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Full text of "A history of St. Paul's School"

THE LIBRARY 

VICTORIA UNIVERSITY 
Toronto 




10.000 \V 11/15 



A HISTORY OF 
ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 



I / I in lif \\l i>il 




-S COLE1 IS -. 

P 

ff. Holbein <#/.] [.. Harris sc. 

JOHN COLET, D.D., DEAN OF ST. FAULTS 

Founder of SL PauCi School 

[Front isf it e. 



A HISTORY OF 

ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 



BY 



MICHAEL F. j. MCDONNELL 

OF THE INNER TEMPLE, BARRISTER- AT-LAW, SOMETIME SCHOLAR OF 
ST. JOHN S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE 



WITH FORTY-EIGHT PORTRAITS AND OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS 



LONDON 

CHAPMAN AND HALL, LTD. 
1909 



- 



RICHARD CLAY & SONS, L.MITED, 

BREAD STREET HILL, B.C., AND 
BUNGAV, SUFFOLK. 



I I54J2 



TO 

FREDERICK WILLIAM WALKER 

THE GREATEST OF THE SUCCESSORS OF WILLIAM LILY 

THIS BOOK IS, BY PERMISSION, 

DEDICATED AS A SMALL TRIBUTE OF GRATITUDE 
BY HIS PUPIL 

THE AUTHOR 



PREFACE 

THE hesitation which I feel in submitting this, the first 
history of St. Paul s School which has ever been written, to 
the consideration of the public, and more especially of Old 
Paulines, would be far greater were it not for the help and 
advice which I have received from the high master. Dr. 
Hillard read a portion of the MS. at a very early stage, 
and I doubt if I should have completed it but for the 
encouragement which he gave me. 

I owe many acknowledgments to the researches of the 
late Dr. Lupton, and if on some questions of fact I show 
in these pages that I differ from the conclusions at which 
he arrived, I do so with all deference to a distinguished 
scholar. 

My thanks are also due to the surmaster, the Rev. 
R. B. Gardiner, from whose Registers of the school much of 
my information has necessarily been derived. I must also 
acknowledge his kindness in lending me many MS. notes, 
including a short outline of the history of the school. 

To the Rev. R. J. Walker I am indebted for the loan 
of an ancient MS. volume, but more than this, I must 
tender him my thanks for constant help from the vast store 
of information concerning the school which he possesses. 

Mr. Albert Hartshorne, F.S.A., to whom I presented 
myself as a complete stranger, not merely allowed me free 
access to his enormous and valuable collection of MSS., but 

vii 



viii PREFACE 

with remarkable generosity allowed me to keep in my 
possession, for several weeks, many of the most important 
of the Postlethwayt letters. I have gladly availed myself 
of the kind offer of Mr. R. C. Seaton, an assistant master 
in the school, to revise the manuscript of Chapter XXII, 
and I must also acknowledge the courtesy of Colonel 
Montague Clementi, O.P., in sending me a number of 
documents bearing on the same subject. 

My thanks and those of my readers are due to Mr. 
C. M. Thomas, an assistant master in the school, for the 
labour and care which he has devoted to the task of photo 
graphing the portraits in the Great Hall, with a view to 
reproduction in this volume. Mr. Harris, the art master, 
has been kind enough to allow me to reproduce three of 
his drawings. Mr. P. Holden, the assistant art master, 
has allowed me to reproduce his drawing of the interior of 
the third school, and Mr. Birch, O.P., has given me leave 
to reproduce his photograph of the present school building. 
I have further to acknowledge assistance received from the 
Master of Christ s College, Cambridge, Mr. Laurence 
Binyon, O.P., Professor Lethaby, and the authorities at 
the school ; in particular, Mr. Bewsher, the bursar, and 
Mr. John Lupton, O.P., the librarian of the boys library. 

Finally, I have received help from the librarians of St. 
Paul s Cathedral, Lambeth Palace, the Guildhall, and Sion 
College. The portrait of Lord Truro is reproduced by 
permission of Mr. Emery Walker, and that of the late high 
master by permission of Messrs. Russell of Baker Street. 

Lamb Building, Temple, 
August /pop. 



CONTENTS 

CHAP. PAGE 

I. THE ANCIENT SCHOOL OF ST. PAUL S . . i 

II. THE FOUNDATION OF THE NEW SCHOOL . . -13 

III. DEAN COLET S STATUTES 33 

IV. THE SUBJECTS OF STUDY AND THE SCHOOL-BOOKS . 43 
V. THE FIRST HIGH MASTER, WILLIAM LILY, 1509-1522 69 

VI. WILLIAM LILY S SUCCESSORS : JOHN RITWISE, RICHARD 
JONES, AND THOMAS FREEMAN, HIGH MASTERS 
1522-1559 88 

VII. THE ELIZABETHAN CHANGES. JOHN COOK, HIGH 

MASTER 1559-1573 no 

VIII. A DISTINGUISHED COURTIER. WILLIAM MALYM, HIGH 

MASTER 1573-1581 . . . . 124 

IX. THE AMENDING ORDINANCES OF 1602. JOHN HAR 
RISON AND RICHARD MULCASTER, HIGH MASTERS 
1581-1608 136 

X. MILTON S SCHOOL-MASTER. ALEXANDER GILL, SENIOR, 

HIGH MASTER 1608-1635 156 

XI. A TURBULENT HIGH MASTER. ALEXANDER GILL, 

JUNIOR, HIGH MASTER 1635-1640 . . . 180 

XII. PURITAN INFLUENCES AT ST. PAUL S. JOHN LANGLEY, 

HIGH MASTER 1640-1657 198 

ix 



x CONTENTS 

CHAP. PACE 

XIII. THE FIRE OF LONDON. SAMUEL CROMLEHOLME, HIGH 

MASTER 1657-1672 .... .221 

XIV. THE NEW SCHOOL BUILDING. THOMAS GALE, HIGH 

MASTER 1672-1697 .... 2 46 

XV. A GREAT ORIENTALIST. JOHN POSTLETHWAYT, HIGH 

MASTER 1697-1713 268 

XVI. THE BEGINNING OF DECAY. PHILIP AYSCOUGH AND 

BENJAMIN MORLAND, HIGH MASTERS 1713-1733 296 

XVII. THE CONTINUANCE OF DECAY. TIMOTHY CRUMPE AND 

GEORGE CHARLES, HIGH MASTERS 1733-1748 . 316 

XVIII. THE SECOND FOUNDER. GEORGE THICKNESSE, HIGH 

MASTER 1748-1769 329 

XIX. THE LONGEST HIGH MASTERSHIP. RICHARD ROBERTS, 

HIGH MASTER 1769-1814 355 

XX. THE EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY. JOHN SLEATH, 

HIGH MASTER 1814-1837 379 

XXI. THE LAST DAYS IN THE CITY. HERBERT KYNASTON, 

HIGH MASTER 1838-1876 399 

XXII. THE CHARITY COMMISSIONERS AND THE SCHOOL . 412 

XXIII. THE RENAISSANCE OF THE SCHOOL. FREDERICK 

WILLIAM WALKER, HIGH MASTER 1877-1905 . 426 

XXIV. CONCLUSION. A. E. HILLARD, HIGH MASTER 1905 . 454 
INDEX . 469 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Facing page 

JOHN COLET, D.D., DEAN OF ST. PAUL S . . Frontispiece 
JOHN COLET IN THE DEANERY AT ST. PAUL S, KNEELING AT 

THE FEET OF AN EVANGELIST . 

THE HIGH MASTER S COUNTRY HOUSE AT STEPNEY . 36 

WILLIAM LILY, FIRST HIGH MASTER OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL . 68 

EDWARD, FIRST LORD NORTH . . 78 

JOHN LELAND, KING S ANTIQUARY . . ... 80 

ROBERT PURSGLOVE, BISHOP OF HULL 82 

WILLIAM, FIRST LORD PAGET, K.G. 86 

WILLIAM WHITAKER, MASTER OF ST. JOHN S COLLEGE, CAM 
BRIDGE, AND REGIUS PROFESSOR OF DIVINITY . . .118 

JOHN HOWSON, BISHOP OF OXFORD AND OF DURHAM . .120 

WILLIAM CAMDEN, HEAD MASTER OF WESTMINSTER AND 

CLARENCIEUX KING-AT-ARMS 122 

SIR FRANCIS VERE, GENERAL 134 

SIR CHARLES SCARBOROUGH, F.R.S., PRINCIPAL PHYSICIAN TO 

CHARLES II, JAMES II AND WILLIAM III ... 166 

JOHN MILTON AS A SCHOOLBOY AT ST. PAUL S . . .172 

GEORGE HOOPER, BISHOP OF ST. ASAPH AND OF BATH AND 

WELLS 204 

RICHARD CUMBERLAND, BISHOP OF PETERBOROUGH . . . 208 
SAMUEL PEPYS, F.R.S., SECRETARY FOR THE NAVY . . .212 

HUMPHREY GOWER, MASTER OF ST. JOHN S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, 

LADY MARGARET PROFESSOR OF DIVINITY . . .216 

JOHN CHURCHILL, FIRST DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH, K.G. . 226 



xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Fating jaft 

THE ANCIENT BUST OF DEAN COLET, SAVED FROM THE GREAT 
FIRE ..... . . 



ST. PAUL S SCHOOL IN 1670 ..... 2 34 

THOMAS GALE, HIGH MASTER OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL AND 

DEAN OF YORK ....... 246 

EDMUND HALLEV, F.R.S., ASTRONOMER ROYAL 250 
SPENCER COMPTON, FIRST EARL OF WILMINGTON, K.G. . -258 

CHARLES MONTAGU, FIRST DUKE OF MANCHESTER . . 260 

CHARLES BOYLE, EARL OF ORRERY ...... 262 

BENJAMIN MORLAND (?), HIGH MASTER OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 304 

JOHN STRYPE, ANTIQUARY ....... 320 

GEORGE THICKNESSE, HIGH MASTER OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL . 328 

SIR SOULDEN LAWRENCE, JUSTICE OF THE KING S BENCH . 338 

SIR PHILIP FRANCIS, K.C.B ........ 342 

JOHN FISHER, BISHOP OF EXETER AND OF SALISBURY . . 346 

MAJOR JOHN ANDRE ........ 348 

ADMIRAL SIR THOMAS TROUBRIDGE, BART ..... 350 

RICHARD ROBERTS, HIGH MASTER OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL . 354 

INTERIOR OF THE SCHOOL-ROOM IN 1816 ..... 362 

THOMAS WILDE, LORD TRURO, LORD CHANCELLOR OF ENGLAND 366 

SIR J. F. POLLOCK, BART., F.R.S., LORD CHIEF BARON OF 

THE EXCHEQUER ........ 372 

JOHN SLEATH, HIGH MASTER OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL . . 378 

ST. PAUL S SCHOOL IN 1816 ....... 384 

ST. PAUL S SCHOOL IN 1876 ....... 390 

BENJAMIN JOWETT, MASTER OF BALLIOL COLLEGE, OXFORD, 

AND REGIUS PROFESSOR OF GREEK ..... 392 

JAMES, LORD HANNEN, LORD OF APPEAL IN ORDINARY . . 394 

HERBERT KYNASTON, HIGH MASTER OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL . 398 

INTERIOR OF THE LIBRARY IN 1876 ..... 402 

INTERIOR OF THE SCHOOL-ROOM IN 1876 ..... 406 

FREDERICK W. WALKER, HIGH MASTER OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 427 

ST. PAUL S SCHOOL AT THE PRESENT DAY .... 446 



A HISTORY OF 

ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

CHAPTER I 

THE ANCIENT SCHOOL OF ST. PAUL S 

THERE can be no doubt that a school existed from very 
early times under the shadow of St. Paul s Cathedral. Papal 
injunctions as early as the eighth century required that 
every conventual church should have a school adjoining it, 
and under its immediate care and control. Hence arose the 
ancient proverb, " Wherever there is a monastery there is a 
school." 

The decree of the Eleventh General Council of the 
Lateran, held in 1179, which provides that "in every 
Cathedral Church a master ought to teach poor scholars as 
has been accustomed," and the further order that " the like 
also should be restored in other Churches and Monasteries, 
if in times past any such have belonged to them, and have 
been taken away," clearly indicates the antiquity of many 
cathedral schools. 

The first reference which is known to be extant concern 
ing the school attached to the Cathedral of St. Paul in 
London is to be found among the Harleian MSS. It occurs 
in a charter 1 by which Richard de Belmeis or Beaumes, 

1 Harl. MSS., No. 6956. 



4 A HISTORY OF ST. PAULS SCHOOL 

fully disposed to laugh, with wrinkled noses redouble their 
shrill guffaws." 

The termination of this passage, which is a quotation 
from Persius, 1 is interesting in view of what is frequently 
said as to the teaching in the old grammar schools. 

Fitzstephen, who after being Dean of Arches became 
Judge of the King s Court, writing of St. Paul s as the 
school of the city par excellence (scale urbis] states that 
Thomas a Becket, the martyred St. Thomas of Canterbury, 
was educated there before he proceeded to the University of 
Paris. 

The next reference to this school in point of time, 
which is known to be extant, occurs towards the end of the 
twelfth century in a record which states that " Richard, sur- 
named Nigel, who sat Bishop here in King Richard I s 
time, gave unto this school all the tithes arising in his 
demesnes at Fulham and Orsett, for the receipts of them in 
gathering." 2 

Shortly after this date Radulphus de Seleham gave lands 
in Lodesword to the Magister scholarum of the Church of 
St. Paul. About the beginning of the thirteenth century, 
as we have seen, this title became lost in that of Chancellor, 
and Henry de Cornhull, who held that post in 1217, by his 
will left his house on the south side of St. Paul s Churchyard 
to his successors for ever on payment of one mark on each 
anniversary of his death. 

Nothing is known of the history of the school for nearly 
a century after this, but in 1308 Ralph de Baldock con 
firmed the tithes of Ealing, which nearly two hundred years 
before had been granted to the Chancellor of the cathedral 
on condition that that official should, either in person or by 
deputy, read a lecture in divinity. 

1 Pen. III. 87. 

2 Newcourt, vol. i. p. 307 ; vol. ii. p. 4.54. 



THE ANCIENT SCHOOL OF ST. PAUL S 5 

It has been suggested that Chaucer was educated at the 
cathedral grammar school. There is no evidence in sup 
port of the surmise, but if it is correct he must have 
entered the school less than a quarter of a century after 
the confirmation of this grant. 

Dr. Lupton 1 called attention to a document preserved 
among the Harleian MSS. which he supposed had refer 
ence to this school. The manuscript is a will made in 
the early part of the reign of Edward III by William de 
Tolleshunte, almoner of St. Paul s, who died in 1320, by 
which he bequeathed for the use of the boys living and 
studying in the almonry a library of books which included 
all the main subjects of academic teaching. 

The fact that the bequest in this case was left to the 
almonry shows that it had no reference to the cathedral 
grammar school under the control of the Chancellor. It 
was left for the benefit of the choristers who were under 
the independent care of the almoner, whose singing school, 
according to the statutes of Baldock and Lisieux, was held in 
the Church of St. Gregory, closely adjoining the cathedral. 2 

In 1393 a petition was presented to the King in Par 
liament by the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of 
London, the Dean of St. Martin le Grand, and the 
Chancellor of St. Paul s, having for its purpose the asser 
tion of the privileges of the three old schools which 
extended to the suburbs as well as to the city, and the 
desire to put down " certain strangers feigning them 
selves masters of grammar, not sufficiently learned in that 
faculty, who against law and custom hold general schools 
of grammar in deceit and fraud of children, to the great 
prejudice of your lieges and of the jurisdiction of Holy 
Church." 

1 Life of Co/el, p. 155. 

2 W. Sparrow Simpson, Registrum Statutorum, p. 22. 



THE ANCIENT SCHOOL OF ST. PAUL S 9 

the writing of Bishop Tunstall appended to one of Colet s 
MSS. at Corpus which may well make Paulines blush for 
the carelessness of their predecessors. It runs, " Super- 
sunt multa ab eodem Joanne Colet scripta in D. Paulum, 
sed puerorum incuria perierunt." 

In many of the points which the lecturer made, it is 
interesting to trace opinions similar to those expanded 
by his friend Sir Thomas More, in the Utopia. The 
principle of a community of property on which the 
Utopian republic rests, the preference of the most dis 
advantageous peace to the most just war, the Lord 
Chancellor s denunciation of the manner in which those 
who administered the laws punished people for their 
ignorance of that which they themselves should have 
taught them, are all points in which More preached 
exactly what Colet had some years earlier said at Oxford. 

In 1498, Colet made the acquaintance of Erasmus, to 
whom he was introduced by Richard Charnock, the prior 
of the Augustinian canons, with whom the Dutch scholar 
was staying. The friends saw much of each other in the 
interval which elapsed before the first month of 1500, in 
which Erasmus left Oxford for the Continent. 

During these years at Oxford, Colet held various 
benefices, notably the vicarage of Stepney. This he 
resigned in 1505, the year of his father s death, and 
shortly after his appointment to the Deanery of St. Paul s, 
in which he succeeded Robert Sherborne, who was pro 
moted to the see of St. David s on the occasion of his 
embassy to Rome to congratulate Pius III on his election 
to the Pontificate. 

The commanding personality of John Colet, which 
made him, although not the most scholarly of the group, 
stand out as the central figure among the English 
humanists, has led various writers to make ex parte state- 



10 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

ments concerning his religious views, and his alleged 
influence on the Reformation in England. 

This is not the place in which to enter upon a discus 
sion of the religious views of a man whom Milman called 
the "greatest of the Deans of St. Paul s," but it must be 
remembered that he was the spiritual director of Sir Thomas 
More, a martyr who ranks among the Bead of the Catholic 
Church. 

The statements so freely made concerning Colet s con 
tempt for the inmates of monasteries and religious houses 
are unworthy of attention in view of the Dean s intimacy 
with John Sowle, the Carmelite of Whitefriars, Jehan Vitrier, 
the Franciscan of St. Omer, and Richard Charnock, the 
Oxford Augustinian ; while the fact that he chose the 
monastery of the Carthusians at Sheen as the place in which 
to retire to die finally disposes of the suggestion. 

Dr. Lupton l evidently viewed with suspicion the un 
corroborated statement of Tyndale that Fitzjames, the 
Bishop of London, would have fain prosecuted Colet for 
translating the Paternoster into English. The absurdity of 
the charges of heresy which, according to Erasmus, were 
brought against him by the Bishop, is obvious, not only 
from the fact that they were dismissed by Archbishop 
Warham, but also when it is remembered that the main 
accusation against Colet was that he taught that devotion 
should not be paid to images. 

In the place of honour in the school which he built, 
Colet placed an image of the Christ Child, to whom, with 
his Blessed Mother, he dedicated the foundation ; and it is 
hard to believe that the chantry chapel which he endowed 
in the school, and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin and St. 
John the Evangelist, contained no presentments of its 
patron saints. 

1 Lupton, Colet, p. 202. 



THE ANCIENT SCHOOL OF ST. PAUL S 11 

Whether this was the case or not, the dedication both 
of the school and of its chapel, and the inclusion in the 
Catechyson of the Ave Maria and another prayer to Our 
Lady, as well as the precept "Worship Chryst Jesu and his 
moder Mary," are all facts which completely dispose of Dr. 
Kynaston s approving comment on " the absence of all 
mariolatry from the religious exercises and statutes appointed 
by Colet." l 

Bishop Hugh Latimer 2 recalled the charges against Colet 
in a sermon preached many years afterwards, and distorted 
the facts when he said that " he should have been burnt if 
God had not turned the King s heart to the contrary." 
Colet, had he lived, could have had little sympathy with 
Latimer, who forwarded to London the figure of Our Lady, 
which he had thrust out of his cathedral church at Worcester, 
with the rough words of scorn that " She, with her old sister 
of Walsingham, her younger sister of Ipswich, and their 
two other sisters of Doncaster and Penrice, would make a 
jolly muster at Smithfield when they were burnt." 

A letter written by Sir Thomas More 3 to an anonymous 
monk in r 520 contains a defence of Erasmus against an impu 
tation of heresy, and says that his orthodoxy is proved by his 
intimacy with Colet, Fisher, Warham, Mountjoy, Tunstall, 
Pace and Grocyn. The stress laid by More on Colet s 
position in this matter is very significant, and it is hard 
to say otherwise than that the Lutheran Reformation, 
had he lived, would have found him, not on the 
side of Latimer and Ridley, but on that of Fisher and 
More. 

No trace of sympathy with any aspect of the Reform 
ation is to be found in the lives of either of the two first 

1 Kynaston, The Number of the Fish. 

2 Larimer s Sermons, Parker Soc. 440. 

3 Brewer, Letters and Papers, Hen. nil, vol. Hi., pt. i, No. 567. 



12 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

high masters of the school, of whom the second was 
appointed to the surmastership by Colet himself. 

Lily s son became the right-hand man of Cardinal Pole. 
The high master was himself on terms of intimacy with 
William Herman, Vice-Provost of Eton, who presented 
various relics of Christ and the saints to the college chapel. 
Both Lily and Ritwise identified themselves with Horman 
by prefixing epigrams to his school-book entitled Bulgaria, 
which is full of references to the Blessed Virgin, such as the 
sentences, "The holynes of Our Lady pulled God out of 
heaven," and " Our Lady s ymage ought to stande gylte in 
a tabernacle upon a base of marble." 

William Lily l was also himself the author of verses, De 
laudibus deiparae Virginia ; and the play by Ritwise, of 
which we have some account, was all in the interests of 
allegiance to the Holy See, " the heretic Luther " being held 
up to special reprobation. 

1 Pitzaeus de Angliae Scriptoribui, p, 697. 



CHAPTER II 

THE FOUNDATION OF THE NEW SCHOOL 

WE are able to follow in some detail the various legal 
steps taken by Colet in founding his school. 

The first mention of the school in the Acts of Court of 
the Mercers Company occurs on April 9, i^o, 1 where " it 
was shown by Master Thomas Baldry, Mercer, that Master 
Dr. Colet, Dean of Paul s, had desired him to show unto 
the company that he is disposed for the foundation of his 
school to mortify certain lands which he holds that the 
company should have, if they would be bound to maintain 
the said school according to the foundation." One of the 
wardens and the above-named member of the company 
were put into communication with the Dean, and on April 16 
they reported that " the said Master Dean was very glad 
that he might have with us communication thereof in whom 
he proposeth to put all the rule and governance of the said 
school." 

That the school was in existence before this date is to be 
seen from the fact that there is extant an indenture, 2 dated 
July i, i Henry VIII, 1509, whereby Colet and the Mercers 
Company grant to one William Gerge, his heirs and assigns, 
a certain manor in the County of Hertford, on condition that 

1 Minutes of Evidence before the Select Committee of the House of 
Lords on Public Schools Bill, 1865, p. 10. 

2 Appendix to Third Report of Commissioners on Charities, 1820, 
p. 164. 



14 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

the grantee, his heirs and assigns, should pay to the company 
for ever 8 for the use of the school. 

In the early part of the following year, Colet, being 
anxious to secure a licence under which the Mercers could 
acquire lands in mortmain, presented a Supplicatio ad Regiam 
Maiestatem, in which he craved leave "to geve and to mortyse 
landies and tenementis of the clere yearly value of fifty and 
three pounds, in the countie of Buk, to som body cor- 
porat at his denomynacion." The petition set out 1 how 
Colet, " to the pleasure of God and for and in augmentation 
and encrease, as well of connyng as of vertuose lyving w in 
this your realme, hathe now of late edifyed within the 
cimitory of the said cathedral! churche a scholehouse (where 
in he purposith that children as well borne as to be borne 
w yn youre saide citie as elsewhere) to the same repayring 
shall not oonly in contynuance be substancially taughte & 
lernyd in Laten tung, but also instructe & informed in 
vertuouse condicions." 

The reply to this petition, a warrant by letters patent of 
the King, was delivered on June 6, 1510. These letters 
patent, which may be considered as the original charter of 
the school, gave permission to the Mercers Company to 
acquire lands in mortmain to the annual value of ^53, for 
the better support of one master and one or two ushers in 
the school which John Colet, Dean of St. Paul s, had founded. 

A month later, on July 27, according to a document 
the source of which has never been stated, 2 the Chapter 
and Chancellor of St. Paul s granted the site of the old 
school, its buildings and all its rights to the Dean. The 
Chapter told how 

" By antient, lawful, and laudable prescription, as well as 

1 Appendix to Third Report of Commissioners on Charities i8zo 
p. 161. 

2 Times, April ^, 1904. 



FOUNDATION OF THE NEW SCHOOL 15 

by the statutes and laudable customs of the said Cathedral 
church, the master of the grammar school of the said Church 
of St. Paul s, London, for the time being, has always been a 
member of our body, and has the right of entry to the choir 
of the said church during divine service, and of a seat in a 
fitting stall in the accustomed place there, whether he is a 
priest or a layman, so long as he appears in a proper surplice. 
And whereas, both in his own person and for his own house 
or inn, he has always enjoyed the same liberty as the master 
of the house of the alms boys (/. e. the choristers). There 
fore we take into our body and that of our church Master 
William Lyly, the first master of the new school of St. Paul s, 
and his successors in office, and that he and his successors in 
office may exercise their office quietly in the premisses and 
be diligent in the teaching of the boys. . . . We grant that 
the master, the school and the house may be free from all 
parochial exactions, and enjoy the same privilege as the alms 
boys house of the said church enjoys, and that in that house 
they need recognize no curate except the cardinals of St. 
Paul s, from whom they ought to receive all sacraments and 
sacramentals." 

Curate, of course, means curt, a person in cure of souls ; 
and the cardinals were the senior minor canons. 

Further, according to the same authority, "Colet obtained 
from the most holy father the Pope a Bull confirming the 
exemption of his school from the jurisdiction of the Chan 
cellor of St. Paul s." In his application he described how, 
" at his own proper cost, he had caused to be built a certain 
school in the city of London, in the place or churchyard of 
the Cathedral church of London, a spot, indeed, which was 
the chief and most frequented and, as it were, the very eye 
of the city, where already there was a school, plainly of no 
importance, now newly built from the foundation in most 
beautiful stone-work and endowed." 



16 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

The Mercers minutes record 1 that on September 23, 
1510, Colet was present at a Court of the company, and 
related how he had obtained the mortmain licence from the 
King, and the minutes go on to say that " the said Master 
Dean showed unto the company that for such labours and 
business as they and their successors should have in the 
ordering of the said school that they should have in this city 
of London upon the payment of forty-four marks by year 
in rents." No trace is to be found of any conveyance to the 
company of lands in the city worth forty-four marks a year, 
and it was mainly on this entry that the Mercers depended 
in the claim set up by them in the nineteenth century, the 
gist of which was that, after providing on a liberal scale for 
the expenses of the school, the surplus rents and profits 
were to vest in the company for its own absolute use and 
benefit. 

On March 23, 1511, the building of the old grammar 
school of the cathedral "My grammar-house, a messuage 
lately called Paul s School," as Colet calls it in his will of 1514 
was vested in three citizens and Mercers of London as 
trustees for the company. They reconveyed the property to 
the Dean, and the actual endowment of the new school with 
the building and site of the old did not take effect until the 
death of the Dean, when it vested in the company under the 
provisions of Colet s will, executed in I5I4- 2 

In the inventory of " the landis of the scole " affixed to 
the statutes, the first item relates to the " olde scole," the 
annual value of which is there stated to be twenty shillings. 
The reason for the conveyance by Colet to the three 
Mercers, and for their reconveyance to him, was that Colet, 
as Dean, could not convey directly to Colet as a private 
individual. On July 12, 1511, Colet, pursuant to "the 

1 Report of Public Schools Commission, 1864, vol. ii. p. 586. 

2 R.B.Gardiner, Registers of St. Paul s School, vol. i. pp. 374, 385. 



FOUNDATION OF THE NEW SCHOOL 17 

licence to mortefy granted by the King s grace " in the 
preceding year, executed a deed of conveyance l of some 
two thousand acres of his Buckinghamshire estates to the 
Mercers Company " for the continuation of a certain school 
in the churchyard of the Church of St. Paul, for boys in 
the same school in good manners and literature to be 
taught, and for the support of one master and one usher or 
two ushers of the same, and other things necessary there to 
be done according to the ordinances of me the aforesaid 
John Colet, my heirs or escheators." 

On September 6, in the same year, the Dean and 
Chapter of the cathedral granted to the Mercers Company 
a piece of vacant land at the east end of the chapel of St. 
Dunstan of the Church of St. Paul, 21 feet long by 9 feet 
broad, to hold for ninety-nine years at the rent of a red rose, 
renewable at the end of every ninety-nine years for ever. 
This piece of land, which, from the plan in Dugdale s history 
of the cathedral, is seen to have been at the south-east angle 
of the choir and south of the chapel of St. Mary, was between 
the two southernmost of the four buttresses of the cathedral, 
and was the site on which, after having been used for other 
purposes, was built a lodge for the porter in 1573, and a 
house for the under usher in 1 588.2 On November 4, 
1511, Colet devised by will numerous messuages, lands, and 
tenements in London to the Mercers, for the same purpose 
as that for which he had transferred the estates in Bucking 
hamshire inter vivos. 3 

The Acts of Court of the Company state that on 
March 30 and June 15, 1512, it was resolved 4 that "com 
munication should be made with Master Dean of Paul s to 

1 R. B. G., vol. i. p. 371. 

- App. to Rep. of Commrs. on Chars., 1820, p. 163. 

3 Brewer, vol. i. 1933; Knight, Colet, 1823, p. 284. 

4 R. B. G., vol. i. p. 7; Select Committee of House of Lords on Public 
Schools Bill, 1865, p. 10. 

c 



22 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

had not been used for a considerable period for the purpose 
its name would imply. The statement of Stow which has 
been referred to is this, " As divers schools, by suppressing 
of religious houses whereof they were members in the reign 
of Henry VIII have been decayed, so again have some 
others been newly erected and founded for them, as, 
namely, St. Paul s School in place of an old ruined house, 
was built in a most ample manner, and largely endowed in 
the year 1512 by John Collett." l 

The interpretation of this, it is submitted, is that the 
" old ruined house " was not the old school-house, but the 
building on the site of which Colet built his new school, 
and some corroboration of this is afforded by a passage 
in the Grey Friars Chronicle, in which, speaking of the 
storm on January 15, 1505-6, which drove Philip the 
Fair into Weymouth harbour, the writer says, 2 " That 
same nyghte it blewe downe the weddercocke of Powles 
steppule the lengthe of the est ende of Powlles church vn-to 
the syne of the blacke egylle at that tyme was lowe howses 
of bokebynderes wher nowe is the scole of Powles." 

Francis Bacon s account of the same incident in his 
History of King Henry VII is more explicit, and suggests 
enough damage to make the low houses of bookbinders be 
aptly described as ruined. The great tempest, he says, 
" blew down the golden eagle from the spire of Paul s, and 
in the fall it fell upon a sign of the black eagle, which was 
in Paul s churchyard, in the place where the school-house 
now standeth, and battered it, and brake it down : which 
was a strange stooping of a hawk upon a fowl." 

It must be admitted that none of the earliest writers say 
a word to suggest that Colet, in founding his school, was 
not starting completely ab irittio. Stow, on the other hand, 

1 Kingsford s edition of Stow, 1908, p. 73. 
" Monument a Franc i sea na, p. 185. 



FOUNDATION OF THE NEW SCHOOL 23 

appears to have had no doubt that Colet grafted his 
foundation upon an old stock, for he speaks of " Powles 
Schoole, lately new founded and endowed." l 

The arguments which are used to suggest that Colet 
did not take over the existing cathedral grammar school are 
all directed to show that the cathedral grammar school 
continued concurrently with Colet s new school of St. 
Paul s. 

Dr. Lupton, who, it must be premised, never dis 
tinguishes the cathedral grammar school from the cathedral 
singing school, has summarized the arguments on this point. 
He quotes the case of Thomas Tusser, which will be dealt 
with later, but since he comes to the conclusion that he was 
educated at the singing school it does not concern us now. 
That of William Harrison may also be passed over, since 
Dr. Lupton assigns him to Colet s school, on the evidence 
which is extant. 2 

Dr. Lupton then quotes an entry from the church 
wardens accounts for the parish of St. Michael, Cornhill, 
for 1548, "Item payd to the Scolle Mr. of Polles for 
wrytyng of the masse in Englysh & ye benedictes v s." 
The presumption in this case, Dr. Lupton asserts, is that 
the cathedral school is referred to, the reason given for 
this inference being that "it was the special duty of the 
grammar master of the choristers to write out the bills or 
service papers." Thisstatement issupported byan extract from 
the ancient cathedral statutes, 3 "Quod magister scholarum 
tabulam lecturae scribat vel scribi faciat vice cancellarii." The 
words of the statute show that the master of the cathedral 
grammar school, not of the singing school, was charged 
with the duty, and the entry is of no value as indicating 
a continuance of that grammar school if, as is contended, 

1 Kingsford, Stow, p. 332. - Lupton, Colet, pp. 157-159. 

3 W. S. Simpson, Reg. Stat. p. 78. 



28 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

Another payment was made in 1590, and finally, in 1601, 
Edward Piers received a similar sum. I do not think it is 
possible to follow the accepted view set out by Dr. Lupton 
that the players of these interludes during the first twenty- 
eight years of Elizabeth s reign had no connection with 
Colet s school. 

Rightwise and his pupils were referred to in the State papers 
of 1 527 l as " the master of Paul s and the children," and were 
engaged to act at Court and before Cardinal Wolsey at least 
four times. On at least three occasions in the ten years from 
1537 to 1 546, and twice within a few months in the year 1555, 
religious processions took place through the streets of 
London, in all of which, according to different chroniclers, 
the " children of Paul s School " took part. Colet had 
provided in his statutes that " In general processions 
whenne they be warnyd they shall goo tweyn and tweyn 
togither soberly and not sing out but say deuoutly tweyn 
and tweyn vij psalmes with the latany," and in confirmation 
of the strong presumption that the " children of Paul s " who 
took part in the procession were boys of Dean Colet s 
school, William Harrison writes in his Chronology, 2 under 
the date 1544, "The children of Pawles School, whereof I 
was one at that time, were inforced to buy these bookes " 
(i. e. " the Letany in thenglish towng "), " wherewith we 
went in generall procession, as it was then appointed, 
before the King went to Bullen " (Boulogne). The value 
of this statement lies in the fact that it would not be likely 
that the choristers should have to buy their own service- 
books, while Dean Colet s "Articles of Admission" 
expressly provide that a boy s parents shall "fynde hym 
convenient bokes to his lernynge." 

Enough has been said to show that by the " children of 

1 Brewer, Let. and Pap., vol. i., pt. ii., 3564.. 

2 Harrison s Description of England, p. li., ed. Furnivall, 1877. 



FOUNDATION OF THE NEW SCHOOL 29 

Paul s " is not necessarily meant the choir school. There 
is strong evidence, moreover, to indicate a considerable 
measure of intercommunication between Colet s school 
and the choir school, to which attention has hitherto never 
been drawn. 

The choristers of Westminster Abbey were entitled to 
a free education at St. Peter s College, Westminster, from 
the date of the foundation of that school until 1848. The 
fact that the connection between the choristers of St. Paul s 
and the school in the churchyard disappeared long before 
that date has caused the existence of such a link to be 
ignored. 

The MS. relating to Sir Thomas OfHey, to which refer 
ence has already been made, states that " this Thomas OfHey 
became a good grammarian under Mr. Lillie, and under 
stood the Latin tongue perfectly : and because he had a 
sweet voice he was put to learn prick-song among the 
choristers of St. Paul s, for that learned Mr. Lillie knew full 
well that knowledge in music was a help and a furtherance 
to all arts. Musica mentis medecina meste, for it is a great 
help to pronunciation and judgment. Pythagoras would 
admit of no scholar unless he had some perfect knowledge 
in music : so had this Thomas in both these arts, above his 
fellows at that tender age." 

Thomas Tusser, who writes, " From Paul s I went, to 
Eton sent," although claimed as a Pauline by Mr. Gardiner l 
is assigned by Dr. Lupton to the choir school owing to 
his reference to his early career as a choir-boy at Wallingford, 
and his progress in music under Redford, the organist at 
St. Paul s Cathedral ; but in view of what we know of 
Offley s career, and of the Pauline tradition to the effect 
that in the original MS. of Tusser s autobiography there 
was an additional stanza in which he referred to Lily as 
i R. B. G., vol. i. p. 463. 



32 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

The same must also be said of the plays of the later 
Elizabethan dramatists which bear on their title page the 
statement that they were " first enacted by the children of 
Paul s." 

We may claim, then, no mean literary association for the 
Paulines of the end of the sixteenth century, when we say 
that they produced for the first time plays by Dekker, 
Marston, Percy, Middleton, and Beaumont and Fletcher. 

A Latin play, entitled Sapientia Salamonis y was also 
acted before Queen Elizabeth by the boys of the school. 
A MS. copy of this play, which was once in the library of 
Horace Walpole, is preserved in the British Museum, and 
has the arms of Elizabeth embossed on the vellum binding. 
The Queen s interest in the maintenance of her company of 
boy players is seen from the fact that in 1586 she issued an 
arbitrary warrant under her sign manual, authorizing 
" Thomas Giles, Master of the children of the Cathedrall 
Churche of St. Paule to take up any boys in Collegiate or 
Cathedrall churches, and to instruct them for the entertain 
ment of the Court so that they might become meete and 
liable to serve us when our pleasure is to call for them. 1 

In less than five years, however, the performances by 
the boys at St. Paul s were inhibited on account of the 
personal abuse and scurrility which was put into the mouths 
of the children, but the prohibition was removed after a 
very few years, and thus it was that Rosencrantz could 
speak of " an eyrie of children, little eyasses that cry out 
on the top of the question and are most tyrannically 
clapped for it, these are now the fashion and so berattle 
the stage." 2 

1 Collier, Annah of the Stage. 2 Hamlet, Act II. sc. ii. 355. 






CHAPTER III 

DEAN COLET S STATUTES 

THE provisions of Colet s ordinances are traditionally 
stated to have been in some measure borrowed from those 
of the school at Banbury in Oxfordshire, which unfortun 
ately are no longer extant. The statutes of Manchester 
Grammar School, 1 which was founded fifteen years after 
St. Paul s, provided that the high master (as he was called 
there as at St. Paul s) should be " able to teche Childreyn 
Gramyer after the Scole use, manner and forme of the Scole 
of Banbury in Oxfurdshere, now there taught, wiche is 
called Stanbridge Gramyer." The same stipulation, in other 
words, is to be found in connection with the grammar 
school at Cuckfield, in Sussex. 

We do not know whether Colet transcribed the statutes 
of Banbury School with anything approaching the exactitude 
with which the founder of Eton copied in many instances 
those of Winchester College, but this we do know, that 
Colet s statutes for St. Paul s remained for many years 
" common form," and that numerous schools, notably those 
of Manchester and of Merchant Taylors, contain among 
their statutes what are obviously verbatim extracts from the 
statutes of St. Paul s, while Wolsey s great though short 
lived school at Ipswich copied Colet s school in containing 
eight classes, as well as in the use of its grammar. 

The minutes of the Mercers Company record that, on 

1 Carlisle, English Grammar Schools, ii. 294. 

D 33 



34 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

July 17, 1512, "The Boke of Ordinance of the Scole of 
Powles was exhibited by Mr. Deane." Nothing is known 
about this " Boke of Ordinance," the earliest known statutes 
of the school being those declared to have been delivered 
by the founder to Lily in 1518, of which two copies signed 
by the founder manu sua propria are known to be extant. 

Of these, one, which is in the British Museum, 1 appears 
to be earlier than that which is preserved at Mercers Hall, 
since the latter contains, incorporated in the text, corrections 
which were made in the former. 

The statutes of St. Paul s School have been so often 
reprinted 2 that it is not necessary to quote them in extenso 
in this place. In the Prologus, in which the Dean states 
that he is " desyring nothing more thanne Educacion and 
bringing upp of chyldren in good Maners and litterature," 
he goes on to say, " and forbecause no thing can continu 
long and endure in good ordre withoute lawes an statutis 
I the saide John haue here expressid and shewid my minde 
what I wolde shulde be truly and diligently obseruid and 
kept." 

The statutes are divided into chapters, " De magistro 
primario, De submagistro, Of both maistres at onys, The 
Chapelyn, The Children, What shall be taught, The 
Mercers Charge, and Liberte to declare the Statutes." 
After which comes an inventory of "the landis of the 
Scole." 

It is worth while to compare the provisions of the 
statutes of St. Paul s School dealing with the high master, 
with Colet s cathedral ordinance " Of the Grammar Master," 
which shows how the words and phrases of the latter are, as 
it were, echoed more than once in the statutes of St. Paul s 
School. 

1 Addit. MSS. 6274. 

2 R. B. G., vol. i. p. 375 ; Lupton, Colet, p. 271. 



DEAN COLET S STATUTES 35 

ANCIENT STATUTE OF COLET S STATUTES FOR ST. 
CATHEDRAL GRAMMAR PAUL S SCHOOL 

SCHOOL 

"The Master of the (The High Master shall 
Grammar School should be be) " honeste & vertuose & 
a good & honest man of learnyd." 
much & approved learning." 

" He shall imbue them " (The Masters shall instruct 
(/ . e. the children) " at the the children by reading to 
same time with both chaste them) "suych auctours that 
learning and holy morals." hath with wisdome Joyned 

the pure chaste eloquence." 

(He shall) " be to them a (The Mercers shall say to 
Master not only of Grammar the High Master :) " Sir, we 
but of Virtue." haue chosyn you ... to 

teche . . . not allonly good 

litterature but also good 

Maners." 



The high master who was to be chosen by the Mercers 
Company with the advice of learned men, must be " a man 
hoole in body honeste and vertuouse and learnyd in good 
and clene laten litterature and also in greke yf suyche may 
be gotten a weddid man a single manne or a preste that 
hath noo benefice with cure nor seruice that may left his 
due besynes in the scole." The statutes of Eton, it may 
be noted in passing, required both the master and the 
undermaster to be unmarried. 

The high master, the usher, and the chaplain were all 
to be appointed subject to a proviso that "this is no Rome 
of continuance and perpetuite," the election of the first- 
named being subject to ratification every Candlemas-day on 
the visitation of the school by the Mercers. The qualifi 
cations for the surmastership were almost identical with those 
for the high mastership, but no knowledge of Greek was 



D 2 



36 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

to be required. He was to be appointed and dismissed by 
the high master subject to the approval of the Mercers. 

As to " the Chapelyn," it was provided that "There shalbe 
also in the Scole a preist that dayly as he can be disposid 
shall sing masse in the chapell of the Scole and pray for the 
Children to prosper in good lyff and in goode litterature to 
the honour of god and our lorde Christ Jesu. At his masse 
whenne the bell in the scole shall knyll to sacring thenne all 
the Children in the scole knelyng in theyr Settes shall with 
lyft up handis pray in the tyme of sacryng. After the 
sacring whenne the bell knyllith ageyn, they shall sitt downe 
ageyn to theyr lernyng." 

The chaplain, who was nominated by the Mercers, was 
directed to " teche the children the catechyzon and Instruc 
tion of the artycles of faith, and the x commaundements in 
Inglish," and also if the high master wished it was to help 
to teach in the school. 

Attention has not hitherto been drawn to one provision 
in the statutes relating to the masters of the school which 
is very characteristic of the liberality of Dean Colet, namely, 
the direction as to the payment of pensions. In the case 
of their falling ill with a " sekenesse curable " they were to 
receive their salaries in full. In case the high master 
contracted an incurable sickness, or were to become too old 
to teach " lett ther be assignede ... a reasonable levynge 
of x li. or other Wyse as it shall seme convenient so that the 
olde maister after his longe labor in noo wise be lefte desti 
tute." In the event of the surmaster coming to the same 
pass, he was committed to the charity of the Mercers, who 
were to provide him with a pension from the surplus of the 
school funds, the founder " praying theme to be charitable 
in that behalff." 

The salary of the high master was fixed at a mark a 
week, or in other words 34 13.5. 4^. In addition to this 




THE HIGH MASTER S COUNTRY HOUSE AT STEPNEY 

From Knight s "Life ofColet" 



I To Jan p. 36. 



DEAN COLET S STATUTES 37 

he was entitled to " a levery gowne of iiij nobles delyueryd 
in cloth," the value of which brought his income up to 36 
a year. Further, he was given free lodgings in the school 
and a house at Stepney "to resorte vnto." A writer in the 
Cambridge History of English Literature 1 appears to have 
ignored this fact when he says " that the head master of 
Shrewsbury, who in 1578 received 40 a year, held what 
was "far the best paid headship in England." 

The salary of the surmaster was just half that of the 
high master, and in addition he was to have a livery gown 
of four nobles, as to which it may be observed that this was 
not a mere academic ornament over the coat, but the chief 
part of a man s raiment, as may be seen in its survival in the 
blue coat of the boys of Christ s Hospital. 

The chaplain was to be paid 7 a year, and his livery 
gown was to cost ^r fj-. ~jd. instead of ^i 6s. 8^., which was 
the price paid for those of his colleagues. 

Erasmus speaks of the masters as receiving "ample 
salaries," George Lily of their being paid "liberal stipends," 
and a very good impression of the high position which 
Colet intended that his school should occupy can be 
gathered from a comparison of the salaries of the masters of 
St. Paul s with those of other schools. 

In 1443, three years after the foundation of the college, 
the Provost of Eton was paid 75, the head master ^16, 
and the usher io. 2 Twenty-five years later, owing to the 
depreciation of revenues, the salary of the provost was 
reduced to ^20, that of the head master to ^10, and that 
of the usher to 4.. The Commissioners of Henry VIII 
reported in 1546 that the provost was paid only ^30, and 
it was not till two years later that the head master was paid 
the full amount sanctioned by the founder. 

1 Vol. iii. Article on Univs. and Schools. 

2 Lyte, p. 67. 



42 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

the Statutes," one of the most far-sighted of all Colet s 
provisions, drafted in a very different spirit from that which 
impelled Wykeham at Winchester, Waynefleet at Eton and 
King s, or Fisher at St. John s and Christ s, in which he 
declared, " I leve it hooly to theyr dyscrecion and Charite I 
meane of the Wardens and assistences of the felowshipp with 
suych other counsell as they shall call vnto theme good 
litterid and lernyd menne, They to adde and diminish 
vnto this boke and to supply in it euery defaute, And also 
to declare in it euery obscurite and derkenes as tyme and 
place and iust occasion shall requyre calling the dredefull 
god to loke vppon theme in all suych besynes, And 
exorting theme to fere the terrible Jugement of god which 
seith in derkenes and shal rendre to euery manne according 
to his werkes." 

The frequently quoted letter from Erasmus to Justus 
Jonas contains the reason for Colet s choice of a city guild 
as the trustees of his endowment. " Over the revenues and 
entire management," he writes, " he set neither priests, nor 
the Bishop nor the chapter (as they call it), but some married 
citizens of established reputation ; and when asked the reason, 
he said that though there was nothing certain in human 
affairs, he yet found the least corruption in them." In 
another place 1 Erasmus added to the same statement as to 
the reasons of the Dean s choice, " and though this provision 
did not by any means free him from anxiety, he said that as 
human affairs then were, this course appeared to him the 
least hazardous." 

1 Dialogus de recta . . . pronuntiatione, 1643, p. 27. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE SUBJECTS OF STUDY, THE SCHOOL-BOOKS, AND THE 
BUILDING OF THE SCHOOL 

THAT part of Colet s statutes which provides for " what 
shalbe taught," after stating that " it passith my wit to 
devyse and determyn in particuler," then goes on to say 
that Colet s intention in founding the school is to increase 
the knowledge and worship of God. 

" And for that intent I will the Chyldren lerne ffirst 
aboue all the Catechyzon in Englysh and after the accidence 
which I made or sum other yf eny be better to the purpose 
to induce chyldren more spedely to laten spech And thanne 
Institutum Christiani homines which that lernyd Erasmus 
made at my request and the boke callid Copia of the same 
Erasmus And thenne other auctours Christian as lactantius 
prudencius & proba and sedulius and Juuencus and Baptista 
Mantuanus and suche other as shalbe tought convenyent 
and moste to purpose vnto the true laten spech, all 
barbary all corrupcion all laten adulterate which ignorant 
blynde folis brought into this worlde and with the same hath 
distayned and poysenyd the old laten spech and the varay 
Romayne tong which in the ryme of Tully and Salust and 
Virgil and Terence was vsid which also seint Jerome and 
seint ambrose and seint Austen and many hooly doctors 
lernyd in theyr tymes, I say that fylthynesse and all such 
abusyon which the later blynde worlde brought in which 

43 



46 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

scarcity of Greek scholars. Colet himself in 1516 deplored 
the fact that he had not been able to learn Greek ; but from 
the occurrence in an epistle of Erasmus of later date of the 
phrase, " Coletus strenue Graecatur," it is evident that he 
endeavoured towards the end of his life to repair the defi 
ciency. According to the same authority, John Fisher, the 
Bishop of Rochester, who began the study of Greek late in 
life, was dissuaded by William Latimer from attempting it 
unless he could procure a teacher from Italy. 

Attempts have been made to discredit the assertion that 
St. Paul s under Lily was the first English public school in 
which Greek was taught, and some colour has been lent to 
the negative contention by the fact that although on Colet s 
death Erasmus, in one of his letters, describes the course of 
education at the school in some detail and in a strain of 
high panegyric, he makes no allusion to the study of Greek. 
On the other hand, it is inconceivable that Colet should not 
have insisted on the carrying out of his own statute as to 
the studies of the boys, in which he says, " I wolde they 
were taught always in good literature both Latin and 
Greke." 

Better evidence than this is, however, forthcoming. In 
March 1512 Colet wrote to Erasmus, "Do not forget the 
verses for our boys which I want you to compose with all 
your facility and sweetness," and in answer to this request 
Erasmus, among other verses from his pen, which were 
hung up in the school-room, wrote the Sapphicum Carmen, 
which began 

" Haec rudis (tanquam nova testa), pubes 
Literas Graias simul et Latinas, 
Et fidem sacram tenerisque CHRISTUM 
Conbibet annis." 

In the accounts of Thomas Linacre, who acted as 
executor of William Grocyn in 1520, Lily, who was 






THE SUBJECTS OF STUDY 47 



Grocyn s godson, is seen to have been one of the largest 
beneficiaries under the will. The entry runs 

" Item, sent to Loven by Mr. Lylly for Greeke bookes to 
gyve xl s." 

In view of this large purchase of Greek books by the 
high master of St. Paul s, it is worth noting that in the 
day book or ledger of John Dome, an Oxford bookseller, 
which is preserved in the library of Corpus Christi College 
at Oxford, are recorded all the books sold by him during 
the year 1520, the same year as that in which Lily received 
his bequest. The only Greek books out of over 2000 that 
John Dome sold were one volume of Aristophanes, and one 
volume of Lucian. 

Thomas More, in his letter to Peter Giles prefixed to 
the Utopia, and written in 1516, speaks of the " Latin and 
Greek learning of John Clement," one of Lily s pupils, at a 
time when he can but recently have left the school, and the 
fact that Lupset and Clement, two of Lily s pupils, lectured 
in succession to each other in Greek at Oxford, makes it 
impossible to believe that they did not learn at least the 
rudiments of the language while at St. Paul s less than ten 
years before. 

One writer 1 has with extreme rashness claimed for 
Winchester College " that there can hardly be a doubt that 
the school of Grocyn, Chandler, Warham, officially visited 
by the two latter, took the lead in the introduction of Greek 
into the curriculum of schools." Apart from the fact that 
if Greek was being taught at Winchester at the very 
beginning of the sixteenth century, Colet would not have 
provided for a high master with a knowledge of Greek " if 
such may be gotten," the only scintilla of evidence adduced 
in support of this statement lies in the occurrence in the 
1 Leach, History of Winchester, p. 229. 



54 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

and obscure, and thereby incurred Linacre s displeasure, but 
Erasmus intervened to make peace between the friends. 

It is interesting to note, however, that Linacre s Latin 
grammar, as revised for the use of the Princess Mary, when 
translated from the vernacular into Latin, was adopted as the 
standard grammar in France, where it remained in use for 
many years, just as did that of Lily in England. 

Lily s Latin grammar, strictly so called, is not the Latin 
syntax written in English, appended to Colet s Accidence, 
but a Latin syntax with the rules written in Latin, which 
appears never to have been printed along with the Aeditio. 
The earliest edition known, of which a copy is preserved in 
the school library without the printer s name or the place of 
printing, bears on its title-page, " Absolutissimus de Octo 
Orationis partiu constructione libellus . . . nuperrime uigil- 
atissima cura recognitus." This shows that it was not the 
first edition. The Latin letter prefixed to it, addressed by 
Colet to " Lili charissime," is dated 1513, but the book was 
printed in 1515, probably at Louvain. Although identified 
with the name of Lily, Erasmus had such a share in revising 
the first draft of this grammar that his friend modestly refused 
to admit the authorship, and it appeared for some time 
anonymously. The editions of this book which are known 
to have been produced are far more numerous than those of 
Colet s Accidence. A fragment of an edition of 15212, 
printed by the famous Siberch at Cambridge, was found in 
the Chapter House at Westminster about twenty years 
ago. Editions of 1529, 1530 and 1532 are also extant, the 
last two printed in Paris. A copy of that of 1532 is in the 
school. To each of these different appendices are added, 
and the edition of 1539, of which there is in the Pepysian 
library at Magdalen a copy which Cromleholme, the high 
master, presented to the diarist, is expressly stated to be " ad 
1 By E. Gordon Duff, v. Academy, Nov. 30, 1889. 



THE SUBJECTS OF STUDY 55 

verum Paulinae scholae exemplum." These diversities fur 
nished a plea for the issue in 1 540 by royal authority of a 
grammar destined to become a national text-book for a longer 
period than any other that can be named. This combined 
the Aeditio and the Absolutissimus into one grammar. A 
quarto copy of the first edition in vellum, printed by 
Berthelet, which appears to have been intended for the 
special use of Edward VI, then aged two, is preserved at 
Lambeth. 1 Its title is " Institutio compendiaria totius 
grammaticae, quam . . . Rex noster euulgari jussit, ut non 
alia quam haec una per totam Angliam pueris praelegeretur." 
The formulary of religious rudiments prefixed to it is very 
different from that before Colet s Accidence. 

On the reverse of the title-page of the edition of 1548, 
a fragment of which is preserved at Lambeth, is set out the 
proclamation of that year enjoining that it " shuld be openly 
and priuately redde to al kynd of lerners in euery gramar 
schole & other places of techyng, and the same and none 
other to be vsed." This caused the name of King Edward 
VTs Latin Grammar to be given to it. In 1571 a canon 
was drawn up and passed by the Upper House of Convo 
cation with the object of making the use of the King s 
Grammar compulsory. 

Three years later, in 1574, it was issued with further 
alterations and with a new title, A Shorts Introduction of 
Grammar generally to be used, with which is usually bound 
up Brevissima Institutio seu Ratio Grammatices. 

This is the form in which it was familiar to Shakespeare, 
who quotes from it in two of his plays, making Sir Toby Belch, 
in Twelfth Night, 2 say to Sir Andrew Aguecheek, " Not to 
be in bed before midnight is to be up betimes, and diliculo 
surgere, thou knowest ;" while Holofernes, the pedantic 

1 Maitland, Early Printed Books, 1843, pp. 207-385, 415. 

2 Act II. sc. iii. 



56 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

school-master in Love s Labour s Lost, 1 quotes another of 
its familiar phrases, saying, " If their sons be ingenious they 
shall want no instruction. . . . But vir sapit qui pauca 
loquitur." A copy of this edition is preserved among John 
Selden s books in the Bodleian. It is possible that it was 
presented to him by the high master of St. Paul s, with 
whom he was on terms of close friendship. 

The further history of the book is not without interest. 
In 1675 there was read for the first time in the House of 
Lords a Bill which was not proceeded with, which aimed at 
effecting uniformity in school-books, and which proposed to 
punish school-masters for using other grammars than those 
of Lily and Camden in Latin and Greek respectively. 2 

In 1732 the booksellers of London employed Dr. John 
Ward to draw up a revised edition of Lily s Grammar, and, 
just a quarter of a century later, it underwent a final change, 
when it was once more transformed and appropriated by 
Eton, under the title of the Eton Latin Grammar. 

Charles Lamb, who used this version of the grammar 
at Christ s Hospital in the last quarter of the eighteenth 
century, in his essay on The Old and the New Schoolmaster 
pokes gentle fun at the stately English of the preamble, in 
which is set out how, " by the King s Majestie s wisdom," 
a uniformity is to be desired in the grammars which shall be 
in use. " With what a savour," writes Elia, " doth the 
preface to Colet s, or (as it is sometimes called) Paul s 
Accidence, set forth ! " 

Goldsmith, in his Essay on Education, written in 1759, 
says : " Of all the various grammars now taught in the 
schools about town, I would recommend only the old 
common one : I have forgot whether Lily s or an amend 
ment of him." 

1 Act IV. sc. ii. 

2 Hist. MS. Com., gth Rep. App. 2, 1884, p. 63. 



THE SUBJECTS OF STUDY 57 

In addition to the Accidence and the Syntax which 
Colet took care to have prepared for his school, he per 
suaded Erasmus to dedicate his Latin phrase-book, Copia 
Verborum et Rerum, to St. Paul s, in 1520 ; and it appears 
that Richard Pace s De Fructu qui ex Doctrina Precipitur, 
which was published in 1517, was also intended for the use 
of Paulines from the following passage at the conclusion of 
the work : " Haec sunt, mi Colete, quibus studiosos literarum 
juvenes ad doctrinam amplexandam hortendos instruendos 
que putavi. Quae si tibi vel juvenibus tuis, qui per te 
publice erudiuntur, placere intellexero, operam me non 
lusisse judicabo." 

Colet refers in his statutes to the translation into Latin 
verse of his Catechyzon, where he speaks of " Institutum 
Christian! hominis which that learnyd Erasmus made at my 
request," and from the same pen came the Carmen lambicum 
which was hung up in the " proscholion." 
The Sapphic ode beginning 

" Secies haec puero sacra est Jesu," 

which was placed above the representation of the Child 
Jesus, was also written by Erasmus, as was the distich which 
stood below it, and ran 

" Discite me primum, pueri, atque effingite puris 
Moribus, inde pias addite literulas." 

Further, the Dutch scholar wrote two prayers for use in the 
school, of which one, beginning " Audi preces meas," is for 
" docility, aptness and application to learning ;" while the 
other invokes a blessing upon the parents of the boys. 

Colet provided in his statutes " All these Chyldren 
shall euery Chyldermasse day come to paulis church and 
here the Chylde Bishoppis sermon, and after be at the hye 



60 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

Acts of the Court of Assistants of the Mercers Company 
throughout the year 1510 contain marginalia referring to 
entries, " For the Schole of Poule s," or " For the Schole 
House at Poule s," or " Master Doctor Colet of Poule s 
for the Schole ;" and the cessation of these entries in the 
autumn of that year makes it very improbable that more 
than twelve months were allowed to elapse before the 
school was actually in working order. The latter assump 
tion has been made both by Mr. Gardiner and Dr. 
Lupton on the evidence of a list of high masters and 
"submasters" extending to the year 1637, which is found 
appended to one of the copies of Colet s statutes pre 
served at Mercers Hall, the first entry on which is as 
follows : " 1512, Will Lilie, high Mr., placed by ye Founder. 
Thomas Persy, submaster ; " but as there is no reason to 
suppose that the MS. is contemporary with the foundation, 
its evidence as to exact dates is of very little value, while 
the fact that on August 10, 1509, Colet dedicated his 
Aeditio to Lily, of whom he wrote, " Qui primus es huius 
novae Pauli scholae praeceptor," proves conclusively that 
the school was in full working order before that date. 

The earliest and most valuable account of the school 
which is extant is contained in the letter written from 
Anderlecht by Erasmus to his friend Justus Jonas, 
shortly after Colet s death in 1519. The following extract 
is a translation 

" Upon the death of the father of Colet, when by 
right of inheritance he was possessed of a considerable 
sum of money, lest the keeping of it should corrupt his 
mind and turn it too much to the world, he laid out a 
great part of it in building a new school in the church 
yard of St. Paul dedicated to the Child Jesus, a magni 
ficent fabric ; to which he added two handsome dwelling- 
houses for the two several masters, to whom he assigned 



THE SUBJECTS OF STUDY 61 

ample salaries, that they might teach a certain number 
of boys gratuitously. He divided the school into four 
apartments. The first is the porch or entrance for cate 
chumens (or children to be instructed in the principles of 
religion) ; and no child is admitted there, unless he can 
already read and write. The second apartment is for the 
Hypodidascalus (or usher). The third is for those who 
are more learned (under the high master). Which former 
parts of the school are divided from the other by a curtain, 
which can be drawn or undrawn at pleasure. Over the 
master s chair is seated a figure of the Child Jesus, of 
excellent work, in the act of teaching ; whom all the 
assembly both at coming in and going out of school 
salute with a short hymn. There is also a representation 
of God the Father, saying, Hear ye him : but these 
words were written there at my recommendation. The 
last apartment is a little chapel adapted to divine service. 
Throughout the school there are neither corners nor 
hiding-places ; nor anything like a cell or a closet. The 
boys have each their distinct forms or benches rising in 
regular gradations and spaces one over another. Of these 
every class contains sixteen, and he who is most excellent 
in his class has a kind of small desk by way of eminence. 
All children are not to be admitted as a matter of course, but 
are to be selected according to their parts and capacities." l 

In connection with this last proviso we have seen that the 
founder required that before admission a boy should have 
a knowledge of the Catechism, and of reading and writing. 
As late as the middle of the eighteenth century boys were 
taught to read at Eton, where no such qualification was 
required, in the lowest division, which was called the Bible 
Seat. 

On entering St. Paul s boys were taught the Catechism 
1 S. Knight, Co/et, 1823. 



64 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

its rooms are set out in detail. These sources of informa 
tion are : Colet s statutes of 1518 ; the statement which is 
extant as to the accommodation which William Lily, the 
first high master, could give to the suite of the Emperor 
Charles V ; a list of rooms, an inventory of " implements " 
for which is given in the accounts for 1592 ; the fragment of 
an indenture made between Richard Mulcaster (who became 
high master in 1596) and the Mercers; and, finally, a 
glazier s bill of 1584. 

From these we can gather that the high master s 
house had cellars and a coal-house, and on the ground 
floor a hall adjoining the vestibulum or entrance to the 
school, a kitchen, and a buttery. On the first floor was the 
high master s dining-room, two other rooms of which he 
had the use, and another buttery. As to the second floor, 
Colet expressly enjoined on the high master that " touch 
ing all the story of chaumbers next underneath the galaris 
he shall nothyng meddle withall." 

On the floor above this Colet gave the high master the 
use of " the little middle chaumber and the galary in the 
soughside." In Mulcaster s time the high master had also 
the right to use the northernmost garret, and this probably 
gave him the use of the whole of the attics. It will be 
asked what was the purpose for which the second floor was 
used. It is possible that in Colet s time some of the rooms 
were used as muniment rooms, but by 1584 one of them at 
least was used for the accommodation of boarders, since the 
glazier s bill for that year refers to the " borders chamber." 
It is possible that it was a large room occupying nearly the 
whole of the second floor, but the same document, curiously 
enough, affords a clue to the purpose for which another 
room on this floor was used, for in it the glazier refers to 
the " posing chamber." 

This fact explains what has hitherto been a puzzling 



THE SUBJECTS OF STUDY 65 

point in an entry in Pepys Diary, where he writes l : " Back 
again to Paul s School, and went up to see the head form 
posed in Latin, Greek and Hebrew, but I think they did 
not answer so well as we did, only in Geography they did 
pretty well. Dr. Wilkins and Outram were examiners. 
So down to the School." 

It is quite evident from this that a special room in the 
high master s house was, even down to the time of the 
Great Fire, set apart for the annual apposition or examina 
tion of the boys. 

The provisions under the title T)e Submagistro, in the 
statutes, declare that on the election of the surmaster the 
Mercers shall " assigne hym his lodging in the old chaunge," 
and further provide that " he shall goe to comyns with 
the hye mayster yf he may conveniently." Erasmus says, 
"Adjecit aedes magnificas in quibus agerent duo ludi- 
magistri," and Grafton, writing forty years after the founda 
tion of the school, says, " He builded also two faire 
tenements joining to the said schoole for the said Master 
and Usher to inhabite in." 

There can be little doubt that the surmaster s house was 
the last part of the school which was built. From the 
archives of the City of London 2 it appears that in 1511 
Colet was in negotiation with the Court of Aldermen for 
the purchase "of certen grounde of the citie for an entre to be 
hadde into his new gramer scole," and in January 1512 he 
got the assent of the Court of Aldermen and of the Com 
mon Council to the purchase by him of " a certen grounde in 
the Olde Chaunge for the inlargyng of his gramer scole in 
Powlys Churche-yerd " for the sum of ^30. The convey 
ance took place in the following September, and the deed 
was sealed with the common seal on October 7. The 

1 February 4., 1662. 

2 R. Sharpe, London and the Kingdom, i. 351. 



66 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

glazier s bill of 1584 gives us some notion of the size of 
the surmaster s house. It shows that it consisted of a hall, 
a kitchen, and a study next the school building, all of which 
were probably on the ground floor. On the first floor there 
appears to have been "the second master s chaumber, the 
study chaumber, and the little chaumber." The convey 
ance of which we have just spoken suggests that there was 
an entrance to the school from Old Change. The glazier s 
bill bears this out, for it speaks of a "lodge," which was 
certainly not on the front or west side of the school. We 
know that in 1578 there was employed "a pore man, the 
Porter of the Schole," who lived in a little house adjoining 
the east end of the cathedral. By 1588 his tenement had 
been turned into the under usher s house ; we may there 
fore presume that the lodge spoken of in the glazier s bill 
drawn up four years earlier, was at that time the porter s 
residence, and it may have been one of the houses in Old 
Change adjoining that of the surmaster, of which Colet had 
obtained possession for the school. There seems good 
reason to suppose that in the original buildings the passage 
from the high master s house into the school led through 
the surmaster s house, for in 1576 it appears that a door 
"which bred much contention between Malym and 
Holden," who were respectively high master and sur 
master, was altered, and " the coming out of Malim s house 
into the school was turned another way into the vestibule." 
As to the chaplain s residence, the statutes provide that 
" His chaumber and lodging shalbe in the newe howsse in 
the olde chayn or in the maistres loginge as shalbe thought 
best." To this the copy of the statutes in the British 
Museum l adds the words " free without any payment." 
The " newe howsse " is obviously one of those referred to 
in Colet s will of 1514 as "those my two tenements or 

1 Add. MSS. 6274. 



THE SUBJECTS OF STUDY 67 

messuages newly built . . . now in the tenure of John 
Evers, citizen and haberdasher of London, situate in the 
Old Change, London." 

On the first appointment of a chaplain he received for 
the rent of his chamber ten shillings per annum, which 
was subsequently increased to thirteen and fourpence. It 
remained fixed at this rate until the year 1588, in which the 
porter s lodging over against the cathedral was enlarged and 
turned into a residence for the chaplain, or, as he was now 
called, the under usher. 

Of the external appearance of Colet s school-building 
we have very little information. No satisfactory view is 
known to be extant. From the statement of John Strype, 
who was educated in the school before the Great Fire, and 
who lived to see the building of 1670, it appears that the 
second building was very similar in appearance to the first. 

The small bird s-eye view of the original building which 
is to be seen in the plan of London, Westminster and 
Southwark, engraved by Ralph Agas in 1591, bears out 
Strype s statement, in that the school appears to have had 
a central building of one storey, while at each end houses 
of several storeys were adjoining. 

That the building erected by Dean Colet was unusually 
handsome is beyond question. George Lily speaks of 
" scholam publicam, eleganti structura." Both Alexander 
Nevyl and Polydore Vergil describe it as " magnifkam 
scholam ; " another writer 1 refers to it as " scholam illam 
egregiam quae Paulina dicitur," which may or may not refer 
to the building, but Stow speaks of it as having been " built 
in a most ample manner." 

In his letter to Justus Jonas, Erasmus speaks of St. 
Paul s as " ludum literarium longe pulcherrimum, ac magnifi- 
centissimum," and in the dedication to De Copia he speaks 
1 jfntiy. Brit., sub. Will. Warham, ed. Hanover, p. 306. 



F 2 



68 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

in praise of Colet s " sumptus tarn ingentes." According 
to Anthony a Wood the building cost 4,500 marks, that is 
to say, 3,000, or in modern reckoning at least 36,000, 
while the rental of the lands which formed the endowment 
was more than 120 a. year, or in modern reckoning about 

1,465. 

It is not surprising, in view of such generosity, that 

Colet, shortly before his death, wrote to Erasmus, saying 
that he had scarcely sufficient income left upon which to 
live. 










WILLIAM LILY, FIRST HIGH MASTER 



[ . Edit nrds sc. 



{Tojacep. 68. 



CHAPTER V 

THE FIRST HIGH MASTER, WILLIAM LILY, 1509-1522 

WILLIAM LILY, the first high master of St. Paul s, 
appointed .to the post, as was natural, by Colet himself, was 
born at Odyham, a little country town in Hampshire, situate 
between Farnborough and Basingstoke. It is possible that 
he was educated at Winchester, but of this there is no proof. 
In 1486 he was a demy of Magdalen College, Oxford a 
fact which fixes the date of his birth somewhere between 
1466 and 1470. The fact that he was a godson of Grocyn, 
at that time divinity reader at Magdalen, provides a reason 
for his entry at that college. Colet himself is said to have 
been at Magdalen, and it therefore appears more than 
probable that both he and Lily were contemporaries at the 
college, Colet being slightly the senior of the two. 

After graduating at Oxford, Lily, like the rest of his 
contemporaries who took their share in effecting the revival 
of learning in England, set out for the Continent. He 
suffered privations while studying at Venice. He is 
known to have visited Jerusalem. On his way back he 
stayed for some time at Rhodes, where he learnt Greek 
from the refugees in that island. From there he returned 
as far as Rome, where he continued his Greek studies, his 
masters the Lilies of Lily as Fuller quaintly describes 
them, being the two celebrated scholars, Sulpicius, and 
Pomponius Sabinus, the founder of the Accademia Romana. 

69 



76 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

course of the passage of his procession through St. Paul s 
Churchyard. 

The occasion of this address was the visit of the 
Emperor Charles V. The speech which was made to the 
sovereign has been lost, but the copy of congratulatory verses 
has been preserved, and is to be seen among the Harleian 
MSS. 1 It is said by George Lily to have been "a puero in 
foro pronuntiata." 

The visit of the Emperor is of further interest to us 
from the fact that there is extant 2 among the lists, showing 
the available accommodation in the city for the imperial 
suite, one which gives the number of rooms in the high 
master s house which could be put at their disposal. The 
entry runs "Maister Lylly, scole maister. i. hall, iiij chambers, 
iiij feather beddes, i. kitchen and other necessaries." 

The first of Lily s pupils to achieve distinction was John 
Clement, whose education at the school is a token of the 
close friendship which subsisted between Sir Thomas More 
and the first high master. It was of him that the future 
Lord Chancellor, in the epistle to Peter Giles prefixed to the 
Utopia, wrote, " John Clement my boye, whome I suffer to 
be awaye from no talke wherein ther may be any profyte or 
goodnes, for out of this yonge bladed and new shotte up 
corne, whiche hathe alreadye begon to spring up both in 
Latin and Greke learnyng, I loke for plentiful! increase at 
length of goodly rype grayne." In the following September 
More wrote to Erasmus, " Colet is working hard at Greek 
with some help from my Clement." 

Three years later " Clemens meus," as More affection 
ately called him, was chosen to read Wolsey s Rhetoric 
Lectures at Oxford, and " being singularly seen in the 
Greek tongue," was also engaged to deliver the Greek 

1 Harl. MSS. 540 ; Strype s Hist. Colls. 57 ; Pauline, vol. xiii. p. 520. 

2 Camden. Soc. Rutland Papers, 1842-3, p. 87. 



WILLIAM LILY, 1509-1522 77 

lectures in the same university. He acted as tutor to 
Margaret, More s daughter, who, as Margaret Roper, wrote 
the well-known beautiful account of her father s life and 
death, and he cemented his connection with the great 
Chancellor s family by his marriage with More s adopted 
daughter, Margaret Giggs, on the occasion of which his 
school-fellow Leland wrote an epithalamium. To his classical 
scholarship Clement added distinction in the medical pro- 
fessionj and following in the footsteps of his friend Linacre, 
became President of the College of Physicians. Clement, as 
was to be expected from an adopted son of Thomas More, 
strongly opposed the Reformation. He left England during 
the reign of Edward VI, and although he returned on the 
accession of Queen Mary, on her death he once again retired 
abroad, and died at Mechlin, in Brabant, in 1572. 

From the point of view of pure scholarship, the second 
of the pupils of William Lily to achieve distinction was 
Thomas Lupset, the son of a goldsmith in London, who 
was born about 1495, an d must accordingly have been one 
of the first to enter the school under Lily. He is said to 
have acted as amanuensis to Colet, who referred to him as 
" My scholar " in his will, by which he bequeathed to him 
his books ; and the share of the Dean in his education is 
borne out by a reference to him in the Lansdowne MSS. 1 as 
" sub Coleto ac Lilio in literis probe educatus et Graeco et 
Latino peritus." He was supported at Pembroke Hall, 
Cambridge, by Colet, and after leaving the University 
accompanied Richard Pace on his embassy to Venice in 
1515. After graduating at Paris, he returned to England 
in 1519, and went into residence at Corpus, Oxford, where 
he occupied the Chair of Rhetoric and Humanity founded 
by Wolsey, and three years later succeeded John Clement 
as Greek Reader. The tenure of the readership in Greek by 

1 979, P- 85. 



78 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

two Paulines in succession affords strong evidence that at 
St. Paul s alone among the three existing public schools was 
Greek to any serious degree a subject of education. 

In 1523 Lupset visited Padua in company with Reginald 
Pole, whose friendship he had made in Italy eight years 
before, and in the same year he received a benefice in Essex. 
This was followed by several other preferments which 
culminated in a prebendal stall at Salisbury. He died of 
consumption in 1530, at the early age of thirty-six, and, if 
one may judge by the opinion held of him by his con 
temporaries, the reputation which he achieved even in his 
short life was one of the highest among those of the leaders 
of the new learning. 

It was of him that Erasmus wrote, " hujus ingenio nihil 
gratius nihil amantius." Harpsfield, the ecclesiastical his 
torian who became Regius Professor of Greek in the middle 
of the sixteenth century, describes how, while still a boy at 
Winchester, he attended the funeral of Foxe, the founder of 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, at which were present 
among others, Reginald Pole, Richard Pace, and " Thomas 
Lupsetus egregie eruditus," while a further indication of the 
esteem in which he was held as a humanist by his con 
temporaries is to be found in the colophon of a post 
humously published translation of a sermon of St. John 
Chrysostom, a black letter of 1 542, the first of his works to 
be issued in this country, which is expressed as having been 
" translated into Englysshe by the floure of lerned menne in 
his tyme, Thomas Lupsette, Londoner." In addition to 
other religious works which he published, he rendered much 
assistance to his learned friends in their labours, and super 
vised the issue of Linacre s editions of Galen s medical 
treatises, and prepared and corrected for the press the second 
edition of Thomas More s Utopia. 1 

No less than three of the leading statesmen of the Tudor 

1 Wood, Ath., vol. ii., pt. ii., p. 838. 




Hilton del. 



EDWARD, FIRST LORD XORTH 



[To/accf. ;8. 



WILLIAM LILY, 1509-1522 79 

sovereigns were educated at St. Paul s under Lily. Edward 
North, the first of these, who was born in 1496, was the son 
of a citizen and mercer of London. From St. Paul s he 
went to Peterhouse, and having been called to the Bar, 
became counsel for the city of London. In 1531 he became 
Clerk of Parliament, and in 1536 one of the King s 
Serjeants. In 1541 he was knighted and sat in Parliament 
for Cambridgeshire. Three years later he was a Commis 
sioner of the Great Seal. In 1546 he was sworn of the 
Privy Council, and was named one of the executors of the 
will of Henry VIII, under which he received a bequest. 
Although he was one of the supporters of " Queen Jane," 
he was pardoned by Queen Mary, and in 1554 was raised 
to the peerage under the title of Lord North of Kirtling. 
He placated Elizabeth on her accession by sumptuous 
entertainments at his mansion in the Charterhouse, where 
he died in 1564, leaving benefactions to the University of 
Cambridge and to Peterhouse. 

Anthony Denny, who was five years younger than 
North, was the second son of Sir Edmund Denny, Chief 
Baron of the Exchequer. He left school to go to St. 
John s College, Cambridge. Henry VIII, having heard 
of his merits, summoned him to Court and made him 
King s Remembrancer and Groom of the Stole. He was 
knighted in 1 544, and, like his school-fellow, Edward North, 
he was sworn of the Privy Council, received grants of the 
estates of the dissolved monasteries, and was one of the 
executors of the King s will, by which he was appointed 
counsellor to Edward VI and left a substantial legacy. 
He was a zealous promoter of the Reformation and a 
generous benefactor to Sedbergh School. Sir Anthony 
Denny sat for Hertfordshire in Edward VI s first Parlia 
ment, and on his death in 1549 the Earl of Surrey wrote 
an elegy in his memory. 

The third statesman educated by Lily was William 



80 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

Paget, who for more than twenty years held a foremost 
place in English history. He was son of a Serjeant-at- 
mace in London. He was supported at Trinity Hall by 
members of the Boleyn family, and entered the household 
of Stephen Gardiner. In 1529 he was sent abroad to 
collect opinions from the universities on the subject of 
the King s divorce, and after serving on various other 
missions on the Continent was appointed secretary to Anne 
of Cleves. In 1541 he was sworn of the Privy Council 
and became Secretary of State, acting as one of the chief 
advisers of the King during the closing years of his reign. 
He was consulted about Henry VIII s will, and, like North 
and Denny, received a legacy from the sovereign, and 
was appointed one of the governors of the young prince 
during his minority. Protector Somerset made him Knight 
of the Garter and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster 
in 1547, and two years later he was created Lord Paget 
of Beaudesart, and President of Wales. In 1551 his 
enemies succeeded in depriving him of his offices, and 
although he was on the Privy Council of " Queen Jane," 
he veered round and was one of the first to welcome 
Mary, by whom he was restored to his official positions. 
Philip, with whom Paget was a great favourite, urged 
Mary to make him Lord Chancellor in place of Stephen 
Gardiner, but the Queen refused on the ground that he 
was a layman, and appointed him Lord Privy Seal, a post 
which he resigned in favour of Sir Nicholas Bacon on the 
accession of Queen Elizabeth. Lord Paget was twice High 
Steward of the University of Cambridge. His monument 
was erected in Lichfield Cathedral. 

John Leland, the last of the learned men educated by 
Lily, was born in London about 1506. In an encomium 
inscribed " ad Thomam Milonem " he acknowledged the 
generosity of a patron, one Thomas Myles, who paid all 




JOHN LELAND, KING S ANTIQUARY 
From a bust in the Hall at All Souls 



\Tofau :/. 60. 



WILLIAM LILY, 1509-1522 81 

the expenses of his education. From St. Paul s he went 
to Christ s College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1522. 
He then migrated to All Souls , and went with an exhibi 
tion from Henry VIII to study at the University of Paris. 
I n : 533 he was made King s Antiquary, and, as became a 
personal adherent of Henry VIII, he championed the new 
religious establishment. He became a Canon of King s 
College, Oxford, as Christ Church was then called, and 
by his Itinerary earned for himself the title of the Father 
of English Antiquaries. 

By no means the least interesting name among those 
of Lily s pupils is that which has been last identified, of 
John Aynesworth, who was found guilty of high treason 
and executed at York in April 1538. The State papers 
of the preceding month in that year contain 1 " the con 
fession of John Aynesworth, priest, of the age of forty 
years, bachelor of arts of St. John s College, Cambridge, 
born at Asheton in Lancashire." The record continues : 
" When a young man he went to London, and Elis Hylton, 
late keeper of Baynards Castle about twenty years ago, got 
him an exhibition from the Princess Dowager for six or 
seven years at Mr. Lilie s scole. For six or seven years 
at St. John s College." A consideration of dates shows that 
an error has crept into the account. If Aynesworth was 
forty in 1538 it is impossible that he should have entered 
Lily s school " for six or seven years " twenty years before, 
when his age was about twenty. If, however, we read " thirty 
years before " he must have entered at the quite usual age 
of ten, and this suggestion is borne out by the fact that 
Katharine of Aragon ceased to be Princess Dowager and 
became Queen in June 1509, so that Aynesworth must have 
been one of the very first pupils of Lily at St. Paul s. 

Of the nature of the form of presentation of the boy to 

1 Brewer, vol. xiii., pt. i., 533. 
G 



82 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

" an exhibition " we know nothing, but the occasion of his 
condemnation and death was in part due to his gallant and 
conscientious insistence upon the wrong done to his first 
patroness by Henry s divorce. In a sermon at Eversham 
in Cambridgeshire soon after the King s marriage to Anne 
Boleyn he denounced the principle of Royal Supremacy, 
and being refused permission to preach the sermon a second 
time at York, he nailed the manuscript to the church door. 
Being arraigned before the Council of the North, he 
stoutly maintained the legitimacy of the Lady Mary, and 
the illegality of the marriage with Anne Boleyn ; for these 
allegations, and a further charge of " manifest and frantic 
ribaldry," he was condemned to death and hanged. 

Very different from Aynesworth s career was that of 
Thomas Offley, the son of the sheriff of Chester. Of him 
it is stated in a MS. life 1 that at the age of twelve "he 
became a good grammarian under Mr. Lilye, the newly 
elected school-master of Jesus School in Paul s Churchyard." 
Reference has already been made to the important statement 
as to his learning to sing among the choristers of St. Paul s. 
He was a merchant of the staple, and became Master of the 
Merchant Taylors Company. He was Sheriff of London 
in 1553, and Lord Mayor three years later, being knighted 
by the Queen at Greenwich in 1557. He died in 1582. 
Of him Fuller says " he was the Zacchaeus of London, not 
for his lowly stature, but for his high charity in giving half 
of all his goods to the poor," and quotes a couplet which 
illustrates his reputation for frugal living 

" Offley three dishes had of daily roast 
An egg, an apple, and (the third) a toast." 

On the monument of Robert Pursglove, Bishop of Hull, 
in Tideswell Church, Derbyshire, occur the following three 
lines 

1 Jos. Hunter, Chorus Vatum, vol. v. 542. 



In LD.VI-W ^< ^^ S. ~ 
bv namctapaufe (w 

riff 5 w l>*lr y 




^ Engraved in the " (^ntienian i Magazine^" 
ROBERT PURSGLOVE, BISHOP OF HULL 
From a brass in 1 ides~>v<:ll Church 



[To face f. 82. 



WILLIAM LILY, 1509-1522 83 

" Till afterwards by uncle dear to London he was had 
Who William Bradshaw hight by name in Paul s wch. did him place 
And yr at Schole did him maintain full thrice three whole years 
space." 

After leaving St. Paul s, Pursglove went for a short time 
to the neighbouring priory of St. Mary Overies, and then 
proceeded to Corpus, Oxford, from which college, after 
fourteen years, he passed to the great Augustinian priory of 
Guisborough in Yorkshire, of which he rapidly became the 
twenty-fourth and last prior. In 1538 he was chosen by 
the King on the nomination of Archbishop Lee of York, to 
be the first suffragan bishop of Hull, under the Act of three 
years earlier, and in 1540 he surrendered the priory of 
Guisborough to the King. In 1559 he was deprived of his 
bishopric, and also of the archdeaconry of Norwich which 
he held with it, for his refusal to take the Elizabethan Oath 
of Supremacy, and the Commissioners of the Privy Council 
represented him as " stiff in papistry and of estimation in 
the county." In the year of his deprivation he obtained 
letters patent from the Queen to found a Jesus Grammar 
School at Tideswell. Some of the provisions in the 
statutes of this school were, like its name, taken from 
the school at which Offley was educated. 

In 1563 he founded a similar school of the same name 
and also an almshouse at Guisborough. He placed both 
institutions under the visitatorial power of the Archbishop 
of York, which seems to suggest that he finally acquiesced 
in the Elizabethan settlement of religion. He died in 1579, 
and a fine brass, from which the lines quoted above are 
copied, marks his resting-place. 

Something must now be said concerning two men who 
were undoubtedly pupils of Lily, but as to whom it is 
suggested that they were under him before his appointment 
to St. Paul s. Thomas Nightingale became a B.C.L. of 



G 2 



84 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

Oxford in 1515, so that it is most probable that he was a 
pupil in Colet s school, a suggestion of which some cor- 
roboration is afforded by the fact that, in addition to being 
the author of In mortem Gul. Lilii elegiac, he also wrote De 
obitu Joannis Coleti Carmen. Nothing more is known of 
him save that Balaeus describes him as " Vir lepidus et 
poeta." 

John Constable, on the other hand, graduated B.A. at 
Oxford in 1511. It is, therefore, most improbable that he 
was under Lily at St. Paul s. According to Anthony a 
Wood, he left Byham Hostel at Oxford with the reputation 
of a great rhetorician and poet. The book of epigrams on 
which his reputation rests, 1 contains lines addressed to King 
Henry, Katharine of Aragon, and Sir Thomas More, while 
two copies of verses are addressed to William Lily. To the 
first of these reference has already been made, while the 
second begins with the lines 

" Praeceptor facunde tuas quis dicere laudes 
Quas meritus multis es quaeat ecce modis." 

It is hard to believe that George Lily, the son of the 
first high master, received his education elsewhere than at 
St. Paul s, although it must be admitted that no statement 
of the school at which he was taught is known to be extant. 
He was a commoner at Magdalen, Oxford, in 1528, and, 
having travelled to Rome, became private chaplain to 
Cardinal Pole, by whom he was made Canon of Canterbury. 
He was the author of the well-known Virorum aliquot in 
Britannia . . . Elogia, and is said to have written the life 
of John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester. 

Colet s will contains a touching bequest, " I will that 
Maister Dancaster have in money to support hym in hys 
vertue six pounds xiij s. iiij d." From the fact that Erasmus 

1 Wood, Ath. Ox., i. 27 ; Fasti, i. 32, 43. 



WILLIAM LILY, 1509-1522 85 

wrote to Dancaster after the Dean s death, condoling with 
him on the loss of " such a teacher, such a patron, such a 
friend," one may safely assume that he was educated at 
St. Paul s. 

It is probable also that Jerome Dudley, the son of 
Edmund Dudley, who, with Richard Empson, was attainted 
for constructive treason by Henry VIII, was educated under 
Lily at St. Paul s, since it is known that Colet was one of 
the guardians of Dudley s child. 

It has been suggested that Sir Nicholas Bacon, the father 
of Francis Bacon, was educated at St. Paul s, but it must be 
admitted that the evidence for the statement is not strong. 
It is to be found in the description of the mansion built at 
Gorhambury by Sir Nicholas, attached to which was " a 
little banquetting house, most curiously adorned, round 
about which the liberal! Artes are deciphered, with the 
pictures of some of those men which have been excellent in 
every particular Art." l 

The typical portraits under the head of Grammar the 
first in the series are those of Donatus, Lily, Servius, and 
Priscian. 

If the position of a school is to be determined by the 
distinction achieved by its alumni, then Colet was very early 
justified in his foundation, and the greatness of Lily as first 
high master more than bore out the discrimination of the 
founder in choosing him to fill that post. 

It may be safely said not merely that no school-master 
before his day in England, but that not even any other for 
many years after his death, can claim the credit of having 
educated so many men of distinction. 

Of the rank of Lily s pupils it is hard to speak with any 
certainty from the data which we possess. We have already 
seen that there is no justification whatever for Stow s 
1 Weever, Funeral Monumts., 1631, p. 583. 



WILLIAM LILY, 1509-1522 87 

potest legi " was proverbial, show that the founder con 
templated the highest possible education for those classes 
especially which would supply the learned professions, and 
fill the most important offices in the State ; in a word, for 
the well-to-do gentry, on whom the Tudors relied as a 
counterpoise to the old nobility. 



CHAPTER VI 

WILLIAM LILY S SUCCESSORS : JOHN RITWISE, RICHARD JONES, 
AND THOMAS FREEMAN, HIGH MASTERS 1522-1559 

JOHN RITWISE, 1522-1532 

JOHN RITWISE, the second high master, was elected 
pursuant to the founder s statute, which runs, " Yff the 
vnder Maister be in litterature and in honest lyff accordyng 
thanne the highe Maister s Rome vacant let hym be 
chosyn before a nother." 

He was born in Norfolk and was educated at Eton. 
From this school he proceeded in 1508 to King s College, 
Cambridge, where he graduated in 1513. He was recom 
mended to Colet by Erasmus, and was appointed sur- 
master in succession to Birchinshaw in 1517. He married 
Dionysia, the daughter of William Lily, and on the latter s 
death, in 1522, as we have seen, succeeded to his post. 

In the year of his appointment to the surmastership, 
being anxious to obtain some further preferment, Ritwise 
solicited the influence of Colet, with the result that the latter 
gave him a letter of introduction to Wolsey, which is the 
last letter of the Dean s which is extant, 1 in which the 
founder describes Ritwise as " a man of good learning, and 
unquestionably high character .... well worthy of even 
an important benefice in the Church," but in spite of this 

1 Brewer, Let. and Papers of Henry Fill, 1517, 18 Dec., vol. ii., pt. ii., 

88 



JOHN RITWISE, 1522-1532 89 

testimonial he failed to achieve the promotion which he 
desired, and it may be that his succession to the high 
mastership on the death of his father-in-law satisfied his 
ambition. 

After ten years in that position, however, he was 
removed from his office in the last months of 1532, "for 
neglect of his duties," as the Mercers records express it. 
It may be that this was a mere euphemism for incompati 
bility with the theological views of the Mercers, or perhaps 
the explanation is to be found in failing health, since it is 
certain that he died in the year following his dismissal. 

The name of Rightwise or Righteous, which was latin 
ized by his contemporaries into Justus, and the tribute to 
his character, as " doctrinae et morum Magister," which 
Polydore Vergil tersely paid in his account of St. Paul s, 
have been incorporated to form the motto of the second 
high master, which has been placed under the window in 
the western corridor of the new school in these words, 
" Qui est Justus et morum Magister," while John Leland, 
who was a pupil of Ritwise s during his surmastership, has 
left an epigram, 1 "Ad Justum Paulinae Scholae Modera- 
torem," which begins 

" Qui linguas teneras nova refingis 
Quadam dexteritate, nee ruinam 
Musarum pateris nitentium ullam 
Tu nunc, Juste, meum manu benigna 
Carmen suscipe." 

From a letter from John Palsgrave to Sir Thomas More, 
which was written in July 1529, some evidence of the 
reputation which Rightwise enjoyed as a scholar and an 
educational authority at the Court of Henry VIII may be 
deduced, for it appears 2 that the King, being anxious to 

1 Poemata varia, p. 1 8 ; Knight, Colet, 1823, p. 317. 

2 Brewer, Let. and Pap., 1529-30, vol. iv., pt. iii., 5806; Nichols, 
Memoir of the Duke of Richmond, pp. 23-4. 



94 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

constrained to release him, and two years later the accession 
of Elizabeth brought him once more in favour, and he was 
given the post of Constable of the Tower, which he held 
until his death in 1575. He was buried in Waterford 
Cathedral with great pomp, and a monument was erected to 
his memory in Exeter Cathedral. 

Although we know that William Lily took care that 
Paulines under his charge should learn how to sing, we 
have no evidence that the first high master encouraged 
acting, the accepted method of training boys in speaking 
Latin, and in grace of gesture, wherever the humanists 
controlled education. 

So far as we know, Ritwise established the dramatic 
tradition which persisted at St. Paul s for so long, although 
at last the masters of St. Paul s, unlike those of West 
minster, allowed it to perish. 

Rightwise himself was the author of a tragedy called 
Dido, which he acted with his scholars before Cardinal 
Wolsey, and in November 1527 the boys of St. Paul s 
acted an Anti-Lutheran masque at Greenwich before the 
King and the French Ambassador. A complete record of 
the characters of this masque, and of the payments to 
Ritwise in connection with it, has been preserved. It 
runs, " The Kyngis plesyer was that at the sayd rev ells by 
clarks in the Latyn tonge shold be playd in hys hy presence 
a play whereof insuyte the namys 1 

" First an oratur in aperrell of gold ; a poyed (poet) in 
aperell of cloth of gold. Relygeun, Ecclesia, Veritas like 
iij novessis in garments of sylke and vayells of lawne and 
sypres (cypress) ; Errysy, Fallse Interpretacion, Corruptio 
Scriptoris lyke laydys of Beeme (Bohemia) impereld in gar 
ments of sylke of dyvers collors. The herrytyke Lewtar 
(Luther) lyke a party frer (friar) in rosset damaske and 
1 Brewer, vol. iv., pt. ii., 3564. ; Record Off. Revels, Nov. 10, 1527. 



JOHN RITWISE, 1522-1532 95 

black taffeta. Lewtar s wife like a frowe of Spyers in Almayn 
in red sylke. Petar, Poull, and Jamys in iij abetts (habits) 
of whyghte sarsenet and iij mantylls and heris of sylvar of 
damaske and pellerins of skarlet ; and a cardenell in hys 
aparell : ij sargents in ryche aparell. The Dolphyn and hys 
brother in cottes of velvet imbraudid with gold, and capes 
of satyn bowned withe velvett ; a messynger in tynsell satyn ; 
vj men in gownys of gren sarsenet ; vj wemen in gownys of 
cremsyn sarsenet war in ryche cloth of gold and fethers and 
armyd ; iij Almayns in aparell all cut and selyt (slit) of sylke. 
Lady Pees (Peace), in ladys aparell all whyghte and riche ; 
and lady Quyetnes and dame Tranquylyte rychely beseyn 
(beseen) in ladis aparell." 

The invoice of the cloth of gold, sarsanet, buckram, vel 
vet and lawn, and for " the childrens hose and doublets," 
follows, and the MS. concludes as follows : " For making 
the apparell 54^. 8^. 3q. coals at 6d. beer ale bread for 38 
children, the Master Usher and the masters that ate and 
drank. 35. id. Mr. Ryghtwos Master of Paul s School, 
asks to be allowed for doublets, hose, and shoes for the 
children who were poor mens sons, and for fire in times of 
learning the play 45^. 6d." 

The document concludes 1 thus, " Item, payd by me 
Rychard Gybson for vi boots to karry the Master of Powlls 
Skooll and the chyldyrn as well hoom as to the koort, to 
every boot lid. so payd for frayght for the chyldyrn 6s." 

There is also evidence to show that the pupils of Rit- 
wise at St. Paul s acted before the Court a play on the 
Pope s captivity. In 1528 they acted Phormio before 
Cardinal Wolsey, having presented before him the 
Menaechmi a few years earlier. 

There is extant in the archives of Venice 2 a letter 

1 Notes and Queries, Ser. 2. vol. ii. pp. 24, 78. 

2 Brown, Cal. of State Papers, Venetian, 1527-33, vol. iv. p. 115. 



96 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

written by Gaspare Spinelli, the Secretary to the Venetian 
ambassador in London on January 8, 1528. The writer 
tells of the banquet given by Cardinal Wolsey to celebrate 
the release from captivity of Pope Clement VII. "The 
dinner was most sumptuous, and afterwards the scholars of 
Paul s, all children, recited the Phormio of Terence with so 
much galantaria e bona attoine that he (Spinelli) was 
astounded." The play was followed by recitations by three 
girls dressed to represent Religion, Peace, and Justice. After 
this a little boy, who had already recited with great applause 
the prologue of the comedy, delivered a Latin oration cele 
brating the day as one of great thanksgiving on account of 
the release of the Pope. . . . The grace with which questo 
figliolino delivered the oration could not be imagined." 

This tribute by a distinguished and cultured foreigner to 
the ability displayed by the boys of St. Paul s School is the 
more valuable from the fact that Spinelli was one of the most 
accomplished secretaries in the service of the republic of 
Venice. 

It is said that in 1521 Ritwise published at Cologne 
a book in 4to bearing on its title-page " Gulielmi Lilii, 
Grammatici et Poetae, eximii, Paulinae Scholae olim Modera- 
toris, de Generibus Nominum, ac Verborum Praeteritis et 
Supinis, Regulae pueris apprime utilis. Opus recognitum et 
adauctum, cum Nominum ac Verborum Interpretamentis : 
per Joannem Rituissi Scholae Paulinae Praeceptoris. Col. 
1 52 1 ." T No trace of this book is to be found, but the section 
" De Nominum ac Verborum Interpretamentis " was incor 
porated in the editions of Lily s Grammar published in 
Antwerp in 1533, and in London in 1539. It consisted of 
the well-known rule for the gender of nouns, called from its 
first words, " Propria quae maribus," and of rules for the 
inflexions of verbs called " As in praesenti." 
1 Wilkinson, Lond. 111., p. 9. 



RICHARD JONES, 1532-1549 97 

In A Chaste Maid in Cheapside, 1 first published in 1620 
and written by Thomas Middleton, Shakespeare s collabor 
ator in Macbeth^ one of the characters, named Maudlin, 
remarks of another, " He was eight years in his grammar, 
and stuck horribly at a foolish place there called as in 
praesenti, " and the same character in an earlier scene definitely 
refers to St. Paul s School in these words, " You ll ne er live 
till I make your tutor whip you. You know how I served 
you once at the free-school in Paul s Churchyard." 

A record of a benefactor to the school during the high 
mastership of Ritwise is to be found in the fact that 
Richard Wolman , a canon of St. Stephen s, Westminster, 
who was afterwards Dean of Wells and who left a bequest to 
the " children of the gramer scole at Eton," gave in June 
1528 to "the children in the gramer scole of Paul s at 
London 40^. to say Dirige or De Profundis in the church of 
Paul s " and also gave the master 6s. %d. and the usher 
3-f. 4^. to be there " for better order." 

RICHARD JONES, 1532-1549 

Of Ritwise s successor, Richard Jones, who was high 
master for seventeen years, we know little. He appears to 
have been at the University of Louvain as well as at 
Oxford, where he was a B. Can. Law in 1506-7, and it is 
for this reason that the Lion Rampant Azure of the former 
University appears as representing his high mastership in 
the window in the school. We may presume that he 
fulfilled the qualifications set out by Erasmus, who declared 
that no one could graduate at Louvain without knowledge, 
manners and age. 

That he was a persona grata with those most intimately 
concerned in the revival of learning in England is seen from 



1 Act IV. sc. i. 

H 



98 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

the fact that he received from his friend Linacre, who acted 
as executor to Grocyn, a legacy of money for the purchase 
of books. Of his character, the only contemporary record 
that has come down to us is contained in the brief reference 
of Polydore Vergil, 1 " Rightuso mortuo, Ricardus Jonys, 
homo doctus atque modestus successerit." 

Like his predecessor, Jones served the school as sur- 
master before becoming high master, his appointment to 
the lesser post having been made in 1522, the year of Lily s 
death, and of Ritwise s appointment. One other link with 
the early days of the school persisted in the fact that the 
man appointed to succeed Jones as surmaster, James Jacob, 
who had taken his degree at Oxford in 1527-8, married 
Dionysia Ritwise, the daughter of the first, and the 
widow of the second, high master. James and Dionysia 
Jacob had a son named Polydore, who was no doubt a 
godson of Polydore Vergil. 

Of the date of the death of this lady, whose life was so 
intimately connected with the history of the school, we have 
no record, but her second husband survived until the year 
1560, when, according to the diary of Henry Machyn, 2 the 
" Husser of Powles Skolle " was buried at St. Augustines 
Old Change, the church situated directly behind the school, 
" at his berehyng were a xx clarkes syngyng ym to the 
chyrche and was a sermon." 

One interesting sidelight, the only one into the private 
life of Jones which we possess, is to be found in the Record 
Office. 3 A certain W. Welden wrote to the high master 
a letter from the college at Cambray, in 1538, in which he 
says that " Mr. Peplewell lying sick in bed sent him Jones 
letters of the 2nd June." The writer goes on to say how 

1 Pol. Verg., Urb. Angl. Hist., 1534, p. 618. 

2 Camden Soc., 1848, p. 247. 

3 Brewer, vol. xiii., pt. i., p. 441 (i 192). 



RICHARD JONES, 1532-1549 99 

he went to see Peplewell, but was strangely received by his 
servant in the shop, who said he was in his chamber with 
the physician, and the writer then goes on to say that he 
"has sought this morning for his (Jones ) wife but finds 
very few tablettes rounde, the fashion being exolete. 
The biggest exceed not the compass of a rial, without, full 
of emale of divers colours most commonly, and openeth 
with a vice that there may be put within it musce or sweet 
powders. Such maybe had -for 30^. with the fashion for 
which they ask a noble or a crown." He goes on to 
say that he has not yet found the stones which he wants, 
and comments on the fact that Jones " does not say in 
what stone he wants Pegasus graven, as he does Janus in 
a cornelian or other good stone." He does not expect to 
find them ready made. The writer then proceeds to say 
that he does not wish to take charge of children any more, 
for he is able to live, and does not wish to hinder his study, 
a remark which seems to suggest that Jones was in the 
habit of sending boys from St. Paul s to study in the 
college. 

The letter concludes merely by a request that if Jones 
sends money, he should send single or double ducats or 
crowns, no other money being current but with loss. 

It is unfortunate that no other letters passing between 
Jones and his foreign correspondents should appear to have 
been preserved, for in that case we might have discovered 
in them matters of more interest to the history of the school 
than references to the presents of jewellery made by the 
high master to his wife, or than to a mere passing 
reference to the practice of sending boys to study on the 
Continent. 

Two glimpses of London life in the days of the Tudors 
are to be found in the Mercers Minutes, where occurs the 
entry, "September 2yth, 1543. The School ordered to 



H 2 



104 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

and mindful of the former usage did for a long season 
disorderly in the open street provoke one another with 
Salve ! Salve tu quoque ! placet tibi mecum disputare ? 
Placet, and so proceeding from this to questions in 
grammar, they usually fall from words to blows with 
their satchells full of books, many times in great heaps, 
that they troubled the streets and passengers, so that 
finally they were restrained with the decay of St. Anthonies 
School." 

It may well be that the boys of St. Paul s and St. 
Anthony s were breaking each other s heads over points of 
grammar on that eve of St. Bartholomew on which the 
tolling of the bell of St. Germain L Auxerrois, in Paris, 
rang in the most famous of all St. Bartholomew s days. 

It is curious to find that as late as the end of the 
eighteenth century there was in use in London a proverbial 
expression, " An it please the pigs," which was said to have 
originated as a scoffing reservation used by Paulines in 
reference to the boys of St. Anthony s School. 1 

Colet s endowment of a chantry and a chaplain was 
affected during Jones s high mastership by enactments 
which were described by the late high master as " an 
infamous blot upon our statute book." 

The Act 37 Henry VIII, c. 4, "For the dissolution of 
colleges, chantries and free chapels," had given all such 
endowments to the King and his successors, but they were 
not actually taken possession of until the Act i Edward VI, 
c. i was passed, which vested in the Crown as from 1548 all 
such colleges, chantries and free chapels. 

The greater part of the rents vested in the City Com 
panies for " superstitious uses " were purchased of the 
Crown by the Companies concerned, and conveyed to them 
about 1549, and it appears certain that the endowment 
1 Gentleman s Magazine, 1798, vol. Ix. p. 1086. 



THOMAS FREEMAN, 1549-1559 105 

for a chantry priest for St. Paul s School was among the 
number. 

The only man of whom one can say with any certainty 
that he was a pupil of Richard Jones is William Harrison, 
the annalist, to whom reference has already been made. He 
became a canon of Windsor, and died in 1594. 

It has been suggested that the two sons of Edward, 
Lord North, who, as we have seen, was a pupil of Lily, were 
also at St. Paul s. Their place of education is not known, 
but if they were Paulines, they must have been at the school 
under Richard Jones. The elder son, Roger, who is said to 
have completed his education at Peterhouse, was ambassador, 
general, and faithful servant to Queen Elizabeth to the day 
of his death in 1600. His brother, Sir Thomas North, from 
whose translation of Plutarch Shakespeare derived all his 
classical knowledge, has been spoken of as the first great 
master of English prose. 

Polydore Vergil described in these terms the effect on 
education in England of St. Paul s under its first three high 
masters, "Ac ut Londinensis juventus e Paulina schola 
multo est politior, sic tota Anglia multi studiis et doctrinis 
dediti profecta literatura florent." 

THOMAS FREEMAN, 1549-1559 

On the death of Jones, the Mercers appointed as his 
successor a man who in 1542 had been appointed master of 
the Mercers Chapel School, with which the school of St. 
Thomas of Aeon had been incorporated twenty years before. 
Of Freeman s education or early career we know nothing. 
Stow says that " he spent ten years in the laborious employ 
ment of the education of youth," a statement which adds 
nothing to our knowledge. Freeman s election to the high 
mastership may, so far as is known, be reckoned as the first 
in which there was a contest for the post of high master, 



106 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

for it appears that four years before the death of Richard 
Jones he was promised the reversion of the post in preference 
to one Gryndal, who had made application for it under 
favour of the Queen s grace. 

The Queen in question was Catherine Parr, and this 
fact makes it probable that the applicant was not, as has been 
suggested, Edmund Grindal, the future Archbishop of 
Canterbury, but William Grindal, a pupil at St. John s 
College, Cambridge, of William Ascham, who, with Ascham, 
became tutor to the Princess Elizabeth while she lived 
under the care of Catherine Parr. 

Nothing whatever is known of Freeman s career at St. 
Paul s, save that in 1559 " he was warned to avoid the office 
for insufficiency of learning and lack of the Greek tongue." 

On Freeman s election James Jacob, the surmaster, was 
propitiated with a present for being passed over in the 
election of a high master in spite of his seventeen years 
service in the school. 

The part which the boys of St. Paul s had played in the 
pageants in the city of London during the high mastership 
of Jones, was maintained during that of his successor. It is 
on record 1 that on September 30, 1553, at the coronation 
of Queen Mary, " At the Schole house in Palles Church, 
ther was certayn children and men sung dyverse staves in 
gratefying the Queene : ther she stayed a good while and 
gave dilligent ere to their song." 

Strype 2 refers to processions through the city on 
January 25 and March 8, 1554, in which the boys of St. 
Paul s School took part, while on August 1 8, 1554, it 
appears 3 that " a skoller of Paule s School decked up in 
cloth of gold delivered unto the King s highness a fayre 
book which he receyved verye gentle," an incident which, 

1 Queen Jane and Queen Mary, Camden Soc., 1849-50, p. 30. 

- Historical Memorials, vol. iii. 

3 Queen Jane and Queen Mary, Camden Soc., 1849-50, p. 150. 



THOMAS FREEMAN, 1549-1559 107 

of course, refers to the marriage of the Queen with Philip of 
Spain. 

With the accession of Mary and the restoration of the 
old religion we find records of purchases for the chapel which 
are of interest. Thus, in 1554, the new regime is marked 
by a payment of 3^. 4^. for " 2 candlesticks for the chappell," 
while the following entries in the accounts occur later 

1554-5 Paid for two altar clothes two towells and 
corporous (sic) cloth and mass book 41^. id. 

Vestment, rearedore, and foredore and covering for the 
altar, 535. d. 

For waxe spent in the chapell of the Schole this 
yeare, 3^. \d. 

1555-6 For a narrow wighte clothe for an albe and 
linen ; Two elles of Holland for an altar cloth 75. ~]d. 

Waxe for the chapell 8j. 

1556-7 For waxe 6 s. 

The picture of Jesus set up agayne. 

Paid to Dyrricke Cure, Carver, for new making the 
picture of Jesus in the schole 2os. Paid for payenting & 
gilding the same picture 2os. 

On May 30, 1556, the Mercers borrowed a chalice from 
St. Paul s School in consequence of a robbery at St. Thomas 
of Aeon s. Two very significant facts concerning the staff of 
the school deserve mention. After the disappearance of the 
name of Sir Thomas Monymay, the chaplain, in 1557, the 
last year of Mary s reign, no name of a successor is to be found 
in the Mercers accounts for three years. Further, Thomas 
Freeman, the high master, was " removed for insufficiency 
of learning," after ten years as high master, in 1559, within 
twelve months after the accession of Elizabeth. These facts 
make it very safe to surmise that the religious upheaval of 
the time finds its reflection in the history of the school. 

Wriothesley, 1 referring to the year 1555, relates that 
1 Wriothesley, Camden Soc., 1877, ii. 130. 



108 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

" This yeare on St Barthlemew Eve, after the Lord Mayre 
and Aldermen had ridden aboute the fayre, they came to 
Christ Church by Newgate Markett, where the disputation 
of the children of Paule s Schoole, St Anthonies, and the 
children of the Hospitall was heard and three several games 
made for them." 

We have already had occasion to refer to Holinshed s 
statement as to the disputation at St. Bartholomew s Fair in 
the same year. The words of the chronicler are as follows 

" On Bartholomew even, after the Lord Maior and 
Aldermen of London had rid about Bartholomew Faire, 
they came to Christes Hospitall within Newgate, where they 
heard a disputation betweene the scholers of Paules Schoole, 
Saint Anthonies Schoole, and the scholars of the said 
hospitall." 

The account goes on to say that a scholar of St. Anthony s 
won the prize, which was a silver pen worth 5^., and his 
master received a present of 6s. 8^/., the second best boy 
being a scholar of St. Paul s. 

We have seen how during the high mastership of Richard 
Jones, according to three different chroniclers the " children 
of Paule s schole " took part in religious processions on at 
least four different occasions in the years 1536 to 1546. 
We have seen also how Ritwise is described in the Privy 
Purse Expenses, in 1532, as the " scole master of Paules," 
and in the accounts for the Anti-Lutheran play, in 1537, as 
" the master of Paul s school." In view of these facts it is 
surely a far-fetched assertion to suggest that the " scholers of 
Paules Schoole " spoken of by Holinshed, and "the children 
of Paule s Schoole " referred to by Wriothesley, belonged to 
any other school than Colet s, especially when it is seen that 
Stow implies the contrary, and also that Machyn describes 
processions which took place in the same year as that of 
which Holinshed and Wriothesley 1 speak, in which " all the 
1 Camden Soc., 184.8, pp. 87, 92. 



THOMAS FREEMAN, 1549-1559 109 

men-chylderyn of the hospetall and after the chylderne of 
sant Antonys, and then all the chyltheryn of Powlles and all 
ther masters and hushhers " took part. 

If the statements which have been set out above are 
accepted, a reference to the pupils of Freeman is to be found 
in the description of Queen Mary s visit to the Princess 
Elizabeth at Hatfield in 1554, which states that "after 
supper a play was presented by the children of Paul s." 
From this account the name of one of the boys has been 
discovered, for it goes on to state, " After the play and next 
morning one of the children named Max. Poines sung to 
the Princess while she played at the Virginals." 1 

It is a strange fact that the only other name which has 
been traced as that of a possible pupil of Freeman is con 
nected with the entertainment of Queen Elizabeth. Robert 
Laneham, the date of whose birth and death are unknown, 
was apprenticed to a Mercer, and acquired in travel great 
linguistic abilities, a fact which led to his entering the service 
of the Earl of Leicester, an account of whose entertainment 
of Queen Elizabeth, in 1 575, he wrote in a letter to a friend, 
which has been preserved. 2 This letter closes with an 
interesting account of the author. " I went to scholl, for 
sooth," he says, " both at Pollez, and also at Saint Antoniez : 
In the fifth form, past Esop Fabls I wys, red Terens, Vos 
istaec intro auferte, and began with my Virgill, Tytire tu 
patulae. I coold my rulez, coold conster and pars with the 
best of them." 

Sir Walter Scott introduced Laneham into Kenilworth as 
a character full of pert officiousness. Nothing more than 
what is stated in his letter is known concerning him, 
unless, indeed, he is to be identified with " Old Lanam " who 
lashed the Puritan pamphleteers in 1589, in Rhythmes against 
Martin Marre Prelate. 

1 Wharton s History of English Poetry, vol. iii. p. 218. 

2 Nichols Progresses of Queen Elizabeth, vol. i. p. 420. 



CHAPTER VII 

THE ELIZABETHAN CHANGES 
JOHN COOK, HIGH MASTER 1559-^573 

THE new high master appointed on Freeman s dismissal 
was John Cook, who appears to have been a native of 
Lincolnshire. He was born in 1516, and must therefore 
have been at Eton, where he was educated, in the head 
mastership of Richard Coxe, under whom that school is 
said to have first reached its high repute, and of whom 
Fuller wrote that the school " was happy with many 
flourishing wits under his endeavours." The fact that 
Coxe was a zealous Lutheran and Reformer, and after 
becoming tutor to Edward VI became, first, Dean of 
Christ Church, and later, under Elizabeth, Dean of Ely, is 
worth noting in view of the fact that his pupil, John Cook, 
was appointed to St. Paul s shortly after the death of Mary 
and the accession of Elizabeth. 

At King s, where he was admitted as scholar in 1533, 
and became a fellow in due course, Cook graduated in 1538, 
and nothing is known as to the manner in which he was 
occupied in the twenty years which elapsed before he 
became high master of St. Paul s, except that he was enjoined 
by the Provost in 1 545 to study Divinity and in the follow 
ing year obtained a licence from his college to go abroad for 
two years causa studii. 

The restoration of Protestantism resulted probably in the 

no 



JOHN COOK, 1559-1573 111 

disuse of the chapel at St. Paul s on Cook s election, for 
although a man earning the salary of the chaplain was still 
appointed, he is described in the records of this reign under 
several different titles, and prayers were said by the high 
master in the school-room. 

That a school friendship with Lord Treasurer Burghley 
was maintained throughout life by Cook may be seen 
from a letter written by Cook thankfully acknowledging 
the obliging reception the great Minister of State once gave 
him after a long absence and intermission of acquaintance, 
" cum usus aliquis," so ran the letter, " a primo paene 
studiorum nostrorum curriculo, vix interesset." 

Through the influence of Burghley with the Earl of 
Huntingdon Cook was presented to a country living in 
1573 ; he obtained the prebend of South Muskham in 1586, 
and the fact that he died shortly after appears from the 
mention of his widow in the Mercers accounts for the 
year 1590. 

The esteem in which Cook was held is to be seen from 
the fact that he was selected by Alexander Nowell, Dean 
of St. Paul s, to distribute his brother Robert Nowell s 
benefactions. 

On the tomb of Alexander Nowell, who was appointed 
to the Deanery of St. Paul s in 1560, of which there is an 
engraving in Dugdale s History^ there occurs the following 
line 

" Praesidi scholae Paulinae plurimorum auctori." 

Dean Nowell, as executor of his brother, Robert Nowell, 
Attorney-General of the Court of Wards, was charged with 
the responsibility of distributing some part of his brother s 
estate in charity, on the death of the latter in 1568-9. The 
accounts of his disbursements which have been preserved 

1 1716, p. 112. 



112 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

show in some detail the objects on which they were bestowed. 
One of the first entries is as follows 

" Gownes geven to certeyn poor schollers of the scholls 
aboute London in number 32, viz. St. Pauls, Merchant 
Taylors, St. Anthonys Schole, St. Saviours grammer 
Schole, and Westminster Schole. Cost of cloth without 
making, xixli. x s. vij d." 

In the same year an entry occurs, " To Nycholas Benall 
for makinge of vij gownes for seven schollers of poulls scholl 
as by the acquittance . . . more at large aperethe." Then 
follow the names of seven boys, of whom one, described 
as " William husnis," is probably to be identified with a 
son of William Hunnis, a musician and poet who was 
master of the children of the Chapel Royal in the reign 
of Edward VI. 

The third payment from Robert Nowell s estate which 
was made in Cook s high mastership, and with which we are 
concerned, runs, " Toe the schollars of paulls schole the 
xxth of December, Anno 1570 xviij d." 

We have already seen how other references in " The 
Spending Book " of Robert Nowell prove conclusively that 
the " Paul s School " referred to throughout is the founda 
tion of Dean Colet, and not any other. Further evidence 
of the interest of Dean Nowell in the offspring of his 
predecessor s bounty is to be found in the fact that his 
nephew, William Whitaker, is said by Abdias Asheton, 
Nowell s biographer, " to have been kindly entertained by 
his uncle at the Deanery of St. Paul s, and put under the 
tuition of Cook, the learned master of St. Paul s School." 

Whitaker, who must have been brought by his uncle to 
London from his birthplace, Burnley in Lancashire, was a 
well-known Calvinistic divine, the champion of Protestant 
ism against the great Jesuit, Bellarmine. He became in 
turn Canon of Norwich, Regius Professor of Divinity at 






JOHN COOK, 1559-1573 113 

Cambridge, Fellow of Eton, and finally, on the recommen 
dation of Archbishop Whitgift and Lord Burghley, was 
elected to the mastership of St. John s College, Cambridge. 

The fact that Alexander Nowell sent his nephew to St. 
Paul s, and that from his brother s estate he made certain 
gifts to the boys of that school in common with those of 
other schools in London, is not enough to bear out the 
explicit statement in his epitaph that he was a benefactor to 
St. Paul s School. 

The one circumstance which seems to bear this interpre 
tation is to be found in a composition effected, just after 
Cook s retirement in 1574, between the Dean and Chapter 
of St. Paul s Cathedral and Jesus College, Cambridge, by 
which a dispute as to the will of one John Reston, D.D., was 
settled on the following terms : The cathedral on the one 
hand surrendered to the college all claim to certain property 
which came under a bequest of Dr. Reston, and the college 
in return undertook to maintain one Reston Fellow and 
eight Reston scholars, and granted to the Dean and Chapter 
the right of nominating seven (not, as has been said, two) of 
the scholars, from candidates " chosen from time to time 
from St. Paul s School or in defect from any other." 

On the death in 1560 of James Jacob, the third husband 
of Dionysia Lily, Cook appointed Christopher Holden to 
succeed him as surmaster. It is of interest to note that, 
like the high master, he was an Etonian, and that in 1548 
he proceeded from Eton to King s College, Cambridge, 
with William Malym and Richard Mulcaster, two future 
high masters of St. Paul s. All that is known concerning 
Christopher Holden while at the school is to be found in 
an entry dated 1570, in the Spending Book of Robert 
Nowell, "To the usher of Poules Scolle, to give to his 
cousins in Oxford as appeareth by an abstract of 28 of 
October ; xx s. 



114 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

An indication of the manner in which the religious 
changes consequent on the accession of Elizabeth affected 
the school is to be seen in an entry in the accounts for the 
years 1561-1562 : "Paid for taking away the pictur out 
of the Scole where the master sayeth prayers 8^/." This 
refers, of course, to the picture of Jesus probably " Christ 
Jesus in puericia " which only four or five years earlier 
had been set up once more and had been painted, gilded and 
renovated. It may be noted in this connection that in the 
same year, 1561, the Provost of Eton gave orders "for 
pullinge downe a tabernacle of stone in the body of the 
church," and also " For whiting Doctor Lupton s chapell." 
The reference, in the extract from the accounts which has just 
been quoted, to the master saying prayers in the school seems 
to suggest that on the accession of Elizabeth the chapel 
was no longer used. Possibly it was turned into a library. 
Mention has already been made in our account of Freeman s 
high mastership of the fact that no one drawing the salary 
of the chaplain was appointed from 1557 until 1560. In 
that year one Elles, and in the following year Thomas 
Holden, who was possibly a brother of the surmaster, were 
appointed to the chaplain s place and salary, but in each case 
under the title of " he that teaches the first form." 
Holden s successor, Thomas Hodles, was appointed in 
1567 as "teacher of the pettites." No name is recorded as 
having held the post in 1568. In the following year 
Thomas Mercer is mentioned without any comment, but 
once again in 1571 Richard Wilkynsonne is down as 
" Teacher of the first form there Accidence or Petite with 
the Cathechyson, the Articles of the Christian faith and the 
ten Commandments." 

The history of the most important change effected in the 
school during the high mastership of Cook is to be found 
in a resolution of the Court passed on June 2, 1564, in 



JOHN COOK, 1559-1573 115 

which attention was called to " the publication and zealous 
exhortation of the preachers in their several distinct sermons 
made the Spital without Bishopsgate this Easter holidays 
now last past for certain Fellowships to find Two Scholars 
a year to the number of 12 Company s. Whereupon 
when this assembly had heard the said matter opened they 
liked the notion thereof very well and bare there good 
minds and zeales to the furtherance and maintenance thereof. 
Whereupon it was by this Assembly fully and wholly con 
descended, concluded and agreed, that this Fellowship is 
well contented to find at this time one scholar or more to 
the University at their proper cost and charge to continue in 
the University during their frewill minds and pleasure and 
as touching the sum of money towards the Exhibition and 
finding of the said one Scholar or more Scholars is by this 
assembly agreed to be xiij lib. vj s. viij d. so always the 
Fellowships full minds and consents is that the aptest and 
meetest Scholars in Pauls School to be advanced and 
preferred to the University and specially Mercers children 
of this Fellowship if any such may be found apt and meet 
there to be preferred and advanced to the Companys 
Exhibitions now granted before any others." These were 
ordered to be paid out of the school funds. 1 

On July 26 in the same year, articles or terms on which 
the exhibitions were to be held were drawn up by Edmund 
Grindal, Bishop of London, and the Court notified its 
willingness "to found two Exhibitions of 10 marks each 
per annum for one graduate in Oxford and one in Cam 
bridge to be appointed by the Company from time to time 
and the Exhibition to continue during the Company s 
pleasure." The first exhibitioner was elected in the month 
of September in the same year, and received the emolu 
ments annually for four and a half years, in spite of the 

1 Vol. ii., Rep. of Royal Commission on Livery Cos., 1884, p. Q. 
I 2 



118 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

" Et quonian pueri non viribus sed precibus officiate possunt, 
nos alumnos hujus scholae ab ipso Coletto olim Templi 
Paulini Decano exstructae, teneras palmas ad coelum ten- 
dentes, Christum optimum maximum precaturi sumus, ut 
tuam celsitudinem annos Nestoris summo cum honore 
Anglis imperitare faciat, matremque pignoribus charis beatam 
redeat Amen." 

Holinshed l also quotes the speech in exfenso, and the 
Latin elegiac verses which followed as well, " which the 
Queene s maiestie most attentiuelie hearkened vnto. And 
when the child had pronounced, he did kisse the oration 
which he had there faire written in paper and deliuered it 
vnto the queenes maiestie which most gentlie received the 
same." 

The contribution of Queen Elizabeth to the plays acted 
before her at Christmas 1563 by the boys of St. Paul s and 
Westminster was fifty marks. It may be conjectured that 
the sum was equally divided between the two schools. 

Of sixteenth-century high masters, John Cook, albeit 
less is known of his career than of that of almost any of his 
immediate predecessors or successors, may claim the credit of 
being the only one in the course of that century to approach 
Lily in the number of distinguished men who have been 
identified as his pupils. One sidelight, however, which, 
although biassed, deserves mention, has been preserved in the 
autobiographical memoranda of John Sanderson, Levant 
merchant, which is preserved in the British Museum, in which 
the writer, who, be it said, uniformly traduced his contempor 
aries, declares, " Now the misery I had at Grammar School 
was very great by reason of my unaptness. Before sixteen 
years I gave over all Latin, having been meanly instructed 
of mad freeschool masters, Cooke and Houlden. The said 
Coke (sic] with lashes set more than seven scars on my 
1 Hoi., iii. 1177 ; Knight, Colet, 1823, p. 319. 




WILLIAM WHITAKF.R. MASTER OF ST. JOHN S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, 
AND REGIUS PROFESSOR OF DIVINI1V 

\ToJacef. n8. 



JOHN COOK, 1559-1573 119 

hide which yet remain." Of another of his pupils, 
Richard Perceval, it is stated l that he was educated at St. 
Paul s School, " then the most famous nursery of learning 
in England." Perceval, on leaving St. Paul s, followed his 
father to Lincoln s Inn, and subsequently travelled in Spain 
for several years. On his return possibly on the recom 
mendation of his old school-master he entered the service 
of Lord Burghley, at whose suggestion he was employed to 
decipher certain papers which gave the first information of 
the destination of the Spanish Armada. He was Secretary 
of the Court of Wards, and sat in the first Parliament of 
James I as member for Richmond, Yorks. He was dis 
missed from his post in 1614, but in 1617 he became 
Registrar of the Court of Wards in Ireland, where he laid 
the foundation of the Irish estates of the Earls of Egmont. 
John Sanderson, an even more adventurous soldier of 
fortune than Perceval, has only been identified as an Old 
Pauline in the last few years through the disparaging refer 
ence to the high master and surmaster which has already 
been quoted. It is an interesting fact that the circumstance 
of his brother, Thomas Sanderson, having been at St. Paul s 
was also discovered in recent years through the occurrence 
of his name in another obscure MS. at the British Museum. 
Born in 1560 in St. Paul s Churchyard, John Sanderson, on 
leaving school, was bound apprentice to a Flanders merchant, 
who subsequently transferred him to the service of the 
Turkey Company. This led to his being sent to Constanti 
nople in 1584, and attached to the household of the 
ambassador, the only British agent at that time permanently 
stationed abroad, part of whose expenses were defrayed by 
the Turkey Company. Having visited Egypt and Syria he 
returned to England in 1588, and fitted out a vessel to sail 
to the Indies round the Cape of Good Hope, but having 
1 Anderson s House of Yvory. 



120 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

encountered storms, and being attacked by Spaniards, he 
got no further than Madeira, and came home penniless. 

He then returned to Constantinople, where he remained 
for nearly six years, during part of which time he acted as 
deputy for the ambassador, a post which would now be 
dignified by the title of charge d affaires. He returned to 
England by Aleppo, Cyprus, Venice, and overland through 
Germany in 15 98, but started once more for the East in the 
following year, and there spent three more years, during 
which he visited Palestine. After his final return home in 
1602, he contributed a record of his travels to the second 
volume of Purchas his Pi/grimes. 

Four of Cook s pupils, including William Whitaker, 
are known to have obtained fellowships at Oxford or Cam 
bridge. They include Henry Hickman of St. John s, Cam 
bridge, the son of a country gentleman in Essex, Thomas 
Langherne of Pembroke Hall, who was an exhibitioner of 
the school, and Anthony Egliefield of Queen s, Oxford, 
whose name occurs among the " Schollers of Poulls School " 
who received gowns from Robert Nowell s estate in the 
year 1568. Henry Hickman became in turn Chancellor of 
the Diocese of Peterborough, Master in Chancery, and 
M.P. for Northampton. Nothing is known concerning the 
subsequent careers of the other Old Paulines who have been 
named. 

In 1572 the Mercers Company obtained judgment 
(which was entered in the Exchequer in Trinity Term, 
Anno Eliz. 15) against Mr. Knevet, who had laid an in 
formation against them for "concealed chauntery lands," 
namely, the endowment of Dean Colet for a chaplain, all 
chantry endowments having been granted to the Crown by 
i Edward VI, c. 14. Knevet, who was probably a member 
of the family of Dame Christian Colet, failed in his " profes," 
but nevertheless, by the mediation of Sir Walter Mildmay 







JOHN HOWSON, BISHOP OF OXFORD AND OF Dl RHXM 

[ To fil{ />. I 20. 



JOHN COOK, 1559-1573 121 

and others, "out of their meere liberalitye " the company 
gave Mr. Knevet forty pounds sterling. In spite of this 
payment, which looks suspiciously like hush money, the 
same trouble frequently occurred in subsequent years. In 
1579-80, the Mercers again entered an appearance in the 
Exchequer on the same complaint ; and in 1580, a fine of 
300 was recorded against the company for the same 
matter. This does not appear to have been paid out of 
Dean Colet s estate, since a loan was raised by the company 
for the purchase of his rents. The sum was awarded by 
the Crown to David Dely and Nicholas Hilyard, gold 
smiths, who, no doubt, were the informers, and the Queen 
by letters-patent granted the rents and tenements to the 
company. 1 Further entries on the same subject recur in 
1582-3. It was no doubt owing to this question having 
been raised in the Courts that when Richard Wilkinson, the 
chaplain, retired on the appointment of Malym to the high 
mastership on Lady Day 1573, his successor s tide was "the 
Under Usher, or rather callyd the teacher of the pettites or 
Accidence there the Cathechysmus and Ten Commaunde- 
mentes in Inglysh." 

The final stage in the story of Colet s chantry endow 
ment is reached in the passing of a private Act, 4 James I, 
c. 10, by which outstanding questions were settled, and all 
lands, rents and hereditaments devised to any of the city 
companies, and mentioned in the letters-patent of Edward 
VI, were confirmed to the Mercers and the other companies 
concerned, and the trusts on which they were held were 
legalized. 

The most distinguished man educated by Cook, was 
John Howson, who went from St. Paul s to Christ Church, 
of which he later became a Canon and acted as Vice- 

1 Report of Royal Commission of City of London Companies, 1884, 
vol. ii. p. 1 1. 



122 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

chancellor of the University. He was one of the original 
fellows of King James I s College at Chelsea, founded in 
1 6 10, and in 1618 he became Bishop of Oxford, from which 
he was translated to Durham, where he remained until his 
death in 1632, when he was buried in St. Paul s Cathedral. 
He is said to have delighted King James by his declaration 
that he would loosen the Pope from his chair, though he 
were fastened thereto by a tenpenny nail. 

William Camden, who came to St. Paul s from Edward 
VI s recently founded Christ s Hospital, appears from this 
fact to have been the son of a poor man, but he went up to 
Oxford, where in turn he was a member of three different 
colleges, a few years before the school exhibitions had been 
established. Two years after graduating he became assistant 
master at Westminster, and after eighteen years in that post, 
at the express order of Queen Elizabeth, the statutes of the 
school enjoining that the head master of Westminster should 
be in orders were set aside in his favour, for although he 
held a prebendal stall at Salisbury, Camden remained all his 
life a layman. 

The Queen showed him favour once again by ordering 
the Chapter to give him his commons free, and in 1596, 
" having gathered a contented sufficiency by his long 
labours in the School," he retired. He was appointed 
Richmond Herald, and in 1597, Clarencieux King-at-Arms. 
Like his schoolfellow, John Howson, he was connected with 
Chelsea College, where he held the professorship of history. 
The closing years of his life were occupied with antiquarian 
works, of which the most famous is the Britannia, materials 
for which he had collected when a master at Westminster. 
He endowed the Chair of Ancient History at Oxford 
which bears his name, and on his death in 1623 was buried 
in Westminster Abbey. 

While a school-master he compiled a Greek Grammar for 











WILLIAM CAMFiEN, HEAD MASTER OF WESTMINSTER AND 
CLARENCIEUX KING-AT-ARMS 

[Tojatep. 122. 



JOHN COOK, 1559-1573 123 

the use of Westminster School, which remained in use 
there until the publication of Busby s Grammar about 1647. 
It was read by the boys at Eton until long after this date, and 
it is a curious illustration of the acquisitiveness of Eton 
College, that the Greek Grammar of the Old Pauline head 
master of Westminster became known to generations of 
Etonians, until a date within living memory, as the Eton 
Greek Grammar, just as the Latin Grammar of the first 
high master of St. Paul s was without any justification 
entitled the Eton Latin Grammar. 



126 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

Of his eight years rule at Eton rather more is known 
than of that of his immediate predecessors or successors. 
In the library at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, is the 
original MS. of his celebrated Consuetudinarium, which 
provides the best account extant of life in any public school 
in the middle of the sixteenth century. It comprises a 
description of the rules and observances of the college 
prepared by Malym shortly after his appointment with a 
view to the visit of the Royal Commissioners of 1561, or 
else, possibly, it was merely compiled by the new head master 
for the purpose of informing himself of the conditions in 
which he was taking on the school, and of the mode in 
which he was to be directed in its government. The inclu 
sion in the Consuetudinarium of a direction that the boys 
should go to confession on Ash Wednesday, which is crossed 
through with a pen, points to a religious change which was 
probably imposed on the head master. 

Malym carried on the flogging tradition in which he had 
been brought up by Udall, the Eton master of whom the 
Old Pauline and Old Etonian, Thomas Tusser, the author 
of Five Hundreth Pointes of Good Husbandry, had written 

" From Powles I went, to JEton sent, 
To learne straightwayes the Latin phraise, 
Wher fifty three stripes given to mee 

At once I had. 

For faut but small, or none at all, 
It came to passe thus beat I was, 
See, Udall, See, the mercy of thee 

To mee, poor lad." 

It was the escape of some Eton boys from the school 
after a flogging at the hands of William Malym which 
led to that well-known dinner-table discussion at Windsor 
Castle, where Sir William Cecil, afterwards Lord Burghley, 
Sir Richard Sackville, the first cousin of Anne Boleyn, who, 
fifty years before, had " been driven before he was fullie 



WILLIAM MALYM, 1573-1581 127 

fourteene years olde from all love of learning," John 
Astley, the Master of the Jewel House, and others aired 
their views on education, the result of which was that one 
of the company, Roger Ascham, wrote The Scholemaster. 

Two years after his appointment to Eton the Queen, on 
her arrival at Windsor, to which she came in order that she 
might escape the dangers of the plague in London, was 
welcomed with congratulatory addresses by Malym and his 
scholars, and in the handsomely bound copy of the MS. of 
these speeches, which is in the British Museum, 1 there is a 
preface obviously written by Malym himself, in which the 
boys are made to solicit promotion for their master at the 
hands of her gracious Majesty. 

In view of the flogging propensities of Malym the 
terms of this petition are of no little interest, for in it the 
Queen is requested, if she is pleased with the efforts of 
the Eton boys, to bestow some mark of favour on " our 
dearest master, by whose kindness and extreme watchfulness 
by day and by night we have in a short time attained such 
proficiency in literature," and she is further begged " not 
to suffer him to be oppressed by any grievous want, or to 
be ground down by ceaseless labours or studies " after 
having spent twenty years at Eton and Cambridge. 

There is extant 2 a letter in Italian, dated six years later, 
from Malym to Burghley, in which, in addition to sending 
the Minister a copy of complimentary Latin verses, the 
school-master thanks him for his influence with the Earl of 
Leicester, and it may well be that the presentation of Malym 
to the prebend of Biggleswade in the diocese of Lincoln, which 
took place in that year, was due to the good offices of his 
friend and school-fellow with the most powerful man of the 
moment. 

1 De Adventu . . . Eliz. Reginae. ad arces Windesorienses, 1563. 

2 Cal. S. P., Dom., 1547-80, p. 331, Mar. 1569. 



132 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

Haec mea vota precor supplex, ne segnius hauri 
Candide Maecenas, unus qui singula possis. 
Sic tibi multiplices current foeliciter anni 
Prospera magnanimi, numeres el lustra Metelli." 

Maecenas, however, remained obdurate, and Malym 
remained at St. Paul s until 1581. He is said to have 
died in 1594. 

A curious record dealing with the finances of the school 
is preserved in the accounts of Thomas Egerton, who was 
surveyor-accountant in 1574-5. In this statement that 
official writes, " Given to my late predecessor Thomas More 
by way of Malivolence Benevolence I should say, for 
otherwise the reste (i. e . balance) of his account was not to be 
gotten out of his hand ; but he would be his own bayly, 
xxv lib." From the records of 1575-6 it appears that 
Thomas Egerton recovered from his successor the surplus 
of the expense of the audit dinner, amounting to more than 
10, which his predecessor, More, ought to have paid to 
him. Unfortunately, nothing more is known of the details 
of this transaction. 

During Malym s high mastership the " shedde or lyttel 
house of tymber " attached to St. Dunstan s chapel at the 
east end of the cathedral, to which the boys of the school 
had access, was repaired and converted into a residence 
" for the pore man, the porter of the Schole to be more 
readier to attend upon the said Schole and to keep it clean." 
There appears reason to suppose from this that in or before 
1573 the Poor Child was relieved of his duties by a porter ; 
the house of the latter, however, was subsequently turned 
into an under usher s house, in which capacity it was 
maintained, after having been still further enlarged, until the 
year 1620. 

Sir Thomas Elyot, in " The Boke named the Governour," 
in the course of which is mapped out the education of 



WILLIAM MALYM, 1573-1581 133 

a gentleman, expresses approval of manly exercises such as 
wrestling, hunting, swimming, shooting with the cross-bow, 
and tennis, but refuses to sanction the game of football 
because " therein is nothing but beastly furie, and external 
violence, whence procedeth hurte, & consequently rancour 
and malice do remaine with them that be wounded." 

Malym did not share these views. We know that at 
Eton his pupils played football without let or hindrance, 
and it may therefore be assumed that Paulines during his 
high mastership did likewise. 

While at St. Paul s Malym provided a polyglot lexicon 
in Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, Spanishyand High Dutch. 
When he retired the Court of the Mercers made him a 
present and bought this and other " implements " for the 
use of the school, the sum of nineteen shillings being 
charged in the accounts for the purchase of the polyglot 
lexicon, which may be assumed to have formed the nucleus 
of a library. 

Judging from the number of men who held the post, 
called, as we have seen, for the first time under Malym, 
under usher, and not chaplain, the high master must have 
been a difficult man with whom to get on. After the first 
under usher retired the accounts record a sum " paid to one 
Harrolde, under ushere, for three weeks teaching a little 
afore Bradshaws coming . . . and so dismissed." Of 
Robert Bradshaw it is on record that " he had much 
contention with Malym and Holden." The next entry 
relates to " a young man that wayted a moneth at Powles 
School hoping to have been placed in Bradshaws room." 
The three succeeding occupants of the post were appointed 
within a period of three years. 

Malym, whose Latin style was fluent but affected, and 
who, according to Strype, 1 " writ a fine hand," published, in 
1 Stow, vol. i. p. 167 . 



WILLIAM MALYM, 1573-1581 135 

Thomas Sanderson became Archdeacon of Rochester ; 
Richard Clerke, Vicar of Minster, was one of the learned 
men to whom the translation of the Authorized Version of 
the Old Testament was entrusted. The third is Francis 
Vere, second son of Geoffrey de Vere, and nephew of the 
Earl of Oxford. It is not known whether other members 
of his family the " Fighting Veres," as they were called 
were educated at St. Paul s, but one may surmise that Sir 
Francis s two brothers, Robert and Sir Horace, afterwards 
Lord Vere of Tilbury, were also educated under Malym. 
Vere s contribution to the addresses to the Queen strangely 
foreshadowed his coming career in the words 

" Flandria cujus item postulat omnis opem." 

In 1586 he was fighting in the Low Countries, and was 
soon placed in command of a company. In the following 
year Vere won his spurs on the ramparts at the siege of 
Sluys against the renowned tercio viejo the pick of the 
Spanish infantry and was known henceforth as " young 
Vere who fought at Sluys." He was knighted in the 
following year as a reward for his success in raising the siege 
of Bergen-op-Zoom. He earned the reputation of being 
the greatest general of the Elizabethan age ; became in turn 
Commander-in-Chief in the Netherlands and Governor of 
Brill. He was severely wounded in the victory at Nieuport, 
and on the proclamation of peace with Spain by King James, 
he was appointed Governor of Portsmouth. On his death, 
in 1609, he was buried with military honours in Westminster 
Abbey on a spot marked by a splendid black marble monu 
ment. Cyril Tourneur, the dramatist, wrote a " Funerall 
Poeme " in his honour. 



CHAPTER IX 

THE AMENDING ORDINANCES OF 1 6o2 

JOHN HARRISON AND RICHARD MULCASTER, HIGH MASTERS 

1581-1608 

JOHN HARRISON, 1581-1596 

ONE of the last acts of Malym before sending in his 
resignation of the high mastership was, in the course of 
the year 1580, to appoint John Harrison to the vacancy in 
the surmastership caused by the resignation or death of an 
Old Pauline, John Medley, who had held the office for two 
years. 

After Malym s departure, according to the Mercers 
accounts, " a number of our company assembled with Mr. 
Deane of Powels, and other learned men, for the tryall of 
the said Schole Masters sufficiency." The recently-ap 
pointed surmaster was the successful candidate, and it is 
worth noting that he is referred to by Mr. Dean (Alexander 
Nowell) as "our cosyn," and received gifts from Nowell on 
many occasions, including benefactions from Robert Nowell s 
estate which were paid to him while an Eton boy. 

The unsuccessful candidate on this occasion, who re 
ceived a present for his expenses, was no less a person than 
" Mr. Wilkinson, reader of the Greek Lector at Cambridge," 
whom we may probably identify with Henry Wilkinson, a 
Fellow of Trinity, who had had some experience of teaching, 
as he had been first under master at Merchant Taylors 
from 1573-1576, and who, on the retirement of Mulcaster 

136 



JOHN HARRISON, 1581-1596 137 

from the head mastership of Merchant Taylors in 1586, 
was appointed to succeed him, and retained that post until 

1593- 

Harrison, like his predecessor, was an Etonian, and had 

entered the foundation of King s College, Cambridge, in 
1570, being elected fellow three years later. He graduated 
in due course in 1574, proceeded to his master s degree 
in 1578, and the tenure of his fellowship came to an end in 
the following year. 

Thomas Baker, the Cambridge historian, who as a rule 
is trustworthy, says that he was expelled from King s " ob 
doctrinam minus sanam in concione evulgatam, quam 
retractare noluit," and this note is recorded against his name 
by Anthony a Wood in reference to the occasion of his 
taking his ad eundem degree at Oxford in 1585, four years 
after his appointment to St. Paul s. 

The year of Harrison s succession to Malym is remark 
able in the history of the school as being that in which occurs 
the first recorded mention of the Apposition, for in the 
accounts of the Mercers Company is to be found a refer 
ence to money " paid for dinner at the examination of the 
scholars at Candlemas." After this entry occur regular 
records of the Apposition, conducted by two Apposers, and 
followed in each instance by a dinner. The latter was held 
as a rule in the school. Once, at least, it was held in the 
bishop s palace, and in 1592 it took place at the Mercers 
Hall and not in the school, " for that two or three had died 
of the sickness lately." Three years later it was held 
in the same place for another reason, and we find this 
ominous entry : " The audit dinner for the accompt was 
holden at Mercers Hall this year, for that Harrison still 
kept possession of the school house." 

The explanation of this statement is to be found in the 
litigation in which the high master, Richard Smyth the sur- 



138 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

master, and Francis Herring the usher on the one hand 
were engaged against the Mercers Company on the other. 
In 1592 Harrison exhibited before Whitgift, the Arch 
bishop of Canterbury, articles touching various abuses 
alleged by him to have been committed by the company 
in the management of the property of the school. In par 
ticular he complained that although the rents of the estates 
had greatly increased since the foundation of the school, the 
salaries of the masters had not been augmented because the 
company claimed the surplus as their own. The company, 
in answer to these articles, 1 admitted that they claimed " the 
inheritance of the lands after providing for casualties, repara 
tions, and other contingent charges extraordinary as time 
and occasion should require at their discretion," and that 
" such overplus as falleth out from time to time is kept in 
their hall in good safety, in which place the founder ap 
pointed it to be kept, and the same belongeth to the said 
company by the special gift and appointment of the said 
founder." 

The result of these proceedings in the "Archers," as 
the Court of Arches is called in the records at Mercers 
Hall, is not known. Samuel Knight says that " by an 
order agreed and established, Harrison s salary was con 
siderably increased to him and his successors," but in 1596 
Harrison was replaced in the high mastership by Richard 
Mukaster. In the same year the surmaster and usher took 
proceedings in the Court of Chancery 2 against the company, 
while in 1598 Harrison joined with them and filed a bill in 
Chancery, " as well for and in behalf of themselves as for 
the maintenance and benefit of the same school." The 
purpose of these proceedings was to secure the reinstate 
ment of Harrison as high master. 

1 Times, Feb. 12, 1870. 2 Law Times Reports, 1870. 



JOHN HARRISON, 1581-1596 139 

The company, although only formal defendants to this 
bill, put in an answer, which is a long-winded document 
full of abuse of Harrison and his co-plaintiffs as " factious, 
turbulent, and malapert fellows," and they appear to have 
withdrawn all claims to any of the school property which 
had been made by them before the Court of Arches, and to 
have admitted that they were trustees of the entire revenues 
of the school, and of the surplus for the benefit of the 
school, protesting that " whatever the rest truly is, the same 
should always be ready to be employed for the use of the 
school as good occasion should be offered and equitie and 
good conscience require." An account was directed on 
Harrison s suit upon the answer coming on, but the suit 
was not brought to a hearing, and the bill was ultimately 
dismissed for want of prosecution. The statement in 
Cooper s Athenae Cantabrigienses^tiuA Harrison died in 1596, 
is obviously incorrect in view of this litigation. 

Richard Mulcaster, the new high master, who was 
appointed on Harrison s dismissal on August 5, 1596, 
had, as we shall see, been performing the duties of that 
office in an ambiguous manner for more than a year before 
that date, for he had charge of the boys of St. Paul s in his 
school in Milk Street during the time in which the Mercers 
were engaged in ejecting the de facto high master from his 
possession of the school house in St. Paul s Churchyard. 

Of Harrison s personal character nothing is known save 
that he describes himself as " an unprofitable grammarian," 
while Knight places it on record that " he was a great 
antiquary for coins and English history." In a codicil to 
Dean NoweU s will, executed after 1592, there are bequests 
to his cousin Mr. Harrison and his wife 6 iys. 4^., and to 
every one of their children zos. 

Richard Smyth, the surmaster, was not removed from 
that post at the time of Harrison s dismissal. He remained 



146 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

Taylors School was so great that not only was he able to 
fill the school with boys, but he also crowded his house 
with boarders over and above the statutory number. The 
Merchant Taylors Company disapproved of this, and com 
pelled him to get rid of his private pupils in 1567. In 
spite of his compliance over this matter, however, matters 
did not proceed smoothly between the company and the 
school-master, for it appears that in 1574 he was cited 
before the Court of the company, and had perforce to admit, 
albeit after some demur, that " his injurious and quarrelling 
speech at the last election day, had been spoken of collor," 
but although for a while matters were patched up, after the 
lapse of a little time a reverse in the fortunes of Mr. Hill 
deprived the head master of the jio per annum which had 
been added to his statutory salary, and the parsimony of 
the company and Mulcaster s violent temper brought about 
a further crisis which resulted, in 1586, in his resignation in 
disgust at the treatment which he had received, although, 
being wiser than Harrison, he had not rushed into legal 
proceedings, which in that case had so fully vindicated the 
employers at the expense of their servant. The Merchant 
Taylors Company realized the ability of the man whose 
services they had lost, but to their prayers that he should 
retain the head mastership, the only reply which Mulcaster 
would condescend to make was the pungent aphorism 
" Fidelis servus, perpetuus asinus." 

The accounts of St. Paul s prove the inaccuracy of the 
statement contained in Wilson s History of Merchant c Taylors\ 
to the effect that he was appointed surmaster of St. Paul s 
immediately on his resignation of the head mastership of 
Merchant Taylors . The matter for surprise is that even 
after the lapse of ten years, having had experience of a city 
company, and having heard what must have been the 

1 Choler. 



RICHARD MULCASTER, 1596-1608 147 

common gossip of the city, as to the strife between 
Harrison and the Mercers, in spite of these facts Mulcaster 
should have once more accepted employment at the hands 
of one of the livery companies. 

All that is known of Mulcaster s career during the 
period of time which elapsed before he was appointed to St. 
Paul s is that from 1590-1591 he was vicar of Cranbrook, 
Kent, and in April, 1594, he received the Prebend of 
Yatesbury in the diocese of Salisbury. His relations with 
the Merchant Taylors Company during these years appear 
to have been anomalous. In spite of the cavalier manner 
in which he had left the school, he appears to have attended 
the annual examination on St. Barnabas Day, in Suffolk 
Lane, as an examiner, in 1595, 1596, and 1601. The date 
at which he opened his school in Milk Street, to which 
Paulines were sent during the protracted recalcitrancy of 
Harrison, is not known, but that he was unable, without 
calling in the assistance of other teachers, to cope with the 
great addition which was thus made to the numbers of his 
pupils, is proved by entries in the accounts for the year 
after he had become high master, to this effect, " Paid to 
Christopher Johnson for his pains in teaching under Mr. 
Mulcaster, till Lady Day in Lent lasf," "Paid to John 
Bevane for reward for teaching the schollers of Poules 
one quarter, under Mr. Moncaster in Mylk Street," 
and again, "To Mr. Mansfield, late Mr. Moncaster s 
ussher." 

On the removal of Harrison, Mulcaster s de jure high 
mastership became translated into an actual fact, and his 
appointment dates from August 1596. In view of the fact 
that he entered at King s in 1548, Mulcaster must have 
been at least sixty-six years of age when he was elected high 
master, and since he remained in the school for twelve years, 
his age was nearly four score when he retired, so that he 



L 2 



148 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

may claim the distinction of having been one of the oldest 
high masters to remain in office at St. Paul s. 

On his appointment Richard Smyth, who had aided and 
abetted Harrison in his conflict with the Mercers, was, for 
some unknown reason, nevertheless retained in his office as 
surmaster, but the under usher, Francis Herring, having 
been dismissed, the post was rilled by Christopher Johnson, 
who, as we have seen, was Mulcaster s assistant in Milk Street. 

Fuller, whose son entered St. Paul s forty-five years 
after Mulcaster s death, gives an account of the latter which 
deserves to be quoted in extenso : " His method in teaching 
was this : In a morning he would exactly and plainly construe 
and parce the lessons to his Scholars : which done he slept 
his hour, (custom made him critical to proportion it) in his 
desk in the School, but wo the scholar that slept the while ! 
Awaking he heard them accurately, and Atropos might be 
persuaded to pity, as soon as he to pardon, where he found 
just fault. The prayers of cockering mothers prevailed 
with him just as far as the requests of indulgent fathers, 
rather increasing than mitigating his severity on their 
offending child. In a word he was Plagosus Orbilius : 
though it may truly be said (and safely for one out of his 
School) that others have taught as much Learning with fewer 
lashes. Yet his sharpness was the better because unpartial, 
and many excellent scholars were bred under him." The 
opinion expressed by Mulcaster himself was that he would 
have done better if he had used with his scholars " more 
correction and less curtesie." According to Anthony a 
Wood, " his excellencies in grammar poetry & philology" 
were such that on his application for the head mastership of 
Merchant Taylors in 1581 he was unanimously elected. 

Like his great predecessor, William Lily, Mulcaster 
attached great importance to vocal music as an educational 
factor. He taught his boys music and singing. Sir James 



RICHARD MULCASTER, 1596-1608 149 

Whitelock, who was one of the first of his pupils at Mer 
chant Taylors , speaks of " Mulcaster s care to increase my 
skill in musique." His views as to the value of a dramatic 
training led to the frequent appearance of " Master Mun- 
kester s children," as they are called, in the masques and 
interludes acted before Queen Elizabeth, but a record has 
been preserved of the presentation of only one play by his 
pupils at St. Paul s, unless, indeed, a Latin play called Sapi- 
entia Salamonis, which we know was acted by Paulines before 
the Queen, was produced during his high mastership. 

It has been suggested that Holofernes, the pompous 
pedagogue of Love s Labour s Losf, is a caricature of 
Mulcaster, but no corroboration of the surmise has been 
forthcoming, and it is more probable that Shakespeare drew 
the character in mockery of George Hunt, his own school 
master in the grammar school at Stratford-on-Avon. 

Mulcaster s advanced views on educational matters, taken 
with his practical success in teaching, have earned for him 
the title of the greatest of Elizabethan school-masters. In 
his Positions^ which is still studied by educationalists, he lays 
stress upon the need of a system of training for the pro 
fession of teaching, and he declares that " I am tooth and 
nail for women in matters of education." He insists upon 
the importance of physical exercise as a part of a child s 
training, and, like Ascham, writes in praise of archery as a 
"principall exercise in the preseruing of health," nearly 
thirty years before John Lyon embodied the well-known 
proviso in his statutes for Harrow School that every boy 
should possess " bow shafts, bow strings, and a bracer to 
exercise." 

Mulcaster s linguistic and scholastic criticisms, as set 
forth in his Ekmentarie, are of literary interest, but it must 
be admitted that his prose tends to imperil his thesis that 
English speech is as precise as Latinity itself. 



154 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

priest or chaplain by an under usher, and for conformity 
with the laws of the realm in regard to religious observ 
ances. They forbade any payment for teaching to be made 
to any of the masters of the school. Permission was given 
to employ a poor man in place of the poor scholar to sweep 
the school and the leads. 

Owing to the rise in the rents and profits of Dean 
Colet s estates to twice their original value, the salaries of 
the masters and the allowances to the officers of the 
company entrusted with the care of the school and its 
property were doubled. 

These ordinances removed the founder s restriction of 
expenditure on the surveyor-accountant s " little dinner " 
to four nobles, and allowed the Mercers to expend such sum 
as they " shall in their discreation thinck fitt, soe as the 
same be expended in frugall manner without excesse." 

Finally it was provided that the surplus ordered by 
Colet to be kept in an iron chest at Mercers Hall should 
either be spent on exhibitions tenable by Paulines at the 
Universities, or else should be lent out by the Mercers 
on good security to poor young men of the company at the 
risk of the Mercers. 

Few of Mulcaster s pupils at St. Paul s attained to any 
distinction. Michael Boyle, who was also no doubt at 
Merchant Taylors , became Dean of Lismore, and later was 
created Bishop of Waterford and Lismore. His kinsman, 
Richard Boyle, also gained preferment in Ireland. He 
became Dean of Waterford, Bishop of Cork, Cloyne and 
Ross, and finally Archbishop of Tuam. 

John Hassall, a contemporary at St. Paul s of Richard 
Boyle, rose to be Dean of Norwich, and Samuel Browne 
became a well-known divine. Three of Mulcaster s pupils 
who went from St. Paul s with exhibitions to Oxford also 
held scholarships from Merchant Taylors School at St. 



RICHARD MULCASTER, 1596-1608 155 

John s College, Oxford, but the arrangement by which the 
high master effected this has never been discovered. 

One of Mulcaster s pupils, Arthur Best by name, who 
went up to Cambridge with an exhibition in 1599, was in 
addition the recipient of the benefits of another endowment. 
Dr. Thomas Watts, Dean of Bocking and Archdeacon of 
Middlesex, who died in 1577, bequeathed part of his estate 
to Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, for the maintenance of seven 
scholars with a general preference to boys educated at 
metropolitan schools. 1 One of the first who enjoyed the 
benefits of this was Lancelot Andrews, Mulcaster s distin 
guished pupil at Merchant Taylors . A list of these 
scholars down to the year 1636 and containing about 
eighty names, of which less than half are those of Londoners, 
is preserved in the Bodleian. 

The names of only three of them are those of boys 
who are known to have been educated at St. Paul s, that 
of Best being the first. 

1 H. B. Wilson, M. Ts. Schl., vol. i. p. 24, vol. ii. p. 557 



158 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

picture at the upper ende of the Schole." As far as we 
know this portrait remained in situ until the Great Fire. 

That the mantle of Mulcaster as a flogging master fell 
on the shoulders of Gill may be inferred from the entry 
in Aubrey s Brief Lives to the effect that " often Dr. 
Gill whipped Buncombe, who was afterwards a colonel of 
Dragoons at Edgehill fight." 

The same writer goes on to say, " Dr. Gill the father was 
a very ingeniose person, as may appeare by his writings. 
Notwithstanding he had his moodes and humours as par 
ticularly his whipping fits." From the Acts of Court of 
the Mercers Company it appears that on February 17, 1629, 
the complaint of a scholar, John Callis by name, against 
Mr. Gill was brought before the Court of Assistants, but 
the high master did not content himself with whipping 
his own pupils, for Aubrey relates how when " somebody 
had throwen a stone in at the window," a certain Sir 
John D., who was passing, was seized by the boys and 
beaten by Gill. The indignant knight " would have cutt 
the doctor, but he never went abroad but to church, and 
then his army went with him. He complained to the 
councill, but it became ridicule, and so his revenge sank." 

Even Old Paulines were not immune from the high 
master s birch. According to the same authority, " Dr. 
Triplett came to give his master a visit, and he whipt 
him. The Dr gott Pitcher of Oxford who had a strong 
sweet base to sing under the schoole windowes, and gott 
a good guard to secure him with swords etc. & he was 
preserved from the examen of the little myrmidons which 
issued out to attack him." Thomas Triplett, the hero of 
this episode, who has not hitherto been identified as a 
Pauline, after graduating from Christ Church became a 
Canon of York and of Salisbury. His benefices were 
sequestrated by the Parliamentary party and he became 



ALEXANDER GILL, SENR., 1608-1635 159 

a school-master in Ireland. " One who went to his school 
in Dublin," says Aubrey, " tells how he had forgot the 
smart of his old master, Gill. He was very severe." * 

At the Restoration Triplett became Subdean and Canon 
of Westminster, where he is buried. To the treatment 
which he had received at the hands of Mr. Gill is no 
doubt attributable the fact that he robbed Paul to pay 
Peter, and left by his will a benefaction not to his old 
school but to Westminster, which is now of considerable 
value. 2 

Reference will be made in connection with the younger 
Gill to the song which he made his friend sing under the 
windows of the school, and which according to Aubrey 
"will last longer than any sermon that ever he made." 

In carrying on the histrionic traditions of the school, Gill 
once again followed in the footsteps of his predecessor. 

We read that on Quarter Day, 1617-18, "the scholars 
of Pawles made a play at the Mercers Hall." On Septem 
ber 10, 1619, they acted at the Warden s feast at the same 
place, and under the year 1626-27 is the following entry : 
" Paid to the citty waites for Music, at the play that was 
acted by the Schollers, $s." 

What the plays were that were performed on these 
various occasions is not known, but that the comedies of 
Terence were included by the boys in their repertoire at 
this date may be judged from a little-known play-book 
published in 1627, and entitled "The two first Comedies 
of Terence called Andria and the Eunuch, newly Englished 
by Thomas Newman. Fitted for Schollers priuate action 
m their Schooles." Who Thomas Newman was is not 
known, but the "Epistle Dedicatorie " begins thus: "To 
the Schollers of Pavles Schoole T.N. wisheth increase in 
grace and learning. What I at first intended for mine 
1 Aubrey, Lives, vol. ii. p. 264. 2 Sergeaunt, p. 99. 



162 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

phonetic by using points over the vowels to indicate the 
various sounds. Another crotchet which he aired in this 
book, which is a strange medley of metaphysics and philology, 
was his desire to preserve the Saxon purity of the English 
tongue against Latinisms, the presence of which in the 
Canterbury Tales caused him to inveigh against Chaucer, 
"whence," as he said, "has come down this new mange in 
our speaking and writing." Gill s contemporary, Thomas 
Wilson, from whose Arte of Rhetorique Shakespeare got 
hints for the character of Dogberry, shared his dislike of 
"foreign phrases counterfeiting the king s English." Accord 
ing to Professor Masson, Gill showed a really fine taste in his 
illustrative examples selected from the English poets, but 
his appreciation of the Satires of Wither, whom he described 
as the English Juvenal, drew down upon him the wrath of 
Ben Jonson, who wrote of him in Time Vindicated, presented 
at Court., "Twelfth Night, 1623, in which he denounced 
Wither, as Chiromastix 

"... There is a schoolmaster 
Is turning all his works too into Latin, 
To pure satyric Latin ; makes his boys 
To learn him ; calls him the time s Juvenal ; 
Hangs all his school with his sharp sentences, 
And o er the execution place hath paynted 
Time whip t for terror to the infantry." 

On his death, in 1635, Alexander Gill was buried in the 
Mercers Chapel. His widow received a pension until the 
year 1648, and his daughter, Annah Bannister, received 
grants from the company in 1666, and after having become 
a widow, in 1673. 

The list of his distinguished pupils will show how far he 
deserves the praise of Anthony a Wood, who says of him, 
" He had such an excellent way of training up youth that 
none in his time went beyond him, whence it was that many 
noted persons in Church and State did esteem it the greatest 



ALEXANDER GILL, SENR., 1608-1635 163 

of their happiness that they had been educated under him." 
Before considering the names of his eminent pupils, however, 
we must refer to one very valuable new endowment which 
the school enjoyed for the first time during his high master 
ship, the existence of which had a very marked bearing on 
the careers of pupils of Gill and his successors. 

Ever since 1565 there had been a stream of boys to one 
or other of the Universities, who received an annual 
allowance of ^5 out of Dean Colet s estate. Up to the year 
1612, some fifty Paulines had reaped the benefit of this 
endowment. In that year the value of the exhibitions, 
which was still 5 per annum, was doubled, and about 
forty more boys had enjoyed the additional advantage so 
accruing when, in 1632, the exhibition fund was largely 
augmented by the liberality of Sir Baptist Hicks, Viscount 
Campden, who by his will, made in 1629, amongst other 
devises, left one moiety of the tithes of the parish of 
Woodham, in the County of Northumberland (after the 
death of the then Earl of Northumberland, which occurred 
in 1632), to the Company of Mercers, in trust, to expend 
the income on the maintenance of exhibitioners at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, who were to be selected from the 
boys at St. Paul s School. 

In 1634 the first two Campden Exhibitioners were 
appointed, the Mercers Company undertaking to advance 
the necessary funds until the money came in from the 
property on the winding-up of the Duke of Northumber 
land s estate. 

The original value of these exhibitions was 10 per 
annum, a figure at which they remained until 1802. The 
holders received this amount under the terms of the will, 
"until such Scholler and Schollers shall come to better 
preferment from Trinitie College." 

Just before the Campden Exhibitions began to be 



M 2 



164 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

awarded, it was resolved by the Court of Assistants that 
scholars of St. Paul s must have been in the school for four 
years and no less before becoming entitled to be candidates 
for exhibitions. Allusion has already been made to the 
strange awards of exhibitions during Mulcaster s high 
mastership, and it is possible that the resolution in question, 
which is dated February 28, 1633, had some reference to 
these abuses, or to others of the same kind, by which boys 
entered the school for a few months merely to qualify 
themselves to become candidates for exhibitions. 

Sir Baptist Hicks, Viscount Campden, the first benefactor 
to the school since the founder, was the son of a wealthy 
member of the Mercers Company, and although there is 
no direct evidence to which one can point, the generous 
provisions of his will certainly suggest that he was edu 
cated at St. Paul s. He sat in five parliaments, first for 
Tavistock and then for Tewkesbury, and having been 
knighted soon after James I s accession, was created a 
baronet in 1620, and was raised to the peerage by Charles I 
in 1628. 

Baptist Hicks is said, by Stow, to have lent money to 
the Scots nobles in the reign of James I, and in this con 
nection it is of interest to quote a letter from him to his 
brother, Sir Michael Hicks, which is preserved among the 
Lansdowne MSS., in which he says, " the Scots are fayr 
speakers and slow performers," and in consequence he will 
give them no more credit. 

Sir Michael Hicks, Lord Campden s elder brother, who 
was also not improbably at St. Paul s, graduated at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and was called to the Bar at Lincoln s 
Inn. He was secretary to Lord Burghley, and, after his 
death, to Sir Robert Cecil, being described by his con 
temporaries as " very jocose and witty." He was a man 
of sufficient wealth to lend money to Francis Bacon and 



ALEXANDER GILL, SENR., 1608-1635 165 

Fulke Greville, and at the same time to entertain King 
James at his house. He died in 1612. 

The names of about eighty Paulines educated under 
Alexander Gill the elder have been preserved. The vast 
majority of these have been extracted from the lists of 
Pauline exhibitioners, but nearly a dozen have been re 
covered from the recently published admission registers of 
Caius College, Cambridge. 

One of Gill s pupils, George Harris by name, held the 
Watts Scholarship at Pembroke College, Cambridge, to 
which reference has been made under Richard Mulcaster. 
He subsequently became under usher of the school during 
the high mastership of John Langley, but was dismissed 
in 1647 " m regard that he deserted the Schole of his own 
accord." 

The first recorded mention of a poor scholar occurs 
during Gill s high mastership in the Mercer s accounts for 
1 624-5. l Six f Gill s pupils gained fellowships at the 
Universities. Of these, two became chaplains to King 
Charles I, two were ejected from their fellowships in 1644, 
and two were ardent supporters of the Parliamentary party. 

Sir Roger Twysden, whose name has not hitherto 
appeared among lists of Old Paulines, was educated under 
Gill. He was the son of a Kentish gentleman, who was one 
of the original baronets of James I s creation, and succeeded 
to the title in 1629. 

Although no action was taken against Sir Roger, he 
steadily refused to pay ship money, but the committal of 
Laud, and the attainder of Strafford, served to change views 
and caused him to oppose the Parliament. He devoted his 
life to the study of historical antiquities, and his writings 
are of much importance. It is impossible to believe that 
Sir Roger s younger brother, Sir Thomas Twisden, who 
1 R. B.C., vol. i. p. 35. 



166 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

entered Emmanuel with him on the same day, was not also 
at school with him at St. Paul s. He adopted the spelling 
Twisden by way of distinction from the rest of his family. 
He was called to the Bar. In 1654 he became a serjeant- 
at-law, and, as a reward for his loyalty, he was advanced to 
a puisne judgeship of the King s Bench, and was knighted 
in the year of the Restoration. Six years later a baronetcy 
was conferred upon him, and he retained his judicial rank 
until his death in 1613. It is possible that a third brother, 
John Twysden, a well-known physician, was also at St. 
Paul s. 

Nothing is known of the place of education of Sir 
John Blackmore, the confidant of Cromwell, who after the 
Restoration became governor of St. Helena. It is most 
probable, however, that he was at St. Paul s, where his 
younger brother, William, went to school and gained an 
exhibition to Oxford. William Blackmore was ordained 
presbyter in 1647, but did not take the covenant. The 
Corporation of London, with which, no doubt, he had 
influence through his father, a gentleman living in East- 
cheap, who was a distinguished member of the Fishmongers 
Company, presented him to the living of St. Peter s upon 
Cornhill, where he remained until he was ejected in 1662. 
Another Old Pauline who suffered from the changes in 
volved in the Restoration was George Lawrence, a violent 
Puritan, who was ejected from his post as preacher at the 
Hospital of St. Cross at Winchester. 

The most distinguished man, after Milton, educated by 
Gill, was Sir Charles Scarborough, who was described in 
Aubrey s letters as "an ingeniose young student," at the 
time when he was a Pauline Exhibitioner at Caius. He 
was elected Fellow of Caius, but was ejected by the Parlia 
ment and migrated to Oxford. He was a Fellow of the 
Royal Society, and of the Royal College of Physicians, and 




P. Hardmgdcl.} 



SIR CHARLES SCARBOROUGH, F.R.S. , PRINCIPAL PHYSICIAN TO 
CHARLES II, JAMES II AND WILLIAM III 

ITofatef. 166. 



ALEXANDER GILL, SENR., 1608-1635 167 

became principal physician to Charles II, James II, and 
William III. He was M.P. for Camelford in the same 
Parliament as Pepys, who describes him as " a learned and 
incomparable anatomist." He was a benefactor to the 
school library in 1674 and the following year. His son 
Edmund was at St. Paul s under Gale, and, according 
to Fuller, Sir Charles Scarborough revised Lily s Latin 
Grammar, " calculating his short, clear and true rules for 
the meridian " of this boy. Sir Charles worked on the 
generation of animals with William Harvey, who bequeathed 
his surgical instruments and his velvet gown to " my lovinge 
friend Mr. Doctor Scarborough," and it is interesting to note 
that Thomas Arris, the son of Sir Charles chief assistant, 
was educated at St. Paul s with the great physician s son. 

The recent publication of the registers of Caius College 
has led to the discovery of a pupil of Gill whose career is 
of some interest. Eleazer Dunkon, the son of a London 
doctor, after taking his degree, became a fellow and tutor of 
Pembroke, was prebendary in turn of Durham, Winchester, 
and York, and was appointed chaplain to Charles I. He 
was one of the most able and learned supporters of Laud s 
High Church policy. Having been stripped of his prefer 
ment he retired to the Continent, and in 1651 was in 
attendance on the English Court abroad. In that year 
Evelyn heard him officiate in Sir Richard Browne s chapel 
in Paris, and shortly afterwards he became chaplain to the 
Levant Company, and it was, no doubt, concerning his 
work in that capacity that Cosin, in 1659, wrote to Sancroft, 
" Now all his imployment is to make sermons before the 
English Merchants at Ligorne and Florence." The exact 
date of his death is unknown, but there is no doubt that 
had he not died before the event which his contemporaries 
described as " the miracle of our happy restauration " he 
would have been appointed to a bishopric. 



168 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

It is more than probable that Dunkon s two brothers 
were also Old Paulines ; the elder, John, a religious author, 
was deprived of his cure and found shelter in the house of 
Lady Falkland, while Edmund, who was a Puritan, was 
intimate with George Herbert, and saw through the press 
his MS. of A Priest to the Temple. 

Among the more distinguished pupils of the elder Gill 
must be mentioned Nathaniel Culverwell, a learned divine 
and Fellow of Emmanuel, one of the first of the Cambridge 
Platonists, the theologians for whom Bishop Burnet claimed 
"the high credit of having saved the Church of England 
from losing the esteem of the kingdom." His work, The 
Light of Nature, has been described as " a treatise of remark 
able eloquence, power and learning." 

It is probable that the boy named Richard Culverwell, 
whose name occurs in the registers of the school, was a 
brother of the Cambridge divine. Nothing is known of 
his career with the exception of the fact that he was, in 
1634, one of the first two exhibitioners elected under 
Lord Campden s endowment. 

Thomas Horton, the son of a member of the Mercers 
Company, was contemporary with the elder Culverwell at 
that most Puritan of colleges, Emmanuel. He held an 
exhibition for ten years, in the course of which he was 
elected to a fellowship at Queens , of which college he was 
intruded as President by the Parliamentary visitors in 1648. 
Seven years earlier he had been elected Gresham Professor 
of Divinity. He was obliged to resign on the Restoration, 
and died thirteen years later, an incumbent of a city 
living. 

Sir Thomas Heath, a Master in Chancery, became 
Comptroller of the Household to Sheldon, the Archbishop 
of Canterbury; Charles Gatacre, a well-known theo 
logical writer, became chaplain to Lucius Carey, Viscount 



ALEXANDER GILL, SENR., 1608-1635 169 

Falkland ; and William Burton, head master of Kingston 
Grammar School, achieved some distinction as a classical 
scholar. 

One of the pupils of Gill who achieved some distinc 
tion not unmixed with ridicule was Barton Hollidaie, who 
before coming to St. Paul s was a chorister at Christ Church, 
Oxford, a college at which, as an exhibitioner of St. Paul s, 
he gained a studentship. He became a famous preacher and 
chaplain to Charles I, was Archdeacon of Oxford, translated 
Persius, Juvenal and Horace, and was buried in the choir of 
Christ Church. As Archdeacon of Oxford he wrote a 
pedantic comedy, "an obliquity of distorted wit," Isaac 
D Israeli calls it, which was acted before James I in 1630. 
According to Anthony a Wood, " being too grave for the 
king and too scholastic for the auditory, or as some have 
said, the actors having taken too much wine, his majesty 
offered several times after two acts to withdraw," but out of 
courtesy to his Oxford hosts he was prevailed to sit out the 
remaining three acts, a fact upon which the following lines 
were written 

"At Christ Church marriage done before the king, 
Lest that those mates should want an offering, 
The King himself did offer What, I pray ? 
He offered twice or thrice to go away ! " 

The date of Milton s entry at St. Paul s School is not 
known. Anthony a Wood, who quotes from a "friend 
who was well acquainted with, and had from him (Milton) 
and from his relations after his death most of this account," 
declares : that he went up to Cambridge at the age of 
fifteen, and speaks of his staying up late at night at Christ s, 
" as at school for three years before." From this statement, 
if accurate, it would appear that Milton entered St. Paul s 

1 Wood, Fasti, p. 262. 



170 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

either at the end of 1621 or early in 1622 ; but its value 
as hearsay evidence is not very great. It is known as a 
certain fact that Milton matriculated at Cambridge in 1624, 
at the age, not of fifteen, but of sixteen and a quarter, and, 
as Professor Masson has pointed out, Milton s lifelong 
friendship with Charles Diodati was formed at St. Paul s, 
and since Diodati went to Oxford in February 1621-2, we 
must allow more than a possible term for the friendship to 
ripen. For this reason he fixes Milton s entry at St. Paul s 
in 1620. 

His own account of his school-days suggests an earlier 
date than I62O 1 

" My father destined me, while yet a little boy, for the 
study of humane letters, which I seized with such eagerness 
that from the twelfth year of my age I scarcely ever went 
from my lessons to bed before midnight ; which indeed was 
the first cause of injury to my eyes, to whose natural weak 
ness there were also added frequent headaches. All which 
not retarding my impetuosity in learning he caused me to 
be daily instructed both at the grammar school and under 
other masters at home ; and then, when I had acquired 
various tongues, and also some not insignificant taste for 
the sweetness of philosophy, he sent me to Cambridge, one 
of our two national universities." 

In view of the fact that at the age of eleven, i. e. 
in 1618, Milton was astonishing his father s household with 
his Latin verses, the making of which was not taught in 
forms lower than the fourth, which in the ordinary course he 
would reach in three years, we may safely state that he went 
to school in 1615. Aubrey has the statement, "When he 
went to school, when he was very young he studied very 
hard and sat up very late, commonly till twelve or one 
o clock at night, and his father ordered the maid to sit up 
1 Defensio Secunda, Works, vi. 286. 



ALEXANDER GILL, SENR., 1608-1635 171 

for him." Speaking of a time when the average age at which 
boys entered public schools was eight or nine, it is impossible 
to insist on 1620, when the boy was thirteen years old, as 
the date of his entry in view of this assertion as to his 
having gone to school when " very young." 

The influence upon Milton of his school days, spent 
under the shadow of the great Gothic cathedral, cannot be 
denied. It was at St. Paul s School that he learned to 

" love the high embowed roof, 
With antique pillars massy proof, 
And storied windows richly dight, 
Casting a dim religious light ; 
There let the pealing organ blow 
To the full-voiced choir below 
In service high and anthem clear, 
As may with sweetness, through mine ear, 
Dissolve me into ecstasies 
And bring all heaven before mine eyes." 

It was certainly not the chapel of Christ s, nor even Great 
St. Mary s at Cambridge which inspired the Puritan Poet 
with this picture of an ancient church, so different in its 
sentiment from that which inspired the vandalism of those 
who shared his political views. 

Philips says that at St. Paul s the poet " was entered 
into the rudiments of learning and advanced therein with 
. . . admirable success, not more by the discipline of the 
school and the good instructions of his masters . . . than 
by his own happy genius, prompt wit and apprehension, 
and insuperable industry." 

Whatever was the date at which Milton was sent to St. 
Paul s by the Bread Street scrivener whose son he was, it 
is certain that he entered the school about the middle of the 
elder Gill s tenure of office, and both the high master and 
his son, who became under usher in 1621, exercised great 
influence over the precocious school-boy. In Milton s early 



ALEXANDER GILL, SENR., 1608-1635 173 

Psalms was characteristic. " They raise," he says, " no 
great expectations ; they would in any numerous school have 
obtained praise, but not excited wonder." 

It is said that Mr. Gill on one occasion set the boys of 
St. Paul s a verse theme to write on the miracle of Cana, 
and that Milton showed up on his slate the single line 

"The conscious water saw its God and blushed," 

This line Richard Crashaw turned into the Latin epigram 

"Nympha pudica Deum vidit et erubuit," 

a mere transposition of which was produced by Dryden at 
Westminster, when a Latin theme was set at that school 
thirty years after it had been set to Milton at St. Paul s. 

There can be little doubt that there is an autobio 
graphical strain in those lines of Paradise Regained which 
Cipriani inscribed under his engraving of Janssen s portrait of 
the poet as a boy 

" When I was yet a child, no childish play 
To me was pleasing ; all my mind was set 
Serious to learn, and know, and thence to do 
What might be public good : myself I thought 
Born to that end, born to promote all truth 
And righteous things." 

Interesting though it is to trace in Milton the influence 
of "old Mr. Gill s " Logonomia Anglia, it is of more interest 
still to consider the manner in which the "auctors Christian" 
prescribed by Colet, and still in use in the school a hundred 
years after his death, can be seen to have moulded the poet s 
thoughts and diction. 

Traces of the views expressed by Lactantius on the 
second Person of the Blessed Trinity are to be found in the 
fifth book of Paradise Lost. The first lines of Proba s 
Centones Virgiliani^ which runs 

" Nee libet Aonio de vertice ducere Musas," 



174 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

undoubtedly inspired the exordium to Paradise Lost which 
speaks of 

" my adventurous song, 
That with no middle flight intends to soar 
Above the Aonian mount." 

No instances of Milton s indebtedness to Sedulius and 
Juvencus, the next two authors recommended by Colet, have 
been pointed out. 

The same cannot be said of Prudentius. It cannot be 
doubted that his Hamartigenia ; or, Origin of Sin, which is 
said to contain the first description written in poetry of the 
Christian heaven and hell, and sets out in detail how the 
devil was a subordinate prince who had fallen through envy, 
gave Milton his first inspiration for Satan in Paradise Lost, 
while his Psychomachia ; or, War of the Virtues and Vices, 
suggested to him the war in heaven in the same poem. 

In Prudentius also may be seen the germ of Milton s 
hymn "On the Morning of Christ s Nativity," curiously inter 
woven with learning from the Bucolics of Baptista Mantuanus, 
and in this last author may be seen some of the sources of 
the poet s inspiration from which he framed the pastoral 
setting of Lycidas. 

Enough has been said to show the influence of his 
reading at St. Paul s upon the young poet. When he 
expressed the wish 

" But let my due feet never fail 
To walk the studious cloisters pale," 

he was referring back to an experience, not of Cambridge, 
but of St. Paul s, where the cathedral cloisters almost 
adjoined the school. It has been suggested, with good 
reason, that the epithet " studious " may lead us to infer 
that at St. Paul s, as at Winchester in what is still called 
" cloister time," during the heat of summer the boys 
deserted the school-room, closely crowded as it was with a 



ALEXANDER GILL, SENR., 1608-1635 175 

hundred and fifty boys, for the cool and spacious cloisters in 
which to learn their lessons. 

Though the influence of the elder Gill on Milton was 
not slight, that of his son, who became surmaster in 1621, 
was far greater. In 1623, Milton s last year at school, 
occurred the "fatal vespers" in Blackfriars, the fall of a 
Catholic chapel in which more than a hundred worshippers 
were killed, a catastrophe which the more bigoted section of 
public opinion, inflamed against the " Spanish match," 
regarded as a judgment of God. This event inspired Gill 
to write verses "In Ruinam Camerae Papisticae Londini," in 
which he declared, " though our benignant Prince sees fit 
to let you meet for your idolatrous worship, God himself 
takes the cause in hand," a sentiment which must have 
approved itself to the Pauline who, as a Cambridge man, 
was to write of the religion which his father had abandoned 
as 

" what the grim wolf with privy paw 
Daily devours apace." 

We have no definite evidence of the political proclivities 
of the younger Gill until a time later than that at which 
Milton left St. Paul s, but we can infer from what we know 
of his views at a later date that a sympathy existed between 
master and boy at this time, based on a hatred of the system 
of government followed under the direction of Buckingham 
and Laud. 

Milton left St. Paul s to enter Christ s College, Cam 
bridge, early in 1624. He did not go up to the University 
as a holder of an exhibition from the school. 

The entry in the Christ s register runs as follows 

" Johannes Milton Londinensis, films Johannis, institutus 
fuit in literarum sub Mag ro Gill Gymnasii Paulini, prae- 
fecto ; admissus est Pensionarius Minor Feb. 12. 1624." 

Robert Pory, whose name comes next to that of Milton 



178 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

of Lord Herbert of Cherbury, practised physic at Chester. 
While he was still in residence at Trinity, Milton addressed 
to him from Christ s the first of his elegies, beginning 

" Tandem, chare, tuae mihi pervenere tabellae, 
Pertulit et voces nuncia charta tuas." 

Three years later Milton addressed the sixth of his Latin 
elegies to the young doctor, " ruri commorantem," whom he 
calls " lepidum sodalem," and whom he had described as 

" Pectus amans nostri, tamque fidele caput." 

To a letter from Diodati, who in sending him some 
verses asked for some of Milton s in return, the poet 
answered protesting that his love was too great to be 
conveyed in metre. Two letters from Milton in Latin, 
written in September 1637, have been preserved, and show 
the close friendship which subsisted between the two, and in 
the British Museum are preserved two letters in Greek 
from Diodati to his friend. 1 

Milton s Italian sonnet, beginning 

" Diodati (e te 1 dir6 con maraviglia)," 

was written in 1639, a vear after Diodati s untimely death ; 
but the most striking testimony to Milton s affectionate 
regard for his school- fellow is to be found in his "Epitaphium 
Damonis," in the introduction to which he describes him 
as " ingenio, doctrina, clarissimisque coeteris virtutibus, 
juvenis egregius," a poem which, had it been written in 
English, would have been as well known as Lycidas, the 
equal of which it almost is in pathos and poetic expression. 

The last of the associations which bind Milton to St. 
Paul s with closer links than those subsisting between any 
other great poet and his school, is to be found in his brother, 
Christopher Milton. 

1 Add. MSS. 5016, f. 64. 



ALEXANDER GILL, SENR, 1608-1635 179 

He was born in 1615, and, in consequence, we may 
presume that he entered St. Paul s just before his brother 
left school. He took the Royalist side in the Great 
Rebellion, and was fined 200 for serving as Commissioner 
of Sequestrations for the King. He was within the walls of 
Exeter during the siege of 1646. A barrister by profession, 
he was raised to the Exchequer Bench by James II, four 
days after being invested with the coif. In 1687 Sir 
Christopher Milton was transferred to the Common Pleas, 
of which he was made Chief Justice, being dispensed from 
taking the oath as he had returned to the Church of his 
fathers. Professor Masson pictures him as " a mild, gentle 
manly Roman Catholic judge, of no particular ability," and 
there seems no ground for the statement in the registers of 
the school that he was dismissed by the King in 1688. He 
retired on a pension in that year. 

Through the kindness of Dr. Peile, Master of Christ s 
College, there have been planted in the fore-court of the 
new school cuttings from the venerable mulberry-tree 
which is said to have been planted by Milton in the garden 
of Christ s. 



N 2 



CHAPTER XI 

A TURBULENT HIGH MASTER 
ALEXANDER GILL, JUNR., HIGH MASTER 1635-1640 

ON the death of Alexander Gill the elder, his son and 
namesake was elected to succeed him. He was the first 
high master who was an Old Pauline. Although much of 
the history of the new high master s life ought, from a 
chronological point of view, to have been dealt with in the 
last chapter, I have deliberately avoided giving it more than 
a passing reference in order that the whole career of one 
of the most remarkable of school-masters may be read 
without a break. 

Alexander Gill the younger was born, as we have seen, 
at Norwich in 1597. It may be assumed that he entered 
St. Paul s immediately on his father s appointment in 1608 ; 
it is, at any rate, certain that in 1612 he was one of the 
three exhibitioners sent from St. Paul s to the Universities. 
In the same year he matriculated from Trinity College, but 
some months later migrated to Wadham, a college which 
had just been founded, and in the following year he was 
appointed the first Bible clerk of that college. He had a 
great reputation as a writer of Greek and Latin verses. In 
1621, two years after taking his M.A., he was appointed 
under usher to his father at St. Paul s, some years after 
John Milton had entered the school, and during the years 
in which the poet was at school, an intimacy, as we have 

1 80 



ALEXANDER GILL, JUNR., 1635-1640 181 

seen, between the master and the pupil sprang up, to which 
Milton s letters bear ample witness. Before becoming a 
master at St. Paul s, Gill was probably an usher to the cele 
brated Thomas Farnaby, to whom, in January 1621, he sent 
a copy of verses " cum utre vini pleno." 

Having restored his name to the books of Trinity, he 
took his B.D. degree in 1627. That his career hitherto 
had not been undisturbed may be inferred from a coarse 
piece of verse in a duodecimo volume entitled " The Loves 
of Hero and Leander, and other choice pieces of Drollery got 
by heart and often repeated by divers witty Gentlemen and 
ladies that use to walke in the New Exchange and at their 
recreations in Hide Parke." This collection was first printed 
in 1651, and reappears in The Rump, published 1660, and 
in it occurs a piece of doggerel called " Gill upon Gill ; 
or, Gill . . . uncased, unstript, unbound." This is, in 
fact, the ballad by Dr. Triplett to which reference has 
already been made. In it the elder Gill is represented as 
about to administer punishment to his son and colleague 

"Sir," 1 it begins, "did you me this epistle send 
Which is so vile, and lewdly penn d, 
In which no line I can espy 
Of sense or true orthography. 
So slovenly it goes, 
In verse and Prose, 

For which I must pull down your hose. 
O 2 good Sir, then cry d he 
In private let it be, 
And do not sawce me openly. 
Yes 3 Sir I ll sawce you openly 
Before Sound 4 and the Company, 
And that none at thee may take heart, 
Though thou art Batchelor of Art 
Though thou hast paid thy Fees 
For thy Degrees. 



1 Gill Senr., loquitur. 2 Gill Junr., loquitur. 

3 Gill Senr., loquitur. 4 The Surmaster. 



182 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

First for the Theames which thou me sent 

Wherein much nonsense thou didst vent, 

And for that barbarous piece of Greeke 

For which in Garthen thou did st seek. 

And for thy faults not few 

In tongue Hebrew, 

For which a Grove of Birch is due." 

The father is represented by the writer as then turning 
from the particular cause of offence to the general record of 
unruliness of his son 

"Next for the offence which thou didst give 
When as in Trinity thou didst live, 

And for thy Blanketting 

And many such a thing 

For which thy name in Town doth ring, 

And none deserves so ill 

To heare as bad as Gill 

Thy name it is a proverb still 

Next, since thou a preacher were 

Thou vented hast such rascall Geere 

For which the Frenchmen all cry fie ! 

To heare such Pulpit Ribauldrie." 

In the first year of his undergraduate life, Gill had pub 
lished a threnody on the death of Prince Henry of Wales, 
but his views with regard to the other members of the 
Royal family were destined later to involve him in serious 
trouble. 

In the autumn of 1628, being on a visit to Oxford, after 
spending an evening drinking in the cellars of Trinity 
College he declared to his friends that in his opinion King 
Charles I, who had only been on the throne three years, was 
fitter to stand in a Cheapside shop with an apron before 
him and say, " What lack ye ? " than to govern a kingdom, 1 
and he went on to say that the Duke of Buckingham, 
whom Felton had murdered a few months before, had gone 
down to hell to meet King James there. That Felton s act 
1 Aubrey, Brief Lives. 



ALEXANDER GILL, .TUNR., 1635-1640 183 

was very popular with a large section of the English people 
may be deduced from the shouts of " God bless thee, little 
David ! " and " The Lord comfort thee ! " amid which the 
assassin had passed on his way to the Tower. One Sir 
Richard Savage was committed for publicly saying that if 
Felton had not done the deed, he would have done it him 
self, and our school-master and Bachelor of Divinity, in the 
same spirit expressed his regret that Felton, whose health 
he drank, had " deprived him of the honour of doing that 
brave act." 

William Chillingworth, 1 with whom, so Sir William Dave- 
nant, the Poet Laureate, told Aubrey, Gill had for some 
years " held weekly intelligence, wherein they used to nibble 
at State matters," had received a letter from Gill some time 
before, in which " he called King James and his sonne, the 
old foole and the young one." This letter and the occur 
rence in the college cellar were communicated to Laud, who 
had just been appointed Bishop of London, and was in 
consequence Gill s Ordinary. The result was that during 
afternoon school on Friday, September 4, the boys of St. 
Paul s saw two poursuivants come and take their school 
master out of the school to be examined by the Bishop of 
London. The upshot was that he was committed to the 
Gatehouse and kept so close prisoner that neither his father 
nor his mother, nor any of his friends were allowed to see 
him. 

In his examination 2 on the following day in the Star 
Chamber, before Laud and Heath, the Attorney-General, 
Gill pleaded guilty to the allegations. The Vice-Chancellor 
of Oxford University was ordered to search the rooms of 
William Pickering, a friend of the accused, and found in his 
studyand in the pockets of his clothes divers libels and letters, 

1 Aubrey s Letters and Lives, 1813, vol. ii. p. 285. 

2 Cal. S. P., Dom., 1628-29, 3252, 3192. 



182 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

First for the Theames which thou me sent 

Wherein much nonsense thou didst vent, 

And for that barbarous piece of Greeke 

For which in Garthen thou did st seek. 

And for thy faults not few 

In tongue Hebrew, 

For which a Grove of Birch is due." 

The father is represented by the writer as then turning 
from the particular cause of offence to the general record of 
unruliness of his son 

"Next for the offence which thou didst give 
When as in Trinity thou didst live, 

And for thy Blanketting 

And many such a thing 

For which thy name in Town doth ring, 

And none deserves so ill 

To heare as bad as Gill 

Thy name it is a proverb still 

Next, since thou a preacher were 

Thou vented hast such rascall Geere 

For which the Frenchmen all cry fie ! 

To heare such Pulpit Ribauldrie." 

In the first year of his undergraduate life, Gill had pub 
lished a threnody on the death of Prince Henry of Wales, 
but his views with regard to the other members of the 
Royal family were destined later to involve him in serious 
trouble. 

In the autumn of 1628, being on a visit to Oxford, after 
spending an evening drinking in the cellars of Trinity 
College he declared to his friends that in his opinion King 
Charles I, who had only been on the throne three years, was 
fitter to stand in a Cheapside shop with an apron before 
him and say, " What lack ye ? " than to govern a kingdom, 1 
and he went on to say that the Duke of Buckingham, 
whom Felton had murdered a few months before, had gone 
down to hell to meet King James there. That Felton s act 

1 Aubrey, Brief Lives. 



ALEXANDER GILL, JUNR., 1635-1640 183 

was very popular with a large section of the English people 
may be deduced from the shouts of " God bless thee, little 
David ! " and " The Lord comfort thee ! " amid which the 
assassin had passed on his way to the Tower. One Sir 
Richard Savage was committed for publicly saying that if 
Felton had not done the deed, he would have done it him 
self, and our school-master and Bachelor of Divinity, in the 
same spirit expressed his regret that Felton, whose health 
he drank, had " deprived him of the honour of doing that 
brave act." 

William Chillingworth, 1 with whom, so Sir William Dave- 
nant, the Poet Laureate, told Aubrey, Gill had for some 
years " held weekly intelligence, wherein they used to nibble 
at State matters," had received a letter from Gill some time 
before, in which " he called King James and his sonne, the 
old foole and the young one." This letter and the occur 
rence in the college cellar were communicated to Laud, who 
had just been appointed Bishop of London, and was in 
consequence Gill s Ordinary. The result was that during 
afternoon school on Friday, September 4, the boys of St. 
Paul s saw two poursuivants come and take their school 
master out of the school to be examined by the Bishop of 
London. The upshot was that he was committed to the 
Gatehouse and kept so close prisoner that neither his father 
nor his mother, nor any of his friends were allowed to see 
him. 

In his examination 2 on the following day in the Star 
Chamber, before Laud and Heath, the Attorney-General, 
Gill pleaded guilty to the allegations. The Vice-Chancellor 
of Oxford University was ordered to search the rooms of 
William Pickering, a friend of the accused, and found in his 
study and in the pockets of his clothes divers libels and letters, 

1 Aubrey s Letters and Lives, 1813, vol. ii. p. 285. 

2 Cal. S. P., Dom., 1628-29, 3252, 3192. 



184 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

written by Gill, some dated 1626, which contained reflec 
tions on Buckingham. Among these were a set of verses 
which are extant, 1 in which his criticisms were directed, not 
at the sovereign but at his ministers 

" And now just God, I humbly pray, 
That thou wilt take that slime away 
That keeps my sovereign s eyes from viewing 
The things that will be our undoing. 
Then let him hear good God the sounds, 
As well of men, as of his hounds. 
Give him a taste, and timely too 
Of what his subjects undergo, 
Give him a feeling of their woes 
And then, no doubt his royal nose 
Will quickly smell those rascals savours 
Whose blacky deeds eclipse his favours 
Though found and scourged for their offences, 
Heaven bless my king and all his senses." 

The result of this domiciliary search was that Pickering 
was examined by the Attorney-General, and in the records 
of the examination it is interesting to see, in the first place, 
how Pickering took care to safeguard himself in the matter, 
and secondly how he endeavoured to expose Chillingworth, 
whom he had learnt that Diodati, another of Gill s friends, 
suspected of being the informer, and of having played the 
part of an agent provocateur. 

"Alexander Gill," said Pickering, 2 "was in his company 
in the cellar of his college, and some speeches passing about 
the Duke, Mr. Chillingworth asked Gill what he thought of 
King James. Gill answered that he and the Duke were 
together, and said if there were a Hell and a Devil surely the 
Duke was there. Being rebuked he replied, Where can 
he be else ? He began a health to Felton, and divers of 
the company including the examinant refusing, Gill said, 
{ What, is Pick, a Dukist too ? Gill used these 

1 Cal. S. P., Dom., vol. cxi. p. 240, No. 51, July 

2 Cal. S. P., Dom., vol. cxvii., Sept. 26, 1628. 



ALEXANDER GILL, JUNK, 1635-1640 185 

words in a mad brain railing humour. He was not abso 
lutely drunk, but he was far from sober. Gill and others 
were at a tavern two days before and then a health was 
drunk to Felton." 

Sentence on Gill was pronounced in the Star Chamber in 
November, and was to the effect that he should be degraded 
from his ministry and degrees, should lose his two ears, one 
in Oxford and the other in London, and should be fined 
2000, a sum which in view of his income he could not 
possibly have paid, so that it was equivalent to imprisonment 
for life. The prisoner, however, had friends at Court, so 
that, according to Aubrey, 1 " by the eloquent intercession 
and advocation of Edward, Earle of Dorset, together with 
the teares of the poore old Doctor, his father, and supplica 
tion on his knees to his Majestic the terrible storme which 
pointed towards him was blowne over. I am sorry," the 
same writer sententiously adds, " that so great a witt should 
have such a naeve." 

Laud having consented to forego the corporal punishment 
and mitigate the fine, " for his coats sake and love to his 
father," seconded his petition to the Sovereign, so that in 
two years, on November 30, 1630, a free pardon under 
the sign manual was granted by Charles I. 2 

The Star Chamber proceedings resulted, of course, in his 
dismissal from the post of under usher, in which his 
brother George succeeded him, but after he had been 
pardoned he received in 1631 a gratuity from the Mercers 
of 5, and in 1633 and 1634 of 10. According to his 
own statement he again became an usher in the school of 
Thomas Farnaby in Cripplegate, but he cannot have 
remained there long, and in view of the fact that his salary 
as under usher had been only ij 6s. %d. it is difficult to 

1 Aubrey s Letters and Lives, ii. 285. 

2 Cal. S. P., Dom., 1629-31, vol. clxxv. p. 393. 



186 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

believe that the sums paid to him by the Mercers in 1633 
and 1634 were gratuitous donations. The elder Gill, who 
was in his seventy-first year in 1635, described his work 
on The Sacred Philosofhie of the Holie Scripture, which 
appeared in that year, as " the legacie of a dying man," and 
it is most probable that the son, for the last few years of his 
father s life, assisted him in an informal capacity in the 
discharge of his duties. 

That his lese majeste was not forgotten is shown by a stanza 
in the verses which have already been quoted, which runs 

" But now remaines the vilest thing 
Thy ale-house barking gainst the K(ing) 
And all his brave and noble Peeres 
For which thou venturedst for thy eares, 
And if thou hadst thy right 
Cut off they had been quite 
And thou hast been a rogue in sight." 

After his pardon, however, Gill tried to retrieve his 
reputation and curry favour with the Court by publishing in 
1632 a little volume of collected Latin verse, entitled 
Trdpspya sive Politici Conatus, containing a fulsome 
dedication to the King and a profoundly respectful poem to 
Laud, and in addition he wrote much verse to other Royal 
and noble personages, as well as odes on the successes of 
Gustavus Adolphus in Germany. It is curious that Milton s 
friendship bore the strain of his loyalist effusions. 

That his efforts were successful in making him a persona 
grata at Court the petition which he addressed to the King 
in 1639-40, which I shall have occasion to quote later, 
seems certainly to suggest. This much, however, is certain, 
that on November 18, 1635, on the very day following 
the death of his father, he was elected to succeed him as 
high master, and the haste with which the vacancy was in 
this way filled is certainly a significant incident in a strange 
career. 



ALEXANDER GILL, JUNR., 1635-1640 187 

The first few lines of one of Gill s poems deserve quotation, 
since they were addressed to Penelope, the daughter of 
Viscount Campden, to whose husband, Edward Lord Noel, 
Lord Campden s patent of nobility gave a special remainder. 1 

On Mistress Penelope Nowell, daughter of the Lord 
Viscount Campden. 

" How fast my greues come on, how thick a shook 
Of sorrows rush uppon this frighted soule. 
Was t not enough my deare Amintas late 
Was taken from me by to early fate ? 
Was t not enoughe that on braue Sweden s horse 
My Muse astonisht pinned her mournefull verse ; 
Butt thou, blest saint, before with carefull heede 
My wounds were healed, makest them afresh to bleed, 
And in my sorrows claimes as large a share 
As thy rare beauty and thy vertues were." 

This lady s son, Baptist Noel, prefixed a stanza of verses 
to the volume of poetry issued by Gill in 1632, which 
contained many Latin poems to members of the Campden 
family, and to which were also prefixed verses by Sir John 
Stonhouse and Thomas May, an unsuccessful candidate for 
the post of Poet Laureate on the death of Ben Jonson in 
1637- 

Six months after the election of the younger Gill to the 
high mastership, on May 17, 1636, Archbishop Laud 
held a visitation of the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul s 
Cathedral, and issued the following order 

" Item, that those officers of the Company of Mercers 
who for the time being claime and enjoy the government of 
the free School commonly called Paul s Schoole doe at 
some certaine time and place by you the Deane and twoe 
other of your Prebendaries Residentiaries appointed shew to 
you by what right the government of the said schoole is 
invested in them and render us an accompt of what you find." 

1 Wood, Ath., iii. 43. 



194 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

It is a curious fact that Archbishop Laud, in his defence, 
did not cite, in addition to Chapter Ixxvii of the Canons of 
1 603, the Act of Parliament of 1581,23 Elizabeth, cap. i,sec. 
6, which also required that a school-master should be licensed 
by the Ordinary. The principle was re-enacted in later 
statutes, namely, the Act of Uniformity, 1662, and the Schism 
Act, passed by Bolingbroke under Swift s advice in 1714; 
and it was not till four years later that, by 5 George I, c. 4, 
the claim to ecclesiastical control over all education was 
withdrawn. 

One of the most distinguished of Gill s pupils was 
Thankful Owen, who from the fact that he was the son of 
a gentleman at Taplow, appears to have been a boarder at St. 
Paul s. He was a Fellow of Lincoln and held a Pauline 
exhibition for thirteen years, from 1637 till 1650. In that 
year he was proctor and was intruded President of St. John s 
College by the Parliamentary visitors, and became known as 
the most important and active Independent divine in the 
university. " The peculiar purity of his Latin style " may 
well be traced to his education under Gill. 

In 1660 he was ejected from the presidency of the 
college, and for the remaining twenty-one years of his 
life was a well-known supporter of the Independent 
cause. 

The post of proctor which Owen resigned to become 
head of a House was filled by another Old Pauline, Samuel 
Lee by name, who was appointed by dispensation of the 
Parliamentary visitors, although he was not of sufficient 
standing as a Master of Arts, even though they had given 
him that degree a year after he entered. Being Fellow of 
Wadham, and a staunch Nonconformist, Cromwell gave him 
the living of St. Botolph s, Bishopsgate, and in 1650 he was 
made a Fellow of All Souls . In 1686 he went to America 
and became a pastor in Rhode Island. It was said of him 



ALEXANDER GILL, JUNR., 1635-1640 195 

that " hardly ever a more universally learned man trod 
the American strand." On his return to Europe, in 
1691, he was captured by a French privateer, and died 
at St. Malo. 

William Thomas, the third of Gill s pupils who is known 
to have gained a fellowship, was sub-dean of Wadham in 
1647, was expelled as a Loyalist in the following year by 
the Parliamentary visitors, but it is curious to note that his 
Pauline Exhibition, which was granted in 1639, was paid 
until the year 1652. 

Among Gill s pupils at Cambridge the more distinguished 
include Thomas Prujean, the son of Sir Francis Prujean, 
President of the College of Physicians, who became himself 
a Fellow of that body, and Thomas Smith, University 
Librarian, who translated Dean Colet s Sermon before 
Convocation, and was the author of a life of Colet translated 
from Erasmus account of him, in his letter to Justus Jonas. 
Four of the pupils of this high master were elected to the 
Campden Exhibitions to Trinity, Cambridge, the first nomi 
nations to which, as we have seen, were made in the last 
year of his father s tenure of office. Of these four exhibi 
tioners three were elected in 1635, and the fourth in 1639, 
the latter being the last elected for fifteen years. None of 
these have been traced although their names are known, but 
it is of interest to note that two of them received grants of 
money from the Mercers, possibly for the purpose of in 
cepting in arts, five or six years after being elected to the 
exhibitions. 

The names of only two " poor scholars " under Gill are 
known. William Hippesley preceded John Bennett, the boy 
for maltreating whom Gill was "displaced." All that is 
known concerning the former is that in addition to the 
Pauline Exhibition which he held, he received grants for the 
purchase of books on two occasions, amounting in all to 



o 2 



CHAPTER XII 

PURITAN INFLUENCES AT ST. PAUL*S 
JOHN LANGLEY, HIGH MASTER 1640-1657 

ALEXANDER GILL was " displaced," as the school records 
express it, at the beginning of the year 1639-40. On 
January 7 in that year the Court of the Mercers was sum 
moned to elect his successor. The candidates for the vacancy 
were three in number, Langley, Lloyd and Minors. Four 
examiners, called in the acccounts " Opposers," were 
appointed to try them. These triers were Dr. Bromrick, 
Mr. Calamy, Mr. Launce and Mr. Barnaby, each of whom 
received a fee of forty shillings for his pains. The best 
known of these Opposers was Edmund Calamy, who had 
in the preceding year become incumbent of St. Mary, 
Aldermanbury, on his resignation of a lectureship at 
Bury, where he was known as a Calvinist, owing to the 
insistence by the Bishop on the observance of Church cere 
monies, while three years later he attended the Westminster 
Assembly as a Presbyterian, and was spoken of as a probable 
Provost of Eton before 1660. These facts, and the religious 
views of Langley, the selected candidate, who was well 
known as a Puritan, show very clearly the political com 
plexion of the Mercers Company at the beginning of the 
year in which the Long Parliament was destined to meet, 
and which they were in a position to make the prevailing 
tone at St. Paul s. The disappointed candidates were con- 

198 



JOHN LANGLEY, 1640-1657 199 

soled with a gift of 4 apiece, a precedent established on 
this occasion, which the Mercers do not appear to have 
followed at subsequent elections. 

The fact that Gill received a few votes at this election 
shows that there was a section of the Mercers Company 
anxious to reinstate him, and the circumstance that he is 
expressed to have received "some" votes, while they 
obviously were a minority of the total votes cast in the 
contest, show that the Mercers did not delegate their 
elective functions to the four men from outside their own 
body whom they had consulted, but that they merely called 
in expert scholars to assist them in their choice, just as sixty 
years before, when Harrison was elected, they secured the 
advice of Dean Nowell and other learned men " for the 
trial of the sufficiency of the candidates." 

John Langley was born near Banbury, in the neighbour 
hood of Oxford. It is from the statutes of Banbury 
Grammar School that Colet is traditionally supposed to 
have drawn the inspiration of his more famous code, and it 
would be interesting to prove conclusively that Langley just 
a century later was educated at that school, but the most 
that can be said in view of the absence of any evidence 
whatever as to his place of education is that it is not remotely 
improbable that he was educated at the school nearest to the 
place of his birth. The first information we have concerning 
him is that he signed the Articles, and performed the other 
formalities for admission at Oxford in 1613, so that we may 
assume that he was born some time in the last decade of the 
sixteenth century, probably in 1595 or 1596. 

He graduated from Magdalen Hall in 1616, and pro 
ceeded to his M.A. degree three years later. In March 
1617-18, he was appointed, at what must have been an 
exceptionally early age, to the head mastership of Gloucester 
Grammar School, a post which, according to a Chapter 



202 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

being subjected, it may be safely assumed, to the last 
alteration which the original buildings of the founder were 
to undergo before they perished in the Great Fire a little 
more than twenty years later. 

The receipts from the Campden Exhibition Fund were 
almost entirely suspended during Langley s high mastership, 
a reason being no doubt to be found in the difficulty of 
collecting tithe during the Civil War in so distant a county 
as Northumberland. 

The annual grant of money for prizes, which had begun, 
as we have seen, in Mukaster s time, and which had 
remained fixed at twenty shillings a year since 1602, was 
discontinued in the first year of Langley s high mastership, 
but a far more serious step, due no doubt to the Civil War, 
was the discontinuance of all the exhibitions by which boys 
were enabled to go to the Universities. Those charged 
on the Coletine estate were suspended for the three years 
1644-1646, but the Campden Exhibitions were not awarded 
from the date of the younger Gill s dismissal until 1654, 
three years before Langley was succeeded by Cromleholme. 
Although five exhibitions on Lord Campden s foundation 
were awarded in the year 1654, no more awards of these 
exhibitions were made until 1659, two years after Cromle- 
holme s election to the high mastership. 

Not merely were no new Pauline exhibitioners elected 
from 1643 to 1646, but holders of exhibitions elected in 
years preceding 1643 failed to receive their annual grants 
from the school estates. According to the Acts of Court of 
the Mercers, on February 7, 1643, the Court of Assistants 
postponed the question of exhibitions until a day " when it 
shall please God the time be more settled." Few payments 
were made in 1644, none in 1645, an< ^ m 1646 again only 
a few were paid, but in this year four of Gill s pupils who 
had been elected to exhibitions in 1639 or 1640 received 




JOHN LANGLEY, 1640-1657 203 

"gratuities" of 6 13*. 4^. in place of the full payment 
of 10. 

No less than sixteen of Langley s pupils are known to 
have petitioned for exhibitions in the twelve years from 
1642 to 1654, and to have been refused owing to lack of 
funds ; a few of these received " grants " or " gratuities " 
which differed from the exhibitions in that they were single 
payments, which did not pledge the Mercers Company to 
the same extent as would a promise to pay a regular and 
fixed annuity. 

It is a curious fact that in spite of the circumstances 
which have been dealt with, by which during the years of 
the Civil War, from 1644 to 1646, no appointments were 
made to exhibitions, the total number of boys who received 
exhibitions during the seventeen years of Langley s high 
mastership shows a marked increase on the numbers elected 
under his predecessors. In addition to five Campden exhibi 
tioners, no less than forty-six boys were assisted at the 
Universities out of the Coletine foundation, so that if one 
omits in the reckoning the two years in which the Mercers 
Company was forced to recoup itself for the exactions of 
Parliament, an average of between three and four exhibi 
tioners was sent up every year from St. Paul s to the 
Universities. 

The total entry at Cambridge in 1643 was only forty- 
five and at Oxford fifty-one, but three years later the Oxford 
matriculations had dropped to two. In all, more than 
eighty of Langley s pupils are known to have gone to 
Oxford and Cambridge. Only a quarter of these, as might 
be expected in the case of the pupils of a Puritan school 
master, went to Oxford. Twelve of his pupils are known 
to have gained fellowships at Cambridge, and eleven others at 
Oxford, but of these five were M.A.s who had migrated from 
Cambridge, and were intruded by the Parliamentary visitors. 



202 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

being subjected, it may be safely assumed, to the last 
alteration which the original buildings of the founder were 
to undergo before they perished in the Great Fire a little 
more than twenty years later. 

The receipts from the Campden Exhibition Fund were 
almost entirely suspended during Langley s high mastership, 
a reason being no doubt to be found in the difficulty of 
collecting tithe during the Civil War in so distant a county 
as Northumberland. 

The annual grant of money for prizes, which had begun, 
as we have seen, in Mulcaster s time, and which had 
remained fixed at twenty shillings a year since 1602, was 
discontinued in the first year of Langley s high mastership, 
but a far more serious step, due no doubt to the Civil War, 
was the discontinuance of all the exhibitions by which boys 
were enabled to go to the Universities. Those charged 
on the Coletine estate were suspended for the three years 
1644-1646, but the Campden Exhibitions were not awarded 
from the date of the younger Gill s dismissal until 1654, 
three years before Langley was succeeded by Cromleholme. 
Although five exhibitions on Lord Campden s foundation 
were awarded in the year 1654, no more awards of these 
exhibitions were made until 1659, two years after Cromle- 
holme s election to the high mastership. 

Not merely were no new Pauline exhibitioners elected 
from 1643 to 1646, but holders of exhibitions elected in 
years preceding 1643 failed to receive their annual grants 
from the school estates. According to the Acts of Court of 
the Mercers, on February 7, 1643, the Court of Assistants 
postponed the question of exhibitions until a day "when it 
shall please God the time be more settled." Few payments 
were made in 1644, none in 1645, and in 1646 again only 
a few were paid, but in this year four of Gill s pupils who 
had been elected to exhibitions in 1639 or 1640 received 




JOHN LANGLEY, 1640-1657 

"gratuities" of 6 ly. *d. in place of the full payment 

of 10. 

No less than sixteen of Langley s pupils are known to 
have petitioned for exhibitions in the twelve years from 
1642 to 1654, and to have been refused owing to lack of 
funds ; a few of these received " grants " or " gratuities " 
which differed from the exhibitions in that they were single 
payments, which did not pledge the Mercers Company to 
the same extent as would a promise to pay a regular and 
fixed annuity. 

It is a curious fact that in spite of the circumstances 
which have been dealt with, by which during the years of 
the Civil War, from 1644 to 1646, no appointments were 
made to exhibitions, the total number of boys who received 
exhibitions during the seventeen years of Langley s high 
mastership shows a marked increase on the numbers elected 
under his predecessors. In addition to five Campden exhibi 
tioners, no less than forty-six boys were assisted at the 
Universities out of the Coletine foundation, so that if one 
omits in the reckoning the two years in which the Mercers 
Company was forced to recoup itself for the exactions of 
Parliament, an average of between three and four exhibi 
tioners was sent up every year from St. Paul s to the 
Universities. 

The total entry at Cambridge in 1643 was only forty- 
five and at Oxford fifty-one, but three years later the Oxford 
matriculations had dropped to two. In all, more than 
eighty of Langley s pupils are known to have gone to 
Oxford and Cambridge. Only a quarter of these, as might 
be expected in the case of the pupils of a Puritan school 
master, went to Oxford. Twelve of his pupils are known 
to have gained fellowships at Cambridge, and eleven others at 
Oxford, but of these five were M.A.s who had migrated from 
Cambridge, and were intruded by the Parliamentary visitors. 



202 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

being subjected, it may be safely assumed, to the last 
alteration which the original buildings of the founder were 
to undergo before they perished in the Great Fire a little 
more than twenty years later. 

The receipts from the Campden Exhibition Fund were 
almost entirely suspended during Langley s high mastership, 
a reason being no doubt to be found in the difficulty of 
collecting tithe during the Civil War in so distant a county 
as Northumberland. 

The annual grant of money for prizes, which had begun, 
as we have seen, in Mukaster s time, and which had 
remained fixed at twenty shillings a year since 1602, was 
discontinued in the first year of Langley s high mastership, 
but a far more serious step, due no doubt to the Civil War, 
was the discontinuance of all the exhibitions by which boys 
were enabled to go to the Universities. Those charged 
on the Coletine estate were suspended for the three years 
1644-1646, but the Campden Exhibitions were not awarded 
from the date of the younger Gill s dismissal until 1654, 
three years before Langley was succeeded by Cromleholme. 
Although five exhibitions on Lord Campden s foundation 
were awarded in the year 1654, no more awards of these 
exhibitions were made until 1659, two years after Cromle- 
holme s election to the high mastership. 

Not merely were no new Pauline exhibitioners elected 
from 1643 to 1646, but holders of exhibitions elected in 
years preceding 1643 failed to receive their annual grants 
from the school estates. According to the Acts of Court of 
the Mercers, on February 7, 1643, the Court of Assistants 
postponed the question of exhibitions until a day " when it 
shall please God the time be more settled." Few payments 
were made in 1644, none in 1645, and in 1646 again only 
a few were paid, but in this year four of Gill s pupils who 
had been elected to exhibitions in 1639 or 1640 received 






JOHN LANGLEY, 1640-1657 203 

"gratuities" of 6 ly. \d. in place of the full payment 

of 10. 

No less than sixteen of Langley s pupils are known to 
have petitioned for exhibitions in the twelve years from 
1642 to 1654, and to have been refused owing to lack of 
funds; a few of these received "grants" or "gratuities" 
which differed from the exhibitions in that they were single 
payments, which did not pledge the Mercers Company to 
the same extent as would a promise to pay a regular and 
fixed annuity. 

It is a curious fact that in spite of the circumstances 
which have been dealt with, by which during the years of 
the Civil War, from 1644 to 1646, no appointments were 
made to exhibitions, the total number of boys who received 
exhibitions during the seventeen years of Langley s high 
mastership shows a marked increase on the numbers elected 
under his predecessors. In addition to five Campden exhibi 
tioners, no less than forty-six boys were assisted at the 
Universities out of the Coletine foundation, so that if one 
omits in the reckoning the two years in which the Mercers 
Company was forced to recoup itself for the exactions of 
Parliament, an average of between three and four exhibi 
tioners was sent up every year from St. Paul s to the 
Universities. 

The total entry at Cambridge in 1 643 was only forty- 
five and at Oxford fifty-one, but three years later the Oxford 
matriculations had dropped to two. In all, more than 
eighty of Langley s pupils are known to have gone to 
Oxford and Cambridge. Only a quarter of these, as might 
be expected in the case of the pupils of a Puritan school 
master, went to Oxford. Twelve of his pupils are known 
to have gained fellowships at Cambridge, and eleven others at 
Oxford, but of these five were M.A.s who had migrated from 
Cambridge, and were intruded by the Parliamentary visitors. 



204 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

At least five of Langley s pupils at St. Paul s entered at 
the Universities as fellow-commoners, or gentlemen com 
moners ; four of these were the sons of baronets, but the 
fifth appears to have been merely the son of a wealthy 
citizen. 

A fairly complete list of the " poor scholars " under 
Langley has been preserved. From this it appears that 
the post was held in most cases for only one year, although 
one boy held it for four years and one for two years. Ten 
names in all have been preserved, covering seventeen years. 
Just one-half proceeded to the Universities, in all cases save 
one with exhibitions. The parentage of only three out of 
the ten is known. One was the son of a carrier of London; 
two were the sons of country parsons, and of these one 
succeeded in becoming a Fellow of Magdalen College, 
Oxford. 

One form of public recognition which Langley obtained 
is to be seen in a Parliamentary Order of June 29, 1643, by 
which, pursuant to the Ordinance of the Long Parliament 
which inspired Milton s Areopagitica, and which had been 
passed in that year, his scholastic attainments procured for 
him the appointment as one of the licensers or censors of 
the press for " books of philosophy, history, poetry, 
morality, and arts ; " but it appears from a petition pre 
sented on December 20, 1648, by the printers and stationers 
of London, that he was so much engrossed in his work as 
high master that he had become remiss in the duties of 
censorship. 1 

His Puritan proclivities are to be seen in the fact that 
he was sworn on January 12, i644, 2 and on June 6 follow 
ing appeared as witness before the Lords Committee which 
had been appointed to take examinations in the cause of 

1 Historical MS. Commission, jth Report, p. 67. 

2 Cal. of State Papers, Dom. Series, 1 664, p. 4.. 




T. Hill fin.\: 1723.] [G. Whitesc. 

GEORGE HOOPER, BISHOP OF ST. ASAPH AND OF BATH AM WELLS 

[To face p. 204. 



JOHN LANGLEY, 1640-1657 205 

Archbishop Laud, and before that body he deposed to sundry 
innovations introduced by Laud in the conduct of the 
cathedral services when he had been Dean of Gloucester 
and Langley had been master of the school and prebendary 
of the cathedral. 

Samuel Knight, who entered at St. Paul s only thirty 
years after Langley s death, and whose words may therefore 
not unreasonably be said to embody a tradition which was 
still alive in the school, says that " he had a very awful 
presence and speech that struck a mighty respect and fear 
into his scholars, which however wore off after they were a 
little used to him ; and the management of himself towards 
them was such that they both loved and feared him." One 
incident in his career which has been preserved affords a 
tribute to the rigid sense of duty which inspired the high 
master, for, having been seized with an illness some time 
before he fell ill of the disease which proved fatal, " he was 
so fearful of any miscarriage in the duties of his place that 
he expressed a wish," so we are told, " to be buried at the 
school door in regard that he had in his ministrations there, 
come short of the duties which he owed the school." 

That he underestimated his labours and the satisfactory 
way in which he filled his post may be inferred from 
the fact that Thomas Fuller, who sent his son John to be 
educated at St. Paul s under him, speaks of Langley in 
terms of the highest praise ; while Edmund Calamy, 
who, as we have seen, had some share in his election, 
vouched for his confidence in the high master by sending 
his son Edmund to school under him. Other distinguished 
men whom the fame of the high master induced to send 
their sons to St. Paul s include Sir John Trevor, Secretary 
of State ; Sir Robert Harley, M.P., the brother of the Earl 
of Oxford ; Edward Reynolds, Dean of Christ Church ; 
Anthony Tuckney, Master of Emanuel ; Henry Croke, 



206 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

Canon of Lincoln and Gresham Professor of Rhetoric ; Sir 
John Pettus Governor of the Royal Mines ; Peter Pett, 
the Master Shipbuilder to the King and Naval Commander 
at Chatham ; and four baronets of more or less distinction. 
The fact that he was a distinguished antiquary no doubt 
accounts for the fact that Langley was known and beloved 
by Selden amongst other learned men, but one may well 
believe the statement of Anthony a Wood, " he had not 
much esteem for the orthodox clergy." 

The greatest tribute, however, that was ever paid to 
Langley is to be found in the fact that the Mercers adopted 
his recommendation on his deathbed of Cromleholme, a 
former surmaster, as being the best possible successor that 
could be found to fill his place at St. Paul s. 

He died unmarried on September 13, 1657. Richard 
Smyth, in his Obituary, notes " Mr. Langley, the amiable 
school-master of Pauls, died." All the scholars attended 
his funeral, wearing white gloves, and walking before the 
corpse (hung with verses instead of escutcheons) from the 
school through Cheapside, to the Mercers Chapel. John 
Strype himself records that as a boy at St. Paul s he walked 
in this funeral procession. 

Here Edward Reynolds, who has been already referred 
to as the father of one of Langley s pupils, pronounced a 
warm eulogy of the late high master s learning and character 
in a sermon, subsequently printed, " On the Uses of Human 
Learning," which in the pedantic style of the day he 
dedicated on publication to Sir Henry Yelverton, a former 
pupil at St. Paul s of John Langley, " to whose care your 
father trusted the two props of his family, yourself and your 
most hopeful brother, whom God took from that school to 
a celestial academy." With regard to the sermon itself, 
even when one discounts the panegyrics of such effusions, 
it will be recognized that Langley must have been a man of 



JOHN LANGLEY, 1640-1G57 207 

some note in his day for it to have been possible to say 
of him that " he was an excellent linguist, grammarian, 
historian, cosmographer and artist, as also a most judicious 
divine and a great antiquary. Pausanias was not more 
learned in the description of Greece than he of England, 
while of him it was said also doctum in hoc uno crederes 
quodcumque diceret. " 

Thomas Fuller, who sent his son to be educated by 
Langley, speaks in his Church History of " Paul s School 
flourishing at this day as much as ever, under the care of 
Mr. John Langly, the able and religious Schoolmaster 
thereof." The fact that Langley was a distinguished anti 
quary, as well as an excellent theologian of the Puritan 
stamp, must have caused him to appeal with especial force 
to the author of the Worthies of England. 

The translation of Polydore Vergil s De Inventoribus 
rerum, published in 1663, which bears on the title-page 
John Langley s name, is in fact nothing more than a 
reprint of the work of Thomas Langley, canon of Win 
chester, which was made in 1 546, and which was, no doubt, 
the work of a relation of the high master. 1 

John Langley was the first high master to exercise a 
responsibility placed upon him and his successors in 1656. 
In that year Abraham Colfe, Vicar of Lewisham, bequeathed 
part of his property to the Leathersellers Company, in 
trust for the foundation of Blackheath Grammar School, 
and the testator provided that the master of the school 
should be examined by the head masters of St. Paul s, 
Westminster, and Merchant Taylors Schools. 

Langley s colleagues in the first election were Richard 
Busby of Westminster, and William Dugard of Merchant 
Taylors . 

That Langley, like Gill, taught Hebrew at St. Paul s, is 
1 Lords Journl., vi. 377 ; Com. Journl., iii. 138. 



JOHN LANGLEY, 1640-1657 209 

expresses the hope that he will have " as relation, so able 
and honest, and so old an acquaintance as Mr. Cumber 
land," and when in fact his sister fell in love with a man 
who is damned with faint praise as " a plain young man, 
handsome enough for her, one of no education nor discourse, 
but of few words, and one altogether that I think will please 
me well enough," the whole topic is summed up by the 
diarist in the words, " I shall, 1 see, have no pleasure nor 
content in him, as if he had been a man of reading and 
parts like Cumberland." 

His friend s judgment of Cumberland s ability was not 
exaggerated. In 1691 he became Bishop of Peterborough, 
where he remained till his death at the age of eighty-six, in 
1718. A pleasant tribute, in the light of the quotations 
which have been made, is to be found in the fact that he 
dedicated his Essay towards the Recovery of Jewish Weights 
and Measures to Samuel Pepys. 

Although there are constant references in the Diary of 
Samuel Pepys to St. Paul s and to his school-fellows, there 
is nothing to show for how many years he was in the 
school. 

Pepys, who was born in 1632, was recommended for a 
Robinson Exhibition of the Mercers Company in 1650, 
an incident to which he refers in his Diary many years 
later 

"To Mercers Hall, where we met with the King s 
Council for trade. It pleased me much now to come in 
this condition to this place, where I was once a petitioner 
for my exhibition in St. Paul s School." 

Nothing is known concerning John Pepys, his father, a 
tailor of London. His cousin, and patron, Sir Edward 
Montagu, afterwards Earl of Sandwich, was a follower of 
Cromwell who veered round to the Royalist side, and in 
this connection it is of interest to quote an entry in the 



210 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

Diary written in the year of Charles Restoration, at a time 
when the diarist was well started on his successful career as 
a loyal servant of the Crown. He relates how at dinner 
at Sir William Batten s he met " Mr, Christmas, my old 
schoolfellow, with whom I had much talk. He did 
remember that I was a great Roundhead when I was a 
boy, and I was much afraid that he would have remembered 
the words that I said, the day the King was beheaded 
(that were I to preach upon him, my text should be 
The memory of the wicked shall rot ) ; but I found 
afterwards that he did go away from school before that 

M 

time. 

Pepys fame as a diarist has unduly overshadowed his 
very high reputation as a Government official. Soon after 
the Restoration he became Clerk of the Acts of the Navy, 
and Clerk of the Privy Seal. In the following year he 
became a Younger Brother of Trinity House, and a 
member of the Tangier Commission, of which he became 
Treasurer three years later. His success at the Navy 
Office caused Monck to speak of him, in 1665, as "the 
right hand of the Navy." He defended himself and his 
colleagues on the Navy Board at the Bar of the House 
of Commons with so much skill in 1668, when popular 
feeling was aroused by the success of the Dutch in the 
Medway, that the Solicitor-General declared that he was 
the best speaker in England. Mr. George Montagu on the 
same occasion kissed him, and called him Cicero, while Sir 
William Coventry said that he ought to be Speaker of the 
House of Commons. His success led him to enter Parlia 
ment, where he represented Castle Rising, and afterwards 
Harwich, until the year 1688. 

When the Duke of York resigned his offices in 1673, 
owing to the passing of the Test Act, the Admiralty was 
put in commission, and Pepys was made Secretary for the 



JOHN LANGLEY, 1640-1657 211 

affairs of the Navy, and is said in a contemporary account 
to have been the most useful minister who ever filled his 
position in England. 

Sir Godfrey Kneller was engaged in painting the portrait 
of James II as a present from the King to his faithful 
servant, when the news of landing of William of Orange 
was brought. Pepys retired into private life after the 
Revolution, and survived till 1703. 

In addition to his official position, Pepys was a member 
of Gresham College, and in 1664 was elected a Fellow of 
the Royal Society, of which he became President in 1684. 
He was on terms of intimacy with the leading men of 
science, and virtuosi of his day. His Diary, which extends 
from 1660 to 1669, when it ceased owing to failing eye 
sight, is too well known to require more than mere mention 
in this place, apart from the light which it throws upon 
St. Paul s School during the early years of the reign of 
Charles II. 

Robert Louis Stevenson, in his Essays on Men and Books, 
wrote a psychological study of Pepys as disclosed in the 
Diary. A distinguished physician a few years ago delivered 
a lecture on the medical history of Mr. and Mrs. Pepys, 
gleaned from the same source. Sir Frederic Bridge has 
written a brochure on Pepys as a musician ; and there is 
ample material in the Diary for a long article on Pepys as 
an Old Pauline. 

Some account of his relations with Cromleholme, the 
high master who succeeded Langley, will be found in the 
next chapter, but it may be noted here that one of the first 
entries in the Diary , dated February 5, 1659-60, records 
how he went " To my father s, where I wrote some notes 
for my brother John to give to the Mercers, it being the 
day of their Apposition." 

Four days later he states, " I rose early this morning 



P 2 



JOHN LANGLEY, 1640-1657 213 

When an old school-fellow, Jack Cole by name, called 
on Pepys in 1664, according to the Diary, "I made him 
stay with me till 1 1 that night, talking of old school stories, 
and very pleasant ones, and truly 1 did find that we did 
spend our time and thoughts then otherwise than I think 
boys do now, and I think as well as, methinks, the best are 
now . . . and strange to see how we are all divided that 
were bred so long at school together, and what various 
fortunes we have run, some good, some bad." 

Once again when Jack Cole called on him, he wrote, 
" I find him still of the old good-humour that we 
were of at school together, and I am very glad to see 
him." 

On October 23, 1667, Pepys wrote of the civic elections 
in his Diary, " The other sheriff is Davis, the little fellow, 
my schoolfellow, the bookseller who was one of Audley s 
executors, and now become sheriff, which is a strange 
turn methinks." Thomas Davies, the subject of this entry, 
was the son of a freeman of the Drapers Company, and 
was a well-known bookseller in London, who had been en 
riched by a legacy from a man of wealth. He was Master 
of the Stationers Company in 1668 and 1669, and having 
been knighted in the year of his shrievalty, was Lord 
Mayor in 1667, the year in which the Monument was 
erected, a circumstance which accounts for the fact that the 
high master of St. Paul s was commissioned to write the 
inscription. 

The opinions expressed by Pepys concerning his school 
fellows were not always flattering. Reference is made to 
Robert Elborough, parson of St. Lawrence Pountney, in 
connection with a clergyman at whose importunity and 
impertinence the diarist was annoyed, and whom he describes 
as " such another as Elborough," while, when after the 
Apposition in 1662 he dined with his school-fellow, he 



214 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

declared that he " found him as great a fool as ever he was, 
or worse." 

On another occasion, however, he heard Elborough, 
whom he described as a simple rogue, preach " a good 
sermon, and in as right a parsonlike manner, and in good 
manner too, as I have heard anybody, and the church very 
full, which is a surprising consideration." 

When on a visit to Cambridge Pepys voted for the 
election as taxor of another school-fellow, Bernard Skelton, 
who was afterwards Agent in Holland for James II, by whom 
he was used to inveigle Monmouth over to England. 

The name of John Trevor comes next to that of Pepys 
in the school list. He was the son of Sir John Trevor, a 
Secretary of State, and was a cousin of George Jeffreys. He 
went to Merton as a gentleman commoner, and ten years 
after being called to the Bar was knighted. He was M.P. 
for Yarmouth, Isle of Wight, and was elected Speaker in 
1683, and again in 1690. Having held the post of 
Attorney-General he became Master of the Rolls in 1685, 
and retained that post with an interval of but four years 
until his death in 1717, when he was buried in the Rolls 
Chapel. The discovery by the House of Commons in 
1695 that a large bribe had been paid to secure the renewal 
of the Charter of the East India Company, a corrupt prac 
tice in which Trevor was implicated, resulted in the fact 
that after putting to the House the question of his own 
expulsion from the Chair as Speaker, Trevor was compelled 
to declare that " the Ayes have it." 

The boy whose name comes next to that of Trevor in 
the registers, Henry Yelverton, went up to Oxford, like 
Trevor, as a gentleman commoner, and, like him, entered 
Parliament. He succeeded his father in the baronetcy in 
1665, and died in 1670. 

Another baronet s son educated by Langley was Hugh 



JOHN LANGLEY, 1640-1657 215 

Cholmeley, the son of the Governor of Scarborough, 
who went from St. Paul s to Trinity Hall, and became 
Governor of Tangier under Charles II. He succeeded to 
the baronetcy in 1665, and died in 1688. 

George Viner, the son of Sir Thomas Viner, Lord Mayor 
of London in 1654, succeeded his father in the title nine 
years after leaving St. Paul s. 

George Croke, the son of a canon of Lichfield, who was 
also Gresham Professor of Rhetoric, has been identified as 
a Pauline from the occurrence of his name among the 
stewards of the feast in 1677. He was made a Fellow of 
All Souls in 1648 by the Parliamentary visitors, but was 
knighted at the Restoration. In 1664 he became High 
Sheriff of Oxfordshire, and in 1676 he was elected a Fellow 
of the Royal Society. 

Among the pupils of Langley who distinguished them 
selves by their adherence to the Puritan cause, Richard 
Bures must be mentioned as a man who, after matriculating 
at Oxford as a Pauline Exhibitioner, was made a Fellow of 
Christ Church by the Parliamentary visitors, but was ejected 
from this as well as from his living in Kent by the Bar 
tholomew Act in 1662, and suffered imprisonment for his 
opinions in 1 677.* 

An Old Pauline at Emmanuel, Nathaniel Sterry by name, 
who had been refused an exhibition for want of funds in 
1644, was intruded into a fellowship at Merton five years 
later, but, being more complaisant than Bures, died Dean of 
Bocking. His brother, Peter Sterry, was chaplain to Oliver 
Cromwell. He was an intimate friend of Sir Henry Vane, 
and Richard Baxter punningly asked concerning them, 
" whether vanity and sterility had ever been more happily 
conjoined." The place of his education is not known. It 
is most probable that he, too, was educated by Langley. 
1 Burrows, 173-4; Calamy, ii. 337. 



.; 

: 



JOHN LANGLEY, 1640-1657 217 

under Langley. He appears to have been at St. Paul s from 
1647 to 1651, but to have accompanied the surmaster, 
Samuel Cromleholme, to Dorchester on the appointment of 
the latter to the head mastership of the grammar school in 
that town. Gower, who was the son of a Herefordshire 
clergyman, went up to St. John s College, Cambridge, of 
which he became a Fellow. He was elected Master of Jesus 
in 1679, but a few months later returned as master to his 
old college. He was also elected to the Lady Margaret 
Professorship of Divinity. Two of the Fellows of St. John s 
being non-jurors, Gower refused to eject them on the issue 
of a peremptory mandamus against him in 1693. On being 
indicted at the Cambridge Assizes for his refusal to obey, 
the grand jury threw out the bill. He was a benefactor to 
St. John s College, and to St. Paul s and Dorchester 
Schools. 

Richard Meggott, who went up to Cambridge a few 
years before Gower, became Chaplain in Ordinary to the 
King, Canon of Windsor, and Dean of Winchester. He was 
a very celebrated preacher, and on one occasion Evelyn 
heard him deliver "an incomparable sermon." 

Samuel Woodford, who was a Prebendary of Winchester 
while Meggott was Dean, became a well-known poet and 
divine. He was elected F.R.S. in 1664, an d his paraphrase 
of the Psalms, written three years later, received high 
commendation from Richard Baxter. 

Gabriel Towerson, who was elected to a fellowship at 
All Souls , in the year of the Restoration, became Rector of 
St. Andrew Undershaft, and was a well-known divine. 

The publication of the registers of Caius College, 
Cambridge, a few years ago, added seven names to the list 
of Langley s pupils, of whom the most interesting is that of 
Joseph Alston, who, after three years at St. Paul s, entered 
Caius as a fellow commoner, and subsequently gained a 



218 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

scholarship. He succeeded his father as second baronet and 
inherited from him Bradwell Abbey, Buckinghamshire, of 
which county he was sheriff in 1670. Of the six other 
pupils of Langley who graduated at Caius, four became 
scholars. 

An eccentric pupil of this high master, who earned some 
fame by a controversy on the subject of witchcraft with 
Meric Casaubon, was John Wagstaffe, whom Anthony a 
Wood describes as " a little crooked man of despicable 
appearance, who injured his health by continued bibbing 
of strong and high-tasted liquors, and died in a manner 
distracted." The fact that he looked like a little wizard 
caused his defence of witchcraft to create some amusement 
in Oxford. He was buried in the Guildhall chapel. 

The earliest edition of the school Preces which is known 
to be extant was published during the high mastership of 
John Langley. J. W. Hewett, who compiled a collection 
of Latin prayers called Sacra Academica in 1865, described 
an edition of 1655 in the library of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, which, however, can unfortunately no longer be 
found. In 1890 an edition of 1644 came into the market, 
and was purchased for the school library by Dr. Lupton, 
who issued a reprint of the 12 mo volume, which bears 
stamped on its dark leather binding the letters S. W., which 
may well be the initials of Samuel Woodford, afterwards 
Prebendary of Winchester and Fellow of the Royal Society, 
who was a contemporary at St. Paul s with Samuel Pepys. 
The features of this edition, printed in the memorable year 
in which Prince Rupert was defeated at Marston Moor, 
and Archbishop Laud was attainted, are not without 
interest. 

The prayer for Parliament contains a clause u qui Principis 
delectu . . . rempublicam administrant," from which, in 
the edition of 1655, it is significant to notice that the word 



JOHN LANGLEY, 1640-1657 219 

" Principis " is omitted. The prayer headed " Gratiarum 
actio pro scholae Paulinae Fundatore," which follows that 
for Parliament, does not contain the petition present in that 
of 1705, which we may suppose was suggested by the Great 
Fire, " ut earn a Calamitate omni tuearis." Finally, it is 
worth noting that the last prayer of all, headed " Si Quando 
Ibitur Lusum, vel citius intermittentur studia," contains 
a hint of obstreperous doings at play-time in the old 
churchyard, in the words which were later dropped out, 
" ne quicquam admittamus . . . quo vicini, spectatoresque nos 
insolentiae accusent." 

St. Paul s enjoys the unique distinction of being the only 
public school in which the ancient Latin prayers are still in 
daily use. The school prayers printed by Mr. Hewett 
forty-four years ago were all described as " formerly in use," 
except those of St. Paul s, Westminster, Merchant Taylors , 
Tonbridge, and Blundell s School, Tiverton. 

At the last-named school the form, a very short one, was 
used only on Saturdays, while at Tonbridge it was used 
only at the annual visitation in July. More than twenty- 
five years ago, Merchant Taylors discontinued its former 
practice of using Latin prayers. 

The daily use of Latin at Westminster, it is true, does 
survive, but in a remarkably brief form, and is the same at 
the beginning and end of every school-time. It consists 
merely of a short collect of about four lines in addition 
to the Pater Noster, supplemented on half-holidays by 
another, which is almost equally short, in commemoration 
of benefactors. 

There can be no doubt that St. Paul s, during the 
political and religious struggle of the seventeenth century, 
reflected more faithfully than any of the other public 
schools in London, the character of the city as a stronghold 
of the Puritan cause. Sixty-nine former King s scholars of 



226 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

at Wandsworth. 1 The manner in which the other masters 
occupied their time in the interval which elapsed before the 
new school was completed is not known. Nathaniel Bull, 
the surmaster, who had been captain of Westminster and 
student of Christ Church, was an unsuccessful candidate for 
the head mastership of Leicester Grammar School in i66j. 2 

What happened to the boys of St. Paul s during the 
rebuilding after the fire is not known. Some probably 
followed Cromleholme to Wandsworth. One of them at 
least, Samuel Bradford by name, went to the Charterhouse. 
He cannot have stayed there long from the fact that he was 
fifteen years of age in 1666, and the circumstance that he 
sent his son to school at St. Paul s serves to indicate which 
of the two schools he looked upon with most favour. 

Bradford, who was not an exhibitioner, became a Fellow of 
Bene t College, Cambridge, and rector of St. Mary-le-Bow. 
His Whig principles having secured for him the post of 
Chaplain in Ordinary first to William of Orange, and then 
to Queen Anne, he was in 1716 elected Master of Bene t, 
with which he held the Bishopric of Carlisle, and later that 
of Rochester. He became Dean of Westminster in 1723, 
and on the revival by George I, two years later, of the 
Order of the Bath, the original foundation of which dates 
from 1399, Bradford was appointed its first Dean, and for 
this reason the collar of the Bath surrounds his arms in the 
window of the school hall. 

Another man of note, whose school-days at St. Paul s 
were cut short by the fire, was Edward Northey, the son of 
a gentleman at Stepney, who went up to Oxford in 1668, 
but of whose education in the two preceding years nothing 
is known. He sat in the House of Commons as member 
for Tiverton in several Parliaments, and succeeded an Old 

1 Venn s Cams, p. 438. 

- Hist. MSS. Comm., 8th Rep., p. 4.39. 




Sir G. Kneller pinx,] [S. Possel-white sc. 

JOHN CHURCHILL, FIRST DUKE OF MARYBOROUGH, K.G. 

[To face p. 226. 



SAMUEL CROMLEHOLME, 1657-1672 227 

Pauline, Sir John Trevor, as Attorney-General in 1701, 
remaining in that post till 1707. Sir Edward Northey was 
again senior law officer to the Crown from 1 7 10 to 1718, and 
enjoyed the distinction of being Attorney-General during 
three reigns, those of William and Mary, Anne and 
George I. 

Another Old Pauline who sat in the House of Commons 
with Northey was George Doddington, M.P. for Bridge- 
water, who was Treasurer of the Navy, one of the Lords of 
the Admiralty under George I, and Lord Lieutenant for 
Somerset. He is best remembered, perhaps, from the fact 
that he was the father of George Bubb Doddington, Lord 
Melcombe. 

Incomparably the most famous Pauline of this time was 
John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough. He was born in 
1650 at Ashe in Devonshire, at the seat of Sir John Drake, 
his maternal grandfather, where his father, Sir Winston 
Churchill, lived in retirement during the Protectorate. 
After the Restoration Sir Winston returned to his Dorset 
shire manor of Wintern, which is only nine miles from 
Dorchester, at the grammar school of which Cromleholme, 
as head master, had gained the reputation of being the most 
distinguished school-master in the west of England. 

To this is no doubt due the fact that Sir Winston 
Churchill, who moved up to London with his family shortly 
after the Restoration, sent his son to be educated by 
Cromleholme at St. Paul s. 

Readers of Thackeray will remember that after speaking 
of the fact that Jack Churchill was Frank Esmond s lieu 
tenant in the Royal Regiment of Foot-guards, the novelist 
goes on to say, " he and Churchill had been condiscipuli at 
St. Paul s School." 

John Churchill is said to have attracted the attention of 
James, Duke of York, in 1662, at a time, no doubt, when 

Q 2 



228 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

he was a school-boy at St. Paul s, and it is worth observing 
that the year 1665, in which he entered the household of 
the King s brother, was that in which, on Midsummer Day, 
the school was dismissed, owing to the prevalence of the 
plague in the city of London. There is every reason to 
believe that on the occasions on which Pepys was paying 
visits to the high master, the future commander-in-chief 
was, as a boy of thirteen or fourteen, receiving his education 
in the school. It seems probable that the future Duke of 
Marlborough was three or four years at St. Paul s. 

The only reference to his school-days which is known to 
exist is to be found in the copy of Knight s Life of Colet 
belonging to George North, who was one of the head boys 
of the school when the school feast of 1724-5 was cele 
brated. 1 Opposite the name of Vegetius De re militari, 
which occurs among the list of books in the library at the 
time when Knight s Colet was published, North wrote, 
" From this very book John Churchill, scholar of this 
school, afterwards the celebrated Duke of Marlborough, 
first learned the elements of the art of war ; as was told me, 
George North, on St. Paul s Day, 1724-5, by an old clergy 
man, who was a contemporary scholar, was then well 
acquainted with him, and frequently saw him read it. This 
I testify to be true. G. North." 

It has been suggested that it is not very probable that a 
boy should have read a book as difficult as Vegetius at so 
early an age ; but the numerous prints which the volume 
contained may well have attracted his attention. 

The earliest occasion on which the name of Marlborough 
is known to have been quoted as shedding distinction upon 
the school was in 1702, the year of the accession of Queen 
Anne, in which John Churchill, at that time Earl of 
Marlborough, became Ambassador Extraordinary at the 
1 Pauline, vol. iii. p. 473. 



SAMUEL CROMLEHOLME, 1657-1672 229 

Hague, and Commander-in-Chief of the Allied forces in 
Flanders. 

Among the Apposition speeches of that year, preserved 
in the Hartshorne collection, 1 Christopher Hussey, who was 
one of the head boys in the school, and who nine years 
later was a candidate for the Lucasian Professorship of 
Mathematics at Cambridge, in the course of his oration, 
after making mention of other Paulines, proceeds : " Hie 
Malburius denique ab ipso Caesare Gallos domare et a Gall- 
lorum Injuriis Vicinas Gentes tueri didicit. Hos Schola 
nostra olim nacta Alumnos jam Patronos suos habet, 
posthac semper, quod sperare licet, optare certe oportet, tales 
habitura." 

In his sermon at the school feast in 1717-18, four years 
after Marlborough, on the accession of George I, had been 
re-instated as Captain-General and Master-General of Ord 
nance, Samuel Knight made reference to the distinguished 
Old Pauline. In his dedication of his Life of Cole t to Spencer 
Compton, Speaker of the House of Commons, the same 
writer stated, " We have lately lost two persons of the most 
exalted station that our school could glory in, viz. the Dukes 
of Marlborough and Manchester ; from whom as we have 
had many instances of favour, we might (if they had lived 
longer) have expected more." 

Thomas Hough, who left the school in 1717, five years 
before Marlborough died, and preached at the school feast 
twelve years later, speaks of St. Paul s as having " supplied 
the camp with a general in whom courage, conduct and 
success conspired to render him the boast and glory of our 
age." 

Nothing is known concerning " the instances of favour " 
shown by the Duke of Marlborough to his school. It may 
well be that the discovery of missing sermons at the school 

1 Pauline, vol. x., No. 55, p. 115. 



230 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

feast will show that he served his turn as steward on some 
celebration of the Conversion of St. Paul, or that he was a 
benefactor to the library in which, while still a boy, he read 
Vegetius. His name alone, with that of Milton, is carved 
in letters of gold in the corridors of his school, and in the 
central window of the south side of the Great Hall stand 
side by side the arms of the two most famous alumni of St. 
Paul s. 

Cromleholme educated the head of a house at Oxford 
in William Wyatt, who became a student of Christ Church, 
and afterwards public orator, and who was for twenty-two 
years principal of St. Mary Hall. He was a well-known 
Oriental scholar, described as " a man of excellent sense," 
and the reference to him in Hearne s Diary as " an honest 
man," indicates that he was, if not a Jacobite, at least a 
strong Tory. 

Robert Nelson, one of the last of Cromleholme s pupils, 
died a year after Wyatt, who was one of the first boys 
educated by that high master. He shared the views of 
the Oxford Orientalist in more ways than one. He was 
born in 1656, and is said, after leaving St. Paul s, from which 
his mother took him "out of fondness," to have finished 
nis education under a private tutor ; but the fact that he 
spent some time on the Continent with Edmund Halley, the 
first of Gale s pupils, as a travelling companion, suggests 
that he remained in the school after the death of Cromle 
holme. He was a fellow-commoner of Trinity, Cambridge, 
and was elected Fellow of the Royal Society at the early age 
of twenty-four. He became well known as a Nonjuror, but 
conformed in 1709, after the death of Bishop Lloyd. His 
wife, Lady Theophila, the daughter of the Earl of Berkeley, 
became a Catholic under the influence of Bossuet, and died 
in that faith in spite of the endeavours of Tillotson, who 
was an intimate friend of her husband and died in his 



SAMUEL CROMLEHOLME, 1657-1672 231 

arms. Nelson was a great promoter of the S.P.G. and the 
S.P.C.K., and on his death left his whole estate in charitable 
bequests. Dr. Johnson, who said that he was the original of 
Richardson s Sir Charles Grandison, spoke to Boswell of 
"the excellent Mr. Nelson s Festivals and Fasts," which 
has, I understand, the greatest sale of any book ever printed 
in England, except the Bible, and is a most valuable help to 
devotion." 

On the death in 1710 of William Lloyd, the last but 
one of the deprived bishops, Ken, the last survivor, ex 
pressed his desire that the schism should end, and Nelson 
accordingly received the sacrament from the Archbishop of 
York. In the same year he served with his school-fellow, 
Sir Edward Northey, on the commission appointed to build 
fifty new churches in London. 

A sign of the popularity of the school with Dissenters, 
established by Langley, although it had grown very slight 
under Cromleholme, is to be found in the presence of two 
boys, John and Samuel Annesley the latter of whom was 
" Poor Scholar " who were the sons of Samuel Annesley, 
a well-known Nonconformist divine, whose sister became the 
mother of Samuel and Charles Wesley. 

One interesting incident which illustrates Cromleholme s 
judgment of the abilities of his scholars is to be found in a 
MS. life of John Strype, by Dr. Samuel Knight, which is 
preserved among the Baumgartner papers in the University 
of Cambridge. 

The ecclesiastical historian was the son of a Dutchman, 
who lived in the city of London. The boy was delicate, 
and was sent to a school in Hackney, from whence he was 
removed in 1657 to St. Paul s, where he remained more 
than four years. " By a trifling incident," his biographer 
goes on to say, " he was like to have been removed from 
hence also, when he had got to some height in the school, 



SAMUEL CROMLEHOLME, 1657-1672 233 

Survey, of Cromleholme, " from whose care of my Educa 
tion which I think myself bound publickly to acknowledge, 
I removed to the University of Cambridge, Anno 1661." 

One relic of the first school, which is still preserved at 
St. Paul s, is described by Strype l as " a lively effigies, and 
of exquisite art, of the head of Dr. Colet, cut, as it seemed, 
either in stone or wood," and the same writer adds, " but 
this figure was destroyed with the school in the great fire ; 
yet was afterwards found in the rubbish by a curious man 
and searcher into the City antiquities, who observed, and so 
told me, that it was cast and hollow, by a curious art now 
lost." 

This " searcher into City antiquities " was John Bagford, 
who left an account of early grammars in use at St. Paul s 
and was a well-known bookseller in his day. 

A worse fate, unfortunately, befell the treasure of which 
Pepys writes in his Diary on February 7, 1659-60. 
" Thence to School where he that made the speech for 
the Seventh Form in praise of the Founder did show a 
book which Mr. Crumlum had lately got, and which is 
believed to be of the Founders own writing." 

A few of the books in the library appear to have 
survived the fire, notably volumes of Nizolius, Budaeus, 
and the Uranologion, which may have been borrowed by 
boys in the school at the time of the fire. The Stephanus 
Thesaurus, presented by Pepys, of which the diarist writes 
that at an Apposition <c Dr. Crumlum did me much honour 
by telling many what a present I had made to the School," 
was not destroyed, but the fact that it has been re-bound 
has robbed it of " the strings & gold letters bought by the 
High Master," as Pepys records, out of " the los. remaining 
not laid out of the 5 I promised him for the School." 

During the years immediately following the fire, the 
1 Strype s Stow, i. p. 1 64. 



234 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

school accounts refer to the clearing away of rubbish. In 
the two following years the entries deal with the purchase 
of additional ground and tenements in Old Change, while 
the years 1668 to 1670 are occupied with statements dealing 
with the expense of rebuilding. 

The inscription over the door of the second school 
recorded that in the latter year it was " feliciter restaurata 
post incendium," but, according to the Mercers minutes, it 
was not until March 28, 1671, that it was ordered that the 
school should re-open the next week after Easter week. 

That the decision of the Mercers to rebuild on the old 
site was not arrived at without some hesitation is to be 
inferred from a passage in Pepys Diary. " 1667, i6th May. 
Sir John Frederick, and Sir Richard Ford did talke of St. 
Paul s School which they tell me must be taken away ; and 
then I fear it will be long before another place such as they 
say is promised, is found : but they do say that the honour 
of their Company is concerned in it, and that it is a thing 
they are obliged to do." 

The main alteration in the site of the new building was 
aimed at bringing the front of the school parallel with the 
eastern end of St. Paul s Churchyard, the line of frontage 
being advanced ten feet at the northern end, and set back to 
a slightly less extent at the southern end. In addition, two 
plots of land north and south of the small piece owned by 
the school in Old Change, were added to the original 
ground plan, thereby greatly increasing the accommodation 
at the back of the school, and changing the shape of the 
ground plan from a regular oblong 120 feet by 33 feet to an 
irregular quadrilateral 38 feet deep at the northern, and 27 
feet deep at the southern, end. 

John Strype, who, in his edition of Stow s Survey, 
devotes five folio pages to St. Paul s School, says, " From 
this School I was sent to Cambridge, having had my 




o 

r^ 

O 



< 
F- 



SAMUEL CROMLEHOLME, 1657-1672 235 

education there by the good Providence of God, for near 
the space of six years." 

It is this fact which makes his description of the 
buildings of the school of such value. Strype left St. 
Paul s in 1661, and in his edition of Stow he has left 
us an exact and detailed account of the first building as 
it appeared five years before its destruction in the Fire of 
London. 

Elsewhere, 1 he speaks of the " beautifull rebuilding of the 
School," and says that it was " burnt down in the Common 
calamity by Fire, Anno 1666, but built up again much after 
the same Manner and Proportion as it was before, together 
with the Library, and an house added on to the South end 
thereof for the second Master ; whose Dwelling before, and 
from the first Founding of the School was in the old 
Change adjoining to the said School ; This House hath a 
very handsome Front, answerable to the high Master s 
House at the North end of the school, on which is engraved 
Aedes Praeceptoris Grammatices." The earliest engraving 
of the second building of the school is one of which two 
copies only are known to be extant, one at the British 
Museum and one at the Guildhall Library. It differs 
from all the other views of the school, of which the earliest, 
which is in the Pepysian Library, is that on the invitation 
to the school feast of 1703, in that over the school-room 
there is a louvre, and the first floor windows of the masters 
houses have wrought-iron balconies. The engraving is 
said to be the work of Wenceslaus Hollar, or possibly 
of his pupil, Richard Gaywood. Tradition asserts that Sir 
Christopher Wren was the architect of the second school 
building, but it must be admitted that its style is more 
suggestive of Inigo Jones. 

A description of this building, written exactly a hundred 
1 Strype s Stow, 1754, vol. i. p. 86. 



236 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

years after its erection, speaks of it as l "a very beautiful, 
and at the same time very singular fabric. The central 
building is of stone, and is much lower than the wings. It 
has only one series of windows, which are large and raised 
a considerable height from the ground. The centre is 
adorned with rustic, and on the top is a well-proportioned 
pediment, on which is displayed a shield with the arms of 
the founder, on the apex is a figure designed to represent 
learning. Under this pediment are two square, and on 
each side two circular, windows crowned with busts, and 
the spaces between them are handsomely ornamented by 
work in relievo, upon a level with the foot of the pediment, 
on either side of which are correspondently placed two 
larger busts, with radiated crowns, betwixt two flaming 
vases." 

Other accounts speak of the " large and elegant apart 
ments " of the high master, and of the fact that in the 
school-room, " Doce Disce aut Discede " was inscribed over 
the door, while above the bust of Colet, which surmounted 
the high master s chair, was written the inscription, 
"Intendas animum studiis et rebus honestis." 

It is a fact not generally known, that some of the oak 
panelling from the second building of the school is to be 
seen in Mickleham Church, Surrey. Mr. A. Gordon 
Pollock, O.P., the son and grandson of Old Paulines, tells 
me that when, in 1900, he was jotting down various items 
for the records of the parish of which he is a churchwarden, 
the old village carpenter told him of a tradition that certain 
panelling in the church was brought by Mr. Thomas 
Grissell, of Norbury Park, from some old school in London. 
As Mr. Grissell was an Old Pauline, having entered the 
school in 1812, Mr. Pollock made further inquiry from his 

1 H. Chamberlain, Survey of London, 1770. 

2 Brayley, Beauties of England, vol. x., 1810, p. 321. 



SAMUEL CROMLEHOLME, 1657-1672 237 

son, and was told by Mr. Hartwell Grissell that his father 
purchased much of the wood of the library of the building of 
St. Paul s, which was erected in 1670 and destroyed in 1823, 
that some of the wood was used in doors, etc., in Norbury 
Park, and the panelling was placed in the side chapel on the 
north of the church, which is the Norbury Park pew. 

An expert, who has seen these handsome panels, with 
bosses and conventional designs carved in high relief, has 
expressed to me the strong opinion that the carving appears 
to be of a much earlier date than 1670, probably of about 
1590, and it is just possible that it may be a relic of the 
first school built by Colet, which escaped the Great Fire and 
was re-erected in the second school building. 

According to Samuel Knight, who entered St. Paul s 
less than twenty years after the school was rebuilt, the 
Mercers Company spent 6,000 on the building of the 
second school. 

Cromleholme survived little more than a year after the 
rebuilding. He died on July 21, 1672, and was buried in 
the Lord Mayor s Chapel in the Guildhall. Dr. John 
Wells of St. Botolph, Aldersgate, preached his funeral 
sermon. Rings were distributed at the interment, having, 
according to Richard Smyth, "the posie, Redime Tempus, 
engraved upon them." l 

" He was very happy," declares one of his contem 
poraries, " in sending out many excellent scholars from 
under his care," and Dr. Knight is well justified in his 
assertion, " I could enumerate many of this man s scholars 
who arrived at great eminency of one kind or other." 

A more personal note is struck in a sermon at the 

school feast, preached by Benjamin Calamy, one of his 

pupils, a few years after his death, in which reference is 

made to " persons, well taught and bred, whose natures 

1 Camden Society, 1849. 



238 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

have been refin d and polish d, and minds improved and 
cultivated and new moulded and fashioned, by the Care and 
Skill of those excellent persons to whose charge we were 
committed." 

Mention of the school feast recalls the fact that the 
first of the anniversary meetings of Old Paulines was held 
on the Feast of the Conversion of St. Paul, either in 1660 
or 1 66 1. Other schools soon followed the example of St. 
Paul s. The first Eton feast was held in 1681, the first 
Merchant Taylors feast in 1700. In the last days of 
Charles II a meeting of Old Westminsters was projected, 
and Dr. South wrote a sermon, but the King s death 
stopped the gathering, and the plan was in abeyance until 
it was revived forty years later, in 1727. The Charterhouse 
feast was first held in 1755. 

That Cromleholme taught at St. Paul s other Oriental 
languages than Hebrew is evident from the fact that Samuel 
Johnson is said to have acquired much perfection in Oriental 
languages at the school, and that in the MS. Life of John 
Strype, to which reference has been made in another con 
nection, he is said to have made good progress in Hebrew 
and Syriac, " for which that school was famous in his time." 

It is on record that " Cocker was an unruly usher of 
St. Paul s School, twice deposed for his extreme opinions, 
and twice restored for his marvellous talents of teaching." 
It thus appears that the well-known writing master and 
author of the famous arithmetic, whose name became, and 
has remained, proverbial for precision, taught during some 
part of his life in the school. 

Edward Cocker, who introduced the present method of 
performing division, and whom Evelyn speaks of as " com 
parable to the Italians for his letters and flourishes," was 
born in 1631, and died in 1675. His active career accord 
ingly coincided with the high masterships of Langley and 



SAMUEL CROMLEHOLME, 1657-1672 239 

Cromleholme. He was employed in 1664 to engrave a 
sliding rule by Samuel Pepys, who notes in his Diary > " I 
find the fellow, by his discourse, very ingenious : and 
among other things, a great admirer and well read in the 
English poets, and undertakes to judge them all, and that 
not impertinently." No mention of any sort is made of the 
fact of his teaching at St. Paul s, which makes it practically 
certain that he did not teach there before 1650, the year in 
which Pepys left the school, and raises a very strong pre 
sumption that he had not been appointed at the date of the 
diarist s reference. We may safely assume, then, that he was 
appointed not by Langley, who died in 1657, but by 
Cromleholme, and if he continued to teach until the date of 
his death he must have served for two or three years under 
Gale. 

It is significant of much in regard to the political views 
of those in authority at St. Paul s, that at the coronation of 
Charles II the boys of Christ s Hospital, and not those of 
St. Paul s, presented an address to the sovereign as he passed 
through St. Paul s Churchyard. Nevertheless, on the occa 
sion of his public entry into London at his Restoration, a 
contemporary document relates how " at St Paul s School the 
ministers of London presented him with a Bible. He 
thanked them for it, and said that he would make that book 
the rule of his life and government, and he desired Dr. 
Reynolds to bring the book to him at Whitehall." l 

Another pupil of Cromleholme who, besides Bradford, 
became master of a Cambridge college was John Balderstone. 
He went up to Emmanuel in the year after Cromleholme s 
election, and must in consequence have been in the school 
under Langley, from whom he appears to have assimilated 
his political principles. In 1680 he was elected master of 
his college, and retained the post until his death, nearly 
1 Hist. MSS. Comm., izth Rep., App. 7, p. 25. 



240 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

forty years later. In 1687, when Dr. Peachell was turned 
out of the vice-chancellorship for refusing the degree of 
Master of Arts to the Benedictine monk whom James II 
had armed with letters of recommendation, Balderstone was 
chosen to succeed him " as a man of much spirit," and " in 
his speech," continues Bishop Burnet, in his account of the 
affair, " he promised that during his magistracy neither 
religion nor the rights of the University should suffer by 
his means." 

A less fortunate Pauline upholder of Protestantism, and 
opponent of the Tory doctrine of non-resistance was Samuel 
Johnson, whose views were very different from those of his 
great namesake. He was a poor scholar at St. Paul s, and 
was also " Library Keeper " there. After graduating at 
Trinity, where he was a Campden Exhibitioner, he became 
chaplain to Lord William Russell, and was sentenced to a 
fine and imprisonment for having written in defence of the 
latter s work, Julian the Apostate. From his prison he 
secretly issued A humble and hearty address to all the Protestants 
in King James Army^ for which he was sentenced, after being 
degraded from his clerical office, to stand in the pillory and 
be whipped from Newgate to Tyburn. After the Revolu 
tion, however, his degradation was declared illegal, and he 
received ji,ooo and a pension from William III. 

He was abused under the name of Ben-Jochanan by 
Dryden in Absalom and Achitophel, where he says 

"Let Hebron, nay, let Hell, produce a man 
So made for mischief as Ben-Jochanan." 

One of the editors of the poem wrote of Samuel John 
son that " of all the seditious writers here proscribed by 
Dryden, he was the man of greatest learning and best 
morals," while it is said in Calamy s Puritans that " he was 

1 Burnet s Hut. of hit Own Times. 



SAMUEL CROMLEHOLME, 1657-1672 241 

by many thought to have done more towards paving the 
way for King William s revolution than any man in England 

besides." 

In 1686 Johnson was offered by the King the Deanery 
of Durham, but he refused it on the ground that any 
preferment other than a bishopric was less than his deserts. 

Puritan influences notwithstanding, the reputation of 
St. Paul s as a pillar of the Establishment at this date may be 
inferred from the fact that John Eachard, in a tract on Ihe 
Grounds and Occasions of the contempt of the Clergy and Religion, 
which was published in 1670, makes the following remark : 
" Not that it is necessary to believe that there never was a 
learned or useful person in the Church but such whose 
education had been at Westminster or St. Paul s. 

One of the earliest of Cromleholme s pupils at St. Paul s 
was a Welsh boy, George Jeffreys by name, who had received 
his education up to the age of eleven, when he came to 
London, at Shrewsbury School. It is on record that while 
at St. Paul s, " he applied himself with considerable diligence 
to Greek and Latin," and although he was at Westminster 
under Busby for a few months before entering at Trinity, 
Cambridge, nevertheless, throughout his career he admitted 
that all his scholarship was due to Cromleholme s instruction. 
A story is related to the effect that when George Jeffreys as 
a schoolboy at St. Paul s saw the Lord Mayor s coach pass 
the school, he registered a vow that he would one day be 
the Lord Mayor s guest, and would die Lord Chancellor of 
England. 

There can be no doubt whatever that the severity of 
Jeffreys when acting as president of the five judges appointed 
to try the rebels after Monmouth s defeat at Sedgmoor in 
1685 has been exaggerated when it is compared with the 
conduct by other tribunals of political trials at the same 
date, and the hatred on the part of Whig historians of the 



242 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

political tenets of his master has tended to obscure the 
remarkable abilities of a great lawyer. Mr. Speaker Onslow 
says that " he was a great Chancellor in the business of the 
Court, and was considered an able and upright judge in 
private causes." Roger North, who hated him, was con 
strained to admit that he possessed " extraordinary natural 
abilities," and that when he was "in temper," and the 
matters before him were indifferent, " he became the seat of 
justice better than any other he ever saw in his place "; while 
Evelyn, although he said that he was " of nature cruel, and 
a slave to the Court," praised him for his " undaunted and 
assured spirit." 

Even those who are most severe in their condemnation 
of Jeffreys for his conduct of the "Bloody Assize," can 
scarcely deny to St. Paul s full justification for the fact that 
it has placed in its Great Hall the arms of a man, only six 
teen years of whose life elapsed between his call to the Bar 
and his taking his seat upon the Woolsack. Two years after 
becoming a barrister Jeffreys was made Common Sergeant 
of the City of London. Six years later he was knighted, 
and in the following year, 1678, became Recorder of 
London. The two following years saw his assumption of 
the coif as Serjeant-at-Law, and his appointment as King s 
Serjeant and Chief Justice of Chester. In 1683 he became 
Chief Justice of the King s Bench, and in the same year 
received a baronetcy, while two years later, in 1685, at the 
age of thirty-seven, he became Lord Chancellor, having been 
created Baron Jeffreys of Wem six months earlier. He 
retained the Lord Chancellorship for three years, but in 
December 1688, on James II s abdication, he attempted to 
escape from the country in the disguise of a sailor, but was 
recognized and arrested at Wapping, and died in the Tower 
in April 1689. 

Christopher Hussey, whose Apposition Speech of 1702 



SAMUEL CROMLEHOLME, 1657-1672 243 

has already been alluded to, inserted the following sentence 1 
between the mention which he made of the Dukes of Man 
chester and of Marlborough : " Hie Graius a Consulibus 
Praetoribusque Romanis prudentiam illam accepit qua postea 
Indos nostros felicissime rexit." Knight s Life of Colet con 
tains a list in the appendix headed, " Benefactores bibliothe- 
cae, plerique alumni scholae Paulinae et procuratores convivii 
public!." Among the names under the year 1674 appears 
"Radulph. Gray, arm. postea vero bar. Gray de Werk 
comes de Tankerville," and in the list for 1677 appears the 
name " Ralph Gray." The three references have hitherto 
been taken to relate to one person : Ralph, fourth Lord Grey 
of Werke, Governor of the Barbadoes in 1698. There was 
no such person as Ralph, Earl of Tankerville, but the fact 
that the Governor of the Barbadoes succeeded his brother, 
the notorious Ford Gray, who held both the earldom and 
the barony, accounts for the mistake, for the earldom was 
only granted to the descendants of the latter, and became 
extinct on his death in 1701, while the barony, as has been 
said, passed to his brother. Now, the fourth Lord Grey died 
in 1706 at the age of forty-five, and therefore was aged only 
thirteen years in 1674, the date in which he has been sup 
posed to have been Steward of the Feast. His father, 
however, also named Ralph Gray, was then entitled to be 
called " armiger," since it was not until the end of that year 
that he succeeded to the title of Baron Grey of Werke. He 
died a year later, in 1675. These facts, taken with the 
recurrence of the name of Ralph Gray in Knight s list for 
1677, without any addition of titles, which the fourth Lord 
Grey did not inherit till 1701, make it highly probable that 
two persons are meant. If this is the case, the second Lord 
Grey, who was born in 1630, must have been a pupil of 

1 Pauline, No. 75, p. 8 1, June 1695. 

2 Knight, Colet. 1823,0. 376. 

R 2 



244 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

Langley, while the fourth Lord Grey was at St. Paul s 
under Cromleholme. 

The fourth Lord Grey of Werke, who was Governor 
of the Barbadoes in 1698, had been an officer in the army, 
and attended William of Orange in most of his campaigns. 
Bishop Burnet says of him, " he is a sweet disposed gentle 
man, and joined King William at the Revolution, and is a 
zealous asserter of the liberties of the people a thin, 
brown, handsome man, of middle stature." To which 
Swift appends the unkind note, " Had very little in him." 

Seven Campden Exhibitions were awarded during the 
fifteen years of Cromleholme s high mastership, of these six 
were granted before the Great Fire. The Pauline Exhibi 
tions were awarded with great regularity in the years from 
1657 to 1665, more than thirty boys reaping the benefit of 
the foundation at the Universities. It was, no doubt, due 
to the loss occasioned by the fire, and the expense involved 
in rebuilding, that none of these exhibitions were again 
awarded until 1678, eight years after the school had been 
re-opened. In 1666-7 existing exhibitioners received only 
a quarter- or half-year s payment, and then the payments 
ceased till Lady Day 1670. In 1664 a new regulation was 
made with regard to candidates for exhibitions. It was 
resolved that boys must have been in the school at least 
four years before they could sue for exhibitions. One of the 
first to suffer from this rule was a boy who became a Fellow 
of Merton, and was known afterwards as Sir William 
Bernard, whom the high master in 1665 recommended for 
an exhibition, as " pauper, pius, et doctus." He was refused 
because he had not been four years in the school, but it was 
promised by the Court of Assistants that he should be 
" regarded with favour." 

In spite of the fact that less than forty of Cromleholme s 
pupils received exhibitions at the Universities, at least sixty- 



SAMUEL CROMLEHOLME, 1657-1672 245 

four are known to have proceeded to Oxford and Cam 
bridge, less than a third of the total going to Oxford. 
About the same proportion is maintained in the number who 
obtained fellowships, three being elected to Oxford colleges, 
and seven to colleges at Cambridge. Three out of these 
ten Fellows became heads of Houses. The names of only 
seven " poor scholars " under Cromleholme have been pre 
served, each of these held the post for one year. 



CHAPTER XIV 

THE NEW SCHOOL BUILDING 
THOMAS GALE, HIGH MASTER l6"]2-l6c)J 

WITHIN a fortnight of Cromleholme s funeral the Court 
of the Mercers Company met to select his successor. Of 
the candidates for the post, and of the details of the election, 
nothing is known, save that the choice of the company fell 
upon Thomas Gale, who a few months before, and not, as 
the Dictionary of National biography states, six years before, 
had been elected to the Regius Professorship of Greek in 
the University of Cambridge. This fact alone implies that 
he was an eminent scholar. It is a great tribute to the 
prestige which the school attained in the high mastership of 
Cromleholme that a man in such a position as that held by 
Gale should have become a candidate for the post when the 
vacancy occurred. One obvious explanation which has been 
put forward to account for Gale s application is that a desire 
on his part to marry, which was impossible while he was 
Regius Professor, was the cause, but the fact that his eldest 
son, Roger, was born in 1672, in the August of the year in 
which Thomas Gale was appointed to St. Paul s, disposes of 
this explanation, and renders it inadmissible. 

The new high master was at this time about thirty-seven 
years of age, having been born at Scruton, in Yorkshire, in 
1636, and being the only surviving son of Christopher Gale. 

He was educated at St. Peter s College, Westminster, under 

246 










. Harding tit -I. .} 

THOMAS GALE, HIGH MASTER OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL ANT) 
DEAN OF YORK 



Frcnt a. dra aiing in the Pcpysian Collection 



{To Jace /. 246. 



THOMAS GALE, 1672-1697 247 

Busby, the most famous, if not the greatest, of its head masters, 
and being admitted King s Scholar in 1655 he was elected a 
Westminster scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge, where 
he took his B.A. degree in 1659 and proceeded to his M.A. 
three years later. He was elected to a fellowship at 
Trinity, and his political views at this time may, perhaps, be 
deduced from the fact that he contributed verses to the 
Luctus et Gratulatio on the death of Oliver Cromwell in 
1658, but three years later we find him contributing to 
the Threni Cantabrigienses on the deaths of the Duke of 
Gloucester and the Princess of Orange, while the last of 
his efforts in this direction is to be found in the Epicedia 
Cantabrigienses in 1671. 

In 1670 he was appointed Senior Taxor of the Univer 
sity of Cambridge, and he was admitted M.A. of Oxford on 
the day after the opening of the Sheldonian Theatre. 

On the occasion of his appointment to St. Paul s James 
Duport, who had been one of his predecessors in the Regius 
Professorship of Greek, and who was at this date Master of 
Magdalene, addressed to him * a copy of verses which ran as 
follows 

" Prudens Paulinae Moderator, Gale, juventae, 

Verum turn fausti nominis omen habe. 

Tu pueris sis ergo <epcoityios, aura secunda, 

Doctrinae ad portum quos, Palinure, vehas. 

Dat Deus ipse aivffJLOV irA^crioriov, uc/xevov ovpov 

Et tibi, Paulinae et prospera vela rati. 

Undique sic verum nomen, doctissime Gale, 

Seu Paulinurus seu PaKnurus eris. 

Paulinum appellat Palinurum Bilbilitanus 

Quam belle quadrat nomen utrumque tibi ! 

Paulinae Seneca Praeceptor Caesaris, olim 

Conjux : Paulinae tu Seneca esto tuae." 2 

On Gale s appointment to the high mastership, John 
Mason, the chaplain, was the only remaining member of 

1 Nichols Literary Anecdotes, vol. iv. p. 537. 

2 Duport, Musae Subsecivae, 1676, p. 16. 



248 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

the staff who had taught in the school before the fire, for 
Nathaniel Bull, Cromleholme s surmaster, had died some 
time before Midsummer 1672, and, as a result, the burden 
of restoring the school to its former position fell on the 
shoulders of the new high master alone, a process which 
cannot have proceeded very far in the few months which 
Cromleholme and Bull, both the victims of ill health, had 
spent in the new buildings. Of these Gale himself spoke l as 
the most sumptuous and beautiful of their kind which 
the city of London had to show, an opinion which was re 
peated almost verbatim by a preacher at the school feast 
in 1714. 

There can be no doubt that the fame of St. Paul s at 
this time ranked very high. With the exception of the brief 
tenure of office, for less than six years, by the younger Gill, 
there had been a succession of high masters of great reputa 
tion for very nearly a hundred years. To succeed to Mul- 
caster, the elder Gill, Langley and Cromleholme was to 
inherit a tradition of great success, to which there can be 
little doubt Thomas Gale did more than justice. 

That Gale admitted more than the statutory hundred 
and fifty and three boys is obvious from the fact that in 
February 1674, less than eighteen months after his appoint 
ment, it was resolved by the Court of the Mercers Com 
pany, " that the school must not be oppressed with 
numbers." The possibility of such a thing having occurred 
so soon after Gale s election, and within four years of the 
rebuilding, after four years complete cessation owing to the 
fire, is a great tribute to the success of the new high master. 

That Gale received boarders in his house is almost 

certainly established by the fact that in 1676-7 the high 

master s house was enlarged, for in that year a sum of i 10 

was laid out in the purchase of the house in Old Change, 

1 Gale s dedication to Rketores Selecti, Oxford, 1676. 



THOMAS GALE, 1672-1697 249 

which ran immediately behind the school, and this building 
was " laid into the high master s house." One thing at any 
rate is certain, and that is that the size of Gale s family 
made no such demand for increased accommodation, for it 
was not until August 1677 that his second child, his son 
Charles, was born. 

Among the pupils of Langley and Cromleholme we 
have had occasion to notice the presence, in the sons, for 
example, of baronets and knights, of a certain number of boys 
of higher social status than those who for the most part, as 
far as one is aware, were in earlier days attracted by Dean 
Colet s foundation. This tendency was maintained under 
Gale, and, indeed, became more marked, for among the 
names of those educated under him at St. Paul s there occur 
in addition those of several sons of peers whom either the 
prestige of the school or the reputation of the high master 
attracted to its walls. 

In 1656 the exhibition, which three years before had 
been awarded to one Thomas Colley of Peterhouse, was 
declared void, the reason given being that " he was the son 
of a very able and sufficient man." Whether the Mercers 
required some guarantee of poverty in all cases in those 
enjoying their exhibitions we do not know, nor do we 
know what was the standard which they insisted upon fixing 
in this connection. The parentage of many of the pupils 
of Gale s predecessors leaves no doubt that they too must 
have been the sons of very able and sufficient men, while 
some of the boys of aristocratic birth whom he educated 
can have stood in no need of the free education which 
St. Paul s School was able to provide. 

We have seen, moreover, that the number of boys 
whom the school was statutorily enabled to educate free 
was exceeded, and therefore one may safely assume that the 
warning which, in March 1692, was given to Gale and the 



THOMAS GALE, 1672-1697 251 

plinth was to the effect that, " This pillar was set vp in per- 
petvall remembrance of that most dreadful burning of this 
protestant city, begun and carryed on by ye treachery and 
malice of ye popish faction in ye beginning of September in 
ye year of our Lord 1666, in order to ye carrying on their 
horrid plott for extirpating ye protestant religion and old 
English liberty, and ye introducing popery and slavery." 

This it was, as all the world knows, together with the 
ominous inscription on the north side, concluding, " sed 
furor papisticus qui tam dira patravit nondum extinguitur," 
which led Alexander Pope, as a Catholic, to write of 

" Where London s column pointing to the skies, 
Like a tall bully lifts the head and lies." 

A very natural mistake has been made in supposing that 
the high master of St. Paul s was responsible for this offen 
sive effusion of bigotry, but in point of fact neither of the 
above formed part of the original inscription written by 
Gale. They were added in 1681, when passions were 
inflamed by the perjuries of Titus Gates and Bedloe, by 
order of the Court of Aldermen, and Gale had no share in 
their composition. Their subsequent history is not without 
interest. They were obliterated in James IPs reign, cut 
deeper than before in that of William III, and finally erased 
pursuant to an Act of Common Council in 1831, about a 
year after the members of the communion which they had 
so grossly slandered were admitted to the rights of citizen 
ship by the Emancipation Act. 

Gale continued as high master with increasing reputation 
until 1697, when he was preferred to the Deanery of York. 

On leaving London he presented a Roman urn to 
Gresham College. To the new library at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, which Sir Christopher Wren had just completed, 
he made a present of a curious collection of Arabic MSS. 



252 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

At York he was noted for his good government, and for 
his care in embellishing and restoring the cathedral, while 
in addition to this he was in a sense a benefactor to the 
deanery by obtaining in 1699 letters-patent settling the 
right of the Dean to be a Canon Residentiary. He survived 
his preferment only five years, and died in York in April 
1692, in the sixty-seventh year of his age. He was buried 
in the middle of the choir of York Minster, and the in 
ordinately long epitaph, which is carved on a black marble 
slab covering his remains, records among other things how 
among those who mourned him were 

" Apud Londinates 
Viri literatissimi in Rempublicam 

Et Patriae commodum 
Ex gymnasio Paulino emissi." 

Samuel Knight, who was one of his pupils, records that 
" he was a learned divine, a great historian and antiquary, 
and one of the best Grecians of his age, and to whom I must 
ever own myself indebted on many accounts." 

Shortly before his appointment to St. Paul s, Gale, as 
we have seen, was married. His wife was Barbara, daughter 
of Roger Pepys of Impington, at one time M.P. for Cam 
bridge, and a cousin of Samuel Pepys. It must ever be 
subject for regret to Paulines that the sight of the Navy 
Secretary was such that he was compelled to abandon keeping 
a diary three years before his connection by marriage became 
high master of the school in which Pepys took so great an 
interest ; since but for this we should have been given a 
lifelike picture of one who, as a scholar and a virtuoso, must 
have been a supremely congenial friend. 

According to Anthony a Wood, Gale was " much 
celebrated for his admirable knowledge in the Greek 
tongue, and for his great labour and industry in publishing 
Greek authors ;" while another writer says with truth that 



THOMAS GALE, 1672-1697 253 

"his excellent conduct and commendable industry in the 
school abundantly appear from the great number of persons 
eminently learned who were educated by him." 

John Evelyn, whose friendship Gale enjoyed, had the 
highest opinion of the character and ability of the high 
master. He refers in his diary on one occasion to the fact 
that he met at supper at Sir Joseph Williamson s, " Dr. Gale, 
that learned schole master of St. Paul s " ; while some years 
later he recounts that he " dined with Dr. Gale of St. Paul s 
School, who shewed me many passages out of some ancient 
Platonist manuscripts concerning the Trinity, which this 
great and learned man would publish if he was encouraged 
and eased of the burden of teaching." 

Gale s reputation as a scholar was European, and he 
maintained a correspondence with some of the most noted 
men of learning on the Continent. Mabillon, the celebrated 
Benedictine antiquarian, presented him with an ancient MS. 
on the Archbishops of York ; and Huet, the Bishop of 
Avranches and editor of the Delphin Classics, declared that 
Gale exceeded all men he ever knew both for modesty and 
versatility of learning. 

Gale s books and MSS. descended to his eldest son, 
Roger, who carefully catalogued them and bequeathed 
them on his death to Trinity College, Cambridge, over the 
door in the library of which hang portraits of himself and 
his father, both of which had held fellowships on that 
foundation. 

Some measure of Gale s reputation among his contem 
poraries may be obtained from the names of the distinguished 
men who committed their sons to his care. The list includes 
Robert, third Earl of Manchester ; Charles, eighth Earl of 
Derby ; Roger, second Earl of Orrery ; James, third Earl 
of Northampton ; Ralph, second Lord Grey of Werke ; 
1 Nichols Literary Anecdotes, iv. p. 537. 



258 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

more true humility in his station." He was buried in St. 
Margaret s, Westminster, where there is a mural tablet in the 
chancel to his memory. 

Edward Tenison, the nephew of the Archbishop of 
Canterbury and of Sir Thomas Browne, the author of 
Religio Medici, went up to Corpus Christi College, Cam 
bridge. He became a Canon of Canterbury and chaplain 
to the Duke of Dorset, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, who 
appointed him Bishop of Ossory. The terms of a legacy 
which he bequeathed to his old college were so onerous 
that one half of it was refused. 

Edward Stillingfleet, who came of another episcopal 
family, offended his father, the Bishop of Worcester, by his 
Jacobite views. He became a Fellow of St. John s College, 
Cambridge, F.R.S., and Gresham Professor of Physic. 
Samuel Knight, the son of a Dissenting freeman of the 
Mercers Company, lived to become a Prebendary of Ely. 
He is best known for his lives of Colet and Erasmus, which 
were translated into German within ten years of the date of 
their publication, and for which he made use of the material 
collected by the research of White Kennet, Bishop of 
Peterborough. He was one of the founders of the Society 
of Antiquaries. 

Samuel Rosewell, who was also the son of a Dissenter, is 
said to have graduated at a Scottish university. He wrote 
an account of his father s celebrated trial before Chief Justice 
Jeffreys, and was well known as a Presbyterian preacher. 

Robert Paltock, whose name as a Pauline has been 
preserved owing to the fact that he was steward of the 
feast in 1699, was an attorney of Clement s Inn, whose 
fame has been said to rest enduringly on his original and 
fascinating romance entitled The Life and Adventures of Peter 
Wiikins^ a Cornishman^ a novel which earned the unstinted 
admiration of Coleridge, Southey, Walter Scott, and Lamb. 




Sir G. KnelUr p mx.} \J , Fal-cr sc. 1734. 

SPENCER COMPTON, FIRST EARL OF WILMINGTON, K.G. 

[To face /. 258. 



THOMAS GALE, 1672-1697 259 

Two of Gale s pupils, both of whom were Commissioners 
of Customs, became Lord Mayors of London, Sir Charles 
Peers in 1716 and Sir Robert Baylis in 1728. 

Of the noblemen s sons educated by Gale the most 
distinguished was Hon. Spencer Comptpn, the third son of 
the Earl of Northampton. It is not known where his 
brothers were educated, possibly they, too, were at St. Paul s, 
for the fact that his mother was the daughter of Baptist, 
third Viscount Campden, shows that a family connection 
may have been responsible for his education at St. Paul s. 
Spencer Compton deserted the Tory principles of his family 
and entered Parliament in 1695. He was chairman of the 
committee for settling the Act of Union with Scotland. 
He was one of the Managers in Dr. Sacheverel s impeach 
ment in 1709, and became Speaker of the House of 
Commons in 1714, a post for which he was well fitted, as he 
was described by some one as " the most formal, solemn 
man in the world." He was made Knight of the Bath on 
the revival of the Order in 1725. George II, at his 
accession, wished him to be his chief minister, but Compton, 
who was created Baron Wilmington, became Lord Privy 
Seal, and later Lord President of the Council in Walpole s 
administration. In 1730 he was created Earl of Wilmington 
and three years later Knight of the Garter. That he was 
not a man of first-class ability is seen in a contemporary 
squib 

" Let Wilmington with grave contracted brow 
Red tape and wisdom at the Council show 
Sleep in the Senate, in the Council bow." 

Early in 1742 he became First Lord of the Treasury, 
with Pulteney and Carteret as his Secretaries of State, but 
Wilmington, though nominally Prime Minister, was over 
shadowed by his colleagues. A lampoon of the time thus 
describes him 

s 2 



260 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

" See yon old dull important Lord 
Who at the longed for money board 

Sits first, but does not lead ; 
His younger brethren all things make 
So that the Treasury s like a snake 

And the tail moves the head." 

Wilmington, who died in 1743, was not without a sense 
of humour in spite of the suggestions of his critics. It was he 
who said concerning the nervously restless Duke of New 
castle, that he always lost half-an-hour every morning, which 
he spent the rest of the day in an endeavour to overtake. 

Gale dedicated to Spencer Compton his Opuscula, as 
James Thomson dedicated to him Winter. Samuel Knight, 
in dedicating to him his Life of Co/et, speaks of his " known 
affection to St. Paul s School," and it is known that in 1708 
he was steward of the feast and benefactor to the library. 

James Stanley was the second son of the eighth Earl of 
Derby. He served in Flanders under William of Orange, 
became Groom of the Bedchamber and was colonel of a 
regiment of foot until 1702, when he succeeded his brother 
as tenth Earl. He became Lord Lieutenant of North 
Wales, and later Vice-Admiral and Lord Lieutenant of 
Lancashire. In 1707 he became Chancellor of the Duchy of 
Lancaster and in 1715 Captain of Yeomen of the Guard. 
He died in 1736 without surviving issue. 

In the course of Christopher Hussey s Apposition speech 
in 1702 occurs the following sentence, " Mancestrius noster 
quam in hoc loco a Cicerone ipso acceperat eloquentiam, 
Italis jam diu incognitam in Italiam denuo reportavit." 
The reference here is to Charles Montagu, the son of the 
Earl of Manchester, a Gentleman of the Bedchamber to 
Charles II. Charles Montagu s two elder brothers, Henry 
and Edward, who possibly were at St. Paul s, having died 
young, he was known at school by the courtesy title of 
Viscount Mandeville. He succeeded his father as fourth 




Sir C. Kneller pinx.} 



\J. Faber sc. 1732. 



CHARLES MONTAGU, FIRST DUKE OF MANCHESTER 

\Tofacep. 260. 



THOMAS GALE, 1672-1697 261 

Earl of Manchester in 1682. In disgust at the revival of 
arbitrary rule he allied himself with the Prince of Orange, 
under whom he served at the Battle of the Boyne and the 
siege of Limerick. He acted as Captain of the Yeomen of 
the Guard for some years, a short time before his school 
fellow, the Earl of Derby, held that post. He was sent as 
Ambassador Extraordinary to the King of France, twice to 
the Republic of Venice, and again, to the Court of Vienna. 
He was Secretary of State for the Northern Department at 
the close of King William s reign, and became a Lord of 
the Bedchamber to George I, who created him Duke of 
Manchester. As a public man he was of the highest 
integrity, but was more painstaking than brilliant. 

Charles Boyle, the son of the Earl of Orrery and 
nephew of Robert Boyle, the great physicist, went up from 
St. Paul s to Christ Church as a nobleman in 1690. While 
at Oxford he was involved in the celebrated literary con 
troversy immortalized by Swift s Battle of the Books. Sir 
William Temple had made some rash statements concerning 
the antiquity of the Letters of Phalaris, which were attacked 
by a pupil of Richard Bentley. To cover Temple s defeat, 
the wits and scholars of Christ Church decided to publish a 
new edition of the Epistles, and the work was entrusted to 
Boyle, who, while not asserting that they were genuine, 
attacked Bentley for his rudeness in having withdrawn too 
abruptly a MS. belonging to the King s library which 
Boyle had borrowed. Bentley retaliated, Boyle, with the 
aid of Atterbury and Smallridge, published a rejoinder, and 
Bentley, returning to the charge, overwhelmed his opponents 
with the wealth of his scholarship, but, in spite of this, Garth 
complimented the Oxford man at the expense of his more 
distinguished adversary at Cambridge. 

" So diamonds take a lustre from their foil, 
And to a Bentley tis we owe a Boyle." 



262 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

Boyle, who succeeded his brother as fourth Earl in 1703, 
fought as a major-general at Malplaquet six years later. 
As Envoy Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the Low 
Countries he took part in the negotiations which led up to 
the Treaty of Utrecht. He acted with his school-fellow, 
the Duke of Manchester, as Lord of the Bedchamber to 
George I, by whom the Order of the Thistle was conferred 
upon him. He was steward of the school feast in 1710-11. 
The astronomical instrument called the Orrery was named 
after him by its inventor, James Graham. 

According to a near relative of Edmund Halley, who 
wrote in the Biographica Britannica in 1757, the astronomer, 
when at St. Paul s, " in a short time outstripped the rest of 
the boys, and became Captain of the School at the age of 
fifteen. He not only excelled in every branch of Classical 
learning, but was particularly taken notice of for the ex 
traordinary advance he made at the same time in the 
Mathematicks, insomuch that he seems not only to have 
acquired almost a masterly skill in both plain and spherical 
Trigonometry, but to be well acquainted with the science of 
Navigation." From this explicit statement it appears certain 
that Halley was taught mathematics at St. Paul s. We 
know that the son of the Earl of Cork was taught mathe 
matics at Eton in 1635, and that Busby introduced 
arithmetic and geometry into Westminster, while Charles II 
founded a mathematical school at Christ s Hospital. 

Pepys, who left St. Paul s less than thirty years before 
Halley, when he was on the Tangier Commission, the 
accounts of which were in disorder, made it his first business 
to employ a mathematical tutor, who taught him the multi 
plication table, but it may well be that Gale s close connection 
with the scientific members of the Royal Society, and the 
fact that a mathematician so distinguished as Edward Cocker 
was a writing-master in the school, led to the introduction 



diaries Ho vie Earl of Orrery, 

tifa// /////<////>///. 







[To/aci f. 262. 



THOMAS GALE, 1672-1697 263 

of a branch of study which was not taught in a regular 
manner at St. Paul s until nearly a hundred and forty years 
after Gale s death. 

Although Halley was captain of the school for two years, 
he proceeded to Oxford without an exhibition, and this fact, 
taken together with the wealth which he enjoyed, makes it 
very improbable that he was a free scholar at the school. 
He left Oxford without a degree, in order that he might 
sail to the Southern hemisphere to take astronomical observa 
tions. On his return he was admitted M.A. of Oxford by 
Royal mandate. In 1703 he became Savilian Professor of 
Astronomy at Oxford, and by his calculations predicted the 
appearance of the comet which bears his name, and which 
was first seen nearly thirty years after his death. He 
became Astronomer-Royal in 1713, and in the same year 
produced at his own expense the Principia of Newton, his 
lifelong friend, to which he .prefixed a copy of Latin verses 
which begin 

" Non fas est propius mortal! attingere divos." 

Halley retained throughout his life an intimacy with his 
school-fellow, Robert Nelson, who was more than once his 
companion in continental travel. He died in 1742. 

A contemporary of Thomas Gale wrote, after his death, 
" the loss of this great man would have been irreparable did 
not the father s genius still subsist in the son." Reference 
is here made to Roger Gale, who was elected Fellow of 
Trinity, Cambridge, in the last of the eight years during 
which he held a Campden Exhibition, who was, like his 
father, a Fellow of the Royal Society, was elected President 
of that body, was Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, and 
was one of its first vice-presidents. He was returned four 
times as M.P. for Northallerton, and was Commissioner of 
Stamps and of Excise. His younger brother, Samuel, the 



264 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

godchild of Pepys, was treasurer of the Society of 
Antiquaries ; while the third brother, Charles, held the 
living of Scruton. 

During the high mastership of Gale there came into 
being fresh records of the state of the school, which provide 
intermittent information concerning St. Paul s and its 
scholars, for the space of three-quarters of a century. 

According to Samuel Knight, " the first General Meeting 
or Feast of the Scholars was held on St. Paul s Day 
(January 25), 1660, or the year following." It was cele 
brated annually on that date for four or five years, but no 
record has been preserved as to what form the proceedings 
took. We have evidence, however, in a scarce sermon, of 
the revival of the feast shortly after Gale s election, 1 in 1674. 
The document bears on its title-page the inscription, U A 
Sermon preached on the 27th of January, 1673/4, before 
several Persons who formerly have had their education in 
St. Paul s School London. By R. P. a member of that 
Society." The preface to the sermon is dated Horton, but 
this affords no clue to the identity of the preacher, and the 
only Pauline bearing the initials R. P., whose dates make it 
possible that he was the author of the sermon, is one, 
Richard Pye, a pupil of the younger Gill, who was elected a 
Campden Exhibitioner of Trinity, Cambridge, in 1635, and 
of whom nothing else is known. 

The place at which the sermon of 1674 was preached is 
not known, but that of the following year was preached by 
Richard Meggott in St. Michael s, Cornhill. The preacher, 
addressing his congregation as " brethren, and companions 
of my earliest years," urges them to " gratitude to the place 
of your education, that flourishing happy School where the 
day first dawned, and began to break in upon you." 

Meggott, who must have entered the school soon after 
1 A copy is in the Guildhall Library. 




THOMAS GALE, 1672-1697 265 

the troubles caused by the younger Gill, makes a passing 
reference to the effect of his rule, when he says that " the 
falling into unskilful Hands here, experience showeth, is 
e ne as hard to be overcome and corrected afterwards as in 
the first Concoction." He speaks of " a Library furnished 
with the choicest books of Philological learning burned by 
the late dreadful Fire, which is not yet recruited," and further 
pleads that " there are several poor children there (above the 
number that foundation alloweth anything in the University 
to) who with your encouragement may be one day Orna 
ments to the Nation, for whom 1 must exhort you per 
spem crescentis lull." 

Benjamin Calamy preached at the feast, probably in the 
following year, a sermon to which reference has already been 
made, and in 1678 William Wyat preached at the Guildhall 
Chapel. 

After this the school feast fell into abeyance until it was 
revived by Postlethwayt twenty years later, when William 
Nicholls, a pupil of Gale, expressed his sentiments towards 
his former high master by saying, " to be under a good 
Schoolmaster is a lasting Blessing as long as we live," and 
the same preacher went on to say, " Great Publick Schools 
where Grammatical! Learning is in its highest Perfection, 
can never enough be esteemed and encouraged, and the 
Masters honoured and revered by their scholars." Matthew 
Postlethwayt, who preached in 1714, in the dedication of 
his sermon to the Mercers Company, declares that " Dr. 
Gale had raised the credit of that School in the world to a 
very considerable height." 

Among the MSS. of Thomas Gale in the library of 
Trinity, Cambridge, is one entitled " The constant Method 
of Teaching in St. Paul s School London," which is in fact 
nothing more than a time-table for each of the eight forms 
of the school. The most important of the items in that part 



266 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

of the scheme which applies to the whole school is the first 
entry, " A Chapter in the Bible and set prayers in Latine 
every morning at 7 of the clock." 

In the Eighth, every morning of the week was devoted 
to "A part in the Hebrew Psalter or Grammar," while in 
the afternoons Homer, Demosthenes, Persius and Juvenal 
were read, " moral themes or declamations " being composed 
on three afternoons of the week, and " a Divine theme " on 
Saturdays. The two next forms were under the same rules 
as regards themes, but the mornings in the Seventh were 
spent in reading " a part in the Minor Poets or Greek 
Grammar," and the afternoons were devoted to Horace, 
Apollodorus and Tulley s Select Orations. In the Sixth, 
Greek grammar occupied every morning, but apart from 
the Greek Testament, to which one afternoon a week was 
devoted, the only books read were Martial and Virgil. 
In the Fifth, as much time was devoted to Latin as to 
Greek grammar ; the authors read were Virgil, Martial 
and Sallust, and the place of the themes of the upper forms, 
which appear to have been set as " home-work," was taken 
by Psalms, which had to be turned into Latin verse. No 
Greek was done in the four lowest forms, and in each of 
them every morning, save Friday, was occupied with Latin 
grammar, the morning of that day being devoted to " a 
Repetition of what hath been said ye whole weeke." In the 
Fourth, the Metamorphosis and Epistles of Ovid were read, 
and in the Third, the Trisfia. 

Another MS. in the Gale collection in the library of 
Trinity, Cambridge, is the earliest known catalogue of the 
school library. It is contained in a thin parchment-covered 
book, dated August 16, 1697. In consequence, it appears 
to have been made on the resignation of the high master, 
in whose collection it is to be found. At the end of the 
book is written, " all the Books mentioned in the foregoing 






THOMAS GALE, 1672-1697 267 

catalogue where (sic") in the study the Day and year above 
written." This statement is signed by two boys, the first 
of whom, Leonard Darant, was poor scholar from 1697-1699, 
a fact which bears out the suggestion already made in con 
nection with Samuel Johnson that the poor scholar had 
charge of the library. The other signatory to the state 
ment referred to was Richard Skikelthorp, who went up to 
Cambridge as an exhibitioner in the year named, and was 
probably one of the head boys in the school. The number 
of books named in the catalogue was four hundred and 
thirty-four, and these must have almost without exception 
been collected to replace those destroyed in the Great Fire 
during the high mastership of Gale. 1 It is probable, as we 
have already seen, that a certain number were saved, for 
there is no doubt to this day that the smell of fire has passed 
over a few books in the school library, notably a copy of 
Edward Grant s Westminster Greek Grammar of 1575. 
Several of the books mentioned in the catalogue have un 
fortunately disappeared, notably Caxton s Chronicles, and 
Wynkyn de Worde s edition of Colet s Grammar of. 1534, 
the copy of which, given by Cromleholme to Samuel Pepys, 
is still in the Magdalene Library. Finally, the list contains 
a copy of the Paris folio of Vegetius^ 1 532, which was doubtless 
the book, the text or plates of which John Churchill used to 
study when a boy at St. Paul s. It is worthy of note that 
none of Milton s works were in the library at this date, 
though more than a quarter of a century had elapsed since the 
publication of Paradise Lost. Busby s library at Westminster 
contained a first edition of the Pauline poet. 

1 Pauline, vol. viii., No. 42, p. 129, June 1890. 



270 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

Nation equal for their time to Wallis of Magdalen College, 
Oxford, and Mr. Fawcet of Bene t College in Cambridge, 
late his scholars. He is very careful of the Religion and 
Manners of those under his care, and taketh pains with divers 
of them every Lord s Day before Church-time. His Con 
versation is serious and discreet, and hath nothing of 
Pedantry in it. I have said very much of him, and yet 
cannot do him justice in saying less. 1 

" THO. CANTUAR." 

In addition to this certificate as to his great abilities, 
Postlethwayt s application was supported by his college at 
Oxford, and also for some reason by Bene t College at 
Cambridge, while additional testimonials were presented by 
him from Hough, Bishop of Oxford; Patrick, Bishop of Ely; 
Moore, afterwards Bishop of Norwich; Richard Bentley, who 
was afterwards the celebrated Master of Trinity; Wake, who 
was destined to become Archbishop of Canterbury; Hody, 
who was Regius Professor of Greek at Oxford ; Knipe, head 
master of Westminster ; Lancaster, who was Vicar of St. 
Martin s in the Field, and who soon after became Provost 
of Queen s College, Oxford ; and last, but not least, John 
Evelyn the Diarist. 

With a body of recommendations such as this, coming 
from all the most distinguished scholars of his day, it would 
give cause for surprise if Postlethwayt had not been elected, 
and as a matter of fact he was appointed to fill the vacant 
post on September 3, 1697. It would be interesting to 
know the meaning of a remark in a letter from John Wallis, 
one of Postlethwayt s old pupils at Oxford, in which the 
writer, after congratulating the newly elected high master, 
goes on to say, "plus valerit sola virtus tua quam clandestinae 
ac fraudulentae aliorum artes." 

In the year following Postlethwayt s appointment, it was 
1 Strype s Stow, i. 1 68. 



JOHN POSTLETHWAYT, 1697-1713 271 



resolved by the Court of the Mercers Company that three 
years education in St. Paul s should be required to qualify 
candidates to petition for exhibitions, "in consequence of 
boys being put into the school for six or twelve months to 
obtain them," and it has been suggested that the reason for 
this resolution is to be found in a transfer by Postlethwayt 
of some of his pupils from Archbishop Tenison s school to 
St. Paul s, on his appointment to his new position. 

Among the papers in the possession of Mr. Hartshorne 
is another describing the condition of the school under Dr. 
Gale, with the obvious suggestion that Postlethwayt was the 
only man fit to succeed him : "In 1697 St. Paul s School 
was the chiefest nursery in the City for learning and 
manners," and the excellences of the school are thus set out 
in tabular form 

the 

chiefest 

schools 

in 

England. 



Present state -v / Latin, -^ 






of St. Paul s 


Greek, 


are 


[Westminster, 


School, with its J- 


Hebrew, 


taught < 


Eton, 


fame and reput- 1 


Poetry, 


as at 


Winchester, 


ation. J V. Orator) , -1 







Present High 
Master, Dr. Gale] 



eminent 
for 



Learning in all 
these tongues, 
morals, prudence, 
and good govern 
ment ; large acquain 
tance with the best 
quality in the king 
dom. Correspondence 
with the most learn 
ed abroad in 



(Many scholars consid 
erable in all facult 
ies in 



France, 
Italy, 
Germany, 
Holland, 
&c. 

Both Univer 
sities, 

The Church, 
The Law, 
Both Houses 
of Parliament 
Other stations 
in fCity 
-| Court 
^Country. 



276 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

An affectionate letter addressed by Richard Bentley to 
the high master, which is extant, in which the Master of 
Trinity gave directions for the education of his nephew at 
St. Paul s, shows in what high esteem Postlethwayt was 
held by the greatest English scholar of the day. 1 

Immediately after his election to the high mastership 
in 1697 Postlethwayt took care that the school feast, which 
had been in abeyance for nearly twenty years, should be 
revived. The occasion is memorable as being the first 
recorded meeting held in St. Paul s Cathedral, and William 
Nicholls, the preacher, in " A Sermon preached before the 
gentlemen educated in St. Paul s School upon the reviving 
their Ancient Aniversary Meeting," speaks of " renewing 
this Antient Love Feast, upon the first anniversary of this 
blessed Saint after the rebuilding of his Temple . . . where 
we remember to have played our childish pastimes among 
its desolate ruins," a reference to the fact that while the 
school, according to the inscription, was " feliciter restaurata 
post incendium," in 1670, the first stone of Wren s 
cathedral was not laid until the year 1675. 

The preacher, who declares that all Paulines must " thank 
Almighty God for our ingenuous education in that school," 
addresses his congregation as " my Christian Brethren, you 
my Dearest Companions of my tender years, you, with whom 
I had the happiness to lay the Foundation of my Studies in 
the neighbouring Schoole, where we have gained the advan 
tage of such an Education, as has improved our Minds 
beyond the generality of those who have unhappily been 
destitute of the like Noble Assistances." 

The preacher in the following year, John Pulleyn, a 

prebendary of St. Paul s, whose name appears next to that 

of the Duke of Marlborough in the school registers, made 

an appeal "for offerings to be placed with the stewards," 

1 Diary of Edward Rud. 



JOHN POSTLETHWAYT, 1697-1713 277 

and urged his congregation " to promote and advance the 
honour of the School and to offer up Thanksgiving for all 
those excellent Advantages which we, by God s goodness, 
have obtained from a Free and Ingenuous Education at our 
School." The sermon preached by Samuel Bradford, in 
1699-1700, although of no particular interest in itself, 
deserves to be mentioned because in its printed form it is the 
first of the series containing lists of the stewards of the feast, 
from which the names of no less than one hundred and eighty 
scholars of St. Paul s School have been rescued from oblivion. 

An interesting gift to the school dating from Postle- 
thwayt s high mastership is to be found in four large folio 
volumes in the library entitled The English Atlas^ published 
at Oxford in 1680 and the three succeeding years, each of 
which bears the inscription "September 12, 1711, Gover- 
nour Yale gave this and the other three volumes, to be kept 
in the Master s House for the use of his boarders, and 
desired that some part of this work should be read by them 
twice at least every week." Elihu Yale, the donor of these 
books, was the benefactor of the great college in Connecticut 
which was named after him on its removal to his birthplace, 
New Haven. He was brought over to England to be 
educated in 1658 and was left here for some years. The 
place of his education is unknown, but his benefaction to 
the library of St. Paul s suggests that he may have been a 
Pauline, a surmise which it would be interesting to have 
verified. 

Another book of this date which is preserved in the 
school library is a richly bound copy of Edward Tenison s 
sermon at the anniversary school feast preached in the 
cathedral in 1710-11. This volume is said to have 
formerly belonged to Queen Caroline, the wife of George 
II, to whom, no doubt, it was presented by the preacher. 
The sermon is chiefly remarkable from its reference to 



278 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

Marlborough as "that great man, who never besieged a 
town which he did not take, nor fought a battle he did not 
gain," and to the honour conferred by him on " the founda 
tion of the beneficent Colet." From the fact that among 
the stewards occur the names of distinguished Old Paulines 
such as the Earl of Orrery, Lord Wandell, Hon. Algernon 
Coote and Sir Robert Clarges, we may presume that special 
stress was laid on the celebration in view of the second 
centenary which had just been passed. 

In the history of most public schools, as in that of the 
Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, the decay which 
became so evident in the middle of the eighteenth century 
had begun to make itself felt even at the date when it was 
still news that Queen Anne was dead. At St. Paul s this 
was not so, thanks to the worthy manner in which Postle- 
thwayt filled the high master s chair in succession to his 
three great predecessors, Langley, Cromleholme and Gale. 

Apart from the school feast of which we have spoken 
there is no known record of any celebrations at St. Paul s in 
connection with the second centenary of the foundation of 
the school. If the anniversary had been kept as it deserved 
there is little doubt that no school in the country, not even 
Eton itself, could have pointed to so many of its alumni 
holding distinguished positions in Church and State as did 
St. Paul s during the second decade of the eighteenth 
century. 

John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, won the battle 
of Malplaquet in the year of the second centenary of his old 
school. At the same time Charles Montagu, Earl of 
Manchester, was Ambassador at the Court of Vienna, and 
Charles Boyle, Earl of Orrery, was Envoy Extraordinary to 
the States-general of the United Provinces. James Stanley, 
Earl of Derby, was Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, 
and a few years later Lord Wandell, who by that time had 



JOHN POSTLETHWAYT, 1697-1713 279 

succeeded to the title of Earl of Forfar, was sent as Envoy 
Extraordinary to the Court of Prussia. 

There were four Old Paulines on the episcopal bench 
in the first twenty-five years of the new century. Richard 
Cumberland was Bishop of Peterborough ; George Hooper, 
of Bath and Wells ; John Leng, of Norwich ; and Samuel 
Bradford, of Carlisle. The last held also the Mastership of 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and five other head 
ships of Houses in Oxford and Cambridge were held by 
Paulines in the first fifteen years of the eighteenth century. 
Humfrey Gower was Master of St. John s College, Cam 
bridge, simultaneously with John Balderstone, Master of 
Emmanuel ; Sir Nathaniel Lloyd, of Trinity Hall ; and 
William Wyatt, Principal of St. Mary s Hall at Oxford ; 
while in 1713, two years after Gower s death, another Old 
Pauline, William Grigg, became Master of Clare. In the 
legal world Paulines were equally conspicuous. When Sir 
Edward Northey was Attorney-General, an Old Pauline, Sir 
John Trevor, was Master of the Rolls, and Spencer Cowper, 
a future Judge of the Common Pleas, held the post of 
Attorney-General to the Prince of Wales. St. Paul s was 
further represented in the House of Commons, over which 
its alumnus, the Hon. Spencer Compton, presided as 
Speaker, by George Doddington, a Lord of the Admiralty ; 
Anthony Hammond and Roger Gale, the last of whom, as 
Fellow of the Royal Society, was a contemporary and 
colleague of men of science so distinguished as Edmund 
Halley, the Astronomer-Royal ; Edward Stillingfleet, 
Gresham Professor of Physic, and Robert Nelson. Among 
other Paulines of distinction without whose names this list 
would be incomplete are John Strype, the antiquary ; Sir 
Charles Peers, Lord Mayor of London in 1716 ; Sir 
Edmund D Oyley, and Sir William Bernard. 

One interesting relic of the last year of Postlethwayt s 



288 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

that looks like a page of that chef d asuvre of typography, 
the Granville Homer. 

One Colonel John Ayres, who became a celebrated 
writing-master, taught his art in St. Paul s Churchyard, 
and in 1700 published a Paul s School Roundhand. One 
may surmise that he preceded John Rayner, who was his 
pupil, as writing-master in the school, a position the fees for 
which were partly defrayed from the collections at the school 
feast, and the results of which are to be seen in the state 
ment in the biography of Sir Philip Francis, that " a cen 
tury ago the scholars especially of St Paul s School and of 
Christ s Hospital were noted for their capital and uniform 
handwriting." 

One interesting record of the work of the school under 
Postlethwayt has been preserved, and deserves quotation in 
extenso, as it shows the books read in the upper school 
exactly two centuries ago. The MS. owes its preservation 
to the fact that it was bound up in a volume of John Strype s 
" miscellaneous collections " in the Lansdowne Library in the 
British Museum. 1 It bears the title, " Books for Paul 
School, wherein ye 4 upper Forms were examined, Mar. 
23 1709-10," and the memorandum forms a record of the 
second occasion on which Strype acted as " Apposer " in 
his old school. It runs as follows 

"Cl. 8a. 

Bib. Heb. Exodi 3um v. I &c. 
Aeschyli, Persae v. I &c. 
Ciceronis, pro P. Quintio Oratio. 
Livii L. 6tus, 
Horatii, Carmen Saeculare. Epodon, Lib. 

"Cl. 7ma. 

Bib. Heb. Gen. 6 v. i &c. 
Horn. II. 8 v. I &c. 
Euripidis, Medaea. 
Ciceronis, Tuscul. Disput. L. 4. 
Virg., Georg. L. 2V. I &c. 

1 Lans. MSS., 1197, p. 105. 



JOHN POSTLETHWAYT, 1697-1713 289 

" Cl. 6a. 

Psalmus 2 1 us, Heb. 
Hesiodi, Generatio Deorum. 
Luciani, Dialog, jus, Prometheus. 
Eutropii, Lib. gus. 
Terentii, Heautont. Act. nus Sc.ia. 

"Cl. 53. 

Evang. S. Matthaei Cap. 5 urn. 
Phaedri Lib. 5 us Fab. ima &c. 
Quinti Curtii Lib. 8us." 

In comparing this syllabus with the outline of work 
afforded by Gale s time-table, the date of which is not known, 
but which from the year in which the latter became high 
master, cannot possibly have been drawn up more than thirty- 
eight years before Strype s memorandum, the outstanding 
feature is that Postlethwayt, in his enthusiasm for Oriental 
studies, had included Hebrew in the work of the Seventh 
and Sixth as well as of the Eighth. 

Among the valuable MSS. in the possession of Mr. 
Hartshorne is a volume containing speeches delivered in 
Greek and Latin by successive eighth form boys in the 
last years of the seventeenth and the early years of the 
eighteenth century. They are evidently to a great extent the 
work of the boys themselves, although they occasionally bear 
interlinear corrections in Dr. Postlethwayt s handwriting. 

Reference has been made to the speech delivered in 1702 
by Christopher Hussey, in connection with its bearing on 
the most distinguished Pauline of the day, the Duke of 
Marlborough, but apart from that the orations are of interest, 
including, as they do, speeches made to the " apposers " or 
examiners by the head boy in each form, which contain an 
account of the books read during the year. 

The Eighth, in a phrase which, however classical, has a 
curiously modern ring, declare that " In litteris desudamus." 
The main point of interest in their reading is to be found in 
the fact that apart from Greek most of their time was 



288 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

that looks like a page of that chef d ceuvre of typography, 
the Granville Homer. 

One Colonel John Ayres, who became a celebrated 
writing-master, taught his art in St. Paul s Churchyard, 
and in 1700 published a Paul s School Roundhand. One 
may surmise that he preceded John Rayner, who was his 
pupil, as writing-master in the school, a position the fees for 
which were partly defrayed from the collections at the school 
feast, and the results of which are to be seen in the state 
ment in the biography of Sir Philip Francis, that "a cen 
tury ago the scholars especially of St Paul s School and of 
Christ s Hospital were noted for their capital and uniform 
handwriting." 

One interesting record of the work of the school under 
Postlethwayt has been preserved, and deserves quotation in 
extenso, as it shows the books read in the upper school 
exactly two centuries ago. The MS. owes its preservation 
to the fact that it was bound up in a volume of John Strype s 
" miscellaneous collections " in the Lansdowne Library in the 
British Museum. 1 It bears the title, " Books for Paul 
School, wherein ye 4 upper Forms were examined, Mar. 
23 1709-10," and the memorandum forms a record of the 
second occasion on which Strype acted as " Apposer " in 
his old school. It runs as follows 

"Cl. 8a. 

Bib. Heb. Exodi 3um v. i &c. 
Aeschyli, Persae v. I &c. 
Ciceronis, pro P. Quintio Oratio. 
Livii L. 6tus. 
Horatii, Carmen Saeculare. Epodon, Lib. 

"Cl. yma. 

Bib. Heb. Gen. 6 v. I &c. 
Horn. II. 8 v. I &c. 
Euripidis, Medaea. 
Ciceronis, Tuscul. Disput. L. 4. 
Virg., Georg. L. zv. I &c. 

1 Lans. MSS., 1197, p. 105. 



JOHN POSTLETHWAYT, 1697-1713 289 

" Cl. 6a. 

Psalmus 2 1 us, Heb. 
Hesiodi, Generatio Deorum. 
Luciani, Dialog, jus, Prometheus. 
Eutropii, Lib. gus. 
Terentii, Heautont. Act. i lus Sc.ia. 

"Cl. ;a. 

Evang. S. Matthaei Cap. 5 urn. 
Phaedri Lib. 5 us Fab. I ma &c. 
Quinti Curtii Lib. 8us." 

In comparing this syllabus with the outline of work 
afforded by Gale s time-table, the date of which is not known, 
but which from the year in which the latter became high 
master, cannot possibly have been drawn up more than thirty- 
eight years before Strype s memorandum, the outstanding 
feature is that Postlethwayt, in his enthusiasm for Oriental 
studies, had included Hebrew in the work of the Seventh 
and Sixth as well as of the Eighth. 

Among the valuable MSS. in the possession of Mr. 
Hartshorne is a volume containing speeches delivered in 
Greek and Latin by successive eighth form boys in the 
last years of the seventeenth and the early years of the 
eighteenth century. They are evidently to a great extent the 
work of the boys themselves, although they occasionally bear 
interlinear corrections in Dr. Postlethwayt s handwriting. 

Reference has been made to the speech delivered in 1702 
by Christopher Hussey, in connection with its bearing on 
the most distinguished Pauline of the day, the Duke of 
Marlborough, but apart from that the orations are of interest, 
including, as they do, speeches made to the " apposers " or 
examiners by the head boy in each form, which contain an 
account of the books read during the year. 

The Eighth, in a phrase which, however classical, has a 
curiously modern ring, declare that " In litteris desudamus." 
The main point of interest in their reading is to be found in 
the fact that apart from Greek most of their time was 



290 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

devoted to Hebrew, as to which they declare " nos certe 
mirifice ea delectamur," while allusion is made to their study 
of other Oriental languages, notably Arabic, a fact which 
shows how far Postlethwayt carried his enthusiasm for 
Oriental studies. 

The reading of the Seventh includes Homer, Theocritus, 
Virgil and Cicero. It is interesting to find a declaration on 
the part of London boys of a liking for Theocritus, in spite, 
as they ingenuously confess, of their ignorance of rustic 
affairs. Virgil is declared to be the Roman Homer and 
Theocritus in one, and of Cicero it is said that he alone 
could worthily pronounce his own encomium. The books 
read by the Sixth include an anthology of Greek epigrams, 
while another form, the name of which is not given at the 
head of the address, has been engaged in the study of 
Hesiod, Eutropius, Lucian, Terence, Livy and Dionysius of 
Halicarnassus, a list which shows that the study of Greek 
extended throughout the whole of the upper half of the 
school. 1 

The present high master has presented to the school 
library another MS. volume, entitled, " Orationes publice 
habitae in Schola Divi Pauli, Londini, 1704," which contains 
the prize exercises exhibited at the Apposition held on 
March 22, 1703-04, at which the Old Pauline antiquary, 
John Strype, and Dr. Green were apposers. 

Four of the Latin speeches are devoted, as in 1 702, to 
an account of the books read by the head forms. Thomas 
Andrews, who gained an exhibition in the following year 
and was a future Fellow of Trinity, states that the work of 
the Eighth has included Cicero, Virgil, Livy and the Greek 
tragedians, together with Hebrew " the mother of all 
tongues " and Chaldee. Edward J. West, a boy who has 
otherwise not been identified as a Pauline, speaks, " de libris 
1 Pauline, vol. x., No. 55, p. no. 



JOHN POSTLETHWAYT, 1697-1713 291 

Septimae classis," comprising Homer "the incomparable " 
with Theocritus and Virgil. Benjamin Lardner, who also 
has not been identified, declares that the Sixth read Hesiod, 
Lucian, Sallust and Terence, while a boy named Luke, who 
may probably be identified with an exhibitioner of 1707, 
explains that the Fifth study the Greek Testament, together 
with Phaedrus and Quintus Curtius. 1 

Of the nine remaining prose orations, one by the 
Campden Exhibitioner of the year is in Hebrew, and one is 
in Greek, the remainder being in Latin. Of these the most 
interesting is that by Charles Henry Lee, the occurrence of 
whose name here has served to identify as an Old Pauline 
the Hon. Chas. Lee, who was a benefactor to the library 
in 1706, a circumstance which is recorded in the library 
catalogue of 1743. 

Three of the Carmina included in this volume are in 
Greek and twelve are in Latin. The dates which they bear 
vary from 1701 to 1704, and they appear to have been 
collected by Richard Thoroton, whose name, with the date 
1704, the book bears on its title-page. Among the authors 
of the Carmina are Thoroton himself, Christopher Hussey 
and the Hon. Algernon Coote, who afterwards became Earl 
of Montrath. 

In an unsigned " Account of John Postlethwayt," which 
is among the Hartshorne MSS., it is stated that " He laid on 
his blows with this intermission, that the offender under his 
hand might just then be put in mind between each of them 
what was the cause and design of the punishment. . . . He 
thus slowly laying on his blows without passion, with 
reasoning and arguing between." 

In his funeral sermon, on the other hand, it was said of 
him that " his constant Attendance upon, and Diligence in 
his School, was most remarkable, and perhaps without 
1 Pauline, vol. xxiv., No. 156, p. 181. 



u 2 



294 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

William Perry, Fellow of Trinity, and lecturer of St. 
Peter s upon Corn hill, who was a Campden Exhibitioner in 
1671, left 1000 to Dr. Gale to be invested in lands or a 
rent charge for the maintenance of five exhibitioners, each 
drawing 10 a year for eight years so long as they remained 
in residence at Trinity, Cambridge. The college had some 
difficulty in recovering the money from the executors of 
Dean Gale, who died in 1 702, and it appears that they only 
succeeded in recovering .600 from his son Roger, who was 
his chief executor. This they invested in an estate in Essex, 
which in 1724 maintained five scholars at .5 each, but the 
value of the exhibitions subsequently rose to 13, and they 
were regarded as tenable until the holder was of M.A. 
standing. 

By the will of Humphrey Gower, Master of St. John s 
College, Cambridge, who died in 1711, scholarships of jio 
a year, to be awarded to clergymen s sons, were founded at 
St. John s for boys educated for at least three years, either 
at St. Paul s School or at Dorchester Grammar School, the 
two schools at which Gower had himself been educated. 
Only eight Paulines appear to have been elected to these 
scholarships, but the list includes the name of Thomas 
Clarkson, the philanthropist. Although the Cambridge 
University Commission of 1850 supposed that the claim of 
Paulines to them had perished through desuetude, Herbert 
Clementi Smith was elected to one of these scholarships in 
1856, but since that date no Pauline appears to have held 
them. 

None of the holders of exhibitions from St. Paul s 
received more than ^10 a year from any of the various 
endowments available at the beginning of the eighteenth 
century. It is said that a Christ Church student of West 
minster could live on his studentship in Atterbury s time, 
although its nominal value was only 20. The bills of 



JOHN POSTLETHWAYT, 1697-1713 295 

Matthew Postlethwayt at St. John s College, Cambridge, 
which are extant, show that his college bills amounted 
to about 30 a year, towards the payment of which 
his exhibition from St. Paul s cannot have gone very 
far. 



298 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

temporary both at St. Paul s and at Trinity, Cambridge, of 
the surmaster. 

Ayscough presented testimonials from Sir William 
Davves, Bishop of Chester ; William Fleetwood, Bishop of 
St. Asaph ; William Talbot, Bishop of Peterborough, and 
other learned men, and to these recommendations may, 
perhaps, be attributed his successful application for a post 
nomination to which, as we have seen, was refused him 
sixteen years before, on the ground of his negligence in the 
discharge of his duties. 

At the date of his appointment Ayscough must have 
been over fifty years of age. He had been a " poor scholar " 
at St. Paul s from 1673 till 1675, under the mastership of 
Thomas Gale. In 1676 he graduated at Trinity, Cambridge, 
as a Campden Exhibitioner, but of his career during the ten 
years which elapsed between the date of his degree and his 
appointment in 1685 to the surmastership of St. Paul s 
absolutely nothing is known. It is interesting to notice 
that he was the first surmaster for a hundred and forty 
years to pass directly to the high mastership, for Cromle- 
holme after being surmaster was head master of Dorchester 
School before he was elected high master of St. Paul s. 
One important fact which may have had some bearing on 
the promotion of the surmaster to the high master s chair 
is to be found in the minutes of the Court of Assistants 
of the Mercers, under the date October 8, 1713, just a 
week, that is to say, before the Court met to fill the 
vacancy caused by Postlethwayt s death. The entry runs : 
" Whereas the Statutes and Ordinances of the said Founder 
doth empower the Wardens and Assistants of the Fellowship 
of the Mystery of the Mercers to add and diminish unto 
the said Founders book of Statutes Then the Question 
was put whether this Court shall make any alterations in 
the said Orders of themselves without the advice of Council 



PHILIP AYSCOUGH, 1713-1721 299 

(sic] Learned in the Law or not, and it was carried in the 
Affirmative. And Afterwards the Court upon mature con 
sideration have and do hereby Order for the Good and 
Benefit of the said School that at all times hereafter the 
Master Wardens and Court of Assistants of this Fellowship 
shall make the Choice of the Sur Master of Paul s School 
themselves and not by the High Master of the said School 
or any other Person whatsoever." 

By this means the Mercers arrogated to themselves the 
right of appointing the surmaster, and deprived the high 
master of one of his chief prerogatives. 

Clement Tookie, the first surmaster appointed, not by 
the high master but by the Mercers, was, like Ayscough 
himself, an Old Pauline, and like him, again, had been a 
Campden Exhibitioner of Trinity College, Cambridge. On 
coming down from the University, he was immediately 
appointed under usher. Tookie s successor in the post of 
under usher, Isaac Steele, was, like his two colleagues, an 
Old Pauline. He addressed Matthew Postlethwayt as 
" cousin " in his letters, and there is reason to believe that 
he was nephew to the late high master. 1 Steele succeeded 
Tookie as surmaster on the resignation of the latter to accept 
a country living in Cambridgeshire, from which in course of 
time he was promoted to a minor canonry and prebendal 
stall in Ely Cathedral. Steele s successor as under usher 
or chaplain was Hugh Wyat, one of Ayscough s first pupils 
at St. Paul s, who received the appointment immediately 
after graduating at Bene t College, Cambridge, and it will 
thus be seen that during the eight years of Ayscough s high 
mastership the whole of the teaching stafF of the school 
consisted solely of Old Paulines. 

Some time between 1713 and 1721 Ayscough took a 
Doctor s degree, probably a D.D. of Cambridge. In 1721 
1 Vide Joh. Coll. Reg., pt. iii. p. 14, line 45. 



302 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

fact that " instruction is given in the School in Grammar 
Rhetoric, and the Latin, Greek, Hebrew and Chaldee 
tongues," which bears out Strype in showing that with the 
death of Postlethwayt the study of Oriental languages was 
not abandoned. He speaks of St. Paul s as " the chiefest 
Nursery in this Great City for Learning and Good 
Manners," and the sermon ends with a delightfully 
pompous apostrophe to the boys of the school, " the grow 
ing hopes of that Nursery of Piety and Learning, whose 
Years render them capable of wholesome Advice " ; and 
to " You, more particularly, Ingenious Youth ! who are 
shortly proceeding to more Manly Studies ; to Studies which 
belong to your maturer age, and which are peculiar to the 
University." 

The preacher selected for the following year disappointed 
the stewards, and Clement Tookie, the surmaster, filled his 
place at three days notice. In his sermon, the cost of 
printing which was paid by the company, he speaks of the 
school 

" The Temporal Advantages of which I cannot better 
and more briefly set forth than by assuring you that for 
above two hundred years, Men, considerable at Home and 
Abroad, in the City and at the Bar, in the Senate, and at 
Court, in the Church and State, have in the Place of our 
Education, laid the Foundation of their Eminence ; and 
that, at the present some of them whom yourselves know, 
enjoy the Ornaments and Rewards of their Virtuous and 
Learned Improvements, and deservedly shine with the 
Mace, the Coronet, and the Mitre." 

The sermon of Samuel Knight, preached in the follow 
ing year, is pitched in the same key as far as references to 
the school are concerned. Among the MSS. at the British 
Museum is one which shows that the " List of Distinguished 
Paulines dead and living, with a special notice of the Duke 






PHILIP AYSCOUGH, 1713-1721 303 

of Marlboro ," which Knight added to the printed edition 
of the sermon, was largely furnished by John Strype, for in 
a letter to the antiquary dated January 29, 1717-18, the 
preacher says 

"... I must desire you to help me to as many of the 
famous Men educated in St Paul s School as you can, and 
to send them to me at Mr Wyat s, being printing my 
Sermon and having occasion to mention such. However I 
hope to see you on Tuesday whether you can assist me or 
not in this affair. I am your 

" humble servant, 

"Sam. Knight." 

In his sermon, which was a most patriotic effort, Dr. 
Knight, at that time chaplain to the Earl of Orford, laid 
stress upon the fact that the school had been " so productive 
of singularly useful Persons in their several Stations and 
Employments." After having mentioned the most dis 
tinguished Old Paulines then living, the preacher went 
on to say 

" These should fire the growing youth who succeed 
them in these happy advantages to do something that 
may augment the future credit of that School which has 
proved so fruitful a nursery to the Publick, and thereby 
increase the Catalogue of those whom succeeding Gener 
ations shall look back upon with admiration." In another 
part of this most interesting sermon the preacher declared 
that, " It doth not a little redound to the Credit of the 
neighbouring school that Lilly, the first master thereof, 
was so excellent a Grammarian, that by Publick Author 
ity his Grammar is used to this day throughout the 
kingdom." 

One other fact concerning this sermon deserves mention. 
It is the earliest of the series, printed copies of which are 



BENJAMIN MORLAND, 1721-1733 305 

than a month after his fruitless application it is recorded 
that " the Company paid the parish dues for his buryall." 
Another Pauline, William Betterley, was also a defeated 
candidate ; but of other aspirants to the post, if any, no 
record has been preserved. Betterley soon after became 
head master of Worcester Grammar School. 

The new high master, Benjamin Morland by name, was 
a Fellow of the Royal Society. It is not known at what 
school he was educated, and the absence of his name from 
the lists of Alumni Oxoniensis or Graduati Cantabrigienses 
suggests that he had no degree at either University. His 
age at the date of his election cannot have been less than 
sixty-eight, and of his former career we know nothing more 
than that he had for some years maintained a very successful 
private school at Hackney. 

All that is known of Morland s personality is to be 
found in Samuel Knight s Life of Colet, in which the Old 
Pauline author, after mentioning him in his list of high 
masters, goes on to add, " Under whom I must in justice to 
him say that this school is in a very flourishing state, so that 
we need not doubt of having hereafter several more worthies 
added to complete the following list of those who have been 
educated in this school." It is possible that he was the 
son of Dr. Samuel Morland, F.R.S., at whose school in 
Bethnal Green Lord Chancellor Hardwicke was educated 
about 1700. 

The Latin epigram signed B. M., which is prefixed to 
the Preces, is usually attributed to Morland. It runs 

" En faciem sculptor simulavit et ora Coleti 
Efficta artifici, spiral imago manu 
At sua commendant melius benefacta Coletum 
Postgenitis : nequeunt haec monumenta mori." 

In their original form the word " plastes " took the place 
of " sculptor " in the first of these lines, which were written 
on the bust of Dean Colet. 



310 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

contributions for the head gown-boy at the Charterhouse 
after he had delivered his oration on Founder s Day. 

In the following year the collection at the school feast, 
at which A. A. Sykes preached, amounted to 42 i$s. 6d. t 
and a saving was effected by spending only j8 los. in 
putting two boys out to apprenticeship. In 1725, the year 
in which Alured Clarke was preacher, a still smaller sum 
was collected namely, 40 i6s. and whereas a slightly 
larger grant was made to the library, and eighteen boys were 
taught writing and arithmetic at the rate of ^i each per 
annum, economies were effected by apprenticing only one 
boy at a cost of /6, and expending the sum of jio for the 
admission of only one boy into the University. The sermon, 
in 1726, of John Leng, who had been preacher in 1712, and 
who is the only Old Pauline known to have made two 
sermons at the school feast, has not been found in print, 
while of that of Henry Parker, the preacher in the following 
year, the copy in the Guildhall Library is, so far as I know, 
a unique specimen. In it the preacher exclaims, " May 
there be never any strife or contention among us, except it 
be this, who shall do most for the glory of God and the 
honour of St Paul s School." The disposal of the money 
collected, which amounted to 42, shows that only 6 was 
voted " towards the admission of a lad into the University," 
while a new item appears, amounting to ji2, "To the 
Lad that made the Speech," a sum which, although not ex 
pressly so stated, served no doubt as an endowment for the 
captain, who presumably proceeded either to Oxford or to 
Cambridge. 

A similar mode of distribution was followed in 1728. 
Thomas Hough, preaching at the school feast in that year, 
declared that " It is to the honour and reputation of St. 
Paul s School that in nothing is it behind the very chiefest 
schools , having ever since its foundation continued to send 



BENJAMIN MORLAND, 1721-1733 311 

forth into the world a constant succession of persons of 
distinguish d worth and merit who have been famed and 
remark d for their address and abilities in their respective 
stations callings and professions : that it has bred up those 
who have arrived at the highest skill and eminency in 
divinity, law, physic, poetry, history, antiquity, mathematics, 
and every other part of useful and polite learning, that out 
of it the church has been supplied with strenuous and 
vigilant defenders of the true Christian faith : the Court 
with wise and able ministers : the Senate with a SPEAKER 
whose praise it is to have been elected, in the late reign, to 
preside in that honourable assembly in two successive parlia 
ments ; and to name no more, the camp with a GENERAL in 
whom courage conduct and success conspired to render him 
the boast and glory of our own age and the envy of all 
succeeding ones : that it has hitherto presented an unsullied 
character and reputation as to virtue and morals ; and that 
those fashionable gaieties (to say no worse of them) those 
vices and debaucheries which too visibly reign in most 
places of public education, have never been able to gain any 
considerable footing there ; that it has always been very 
signally remarkable for its steady and unbiassed loyalty ; for 
its zealous and constant affection to the succession in the 
Protestant line ; and for its firm attachment to our present 
happy establishment in church and state ; which, no doubt, 
has been owing to those early principles of subjection, and a 
dutiful obedience to the higher powers which have always been 
and still are industriously inculcated on the minds of the 
youth." 

The preacher s references to the standard of morality in 
the public schools in the eighteenth century may be read 
in conjunction with Smollett s description of Winchester in 
Peregrine Pickle, and the statement by Charles Simeon, the 
well-known Cambridge evangelical, who declared half-a- 



310 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

contributions for the head gown-boy at the Charterhouse 
after he had delivered his oration on Founder s Day. 

In the following year the collection at the school feast, 
at which A. A. Sykes preached, amounted to 42 15.?. 6d. y 
and a saving was effected by spending only ^8 ids. in 
putting two boys out to apprenticeship. In 1725, the year 
in which Alured Clarke was preacher, a still smaller sum 
was collected namely, 40 i6s. and whereas a slightly 
larger grant was made to the library, and eighteen boys were 
taught writing and arithmetic at the rate of i each per 
annum, economies were effected by apprenticing only one 
boy at a cost of 6, and expending the sum of jio for the 
admission of only one boy into the University. The sermon, 
in 1726, of John Leng, who had been preacher in 17 12, and 
who is the only Old Pauline known to have made two 
sermons at the school feast, has not been found in print, 
while of that of Henry Parker, the preacher in the following 
year, the copy in the Guildhall Library is, so far as I know, 
a unique specimen. In it the preacher exclaims, " May 
there be never any strife or contention among us, except it 
be this, who shall do most for the glory of God and the 
honour of St Paul s School." The disposal of the money 
collected, which amounted to ^42, shows that only 6 was 
voted " towards the admission of a lad into the University," 
while a new item appears, amounting to ,12, "To the 
Lad that made the Speech," a sum which, although not ex 
pressly so stated, served no doubt as an endowment for the 
captain, who presumably proceeded either to Oxford or to 
Cambridge. 

A similar mode of distribution was followed in 1728. 
Thomas Hough, preaching at the school feast in that year, 
declared that " It is to the honour and reputation of St. 
Paul s School that in nothing is it behind the very chiefest 
schools ; having ever since its foundation continued to send 



. 



BENJAMIN MORLAND, 1721-1733 311 



forth into the world a constant succession of persons of 
distinguished worth and merit who have been famed and 
remark d for their address and abilities in their respective 
stations callings and professions : that it has bred up those 
who have arrived at the highest skill and eminency in 
divinity, law, physic, poetry, history, antiquity, mathematics, 
and every other part of useful and polite learning, that out 
of it the church has been supplied with strenuous and 
vigilant defenders of the true Christian faith : the Court 
with wise and able ministers : the Senate with a SPEAKER 
whose praise it is to have been elected, in the late reign, to 
preside in that honourable assembly in two successive parlia 
ments ; and to name no more, the camp with a GENERAL in 
whom courage conduct and success conspired to render him 
the boast and glory of our own age and the envy of all 
succeeding ones : that it has hitherto presented an unsullied 
character and reputation as to virtue and morals ; and that 
those fashionable gaieties (to say no worse of them) those 
vices and debaucheries which too visibly reign in most 
places of public education, have never been able to gain any 
considerable footing there ; that it has always been very 
signally remarkable for its steady and unbiassed loyalty ; for 
its zealous and constant affection to the succession in the 
Protestant line ; and for its firm attachment to our present 
happy establishment in church and state ; which, no doubt, 
has been owing to those early principles of subjection, and a 
dutiful obedience to the higher powers which have always been 
and still are industriously inculcated on the minds of the 
youth." 

The preacher s references to the standard of morality in 
the public schools in the eighteenth century may be read 
in conjunction with Smollett s description of Winchester in 
Peregrine Pickle, and the statement by Charles Simeon, the 
well-known Cambridge evangelical, who declared half-a- 



312 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

century later that he would be tempted to take the life 
of his son rather than let him see the vice which he had 
seen at Eton. 

Thomas Salmon, the most distinguished of the pupils of 
Benjamin Morland, was a native of Tiverton, Devon, who 
instead of being sent to school at BlundelTs came up to 
London to St. Paul s. At Cambridge he held both a 
Campden and a Perry Exhibition, and after holding various 
benefices he became chaplain to the Duke of Bedford, who 
as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland presented him to the 
Bishopric of Ferns. 

The Duke of Bedford appears to have had a penchant 
for Old Pauline chaplains, for another holder of that post, 
Thomas Broughton, was educated first at Eton, and then 
at St. Paul s. After graduating at Cambridge as a wrangler, 
he became reader to the Temple, and Bishop Sherlock, the 
master, made him a prebendary of Salisbury, where he 
occupied a stall for forty years. A man of the most 
catholic tastes, Broughton, who was a friend of Handel, 
translated Voltaire, wrote a huge dictionary of religions, 
edited Dryden, and wrote a large number of the biographies 
in the Biographia Britannica. 

Another distinguished clergyman who was one year 
junior to Broughton at Cambridge was George North, the 
son of a citizen of London, who became a well-known 
numismatist and Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. 

One of the only two other pupils of Morland of the 
slightest interest was distinguished for the penmanship which, 
as we have seen, was at the beginning of the eighteenth 
century one of the objects of pride in the school. Joseph 
Champion, who is said to have been partly educated at 
St. Paul s, was the author of two well-known books on 
caligraphy, and in 1751 taught writing in the school. 
John Clark, the son of an eminent penman, went to 



BENJAMIN MORLAND, 1721-1733 313 

Trinity, Cambridge, with a Perry Exhibition, and sub 
sequently became, as we have seen, assistant to Morland, 
and when the latter died and was succeeded by Timothy 
Crumpe, Clark filled the place of chaplain vacated by the 
new high master, and four years later became surmaster. 
The main interest in his career lies in the fact that he was 
a "King s Scholar " at Cambridge, holding as he did one of 
the scholarships founded by George I. 

In 1721 4 were paid "for setting the books of the 
library in order." 

Knight s Life of Co let contains a catalogue of the school 
library as it existed in 1724, which shows that it contained 
663 books. The latest purchases are set down as being 
Pierson (sic) on the Creed, Terentius in Usum Delphini, and 
Greenwood s English Grammar, the work of the recently 
appointed surmaster, which we may presume was taught 
in the school. 

The description of St. Paul s written by a Portuguese 
merchant from Lisbon, Don Manoel Gonzalo, who visited 
the school in the year 1730, describes the library as "con 
sisting chiefly of classic authors," and the same writer s 
extremely accurate account contains a description of the 
appearance of the school written only six years after the 
view in Knight s Colet was engraved, in which he says, 
" The frontispiece is adorned with bustos, entablature, pedi 
ments, festoons, shields, vases, and the Mercers arms, cut 
in stone : with this inscription over the door, INGREDERE 
UT PROFICIAS. Upon every window of the school was 
written by the founder s direction, AUT DOCE, AUT DISCE, 

AUT DISCEDE. 

The connection of the family of Postlethwayt with St. 
Paul s continued long after the death of the high master 
of that name. 

Letters from Mathew Postlethwayt which have been 



314 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

preserved show that he frequently stayed at the school 
when in London for many years after the death of his 
uncle. His son, John, who was a godson of the high 
master, was at St. Paul s under Morland, and in a letter 
written in January 1727 to his wife, by Mathew Postle- 
thwayt, the latter speaks of the very kind and handsome 
treatment which the boy received from his master, Morland, 
while mention in the same letter of " our little nephew 
here " refers to another member of the family who has not 
yet been identified. 

The portrait of young John Postlethwayt, which repre 
sents him as a handsome dark boy in a white wig, grey 
coat and steinkirk, is with that of his father in the set of 
nine pastel portraits by John Sanders in the collection 
of Mr. Hartshorne. 

From the letters which are extant it appears that James 
Greenwood, the surmaster, kept a boarding house in which 
John Postlethwayt was a boarder. In spite of the fact that 
his father was able to write to his wife that " Mr. Morland 
expressed a very tender and affectionate concern for his 
welfare," the boy was troublesome and extravagant, and 
his taste for theatre-going caused his father to write him 
a very severe letter, the burden of which was " 1 utterly 
abhor and disapprove of Play-houses." The boy s dis 
like for the food provided in Greenwood s boarding house 
resulted in his father causing him to be removed into 
that kept by Hugh Wyat, the chaplain. 

John Postlethwayt went from St. Paul s to Merton, the 
college to which his great-uncle, the high master, had been 
a benefactor, and after serving for some years as chaplain 
on H.M.S. Worcester, he succeeded his father as Rector of 
Denton. 

A letter from his father written to him in December 
1727, while he was still at school, which speaks of 



BENJAMIN MORLAND, 1721-1733 31.5 

"sending Mr. Morland a guinea for ye Breaking up at 
Christmas," points to the prevalence at this time, as in 
that of Gale, of a custom of giving the high master a 
gratuity, an exact counterpart to which is to be found in 
existence at Westminster at the same period. 

In a letter from Hugh Wyat, the chaplain of the 
school, written on March 21, 1726-27, to his school-fellow, 
Samuel Kerrich, reference is made to an episode of which 
no explanation has been forthcoming. 

" Our Schoolfellow, Mr. Marriot," he writes, " has re 
solved to take up the cudgels in defence of Paul s School, 
and will punish to the utmost Rigour of the Law those 
pretty Gentlemen who have burnt our Records. He will 
begin his prosecution next term." 

The Sessions Papers of the Central Criminal Court, 
which contain a complete list of prisoners and of the 
crimes for which they were indicted, reveal nothing which 
sheds any light on this ominous statement. 



318 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

James Carrington, became Chancellor of the Diocese of 
Exeter ; another, Edward Venn, became a well-known 
physician, but the chief interest in his name centres in the 
fact that he was a brother of the celebrated Calvinistic 
divine, Henry Venn, the place of whose education before 
his admission five years after his brother to St. John s, 
Cambridge, is unknown. It is possible that he also may 
have been at St. Paul s. The name of a third of Crumpe s 
pupils has been preserved from the fact that as " porter boy " 
he received ^4 in payment for two years in 1737, and 
that of James Strahan, a Fellow of Trinity Hall, has been 
gleaned from the lists of stewards of the school feast. The 
last name is that of Daniel Bellamy, a theological writer 
of sufficient note to deserve mention in the Dictionary of 
National Biography. 

GEORGE CHARLES, 1737-1748 

The scanty information which is extant as to the state of 
the school during the high masterships of Morland and 
Crumpe turns, so far as the career of the high master is 
concerned, into an atmosphere of mystery as soon as one 
comes to deal with Crumpe s successor, George Charles. 
The date of his birth was either 1703 or 1704, consequently 
his age at his election to the high mastership in February 
1737 was about thirty-four. Of his places of education 
nothing whatever is known. 

That Charles was educated at some university appears 
almost certain from the fact that while he is referred to as 
" Mr Charles " in the Acts of Court of the Mercers Com 
pany in 1741, in the following year he becomes known as 
Dr. Charles, while in 1743 there is an explicit reference to 
him as George Charles, LL.D. A careful search of the 
registers of the Universities has not revealed his name in 
the records of any of those of England, Ireland or Scotland. 



GEORGE CHARLES, 1737-1748 319 

The one fragment of information which is extant con 
cerning his high mastership is to be found in a letter 
written in 1746 2 to an Old Pauline pupil, John Laurence, 
who had been sent from Pennsylvania to be educated at St. 
Paul s, and who afterwards became Judge of the Court of 
that plantation, and married a sister of Mrs. Penn. 

From the list of Old Paulines printed in Ackerman s 
History of the Public Schools, it was known that Lord Fred 
erick Campbell the son of the fourth Duke of Argyll- 
was educated at St. Paul s by George Charles, and from this 
letter, written by the high master, it appears that his brother, 
" your School-fellow Jack Campbell," was also an Old 
Pauline. 

John Campbell, who was born in 1723, rose to the rank 
of lieutenant-colonel at the age of twenty-two, and distin 
guished himself in Scotland in u the forty-five." An account 
of this is given in the high master s letter. In 1767 he 
became commander-in-chief in Scotland. Three years later 
he succeeded to the title of Duke of Argyll, having been 
created a peer of Great Britain as Lord Sunbridge four years 
earlier. He received a field-marshal s baton in 1796, and 
died in 1 806, at the age of eighty-three, being the senior 
officer in the British Army. 

Readers of Boswell will remember the account of Dr. 
Johnson s visit to the Duke of Argyll at Inverary Castle, to 
which a certain piquancy is given by the details of the 
marked discourtesy with which for political reasons the 
Duchess, who was one of " the beautiful Miss Gunnings," 
treated the great man s biographer. 

It is most probable that Lord Henry Campbell, the 
Duke s brother, was also at St. Paul s. He was aide-de 
camp to General Ligonier, and was killed in 1747 at the 
battle of Lafeldt. No doubt, however, exists as to Lord 
1 Pauline, vol. xii., No. 68, May, 1894, p, 101. 



320 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

Frederick Campbell having been at St. Paul s. From school 
he went to Christ Church, and was called to the Bar. For 
many years he sat in Parliament, and became Privy Coun 
cillor and Keeper of the Privy Seal for Scotland. In 1767 
he was Chief Secretary for Ireland, and had a seat in the 
Irish House of Commons, and in the following year he was 
appointed Lord Clerk Register for Scotland. 

In addition to having educated a man who, as we have 
seen, lived to be the senior officer in the British Army, 
George Charles, curiously enough, educated at St. Paul s a 
man who survived to be the oldest captain in the Royal 
Navy. This was Sir Alexander Schomberg, who entered 
the navy in 1743. He served under Admiral Boscawen at 
the reduction of Louisbourg, and was closely associated 
with Wolfe at Quebec in 1759. He was knighted by the 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 1777, and survived till 1804. 

Of the two pupils of Dr. Charles who are known to 
have held college fellowships, John Parkhurst of Clare, who 
was also educated at Rugby, became a well-known Hebrew 
scholar and biblical lexicographer. Another Old Pauline, John 
Carr by name, was a well-known translator of Lucian. He 
is said to have been a candidate for the high mastership of 
St. Paul s on the resignation of Dr. Thicknesse, and to have 
failed through the fact that he had no university degree. 
He became head master of Hertford Grammar School, and 
was granted an LL.D. Honoris causa by Marischal College, 
Aberdeen, in recognition of his classical scholarship. 

The first record of a disagreement between Charles and 
the Mercers occurs in the minutes of a Court of Assistants l 
on March 20, 1 740, according to which " The Court 
ordered that the Masters of the School return to their 
ancient method of Breaking up & coming to School again 
and that no alteration of that kind or otherwise be made in 
1 MS. in possession of Rev. R. J. Walker. 




JOHN STRYPE 
Antiquary. 



GEORGE CHARLES, 1737-1748 321 

the School without the Leave of this Court." On March 10 
in the following year the Court " ordered that Mr Charles 
the High Master of Paul s School do forthwith give Jonathan 
Collyer Esqre. the Surveyor Accomptant of Paul s School, 
a List of all the Names of the Children that appeared in the 
School on Thursday last or since, describing under which 
Master s care and what Form they are in. And it is ordered 
that the several Masters in the School do at the Apposition 
yearly give a List of the Scholars under their respective 

1 

care. 

Unfortunately, none of these lists compiled during the 
interval which elapsed before Charles was superseded by 
Thicknesse are extant, but that the order was complied with 
is evident from the following entry, dated March 24, 
1742 : "The Court Enquired of Dr Charles how it came 
about that the Boys in the 5th and 6th Forms were heard 
together, he informed them there were so few Boys in the 
6th Form he had moved the best of them into the jth and 
the Juniors into the 5th, but that soon He intended to 
make up a 6th Form by removing the Boys. And the 
Court Admonished him to be in the School from 7 to 1 1 in 
the Forenoon and from i to 5 in the Afternoon, both 
Winter and Summer Holydays excepted." Similar direc 
tions as to the hours of attendance were given to " the Revd. 
John Clark the Sur Master," and to " Mr George Thick 
nesse the Chaplain." 

In the transcript from the Mercers minutes, from which 
quotations as to the state of the school have been made 
recording events in 1740 and the two following years, there 
is a lacuna extending from 1742 to 1747 which may have 
some significance in view of circumstances of which there is 
a record in another source. 1 From this it appears that in an 
old cash-book of the surveyor accountant of the school in 
1 Rep. of Char. Commrs., May I, 1820, vol. iii. pp. 230 sqq. 

Y 



322 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

the year 1713-14 there was a balance due from the com 
pany to the school of 13,571 js. 4^., while by the year 
1745 the debt owing by the company to the school estate 
had risen to 34,637 15^. The explanation offered for this 
dealing with trust funds was that the Mercers Company 
had in the preceding century suffered the loss of moneys 
lent to King Charles and to the Parliament, and had incurred 
a heavy debt amounting altogether to more than 100,000, 
by having to bear half the cost of rebuilding the Royal 
Exchange and other works, and that they had increased their 
liabilities by a scheme for granting annuities to the widows 
of subscribers, which had been started in the hope of 
retrieving their loss. There can be little doubt that 
speculation in the South Sea Bubble craze of 1721 had also 
contributed to the embarrassments of the Mercers, which 
they endeavoured to tide over by the use which they made 
of the funds of St. Paul s School. 

The disapproval entertained for Dr. Charles by the 
Mercers Company culminated in his dismissal after a few 
years in the high mastership. 

The minute of a Court of Assistants held on February 
4, 1747, records 1 that "The Court taking into consideration 
Dr Charles s Refusal to resign his place according to the 
Ordinances of the Founder and the Explanation thereof 
unanimously Resolved that the Master give him Warning 
quietly to depart the School and School House in Six Months 
from this day in the following words Viz. : Sir You having 
refused to resign your Place of High Master of Pauls School 
according to the Ordinances of Dean Colet the Founder and 
the Explanation thereof made in 1602 This Court doth 
give you Warning quietly to depart this School and School 
House in Six Months from this Day Which Warning Mr 
Deputy Daye in the Chair read to Dr Charles in the presence 
1 MS. in possession of Rev. R. J. Walker. 



GEORGE CHARLES, 1737-1748 

of the Court." The aid of the Court of Arches is said 
to have been invoked for the purpose of removing the high 
master, but concerning the details of this no evidence is 
available. 

On leaving St. Paul s, Dr. Charles became private secre 
tary to William Henry Zuylestein, Earl of Rochford, who 
went in the following year as Envoy Extraordinary and 
Plenipotentiary to the King of Sardinia at Turin. It is not 
known how long Charles retained this position. The Earl 
of Rochford returned to England in 1754. 

Dr. Charles handwriting is said to bear a strong resem 
blance to that of "Junius," and it is worthy of mention 
that the Earl of Rochford is one of the few men of note 
mentioned by " Junius " without condemnation. 

Entries in the Calendars of Home Office Papers l certainly 
suggest the performance of some secret service by the 
retired school-master, for we find that on June 15, 1763, "A 
pension of 1,000 per annum for 31 years was granted to 
George Charles Esq., his executors etc. of Leicester Fields." 

This pension appears to have been charged upon the 
Irish Establishment, for some years later occurs a record 2 
of a King s Letter to the Treasury in Ireland remitting the 
tax of 4-r. in the pound payable by Dr. Charles. 

There are also extant letters written from Leicester Square 3 
by Dr. Charles to the Earl of Rochford relating to the appoint 
ment of a minister to the living of Fordoun in Kincardineshire, 
to which a Mr. Alexander Lestie was recommended. Finally, 
it appears from despatches * sent by Lord Townshend, the 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, to Lord Rochford on December 
5, 1771, that a Money Bill in the Irish House of Commons 

1 Cal. of Home Office Papers, 1760-65, p. 375. 

2 Ibid., 1770-72, pp. 4.06, 636, Feb. 17, 1769. 

3 Ibid., 1770-72, PP. 222, 237, Mar. 30, 1771. 

4 Ibid., 1770-72, p. 334. 
y 2 



324 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

which was passed in that year excepted George Charles, 
together with Prince Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, the 
Duke and Duchess of Atholl, and Sir Edward Hawke 
from paying the tax of 4-r. in the pound if exempted by His 
Majesty s sign manual. 

Records have been preserved l to show that Charles pro 
duced further King s Letters for this purpose on March 8, 
1771, on March 31, 1772, and again on March 23, I774- 2 

The Gentleman s Magazine for I788 3 contains this 
obituary notice: "December 10. At Charles Bedford s 
Esq. in Brixton Causeway, in his 85th year, George 
Charles Esq. He was formerly preceptor to the Duke of 
Cumberland, and in consequence of being in that office had 
a pension of 300 a year." 

No trace of a will which might throw some light on this 
mysterious career has been found. It has been suggested to 
me by the Rev. R. J. Walker, that a son of the high master 
may possibly be identified in the George Charles, a bookseller 
and publisher at Alloa, who, in 1817, brought out a History 
of the Transactions in Scotland in ij 15-16 and 174.5-4.6, con 
cerning the adventures of Prince Charles after Culloden. 

It will be noticed that the Gentleman s Magazine speaks 
of Dr. Charles pension as amounting to 300 a year. From 
the Home Office Papers which we have quoted it appears 
that in 1763, when a pension of 1,000 a year was granted 
to Charles, pensions of 2,000 a year were awarded to the 
Duke and Duchess of Athol and to Sir Edward Hawke 
respectively. It is difficult to suppose that a pension of 
exactly one half the amount granted to a great nobleman and 
a distinguished naval commander was awarded to Charles 
merely for his services as tutor to a young prince. 

It has hitherto been supposed that the Duke of Cumber- 

1 Cal. of Home Office Papers, 1770-72, pp. 406, 636. 

2 Ibid., 1773-75- P- 37- 3 p. 1130. 



GEORGE CHARLES, 1737-1748 325 

land, to whom Dr. Charles was tutor, was William Augustus, 
the third son of George II by Caroline of Anspach, who 
was born in 1720, and to whom therefore Charles acted as 
tutor before being appointed to St. Paul s. 

As a matter of fact, his pupil was Henry Frederick, 
Duke of Cumberland, who was born in 1745, and it there 
fore appears that Charles obtained his post in the Royal 
household after his return from Turin with the Earl of 
Rochford. Charles pupil was a son of Frederick, Prince 
of Wales, by Augusta of Saxe-Coburg, and was therefore a 
brother of George III. It is most probable that Dr. Charles 
was also tutor to William Henry, Duke of Gloucester, who 
was only two years older than the Duke of Cumberland. 

The Duke of Cumberland s strait-laced mother kept 
him as a boy under such severe discipline that when he was 
released from her control he became notorious for excesses. 
In 1770 his brothers had to assist him in finding ^10,000, 
which Richard, first Earl Grosvenor had recovered against 
him for Crim. Con. with the Countess Grosvenor. 

The Oxford Magazine for that year proves that the late 
high master had been tutor to this notorious libertine and 
not to his earlier namesake, as has hitherto been supposed, 
for in the course of the volume, which is full of somewhat 
coarse persiflage at the expense of the guilty parties, there 
occurs what purports to be a letter to the Duke from " Dr 
Charles Junior." The letters between the guilty parties 
which were put in evidence in the case were very ill-spelt, 
and the same volume 1 also contains a caricature in which 
Dr. Charles, above whose head a birch-rod hangs on the 
wall, is represented as teaching spelling to his Royal pupil, 
while an imp takes a letter from the Duke to his mistress, 
and the devil puts a fool s cap upon his head. Dr. Charles 
is represented in bag-wig cassock and bands as though he 

1 Oxford Magazine, vol. v., 1770, p. 88. 



326 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

were a clergyman. It is unfortunate that the nature of the 
remark which is represented as proceeding from the devil s 
mouth, makes the caricature unsuitable for reproduction. 

The last phase in the history of the Duke of Cumber 
land with which we need concern ourselves occurred in 
1771, when his clandestine marriage with Mrs. Horton 
led to the passing of the Royal Marriage Act of 1772. 

In view of what has been said concerning Charles and 
" Junius," it is worth attention that in " Junius " letter, signed 
"Cumbrensis," written in November 1771, in which the writer 
congratulates the Royal bridegroom, reference is made to 
" the uncommon education which your royal mother took 
care to give you." 

It must be confessed that there are features in the 
history of George Charles which tend to make one disregard 
one half of the advice given by Lord Beaconsneld to a 
young man on the threshold of life, who had asked for 
some maxims of conduct, and to whom the Prime Minister 
replied, " If you are to succeed, never wish to discover the 
identity of the Man in the Iron Mask, and on no account 
inquire who wrote the letters of Junius. 

The high mastership of George Charles is remarkable 
for the fact that in 1743 the first printed catalogue of the 
school library, apart from that in Knight s Cole/, was 
issued. In this it is stated that, " all, or the greatest part, 
of the Books which have not the names of the Benefactors 
annexed or References thereto have been purchased since 
that Time (the great fire) by the Masters of the School, with 
the surplus of the Candle Money." 

From this, we may remark in parenthesis, it appears that 
the boys at this time did not bring their own wax candles 
to the school, but bought them from some one at the 
school, probably the poor scholar or " porter-boy." 

This catalogue contains the names of 830 volumes, 



GEORGE CHARLES, 1737-1748 

showing an increase of nearly 170 in the nineteen years 
which had elapsed since the compilation of the list printed 
by Knight. Some part of this increase was no doubt due 
to the bequest of fifty guineas received by the school 
library in 1741 from a distinguished Old Pauline, Sir 
Nathaniel Lloyd, Master of Trinity Hall. The school 
accounts show that in the year after this bequest had been 
paid, 12 95. were spent on binding and gilding books, and 
the bill, amounting to 10 15^., is extant for printing and 
stitching three hundred copies of the catalogue, specimens of 
which are in the British Museum and at the school. 

From the evidence given by the Mercers Company to 
a Royal Commission in 1820 : it appears that the salaries of 
the high master, surmaster and usher remained unchanged 
during the whole of the first half of the eighteenth century, 
a period which may be taken as practically covering the 
high masterships of Postlethwayt, Ayscough, Morland, 
Crumpe and Charles. 

During the years from 1700 to 1749 the high master 
was paid 169 6s. %d. y of which 36 represented the 
statutory salary at a mark a week, and the value of a livery 
gown, as provided by the founder. The remainder of this 
sum was made up of gratuities paid by the Mercers at 
intervals during the year. 

The surmaster s salary during the period named was 
86 a year and the under usher, or chaplain, as he appears 
to have been called once again from 1713 to 1748, was paid 
during the stated period 51 135. 6d. per annum. 

The decline of St. Paul s in the middle of the eighteenth 
century synchronized with the period at which the Univer 
sities reached the lowest depth of attainments and discipline. 
Lord Chesterfield, writing of Oxford and Cambridge in 
1749, said that "the one is sunk into the lowest obscurity, 
1 App. to 3rd Rep. of Commissioners of Charities, 1820. 



328 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

and the existence of Oxford would not be known if it were 
not for the treasonable spirit publicly avowed, and often 
excited there." 

The decrease in the number of boys at St. Paul s also 
finds numerous parallels in the history of the other public 
schools at about the same time. 

In 1720 there were 353 boys at Eton College. There 
were fifty fewer names " in the bill" in the year after the 
South Sea Scheme of 1721. By 1740 the numbers had 
dwindled to 170. Twenty-five years later the numbers had 
risen to 522, but in 1773 they had once more dropped to 
230, while in 1791 only fifty-five collegers were to be 
found in the seventy places on the foundation. 

Winchester almost at the same time suffered so great 
an eclipse that in 1751 it included only eight commoners, 
while in 1793 the whole number of boys in the school, 
including scholars, was only sixty, although, as at Eton, the 
statutory number of scholars alone was seventy. 

In 1721 there were 144 boys at Harrow, but there, too, 
the numbers steadily dwindled until the year 1746. 
Merchant Taylors in 1760 contained only 116 boys 
instead of the statutory 250, while the numbers at Rugby 
in 1778 had shrunk to fifty-two. 

Westminster alone maintained its numerical position. 
The decline in its numbers came early in the nineteenth 
century. 




[John ffutcy sc. 
GEORGE THICKNESSE, HIGH MASTER OF ST. 1 AUL s SCHOOL 



CHAPTER XVIII 

THE SECOND FOUNDER 
GEORGE THICKNESSE, HIGH MASTER 1748-1769 

WITH the removal of Charles from the high mastership 
St. Paul s entered on a new career of prosperity. His suc 
cessor, George Thicknesse, was the third son of John 
Thicknesse, rector of Farthinghoe, in Northamptonshire. 
His family, which came from Staffordshire, was not undis 
tinguished, and one of his brothers was the well-known 
Philip Thicknesse, Governor of Landguard Fort, while 
another brother, Ralph by name, was an assistant master at 
Eton, who would undoubtedly have become Provost after 
Dr. Snape, but for his sudden death in 1742 at a concert at 
Bath, where he was playing first fiddle in a piece of music 
of his own composition. 

George Thicknesse was educated on the foundation at 
Winchester. He did not proceed to New College, Oxford, 
and his name does not occur in the lists of graduates of 
either university. The biographers of Sir Philip Francis, 
whose account of the high master is very full, state that he 
graduated at Cambridge, after which " he was first an usher 
at Clare s Academy in Soho Square." The account goes on 
to say that " having the reputation of being one of the best 
classical scholars in England he opened an establishment 
for the tuition of youth in Charterhouse Square." 

According to the registers of Winchester College, Thick 
nesse was baptized in 1714. He must, therefore, have 

3*9 



330 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

been about twenty-three years of age on his appointment as 
chaplain, six months after George Charles election as high 
master. He held the chaplaincy for seven years, and in 
1744 was elected surmaster. He is the last surmaster who 
has been promoted to the high mastership. 

The great problem which confronted the new high master 
was that of filling the vacant places in the school, the number 
of boys in which had fallen to thirty-five. Within two 
months of his election he drew up a list of the boys, with 
the dates of their admissions, and in the following year 
a resolution of the Mercers Company directed the high 
master to deliver yearly to the surveyor accountant a list 
of the scholars. These lists are extant up to the present 
time, but covering as they do less than a half of the time 
which has passed since the foundation of the school by 
Colet, there must be a large number of Paulines of more or 
less distinction all traces of whose education at the school 
has been lost. 

We have seen that in 1742 the fifth and sixth forms had 
been amalgamated for lack of boys. Even in 1749 there 
was no material out of which to make a seventh or an 
eighth, so that the head of the sixth, a boy of fourteen, 
became captain. To remedy this state of affairs, according 
to the Mercers minutes, 1 at a Court held on October 21, 
1748, "The following written paper was presented to this 
Court by Wm. Dunster Esqr. Surveyor of Paul s School 
which was read and is in the words following vizt. 

"Mercers Hall London zist. Octr. 1748. 

" Doctor John Colet Dean of St. Paul s about the year 

1512 erected a Grammar School near the East end of Paul s 

Church for One Hundred and Fifty three Children to be 

taught Gratis And He committed the Care of the said 

1 MS. in the possession of Rev. R. J. Walker. 



GEORGE THICKNESSE, 1748-1769 331 

School to the Masters Wardens and Court of Assistants of 
the Company of Mercers of London who have lately made 
such Regulations in the said School that it is hoped it will 
soon regain its former Flourishing State. This Publication is 
made that the Inhabitants of London and others may have 
the benefits of this Generous and Useful Foundation accord 
ing to the design of the Worthy Founder Who has made 
a very ample provision for the several Masters. They are 
therefore obliged by the Orders of the Court of Assistants 
agreeable to the Founders intentions not to demand or take 
any Money or Reward from the Parents or Friends of the 
Scholars but such as is allotted for Enterance which is one 
Shilling For encouragement of such Scholars that are dilli- 
gent and improve in their Learning upon proper Certificates 
thereof and where it is needful the said Court of Assistants 
will grant Exhibitions for their Maintenance when they are fitt 
to go to one of the Universities. For admittance of Scholars 
and further Information Apply to the Clerk of the said 
Company of Mercers at their Hall in Cheapside London. 
" By Order of the said Court of Assistants 

" CHAR: CRUMPE. 

"After reading thereof the Court Ordered that the 
same be published in the Daily Advertizer and General 
Advertizer three times in each paper for the Information of 
the Citizens of London and others." 

The results of this notice and the efforts of Thicknesse 
were such that in a single year the full statutory number of 
boys were in the school, and in June 1749 tne Mercers 
had to pass a vote for extraordinary assistance to the usher 
owing to the undue number of boys in the lower forms. 

A hundred and twenty-four boys entered the school in 
1748, according to the registers, though the biographers of 



332 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

Sir P. Francis say there were 145 entries in that year. Fifty- 
seven entered the school in 1749, and in 1750 thirty-three 
were admitted on the foundation, and twelve others in 
addition, while five years later the number of non- 
foundationers admitted within twelve months was exactly 
double that number. The admission of boys other than 
foundation scholars continued annually until the end of the 
eighteenth century, a large proportion were passed on to 
the foundation after having been in the school for two or 
three years. 

It will not be out of place to give here some statistics 
of the school, derived from the registers, which begin at 
this time, dealing with the twenty-one years of Thicknesse s 
high mastership, which lasted from 1748 to 1769. The total 
number of boys admitted on the foundation was 947, 
making an average of forty-seven admissions a year, if we 
exclude 1748, the first year of his high mastership, in which 
the numbers of the foundation were filled by making 124 
entries into the school. Taking the average of admissions 
as forty-seven, the mean duration of school life was some 
what less than three and a quarter years. Although the 
average age of admission was about ten, the minimum age 
was seven, and consequently a number of boys must have 
left the school at a very early age. 

Though the number of boys in the upper classes 
increased, the total number of names in the first and second 
classes comprised about half of the school. The third and 
fourth comprised another quarter of the school, leaving 
about a quarter of the school for the four upper classes, 
each numbering about ten boys, which were at this time all 
under the high master. 

In addition to the boys on the foundation, the school, as 
we have seen, comprised a number of non-foundationers. 
The details of these in the registers are very scanty, and the 



GEORGE THICKNESSE, 1748-1769 333 

lists are probably incomplete. Only their names are given, 
all mention of their ages or of their parentage being 
omitted. Of these, 133 were admitted during Thicknesse s 
term of office. Sixty-six, or almost exactly one half, were 
subsequently admitted to the foundation ; of those who did 
not gain admission to the foundation few reached the upper 
school. The years in which vacancies for the foundation 
were few are those, as might be expected, in which the 
number of non-foundationers admitted was largest. In 1756, 
for example, only thirty-five boys were admitted to the 
foundation, the smallest number in any year during 
Thicknesse s rule, but twenty-four non-foundationers were 
admitted, while in the years 1753 and 1754, in which 
respectively sixty-two and fifty boys were admitted to 
the foundation, no boys other than foundation scholars 
were admitted to the school. 

St. Paul s under Thicknesse was to a far greater extent 
a city school than it has ever been since under his successors. 

Out of the 950 boys admitted to the school by 
Thicknesse, only sixty-five, or about three a year, were not 
Londoners. Of these, twenty-seven were the sons of 
country parsons, while another twenty of the boys admitted 
during this high mastership were the sons of London clergy. 

No mention of a porter boy appears in the accounts 
from 1745 to 1753. In that year Robert Brampton, the 
captain, held the post. From this time, with the single 
exception of Alan Eccles, in 1757-58,^6 captain appears to 
have acted as the porter boy, the admission fees being, no 
doubt, paid to him, a man being employed to clean the 
school. 

The scanty nature of the records of boys educated at 
St. Paul s before the middle of the eighteenth century is in 
marked contrast with the condition of things which prevails 
at most of the other public schools. 



334 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

There is a complete register of scholars at Winchester 
from 1393 to the present day, and the earliest long roll 
containing the names of commoners is dated 1653. 

The earliest Eton School list which has been preserved, 
bearing the date 1678, contains 207 names, and after that 
year there are few lacunas in the set of lists which is extant 
at the present time. 

The register of Rugby School begins in 1675, more than 
seventy years, that is to say, before that of St. Paul s. The 
full register of admission to college at Westminster begins 
in 1666, but from the lists of Queen s Scholars the names of 
more than 300 boys who were at Westminster before 1603 
have been brought to light. 

The probation book of Merchant Taylors School begins 
in 1607, but a manuscript which has been preserved gives 
the names of 600 pupils of Richard Mulcaster, who was 
head master for twenty-five years. Mulcaster was high 
master of St. Paul s for nearly half as long as he was at 
Merchant Taylors , but the names of only thirty-seven of his 
Pauline pupils have been identified. 

It is surprising in view of the fact that the full registers 
of St. Paul s begin roughly a century later than those of 
most other schools of similar importance, that the names of 
so many Old Paulines of distinction have been preserved, 
but the fact cannot diminish our regret that the full record 
of the pupils of some of the greatest of our high masters, 
Langley, Cromleholme, Gale and Postlethwayt, has not 
been discovered. 

The chief sources of information from 1565 to 1749 are 
the lists of Pauline and of Campden Exhibitioners, but the 
first gives only 264 names, and the second, covering little 
more than a hundred years, contains less than 70 names. 

Unlike some schools, such as Charterhouse, St. Paul s 
has no livings in the gift of the governors from which 



GEORGE THICKNESSE, 1 748-1 7G9 33.5 

further information can be gleaned, but some 180 names in 
the first half of the eighteenth century have been recovered 
from the lists of stewards of the school feasts. 

The publication of college registers, notably those of 
St. John s and Caius at Cambridge, have added to our 
information, but for the rest there are no means of establish 
ing the place of education of Paulines before the middle of 
the eighteenth century, except such things as family letters, 
statements in early biographies, epitaphs, casual references 
in State papers and oral tradition. 

In an anonymous booklet entitled, Sketches and characters 
of the most eminent and singular persons now living, which 
from internal evidence appears to have been written by the 
high master s eccentric brother, Captain Philip Thicknesse, 
and which was published at Bristol in 1770, there is an 
interesting reference to George Thicknesse. Under the 
heading, " Of those who have made a mean and con 
temptible figure in some action and circumstance of their 
lives," appears the following 

" Mr. T******sse, high master of St. Paul s School, when 
he declined accepting any pecuniary recompence from the 
parents of the many young gentlemen, bred up under his 
care for upwards of twenty years, which is what none of 
his predecessors did ; but it is hoped, an example his 
successors will follow." 

From this it appears that the high masters who preceded 
Thicknesse received gratuities from the parents of the boys 
in the school, but it must be admitted that apart from the 
Christmas gift of one guinea, which in Morland s time 
appears to have been considered de rigueur, and the pro 
hibition of the practice by the Mercers in Gale s time, no 
other evidence of the custom is known to be extant. 

One reason, perhaps, for Thicknesse s refusal to be 
beholden to the parents of his scholars is to be found in the 



336 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

fact that in the year after his appointment to the high 
mastership the salaries of the masters, which had remained 
stationary for fifty years, were raised. 

The high master after 1749 was paid 210 instead of 
^169 a year as heretofore. 1 The surmaster s payment was 
120 instead of ^86, and the salary of the usher was raised 
from 51 to 80 per annum, while at the same time the 
allowance made to each of the three for livery gowns was 
doubled. 

Joshua Tillotson, who had been chaplain under Charles, 
became surmaster under Thicknesse. His successor, Samuel 
Ely, who was styled usher and not chaplain, is seen from 
the school accounts to have been occupying the high master s 
house in 1752, three years after his appointment. Philip 
Francis speaks of him as a boarding-house master, but it is 
not known whether he kept the house for the high master 
or had a few boarders in his own small house adjoining 
the surmaster s. He died in 1761, and was succeeded by 
William Rider, who, on the death of Tillotson two years 
later, was promoted to the surmastership, and combined 
with that office the post of chaplain to the Mercers Com 
pany. He edited an English dictionary, a family Bible in 
three volumes, and a history of England, and retained his 
post at St. Paul s for over twenty years, surviving Thick 
nesse and working under Roberts for sixteen years. 

Joseph Champion, who was an Old Pauline educated 
under George Charles, was " Accomptant and Writing Master 
to St. Paul s School" in 1751. The writing of his pupils 
was so much alike that it became known as the " Pauline 
hand." Among the boys whom he taught were Philip 
Francis and H. S. Woodfall, afterwards the editor of the 
Public Advertiser ; in which the " Letters of Junius " appeared. 

In 1755 Thicknesse revived the school feast which had 
1 App. to 3rd Rep. on Chars., 1820. 



GEORGE THICKNESSE, 1748-1769 337 

been in abeyance for twenty-seven years, no celebration 
having occurred during the high masterships of Crumpe or 
Charles. 

In that year a pompous, high-flown sermon was 
preached by Dr. John Fearon, sometime Fellow of Sidney, 
and private chaplain to a noble lady, in which he spoke of 
u friends long endeared to each other coming to this volun 
tary assembly to interchange & communicate a generous 
gratulation." The sermon of the following year, preached 
by Daniel Bellamy, is not of any interest, but Thomas 
Fairchild, who preached in 1757, declared that "Our 
grateful sentiments must be extended to those who have 
provided to the enlarging this plan of education to a far 
superior degree, near twenty Exhibitions having been left 
to the disposal of the Mercers Company for the benefit 
of the Students chosen to the Universities who might not 
otherwise have been able to have maintained themselves ; 
the more peculiar of which are the benefactions of the Lord 
Campden and the Lady North, and some others which 
though numerous in themselves this body have most 
prudently consolidated." 

From this date none of the sermons have been found 
in print, and hence it has been conjectured that the school 
feast was discontinued in 1757 and was never again 
revived. That this was not the case is shown by the 
references in Nichols Literary Anecdotes to meetings in 1791 
and 1792 in connection with the memorial bust of Thick- 
nesse, the first of which is very explicit and undoubtedly 
refers to the annual school feast, speaking as it does of " a 
public meeting of 81 gentlemen at their anniversary on St. 
Paul s day January 25th." 

A contemporary account of Thicknesse describes him 
as " a man of great learning wisdom and moderation. He 
considered boys as rational beings, and to be governed by 



338 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

reason, not by the rod : and without its use that School by 
his incessant assiduity was raised to the highest reputation." 
It may be that it was this tender propensity of the high 
master, of which he heard from his intimate friend and 
medical attendant, Dr. Lawrence, President of the College 
of Physicians, whose son was at St. Paul s, that inspired 
Dr. Johnson to declare : " There is now less flogging in 
our great schools than formerly, but then less is learned 
there : so that what the boys gain at one end they lose at 
the other." Not even Johnson himself, however, could 
complain of the lack of education enjoyed by Soulden 
Lawrence. He was admitted to the school as a non- 
foundationer, but in two years passed on to the foundation, 
and seven years later proceeded with a Pauline Exhibition 
to St. John s College, Cambridge, where he graduated as 
seventh wrangler and was elected Fellow. Having practised 
successfully at the Bar and assumed the coif, he was 
elevated to the Bench, where he sat for more than a 
quarter of a century, first in the Common Pleas, then in 
the King s Bench, and then again in the Common Pleas. 
He gained the reputation of being a judge of great ability 
and independence of mind. 

Thicknesse, who was never married, appears from a note 
by one of his old pupils, who speaks of him as " our beloved 
George Thicknesse," to have suffered from temporary 
mental derangement in the year 17 59.* He had returned 
to his duties early in the following year, for the same writer 
recalls the fact of his presence at the Apposition of 1760. 
He retained his post for nine years longer, and appears to 
have deserved the eulogy pronounced upon him by the 
biographers of Sir Philip Francis, who declared that " he 
was a superior scholar, a sagacious, conscientious and 

1 Gentleman s Magazine, 1814, vol. Ixxxiv. 2, 629. 




J- Hoppner pinx.} [C. 7 urntr sc. 

SIR sOL LDEN I.AWRKXCE, JL STICE OF THE KING S BEM.H 

{To fate p. 338. 



k GEORGE THICKNESSE, 1748-1769 339 

laborious tutor. A true disciplinarian, he was a just, kind, 
and considerate master beloved by his pupils. The Paulines 
of his mastership were reputed superior Latinists and 
Grecians, many of them in after life becoming eminent 
in the learned professions and successful in trade and 
commerce." 

The Mercers Company refused to accept the resignation 
of Thicknesse except on the one condition that he should 
nominate his successor, thereby paying him an even greater 
tribute than they had paid to Langley a hundred years 
earlier, when they appointed Cromleholme as his successor 
on the dying high master s unsolicited recommendation. 

He retired with a pension of ^100 a year from the 
Mercers Company, and lived in a country house in 
Warwickshire with a Wykehamist school-fellow until the 
death of the latter two years later. He then became the 
tenant of the manor house of Arlescote, where he remained 
until his death, in the enjoyment of an annuity of ^50, 
settled upon him by his Warwickshire friend, in addi 
tion to the pension which he drew from the Mercers 
Company. 

An autograph letter from Sir Philip Francis, dated from 
Upper Harley Street, January 20, 1785, which is preserved 
in the school library, deserves quotation in extenso for more 
reasons than one. 

"MY DEAR SIR, 

(t I received the favour of your letter, with a real 
sensation of Pleasure, but not unmixed with some uneasi 
ness. I cannot but feel, that it was my part and Duty to 
have recalled myself long ago to your Remembrance. But 
tho I condemn myself for Neglect, believe me I have never 
ceased to think of you, as of my Friend and Benefactor. 



z 2 



340 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

You have the best Claim to my Gratitude & a Right to 
every Service in my Power. 

"I called at your Brother s lodgings yesterday, wishing 
to see him before I answered Your Letter ; but he was not 
at home. Not knowing the Situation of his son I have no 
Idea how I can be of use to him. You will easily conceive 
that, in the present Circumstances I can have no Interest 
with the Admiralty & I can assure you that my Interest at 
the India House is worse than negative. In that quarter 
I and all who belong to me are proscribed. I did what I 
could to save the Body Corporate from Ruin and that was 
not the way to gain the Friendship of individuals. Mr. 
Hastings took the opposite course and has succeeded 
accordingly. I cannot but be touched with the account 
you give me of your own Situation. I well know how heavily 
the public Burthens press in every Sense and Direction on 
moderate and even upon considerable Fortunes ; at least 
such as used to be thought so. The Idea of Your being 
forced to quit a House which I am told you find comfort 
able makes me very uneasy ; and you will do me a great 
favour, if you will allow me to obviate the necessity of such 
a step ; which I seriously believe you would not feel more 
than I should. For the purpose of answering the last 
taxes 1 have taken the liberty of inclosing to you a Bank 
Note of twenty Pounds which in future as long as You and 
I live, You shall regularly receive in the beginning of every 
Year. I entreat you not to refuse this little mark of my 
Gratitude and affection for you ; and much more earnestly 
do 1 intreat you, not to attribute this offer to any motive, 
that ought to disincline you to me. 

" I shall learn from your brother what parts of my 
Speeches he has sent you in order that I may supply you 
with the remainder. If there be any good in them I deem 
it to be principally due to your early Instruction. I mean 






GEORGE THICKNESSE, 1748-1769 341 

to send you from time to time anything that may be worth 
your notice or likely to amuse you. 

" I am with the sincerest Affection and Esteem 
" Dear Sir 

" Your most obliged and faithful servant 

" P. FRANCIS. 

" I beg of you to make whatever Use of my Privilege 
you think fit without the smallest scruple. 
" Mr. George Thicknesse." 

The occasion of this letter was in part Thicknesse s 
approaching removal from the house at Mollington, where 
he had resided since the death of his friend, Mr. Holbeach. 
The letter is inserted in a copy of Original Minutes of the 
Governor-General and Council of Fort William, a companion 
volume to which is a collection of the speeches of Francis 
from 1784 to 1786, containing a few notes and corrections 
in the author s handwriting. Their presence in the library 
at the school is explained by a letter from Thicknesse 
written nearly twenty years after his retirement and four 
years before his death to his successor, Richard Roberts, 
which is also preserved. 

"DEAR SIR, 

This parcel comes to you with my earnest wish 
that the contents of it may be carefully preserved in the 
library of St. Paul s School in which I promise myself you 
will oblige me, when you have read the manuscript letter 
within the Quarto. Whatever sentiments you may have in 
this dispute about Mr. Hastings (for I find there is now 
variety in it) yet I beg you would indulge me with the 
treasuring these writings and Speeches, which come from 
my friend Mr. Francis. You will think, I am sure, they 
come from a very able hand, and I think a very honest one. 



342 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

I guess too, if you form any judgement at all about Indian 
affairs, we do not much differ in our opinions about Mr. H. 
or any of his predecessors. I hear of you now and then 
when a Paul s scholar calls on me, or when your examiner, 
whose name 1 cannot now recollect, sometimes calls on me. 
I beg you would mention me to your Brother, with great 
regard, and believe me to be, dear Sir, 
" Your very affectionate 

" and very humble servant 

" GEORGE THICKNESSE. 

" Arescote (sic for Arlescote) 
"Jan. 17,1787-" 

The somewhat singular provisions which Thicknesse 
eft concerning his burial, are to be found in Nichols Literary 
Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century. 1 " Humility distinguished 
every part of his life, but particularly the last act of it ; for 
he directed his body to be put into a common coffin, like a 
common man, (for such, said he, I am,) and to be buried on 
the north side of Warmington churchyard, without any 
memorial to mark the spot ; where (to use the words of 
Sir Philip Francis, K.B., who was his scholar) the wisest, 
the most learned, quiet, and the best man he ever knew was 
laid. His virtues made those who were connected with him 
happy ; his temper made himself so. That vulgar celebrity 
which men call fame he regarded with indifference. . . . But 
while he lived he heard with pleasure that his name was 
remembered with an affectionate veneration by his numerous 
scholars at their annual meetings. Though he is now 
beyond the reach of their gratitude, his claim to it did not 
end with his life. Something remained to be done for an 
example to those who come after us, to unite the memory 
of this incomparable man with the existence of that school, 

1 Vol. ix. p. 255. 




J. Hoppner pinjc.\ 



SIR PHILIP FRANCIS, K.C.B. 



[H. Adlard sc. 
\Tofacep. 342. 



GEORGE THICKNESSE, 1748-1769 343 

and to preserve them together as long as learning shall exist 
in this kingdom. This grateful duty was performed in 
1791, when at a public meeting of eighty-one gentlemen at 
their anniversary on St. Paul s day, January 25, it was 
unanimously resolved That a public testimony should be 
given of their respect to the memory of the late Rev. George 
Thicknesse, and of their veneration for his name : that a 
marble bust be carved at the expense of the meeting, and 
placed in the body of the school ; and that it be earnestly 
recommended to the present and all future Masters of the 
school, to instruct the scholars of the upper classes, to make 
honourable mention of the name and character of Mr. 
Thicknesse immediately after that of Dean Colet, in their 
annual speeches delivered in the school at Kaster. 

The outcome of this resolution is to be found in a 
letter from Sir Philip Francis to Edmund Burke, dated 
January 21, 1792. 

" MY DEAR MR. BuRKE, 1 

" I am sure I need make no apology for requesting 
you to assist me in an act of piety and gratitude to the memory 
of one of the best and most learned men of his time, the 
late Mr. George Thicknesse. In the narrow sphere allotted 
to him, I can affirm with certainty that it was impossible to 
exhibit greater qualifications of every kind, or to do more 
good to mankind, than he did. Judge not of his learning 
and abilities, though you may of his virtue and wisdom, by 
the obscurity in which he passed this life, and escaped out 
of it Natus moriensque fefellit. 

" He claimed no honour from descent of blood, 
But that which made him noble, made him good. 

" In the little circle of his friends I never knew a man 

1 Correspond, of the Rt. Hon. Edm. Burke., ed. by Earl Fitzwilliam and 
Sir R. Bourke, 1844, vol. iii. pp. 376-8. 



344 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

so much respected. By his scholars universally he was 
beloved and reverenced. Even they who neglected his in 
structions, or forgot his precepts, were tenderly and dutifully 
attached to his person. Your friend Hickey has succeeded 
in the bust beyond my expectation ; considering that he had 
nothing but a very indifferent old picture to copy from, and 
had never seen the original. The performance does him so 
much credit, and he has taken such pains with it, that we, 
the managers, are perfectly satisfied, and have agreed for his 
honour, to let it appear at the exhibition, before it is erected 
in the school. Some of us pretended scholars have been 
humming our brains for an inscription ; but what signifies 
malleation without fire ? Be so good as to lend us a little 
of yours. One of the faults of the inclosed essays is, that 
it is too long for the tablet. Do you see if you can mend 
it, or make it better, and let me have your answer by to 
morrow s or Monday s post. All this family, jointly and 
severally, desire their most affectionate duty and dutiful 
affection, to be presented to Mrs. Burke and yourself. 

" Yours abundantly, 

" P. FRANCIS. 

" P.S. Observe, we are obliged to mix the honours of 
the school with the eulogy of one of its greatest masters, of 
whom, Lilly was the first, appointed by Dean Colet." 

Burke s answer to this letter is to be found in the 
Memoirs of Sir Philip Francis, K.C.B. 1 

"Monday Morning, January 23, 1792. 

"Mv DEAR SIR, 

" I thank you for the honour you have done me 
in thinking that my obsolete and worn-out ideas of classical 
expression can be of any use to you. Such as they are they 

1 Edited by J. Parkes and B. Merivale, 1867, v l- " P- 



GEORGE THICKNESSE, 1748-1769 345 

are at your service. I have scribbled in your margin a 
trifling note or two. I have likewise scribbled over the 
same thoughts with yours, which I thought so far from con 
tracting, to give a dignity to the subject, ought rather to be 
expanded. Certainly it is the very best style of antiquity, 
in all eulogies, to exalt the place of birth and education ; 
and the dignity of the art in the object of an x ... cultivated, 
and the splendour of his progenitors or predecessors. I 
think you have said more of Mr. Thicknesse in your con 
versations with me than is said in the inscription. I have 
endeavoured to express it. In the latter part I was inter 
rupted by the bad news which takes me to town the great 
danger of the life of an old and invaluable friend. If my 
stock was greater, the loss would still be most grievous. I 
can say, write, or think nothing more. Alas ! All that is 
said there would be truly said upon another tomb. 

" Dear sir, 

" Very sincerely yours, 

"DM. BURKE. " 2 

After being shown in "the exhibition," by which, no 
doubt, Francis meant the Royal Academy, the bust was 
placed in the great hall of the school. When the school 
was rebuilt in 1824, it was transferred to the high 
master s house, and it was probably at this time that the 
inscription, the joint work of Francis and Burke, was lost. 
In Ackerman s aquatint, dated 1816, a tablet appears hanging 
above the bust. The result of this loss was that the bust 
of Thicknesse became confounded in later years with one 
of his successor, Dr. Roberts. Thomas Hickey, a brother 
of John Hickey, the sculptor, painted a portrait of Roberts, 
and this fact led to confusion on the part of Nicholas 
Carlisle, who, in his Endowed Grammar Schools, published in 

1 Lacuna in the MS. * ^ and < ^ g vd -^ 



GEORGE THICKNESSE, 1748-1769 347 

College, Cambridge, and of the yearly value of i o, to be held 
during good behaviour until they were of M.A. standing. 

In 1756, the library, which was at that time situated at 
the south end of the school-room adjoining the surmaster s 
house, was adorned with busts of Homer, Virgil, Milton, 
Bacon, Locke and Newton. Of these, that of Milton alone, 
if, indeed, it be the identical bust, survives. At a later date 
a bust of Colet, by Mr. Fournier, was added, as were also 
those of four Old Paulines, Marlborough, Camden, Halley, 
and Robert Nelson. 

A far more important gift to the library was made by 
a boy in the school in 1759, who presented the MS. 
of Dean Colet s abstract of the Hierarchies of Dionysius. 
Nothing more than this is known concerning the acquisition 
by the school of this, the only MS. of the founder, which is 
in the library : and of the donor, Robert Emmot, the son of 
a hat-maker in the Borough, the only information which we 
possess is gleaned from a passing reference by one W. P., in a 
number of the Gentleman s Magazine half a century later, 1 
in which the writer says that when he left St. Paul s at the 
Apposition of 1760, the three boys who were above him, 
and whom he had never seen since that date, were Iltyd 
Nichol, the captain, Emmot and Toosey. 

Another interesting relic of this period possessed by the 
library consists of the edition of 1750, in six volumes, of the 
translation of the Iliad for which Pope was 

" Indebted to no Prince or Peer alive," 

which contains the autographs of Dr. Francis, the translator 
of Horace, and of his son, Sir Philip Francis, who signs 
himself in each volume "of St. PauPs School, 1754." A 
further interest is attached to these volumes, which must 
have been used by Thicknesse s distinguished pupil in his 

1 Vol. clxxxiv., pt. ii. p. 629. 



348 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

second year at St. Paul s, from the fact that they were 
presented to the school by his grandson, Mr. Philip Francis. 

In a volume of the periodical entitled, The Universal 
Magazine of Knowledge and Pleasure, there appears under 
the date March 17, 1768, a paragraph which deserves to be 
quoted as being the first known account in the public Press 
of an Apposition at St. Paul s. " Tuesday, the young 
Gentlemen on the foundation of St Paul s School were 
publicly examined in the different parts of literature ; after 
which the eight senior youths made several speeches in 
Latin, Greek and English before a numerous and polite 
assembly in the school ; one speech in particular, which was 
received with great applause, on the following question, viz. 
Ought virtue to show itself most in prosperity or adver 
sity ? At the same time Mr Filmer, one of the senior 
scholars, was elected to Christ Church College, in Oxford, on 
the usual exhibition of that noble and well-endowed school." 

There is reason to believe that Thicknesse revived the 
old tradition of acting at St. Paul s, but the only play of the 
production of which there is any record is the Adelphi 
of Terence, which was played on February 3, 1761. 

One of the most distinguished of Thicknesse s pupils 
was John Fisher, who, after graduating while a Pauline 
Exhibitioner of Peterhouse as tenth wrangler, was elected 
Fellow of St. John s. He was soon after appointed a Royal 
Chaplain and Deputy Clerk of the Closet. Mrs. Piozzi 
describes him as a charming creature generally known in 
society as the King s Fisher." His position as tutor to the 
Duke of Kent, the father of Queen Victoria, led to a lasting 
intimacy which is reflected in the personal reminiscences of 
childhood of the late Queen, written in 1872, which are pre 
fixed to the recently issued volumes of her correspondence, 1 

1 Letters of Queen Victoria, ed. by Lord Esher and A. C. Benson, vol. i. 
p. 14. 




Dodddtl.} 



MAJOR JOHN ANDRE 



[Cook sc. 
[To face p. 348. 



GEORGE THICKNESSE, 1748-1769 349 

tc I had a great horror of Bishops on account of their 
wigs and aprons, but recollect this being partly got over in 
the case of the then Bishop of Salisbury (Dr. Fisher) by 
his kneeling down and letting me play with his badge of 
Chancellor of the Order of the Garter." After occupying a 
prebendal stall at Windsor, Fisher went to Exeter, first as 
Archdeacon and then as Bishop, and from that See he was 
after four years translated to Salisbury, where he died 
eighteen years later in 1825. Samuel Parr wrote of him 

" Unsoiled by Courts and unseduced by aeal 
Fisher endangers not the public weal." 

Very different from that of Fisher was the career of the 
Old Pauline whose name, John Villette, occurs next to his in 
the admission registers. He spent over thirty years of his 
life as Ordinary of Newgate, and must have attended many 
hundreds of criminals to the scaffold, for in the eighteenth 
century, no less than two hundred crimes ranked as capital 
offences. There is every reason to suppose that he attended in 
his last moments an Old Pauline, William Jobbins by name, 
nineteen years of age, who in 1790 was hanged for arson and 
robbery. 1 He certainly ministered to Timothy Brecknock, 
a Westminster boy, and " Fighting Fitzgerald," an Etonian, 
who were hanged for murder four years earlier. Villette s 
reputation must rest on the testimonial of Dr. Johnson, to 
the effect that " his extraordinary diligence is highly praise 
worthy, and merits a distinguished reward." 

Two of the pupils of Thicknesse who entered the school 
within eight years of each other during the last years of this 
high mastership, lived to become distinguished commanders 
at sea at the time when naval supremacy was paramount in 
the struggle against Napoleon. 

The elder of these, Sir Frederick Thesiger, the son of 
Lord Rockingham s private secretary, before entering the 

1 Nov. 20, 1790. Newgate Calendar. 



350 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

British Navy was in the service of the East India Company, 
which he left to enter the Russian Navy, in which he rose to 
the rank of captain and fought against Sweden, gaining the 
order of knighthood of St. George of Russia. His know 
ledge of Russian proved very valuable to his own country on 
his entering its navy, and in his capacity of aide-de-camp to 
Viscount Nelson at the battle of Copenhagen, he was chosen 
by the admiral to convey the overtures for a truce to the 
Crown Prince of Denmark. 

Admiral Sir Thomas Troubridge, who entered St. Paul s 
at the age of ten, left the school in the fifth form. He was 
in the navy in 1773, and probably went straight from school 
to sea. He was present as a prisoner on a French admiral s 
flagship at Lord Howe s famous engagement on June i, 
1794, and was prevented by ill fortune from taking part in 
the battle of the Nile. The high reputation which he had 
earned, and the great importance of his services in Mediter 
ranean waters, where he blockaded Civita Vecchia, and took 
the city of Rome, earned for him in 1799 a baronetcy and the 
Sicilian Order of St. Ferdinand and of Merit. Shortly after 
he took his seat at the Board of Admiralty, and having 
attained the rank of rear-admiral, hoisted his flag on the 
Blenheim, which was lost with all hands in the Indian Ocean. 
Nelson bestowed on Troubridge what was, perhaps, the 
highest praise paid by him to any man when speaking of him 
in a private letter to Earl St. Vincent, he said, " I trust you 
will not take him from me. I know well he is my superior, 
and I often want his advice and assistance." 

The name of Major John Andre, who was a pupil of 
Thicknesse, is for some unaccountable reason not to be found 
in the registers of the school. After leaving St. Paul s and 
completing his education at Geneva, he entered the army at 
the age of twenty in 1771, and by remarkably rapid pro 
motion rose to be brigadier-major in nine years. He served 







Sir William Bccchiy pinx.} [/;-. Holt sc. 

ADMIRAL SIR THOMAS TROUBRIDGE, BART. 

[To/ate p. 350. 



GEORGE THICKNESSE, 1748-1769 351 

as adjutant-general of the British forces serving under Sir 
Henry Clinton in America, and having been sent to conclude 
terms with General Arnold, who wished treacherously to 
betray West Point to the English, he was captured, tried as 
a spy and executed. Washington wished to concede to him 
that he should meet his death as a soldier by being shot, but 
sterner councils prevailed, and he was hanged after having 
said to the bystanders, " I have only to request the gentle 
men present to bear testimony that I met my death as a 
brave man." The news of his death was received with great 
indignation in England, and as a mark of the universal 
respect in which his memory was held, his brother was made 
a baronet. Forty years later his body was transported to 
England and buried with great solemnity in Westminster 
Abbey, close to the monument executed by one of the 
brothers Adam, which George III had erected to his memory 
two years after his death. A memorial erected on the site 
of his gallows by an American citizen a hundred years after 
his death bears an inscription by Dean Stanley, which states, 1 
" His death, though according to the stern code of war, 
moved even his enemies to pity, and both armies mourned 
the fate of one so young and so brave." 

One of the earliest pupils of Thicknesse, William 
Parsons by name, became well known as an actor and as a 
painter. He was early discovered by Garrick, with whom he 
often acted at Drury Lane, his first appearance being in the 
part of Filch in The Beggar s Opera. His great success in 
depicting the characters of old men earned for him the title 
of " the Comic Roscius," and he is said to have been, in 
comedy, the worthy rival of Garrick. 

In view of the interest always maintained by Sir Philip 
Francis in St. Paul s, comparatively little is known concern 
ing his school-days. He entered in 1753, at the age of 
1 Pauline, vol. ix., No. 48, May 1891, p. 103. 



352 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

twelve, and apparently boarded in the house of Samuel Ely, 
the usher, who may have maintained a separate boarding 
house at this date, although from the Mercers accounts it 
appears that in 1752 he was living in the high master s 
house. In an undated letter, written apparently in the 
early part of the boy s school-days, Dr. Francis wrote to 
his son 

" I rejoice with you at being so long head of your class, 
and I hope you will enjoy your superiority over your class- 
fellows by condescension, compliance, and if they desire it 
by assisting them. ... As to moving into a higher Form 1 
could not wish you would press Mr Thicknesse by showing 
any impatience in your desire. Think, my dear Phil, that it 
is not being in any particular place, but the figure you shall 
make there, that gives the distinction of honour." The 
boy s eagerness to move rapidly up the school was satisfied, as 
appears from the fact that in the school lists for March 
1754, his name appears just below that of Henry Sampson 
Woodfall, as the last in the Eighth, a form into which no 
doubt he had just been moved. In a few months time he 
became third boy in his form, and during the year which pre 
ceded his leaving, 1755-56, he was captain of the school. 

He is said to have acted as private secretary to Pitt while 
still a boy at St. Paul s. His subsequent career at the War 
Office, as Member of the Council in Bengal, as Member of 
Parliament, reputed author of the " Letters of Junius " and 
Manager of the impeachment of Warren Hastings, is too 
well known to need more than a passing reference. 

The biographers of Sir Philip Francis, who state that St. 
Paul s under Thicknesse received pupils from all parts of 
the kingdom, speaking of the high master, declare that 

" He was beloved by all his pupils, and retained their 
grateful & affectionate friendship to the close of his life. 
His discrimination of the moral and intellectual natures of 



GEORGE THICKNESSE, 1748-1769 353 

his different scholars was one of his highest qualifications for 
a teacher of youth. He was accustomed to say that the 
boys of the school were not like the bricks of the school- 
house, all moulded in one form ; that his pupils differed 
widely in powers and direction of mind, in temper and in 
temperament, and in the physical conditions of health : that 
some boys had no talent for the acquisition of the dead 
languages, and that a Master must be content with their 
elementary instruction, as the cane and the birch would not 
alter nature." 

In this connection it is worth noting that Thicknesse 
always mentioned Philip Francis and Philip Rosenhagen as 
the most naturally clever and the best scholars of his whole 
career as high master, but Rosenhagen, he said, had neither 
perseverance nor moral conduct, while Francis had both. 

The career of Rosenhagen, the son of a gentleman of 
Danish descent, bore out the presages of his school-master. 
He was captain of the school a year before Francis, and 
having graduated as ninth wrangler, was elected Fellow of 
St. John s College. Soon after he became chaplain to Lord 
Chesterfield, and Dr. Johnson s celebrated epigram appears 
to have been as applicable to the parson as to the " peerless 
peer of manners and congees." He became a regimental 
chaplain, and while living in Paris " dressed in hat and 
feather, silk coat, red-heeled shoes, and all the foppery of a 
petit maitre" he met Francis, and told his school-fellow that 
since he mixed in the best society he could not appear in 
the dowdy dress of an English parson. 

In 1784 Rosenhagen s convivial character made him a 
persona grata in the circle surrounding the Prince of Wales, 
and the latter endeavoured to induce the congenial clergy 
man to marry him to Mrs. Fitzherbert, but the price offered 
for this dangerous act was not sufficiently high. 

Rosenhagen next endeavoured to persuade Lord North 



A A 



CHAPTER XIX 

THE LONGEST HIGH MASTERSHIP 
RICHARD ROBERTS, HIGH MASTER 1769-1814 

RICHARD ROBERTS, the nominee of the retiring high 
master who was appointed by the Mercers to succeed him, 
was educated at St. Paul s under George Charles, in the days 
in which Thicknesse was surmaster. He is the last Old 
Pauline who has been elected high master. Of his career 
before coming to St. Paul s as high master remarkably little 
is known. He was born in 1729, consequently he must 
have been in his sixteenth year when he entered Jesus 
College, Oxford, as a servitor. He held a Pauline Exhi 
bition from 1749-51. Nothing whatever is known of his 
career between that date and the year 1769, in which he 
was elected high master. His tenure of that post for forty- 
five years is memorable in the history of the school in so 
far as he held it for a longer period than any other high 
master before his time or since ; but it is remarkable that he 
is the only high master for the last hundred and fifty years 
of whom no account is given in the Dictionary of National 
Biography. He took his D.D. degree four years after 
being appointed high master, but, unlike his two immediate 
successors, received no recognition from his ecclesistical 
superiors in the shape of a stall in the cathedral. 

For the first twenty-one years of Roberts rule, St. 
Paul s flourished extremely. In 1773 an additional assist 
ant master had to be appointed to teach the fifth and sixth 

AA 2 355 



350 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

classes, but he was paid by the high master out of his 
own salary until 1786. From the date of Roberts 
appointment until 1790 the full number of foundation 
scholars appears to have been steadily maintained, while in 
these twenty-one years eighty-two boys other than those 
on the foundation were admitted, a small number when 
compared with the hundred and twenty-four who were 
admitted in the nineteen years of Thicknesse s high master 
ship. Of Roberts non-foundationers only eighteen were 
subsequently admitted to the foundation, a figure which is 
in great contrast with the sixty-three non-foundation scholars 
of Thicknesse who were promoted to the foundation after 
admission to the school. 

St. Paul s, Westminster and Merchant Taylors all 
suffered a decline at the end of the eighteenth century. The 
only London school that flourished throughout the reign of 
George III was Charterhouse. 

After 1790 there occurred a gradual diminution in the 
number of boys at St. Paul s. In 1797 there were only 
ninety-seven, and in 1804 only ninety-one ; but the period 
of decline at St. Paul s was very short. From that year 
there was an increase in numbers, and in 1814, the year of 
Dr. Roberts resignation, the full number of places in the 
school were filled. After 1791 no boys were placed on the 
foundation who had not entered the school in that capacity, 
and from the year 1790 until 1806 only twenty-three non- 
foundationers were admitted. After that year the admission 
of boys other than those on the foundation was stopped, 
and the school was limited as to its numbers to the statutory 
hundred and fifty and three, a rule which lasted until the 
year 1877. 

About ten per cent, of the boys admitted to the school 
by Roberts proceeded to the Universities, and St. Paul s 
under his rule reasserted itself as a great public, as opposed 



RICHARD ROBERTS, 1769-18U 357 

to a local metropolitan, school, as is shown by the fact that of 
boys who were not Londoners nearly twice as large a pro 
portion passed through the school in the high mastership of 
Roberts as in that of Thicknesse. 

The power of maintaining discipline appears to have 
been quite beyond the attainments of Dr. Roberts. One 
account of the school l in his time declares that, " never 
was there a more uproarious crew than the boys of St. Paul s, 
when, after forty years of thrashing them, Dr. Roberts 
retired on a pension." Barham relates how his friend, 
Charles Diggle, who in time became a major-general in the 
army, used to steal the shoe-laces of Isaac Hill, the high 
master s assistant, and avowed his intention of continuing 
the robbery until he had enough to extend the seventy feet 
of the length of the school-room, but unfortunately he left 
before he had done so. The same two boys went into a 
Quakers meeting, Diggle with a jam tart, which he held up 
saying, " Whoever speaks first shall have this pie." To 
this a solemn Quaker said, " Friend, go thy way," where 
upon Diggle replied " The pie s yours," and rushed out into 
the street. 

An anonymous account of the school under Roberts, 
which was, without a doubt, written by one of his pupils just 
fifty years ago, deserves, from its picturesque style, to be 
quoted in extenso. " A regular curiosity," it says, " was 
Roberts, a venerable-looking man, at least in his last days, 
seeming scarce more lively than his bust, which now adorns 
the school-room, except when plying the cane ; and on 
such occasions he was wonderfully active, as if inspired by 
new life. He wore a suit of rusty black, never wholly 
buttoned up, so as to shew his shirt, with an enormous steel 
watch chain, and a hat to which a three year old one would 
appear quite fresh and juvenile. At seven o clock on a 
1 Leisure Hour, 1860, p. 618. 



358 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

winter s morning, the shivering scholars assembled with 
sixpenny tapers in japanned boxes and fingers below freezing 
point, no fires being at any time allowed. At half-past seven 
magister crawled in, but in complete deshabille with a blue 
nose, ludicrously winking his eyelids to keep them open. 
Having seated himself at a desk with black props opposite 
the pupil s face, the latter strove to fix upon the said props 
within convenient distance, a duplicate of the lesson to be 
delivered. If this trick could not be performed, some 
auxiliary would inevitably puff out the doctor s taper, upon 
which like a giant aroused from slumber he would cut away 
right and left in the dark, assailing face and limbs indiscrimin 
ately. If any noise arose which could not be traced to the 
noise maker, he invariably chastised the head boy of every 
class, as a kind of practical lecture on the dangers of emin 
ence. He had the ugly habit, also of tying two or three 
canes together, thus making a bouquet of the implements, 
when there was any special amount of cudgelling to be 
dispensed." 1 With all his flogging, however, Roberts failed 
to suppress " the practice of boys from every part of the 
school-room throwing books at the head of any one, who 
ever he was, who entered the school-room with his hat on 
his head." On the other hand, there is ample evidence of 
Roberts power of inspiring the respect of his pupils. 

Richard Harris Barham, Canon of St. Paul s Cathedral, 
better known as the author of the Ingoldsby Legends, was 
captain of the school in 1806, and refers somewhere to 
Lucretius as 

" An author that gave me no trifling vexation, 
When a youngster at school on Dean Colet s foundation." 

Barham was the first captain of the school to receive a 

grant of thirty guineas, which was continued annually till 

1876. His son who, like himself, was an Old Pauline, in 

1 Leisure Hour, 1860, p. 618. 



RICHARD ROBERTS, 1769-1814 359 

his biography of " Thomas Ingoldsby," describes the kind 
ness with which his father was nursed by Dr. Roberts and 
his wife, in whose house he was a boarder, when his arm was 
severely crushed through the upsetting of the Dover mail 
on his way up to school from Canterbury. 1 The school 
library possesses a MS. ode by Ingoldsby on "Jerry," his 
favourite cat. 

A much earlier pupil of Roberts , who was also at Har 
row, and who became the brother-in-law of his school-fellow 
Richard Brinsley Sheridan, was William Linley, who, after 
spending sixteen years in the service of the East India 
Company, became joint-owner with Sheridan of Drury Lane 
Theatre, and was well known as a composer, dramatist, 
novelist and minor poet. A copy of one of his forgotten 
novels, 2 which is in the British Museum, contains on the 
fly-leaf the following inscription, dated 1810, twenty-five 
years after he had entered the school : "This book is re 
spectfully presented by the author, W. Linley, to Dr and 
Mrs Roberts in grateful recollection of favours conferred 
upon him, and the important advantages derived from an 
education under the Doctor s uniformly able and zealous 
tuition to which any little merit the work may possess is 
principally owing." 3 

Another interesting sidelight thrown upon Roberts is to 
be found in a letter of William Cowper, 4 dated April 30, 
1785, just after the publication of John Gilpin, in which he 
says, " The head master of St Paul s School (who he is I 
know not) has conceived, in consequence of the entertain 
ment that John has afforded him, a vehement desire to write 

1 Life of R. H. Barham, by R. H. D. Barham. 

The Adventure of Ralph RoybriJge, 1809, I2mo, 4 vols. 

His portrait as a handsome boy, painted while he was at St. Paul s, 
which is in the Dulwich College Gallery, is one of the masterpieces of Sir 
Thomas Lawrence, P.R.A. 

4 " Life of Cowper " and Pauline, vol. xx., No. 131,?. 72. 



RICHARD ROBERTS, 1769-1814 363 

re-discovered in 1804, a year in which the company went 
carefully into the accounts of the school. In that year, to 
quote the Report of the Royal Commission on the Livery 
Companies of the City of London l - 

" An old cash book of 1713-14 was found shewing that 
at the close of the surveyor-accountant s account of the 
school for the year there was a balance due from the 
Company to the school of 13,351 7-J- 4^- On investiga 
tion it was found that in 1745 the debt owing from the 
Company to the school was 34,637. In 1806 the 
Company charged themselves with this debt. In 1808 
5,000 was invested in 3 per cent, annuities, and from 
1814 2,000 was invested every year till the whole debt 
was liquidated, which occurred in 1824." 

We have already had occasion to refer to the two 
occasions on which, during the high mastership of Thick- 
nesse, the school exhibitions were increased in value. The 
following notice, from the Gentleman s Magazine, under the 
date March n, 1772, of the third Apposition in the 
mastership of Roberts, shows that a further increase followed 
very soon after those of 1752 and 1754. 

" The young gentlemen of St. Paul s School spoke their 
annual orations before a numerous audience, with universal 
applause. They passed their examinations with such honour 
that the worshipful Company of Mercers have, as a reward 
to their merit, and an encouragement to their further 
improvement, enlarged their exhibitions out of the encrease 
of the founder s estate from twenty to thirty pounds yearly, 
during the first three years of their college residence, and, 
after taking their degree, to forty." 

A resolution to the above effect is contained in the MS. 
transcript of the Mercers minutes, from which quotation 
has so often been made in this book, and the last entry in 

1 1884, vol. ii. p. 37 



364 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

the MS. is dated exactly a year later March u, 1773 
and runs, " The Court taking into Consideration what 
might be a proper time for Scholars to be in St. Paul s 
School before the petition for Exhibitions Resolved and 
Ordered that no Scholar that shall hereafter be admitted 
into St. Paul s School shall be permitted to Petition for an 
Exhibition until he shall have been full Four years in the 
School upon the Foundation by the Appointment of the 
Surveyor for the time being." It is interesting to observe 
that this is a mere re-enactment of the resolution of 1633, 
which in 1698 had been relaxed by making the necessary 
period three years. 

In 1802 the value of the Campden Exhibitions was raised 
from 10 3. year each to 50 each, tenable for seven years. 
In 1810 it was decided that there should be six exhibitions 
of ,100 a year each, but in 1812 it was resolved that only 
one should be given annually. 

In 1780, by the will of John Stock, citizen and draper 
of London, there were founded scholarships at Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge, as a tribute of " respect to the 
Merit and Reputation of an eminent Grammar School of 
the City of London, viz. St. Paul s Grammar School in St. 
Paul s Churchyard." The testator required that the boys 
benefiting under his will should have been at St. Paul s for 
three or four years. 

In 1782, owing to the fact that the buildings were under 
repair, the school was held in Blacksmiths Hall in Upper 
Thames Street. The chief external alteration made in the 
school building in this year was to enlarge the uppermost 
storeys of the two masters houses, no doubt for the 
accommodation of boarders. The central arched window, 
which appears above the cornice supported by scrolls and 
with a balustrade above it in the views of the school up to 
the year 1754, is seen, in those engraved after the year 



RICHARD ROBERTS, 1769-1814 365 

1783, to have been replaced by three square attic windows 
with a slated roof above them. 

According to a writer who described the collections of 
books in the city of London in the pages of the Gentleman s 
Magazine 1 in 1790, the library of St. Paul s at that date 
" upon the whole was on the decay," and it is of interest 
in this connection to quote from some lines found after his 
death among the papers of Dr. Ollivant, Bishop of LlandafF, 
which were written in his handwriting, with a footnote 
stating that they were composed by a school-fellow. 2 

" Dr. Rob . . . s complains that the books have been lost, 
The books of St. Paul s School, stole mangled and tost : 
And loudly inveighs gainst the rogue in the dark, 
And vows if he find him he ll punish the spark." 

Point is given to these lines by the fact that from the 
catalogue published in 1809, the year in which Alfred 
Ollivant entered the school, it appears that the library 
contained only 789 volumes, while in 1743 the number of 
volumes had been 830. 

A writer in 1803 describes the library as "a dark 
diminutive & dusty room at the south end of the school, 
where the books which compose it are covered with dust 
& defaced by the boys with ink & erasures." 3 

The school library still possesses a copy of a play 
entitled Abradates and Panthea, on a subject taken from 
the Cyropaedia, which was acted by the scholars of St. Paul s 
in i77o. 4 

The only known contemporary record of the four 
hundredth anniversary of the foundation of the school by 
Colet is to be found in the Gentleman s Magazine? according 
to which 

1 G. M., vol. lx. p. 586. 2 Pauline, vol. iv., No. 5, p. 99. 

Malcolm, Lond. ReJevlvum, vol. iii: p. 193. 

4 Notes and Queries, series 2, vol. ii: p. 67, 1862. 

5 G. M., 1810, vol. Ixxx. p. 480. 



366 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

" The commencement of the fourth centenary from the 
foundation of St. Paul s School was this day celebrated at 
Freemason s Hall by the gentlemen who received their 
education in that respectable seminary. The Lord Bishop 
of Salisbury, Sir Philip Francis, K.B., the Rev. Dr. Roberts, 
the high master, and many others, equally the ornaments of 
that excellent foundation and of society, whom the celebra 
tion of this event had attracted even from distant parts of 
the country, graced the social board." 

That the school was not unmindful of the services 
rendered to it by the man who occupied the high master s 
chair for a longer time than did any of his predecessors 
or successors, is seen from a record in the Gentleman s 
Magazine, 1 which states that on March 30, 1815, "The 
young Gentlemen educating at St. Paul s School, to evince 
their respect for the Rev. Dr. Roberts, who lately resigned 
the situation of High Master after retaining it for upwards 
of forty-five years presented to him, as a mark of their 
grateful esteem, an elegant silver vase inscribed with 
suitable & appropriate devices and inscriptions. The 
Scholars of the head class with a deputation from each 
of the other classes presented it to the venerable Master 
at his house in Kensington ; when Mr. Hastings, the senior 
scholar delivered an appropriate address in the name of 
the School, to which Dr. Roberts returned an answer 
expressive of his feelings, exhorting his young friends to 
persevere in their classical pursuits, and expressing his 
conviction that the young gentlemen educated at St. Paul s 
School would always prove an ornament to their country 
and to mankind. Dr. Roberts afterwards entertained his 
young friends with a handsome collation." 

The most distinguished of Roberts pupils was Thomas 

1 G. M., vol. Ixxxviii., pt. i., p. 368. 




THOMAS WILDE, LORD TRURO, LORD CHANCELLOR OF 

From the copy by T, Y, Gooderson in the Xational Portrait Gallerv of the painting bv 
Sir Francis Grant. P.R.A., in the School 

\ToJacc p. 366. 



RICHARD ROBERTS, 1769-1814 367 

Wilde, Lord Chancellor Truro. The son of a Newgate 
Street attorney, popularly known as "Gentleman Wilde," 
he entered St. Paul s at the age of seven, and remained 
there until he was fourteen. Of his career at St. Paul s 
nothing is known, except that two years after his entry he 
was so backward that the examiner recommended his 
removal, but Dr. Roberts, recognizing his latent abilities, 
refused to allow this. Immediately on leaving school he 
was articled to his father, but after practising for twelve 
years as a solicitor he was called to the Bar in 1817. Three 
years later, in the case of the Bill of Pains and Penalties 
against Queen Caroline, Wilde was briefed as counsel, and 
virtually superseded Brougham and Denman, who were 
respectively the Queen s Attorney and Solicitor -General. 
The confidence which he inspired in his Royal client is 
to be seen in the fact that the Queen made him one of her 
executors, and charged him with the duty of distributing 
her mourning rings inscribed " Regi, regnoque fidelis." 
Soon after the Queen s case Wilde was called to the degree 
of Serjeant-at-Law, and later became in turn King s Serjeant 
and Queen s Ancient Serjeant. Within ten years of his call 
he had the largest Common Law practice in England. In 
1831 Wilde, after two unsuccessful contests, was returned 
in the Whig interest as member for Newark, 1 but in the 
election for the Reformed Parliament, Gladstone, then aged 
twenty-three, defeated him, and, according to Lord Morley, 
the serjeant, after hearing him speak, sententiously said to 
one of his own supporters, " There is a great future before 
this young man." 

In the election of 1831 Wilde had one advantage over 
his opponent, Michael Sadler, a Tory philanthropist, 
nominated by the Duke of Leeds, which in 1832 he had 

1 Crabb Robinson, May 28, 1824. 



368 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

not over Gladstone. In the former contest Charles Lamb 
wrote him some electioneering squibs, of which the 
following has been preserved 

" Even now the Bill is filed 

And your Counsel Serjeant Wilde. 

He will make the Sadler sidle 

Stir him up with bit and bridle. 

If you would be Freemen styled 

Go at once and vote for Wilde. 

If you d be a Ducal twaddler 

Then turn round and vote for Sadler." 1 

Wilde was again returned for Newark in 1835, and 
for a third time in 1837. In 1841 he was elected for 
Worcester, and retained that seat until his elevation to 
the Bench in 1846. 

The industry of Wilde at the zenith of his professional 
career was proverbial. Sergeant Ballantine recalled a consult 
ation at his chambers which lasted from eight till twelve ; one 
of his devils asserted that he never thought of leaving the 
Temple until the clock of St. Paul s struck midnight ; while 
Lord Campbell records that he went to chambers at six 
o clock summer and winter, and if hard pushed did not 
mind sitting up all night. 

Among the causes cllebres in which he was briefed Small 
v. Attwood, where he was counsel for the appellant before 
the House of Lords, may be mentioned ; while in the still 
more famous case of Stockdale v. Hansard he was in the 
House of Commons the life and soul of the party of 
privilege. 

In 1839 Wilde became Solicitor-General. Two years 
later, he wished for reasons of health to be given a puisne 
judgeship, but by a rare exercise of party loyalty he remained 
in office owing to the precarious state of the Melbourne 
Ministry, which an adverse by-election might have destroyed. 

1 E. V. Lucas, Lamb, v. 341-2 ; vii. 85-6 ; Talfourd s Mem., ii. 77-8. 



RICHARD ROBERTS, 1769-1814 369 

In 1842 Wilde became Attorney-General. It is worth 
noting that of the three counsel who at this time reigned 
supreme in the Common Law Courts, Wilde, Pollock, and 
Follet, the first two were Old Paulines. 

In 1844 Wilde was briefed in the Sussex peerage case 
for Sir Augustus D Este, a natural son of the Duke of 
Sussex, who, in spite of the Royal Marriages Act, claimed 
the dukedom of Sussex. Out of this case arose his marriage 
with the claimant s sister, who, like Wilde, was no longer 
young, so that the union excited a good deal of amusement, 
one comment running 

" Happy the pair who fondly sigh 
By fancy and by love beguiled 
He views as heaven his d Este nigh 
She vows her fate will make her Wilde." l 

On the return of the Whigs to power in 1846 Wilde 
again became Attorney-General. Very shortly afterwards he 
was appointed Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, but 
four years later, on the death of Lord Cottenham, through 
the persuasion of Lord John Russell, he exchanged the 
" pillow of the pleas "with great reluctance for the woolsack, 
and entered the House of Lords as Lord Truro of Bowes. 

Lord Brougham, in proposing that Sir Thomas Wilde 
should occupy the woolsack, described him as one of the 
most amiable, most experienced and most learned lawyers in 
Westminster Hall. 

He remained Lord Chancellor until the Russell Ministry 
resigned office eighteen months later, and on the return of 
the Whigs to power, some months later, his health and his 
inability to adapt himself to the Courts of Equity after a life 
spent in those of Common Law prevented his accepting the 
Great Seal for a second time, and in consequence it was put 
into commission. 

1 Coleridge, Life, i. 175. 



B B 



372 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

Leake and Charles Diggle, who fought in the Crimea, both 
rose to the rank of general. 

The profession in which, more than any other, Dr. 
Roberts pupils achieved distinction was the law. T. W. 
Williams, who has not hitherto been identified, was a legal 
writer of sufficient note to deserve a place in the Dictionary 
of National Biography. 

Edward Lawes became a Serjeant-at-Law, and William 
Julian, another Old Pauline who assumed the coif, became 
Judge Advocate-General. 

Sir John Sewell, F.R.S., Judge of the Vice-Admiralty 
Court of Malta, was for eleven years at St. Paul s under 
Roberts. The careers of two other colonial judges educated 
under this high master have by a strange coincidence not 
hitherto been recorded. John Wild, the elder brother of the 
future Lord Chancellor, with whom he entered the school, 
left as captain in the last year of the eighteenth century. He 
became Chief Justice of New South Wales, and as Sir John 
Wild died Chief Justice of the Cape. Sir James Bowling, 
another Chief Justice of New South Wales, entered the 
school two years after Wild had gone up to Cambridge. 
He first served as Puisne Judge of the Court of that 
colony, became Chief Justice in 1837, and was knighted in 
the following year. 

Jonathan Frederick Pollock, the son of a saddler at 
Charing Cross, who lost heavily by giving credit to George 
IV when Prince of Wales, entered the school at the remark 
ably late age for that time, of sixteen. He became senior 
wrangler, Smith s Prizeman, and Fellow of Trinity. His 
career at the Bar made him the founder of a family which 
has been called the English " gens Mucia." He served twice 
as Attorney-General under Sir Robert Peel, in 1834-5, 
and again in 1841-4. In 1844 Sir J. F. Pollock became 
Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer, a post which he retained 




SIR J. F. POLLOCK, BART., F.R.S., LORD CHIEF BAROX OF THE 
EXCHEQUER 

I re fact p. 372- 



RICHARD ROBERTS, 1769-1814 373 

for twenty-two years. He sent his sons to St. Paul s, and 
was chairman of the Old Pauline dinner on its revival in 
1864, six years before his death. It was Chief Baron Pol 
lock who damned one of the worst series of law reports ever 
issued by saying, " Espinasse ! Oh yes, he was that deaf 
old reporter who heard one half of a case and reported the 
other." 

One of the more distinguished pupils of Dr. Roberts 
whose name alone appeared in the first volume of admission 
registers, and whose identity was first made known in the 
Dictionary of National Biography, was John Gurney, who 
within a few years after his call to the Bar became leader of 
the home circuit, and maintained that position in spite of 
the presence of rivals as distinguished as Copley, afterwards 
Lord Lyndhurst, and Scarlett. He took a conspicuous part 
in several State trials, holding a brief for the defence of 
Home Tooke in 1794, and of Arthur O Connor in 1798. 
He took silk in 1816, and in 1832 he was raised to the 
bench as Baron of the Exchequer, where he enjoyed the 
reputation of being a sound lawyer and an acute judge. It 
is worth noting that Sir John Gurney married the daughter 
of an Old Pauline, William Hawes, the founder of the Royal 
Humane Society. 

Sir Thomas Edlyn Tomlyns, the son of an eminent solici 
tor well known in the political circles of the eighteenth 
century, is another lawyer of note who has not hitherto 
been identified among Roberts pupils. Tomlyns was at 
Queen s College, Oxford, and after being editor of the St. 
James Chronicle, became counsel to the Chief Secretary for 
Ireland, and later to the Chancellor of the Exchequer for 
Ireland until the union of the British and Irish Treasuries 
in 1816. He was knighted in 1814 on the recommenda 
tion of the Duke of Wellington, and in 1827 was Treasurer 
of the Inner Temple. 



374 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

Sir Charles Wetherell, who, like Sir J. F. Pollock, was 
twice senior law officer of the Crown, was the son of the 
Master of University College, Oxford. He was Solicitor- 
General from 1824-1826, and Attorney-General in 1826-7 
and 1828-9. He was a brilliant lawyer, but a Tory of the 
uncompromising school of Lord Elden, and bitterly opposed 
the Catholic Relief Bill and the Reform Bill. His anti 
democratic sympathies and his habitual slovenliness in dress 
led to much unkindly criticism. A member of the House 
of Commons declared that in his speech made upon Catholic 
Emancipation, standing with his hands in the waistband of 
his breeches, he had but one lucid interval, which was that 
between his breeches and his waistcoat. A squib which was 
circulated during the Reform Bill campaign ran 

" Died Sir Charles Wetherell s laundress, Sue, 
Verdict ennui, so little work to do." 

Another comment of the wits, characteristic of a time 
when Rowlandson and Gillray were popular caricaturists, 
declared that he escaped from the rioters at Bristol, of 
which he was Recorder, in a clean shirt and a pair of 
braces. 

The laugh, however, was not always against him. It 
was he who told Lord Lyndhurst, apropos Lord Camp 
bell s Lives of the Lord Chancellors, that " plain John 
Campbell has added a new terror to death," and when Lord 
Brougham insisted on sitting so as to conclude a case on 
the last two days of Holy Week, Wetherell remarked 
that he was the first judge since Pontius Pilate to sit on 
Good Friday. His masterly cross-examination of the spy 
Castles in the trial of James Watson for high treason 1 served 
as model for the celebrated scene in A Tale of Two Cities. 

A few days before the admission of Wetherell, the son 

1 State Trials, vol. xxxii. pp. 284-327. 



RICHARD ROBERTS, 1769-1814 375 

of the master of an Oxford college, R. W. Elliston, the 
nephew of the Master of Sidney Sussex was admitted to 
St. Paul s. While at school Elliston attended French 
classes in the evening, at which he met Charles Mathews 
the elder, then a boy at Merchant Taylors , who inspired 
him with an ambition for the stage, where he rose to the 
highest success. His Charles Surface is said to have been 
unsurpassable. Leigh Hunt thought him a finer actor than 
Kemble, while his friend Charles Lamb concludes the charm 
ing character-sketch contained in the two essays devoted to 
his memory with this apostrophe, "Thou wert a scholar, 
and an early ripe one, under the roof budded by the muni 
ficent and pious Colet. For thee the Pauline muses weep. 
In elegies that shall silence this crude prose, they shall 
celebrate thy praise." 

Two other actors of sufficient distinction to be named 
in the Dictionary of National Biography were educated by 
Roberts. John Fawcett, who created the part of Dr. Pan- 
gloss in Colman s Heir at Law, entered the school in 1776. 
William Evans Burton, who has not been identified in 
the registers, after matriculating at Christ s went on the 
stage and made himself a name in America as a dramatist. 
His chief parts were Bob Acres and Tony Lumpkin, and 
"as an actor," it was said, " he held the first rank, and the 
present generation cannot hope to witness his equal." 

William Chamberlain, who entered the school the year 
after Elliston, was a pupil of Sir Joshua Reynolds, and 
became a portrait painter of some eminence. Daniel Asher 
Alexander, surveyor to Trinity House, was a well-known 
architect, and designed Dartmoor prison as well as several 
lighthouses. With him may be named George Rennie.F.R.S., 
who designed London Bridge, and Joseph Gwilt, F.S.A., 
who compiled the well-known Encyclopedia of Architecture. 
Two of Roberts pupils held the post of Keeper of printed 



CHAPTER XX 

THE EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY 
JOHN SLEATH, HIGH MASTER 1814-1837 

ON the resignation of Dr. Roberts, the Mercers 
appointed John Sleath as his successor. Sleath was a 
Leicestershire man who entered Rugby, where he was one 
of the last boys to wear a cocked hat and a queue, in 
1776, and eight years later he proceeded from that school 
with a Rugby Exhibition to Lincoln College, Oxford. In 
the following year he became a scholar of Wadham. In 
1787, before he had taken his degree, he was appointed by 
Dr. James to a mastership at Rugby, where he remained for 
twenty-seven years, until his election to the high mastership 
of St. Paul s. Among his pupils at Rugby was Walter 
Savage Landor, unquestionably a troublesome school-boy, 
who writes with affectionate remembrance of " the elegant 
and generous Dr. John Sleath of Rugby." 1 His brother, 
William Boultbee Sleath, who also was a Rugby master, 
went from there to Repton, a school of which he was the most 
distinguished head master. Letters from Sleath which are 
published in the collected works of Samuel Parr show 
that the influence of " the Whig Johnson " was exerted in 
favour of the candidature of the Rugby master. A month 
before the election Sleath wrote, " Your favourable opinion, 
expressed in the most general terms, must be of essential 
use to me. But greatly as I should have felt myself obliged 
by such general testimony, I feel myself doubly indebted to 

1 W. S. Lander s Works, ed. 1876, vol. iv. 4.00 n. 
379 



380 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

you for the very kind and condescending manner in which 
you have applied, not only to the Company in general, but 
also to those individual electors with whom you are privately 
acquainted." 

On the day of his appointment he wrote 

"St. Paul s, June 1 6, 1814. 
" MY DEAR SIR, 

" I should reproach myself if I delayed an instant in 
communicating to you that I am most handsomely elected 
to the high mastership of St. Paul s School. I am fully 
sensible of your zealous assistance, which must have 
materially contributed to my success. I can only add, I 
know not how to thank you, but you may believe me, my 
dear Sir, ever your obedient and grateful servant, 

"JOHN SLEATH." 

In the year of his election to St. Paul s, Sleath took the 
degree of Doctor of Divinity. In the following year he 
was elected F.S.A., and five years later F.R.S. He was a 
Prebendary of St. Paul s and Chaplain in Ordinary to the 
King. In 1833 he became Sub-dean of the Chapel Royal 
of St. James . On his retirement from the high mastership ? 
which occurred in 1837, he retained his connection with the 
Chapel Royal, and four years later became rector of Thornby 
in Northamptonshire. He died in 1847 and was buried in 
the crypt of St. Paul s Cathedral. 

One of Sleath s pupils describes him at the close of his 
career at St. Paul s as " tall imposing and corpulent, a 
good scholar, not unkind, but only unapproachable and awe- 
inspiring," and the same writer relates that " he took leave 
of the School in a gentle & affectionate speech. The 
Eighth showed up voluntary verses which affected him 
deeply as they were read out to him." l 

1 Pauline, vol. ii. passim : Rev. G. R. Kingdon, S.J., " Fifty Years Ago." 



JOHN SLEATH, 1814-1837 381 

At the opening of the new buildings of the school in 
1884, Benjamin Jowett, the most distinguished of his pupils, 
referring to what the Master of the Mercers Company had 
called " the dignified presence of Dr. Sleath," went on to 
speak of him as " one of the kindest and best of men, a 
gentleman of the old school, not without prejudices 
everybody was prejudiced in those days but revered and 
beloved by all his pupils." 

In a series of articles entitled "Recollections of Last 
Century," contributed in 1901 to the Times, 1 by Prebendary 
J. E. Kempe, one of the oldest Paulines then living, the 
writer declared that he owed nothing to St. Paul s for 
anything which he had managed to learn, except Greek and 
Latin, but he spoke nevertheless of "the University honours 
and high positions, especially in the learned professions, 
which were won by so many of my school-fellows." Sleath 
himself used to say, " I do not profess to be a good scholar, 
but I make my scholars polish one another," and an 
illustration of this is to be found in a fact recorded by 
Father Kingdon to the effect that for many months he was 
in the habit of translating the concluding words in the 
Sunday s collect which the boys used to translate, but which 
were never corrected, by the words " mundus sine fine," 
until another boy pointed out to him the correct form in a 
Latin edition of the Prayer-book. 

Prebendary Kempe placed on record an incident con 
cerning the eldest son of Lord Chief Baron Pollock, who, 
like his father, was educated at St. Paul s. " The yth and 
8th were exempted from the cane. Pollock, when in the 
yth, so exasperated the Doctor that he sent the Captain for 
the cane. Pollock walked out of the school-room in sight of 
all. Take notice, exclaimed the Doctor in his stentorian 
voice, that boy is expelling himself. " 

1 February I, 1901. 



384 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

University Scholarships, two Bell Scholarships, one Tyrwhitt 
Hebrew Scholarship, and nine fellowships at Trinity. 

The Times 1 announced his retirement in a characteristically 
early Victorian strain by stating that " The Rev. Dr. Sleath, 
High Master of St. Paul s has resigned that situation which 
for many years he has conducted in manner most honour 
able to himself, creditable to those in whose gift the 
appointment is vested, and advantageous to the youth placed 
under his care." 

Even Serjeant Ballantine, whose criticisms were for the 
most part hostile, was constrained to admit that Sleath, to 
whose forms he never reached, was " a man of portly 
presence, a good scholar, I believe, and much respected," 
a description which is the more striking when it is compared 
with Ballantine s descriptions of the other masters as "cruel, 
cold-blooded, unsympathetic tyrants." 

If the assistant masters at St. Paul s at the end of the 
eighteenth and at the beginning of the nineteenth centuries 
were brutal and incompetent bullies, it must be remembered 
that in this respect it differed but little from other public 
schools. Sydney Smith said that the whole system at 
Winchester in his time was one of abuse, neglect, and vice, 2 
and Robert Lowe, Lord Sherbrooke, who was at William of 
Wykeham s school thirty or forty years later, spoke of it as 
" a coarse brutal and cruel school," while Charles Mathews 
the elder wrote in his autobiography that two more cruel 
tyrants than his masters at Merchant Taylors never 
existed. 

The reminiscences of a distinguished member of the 
Society of Jesus, Father George Renorden Kingdon, who 
was the eldest of five brothers educated at St. Paul s, throw 
an interesting light upon the state of the school at the end 

1 December 1 1, 1837. 

2 Lady Holland s Life of Sydney Smith, vol. i. p. 6. 



JOHN SLEATH, 1814-1837 385 

of Sleath s and the beginning of Kynaston s high mastership. 
Father Kingdon entered the school in 1830, the year after 
Benjamin Jowett and the year before Lord Hannen. After 
making the reference already quoted concerning the assistant 
masters, he says that they were neither loved nor respected, 
and goes on to state that he learnt quite ten times as much 
from his school-fellows as from any master. An exception, 
however, is made as to Cooper, the fourth master, who was 
generally popular, and who differed from his colleagues also 
in this, that instead of knee-breeches and black silk stockings 
he wore the modern trousers. " Jimmy Cooper," however, 
lived long enough to be old fashioned in his dress, and it is 
said that towards the end of his thirty-eight years master 
ship, " with his gown he always wore a tall hat after the 
fashion of the non-resident Cambridge masters." 

The state of discipline appears to have been extra 
ordinarily lax. School began at seven in summer and eight 
in winter, but as Sleath frequently overslept himself, prayers 
were often not said till half-an-hour later. All the masters 
were constantly late after the interval " between hours," 
from eleven to two, on the three days which were not half- 
holidays. On one day in the month Sleath, being a Royal 
chaplain, used to leave early in the afternoon, and the first 
few boys in the Eighth who were privileged to work in the 
library and not in the school-room, not infrequently went 
home. 

Father Kingdon, in reference to Serjeant Ballantine s 
unpleasant recollections of his school-days, which only lasted 
four years, and in which he did not reach higher than the 
fourth form, says " Disagreeable things though they some 
times happened, were never so continuous as to make my 
school-time other than a happy one." Perhaps the pitched 
battles waged in the city streets with the boys of Merchant 
Taylors , whom the Paulines contemptuously called 



c c 



38G A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

" Stitch-lice," in answer to the name " Polecats," which was 
applied to them, may have contributed to his enjoyment. 
He tells us that R. H. D. Barham, who was one of the head 
boys in the school in 1834, armed himself in one of these 
encounters with a sword and was arrested with it drawn in 
his hand, and though summoned before a magistrate was 
dismissed with a caution. 

The Eighth had more books than a single locker would 
hold. Consequently they were allowed the use of those 
which were unoccupied on the bottom bench of the lower 
forms. Father Kingdon remembered stooping under the desk 
and saying, when the captain of the school came to his locker 
in the Second, " I say, Jowett, give us a " con." There s 
a good fellow. He was always too good-natured to refuse, 
and with his locker open would translate Valpy s Delectus 
for me straight off, to my great satisfaction." 

The relic of a custom dating from the high mastership 
of Malym, in 1573, occurred on the days on which Sleath 
called out " Fetch the Play Book." A big morocco-bound, 
gilt-edged book was brought in, and just before prayers at 
the end of morning school, Sleath, taking the book from 
the captain, would solemnly announce, " There will be a 
play to-day for the good composition of A. B.," and the 
compositions which had gained the half-holiday were written 
out in the play book. 

The reminiscences contain many references to W. A. C. 
Durham, at that time surmaster, who " used to throw his 
cane at a boy s head and expect him to come with it for the 
purpose of further punishment." 

His portrait in the Great Hall, which represents a hand 
some old gentleman, makes it difficult to realize his reputation, 
which lasted long after his resignation, as a brutal type of 
Squeers. 1 

1 Vide Ballantine s Reminiscences. 



JOHN SLEATH, 1814-1837 387 

His habits and his initials earned him, as we have seen, 
the name of " Whack " Durham, and it was largely owing to 
his practices that the Clarendon Commission was able to 
report in Kynaston s time, " even in the late master s time the 
cane is said to have been applied with undue rigour and 
frequency," while it is on record that small boys used to be 
hoaxed by being told that the inscription at the end of the 
school-room meant, " Doce flog the boys ; Disce make 
their blood run cold ; Aut or ; Discede turn them out 
of doors." 

According to the evidence given before the Public 
Schools Commission in 1864, the average rank of boys 
educated at St. Paul s rose during the twenty-three years 
of Sleath s high mastership to that of the boarders in 
Roberts time, who had been boys of a better class than 
the day boys. Sleath, in his evidence before the Select 
Committee of the House of Commons on Education, in 
1816, stated that "the boys are the sons principally of 
the clergy, professional gentlemen, and medical men in 
the neighbourhood, and a great many gentlemen in 
Doctor s Commons have received their education in St. 
Paul s School." 

On the election of Dr. Sleath in 1814, a list of books 
required for the library was presented to the company, 
400 was spent in buying and binding books, and a sum 
not exceeding 200 was allowed for their purchase. Two 
years later the annual charge for the library was fixed 
at 20. 

A catalogue which was ordered to be made in 1812 was 
directed to be printed in 1815; from it we gather that the 
works of none of the" auctorsChristian," prescribed byColet, 
were in the library one hundred years ago. Another catalogue 
which was ordered in 1820, shows the number of books at 
that date to have been 1,358. It is of interest as being the 



C C 2 



388 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

first to contain the names of any of Milton s works. In the 
new building for the school, which was erected in 1824, a 
handsome library was provided at the north end of the 
Great School-room, occupying about two-thirds of the 
depth of the building. In 1836 a new catalogue was made 
by Benjamin Jowett, at that time captain of the school, for 
which he received a hundred guineas. 

The marble bust of Sleath which is in the present 
library was bought in 1901, on the death of his nephew, the 
Rev. John Couchman, one of the oldest living Paulines. 
It was executed by Behnes in 1841. A plaster cast presented 
to the school by the high master s niece in 1887, the place 
of which in the library was taken by the original, is now to 
be seen in the Board room. In 1893 a portrait in the 
Board room was identified as that of Sleath, and was 
discovered to have been presented by the high master to 
his favourite pupil, 1 whose daughter, on inheriting it, 
presented it to Dr. Kynaston. 

The number of boarders in the school was fully main 
tained by Sleath. According to Dr. Kynaston s evidence 
before Lord Clarendon s Commission, he had thirty boys 
living in his house, but, continues his successor, " Where 
he put them I could never understand." The surmaster 
took twenty boys, and the usher and the high master s 
assistant appear to have taken about half-a-dozen boys 
apiece. Father Kingdon says that " the boarders were a 
rowdy bullying set, disliked and shunned by the others." 
It was possibly for this reason that Sleath allowed those 
whom he had in his house to dwindle down at the end of 
his career to nine or ten. 

Sleath, who on his appointment abolished the teaching 
of Hebrew, was anxious in 1816 to see mathematics taught 

1 Rev. Wm. Mackey, of Hayfield, Loch Awe. His daughter was Mrs. 
Shelford. 



JOHN SLEATH, 1814-1837 389 

in the school, but it was not till 1835, three years 
before his resignation of the high mastership, that he 
persuaded the Mercers to give facilities for the teaching 
of mathematics at St. Paul s, the under usher being deputed 
to teach it to eighth and seventh forms on two after 
noons in the week, attendance at his classes being purely 
optional. 

Sir H. Maxwell Lyte s description of the state of things 
at Eton seventy years ago, when no religious instruction 
was given to the boys, and Euclid, algebra and even 
arithmetic were practically optional, might equally be 
applied to St. Paul s, where, according to Father Kingdon, 
in the early forties Bean, the third master, " was the only 
one who attempted anything like religious teaching." 

The Preces, however, the last edition of which went 
back to 1718, were reprinted on Sleath s appointment in 
1815. 

Early in Dr. Sleath s high mastership, as we have seen, 
the Mercers introduced a mischievous change into the system 
of admission to the school, by assuming to the Court of 
Assistants in rotation the right of nomination to vacancies to 
St. Paul s, a privilege which they retained till 1876. No 
boys other than foundation scholars were admitted after 
his election in 1814, until the new scheme governing the 
school came into force in 1877. 

Taking the 675 boys admitted by Dr. Sleath in twenty- 
four years, the average number of boys admitted in a year 
is seen to have dropped to twenty-eight, giving a mean 
school-life to each boy of five and a half years. Side by 
side with this change must be noted the fact that whereas 
less than ten per cent, of Dr. Roberts pupils proceeded to 
the Universities, more than twenty-five per cent, of those 
of Dr. Sleath left St. Paul s to go to Oxford or 
Cambridge. 



JOHN SLEATH, 1814-1837 391 

Puerorum in Christi Opt. Max. Fide et Bonis Literis. 
The second story is composed of six columns of the Tivoli 
Corinthian order, sustaining an entablature having the 
frieze enriched with garlands and ox-skulls, the whole 
surmounted by a pediment. At the back of the portico, 
in the basement-story, are four columns of the Doric order, 
the intercolumniations of which are filled with screens of 
open iron-work ; the whole of the floor beneath the school 
being intended for a play-ground. The second story in 
the centre is appropriated to the school, and contains five 
lofty windows corresponding in width with the inter 
columniations, and above the roof behind the portico is 
a circular cupola, rising from a low attic, and lighted by 
windows placed around it. The remainder of the design, 
which is of the same height in the wings and intermediate 
parts of the building, is divided into three stories, the 
lowermost being also rusticated and containing entrances 
and windows, and the upper story having windows only ; 
above which an entablature carried from the portico and 
blocking course, with acroteria over the wings, completes 
the elevation. The back part of the building in Old Change 
is of brick with stone ornaments, and also consists of a centre 
and wings, surmounted by a pediment, and having the 
ground floor open. The interior of the school itself is 
handsomely fitted up, and contains three tiers of seats on 
each side, with four desks in the centre for the masters. 
Above each of the doors of entrance is inscribed the 
founder s original motto Disce aut Discede, and the 
ceiling is carved & panelled with a large and handsome 
flower in the centre." 

Benjamin Jowett, the most distinguished of Sleath s 
pupils, was the son of a printer in Fleet Street. He 
entered the school at the age of twelve in 1829, and was 
placed in the sixth form. Some of his exercises were copied 



392 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

into the play book inscribed Musae Paulinae, and are still 
preserved in the school. It is said that before he left St. 
Paul s he could repeat by heart the greater part of Virgil 
and Sophocles and also the Trilogy and Prometheus of 
Aeschylus. 

His biographers tell a characteristic anecdote of his 
school-life. An old statute of Colet s, by which a boy who 
had been absent more than a certain number of days was 
expelled, was about to be revived. A comrade of Jowett s 
had been away for a time dangerously near the limit, and was 
supposed to be unaware of the declared intention to enforce 
the rule. The door-bell at this boy s home in some far distant 
suburb was rung late one night, and a small figure was found 
on the step. It was little Jowett, who had walked miles 
to warn his friend of the danger he was incurring. 1 

One of his contemporaries at St. Paul s recalled Jowett s 
appearance nearly seventy years later as " a pretty looking 
boy, who wore a perpetual suit of green sateen, which never 
got in my time to the dignity of a coat-tail, but stuck to the 
less dignified one of a jacket." The same writer said that 
on the strength of his looks he was known at school as Miss 
Jowett, while Baron Pollock remembered him as a young- 
looking boy with a round face and bright eyes, retiring in 
manner, but holding his own and much respected. In 1835 
Jowett gained the Governor s Prize for Greek iambics, 
and in 1836 that for Latin hexameters. Both pieces are 
preserved in MS. in the library. 

Dr. Sleath told John Couchman, his nephew, that Jowett 
was the best Latin scholar he ever sent to college, and it is 
worthy of notice that the Times, in its account of the 
Apposition of 1836, at which Jowett left the school as 
captain, said that " this year s exhibitioners appear to be 
exceptionally good." 

1 Campbell and Abbott, Li f e of Jowett, vol. i. p. 32. 










- 







Gco. Richmond del.} 

BENJAMIN JOWETT, MASTER OF BAl.UOL COU.EGE, OXFORD, AND 
REGIUS PROFESSOR OF GREEK 

[ To face /. 392. 



JOHN SLEATH, 1814-1837 

It is said that one lasting impression gathered by 
Benjamin Jowett in his school-days under the shadow of St. 
Paul s Cathedral was a love for classical architecture and a 
reverence for the work of Sir Christopher Wren. 

The fact that he entered the school after his twelfth 
birthday prevented him from gaining any of the school 
exhibitions, but the Mercers Company awarded him the 
Lady North Exhibition, which is in their gift, and presented 
him with an honorarium of jioo for cataloguing the school 
library. At Oxford Jowett became a Scholar and Fellow 
of Balliol, obtained a first in Greats, and carried off the 
Hertford and the Latin Verse prize. He became Regius 
Professor of Greek in 1855, and was elected Master of 
Balliol in 1870, retaining the post till his death in 1893. 
One need do nothing more than mention his Plato and his 
Thucydides, his contribution to Essays and Reviews, and his 
dissertations on St. Paul s Epistles. 

One of the first boys admitted to the school by Sleath 
was F. J. Halliday, who at his death, aged ninety-four, in 
1901, was probably the oldest living Pauline and the oldest 
living Rugbeian. He was sent to Rugby to be under 
Sleath, and on the promotion of the latter to St. Paul s he 
became a boarder in his house, where he remained for seven 
years. He entered the Honourable East India Company s 
service and was Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal during the 
Mutiny, receiving for his services the thanks of Parliament 
and the K.C.B. in 1860. On his retirement, Sir Frederick 
Halliday served for eighteen years as a member of the 
Council of India, and was for many years President of the 
Old Pauline Club. 

A year after, Halliday, a boy who also was destined to 
hold high office in India, was admitted to the school. This 
was Lucius Bentinck, Viscount Falkland, who held the post 
of Governor of Bombay, and was in addition a Privy 



394 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

Councillor, Grand Cross of Hanover, and Captain of the 
Yeomen of the Guard. 

The legal traditions of the school were well maintained 
-under Sleath. Sir W. F. Pollock, the Queen s Remem 
brancer, and Sir Charles Pollock, Baron of the Exchequer, 
were both sons of the Lord Chief Baron who was at St. 
Paul s under Roberts. Sir Charles Pollock, who was " the 
last of the Barons," sat as judge with Russell, L.C.J., and 
Hawkins, J., in the Jameson trial at Bar. A letter is extant 
written by Sir J. F. Pollock to his elder son, a month after 
he entered St. Paul s at the age of nine, in which the Chief 
Baron said, " As you have learnt the Propria quae moribus, 
do not at present forget it." 

Other lawyers educated by Sleath include William 
Ballantine, serjeant-at-law, the leading criminal advocate of 
his day, who, although he described his school-days at St. 
Paul s as " the blackest and most odious period of my 
existence," nevertheless attended the Old Pauline dinner 
in 1864, at which he was one of the speakers. 

Police Court magistrates, such as T. J. Arnold, F.R.S., 
and A. A. Knox ; distinguished conveyancers, like J. Bevir, 
Q.C. ; County Court judges, such as Woodthorpe Brandon 
and Shelley Eddis, Q.C., or even judges of the High Courts 
of Greater Britain, such as Sir James Prendergast, Chief 
Justice of New Zealand, or F. A. B. Glover, Puisne Judge 
of the High Court of Calcutta, are all overshadowed by 
James Hannen, one of the most distinguished lawyers of 
the century, whom men still living remember to have seen 
driving daily in a pony-chaise from his father s house in 
Dulwich to St. Paul s. After eight years at school he went 
to the University of Heidelberg, and twenty years after his 
call to the Bar became a Puisne Judge of the Queen s Bench. 
Four years later Sir James Hannen became Judge of the 
Probate and Divorce Court, and after the passing of the first 




T. Blake Wirginan del. 



JAMES, LORD HANNEN, LORD OF APPEAL IS ORDINARY 

{To face p. 394. 



JOHN SLEATH, 1814-1837 395 

Judicature Act he was promoted to the Presidency of the 
Probate, Divorce and Admiralty Division of the High Court 
of Justice, and was summoned to the Privy Council. He 
acted as President of the Parnell Commission, and in 1891 
became a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary, with the title of 
Baron Hannen of Burdock. He served as British Repre 
sentative on the Behring Sea Seal Fisheries Inquiry, and on 
his return he compared himself, with justice and some 
felicity, with Proteus in the Georgics, with his herd of seals, 
quoting the lines 

" Ipse velut stabuli custos in montibus olim 
Vesper ubi e pastu vitulos ad tecta reducit." 

The Times, after his death, declared that he left behind no 
superior in many of the attributes which best become a judge. 

Only one of Sleath s pupils was consecrated bishop. 
This was C. R. Alford, a contemporary at St. Paul s and 
Trinity, Cambridge, of Sir W. F. Pollock. He was 
Bishop of Victoria, Hong Kong, and Coadjutor to the 
Bishop of Huron, Canada. Prebendary J. E. Kempe, 
whose reminiscences of St. Paul s appeared in the Times in 
1901, refused the offer of the Bishopric of Calcutta in 1866. 
He remained for over forty years Rector of St. James , 
Piccadilly, and Chaplain-in-Ordinary to the Queen, and was 
a Prebendary of St. Paul s Cathedral. 

The name next to that of Kempe in the registers is that 
of J. W. Blakesley, who, after leaving school as captain, 
became, with W. F. Pollock, one of the best known of the 
" Cambridge Apostles." It was to him that Tennyson 
dedicated one of his first published poems, calling him 

" Clear-headed friend whose joyful scorn 
Edged with sharp laughter cuts atwain 
The knots that tangle human creeds, 
The winding cords that bind and strain 
The heart until it bleeds." 



396 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

The future poet-laureate predicted that he would become 
Lord Chancellor, but Blakesley became a canon of Canterbury 
and then Dean of Lincoln. 

Just a year junior in the school to Blakesley was Edward 
Howes, who like him became a Fellow of Trinity, after 
having first gained the Craven Scholarship, the Chancellor s 
medal, and having been second classic. In later life he sat 
in the House of Commons for South Norfolk. Three of 
Sleath s pupils became distinguished school-masters ; E. H. 
Bradley was for fifteen years a master at Harrow, and for 
an equal time head of Haileybury ; T. H. Steel was for many 
years master at Harrow, and W. A. Osborne, for twenty 
years head master of Rossall. H. H. Swinney, principal of 
Cuddesdon, may be mentioned in the same connection. 

In 1823 the high master endowed a prize for Latin 
prose composition, which after his retirement came to be 
known as the Sleath Prize. The boy to whom it was first 
awarded W. J. Copeland was for seventeen years a Fellow 
of Trinity, Oxford, and was a curate of John Henry 
Newman, a volume of whose sermons he edited. He was 
said to have been the man best fitted to write the history of 
the Oxford Movement, a work which unfortunately he 
never undertook. On receipt of a copy of the Pauline 
containing his obituary, Cardinal Newman wrote in 1885, 
" You had good reason to be proud of him at St. Paul s. 
To me he was a dear and faithful friend." 

Benjamin Webb, a prebendary of St. Paul s and a well- 
known theological writer, was a pupil of Sleath, as was 
George R. Kingdon, the eldest of five brothers who were 
at the school, from whose reminiscences I have so freely 
quoted. He became a distinguished member of the Society 
of Jesus, and was Professor of Rhetoric and Prefect of 
Studies at Stonyhurst College. 

Of scientific men educated by Sleath, Sir Alfred Roberts 



JOHN SLEATH, 1814-1837 397 

was the leading physician in the Australian colonies. In the 
same profession C. J. B. Aldis followed in the footsteps of 
his father, Sir Charles Aldis, and became a well-known 
consulting physician in London. He delivered the last 
Harveian oration in Latin at the Royal College of Physicians. 
Alfred Smee, F.R.S., the surgeon to the Bank of England, 
was the inventor of the electric battery which bears his name, 
and Richard King, the founder of the Ethnological Society, 
was a well-known Arctic explorer. Few of Sleath s pupils 
are known to have entered the army, but Lieutenant H. B. 
Melville was taken prisoner in the retreat from Cabul in 
1842, and Major-General C. S. Longden, the son of an Old 
Pauline, served throughout the Mutiny campaign, was at 
the relief of Lucknow and the battle of Cawnpore, and was 
four times mentioned in despatches. R. S. Couchman, 
one of the seven nephews of the high master who were 
educated at St. Paul s, rose to the rank of major-general. 
Markland Barnard, the first boy admitted to St. Paul s by 
Dr. Sleath, was also the son of an Old Pauline, and, like 
his father, became Master of the Mercers Company ; while 
J. W. Butterworth, F.S.A., became Master of the Stationers 
Company. C. J. Clay became the well-known publisher to 
the Cambridge University Press, and Charles Elder, his 
contemporary at St. Paul s, acquired some eminence as a 
portrait painter. 

At the Apposition of 1834, at which were present the 
Duke of Wellington and the Duke of Cumberland, who 
became King of Hanover on the death of William IV, 
four years later, the two first Pauline exhibitioners were 
R. H. D. Barham, the son and biographer of Thomas 
Ingoldsby, and E. J. Bevir, who in later life became a 
distinguished Q.C. in Lincoln s Inn. 

The account of the work done in the school in " the 
thirties " left us by Father George Kingdon contains some 



398 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

points of interest. Lily s Latin Grammar, in its modified 
form, was still in use ; Greek was not begun till the fifth 
form was reached. A great deal of verse-making was 
practised throughout the school, and as for prose, the writer 
says that " Paulines long had a reputation for good com 
positions at Cambridge." In the Seventh the boys used 
Erasmus s De Copia Verborum, a book which had been 
continuously studied at St. Paul s ever since its dedication 
to the school at Dean Colet s request. The use made of 
this book and Lily s Grammar for three-and-a-half centuries 
in the school for which they were written must be a unique 
incident in the history of education. 

In the Eighth, where Greek iambics were begun, the Ars 
Poetica, Virgil s Georgics, Horace s Satires and Cicero s 
speeches were read. Far more time was devoted to Greek, 
in which Pindar and Aristophanes, Demosthenes and 
Thucydides, and the tragic poets were read. 




/. Walkerdcl.} (S. H aUier sc. 

HERBERT KVNASTON, HIGH MASTER OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

(To /ace p. 398. 



CHAPTER XXI 

THE LAST DAYS IN THE CITY 
HERBERT KYNASTON, HIGH MASTER, 1838-1876 

HERBERT KYNASTON,the successor of Dr. Sleath, came of 
a Shropshire family and was educated at Westminster School. 
The name of his younger brother, a captain in the Navy who 
died of wounds received in the attack upon the forts at 
Sebastopol, heads the list of Old Westminsters in the Crimean 
memorial in Broad Sanctuary. The future high master was 
elected student of Christ Church, and became Lecturer in 
Philology and Tutor of the House under Dean Gaisford. 
Ruskin, in writing of his undergraduate days, refers to 
Kynaston in these terms : 

" It was extremely unfortunate for me that the two 
higher lecturers of the College, Kynaston (afterwards Master 
of St. Paul s) in Greek, and Hussey, the Censor . . . were 
both to my own feeling repugnant. They both despised me 
as a home-boy to begin with ; Kynaston with justice, for I 
had not Greek enough to understand anything he said and 
when good-naturedly one day, in order to bring out as best he 
might my supposed peculiar genius and acquirements, he put 
me on in the Iphigenia in Tauris, and found to his own and all 
the class s astonishment and disgust that I did not know what 
a triglyph was never spoke to me with any patience again, 
until long afterwards at St. Paul s, when he received me, on 
an occasion of school ceremony, with affection and respect." 

1 Pra tenta, xi. 
399 



400 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

After holding his tutorship for five years, Kynaston was 
elected high master at the unusually early age of twenty- 
eight. He remained at the school for nearly forty years, 
and although he cannot be ranked among the great high 
masters of St. Paul s, he had a remarkable gift of inspiring a 
love of scholarship in a selected number of his pupils, while 
neglecting the educational needs of the rest. 

Several captains of the school in succession were elected 
to fellowships at Oxford and Cambridge, and he established 
what was, no doubt, an educational record in the fact that, at 
one time, Trinity College, Cambridge, numbered no less 
than seven of his pupils at St. Paul s among its Fellows. 

In the memoir of Dr. E. Symes Thompson, the late 
Gresham Professor of Physic, his brother, who was also at 
St. Paul s, says that " it was Kynaston s eminent gift to impart 
love for good books ; and quicken the zest of a literary 
taste." 

MM. Demogeot and Montucci, the French Commis 
sioners who visited the chief English public schools in the 
year 1866, refer in their report to the " enseignment paternel 
et sans pretension " of the high master of St. Paul s, and say 
that while listening to Dr. Kynaston they could fancy them 
selves at the Sorbonne with Boisonnade or Egger. 

Dr. Kynaston s graceful and elegant verses, written in 
celebration of various events of the history of the school, 
were recited annually at the Apposition. The best known 
of these, perhaps, are the Lays of the Seven Half-Centuries, 
written in the year 1859 for the three hundred and fiftieth 
anniversary of the foundation of the school. The dialogue 
" Speeches," which he maintained as a feature of the Apposi 
tion at St. Paul s, were, during his high mastership, imitated 
at the speech days at Eton and Harrow. 

While few scholars surpassed the high master as a writer 
of Latin verse, his skill as an English poet only narrowly 



HERBERT KYNASTON, 1838-1876 401 

missed securing recognition when he was beaten by but a 
few votes by Sir Francis Doyle in the election to fill the 
Professorship of English Poetry at Oxford. 

Lord Truro presented the first living which fell to his 
gift as Lord Chancellor, that of St. Nicholas, Cole Abbey, to 
Dr. Kynaston, " out of respect to the memory of Dean 
Colet." On his retirement the high master was presented 
with an illuminated address, a library table and chair, and a 
prize known by his name was founded to commemorate his 
prolonged services to the school. 

During Kynaston s high mastership the benefit of 
several new endowments was conferred on the school. 

The brother of Thomas Barnes, a former editor of the 
Times, founded at Cambridge a scholarship, candidates for 
which must have been educated either at St. Paul s, Merchant 
Taylors or Christ s Hospital. Seven Old Paulines have 
enjoyed the benefit of this endowment since its foundation 
in 1867. The scholarship falls vacant every four years, 
and since 1887 only two holders have not been educated at 
St. Paul s. 

The Thruston Prize for Latin verse, in memory of 
Framingham William Thurston, who died suddenly of 
cholera, was founded in 1849 by his mother and Dr. 
Kynaston. 

In 1840 the prize for English verse founded by the 
Governors in 1815, was converted into a prize for an 
English essay, which was awarded until the year 1863. In 
1851 Sir Charles Mansfield Clarke founded the Milton 
Prize for English verse, and in the same year Lord Truro 
founded the Lord Chancellor s Prize and Medal which are 
annually awarded for an English essay. Until 1863 the 
Governors Prize for an English essay was maintained as a 
second prize in the Truro competition. In 1868 Miss 
Hannah Barber endowed the Keen Scholarship, which is 



D D 



402 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

awarded every year to the best mathematical scholar in the 
school at the time of his proceeding to the University. 

The changes introduced by Kynaston were considerable. 
The school hours were shortened, first by making the time 
of assembling every morning in the school later than seven, 
the hour at which it had remained since the foundation. 
About 1855 the afternoon was shortened by dismissing the 
school at four o clock instead of five, and in 1862 the school 
work lasted from nine to one, and from two to four. The 
abolition of the boarding-houses, which went on concur 
rently with the shortening of the hours of work, led to a 
disappearance of boys from outside London ; about a dozen 
of these were in the school at the time of the Royal 
Commission, but the boarding-houses in which they lived 
were totally unconnected with the school. 

Kynaston suggested the formation of classrooms to the 
Mercers, and about 1853 some of the rooms of his house 
began to be used for that purpose, while the first six boys in 
the Eighth maintained their old privilege of working in the 
library. The schoolroom at Merchant Taylors was parti 
tioned in 1612, but the boys congregated in the schoolroom 
at St. Paul s were in no worse case than those of West 
minster, where, until the year 1861, all teaching was done in 
one room, while the same conditions prevailed at Winchester 
and Eton for two centuries after their foundation. 

The teaching of mathematics was improved by Dr. 
Kynaston, and in 1853, for the first time, French masters 
were appointed on the staff. These subjects were introduced 
at St. Paul s at a later date than at Harrow or Merchant 
Taylors , but many years earlier than at Eton. The Public 
Schools Commission, however, reported unfavourably on the 
fact that St. Paul s was the only school among the nine 
which they examined in which neither music nor drawing 
were taught. 




< 

- 

h 

5 

| 
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a 
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HERBERT KYNASTON, 1838-1876 403 

At some date in the fifties a rule was made by which no 
boy was to be admitted into the school until he was nine 
years of age. No boys were entitled to leaving exhibitions 
who had not entered the school before they were twelve years 
old. 

It is on record that Sleath, when asked by a parent if his 
son would be taught mathematics, replied, " At St. Paul s we 
teach nothing but the classics, nothing but Latin and Greek. 
If you want your son to learn anything else you must have 
him taught at home, and for this purpose we give him three 
half-holidays a week." This view of half-holidays, one may 
be sure, did not commend itself to the boys. Early in Kynas- 
ton s high mastership a change was made extending the limited 
teaching of mathematics as an optional subject to the two head 
forms which had been introduced three years before Sleath s 
resignation. After teaching mathematics for five years, 
James Cooper, the third master, was relieved of this duty 
by the appointment of a mathematical master in 1843, but 
it was not till 1854 that a University man was appointed 
mathematical master, when William Lethbridge, a high 
wrangler, was chosen to fill the post, and the whole system of 
mathematical teaching was remodelled. In 1853 two French 
masters were appointed, of whom one was M. Delille, the 
author of the well-known grammar. Two of the three 
weekly half-holidays were withdrawn, and three afternoons, 
from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m., were assigned to French, the other 
two to mathematics. Later the Wednesday half-holiday was 
restored. An Old Pauline who entered the school in the 
year after their appointment speaks of the French masters, 
who " on two afternoons a week reigned supreme, if that can 
be called a reign where the subjects set their ruler at naught. 
But for the presence of the monitors the school would have 
been a bear garden." The monitorial system which pre 
vailed during Sleath s and Kynaston s high masterships con- 



D D 2 



404 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

sisted simply in this, that two second year boys in the Eighth 
were told off each week to keep order in any form in the 
event of the master s absence from the schoolroom. 

In the first sixteen years of Dr. Kynaston s high master 
ship which preceded the reform of the Universities, four 
hundred and sixteen boys were admitted to the school, giving 
an average of twenty-six a year, the average length of school 
life being six years as compared with five and a half years 
which was the mean during the latter part of Sleath s rule. 
During this period, as in Sleath s time, about a quarter of the 
boys who passed through the school went to the Universities. 

The system of nomination by the members of the court 
of the Mercers Company in rotation to vacancies in the 
school, each of the twenty-eight members having about two 
in three years, was severely animadverted upon by Lord 
Clarendon s Commission in its report in 1865. After 
speaking of the " languor and stagnancy which appear to 
prevail in some parts of the school," it commented on the 
infinite mischief done by the system of nomination in 
lowering the whole standard at St. Paul s. The report 
went on to say that "it would be a grievous injury to the 
cause of classical education if these principles of exclusive 
patronage were to obstruct admission to a school which 
might, and ought to become, the first in London and one 
of the first in Great Britain." 

The causes of the decline of the school since " the palmy 
days of Sleath," according to the Royal Commissioners, were 
not far to seek. The reason for the state of affairs, although 
the commissioners were unable to say so, was, in part, the 
inability of Dr. Kynaston to maintain discipline. He 
abolished the use of the birch-rod, but appears to have 
been unable to replace it by moral suasion. A recent 
captain of the school, J. W. Spurling, who afterwards be 
came master at Rugby and at Westminster, Sub-warden of 



HERBERT KYNASTON, 1838-1876 405 

Keble and Hon. Canon of Chester, gave evidence before 
the Commission while a Cambridge undergraduate to the 
effect that St. Paul s was not on the whole a very hard 
working school. In Sleath s time this could not have been 
said. Of the twenty-five boys who left annually at this 
time not more than six went to the universities, the rest 
proceeding to the army, or navy, or into business. In 1862 
there were eleven Old Paulines at Oxford and seventeen at 
Cambridge, fewer in each case than the numbers of old boys 
from any of the eight other public schools included in the 
terms of reference of the Royal Commission. As a rule 
not more than three open scholarships were gained each 
year at Oxford and Cambridge. 

The reminiscences of the Rev. E. L. H. Tew, who was 
in the school from 1854 till 1863, show some changes in the 
school curriculum from that to which we have referred as 
being in vogue about a quarter of a century earlier. Lily s 
Latin Grammar was still used in the school at that date. 
Greek was begun in the Third, not in the Fifth as was 
formerly the case. As in Sleath s time, there was little 
scriptural or religious teaching. 

The same writer, speaking of Kynaston, says that "a 
more polished scholar, and a worse disciplinarian there could 
not well be." The monitors and, in fact, the whole of the 
Eighth, claimed the right of not coming into school till 
9.20 in the morning, and the high master appears to have 
raised no objection. 

Although, as we have seen, the numbers of boys going 
from St. Paul s to the Universities were less than those of any 
of the other nine public schools, at any rate towards the end 
of Kynaston s career, it must be remembered that owing 
to the exclusion of boys other than foundation scholars St. 
Paul s was a far smaller school than any of the others with 
which it was compared. If an average be taken of the whole 



HERBERT KYNASTON, 1838-1876 407 

which were submitted showed clearly the manner in which 
the city had within recent years ceased to be a place of 
residence. During Father Kingdon s school-days, from 
1830 to 1840, nearly all the boys went home to dinner at 
mid-day. In 1859, only twenty-three boys lived within 
half-a-mile of the school. Exactly a third of the boys lived 
more than half-a-mile but less than two miles away. Thirty- 
two lived between two and three miles away, thirty-eight 
between three and five, and twenty-six between five and 
seven miles from the school, while fourteen lived more than 
seven miles from St. Paul s. The youngest boy in the 
school at this date was nine and a half years of age. The 
number of boys in each form varied from twenty-four in 
the Seventh to ten in the Sixth. 

According to Dr. Kynaston s evidence a considerable 
number of boys went into the Royal Navy, but it is curious 
to notice how few of his pupils who entered that service have 
been traced in the registers. 

The old-established privilege of St. Paul s of presenting 
an address to the sovereign on passing the school was exer 
cised in 1845, when Queen Victoria visited the city to re 
open the Royal Exchange. According to Dr. Kynaston s 
preface to Corolla Nuptialis in which the address is printed, 
" It was intimated . . . that it would be more agreeable to 
Her Majesty to receive the address from the High Master 
at her next levee, than to have the procession stopped for 
that purpose in front of the school, which was accordingly 
done. . . ." The verses which conclude the address were 
no doubt on this occasion displayed on a scroll outside the 
school building during the Queen s procession, as we know 
was done in 1863 on the passage of Princess Alexandra of 
Denmark the present Queen through the city on the 
occasion of her marriage to the Prince of Wales. The full 
address in this instance also was presented at the ensuing levee. 



408 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

During Kynaston s high mastership the Apposition was 
on various occasions attended by different members of the 
Royal Family. At that of 1838, the first after Kynaston s 
appointment, the Duke of Cambridge and Prince George 
of Cambridge were present, as were the Bishops of Lon 
don and Winchester and the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
Dr. Howley, who at the Apposition six years later, declared 
that he had been attending that function for nearly thirty 
years. The number of bishops annually present at the 
Apposition, each of whom was prepared to demand a 
"remedy," must have satisfied even the most exacting of 
the boys in the school. In 1847 no less than five were 
present, owing to the fact that the Prince Consort attended. 
Among the distinguished Paulines present on this occasion 
was Sir Thomas Wilde, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, 
and another visitor who was present on this occasion as on 
other Apposition days about this time was Mr. Gladstone, a 
contemporary and friend of Dr. Kynaston at Christ Church. 

At the Apposition of 1856, according to the Times^ "the 
schoolroom was decorated with the flags of England, 
France, Sardinia and Turkey, presented by Mr. White, 
who brought them as trophies from Sebastopol." In the 
absence of further information one can only suppose that 
this was Thomas William White, who entered the school 
in 1823 at the age of eleven, and whom one may surmise 
fought in the Crimea. 

Three years later, in 1859, the seventh jubilee of the 
school was celebrated, and among the six bishops who were 
present, those of LlandafF and of Manchester were Old 
Paulines. Dr. Kynaston s Lays of the Seven Half Centuries 
were recited, and were described as worthy of such an 
erudite and elegant scholar. 

In 1 864 the Apposition was attended by the present King, 
at that time Prince of Wales. It is interesting to note that 



HERBERT KYNASTON, 1838-1876 409 

the captain of the school was a boy who, as Canon Clement 
Smith, M.V.O., was destined to attend Queen Victoria in 
her last hours. 

Dr. Kynaston educated at St. Paul s no less than eight 
future bishops, only one of whom, it is worth mentioning, was 
captain of the school. Peter Royston, who entered St. Paul s 
a year after Kynaston s election, became Bishop of Mauritius, 
and then Assistant Bishop of Liverpool. A. B. Suter, who 
entered St. Paul s a year later, was consecrated Bishop 
of Nelson and was for a time Primate of New Zealand. 
G. F. Popham Blyth, the present " Bishop in Jerusalem," 
was two years junior to Suter at St. Paul s. His brother, 
E. H. Blyth, declined the Bishopric of Nassau, West Indies, 
in 1887, on the ground of bad health. After an interval of 
three years after G. F. Blyth, H. Tully Kingdon entered the 
school, where he founded the Union Society. He became 
Bishop of Fredericton, New Brunswick. With the interval 
of a year after Kingdon s admission, in 1 848, H. J. Matthew, 
first Bishop of Lahore, entered the school. In 1852 was 
admitted the latest Old Pauline to be consecrated, C. J. 
Ridgeway, who after little more than twelve months as 
Dean of Carlisle became Bishop of Chichester in 1908. 
Dr. E. A. Knox, the present Bishop of Manchester, the 
son and grandson of Old Paulines, was the second of 
Kynaston s pupils to be summoned to the House of Lords 
as a spiritual peer, after acting for many years as Suffragan 
Bishop of Coventry. Lastly we must mention Frederick 
Wallis, Bishop of Wellington, whose arms in the Great Hall 
at the school are appropriately placed beside those of Bishop 
Suter, whose See, like Dr. Wallis , was situated in New 
Zealand. 

Sleath educated several judges and only one bishop. 
Kynaston educated eight bishops but no judges of the High 
Court. Nevertheless the members of the legal profession 



410 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

who were his pupils include many leaders at the Bar. Sir 
Harry Poland, K.C., was, until his retirement from practice, 
the most distinguished criminal lawyer in England, and 
Kynaston s pupils, admitted to the school in the few years 
from 1858 to 1864, include His Honour Judge Philip 
Howard Smith, Frank Saffbrd, Recorder of Canterbury, 
George Meryon White, editor of the Law Reports, and the 
following three who have taken silk, R. E. Pollock, J. C. L. 
Coward and E. F. Lankester. The brother of the last, the 
celebrated zoologist, Sir E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S., was 
also at St. Paul s, and his contemporary in the school, 
J. W. L. Glaisher, F.R.S., is also a distinguished man of 
science. Professor E. Symes Thompson, who entered the 
school only thirteen years earlier than these must be men 
tioned here, as must A. B. Kempe, Chancellor of three 
dioceses, Bencher of the Inner Temple, and Treasurer of 
the Royal Society, and his brother, Sir J. A. Kempe, K.C.B., 
Comptroller and Auditor-General, the distinguished sons of 
an Old Pauline father. 

S. A. Saunder, the Gresham Professor of Astronomy, is 
the third Old Pauline who has occupied that chair in little 
over a hundred years. The Dean of St. Albans, Dr. W. J. 
Lawrance was captain of the school in 1858, and was con 
temporary at St. Paul s with Canon W. W. Capes, for some 
years Reader in Ancient History at Oxford. Sylvester 
J. Hunter, a conveyancing counsel, became a well-known 
member of the Society of Jesus, and J. Leycester Lyne, 
better known as Father Ignatius, was described by Mr. 
Gladstone as one of the most eloquent preachers he had 
ever heard. 

Harry Escombe, who entered the school in the same 
week as J. L. Lyne, became Attorney-General and Prime 
Minister of the Colony of Natal, which he represented at 
Queen Victoria s Diamond Jubilee, when he was sworn of 



HERBERT KYNASTON, 1838-1876 411 

the Privy Council. Other colonial administrators educated 
by Kynaston include Sir J. West Ridgeway, G.C.B., a brother 
of the Old Pauline Bishop of Chichester. He was Under 
Secretary for Ireland when Mr. Balfour was Chief Secretary, 
and for eight years was Governor of Ceylon. 

Sir Cecil Clementi Smith, G.C.M.G., was Governor 
of the Straits Settlements, and, like his brother, Colonel 
Montagu Clementi, formerly Judge Advocate-General in 
India, Sir Cecil has served his turn as Master of the 
Mercers Company, has sent his sons to St. Paul s, and has 
in every possible way served the interests of the school. 
Sir R. J. Crosthwaite held high judicial office in India, and 
Baden Henry Powell, C.I.E., the brother of Sir George 
Baden Powell, M.P., was Judge at Lahore. W. M. Deane, 
C.M.G., commanded the police at Hong Kong. 

Colonel A. F. Laughton served in the Indian Army, 
and A. W. Gay, D.S.O., in the Royal Artillery. 

Among men of letters educated by Dr. Kynaston men 
tion must be made of the late W. Cosmo Monkhouse, a 
well-known art critic and poet, Dorset Eccles, I.S.O., of the 
British Museum, and the late Archibald Little, a frequent 
writer on Far Eastern topics. 

The names of the late Canon A. L. Moore, tutor of 
Keble, and contributor to Lux Mundi, A. E. Cowley, sub 
librarian at the Bodleian and A. R. F. Hyslop, who after 
many years as assistant master at Harrow was elected to 
the wardenship of Glenalmond, may well close this list. 



410 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

who were his pupils include many leaders at the Bar. Sir 
Harry Poland, K.C., was, until his retirement from practice, 
the most distinguished criminal lawyer in England, and 
Kynaston s pupils, admitted to the school in the few years 
from 1858 to 1864, include His Honour Judge Philip 
Howard Smith, Frank Safford, Recorder of Canterbury, 
George Meryon White, editor of the Law Reports, and the 
following three who have taken silk, R. E. Pollock, J. C. L. 
Coward and E. F. Lankester. The brother of the last, the 
celebrated zoologist, Sir E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S., was 
also at St. Paul s, and his contemporary in the school, 
J. W. L. Glaisher, F.R.S., is also a distinguished man of 
science. Professor E. Symes Thompson, who entered the 
school only thirteen years earlier than these must be men 
tioned here, as must A. B. Kempe, Chancellor of three 
dioceses, Bencher of the Inner Temple, and Treasurer of 
the Royal Society, and his brother, Sir J. A. Kempe, K.C.B., 
Comptroller and Auditor-General, the distinguished sons of 
an Old Pauline father. 

S. A. Saunder, the Gresham Professor of Astronomy, is 
the third Old Pauline who has occupied that chair in little 
over a hundred years. The Dean of St. Albans, Dr. W. J. 
Lawrance was captain of the school in 1858, and was con 
temporary at St. Paul s with Canon W. W. Capes, for some 
years Reader in Ancient History at Oxford. Sylvester 
J. Hunter, a conveyancing counsel, became a well-known 
member of the Society of Jesus, and J. Leycester Lyne, 
better known as Father Ignatius, was described by Mr. 
Gladstone as one of the most eloquent preachers he had 
ever heard. 

Harry Escombe, who entered the school in the same 
week as J. L. Lyne, became Attorney-General and Prime 
Minister of the Colony of Natal, which he represented at 
Queen Victoria s Diamond Jubilee, when he was sworn of 



HERBERT KYNASTON, 1838-1876 411 

the Privy Council. Other colonial administrators educated 
by Kynaston include Sir J. West Ridgeway, G.C.B., a brother 
of the Old Pauline Bishop of Chichester. He was Under 
Secretary for Ireland when Mr. Balfour was Chief Secretary, 
and for eight years was Governor of Ceylon. 

Sir Cecil Clementi Smith, G.C.M.G., was Governor 
of the Straits Settlements, and, like his brother, Colonel 
Montagu Clementi, formerly Judge Advocate-General in 
India, Sir Cecil has served his turn as Master of the 
Mercers Company, has sent his sons to St. Paul s, and has 
in every possible way served the interests of the school. 
Sir R. J. Crosthwaite held high judicial office in India, and 
Baden Henry Powell, C.I.E., the brother of Sir George 
Baden Powell, M.P., was Judge at Lahore. W. M. Deane, 
C.M.G., commanded the police at Hong Kong. 

Colonel A. F. Laughton served in the Indian Army, 
and A. W. Gay, D.S.O., in the Royal Artillery. 

Among men of letters educated by Dr. Kynaston men 
tion must be made of the late W. Cosmo Monkhouse, a 
well-known art critic and poet, Dorset Eccles, I.S.O., of the 
British Museum, and the late Archibald Little, a frequent 
writer on Far Eastern topics. 

The names of the late Canon A. L. Moore, tutor of 
Keble, and contributor to Lux Mundi, A. E. Cowley, sub 
librarian at the Bodleian and A. R. F. Hyslop, who after 
many years as assistant master at Harrow was elected to 
the wardenship of Glenalmond, may well close this list. 



CHAPTER XXII 

THE CHARITY COMMISSIONERS AND THE SCHOOL 

DURING Dr. Kynaston s high mastership began the 
period of doubt and uncertainty as to the future dis 
position of the proceeds of Colet s estate, which at one 
time appeared destined to inflict irretrievable harm to 
St. Paul s School. 

The surplus of income over expenditure in connection 
with St. Paul s amounted in the middle of the nineteenth 
century to .2,500 per annum in spite of the fact that 
the high master s salary was increased from j6oo a year 
to 900, and the salaries of the other masters were 
correspondingly augmented. 

A committee appointed by the Mercers in 1856 re 
ported three years later that, after taking Counsel s opinion, 
they were advised that the Court of Assistants had power 
to increase the number of boys on the foundation, but 
that they had no power, without the sanction of an Act 
of Parliament, to remove the school from the churchyard, 
to sell the ground on which it stood, or to purchase other 
ground and erect another school outside the metropolis. 
Counsel further advised that the Mercers had no power 
to employ the surplus funds for boarding and lodging the 
boys as well as providing them with education. 

A second committee, which was appointed in July 1859, 
two months before the first committee presented its report, 

recommended the creation of another school in the country 

412 



THE CHARITY COMMISSIONERS 413 

supported and maintained out of the surplus of Colet s 
estate, while the number of boys at St. Paul s, they pro 
posed, should be increased to two hundred, accommodation 
for these to be obtained by throwing the masters houses 
into the school. 

A third proposal, which did not receive much support, 
was completely to alter the existing buildings in order that 
three hundred boys and not a hundred and fifty-three should 
be educated in the school. 

By 1860 the whole question of the administration of 
the trust was becoming more and more urgent. The 
accumulated surplus amounted to 33,000 which yielded 
an income of 1,250 a year in addition to 2,500, which 
was the annual excess of income over expenditure. 

At this juncture the Mercers took the advice of 
" learned and discreet men," and consulted the Bishops 
of London, Llandaff and Manchester, and Chief Baron 
Pollock, the first of whom, Dr. Tait, was an old school 
master, the others being all Old Paulines. 

The unanimous opinion of these four distinguished men 
was in favour of the removal of the school from the city, 
while maintaining its character as a London school. 

A proposal which was warmly advocated by Mr. J. W. 
Blakesley, an Old Pauline member of the company, who 
afterwards became Dean of Lincoln, was that the school 
should be removed from its site not, as the bishops and 
the Chief Baron proposed, to another part of London, but 
to the country. This scheme met with much support. 
The buildings and site of the East India Company s 
College at Haileybury came into the market at this time, 
but before the Mercers proposals to purchase them from 
the Department of Woods and Forests had taken definite 
form, they were purchased and set up in their present form 
as a proprietary public school. 



416 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

recommendations of the commissioners. In spite of the 
adverse vote of the Chairman of the Committee, the 
Prince of Wales, the Mercers gained their point. 

The gist of the objection of the Mercers to the pro 
posed legislation is to be found in the statement of their 
spokesman in giving evidence before Lord Clarendon s 
Commission. " The Mercers Company do not admit 
themselves trustees, in the legal sense of the term, of the 
Coletine estates, but they acknowledge that they are bound 
to maintain the school." 

The question of the interest held by the Mercers in 
Dean Colet s estates had arisen three years before the 
appointment of Lord Clarendon s Commission. In 1858 
Baron Lionel de Rothschild entered into negotiations with the 
Mercers Company for the exchange of property belonging 
to St. Paul s School in Buckinghamshire, for an estate 
belonging to Baron Lionel at Oundle, in Northamptonshire. 

The agreement was not actually completed and eventu 
ally the company declined to carry it out. Thereupon, at 
the relation of Baron de Rothschild, an information was filed 
by the Attorney-General against the company, seeking to 
have the agreement carried into effect, alleging that the 
contract for the exchange was beneficial to the charity, and 
further praying that it might be declared that the company 
and the Court of Assistants were trustees of all the estates 
vested in them, by conveyance from, and under the will of 
Dean Colet, and of estates purchased or taken in exchange 
by them out of the school funds, for the benefit of St. Paul s 
School, and for no other purpose, and ought to be applied 
accordingly, and that the agreement should be performed, 
the plaintiff undertaking to perform it on his part, and 
requiring the company to apply to the Charity Commis 
sioners for power to take all necessary steps for the purpose 
of completing the exchange. 



THE CHARITY COMMISSIONERS 417 

The company denied that there was any contract with 
Baron de Rothschild. They claimed to be absolutely 
entitled in their own right, and not as trustees, to that 
part of the income of the property assured to them by 
Dean Colet which was not required for the " Chargis 
Ordinary oute Paide yerely," set out by the founder at the 
end of the school statutes, which amounted to 80 $s. 

It was, however, argued at the Bar on behalf of the 
company, that the " chargis " intended by the founder 
were not a fixed charge of 80 5*., but the charge of 
maintaining in its integrity the institution which Dean 
Colet wished to have maintained effectually and com 
pletely, and the company submitted, subject to that, that 
they were entitled to the surplus of the property. As to 
the main subject-matter of the litigation, the Buckingham 
shire estates, the company stated that they were actually 
Colet s estates, which they had held for upwards of three 
hundred and fifty years, and considering the fact that the 
Oundle estate was only worth about 8,000 more than 
those in Buckinghamshire, they did not think it desirable, 
even if the interests of the charity alone were concerned 
if a charity it were that the exchange should take place. 1 

Vice-Chancellor Sir William Page- Wood ultimately dis 
missed 2 the information and bill with costs, and without 
prejudice to any question as to the claim of the Mercers 
Company to hold the estates originally conveyed to them 
by Dean Colet, and those subsequently purchased out of 
the surplus of any rents or profits of those estates for their 
own benefit or not in trust for charity. 

The Attorney-General soon after filed an information 
seeking to have it declared that the company were trustees 

1 Royal Com. on City of Lond. Livery Cos., Rep. and App., vol. ii. 
1884, pp. 36-43. 

2 Times, May 7 and 13, 186.2. 

E E 



418 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

for St. Paul s School of the whole of the Coletine estates, 
and Vice-Chancellor Sir W. M. James held that the company 
were trustees and were bound to account for the whole 
of the income of the estates held in trust for the school. 1 

It was during the hearing of this second information 
that Sir George Jessel had occasion to refer during his 
argument to the fact that Vice-Chancellor Wood in the 
former case had been unable to suggest any reason why 
Dean Colet fixed on the number of a hundred and fifty-three 
for his scholars. " The Vice-Chancellor," said the Jewish 
Counsel, speaking of a judge who was an active Sunday 
School teacher, " has asked why the number of scholars 
was fixed at a hundred and fifty-three. His Honour seems 
to have forgotten the miraculous draught of fishes." 

The decision of the Court of Chancery that the Mercers 
Company were in no sense the beneficial owners of the 
estates of the school, and its omission from the schedule to 
the Public Schools Act of 1868 brought it, by mere 
operation of law, 2 within the mischief of the Endowed 
Schools Act of the following year, which created the 
Endowed Schools Commission, a body elected ad hoc under 
the chairmanship of Lord Lyttleton. A few years later this 
independent body ceased to exist, and its functions were 
transferred to a department of the Charity Commission. 

One of the last acts of the Endowed Schools Com 
mission was to formulate a scheme for the expenditure of 
the rents and profits of the Coletine estates. This scheme 
contemplated the maintenance of three separate schools, 
a classical school for five hundred boys, a modern school 
for five hundred boys, and a school for four hundred 
girls. A hundred and fifty-three free scholars were to 

1 Times, n and 12 Feb. 1870. Law Journal Reports, 1870, p. 222. 

2 This is not strictly accurate. The preamble of the Endowed Schools 
Act applied it to all endowed schools not included in the terms of reference of 
the Public Schools Commission, but this part of the statute was disregarded. 






THE CHARITY COMMISSIONERS 419 

be maintained in the boys schools, seventy-seven being 
allocated to the classical, and seventy-six to the modern, 
school. This proposal, after having been altered in one 
or two respects at the instance of the Mercers Company, 
by the Committee of the Council on Education, acquired 
statutory force on receiving the consent of the Queen in 
Council in 1876. 

Public opinion, however, and the influence of Old 
Paulines and others was sufficiently strong to bring pressure 
to bear on the Charity Commission to secure the mainten 
ance of the unity of St. Paul s School. A new scheme was 
made, which came into operation in 1879. The governors 
of the school, since 1876, comprised, in addition to the 
master, the three wardens and nine members appointed by 
the Court of Assistants of the Mercers Company, three new 
representatives of each of the Universities of Oxford, Cam 
bridge and London. This governing body was empowered 
to establish in some place within the jurisdiction of the 
Metropolitan Board of Works, a school for a thousand boys 
under two head masters, one over the classical side, which 
should contain five hundred boys, and one over the modern 
side, which should contain an equal number. It was now 
proposed that the high school, which was to be established 
out of the surplus funds, should be for not less than four 
hundred girls, but the number of scholarships which were 
to be endowed in that school was still maintained at thirty- 
nine. A new clause in the scheme, which was added by the 
Committee of the Council to the draft issued by the Charity 
Commissioners, provided that the religious instruction in 
both schools should be according to the principles of 
the Church of England. Under the provisions of the 
scheme of 1879 St - Paul s School was moved to its new 
home at West Kensington, and remained under the single 
control of Mr. Walker. The reason for this was, that 
so long as the number of boys in the school was less 



EE 2 



420 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

than five hundred, it was possible to regard them as consti 
tuting one department of the school, and to allow the pro 
viso as to the dual control of the school under a classical 
and a modern head master to lie dormant. 

The progress made by the school, and the increase in its 
numbers, within a few years after the removal from the 
city, to over six hundred, rendered the separate organixation 
of the modern department imperative, if the provisions of 
the statutory scheme were to be complied with. 

The governors, in consequence, applied, in June 1891, to 
the Charity Commission for directions, and on consideration 
the Commission held that a new scheme alone could relieve 
the governors from the duty of establishing forthwith a dual 
head mastership. 

The success of Mr. Walker, under the existing mode of 
conducting the school, had been so remarkable that the 
opinion of those most concerned in the future of St. Paul s 
led to the drafting by the Charity Commission of a new 
scheme, in order that the unity of the school under one 
head might be secured. The draft of this scheme was 
published on March 6, 1893. 

By this it was proposed that two new lower-grade schools 
should be founded, called respectively Dean Colet s Boys 
and Girls School. The income of each of these was to be 
2,500 a year, while the balance of Dean Colet s revenues 
namely, 8,000 a year was to be left to St. Paul s. The new 
schools were to be " modern " schools, containing respec 
tively five hundred boys and four hundred girls. 

By Clause 75 of this draft scheme, it was proposed to 
restrict one-third of the hundred and fifty-three founda 
tion scholarships on entrance to St. Paul s School to boys 
not over the age of sixteen, who were, or had been, for at 
least two years, at an endowed school under the Endowed 
Schools Act, the ordinary tuition fees at which were not 



THE CHARITY COMMISSIONERS 421 

more than 1 5 a year, or who had been for not less than 
three years scholars at any public elementary school in the 
metropolitan school district. A further provision reduced 
the total annual sum devoted to leaving exhibitions from 
1,700 to 1,000, the yearly proceeds of" the Campden 
Trust. Very strong feeling was aroused by the drastic 
nature of these proposals. The Times pointed out that 
they involved a complete change in a school which had only 
recently been re-established with all the appliances of a first- 
rate public school, and of which the Master of Balliol had 
recently stated that its classical and mathematical scholars 
had obtained more University distinctions than any other 
public school in the country. 

Pursuant to Section 12 of the Endowed Schools Act of 
1873, sucn draft schemes must be lodged for criticism and 
objection in the office of the Charity Commission for two 
months. They have then to remain for one or two months 
with the Committee of the Council on Education, and objec 
tion may be made in writing to the Education Department. 
They have then to be returned to the Charity Commission, 
whose duty it is to embody in the scheme any recom 
mendations of the Committee of the Council. Finally, they 
have to lie for forty days on the tables of both Houses of 
Parliament, any member of which may move to reject them. 

Strong recommendations were accordingly made to the 
right quarters by the various sections of people interested in 
the school who were anxious to save it from such disastrous 
changes. Meetings were held of the Old Pauline Club, of 
Old Paulines at Oxford and Cambridge, of parents of 
Paulines, and of assistant masters in the school, to protest 
against the proposed changes. 

The protests were in the main concerned with Clause 75, 
which proposed by an artificial lowering of the standard by 
means of limited competition to introduce into the school 



422 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

boys from elementary and secondary schools, but which by 
making no provision for such necessary expenses as travel 
ling, scientific apparatus, books and athletics would prevent 
them taking a proper part in the life of the school. The 
means by which these scholars were to be elected on a basis 
of severely restricted competition was thought a most ob 
jectionable change from the existing practice by which all 
the foundation scholarships were open to free and unre 
stricted competition. 

Power was given in the scheme to charge fees to the 
hundred and two scholars who were not elected from the 
restricted class, and it was urged that the reduction in the 
income of the school from the Coletine fund would make it 
necessary to employ these permissive powers, a line of action 
to which the probable reduction in the number of capitation 
scholars resulting from the diminution of leaving exhibitions, 
and the change in the class of boys in the school would 
also inevitably tend. 

Public opinion concerning the school was sufficiently 
strong to cause the scheme to be modified in the month of 
August 1893. Clause 75 was dropped, and thus disap 
peared the proposal to benefit an arbitrarily defined class at 
the expense of the rest. The clause which gave power to 
burden foundation scholars with fees was retained. Under 
the modified scheme, the 8,000 per annum allocated to 
St. Paul s was no longer liable to charges for the repair of 
the school fabric, and the payment of exhibitions ceased to 
be a charge confined to the proceeds of the Campden Trust. 
The Times, 1 in a leading article, expressed " the feelings of 
gratification and relief by all who have at heart the pros 
perity of that ancient and flourishing foundation . . . the 
greatest, the most successful and the most popular of London 
day schools." 

1 August 3, 1893. 



THE CHARITY COMMISSIONERS 423 

The Charity Commission, as the Times remarked, had 
retired from an untenable position, but a new provision 
destined to prolong the struggle enacted that the London 
County Council should for the future be empowered to 
nominate three of the members of the governing body. 

The provisions of Clause 1 5 of a new scheme, of April 
1894, limited the annual income of the school to 8,000 
exclusive of the cost of permanent structural improvements. 
This involved a reduction, amounting to between 2,500 
and 3,000 a year, in the annual grant made at that time 
to the school from the foundation. The means available 
for meeting this deficit were as follows. By Clause 58 the 
governors were empowered to raise the tuition fees to 30 
a year. By Clause 65 holders of scholarships might be 
" granted exemption from the whole or any part of the tuition 
fees," power being given to charge them i o a year. Thirdly, 
the leaving exhibitions, which amounted to 1,700 a year, were 
derived excluding 930 from the Campden Trust from a 
grant from the foundation which it was possible to discontinue. 

The Mercers Company, the Old Pauline Club, a hundred 
and twenty Old Paulines resident at Oxford and Cambridge, 
and the parents of Paulines memorialized Mr. Acland, the 
Vice-president of the Committee of the Council on Education, 
pointing out the objection to the presence of representatives 
of the London County Council, on the ground that the school 
was not a local school. 

To the request for a more just proportion of the amount 
accruing from the Coletine estates, the Vice-president replied 
by proposing that the share of St. Paul s School should be 
not 8,000, as the Charity Commission had laid down, but 
9,000, a sum which left the school with a very small 
annual surplus, which a reduction in the number of boys 
in the school, or a rise in rates or taxes would have turned 
into a deficit. 



FREDERICK W. WALKER, 1877-1905 427 

wealthy citizens of Manchester for the development of the 
grammar school. At the opening of the new buildings of 
the school in 1871, Professor Jowett prophesied that Mr. 
Walker would become the most distinguished head master in 
England. Among the notable men whom he educated at 
Manchester Dr. Diggle, the present Bishop of Carlisle, 
Mr. Justice Hamilton, Sir Frank Lockwood and Dr. Wood, 
the head master of Harrow, may be mentioned. 

Mr. Walker s position on assuming the high mastership 
of St. Paul s in 1877 was no easy one. The growth of the 
city, the inability of Dr. Kynaston to maintain discipline, the 
automatic awards of leaving exhibitions to the whole of the 
head boys in the Eighth, and the prolonged uncertainty as to 
the future of the school, had all contributed to make it appear 
that St. Paul s was destined to dwindle and decay. 

Mr. Walker at once threw into the school two of the 
masters houses, and provided room for seventy capitation 
scholars in addition to the hundred and fifty-three who were 
educated on the foundation. The staff of masters was 
doubled. In 1879 natural science and drawing were for the 
first time taught in the school. The science forms established 
simultaneously by Mr. Walker at Manchester, and Dr. 
Percival, now Bishop of Hereford, at Clifton, were the two 
first " modern sides " in any English public school, and Mr. 
Walker copied at St. Paul s his own successful experiment at 
Manchester. The removal of the school from the site 
which it had occupied for two hundred and seventy-five years, 
the maintenance of the old traditions amidst new surround 
ings, the organization of a school which after its removal 
increased every year until it had grown to four times its 
original size, all these were matters in which the genius of 
Mr. Walker found scope for its exercise. 

The establishment of boarding houses on the removal of 
the school to West Kensington re-introduced an element 



432 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

ornamentation. Of these windows, one was erected in 
memory of Rev. E. H. R. Watts, M.D., one of the most 
inspiring science masters who ever taught in the school, 
another was erected by his mother in memory of E. Orme 
Wilson, a boy of eighteen, who died within six months after 
leaving St. Paul s, a third was placed in position by Dr. 
Collison Morley, in gratitude for the education of his 
son. 

From the handsome central bay of the main corridor, 
effectively decorated on either side by three lights containing 
the armorials of seventeenth-century high masters, erected 
by the Pauline magazine, one passes into the Board room, 
which occupies a fine position in the centre of the building, 
and from which a long row of windows look out upon the 
school close. 

Above the oak panelling over the fireplace at the south 
end hangs the portrait of Lord Chancellor Truro, by Sir 
Francis Grant, P.R.A., bequeathed to the school by Lady 
Truro. Corresponding to this, at the other end of the room, 
hangs Mr. William Rothenstein s portrait of Mr. F. W. 
Walker, the late high master, which was presented to him on 
his retirement. Oil paintings of two other high masters, 
Benjamin Morland and John Sleath, also hang in this room, 
and an unknown portrait in oils hanging over the door 
was identified by Sir Frederick Halliday, on a visit to the 
school shortly before his death, as being that of Richard 
Edwards, an Old Pauline who, in 1783, became chaplain, and 
in 1 806 became surmaster of the school. Engravings of Dr. 
Roberts and Dr. Kynaston are also upon the walls. 

In this room also is to be seen an interesting portrait of 
the Duke of Marlborough, presented in 1899 ^7 Mr. H. C. 
Taylor, the work of J. van Hugtenburgh, an artist who was 
engaged by Prince Eugene to paint the battles of his cam 
paigns. Another portrait of the Duke of Marlborough in 



FREDERICK W. WALKER, 1877-1905 433 

early life (after J. Closterman) was presented to the school 
by Captain Robert Noel in 1905. 

A recent addition to these portraits, the gift of the 
present high master, is a reproduction of the portrait of 
Milton at the age of ten, painted by Cornelius Janssen, 
a painter who has been described as equal to Van Dyck 
in all except freedom of hand and grace. It represents 
the poet as he was when he entered St. Paul s as a charm 
ingly pretty little boy, with a serious face beneath a closely 
cropped head, dressed in a tightly fitting black braided 
dress adorned with a neat lace frill. The chief treasure of 
the Board room is the bust of Dean Colet, the one relic pre 
served of the school before the fire. It was on it that 
Leland, who died in 1552, wrote this epigram 

" Eloquio iuvenes vbi Lillius illepolliuit, 
In statua spiras magne Colete tua. 
Quam si Praxiteles fecisset magnus et ille, 
Forsitan aequasset, non superasset opus. 
Hac salua statua, diuini forma Coleti 
Temporibus longis non peritura manet." 

It is not known by whom this bust was executed. It may 
reasonably be supposed to have been a companion to the 
one placed by the Mercers Company over the dean s monu 
ment in the cathedral, and it has been suggested by an 
expert that it may be the work of Torrigiano, who was 
working at Henry VIl s tomb in Westminster Abbey in the 
year of Colet s death. In 1887 the successive coats of paint 
which had been laid on the bust were removed, and were 
found to be seventeen in number, including in addition to an 
attempt at " natural colouring," such different tints as yellow 
ochre, pure white, umber and red terra cotta. The original 
colours of the bust showed hair and eyes of a dark brown 
tint, carmine lips, a pale, fresh-coloured face and neck, the 
biretta and dress being black in conformity with the statement 



F F 



434 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

of Erasmus, " non nisi pullis vestibus utebatur," while the 
upper edge of the inner vest was found to be marked by a 
streak of bronze. 

The eighteenth-century marble copy of this bust, 
described as being made "with the attitude improved," 
which stood on the north wall of the schoolroom in St. 
Paul s Churchyard, is variously attributed * to Banks and to 
Roubillac, the sculptor of the statue in the ante-chapel of 
Trinity, Cambridge 

" Of Newton with his prism and silent face, 
The marble index of a mind for ever 
Voyaging through strange seas of Thought, alone." 

There is earlier and better authority, however, for attribut 
ing it to John Bacon, who died in 1799, whose monument 
to the Earl of Chatham, the " Great Commoner," in West 
minster Abbey, prompted the lines of Cowper 

" Bacon there 

Gives more than female beauty to a stone, 
And Chatham s eloquence to marble lips." 

The Great Hall, which projects from the main building 
at the south-east corner, is eighty feet long, forty feet wide, 
and about fifty feet in height. At the north end is a large 
gallery of a handsome Tudor design in carved oak, and 
round the walls to the level of the base of the windows is 
carried round oak panelling, into which is inset the valuable 
collection of engravings of Old Paulines presented to the 
school by the late Dr. Collison Morley, for many years 
medical attendant to St. Paul s, whose generosity is com 
memorated by an inscription beneath his coat of arms in the 
central panel on the west side. 

On the dai s in the apsidal south end of the great hall 

1 To Banks by Allen and Bigland, to Roubillac by Thornbury and 
Staunton, to Bacon by Malcolm, Wilkinson, Ackerman and Carlisle. 



FREDERICK W. WALKER, 1877-1905 435 

is placed the organ erected in memory of Benjamin Jowett, 
Master of Balliol. The organ, which was built by Willis 
in 1896, and was recently completed, is covered by an oak 
case, in a niche in the centre of which is a bust of Professor 
Jowett by Mr. H. R. Hope Pinker, the gift of Mr. James 
Bewsher, the head of the great preparatory school to St. 
Paul s, who was one of the many distinguished scholars sent 
up to Balliol during Professor Jowett s mastership by Mr. 
Walker, when high master of Manchester Grammar School. 
Beneath the series of coats of arms appropriately em 
blazoned on the front of the organ-case runs the inscription, 
"Benjamin Jowett alumni hujus scholae, postea deinceps in 
Collegio Balliolensi Scholaris Socii Magistri Paulini Parentes 
Amici dedicaverunt." 

On each side of the apse in which the organ stands, are 
mosaic figures of St. Paul and Dean Colet respectively, the 
former holding a great two-handed sword and the latter 
dressed in cassock with a fur amice and cope. The 
details of his vestments were taken from the brass in 
Hackney Church erected in memory of Christopher Urswick, 
the chaplain of the Countess of Richmond, who is repre 
sented in Shakespeare s Richard III, 1 and who died two 
years after Colet. Below each of these figures are two 
decorative panels in which are represented swimming 
among the weeds, luce or small pike, the fish which is the 
symbolic l^Qdy of the early Church, and so recalls at once 
the number of scholars in the school and its dedication to 
the child Jesus. Above the figures, within the apex of the 
Gothic arch in which the design culminates, across a pattern 
of white lilies on a blue ground, floats a scroll bearing the 
verse, "Beati qui audiunt verbum Dei et custodiunt illud." 

In February 1 903 the Bishop of London unveiled and 
dedicated the mosaic which occupies the uppermost portion of 

1 Act IV. sc. v. 

FF 2 



436 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

the south wall of the Great Hall. This represents the finding 
of the child Jesus among the doctors by the Blessed Virgin 
and St. Joseph. The central figure, " seated in the attitude 
of one teaching," inspired by Erasmus description of the 
figure erected by Colet in the original building, was pre 
sented by Mrs. Lupton ; the rest of the mosaic is the gift 
of the Rev. R. J. Walker. 

The decorations of this nature in the Great Hall are 
completed by mosaics of Erasmus, William Lily, Viscount 
Campden and John Milton, which occupy the spaces 
between the southernmost windows on the two sides of the 
hall respectively. The first of these was erected as a 
memorial of Dr. Lupton in 1900. In 1901 the high master 
presented the mosaic of his great predecessor, and the 
Mercers that of Lord Campden, and in 1903 that of Milton 
was erected by the Pauline. 

In 1891 was begun at the suggestion of Mr. Pendlebury 
and under the supervision of Mr. Harris, the effective 
decoration of the Great Hall by filling the large lancet 
windows with the armorial bearings of distinguished Old 
Paulines. The design of the mullions being of such a kind 
as to allow the coats of arms to be inserted separately, the 
work has been proceeded with gradually, but at the present 
moment there is room for the insertion of only four more 
coats. 

The late high master, the house masters, the art master 
(Mr. Harris), the bursar (Mr. Bewsher), Sir F. P. Barnard, 
an Old Pauline, Mr. W. Clarkson Birch a father of 
Paulines, the Pauline magazine, the parents of Paulines, the 
Old Pauline Club, and the boys in the school in 1892, com 
prise the generous contributors to this excellent scheme of 
decoration. 

Each of the ten large lights contains sixteen armorials, 
and each of the four small ones contains four. 



FREDERICK W. WALKER, 1877-1905 437 

At the top of each window, placed beside the arms of 
the school are those of some institution with which it is 
connected, including the Universities, colleges at which 
exhibitions have been founded, the Deanery of St. Paul s, the 
Mercers Company, the City of London and the Royal 
arms of England under the Tudors, and during the reign 
of Victoria. 

At the base of each window are the arms of the most 
distinguished of Old Paulines. Those of Marlborough and 
Milton are side by side, the latter being beneath those 
of Charles Diodati, just as in other windows two admirals, 
Sir Frederick Thesiger and Sir Thomas Troubridge, two 
antiquaries, Camden and Leland, two men of science, 
Halley and Cotes, and two philanthropists, Hawes and 
Nelson, all are represented by coats of arms placed the one 
beside the other. The arms of the Boyle family appear four 
times, in three cases impaled with those of an episcopal see. 
Those of the Pollocks, that Pauline gens juridica, are to be 
seen in three places. The mitres of twenty bishops, two in 
each window, are blazoned all round the hall at the same 
level in each light, and above these are the arms of 
great educationalists, including those of fourteen heads of 
Houses at Oxford and Cambridge, ranging from William 
Whitaker, Master of St. John s College, Cambridge, in the 
sixteenth century, to those of Benjamin Jowett of Balliol 
College, Oxford, in the nineteenth. 

The library is situated at the north-east corner of the 
building on the first floor. It contains busts of the last 
five high masters, extending over a period of a hundred and 
fifty years. That of Thicknesse, the history of which has 
already been dealt with, is by Hickey, that of Roberts by 
Nollekens, that of Sleath by Behnes, that of Kynaston by 
George Halse, an Old Pauline, some of whose other work 
is to be seen in the dining-hall, while that of Mr. Walker 



440 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

Terence of 1475 bound up in one volume, with a similar 
edition of Horace (1479 ?). Its pages are crowded with 
marginalia in a very early hand. Some of them are 
apparently in the writing of the transcriber of the Colet 
MS. of the Hierarchies of Dionysiui possessed by the school, 
which may be that of William Lily or possibly that of Thomas 
Lupset. 1 

There is an Ovid of 1476, a Poetae Minores Graecae of 
1495 and a few other books before 1500. Of books 
produced between that year and 1525 those of chief interest 
are the one or two volumes of quarto Ciceros from Jehan 
Petit s press, the editio princeps of the Aldine Septuagint of 
1518 with its fine rubrications, and the Polyglot Psalter of 
1516. Cranmer s Great Bible of 1539 must also be named. 

The numerous Oriental books which are to be found, 
show the influence of Postlethwayt and also of Gale, who, 
after the fire, formed the nucleus of the library as we 
have it now. Dr. Gale s copy of lamblichus contains MS. 
additions by the high master himself. 

Reference has already been made to the early Latin 
grammars and also to the Stephanus Thesaurus presented 
by Pepys to the library. The name of the diarist is also 
to be seen stamped in gilt letters on Baudraud s Lexicon, 

A fairly complete set of early editions of Milton is also 
to be seen, and the library contains Robert Burns copy of 
Milton s poems with his own autograph. 

Some eighteenth-century bronze tradesmen s tokens, on 
which are cut views of the second school, are also preserved 
in the library, which now contains nearly 10,000 books. 
The last important addition to the library was the Blouet 
bequest, while in 1901 Dr. F. H. M. Blaydes, the well- 
known scholar and critic of Greek literature, whose eldest 
son was educated at the school, presented to St. Paul s the 
1 Notes and Queries, Ser. 6, vol. i. p. 44.9. 



FREDERICK W. WALKER, 1877-1905 441 

greater part of his classical library, amounting to 1,300 
books. He also gave the school nearly eighty valuable 
specimens of marble and a large collection of curios, in 
addition to a fine set of eighteenth-century engravings of 
Italian scenery which now hang in the dining-hall. 

The dining-hall, which with the kitchen occupies the 
whole of the upper floor of the west wing of the building, 
is a fine room 125 feet long and 41 feet wide. Nearly two 
hundred boys lunch here every day. Its main drawbacks 
are the lowness of the roof and the absence of decoration. 
Now that the windows in the Great Hall have been all but 
filled it is to be hoped that the arms of some of the dis 
tinguished Old Paulines who have not yet been com 
memorated in this way, will be emblazoned in the dining- 
hall, the great west window of which would lend itself 
peculiarly well to such treatment. 

The chemical laboratory, although much smaller, occu 
pies on the east of the school a position corresponding to 
that of the dining-hall on the west. Behind the chemical 
laboratory is the biological laboratory, and the large room to 
the east is the school museum. 

The art school, in which there is room for ninety boys 
at a time, occupies the whole of the central part of the 
building on the first floor. Of the work done there under 
the able art master, Mr. Harris, who has been at the 
school for just thirty years, it is only necessary to point to 
the fact that in the public schools drawing competition 
instituted by the Daily Graphic in 1893, St. Paul s gained 
the diploma for the best set of drawings which were sent 
in, while the artistic exhibits of St. Paul s at the Franco- 
British Exhibition in 1908 were admittedly far superior to 
those of any other public school. 

Among the distinguished colleagues whose support Mr. 
Walker enjoyed during his long high mastership, pride of 



442 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

place must be given to Dr. Joseph Hurst Lupton, who 
became surmaster in 1864 and retained that post for thirty- 
five years. He had been fifth classic at Cambridge, and was 
a Fellow of St. John s College, and at St. Paul s, in addition 
to his scholastic work, he devoted himself to the care of the 
library and to historical research connected with the school, 
his chief work being the Life of Dean Colet and his edition 
of the extant writings of the founder, in addition to an 
edition of Sir Thomas More s Utopia, whilst his contribu 
tions to the Dictionary of National Biography were very 
numerous. In 1890 he was elected preacher of Gray s Inn, 
a dignified position which he held at the same time as the 
surmastership, and during his tenure of which one might 
well have heard applied to him those lines of W. M. Praed 

"you ll hear 

The doctrine of a gentle Johnian, 
Whose hand is white, whose tone is clear, 
Whose phrase is very Ciceronian." 

His farewell speech at the Apposition of 1899 will long 
be remembered as a singularly beautiful expression of the 
mind of a scholar, and one cannot do better than quote the 
high master s description of him as " a consummate type of 
Christian gentleman." 

Dr. Lupton s successor, Mr. J. W. Shepard, came to 
the school as fourth master in 1861, became third master 
in 1875, and surmaster in 1899, but resigned three years 
later. 

Mr. Shepard was a school-master whose joie de vivre was 
reflected in every lesson which he gave, and a clergyman 
who was described by a very good critic as second only to 
Liddon as a preacher. Although Dr. Jowett offered him 
every Balliol living that came into his gift, Mr. Shepard was 
not to be enticed away from St. Paul s. 

Mr. Shepard s successor as surmaster, the Rev. R. B. 



FREDERICK W. WALKER, 1877-1905 443 

Gardiner, is an Old Pauline who entered the school in 1854. 
While an undergraduate at Wadham, Mr. Gardiner was cox 
of the winning trial eight in 1863. In 1875 he was 
appointed fourth master of St. Paul s on the old foundation, 
and has therefore described himself with justice as the 
Mercers " last surviving servant under Colet s statutes." 
For twenty-eight years Mr. Gardiner was a house master 
at St. Paul s, but his chief claim to the gratitude of his 
school-fellows lies in the pious care which prompted him to 
undertake the laborious compilation of the registers of the 
school, the first volume of which was published in 1884, 
and the second in 1906. In recognition of his historical 
research he was in 1887 elected a Fellow of the Society of 
Antiquaries. 

The three masters with whom we have dealt were all 
appointed to the school before the election of Mr. Walker. 
The same must be said of Dr. A. W. Verrall, who also was 
for a few years an assistant master at St. Paul s. 

On Mr. Walker s election, no less than six additional 
masters were appointed. Of these, Mr. W. G. Rutherford 
was recommended to the high master by Professor Jowett as 
" one of the few men who can really think about 
language." From St. Paul s he went to Westminster School, 
where he was head master for many years. He has been 
described as the greatest Greek scholar produced by England 
since Bentley. 

M. Paul Blouet, who was appointed French master by 
Mr. W T alker in 1877, had gained the Cross of the Legion 
of Honour for his gallant services in the Horse Artillery of 
the Imperial Guard in the Franco-Prussian war, and at the 
second siege of Paris during the Commune. Years after 
Mr. Walker described him as the most brilliant French 
teacher he had ever known. M. Blouet, who wrote and 
lectured after leaving St. Paul s under the pseudonym of 



446 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

" tempietto," has a base of three steps surmounted by seven 
columns of the Tuscan order, and an entablature with a 
panelled and ribbed copper dome. On the frieze is the 
inscription " Paulinorum virtutis in Africa spectatae record- 
entur posteri," while the copper panels which surround the 
drinking fountain in the centre bear the names of the eleven 
Old Paulines who are commemorated. 

The latest of Mr. Walker s pupils to distinguish them 
selves in the Army are two Old Paulines who were mentioned 
in dispatches in connection with the Zakka Khel expedition 
of 1908. 

Lieutenant A. B. Forman, R.A., was one of the six 
officers selected for special mention by the commander-in- 
chief in the special memorandum issued on the loss of the 
Warren Hastings off Reunion in 1896, and finally we must 
mention the highest distinction of any achieved by an Old 
Pauline officer in the Army, the Victoria Cross awarded to 
Captain Randolph Nesbitt, who in 1899 led a patrol of 
thirteen men from Salisbury, Rhodesia, and safely brought 
back a small party of men and women in the teeth of a 
thousand Mashonas. 

A remarkable number of foundation prizes were estab 
lished in the school during the high mastership of Mr. 
Walker. The first of these, in memory of the high master 
ship of his predecessor, the Kynaston Prize for Philology, was 
founded in 1877. Four years later the Bedford Prize for 
History was established to commemorate Francis J. Bedford, 
the captain of the school who was accidentally drowned in 
Scotland. In 1884 the Ollivant Prize for Greek Testament 
was founded in memory of Alfred Ollivant, Bishop of 
LlandafF, who at the date of his death was president of the 
Old Pauline Club, and who, sixty-eight years earlier, was 
captain of the school. The John Watson Prizes for Draw 
ing and Painting were founded in 1888, in memory of a 



FREDERICK W. WALKER, 1877-1905 447 

governor of the school, and in the following year a prize 
for English Literature was founded by an Old Pauline, 
Joshua Butterworth, F.S.A., Master of the Stationers 
Company, and head of the well-known firm of law pub 
lishers. In the same year Sir Samuel Montagu, Bart., M.P. 
(now Lord Swaythling), whose eldest son, Hon. Lionel 
Montagu, was educated in the school, founded a prize for 
German which bears his name. 

The Lupton Prize, which was founded in 1900, is 
awarded for a knowledge of the Bible and the Book of 
Common Prayer, and commemorates the surmastership for 
thirty-five years of Dr. J. H. Lupton. In 1902 an Old 
Pauline endowed by his will prizes for original work of a 
scientific and practical nature, which he had annually 
awarded from 1884 till the date of his death in memory of 
his father, Alfred Smee, F.R.S., who also was an Old Pauline. 
Finally, in 1904, W. H. Winterbotham, Official Solicitor 
to the High Court of Justice, the father of seven foundation 
scholars in the school, founded the Winterbotham Scholar 
ship, which is held by the head classical boy during his last 
year at the school. 

The Master of Balliol, in his speech at the opening of the 
new school buildings in 1884, said that he could remember 
the palmy days of St. Paul s under Dr. Sleath, when there 
were at one time five or six Fellows of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, from among its scholars. "The school," 
Professor Jowett continued, " is beginning again under new 
auspices, and far more favourable conditions than hitherto. 
I wish you a success worthy of your old traditions, worthy 
of your able and distinguished high master, who is so 
deservedly popular among you, worthy of the noble build 
ing in which you are assembled, and worthy of the great 
man who was your founder." 

Never have wishes been more completely fulfilled. Not 



448 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

even Shrewsbury, when at the height of her career, could 
point to so consistently successful an academic record as 
could St. Paul s under Mr. Walker. The phenomenal 
success of the school reached its climax in 1899, when 
twenty-nine open scholarships were gained at Oxford and 
Cambridge, including two at Balliol, Oxford, and three at 
Trinity, Cambridge. 

Twenty-six college fellowships have been held by Mr. 
Walker s pupils at Oxford and Cambridge, and in 1900 
the high master was able to announce that St. Paul s had 
repeated its achievement of the days of Sleath, in that five 
of its alumni were at the same time holding fellowships at 
Trinity College, Cambridge. 

Of the ten holders from 1892-1901 of the Derby 
Scholarship at Oxford, which is awarded to the man who 
has gained the greatest number of distinctions in classical 
learning, five were Old Paulines. In ten years the Hertford 
Scholarship was eight times gained by Mr. Walker s pupils. 
Old Paulines gained twelve Craven, and fourteen Ireland, 
Scholarships. 

The Pauline honour list includes also seven Gaisford 
Prizes for Greek, seven Chancellor s Prizes, three Boden 
Scholarships for Sanskrit, two Eldon Scholarships for law, 
two Newdigate Prizes, two Hall Houghton Prizes, a Liddon 
Memorial Scholarship, an Abbott Scholarship and a Cobden 
Essay Prize. 

At Cambridge Pauline distinctions have been no less 
remarkable. They include seven Chancellor s Medals, two 
Porson Prizes, two Battie Scholarships, and two Whewell 
Scholarships. 

Two Old Paulines won Sir William Browne s Medal, two 
gained the Craven Scholarship, and two the Member s Essay 
Prize. 

Four Stewart of Rannoch Scholarships were carried off 



FREDERICK W. WALKER, 1877-1905 449 

by Mr. Walker s pupils, and three Allen and two Bell 
Scholarships were gained by Old Paulines. The Adams, the 
Mason, the Tyrwhitt, and the Winchester Prizes have each 
been gained once by Old Paulines, and six successive pupils 
of Mr. Walker have won the Barnes Scholarship, which is 
open to the competition of Old Boys from St. Paul s, 
Merchant Taylors and Christ s Hospital. 

Before Mr. Walker became high master of St. Paul s, 
only two Old Paulines had ever been senior wranglers at 
Cambridge. Of these, the first, Samuel Vince, became 
Plumian Professor of Astronomy, and Jonathan Pollock 
rose to be Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer. Four of 
Mr. Walker s pupils became senior wranglers, and seven 
have gained what has recently been a still more coveted 
honour, the Smith s Prize. 

When it is remembered that the first Pauline admitted 
to the school in Mr. Walker s high mastership is only just 
forty-five years of age, and that, therefore, the careers of 
most of his pupils are only just begun, it will be admitted 
that the record of the boys educated by him at St. Paul s 
include many of marked distinction. 

We have already seen the results of his training in the 
careers of his pupils who have entered the Army. To these 
may be added the Egyptian Orders of the Medjidieh 
awarded to Captain E. C. Midwinter, D.S.O., and H. F. 
Barber, and that of the Osmanieh gained by Captain M. G. 
Manifold. 

Mr. Walker educated G. T. Walker, a Fellow of 
the Royal Society, and another of his pupils, Professor 
Bertram Hopkinson, is the present occupant of the Chair 
of Mechanism at Cambridge. The University laboratory 
was erected as a memorial to his father and brother, 
the latter of whom was killed in the Alps while a school-boy 
at St. Paul s. Dr. C. G. Seligman is an anthropologist distin- 



G G 



450 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

guished for his researches among the Veddas of Ceylon, 
A. B. Cook is Reader in Classical Archaeology at Cambridge, 
Kirsopp Lake is Professor of New Testament Exegesis at 
the University of Leyden. At Oxford W. M. Geldart is 
All Souls Reader in English Law, and C. R. Beazley is Pro 
fessor of History at the University of Birmingham, while 
G. M. Hildyard is Reader in Equity to the Council of Legal 
Education. 

Harold Hodge is editor of the Saturday Review, and 
among other distinguished Pauline men of letters may be 
mentioned Laurence Binyon, G. K. Chesterton, Edward 
Thomas, Laurie Magnus, Vaughan Cornish and Martin 
Hardie. 

The late S. A. Strong, who was Librarian to the House 
of Lords and to the Duke of Devonshire, and was noted for 
his knowledge of Sanskrit and his study of renaissance art, 
was educated at St. Paul s, as was the newly appointed 
member of the chapter of St. Paul s Cathedral, Canon S. A. 
Alexander, who for several years held the post of Reader to 
the Temple, and who some years ago was nominated to a 
canonry of Hereford at a time when his standing as a 
clergyman was not sufficiently long for his appointment to 
be valid. 

Four of Mr. Walker s pupils are masters at Eton 
College, two are on the staff at Winchester and others are at 
Harrow, Westminster and Marlborough. 

Several Old Paulines exhibit every year at the Academy 
and other exhibitions. Chief among these may be named 
Geoffrey Strachan, R.B.A. 

It must not be forgotten that more than a hundred of 
Mr. Walker s most brilliant pupils have for a time hidden 
their light under a bushel by passing into the higher 
branches of the Civil Service, at home, in India, in Egypt 
and in the colonies. One may expect to hear much of 



FREDERICK W. WALKER, 1877-1905 451 

them in the future as permanent heads of departments at 
home and as leading administrators abroad. 

The time has not yet come for a full appreciation of the 
services of Mr. Walker to St. Paul s to be written. Of his 
influence on the course of education in England, it is 
enough to say that he was the one head master of his time 
who attempted to show that education of the best possible 
kind, both moral and intellectual, could be given in sur 
roundings different from those of the stereotyped public 
boarding schools. 

Mr. Walker s appreciation of the value of the blend of 
a corporate school life with the amenities of the home was 
the first important factor in the history of English education 
since the establishment of the numerous Victorian public 
schools. 

His insistence upon the value of a wise parental influence, 
which, he was never tired of asserting, could in no circum 
stances be vicariously wielded by a school-master, caused 
him, as many parents can testify, to be not merely the sage 
guardian of countless Paulines, but also in many instances, 
the guide, philosopher and friend of their fathers and, 
perhaps, even more of their mothers. 

The kindness of heart which he concealed under a stern 
exterior was totally free from that sentimentality which in 
some school-masters tends to make their pupils prigs. 

His unquestioned authority in the government of the 
school was due to the benevolent despotism which he exer 
cised and to the full measure of latitude, free from petty 
interference in non-essentials, which he allowed to masters 
and to boys alike. 

The unswerving purpose with which he pursued his 
ideals made him the central figure in the fighting line, 
during the long struggle with the doctrinaires of a public 
department through which the school was compelled to 



G G 2 



452 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

pass, and the modesty which made him dislike all personal 
distinction caused him to regard the academic and other 
successes of his pupils not, as has been unjustly said of him, 
as of intrinsic value, but merely as the first step in the 
development of the careers of those who had been entrusted 
to his charge. No public school-master of our day has 
more richly deserved that praise applied by Cowley to his 
old master at Westminster that " he taught but boys but 
he made them men." The four thousand Paulines who 
passed through St. Paul s during the twenty-nine years of 
Mr. Walker s high mastership owe much to his discernment 
of character, to his rigid sense of justice, and to his careful 
foresight, but more than all they are indebted to him for 
the early inculcation of a serious habit of mind and for a 
constant example of a man who with unerring instinct could 
distinguish between things of importance and things that 
are vain. 

Professor Jowett s ungrudging admiration of Mr. 
Walker has already been referred to. During the last three 
or four years of Jowett s life, Mr. Walker had some diffi 
culty in escaping the gift of a large sum of money which 
the Master of Balliol was desirous of spending on St. Paul s, 
but which the high master thought it his duty, if possible, 
to evade. Few who heard it will forget the touching 
words of the high master s commemoration of the great Old 
Pauline at the Apposition of 1894. Mr. Walker, speaking 
of Jowett, said that in the last weeks of his life " he gave 
days and nights of labour to what he held to be the 
interests of St. Paul s, and less than a week before his 
death, when it was plain that his death was nigh, he 
summoned me to his side, and with all his accustomed 
lucidity gave me counsel and direction respecting the future 
of St. Paul s, and what I shall never again receive from any 
loving and fatherly encouragement." 



FREDERICK W. WALKER, 1877-1905 453 

Among those who have been chosen to be high master 
of St. Paul s there have been great names, such as those of 
Lily and Malym, Mulcaster and Gill, Gale and Postlethwayt, 
Thicknesse and Sleath, but not one of these has come so 
near to the founder s ideal of what his high master should 
be " an honeste and vertuouse and lernyd man " as has 
Mr. Walker. 



452 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

pass, and the modesty which made him dislike all personal 
distinction caused him to regard the academic and other 
successes of his pupils not, as has been unjustly said of him, 
as of intrinsic value, but merely as the first step in the 
development of the careers of those who had been entrusted 
to his charge. No public school-master of our day has 
more richly deserved that praise applied by Cowley to his 
old master at Westminster that " he taught but boys but 
he made them men." The four thousand Paulines who 
passed through St. Paul s during the twenty-nine years of 
Mr. Walker s high mastership owe much to his discernment 
of character, to his rigid sense of justice, and to his careful 
foresight, but more than all they are indebted to him for 
the early inculcation of a serious habit of mind and for a 
constant example of a man who with unerring instinct could 
distinguish between things of importance and things that 
are vain. 

Professor Jowett s ungrudging admiration of Mr. 
Walker has already been referred to. During the last three 
or four years of Jowett s life, Mr. Walker had some diffi 
culty in escaping the gift of a large sum of money which 
the Master of Balliol was desirous of spending on St. Paul s, 
but which the high master thought it his duty, if possible, 
to evade. Few who heard it will forget the touching 
words of the high master s commemoration of the great Old 
Pauline at the Apposition of 1894. Mr. Walker, speaking 
of Jowett, said that in the last weeks of his life " he gave 
days and nights of labour to what he held to be the 
interests of St. Paul s, and less than a week before his 
death, when it was plain that his death was nigh, he 
summoned me to his side, and with all his accustomed 
lucidity gave me counsel and direction respecting the future 
of St. Paul s, and what I shall never again receive from any 
loving and fatherly encouragement." 



FREDERICK W. WALKER, 1877-1905 453 

Among those who have been chosen to be high master 
of St. Paul s there have been great names, such as those of 
Lily and Malym, Mulcaster and Gill, Gale and Postlethwayt, 
Thicknesse and Sleath, but not one of these has come so 
near to the founder s ideal of what his high master should 
be " an honeste and vertuouse and lernyd man " as has 
Mr. Walker. 



CHAPTER XXIV 

CONCLUSION 
ALBERT ERNEST HILLARD, HIGH MASTER, 1905 

ON the resignation of Mr. Walker, the Rev. A. E. 
Hillard was appointed to succeed him in May 1905. Dr. 
Hillard, who was a scholar of Christ Church, took a first in 
both Mods, and Greats at Oxford, and immediately after 
taking his degree was appointed to Clifton College, where 
he remained as assistant master and chaplain for nearly ten 
years. In 1899 he became head master of Durham School, 
and became well known as the author of a number of text 
books on classical and biblical subjects which are in general 
use throughout the public schools. 

His successor at Durham became head master of 
Uppingham a short time afterwards. 

Dr. Hillard s appointment to the high mastership was 
made less than four years ago. It is therefore impossible 
to do more than devote a few lines to the changes which he 
has introduced into the school, while at the same time he has 
maintained the essential features which made Mr. Walker s 
administration so successful, a fact which is shown by the 
twenty-two scholarships gained by his pupils at Oxford and 
Cambridge this year. 

The new pronunciation of Latin, which was introduced 
in 1908, has brought St. Paul s into line with most other 
public schools where the traditional method has been 
abandoned. 

454 






ALBERT ERNEST HILLARD, 1905 455 

The development of the modern side of the school has 
been marked by the appointment of additional science and 
modern language masters, and German, which was formerly 
only an optional subject, has become part of the regular 
curriculum in certain forms. 

The quater-centenary buildings, which have been erected, 
at a cost of 10,000, on a piece of land purchased for the 
purpose on the north of the swimming bath, and which 
reproduce in colour and design the main buildings of the 
school, contain six rooms, each of which is to serve as 
a classroom, lecture-room and laboratory. They were 
opened on July 7, 1909, by Lord Curzon of Kedlestone, 
the Chancellor of the University of Oxford. 

Sunday morning services are held in the Great Hall at 
intervals throughout the term, and the Bishop of London 
has instituted a special annual confirmation service for 
Paulines at St. Paul s Cathedral. 

The new playing field of eight acres which has been 
opened has relieved the pressure on the school ground. 
The rifle range has been enlarged, and shooting has been 
made compulsory, while the creation of school prefects has 
added to the responsibility vested in boys chosen out of the 
head forms. A junior debating society has been started for 
the benefit of the lower school. 

By the will of Mrs. Charlotte Sarah Greenhill, a sum 
of 5,000 has been left to St. Paul s School to found a 
" Gainer " Scholarship for classics or Eastern languages, or 
either or both, tenable at Pembroke College, Oxford. 

The bequest was intended by Mrs. Greenhill as a 
memorial of her brother, William Charles Gainer, a barrister of 
the Inner Temple, who was one of the last boys admitted to the 
school by Dr. Sleath in 1838, and who died in 1892. The old- 
world ways and dress of Mr. Gainer caused him to be known 
for many years in St. James s as " the master of Boodles." 



456 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

The foundation of an Oration Prize has been a fitting 
addition to the awards in a school the traditions of which 
come down from the earliest English humanists, a band of 
men who had a strong belief in the educational value of the 
art of rhetoric. 

A Geography Prize was founded in 1906 by the Hon. 
R. W. Hamilton, Judge in Mombasa, one of the three sons 
of Sir Robert Hamilton, Governor of Tasmania, who were 
educated at St. Paul s. 

The part taken by St. Paul s in the celebrations of the 
tercentenary of its greatest alumnus in 1908 consisted in 
the fact that an Old Pauline, Mr. Laurence Binyon, was 
chosen to write the ode which was read at the commemora 
tion service on the poet s birthday at the church of St. Mary- 
le-Bow, while Sir Frederick Bridge delivered a lecture at the 
school on " Milton and Music," with illustrative examples 
rendered by the choristers of Westminster Abbey. 

The quater-centenary celebrations at the school this year 
have included a performance of Comus, and a dinner to Old 
Paulines given by the governors. The opening of the 
quater-centenary buildings was attended by a distinguished 
company, which included two Old Pauline bishops, Dr. 
Knox of Manchester and Dr. Ridgeway of Chichester. 
* * * * 

The oldest school society at St. Paul s is the Union, a 
mixture of debating society, library and club, to which only 
boys in the head forms are admitted by ballot. 

It is the oldest public school debating society in England, 
having been founded in 1853. Its first president, H. Tully 
Kingdon, and its first treasurer, H. J. Mathew, both became 
bishops. At the anniversary meeting, which is held every 
year in September, a large gathering of Old Paulines 
assemble, and in 1903 the jubilee of its foundation was 
marked by the decoration and refurnishing of its room. 



ALBERT ERNEST HILLARD, 1905 457 

In recent years four Old Paulines have been elected 
president of the Oxford Union and three of the Cambridge 
Union. In the year 1899 two successive presidents of the 
Unions, both at Oxford and Cambridge, were Old Paulines. 
The connection between Paulines and the Union at Oxford 
does not appear to go back so far as does their association 
with that at Cambridge, where two of the " Apostles " who 
were educated at St. Paul s, W. F. Pollock, afterwards Sir 
W. Pollock, and J. W. Blakesley, afterwards Dean of 
Lincoln, were elected president of the Union nearly eighty 
years ago. 

The Old Pauline Club, the first president of which was 
Dr. Ollivant, Bishop of Llandaff, now comprises nearly a 
thousand members. It holds several dinners each year, and 
frequent donations are made by it to various institutions in 
the school. It has recently started the publication of an 
Old Pauline Gazette, and among its offshoots are cricket, 
football, golf and swimming clubs. 

Of other school societies the oldest is the Musical 
Society, which was founded in 1859, and which holds 
concerts twice a year, in addition to frequent organ 
recitals. 

The youngest is the Field Club, founded in 1896, 
which is the fruit of the late Mr. C. J. Cornish s devotion 
to natural history. 

Of school magazines, the earliest which is known to have 
been produced at St. Paul s is one called The Hermes ; the 
only issue of which known to be in existence was pur 
chased for the library at a book sale in 1894. "For many 
years," says the address of the editors of this number, which 
was produced in 1832, "a paper has been published in this, 
our Temple of Learning, under the denomination of 
Hermes." 

The Hermes ran to ten numbers. A rival, called The 



458 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

Pauline, was started in November 1831, but only three 
numbers were produced, and it died in the following May. 

In 1836 a new Pauline was launched, but it proved 
even less successful than its predecessor, and ceased publica 
tion within the year owing to the fact that an article entitled, 
" Take snuff," had given offence to Dr. Sleath. 

No other magazine appears to have been started from 
this date until 1882, when the present Pauline began its 
successful career, which has continued without intermission 
until the present day. 

The Pauline has lasted for nearly thirty years. It is 
edited and managed by a committee of masters and boys, 
and a token of its success is to be found in the various 
schemes for the decoration of the school which have been 
assisted from its funds, and the various prizes for the 
athletic sports which it has presented. At least six numbers 
a year are produced, and it has now reached its xyfth issue. 

Of unofficial magazines produced in recent years, the 
most interesting was The Debater, a short-lived periodical of 
which in his Apposition Speech in 1892 the high master 
spoke as " an unrecognized publication, to which indeed I 
should hesitate to give my imprimatur, but which gives 
promise that its writers, though not many of them are highly 
distinguished in their several classes, may yet reflect credit 
on their ancient school." 

It is interesting in view of this to note that the leading 
spirits in the production of The Debater were G. K. Chester 
ton and E. C. Bentley, of the Daily News, R. E. Vernede, 
one of the most entertaining of modern novelists, and 
L. R. F. Oldershaw, the present secretary of the Old 
Pauline Club. 

The lineal descendant of The Debater was the Union 
Magazine, nine numbers of which were issued in 1894, and 
for the rest one need only mention The Army Form Gazette, 



ALBERT ERNEST HILLARD, 1905 459 

The Microtome, The Octopus and The Ocfavian, all of which 
ended their fitful, and sometimes stormy, career after a few 
months. 

Although the present school Rowing Club was founded 
in 1 88 1, records of Pauline rowing go back to a much 
earlier date than do those of any other form of athletics. 
From the reminiscences of Dr. C. Lempriere, contributed a 
few years ago to The Taylorian, it appears that about the 
year 1830 R. H. D. Barham, the son of Thomas Ingoldsby, 
" rowed stroke of the St Paul s School four-oar in a race 
which Merchant Taylors won against them." Mr. A. Gordon 
Pollock, O.P., tells me that the silver rudder won by his 
father in 1834 as cox of the last Pauline boat which beat 
Westminster on the Thames used to be preserved by his 
uncle, Sir Charles Pollock. 

In 1836 A. K. Granville stroked the first Cambridge 
crew which defeated Oxford. I am told that Spencer Vin 
cent got his rowing Blue at Cambridge about 1848, but I 
can find no record of the fact, and I believe that many 
years elapsed before another Old Pauline rowed in the 
University boat race. In 1856, however, there were two 
Old Paulines in the Oxford boat, W. F. Stocken and J. H. 
Thorley, the latter of whom also stroked the Oxford boat 
in 1857 and 1858. C. H. Roberts coxed the Cambridge 
boat in 1872. 

The greatest oar ever produced by St. Paul s was un 
doubtedly T. Drysdale, who, in addition to gaining his 
Blue for Rugby football and winning the Colquhoun 
Sculls, rowed for Cambridge in 1902, a year in which 
H. W. Adams rowed in the Oxford boat. In the following 
year Adams rowed again as secretary of the O.U.B.C., and 
St. Paul s was represented in the Cambridge boat, both in 
that year and in the following year, 1904, by B. G. A. 
Scott, who steered. 



462 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

The first athletic sports were held at Old Battersea 
Fields, or what is now called Battersea Park, in 1861. 

The annual sports have been the occasion of the only 
two Royal visits since that of the present King as Prince of 
Wales in 1864. In 1894 the Duchess of Albany distributed 
the prizes, and in 1897 that office was performed by 
Princess Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck. 

The Shepard Challenge Cup, which goes to the winner 
of the largest number of events, was established in memory 
of the tenure of the presidency of the Athletic Society by 
the late surmaster, a position in which his successor, Mr. 
R. F. Cholmeley, worked unceasingly during twenty years. 

T. St. C. Smith gained his Blue for the hundred " in 

1897. E. H. Cholmeley won the high jump for Cambridge 
in the same year, and F. B. Macnutt ran for Cambridge in 

1898. Other Blues include S. A. Tippetts, for the half 
mile in 1900 ; R. P. Franklin, for the long jump in 1907 ; 
and T. H. Just, the amateur champion, who was president 
of the C.U.A.C., for the half mile in 1907, 1908 and 1909. 

Three Old Paulines competed in the Olympic games of 
1908. 

The gymnasium was built in 1890. The championship 
shield in the Public Schools Gymnastic Competition at 
Aldershot has twice been won by St. Paul s, in 1897, and 
again in 1907, while in 1898 the school was third, in 1900 
fifth, and in 1906 fourth in the competition. 

Gymnastic matches have been held at intervals against 
Charterhouse, Haileybury and Dulwich. 

The greatest of all Pauline athletic successes have been 
in boxing. In the annual Public Schools Boxing Competi 
tion at Aldershot St. Paul s has during the last fourteen 
years won the feather-weights seven times, the light-weights 
six times, the middle-weights eight times, and the bantam 
weights on the only occasion since they were introduced. 



ALBERT ERNEST HILLARD, 1905 463 

That various Old Paulines have gained their Half-blue 
for boxing at Oxford and Cambridge goes without saying in 
view of this record. B. G. A. Scott, the cox of the Uni 
versity boat, boxed for Cambridge in 1903, G. A. Lilly for 
Cambridge in 1908 and 1909, A. Mains for Oxford in 
1907 and 1908, and J. W. Rutherford for Oxford in 1909. 

Other Half-blues obtained by Old Paulines include that 
of P. G. Pearson, who played tennis for Oxford in 1897 and 
the three succeeding years, and those of R. H. de Mont- 
morency, who played golf for Oxford 1897-8, and also 
played racquets for the University in 1899. 

In 1900 the school swimming bath was opened. Water- 
polo matches and races are held annually with Harrow, 
Charterhouse, Bedford Grammar School, Dulwich and 
Oxford University. 

The school Cadet Corps was established in 1890, and was 
attached to the 2nd (South) Middlesex Volunteer Corps. 
Since the formation of the Territorial Army it has formed a 
part of the Officers Training Corps, and musters about a 
hundred and fifty strong. 

St. Paul s has every year sent a detachment to the 
Public Schools Brigade Camp ever since the establishment 
of that event. Although the Ashburton Shield and the 
Spencer Cup have never been carried off by a Pauline team, 
the school was sixth in the Ashburton competition in 1897, 
and after having been in 1901 within one point of winning 
the Cadets Challenge Trophy, a Pauline team succeeded in 
gaining that prize in 1904. In 1906, the first year in 
which the competition was entered for, a team of five Old 
Paulines, led by Captain Langford Lloyd, D.S.O., succeeded 
in carrying off the Public Schools Veterans Shield at Bisley. 

The organization of the school athletics has benefited 
much from the establishment of compulsory games on one 
afternoon a week, which took place in 1896. For this pur- 



4G6 A HISTORY OF ST. PAUL S SCHOOL 

surmaster, and its Apposition bear testimony to this. The 
term " remedy," which persists as the name for a holi 
day, is also to be found among Winchester "notions." 
The founder s statute is still obeyed : " I will also they shall 
haue noo remedies, yff the Maister grauntith eny remedies 
he shall forfeit xl s. tociens quociens Except the kyng or a 
arche bisshopp or a bisshopp presente in his owne persone 
in the Scole desyre it." 

It is curious to remember that on the occasion of the 
visit of the present King when Prince of Wales, his request 
for an extra week s holiday was refused on account of this 
statute. As it happened there were seven bishops present, 
and on the Prince s behalf each at once claimed his right 
to ask for a "remedy," and the week s holiday was there 
fore not lost. 

In conclusion, one may say that the names engraved 
upon the walls of the school, the arms emblazoned in the 
windows of the Great Hall, keep green the memory of the 
great Paulines of the past, and serve to remind the Pauline 
of to-day that he " was nursed upon the self-same hill," 
and impress upon his mind how great is the inheritance to 
which he has succeeded, so that he may boast, with perfect 
truth, that he is the citizen of no mean city. 

FLOREAT SCHOLA PAULINA. 



472 



INDEX 



British Museum, 118, 119, 327, 359, 
376, 411 
, Colet s Aeditio, copies of, in, 

5 

, MS. address by Etonians to 

Queen Elizabeth in, 127 

, MS. address by Paulines to 
Queen Elizabeth in, 128 

, MS. Collections at : 
Additional MSS., 34, 90, 178 
Harleian MSS., I, 30, 70, 76, 

141 
Lansdowne MSS., 70, 77, 164, 

288 

Royal MSS., 128 
Strype s Historical Collections, 

76, 302-3 
, Hollar s engraving of the 

School in, 235 
, MS. play acted by Paulines 

before Elizabeth in, 32 

, MS. statutes in, 34, 

, translation of Carmen de 

moribus, 53 

British Review, The, 377 
Erixton, 324 
Broad Sanctuary, 399 
Bromrick, Dr., 198 
Brougham, Henry Lord, 367, 369, 374 

, Speeches, 40-1 

, on statutes of School, 40-1 

Broughton, Hugh, 144 

t , Thomas, 312 

Brown, Horatio, Calendar of Venetian 

Papers, 95, 1 12 
Browne, Sir Richard, 167 

, Sir Thomas, Religio Medici, 258 

Bruno, 44 

Buckingham, George, Duke of, 7 

, George Villiers, Duke of, 175, 

182, 184 

Buckinghamshire, 7, 14, 17, 4*6-7 
Bull, Nathaniel, Surmaster, 226-48, 254 
*Bures, Richard, 215-16 
Burghley, William Cecil, Lord, in, 

113, 119, 125-6, 127, 129, 131, 134 
Burke, Edmund, 343-5 
, Reflections on the Revolution in 

France, 371 
Burnet, Gilbert, Bishop of Salisbury, 

168-240 
, History of his Own Times, 240, 

244 

Burnley, Lancashire, 112 
Burrows, 215 
tBurton, William, 169 

t , William Evans, 375 

Busby, Richard, Head Master of West 



minster, 208, 241, 247, 262, 267, 
306 

Bussora, 354 
*Butler, John, 304 

, William, 296 

*Buttenvorth, ]. W., F.S.A., 397, 447 
*Byllingford, Thomas, 116 
Byron, George, Lord, 377 

Cabul, 397 

Caesar, Julius, 280, 440 

, Martin, 50 

tCalamy, B. , Sufferings of the Puritans, 
215- 2 37. 240, 254, 265 

, Edmund, Senior, 198, 205 

t , , Junior 205, 216 

Calcutta, 395 

Calendars of State Papers, vide State 

Papers 
*Callis, John, 158 

Calvinism, 198 

Cambray, College at, 98 

Cambridge, Adolphus Frederick, Duke 
of, 408 

, Prince George of, 408 

, Great St. Mary s at, 171 

History of English Literature, 37, 

465 

University, 8, 115, I2O, 129, 134, 

136, 143, 155, 161, 170, 174, 177, 

201, 203, 214, 229, 245, 246, 255, 
268, 273, 278, 296, 299, 309, 310, 

3", 354, 37, 378, 383, 389, 398, 
405, 406, 419, 423, 437, 449. 45. 
454, 461, 465 

"Blues," Old Pauline, 459-63 

Colleges : 

Bene t or Corpus Christi, 8, 126, 
226, 258, 270, 279, 285, 286, 
299. 34, 38, 346-7, 360, 364 
Caius, 166-7, 217-18, 335 
Christ s, 42, 81, 131, 171, 175, 176, 

179, 375 
Clare, 256, 279 

Emmanuel, 8, 168, 216, 239, 279 
Jesus, 24, 113, 217, 256, 306 
King s, 88, no, 113, 125, 137, 144, 

147 
Magdalene, 54, 208, 224, 247, 267, 

354 
Pembroke, 77, 116, 120, 129, 155, 

165, 167, 216, 431 
Peterhouse, 79, 249, 460 
St. Catharine s, 257 
St. John s, 42, 81, 106, 113, 120, 

216, 217, 256, 257, 258, 268, 

279, 299, 38, 318, 335, 33 8 - 

353> 37i, 43 1 , 437 



INDEX 



473 



Cambridge University : Colleges (contd.): 

Sidney Sussex, 216, 375 

Trinity, 136, 163, 195, 216, 230, 
240, 247, 256, 266, 270, 274, 275, 
281, 282, 293, 294, 297, 298, 
299. 300, 304, 316, 358, 360, 
370, 372, 384, 395. 396, 40. 
434, 442, 447, 448 

Trinity Hall, 80, 215, 279, 308, 

3i8, 327 

Commencement, 176 
King George I s scholarships at, 313 
Library, 8, 234 
Illuminated MS. in, containing 

portrait of Colet, 438 
Platonists, 168 
Press, 397 
Senior Wranglers, Old Pauline, 

354, 372, 431, 444, 449, 465 
Union Society, Old Pauline Presi 
dents of, 457 
Camden Society, Publications of, 30, 

76, 98, 101, 106-8, 237 
t , William, Head Master of West 
minster, and Clarencieux, King at 
Arms, 72, 122, 347, 437 

, , Britannia, 72, 122 

, , Creek Grammar, 122 

Campden, Baptist Hicks, 1st Viscount, 
163-4, 187 ; mosaic in present school 
building, 259 

, , his endowment of exhibi 
tions, 187, 202, 421-3 

, , 3rd Viscount, 259 

, Lady Penelope, vide Noel 

Campbell, John Lord, 367 
, , Lives of the Lord Chan 
cellors, 374 

, Lewis and E. Abbott, Life 

of Jowett, 392 

t , Lord Frederick, Lord Clerk 

Register, 319-20 

* , Lord Henry, 319 

Canons of 1603, 192-4 
Canterbury, 4, 75, 84, 124, 258, 269, 
270, 293, 304, 359, 396, 408 

, Archbishops of, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 47, 

78, 84, 106, 113, 115, 124, 138, 161, 
165, 167, 168, 270, 408, 413, 426, 
440 

*Capes, W. W., 410 
tCarew, Sir Peter, 92-4 

, Sir William, 86, 92 

*Carey, S. J., 445 
Carisbrook, Isle of Wight, 92 
Carlisle, 279, 409 

, Nicholas, English Grammar 

Schools, 33, 269, 345, 434 



Carmarthenshire, 257 
Carmelite friars, lo 
Caroline, Queen, 277, 286, 325, 367 
"Carpenter, William, Professor of Moral 

Theology at Oxford, 216 
tCarr, John, 320 
*Carrington, James, 318 
Carter, F., 444 
Carteret, John, 259 
Carthusian monks, 10, 257 
*Carver, Alfred, Head Master of Dul- 

wich College, 439 
Casaubon, Meric, 218 
Castle Rising, 210 
Castles, John, 374 

Catholic Emancipation Act, 251, 374 
Catefhyzon, Colet s, 43, 50, 52 
*Cater, John, 129 
Cato, Dionysius, 52 
*Caulet, J. G., 354 
Cave, Sir Ambrose, 125 
Cawnpore, 397 
Cecil, Sir Robert, 164 

, Sir William, 125-6 

Central Criminal Court, 315, 349 
Centurion, H.M.S., 431 
Ceylon, 354, 411, 450 
tChaloner, Sir Thomas, 129-30, 134 

, De Republica Anglortim inslatt- 

randa, 130 

Chamberlain, H., Survey of London, 
236 

t , William, 375 

tChampion, Joseph, Writing Master at 

the School, 312 

Chancellor, vide Lord Chancellor 
Chancery, Court of, 138, 416-18 
Chandler, Thomas, 47 
Chantry enactments, 104, 120, 121 
Chapel Royal, 301, 385 
Charing Cross, 428 
Charities, Lord Brougham s Commission 

on, 13, 14 

Charity Commissioners, 412, 425, 428 

Charles I, 142, 164-5, 67, 169, 175, 

179, 182, 186, 189, 190, 210, 322 

II, 167, 239, 262, 287 

V, the Emperor, Address to, 

by Paulines, 30, 76 

, accommodation for his suite at the 

School, 64, 76 

, Prince, The Young Pretender, 
324 

CHARLES, GEORGE, High Master, 1737- 
1748, 296, 318-28, 329, 330, 336, 
337, 355 

Charles, George, of Alloa, 324 
Chamock, Richard, 9, 10 



474 



INDEX 



Charterhouse, the, 79 

School, 40, 226, 238, 275, 292, 
31, 334, 35 6 > 383. 4 S, 460, 462, 
463 

Square, 329 

Chatham, William, Earl of, 434 

Chaucer, Geoffrey, 5, 162, 172 

Cheapside, 102, 182, 206 

Cheke, Sir John, 93 

Chelsea College, 121 

Cheltenham College, 460 

Chester, 82, 242, 256, 298, 405 

Chesterfield, Philip Dormer, Earl of, 

257- 327, 353 
"Chesterton, F. S., 445 

* , G. K., 450, 458 

Chichester, 409, 411, 456 

" Children of Paul s," 27, 32, 101-3, 

108-9 

Chillingworth, William, 183-4 
China, 370 
Chiswick, 130, 286 
Cholmeley, E. H., 462 

* , Sir Hugh, Bart., Governor of 

Tangier, 254, 265 

, K. F., 462 

Christ Church, Newgate Street, 108 
Christ s Hospital, 37, 56, 103, 122, 239, 

262, 275, 2S8, 360, 376, 401,449 
Christmas, Mr., 210 

tChurchill, John, vide Duke of Marl- 
borough 

Cibber, Colley, 285 
Cicero, 43, 45, 141 
"Cicero, the Christian," 44 
City of London School, 460 
Civil War, the, 158, 201, 202, 203 
Civita Vecchia, 350 
Clare s Academy, Soho Square, 329 
Clarendon, Edward, Earl of, 70 
Clarges, Jane, 257 

* , Sir Robert, 257, 278 

* , Thomas, 257 

, Sir William, 254 

tClarke, Alured, Dean of Exeter, 286, 
310 

t , Sir Charles M., Bart., F.R.S., 

37i, 401 

" ,H. F.,445. 

t , John, Assistant to High Master, 

Chaplain and Surmaster, 306, 312, 
313, 317, 321 

, John, 371 

tClarkson, Thomas, 294, 371 

*Clay, C.J.,397 

Clement VII, Pope, 96 
t , John, 76, 77 

Clement s Inn, 258 



*Clementi, Montague, Judge Advocate- 
General in India, 411, 414, 425 
*Clementi-Smith, Sir Cecil, Governor of 
the Straits Settlements, 411, 425 

, Herbert, 294 

Clerke, 25 

t , Richard, 135 

Clifton College, 454 

Clinton, Sir Henry, 351 

Closterman, J., 433 

Cloyne, 142, 154 

Cocker, Edward, Writing Master at 

the School, 238, 262 
Cock-fighting, Colet s prohibition of, 

40 

*Cole, Jack, 213 
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 258, 360 

, John, Lord, Life of, 369 

Colet, Sir Henry, 7, 63 

(Christian), Lady, 7, 19 

, John, Dean of St. Paul s, 

founder of St. Paul s School, 
7-i i, 9, 20, 53, 60, 69, 71-7, 83, 
88, 91, 118, 156, 225, 272, 274, 
278, 330, 343, 347, 392, 398, 401, 

4i5, 435, 438 
Accidence, vide Acditio 
Afditio, 26, 50-3, 60, 267 
Bust of, 233, 305, 433 
Charter for St. Paul s School obtained 

by, from Henry VIII, 14 
Conveyances of land to Mercers 

Company, 13-21, 63, 65 
Endowment of St. Paul s School, 13- 

21, 63, 65, 66, 68, 84, 154, 412-13, 

417, 418 
Foundation of St. Paul s School by, 

13-28 
Life of, vide S. Knight and J. H. 

Lupton 

Masters of St. Paul s School ap 
pointed by, 69, 74-5 
MS. of, in the School, 347, 440 
Prayers for use in the School written 

by, 52 

Prefaczuticula to Book of Evidences 

of his Lands, 59, 63 
School-books prescribed by, 50, 58, 

71, 173-4, 387 

Sermon before Convocation, 195 
Statutes of St. Paul s Cathedral, 20 
Statutes of St. Paul s School, 24, 26, 

33-42, 60, 63, 199, 298, 322, 431, 

439, 466 
Subjects of study prescribed by, 41, 

43-9 

Wills of, 17-18,21,66, 84 
Colfe, Abraham, 207 



INDEX 



475 



Colley, Thomas, 249 
Collier, J. Payne, Annals of the Stage, 

27, 3 2 

Collyer, Jonathan, 321 
Column, George, The Heir at Law, 375 
Colombo, 354 
Colquhoun Sculls, 459 
Commissions, Royal : 

Charities, 1820, 13, 14, 59, 321, 327, 
336, 362 

Education of officers for the Army, 
1900, 445 

Liver} Companies, 1884, 115, 121, 

363, 417 
Public Schools, 1864, 402, 404-6, 

415-16 

Universities, 1850, 294 
Committee of Council on Education, 

419. 421, 423 

, Select, of House of Commons on 

Education, 1816, 387 

Commons, Journals of House of, 207 

tCompton, Hon. Spencer, vide Earl of 
Wilmington 

tConstable, John, 72, 74 

Constantinople, 119, 120, 125,464 

Convocation, 55 
*Cook, A. B., 450 

*CooK, JOHN, High Master, 1559-1573, 
110-23, 124, 128 

Cook, Mr., 297 

Cookson, C., 444 
*Cooper, James, Fourth Master, 385, 403 

, T., Chronicle, 59 

, Athenae Cantabrigienses, 139 

*Coote, Hon. Algernon, vide Earl of 
Montrath 

t , Charles, 377 

tCopeland, W. J., 396 

Copenhagen, Battle of, 350 

- Fields, 460 
*Corbiere, Mark Anthony, 274 

Cork, 142, 154 

, Richard, Earl of, 262 

Cornhill, IO2 

Cornish, C. J. , 444, 457 

* , Vaughan, 450 

tCotes, Roger, F.R.S., 281, 282, 437 

Cottenham, Charles, Earl of, 369 
*Couchman, John, 388, 392 
* , General R. S., 397 

Court of Wards, III, 119, 143, 254 

Covent Garden Theatre, 285 

Coventry, 409 

, Sir William, 2IO 

Coward, J. C. L., K.C, 410 

Cowley, Abraham, 452 

, A. E., 411 



Cowper, Lady, 297 
t , Spencer, Judge of Common Pleas, 

25S- 359 

, Sir William, 254, 279 

, William, 359, 360, 434 

, John Gilpin, 359 

, Tirocinium, 360 

Coxe, Richard, no 
Cranbrook, Kent, 147 
Cranmer, Thomas, Archbishop of Can 
terbury, The Great Bible, 440 
Crimean War, 372, 399 
Cripplegate, 185 
Critical Review, The, 377 
*Croke, Sir George, F.R.S., 215 

* , Henry, Gresham Professor of 

Rhetoric, 206, 215 

CROMLBHOLME, SAMUEL, Surmaster 
and High Master, 1657-1672, 54, 
202, 211, 217, 221-45, 2 46> 248, 
249, 267, 278, 298, 334, 370 

, , his school at Wandsworth in 

the interval between the Great Fire 
and the rebuilding of St. Paul s, 225-6 
Cromwell, Oliver, 194, 209, 215, 247 
*Crosthwaite, Sir R. J., 411 
*Crumpe, Charles, 331 
*CRUMPE, TIMOTHY, Chaplain and High 
Master, 1733-1737, 36-7> 316-18, 
327, 337 
Cuckfield Grammar School, Sussex, 

Statutes of, 33 

Cuddesdon Theological College, 396 
Culloden, 324 
tCulverwell, Nathaniel, 168 

, , The Light oj Nature, 168 

* , Richard, 168 

(Cumberland, Richard, Bishop of Peter 
borough, 208-9, 279 

, Ernest August, Duke of, King of 

Hanover, 397 

, Henry Frederick, Duke of, 325-6 

, William Augustus, Duke of, 325 

" Cumbrensis, vide " Junius " 
*Curtis, Robert, 309 
Curzon, George, Lord, 455 
Customs, Commissioners of, 259 
Cyprus, 133 



Daily Advertiser, The, 331 

Graphic, The, 441 

Ne-ws, The, 458 

Dancaster, Richard, 84-5 

*Darrant, Leonard, 267 
Dartmoor Prison, 375 
Davenant, Sir William, 183 

tDavies, Sir Thomas, 213 



484 



INDEX 



Maitland, S. R., Early Printed Books 

at Lambeth, 55, 72 
Malcolm, J. P., Londinium Redevi- 

vum, 346, 365, 434 
Malone, Edmund, Shakespeare, 27 
Malplaquet, Battle of, 262, 278 
Malta, 372 
Malym, John, 124 

MALYM, WILLIAM, Head Master of 
Eton and High Master, 1573-1581, 
25, 66, 113, 121, 135, 141, 386, 453 
Consuctudinarium, 49, 126 
Manchester, 370, 408, 413, 456 

t , Charles Montagu, Duke of, 229, 

243, 260-1, 278 

, Grammar School, 426-7 

, Robert, Earl of, 253, 260 

fMandeville, Earl of, vide Charles, Duke 

of Manchester 
*Manning, H. R., 445 
Mansfield, Mr., 147 
Mantua, 117 

Mantuanus, Baptista, 43-4, 174 
Marlborough College, 460 

t , John Churchill, Duke of, 227-230, 

243, 267, 276, 278, 280, 289, 297, 
303, 347, 430, 432-3. 437, 464 

, Sarah, Duchess of, 293 

Marriott, Mr., 315 
Marshall, Benjamin, 273 
Marston, John, plays of, acted by Paul 
ines, 32 

Marston Moor, Battle of, 218 
Martial, 266 

Mary, Queen, 30, 31, 54, 77, 79, 92-3, 
167, no, 150 
, Queen of Scots, 130 
Mashonas, 446 
Mason, John, Chaplain, 247 
Masson, Professor, 162, 170, 179 
" Master Munkester s children," 149 
*Mathew, H. J. , Bishop of Lahore, 409, 456 
Matthews, Charles, 375, 384 
*Maunsell, Sir Edward, 257 

, Sir Henry, 254 

Mauritius, 409 
tMawson, Matthias, Bishop of Ely, 285- 

6, 39 

May, Thomas, 187 

McGill, University, Montreal, 444 

Mechlin, 77 
tMedhurst, Walter, 370 

Medjidieh, Order of the, 449 
Medley, John, Surmaster, 25, 134, 136 

Medway, 210 

Meghen, Peter, 438 

Meggott, Richard, Dean of Winchester, 
212, 217, 264 



Melbourne, William, Viscount, 368, 377 
Melcombe, G. Bubb Doddington, Lord, 

227 

Mellish, L. O. F., 445 
*Melville, H. B. ( 397 
Mercer, Thomas, 114 
Mercers Company, 7, 13, 19, 35, 41, 42, 
49, 59, 79, 86, 107, 109, 115, 120, 

132, 143, 151, 154, 161, 163, 164, 
168. 188, 191-4, 195, 208, 207, 244, 
250, 258, 265, 271, 284, 296, 299, 
322, 330, 331, 335, 336,337, 338-9, 
378, 381, 382, 389, 390, 393, 397, 
404, 411-19, 423, 425, 429, 430, 

433, 437- 439, 46 

Acts of Court of, 13, 15, 17, 18, 26, 
33, 59, 99, "5, "7, 163, 189,202, 
234, 248, 272, 273, 296, 298, 306, 
318, 320, 321, 330, 363 

Chapel of, 162, 206 

Hall of, 39, 60, 75, 116, 138, 153, 
159, 208 

Litigation as to title to surplus of 
Colet s estates, 415-18 

Loan from Colet s estate made in 
eighteenth century, 363 

Loan repaid without interest in nine 
teenth century, 363 

Minutes of, vide Acts of Court 

School of, 105, 116, 221, 361 

Records of, 25, 39, 89, III, 117, 132, 

133. I3 6 , 37, 140, 141. 165, 199, 
224, 272, 296 

Merchant Taylors Company, 82, 116, 

144, 146 

School, 33, 38, 40-1, 136-7, 144-9, 
154-5, 207-8, 219-20, 232, 238, 

275, 297, 328, 334, 356, 375, 384, 
386, 401-2, 415, 460-1 
Merritt, C. M., 461 
Metropolitan Board of Works, 419 
Middlesex, 142, 155, 175, 461 
Middleton, Thomas, plays of, acted by 
Paulines, 52 

, , A Chaste Maid in Cheapside, 

reference to Paulines in, 97 
Midwinter, E. C., D.S.O., 449 
Mildmay, Sir Walter, 121 
Milk Street, Mulcaster s School in, 139, 

143, 148 
Milman, Henry Hart, Dean of St. 

Paul s, 10 

Millom, Cumberland, 260 
Mills, Henry, 296 

tMilton, Sir Christopher, Chief Justice 
of Common Pleas, 1789 

t , John, 156-7, 161, 166, 169, 181, 

230, 267, 347, 430, 437, 464 



INDEX 



485 



Milton, John : 
Areopagitica, 204 
Comus, 177, 456 
Defensio Secunda, 170 
Epitaphium Damonis, 178 
// Penseroso, 174 
Latin Elegies, 1 78 
Lycidas, 174, 175, 178 
On the Morning of Chris fs Nativity, 

174 

Paradise Lost, 173, 267 
Paradise Regained, 173, 174 
Paraphrases of the Psalms written 

while at St. Paul s, 172-3 
Minors, Mr., 198 
Minster, Kent, 135 
Miracle Plays, 27 
Molesey Regatta, 460 
Mollington, 346 
Mombasa, 456 
Monasteries and Priories, dissolution of, 

79, 83, 103 
Monck, George, 210 
Monkhouse, W. Cosmo, 411 
Monks, ii, 12, 101 
Monmouth, James, Duke of, 214, 241 
tMontagu, Charles, vide Duke of Man 
chester 

, Edward, 260 

, George, 210 

, Henry, 260 

, Hon. L., 447 

, Sir Samuel, vide Lord Swayth- 

ling 

Montrath, Algernon Coote, Earl of, 272, 
278, 283 

, Henry, Earl of, 272 

Montucci, M., 400 
Monument, the, 213, 251 
"Monumenta Franciscana," 22, 101 
Monymay, Sir Thomas, chaplain, 107 
Hloore, A. L., 411 

John, Bishop of Norwich, 270 
Mr., 222 

More, Hannah, 377 
Margaret, 77 

Sir Thomas, 9, 10, II, 70, 76, 77, 
86, 89, 90, 438 

, Utopia, 9, 47, 76, 78, 429, 

442 

, Thomas, 132 

MORLAND, BENJAMIN, F.R.S., High 
Master, 1721-1733, 304, 315, 316, 

3 2 7 

, Samuel, F.R.S., 305 

Morley, Collison, Medical Officer of the 

School, 432, 434 
, John, Lord, 367 



Morocco, 274, 464 
Mortlake, 460 
Mortmain licences, 14, 18 
Mountford, Mr., 268 
Mountjoy, William, Lord, II 
fMudde, Thomas, 25, 134 
Mulcaster, Peter, 145 
MULCASTER, RICHARD, Head Master 
of Merchant Taylors , and High 
Master of St. Paul s, 1596-1608,64, 
113, 136, 143, 155, 64, 334. 453 
Catechismus Pauhnus, 152 
Elementarie, 149 
Positions, 144, 149 
Murdoch, A. J. C.,445 
Myles, Thomas, 80 

Napoleonic Wars, 296 
Nassau, West Indies, 409 
Navy, Royal, 349, 350, 399, 405, 407 
*Neden, Gerard, 296-7 
Needier, Henry, 280 
Nelson, Horatio, Viscount, 350 
t , Robert, F.R.S., 230-1, 263, 279, 

347, 437 

, Lady Theophlla, 230 

Nelson, New Zealand, 409 

Nero, 197 
Nesbitt, Randolph, V.C., 446 

Nethercott, Walter, Surmaster, 128-9 

Netherlands, 131, 135 

Nevyl, Alexander, Chronicle, 58, 67 

New Haven, Connecticut, 277 

South Wales, 372 

Zealand, 394, 409 

Newark, 367-8 

Newcastle, Thomas, Duke of, 260, 285 

Newcourt Rtpertorium, 3, 4 

Newell, Mr., 223 

Newgate, 240, 349 

Newgate Calendar, 349 

Newman, John Henry, Cardinal, 396 

Newton, Mr., 297 

, Sir Isaac, 256, 281, 347, 434 

, , Principia, 263, 282 

*Nichol, Iltyd, 347 

Nicholas, Ambrose, 131 

, Sir H., Privy Purse Expenses of 

Henry VIII, 90 
tNichols, J. B., F.S.A., 376 

, Literary Anecdotes of the Eigh 
teenth Century, 247, 253, 337, 342 

, Processions, 89, 100 

, Progresses of Queen Elizabeth, 

109, 117, 141 

, Progresses of King James, 150 
t , W., 265, 276 

Nieuport, 135, 257 



488 



INDEX 



Pope, Sir Thomas, 31, 48 
*Porteus, Robert, 371 

Portsmouth, 135 
tPory, Robert, 175 

Posing Chamber, 64 

POSTLETHWAYT, JOHN, High Master, 
1697-1738, 265, 268-95, 296, 300-2, 

3 2 7. 334. 346, 440, 453 
*Postlethwayt, John, Junior, 314 
t , Matthew, 265, 295, 299, 301, 

3i3> 3 4 

Potticary, John, 354 
Powell, Mr., 212 

, Baden Henry, Judge at Lahore, 

411 

t , Sir George Baden, M.P., F.R.S., 

411 

Poynter, Sir Edward, P. R.A., 445 
Praed, W. M., 442 
*Pratt, John, 129 

Prayers in use in Public Schools, 218 
*Prendergast, Sir James, Chief Justice of 

New Zealand, 394 
Presbyterians, 198, 208, 258 
Pretender, the Old, 256 

, the Young, 324 

Price, Robert, Baron of the Exchequer, 
272, 284 

* , Uvedale, 284 

fPridden, John, 354 
Priestley, Joseph, 371 
Priscian, 85 
Pritchard, Mrs., 285 
Privy Council, 27, 157 
Proba, 43, 44, 173 
Progymnasmata, Mori et Lilii, 70 
Propria quae maribus, 96 
Prudentius, "The Christian Pindar," 

43. 44, 174 
Prujean, Sir Francis, 195 

* , Thomas, 195 

Prussia, 279, 283, 484 

Public Advertiser, The, 336 

Public Schools Bill, 1865, Committee 

of the House of Lords on, 13 
*PulIeyn, Benjamin, Regius Professor of 
Greek at Cambridge, 216 

* , John, 276 

Pulteney, Sir W., 259 
Purchas his Pilgrimes, 120 
Puritanism, 143, 156, 168, 194, 198, 200, 

203-4, 207, 215, 241 
tPursglove, Robert, Bishop of Hull, 

82 

Puteoli, 130 
*Pye, Richard, 264 
Pynson, R., 48 
Pythagoras, 29 



Quakers, 357 

Quebec, 320 

Quedgeley, Gloucestershire, 221 

Quin, James, 285 

Quintus Curtios, 289, 291 

*Radcliffe, Jonathan, 212 

fRawlinson, Richard, F.R.S., Nonjuring 

bishop, 282. 

MSS. of, in the Bodleian, 45, 53, 62, 
86, 224 

, Sir Thomas, Lord Mayor, 272, 

282 

Rayner, John, Writing Master at St. 
Paul s School, 287, 288 

, , Paul s scholars copy-book, 287 

* Rayner Wood, A. C, 461 
*Reade, Martin, 128 
Red Letter days, 117 
Redford, John, 29 
Reeve, Mr., 221 
Reformation, the, 10, 77, 79 
Reigate School, 280 
tRennie, George, F.R.S., 375 
tRenouard, George C., Lord Almoner s 
Professor of Arabic at Cambridge, 378 
Reston, John, 113 

, , Scholarships founded by, at 

Jesus College, Cambridge, 24, 113 
Restoration of the House of Stuart, 159, 
166-8, 210, 215, 217, 220, 227, 239, 

254 

Reunion, 446 

Revolution of 1689, 2 1 1, 241, 244 
tReynolds, J. Hamilton, 376 
, Edward, Senior, Dean of Christ 

Church and Bishop of Norwich, 205-6, 

216, 239 

t , , Junior, 216 

, Sir Joshua, 375 

Rhode Island, America, 194 
Rhodes, 69, 176 
Richard I, 4 

H, 5, 27 

Ill, 7 

Richardson, Samuel, Sir Chartes Grandi- 

son, 231 
Richmond, Henry Fitzroy, Duke of, 

illegitimate son of Henry VIII, 90 
Richmond, Yorkshire, 119 
Rider, William, Surmaster, 336 

, , History of England, 336 

*Ridgeway, Charles J., Bishop of Chicbes- 

ter, 409, 411, 456 

, Sir J. West, G.C.B., 411 
Ridley, Nicholas, Bishop of London, 1 1 
Ripon, 371 
Ritwise, Dionysia, 88 



INDEX 



489 



RITWISE, or RIGHTWISE, JOHN, Sur- 
master and High Master, 1522-1532, 
12, 73, 86, 88-^7, 108 
"Roberts, Alfred, Sir, 396-7 
, C. H.,459 

* , C. J., F.R.S., 371 

, Frederick, Earl, 445 
ROBERTS, RICHARD, High Master, 336, 
341, 345, 355-78, 379, 383, 389, 428, 
432 
fRoberts, William, 376 

, William Hayward, 377 

Robinson, Crabb, Diary of, 367 

Rochester, 135 

Rochford, William Henry Zuylestein, 

Earl of, 323-5 

Rockingham, Charles Went worth, Mar 
quis of, 349 
Rode, Thomasyn, 152 
Rogers, Thorold, History of Prices, 41 
Rolls, Chapel of the, 214 
Rome, 9, 58, 69, 84, 142, 350 
Romilly, Sir Samuel, 40 
Roper, Margaret, 77 
tRosenhagen, Philip, 353 
tRosewell, Samuel, 258 
Ross, 142, 154 
Rossall School, 396 
Rothschild, Baron Lionel de, 416 
Rotterdam, 439 
Roubilliac, Louis, 434 
Rowlandson, Thomas, 374 
Royal Academy, 345, 429 

- College of Physicians, 77, 166, 
397 

Exchange, 322, 407, 430 

Humane Society, 354 

Society, Old Pauline Fellows of, 

211, 215, 216, 230, 258, 262, 263, 279, 
281, 282, 283, 371, 372, 375, 378, 394, 
397,410,411, 447, 449 
Royalists, 179, 195, 209 
"Royston, Peter, Bishop of Mauritius, 

409 
*Rudd, Edward, 255 

, , Diary of, 276 

Rugby Football Union, 461 

Rugby School, 320, 328, 334, 370-9, 

383, 393, 404, 415, 426, 460 
Rupert, Prince, 218 
Rusk in, John, 399 

, , Praeterita, 399 

Russell, Charles, Lord, of Killowen, 
Lord Chief Justice, 394 

, Lord John, 369 

, , On St. Paul s School, 464 

, Lord William, 240 
Russia, 350 



Rutherford, J. W., Head Master of 
Westminster School, 463 
, W. G., 443 
tRntt, John To well, 371 
tRyan, Lacy, 285 
, , The Coblers Opera, 285 

St. Albans, 293, 410 

St. Albans, Francis Bacon, Viscount, 

22, 85, 130, 164, 347 
St. Andrew, Holbom, School of, 6 
St. Andrew Undershaft, 217 
St. Anne s, Blackfriars, 143 
St. Anthony s Hospital and School, 

Threadneedle Street, 6-7, 24, 103-4, 

108, 109, 112 
St. Asaph, 298 

St. Augustin s, Old Change, 98, 275 
St. Austin, 43 
St. Austin s Gate, 21 
St. Barnabas Day, 147 
St. Bartholomew s Day, 104 
St. Bartholomew s Fair, 24, 103, 108 
St. Bee s, Cumberland, 130 
St. Botolph s, Bishopsgate, 194 
St. Botolph s without Aldersgate, 191, 

237 

St. David s, 9 

St. Dunstan in the East, School of, 6 
St. Faith s, 225 
St. Ferdinand, Order of, 350 
St. George of Russia, Order of, 350 
St. Germain 1 Auxerrois, 104 
St. Gregory s, 5 
St. James s Chronicle, 373 
St. James s, Piccadilly, 395 
St. John, emblem of, 44 
St. John Chrysostom, 78 
St. John of Jerusalem, Prior of the 

Order of, 70 

St. Laurence Pountney, 144, 213 
St. Lawrence Jewry, 212 
St. Luke, emblem of, 44 
St. Malo, 195 

St. Margaret s, Westminster, 258 
St. Mark, emblem of, 44 
St. Martin le Grand, School of, 2, 5, 6 
St. Martin in the Fields, School of, 

269-70 

St. Mary, Aldermanbury, 198 
St. Mary Colechurch, School of, 6 
St. Mary le Bow, School of, 2, 6, 226 
St. Mary Overies, Priory of, 83 
St. Mary and St. John, Chapel of, vide 

St. Paul s School 
St. Matthew, emblem of, 44 
St. Michael, Comhill, School of, 6 23 

264 



492 



INDEX 



*Sandiford, Peter, Gresham Professor of 

Astronomy, 354 
Sandwich, Edward Montague, Earl of, 

209 

Sardinia, King of, 323, 408 
Sargant, W. L., The Book of Rutland 

School, 191 

Saturday Review, The, 460 
Savage, Sir Richard, 183 
Saville, Sir Henry, Provost of Eton, 49 
Scarborough, 215 
t , Sir Charles, F.R.S., 166-7, 

2 S4 

* , Edmund, 167 

Schifanoza, II, 117 
Schlettstadt, 465 
*Schomberg, Sir Alexander, 320 
Schoolmasters, Exclusive privileges of 

certain, in London, 2, 5, 6 
Schwarz, R. O., 461 
Scotland, 258-9, 268, 318-20 
*Scott, B. G. A., 459, 463 

, Sir Walter, 109, 258 

fCenilworth, 109 
Scruton, Yorkshire, 246, 264 
Sebastopol, 399, 408 
Sedbergh School, 79 
Sedgemoor, 241 
Sedulius, 43, 44, 174 
Seebohm, Frederick, The Oxford Re 
formers, 438 
Selborne, Koundell Palmer, Earl of, 

429 

Selden, John, 56, 206 
Seleham, Radulphus de, 4 
*Seligman, C. G., 449 
Sergrove, William, Master of Pembroke 

College, Oxford, 354, 377 
Servius, 85 

*Sewell, Sir John, F.R.S., Judge of the 
Vice-Admiralty Court of Malta, 372, 

377 

Seymour, Admiral Sir Edward, 431 
Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley, Earl of, 

293 

Shakespeare, William, 44, loo, 105, 
149, 162, 280 

Hamlet, 32 

fuliu! Caesar, 280 

Love s Labour s Ltsl, 44, 56, 149 

Macbeth, 97 

Richard III, 435 

Twelfth Night, 55 
Sharpe, R. , London and the Kingdom, 

65 

Sheen, Carthusian Monastery at, 10 
Sheen Anglorum, Carthusian Monastery 

at, 257 



Sheldon, Gilbert, Archbishop of Canter 
bury, 168 

Shelford, Mrs., 388 
Shenstone, William, 370 
Shepard, J. W., Surmaster, 442, 462 

Challenge Cup, 462 
Sherbome, Robert, Bishop of St. 

David s, 9 

School, 460 

Sherbrooke, Robert Lowe, Lord, 384 
Sheridan, Richard Brinsley, 359 
Sheriffmuir, 283 
Sherlock, Thomas, Bishop of London, 

312 

Shrewsbury School, 37, 241, 415, 448 
Shropshire, 399 
Shrove Tuesday, 40, 117 
Siberch, John, 54 
Sicily, 350 
Simeon, Charles, 311 
Simpson, W. S. , Kegistrum Statutorum, 

5, 20, 23, 152 
*Skelton, Bernard, 214 

, John, Poet Laureate, 72 
*Skikelthoipe, Richard, 267 
SLEATH, JOHN, F.R.S., High Master, 
1814-1837, 360, 379-98, 399, 403-5, 
409, 447-8, 453, 455 
Sleath, William Boultbee, Head Master 

of Repton, 379 
Sluys, 135 

Small v. Attwood, 368 
Smallridge, George, Bishop of Bristol, 

161, 261 

tSmee, Alfred, F.R.S., 397, 447 
Smith, Clement, 409 
, George, 390 
, Sidney, 384 
, Thomas, 195, 438 
, T. St. C., 462 
Smithfield, II, 103 

Smollett, Tobias, Peregrine Pickle, 311 
Smylb, John, 129 

, Richard, Surmaster, 137, 139, 

148 

, , Obituary, 206, 237 

Snape, Andrew, Provost of Eton, 329 
tSoames, Henry, 361, 371 
Society of Antiquaries, vide Anti 
quaries 

of Friends of the People, 371 
Soho Square, 329 

Somerset, 227 
, Lord Protector, 73, 80 

House, 250 
Sophocles, 392 
Sorbonne, The, 400 

Sound, William, Surmaster, 130, 181 



INDEX 



493 



South, Robert, 238 

African War, Old Paulines in, 445 

Muskham, in 

Sea Bubble, 322, 328 

Southey, Robert, 258, 360 

Sowle, John, 10 

Spain, 71, 116, 135, 257, 464 

Spanish Armada, 1 19 

Spectator, The, 444 

Spenser, Edmund, 70, 145 
Faery Queen, 172 

Spinelli, Gaspari, 96 

Spital Sermon, 115 

Spring Gardens, 223 
*Spurling, J. W., 404-5 

Staffordshire, 329 

Stamford Rivers, Essex, 150 

Stanbridge, John, Head Master of Ban- 
bury School, 33 

Stanley, A. P., Dean of St. Paul s, 351 

Slaplehurst, Kent, 124 

Stapleton, Thomas, Tres Thomae, 70 

Star Chamber, 183-5, 197 

State Papers, ir, 28, 48, 12, 74-5, Si, 

88-9, 90, 92, 94-5. 98, 117, 127. 
156, 160, 183, 185, 189, 204 
- Trials, 374 

Stationers Company, 213, 226, 397 
*Staunton, W., 434 
*Steele, Isaac, Surmaster, 299-300, 345 

, Nan, 300 

Stephen, King, 2 

Stepney, High Master s house at, 7, 

3 8 2. 439 
tSterry, Nathaniel, 215-6 

, Peter, 215 
Stevenson, Robert Louis, Essays on 

Men anj Books, 261 
Slillingfleet, Edward, Bishop of 
Worcester, 254 

t , , F. K.S., Gresham Professor 

of Physic, 258, 279 
Stock, John, 364 
Stockdale v. Hansard, 368 
*Stocken, W. F., 459 
*Stonestreet, William, 297 
Stonhouse, Sir John, 187 
Stonyhurst College, 396 
Stow, John, Survey of London, 21-4, 

67, 85-6, 103, 164 
Annals, 140 
Straffbrd, Thomas Wentworth, Ear! of, 

165 

*Strahan, Geoffrey, 450 
tStrange, Sir John, Master of the Rolls, 

286-5 

Stratford-on-Avon, 149 
Strong, Sandford Arthur, 450 



tStrype, John, 231-5, 238, 279, 288-9, 

290, 302-3 
Edition of Stow s Survey, 26, 59, 

62, 106, 124, 270 
Suffolk Lane, 144-7 
Sulpicius, 69 

*Sunbridge, Lord, vide Duke of Argyll 
" Superstitious uses," 104 
Supremacy, Oath of, 83, 9 
Surrey, Thomas Wyatt, Earl of, 79 
*Suter, A. B., Bishop of Nelson, Primate 

of New Zealand, 409 
*Swanston, A. W., 445, 460 
Swaythling, Samuel Montagu, Lord, 447 
Sweden, 350 
Swift, Jonathan, 194, 244 

The Battle of the Books, 261 
*Swinney, H. H., 396 
tSykes, A. A., 286, 310 
Syria, 119 

Tail, Archibald C., Archbishop of 
Canterbury, 413, 426 

Talbot, William, Bishop of Peter 
borough, 298 

Talfourd, W., Memoirs of Charles 
Lamb, 368, 371 

Tangier, 210, 215, 262 

Tankerville, Ford Grey, Earl of, 243 

Taplow, 194 

Tasmania, 456 

Taller, The, 287 

Tavistock, 164 
"Taylor, H. C., 432 
t , Thomas, 354 

Taylorian, The, 459 

Teck, Duchess of, 462 

Temple, The, 287, 373, 377, 410, 450, 

455 

Change, 280 

Temple, Sir William, 261 

Teniers, David, 438 

Tenison, Edward, Archbishop of 

Canterbury, 254, 269, 270, 273 
School founded by, 269, 271 

t , , Bishop of Ossory, 258, 273, 

277 
Tennyson, Alfred, Lord, Poet Laureate, 

395-6 
Terence, 43, 45, 49, 109, 141, 289, 

290-1, 313, 348, 440 
Plays of, acted by Paulines, 95, 96, 

159. 348 

*Tew, E. L. H., Reminiscences of, 405 
Tewkesbury, 164 
Thackeray, W. M., 227, 388 
Theocritus, 290-1 
tThesiger, Sir Frederick, 349-50 



494 



INDEX 



THICKNESSE, GEORGE, Chaplain, Sur- 
maRter and High Master, 1748-1769, 
320, 321, 329-354, 355, 356-7, 437, 

453 

Thicknessc, George, vide Lord Audley 
, John, 329 
, Philip, 329 
, , Sketches and Characters, 

335 

, Ralph, 329 
*Thomas, Edward, 450 

, William, 195 
"Thompson, A. P., 431 
, A. S., 460 

* , E. Symes, Gresham Professor of 

Physics, 400, 410, 460 
Thomson, James, 260 

, Sir John, Chaplain of the School, 

oo 

*Thorley, J. H. , 459 
Thornbury, 434 

Thornby, Northamptonshire, 380 
Thornycroft, Hamo, R.A., 429 
*Thoroton, Richard, 291 
"Thruston, Framingham William, 401 
Thucydides, 393, 397 
Tideswell, Derbyshire, Jesus School at, 

82-3 

Tillotson, John, Archbishop of Canter 
bury, 230 
, Joshua, Chaplain and Surmaster, 

33 

Times, The, 14, 138, 381, 384, 392, 
395, 401, 408, 414, 417, 418, 421, 
422, 423, 428 
*Tippetts, S. A., 462 
Tiverton, 226 

, Blundell s School, 218 

Tolleshunte, William de, 5 
*Tomlyns, Sir Thomas, 373 
Tompkins, Thomas, Writing and Arith 
metic Master, 362 
Tonbridge School, 219, 460 
Tooke, John Home, 373 
*Tookie, Clement, Surmaster, 299, 302 
*Toosey, Philip, 347 
Torrigiano, Pietro, 433 
Tourneur, Cyril, 135 
Tower Hill, Monks of, 101 
fTowerson, Gabriel, 217 
Townley, Zouch, 196 
Treport, 93 

Trevor, Sir John, Secretary of Stale, 
205, 214 

t , , Master of the Rolls and 

Speaker, 214, 227, 279 
Trinity House, 210, 375 
Triplett, Thomas, 158 



tTroubridge, Admiral Sir Thomas, Bart., 

35, 437 

Troughton, James, 160 
tTruro, Thomas Wilde, Lord, Lord 
Chancellor, 367, 371, 401, 408, 432 
, Lady, 370, 432 
Tuam, 154, 293 

Tuckney, Anthony, Master of Emmanuel 
College, 205 

* , Jonathan, 216 

Tulley, vide Cicero 

Tunstall, Cuthbert, Bishop of London, 

8, n 

Turin, 323, 325 
Turkey, 93, 408 
tTusser, Thomas, 23, 29, 126 
tTwisden, Sir Thomas, Bart., 166 
Twysden, John, 166 

t , Sir Roger, Bart., 165 

Tyburn, 240 
Tyndale, 10 

Udall, Nicholas, Head Master of Eton, 
124, 144, 151 

Ralph Roister Doister, 1 24 
Uniformity, Act of, 1662, Deprivations 

under, 215, 216, 220 
United Provinces, States General of the, 

278 

Universal Magazine, The, 347 
Universities, Trend of fashion away from, 

in Elizabeth s reign, 143 
Uppingham School, 454 
" Lrban, Sylvanus," 376 
Urswick, Christopher, 435 

Valpy, Richard, Delectus, 386 

Van Dyck, Sir Anthony, 433 

Vane, Sir Henry, 215 

Vegetius De re militari, 228, 267 

Venice, 77, 93, 95, 117, 125, 261, 440, 

464 
*Venn, Edward, 318 

, Henry, 318 

, , History of Cnius College, 

226 
tVere, Sir Francis, 135 

, Horace, Lord, 135 

, Robert, 135 

, Geoffrey de, 135 

Vergil, Polydore, on St. Paul s School, 
39, 41, 48, 58, 67, 71, 73, 88, 89, 
98, 105, 109 

De inuentoribus rerutn, 207 
"Vernede, R. E., 458 
Verrall, A. W., 443 

Victoria, Queen, 348-9, 407, 409, 410, 
419, 43. 437, 45 i 



INDEX 



495 



Vienna, 261, 278, 464 

Villiers, Barbara, 287 
fVince, Samuel, Plumian Professor of 

Astronomy at Cambridge, 354, 449 
*Vincent, Spencer, 459 

Virgil, 43, 45. 49. 141, 266, 288, 290, 
291, 347, 392, 395, 397 

Vitrier, Jehan, 10 

Vives, Ludovicus, 44 

Voltaire, Fran$ois, 312 

Volunteer corps, 2nd South Middlesex, 

463 
Vowell, John, 92 

tWagstaffe, John, 218 

Wake, William, Archbishop of Canter 
bury, 270 

Wales, 260 

, George, Prince of, vide George IV 

WALKER, FREDERICK WILLIAM, High 
Master, 1877-1905, 419, 425, 426-453, 

454 
*Walker, G. T., F.R.S., 449 

, R. J., 296, 307, 317, 320, 321, 
322, 330, 363, 425, 436 
Wallingford, 29 

*Wallis, Frederick William, Bishop of 
Wellington, New Zealand, 409 

, John, 270, 271, 293 

Walpole, Horace, 32, 259, 286 
*Walrond, Nicholas, 129 
tWalsingham, Francis, S.J., 142 

, Sir Francis, 142 

, St. Mary of, 1 1 

Walthamstow, 212 
*Wandell, vide Earl of Forfar 
Wandsworth, 226 
Wapping, 242 
*Warcop, Ralph, 116 
Ward, John, 56 

Warham, William, Archbishop of Can 
terbury, 10, 47, 67 
tWarner, John, 378 
Warre, Edmond, Head Master of Eton, 

445 

Warren Hastings, The, 446 
Warton, T. H., History of English 
Poetry, 31 

Life of Sir Thomas Pope, 31, 48 
Warwickshire, 339 
Washington, George, 351 
Waterford, 94, 154 
Waterhouse, Alfred, A.R.A., 429 
Watkin, F. W., 444 
Watney, Sir John, 439 

* ,J. S.,445 

Watson, James, 374 
, John, 446 



Watts, E. II. K., 432 

, Isaac, 306 

, Thomas, 155 
Wax candles, 41 
Waynefleete, William of, 8, 42 
tWebb, Benjamin, 396 
Weever, John, Funeral Monuments, 85 
Welden,"W., 98 
Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, Duke of, 

373 

, New Zealand, 409 

Wells, 97 

, John, 237 
Wesley, Charles, 231 

, Samuel, 231 
West Kensington, 419, 428-9 
Westcott, Sebastian, 27, 31 
Westminster Abbey, 54, 101, 135, 286, 

351, 354 
, Choristers of, 29, 456 

, Assembly of Divines, 143, 198 

, Dean of, 226 

Hall, 284 

School, vide St. Peter s College 

tWetherell, Sir Charles, Attorney- 
General, 373 
Weymouth, 71 

Whicham Grammar School, 269 
fWhitaker, William, Master of St. John s 

College, Cambridge, 25, 112, 120 
*White, Meryon, 410 
Whitefriars, 10 
Whitehall, 223, 239 
Whitelocke, Sir James, 148 
Whitney, Geoffrey, Choice of Emblems, 

134 

Whittington, Robert, 72 
Wilberforce, William, 371, 377 
tWild, Sir John, Chief Justice of New 

South Wales, and of Cape Colony, 372 
tWilde, Thomas, vide Lord Truro 
Wilkins, Dr., 60 
Wilkinson, G. , Londtna Jllitslrata, 6, 

50, 96, 390, 434 

, Henry, 136 

, Richard, "teacher of the first 

form," 114, 121 
William II, 143 

- Ill and Mary, 167, 211, 226, 

227, 228, 240, 241, 244, 251, 260, 

261, 273, 287 

IV, 397 
Williams, John, Bishop of Chichester, 

254 
tWilliams, T. W., 372 

Williamson, Sir John, 253 
fWilmington, Spencer Compton, Earl of, 
K.G., Prime Minister, 229, 259-60 



496 



INDEX 



Wilson, E. O., 432 

, H. B., History of Merchant 

Taylors School, 144, 146, 155 

* , John, F.R.S., President of Trinity 

College, Oxford, 378 

, Thomas, Arte of Rhetor ique, 162 

Winchester, 145, 167, 207, 212, 217, 
208, 286 

- College, 33, 38, 39, 40, 42, 47, 48, 
S^, 72, 73. 78. 271, 293, 311, 328, 
329, 334, 338 384, 402, 408, 415, 
450, 460, 461, 466 
Windsor, 105, 217, 349 
Winterbotham, W. H., 447 
Wintern, Dorset, 227 
Wise, , Under Usher, 140 
Wither, George, 162 
Wolfe, General James, 320 
Wolman, Richard, 97 
Wolsey, Thomas, Cardinal, 33, 74, 76, 

77,88 
Plays acted by Paulines before, 28, 

94-6 

Wood, Anthony a, 8, 78, 84, 137, 148, 
156, 162, 169, 187, 191, 196, 206, 218, 
252 

, Joseph, Head Master of Harrow, 

427 

fWoodfall, H. Sampson, 336, 352 
Woodford, Essex, 306 
t , Samuel, F.R.S., 217, 218 



Woodham, Northumberland, 163 
Woods and Forests, Department of, 

413 
Woolwich, Royal Military Academy, 

444-5 

Worcester, 273, 293, 368 
Worcester, H.M.S., 314 
Worcestershire, 208 
Wordsworth, William, Prelude, 434 
Wren, Sir Christopher, 235, 251, 276, 

393 
Wriothesley, Charles, Chronicle, 101, 

107-8 
*Wyat, Hugh, Chaplain, 299, 303, 

3 4-iS 
"Wyatt, William, Principal of St. Mary s 

Hal), Oxford, 265, 279 
Wykeham, William of, 42 
Wynkyn de Worde, 50, 267 

Yale College, 277 

, Elihu, Governor of Connecticut, 

277 

Vatesbury, 147 
Yeames, F., R.A., 429 
Yelverton, Sir Henry, Bart., 206, 214 
York, 75, 81, 158, 167, 251-3 

, Archbishops of, 83, 231 

, Duke of, vide James II 

Zakka Khel Expedition, 446 



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