 
for such work, he saved enough in two years to get that first stock 
of goods, with which he started his store at Brockville. When 
his father came to this county, the half-sister was a young woman, 
and the half-brother ten or twelve years old. After old Mr. Gaines 
had been here two or three years, I should think, he told me that 

■ o< I I 

* V I 1 te 





Richard wanted his money; that he told him he could double 
it in two years. The old man said he thought it unsafe, and that 
he would not part with his money. He said that his property in 
the East had sold for $7,000; that he had helped Kichardto $1,000 
when he first started, and had let him have $300 since ; that he 
had other children that were entitled to it as much as Eichard, and 
that it would not be right to help him so much more than the 
rest, and that he would keep his money in his own hands. He 
said that Kicliard looked at the possibility of doubling the money, 
and he looked at the possibility of losing it all. That spring they 
all moved to Jamestown, and Richard filled a store and was trad- 
ing when his father was taken with the ague and had a few chills- 
Dr. Patterson, of Fremont, was there and Richard got him to pre- 
scribe for his father, who took the medicine and the next day, or 
the same day, died. Now, I have no doubt but what the doctor's 
treatment was all right. Sometimes congestion or heart disease 
causes death suddenly. The old lady was a woman in good health, 
or was considered so. When her husband was buried she felt bad 
and tired, and Richard induced her to let Dr. Patterson leave her 
a prescription. She took it, and the day after her husband was 
buried she died. Rnfus Beall was appointed administrator of the 
estate, but, I am informed, the only property he could find be- 
longing to the deceased was a note of $300 against Richard, and 
of which all the family were previously apprised. There was no 
one to look further after the interests of the minor heirs, and they 
were thus left in destitute circumstances. Time went on. Rich- 
ard and his family moved to Hillsdale, Mich., where he soon pur- 
chased a large store and filled it with goods. He also bought a 
fine residence and furnished it in splendid style. He had a large 
trade, and bought wheat largely, buying a large share of it from 
this county. 

He seemed to gain the utmost confidence of the people. 
A number of farmers stored their wheat with his and allowed 
him to sell it with his and handle the money. Things went on in 
this prosperous way until he bought, in addition to his business, 
a hardware store, goods and all. He had two or three clerks, and 
he and his family became quite aristocratic, in fact were among the 
most aristocratic of Hillsdale society. One spring he started to 
'New York to buy goods. He had bought all the wheat he could 
on credit, agreeing to pay for it when he came back. After he 
had been gone two or three days, there came a rumor that he had 






sold his stores, goods, house, furniture, and all he had, and had gone 
not to return. His wife heard the rumor, but could not believe 
it until Rufus Beall showed her a letter from a woman at Detroit, 
addressed to Gaines, saying she was waiting for him, but dared 
not wait more than one day longer, for fear of being detected. 
When Beall read this letter to Mrs. Gaines she fainted, and it was 
feared by her friends that the shock would kill her. Then Beall 
made known to the family that he had bought the stores and goods 
and the house and furniture. Thus it appears that Gaines had left 
his family destitute and had gone no one could tell where. 

Gaines's daughter was engaged to a young man in Hillsdale, 
and was to have been married soon. But when the devoted 
lover (?) saw that she was left without the coveted fortune, he at 
once broke the engagement, and what remained of the wealthy, 
aristocratic Gaines family were thus left without any means of 
support. Mrs. Gaines was allowed to remain in the house and 
boarded Beall and some clerks for awhile, when her brother came 
after her and her children and took them to Ohio, where he had a 
large farm. She and her children lived there in great seclusion 
until the oldest, Alanson, came of age, when he started to find his 

Mr. Philomen Martin, who married Gaines's cousin, told me 
that Alanson went to Texas and California, and then to South 
America, at the same time searching all the advertisements in the 
papers, until at last he saw his father's name in a paper as a dry- 
goods merchant He then went to his place of business and found 
him rich. Gaines gave his son enough to start a good store for 
him and his brother in Ohio. He also sent money to his wife. As 
soon as Alanson returned and informed his mother of the where- 
abouts and transactions of her once beloved, but faithless, husband, 
she married a gentleman in that vicinity who had been waiting a 
long time for her, but whose suit she had persistently refused un- 
til she could learn what had become of her first husband. 

Gaines took away with him, from Hillsdale, $16,000 or $18,000, 
and it was rumored that the woman who joined him at De- 
troit had about the same amount. He owed more, how- 
ever, than he took away, and his creditors had a number of 
trials with Beall for the recovery of his property, in the 
transfer of which they claimed fraud had been committed, 
but could not prove it. There was a claim of $12,000 in 
one place in New York. Beall had not paid one-half of the value 


, 4'i 




of the goods or any of the property he had purchased. The suffer- 
ers from trusting Gaines with wheat were A. Farnham, N. Ha- 
vens and J. Burdick; also a man by the name of Pettibone who lost 
his farm by this means, as he had trusted money in Gaines's hands 
to pay off the mortgage. The other men whom I have named 
were better able to stand their losses. 

There was a man in the vicinity of Fremont by the name of 
Abraham Walters, who had a son of the same name. The boy was 
a great hand to kill deer, turkey, etc. He would not spend time to 
hunt durinor grood weather, when it would interfere with his work, 
but would go out in the morning before breakfast and kill a deer; 
and I have known him to kill two before breakfast. Sometimes he 
would go out after his day's work was done and get a deer or tur- 
key, and when he became a young man he had an adventure with a 
bull which was more strange than fiction. He was going through a 
pasture where there was a vicious bull when the animal saw him 
and went at him with great rage, threw him down and gored him in 
the side, and with his knees broke the sternum (breast-bone) into its 
original pieces. When it got well the pieces stood upon their 
edges and remain so until this day as an evidence of the dire con- 
flict. His side was opened so that the heart and lungs could be 
seen ; the lower edge of the left lobe of the lung was torn so that 
the wind would escape from it at every breath . He could see his 
own heart and lung. The wounded portion of the lung was re- 
placed and the wound closed so that the air could not reach it and 
the wound soon healed, after which he went on with his working 
and hunting as usual. When the bull had young Walters down 
goring him with his knees on his breast, the young man contrived 
to get hold of the animal's nose with his teeth and kept his hold 
until the bull bawled and jumped up and threw him clear from him. 
Walters struck on his feet and faced his antagonist for a moment 
then turned and ran to the fence, calling as loudly as he could for 
help until he got over the fence when he fainted and fell to the 
ground. A neighbor who was at work in an adjoining field heard 
the man's cries and ran to his assistance and with a team took him 
home. His brother took his gun and shot the bull and that saved 
further trouble from him. 


This same young man, as well as many other hunters, told of 
seeing a large buck in the woods which had enormous horns — 






larger than they had ever seen on any other animal of the deer kind. 
They called the buck " Old Goldin." They would often tell on re- 
turning from a hunting expedition that they had seen Old Goldin. 
One evening when young Walters was out near a lake called 
Withington Lake, he saw a large pair of horns peering out of the 
grass and Old Goldin soon rose to his feet. The young man took 
hasty aim and fired, hitting the animal's horn close to the head. 
The deer fell and the young man ran to him, took him by the horn 
and commenced to cut his throat. As soon as the knife entered 
the skin, the deer revived and tried to get away. But young Wal- 
ters hung to the horn and made an effort to force his game into the 
lake which was very near. They entered the lake together; 
sometimes the deer would have him under water and then he would 
have the deer under. He kept his knife in hand and would stab 
or cut the deer wherever and whenever he could. They went from 
shore to shore, and toward morning he succeeded in killing the 
deer. Finding himself stripped of his clothing, he started home 
and reached the house a little before daylight. He then dressed 
himself and taking a team went back after Old Goldin. It had 
cost him a terrible struggle, and that night in the lake will ever be 
remembered as one of the most perilous of his life, yet he had the 
satisfaction of killing the most wary, or cautious, deer in the coun- 

Many hunters had looked for and followed the coveted game- 
time and again, without success. But not many of them would 
have taken the chances he took to bag the prize. Mr. Walters says 
these adventures were both very hazardous, but he would rather 
take his chances with the bull than with the deer, if he was obliged 
to repeat either of the tragedies. The hero of the story is still 
living about three and one-half miles northwest of Fremont, and 
can testify to the truthfulness of the foregoing statements, as well as 
many other interesting facts and adventures connected with pioneer 
life in Steuben County. Two of his sons have attended school in this 
place and are known as respectable and intelligent young men. 

When I first came to this county, in 1839, Thomas Knott was 
a Justice of the Peace. Although he was illiterate he was a 
man of fair judgment and could read and write quite well. When 
his term of office expired we had to elect a new justice of the 
peace or re-elect the old one. Richard A. Gaines, of whom I wrote 
above, aspired to the office. Gaines was not qualified for the office 
in any respect. He could not read so as to make any sense to 






his reading. He was trying to read at one time in my hearing; 
he would spell the words aloud and coming to the word "together," 
he spelled it " t-o-g," pronouncing it " tog." I told him what the 
word was. "Well," said he, " I guess it is." I cite this instance asa 
fair specimen of his scholarship. There was a good man running 
against Gaines and he knew very well that he could not be elected 
by the fair voice of the voters in the township, so he bought a 
barrel of whisky and before election day he and a friend of his 
had been to every man in town who would drink and kept them 
supplied with that article until they had voted. 

When election day came he kept a barrel of whisky ready and a 
man to wait on them. There were men who voted for him while 
under the influence of whisky who could not have been hired with 
money to vote for him and who would never have voted for him 
while in their sober senses. One old man by the name of Bowers, 
was a good, pious man, only he had a weakness at that point. He 
could not resist the temptation of intoxicating drink. Gaines got 
him into his house and treated him until he was so intoxicated that 
he could do with him as he desired, then took him to the polls and 
got his vote. Mr. Bowers felt very badly and was ashamed to 
think he had voted for such a man. But it was too late to help it 
after the deed was done. I think there was no doubt that a barrel of 
whisky in that instance elected a justice of the peace. I don't 
think Gaines could have gotten one-fourth of the votes by fair means. 
Those who were opposed to him did not see what was going on un- 
til it was too late to change the result. 

There was a young man who had been clerking for Gaines, and 
who had a falling out with him and started an opposition store. 
He kept his store in a small dry -goods box, and after showing his 
goods or selling them to customers he would shove them under 
his bed, as he had only one small room to live in — store and all. 
One day there had been a young man who was much below compos 
mentis looking at some goods, and who had bought a spool of cot- 
ton thread. After he was gone the young merchant counted his 
spools and found that one was gone. He thought the young man 
had taken it. He had bought a few other articles and put them 
into his pocket, and went to this merchant's brother's, as they were 
good friends. The merchant went to his brother's and told the 
fellow that he had stolen a spool of thread. " I have not," said he. 
^' I know you have," said the merchant, " for there has no one else 
been in and the thread is gone." The young man thrust his hand 



into his pocket, and, alas, the spool came forth with the other 
things he had bought of the merchant. He protested his inno- 
• cence, however, and said he did not know he had it. The mer- 
chant requested him to go over to Gaines's with him, which he did, 
all the while declaring he was innocent. After they went into 
the store the merchant shut the door and locked it. Then he took 
a rawhide and whipped the young man so badly that his back and 
legs were all in welts, and blood was drawn in many places. 

After this young man had been to many with his grievances and 
got no sympathy from any of them, he came to me and showed me 
his lacerated limbs and back. It moved my sympathy for him and 
aroused my indignation for the merchant so I took him to a justice 
of the peace, showed his stripes and made the complaint for an as- 
sault and battery case. When we were going to the trial we fell in 
company with the merchant. He inquired, " Where are you go- 
ing, Doctor?" I told him I was going to the Esquire's to attend 
the trial. "What," said he, "are you a witness?" "No," said I, 
" I am an attorney." Then he commenced to abuse me, and we kept 
up a discussion until we arrived at the Esquire's. Our case came 
on; we got the merchant fined and started home. We were pursued 
closely by the merchant and his friend, and they abused me for tak- 
ing the interest I had in that case. I could not help taking an inter- 
est. In the first place I believed him to be innocent; I think he 
put the thread into his pocket when he did not know it; and, in the 
next place, the young man was weak both in body and mind, and 
needed a friend, and in those days I was just the man to befriend 
such a one. 

Silas Doty was in the store where Douglas was whipped, but 
was a prisoner with the officer and he dared not do anything there, 
as he knew they were all against him, but he said it was the hard- 
est thing he ever bore to see that young man whipped when he be- 
lieved him innocent. Doty is the celebrated character who spent 
one-half of his life, if not more, in prison. I was his family phy- 
sician for ten years, and was a witness when he was tried for mur- 
der, in two trials, the first in this county, at which time the jury 
did not agree, and in the next at Fort Wayne. Here he was found 
guilty by the jury and sent to prison at JefFersonville for life. 


I bade adieu to the home of childhood and the dear friends in 
Wendell, Franklin Co., Mass., Aug. 4, 1836, and with my husband, 


Q »_ 

— 1 fi^ 



David Wisel, started for a liome in the West. We came on by- 
stage, canal and steamboat as far as Cleveland, Ohio, and were 
there joined by Elder Joseph Locke, my brother-in-law, with his 
family, from Cattaraugus County, N. Y. 

From Ohio we pursued our journej^ together in covered wagons, 
for there were no railroads in those days to accommodate travelers. 
Our progress was very slow over the new, muddj roads; we were 
three weeks in getting to Steuben County, Ind. We made a stop on 
the border of township 36, There we found a board shanty, open on 
one side, which belonged to Mr. Robert Bell, of Ohio, who had 
not yet moved in ; there we took shelter till Mr. Locke and Mr. 
Wisel could look up their land. The next day after our arrival 
Mr. Locke was attacked with the ague, and heavy rains coming on 
our shelter proved a poor one, as we had to make our fire out of 
doors (stoves not yet having come into use). 

Mr. Locke and Mr. Wisel hunted out their land, located at what 
is now Salem Center, and cut a wagon road through to their des- 
tined homes, and prepared to build their cabins. But first their 
land must be secured; so my husband took a pack on his back and 
started for the land-office at Fort Wayne. He had to follow an 
Indian trail, as there were no roads yet opened through the country, 
and the streams were unbridged. 

I remember Mr. Wisel telling of coming to a muddy stream near 
dark which he had to ford, going down to his shoulders, and on 
reaching the opposite bank he had some difficulty in finding his 
path. After wandering till nine o'clock, cold and wet, he dis- 
covered the glimmer of a light through the trees, and was very 
glad to find a little log cabin where eight or ten other travelers had 
called for the night. The host gave him the privilege of lying be- 
fore the fire over night, for which he was very glad. 

Well, before we got our cabins built, Father Wisel and his son 
Otis and Mr. Hollister arrived with their families, and near the 
same time Mr. Ed. Hammond and Ely Teal came on. On the 3d 
of October Mr. John Wilson, Charles and John Bodley came. 
Yery soon after they arrived Mr. J. Bodley had a son added to his 
family whom they named William. 

The poor cattle had bells fastened round their necks and were 
turned into the woods to shirk for their living; but they needed close 
watching lest they return to their former homes. As children like 
to hear stories I will tell them one about hunting the cows in those 
days. Mr. Locke was still down with the ague, and Father Wisel 

■^' <r 








and boys were all engaged to get the roof of their house on as it 
looked like rain. So Phebe Wisel and Mrs. Locke and her son 
Joseph, aged eleven years, started to hunt the cows. They found 
them a mile and a half east of home. After getting the cattle col- 
lected together, they did not know which way to start home. So 
they all hallooed; the men on the roof heard them and gave an- 
swer. They called again, and then the wolves set up a hideous 
howl on all sides of them. We heard the wolves. Our men called 
to them again but got no answer, and we feared that the wolves had 
torn them to pieces. But when the wolves howled they were near 
a small tree that had burned off at the root and lodged against a 
large tree, so they all climbed up out of reach of the wolves and 
the cattle gathered up around the tree shaking their bells at the 
wolves. Our men hunted till into the night with no prospect of 
finding them, then Otis and Ira Wisel went and got Mr. Wilson 
and Charles Bodley, a great hunter, to go with them. When the 
women heard Mr. Bodley fire his gun they ventured to answer, 
so they were soon found and led out to Mr. Wilson's. Mrs. Wil- 
son prepared refreshments and the women rested there till morning. 

The first year after our settlement we had to go to Lima for our 
mail, and to Pretty Prairie for provisions So many settlers mov- 
ing into this country the first two years caused produce to be very 
high, and before the first harvest was gathered it was difficult get- 
ting wheat at any price; for a few weeks we lived on rice and 
hominy. Sick wheat was brought in from Ohio and sold to the 
hungry settlers for good grain, but even a hungry dog would be too 
sick after eating his first meal of it to accept the second biscuit. 

Mr. Locke hearing that salt was brought in from Fort Wayne, a 
place south of us, started for some; he had to pay $10 for a barrel 
of salt and $1.50 for staying over night. The greater part of the 
cows died the first spring, not having had suitable food and shelter. 

Early in the year 1837 Elder Locke organized a Christian church 
of nine members, and for the first few years held Sunday-school at 
our house. In the spring of 1837 our township was organized. The 
election for town officers was held at our house. There were twelve 
votes cast. Mr. Avory Emerson was elected Justice of the 

There were but few cases of severe sickness in 1837. Father 
Wisel had the ague, from the effects of which he never recovered, 
but lived till November, 1843. Nancy Locke, aged fourteen years, 
died Nov. 22, 1837, and the following summer, in one week, Elder 



•*y K 



Locke buried his two youngest children, Ezra and Ljdia. Those 
three were the first buried in the Hollister graveyard. 

During the summer and fall of 1858 chills and fever, dysentery 
and ague prevailed till there were not enough well ones to take care 
of the sick or toproperly bury the dead. One circumstance I will 
mention: A man with his family came in and put up with John 
Bodley till he could get up his log cabin; he took sick and died; 
they sent to Charles Bodley and my husband to make the coffin; 
when they went to take the coffin over, they found the man's oldest 
son, twenty-one years of age, dying ; there were not men there 
enough to bury the father, so they sent word around for all who 
were able to come the next afternoon to turn out to the burial. 
They came home and made another coffin, and made out to get the 
two men buried, and the widow had to return with the remnant of 
the family to her former home. 

But enough of this sad picture. JSTotwithstanding all the hard- 
ships and discouragements, little farms around were improved, 
orchards were set out and we had, in a few years, an abundance of 
good peaches, and we could make our own maple sugar, and en- 
joyed using it. 

In the year 1848 or '49 a mail route was opened through Salem 
from x^uburn to Orland. Mr. Hall carried the mail, David Wisel 
was Postmaster at Salem, and the postoffice was kept at our house 
till we moved West, then Walter Braiden, who was trading on the 
corners, took the postoffice. Two years after Braiden moved to 
Minnesota, and Mr. Woodford became Postmaster. 

In 1853 my husband, David Wisel, removed from Steuben 
County to Fillmore County, Minn., for the purpose of building a 
o-rist-mill. We located on a southern branch of Root River, and 
built our house on a small plat of land, with hills on three sides 
of us. As there was no lumber to be got nearer than La Crosse, 
forty miles northwest of us, he determined to first build a saw-mill 
and make his own lumber. 

During the first two years, we had but few neighbors, except the 
Indians, who were quite friendly. It was said that the water at 
times rose high in that stream. It was several years before Mr. 
Wisel could begin to build his grist-mill, for he was kept very 
busy sawing lumber for the new settlers' houses. In the mean- 
time we found that every spring when the ice cleared out of the 
stream the water would come up into our houses. The stream on 
which our saw-mill stood was formerly two branches, which united 



-^ * — ^ - — A^ , 

a, I — r_ ^ 


just above the mill', one of which headed ten miles south- 
east of us, and the other as far to the southwest, bringing the 
waters of the rolling prairies from that direction to our place. In 
order to have his grist-mill secure from high water, Mr. Wisel dug 
a race on which to set it, and thus united the western branch with 
the stream bel ow the saw-mill, so our buildings all stood, as it 
were, upon an island, having the saw-mill on the east and the grist- 
mill on the west of our house. Our only son, Ezra, marrying, 
built him a house on the highest part of this land, and as he in- 
tended at some future time to put up an upright part adjoining it, 
he made an outer door opening from the chamber to the west; but 
the war coming on, he enlisted, and died in the army, and his 
widow and her two little girls moved 120 miles further west to 
reside with her parents. In the latter part of July, 1866, we had 
a great deal of rain, and as our roof leaked, we concluded to move 
into the house that Ezra had occupied, and began to take our 
things over the week before the freshet. 

But God seldom brings judgment upon people without first 
warning them of their danger; and so at that time, while engaged 
in gathering up things preparatory to moving, there seemed to be a 
whispering, telling me not to go into that house. I said nothing 
of my impressions, but reasoned with myself, that as the house 
was ours and more comfortable to live in than the one we occupied 
I conld see no good reason for not moving. I think from my hus- 
band's appearance that he had similar impressions, but he said 
nothing. At that time our family consisted of my husband and 
myself, my husband's mother, who was eighty years of age and 
quite feeble, and a nephew, Jonathan Wisel, youngest son of Ira 
Wisel, aged eleven years. His father having died in the army, we 
had taken him to live with us till he should be twenty-one. He 
was a good boy, and we had begun to feel that he would be to us 
as an own son. But we little realized that death even then stood 
at our door. The Sunday after we moved he went with me for 
the last time to meeting and Sunday-school. 

That day I met with Calvin Brace and wife, from Burr Oak, Iowa. 
They seemed to enjoy the meeting; they staid with us Sunday 
night, intending to take Mother Wisel home with them the next 
day, but on Monday it rained, so they were with us another night 
in family worship. That evening we sang : 

*' The day is past and gone, 
' The evening shades appear, 






O, may we all remember well 
The night of death draws near." 

But we little realized that death, even then, stood at our door. 
There was a cloud arising when we went to bed, but we obserred 
nothing unusual in its appearance. We retired with a feeling of 
safety. The old people slept below, and my husband with me and 
Jonathan slept in the chamber above. Mr. Wisel had been hard 
at work in his grist-mill and was tired, and he and the rest of the 
inmates were soon in a sound sleep. Then a trembling of heart 
seized me and a foreboding of something dreadful came over me. 
Soon the rain poured down in torrents. I awoke Mr. Wisel and 
told him that I feared we were going to have a freshet. He 
answered but did not appear much troubled and was soon in 
a sound sleep again. The night was extremely dark, except when 
it lightened. I knew it would be very difficult to get our aged 
mother or old Mrs. Brace to a place of safety on the hill, so I re- 
solved to watch the rise of the water, and let the rest sleep, unless 
danger should be near. For two hours the rain continued to pour 
down. Again I awoke my husband, telling him that the water 
was rising; but before he could dress I threw a shawl over ray 
head and went out a few rods from the house; it lightened and I 
discovered the water close to my feet. I hurried back, and throw- 
ing the door wide open, called to the sleeping inmates to awake, 
telling them that the water would soon be in the house. Our aged 
mother sprang up asking, "What shall we do?" I told her it was 
too late to get away, and that we must go to the chamber and 
trust in God. The head gate of the grist-mill race had given 
away and the water was pouring over between us and the mill, so 
that there was no chance of getting to our neighbors on the hills. 
All were soon dressed and the men removed the beds and trunks 
from the rooms below to the chamber above. Mr. Wisel and 
myself were the last to leave the lower rooms. The water was 
fast coming in, when I heard our three little calves rushing by, 
bellowing. With pity for the poor creatures, I sprang to the door 
to call them in, when my husband stopped me saying it would not 
do to open the door. We then went to the chamber and he 
opened the door, and, looking toward the grist-mill, told us that 
the small buildings were sweeping by! Soon he announced that 
the horse stable with the horses was going by; then I felt that the 
house must soon go. 

Mrs. Brace proposed that we should join in prayer. The water 






continued to rise. We could hear the windows bursting in, and 
things dashing about in the rooms below. Often flood- wood would 
strike the house, racking it fearfully. Perhaps one-half an hour 
had thus passed when mother, who remained sitting on the side 
of the bed, spoke with a sigh, saying, " I don't know what will be- 
come of us." 

The following words came into my mind, and I repeated them: 

" We all may like ships, bo tempest tossed 
On perilous deeps, but we ne'er shall be lost " 

With these words, there sprang up a little hope, that when the 
house should give way we might be washed to the hill, or get 
hold of a tree and be saved. I then began to prepare for the 
emergency as best I could. Getting mother's bonnet, I went to 
tie it on her head, but she refused, saying, "No," so 1 tied it on 
my own head, and then put on my thick shoes and woolen stock- 
ings. Then our house was violently racked. I supposed it was 
going immediately to pieces, but the shock passed off, and my 
husband, who was standing near the door which opened out from 
the chamber, spoke, saying, " The house will soon go now." 

His blacksmith shop had been driven against the addition, 
which was joined to the lower eaves of our house, working it off. 
For one moment we all waited in breathless silence, then the 
house began to plunge over, and as the lights went out I saw my 
husband jump out of the door, and caught a glimpse of his 
mother flying with the bed over the stairway. So I sprang to 
prevent her from going below. I heard her head strike! She, 
groaning, fell with the bed through the stairway, but the bed- 
stead having high posts stopped, and 1 clung hold of a foot post, 
while Mrs. Brace got hold of a side-rail, and her husband grasped 
the other foot post. I called to Jonathan to cling tight to the 
bedstead. He said, " Yes, mamma;" that was the last I heard 
from him. The house was immediately broken to pieces in such 
a manner as to free us from timbers, and we three went plungintf 
down stream clinging to the bedstead. After being twice im- 
mersed, as I again rose to the surface, struggling to keep my hold 
on the bedpost, it seemed that the waves or something else 
took me with force and set me across the foot-board, I still cling- 
ing to the post. I was no more plunged under water, but kept 
that position till I stopped the bedstead. Some to whom I have 
related the circumstances have said that doubtless an angel placed 
me on that foot-board, and guided my course down that crooked 






stream, through the woods and past the rocky bluffs. And, truly, 
it would seem almost impossible for one to be carried by a raging 
torrent, tilled with the debris of mills and other buildings, to- 
gether with fences and torn up trees, down a winding stream, along 
whose banks, in places, were perpendicular rocks of fifty feet and 
more in height, also woods to pass through; yet 1 was not 
scratched or bruised from coming in contact with either. My 
bonnet, which I had tied so snugly on my head, was suddenly 
snatched off by the limbs of a tree. We had not gone half a 
mile down the stream before Mr. Brace was dashed against the 
rocks or trees, I could not see which in the thick darkness. His 
poor wife hearing him groan called to him, sajing, *' Calvin, are 
yju gmeV Bat we were rapidly carried on, leaving him in his 
death struggle. The next day his body was found, two miles below, 
a little way from the stream, his skull broken, one foot ofi" and his 
oat torn from him. Our poor old mother lay near him terribly 
bruised, and her clothes mostly torn off. A Norwegian by the 
name of Dueland had a farm two miles below our place. His 
house was built on the flat, near the hill. He had a flourishing 
cornfield between his house and the creek; the rocks were torn 
from the blufis and thrown over his land for twenty rods square, 
but, fortunately, a heavy body of timber stood just above his house 
which prevented the fiood-wood from coming against it. My 
course was directly over those rocks, and then through that piece 
of timber. 

As we passed Mr. Dueland's house I saw a light at their win- 
dow, and called to Mrs. Brace, telling her there was a house, for 
I could see the light; but the darkness was so intense I could see 
no house, and supposed the light must be at some distance the 
other side of the creek; yet I was so near that Mrs. Dueland, who 
was in the chamber, heard me speak to Mrs. B., and she called to 
her husband, telling him that somebody was passing, for she heard 
a woman's voice. Mr. Dueland was below, standing in water up 
to his waist, holding the door from bursting in. * I heard Mrs. 
Brace's voice in prayer, as we floated down the stream, but it 
grew faint, and soon after we had passed Mr. Dueland's it ceased 
and she gave me no answer when I called to her, so I supposed she 
was gone and I was left alone. Four miles below our place a little 
stream called Trout Run emptied into the main stream from the 
west, and I was carried on my bedstead across this stream and be- 
side a piece of timber which grew on the left bank of the creek. 



There the bottom lands widen out, extending forty rods between 
the bluffs, so I went on more gently, and in passing under a tree 
felt a limb strike my head; reaching up, I grasped the limb with 
one hand while I held the bedpost to the body of the tree. My 
bedstead swung around to the lower side, and directly the flood- 
wood that was following down lodged against the upper side of 
the tree, so that I climbed upon it, and remained there till day- 
light. The rain had ceased, and a chilling wind came across the 
water. Being exhausted, I felt inclined to sleep, but feared to do 
so lest I fall into the water, so 1 stood on my feet, and exercised 
what I could to get warm, holding on to the limbs of the tree. 
The morning was foggy ; no sun appeared to warm the atmosphere 
or cheer the gloom. 

The cattle that had fled to the hills to escape the flood were 
seeking their way homeward, bellowing as if in fear of the still 
foaming waters. I, too, felt anxious to return, hoping that I 
might find my husband yet alive, flattering myself that he might 
reach some floating timber when he jumped from thai upper 
door, and so have reached the hill ; if so, I knew that he would be 
nearly distracted till he should learn the fate of his family. I 
knew not how far down the stream I had been carried, nor how 
long I might have to wait for some one to find me. I could not 
stay here in suspense; I must get to the hill and go far enough 
back to shun the ravine. But how should I get to the hill, which 
was separated from me by twenty rods of water? A board lay on 
the floodwood where I had rested and I resolved to try to raft my- 
self across to the hill, if I could find a pole long enough for the 
purpose. But through the mercy of a kind providence I found 
none, for I should probably have been drowned in the undertaking. 
On the right hand, between me and the creek, were woods filled with 
flood material, among which I saw drowned animals, and one poor 
creature struggling to liberate itself from the logs which confined 
it. With anxiety I looked for some of my own dear friends 
but found none. Some of ray neighbors in hunting for the lost 
reached the place at sunset, and found Mrs. Brace; she was on her 
knees, and her hands clenched in the grass, a few rods below ray 
bedstead; doubtless she was alive when I stopped at the tree, and 
was soon after knocked off by the floodwood. 

With much effort I succeeded in climbing from one pile of 
flood-wood to another, until I got out of the \^ ater, and soon after 
reached Trout Run, which was swollen to a river, with a swift cur- 





rent. 1 tollowed up the bank till I came to a tree that had fallen 
across the stream, and lay two or three feet above the water. I was 
enabled to cross over with steady nerve, and soon after was glad to 
find a road which I supposed would lead me out to the house of 
Mr. English, which was one and a half miles from my desolated 
home. With them I resolved to seek shelter. But I had not trav- 
eled far when I observed the fresh tracks of a company of wolves 
that had gone that way since the rain. I followed on for a mile or 
80 when, seeing a dark ravine in front of me and fearing I might 
meet the wolves , I left the road and climbed a hill to my rio-ht 
where there were only tall grass and weeds, hoping that I might 
see a house and find some one to assist me. On I traveled, from 
one hill to another, till noon, sometimes feeling so exhausted that 
it seemed I could go no further. Then I stopped and asked the 
Lord for strength and guidance, and in mercy he enabled me to 
pursue my way to a Norwegian's cabin. Although my labor and 
fatigue had been so great I was still shivering with cold; while the 
women prepared me warm refreshments, the man went and called 
a neighbor who could talk English. They were surprised to learn 
of the disaster as there had been no uncommon rain there. The 
two men took an ax and accompanied me through the woods to Mr. 
English's. His wife met me saying, " My dear lamb, I did not look 
f jr you to come alive." To my grief I then learned that Mr. Wisel 
had not been seen. He must have been drowned. They also told 
me that Mr. Wellington, who lived half a mile below us, was swept 
away with all his family and buildings. Their house, after going a 
few rods, broke up, the roof and chamber floor settling together. 
On raising the roof, Mrs. Wellington was found with her little 
grandson, Charley Gage, in her arms; they were in bed, looking as 
if in a sweet sleep. They had come to their death without any 
warning. Mr. Wellington had arisen and dressed himself His 
body was found in the timber where I had lodged. He was buried 
under the drifted sand only one boot sticking out in sight. They 
were from New Hampshire. The next day the remains of our 
poor old mother were brought to me. With tlie assistance of a 
few neighbors I had just got her laid out when Cyrus Weilington 
called to see me; he was at work from home at the time of the 
freshet and so escaped being drowned with the rest of the family. 
It was decided to take the bodies as fast as they were found to the 
school-house to be kept until the burial. With sadness, Cyrus told 
me that his mother and Charley had not been laid out, but were at 






the school-house. I was then reminded of a singular request that 

his mother had made of me but a few weeks before, as she stood 

admiring my flower-beds. She said she believed she would sleep 

sweeter in the grave with flowers around her, and requested me to 

see to laying her out, if I should outlive her, and place flowers 

about her grave. I told Cyrus that I would go and attend to their 

bodies immediately and soon had a carriage to take me to the 

school-house, where I was assisted by two Norwegian ladies. We 

had but few American neighbors, and they were unable to render 

any assistance. On the afternoon of Wednesday my poor husband 

was found and brought to the school-house. Mr. Brace and wife 

were taken home to Burr Oak for burial. On Thursday, Mr. 

Wiseland his mother, Mr. and Mrs. Wellington and Charley Gage 

were borne to their silent graves, followed by only five relatives. 

On Friday a few neighbors volunteered to go with me down the 

stream hoping we might find Jonathan. We searched a day in vain 

and returned home in the evening sad and weary. Jonathan was 

found on the following Sunday five miles below my place. He had 

floated down the stream and lodged in a clump of willows. He 

was buried that evening without funeral services. * * * 

Mrs. Wisel, after the terrible experience related above, returned 
to her friends in Steuben County, where she still lives. 

-J \S 





Stkonglt Whig, and latterly Republican.— Eakly Majorities.— 
Cursory View of Presidential Votes from 1840 to 1884. — 
Political Complexion of the Several Townships. — Total Vote 
AT EACH Presidential Election. — Local Independence of 
Party Fetters. — Personal Campaigns. — Luce and Dawson. — 
Importance of one Vote. — " Underground Railway" Station 
at Orland. — Abstract of Official Vote at all General Elec- 
tions FROM 1839 TO 1884. — Official List. — Judges of Circuit 
Court. — Associate Judges. — Probate Judges. — Common Pleas 
Judges. — Circuit Prosecutors.— Common Prosecutors.— County 
Commissioners. — State Senators. — Representatives. — Clerks 
of the Circuit Court. — Count r Auditors. — County Treas- 
urer. — County Sheriffs. — County Recorders. — County Sur- 
veyors. — School Examiners and Superintendents. 

The hardy New Englanders who settled Mill Grove Township 
brought their politics with them, and made Vermont settlement 
a center of Whig and Free-Soil strength. Through sympathy, 
other townships were settled by kindred spirits, so that in the 
early days Steuben was generally safe for the Whig party. Chester 
Stocker, elected County Clerk in 1843, himself a Democrat, wrote 
on the fly leaf of one of the record books now in the court-house, 
that previous to his election the county usually gave a reliable ma- 
jority for the Whigs of about 100; and that he himself was only 
elected by a combination of peculiar circumstances. His figures 
seem to be rather high, and not warranted by the official returns. 
At the August election of 1839, the Whig majority was tbirty-six. 
A year later it was twenty-three. At the presidential election of 
1840, the first after the organization of the county. General 
William Henry Harrison (who was elected) received 245 votes, 
while 183 were cast for his Democratic rival, Martin Van Buren, 
the former's majority being accordingly sixty-two. Harrison 
carried all the townships except York, Jackson and Otsego, which 
gave two, seventeen and sixteen majority, respectively for Van 

(314) ^ 



Buren, and Richland, whose vote]was a tie. Mill Grove gave forty- 
nine votes to Harrison, and nine to Yan Buren. Fremont's Whig 
majority was fourteen; Pleasant, twenty-three; Salem, twelve; 
Steuben, eight. 

In 1844 Henry Clay, the unsuccessful Whig leader, received 
328 votes to 303 for James K. Polk, nominated by the Democratic 
party, a plurality of twenty-five. The Free-Soil party, which had 
just sprung into existence, was in the field with its candidate, 
James G, Birney, who ])olled forty-two votes in this county, twenty- 
three of them being in Mill. Grove Township. The Whig plurality 
in Mill Grove was eight; Jamestown, two, Fremont, twenty-seven. 
Pleasant, twenty-three; Steuben, thirty -one. Five townships gave 
Democratic majorities, as follows : York, five; Jackson, thirty- 
four; Salem, ten; Otsego, fifteen, and Richland, five. 

In 1848 the veteran General Zachary Taylor, who was the Whig 
nominee, and who was elected, received 315 votes; and General 
Lewis Cass, the candidate of the Democracy, received 352 votes, a 
plurality of thirty-seven. The Free Soil party, led by Martin 
Yan Buren, polled a very large vote in this county — 194, and 
carried Fremont Township b}'^ a plurality of twentj'-fonr. Five 
townships gave the following Democratic pluralities: Pleasant 
(previously Whig, and this its only Democratic year), twenty-one; 
Jackson, twenty-four; Salem (Democratic only in 1848 and 1852), 
twenty-four; Otsego, fourteen; and Richland, nine. Taylor carried 
four townships by the following pluralities: Mill Grove,four; James- 
town, six; York, sixteen; Steuben, thirty-two. 

In 1852, the Democracy nominated Franklin Pierce, the Whigs 
chose Winfield Scott, and the Free-Soilers, John P. Hale. Never 
was a party which had hoped for success so overwhelmingly de- 
feated as this year, when Pierce received a triumphant majority 
of both the popular and electoral votes. In this county, for a 
second time, a Democratic victory was achieved, the vote being as 
follows : Pierce, 543; Scott, 487; Hale, ninety; Pierce's pluralit}^, 
fifty-six. The Democrats carried the following seven townships 
by the pluralities indicated: Jamestown, seven; Fremont (for 
the only time since its organization Democratic), three; York, six; 
Jackson, twenty-three; Salem, thirty-seven; Otsego, twenty-six; 
Richland, fourteen. The Whigs carried five townships — Mill Grove 
by ten; Clear Lake by eleven; Scott, nine; Pleasant, thirteen; 
Steuben, seventeen. 

The causes of the defeat of the Whigs in 1852 are well known. 



The anti-slavery people were alienated, and the party of Clay and 
Webster was, having by their death fallen into weaker hands, not 
only defeated but killed for all time. During four campaigns, it 
had carried Steuben County twice, and lost it an equal number of 
■ times. In 1854 and 1855 a new party arose on its ruins, and ab- 
sorbed the strength of both the Whigs and the Abolitionists. 
From that time on Steuben County has given decisive Republican 
majorities, the figures varying from 662 in 1856 to 1,242 in 1876. 

For its first campaign, which was unsuccessful, the new Republi- 
can party put in nomination General John C. Fremont; the De- 
mocracy put forward James Buchanan; and the American, or, party ran as a candidate ex-President Millard Fill- 
more. The result in this county was as follows : Fremont, 1,215; 
Buchanan, 553; Fillmore, nineteen; Republican plurality, 662. 
Jamestown gave a Democratic plurality of one, and every remain- 
ing township gave pluralities to Fremont, as follows: Mill Grove, 
119; Fremont, ninety-seven; Clear Lake, ten; York, sixty-six; Scott, 
seventy-one; Pleasant, nineteen; Jackson, fifty-nine; Salem, ninety- 
six; Steuben, 102; Otsego, fifty-four; Richland, thirty. 

In the memorable campaign of 1860, just before our civil war, 
the voters of the LFnited States were called upon to choose between 
Abraham Lincoln (Republican), Stephen A. Douglas (Democratic), 
John C. Breckinridge (Democratic), and John Bell (Union). 
Through the disagreement of the northern and southern wings ot 
the Democracy, Lincoln was elected though receiving but two- 
fifths of the popular vote. The campaign was unusually exciting 
in this county, where the successful candidate received 1,560 votes; 
Douglas, 547; Bell, eighty-two; Breckinridge, eight; Lincoln's 
plurality, 1,013. Every township in the county helped to swell 
the Republican vote, the pluralities being : Mill Grove, 136; 
Jamestown, one; Fremont, ninety-two; Clear Lake, twenty -four; 
York, ninetj'^-eight; Scott, ninety-five; Pleasant, 116; Jackson, 100; 
Salem, sixty-eight; Steuben, 108; Otsego, ninety-nine; Richland, 

In the last year of the war was held the next presidential elec- 
tion. The Democracy placed in the field the popular soldier 
George B. McClellan in opposition to Lincoln, who was renomi- 
nated. The sentiment of the North being decidedly with the 
administration, Abraham Lincoln was re-elected. In this county 
he received 1,642 votes to 609 for McClellan. The Republicans 
carried all the townships, the pluralities being, in Mill Grove, 154; 






Jamestown, thirty-four; Fremont, seventy-four; Clear Lake, nine; 
York, sixty-two; Scott, 129, Pleasant, 136; Jackson, 101; Salem, 
132; Steuben, 107; Otsego, 125; Richland, seventy. 

The next campaign occurred during the reconstruction era. The 
Eepublicans nominated their war hero. General Ulysses S. Grant, 
while the Democrats selected as their standard bearer the eminent 
New York Governor, Horatio Seymour. The result was a Repub- 
lican victory. In this county the vote was: For Grant, 1,881; for 
Seymour, 830; Grant's majority, 1,051. Clear Lake Township 
this year went over to the Democracy giving Seymour a majority 
of nine. The remaining townships, eleven in number, gave the 
following Republican majorities : Mill Grove, 147; Jamestown, 
seventy-two; Fremont, eighty-two; York, seventy- three ; Scott, 
153; Pleasant, 123 ; Jackson, 103 ; Salem, thirty-four ; Steuben, 
129; Otsego, eighty; Richland, 164. 

Dissatisfied with Grant's administration, a number of Repub- 
licans, calling themselves Liberals, held a convention in 1872, and 
nominated Horace Greeley, Grant having been renominated by the 
regular Republican convention. Disheartened, or rather hoping to 
achieve success by fostering a division in their rival party, the 
Democratic leaders, in convention assembled, endorsed Greeley. 
This was very unsatisfactory to a large proportion of Democrats, 
who accordingly refused to vote on election day. A few voted for 
Charles O'Conor, the "straight-out" Democratic candidate, but 
not enough to influence the result. Grant received an overwhelm- 
ing plurality of the people's vote, not by his own popularity, but 
by Greeley's unpopularity. While in 1868 the Democratic vote in 
Steuben County was 830, in 1872 it fell to 714, a decrease of 116. 
Allowing for increase of population, there should have been an in- 
crease of 100 or more, so that it is likely that 200 or more Demo- 
crats refused to vote. Grant received 1,877 votes, and O'Conor 
thirty-two, in this C(»unty; Grant's plurality over Greeley, 1,163. 
Excepting Clear Lake, which gave eighteen plurality for Greeley, 
the Republicans carried all the townships by the following figures: 
Mill Grove, ninety ; Jamestown, seventy-one; Fremont, twenty; 
York, 106; Scott, 157; Pleasant, 157; Jackson, 118; Salem, ninety- 
four; Steuben, 136; Otsego, sixty-seven; Richland, ninety-eight. 

The centennial year brought with it another vote for President 
of the Nation. The choice was between Rutherford B. Hayes 
(Republican), of Ohio, and Samuel J. Tilden (Democrat), of New 
York. After one of the closest electoral contests which history 






records, Hayes was declared elected by one electoral vote. He 
received 2,293 votes in this county, leaving 1,051 for Tilden, and 
219 for Peter Cooper, the National, or Greenback candidate. 
Hayes's plurality was therefore 1,242, the largest plurality the 
county has ever given for any candidate. Clear Lake gave Tilden 
ten more votes than Hayes, but the latter received in the remain- 
ing eleven townships the following pluralities : Mill Grove, 145; 
Jamestown, seventy-six; Fremont, sixty-two; York, 127; Scott, 
120; Pleasant, 204; Jackson, ninety-four; Salem, seventy-four; 
Steuben, 172; Otsego, eighty-three; Richland, ninety-five. 

James A. Garfield, of Ohio, and Winfield S. Hancock, of Penn- 
sylvania, represented the Republican and Democratic parties re- 
spectively in the presidential campaign of 1880. The National 
party put forward General James B. Weaver, of Iowa. Once more, 
but for the last time in continuous line, the Republicans triumphed, 
and Garfield was seated, to enjoy for a few months the highest 
oflice in the land, before his vigorous life was cut short by the 
assassin's bullet. He received in Steuben County a plurality of 
1,042. The vote was: Garfield 2,325 ; Hancock, 1,283; Weaver, 
106; Neal Dow (Prohibitionist), two. Clear Lake's Democratic 
plurality was fourteen. The Republican pluralities were: Mill 
Grove, 114; Jamestown, seventy-one; Fremont, sixty- six; York, 
105; Scott, 109; Pleasant, 122; Jackson, sixty-eight; Salem, 
seventy-four; Steuben, 154; Otsego, ninety-three; Richland, eighty. 

The warmly waged campaign of 1884, with its disagreeable epi- 
sodes and its many candidates, is fresh in the minds of all. First 
nominated was General Benjamin F. Butler, of Massachusetts, by 
the Greenback, Labor and Anti-monopoly conventions. The Re- 
publican convention at Chicago, in the month of June, nominated 
James G. Blaine, of Maine, for President, and General John A. 
Logan, of Illinois, for Vice-President. In the same cit}^, a month 
later, the Democratic convention selected as its nominee for Presi- 
dent, Grover Cleveland, of New York, and for Vice-President, 
Thomas A. Hendricks, of Indiana. The Prohibitionists nominated 
John P. St. John, of Kansas, and played a very important part in 
the campaign, to the delight of some, and the chagrin of others. 
In the State of New York they drew to St. John twenty times the 
number of votes by which Blaine was defeated for the Presidency. 
The campaign was conducted with unusual vigor in Steuben County, 
and a very full vote was polled, with the following result: Blaine, 
2,220; Cleveland, 1,314; Butler, 106; St. John, fifty-three; 






Blaine's plurality, 906. Every township, even Clear Lake, voted 
for Blaine. The following are the pluralities: ^Mill Grove, seventy- 
eight ; Jamestown, forty-eight ; Fremont, ninety ; Clear Lake, 
seven ; York, 123 ; Scott, sixty-three ; Pleasant, eighty-seven ; 
Jackson, fifty-seven ; Salem, fifty-nine ; Steuben, 113 ; Otsego, 
ninety-one; Richland, ninety-two. 

Steuben County has, then, participated in twelve presidential 
elections, in eight of which it has been on the " winning side." 
The progress of the county in population since 1840 is well shown 
by the total vote for President up to the present time : 1840, 428; 
1844, 673; 1848, 861; 1852, 1,120; 1856, 1,787; 1860, 2,197; 1864, 
2,251; 1868,2,711; 1872,2,623; 1876,3,563; 1880,3,716; 1884, 


In local elections the Kepublicans have been generally success- 
ful, but there has been a commendable tendency to disregard the 
party lines in choosing county and township ofiicials. 

In years gone by, before the era of railroads, it was customary 
for rival candidates to travel through the country in company, and 
speak against each other for votes. Cyrus G. Luce, of one of the 
first families to settle in Mill Grove Township, lived in that part of 
Steuben County until twenty-five years old, when he removed to 
Branch County, Mich. He has since been prominent in Michigan 
affairs, holding many important official positions. The year before 
he left Indiana he was the Whig candidate for member of the 
Legislature from this district, comprising Steuben and De Kalb 
counties. His opponent was a man named Reuben Dawson, who 
was a well-known politician in early days in De Kalb County. 
They canvassed the district together, riding on horseback, and 
spoke twice each day during a large portion of the time. Dawson 
rode a fine, large white horse, and Mr. Luce had a small, black 
animal. The former was a large man, while Mr. Luce was of me- 
dium size. Before they would arrive at the places where they were 
to speak the horses would be obliged to carry from one to three 
children each.' 

Mr. Dawson could take more on his horse, for he had the largest 
animal. At that time there was not a newspaper published in the 
district and but few taken. An occasional copy of a Cincinnati 
Baptist paper could be seen, "only that and nothing more." The 
canvass was a very bitter one, and there was any amount of black- 
guardism. Mr. Luce was young, then, and had not had the ex- 
perience which enabled him to compete in abuse with his rival. 




Dawson. The free-school discussion furnished a fruitful theme for 
the politicians. A friend of Mr. Luce told him that his argument 
in favor of free schools was all right, "but," said he, -Luce, you 
don abuse Dawson enough. When you speak next time tellthe 
people how he has been drunk, and every other mean thing you 
can think of that he has done." The advice was followed, and 
thereafter the debates were more interesting than ever. After the 
election it was found that Mr. Luce had eleven majority in Steuben 
Ooun y, while Dawson had over 100 majority in De Kalb County, 
therefore the latter was elected. 

An incident in the early history of this county illustrates the 
importance of one vote, and is of peculiar interest since the close 
election of 1884 has caused all the old heads throughout the country 
to revive their memories of even contests for the past fifty years 
ihe facts are stated somewhat differently by various parties, but 
the true version seemed to be the following, which we give on the 
authority of Eev. John Paul Jones, an early preacher throughout 
mis region, and present auditor of Lagrange County • 

Dr. Madison Marsh and Captain Beall, both residents of this 
county were candidates for the office of Representative in the 
b-eneral Assembly, for the counties of Steuben and De Kalb 
Captain Beall received the certificate of election, but his seat was 
contested, the result being that Dr. Marsh was declared duly 
elected by one vote, it having been ascertained that the Board of 
Canvassers had improperly, on account of some informality, thrown 
out a vote intended for Marsh. At the ensuing sessfon of the 
Legislature, 1845, Edward A. Hannegan was chosen United States 
Senator by a majority of one, Dr. Marsh casting his vote for Han- 
negan. It is claimed that Texas was admitted into the Union in 
consequence of Hannegan's vote, and now the Mexican war and 
other momentous results of that afi^air are attributed to Steuben 
bounty's irregular voter. 

The present strong Republican vote in the county is the natural 
result of the ardent anti-slavery temper of its citizens before the 
war. Some of the oldest and most respectable residents were 
prosecuted for alleged violation of the fugitive slave law, in aid- 
ing and abetting some liberty-loving people of dusky hue in their 
flight toward the Queen's dominions. An indignation meeting 
was held at Orland, largely attended, when those who were re- 
garded as instrumental in these prosecutions were denounced in 
unmeasured terms. There is no doubt that Steuben County was a 







favorite route for the "underground railroad," and that the "sta- 
tions" were well officered. The results of the war have, however, 
settled these questions forever, and it is pleasing now to contem- 
plate the fact that the scenes which gave rise to such feelings are 
no more to be enacted. 

The following pages contain an abstract of the vote cast in Steu- 
ben County since its organization, except the first, which cannot 
be obtained : 

ELECTION OF AUG. 5, 1839. 


James Rariden 114 

"Wilson Thompson 78 

Angus McKinley 1 


Elias Baker 115 

E. M. Chamberlain 78 


Asa Brown 113 

David B. Herriman 78 


Angus McKinley 105 

James Perfect. 

Probate Judge. 

Erios Beall 

Alonzo P. Clark. 



School Commissioner. 

Robert L. Douglass 121 

Leland H. Stocker 19 

George Hendry 33 








Isaac L. Miller. 


Samuel Bigger. 


208 33 

Tilghman A. Howard 185 


Samuel Hall 208 

Benjamin S. Taley 185 


John B. Howe 209 

Madison Marsh 185 


Wm. M. Cary 203 

Jeremiah Tillotson 190 

Samuel A. Stewart 189 

Daniel L. Rfissell 173 


liafus Beall 209 

George W. Balding 179 






ELECTION OF NOV. 2, 1840. 


William Henry Harrison . . . 245 62 

Martin Van Buren 183 

ELECTION OF AUG. 2, 1841. 


David B. Herriman 206 12 

John B. Howe 194 


Madison Marsh 205 12 

Seth W. Murray 193 


Asher Benedict 210 3D 

Jonas Twichell 180 


Adonijih Smith 211 37 

George W. Balding 174 


Reuben B. Hopkins 264 142 

Daniel E. Palmer 122 

Probate Judge. 

Avery Emerson 215 215 


Alexander Chapin 214 57 

E G. Salisbury 157 

Coi oner . 

George Hendry 166 166 

ELECTION OF AUG. 1, 1842. 


Enos Beall 271 97 

Madison Marsh 174 


James Clark 272 97 

James Perfect 175 


Rufus Beall 264 81 

Peter McKinlev 183 






George Emerson... 325 3 

Clark Powers 333 

School O&mmissioner. 

Robert L. Douglass 343 44 

Marcus F. Morse 198 

ELECTION OF AUG. 7, 1848. 

Samuel Bigger 230 11 

James Whitcomb 219 

Elizur Demming 40 


John H. Bradley 229 10 

Jesse D. Bright 219 

Stephen R. Harding 40 


Lewis G. Thompson 266 45 

Andrew Kennedy 221 


David B. Herriman 241 6 

William Mitchell 335 


Benjamin Alton 313 17 

Jacob Helwig 196 

Alexander Chapin 49 


Daniel A. Stewart 343 5 

Orrin Goodrich 237 


William Wilber, Jr 344 

Daniel H.Roberts 338 

Clerk and Recorder. 

Chester Stocker 255 

Rufus Beall 330 

Associate Judges. 

Thomas N. Brown 355 

Timothy Kimball 308 

John Russell 205 

Jared H. Miner 303 

George Latson 53 

Prosecuting Attorney. 

Reuben J. Dawson 188 3 

Robert L. Douglass 185 

Daniel E. Palmer 55 


George Hendry 249 48 

Eiisha Steere 201 

ELECTION OF AUG. 5, 1844. 


Jacob Helwig 241 18 

Ariel Walder 223 





Calvin Powers 351 40 

Abner Kemp 211 

N. D. Canfield. 34 


Jesse J. Mugg 380 98 

William Albee 182 

S. T. Gary 31 


John Stealey 343 32 

Daniel Caswell 221 

Elijah Fox 28 

School Commissioner. 

John L. Cary 353 31 

A. W. Hendry . , 333 

George Stocker 33 

ELECTION OF NOV. 4, 1844. 


Henry Clay 328 35 

James K. Polk 303 

James G. Birney 42 

ELECTION OF AUG. 4, 1845. 


Lewis G. Thompson 309 20 

H. Kennedy 389 

D.Worth 33 


Enos Beall 333 35 

Clark Powers 378 

L.H.Barry 33 


James Clark 305 31 

Peter McKinley 385 

J.D.Johnson 83 


John L. Cory 297 4 

William Wilder 293 

George Stocker 21 


William Albee 289 3 

E. R. May 387 

S.T.Cory 27 

Prosecuting Attorney. 

Reuben J. Dawson 397 6 

E.A. McMahon 391 


Associate Judge' 

Enos Beall 322 93 

Jeremiah Tillotson. 229 






ELECTION OF AUG. 3, 1846. 

James Whitcomb 375 

Joseph G. Marshall 286 

Stephen C Stephens 30 


Paris C. Dunning 377 

A. C. Stevenson 286 

Stephen S. Harding 30 


Madison Marsh 371 

William H. Nimmons 278 

W.H. Means 25 


David B. Wheeler 889 

Wm. P. Means 271 

S. C Sabin 26 


For .- 83 

Against 74 


Orrin Goodrich 376 

Matthew Coffin 275 


Theron Storrs 377 

John Stealey ; 280 

Elijah Fox 20 

School Commissioner. 

Leland H. Stocker 374 

Wm. M. Gary 292 

C Parrish... 22 


James Forward 366 

AlonzoP. Clark 293 

R. Stewart 25 

ELECTION OF NOV. 16, 1846. 


George W. Balding.* 250 

William Coward 49 

William P. Means 11 

Alexander Chapin 3 



William Rockhill 433 

William G. Ewing 368 










D. Worth. 



John P. Widney 425 

William Huff 381 

R. Stewart 6 




A. M. Cleveland 415 

B.Clark 386 

P. Dean 6 


G. W. McConnell 457 

Rufus Beall 326 

D. Fox 7 


Leland H. Stocker 512 

F.C.Wilson 298 

S. F. Cary 6 


James J. Mugg 454 

A. Winsor 331 

E. Keene , 5 

Prosecuting Attorney. 

E. R. May ... 436 

A. W. Hendry 365 


S. H. Powers 421 

Erastus Famham 383 

ELECTION OF AUG. 7, 1848. 


Cyrus G. Luce 355 

Reuben J. Dawson 344 


James Perfect 284 

John Carter 320 

Probate Judge. 

Theron Storrs 












Daniel E. Palmer 


O. P. Dodge 374 

S. W. Scoville 327 


Miles Coe 374 52 

Aaron Warner 322 

ELECTION OF NOV. 7, 1848. 


Lewis Cass , 352 37 

Zachary Taylor 315 

Martin Van Buren 194 

ELECTION OF AUG. 6, 1849. 


Joseph A. Wright 427 93 

John A. Matson 335 

James H. Cravens 112 




— 1 lO 

Lieutenant-OovernoT. \ 

James H. Lane 420 70 

Thomas S. Stanfield 350 

John W.Wright 99 

Congressman . 

David Killgore 444 30 

Andrew L. Harlan 424 


Elijah H. Drake 490 132 

Reuben J. Dawson 358 


John Tatman 474 139 

Edward R.May 335 

Free Schools. 

For 647 459 

Against 188 


For 590 412 

Against 1'''8 


Samuel A. Stewart 410 114 

Emery Brown • . • 296 

Archibald Crawford. ....... 158 


George D. Waring 338 32 

George W. McConnell 306 

John A. Jackson 227 


Justice Waite 513 192 

Porter Gleason 321 

ELECTION OF AUG. 5, 1850. 

Delegate from Sen. District. 

Robert Work 457 445 

William Mitchell 12 

Delegate from Rep. District. 

Wesley Park 463 100 

Edward R. May 363 


George R. Baker 478 69 

John Stayner 309 


George W. Balding 427 31 

Jacob McClaskie 396 


Lewis G. Carver 419 10 

George Jenks 409 


Peter McKinley 414 7 

AVilliam C. Weicht 407 




Chester Stocker 407 2 

Stephen R. Ball 405 

Associate Judge. 

Emory Brown 447 38 

James M. Raymond 409 

Benjamin Clark 402 

Squires S. Beers 330 

Prosecuting Attorney. 

Daniel S. Palmer 474 


Stephen A. Powers 441 

Erastus Farnham 380 

ELECTION OF AUG. 4, 1851. 


Samuel Brenton 551 

James W. Barden 454 


Gilman C. Mudgett 501 

Israel D. Mailey 488 

George W. McConnell 475 

Wesley Park 126 


No Exclusion of 592 

Exclusion of....- 257 

New Constitution. 

For 787 

Against 88 


John Carter 514 

Samuel W. Scoville 486 


Simon C. Aldrich 454 

Wm. M. Cary 360 

O. P.Dodge 156 


William Carkhuff 553 

George Jenks 432 


Leland H. Stocker 526 

Stephen R. Ball 463 

Associate Judge. 

William Cooper 492 2 

AlonzoP. Clark 490 

Prosecuting Attorney. 

James L. Warden 508 


Horace S. Perkins 504 14 

Rufus Jackson 490 















ELECTION OF OCT. 12, 1852. 


Nicholas McCarty 503 1 

Joseph A. Wright 502 

Andrew L. Robinson 41 

Lieu tenant - Governor. 

William Williams 504 4 

Ashbell P. Willard 500 

James P. Milliken 39 

Secretary of State. 

John Osborn 503 2 

Nehemiah Hayden 501 

J. C. Tibbitts 39 


Samuel Brenton 567 94 

Ebenezer M. Chamberlain. 473 

Judge 10th Circuit. 

E. A. McMahon. 499 499 

Prosecutor 10th Circuit. 

J. M. Connell 487 487 

Judge of Common Pleas. 

John Morris 547 76 

Reuben J. Dawson 471 

Common Pleas Prosecutor. 

Daniel E. Palmer 564 103 

W. W. Griswold 461 


Alanson W. Hendry 639 264 

George W. McConnell 375 


AloDzo P. Clark 572 141 

S. B. Ward 533 47 

Robert Work 486 

Edward L. Hammond 431 

Commissioners . 

Philo Clark 551 86 

John Nichols 538 60 

George A. Milnes 478 

Martin Eldredge 465 


William Hough 545 64 

Robert Patterson 481 


George Emerson 521 7 

Lewis E. Carver 514 


Erastus Farnham 534 41 

Simeon Gilbert 493 


Horace S. Perkins 500 14 

Elisha Steere 486 


ELECTION OF NOV. 2, 1852. 

' President. 

Franklin Pierce 543 56 

Winfield Scott 484 

John P. Hale 90 

ELECTION OF OCT. 11, 1853. 


John W. Carter 211 170 

Eli M. Teal 41 

Peter McKinley 7 

ELECTION OF OCT. 10,1854. 
Secretary of State. 

E. B. Collins 628 252 

Nehemiah Hayden 376 


Samuel Brenton. . . 649 286 

Ebenezer M. Chamberlain.. 363 

Prosecutor 10th Circuit. 

J. W. Dawson 446 71 

E. R. Wilson 875 

Common Pleas Prosecutor. 

A. M . Tinker 608 223 

W. I. Howard 385 


James Hadsell 630 263 

Alonzo P. Clark 594 188 

Clark Powers 406 

Joshua J. Hoffman 367 


Charles L. Luce 588 176 

John Nichols 412 


William Hough 535 76 

Robert Patterson 459 


George Emerson 758 495 

Lewis E. Carver 263 


Erastus Farnham 629 257 

Stephen A. Powers 372 

Sidney Parsons 990 

ELECTION OF OCT. 9, 1855. 

Judge 10th Circuit. 

James L. Warden 467 4^^; 

A. M. Tinker 2 


Calvin Powers 446 140 

Ajphonso Wood 306 

Jacob O. Rose 221 








Samuel W. Scoville 499 22 

Frederick L. Weicht 477 


Lewis E. Carver 505 18 

John W. Follelt 487 


Frederick C Chapin 554 75 

W.I.Howard 479 

ELECTION OF OCT. 14, 1856. 


Oliver P. Morton 1,133 587 

Ashbell P. Willard 546 


Conrad Baker 1,130 584 

Abram A. Hammond 546 

Secretary of State. 

John W. Dawson 1,131 586 

Ddniel McClure 545 


Samuel Brenton 1,135 592 

Robert Lowry 543 

Prosecutor 10th Circuit. 

Robert Parrett 1,124 577 

Sanford J. Stoughton 547 

Common Pleas Judge. 

Egbert B. Mott 1,123 577 

Theron Storrs 546 

Common Pleas Prosecutor. 

William H. Dills 1,128 587 

LelandH. Stocker 541 


Alanson W. Hendry 1,109 552 

Milts Waterman 557 


S. B. Ward 1,119 568 

Thomas B. Sloss 1,105 542 

W. Irving Howard 563 

Bushrcd Catlin 551 


James Clark 1,128 586 

Fred. L Weicht 542 


Peter Bowman 1,046 433 

Beiijamin J. Cross waite — 613 


W. H. H. Day.... 
Robert Patterson. 

. 033 



Erastus Farnham 1,103 541 

Stephen A. Powerd 562 


Jacob O. Rose 1,080 513 

Alphonso Wood 567 

ELECTION OF NOV. 4, 1856. 

President . 

John C . Fremont 1,215 662 

James Buchanan 553 

Millard Fillmore 19 

ELECTION OF OCT. 13, 1857. 

Congressman . 

Charles Case 802 426 

James L. Worden 376 


John Green 750 40G 

Emery Brown 344 

ELECTION OF OCT. 12, 1858. 

Secretary of State. 

William A. Peele 1,093 635 

Daniel McClure 458 

Congressman . 

Charles Case 1,113 072 

Reuben J. Dawson 441 

Judge 10th Circuit 

Edwin R. Wilson 1,1 12 680 

William W. Carson 432 

Prosecutor 10th Circuit- 

James M. Defrees 1,096 646 

James M. ShuU 450 

Philo Clark 1,09-3 1,092 

Common Pleas Prosecutor. 

Abner F. Pinchin 1,035 1 085 


Norris S. Bennett 972 385 

Calvin Powers 587 


Peter Bowman 877 235 

John W. Follett 642 

Chester L. Heath 23 


Benjamin F. Dawson 869 520 

Robert Patterson 349 

W. H. H.Day 283 


Pliny Roby 818 120 

Stephen A. Powers 698 






Birge Smith 1,082 616 

Horace L. Perkins 466 

ELECTION OF OCT. 11, 1859. 
Prosecutor 10th Circuit. 

George D. Copeland 743 

Moses D. Jenkinson 447 

Commissioner . 

Charles E. Kinney , . . 744 

William Cooper 445 


Samuel E. Heath 730 

James B. Parker 468 





Orlow W. Parish. 
Theron Storrs. . . 



Levi A. Thompson 747 

Fred. L. Weicht 431 

ELECTION OF OCT. 9, 1860. 


Henry S. Lane 1,390 

Thomas A. Hendricks. ... 606 


Oliver P.Morton 1,389 

David Turpie 606 

Secretary of State. 

William A. Peelle 1,388 

William A. Schlater 606 


William Mitchell 1 384 

P. M. Henkle 606 

Prosecutor 10th Circuit. 

Augustus A. Chapin 1,369 

Wm. S.Smith 611 

Common Pleas Judge. 

Wm. Clapp 1,384 

A. M . Myers 607 

Common Pleas Prosecutor. 

Joseph W. Cummings 1,380 

Theodore Richmond 607 


T. R. Dickinson 1,353 

Robert Patterson '630 


J. W. Woodhull 1,.340 

S. W. Corbin (303 









Daniel H. Roberts 1,356 

Wilson Teeters 625 


William H. Twichell 1 258 

Ja^esM. Rodgers '554 

C. S.Gillett.... 151 

Treasurer . 

Francis Macartney 1,336 

James B. Parker 645 

Surveyor . 

Pliny Roby 1,360 

Stephen A. Powers 626 











Jacob Stealey 1,332 781 

U. B. HoMndge 601 



Abraham Lincoln 1,560 1,013 

Stephen A. Douglas 547 

John C. Buchanan 82 

John Bell 3 

ELECTION OF OCT. 8, 1861. 


R-Patterson 269 35 

N. Bennett 234 

William Sherwood n 

ELECTION OF OCT. 14, 1862. 
Secretary of State. 

William A. Peelle 1 256 

James S. Athon '440 


William Mitchell 1257 

Joseph K. Edgerton .' '441 

Prosecutor 10th Circuit. 

I A. A. Chapin §97 ^.jo 

James H. Scheil .'.,', 459 '^ 

Common Pleas Prosecutor. 

Lewis Coville 1 243 806 

Alexander B. Kennedy '442 

William H. Dills 443 443 


Enns B. Noy es 1 943 793 

Calvin Powers 450 


Frederick Butler 1,261 823 

William Cooper 433 







9, ft. 

^ * 






Common Pleas Prosecutor. 

William H. Twichell 1,245 


Asa M. Tinker 1,633 1,054 

John Leas 441 

Guy Plum 579 



W. Irving Howard 1,266 


EnosB. Noyes 1,626 1,045 

Clayton Mallory 435 

Dewitt C. Denny 581 



Pliny Roby 1,250 


Stephen C. Sabin 1,632 1,053 

yimeon Gilbert 442 

W.H.Wells , 579 



Jacob Stealey 1,256 


John Dvgert 1,611 1,025 

Le( pokl Weicht 440 

Calvin Powers 586 

ELECTION OF OCT. 13, 1863. 




Sylvacus B. George 1,635 1,064 

Daniel H. Roberts 1,179 


Jeremiah G. W. Colburn.. . u71 

Norris S. Bennett 1,173 




W.Irvine Howard 1,630 1,049 

Francis Macartney 1,190 


James B. Parker 581 



Marvin Butler 1, 180 


Elbert N. Woodford 1 626 1,047 

Theron Storrs 579 



Henry Snyder 1,173 


James Jackson 1,629 1,049 

Real Estate Appraiser. 

C. Julius Frej'gacg 580 

Martiu Eldridge 1,129 


ELECTION OF NOV. 8, 1864. 

ELECTION OF OCT. 11, 1864. 



Abraham Lincoln 1,642 1,033 

Oliver P. Morton 1,664 


Geo. B. McClellan 609 

Joseph E. McDonald 551 

ELECTION OF OCT. 10, 1865. 



Conrad Baker 1,635 

Mahlon D. Manson 578 


James Carter 360 360 

Secretary of State. 

ELECTION OF OCT. 9, 1866. 

Nelson Trusler 1,633 


Secretary of State. 

James S. Athon 579 

Nelson Trusler 1,819 1,057 


Mahlon D. Manson 763 

Joseph H. Defrees 1,632 



Joseph K. Edgerton 579 

Wm. W- Williams 1,811 1,051 

Judge 10th Circuit. 

Robert Lowry 760 

J^mes 6. Collin, 1,632 


Prosecuting Attorney 10th Circuit. 

Robert Lowry 579 

Thomas W. Wilson 1,820 1,061 

Prosecutor 10th Circuit. 

M. J. Lowry 759 

Joseph W. Cummings 1,632 


Common Pleas Prosecutor: 

James H. Schell 579 

J. D. Ferrall.... 1,817 1,817 

Common Pleas Judge. 


William H. Clapp 1,631 


Jno. McClew 1,813 1,052 


Samuel Jacobs 579 

Clayton Mallory 761 





- Y 

4^ > 

— p 




Sylvanus B. George 1,835 1,090 

Henry Clinesmitn 745 


Stephen C. SabiQ 1,827 1,099 

Geo. W. Balding 728 


Chas. T. Kinney 1,774 1,049 

Wm. H.Cole 725 


Elbert N. Woodford 1,824 1,072 

Simeon S. Gilbert 752 


Jas. Jackson 1,812 1,053 

Cyrus M. Phillips 759 

ELECTION OF OCT. 8, 1867. 
Judge 10th Circuit. 

Hiram S. Towsley 1,011 

Andrew Ellison 390 


Prosecuting Attorney 10th Circuit. 

Ezra D. Hartman 1,009 

Thos.L Smith 383 


Michael Cline 962 

Calvin Powers 423 


Francis Macartney 998 

Theron Storrs 389 


Marvin B. Butler 1,012 

Henry Clinesmith 388 


Germ Brown 

Harmon Freygang 







ELECTI0N OF OCT. 13, 1868. 

Conrad Biker 1,766 943 

Thos. A. Hendricks 823 

Lieutenant-Governor . 

Will Cumback 1,768 945 

Alfred P. Edgerton 823 

Secretary of State. 

Max F. A. Hoffman 1,768 945 

Reuben C. Kise 823 


Wm. W. Williams 1,766 942 

Andrew Ellison 824 

Common Pleat Judge. 

Wm. M. Clapp 1,771 951 

Alexander J. Douglas 820 

Common Pleas Prosecutor. 

Jos. L. Morlan 1,784 937 

Wm. G. Croxton 827 


Edward W. Fosdick 1,759 945 

Geo. A. Milnes 814 


Stephen C. Sabin 1,763 944 

Jas. K. Howell 819 


A. Judson Corbin 1,758 938 

Nicholas Deller 820 


Ora Pierce, Jr 1,760 935 

Benj. F. Smith 825 


Chas. F. Kinney 1,773 970 

Jas. B. Parker.' 803 


Pliny Roby. 1,756 933 

Si-neon Gilbert 823 

Real Estate Appraiser. 

Jno. K. Folck 1,768 943 

Calvin Powers 825 


Jas. Jackson 1,761 937 

Aim. Sherwood 824 

ELECTION OF NOV. 3, 1868. 


Ulysses S. Grant 1,881 1,051 

Horatio Seymour 830 

ELECTION OF OCT. 11, 1870. 

Secretary of State. 

Max F. A. Hoffman 1,550 883 

Norman Eddy 667 


William Williams 1,439 833 

Milo S. Hascall 606 

Andrew Ellison 132 

Prosecuting Attoi'ney, loth Circuit. 

Jas. McGrew 1,332 455 

Wm. C. Wilson 877 

Common Pleas Prosecutor. 

Joseph L. Morlan 1,332 1,332 


Stephen C. Sabin 1,253 333 

T. R. Sloss 930 






Jno. McClue 1,U6 140 

Michael Cline 1,135 109 

A.JudsonCorbin 1,201 224 

E. Brown 1,006 

Henry Hall 1,026 

Jno. E. Baker 977 


Ora Pierce, Jr 1,293 378 

Philip Michael 915 


Marvin B. Batler 1,210 256 

Ja8. B. Parker 954 


Chas. D. Chadwick 1,176 205 

Wm. G. Croxton 971 


Robert V. Carlin 1,303 401 

J. C. Powers 902 

Germ Brown............. 1,228 268 

Geo. E.Young 960 


E. N. Woodford 1,248 354 

J.D.Miner 894 


Peter W. Russell 1,270 285 

W. L. Orton 990 

ELECTION OF OCT. 8, 1872. 


Thos. M. Browne 1,834 870 

Thos. A. Hendricks 959 


Leonidas Sexton 1,838 884 

Jno. R. Cravens 954 

Secretary of State. 

Wm. W.Curry 1,840 883 

Owen M. Eddy 957 


Henry B. Sayler 1,841 884 

Elisha V.Long 957 

Judge 14th Circuit. 

Jas. I. Best 2,722 2,722 

Prosecuting Attorney 14th Circuit. 

Leigh H. Haymond 2,728 2,728 

Common Pleas Judge. 

Wm.M. Clapp 1,816 841 

L.E.Goodwin 975 

Common Pleas Prosecutor. 

Joseph L. Morlan 1,755 731 

Daniel Y. Husselman 1,024 


W. Irving Howard 1,819 847 

Wm.G. Croxton 972 


Eugene B. Glasgow 1,786 805 

Wm.T. Heath 981 


Clayton Mallory 1,420 100 

Norris S. Bennett 1,320 

Chas. Bachelor 1,449 134 

Myron F. Giddings 1,315 


Leander Chase 1,622 484 

Benj. F. Dawson 1,138 


Chas. D. Chadwick 1,878 987 

Henry Hall 891 

Jieal Estate Appraiser. 

Joseph W. Thomas 1,798 818 

Geo. W. Poland 980 


Elbert N. Woodford 1,727 694 

Frank B. Van Auken 1,033 


Wm. D. French 1,766 785 

Daniel B. Griffin 991 

ELECTION OF NOV. 5, 1872. 


Ulysses S. Grant 1,877 1,163 

Horace Greeley ... 714 

Chas. O'Conor 32 

ELECTION OF OCT. 13, 1874. 

Secretary of State. 

Wm.M. Curry 1,462 672 

Jno. E. Neff 790 

Isaac C. Stout. 304 


Jno. H. Baker 1,440 390 

Freeman Kelly 1,050 

Prosecutor 14th Circuit. 

Wm. B. McConnell 1,276 48 

Joseph L. Morlan 1,828 


Eugenius B. Glasgow 1,279 45 

Enos B. Noyes 1,234 






Clayton Mallory 1,338 133 

John Cameron 1,289 34 

Geo. Handy 1,205 

Dwight Lewis 1,255 


Wm.Wicoff 1,313 126 

Harmon Freygang 1,187 


Jesse H. Carpenter 1,303 112 

Francis McCartney. . . ... 1,191 


Geo. L. Luce 1,278 ) ,. 

Irenus McGowan 1,278 [ "® 


Rob'tV. Carlin 1,364 175 

Chas. A. Segur 1,189 


Joseph Butler 1,450 382 

Aaron G. Parsell 1,068 


Frank B. Van Auken. ... 1,334 146 
Elbert N. Woodford 1,188 


Albert R. Crandall 1,291 61 

Adam W. A. Sowle 1,230 


David B. Teeters 1 ,256 57 

Jos. W. Thomas 1,199 

ELECTION OF NOV. 23, 1874. 


Geo. L.Luce 1,096 82 

Irenus McGowan 1,014 

ELECTION OF OCT. 10, 1876. 


Benj. Harrison 2,167 1,371 

Jas. D. Williams 796 

Henry W. Harrington 444 


Rob't S. Robertson 2,145 1,376 

Isaac P. Gray 769 

Richard Gregg 495 

Secretary of State. 

Isaiah P. Watts.... 2,142 1,373 

Jno. E. Neff 769 

Allen W. Monroe 497 


Jno. H. Baker 2,168 1,210 

Freeman Kelley 958 

Norris S. Bennett 71 

Judge 14th Circuit. 

Jas. E. Rose 2,100 1,039 

Hiram S. Tousley 1,061 

Prosecutor lith Circuit. 

Jno. W. Bixler 2,131 863 

Daniel D. Moody 1,268 


Wm. M. Mercer 2,142 904 

Sam. S. Shutt 1,238 


Henry P. Butler 2,105 1,245 

Stephen A. Powers 432 

Virgil Little 860 


A. Judson Corbin 2,126 1,307 

Clark H. Wood worth 819 

Marvin Burr ,.. . 452 

John Cameron 2,129 1,260 

Jesse Avery 869 

Aaron Teegarden 402 


Wm. WicoflF 2,172 977 

David B. Teeters 1,195 


Samuel Beight 

Freeborn Patterson... 
John Parker 

2,115 1,152 


Abr am B. Stevens 2,105 1,220 

Calvin E. Van Auken. .. . 885 
E.Bennett 392 


Jno. J. Kinney 2,114 1,284 

John Dygert 830 

Daniel B. Griffin 453 

ELECTION OF NOV. 7, 1876. 


Rutherford B. Hayes 2,293 1,242 

Samuel J. Tilden 1,051 

Peter Cooper 219 

ELECTION OF OCT. 8, 1878. 

Secretary of State. 

Isaac S.Moore..., 1,744 1,079 

Jno. G. Shanklin 665 

Henley James 609 


Jno. H. Baker 1,754 742 

Jno. B. Stoll 1,012 

Wm. C.Williams 224 

Circuit Prosecutor. 

Henry C. Peterson 1,759 542 

Geo. B. Adams 1,217 








Ezekiel Brown 1,730 588 

Virgil Little 1,132 

Enos B. Noyes 122 


JohnMcClew 1,713 534 

Erastus Farnham 1,179 

Aaron E. Kinsey 119 

Rollin H. Goddard 1,702 385 

Myron Powers 1,317 

Moses Gonser 1,712 519 

Dwight B. Lewis 1.193 

Aaron Teegarden 118 


Wm. H. Keyes 1,633 400 

John Greenamyer 1,233 

Levi Barber 109 


Rob'tH. Johnson 1,630 352 

Jesse H. Carpenter 1,277 

Myron Richardson 113 


Samuel Beighl 1,750 599 

Freeborn Patterso- 1,151 

Stephen A. Powers 124 


W. Homer Twichell 1,759 654 

Wilson Teeters 1,105 

Marvin Burr 126 


Orville Goodale 1,673 451 

Joseph Butler 1,222 

Jno. G. Parker 94 


Chas. A. Shackford 1,712 464 

Calvin E. Van Auken. . . . 1,148 
Theron Storrs. 123 


Stephen H. Fuller 1,737 593 

William Crubaugh 1,144 

William H. Willie 114 

ELECTION OF OCT. 12, 1880. 


Albert G. Porter 2,290 1,037 

Franklin Landers 1,253 

Richard Gregg 99 


Thomas Hanna 2,276 1,021 

Isaac P. Gray 1,255 

Thos. De Bruler 110 

Secretary of State. 

Emanuel R. Hawn 2,276 1,022 

Jno. G. Shanklin 1,254 

Francis T. Waring Ill 


Rob't S. Taylor 

Walpole G. Colerick 



Henry C. Peterson. 
Geo. B. Adams. , -. 



Daniel H. Roberts 

Stephen A. Powers 


Francis McCartney 

Jesse H. Carpenter 


William Turner 

George Collins 

John Rathbun 

David K. Swift 

Jno. S. Baker 

John Greenamyer 







Wm. H. Keyes. . . .* 

John Patterson 


Lyman R. Williams 

Myron F. Giddings 


Rob't G. Morley 

Chas. Ward 


Stephen H. Fuller. 
Geo. W. Poland... 









ELECTION OF NOV. 2, 1880. 


Jas. A. Garfield 2,325 1,042 

Winfield S.Hancock 1,283 

Jae. B. Weaver 106 

Neal Dow 3 

ELECTION OF NOV. 7, 1882. 

Secretary of State. 

Emanuel R. Hanna 1,869 759 

Wm. R. Myers 1,110 

Hiram C. Leonard 184 


Wesley C Glasgow 1,872 761 

Robert Lowry 1,111 

Joseph Butler 192 

Circuit Judge. 

R. Wes. McBride 1,928 

Wm. H. Dills 1,224 




-p L>- 




Henry C. Peterson 

Harry Eeynolds 


Doak R. Best 

Jesse H . Carpenter 


Jonas Twichell, Jr 

Myron Powers 

David K. Swift 

Martin V. Leas 


Allen Fast 

Abram B. Jeffries 


Rob't H. Johnson 

Lewis Griffith 


Lyman R. Williams. 
JttS. H. Parker 


Orville Goodale. . . 
Geo. D. Cleveland. 


W.' Homer Twichell. 
Geo. W. Beavers 




















Rob't G. Morley 

Calvin E. Van Auken. 


Stephen H. Fmler. 
Jno. B. Blew 






ELECTION OF NOV. 4, 1884. 


Jas. G. Blaine 

Grover Cleveland. 
Benj. F.Butler... 
Jno. P. St. John... 







Wm. H. Calkins 2,214 901 

Isaac P. Gray 1-313 

Hiram Z. Leonard 105 

Rob't S. Dwiggins 59 


Theron P. Keator 3,236 927 

Robert Lowry 1,309 

Geo. W. Hartsuck 73 

Jesse M. Gale 55 


Henry C Peterson 2,198 763 

Frank M. Powers 1,435 


Nicholas Ensley 2,224 808 

Lafayette J. Miller 1,416 


Doak R. Best 2,168 692 

Wm. W. Wyrick 1,476 


Herman C. Shutts 2,210 894 

Adam Failing 1,316 

Thos. McClue 155 

Daniel P. Rummell 2,200 859 

Alvah Carpenter 1,341 

John Dygert 155 

Jno. M. Sewell 950 950 


Allen Fast 2,335 923 

Chas. Squires 1,303 

Thos. R. Moflfett 160 


Clay Lemmou 3,193 85 7 

Edwin Jackson 1,336 

Martin V- Gam 157 


Rob't G. Morley 3,195 736 

Moses J. Parsell 1,469 


T. Ray Morrison 3,197 718 

Edward B. Simmons 1,479 



The following is a summary, in chronological order, of those who 
have filled the various district and county offices since the organi- 
zation of Steuben Couuty : 


Charles W. Ewing, 1888 to 1839; Henry Chase, 1839 to 1840 
John W. Wright, 1840 to 1842; James W. Borden, 1842 to 1851 
Elza A. McMahon, 1851 to 1855; James L. Worden, 1855 to 1858 






Edwin K. Wilson, 1858 to 1864; Robert Lowrj, 1864 to 1867 
Hiram S. Tousley, 1867 to 1873; James I. Best, 1873 to 1876 
Joseph A. Woodtiull, 1876; Hiram S. Tousley, 1876 to 1879 
Charles A. O. McClellan, 1879 to 1881; Hiram S. Tousley, 1881 to 
1882; R. Wes. McBride, 1882 to 188—. 


Benjamin F. Sheldon, 1838; Israel Stoddard, 1837; Samuel 
Tuttle, 1838 to 1841; Thomas Gale, 1838 to 1843; Seth W. Murray, 
1841 to 1842; Jared H. Miner, 1842 to 1844; Thomas K Brown, 

1843 to 1845; Timothy Kimball, 1844 to 1850; Enos Beall, 1845 to 
1850; Emery Brown, 1850 to 1852; William Cooper, 1851 to 1852. 
The office was abolished by law in 1852. 


The Associate Judges of the Circuit Court were ex-ojlcio Judges 
of the Probate Court until 1840. Enos Beall, 1840 to 1841; 
Alonzo P. Clark, 1841; Avery Emerson, 1841 to 1848; Theron 
Storrs, 1848 to 1851; Amasa M. Cleveland, 1851 to 1852. The 
probate business was then transferred to the Court of Common 
Pleas, and when this court was abolished the clerk of the Circuit 
Court was given the duties formerly performed by probate judges. 


John Morris, 1852 to 1856; Egbert B. Mott, 1856 to 1860; Will- 
iam M. Clapp, 1860 to 1873. Office was abolished in the latter 


Thomas Johnson, 1838; Reuben J. Dawson, 1839; John W. 
Wright, 1839; Lucien P. Ferry, 1840 and 1841; William H. 
Coombs, 1842; Robert Breckenridge, 1843; Robert L. Douglass, 

1844 and 1845; Elza A. McMahon, 1846; Edward R. May, 1847 
and 1848; Daniel E. Palmer, 1849 and 1850; James L. Worden, 
1851 to 1853; Edwin R. Wilson, 1854 to 1856; Sanford J. Stough- 
ton,1856 to 1858; James M. Defrees, 1858 to 1860; Augustus A. 
Chapin, 1860 to 1862; James H. Schell, 1862 to 1866; James H. 
Carpenter, 1866 and 1867; Ezra D. Hartman, 1867 to 1870; James 
McGrew, 1870 to 1872; Leigh II. Haymond, 1872; AVilliam B. 
McConnell,1873 to 1876; John W. Bixler, 1876 to 1878; George 
B. Adams, 1878 to 1882; Henry C. Peterson, 1882 to 188— 








Daniel C. Palmer, 1852 to 1854; Asa M. Tinker, 1854 to 1856 
William H. Dills, 1856 to 1858; Abuer F. Pinchin, 1858 to 1860 
Joseph W. Cummins, 1860 to 1862; Lewis Covell, 1862 to 1864 
Asa M. Tinker, 1864 to 1866; J. D. Ferral, 1866 to 1868; Joseph 
L. Morlan, 1868 to 1873. Office then abolished. 


Seth W. Murray, 1837 to 1839; Jonas Twichell, 1837 to 1839; 
James Clark, 1837 to 1838; John Russell, 1838 to 1840; James 
Perfect, 1839, Stephen A. Powers, 1839 to 1840; Angus McKin- 
ley, 1839 to 1842; William M. Carj, 1840 to 1841; Jonas 
Twichell, 1841; Samuel A. Stewart, 1840 to 1846; Asher Benedict, 
1841 to 1844; James Clark, 1842 to 1848; Calvin Powers, 1844 to 
1847; Orin Goodrich, 1846 to 1849; Amasa M. Cleveland, 1847 to 
1850; James Perfect, 1848 to 1851; Samuel A. Stewart, 1849 to 
1852; George W. Balding, 1850 to 1853; John W. Carter, 1851 to 
1857; John Nichols, 1852 to 1855; Philo Clark, 1853 to 1856; 
Charles L. Luce, 1855 to 1858; Calvin Powers, 1856 to 1859; 
James Clark, 1857 to 1860; John Green, 1858 to 1861; Norris S. 
Bennett, 1859 to 1861; Charles F. Kinney, 1860 to 1861; Daniel 
H. Roberts, 1861 to 1866; Abner Winsor, 1861 to 1862; Robert 
Patterson, 1862 to 1863; Frederick Butler, 1862 to 1866; Justin 
Darling, 1863; J^orris S. Bennett, 1863 to 1865; John Dygert,1865 
to 1868; James Carter, 1866 to 1869; John McClew, 1866 to 1873 
Michael Cline, 1868 to 1874; A. Judson Corbin, 1869 to 1875 
Clayton Mallory, 1873 to 1879; Charles Bachelor, 1874 to 1877 
John Cameron, 1875 to 1878; A. Judson Corbin, 1877 to 1880, 
Dwight P. Lewis, 1878; Moses Gonser, 1878 to 1881 ; John McClue, 
1879 to 1882; Rollin H. Goddard, 1880 to 1883; David K. Swift, 
1881 to 188-; Wm. W.Turner, 1882 to 188-; Jonas Twichell, 
Jr., 1883 to 188-. 


George Crawford, 1836 to 1838; E. M. Chamberlain, 1838 to 
1840; David B. Herriman, 1840 to 1846; Madison Marsh, 1846 to 
1849; Reuben J. Dawson, 1849 to 1852; Alanson W.Hendry, 
1852 to 1860; Timothy R. Dickinson, 1860 to 1864; Enos B. 
Noyes, 1864 to 1868; Edward W. Fosdick, 1868 to 1872; W. 
Irving Howard, 1872 to 1876; William M. Mercer, 1876 to 1880; 
Francis Macartney, 1880 to 1884; Nicholas Ensley, 1884 to 188-. 

•/l<s ^ • ^ <s V 





Thomas Gale, 1836; David B. Herriinan, 1837 to 1839; John B. 
Howe, 1840; Madison Marsh, 1841; Enos Beall (contested), 1842; 
Madison Marsh (on contest), 1842; Jacob Helwig, 1843 and 1844; 
Clark Powers, 1845; David B. Wheeler (died), 1846; George W. 
Balding, 1846; Samuel P. Widney, 1847; Reuben J.Dawson, 1848; 
Edward R.May, 1849; John Stayner, 1850; George W. McCon- 
nell, 1851; Edward T. Hammond^ 1852 to 1854; Alonzo P. Clark, 
1854 to 1856; Thomas B. Sloss, 1856 to 1858; Philo Clark, 1858 to 
1860; Joseph A. Woodhall, 1860 to 1862; Enos B. Noyes, 1862 to 
1864; Stephen C. Sabin, 1864 to 1872; Eugenius B. Glasgow, 1872 
to 1876; Henry P. Butler, 1876 to 1878; Ezekiel Brown, 1878 to 
1880; Daniel H. Roberts, 1880 to 1882; Doak R. Best, 1882 to 


James McConnell, 1837 to 1843; Rufus Beall, 1843; William M. 
Cary, 1843 to 1844; Chester Stocker, 1844 to 1851; Leland H. 
Stocker, 1851 to 1855; Frederick C. Chapin, 1855 to 1859; Levi A. 
Thompson, 1859 to 1863; Henry Linder, 1863 to 1867; .Germ 
Brown, 1867 to 1875; Joseph Butler, 1875 to 1879; Orville Goodale, 
1879 to 188—. 


The Clerk of the Circuit Court was ex-oficio County Auditor 
until 1841; Adonijah Smith, 1841 to 1844; Daniel E. Palmer, 1844 
to 1847 (Adonijah Smith died Sept. 7, 1844, and Daniel E. Palmer 
was appointed to fill the vacancy. In 1845 William Albee was 
elected Auditor by a majority of two votes. The election was 
contested by Edwin R. May, the opposing candidate. The case 
was finally carried to the Supreme Court, where a decision was 
reached in 1846, in Albee's favor, but prior to which Albee died; 
consequently the ofSce was held by Palmer, under appointment, 
under the general election of 1847); Leland H. Stocker, 1847 to 
1851; William Carkhuff, 1851 to 1856; Samuel W. Scoville, 1856 to 
1860; Samuel E. Heath, 1860 to 1864; Francis Macartney, 1864 to 
1872; Marvin B. Butler, 1872 to 1876; Jesse H. Carpenter, 1876 to 
1880; Robert H. Johnson, 1880 to 188—. 


Joseph Pearce, 1837 to 1840; William G. Farmer, 1840 to 1841; 
Erastus Farnham, 1841 to 1842; Reuben B. Hopkins, 1842 to 1844; 


^.-sh — - 


Jesse J. Mu^g, 1844 to 1850; Lewis E. Carver, 1850 to 1853; 
George Emerson, 1853 to 1857; William H. H. Day, 1857 to 1859; 
Benjamin F. Dawson, 1859 to 1861; Francis Macartney, 1861 to 
1863; W. Irving Howard, 1863 to 1867; Charles F. Kinney, 1867 
to 1871; Charles D. Chadwick, 1871 to 1875; George L. Luce, 1875 
to 1877; Samuel Beight, 1877 to 1881; Lyman R. Williams, 1881 
to 1885; Clay Lemmon, 1885 to 188— 


William M. Cary, 1837 to 1840; Rnlus Beall, 1840 to 1843; Will- 
iam Wilder, 1843 to 1845; John L. Cary, 1845 to 1847; George 
W. McConnell, 1847 to 1849; George D. Waring, 1849 to 1851; 
Simeon C. Aldrich, 1851 to 1853; William Hough, 1853 to 1857; 
Peter Bowman, 1857 to 1861; W. Homer Twichell, 1861 to 1865; 
SylvanusB. George, 1865 to 1869; Ora Pierce, Jr., 1869 to 1873; 
Leander Chase, 1873 to 1875; William Wicoff, 1875 to 1879; Will- 
iam H. Keyes, 1879 to 1883; Allen Fast, 1883 to 188-. 


James McConnell, 1837 to 1843; Chester Stocker, 1843 to 1850; 
Peter McKinlay, 1850 to 1855; Lewis E. Carver, 1855 to 1859; 
Orlow W. Parish, 1859 to 1863; Marvin B. Butler, 1863 to 1871; 
Robert V. Carlin, 1871 to 1879; W. Homer Twichell, 1879 to 188-. 


This office was filled from 1837 to 1847 by Aaron B. Goodwin, 
Gideon Ball, Stephen A. Powers, Erastus Faruham and Theron 
Storrs; Stephen A. Powers, 1847 to 1853; Erastus Farnham, 1853 
to 1859; Pliny Roby, 1859 to 1865; Elbert N. Woodford, 1865 to 
1875; Frank B. Van Auken, 1875 to 1877; Abram B. Stevens, 1877 
to 1879; Charles A. Shackford, 1879 to 1881; Rol>ert G. Morley, 
1881 to 188-. 


Prior to 1852, School Examiners were appointed by the Judge 
of the Circuit Court. From 1852 to 1861, Examiners were deputies 
appointed by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. Un- 
der these systems the office was held at different times by James 
McConnell, Stephen A. Powers, Elisha Steere, Leland H. Stocker, 
Jacob Patch, Jesse M. Gale and others. From 1861 to 1873, Ex- 
aminers were appointed by the Board of Commissioners, as fol- 
lows: Luke Barr, 1861 to 1865; John Kelland, 1865 to 1866; 





Lyman R. Williams, 1866 to 1869; Robert V. Carlin, 1869 to 1871 ; 
John W. Cowen, 1871 to 1883. 

In 1873 the office of County Superintendent was created. This 
office was held by John W. Cowen until 1875, when it was abolished 
by law, and that of Examiner restored. The latter position was 
held by Lyman R. Williams until 1876, when the Supreme Court 
ruled against the last change in the law, leaving the law of 1873 
in force. Under this law Cyrus Cline served from 1876 to 1883, 
when he was succeeded by Robert V. Carlin, the present incum- 

I — 1»- 





Opening of the Strife. — Springing to Arms. — First Company in 
Steuben County. — Too Late for Acceptance. — Early Enlist- 
ments. — Scott Township Guards. — Subsequent Contributions 
TO THE Army. — Regimental Sketches. — Twenty- Ninth. His- 
tory OF Company A, by Irenus McGowan. — Forty-Fourth. 

Forty-Eighth. — One Hundredth. — One Hundred and Twenty- 
seventh (Twelfth Cavalry), — One Hundred and Twenty- 
ninth. — One Hundred and Fifty-second. — List of Steuben 
County's Volunteers. — Soldiers' Reunion at Angola. 

About dajbreak on the 12th of April, 1861, the stillness of 
Charleston Bay was disturbed by the firing of a large mortar and 
the shriek of a shell as it rushed through the air. The shell burst 
over Fort Sumter, and the war of the Great Rebellion was begun. 
In the North, the hope had been tenaciously clung to that the peace 
of the country was not to be disturbed. This dream was rudely 
broken by the siege of Fort Sumter. The North awakened sud- 
denly to the awful certainty that civil war was begun. There was 
a deep feeling of indignation at the traitors who were willing to 
ruin their country that slavery might be secure. There was a full 
appreciation of the danger and an instant universal determination 
that at whatever cost, the National life must be preserved. Per- 
sonal sacrifice was unconsidered; individual interests were merged 
in the general good. Political difterence, ordinarily so bitter, was 
tor the time almost efi'aced. Nothing was of interest but the ques- 
tion how this audacious rebellion was to be suppressed and the 
American nation upheld in the great place which it claimed 
among men. 

Two days after the fall of Fort Sumter, Mr. Lincoln intimated 
by proclamation the dishonor done to the laws of the United 
States, and called out the militia to the extent of 75,000 men. 
The Free States responded enthusiastically to the call. So prompt 
was their action that on the very next day several companies ar- 







rived in Washington. Flushed by their easily won victory, the 
Southerners talked boastfully of seizing the capital. In a very 
short time there were 50,000 loyal mon ready to prevent that, and 
the safety of Washington was secured. 

The North pushed forward with boundless energy her warlike 
preparations. Rich men offered money with so much liberality 
that in a few days nearly $25,000,000 had been contributed. The 
school-teachers of Boston dedicated fixed proportions of their 
incomes to the support of the Government, while the war should 
last. All over the country the excited people gathered themselves 
into crowded meetings and breathed forth in fervid resolutions 
their determination to spend fortune and life in defense of their 
Union. Volunteer companies were rapidly formed. In the 
cities ladies began to organize themselves for the relief of sick and 
wounded soldiers. It had been fabled that the North would not 
fight. With a fiery promptitude unknown before in modern his- 
tory, the people sprang to arms. 

Steuben County had at this time a population of little more 
than 10,000 persons. Almost a day's travel from railroad or tele- 
graph communications, as remote from the capital as the limits of 
the State would permit, with a people mainly devoted to agricult- 
ure, who knew nothing of war except by history or tradition, it 
could hardly be expected that a warlike spirit would soon disturb 
the peaceful population. But we know little of the fire that slum- 
bers in quiet breasts until occasion calls it forth. 

Under the call for 75,000 volunteers, the quota of Indiana was 
fixed at six regiments. The response was prompt from all parts 
of the State, and from none more hearty than from Steuben County. 
In five days, a compauy was en listed and daily under drill. 
Baldwin J. Crosswait, who had by hard service and gallantry won 
a Captain's commission in the war with Mexico, was chosen as Cap- 
tain. This company was at once tendered to Governor Morton, 
but, owing to distance and the slow means of communication, the 
tender was too late; the quota of the State was full. In eight days 
from the date of the call, Governor Morton had proffers of twelve 
regiments, and in less than thirty days, 40,000 men w^ere 
offered him. 

Chao-rined, but not discouraged, by the failure of their first effort 
at enlistment, Steuben County boys began to enlist wherever a 
chance offered. They went singly and in squads to Michigan, 
Ohio, Illinois, and to other counties in this State. On the 24th 







of May some thirty-five men left at one time and enlisted in the 
Fourth Michigan Infantry, at Adrian. In August nearly thirty 
men were enlisted by a recruiting officer from Chicago, for the 
Forty-second Illinois. 

On the 16th of August, 1861, the Scott Township Guards rallied 
to die tap of the drum, and dressed in their suits of blue denims 
adorned with red and white stripes and stars, they each one im- 
agined they could almost subdue the entire rebel force. It was 
there that Captain J. H. M. Judkins enrolled the first man for 
what was afterward Company A, Twenty-ninth Eegiment. It 
needed no long speeches to arouse enthusiasm. The news had 
been conveyed to every hamlet in the land that our glorious coun- 
try was in danger. But few words were spoken, but with com- 
pressed lip each looked at his comrade or bosom friend, as much 
as to say : "Will you go?" The answer was quick and decisive, 
while each with a steady hand subscribed his name to the muster- 
roll. Older men looked on and thought this all boys' play, but 
the result showed that although many who were enrolled that day 
were boys, yet they did a man's duty. 

William E. Sergeant was First Lieutenant and K. W. Melendy 
Second Lieutenant of this company. Two weeks later, Com- 
pany A and about one-half of Company K, Forty-fourth Ind- 
iana, were enlisted. Of Company A, Charles F. Kinney was 
Captain, Elias O. Kose, First Lieutenant, and Birge Smith, Second 
Lieutenant. Of Company K, Simeon C. Aldrich was Captain, 
and N orris S. Bennett, First Lieutenant, although neither held the 
position named on the first organization of the company. Simeon 
C. Aldrich was afterward Colonel of his regiment, and held the 
position at the time of his death. On the first organization of the 
regiment, Baldwin J. Crosswait was made Lieutenant-Colonel, and 
George W. McConnell, Quartermaster. About the same time, 
several Steuben County men enlisted in the Thirtieth Indiana, 
among them being Lieutenant William H. H. Day, of Angola 
(now of Moberly, Mo). 

In August, 1862, a full company (H) was furnished for the 
Seventy-fourth Regiment, with Sylvanus B. George as Captain, 
Lawrence Gates as First Lieutenant, and B. F. Dawson as Second 
Lieutenant. Immediately following a full company (B) was fur- 
nished for the One Hundredth Regiment; of this, J. W. Gillespie 
was Captain, Orlo J.Fast First, Lieutenant, and Edwin Goldsmith, 




Second Lieutenant. Germ Brown, of this company, was after- 
ward Quartermaster of the regiment. 

In the fall of 1863 nearly a full company was raised for the 
One Hundred and Twenty-seventh Kegiment (Twelfth Cavalry), 
ol which Major D. Williams was made Captain. About tlie same 
time, a full company (A) was raised for the One Hundred and 
Twenty-ninth Regiment, of which William H. Cole was Captain, 
Birge Smith, First Lieutenant, and T. S. Bonney, Second Lieuten- 
ant. Captain Cole was afterward promoted Major. Emery G. 
Melendy was Adjutant of the regiment. In March, 1865, nearly 
a full company (K) was raised for the One Hundred and Fifty- 
second Regiment, with John M. Everhart as Captain, Madison 
Rodgers as First Lieutenant, and John T. Young as Second Lieu- 
tenant. George E. Young was Adjutant of the regiment. 

A respectable percentage of the early volunteers from the county 
re-enlisted, either in their own or other regiments. It is not an 
over-estimate to say that Steuben County furnished over 1,000 men 
for the service — a full regiment of hardy, brave and loyal soldiers, 
who went forth to do and die for their country. They died on the 
battle-field, in the hospitals or prison-pens, or lingered a few 
months to enjoy the blessed privilege of dying at home. 

Following is a historical sketch of the regiments in which this 
county was largely represented : 


This was the first regiment in which any considerable number 
of men were credited to Steuben County. It contained one whole 
company (A) from this county, and parts of two others (I and K). 
The regiment was organized at La Porte, and was mustered into 
service for three years, on the 27th of August, 1861, with John F. 
Miller as Colonel. On the 9th of October it joined General 
Rousseau's command at Camp Nevin, Ky., and moved with the 
army to the vicinity of Munfordville, remaining there until the 
movement upon Bowling Green was commenced, in February, 
1862, Reaching Nashville in March, it moved with McCook's 
division to the Tennessee River, and participated in the battle of 
Shiloh on the Yth of April. In this engagement the regiment was 
under fire for more than five hours, suftering severely in killed 
and wounded. 

In the siege of Corinth it took an active part, and upon the 
evacuation moved with Buell's army through Northern Alabama 




N^ — :^=^k^ 


1 P 


and Tennessee into Kentucky, and followed in pursuit of Brag^g 
through the latter State, returning to Nashville in December. 
Marching with Rosecrans' army toward Murfreesboro, it participa- 
ted in the battle of Stone Eiver on the 31st of December, 1862^ 
and the 1st and 2d of January, 1863, losing many men and offi- 
cers. After the occupation of Murfreesboro, the regiment re- 
mained at that place until May when it moved forward with Rose- 
crans' army to TuUahoma, and afterward to Chattanooga. In 
addition to the engagements before mentioned the Twenty-ninth 
after joining Rosecrans' army, participated with the skirmishes 
had with the enemy at Lavergne, Triune and Liberty Gap. 

In the great battle of Chickamauga the regiment was engao-ed 
both days, and sustained heavy losses. After this battle the 
regiment was stationed at Bridgeport, Ala., where it re-enlisted as 
a veteran organization, on the 1st of January, 1864, and the same 
month proceeded to Indianapolis on veteran furlough. 

On returning to the field the regiment was stationed at Cliatta- 
nooga, where it remained until December, when it moved to- 
Decatur, Ala., and was engaged in a skirmish at that place on 
the 27th of December, 1864. Returning to Chattanooga it re- 
mained at that place until May, 1865, when it moved to Dalton^ 
Ga., where it participated in a skirmish with the enemv. Subse 
quently the Twenty -ninth marched to Marietta, Ga., where it was 
stationed, performing post duty, for some' time. It was muster- 
ed out of the service Dec. 2, 1865. On the 5th of January, 
1864, Colonel Miller (who, since the month of Feburary, 1862^ 
had been serving as post and brigade commander at j^ashville and 
elsewhere) was promoted Brigadier-General, whereupon Lieutenant 
Colonel David M. Dunn was commissioned Colonel. 

As Company A was the first company raised in Steuben County,, 
and contained the scions of many of the best families, a more ex- 
tended sketch would be of interest. For this purpose we take the 
following, from the pen of Lieutenant Irenus McGowan, who was 
one of the best soldiers in the regiment, was for fifteen years after 
the war a prominent citizen of Mill Grove Township, and in 1880 
went West: 

" R. W. Melendy commenced the enrollment of soldiers in Au- 
gust, 1861. I went into the service as Second Lieutenant of Com- 
pany A, Twenty-ninth Indiana Volunteers, which was the first com. 
pany organized in Steuben County. Some soldiers had left previous- 
to that who had joined the Forty-fourth Illinois. They went from 

* • ^j~ ~~ — y , 




bere expecting to go into an independent organization called the 
IN ortli western Riflemen. Company A, of the Twenty-ninth In- 
<iiana, rendezvoused at Angola, Aug. 16,1861. The officers elected 
-were: J. H. M. Jenkins, Captain; Ed Sergeant, First Lieutenant; 
and R.W. Melendy, Second Lieutenant. The first night we re- 
mained at the Russell House, and the following morning left town 
with all the enthusiasm imaginable for La Porte, that being the 
rendezvous of the Twenty-ninth. 

^' The I^inth also rendezvoused at La Porte, their regiment being 
nearly full. Colonel Milroy, afterward Brigadier-General, was 
Colonel of that regiment. There being a call for help on the part 
of our army in Virginia, Milroy obtained permission to fill his 
regiment from volunteer enlistment from ours. He made a speech 
one night, telling the boys how imminent the peril was and called 
for volunteers. Two of the boys from Angola left Company A and 
joined the Ninth, their names being John Nichols and George 
Leavitt. They had cause to regret such a step as that, for soldiers 
that left their original organization and went into a new stood no 
chance for promotion. The majority of those who went into 
La Porte continued enthusiastic for two weeks and were ready to 
•go on but some were sad after the first novelty wore away. Some 
became quite despondent. Several cases of illness were reported, 
•caused mainly by homesickness. 

*' The majority of the regiment went on into Kentucky and spent 
the first winter. The experience in Camp Kevin was when we 
lirst began to realize the actual hardships of soldiering. We then 
«carae down to Government rations and some of the boys experi- 
enced the effects of Government whisky, which was dealt out to 
prevent camp difficulty. I was satisfied then, and have been ever 
€ince, that whisky was a curse. After leaving Camp Nevin we 
moved down to Munfordville. In the afternoon we reached there 
w^e experienced our first speck of war. Colonel Willich with the 
'Thirty-second Indiana was there. The regiment was a finely 
^drilled one composed mostly of Germans. The afternoon we arrived 
there one battalion was across the river drilling. Before they had 
'Completed the drill and were ready to return to the north bank, 
4hey were attacked by a regiment of rebel cavalry and thirteen were 
Skilled. The long roll was beaten in the camp on the 29th, but as 
the river was high we did not cross. Willich's regiment was more 
than a match for the Black Horse cavalry. We then realized we 
were in war. 



< » — (B 


" We spent two or three months there in camp on the Green River 
and then pressed on toward Bowling Green, reaching there about 
the time of the engagement at Fort Donelson. The rebels were 
withdrawn from our front so as to concentrate their forces at that 
place. Buell had command then of the Twentieth Army Corps, 
We next moved on to Nashville and were thrown forward to rein- 
force Grant's army which was being concentrated at Shiloh. When 
within twenty or twenty-live miles of Shiloh we heard the guns on 
the tirst day. All extra baggage was thrown one side and we 
went forward in light marching order. We spent the night of the 
6th of April in the streets of Savannah, on the banks of the 
Tennessee. In the morning we were put on board the vessels and 
moved up toward Pittsburg Landing. We reached the field of 
battle on the 7th. 

"Disembarking from the vessel we climbed a hill which was 
thoroughly lined with soldiers who had been whipped the day be- 
fore. They had fled, taking refuge on the bluff. The Twenty-ninth 
was pushed on the field in support of Rosseau until his troops 
had exhausted their ammunition. His brigade was then withdrawn 
and the Twenty-ninth was put in the front. We were kept there 
until sundown at which time the rebels retired. That was the 
tirst experience the company had in battle and it suffered severely, 
twenty-three men being killed or wounded. I was struck twice, 
once in the hand and once in the leg. I was quite glad to see the 
rebels disappear. The night following was a terrible one. We 
had no shelter nor provisions, and had marched the previous day 
and night with the exception of the time we were on the river, and 
had been on the battle-field, all day. We were completely ex- 
hausted and had nothing to eat. A terrible rain-storm set in and 
we were without shelter tents of any kind. The rain, however, was 
an actual blessing to the soldiers as otherwise many would have 
perished with thirst. The soldiers were so completely exhausted 
that when they awoke they found themselves in several inches, 
of water. It was then that they realized the full sense of all the 
terrors of warfare. 

" Previous to that time Ed Sergeant had resigned. On the 
battle-field of Shiloh, I received my commission as Second Lieu- 
tenant. The recollection of those days following the battle is very 
vivid. I witnessed then for the first time all the horrors of the 
battle-field, mangled bodies of horses and men and broken caissons ► 
We remained some days camped immediately upon the field and 





then began to press forward to Corinth, General Halleck being 
assigned command of all the forces in front of that place. "We 
approached the town gradually by means of parallels constructed 
by the army. We remained there besieging Corinth nntil the lat- 
ter part of May. The army suffered ranch from camp complaints, 
many of the boys being disabled from sickness. They stood the 
trials well until that siege, but being in a malarious country they 
succumbed on account of constant watchfnlness; digging in 
ditches and heavy rains falling in the spring of the year, many 
were attacked with inflammatory rheumatism. 

"After the evacuation of Corinth, Buell's army was separated and 
sent easterly through Northern Mississippi and Alabama and laid 
at Battle Creek, Tenn., for some time previous to what is known 
as the Bragg-Bnell campaign. Bragg moved around the bend of 
the river and commenced his famous march toward Louisville- 
Buell concentrated his forces and followed. The Twenty-ninth 
Indiana was in the rear of the rebel army most of the way toward 
Louisville until Bragg turned his troops north toward Shelbyville. 
Buell moved west far enough to pass Bragg's left wing, the latter 
keeping to the right toward Shelbyville. Buell's army entered 
Louisville in time to prevent any assault from Bragg's 
forces. After lying there a few days we moved out to attack 
Bragg's army which was then at Frankfort. The retrogade move- 
ment then began and continued until after the battle of Ferry ville. 

"The Union army reached Nashville the second time and re- 
mained in that vicinity nearly all the winter following. The 
Twenty-ninth Indiana, with the other regiments in the division, 
laid in camp at the Asylum grounds, south of the city. We spent 
as pleasant a winter as possible for a body of men in camp. We 
had plenty of meat most of the time, but sometimes were short. 
Some contributions were received from the surrounding country, 
but, of course, they were enforced. At the commencement of the 
Stone Eiver campaign, Dec. 26, 1862, we broke camp. General 
McCook commanded our corps, and the Twenty-ninth Indiana led 
the advance toward Murfreesboro. General Rosecrans superseded 
Euell in the command of the Army of the Cumberland. We had 
a severe skirmish at Triune, Company A being on the line all day. 
After that skirmish the army got into position in front of Murfrees- 
boro on the 30th of December, 1862, McCook's corps holding the 
right wing. The Twenty-ninth Indiana was in the center and the 
Thirty-fourth on the right. Skirmishing had been going on for 






three or four days. We deployed in double line on the night of 
the 30th in the expectation of action on the lollowing day. Were 
called up at two o'clock the next morning and stood in line until 
just at break of day, when the rebels massed their forces under 
Hardee and attacked the extreme right of the line. We deployed 
in single line of battle and they attacked in double line. The 
Twenty -ninth held its ground until the Thirty-fourth had been 
broken and one column of the rebel troops had passed, before the 
former regiment was ordered to retreat. The retreat was made 
in great haste from that position. The right swung back until it 
struck the railroad three-fourths of a mile distant. There, receiv- 
ing the support of fresh troops, the line held its own until the close 
of the battle. Fighting continued throughout the 31st of December. 
The 1st of January, 1863, was quiet. On the 2d the rebels made 
an assault on the right but were repulsed. There was consider- 
able fighting on the 3d but that night the rebels fell back. 

"After the conclusion of the battle of Murfreesboro the Twenty- 
ninth remained at that place the remainder of the winter, and with 
the balance of the brigade were engaged in working on the forti- 
fications, being aided by the engineer corps. We continued at 
that for fully three months, a portion of the time the work being 
prosecuted night and day. The companies of the regiment were 
divided into reliefs, working four hours at a time. After the com- 
pletion of the works the regiment remained there until Rosecrans 
made his advance to Tullahoma, where we remained in camp some 
two months. The regiment was actively engaged until the Chicka- 
mauga campaign, at which time it lost very heavily. More than 
one-half of the Twenty-ninth in that battle were killed, wounded 
or taken prisoners. Those of the regiment not captured suffered 
all the horrors of the confinement in Chattanooga. Company A 
remained at Chattanooga after the battle of Missionary Ridge, as 
part of the garrison, until the close of the war. 

" Of the 101 men of the company who left Angola in 1861, 1 do 
not know of but nineteen who are now living. Captain W. H. 
Cole, of Angola, was one of the original members of the company. 
At the battle of Shiloh, he was wounded in the foot and was dis- 
charged in consequence of the wound. He afterward enlisted in 
the One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Indiana Volunteers, and was 
elected Captain of one of the companies. Philip Haynes, of Salem 
Township, was shot through the head at the battle of Shiloh. 
William Jenkins was discharged in consequence of wounds received 

q) — — - — — — — -I to 

■ V I* — ' _ — y » 



there. James Woodworth was killed in the same battle. Caleb 
Talbot was killed at the battle of Stone River. Fred Clock was 
killed at the battle of Chickaraauga, and N. P. Hanna was killed 
at the same place. David Allen, Edward Parker and Yalentiue 
Somerlott died at Anderson ville." 


The companies composing the Forty-fourth Regiment were raised 
in the Tenth Congressional District, and rendezvoused at Fort 
"Wayne, where the organization of the regiment was completed on 
the 24th of October, 1861, with Hugh B. Reed as Colonel. Com- 
panies A and K, and parts of D, F and H were from Steuben 
County. In December the regiment was transported to Indian- 
apolis, and from thence to Henderson, Ky. Reporting to General 
Thomas L. Crittenden, it was assigned to General Cruft's brigade 
and went into camp at Calhoun, on Green River. Here it remained 
until February, 1862, when it was transferred to Fort Henry, and 
from thence to Fort Donelson, where it participated in the siege 
and battle at that place, suffering considerable loss in killed and 

After the capitulation the regiment marched to Fort Henry, and 
from thence it was transported on steamers to Pittsburg Landing, 
It was engaged on both days at the battle of Shiloh, losing thirty- 
three killed and 177 wounded, making a total of 210. After this 
it marched on Corinth, taking part in several skirmishes before 
Corinth, and upon the evacuation of that place joined in the pur- 
suit of the enemy, going as far as Booneville. Returning from 
this expedition it moved with Buell's army into Northern Ala- 
bama and Southern Tennessee, and when Bragg marched his army 
northward, it moved across the Cumberland Mountains to Nash- 
ville and thence to Louisville, Ky., reaching there on the 26th of 
September. In the campaign through Kentucky it was actively 
engaged, participating in the battle of Perry ville, and going as far 
as Wildcat in pursuit of Bragg. 

Returning to the vicinity of Nashville, it participated in a skir- 
mish on Russell Hill, at Silver Springs. About the first of De- 
cember it went into camp near Nashville. From the 20th of 
August to the 1st of December the regiment had marched over 
725 miles, being an average march of ten miles per day, and the 
whole performed without tents or shelter of any kind. The Forty- 
fourth moved with the army of the Cumberland toward Murfrees- 


t ' 


bore, where it participated in the battle of Stone River on the 
31st of December, 1862, and the 1st and 2d of January, 1863, sus- 
taining losses as follows : Eight killed; fifty -two wounded ; twenty- 
five missing — a total loss of eighty-five. 

After remaining in camp near Murfreesboro for some months, it 
moved with Van Clove's division of Rosecrans's army across the 
Cumberland Mountains to Chattanooga, going by way of McMinn- 
ville, Dunlap, Jasper, Bridgeport, Shell Mound and Whiteside. It 
participated in the engagement at Chickamauga on the 19th and 
20th of September, and on the 23d, in connection with the Thirty- 
ninth Indiana, fought the enemy again at Mission Ridge. In 
these engagements the regiment lost three killed, fifty-nine 
wounded and twenty missing, making a total of eighty-two. 
About the middle of October it was assigned to provost duty at 
Chattanooga, and while here the regiment re- enlisted in January, 
1864, and returned to Indiana on veteran furlough, reaching In- 
dianapolis on the 26th of January. Returning to the field the 
regiment was again placed on provost duty at Chattanooga, on 
which duty it continued until the 14th of September, 1865, when 
it was mustered out of service. 

It then returned home, reaching Indianapolis on the 17th of 
September, in command of Colonel Curtiss, with thirty ofiicers 
and 670 men. Of these, 193 were original enlisted men, of whom 
thirty-three returned as commissioned oflScers, eighty-nine as non- 
commissioned ofiicers, and seventy-one as privates. The regiment, 
during its term of service, lost 350 in killed and wounded, and by 
death from disease fifty-eight. In July, 1865, 360 remaining re- 
cruits of the Sixty-eighth and Seventy-second Indiana were trans- 
ferred to the Forty-fourth, and these continued in service with the 
latter regiment until its muster out. 

Just before its final discharge the Forty-fourth was present at a 
reception given to returned troops in the capitol grounds at Indian- 
apolis, on which occasion it was addressed by Governor Morton, 
Generals Grose and "Washburn, and others. 


The Forty-eighth was organized at Goshen on the 6th of Decem- 
ber, 1861, with Company H filled with Steuben County men. 
Under the command of Norman Eddy as Colonel it left for Fort 
Donelson by way of Cairo, Feb. 1, 1862, where it arrived the day 
of the surrender. It then moved to Paducah, where it remained 






until May, when it moved up the Tennessee River and engaged 
in the seige of Corinth. After the evacuation of that city it was 
assigned to the First Brigade, Second Division of the Army of tlie 
Mississippi, and took part in the marclies and countermarches in 
pursuit of General Price. 

On the 19th of September it participated in the battle ol 
luka, losing 116 men in ivilled and wounded out of 420 engaged. 
On the 3d and 4th of October it was engaged in the second 
battle at Corinth (under Rosecrans), and lost twenty-six killed and 
wounded. The regiment moved down the Mississippi Central 
Railroad as far as Oxford, Miss., and on its return marched to 
Memphis, where, in January, 1863, it was assigned to the First 
Brigade, Seventh Division of the Seventeenth Army Corps. 

After remaining here two months it was transported down the 
Mississippi, and then joining the army of General Grant marched 
with him to the rear of Yicksburg. During this campaign the 
regiment participated in the skirmish of Forty Hills, on the 3d 
of May; the battle of Raymond, on the 13th of May; the bat- 
tle of Jackson, on the 14th of May; and the engagement at 
Champion Hills, on the 16th of May, losing in the latter battle 
thirty-three killed and wounded. It was actively engaged in 
the trenches during the long siege of the rebel works at Yicks- 
burg, and took part in the assault on the 22d of May, losing 
thirty-eight in killed and wounded. 

After the surrender of Yicksburg it remained in that vicinity 
until August, and then moved up the river to Memphis, and from 
thence marched across the country to Chattanooga, and while in 
that vicinity engaged the enemy at Tunnel Hill. From the lat- 
ter place it marched back to Huntsville, Ala., and while stationed 
there, in January, 1864, the regiment re-enlisted as a veteran 
organization and returned home on veteran furlough. The soldiers 
reached Indianapolis on the 6th of February, numbering 369 
veterans, and on the 8th were publicly received in welcoming 
speeches by Governor Morton and others. 

After the expiration of its furlough the Forty-eighth proceeded 
to Huntsville, Ala., where it remained until June. The regiment 
then moved to Cartersville, Ga., and was kept on duty in that 
vicinity looking after guerrillas and protecting General Sherman's 
railroad communications during the campaign against Atlanta. 
It was continued on this duty until Hood's invasion, when it 
joined Sherman's army and marched with the First Brigade, Third 








Division of the Fifteenth Army Corps in its campaign from At- 
lanta to Savannah. From Savannah it first moved to Beaufort, 
and then on the campaign through the Carolinas, going through 
Columbia, Cheraw, Fayetteville and Goldsboro to Kaleigh. 

From Raleigh it moved northward, after the surrender of John- 
son's army, making the distance from Raleigh to Petersburg, 165 
iniles, in six days. From Petersburg it marched to Washington, 
and soon after its arrival there was transferred to Louisville, Ky., 
where it was mustered out of service on the 15th of July, 
1865. Returning to Indianapolis it was present at a public recep- 
tion given to a large number of returned troops in the capitol 
grounds on the 18th of July, on which occasion addresses were 
made by Governor Morton, General Hovey and others. 

While at Washington about 250 men were transferred to the 
Forty-eighth from the Twelfth, Eighty-third, Kinety-seventh and 
Ninety-ninth regiments, being retained recruits whose organiza- 
tions had been mustered out. These transferred men served with 
the Forty-eighth until its final muster-out, and were discharged 
with it. Daring its term of service the regiment lost in battle 
213 men, in killed and wounded. 


The One Hundredth Regiment was organized in the Tenth 
Congressional District during the month of August, 1864, and 
rendezvoused at Fort Wayne. Steuben County furnished all ot 
Company B and parts of Companies D and K. Two companies 
recruited for the Ninety-eighth Regiment in the Eighth Con- 
gressional District were assigned to the One Hundredth Regi- 
ment, completing its organization, and the regiment was mustered 
into the service on the 10th of September, 1862, with Sanford J. 
Stoughton as Colonel. On the 11th of November the regiment 
left for Memphis, Tenn., arriving there on the 16th. The regi- 
ment was assigned to the Second Brigade, First Division, Army 
of the Tennessee, and on the 26th moved with an expedition 
through Northern Mississippi, having Vicksburg for its objective 
point. This movement, however, was unsuccessful, owing to the 
surprise and capture of Holly Springs by the rebels. The column 
then returned to the vicinity of Memphis, and the regiment was 
assigned to garrison duty at Collierville, and as guards along the 
Memphis & Charleston Railroad. 

June 9, 1863, the regiment embarked on transports and 





joined the army of General Grant at the siege of Vicksburg, ar- 
riving in front of the rebel works on the 14th. The regiment 
took part in the siege of Yicksburg, and after its surrender moved 
with Sherman's array upon Jackson, Miss., arriving in front of 
that place July 11. Five days were occupied in the siege of Jack- 
son, the regiment being constantly engaged. On the 16th the 
rebel army evacuated and our forces entered the place and 
destroyed its military resources. During these movements the 
regiment was commanded by Lieutenant Albert Heath, and 
formed part of the First Brigade, First Division, Sixteenth Army 
Corps. From Jackson the regiment marched to the Big Black 
River, where it remained in camp during the summer. 

Sept. 28, the same year, the regiment marched to Yicksburg, 
embarked on transports and sailed to Memphis, arriving there 
Oct. 9. The regiment at this time belonged to the Fourth Divi- 
sion, Fifteenth Army Corps. It moved with its division on a 
rapid march across the country to Stevenson and Bridgeport, Ala., 
thence over Sandstone Mountain, and down Lookout Yalley to 
Trenton, Ga., and succeeded in turning the left flank of Bragg's 
army, then in position upon Lookout Mountain. This column 
secured a foothold on the mountain and drove the enemy from its 
position, but without following in pursuit pushed for Chattanooga, 
which place it reached after a rapid march, on the 23d of No- 

On the 25th the column moved upon the enemy's stronghold on 
Mission Ridge, and took part in that severe battle. Its division 
gained the crest of the hill and held the position, notwithstanding 
the concentric tire of the enemy and his repeated assaults. The 
fight lasted from ten o'clock in the morning until dark, and the 
attack on the enemy's left was so persistent as to draw vast masses 
of the enemy to that flank, and enable General Thomas to 
break through the enemy's center. In this battle it sufiered a 
loss of 132 in killed and wounded. Lieutenant-Colonel Heath 
was severely wounded early in the action, and Major R. M. John- 
son assumed command of the regiment. 

• The next morning the command moved in pursuit of Bragg's 
army as far as Graysville. It then moved toward Knoxville, for 
the purpose of relieving General Burnside. This was accom- 
plished, the head of our column reaching Knoxville on the 6th of De- 
cember. But a few weeks before that, this army had left the banks 
of the Tennessee River with only two-days rations, and no extra 




clotliing, and during that time had fought a severe battle, and 
marched over 800 miles through mud, rain and snow, part of the 
command barefooted, and yet all was endured without a murmur. 
The regiment remained in camp at Scottsboro until May 1, 1864. 

The entire army of General Sherman moved from Chattanooga 
early in May, 1864, on its campaign against the "gate city of 
Georgia," Atlanta. The two hostile armies were separated by 
Eocky Face Ridge, cloven by Buzzard's Roost Gap, through which 
runs the railroad. This pass was so fortified as to render it un- 
approachable. Sherman decided to turn the position. The Army 
of the Tennessee moved through Snake Creek Gap and threatened 
the enemy's rear at Dalton. The regiment was attached to this 
arm}^ and took part in all its movements and battles, being en- 
gaged at Dalton, Snake Creek Gap, Resaca, Dallas, New Hope 
Church, Big Shanty, Kenesaw Mountain, Nickajack Creek, Chat- 
tahoochie River, Decatur, Atlanta, Cedar Bluffs, Jonesboro and 
Lovejoy's Station. The regiment then moved with its corps to 
Atlanta, and camped at East Point, after marching and fighting 
nearly 100 days. 

On the 3d of October the regiment marched with its corps in 
pursuit of Hood, and after forced marches through Northern 
Georgia and Alabama, drove Hood across the Tennessee River, 
left General Thomas to meet and check his further career, and re- 
turned to its old camping ground near Atlanta. 

At daybreak on the 14th of November the regiment moved 
with the column for Savannah and the sea. Atlanta lay behind, a 
mass of smoldering ruins — before was an untrodden path, an 
unknown enemy and adventure. The march of that army was 
marked by destroyed railroads and a ruined country. The regiment 
svas assigned to the Second Brigade (Walcott's), First Division, 
Fifteenth Army Corps, in this march. On the 22d of ISovember, 
near Griswoldville, Ga., its brigade was engaged in a desperate 

Our position was defended by a slight barricade. The eneraj' 
made an assault with a largely superior force, and four pieces of 
artillery; he was, however, completely repulsed. The action con- 
tinued four hours, and the enemy made several assaults, only to 
be met with severe loss. General Walcott was wounded, and 
Colonel Patterson, of the Ninety-seventh Indiana, took command of 
the brigade. Forty-nine prisoners were captured, and the regi- 
ment was complimented by the commanding General. After a 




perilous march through almost impassable swamps and morasses 
and over swollen streams, the column debouched in front of Sa- 
vannah on the 10th of December, and that city was entered by 
our army on the 23d. 

From Savannah the regiment moved with its corps by steamer 
to Beauford, S. C, and thence through the Carolinas, captur- 
ing successively Branchville, Columbia, Georgetown and Cheraw, 
S. C, and met the enemy at Bentonville, N. C, where a 
severe battle ensued, and the enemy were defeated and driven from 
the field. The column then moved to Goldsboro, reaching that 
place March 26, 1865, having marched 1,300 miles and fought 
seventeen battles since leaving Chattanooga in May, 1864. 

The regiment remained at Goldsboro until the 10th of April. 
It then moved with the army to Kaleigh, where it remained until 
after the surrender of Johnston's army. The regiment then 
marched by way of Richmond, Ya., to Washington, D. C, reach- 
ing that place May 20, 1865. The regiment remained in camp 
near Washington until June 9, 1865, when it was mustered out of 
service, the remaining recruits being transferred to the Forty-eighth 
Indiana, with which organization they continued to serve until its 
muster-out at Louisville, Ky., June 15, 1865. 

The One Hundredth left for the field with an aggregate of 937 
men, and returned with 618 men for muster-out. It lost in killed 
in action and died from wounds 89; discharged for disability by 
reason of wounds, or otherwise, 225; died from disease, 150; total 
casualties, 464. It marched during its term of service 4,000 miles, 
was engaged in twenty-five battles, and was on skirmishing duty 
nearly one-third of the time it was in the field. After its muster- 
out it started for Indianapolis, and upon its arrival there was pres- 
ent at a public reception in the State House grounds on the 14th 
of June, and welcomed with addresses by Governor Morton and 
others. Its members then dispersed to their respective homes. 


The Twelfth Cavalry, One Hundred and Twenty-seventh Regi- 
ment, was organized at Kendall ville, Ind., in the Tenth Congres- 
sional District, March 1, 1864, eight companies of which were 
recruited by Colonel Edward Anderson in the Ninth Congressional 
District, in the fall and winter of 1863, and were rendezvoused at 
Michigan City; and four companies were recruited in the Tenth 
Congressional District in the fall and winter of 1863, and were 



•^T* — -- - — ^ k". 


rendezvoused at Kendallville, for the purpose of completing the 
regimental organization, and Colonel Edward Anderson was made 
Colonel of the regiment. Parts of Companies B, C and I were 
raised in Steuben County. 

Early in May, 1864, the regiment left camp at Kendallville and 
proceeded to Indianapolis, and on the 6th of the same month it left 
Indianapolis for the field, under orders to proceed to Nashville, 
Tenn. But six of the companies were mounted, and all were 
armed as infantry, for want of cavalry arms, until the regiment 
arrived at Louisville, where the infantry arms were turned over by 
the six mounted companies, and cavalry arms were issued instead. 
The mounted portion of the regiment, also the mounted portions 
of the Ninth and Tenth Cavalry Regiments marched from Louis- 
ville to Nashville, under the command of Colonel Anderson, while 
the dismounted portion of the regiment proceeded to Nashville by 
rail, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred Reed. 

The Twelfth remained at Nashville in camp of instruction for 
about three weeks, when it was ordered to Huntsville, Ala., for 
"which place it started May 29, the dismounted portion proceeding 
thence by rail, under command of Colonel Anderson, and the 
mounted portion marching from Nashville, under the command of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Reed. Colonel Anderson was assigned to the 
command of the railroad defenses from Decatur, Ala., to Paint 
Rock, Ala., a distance of about sixty miles, and to the command of 
all that district of country lying between Huntsville and Paint 
Rock, and between the Tennessee River and the Memphis & 
Charleston Railroad, that portion of the country being at the time 
infested with several bands of guerrillas and "bushwhackers." 

The dismounted companies were assigned to the especial defense 
of the railroad, and to the erection of block-houses, under the com- 
mand of Major Orris Blake, and the six mounted companies (which 
were the only mounted cavalry then at or near Huntsville), under 
command of Colonel Anderson, were employed very actively in 
fighting and ridding the country of guerrillas and "bushwhackers," 
in which numerous skirmishes and engagements were fought, and 
quite a large number of the regiment were killed and wounded. 

For about a month after the arrival of the regiment at Hunts- 
ville, the headquarters of the regiment were at that place, when 
they were removed to Brownsborough, where they remained until 
Sept. 15, 1864, when the Twelfth was ordered to Tullahoma, Tenn., 
to garrison that post, where it arrived on the night of the same 

M* — - - — ^ f^ 



day, and reported to Major General Milroj. Colonel Anderson 
was assigned to the command of the post, and also retained com- 
mand of the regiment. On the 23d of September Colonel Ander- 
son was relieved bj orders from the Secretary of War, and was 
ordered to Indianapolis to report to Governor Morton for special 
service, soon after which he rejoined his command i n the field. In 
the absence of Colonel Anderson, Major Blake was assigned to the 
command of the post of Tullahoma and of the regiment, during 
which time the regiment was constantly employed in watching the 
movements of the rebel General Forrest, who, with a large force 
was then threatening Tullahoma and several other points along the 
Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad. In the meantime the regiment 
had several skirmishes with a part of Forrest's command and with 
bands of guerrillas. In the month of October, 1864, Major Blake 
was ordered by the Secretary of War to report for duty to the 
Acting Assistant Provost Marshal General at Indianapolis as 

Three mounted companies, C, D and H, stationed at Huntsville 
under the command of Captain Major D. Williams, of Company C, 
participated in the defense of that place with the Thirteenth Cav- 
alry, Oct. 1, 1864, against the attack of a portion of the rebel 
Forrest's command. These companies subsequently joined the 
regiment at Tullahoma, and on the 26th of November, upon the 
evacuation of that post, the regiment proceeded to Murfreesboro, 
Tenn., and participated in the battle of Wilkinson's Pike and Over- 
all's Creek. It was also employed in the several skirmishes in the 
defense of Murfreesboro against the command of Forrest in De- 
cember, 1864, Lieutenant-Colonel Reed commanding the regiment, 
and Colonel Anderson commanding the brigade to which the regi- 
ment was attached. Soon after this the regiment proceeded to 
Nashville and went into winter quarters, and there received new 
arms, and was assigned to the Second Brigade, Seventh Division, 
Cavalry Corps. 

Feb. 11, 1865, the regiment embarked on board transports and 
steamers, under orders to proceed to New Orleans, La., which 
orders were subsequently countermanded, and the regiment disem- 
barked at Yicksburg, Miss., by order of Major General Canby, to 
engage in a raid along the Mobile & Ohio Railroad. These orders 
were also subsequently countermanded, and the regiment was newly 
mounted, arms changed, and embarked again for New Orleans, 
where it arrived March 12, 1865, thence proceeding to Navy Cove, 




Mobile Bay. There it reported to Major-General Canby, and par- 
ticipated in the operations against the forts and defenses of Mobile, 
Ala., a portion of the regiment acting as escort to Major- General 
Canby, and the remainder engaged also in running a courier line 
into Florida, from near Fort Blakely, Ala. 

After the fall of Mobile the regiment reported, April 17, to Major 
General Grierson, and under the command of Major William H. 
Calkins, participated in the raid of over 800 miles through Ala- 
bama into Georgia, and then across the State of Alabama again to 
Columbus, Miss., where it arrived May 20, 1865. It was highly 
and specially complimented by Major-General Grierson, in a letter 
to Governor Morton, for its gallant conduct and military discipline. 
Here the regiment remained under the command of Major Blake 
until about the middle of July, when Colonel Anderson rejoined 
his command after a temporary absence, and proceeded with a 
portion of the regiment to Grenada, Miss., establishing the head- 
quarters of the regiment there. Three companies, D, K and L, 
proceeded to Austin, on the Mississippi River, in command of 
Captain D. M. Graves, where they remained about two months, 
employed in protecting Government cotton and other property, and 
then again reported for duty to Colonel Anderson at Grenada, 
where that portion of the regiment remained until orders were re- 
ceived for muster-out. 

The remaining six companies remained at Columbus, Miss., and 
vicinity, engaged in protecting Government cotton and otherwise, 
under the command of Major Blake, until they were ordered to 
proceed to Yicksburg, Miss., to join the remainder of the regiment 
which had preceded them. These companies arrived on the 2d of 
November, and Nov. 10, 1865, the Twelfth Cavalry was mustgred 
out of the service of the United States at Yicksburg, and ordered to 
proceed to Indianapolis, where it arrived on the 16th of November 
On the next day it was honored with a public dinner by the citizens 
of the city, and was welcomed home by a public reception at the 
State House grove, where addresses were delivered by Governor 
Baker and Colonel Trussler, Secretary of State, and were responded 
to by Colonel Anderson, Lieutenant-Colonel Reed, Major Calkins 
and Major Blake. The regiment was finally paid off, and its mem- 
bers received their discharge Nov. 22, 1865. 


The One Hundred and Twentv-ninth Regiment was recruited 




from the Tenth Congressional District during the winter of 1863-'64:, 
rendezvoused at Michigan City, and was mustered into the service 
March 1, 1864, with Charles Case as Colonel and Charles A. Zol- 
linger as Lieutenant-Colonel. All of Company A and parts of 
Companies B, F, H, I and K were composed of Steuben County 

On the 30th of March the regiment left camp at Michigan City, 
and was conveyed by rail via Louisville to Nashville, where it 
arrived on the 7th of April. Lieutenant-Colonel Zollinger was in 
command of the regiment. Upon its arrival at Nashville, it was 
assigned to the Second Brigade, First Division, Twenty-third Army 
Corps. On the 5th of April the regiment took up its line of march 
for Loudon, E. Tenn.. but, before reaching that point, its orders 
were changed, and the regiment marched for Charleston, E.Tenn., 
arriving there on the 2J:th, Thus was accomplished a march of 200 
miles by a regiment fresh from the hamlets and towns of Northern 
Indiana. As the column wound through the fertile valleys and 
over the rugged mountains that characterize the countr}^ through 
which it passed, the men were enthusiastic in their admiration of 
the natural beauty of the country. There was but a little time for 
rest, however, for as soon as the First Division had joined its corps 
at Charleston, orders came to move on a campaign that was to 
strike a formidable blow at the rebel strongholds guarding Atlanta, 

On the 3d of May the regiment moved with its corps toward 
Dal ton, reaching there in time to participate in the initiatory dem- 
onstration that opened the campaign a^rainst Atlanta. On the 
12th it marched through Snake Creek Gap, and, breaking through 
a dense forest, took position near Resaca. Three days later a 
heayy battle ensued at Resaca, the enemy being defeated and 
driven across the Oostanaula River. The regiment joined in the 
pursuit, movi g over blind roads on the left, and, crossing the 
Oostanaula River above Resaca, found the enemy strongly en- 
trenched near Cassville. On the 20th the rebel army fled across 
the Etowah River. The regiment reached the banks of that 
stream, and encamped for two days, waiting for supplies. On the 
25tli the regiment crossed the Etowah River and moved upon the 
enemy's position at New Hope Church. Before reaching there, 
however, the enemy, after a severe engagement wi:h a portion of 
our army, had fallen back to Lost Mountain. The regiment was 
for several weeks afterward almost constantly skirmishing with 
the enemy, pushing through deep defiles and heavy underbrush. 


During this period the rain fell almost continuouely, rendering 
the roads almost impassable. On the 15th of June Lieutenant- 
Colonel Zollinger was promoted Colonel, having had active com- 
mand of the regiment ever since its departure for the field. Colonel 
Case resigned early in June. On the 19th of July the regiment 
was engaged in a severe fight near Decatur, Ga., losinar very 
heavily in killed and wounded. Sherman's army was now closing 
around Atlanta, and brisk skirmishing met our advance in every 
new movement. On the 5th of August a brigade of Schofield's 
corps tried to break through the enemy's line about a mile below 
Utoy Creek, but failed to carry the position. The next day General 
Hascail, commanding the division to which the regiment was at- 
tached, attacked and turned the position, resulting in the engage- 
ment at Strawberry Run, in which the One Hundred and Twenty- 
ninth lost twenty-five in killed and wounded. 

On the 29th of August the regiment marched with its corps 
around East Point, and came into position near Hough and Ready, 
on the railroad, which was at once destroyed. Other portions of 
Sherman's army were doing similar work, and on the 1st of Sep- 
tember it was ascertained that the enemy had abandoned Atlanta. 
The regiment then marched with its corps to Decatur, and went 
into camp. Thus, after four months' campaign, our army gained 
possession of the mountain regions of the center of the rebel 
dominion, and the Atlantic and Gulf slopes were open to the move- 
ment of our veterans. 

On the 4th of October the One Hundred and Twenty-ninth moved 
with its corps in pursuit of Hood, who had cut Sherman's com- 
munications at Big Shanty, and was demonstrating on the garrisons 
guarding our supplies along the railroad that formed our only line 
of supply. Moving by way of Marietta, Allatoona, Cassville, King- 
ston, Rome, Resaca and Snake Creek Gap, it arrived at Gayles- 
ville, Ala., where further pursuit of Hood's flying columns ceased. 
The Twenty-third Corps was then attached to the command of 
General Thomas, and the regiment marched with its corps to 
Chattanooga. Thence it was transported by rail to Nashville and 
Johnsonville, where it remained until the 20th of November. It 
then moved to Columbia and occupied the crossings of Duck 

For three days the enemy pressed our position at Columbia, and 
heavy skirmishing was carried on. On the 29th the roginient fell 
back across the Duck River, burning the railroad bridge in its rear. 

jf < 

*8J 1-1" 


The enemy's column having passed our flank, the regiment marched 
rapidij with its corps to Franklin, The enemy followed closely, 
and on the 30th assaulted our position at that place. Our ground 
was well chosen, and after several severe assaults the enemy was 
decisively repulsed with great loss. The regiment met with heavy 
loss in the battle of Franklin. Our army fell back during the 
night to Nashville, and the regiment took position in the suburbs 
of that city, and threw up defensive works. 

On the 15th of December the regiment moved from Nashville, 
and, advancing with General Thomas's army on the fortified posi- 
tion of the rebel army of General Hood, participated in the two 
days' battle which resulted in the utter rout of the enemy, and in 
his disastrous retreat across the Tennessee River. The regiment 
joined in the pursuit until the same was discontinued. 

Jan. 5, 1865, the regiment marched with its division to Clifton, 
and embarking in transports sailed to Cincinnati. Thence it 
was' conveyed by railroad to Washington City, and thence by 
steamer to Cape Fear inlet. Fort Fisher being already captured, 
and Wilmington secured by General Schofleld, the regiment, with- 
out landing, sailed by sea to Morehead City, to reinforce the 
column about to move from Newborn. 

On the 6th of March the regiment moved with the main column 
from Newbern, and marched along the railroad in the direction of 
Kingston, repairing the railroad as it advanced. On the 8th the 
enemy encountered our advance^ and captured two regiments of 
Connecticut volunteers. Flushed with success his columns rapidly 
advanced and endeavored to check our further progress; but he 
was met and checked by Ruger's division of the Twerity- third Corps, 
to which the regiment was attached. Yery heavy skirmishing at 
once ensued, the enemy making bold attempts to drive our line 
from position. On the 10th, the enemy being largely reinforced, 
the heavy skirmishing culminated in a battle. The enemy made 
several desperate assaults, all of which were met and repulsed, with 
great loss to the enemy, and during the following night the enemy 
fled in great disorder, leaving his killed and wounded. 

Thus ended the engagement at Wise's Forks, in which the regi- 
ment took an active part, losing very heavily. Our way was now 
open to Kingston, and the regiment pushed on with the main 
column to that place, and thence to Goldsboro, reaching there 
on the 21st. From Goldsboro the regiment moved to Mosley 
ITall, where it remained until the 5th of April. It then moved to 


* - ■ -« S) ^ 



Goldsboro, rejoined its corps and marched to Raleigh. From that 
capital the command moved to Charlotte, reaching there on the 
9th of May. Here it was engaged in provost duty during the 
summer of 1865. On the 29th of August, 1865, the regiment was 
mustered out of the service of the United States at Charlotte, N. C, 
and started for home. It reached Indianapolis early in September 
with 503 officers and men, was present at a reception to returned 
soldiers in the State House grove, and welcomed by addresses from 
General Manslield'and others. The regiment soon received final 
payment and discharge, and its members returned to the peaceful 
vocations of life. 


The One Hundred and Fifty-second Regiment was recruited in 
the Tenth Congressional District, and was organized at Indian- 
apolis March 16, 1865, with Whedon W. Griswold as Colonel. It 
left Indianapolis on the 18th for Harper's Ferry, Ya., and on ar- 
riving there was assigned to duty with one of the provisional 
divisions of the Army of the Shenandoah. It was stationed for a 
short time at Charlestown, Stevenson Station and Summit Point, 
and then moved to Clarksburg, W. Va., where it remained until 
its muster-out, on the 30th of August, 1865. On the first of 
September it reached Indianapolis with 770 men and officers, 
where it was finally discharged. 

Following is a list of Steuben County volunteers, classified by 
regiments and companies. It is attempted to give not only the 
name of each soldier, but his rank, date of muster-in, promotions 
and date of discharge or muster-out; or if died in the service, when 
and where. The list is taken mainly from the Adjutant-General's 
report, and is consequently imperfect in many respects. Only 
those credited to Indiana regiments are given : 


Company E. 

Bear, W. S., mustered in Sept. 5, 1861, killed at Shiloh, April 
7, 1862. 

Caldwell, L. W.. mustered in Sept. 5, 1861, out Sept 5, 1864. 

Colgrove, H. P., mustered in Sept. 5, 1861, discharged for disa- 
bility July 9, 1862. 

Ireland, John R., mustered in Sept. 5, 1861, died of disease;Jan. 
6, 1863. 

' ^'zz zr— ^>.i 

„ I 1 



Klink, Wm., mustered in Sept. 5, 1861, deserted Sept. 3, 1862. 

Leavitt, G. P., mustered in Sept. 5, 1861, appointed Corporal, 
mustered out Sept. 5, 1864. 

Nichols, J. H. mustered in Sept. 5, 1861, out Sept. 5, 1864-. 

RichardsoD, James, mustered in Sept. 5, 1861, discharged for 
disability Jan. 20, 1862. 

Tustison, W. R., mustered in Sept. 5. 1861, deserted Aug. 18, 


Com.jpany B. 
Miner, P. P., mustered in Aug. 8, 1864, ou^ June.8, 1865. 


Compmiy F. 
Kelley, Thomas, mustered in Oct. 14, 1864, out Sept. 5, 1865. 

Baugher, John, mustered in Oct. 21, 1864. 


Company D. 
Reimer, J. W., mustered in June 12, 1861, out June 20, 1864.* 


Company A. 

Shaffstall, Adam, mustered in July 24, 1861, appointed Sergeant, 
mustered out July 31, 1864. 

Sitterlin, J. F., mustered in July 24, 1861, died at New Orleans 
Oct. 17, 1862. 

Van Pelt, Samuel, mustered in July 24, 1861, out July 31, 1864. 

Conger, P. S., mustered in May 17, 1863, out Jan. 13, 1866. 

Conger, S. L., mustered in Oct. 25, 1862, out Oct. 24, 1865. 

Knox, R. B., mustered in April 7, 1864, deserted April 18, 1864. 

Shaffstall, Franklin, mustered in Oct. 25, 1862, out Oct. 24, 1865. 

Woodford, J. C, mustered in March 8, 1864, out Jan. 13, 1866. 


Company A. 

Blake, A. E., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out July 24, 1865. 
Cornell, G. W., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out July 24, 1865. 





Furry, Richard, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out July 24, 1865. 
George, J. A., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out July 24, 1865. 
Gardner, Adelbert, mustered in Feb. 25, 1864, out July 24, 1865. 
Gaylord, H. D., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out July 24, 1865. 
Perfect, R. L., mustered in March 24, 1864, out June 9, 1865. 
Stetter, Daniel, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out July 24, 1865. 
Steller, William, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out July 24, 1865. 
Stewart, J. C, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out July 24, 1865. 
Thompson, William, mustered in March 25, 1864, out July 24, 
Towns, J. N., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out July 24, 1865. 
Williams, S. R., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out July 24, 1865. 


Company A. 

Jenkins, J. H. M., commissioned Captain Sept. 10, 1861, Major 
March 1, 1864, resigned as Captain June 11, 1864. 

Melendy, R. W., commissioned Second Lieutenant Sept. 10, 
1861, First Lieutenant April 12, 1862, Captain Juue 11, 1864. 

Sergeant, W. E., commissioned First Lieutenant Sept. 10, 1861, 
resigned Feb. 17, 1862. 

McGowan, Irenus, mustered in as First Sergeant Aug. 27, 1861, 
commissioned Second Lieutenant April 12, 1862, wounded at Shi- 
loh, commissioned First Lieutenant June 11, 1864. 

Fales, Willard, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, veteranized, com- 
missioned Second Lieutenant Jan. 1, 1865, First Lieutenant June 
20, 1865. 

Ferrier, Jacob, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, as Sergeant, out Aug. 
26, 1864. 

La Rue, J. W., mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, as Sergeant, dis- 
charged June 21, 1862, for disability. 

Allen, D. B., mustered in as Sergeant Aug. 27, 1861, died in 
Andersonville Prison Sept. 24, 1864. 

Jennings, C. H., mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, as Sergeant, dis- 
charged Nov. 3, 1862, for promotion. 

Melendy, E. G., mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, as Corporal, dis- 
charged Aug. 5, 1862, for disability. 

Wordsworth, J. R., mustered in as Corporal Aug. 27, 1861, died 
in 1862 of wounds received at Shiloh. 

Everhart, J. M., mustered in as Corporal Aug. 27, 1861, out 
Sept. 26, 1864. 

^QJ ^ » I Is 

^ ® ^ -• ©R * 



Berger, Daniel, mustered in as Corporal Aug. 27, 1861, dis- 
charged June 21, 1862, for disability. 

McGowan, Miletus, mustered in as Corporal Sept. 6, 1861, died 
June 11, 1865, at Annapolis, Md. 

Cole, W. H., mustered in as Corporal Aug. 27,1861, discharged 
Feb. 12, 1863, for wounds received at Shiloh. 

Jagger, Ziba J., mustered in as Corporal Aug. 27, 1861. trans- 
ferred to Veteran Reserve Corps Jan. 1, 1864. 

Hunt, John, mustered in as Corporal Aug. 27, 1861, discharged 
June 21, 1862. for disability. 

Hushey, M. B., mustered in as Musician Aug. 27, 1861, uut 
June 6, 1865. 

Hutchins, John, mustered in as Musician Sept. 2, 1861, out 
Dec. 2, 1866. 

Bundy, Hiram, mustered in Sept. 2, 1861, discharged April 20, 
1863, for disability. 

Allen, Webster, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, died at Louisville, 
Ky., Jan. 28, 1862. 

Adkins, J. J., mustered in Sept. 2, 1861. discharged Jan. 29, 1863, 
for wounds. 

Baker, Hiram, mustered in Sept. 13, 1861, discharged April 23, 

1862, for disability. 

Baker, T. J. , mustered in Sept. 2, 1861, discharged March 30, 1863. 
Beck, A. W., mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, transferred to Veteran 
Reserve Corps April 10, 1864. 

Berger, J. A., mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, discharged April 18, 

1863, for wounds received at Stone River. 

Beach, H., mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, out Sept. 26, 1864. 

Bender, William, mustered in Sept. 2, 1861, discharged for 

Boyer, John, mustered in Sept. 20, 1861, out Sept. 26, 1864. 

Brown, Ansen, mustered in Sept. 14, 1861, out Sept. 26, 1864. 

Bromley, David, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861. deserted Aug. 
12, 1862. 

Carpenter, J. M., mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, discharged for 

Cleveland, G. D., mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, out May 17, 1865. 

Courtney, Alonzo, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, died at Camp 
Wood, Ky., Feb. 2, 1862. 

Conrad, E. F., mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, mustered out Dec. 2, 



Coe, Chester, mustered in Sept. 15, 1861, mustered out Dec. 2, 
1865, as Wagoner. 

Clock, Frederick, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, killed at Cliicka- 
mauga, Sept. 20, 1863. 

Cummings, Barney, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, out May 21, 

Dennis, J. T., mustered in Sept. 20, 1861, out Dec. 2. 1865. 

Deeler, William, mustered in Aug, 27, 1861, died at Nashville, 
Oct. 6, 1862. 

Dillingham, Claudine, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, discharged in 
December, 1861, for disability. 

Delabaugh, J. J., mustered in Sept. 12, 1861, transferred to Vet- 
eran Reserve Corps Jan. 15, 1864. 

Elco, John, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, mustered out as Corpo- 
ral Dec. 2, 1865. 

Fisher, George, mustered in Sept. 20, 1865. 

French, Chauncey, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, discharged May 
5, 1862, for disability. 

Frink, Eli IH., mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, discharged Jan. 29, 
1864, for disability. 

Gatehouse, James, mustered in Sept. 15, 1861, died at Camp 
Nevin, Ky., in December, 1861. 

Gibbons, Christian, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, killed at Stone 
River, Dec. 31, 1862. 

Gleason, A. H., mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, mustered out Dec. 
2, 1865. 

Guthrie, G.^^E., mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, mustered out Dec. 

2, 1865, as Sergeant. 

Guthrie, Hugh, mustered in Sept. 15, 1861, out Dec. 2, 1865. 

Haines, David, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, deserted August, 1862. 

Hackett, George, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, out Dec. 2, 1865. 

Hanna, Henry, mustered in Sept. 20, 1861, out Sept. 26, 1864. 

Haines, Philip, mustered in Aug. 27, 1871, killed at Shiloh, 
April 7, 1862. 

Hanna, Nathaniel, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, died at Chatta- 
nooga in 1863, of wounds received at Chickamauga. 

Hanselman, William, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, transferred to 
Yeteran Reserve Corps. 

Hanselman, W. H., mustered in Sept. 22, 1861, died Oct. 9, 
1863, at Chattanooga. 

Holdridge, H. Y., mustered in Sept. 2, 1861, died at Columbia, 
Tenn., April 4, 1862. 





Hutchins, Judah, mustered in Sept. 18, 1861, out Sett. 26, 1864. 

Hunt, William, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, discharged for dis- 

Huffman, J. W. , mustered in Sept. 9, 1861, mustered out Dec. 
2, 1865. 

Jenkins, William, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, discharged Aug. 
5, 1862, for wounds received near Shiloh. 

Keyes, W. H., mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, out Sept. 26, 1864. 

Knowles, Reuben, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, died at Annapolis, 
Md., in February, 1863. 

Letcher, William, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, out Sept. 26, 1864. 

Myers, George, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, discharged Aug. 5, 
1862, for wounds received at Shiloh. 

Melendy, H. B., mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, out as Sergeant Dec. 
2, 1865. 

Mc Gowan, Frederick, mustered in Sept. 9, 1861, discharged 
June 17, 1863. 

Moore, Cornelius, muftered in Aug. 27, 1861, discharged May 
5, 1862, for disability. 

Moore, W. S., mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, out Sept. 26, 1864. 

Parker, E. A., mustered in Sept. 6, 1861, died in Andersonville 
Prison Julv 27, 1864. 

Parker, E. L., mustered in Sept. 6, 1861, discharged Sept. 4, 
1862, for promotion in Fifth Ind. Vol. Cav. 

Petty, John, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, died at Camp Nevin, 
Ky., Dec. 11, 1861. 

Phenecie, Lewis, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, mustered out as 
Corporal Dec. 2, 1865. 

Phenecie, James, mustered in Sept. 13, 1861, captured at Chick- 
amauga, mustered out June 6, 1865. 

Phenecie, W. C, mustered in Oct. 7, 1861, captured at Chicka- 
mauga, mustered out Feb. 21, 1865. 

Rhinehart, Eli, mustered in Sept. 6, 1861, out Sept. 26, 1864. 

Ruth, Daniel, mustered in Sept. 2, 1861, out Sept. 26, 1864. 

Sattison,W. H,, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, mustered out as 
Sergeant Dec. 2, 1865. 

Sabin, C. E., mustered in Oct. 7, 1861, appointed Hospital Stew- 
ard, discharged Aug. 31, 1864, for disability. 

Sabin, O. C, mustered in Sept. 6, 1861, promoted Second Lieu- 
tenant Nov. 4, 1862, First Lieutenant Jan. 1, 1863, Quartermaster 
Aug. 1, 1863, resigned April 11, 1864. 


) >y ' 





Spangle, L. R., mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, out as Sergeant Dec. 

2, 1865. 

Stewart, A. H., mustered in Oct. 5, 1861, out May 18, 1865. 

Stevenson, William, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, deserted in 1861. 

Stuck, Levi A., mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, discharged for dis- 

Summerlot, Andrew, mustered in Sept. 20, 1861, out June 26, 

Summerlot, Franklin, mustered in Sept. 29, 1861, out Sept. 26, 


Seymour, F. B., mustered in Sept. 2, 1861, discharged April 25, 

1862, for disability. 

Talbot, Caleb, mustered in Sept. 6, 1861, killed at Stone River, 

Jan. 1, 1863. 

Taylor, J. E., mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, discharged Nov. 15, 

1862, for disability. 

Taylor, W. J., mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, discharged Dec. 21, 

1861, for disability. 

Tingler, Simeon, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, discharged Dec. 
24, 1863, for disability. 

Tuttle, G. D., mustered in Sept. 2, 1861, discharged Aug. 5, 

1862, for disability. • 

Wells, C. L., mustered in Aug, 27, 1861, transferred to Yeteran 

Reserve Corps. 

West, J. J., mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, captured at Chicka- 
mauga, mustered out June 15, 1865. 

Willaby, Frank, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, discharged in Aug. 
1862, for disability. 

Wilkin, L. H., mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, mustered out as First 

Sergeant Dec. 2, 1865. 

Wood, F. B., mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, out Jan. 3, 1865. 

Woodard, H. W., mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, died in Ander- 
sonville Prison June 23, 1864. 

Altman, J. P., mustered in Oct. 15, 1864, out June 26, 1865. 

Brown, George, mustered in Oct. 4, 1862, out Oct. 21, 1865. 

Berger, 0. J., mustered in Oct. 15, 1864, out Oct. 21, 1865. 

Bowerman, Michael, mustered in Oct. 15, 1864, out June 26, 1865. 

Crise, A. K. M., mustered in Oct. 29, 1862, died at Nashville, 
June 15, 1865. 

Carpenter, Gilbert, mustered in Oct. 15, 1864, died at Nash- 
ville, April 4, 1865. 







Craft, Jesse, mustered iu Dec. 12, 1864, out Dec. 2, 1865. 

Garfield, B. K., mustered in Oct. 21, 1864, out Oct. 21, 1865. 

Dixon, Jacob, mustered in Oct. 7, 1861, out Oct. 21, 1865. 

Dennison, O. J., mustered in Oct. 15, 1864, out June 26, 1865. 

Eaton, John, mustered in Dec. 9, 1864, out Dec. 2, 1865. 

Elliott, H. K, mustered in Jan. 3, 1865, out Dec. 2. 1865. 

Gaskill, R. J., mustered in Jan. 7, 1864, out Dec. 2, 1865. 

Gwin, A. W., mustered in Oct. 7, 1863, out Dec. 2, 1865. 

Howarth, Preston, mustered in March 5, 1864, out as Corporal 
Dec. 2, 1865. 

Hutcbins, E. W., mustered in Feb. 25, 1864, out Au^. 5, 1865. 

Haywood, Alfred, mustered in Dec. 9,1864, out Dec. 2, 1865. 

Holden, Henry, mustered in Aug. 11, 1862, out Dec. 2, 1865. 

Hills, G. W., mustered in Oct. 15, 1864, out June 30, 1865. 

Hanley, P. W., mustered in Feb. 11, 1864, out Dec. 2, 1865. 

Hall, J. H., mustered in Oct. 21, 1864, out Oct. 13, 1865. 

Hughey, T. M., mustered in May 20, 1864, out Dec. 2, 1865. 

Hall, E. P., mustered in Oct. 15, 1864, died at Nashville, Feb. 
8, 1865. 

Ketchum, B. B., mustered in Sept. 26, 1864, out June 26, 1865. 

King, p. J., mustered in Oct. 4, 1862, out as Corporal Oct. 21, 
1865. • 

Lord, David, mustered in April 4, 1864, disch, rged Aug. 14, 
1865, for disability. 

Lacey, J. B., mustered in Oct. 29, 1862, out July 20, 1865. 

McCray, J. S., mustered in March 5, 1864, out Dec. 2, 1865. 

Miller, Joseph, mustered in Oct. 7, 1864, discharged Sept. 15, 
1865, for disability. 

Northway, E. C, mustered in March 3, 1864, out Dec. 2, 1865. 

Polk, W. S., mustered in Feb. 23, 1865, deserted July 20, 1865. 

Pattee, Alvah, mustered iu Oct. 4, 1862, captured at Chicka- 
mauga, discharged June 21, 1865, for disability. 

Priest, William, mustered in Nov. 12, 1862, died in Danville, 
Va., Prison Dec. 15, 1863. 

Rhodes, Hubert, mustered in Oct. 7, 1864, out Oct. 21, 1865. 

Seymour, Mortimer, mustered in Aug. 16, 1862, out Dec. 2. 

Summerlot, Valentine, mustered in Oct. 4, 1862, died in Ander- 
sonville Prison May 5, 1864. 

Tillotson, J. P., transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps Aug. 
19, 1863. 






Thompson, J. E., mustered in Oct. 14, 1864, died at ISTashville, 

April 28, 1865. 

Twichell, Theodore, mustered in Nov. 12, 1864, ont Nov. 17, 


Tinffler, John, mustered in Nov. 12, 1862, discharged July 18, 

,1863, for disability. 

Taylor, J. Z., mustered in Oct. 15, 1864, died at Chattanooga, 
May 12, 1865. 

folbert, W. H., mustered in Oct. 8, 1864, died at Chattanooga, 

Jan. 12, 1865. 

Van Cleve, W. A., mustered in Oct. 15, 1864, died at Nashville, 

Dec. 12, 1864. 

Wolcott, N. P., mustered in Oct. 29, 1862, captured at Chicka- 


Wolcott, W. H., mustered in Jan. 7, 1864, out as Corporal Dec. 

2, 1865. 

Wilson, A. G.. mustered in Nov. 14, 1862, discharged Oct. 17, 
1863, for disability. 

Waller, E. J., died at Tullahoma, July 10, 1863. 

Young, L. G. C, mustered in Oct. 18, 1862, out Oct. 21, 1865. 

Young, P. L., mustered in March 18, 1864, out Dec. 2, 1865. 

Company H. 

Holly, Byron, mustered in as Musician Aug. 27, 1861, trans- 
ferred to Company 1. 
Irish, C. L., mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, discharged June 25, 


Company I. 

Deggo, Peter, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, deserted July 26, 


Ryan, Patrick, mustered in Sept. 14, 1861, mustered out Dec. 

2, 1865. 

Ames, Robert, mustered in Dec. 27, 1864, out June 26, 1865. 
Burk, Eli, mustered in Oct. 30, 1861, died at Angola, Feb. 28, 


Bixler, L. F., mustered in Oct. 16, 1861, deserted April 10, 


Everhart, Edmond, mustered in Oct. 30, 1861, discharged July 

1, 1862, for disability. 

Everhart, J. T., mustered in Nov. 3, 1861, discharged Dec. 12, 
1863, for disability. 





Qui^lej, James, mustered in Aug. 27, 1861, deserted Oct. 
1, 1862. 

Rhea, Alexander, mustered in Nov. 3, 1861, transferred to 
Veteran Reserve Corps Jan. 15, 1864. 

Tucker, W. H., mustered in Nov. 3, 1861, discharged Dec. 17, 
1861, lor disability. 


Company C. 

Hitter, Jonathan, mustered in Oct. 12, 1864, deserted June 30, 
Richardson, Carey, mustered in Sept. 23, 1864, out July 6, 1865. 


Company C. 

Carver, O. P., mustered in Jan. 8, 1864, out July 15, 1865, as 
Shoultz, Emile, mustered in Jan. 8, 1864, out July 15, 1865. 


Crosswait, B. J., om nissioned Lieatanmt-Colonel Sjpt. 12, 
1861, died Feb. 20, 1862. 

McConnell, G. W., commissioned Quartermaster Sept. 28, 1861, 
resigned Feb. 3, 1862. 

Compa?iy A. 

Kinney, C. F., commissioned Captain Sept. 20, 1861, resigned 
Feb. 26, 1862, commissioned Major Nov. 27, 1862, resigned as 
Captain Feb. 26, 1863. 

Burcb, J. W., mustered in as private Nov. 22, 1861, commis- 
sioned Second Lieutenant Nov. 27, 1862, Captain May 17, 1863, 
Major Jan. 1, 1865, mustered out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Griffith, L. W., mustered in as private Nov. 22, 1861, commis- 
sioned First Lieutenant May 17, 1863, Captain April 1, 1865, 
mustered out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Rose, E. O., commissioned First Lieutenant Sept. 20, 1861, re- 
signed July 22, 1862. 

Butler, M. B., mustered in as First Sergeant Nov. 22, 1861, com- 
missioned Second Lieutenant Sept. 11, 1862, First Lieutenant Nov. 
27, 1862, resigned May 20, 1863. 

Twichell, G. W., mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1S61, coni- 


missioned Second Lieutenant March 20, 1865, First Lieiiten.ant 
April 1, 1865, mustered out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Smith, Birge, commissioned Second Lieutenant Sept. 20, 1S61, 
resigned Sept. 11, 1862. 

Scoville, O. D., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, commissioned 
Second Lieutenant May 17, 1863, Captain Company I Feb. 11, 
1865, mustered out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Lewis, N. F., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, commissioned Second 
Lieutenant April 1, 1865, mustered out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Ulam, John, mustered in as Sergeant Nov. 22, 1861, out Sept. 
14, 1865. 

Wright, W. W., mustered in as Sergeant Nov. 22, 1861, died at 
St. Louis, March 2, 1862. 

Merriman, J. H., mustered in as Sergeant Nov. 22, 1861, dis- 
charged June 14, 1863, for wounds received at Shiloh. 

Milnes, Joseph, mustered in as Sergeant Nov. 22, 1861, out 
Sept. 14, 1865. 

Jackraan, Joseph, mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1861, dis- 
charged April 10, 1863, for wounds received at Shiloh. 

Brooks, S. S., mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1861, deserted 
Oct. 2, 1862. 

Kyan, John, mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1861, discharged 
in March, 1863, for disability. 

Imhof, John, mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1861, transferred 
to Fifteenth United States Infantry Dec. 15, 1862. 

Parrott, J. M., mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1861, dis- 
charged Aug. 6, 1862, for promotion. 

Benedict, J. M., mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1861, dis- 
charged May 13, 1862, for disability. 

Tiffany, D. J., mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1861, trans- 
ferred Aug. 29, 1862. 

Stealy, Christian, mustered in as Musician Nov. 22, 1861, dis- 
charged in July, 1S62, for disability. 

Sage, A. B., mustered in as Musician Nov. 22, 1861, out Sept. 
14, 1865. 

Kinnear, J. W., mustered in as Wagoner Nov. 22, 1861, dis- 
charged Jan. 1, 1862. 

Arnold, Nicholas, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 22, 

Aumend, J. A., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Barr, Chas. EL, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out June 14, I860. 




Bennett, William, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Pittsburg 
Landing, March 26, 1862. 

Butler, T. D., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Bates, C. J., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 22, 18G5. 

Belcher, Giba, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at McMinnville, 
Tenn., Sept. 9, 1863. 

Bigler, James, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, deserted Oct. 2, 1862. 

Burgett, John, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Oct. 22, 
1863, for disability. 

Brooks, Francis, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died Oct. 4, 1862. 

Beard, H. W., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Clink, Charles, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out as Sergeant Sept. 
14, 1865. 

Culp, M. T., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged June 28, 
1862, for wounds received at Shiloh. 

Carlin, W. C, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Sept. 14. 1865. 

Cleveland, S. J., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Huntsville, 
Ala., Aug. 25, 1862. 

Carlin, John, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Cox, Solomon M., mustered in Nov, 22, 1861, out as Corporal 
Sept. 14, 1865. 

Dotts, Jesse, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, deserted Oct. 2. 1862. 

Dotts, W. H., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Aug. 5, 

1862, for disability. 

Dotts, Jacob, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 22, 1864. 

Eckhart, John, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died in Steuben 
County, April 20, 1862. 

Ewing, J. B., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died in Steuben 
County, May 14, 1862. 

Ewing, A. H., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, promoted Aug. 16, 


Ewers, Adolphus, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Sept. 14,1865. 

Field, Henry, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Cairo, April 
5, 1862. 

Fegley, John, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, deserted Oct. 2, 1862. 

Grant, Marion, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Evansville, 
Jan. 26, 1862. 

Grant, Harrison, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Feb. 16, 

1863, for disability. 

Goodrich, D. O., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out as Corporal 
Sept. 14, 1865. 



-*— * • (O 


Hall, Leander, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, killed at Shiloh, 

April 6, 1862. 

Hyatt, T. C, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, transferred to First 
United States Engineers Aug. 26, 1864. 

Humelbaugli, William, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at New 
Albany, Ind., Jan. 11, 1863. 

Hurlbert, C. F., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Calhoun, 
Ky., Feb. 17, 1862. 

Heller, Emanuel, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Hutchins, J. E., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out as Sergeant 
Sept. 14, 1865. 

Heller, Daniel, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, transferred to Fifteenth 
United States Infantry Dec. 25, 1862. 

Hall, John, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Aug. 29, 
1862, for disability. 

Lords, H. A., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out as Corporal Sept. 

14, 1865. 
Lutz, John, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged for disability. 

Moffett, T. K., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Oct. 2, 
1862, for disability. 

McMuire, William, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged 
March 22, 1863, for disability. 

Miller, Charles, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out as Corporal Sept. 

14, 1865. 
Munday, Jasper, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out as Corporal 

Sept. 14, 1865. 

Ryan, John, Jr., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Ryan, Stephen, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Sept. 13, 
1862, for disability. 

Ryan, Michael, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Ryan, James, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out as Corporal Sept. 
14, 1865. 

Rosser, William, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 22, 1864. 

Robbins, R. K., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out as Corporal Sept. 
14, 1865. 

Raison, Robert, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, transferred to 
Fifteenth United States Infantry Dec. 15, 1862. 

Stealy, John, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Calhoun, Ky., 

Feb. 21, 1862. 

Swambaw, Fred., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 22, 1864. 

Snyder, S. P., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out as First Sergeant 
Sept. 14, 1865. 





Sailor, Allen M,, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, deserted Oct 6, 1862. 

Sowle, David, mustered ii; Nov. 22, 1861, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Showalter, Joshua, mastered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Sept. 14, 

Scoles, William, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, di=cliarged May 6, 
1863, for disability. 

Strong, G. W., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Nov. 8, 
1863, for disability. 

Scoville, Hannibal, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Jan. 
12, 1863, for wounds received at Shiloh. 

Swain, R. P., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died March 21, 1862. 

Sines, S. M., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Thrasher, Oscar B., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out as Corpor-il 
Sept. 14, 1865. 

Tinsley, Samuel, mustered in Nov. 22, 186.1, discharged June 
17, 1862. 

Tliroop, Orange, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died April 1, 1863, 
from wounds recieved at Fort Donelson. 

Thompson, John, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Twichell, Henry, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged July 
26,1862, for wounds received at Shiloh. 

Van Auken, James, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Oct. 
21, 1862, for disability. * 

Van Cleve, G. W., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Evans- 
viile March 15, 1862. 

West, Henry, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 22, 1864. 

West, Joshua, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Keokuk, Iowa. 
July 21, 1862. 

Wilkes, Kobert, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 22, 1861. 

Yeuner, William, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Mound 
Citv, 111., April 17, 1862, from wounds received at Shiloh. 

Aldrich, F. H., mustered in March 3, 1865, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Aldrich, J. L., mustered in March 3, 1865, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Andrews, Nehemiah, mustered in March 3, 1865, out Sept. 14, 


Beil, Isaac, mustered in March 7, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Black, L. L., mustered in Feb. 15, 1865, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Chappel, J. H., mustered in April 18, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Crandle, S. L., mustered in April 18, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Crampton, Henry,substitute, mustered in Oct. 1, 1864, out July 
25, 1865. 

^ a/ 

' ^1(5 -^ -^ ■ e "N- 


Crampton, John, mustered in Oct. 24, ISei, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Feltorlioof, Kobert, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, discharged Sept. 
17, 1864, for disability. 

Gannon, J. C, mustered in May 5, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Jordan, Alonzo, mustered in Feb. 15, 1865, out Sept. 14. 1865. 

Kratzer, Emanuel, mustered in March 7, 1864, out Sept. 14,1865. 

Kerr, George, mustered in April 18, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Larue, T. L., mustered in March 17, 1864, died at Chattanooga, 
Tenn., March 10, 3 865* 

Lewis, F. B., mustered in April 18, 1864, out Sept. 14. 1865. 

Lacy, T. T., mustered in Oct. 24, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Morrison, Leland, mustered in April 18, 1864, died at Chatta- 
nooira, Tenn., June 26, 1864. 

Miller, W. A., mustered in March 7, 1861, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Martin, Elias, mustered in March 3, 1865, out July 26, 1865. , 

Purvis, George W., mustered in Sept. 20, 1862, died at Camp 
Dennison, Ohio, in August, 1863, of wounds. 

PRrker, D. S., mustered in April 18, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Richardson, James, mustered in March 9, 1864, out Sept. 14, 

Renner, J. M., mustered in Oct. 9, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Stewart. James, mustered in March 7, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Sowle, Robert, mustered in March 7, 1864, out Sept. 14. 1865. 

Truby, J. A., mustered in April 19, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Vanolstin, Walter, mustered in April 21, 1864,outSept. 14,1865. 

West, Lewis, mustered in April 18, 1864, out April 38, 1865. 

Wilson, ISr. A., mustered in March 21, 1864, died at home JuW 
20, 1864. 

Wagner, G. W., mustered in March 3, 1865, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Company D. 

Stowe, S. J., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, commissioned First 
Lieutenant Feb. 11, 1865, mustered out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Moffett, T. C, mustered in as First Sergeant Nov. 22, 1861, dis- 
charged May 26, 1 862. 

Company F. 

Beverly, C. S., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Battle Creek, 
Tenn., July 20, 1862. 

Babcock, W. Y. , mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged April 
28, 1862, for disability. 

a^J 1 to 

^ (f ^ -^ — 





Bender, A¥illiam, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Pittsburg 
Landing May 6, 1862. 

Dirrim, Richard, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 22, 1864. 

Dirrim, R. R., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged July 11, 
1862, for wounds received at Shiloh. 

Firestone, Isaac, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 22, 1864. 

Freeby, G. W., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out April 20, 1865. 

Haughey, F. M., mustered in Nov. 22, 3.861, discharged. 

Kinsly, Solomon, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged July 5, 
1862, for disability. 

Red, G. W., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Jan.lO, 1865. 

Slentz, John, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 23, 1864. 

Sleutz, G. W., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 23, 1864. 

Turner, Stephen, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, missing at Stone 
River Dec. 31, 1861. 

Turner, M. B., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 22, 1864. 

Compajiy G. 

Johnson, D. S., mustered in as Sergeant Nov. 22, 1861, coni- 
missioned First Lieutenant Feb. 11, 1865, Captain April 1, 1865, 
mustered out Sept. 14, 1865. 

(Jarey, P. M., mustered in as Sergeant Nov, 22, 1861, died at 
Henderson, Ky., Feb. 22, 186:i. 

Blowers, Lyman, mustered in as Sergeant Nov. 22, 1861, dis- 
charged Jan. 5, 1863, for disability. 

Ruth van, Neal, mustered in as Sergeant Nov. 22, 1861, died 
May 10, 1862, on steamer bound for Paducah. 

Rawson, O. Z, mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1861, dis- 
charged Feb. 6, 1863, for disability. 

Wright, Chauncey, mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1861, dis- 
charged Nov. 25, 1862, for wounds received at Shiloh. 

Wright, Samuel, mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1861, dis- 
charged March 22, 1863, for disability. 

Blowers, George, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died near Corinth 
Miss., June 12, 1862. 

Bailey, James, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, transferred to Fourih 
U. S. Cavalry Dec. 15, 1862. 

Johnson, F., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Newbern, Ind., 
July 15, 1862. 

Owen, Francis, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Tuscumbia, 
Ala., July 1, 1862. 




Perkins, Job, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, veteran, mustered out 

Sept. 14, 1865. 

Company H. 

Wright, Jerome, mustered in Nov, 22, 1861, killed at Shiloh, 

April 6, 1862. 

Company K. 

Aldricb, S. C, commissioned First Lieutenant Sept. 20, 1861, 
Captain Dec. 10, 1861, Lieutenant-Colonel Nov. 27, 1862, Colonel 
July 27, 1863, died at home, as Lieutenant-Colonel Aug.15, 1864. 

Aldrich, E. S., mustered in as Sergeant Nov. 22, 1861, commis- 
sioned Second Lieutenant Nov. 27, 1862, First Lieutenant April 17, 
1863, mustered out Dec. 5, 1864. 

Long, J. G., mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1861, veteran, 
commissioned First Lieutenant Feb. 28, 1865, mustered out Sept. 
14, 1865. 

Elliott, S. H.. mustered in as Sergeant Nov. 22, 1861, discharged 
March 27, 1863, for disability. 

Bennett, Malcolm, mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1861, dis- 
charged July 30, 1862, for disability. 

Bickler, C. N., mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1861, dis- 
charged Feb. 8, 1862. 

Knapp, Oscar, mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1861, deserted 
Oct. 6, 1862. 

Eldridge, Henry, mustered in as "Wagoner Nov. 22, 1861, dis- 
charged Oct. 3, 1862, for disability. 

Altman, H. H., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out as Corporal Sept. 
14, 1865. 

Baylor, Elias, mustered in Nov. 22,. 1861, died at Nashville Jan. 
2, 1863. 

Cook, John, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Jan. 20, 

1863, for disability. 
Cutler, S. M., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Battle Creek, 

Tenn., July 20, 1862. 

Gaylord, James, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Oct. 3, 
1862, for disability. 

Guice, John, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged April 11, 

1864, for disability. 
Heffelfinger, M. V., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 22, 


Hawley, H. H., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Nov. 10, 
1862, for disability. 


HiggiiJS, Albert, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged March 
23, 1863, lor disability. 

Lemun, II. H., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Sept. 21, 
1862, for disabilit}-. 

Mease, S. E., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at St. Louis, June 
15, 1862. 

Moore, Tobias, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, deserted Nov. 23. 

McMillen, J. O., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at New Al- 
bany, lud. Oct. 10, 1862. 

Malaiiely. William, mustered in Nov, 22, 1861, died at Nash- 
ville, Nov.' 10, 1863. 

Miisser, Edward, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Henderson, 
Ky., April 11, 1862. 

Morely, G., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Oct. 1, 1862, 
for disability. 

Roe, O. A., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Rodgers, Madison, mustered in Nov, 22, 1861, out Nov. 22, 

Sisson, J. P,, mustered in Nov, 22, 1861, transferred to Fourth 
U. S. Cavalry Dec. 7, 1862. 

Shatto, J. J., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out as Quarter- 
master-Sergeant, Sept. 14, 1865. 

Sloan, James, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out as Sergeant Sept, 
14, 1865. 

Shank, Sylvester, mustered in Nov, 22, 1861, out Nov. 22,1864. 

Shank, N. C, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Sept. 14,1865. 

Squier, S. E., mustered in-Nov. 22, 1861, transferred to Veteran 
Reserve Corps Oct. 21, 1863. 

Waters, S.- E,, mustered in Nov, 22, 1861, died at Keokuk, Iowa, 
July 4, 1862. 

Arnold, Jatne?, mustered in Aug. 19, 1862, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Arnold, Fearless, mustered in Aug. 19, 1862, out Sept. 14, 1865, 

Anderson, E., mustered in Dec. 23, 1863, out Sept. 2, 1865. 

Benson, J. C, mustered in Dec. 23, 1863, out Sept. 2, 1865. 

Bullard, Shurban, mustered in Jan. 9, 1863, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Barekman, H. I., mustered in Oct. 27, 1864, died at Chattanooga, 
Tenn,, June 28, 1865. 

Boran, W. H., mustered in April 4, 1864, out May 15, 1865. 

Barnes, John, mustered in March 27, 1864, out July 25,1865. 

Chilcoat, John, mustered in March 9, 1865, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

■/ s »- ^"^ 

, 4^ 



Cook, D. C, mustered in Dec. 23, 1863, out Sept. 14, 1865. 
Connell, Joseph, mustered in Feb. 20, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 
Curry, Archibald, mustered in Jan. 9,1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 
Chance, J. W., mustered in Jan. 27, 1865, out Sept. 14, 1865. 
Chamberlain, F. M., mustered in Jan. 13, 1864, out Sept. 14, 

Clark, W. H., mustered in Dec. 23, 1863, out Sept. 14, 1865. 
CuUison, Jer., mustered in Sept. 24, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 
Cannon, Wm., mustered in Sept. 24, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 
Clark, Wm. mustered in Dec 23, 1863, captured June 9, 1864. 
Catt, Fielding, mustered in Sept. 24, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 
Diersch, John, mustered in Sept. 29, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 
Dull, A. F., mustered in Feb. 24, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 
Dunwiddie, Isaac, miistered in Feb. 29, 1864, out Aug. 24, 

Elliott, J. D., mustered in Jan. 23, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 
Euglebright, John, mustered in Sept. 29, 1864, out July 25, 


Ernst, Andrew, mustered in Sept. 29,1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Ebert, Isaac, mustered in March 11, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865 

Fair, J. A., mustered in March 15, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Frazer, David, mustered in Jan. 16, 1864, out July 29, 1865. 

Foster, James, mustered in Sept. 28, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Foster, Richard, mustered in Dec, 23, 1S63, out Aug. 22, 1865. 

Fanning, H. L., mustered in Jan. 20, 1862, out Jan. 26, 1865. 

Guthrie, Levi, mustered in March 17, 1864, ont Sept. 14, 1865. 

Green, A. D., mustered in Oct. 25, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Glass, James, mustered in Sept. 24, 1864, ont July 25, 1865. 

Gerard, Simon, mustered in Dec. 23, 1863, deserted Dec. 23, 

Holcomb, M. L., mustered in Jan. 9, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Harkrader, J. H., mustered in March 15, 1864, out Sept. 14, 


Hay, John, mustered in Sept. 29, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Harris, W. A., mustered in Sept. 29, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Harroll, I. C, mustered in Sept. 29, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Hoodlemeyer, Leonard, mustered in April 14, 1864, out Sept. 14, 

Hensler, Albert, mustered in Jan. 13, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Hickson, Charles, mustered in March 17, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Hodshier, Y. D., mustered in Dec. 26,1863, out Sept 14, 1865. 



Hooker, A. W., mustered in June 16, 1864, out Aug. 16, 1865. 

Imboden, II. J., mustered in Sept. 29, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Jones, James, mustered in Aug. 19, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Jordon, W. M., mustered in Sept. 24, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Jackson, Milton, mustered in Nov. 12, 1864, out April 18, 1865. 

Javins, W. H., mustered in Sept. 30, 1864, out Juue 13, 1865. 

Killum, Jediah, mustered in Aug. 9, 1862, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Keith, George W. H., mustered in Sept. 27, 1864, out July 25, 

Kynett, W. H., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Jan. 11, 1865. 

Koeliler, August, mustered in Jan. 13, 1864, out July 2, 1865. 

Lockwood, Lyman, mustered in April 2, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Lynch, William, mustered in Sept. 29, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Lorch, David C, mustered in Sept. 29, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Morse, Jerome, mustered in March 11, 1864, out Sept. 6, 1865. 

Michael, John A. J., mustered in Dec. 23, 1863, out Sept. 14, 

Montgomery, James, mustered in Dec. 23, 1863, out Sept. 14, 

Moffatt, Joab, mustered in Feb. 20, 1864, out Sept. 14,1865. 

Morehouse, Silas, mustered in Feb. 21, 1865, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Malott, W. H., mustered in Dec. 5, 1862, out as Sergeant Sept. 
14, 1865. 

Moore, Samuel, mustered in Sept. 15, 1864, out June 13, 1865. 

Moore, T. J., mustered in Sept. 12, 1864, out June 24, 1865. 

Muckenstorm, Joseph, mustered in Sept. 24, 1864, out July 26, 

Newman, Jacob, mustered in March 17, 1864, out Sept. 14, 

O'Byrne, G. F., mustered in Jan. 13, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Pepple, Albert, mustered in March 15, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Parker, DeForrest, mustered in Jan. 7, 1864, out Sept. 14,1865. 

Purcell, Isaac F., mustered in Sept. 24, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Ross, William A., mustered in Oct. 26, 1864, out Jan. 5, 1865. 

Reynolds, R. E., mustered in Sept. 24, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Rustan, Matthew, mustered in Sept. 27, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Rust, F. M., mustered in Dec. 26, 1863, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Ryan, John M., mustered in Dec. 23, 1863, out Sept. 14, 1865. 
■ Rosell, Zachariah, mustered in Feb. 20, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Rex, Emanuel, mustered in Nov. 21, 1862, out as Corporal 
Sept. 14, 1865. 





Smith, Joel, mustered in March 15, 1864:, discharged Jane 2, 
1865, for disability. 

Sodder, Benj., mustered in Sept. 23, 186i, out July 25,1865. 

Smith, Ambrose, mustered in April 2, 1864, out Sept. 14. 1865. 

Smith, Isaiah, mustered in April 2, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Simon, C. C, mustered in March 15, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Snyder, Isaac, mustered in Oct. 7, 1864, died at Chattanooga, 
Tenn., April 8, 1865. 

Stacy, J. L., mustered in March 15, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Segur, George, mustered in Oct. 20, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Smart, W. F., mustered in Jan. 31, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Stutsman, Adam, mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Thompson, D. K, mustered in Oct. 26, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Thomas, Samuel, mustered in Feb. 20, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

White, Dillard, mustered in Oct. 26, 1864, out Jan. 15, 1865. 

White, Kobert, mustered in Sept. 24, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Westfall, Charles, mustered in Sept. 24, 1864, out July 25,1865. 

Welton, Andrew, mustered in Sept. 24, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Whitman, John, mustered in Sept. 24, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Whittig, Martin, mustered in Jan. 7, 1864, transferred to Veter- 
an Keserve Corps May 11, 1865, mustered out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Williams, David, mustered in Jan. 14, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Washington, J. E., mustered in March 17, 1864, out Sept. 14, 

Washington, Isaac, mustered in March 17, 1864,out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Webb, Eufus, mustered in April 17, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Willis, M. B., mustered in Feb. 26, 1864, promoted. 


Company C 
Fanshaw, J. H. mustered in April 19, 1864, out July 15, 1865. 


Company H. 

George, S. B., commissioned Captain Aug. 2, 1862, resigned 
Oct. 7, 1863. 

Gates, Lawrence, commissioned First Lieutenant Aug. 6, 1862, 
Captain Oct. 8, 1863, mustered out May 15, 1865. 

Pierce, Ora, mustered in as Corporal Aug. 9, 1862, commis- 
sioned First Lieutenant March 1, 1865, Captain May 16, 1865, 
mustered out as First Lieutenant June 9, 1865. 




Perfect, Middleton, mustered in as Sergeant Aug. 7, 1862, com- 
missioned First Lieutenant Ma}' 1, 1864, diseliarged Jan. 19, 1865, 
for wounds. 

Pew, James, mustered in Aug. 4, 1862, commissioned First 
Lieutenant May 1, 1865, mustered out as Sergeant June 9, 1865. 

Dawson, B. F., commissioned Second Lieutenant July 17, 1862, 
resigned Dec. 18, 1862. 

Snyder, John, mustered in as First Sergeant Aug. 5, 1862, com- 
missioned Second Lieutenant Dec. 29, 1862 resigned May 2, 1864. 

Hawver, Henry, mustered in Aug. 9, 1862, promoted Sergeant, 
commissioned Second Lieutenant May 1, 1865, mustered out as 
Sergeant June 9, 1865. 

Clark, Newton, mustered in as Sergeant July 28, 1862. dis- 
charged Jan. 17, 1863. 

Slocum, Giles, mustered in as Sergeant July 31, 1862, dis- 
charged March 8, 1863. 

Pettibone, Nathan, mustered in as Sergeant Aug. 7, 1862, dis- 
charged March 17, 1863. 

Cole. Samuel, mustered in as Corporal Aug. 9, 1862, died at 
Nashville Dec. 13, 1864, from wounds. 

Rose, S. J., mustered in as Corporal Aug. 4, 1862, died at Chat- 
tanooga, Jan. 2, 1864. 

Stout, John, mustered in as Corporal Aug. 4, 1862, killed at 
Jonesboro, Sept. 1, 1864. 

Guthrie, W. P., mustered in Aug. 7, 1862, as Corporal, dis- 
charged Oct. 6, 1862. 

Burgess, D, R. mustered in as Corporal Aug. 2, 1862, died at 
Lebanon, Ky., Nov. 6, 1862. 

Rutumell, George, mustered in as Corporal July 29, 1862, out 
as Sergeant June 9, 1865. 

Fitting, Simon, mustered in as Musician Aug. 7, 1862, died at 
Chattanooga Oct. 10, 1863, of wounds. 

Flowers, A. S., mastered in as Musician July 30, 1862, dis- 
eliarged Nov. 29, 1862. 

Wolcott, James, mustered in as Wagoner, Aug. 7, 1862. 

Abbey, J, D., mustered in Aug. 7. 1862, out June 9, 1865. 

Burch, H. C, mustered in Aug. 5, 1862, transferred to Veteran 
Reserve Corps, Dec. 30, 1864. 

Bennett, Abram, mustered in Aug. 5, 1862, died at Gallatin, 
Tenn., Jan. 17, 1862. 

BsQuett, J. G., mustered in Aug. 7, 1S62, killed at Chicka- 
mauga Sept. 19, 1863. 





Benedict, J. E., mustered in Aug. 7, 1862, out June 9, 1865. 

Barclow, J. H., mu stered in July 29, 1862, died at Gallatin, 
Ttim., Jan. 2, 1863. 

Cleland, John, mustered in Julv 31,1862, discharged March 
21, 1863. 

Crawford, mustered in July 17, 1862, missing at Chickamauga, 
Sept. 20, 1863. 

Classon, E. W., mustered in Aug. 14, 1862, out June 9, 1865. 

Cope, David, mustered in Aug. 9, 1862, died at Indianapolis, 
Aug. 18, 1863. 

Cole, Nelson, mustered in Aug. 9, 1862, out June 9, 1865. 

Dove, Robert, mustered in Aug. 4, 1862, out June 9, 1865. 

Goodrich, E. E., mustered in Aug. 6, 1862, missing at Chicka- 
mauga, Sept. 20, 1863. 

Gilbert, Cornelius, mustered in Aug. 8, 1862, died at Gallatin, 
Tenn., Jan. 3, 1863. 

Griffith, Seaman, mustered in Aug. 8, 1862, out as Corporal 
June 9, 1865. 

Green, F. M., mustered in Aug. 4, 1862, discharged Jan. 
6, 1863. 

Geer, George, mustered in Aug. 9, 1862, killed at Chickamauga 
Sept. 19, 1863. 

Hauver, J, M., mustered in Aug. 9, 1862. 

Huffman, Silas, mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, transferred to 
Veteran Reserve Corps Sept. 28, 1863. 

Huffman, Asa, mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, out June 9, 1865. 

Hull, Andrew J., mustered in Aug. 9, 1862, out as Corporal 
June 9, 1865. 

Hutchius, Theodore, mustered in July 17, 1862, died at Bowling 
Green, Ky., Nov. 10, 1862. 

Hoover, Henry, mustered in Aug. 9, 1862, out as Sergeant 
June 9, 1865. 

Ireland, J. R., mustered in July 31, 1862, died at Gallatin, 
Tenn., Jan 14, 1863. 

Jordan, A. J., mustered in July 24, 1862, discharged Jan. 17, 

Knapp, Mortimer M., mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, out June 9, 

Kemery, P. L., mustered in Aug. 7, 1862, killed at Jonesboro 
Sept. 1, 1864. 

Kope, David, mustered in Aug. 9, 1862. 







Lowther, George, mustered in July 22, 1862, out June 9, 186 5. 

Letz, J. N., mustered in July 19, 1862, out June 9, 1865. 

Light, Orlenzo, mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, out as Corporal June 
9, 1865. 

Lee, E. M., raustere I in Aug. 2. 1862, transferred to Ei)gineer 
Corps Aug. 15, 186-1. 

Liniger, Samuel, mustered in Aug. 7, 1862, died at Bridgeport, 
Ala., Dec. 7, 1863, of wounds. 

Lonsdale, George, mastered in Aug, 6, 1862, out June 9, 1865. 

Lemon, J. B., mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, out June 9, 1865. 

Lemon, J. M., mustered in Aug. 5, 1862, discharged Feb.25,1863. 

Lemon, R. M., mustered in Aug. 5, 1862, died at Gallatin 
Tenn., Jan. 16, 1863. 

Latson, Samuel, mustered in Feb. 7, 1862, died at Bowling 
Green, Ky., Dec. 1, 1862. 

Latson, Charles, mustered in Aug. 9, 1862, out June 9, 1865. 

Moore, Michael, mustered in July 31, 1862, died at Gallatin, 
Tenn., Dec. 15,1862. 

Moore, William, mustered in July 31, 1862, out June 9, 1865. 

Morse, C. A., mustered in July 31, 1862, discharged Oct. 1, 1864. 

Morse, Jedediah, mustered in July 22, 1862, died at Gallatin, 
Tenn., Jan. 28, 1863. 

Miller, Pomeroy, mustered in July 31, 1862, out June 9, 1865. 

Merritt, F. M., mustered in Aug. 9, 1862, died at l^ashville, 
Tenn., Aug. 28, 1863. 

Nichols, J. B., mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, discharged March 
21, 1863. 

Pomeroy, Henry, mustered in Aug. 5, 1864, died at Chat- 
tanooga, April 4, 1864. 

Phenicie, J. W., mustered in Aug. 9, 1864, out June 9, 1865. 

Parker, William, mustered in Aug. 9, 1864, out June 9, 1865. 

Parker, Solomon, mustered in Aug. 9, 1864, out June 9, 1865. 

Pew, James, mustered in Aug. 4, 1862, out as First Sergeant 
June 9, 1865. 

Pew, Edward, mustered in Aug. 9, 1862, died at Gallatin, Tenn., 
Jan. 29, 1863. 

Rinehart, J. R., mustered in Aug. 14, 1862, deserted Oct. 
1, 1862. 

Rummell, Jacob, mustered in Aug. 5, 1862, out June 9, 1866. 

Steward, W. H., mustered in July 31, 1862, died at Gallatin, 
Tenn., Jan. 5, 1863. 

V - 





Smiley, Alonzo, mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, transferred to Vet- 
eran Reserve Corps March 23, 1864. 

Scovill, Err, mustered in Aug. 14, 1862, out June 9, 1865. 

Sines, H. R., mustered in Aug. 9, 1862, died at Nashville, 
Tenn., March 19, 1863. 

Stutler, Jacob, mustered in July 31, 1862, out June 9, 1865. 

Summerline, C. N., mustered in July 28, 1862, discharged 
March 24, 1864. 

Thompson, Henry, mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, discharged Jan. 
8, 1863. 

Tasker, William, mustered in Aug. 9, 1862, out as Corporal 
Jun<; 9, 1865. 

Yose, George, mustered in July 31, 1862, out June 9, 1865, 

Vaughn, Walter, mustered in Aug. 5, 1862, transferred to 
Engineer Corps Aug. 16, 1864. 

Willis, William, mustered in July 31, 1862, out June 9, 1865. 

Wood, Hiram, mustered in July 24, 1862, died at Gallatin, 
Tenn., Feb. 8, 1863. 

Warren, W. H., mustered in Aug. 6, 1862, out June 9, 1865. 

Warren, R. R., mustered in Aug. 6, 1865, out June 9, 1865. 

Wolt, W. S., mustered in Aug. 7, 1862, missing at Kingston, 
Gh., Nov. 8, 1864. 

Wakefield, Harvey, mustered in Aug. 6, 1862, out June 9, 1865. 

Willowby, James, mustered in July 29, 1862, died at New Al- 
bany, Ind., Dec. 12, 1863, of wounds. 

Worden, Schuyler, mustered in Aug. 9, 1862, died at Gallatin, 
Tenn., Jan. 3, 1863. 

Blake, A. E., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, transferred to Twenty- 
second Infantry June 9, 1865. 

Cornell, G. W., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, transferred to Twenty- 
second Infantry June 9, 1865. 

Dahuff, Simon, mustered in Feb. 24, 1864, transferred to Twenty- 
second Infantry June 9, 1865. 

Dirlan, Cecil, mustered in March 24, 1864, transferred to 
Twenty-second Infantry June 9, 1865. 

Furry, Richard, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, transferred to Twenty- 
second Infantry June 9, 1865. 

Gaylord, H. D., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, transferred to Twenty- 
second Infantry June 9, 1865. 

George, J. A., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, transferred to Twenty- 
second Infantry June 9, 1865. 





Garder, Adelbert, mustered in Feb. 25, 1864, transferred to 
Twenty -second Infantry June 9, 1865. 

George, F. J., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, killed at Atlanta, Ga., 
Aug. 7, 1864. 

Gardner, Elisba, mnstered in Jan. 11, 1864, died at Chattanooga, 
Tenn., June 24, 1864. 

Jackson, Andrew, mustered in April 20, 1864, transferred to 
Twenty-second Infantry June 9, 1865. 

Kusley, Noah, mnstered in Feb. 25, 1864, transferred to Twenty- 
second Infantry June 9, 1865. 

Lemmon, Edward, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, transferred to 
Twenty-second Infantry June 9, 1865. 

Lemmon, H. C, mnstered in Jan. 11, 1864, transferred to Twenty- 
second Infantry June 9, 1865. 

Perfect, Robert L., mnstered in March 24, 1864, transferred to 
Twenty-second Infantry June 9, 1865. 

Pendleton, Burgess, mustered in June 9, 1865, translerred to 
Twenty-second Infantry June 9, 1865. 

Pixley, Luther, mustered in March 24, 1864, transferred to Vet- 
eran Reserve Corps Jan. 10, 1865. 

Stetler, Daniel, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, transferred to Twenty, 
second Infantry June 9, 1865. 

Stetler, William, mustered in Jan 11, 1864, transferred to 
Twenty-secoiid Infantry June 9, 1865. 

Stewart, J. C, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, transferred to Twenty- 
second Infantry June 9, 1865. 

Stewart, P. P., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, died at Nashville, 
Tenn., July 2, 1864. 

Speglemire, David, mustered in Feb. 25, 1864, died at Indian- 
apolis July 24, 1864. 

Thompson, William, mustered in March 24, 1864, transferred to 
Twenty-second Infantry June 9, 1865. 

Tuell, W. H., mustered in Oct. 18, 1864, transferred to Twentv- 
second Infantry June 9, 1865. 

Towns, J. N., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, transferred to Twenty- 
second Infantry June 9, 1865. 

Williams, S. R., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, transferred to 
Twentv-second Infantry June 9, 1865. 

Willard, R. J., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, transferred to Twenty- 
second Infantry June 9, 1865. 



♦ " T f _ » 



Company M. 

Parker, E. L., commissioned Second Lieutenant Nov. 9, 1862, 
supernumerary, mustered out April 17, 1863. 

Cleveland, O. W., mustered in Aue^. 2, 1862, discharged Aug:. 
8, 1865. 

Finch, Lafayette, mustered in Ang. 2, 1862, out as Corporal 
Sept. 15, 1865. 

Finch, James, mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, died at Annapolis, 
Md., March 18, 1865. 

Lower, Moses, mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, died in a rel»e] prison 
in 1864. 

Miller, J. F., mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, out Sept. 15, 1865. 

Stafford, Charles, mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, out Sept. 15, 1865. 

Sheets, G. W., mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, out Sept. 15, 1865. 

Walters, William, mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, discharged Aug. 
23, 1865. 

White, Charles, mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, out June 16, 1865. 


Hand, H. H., commissioned Assistant Surgeon May 1, 1865, 
mustered out as Hospital Steward June 8, 1865. 

Company B. 

Gillespie, J. W., commissioned Captain Aug. 15, 1862, resiirncd 
Jan. 29, 1864. 

Frtst, O. J., commissioned First Lieutenant Aug. 15, 1862, Cap- 
tain Jan. 30, 1864, Assistant Adjutant-General United States 
Yolunteers April 24, 1865, resigned May 30, 1865, to accept 

Sabin, Marden, mustered in as Sergeant Aug. 15, 1862, com- 
njissiuned First Lieutenant May 1, 1864, Captain May 1, 1865 
mustered out June 8, 1865. 

Goldsmith, Edwin, commissioned Second Lieutenant Aug. 15, 
1862, First Lieutenant Jan. 30, 1864, Adjutant xipril 20, 1864, 
mustered out June 8, 1865. 

Parker, W. R., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, commissioned Second 
Lieutenant Nov. 22, 1864, First Lieutenant May 1, 1865, mustered 
out June 8, 1865. 

Blanchard, Samuel, mustered in as Sergeant Ang. 15, 1862 

-«_JU - 

s I 


commissioned Second Lieutenant May 1, 1865, mustered out June 

8, 1865. 

Gore, G. W., mustered in as First Sergeant Aug. 15, 1862, out 
as Sergeant-Major June 8, 1865. 

Gillespie, D. S., mustered in as Sergeant Aug. 15, 1862, dis- 
charged Sept. 3, 1863. 

Conkey, M. S., mustered in as Sergeant Aug. 15, 1862, killed at 
Jonesboro, Ga., Aug. 31, 1864. 

Flint, Francis, mustered in as Corporal Aug. 15, 1862, out as 
Sergeant June 8, 1865. 

Chapman, A. B., mustered in as Corporal Aug. 15, 1862, deserted 
Nov. 1, 1862. 

Carver, H. W., mustered in as Corporal Aug. 15, 1862, dis- 
charged May 22, 1863. 

Rude, Charles, mustered in as Corporal Aug. 15, 1862, died at 
Grand Junction, Tenn., Jan. 22, 1863. 

Sutherland, A. J., mustered in as Corporal Aug. 15, 1862, out 
June 8, 1865. 

Chadwick, Samuel, mustered in as Corporal Aug. 15, 1862, died 
at Marietta, Ga., Aug. 26, 1864. 

Brooks, Henry, mustered in as Corporal Aug. 15, 1862, died at 
Madison, Ind., Sept. 19, 1862. 

Wilder, C. H., mustered in as Corporal Aug. 15, 1862, out June 

8, 1865. 

Bodley, Aaron, mustered in as Musician Aug. 15, 1862, out 

June 8, 1865. 

Stafford, Joseph, mustered in as Musician Aug. 15, 1862, deserted 

Feb. 14, 1863. 

Abbott, William, mustered in as Wagoner Aug. 15, 1862, out 

June 8, 1865. 

Brockway, George, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, died at Camp 
Sherman, Miss., Sept. 14, 1863. 

Bodley, James, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Bodley, Philo, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, died at Holly Springs, 
Miss., Dec. 30, 1862. 

Bradley, James, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 30, 1865. 

Bradley, Daniel, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 80, 


Brock, Monroe, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8,1865. 

Blass, C. D., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out as Sergeant June 
8, 1865. 

e I _-^ ^— ————— ——_——--— ^^ 

■^-^ , » 



-£> >>* 


Blass, Jefferson, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, died at Bellefon- 
taine Station, Ala., Feb. 20, 1864. 

Burton, John, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out Aug. 9, 1865. 
Betzer, Peter, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, died at Grand Junc- 
tion, Tenn., March 5, 1863. 

Betzer, Adam, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, discharged. 

Bailej, Samuel, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out as;,Corporar 
June 8, 1865. 

Carpenter, Chauncey, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 
8, 1865. 

Cole, Royal, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, discharged June 6, 
186i, for wounds. 

Cook, George, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out as Corporal June 
8, 1865. 

Casper, Levi, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8, 1865, 

Casper, Lewis, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, died at Grand Junc- 
tion, Tenn., Feb. 18, 1863. 

Carpenter, A. M., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, deserted May 
13, 1863. 

Cluck, George, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, died at Colliersville^ 
Tenn., April 1, 1863. 

Chapman, E. A., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, deserted I^ov, 
11, 1862. 

Clark, J. C, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, killed at Atlanta, Ga., 
Aug. 21, 1864. 

Cleveland, Addison, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Dillingham, J. B., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, died at Colliers- 
ville, Tenn., April 29, 1863. 

Dillingham, James, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Davis, Wm., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Dudley, Grove H., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Dimon, Henry, mustered in Aug. 15,1862,di8charged June 3,1863. 

Denman, Smitli, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out May 24, 1865. 

Ebert, J. M., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Ellis, C. O., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, killed near Cave Springs, 
Ga., Nov. 1, 1864. 

Emerich, Jonathan, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

French, George, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out May 30, 1865. 

Goodrich, Silas, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 17, 1865. 

Gillespie, R. R, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, discharged March 
16, 1863. 




Grreen, David, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, died at Memphis, 
Tenn., Jan. 28, 1863. 

Goodrich, Sylvester, mustered in Ang. 15, 1862, deserted Nov . 
11, 1862. 

Hurd, H. M., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, discharged Sept. 
3, 1863. 

Haynes, Martin, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, died at Memphis, 
Tenn., Sept. 22, 1863. 

Haynes, John, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Haines, M. J., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, but June 8, 1865. 

Hoover, Joseph, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Hilton, L. li., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out as Sergeant June 

8, 1865. 

Hoolihan, Joseph, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, discharged June 

9, 1863. 

Jarvis, Clement, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Johnson, Henry, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Johnson, Geo. W., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, deserted Feb. 
14, 1863. 

Jadwin, John P., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out as Corporal 
June 8, 1865. 

Kellogg, Wra., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, discharged March 

7, 1863. 

Kale, James, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, died at CoUiersville, 
Tenn., March 19, 1863. 

Keith, Lewis, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, killed at Jonesboro, 
Ga., Aug. 31, 1864. 

Lee, Clark, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, died at Grand Junction, 
Tenn., Feb. 11, 1863. 

Musser, John, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out as Sergeant June 

8, 1865. 

McLane, Ambrose, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, discharged June 

9, 1865. 

Northway, G. F., mustered in Ang. 15, 1862, died at Memphis, 
Tenn., May 3, 1864. 

Pulver, W. 0., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Parker, Samuel, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Powers, G. W., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, discharged Feb. 
16, 1863. 

Root, R. H., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, died at Chattanooga, 
Tenn., Nov. 7, 1864. 




Eollins, G. R., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Rhodes, Gilbert, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Rodgers, Bradley, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out as Corporal 
June 8, 1865. 

Shumway, R. U., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, discharged Sept. 
18, 1864. 

Sutherland, C. C, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Suppenaugh, Tuffle, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Sultz, Jacob, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Scott, H. M., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, died at Chattanooga, 
Tenn., June 6, 1864. 

Snyder, George, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, died at Memphis, 
Tenn., Nov. 14, 1863. 

Snyder, A. J., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Soule, David, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, killed before Atlanta, 
Ga., Aug. 25, 1864. 

Sperry, J. E., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, discharged Feb. 
12, 1863. 

Taylor, Cornelius, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, deserted Feb. 
25, 1863. 

Taylor, Wm. J., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Taylor, Warren J., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, drowned in Mill 
Creek, K C, March 22, 1865. 

Taylor, O. R., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, discharged June 3, 1863. 

Welch, W. J., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, died at Memphis, 
Tenn., April 15, 1863. 

Woodworth, H. S., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, discharged Sept. 
3, 1863. 

Wiggins, Kathan, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Young, Riley, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8, 1865, as 
Corporal . 

Zimmerman, John, mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Fanshaw, J. H., mustered in April 19, 1864, transferred to Forty- 
eighth Infantry May 30, 1865. 

Van Allstin, C. E., mustered in April 19, 1864, transferred to 
Forty-eighth Infantry May 30, 1865. 

Corrvpany C. 

Hand, Henry H., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out as Hospital 
Steward June 8, 1865. 

Hand, C. E., mustered in Aug. 15, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 



g^ — . 1(0 


Morrow, J. K., commissioned First Lieutenant Aug. 15, 1862, 
Captain June 3, 1863, resigned Feb. 29, 1864. 

Company K. 

Sims, Charles, mustered in Nov. 5, 1862, transferred to Forty- 
eighth Infantry June 27, 1865. 


Frederick, George, mustered in Sept. 3, 1863, out June 5, 1865. 
Mortorff, Samuel, mustered in Sept. 3, 1863, transferred to 
Seventh Cavalry, reorganized. 

Company K. 

Burkett, Lafayette, mustered in as Sergeant Sept. 11, 1863, 
transferred to Yeteran Reserve Corps in September, 1864. 

Edwards, Danford, mustered in as Sergeant, killed by accident 
Dec. 26, 1863. 

Eldridge, W. H., mustered in as Corporal Sept. 11, 1863, trans- 
ferred to Seventh Cavalry, reorganized as Quartermaster-Sergeant. 

Carey, Edwin, mustered in Sept. 11, 1863, died of wounds Oct. 
28, 1864. 

Thomelson, David, mustered in Sept. 11, 1863, killed by acci- 
dent, Dec. 26, 1863. 


Company B. 

Bower. Alfred, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Bell, Joshua, mustered in Dee. 16, 1863, discharged Aug. 15, 

Bower, Michael, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out as "Wagoner 
Nov. 10, 1865. 

Cook, George, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at home April 2, 

Cuffey, A. J., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Caffey,L. A, mustered in Dec.l6, 1863, discharged Sept. 25, 1864. 

Call, William, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at Yicksburg, 
Miss., March 23, 1865. 

Harbaugh, H.W., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Oct. 10, 1865. 

Jones, John, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at Nashville^ 
Tenn., Jan.22, 1865. 

-C <5 ^ ^^ 





Sutterlin, J. A., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at Tullahoma, 
Tenn., Nov. S, 1864. 

Company C. 

Williams, Major D., commissioned Captain Dec. 12, 1863, re- 
signed Aug. 17, 1865. 

Burt, Cornelius, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out June 10, 1865. 

Bassett, J. A., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Baker, W. H., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Sept. 16, 1865. 

Case, Cyrus, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, killed at Huntsville, 
Ala., Sept. 30, 1864. 

Cole, Henry, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out as Corporal Sept. 
21, 1865. 

Critchfield, Jacob, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out May 23, 1865. 

Cuttler, O. C, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died on hospital 
steamer June 13, 1865 

Clark, W. W., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, deserted July 17, 1865. 

Conkey, Sorento, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at Huntsville, 
Ala., Sept. 15, 1864. 

Cline, Lanson, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Cobb, William, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Daily, Cyrenus, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out May 11, 1865. 

Dirrim, W. C, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Dwelley, Archer, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at Huntsville, 
Ala., Sept. 15, 1864. 

Depue, John, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Douglass, Robert, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out as Corporal 
Nov. 10, 1865. 

Darrah, C. L., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Fuller, Wilson, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at Huntsville, 
Ala., July 16, 1864. 

Gillitt, H. A., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out as Wagoner Nov. 
10, 1865. 

Green, Allen, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Gurtner, Henry, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out as Corporal 
Nov. 10, 1865. 

Horn, Stephen, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out as Sergeant 
Nov. 10, 1865. 

Huffman, Joseph, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10,1865. 

Huffman, Samuel, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10,1865. 

Holcomb, Walter, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Holcomb, Leroy, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 





Hoadley, Howard, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out as Corporal 
Nov. 10, 1865. 

Holdredge, Dudley, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, died at Baton 
Kouge, La., May 9, 1865. 

Johnson, J. J., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Keyes, H. H., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out July 21, 1865. 

Latson, Alonzo, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Luton, Eleazer, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out as Sergeant Nov. 
10, 1865. 

Moore, S. C, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

McLaughlin, Andrew, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 

Nichols, Benjamin, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out June 12, 1865. 

Osburn, Thomas, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out June 14, 1865. 

Parker, F. D., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Pendall, Samuel, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out June 14, 1865. 

Seymour, F. B., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at Vieksburg, 
Miss., July 24, 1865. 

Spear, M. L., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Smilley, David, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Sams, B. B., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at Huntsville, 
Ala., July 31, 1864. 

Sherwin, Herlan, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Sizemore, Garner, mustered in Feb. 20, 1864, out as First Ser- 
geant Nov. 10, 1865. 

Storey, J. D., mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Tuttle, J. E., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, discharged March 
15, 1865. 

Tiugley, G. "W., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at Huntsville, 
Ala., Aug. 10, 1864. 

Tingley, Warren, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out No7. 10,1865. 

Taylor, Ansel, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out as Corporal 
Nov. 10, 1865. 

Taylor, W. B., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Tinsley, Samuel, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Sept. 27, 1865. 

Tabor, Joseph, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at Pleasant Lake, 
Ind. , May 9, 1864. 

Tabor, Lafayette, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at Pleasant 
Lake, Ind., May 12, 1864. 

West, W. J., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out as Corporal Nov. 
10, 1865. 

______ — — -• af'V 


Wood, Ellis, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 
Wood, C. W., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 
Wiggins, Endress, mustered in Dec 16, 1863, out May 29, 1865. 
Wilson, J. H. , mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Company I. 

Flowers, A. L. , mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Fee, N. H., mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Fee, Moses, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, died at Hunts ville, Ala., 
Sept. 19, 1864. 

Fee, W. H., mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, died at Huntsville, Ala. 

Firestone, D. J., mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, transferred to 
Veteran Reserve Corps, mustered out Nov. 2, 1865. 

Horn, Charles, mustered in April 28, 1864, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Minard, Jesse, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Aug. 9, 1865. 

Eichard, H. B., mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out June 13, 1865. 

Twiford, John, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, died at Huntsville, 
Ala., June 30, 1864, of wounds. 


Eeese, A. T., commissioned Chaplain April 5, 1864, resigned 

Dec. 12, 1864. 

Company A. 

Cole, William H., commissioned Captain Jan. 5, 1864, Major 
April 8, 1865, mustered out as Captain. 

Smith, Birge, commissioned First Lieutenant Jan. 5, 1864, 
Captain April 3, 1865, died as First Lieutenant April 29, 1865. 

Cole, John, mustered in as Sergeant Dec. 16, 1863, commissioned 
Second Lieutenant April 8, 1865, First Lieutenant May 1, 1865, 
Captain June 1, 1865, mustered out as First Lieutenant. 

Manhood, J. D. , mustered in as Corporal Jan. 10, 1864, com- 
missioned Second Lieutenant May 1, 1865, mustered out as Sergeant- 
Major Aug. 29, 1865 

Melendy, E. G., mustered in as First Sergeant Dec. 16, 1863, 
commissioned Adjutant April 8, 1865, mustered out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Teeters, Lewis, mustered in as Sergeant Dec. 16, 1863, out as 
private Aug. 29, 1865. 

Bullard, W. S., mustered in as Sergeant Dec. 16,1863, out June 
7, 1865. 

Showalter, Hiram, mustered in as Sergeant Dec. 16, 1863, out 
Aug. 20, 1865. 





Yan Auken, Julius, mustered in as Corporal Dec. 16, 1863, out 
as Sergeant Aug, 29, 1865. 

Hall, John, mustered in as Corporal Jan. 10, 1864, out as Ser- 
geant Aug. 29, 1865. 

McKinley, Roderick, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, died at Louis- 
ville, Ky., Feb. 3, 1865. 

Swift, D. K., mustered in as Corporal Jan. 10, 1864, out Aug. 
29, 1865. 

Boliart, Cornelius, mustered in as Corporal Jan. 10, 1864. out 
Aug. 29, 1865. 

Classon, A. N., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, as Musician, out 
Aug. 29, 1865. 

Bender, D. A., mustered in as Musician Dec. 16, 1863, out Aug. 
29, 1865. 

Stevens, Jacob, mustered in as Wagoner Jan. 10, 1864, out 
Aug. 29, 1865. 

Barnard, O. Y., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at Michigan 
City, Ind., March 30, 1864. 

Bromley, Henry, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Bennett, George, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Bromley, George, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out May 26, 1865. 

Clemens, H. J., mustered in Djc. 16, 1863, died at Chattanooga, 
Tenn., May 12, 1864. 

Crane, Leander, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Cartwright, William, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at Cleve- 
land, Ind., June 19, 1864. 

Coles, J. P., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Cory, G. W., mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out June 13, 1865. 

Clemens, James, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at Charleston, 
Tenn., May 6, 1864. 

Dillingham, Jerry, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Dillingham, C. B., mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Guyle, Hiram, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Gilbert, Armenus, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Gilbert, John, mustered in Jan 10, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Goff, O. D., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out May 31, 1865. 

Heath, H. B., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at Knoxville, 
Tenn., April 26, 1864 

Hutchins, David, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Hutchins, Herbert, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out as Corporal 
Aug. 29, 1865. 




Hutchins, William, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Hanselman, D. A., mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

James, AVilliam, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Jony, C. A., mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, died at Chattanooga 
Tenn., Sept. 12, 1864. 

Kope, Andrew, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Kope, Henry, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, died at Washington, 
D. CFeb. 11,1865. 

Kelley, H. B., mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Lovejoy, G. W., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out June 29, 1865. 

Lee, William, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, died at Michigan City, 
Ind., March 20, 1864. 

Leech, J. H., mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, discharged May 26, 1865. 

Metz, J. J., mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

McGrew, James, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Musser, Samuel, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at Chattanooga, 

McMinn, Joseph, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, discharged June 

28, 1865. 
Moore, John, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at Nashville, Tenn., 

June 29, 1865. 

Mock, George, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, died near Atlanta, 
Ga., July 29, 1864, of wounds. 

Morgan, David, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, discharged. 

McGrew, Benjamin, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out as Corporal 
Aug. 29, 1865. 

Powers, Josiah, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, died at Chattanooga, 
Tenn., Aug. 4, 1864. 

Pettee, Cornelius, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Aug. 29,1865. 

Parker, J. K, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Richee, Adam, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out as Corporal Aug. 

29, 1865. 
Eyan, John, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Aug. 29, 1865. 
Renner, John, Jr. , mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 
Sharp, S. C, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at Charlotte, N. 

C, June 11, 1865. 

Shatto, I. N., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Aug. 29, 1865. 
Stewart, W. L., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Aug. 29, 1865. 
Sergeant, Theodore, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out June 8, 1865. 
Sabin, A, D., mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Sept. 20, 1865. 
Sowle, Hiram, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 



♦ ' ■ 




Stephens, J. M., mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, discharged May 23, 

Stewart, Charles, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Shafer, Eli, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, died Sept. 5, 1864, of 

Taylor, Isaac, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Taylor, J. S., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Jan. 5, 1866. 

TrisketjLeo, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, discharged May 23, 1865. 

Townsend, Hiram, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Van Auken, Amos, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Aug. 29, 

Vanghan, A. M., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, discharged Feb. 
7, 1865. 

Yan Auken, J. H., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out as Sergeant 
Aug. 29, 1865. 

Weatherwax, H. H., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out June 3, 1865. 

Williams, J. W., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Willoby, Francis, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out as Corporal 
Aug. 29, 1865. 

Zimmerman, Joseph, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Aug. 
29, 1865. 

Company B. 

Rosenberger, John, mustered in Dec. 17, 1863, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Sultz, Isaac, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865, as 

Bundy, Nathaniel, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at Michigan 
City, March 16, 1864. 

Cooley, Matthew, mustered in Jan. 16, 1864, discharged June 
1, 1865. 

Crandall, C. L., mustered in Jan. 16, 1864, out as Corporal 
Aug. 29, 1865. 

Gunn, Morrison, Sr., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, discharged 
July 10, 1864. 

Gunn, Morrison, Jr., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., June 10, 1864. 

Gunn, Robert, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Ryan, H. R., mustered in March 7, 1864, died at Marietta, Ga., 

July 27, 1864. 

Company F. 

Berlingham, J. J., mustered in March 7, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 
Delong, Henry, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 



Company JS. 

Pinchin, A. F., commissioned First Lieutenant March 4, 1864, 
mustered out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Daniels, Sheldon, mustered in as Sergeant March 7, 1864, out 
June 10, 1865. 

Musser, W. A., mustered in as Sergeant March 7, 1864, out 
Aug. 29, 1865. 

Baker, W. F., mustered in March 7, 1864, out May 14, 1865. 

Boyer, Francis, mustered in March 7, 1864, died in Anderson- 
ville prison, Aug. 4, 1864. 

Bender, A. H., mustered in March 7, 1864, out June 14, 1865. 

Bender, J. A., mustered in March 7, 1864, died at Knoxville, 
Tenn., Aug. 22, 1864. 

Bender, Andros, mustered in March 7, 1864, died at Knoxville, 
Tenn., Aug. 22, 1864. 

Beard, A. W., mustered in March 7, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Berlin, John, mustered in March 7, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Carpenter, J. C, mustered in March 7, 1864, died at Knoxville, 
Tenn., Aug. 19, 1864. 

Crall, J. A., mustered in March 7, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Greenameyer, John, mustered in March 7, 1864, out Aug. 29, 

Hart, Andrew, mustered in March 7, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Hand, John, mustered in March 7, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Hendricks, J. S., mustered in March 7, 1864, died in Anderson- 
ville prison, Aug. 22, 1864. 

Mayberry, Charles, mustered in March 7, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Messerva, J. B., mustered in March 7, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Norix, W. L., mustered in March 7, 1864, out June 7, 1865. 

Pettee, Aaron, mustered in March 7, 1864, died at Allatoona, 
Ga., June 23, 1864. 

Khion, Lawrence, mustered in March 19, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Swihart, Morgan, mustered in March 7, 1864, out Aug. 29, 

Somerlott, George, mustered in March 7, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Slentz, Abner, mustered in March 7, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Spits, Carl, mustered in March 7, 1864, died at Nashville, Tenn., 
Oct. 31, 1864. 

Vinton, Jacob, mustered in March 7, 1864, died at New Albany, 
Ind., Feb. 1, 1865. 

^\< a ■^ — — "• e \ 




Company I. 

Alverson, William, mustered in March 7, 1864, deserted March 
15, 1864. 

Eurk, Henry, mustered in March 7, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Cook, Henry, mustered in March 7, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Cook, John, mustered in March 7, 1864, discharged Aug. 7, 1865. 

Getter, Marcus, mustered in March 19, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

McCoy, Henry, mustered in March 7, 1864, deserted March 16, 

Sutton, Alfred, mustered in March 19, 1864, died at Washing- 
ton, D. C, Feb. 8, 1865. 

Sutton, T. W., mustered in March 7, 1864, out June 14, 1865. 

Sines, C. W., mustered in March 7, 1864, died at Nashville, 
Tenn., May 24, 1864. 

Teft, Franklin, mustered in March 7, 1864, discharged June 5, 

Thorp, J. M., mustered in March 7, 1864, out June 13, 1865. 

Company K. 

Clark, Charles, mustered in April 11, 1864, died at Indianapolis, 
Ind., May 3, 1864. 

Duguid, M. F. mustered in April 11, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 
Duguid, David, mustered in April 11, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 
Kelso, Adelbert, mustered in April 25, 1864, out Aug.29, 1865- 
Kosencrans, L. N. mustered in April 11, 1864,out Aug. 29, 1865. 
Yockey, Andrew, mustered in April 11, 1864, out June 30,1865. 


Company A. 

Casebeer, Samuel, substitute, mustered in Sept. 13, 1864, out 
June 28, 1865. 

Ingersoll, Willard, mustered in Sept. 24, 1864, died Feb. 9, 

Vancleve, J. H., mustered in Sept. 14, 1864, died in Nashville, 
Tenn., March 8, 1865. 

Yan Auken, Philonzo, mustered in Sept. 14, 1864, out June 28, 

Richards, J. L., mustered in Sept. 17, 1864, out June 28, 1865. 

Company D. 

Keys, Hiram, mustered in Sept. 27, 1864, out June 28, 1865. 
Morrow, Henry, mustered in Sept. 29, 1864, out June 28, 1865. 


^- __^ — c, > 


Comjpany E. 

Baker, Samuel, substitute, mustered in Sept. 30, 1864, out June 
28, 1865. 


Young, G. E., commissioned Adjutant Feb. 4, 1865. 

Company C. 

Abbey, George, mustered in Feb. 17, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Alcott, George, muster ed in Feb. 17, 1865, deserted May 24, 

Donihue, Daniel, mustered in Feb. 22, 1865, died at Quincy, 
Mich., March 10, 1865. 

George, Jeremiah, mustered in Feb. 17, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Hart, John, mustered in Feb. 17, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Manger, Israel, mustered in Feb. 17, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

More, Eobert, mustered in Feb. 17, 1865, out May 12, 1865. 

Shaffer, Andrew, mustered in Feb. 17, 1865, out May 30, 1865. 

Thompson, Alexander, mustered in Feb. 22, 1865, out Aug. 30, 

Wolf, A. C, mustered in Feb. 17, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Woodford, B. D., mustered in March 8, 1865, died at Cumber- 
land, Md., March 25, 1865. 

Company F. 

Lamore, Cyprian, mustered in as Corporal Feb. 16, 1865, out 
Aug. 30, 1865. 

Alliman, Samuel, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 
Barber, D. K., mustered in Feb. 22, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 
Kline, James, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 
Lounsbury, ]^Jehemiah, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out Aug. 

30, 1865. 
Markle, Albert, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, deserted March 10, 


Mundy, Alanson, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Nichols, Henry, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, died at Indian- 
apolis, Ind., March 28, 1865. 

Partridge, Joseph, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Sams, Abdillah, mustered in Feb. 22, 1865, out Aug. 30,1865. 

Sutherland, W. G., mustered in Feb. 22, 1865, out Aug. 30, 

Wilson, Henry, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

< _ ' ■ — -1 1 > 


Company H. 

Richardson, Henry, mustered in as Corporal March 7, 1865, out 
as Sergeant, Aug. 30, 1865. 

Company K. 

Everhart, J. M., commissioned Captain March 16, 1865. 

Rogers, Madison, commissioned First Lieutenant March 16, 

Young, J. T., commissioned Second Lieutenant March 16, 1865. 

Hyler, C. J., mustered in as Sergeant Feb. 16, 1865, out June 
21, 1866. 

Everhart, Edmund, mustered in as Sergeant March 16, 1865, 
out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Barron, Justus, mustered in as Sergeant March 10, 1865, out as 
private Aug. 30, 1865. 

Taylor, Orrin, mustered in as Corporal Feb. 16, 1865, out Aug. 
30, 1865. 

Woodworth, George, mustered in Feb. 15, 1865, out Aug. 30, 

Calvin, J. P., mustered in as Corporal Feb. 16, 1865, died at 
Indianapolis, March 28, 1865. 

Laughrie, James, mustered in as Corporal Feb. 16, 1865, out 
Aug. 30, 1865. 

Evans, Robert, mustered in as Corporal Feb. 16, 1865, out as 
Sergeant Aug. 30, 1865. 

Douglas, D. C, mustered in as Corporal Feb. 16, 1865, out Aug. 
30, 1865. 

Jackson, W. H., mustered in as Corporal Feb. 16, 1865, out 
Aug. 30,1865. 

Abrahamson, Eugene, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out Aug. 30, 

Brugh, Wilson, mustered in March 4, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Babcock, David, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out June 13, 1865. 

Beck, P. S., mustered in March 4, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Chaffee, Addison, mustered in March 4, 1865, out July 1, 1865. 

Cole, Charles, mustered in March 3, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Dewitt, William, mustered in March 4, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Dawson, M. D., mustered in Feb. 15, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Dotts, Philip, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Donehue, Henry, mustered in March 4, 1864, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Debow, James, mustered in Feb. 16, 1864, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

* „< _ _ — — — 1 ■ » 

^ « ^ a ^ 


Everett, Benjamin, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out Au^. 30, 1865. 

Freygang, Edward, mustered in Feb. 15, 1865, out as Princi- 
pal Musician Aug. 30, 1865. 

Fleage], David, mustered in March 4, 1865, out June 6, 1865. 

Griffith, B. F., mustered in Feb. 17, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865, 

Gilbert, Joseph, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Graham, Seymour, mustered in March 4, 1865, died at Fred- 
erick, Md., April 3, 1865. 

Gillatt, Nelson, mustered in March 3, 1865, died at Baltimore, 
Md., April 22, 1865. 

Hunt, Joshua, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Hayden, Oliver, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out May 27, 1865. 

Jackson, Benajah, mustered in March 3, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Lemeraux, Isaac, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Leavitt, W. W., mustered in Feb. 15, 1865, out as Corporal 
Aug. 30, 1865. 

McEntire, W. C, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, died at Indian- 
apolis, March 19, 1865. 

Morse, E. D., mustered in Feb. 10, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Morse, E. K. mustered in Feb. 15, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Morse, Orrin, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out May 19, 1865. 

Miller, George, mustered in March 4, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Newville, Solomon, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out Aug. 30. 1865. 

Norton, A. A., mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out Aug. 1, 1865. 

Nolen, Meseck, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out May 17, 1865. 

Otto, Christian, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out Aug. 30. 1865. 

Pillsbury, Nehemiah, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out Aug. 30, 

Pillsbury, Daniel, mustered in March 7, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Packer, Oliver, mustered in Feb. 17, 1865, out Sept. 12, 1865. 

Phenicie, George, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Parsons, Seymour, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out May 9, 1865. 

Kapley, George, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1866. 

Pima, William, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out as Corporal 
Aug. 30, 1865. 

Rhodes, Richard, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out June 7, 1865. 

Rumrael, David J., mustered in Feb. 17, 1865, died at Indian- 
apolis, March 8, 1865. 

Ruth, Daniel, mustered in March 7, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 
• Rosenberger, Daniel, mustered in March 4, 1865, out as Ser- 
geant Aug. 30, 1865. 





Eeed, John M., mustered in March 3, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 
Kejnolds, William, mustered in March 6, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 
Shero, Franklin, mustered in March 4, 1865, out July 31,1865. 
Saterson, Godfrew, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 
Stocker, DewittC, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 
Swartz, Jacob, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, died at Indianapolis 
March 10, 1865. 
Smith, Alonzo A., mustered in Feb. 10, 1865, out May 17, 1865. 
Welds, M. O., mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 
Williamson, James, mustered in Feb. 16, 1865, out Aug. 30, 


Williams, Washington, mustered in March 4, 1865, out Aug. 
30, 1865. 


Steuben's veterans often have attended 'celebrations at points 
outside the county, but the iirst attempt at holding a reunion at 
Angola was not made until as late as 1879, or sixteen years after 
the last of the armed bands were sent peacefully to their liomes 
after the suppression of the rebellion. Sept. 9, 1879, a very suc- 
cessful meeting was held, after due preparation. 

At the preliminary meeting held July 26, previously, twenty- 
five veterans attended, and elected the following ofiicers: President, 
Kewell Lewis, of Angola; Vice-Presidents, Irenus McGowan, of 
Mill Grove; Frank Green, of Jamestown; J. D. Mawhood, of Fre- 
mont; R. H. Johnson, of Clear Lake; G. W. Powers, of York; 
Charles Stafford, of Scott; G. W. McConnell, of Pleasant; George 
Twichell, of Jackson; D. Gillespie, of Salem; George E. Young, 
of Steuben; Lew Griffith, of Otsego; John Williams, of Richland; 
Secretary, E.J. Fitch; Treasurer, O. Carver; Marshal, E. G. Me- 
lendy; Chaplain, William Keyes; Executive Committee, Lawrence 
Gates, E. G. Melendy, Irenus McGowan, Samuel Beight and Mar- 
vin Butler. 

At an early hour on the 9th of September the inhabitants of 
Angola were awakened by the firing of a military salute, and soon 
after the streets were alive with people. Those who had flags, or 
who could beg or borrow them, soon decorated their places of 
business with the red, white and blue in honor of the reunion. 
The morning trains brought large delegations of ex-soldiers and 
others from the surrounding towns, and by ten o'clock there was a 
perfect jam, it being almost impossible to move in the vicinity of 
the public square. The old battle flags of the Twelfth, One Hun- 




dred and Twenty-ninth, One Hundredth, Forty-fourth, Eighty- 
eighth and Seventy -fourth Indiana regiments were exhibited near 
Kinney & Co.'s bank, and attracted universal attention. 

At ten o'ch>ck the marshals began to form the procession, and 
promptly at 10:30 the veterans took up tiieir line of march in the 
following order : 

1. Marshals. 

2. Angola Cornet Band. 

3. Drum Corps. 

4. Forty-fourth Indiana Regiment. 

5. One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Indiana Regiment. 

6. Seventy-fourth Indiana Regiment. 

7. Twenty-ninth Indiana Regiment. 

8. Thirtieth Indiana Regiment. 

9. Boys' Cornet Band, Pleasant Lake. 
10. Representatives from the Twenty-fifth, One Hundred and 

Fourth, One Hundred and Seven tj^-seventh. One Hundred and 
Eighty-second, Twenty-ninth, Fifty-second, Seventy-first, Sixty- 
eighth, Twenty-first, Forty-ninth, One Hundred and Second, 
Eleventh, Twentieth, Sixtieth, Thirty-eighth, Fifty-seventh, One 
Hundred and First, Seventy-sixth, Twenty-fifth, One Hundred and 
Eleventh, Twenty-first, One Hundred and Thirty-first, Fourteenth, 
Sixty -fifth. Tenth, One Hundred and Seventy-ninth, Eighty-second, 
One Hundred and Eighteenth, One Hundred and Twenty-third, 
Twenty-sixth, One Hundred and ]N"inety -fifth. Thirty-second, One 
Hundred and Ninety-seventh, One Hundred and Forty-second, 
One Hundred and Twenty-eiglith, Eighty-eighth, One Hundred 
and Fifth and Sixth Ohio Infantries; Second and Third Ohio 
Cavalry; First and Nineteenth Ohio Artillery; First Ohio Sharp- 
shooters; Ninth, Twenty -first. One Hundred and Twenty-eighth, 
Twentieth, Eighty-eighth, Forty-first, Ninetieth, Thirty-eighth, 
One Hundred and Eighteenth, Thirteenth, Nineteenth, Fifty- 
second, Thirty-second, Thirty -filth. Eighty -fourth, One Hundred 
and Forty-seventh and Eighty -ninth Indiana Infantries; First, Fifth, 
Seventh, Second and Twelfth Indiana Cavalries; Twenty-third 
Indiana Light Artillery ; First, Fifth and Eleventh Indiana Heavy 
Batteries; One Hundred and Forty-second, Forty-second, Sixty- 
first, Tenth, Thirteenth and First Illinois Infantries; Sixty-fifth, 
One Hundred and Fifty-fourth, Seventy-fifth, Twenty-third, Thirty- 
third, Forty-second, Fiftieth and One Hundred and Seventeenth 

New York Infantries; Twelfth and Thirty-seventh Wisconsin In- 



fantries; First Wisconsin Artillery; Eighteenth, Fifteenth and 
Sixth United States Infantries; Fourth, Seventh, Twenty-first, Six- 
teenth, Eleventh, Seventeenth, Thirteenth, Second, Thirtieth, 
Twenty-eighth and Eighteenth Michigan Infantries ; Sixth and 
Ninth Michigan Cavalries ; Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania Infantry ; 
Second and Fifty third Kentucky Infantries ; Fourth Iowa In- 
fantry ; Third Iowa Artillery. 

11. Eighty-eighth Indiana Infantry. 

12. Angola Fire Department. 

There were more than TOO soldiers present, many of whom were 
from other counties and States, and eighty distinct commands 
were registered. The procession marched to Wickwire's Grove, 
where a previously prepared programme of exercises was carried 
out. The ladies who had taken upon themselves the providing 
and arranging of the dinner tables did nobly. Owing to the ab- 
sence of General Gibson, who was expected to address the audience, 
but whose attendance was prevented on account of sickness, the 
time was taken up and the meeting well entertained by a number 
of short, impromptu speeches by soldiers and others. General 
Lewis J. Blair, of Waterloo; Judge Melendy, of Centreville, Mich., 
and Captain J. K. Morrow were among the speakers. 

-J 9 




Early Lawyers. — First Resident Attorney. — Sketches of 
Those who have Practiced Here. — Present Bar. — Sketches 
OF Prominent Attorneys. 

The pioneer members of the bar of Steuben County were from 
abroad, mostly from Fort Wayne. From our earliest courts until 
1849, the legal business of the county was done chiefly by non- 
resident attorneys. At the head of this list stands the name of 
Charles Ewing, who, in his time, was considered the ablest jurist 
of the West. Among other prominent lawyers from the Summit 
City, who, during this time, took an active part in the legal mat- 
ters of the county, may be mentioned the names of Breckenridge, 
Colerick, Ferry, Dawson, Johnson, Cooper and Coombs. The last 
named, still at Fort Wayne, is the only one living. 

Hon. John B. Howe, of Lima, practiced here during this time. 
Afterward came Andrew ^Ellison, of Lagrange (now one of the 
wealthiest men in that county), and Judge Morris, of Auburn 
(now of Fort Wayne), both able jurists and able men in their pro- 
fession. The first resident attorney at law of the county was 
Rubert L. Douglass, who came here from Ohio in 1839. He is 
said to have been an able, energetic lawyer. He remained here 
until 1849, when he removed to Council Bluffs, Iowa. 

Daniel E. Palmer was the second resident attorney. He was born 
among the Delaware hills, in Delaware County, K. Y., Jan. 10 
1816. He read law with Judge Tiffany, of Lenawee County, Mich. 
He was the first lawyer admitted to practice in No bie County, this 
State, and came from there here in the spring of 1840, and at that 
time was admitted to the bar, but did not commence active prac- 
tice until 1841; he continued in practice here for about thirtj-five 
years, when the infirmities of age compelled him to retire from 
practice. In his day, he was considered good, and his opinions 
were well respected by the legal profession. At times he had a 
large though not a paying practice. Mr. Palmer was Auditor of 






this county, by appointment, from 1844 to 1847; lie was Circuit 
Prosecutor in 1849-'50, and Common Pleas Prosecutor from 1852 
to 1854. 

Hon. Edward R. May graduated at Yale College in 1838, and 
although one of the youngest members of his class, he had ac- 
quired a reputation which gave promise of future distinction. 
After leaving college, he was for two years engaged in teaching 
school in the East. Having, at the same time, entered upon the 
study of the law, he was in due time admitted to the New London 
County Bar, in the State of Connecticut. Influenced by the hope 
of benefit to his health, he removed to Angola, this county, and 
was here admitted to the bar in 1843. By skill in his profession, 
and by heartily identifying himself with the public interests, sus- 
taining and promoting the cause of education, of temperance, and 
the institutions of religion, he rapidly acquired position and in- 
fluence. He was a member of our State Legislature. He was also 
a member of the State Constitutional Convention. He went from 
here to California in the year 1852, and returned the same year, 
when his forecasting mind fixed upon St. Paul, Minn., as a point 
of commanding importance in tlie future Northwest. He had 
hardly located there when, Aug. 2, 1852, after only a few hours' 
sickness, he died of cholera. 

Dr. James McConnell, the first County Clerk, resigned his office 
in 1843 to enter the legal profession, and enjoyed a fi'ir and in- 
creasing practice until his early death, in 1844. 

Hon. Alanson W. Hendry was an active practitioner from 1843 
to 1865, when he engaged in the mercantile business for some 
years, and is now engaged in extensive agricultural pursuits. He 
was a member of the State Senate, and has held other offices of 
trust and responsibility. 

Jesse M. Gale commenced the study of law with Mr. Hendry, 
and soon went into partnership with him. He retired from active 
practice in 1883, but is still a resident of Angola. 

Leland H. Stocker began the practice of his profession in 1855, 
and was an active member of the bar till 1881. 

From 1850 to 1860 there maybe mentioned, as accessions to the 
bar, the names of Howard, Tinker and Blake. 

In 1860 William G. Croxton came here from Columbiana County, 
Ohio, and began practice in partnership with A. S. Blake. Soon 
afterward, upon the removal of Blake from the county, he formed 
a partnership with A. A. Chapin. This partnership lasted for 



about three years, when Mr. Croxton entered into partnersliip 
with Hon. Joseph A. Woodhull. Mr. Chapin had a very success- 
ful practice in Kendallville for a number of years, and in 1883 
sought a wider field in Fort Wayne. Mr. Woodhull began the 
practice of his profession at Fremont in 1859, and removed to An- 
gola in 1860, engaging in partnership with Daniel E. Palmer. He 
is still an active member of the legal profession. 

E. B. Glasgow was for several years an active lawyer, and also 
dealt extensively in real estate. A few years since he went to 
Kansas. He was twice elected to the State Legislature. Captain 
John K. Morrow came here from Lagrange in 1864, and com- 
menced practice here with Daniel E. Palmer, and is still engaged 
in a good business. 

The above are the early lawyers of Steuben County. The 
present bar, arranged in the order of admission to practice, is as 
follows : W. G. Croxton, J. K. Morrow, J. A. Woodhull, E. G. 
Melendy, G. B. Adams, D. R. Best, S. A. Powers, A. Paterson, 

B. F. Dawson, W. W. Birce, W. M. Brown, E. A. Bratton, J. B. 
Langworthy, Joseph Butler, F. M. Powers, Cyrus Cline and W. 

C. Chadwick. 


George B. AdamSy attorney at law, Angola, Ind., was born in 
Fredonia, Chautauqua Co., N. Y., April 18, 1844, a son of Charles 
H. and Sophia A. (Clark) Adams, his father a native of Massa- 
chusetts, and his mother of Connecticut. His father was by trade 
a millwright, but subsequently embarked in land speculation, and 
acquired a large property. He was an old-line Whig, and a great 
admirer and personal friend of Henry Clay. In 1858 he moved 
to Coldwater, Mich., where the mother died in 1867. He after- 
ward went to New Jersev, and died there in 1874. George B. 
Adams received a good common-school education, and after going 
to Michigan attended the High School at Coldwater. He served in 
the late war. He then returned to Coldwater, and in 1866 began the 
study of law, and so continued for four years at intervals, working 
in the meantime to support himself and two sisters. In 1870 he 
came to Angola, and for a time thought of abandoning his profes- 
sion, but changed his mind, and in 1873 was admitted to the bar, 
and has built up a good practice. He is a strong pleader, an elo- 
quent speaker, and his arguments are convincing and have weight 
with the jury. He was appointed Prosecuting Attorney for Steu- 
ben, DeKaib and Noble counties by Governor Williams in 1878, 







to fill a vacancy, and in 1878 was elected, on the Democratic ticket, 
to the same position. In 1880 he represented his county in the 
State Democratic Convention, at Indianapolis. Mr. Adams was 
married in 1876 to Helen Darrah, daughter of Peter Darrah, of 
Ohio, and to them were born two children. Mrs. Adams died 
Nov. 18, 1883. She was a lady of rare intelligence, and had hosts 
of friends to mourn her loss. 

EiiiTnet A. Bratton^ attorney at law and Deputy Prosecuting 
Attorney of Steuben County, was born in Williams Count}', Ohio, 
July 16, 1855, a son of Ira and Deborah (Thomas) Bratton, his 
lather a native of Mifflin County, Pa., born March 12, 1829, and his 
mother of Bucks County, Pa. His parents moved to Ohio when 
young, and were there married in 1851, His father died July 18, 
1882, and his mother is still living. When eighteen years of age 
he attended the fall term of the High School in Angola, and taught 
the next winter. He prepared for college by his own efforts, and 
in 1876 entered the freshman class of Hillsdale College, Hillsdale, 
Mich., and attended two years. He then came to Angola, and 
entered the office of WoodhuU & Croxton, remaining with them 
till 1880, when he went to Ann Arbor, Mich., and attended the law 
department of the University, graduating March 23, 1881. After 
his admission to the bar lie formed a partnership with Stephen A. 
Powers, under the firm-name of Powers & Bratton, which was dis- 
solved by mutual consent Aug. 8, 1884, and since then he has prac- 
ticed with the Hon. D. H. Best, under the firm-name Best & Bratton. 
He is a young man of ability, and is gaining a good reputation in 
business and social circles. He is Secretary of the Steuben County 
Agricultural Association, and in 1884 was appointed Deputy 
Prosecuting Attorney. He has served his city as Clerk and Treas- 
urer four years in a very acceptable manner. In politics he is a 
Republican. He is a member of the Odd Fellows' order (lodge 
and encampment), and in 1884 represented his lodge in the Grand 
Lodge of the State. Mr. Bratton was married in 1888 to Delia 
Rice, daughter of Dr. C. D. Rice. They have one daughter. 

Gyrus Cline^ attorney at law, a member of the firm of Cline & 
Dawson, Angola, Ind., was born in Richland County, Ohio, July 
12, 1851, a son of Michael and Barbara (Orewiler) Cline. In 1853 
his parents moved to Steuben County, Ind., and settled on section 
16, Scott Township. Eight acres of the land were cleared and there 
was a good house and barn on it. In 1872 the family moved to 
Angola that the children might have better educational advan- 




tages, and here the father died Feb. 28, 1878. He was in early life 
a "Whig, and afterward affiliated with the Republican party. From 
1868 till 1874 he was a County Commissioner, and always dis- 
charged his duties in a satisfactory manner. He also held various 
local offices of trust, and at the time of his death was Trustee of 
Pleasant Township. His family consisted of eight children, two 
sons and six daughters, all of whom are living. Cyrus Cline was 
reared on the farm, and in early life attended the district schools. 
After his parents moved to Angola he attended the Academy one 
winter, and in 1873 entered the freshman class at Hillsdale Col- 
lege. Being in limited circumstances, he was obliged to procure 
his college education by his own efforts. He therefore taught 
school in the winter, still pursuing his studies at home, and in the 
spring entered his class in the college. He graduated in 1876. 
The following September he was elected County Superintendent 
of Schools of Steuben County, a position he held till June, 1883. 
In the spring of 1880 he entered the office of WoodhuU & Oroxton, 
and began the study of law, remaining with them till February, 
1882, when he was admitted to the bar and formed a partnership 
with Joseph Butler, which continued till July, 1884, when he be- 
came associated with Mr. Dawson, Mr. Cline is a young man of 
fine natural ability, which, added to his close study and determi- 
nation to succeed, will make him one of the best and most influ- 
ential lawyers in the county. He was married Oct. 6, 1880, to 
Jennie E., daughter of Dr. Bush and Susan S. Gibson. Dr. Gib- 
son died in Vermont, and in 1869 Mrs. Gibson came with her three 
daughters to Steuben County. Mr. Cline is a member of the 
Masonic fraternity, lodge and chapter. 

Ho7i. A. W. Hendry, attorney at law, Angola, Ind., was one of 
the early settlers of Steuben County. He was born near Buffiilo, 
Erie Co., N. Y., March 22, 1820, a son of Samuel and Eunice 
(Foote) Hendry, his father of Massachusetts and his mother of 
Connecticut. His parents were married in Delaware County, N. 
Y., Feb. 16, 1803, and before the war of 1812 removed to Erie 
County. Samuel Hendry was a minute-man in the war of 1812. 
He was an old-line Whig, and a strong anti-slavery man. In 1827 
or 1828 he moved to Ashtabula County, Ohio, and in 1832 to 
Wellington, Lorain County. Mrs. Hendry died in Sandusky, 
Ohio, Sept. 3, 1853, and Mr. Hendry in Angola, Ind., April 12, 
1861. They had a family of nine children, eight of whom are liv- 
ing. A. W. Hendry learned the blacksmith's trade of his father, 

•j^ <r 





but not liking it, he and his twin brother determined to take up 
the profession of law. They procured a Blackstone and Kent and 
studied evenings and when not otherwise employed until they were 
familiar with the main points of common law. In 1842 our sub- 
ject came to Indiana, and taught school in Orland, Steuben County, 
the following winter, and in the spring of 1843 went to Lima, La- 
grange County, where he was admitted to the bar. He then lo- 
cated in Angola, and practiced here till 1866, when he embarked 
in the mercantile business, which he continued till 1872. In 1852 
Mr. Hendry was elected to the State Senate and served eight years, 
although he has never sought official honors. He takes especial 
interest in the up-building of local interests and is President of the 
Old Settlers' Association and Steuben County Agricultural Society. 
In politics he is a strong Republican. Mr. and Mrs, Hendry 
were at Baltimore at the time Abraham Lincoln received the second 
nomination for President of the United States, and at Philadelphia 
when General Grant was nominated for the same office. Mr. 
Hendry was married June 15, 1847, to Louisa Gale, daughter of 
Judge Thomas and Sarah (Goldsmith) Gale. They have had four 
children; but three are living — Thomas P., Victor, and Mattie E., 
wife of G. W. McBride, an attorney of Grand Haven, Mich. 
Judge Gale was. a native of Orange County, N. Y., and when a 
young man went to Ohio and located near Columbus. In 1831 he 
came to Indiana, and founded the town of Lima, Lagrange County. 
In 1836 he came to Steuben County and bought the land where 
Angola is now located, and in company with Cornelius Gilmore 
laid out the town. He also laid out the town of Augusta, ]Noble 
County. He was a member of the Legislature in 1836 and 1837. 
He was an old-line Whig and one of tlie first to advocate the anti- 
slaver}' movement. 

Joseph B. Langworthy, attorney at law, Fremont, was born in 
Bainbridge, Geauga Co., Ohio, Jan. 10, 1858, a son of Joseph B. 
and Soplironia (Merry) Langworthy, early settlers of Ohio. His 
mother died Nov. 10, 1863, and in 1869 his father moved to Steu- 
ben County, where he died June 21, 1882. They had a family of 
eleven children, nine of whom lived till maturity, Joseph B. Lang- 
worthy, Sr., was in early life a Whig, but affiliated with the Republi- 
can party from the date of its organization. Our subject came to Steu- 
ben County with his father. He attended district school till he was 
seventeen, going winters only; then attended the graded schools of 
Fremont for two terms; then the Valparaiso Normal and Business 



Institute three years; was a member of the scientific class of 1877, 
but was taken ill and was compelled to leave a few weeks before 
graduating. In the spring of 1880 he began reading law in the 
office of Gale & Best, of Angola, and June 5, 1881, was admitted 
to the bar. In 1882 he attended the law department of Ann Arbor 
University. Immediately after his return from Ann Arbor the 
firm of Gale, Best & Langworthy was formed, which continued till 
spring of 1884, when Mr. Gale withdrew, and the firm was dis- 
solved, Mr. Langworthy is a talented young man, of fine address, 
pleasing manners, and has many friends in business and social 
circles. He has a promising future, being one of the rising young 
men of the county. He was married Jan. 7, 1881, to Carrie M. 
Caswell, daughter of A. M. Caswell, of Fremont. 

Emory Q. Melendy, attorney at law, Fremont, Ind., was born 
in Chenango County, N. Y., Oct. 29, 1841, a son of Norman and 
jSophia (Welch) Melendy, his father a native of Vermont, and his 
mother of Connecticut. In 1845 his parents moved to Steuben 
County, Ind., and soon after to Branch County, Mich., where the 
father died in 1855. He was a prominent man of his day, taking 
an active interest in the growth and development of the county. 
Mrs. Melendy is living in Branch County. To them were born 
eleven children, seven in New York — Lois B., now Mrs. Devine. 
Richmond "W. enlisted in Company A, Twenty-ninth Indiana In- 
fantry, and was appointed First Lieutenant, and afterward pro- 
moted to Captain. After the war he studied law, and was admitted 
to the bar. In 1872 he was elected Circuit Judge of his district. 
He died at Eaton Rapids in September, 1883. Daniel W. is a 
farmer in Nebraska. Squire "VV. enlisted in the First Micligan 
Infantry, and participated in the battle of Bull Run; he died in 
the fall of 1864. Sally S. is the wife of James Hughes, of Branch 
County. E. G., our subject. Edward N. enlisted in August, 1862, 
in the Nineteenth Michigan Infantry. He was captured at Spring 
Hill, Tenn., and was incarcerated in Libby Prison; died from the ef- 
fects of cruelty and exposure soon after leaving the prison. Mary E. 
is the wife of James M. Lindsley, of Detroit, Mich, Abbie M., 
now Mrs. M. B. Wakeman, of Branch County. John M., of Eu- 
reka, Cal., is a prominent attorney. Horace died in infancy. E. 
G. Melendy was but fourteen years of age when his father died, 
and from that time his maintenance and education were the result 
of his own efibrts. When twenty years of age, Aug. 27, 1861, he 
enlisted in Company A, Twenty-nintli Indiana Infantry. He par- 







ticipated in the battles of Shiloli and Stone River, serving till 
August, 1863, when he was discharged, and the following fall en- 
listed in the One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Indiana Infantry, and 
was appointed Orderly Sergeant. He was at the battle of Resaca, 
Decatur, through the Atlanta campaign, at Franklin and Nash- 
ville. In February, 1865, he was promoted to Adjutant of the 
regiment. They were sent to North Carolina via Washington, 
and were with General Sherman at Kingston, and from there were 
sent to Charlotte, N. C, where they were mustered out Sept. 13. 
Soon after the war he began the study of law, and was admitted to 
practice in all the courts. He has a fair law practice, and also 
gives some attention to collecting and insurance. May 5, 1868, 
Mr. Melendy was married to Alma Follett, a daughter of John W. 
and Angeline Follett, early settlers of Steuben County. They have 
one child — Maud. Mr. Melendy is a member of the Masonic fra- 
ternity, Northeastern Lodge, No. 210, chapter, council, and 
Apollo Commandery. He is Master of his lodge, and has repre- 
sented it in the Grand Lodge of the State. He is also a member 
of Steuben Lodge, No. 231, I. O. O. F., and Kilpatrick Post, No. 
45, G. A. R. He has passed all the chairs of the subordinate lodge, 
and has been a representative to the Grand Lodge of I. O. O. F. of 
Indiana. In politics Mr. Melendy is a Republican and has served 
as a delegate to the State convention. 

Captain John K. Morroiv^ a native of Richland County, Ohio, 
was born in Mansfield, March 5, 1827, a son of James Morrow, a 
native of Dublin, Ireland, and Mary (Turk) Morrow, a native of 
Scotland. James Morrow came to America in his early manhood. 
He was a soldier in the war of 1812, and was wounded at the battle 
of Lundy's Lane. He subsequently returned to his native country, 
and was married in Scotland to Mary Turk. In 1816 they came to 
the United States, and lived a year in Allegheny County, Pa., and 
in 1827 moved to Mansfield, Richland Co , Ohio, where he died in 
1848. He was a sculptor and builder, and a very fine artisan. 
After the father's death John K. moved to Williams County, Ohio, 
with his mother, where she died in 1854. He received a liberal 
education, and at the time of his father's death was attending 
Oberlin (Ohio) College. He was then obliged to leave school, and 
began teaching to support his mother and sister. In the meantime 
he began the study of law in the office of Case & Foster, and in 
1853 was admitted to the bar at Perrysburg, Wood County. He 
soon after began the practice of his profession at Bryan, Ohio, and 





in 1856 went to Lagrange Centre, Lagrange Co., Ind. In Janu- 
ary, 1857, he established the Lagrange Standard, the first paper 
of the county. The motto of his paper was, "Eternal Hostility 
to the Extension of Slavery." In 1863 he enlisted in the One 
Hundredth Indiana Infantry, raising Company C, of which he 
was commissioned First Lieutenant. He was at the battle of 
Yicksburg at the time of Sherman's defeat, Jackson, Miss., the 
siege and capture of Vicksburg, second battle of Jackson, Mission 
Ridge. March 4, 1864, he resigned on account of failing health. 
He was commissioned Captain of his company June 3, 1863. 
When he left the regiment the ofiicers gave him the following let- 
ter, expressive of their esteem and fraternal friendship: 

" Bellefonte Station, Ala., March 4, 1864. 
" Capt. J. K. Morrow, Coiri'pany C, One Hundredth Indiana: 
" Dear Sir: We have just learned of the acceptance of your res- 
ignation, which reminds us that we are to be separated from a 
brave soldier and true friend, and one who has shared for a long 
time with us the hardships and privations of a soldier's life. 
Your soldierly bearing and your generous heart has won for you 
the confidence and esteem of the officers and men of the entire 
regiment, and it is with much reluctance that we part with you. 
You will leave the field of strife, and when you retire to a quiet 
home, surrounded by family and friends, we trust that we will not 
be forgotten; that your influence will ever be on the side of right 
and support of our brave old flag. 

" Yery respectfully, 

" W. H. Vernon, Captain Company D. 

" John W. Headington, Captain Company H. 

"Gideon Rathbun, First Lieutenant Company H. 

"J. M. Carr, Captain Company G. 

"Leonard Aker, First Lieutenant Company F. 

" A. H. LiNHAJBT, Second Lieutenant Company F. 

"J. W. GusiNGER, Lieutenant Company E. 

" T. C. Dalby, Captain Company I. 

" Noah S. Ootterlin, First Lieutenant Company 1. 

"Ed, Forbes, First Lieutenant Company C. 

"J. H. More, First Lieutenant Company A. 

' ' Orla J. Fast, Captain Company B. 

" Ed. Goldsmith, First Lieutenant Company B. 

" W.H. Q^^, Adjutant One Hundredth hid. Infantry ^ 
In 1865 Captain Morrow moved to Angola, where he has since 





lived. He has established a good record as an attorney, and has 
served on the bench as Jndgepro tern. He has held the office of 
Justice of the Peace two terms. He was married May 5, 1853, to 
Mary A. Coblentz, a native of Ohio, of German descent. To them 
have been born three children; but two are living — James H. and 
John M. Captain Morrow is a member of the Knights of Honor 
and Grand Army of the Republic. 

Frank M.. Powers^ attorney at law, Angola, Ind., was born in 
York Township, Steuben Co., Ind., April 2, 1860, a son of Calvin 
and Luc}'' A. (Gilbert) Powers, his father a native of Allegany 
County, N. Y., and his mother of Ohio, and early settlers of Steu- 
ben County, locating in York Township in 1836. Frank M. Pow- 
ers received a good education, attending the district schools of 
York Township, and the graded school of Angola. In 1878 he 
came to Angola, and while attending school began the study of 
law, and subsequently entered the office of WoodhuU & Croxton. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1881, and has since practiced in 
Angola. Mr. Powers is a youug man of good address and fine 
ability, and is building up a good practice. His courteous man- 
ners and affability make him a general favorite in society, and his 
close attention to business and strict integrity have won him the 
esteem of business circles. 

Leland H. Stocher^ retired attorney, and one of the early and 
prominent settlers of Steuben County, was born in Windham Coun- 
ty, Vt., May 21, 1817, a son of John and Betsey (Howard) Stocker. 
His mother was a sister of Rev. Leland Howard, an eminent Bap- 
tist clergyman, for whom our subject was named. Of a family of 
nine children eight lived till maturity. In 1833 Chester Stocker, 
the eldest son of the family, came to Steuben County, and entered 
land in Mill Grove Township, and in the spring of 1834 the father 
followed him and built a cabin, and the first of October the rest of the 
family came. His was the third cabin built in the county, and the 
first in Mill Grove Township. John Stocker was politically in 
early life a Democrat, but subsequently gave his support to the 
Abolition party. He and his wife were active members of the 
Baptist church. They both died in 1849. Leland 11. Stocker 
was educated in his native State, and attended the Baptist Literary 
and Scientific College at Brandon, founded by Rev. Hadley Proc- 
tor. He was in his junior year when he left Vermont for the 
West. After reaching Indiana his time was spent in clearing the 
land and splitting rails. The first five years he was in the county he 





cut and split 100,000 rails, lie then for a time ran a breaking 
team with his brotlier, and in 1810 abandoned the farm and began 
preaching for the Baptist denomination, traveling in Southern 
Michigan. He formed the acquaintance and became a close friend 
of Hon. Schuyler Colfax, who once said of him, when asked where 
he got his force as a speaker, ''I learned it of a little Baptist 
preacher in Steuben Count}'." Mr. Stocker continued preaching 
seven years, when, on account of hemorrhage of the lungs, he was 
obliged to abandon the pulpit. He took up the study of law, and was 
admitted to the bar in Auburn, DeKalb Coounty, in 1848. In 1856 
he formed a partnership with W. I. Howard, and subsequently was a 
member of the firm of Stocker & Morrow three years. In 1866 he 
became associated with J. M. Gale, and afterward the firm was 
changed to Gale, Stocker & Best. He continued his law practice till 
1883, when he retired to a more quiet life. Soon after his admission to 
the bar he was appointed Deputy Recorder and Clerk, and after- 
ward served six years as County Auditor. Mr. Stocker was mar- 
ried in April, 1837, to Lucy Mallory, a native of Castleton, Yt., 
born in 1818. She came with her parents to Steuben County in 
1836. Mr. Stocker has passed all the chairs of the Odd Fellows' 
order, and is a member of the Good Templars. 

Stephen Powers^ attornej' at law, An<rola, Ind., was born in 
York Township, Steuben Co., Ind., Dec. 28, 1851, a son of Clark 
and Hannah (Ketchum) Powers. He received a good literary ed- 
ucation, attending the Angola High School and the Hillsdale 
(Mich.) College. In 1865 he began the study of law with Wood- 
hull & Croxton. In the winter of 186S and 1869 he taught school 
in the Town Hall in York Township. In 1870 he was appointed 
a cadet in the U. S. Naval Academy at Annapolis, but resigned in 
1871, an act he has always regretted. He then taught three years 
in the graded school of Fremont, and in January, 1874, went to 
Chicago and attended the Northwestern Law School one term. He 
was admitted to the bar of the Steuben Circuit Court at the Sep- 
tember term of 1874, and Oct. 1 began his practice in Fremont, 
Ind. May 1, 1875, he came to Angola, and was admitted to the 
firm of WoodhuU & Croxton, changing the name to WoodhuU, 
Croxton & Powers. In the fall of 1876 Mr. WoodhuU was 
appointed Circuit Judge, and withdrew from the firm. A 
short time afterward the firm of Croxton & Powers was dis- 
solved, and Mr. Powers practiced alone until March 17, 1877, 
when he formed a partnership with A. T. Bratton, which continued 




till September, 1878. April 1, 1883, he forined a partnership with 
Emmet A. Bratton, which was dissolved Aug. 8, 1884, and he is 
now practicing alone. He is ambitious, and bends all his energies 
to succeed in his profession. Oti May 20, 1885, he was admitted 
to practice in the Supreme Court of Indiana. He is one of the 
most popular attorneys in Angola, and is regarded as a rising man 
by his brother practitioners. His practice has been a lucrative 
one, and he has a large landed estate in the county, besides consid- 
erable city property. In politics he is a Democrat, and has held 
several offices in the town of Angola, but does not aspire to official 
honors. He is an honored member of the Odd Fellows' order. 
Mr. Powers was married Oct. 9, 1876, to Dora Ferrier, daughter 
of William and Olive Ferrier, old settlers of Angola. They have 
one child — Clela. 





Pioneer Physicians.— Union Medical Society,— Steuben County 
Medical Society. — Organization. — Requirements. — First Of- 
ficers. — Changes in Membership. — Present Officers. — The 
Steuben County Medical and Surgical Society. — Organiza- 
tion. — First Officers. — Membership. — Sketches of Prominent 
Physicians of the County. 

With the advaucement of civilization in*everj country, the phy- 
sician has always been found in the front rank, encouraging and 
assisting in the education of the masses, and in the propagation 
of every measure intended to better and elevate the community 
among whom he practiced. Dr. James McConnell will ever be re- 
membered as the pioneer physician of Steuben County. He set- 
tled in Lima, Lagrange Co., Ind., in May, 1835, and in]S"ovember 
1836, came to the "Vermont settlement, "where he practiced until 
April, 1837, when he was elected as the first Clerk and Eecorder 
of the county, and located his office in the log cabin of John 
Stayner, on Jackson Prairie, and in the fall of the same year 
moved to Angola, where he continued his practice as much as the 
duties of his office would allow until his death in 1844. After him 
came his brother, Geo. W. McConnell, who is now a resident of 
Angola. Besides these, we find among the early physicians of 
the county the following well-known names: Peter "W. Ladue 
Madison Marsh, M. F. Morse, Alonzo P. Clark, John Moore, Love 
Moore, D. B. Griffin, Joyce, Pink, Stewart, Patterson, Sloss 
Fitzgerald, Hoopengarner, Reynolds, Hendricks, Robinson, Will- 
iam Southard, L. E. Carver, Drake and Carpenter, besides the 
two Drs. Weicht, father and son, who were homeopathists. An 
Union Medical Society of Steuben and De Kalb County physi- 
cians was organized about 1859 or 1860, which did not exist very 
long and some of the early physicians whose names we have men- 
tioned were connected with a medical society in Lagrange County. 
No record exists, however, of these. 


^-7=^ ^;=^fv^ 





This society owes its existence to a few physicians who, imbued 
with a spirit of progress, published a call in the Steuben Repub- 
lican of July 18, 1863, to the physicians of Steuben County, Ind., 
to meet at the court-house at Angola, for the purpose of organiz- 
ing a medical society. This call was signed by W. Alphonso Wood, 
C. D. Rice, H. L. Smith and Hugh D. Wood. Pursuant to this 
call, a meeting was held in the court-house July 30, 1863, and the 
society organized by the following physicians: W. Alphonso 
Wood, C. D. Eice, H. L. Smith, Hugh D. Wood, J. J. Hoopen- 
garner and J. W. Badger. The society was to be auxiliary to and 
under the control of the Indiana State Medical Society, and its 
object the advancement of medical knowledge, the elevation of 
professional character, the protection of the interests of its mem- 
bers, the extension of *the bounds of medical science, and the pro- 
motion of all measures adopted for the relief of the suffering. 
To become a member, it was necessary to be a graduate in medi- 
cine of a respectable medical school, a licentiate of any regularly 
organized medical societ}'^, or to have a certificate of qualification 
to practice medicine from the Board of Censors, as well as to be 
in good moral and professional standing. The first ofiicers of the 
Steuben County Medical Society were: W. Alphonso Wood, Presi- 
dent; Hugh D. Wood, Vice-President; Cornelius Dalford Eice, 
Secretary; and J. J. Hoopengarner, Treasurer. 


Believing that the best interests of the medical profession in 
Steuben County demanded the organization of a society in which 
the free expression of thought on the various topics in medicine 
and surgery would not only be tolerated but encouraged, and that 
by the exchange and encouragement of a true friendship they 
could aid one another, the following-named phj^sicians assembled 
at Granger's Hall, Angola, Ind., April 4, 1876. for the purpose of 
forming such an organization: Drs. J. L. Hagerty, of Fremont; T. 
B. Williams and W. H. Waller, of Angola; T. C. Frary, of Pleas- 
ant Lake; H. Petree, of Hamilton; S. H. Fuller, of Fremont, 
and E. A. Swan, of Eay. The society was organized by adopt- 
ing a constitution auxiliary to that of the Indiana State Medical 
Society, and elected the following ofiicers: President, J. L. Hag- 
erty; y ice-President, T. C. Frary; Secretary, W. H. Waller; 







Treasurer, T. B. Williams; Censors, A, E. Swan, H. Petree and 
S. H. Fuller. Since the organization of this society the follow- 
ing have become members: 1^. B. McNabb, S. Scofield, T. M. 
Sullivan, Welker, J. Merry, D. C. Mitchell, D. N. E. Brown, 
McIIenry, G. J. Wilder, Woodcox, Ayers and M. R. Ransburg. 
The society has not met for a year or more, and its future is 

Since its first organization the society has undergone two re- 
organizations; but these in no wise changed its first intents and 
purposes. Of the organizers of the society, but one is now a resi- 
dent of the county, Dr. Hugh D. Wood, of Angola. Dr. Rice 
died in 1875. Dr. W. Alphonso Wood was killed in 1868. Dr. 
Badger is living in Michigan; Dr. Smith in Nebraska, and Dr. 
Hoopengarner near Milford, Ind. Since its organization, the fol- 
lowing physicians have become members: Samuel Scofield, T. B. 
Williams, D. N. E. Brown, A. W. Carpenter, T. F. Wood, Theo- 
dore Mc Nabb, J. L. Hagerty, W. H. Waller, S. L. Dart, D. W. 
Fenton, M. F. Crain, Solomon A. AVood, Charles Bates, B. S. 
Woodworth, J. C. Brown, J. B. Blue, Lyman Abbott, James Mc- 
Lean, S. H. Fuller, D. B. Grifiin, T. R. Morrison, J. H. Stough, 
Dr. Snooks, J. F. Jenkins, W. W. Fox, J. J. Wilkinson, A. F. 
Whelan, J. H. Beach, C. C. Cutter, R. F. Lipes, N. E. Bauch- 
mau, C. Van Antwerp, J. L. Gilbert, A. C. Yengling, H. A. 
Clark, C. W. Goodale, Edward B. Simmons, Frank M. Crain, M. 
Y. Ransburg, Frank A¥illett, J. F. Wallace, E. B. Crone, and E. 
R. Taylor. The following do not reside in the county, but are 
honorary members: J. W. Badger, J. J. Hoopengarner, A. W. 
Carpenter, James Mc Lean, H. L. Smith, A. F. Whelan, C. C. 
Cutter, N. E. Bauchman, C. Yan Antwerp, A. C. Yengling, H. A. 
Clark, C. W. Goodale, J. F. Jenkins, and W. W. Fox. 

The society has lost the following: Drs. J. H. Beach (died), T. 
B. Williams, Theodore Mc Nabb, J. L. Hagerty, W. H. Waller, 
J. B. Blue (died), J. H. Stough (in Nebraska), R. F. Lipes (in Al- 
len County), Charles Bates (died), John Brown (in Michigan), Frank 
Willett (in Michigan), Frank M. Crain (in Dakota), M. F. Crain 
(in Dakota), C. C. Cutter (died), S. L. Dart (died), and Dr. Snooks 

The present officers are: Lyman Abbott, President; M. Y. 
Ransburg, Yice-President; Hugh D. Wood, Sec; E. B. Simmons, 
Treas. ; T. F. Wood, S. H. Fuller and D. B. Griffin, Censors. 





_ , • 



T.R Biery^ M. Z>., of Pleasant Lake, was born in Columbiana 
County Ohio, in 1841;came to Pleasant Lake in 1875. He attended 
a course of lectures at the Cleveland Medical College in 1868, and 
at Detroit Medical College in 1869, graduating in June of that 
year. He is engaged in the photographic business in connection 

with the practice of medicine. 

John B. Blue,M. D., deceased, was born in Allen County, Ind., 
in 1839. He grew to maturity in his native county, and in his 
early manhood taught school. In 1862 he began the study of 
medicine, and the fall of the next year attended a couise of lect- 
ures at the medical department of the Michigan University, 
Ann Arbor. He subsequently graduated from Kush Medical 
College, Chicago. He located in Flint, Steuben Co., Ind., in 1864, 
and began the practice of his profession, but soon after moved to 
Newville, De Kalb County, where he remained but a short time. 
He returned to Flint, and in the years that followed built up an 
extensive and lucrative practice. A few years before his death one of 
his leo-s became diseased and amputation seemed necessary to save 
his life. For a time the result was favorable, and he resumed his 
practice, but finally the disease took a cancerous form, which ter- 
minated his life, July 5, 1884. He was a successful physician, and 
enjoyed the esteem and confidence of all his patrons. Politically, 
he was a Democrat, and was one of the trusted leaders and advis- 
ers of his party in Steuben County. He was a member of the Ma- 
sonic fraternity, Corinthian Lodge, Flint; Angola Chapter, No. 
58, and Angola Council, No. 28. He was married July 13, 1867, 
to Mary H. Cleveland, a native of Jackson Township,born in 1846, 
a daughter of Amasa Maro and Sophronia (Lobdell) Cleveland. 
Her father was born in Ontario County, N. Y.,in 1812, and was 
one of the early settlers of Jackson Township, where he died in 
October, 1863. His wife died Jan. 25, 1 852. Their children 
were three in number— Mrs. Blue; Louisa, of California, and 
Adelpha, wife of George Golden. To Dr. and Mrs. Blue were 
born three children; but two are living— Nellie M. and John. 
Ludellie died in infancy. 

David N.K Brown, M. D., was born in Columbiana County, 
Ohio, Nov. 30, 1831, a son of Rev. Levi and Pliebe A. (Kirk) 
Brown, who settled in Richland Township in 1844. His literary 
education was received in this county. He commenced his medical 
studies under preceptorship of Dr. E. L. Pattee, of Metz; con- 

"^s ^ '■ ^^ sf'v' 



tinued with him about two years, then attended a course of lect- 
ures at Cincinnati Eclectic Medical College. Commenced the 
practice of medicine in August, 1855,in Branch County, Mich., 
remaining there about two years,then came to this county, and 
after one year in Clear Lake Township, moved to Hamilton, where 
he has since resided. The Doctor attended a course of lectures at 
Ann Arbor, Mich., in the winter of 1864-'5. He is a member of 
the Steuben County Medical Society. By strict methodical attention 
to his business and care for his patients he has won an enviable 
reputation, and a large practice, and is enjoying the full confidence 
of the people in connection with his profession. The Doctor 
up to 1884 has always voted the Kepublican ticket, but still con- 
siders himself a Republican. He was married Sept. 23, 1855, 
to Lydia Ann Hoopes, daughter of Thomas and Charity Hoopcs, 
who was born in Columbiana County, Ohio, Dec. 5, 1828. They 
have seven children— John M., Mrs. Elizabeth A. Sewell, Phebe 
C. (died aged five years), Levi B., Sarah I., Thomas I., and Ira T. 
Johii M. Brown, M. Z>., one of the oldest practitioners of Steu- 
ben County, was born in Great Barrington, Mass., Dec. 25, 1814, a 
son of Henry and Harriet E. Brown, natives of Massachusetts, but 
later residents of Broome County, N. Y., where they died. Our 
subject began the study of medicine in 1836 with his uncle. Dr. 
Stephen Brown, of New York City, and subsequently graduated 
from the Geneva Medical College. He began his practice in 1842, 
in Medina County, Ohio. In 1855 he came to Steuben Countv, 
Ind., and bought a farm in Eichland Township, where he has since 
resided. He built up a good practice which he continued till 1879 
when, on account of rheumatic troubles, he was obliged to sur- 
render a part of it to younger hands. He is a successful practi- 
tioner, and by his straightforward dealings has won many friends. 
For over forty years he has been in active practice, and to-day 
stands at the head of the profession in the minds of those inside 
and outside the medical fraternity. Dr. Brown was married in 
Richland County, Ohio, to Rosannah Montgomery, a native of that 
county, born Jan. 24, 1823, daughter of John Montgomery. To 
them were born three children — Huldah, born Feb. 21, 1861; John 
M. and Margaret. John died in infancy, and Margaret in the 
third year of her age. Huldah was married Sept. 2, 1883, to Samuel 
Brooks, a native of York Township, born Nov. 5, 1861, a son of 
Henry Brooks, who died while in the service of his country. Mrs. 
Brown died March 29, 1883. She was an exemplary Christian, a 



<^ r 


member of the Methodist Episcopal church. Politically Dr. Brown 
is a Kepublicaii. He is one of the representative men of Richland 
Township, public spirited and liberal, contributing with an open 
hand to all objects worthy his aid. 

H. M. Byall, M. D., o, promising young physician of Metz, in 
the office with Dr. Theo. F. Wood, was a graduate of the class of 
1884, at Rush Medical College, Chicago. His preparatory studies 
were made in Huntington County, this State, and with Dr. Wood, 
at Metz. 

John F . Camei'on, M. D-, one of the medical corps of Steuben 
County, resides in the village of Hamilton. He was born in Rich- 
land Township, this county, May 8, 1855, where his parents, John 
and Mary Cameron, settled in 1841. John Cameron was born in 
Scotland, Dec. 21, 1814. His parents were George and Janet 
Cameron, who came to America and located in Canada, in tlie 
Province of Ontario, in the fall of 1834. George Cameron died in 
1848, and his wife in 1838. Their son John preceded them a few 
months, coming to America in the spring of 1834. He, not long 
after, went tu New York State, and from there to Ohio, where he 
was a contractor on the Wabash & Erie Canal. He was married 
at Napoleon, Ohio, Feb. 25, 1841, to Mary Carlin, a native of Ohio, 
born Feb. 5, 1823, a daughter of Robert Carlin. They became 
residents of this county the following year. Nine children were 
born to them, eight of whom are living — James G., of Eden, Ohio; 
Louisa, wife of O. A. Mathews, of Eden, Ohio; Robert, of Colum- 
bia, Ohio; Mary, residing in Richland Township with her widowed 
mother; Dr. John F., our subject; Margaret, wife of Samuel Ans- 
paugh, of this county; Josina, wife of Uriah Egbert, of this county; 
William C, now attending the Tri-State Normal, at Angola; 
George, the eldest, was born Sept. 10, 1842, and died Oct. 29, 1850. 
John Cameron died April 4, 1878. He was a man of thrift, a 
sterling citizen. When he came to this county he was possessed 
of some capital and bought 160 acres of land, which he rapidly im- 
proved. The wife that he brought with him to the wilderness, that 
shared his joys and sorrows, amid hardships and toils, a true com- 
panion, and now in a fair degree of health, is living with her 
daughter Mary, on the old homestead. Mr. Cameron, for a num- 
ber of years, was a faithful and consistent member of the United 
Brethren church at Metz. He was one of the trusty and trusting 
men of Richland Township. He was elected Township Trustee, 
performing the duties two terms in a manner creditable to himself 





and satisfactory to bis townsmen. He also served as Justice of the 
Peace twelve years. In 1874 he was elected County Commissioner, 
and re-elected to that responsible position in 1876, and was, at the 
time of his death, Chairman of the board. He was a man of more 
than ordinary intelligence, upright and honest in business, oblig- 
ing as a neighbor, an aflfectionate father, who ever held the inter- 
ests of his children dear to himself. Dr. John F. Cameron 
attended the schools of Richland Township till seventeen years ot 
age, after which he attended Hillsdale College a term and the An- 
gola High School six terms, receiving a diploma from the latter. 
Then commenced his medical studies under the tutorship of his 
brother, James G. Cameron, of Eden, Ohio; remained with him 
three years, and attended three courses of lectures at Rush Medi- 
cal College, Chicago, 111., graduating in the spring of 1880. May 
1, of that year, he commenced practice in the village of Hamilton, 
where by strict attention to his business, good judgment and faith- 
ful attendance upon his patients he is fast winning favor and 
friends. He was married Dec. 12, 1880, to Elnora Powers, daughter 
of Clark and Hannah Powers. She was born in York Township, 
March 7, 1854. In 1883 Dr. Cameron bought of Hon. Hugh Mc- 
Culloch the Hamilton hotel property, where the traveler is enter- 
tained and given, in every sense of the word, the comforts of home. 
Alonzo P. Clark, M. D., was born at Pratt's Hollow, Madison Co., 
N. Y., Dec. 23, 1807; his father was a native of Cape Cod, Mass., 
and emigrated with his wife to Chenango County, N. Y., in 1799. 
He and wife were descendants of the earliest New England stock. 
Dr. Alonzo Clark, when a boy, removed with his parents to Onta- 
rio County, N. Y. He early directed his attention to the study of 
medicine, and began the practice of his profession in 1831, at Port 
Gibson, Ontario Co., N. Y. He was married October, 1828, in 
Madison County, to Betsey Bump, who was born in that county 
Jan. 14, 1808. In the spring of 1836 Dr. Clark came to Steuben 
County and bought a mill-site and saw-mill in Jackson Township. 
He also bought a tract of land, a part of which composes the farm 
of his son Omar and on which was located the original plat of Steu- 
benville. He brought his family later in the season of the same 
year. He was the first physician in Steuben Township, and per- 
haps the first in the county. He was a man highly respected, and 
an excellent physician, and one of the most energetic and progres- 
sive of Steuben's pioneers. He died Feb. 3, 1S67. Politically he 
was originally a Whig, and later a Republican. He also practiced 

■r « ^ ""• B > 




law in the early history of the county, and served a term in the 
Legislature of the State, and was a public speaker of much ability. 
His wife died March 26, 1878. Dr. Clark had six children, three 
of whom are living. 

Mark T. Clay, M. D., was born in Erie County, in 1855. He 
was reared in his native county, and received a good academical 
education. When nineteen years of age he began the study of 
medicine with Dr. Israel Wheeler, of East Gilead, Branch Co., 
Mich., and later took a course of lectures at the Eclectic Medical 
College, Cincinnati, Ohio. He began the practice of his profession 
in Erie County in 1875, and in 1880 came to Steuben County, Ind., 
and located in Salem Center. He is a member of the Indiana 
Eclectic Medical Association, and was granted a diploma by this 
society May 15, 1884. He is the only practicing physician of Sa- 
lem Center, and is fast winning his way into the confidence and 
esteem of the citizens. He is a young man of pleasing address, 
courteous manners, and readily inspires confidence in his patients 
and their friends. He is also the proprietor of one of the drug 
stores of Salem Center. He was married to Amelia Beigh, a 
native of Indiana. They have two children — Leo and Lura. 

Albert Eastman^ M. D., is a native of Oneida County, N. Y., 
born in 1832, a son of Amasa and Catherine Eastman, and grand- 
son of Peter Eastman, a native of England, who came to the United 
States in the early part of the eighteenth century and settled in 
Connecticut, and subsequently moved to Oneida County, N. Y. He 
was a soldier in the Revolutionary war. His mother, Catherine 
Eastman, was a descendant of the Stuyvesant family, of New York. 
She was left an orphan at the age of twelve years, and supported 
herself by working at a sixpence a week. She had one sister, but 
they were separated after their mother's death and were never again 
united. Albert Eastman spent his early life on the home farm. 
When twenty-two years of age he came West, and located in Illinois, 
subsequently moving to La Porte, Ind. Having from his boyhood 
a desire to be a physician, as soon as he was able he devoted his 
time to the study of medicine. He is a close student, and has been 
a successful practitioner from the first. His genial, courteous man- 
ners and sympathetic, kindly ministrations have won him many 
friends, and he has a large and constantly increasing practice. His 
friends are not confined to his patients; the medical fraternity rec- 
ognizing in him a devoted and successful brother, he enjoys their 
confidence and esteem. Dr. Eastman was married in 1873 to Ella 



A., daughter of Jeffrey and Malvina (Fillmore) Francis, natives ot 
New York, her mother being a niece of Millard Fillmore. They 
have three children — Edward, Ruby and Abby. Dr. and Mrs. 
Eastman have a pleasant home, where they are surrounded by all 
that betokens comfort and refinement, and their friends find a wel- 
come that assures them of the pleasure it gives to greet and 
entertain their guests. Dr. Eastman enlisted in the war of the 
Rebellion, in the Eighty-ninth Illinois Infantry, and participated 
in all the varied fortunes of his regiment. 

Stephen H. Fuller^ M. D.^ was born in Montgomery County, 
N. Y., in 1847. When six years of age he came to Indiana with 
his parents, locating at Chesterton, Porter County, where he was 
reared. In February, 1864, he enlisted in the One HuYidred and 
Twenty-Eighth Indiana Infantry, and served till the close of the 
war. At the time of his enlistment he was but little past sixteen 
years of age, and his weight was less than 100 pounds, but he en- 
dured the hardships of war like a veteran. He participated in 
Sherman's march from Chattanooga to Atlanta, and then his regi- 
ment was assigned to General Thomas's Division, and joined in the 
Nashville campaign. He began the study of medicine in the spring 
of 1874, at Chesterton; attended two terms at Rush Medical Col- 
lege, Chicago, 111., and graduated at Fort Wayne Medical College 
in 1879, having practiced two years prior to his graduation. He 
located in Pleasant Lake in April, 1877, and has built up a large 
practice. He has been Coroner of the county three terms, and is 
one of the Pension Examiners of the State of Indiana. Dr. Fuller 
married Harriet FoUett, daughter of Almarion FoUett. They have 
two sons — Fern and Forest. 

Charles TF. Goodale, M. Z>., is a native of York Township, 
Steuben County, Ind., born May 11, 1844, a son of Burdett and 
Mary Ann Goodale. In October, 1842, his parents moved from 
Cleveland, Ohio, to Steuben County, Ind., and settled in York 
Township, where the father died June 15, 1855, aged thirty-eight 
years. His mother is living with a daughter, Mrs. Stevens. They 
had a family of four children, of whom our subject is the second. 
Albert N. was a member of the Forty-second Illinois Infantry in 
the war of the Rebellion, and died in October, 1863, from the ef- 
fects of wounds received at Chickamauga. Orville F. is clerk of 
Steuben County Court, and resides at Angola. Amelia is the wife 
of Abraham Stevens, of Metz. In his early life our subject made 
the best use of time allotted for attending school, and in addition to 

0/ I 1 I IS 

' -^S <s ^- —• © S- 



the district school attended the High School at Angola, and Hills- 
dale College. While a student at Hillsdale he enlisted in the Thir- 
tieth Michigan Infantry and served about six months. After his 
return home he began the study of medicine under the preceptor- 
ship of Dr. H. D. Wood, now of Angola, then of Metz, and re- 
mained with him three years. He then attended Rush Medical 
College, Chicago, 111., graduating in 1869. He began his practice 
at Metz, and in 1871 went to Reed City, Mich., where he remained 
till 1874. Then returned to Metz, and engaged in the mercantile 
business almost exclusively for four years, and in 1878 went to St. 
Joseph, DeKalb County, and resumed the practice of his profes- 
sion. In 1880 he returned to the home of his childhood, with the 
intention, of remaining, but his love for traffic, rivaling the love of 
his profession he again, the following fall, embarked in the mer- 
cantile business, and in October, 1881,admitted as a partner Abra- 
ham Stevens, an enterprising business man. In the spring of 
1884 he left the charge of the business to his partner, and again re- 
sumed the practice of medicine. Dr. Goodale has many friends, 
and as he is a close student and has kept himself informed on all 
the advanced theories of his profession, has no trouble in building 
up a good practice. In the spring of 1885 he sold his interest in 
the mercantile establishment of Goodale & Stevens to Jeff War- 
ner. Dr. Goodale was married Sept. 5,1869, to Miss Margaret A. 
Parrott who was born Jan. 9, 1842, daughter of Sylvester and Hen- 
rietta Parrott. They have six children — Burdett, Alice, Frank, 
Paul, Amelia and Ford. In politics Dr. Goodale is a Republican. 
He and his wife are members of the Disciple church. 

Dt. David P. Hathaway was born in the State of New Jersey, 
Nov. 4, 1791. When eleven years of age his parents, Jacob and 
Lydia (Day) Hathaway, moved to Washington County, Penn., 
where the Doctor was reared, and July 27, 1810, married Elizabeth 
Bennett. She was born in that county July 22, 1790. The Doc- 
tor commenced the practice of medicine in Washington County, 
then emigrated to Licking County, Ohio, in 1836, and in the fall of 
1849 settled on section 5, York Township, which has since been called 
Hathaway's Corners. The new country demanded his continuous 
professional services; and by hard work, attending to all calls at all 
hours, he soon broke down and died — May 11, 1850. His useful 
life was given to the help of the sick and distressed of the new 
country. His widow survived him and died Aug. 11, 1878. 

George W. Mc Connelly M. D. In writing the biographies of 



Steuben's pioneers, we have tried to place before our readers the 
simple record of those most worthy of representation, and we be- 
lieve that Steuben County has never had a citizen more deserving 
of this honor than the old pioneer whose name stands at the head 
of this sketch. He comes of pure Celtic stock, his great-grand- 
father,Robert McConnell,beinga native of County Antrim, Ireland, 
born in 1695, whose ancestors went from Scotland to the Green 
Isle in the sixteenth century. Robert McConnell and wife immi- 
grated to the American colonies early in the eighteenth century, 
and settled in Franklin County, Penn., where he died in 1770. In 
that county was born James McConnell, the grandfather of George 
W., in 1745, where he grew to manhood and married a Miss Mc- 
Connell, to whom were born six sons and six daughters, one of 
whom is living — Mrs. Judge Denny, of Lagrange County, Ind. 
On the breaking out of the Revolutionary war, he raised a com- 
pany of patriots, and Aug. 16, 1776,left his native county asCaptain 
of his company, and served throughout that struggle for indepen- 
dence. He was placed at Kings Bridge at the head of the island, 
where New York City now stands. After the war closed, he returned 
to Franklin County, Pa., where he was a Justice of the Peace 
for several years. County Commissioner in 1788, a member of the 
State Legislature from 1804 to 1806, and an Elder of the Rocky 
Spring Presbyterian Church for many years. He died inl809,and he 
and his father, Robert, are buried in Rocky Spring graveyard, near 
Charabersburg, Penn. His brother, John McConnell, was also a 
Captain in the Revolutionary war, and served from first to last in 
that struggle against tryanny, participating in the battles of Paoli 
and Brandywiue and a number of others. The father of the sub- 
ject of this sketch was James McConnell, who was born in Frank- 
lin County, Penn., Oct. 9, 1784, being the third son in a family 
of twelve children. His youth was passed in his native county, 
and in May, 1808, he was married, near Winchester, Va., to Eliza- 
beth Luckey, who was born at that point April 5, 1785, daughter 
of Joseph Luckey. Of the above marriage, twelve children were 
born, viz.: Mary J., James, Rebecca, Joseph, George W., William, 
Caroline, Robert, Eliza A., and three died in infancy. The grand- 
father of Mrs. McConnell and great-grandfather of our subject, 
Hugh Luckey, removed from Londonderry, Ireland, and settled at 
Fag's Manor, Chester Co., Pa., about the same time of Robert 
McConnelTs immigration to Franklin County, Pa. His family, 
consisted of four sons and one daughter — William, Joseph, Isaac, 


George and Elizabeth. The latter married Kev. James Duu- 
lap, the second President of Jefferson College, Cannonsburg, 
Pa. William and Joseph each raised a company of vs^hich they 
were appointed Captains and served throughout the Revolutionary 
war. Isaac enlisted as a private and was killed at the battle of 
Brandywine. Joseph was a Quartermaster under "Washington as 
well as Captain. George Luckey entered Princeton College from 
which he graduated and afterward became an eminent Presbyte- 
rian divine, settling near Baltimore, Md. He was a classmate of 
Dr. John McMillan, the founder of Jefferson College, Aaron Bnrr 
and Luther Martin. James McConnell was a very fine scholar and 
excelled as a linguist. After graduating he studied law, at same 
time taught a classical school at Mercersburg, Penn., during which 
time he prepared James Buchanan for college, who became Presi- 
dent of the United States in 1857. He entered upon the practice of 
law at Morefield, Ya., which he followed but a short time; but, as 
duty called him, he studied theology and entered the Presbyterian 
ministry, being licensed to preach at Richmond, Ya. His health 
soon failing he again took up teaching and taught at the following 
places: Morefield, Ya. ; Lovingston, Ya. ; Brownsville, Penn.; 
New Glasgow, Ya.; New London, Ya., and Chester, S. C. At 
the latter place, his continued failing health compelled him to 
quit teaching, whereupon he returned to" Pennsylvania and settled 
on a farm in Greene County. His brothers Robert, William, Alex- 
ander and Joseph were soldiers in the war of 1812. Robert and 
Alexander settled in Morgan County, Ohio, and laid out the town 
McConnellsville, in that county. James McConnell died Oct. 
7, 1840, near Mansfield, Ohio, at the home of his daughter, Mrs. 
Andrews, whom he was visiting at the time. His wife survived him 
many years, dying at Waynesburg, Pa., Sept. 6, 1863. The subject 
of this sketch was the fifth in the family, and was born in Loving- 
ston, Nelson Co., Ya., March 16, 1816. He received a good literary 
and scientific education, and in 1836 came out to the "Yermont 
settlement," Steuben Co., Ind. He studied medicine with his 
brother James, and, in the spring of 1838, began practicing on 
Jackson Prairie, moving to Angola the following year, where he 
continued practice until his brother's death, Oct. 9, 1844, when he 
retired from the profession. He was married near West Alexan- 
der, Penn., Aug. 13, 1846, to Miss Eliza Bonar, daughter of Barnet 
Bonar, who was born in Pennsylvania, Jan. 14, 1778, and Jane 
Bonar, nee Donahey, born in Ireland, Dec. 13, 1782. Barnet 




Bonar was an Elder of the Presbyterian church for over fifty 
years, and died Feb. 1, 1870, on the farm where his birth occurred 
ninety-two years previously, his wife having died Dec. 10, 1869. 
Mrs. McConnell was born in Washington County, Penn., April 22, 
1828, and has had the following children: James, William B., 
Joseph, Robert, George W., Alexander, John L., Thomas C, 
Samuel, Elizabeth J., Mary A. and Sarah M. McConnell. Of those, 
Robert, Samuel and Sarah M. died in infancy, Joseph in his eighth 
year, Mary A. in her ninth, and John L. was accidentally drowned 
in the lake when in his eighteenth year. Mrs. McConnell is 
kind and sympathetic in her nature, feeling deeply for the suffer- 
ings of others, and bearing her own with gentle fortitude. Firm 
in her attachments and friendships, she cannot understand what 
wealth or position has to do with either. To her, all humanity is 
molded alike and she knows no other guide for her relations 
toward her neighbor than that laid down in the divine law. Gen- 
erous and hospitable to a fault, she has ever wielded a power for 
good in her sphere of life. Christianlike and charitable, she loves 
to minister to God's poor, and has never sent away a homeless 
waif hungry from her door. Throughout her life she has always 
been an industrious, faithful wife, and a fond, loving mother. Dr. 
McConnell was Sheriff of Steuben County from 1847 to 1849, and 
was elected to a seat in the State Legislature for the winter of 
1851-'2 at which session the statutes were revised under the new Con- 
stitution of Indiana. He has been engaged principally in farm- 
ing and dealing in real estate. He was one of the organizers of 
the first select school of Angola, and, with others, was instrumental 
in having the present school building erected, for which he con- 
tributed generouslv. The citizens of Steuben know well the 
prominent part taken by Dr. McConnell in having the Fort Wayne, 
Jackson & Saginaw Railroad come through Angola, as well as all 
other public improvements which have added to the wealth and 
prosperity of the county. Politically a Democrat, he was always 
a firm upholder of the Union. He was at For t Wayne when the 
first shot was fired on the nation's flag at Sumter, attended a war 
meeting in that city, returned to Angola and called a similar meet- 
ing, and ever after took an active part in raising volunteers for 
the defense of the Stars and Stripes. He went into the Forty-fourth 
Indiana Volunteer Infantry, of which he was Quartermaster, and 
remained with his regiment until his private business and sickness 
in his family compelled his returning home. He and his wife are 





members of the Presbyteriaa church, and have always been earn- 
est advocates of temperance. We can safely say that Steuben 
County owes as much to George W.McConnell for its present pros- 
perity as to any citizen it has ever had, and we have been told by 
Angola's best citizens that Steuben has been known throughout 
Indiana and bordering States more through his name and efforts 
for the county's welfare than those of all other citizens combined. 
In adversity, many have deserted him, but for all time to come he 
will bo remembered as a man of active business enterprise, un- 
bounded public and private liberality, and imbued with every princi- 
ple calculated to benefit the county of which he has so long been a 
worthy citizen. 

Dr. James McCotmell, deceased. — Among the men who took an 
active and prominent part in the early history of Steuben County few 
are more worthy of mention than Dr. James McConnell. He was born 
in Morefield, Ya., Sept. 17, 1810, and was the second in the family 
of James and Elizabeth McConnell. He received his education 
at Lovingston, New Glasgow and New Loudon, Ya., under his 
father's watchful care, and soon after entered the office of Dr. Lamb, 
of Brownsville, Fayette Co., Pa.., completing his medical studies 
with Dr. Porter, formerly Professor of Anatomy in Jefferson Med- 
ical College, Philadelphia. He began practice at Brownsville, Pa., 
and about 1833 moved to McConnellsville, Ohio, and in May, 1835, 
came to Lima, Lagrange Co., Ind. The territory of which Steuben 
County, Ind., now consists was then a part of Lagrange County, 
and it will thus be seen that he was identified with Steuben County 
from the very commencement of his career in Indiana. He re- 
mained at Lima until Nov. 1, 1836, when he moved to the " Yer- 
mont settlement," now Orland, where he continued the extensive 
practice he had enjoyed in Lima. He was the first physician of 
Steuben County, and a man of fine education and undoubted ability. 
In April, 1837, he was elected Clerk and Eecorder of Steuben 
County for the term of seven years, and located his office in the log- 
cabin of John Stayner, on Jackson Prairie, removing to Angola in 
the fall of 1837, where the county-seat had been located and a frame 
office erected for his occupancy. While practicing medicine in Steu- 
ben County he was called to attend all the more difficult and im- 
portant cases which arose, one of which deserves, from the singular 
circumstances of its origin, a more detailed account. A young man 
named Munson was in the woods hunting, and started some deer. 
While maneuvering to get a shot at them, he put down his loaded 


l/jl^ (^f^ (^(TLOVO 


4 ■»■ — 



and cocked rifle, holding the barrel with his hand and letting the 
butt rest on the ground. As it happened, the butt came squarelv 
down on a large rattlesnake, which young Munson, intent on the 
deer, did not see. The snake lashed its tail, which, striking the 
trigger of the gun, caused its discharge, the bullet passing through 
Munson's neck. The surprised snake hastened to escape, leavino- 
Munson bleeding from his very dangerous wound. Dr. McConnell 
was hastily summoned, and by his skillful treatment of the wound 
saved Munson's life. He was married in Angola in January, 1841, 
to Mrs. Julia Whittaker, sister of Judge Thomas Gale, one of the 
pioneers of Angola. In 1843 Dr. McConnell resigned his oflSce, 
and began practice as an attorney, but death cut short his labors, 
he dying Oct. 9, 1844. Most of the old settlers remember him as a 
man of integrity and true worth; energetic, obliging and capable; 
possessed of the finer attributes of manhood, and endowed with a 
strong, logical brain. Although first settling in Lima, he was 
from the beginning intimately associated with the early, sturdy 
pioneers of " Old Steuben," of whom their descendants may well 
feel proud. Dr. James McConnell, though dead over forty years, 
is still spoken of in words of kindness and honor. 

William II. Miller, M. B., was born in Toronto, Canada, Sept. 
20, 1851, a son of Simeon and Louisa (Frink) Miller. His father 
was a native of Yorkshire, England, and when fourteen years of 
age came to America, and lived in Monroe County, N. Y., till after 
his marriage, when he moved to Toronto. Li 1856 he returned to 
Monroe County, and in 1866 moved to Jackson County, Mich., 
where he still resides. The family consists of six children — four 
sons and two daughters. When our subject was seventeen years 
of age he left home, and from that time maintained and educated 
himself. Being ambitious to obtain a thorough education and ul- 
timately enter a professional life, he went to Jackson, Mich., where 
he attended the graded schools three years, working when not in 
school to defray his expenses. He then attended the literary de- 
partment of Ann Arbor University, and while there decided to 
take up the profession of medicine. After leaving the University 
he returned to Jackson and entered the office of Drs. Anderson & 
Towne, remaining with them, when jiot attending lectures, till 
March, 1884. In the winter of 1880-'81 he attended the Hahne- 
mann Medical College, Chicago, and also in 1881-'82, graduating 
in the spring of 1882. He continued his practice under the guid- 
ance of his former tutors till 1884, when he removed to Fremont, 



where he is gaming the confidence of the people and is building up 
a good practice. He is a young man of good address, unquestion- 
able habits, courteous and genial manners, and his close attention 
to his profession and alertness to comprehend any new departure 
combine to make him a successful practitioner. Dr. Miller was 
married in Napoleon, Jackson Co., Mich., to IdaC. Russell, daugh- 
ter of Levi and Harriet (Kilmer) Russell. They have two chil- 
dren — Arthur R. and Franklin. 

John H. Moore, M. />., is a native of Ohio, born June 9, 1820. 
He was reared in Ohio, and there began the study of his profession, 
graduating from the Ohio Eclectic Medical College, Cincinnati. 
He began his practice in Mahoning County, Ohio, and in 1853 
came to Steuben County, and lived in Angola four years, then 
moved to Scott Township, where he has since lived and built up an 
extensive and successful practice. His residence is on section 17, 
and is one of the pleasantest in Scott Township. Dr. Moore was 
married in Mahoning County, to Abigail Lee, who died in 1857, 
leaving live children — Mrs. Sarah James, of Angola; Mrs. Mary 
Allen, of Fremont; Mrs. Eliza Lamareux, of Allegan County, Mich. ; 
Duane, of Otsego Township, and Mrs. Harriet Hulwick, of Otsego 
Township. Li 1858 he married Kate Gushart, who died after six 
years of married life, leaving two children — Mrs. Alpharetta 
Hutchins and Mrs. Cora Kilburn. Jan. 1, 1867, he married Har. 
riet Holdredge, who was born Feb. 7, 1837, daughter of Dudley 
and Abigail Holdredge, who came from Portage County, Ohio, to 
Steuben County in 1840. To them have been born two children — 
Dudley H. and Minneola. The Doctor's sentiments are, universal 
mental liberty; the world is his country; to do good, his religion^ 

A. 0. Parsell, M. D., was born in Essex County, N. J., Jan. 
21, 1826, a son of Moses S. and Hannah B. (Crilley) Parsell, natives 
of New Jersey. Moses S. Parsell was born in 1797, and was reared 
in his native county, where he learned the trade of a shoemaker. 
He married Mary Campbell, who died a few years later, leaving 
two children — John, who died in boyhood, and Mary C, who lives 
on Long Island, N. Y. Mr. Parsell afterward married Hannah 
B. Crilley, and to them were born five children, three of whom are 
living — A. G., Sarah W. and Elizabeth S., wife of Avery Emerson. 
Abijah died in 1882, aged fifty-five years. Thomas B. died at the 
age of forty-one years. In 1838 the family came to Indiana with 
the intention of locating in Lagrange County, but changed their 
location to Steuben County, and bought a tract of unimproved land 




of Judge Emerson on section 35, Jackson Township. He built a 
frame house and began the improvement of his land. After 
paying for his land and buying a cow he had no money. He 
died in November, 1839, leaving a wife and six children, the 
eldest but fifteen years old. The mother kept the children to- 
gether till they were old enough to take care of themselves, the 
boys taking charge of the farm. She died in 1846. A. G. Par- 
sell remained on the homestead till manhood. In the fall and 
winter of 1845-'46 he had a severe sickness and another in the 
spring of 1847, which so weakened his constitution that he was un- 
able to perform the duties of a farmer's life, and he turned his at- 
tention to the study of medicine. He entered the office of Dr. 
William Bevier, of Salem Center, and remained with him two 
years. He then attended a course of lectures at tlie Eclectic Medi- 
cal Institute, Cincinnati, and afterward studied with Dr. Bevier 
another year. He began the practice of his profession in 1852, 
locating at Salem Center. Two years later he moved to Fairfield 
Center, De Kalb County, and in 1858 returned to Salem Township, 
and located on a farm, although he continued his practice. In 1881 
he sold his farm and moved to Hudson, and engaged in the mer- 
cantile business with his son George. He was married in 1846 to 
Emily Emerson, daughter of Judge Avery Emerson. They have 
had ten children, seven of whom are living — Albert A., in Texas- 
George A.; Ida A., wife of R. R. Redfield, of Humboldt, Kas.;' 
James R., in Colorado; Henrietta S., wife of Elmer Ransburg, of 
Edgerton, Ohio; Nellie and Thomas A. Three daughters died in 
infancy. Dr. Parsell is well known for his sterling integrity and 
his strong advocacy of all principles he believes to be right. He 
is in all respects a worthy representative of the pioneer element of 
Steuben County. In politics he is a Republican. He and his wife 
are members of the Presbyterian church. 

Elisha S. Robison^ M. Z>., was born in Morrow County, Ohio, 
Feb. 12, 1838, a son of Isaac and Nancy (Kilborn) Robison, who 
were slaves. His father was liberated by an act of the State in 
1817. He purchased his wife's liberty a year later, for $500. To 
them were born three children — two daughters, deceased, and 
Elisha S. The mother died in 1848, and his father afterward 
married Alby Lennox, and to them was born one son — Isaac, a 
clerk in a bank in California. The father died in 1862, and his 
wife in 1871. She was a daughter of her master, her mother be- 
ing a house servant. Our subject was reared in a Quaker family. 




and was educated in their scliools, not being allowed, on account 
of color prejudice, to attend the common schools, which his father's 
money helped to build. When twenty years of age he went to 
Iberia, Ohio, and the latter part of 1S59 to Massilon, Ohio, where 
he was in the office of Dr. J. B. Bowen a short time, and then went 
to Kent County, Mich., and engaged in farming. Oct. 20, 1S63, 
he enlisted in Company G, One Hundred and Second Michigan In- 
fantry, and served two years. After hi,s return home he again 
studied medicine and subsequently attended two courses of lectures 
at the Montreal Medical College. April 9, 1876, he moved to 
Branch County, Mich., and Feb. 16, 1882, to Fremont, Ind. He 
has built up a good practice. He is a hard student and has ac- 
quired a thorough knowledge of medicine and its effects on the 
human system, and is a successful practitioner. Dr. Kobison was 
married in Grand Kapids, Mich., in 1862, to Julia A. Sloat, a 
daughter of Commodore Sloat, a prominent slaveholder of North 
Carolina, and one of his house servants, by whom he had two chil- 
dren. He became involved and was obliged to sell some of the 
slaves, and among them was Mrs. Robison and her mother. They 
were sent to the Red River country, at that time a dreaded point. 
While on the boat a colored man, named Moses Cleveland, asked 
the mother if she would like her liberty. Being answered in the 
affirmative, he assisted her to escape. She was put into a hack at 
the wharf and taken to another part of the city. There she donned 
male attire and thus made her way to the North. Mrs. Robison 
died in 1865. He afterward, April 19, married Maggie M. Barker, 
a native of Fulton County, Ky. They have had two children — 
Pearl and Floyd, the latter deceased. 

M. F. Shaw, M. Z>., is a native of Indiana, born in Noble 
County, Aug. 26, 1858, a son of Thomas and Susannah (Stump) 
Shaw, natives of Ohio. In 1857 his parents moved to Noble 
County, Ind., where his mother died in 1862. His father after- 
ward married Rachel Grisamere and still resides in Noble County. 
Our subject remained on his father's farm till twenty years of age. 
After spending three years in Ft. Wayne Medical College and 
teaching public school, he went into the office of Dr. E. W. Knip- 
per, of Ligonier, Ind., and studied with him three years. In the 
winter of lS82-'83 he attended a course of lectures at Bellevue 
Hospital Medical College, New York City, and the next winter at- 
tended a second course, graduating in the spring of 1884. He 
than located in Angola, Ind., where he is building up a good 

\k ^ -^ ^ K> 

^ ^ , ■ 1 (0 


practice. He is a bard student, is determined to succeed in his 
profession, and by bis energy and incessant application to bis pro- 
fession is winning the confidence of the people and the esteem 
of the medical fraternity. His pleasing address, genial manners 
and good habits have won for him a place in the be