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1 86 Dearborn Street. 


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Call No. 




F497.S9P4 r^„.. 10-21-76 




No. of vols. 

24-24 (rev 4/72) 



i^'M'yVUE history of Summit County, after '. onths of arduous toil, is now completed. 


(/^p.„ Every important field of research has been minutely scanned by those engaged 
'^^''^^^ in its preparation; no subject of universal public value has been omitted, save 
where protracted effort failed to secure trustworthy results. The necessarily limited natiu'e 
of the work, the impossibility of ingrafting upon its pages, the vast fund of the county's 
historic information, and the proper omission of many valueless details and events, have 
compelled the publishers to be brief on all subjects presented. Fully aware of om- inabil- 
ity to furnish a perfect history from meager public documents, inaccm-ate private corre- 
spondence and numberless conflicting traditions, we make no pretension of having prepared 
a work devoid of blemish. Through the courtesy and the generous assistance met with 
everywhere, we have been enabled to rescue fi'om oblivion the greater portion of important 
events that have transpired in Summit County in past years. We feel assured that all 
thoughtful people ir^ the county, at present and in future, will recognize and appreciate the 
importance of the undertaking, and the gi^eat public benefit that has been accomplished. 

It will be observed that a dry statement of fact has been avoided; and that the rich 
romance of border incident has been woven in with statistical details, thus foiming an 
attractive and graphic narrative, and lending beauty to the mechanical execution of the 
volume, and additional value to it as a work for perusal. We claim superior excellence in 
our manner of collecting material; in the division of the subject matter into distinct and 
appropriate chapters; in giving a separate chapter to every town, township and important 
subject, and in the systematic arrangement of the individual chapters. ^Tiile we acknowl- 
edge the existence of unavoidable errors, we claim to have prepared a work fully up to the 
standard of our promises, and as accui-ate and comprehensive as could be expected under 

the circumstances. 


May, 1881. 







CHAPTER I. — Introductory — Topography— Geology — Primitive 

Races — Antiquities — Indian Tribes 11 

CHAPTER II.— Explorations in the West 19 

CHAPTER III.— English Explorations— Traders— French and 

Indian War in theWest — English Possession 37 

CHAPTER IV. — Pontlac's Conspiracy — Its Failure — Bouquet's 

Expedition— Occupation by the English 48 

CHAPTER V. — American Exploration — Dunmore's War — Cam- 
paign of George Rogers Clarke — Land Troubles — Spain in 
the Revolution — Murder of the Moravian Indians 52 

CHAPTER VI. — American Occupation — Indian Claims — Early 
Land Companies — Compact of 1787 — Organization of the 
Territory — Early American Settlements in the Ohio Val- 
ley — First Territorial OflScers — Organization of Counties... 60 

CHAPTER VII.— Indian War of 1795— Harmar's Campaign— 
St. Clair's Campaign — Wayne's Campaign — Close of the 
War 73 

CHAPTER VIII.— Jay's Treaty— The Question of State Rights 
and National Supremacy — Extension of Ohio Settlements 
— Land Claims — Spanish Boundary Question 79 

CHAPTER IX. — First Territorial Representatives in Congress 
— Division of the Territory — Formation of States — Mari- 
etta Settlement — Other Settlements — Settlements in the 
Western Reserve — Settlement of the Central Valleys — 
Further Settlements in the Reserve and Elsewhere 85 

CHAPTER X.— Formation of the State Government— Ohio a 
State — The State Capitals — Legislation — The " Sweeping" 
Resolutions 121 

CHAPTER XI.— The War of 1812— Growth of the State— Canal, 
Railroads and other Improvements — Development of State 
Resources 127 

CHAPTER XII.— Mexican War— Continued Growth of the State 

—War of the Rebellion— Ohio's Part in the Conflict 132 

CHAPTER XIII.— Ohio in the Centennial— Address of Edward 

D. Mansfield, L.L D., Philadelphia, August 9, 1876 138 

CHAPTER XIV.— Education— Eariy School Laws— Notes— In- 
stitutions and Educational Journals — School System — 
School Funds — Colleges and Universities 148 

CHAPTER XV.— Agriculture— Area of the State— Early Agri- 
culture in the West — Markets — Live Stock — Nurseries, 
Fruits, etc. — Cereals, Root and Cucurbitaceous Crops — 
Agricultural Implements — Agricultural Societies — Pomo- 

logical and Horticultural Societies 151 

CHAPTER XVL— Climatology— Outline— Variation in Ohio- 
Estimate in Degrees — Amount of Variability 163 

CHAPTER XVII.— Public Lands— Early Contest on Bight of 
Soil and Jurisdiction — The Western Reserve — Origin and 
Organization— Social and Material Growth 165 



CHAPTER I.— Introductory— Physical Features— Geological 
Structure— The Different Shales — Coal Measures — Agri- 
culture and Agricultural Societies — Statistics, etc 181 

CHAPTER II— Prehistoric Races— Traces and Relics of the 
Mound Builders — The Indian Tribes — Their Occupa- 
tion of Summit County — Sketches of Them — The Bor- 
der Wars 207 

CHAPTER III.— Settlement and Organization of the County- 
Its Civil Divisions — The Early Judiciary — County Build- 
ings — Their Cost and Character — Officials, etc 226 

CHAPTER IV.— War Record— Our Struggle for Independence 
—1812— The Mexican War— Our Late Civil War- 
Sketches of Regiments — Aid Societies — Monuments, etc.. 249 

CHAPTER v.— Religious— The Gospel on the Frontier— A 
Tax for its Support — Educational — School Statistics — The 
County Press — Railroads, Canals, etc 271 

CHAPTER VI.— The Professions— Early Lawyers— Summit 
County Bar— The Lawyers of the Present — Medical — ^ 
Pioneer Doctors — Early Practice — The Modern Physi-- Se 
cians 301 

CHAPTER VII.— Portage Township— Descriptive and Topo- 
graphical — Coming of the Pioneers — Their Primitive 
Life — Development of Resources — Schools, Churches, etc. 321 

CHAPTER VIII.— City of Akron— Original Plat— Ita Growth 
as a Village — An Incorporated City — Municipal Govern- 
ment — Statistics — Secret and Other Societies .330 

CHAPTER IX.— City of Akron— Its Manufactuiing Interests 
— Their Growth and Development — The Buckeye Reaper 
— Potteries — Mills — Other Establishments 344 

CHAPTER X.— City of Akron— Religious History— Early 
Christianity and Pioneer Preachers — Advancement of 
the Gospel — Churches of the Present Day — Sabbath 
Schools, etc 366 

CHAPTER XL— City of Akron— Formation of the Public 
Schools — Akron School Law — Present Educational Facili- 
ties—Sketch of Buchtel College 381 

CHAPTER XII.— Town of Middlebury— Its Settlement— Early 
Glory and Importance — Water Power— Growth of Manu- 
facturing Industries— Present Business 399 

CHAPTER XIII.— Hudson Township— Its Early History- 
Topograpy — The Settlement by the Whites — Pioneer In- 
cidents — Growth and Development of Industries 409 

CHAPTERXIV.— Hudson Township— Early Society— Organiza- 
tion— Tlie Village of Hudson Laid Out — Its Business and 
Growth — Religious and Educational 426 

CHAPTER XV.— Hudson Village — Educational Institutions- 
Location of College — Questions of Difference — OflBcers and 
Faculty — Libiary, Preparatory School, etc 446 





CHAPTER XVI.— Cuyahoga Falls— Settlement by Whites- 
Early History — Grottoes, Caverns and Kavines — Organiza- 
tion as a Township — Its Officers, etc., etc 466 

CHAPTER XVII.— Cuyahoga Falls— Growth and Prosperity- 
Manufacturing Interests — Incorporation — Schools and 
Teachers — Religious — Sketches of the Churches 478 

CHAPTER XVIII.— Northampton Township— Descriptive- 
Early History and Settlement — Development of Re- 
sources — Early Schools — Statistics — Religious — Dififerent 
Churches 497 

CH.APTER XIX.— Stow Township— Description and Topog- 
raphy — The Whites — Improvement and Development — 
Villages — Religious — Educational, etc 511 

CHAPTER XX.— Coventry Township — Topographical — Boun- 
daries — Lakes — The Palefaces — Their Life in the Wilder- 
ness — Industries — Schools and Churches 521 

CHAPTER XXI. — Boston Township — Its Ownership— General 
Description — Occupancy of the Whites — Unlawful Opera- 
tions — Towns — Educational, etc 532 

CHAPTER XXII.— Springfield Township— General Description 
— Wealth and Resources — Coal Mines — The Palefaces — 
Pioneer Industries — Schools and Teachers — Religious 545 

CHAPTER XXIII.— Tallmadge Township— Physical Features 
—Early History — The Whites — Pioneer Vicissitudes — 
Growth and Prosperity — Schools, Churches, etc 552 

CHAPTER XXIV.— Northfield Township— Its Physical Geo- 
graphy — Settlement by the Whites— Growth and Im- 
provement — Statistical — Religious — Villages 567 

CHAPTER XXV.— Norton Township— Descriptive and Topo- 
graphical — White' Settlement — Pioneer Industries — Ad- 
vancement in Civilization — Schools and Teachers — 
Churches — The Villages, etc 578 

CHAPTER XXVI.— Green Township— Physical Features- 
Original Boundaries — Pioneer Occupancy — The Germans 
— Growth and Development — Villages — Churches and 
Schools .593 

CHAPTER XXVII.— Richfield Township— General Description 
— Coming of the AVhites — Growth and Prosperity — Pion- 
neer Industries — Schools and Teachers — Christianity, 
etc 608 

CHAPTER XXVIII.— Bath Township— Boundaries and Topog- 
raphy — White Settlement — Wealth and Prosperity — 
Pioneer Achievements — Churches and Preachers — 
Schools, etc 617 

CHAPTER XXIX.— Franklin Township— Topographicdl— 
Early History — Coming of the Pioneers — Early Improve- 
ments and Industries — A'illages — Scliools, Churches, etc... 627 

CHAPTER XXX.— Copley Township- Descriptive and Topo- 
graphical — The White Settlement — Early Industries — 
Their Growth and Development— Educational and Re- 
ligious 639 

CHAPTER XXXI.— Twinsburg Township— Description and 
Early Features — The Coming of the Whites — Pioneer 
Improvements — Anecdotes — Educational and Religious.... 649 



Akron, City of. 661 

Bath Township 1014 

Boston Township 891 

Copley Township 1026 

Coventry Township 876 

Cuyahoga Falls Township 841 

Franklin Township '. 1026 

Green Township 08u 

Hudson Township K23 

Northampton Township 853 

Northfield Township. : 933 

Norton Township 963 

Portage Township - , 806 

Richfield Township 997 

Springfield Township 908 

Stow Township 863 

Tallmadge Township 920 

Twinsburg Township 1039 




Ailing, Ethan (Biography on page 1039) 648 

Buchtel, John 440 

I'osworth, Delos (Biography on page 1029) 616 

Burgess, Joseph (Biography on page 965) 632 

Brewster, Alexander (Biography on page 682) 504 

Brown, C. W. (Biography on page 679) 488 

Crotzer, William F. (Biography on page 910) £R8 

Cotter, A. L. (Biography on page 687) 520 

Conger, A. L. (Biography on page 695) 424 

Crouse, G. W. (Biography on page 694) 472 

Emmitt, William (Biography on page 699) 544 

Hill, John (Biography on page 909) 584 

Hine, Daniel (Biography on page 024) 600 

Lane, S. A. (Biography on page 728) 228 

Miller, George (Biography on page 815) 32i> 

Miller, Lewis (Biography on page 739) 5:^6 

Quigley, Martin (Biography on page 760) 408 

Sumner, I. (Biography on page 767) 260 

Sumner, J. A. (Biography on page 767) 456 

Sumner, Charles (Biography on page 769) 292 

Stone, N. B. (Biography on page 766) 376 

Schumacher, Ferd. (Biography on page 771) 344 

Taplin, J. B. (Biography on page 784) 392 

Voris, A. C. (Biography on page 786' 360 

Wright, Amos (Biograjihy on page 932) 552 

Summit County Court House 180 



BY A.. A.. GR-A-IiAJVt 




THE present State of Ohio, comprisins; an 
extent of country 210 miles north and south, 
220 miles east and west, in length and breadth — 
25,576,969 acres— is a part of the Old Northwest 
Territory. This Territoiy embraced all of the 
present States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, 
Wisconsin and so much of Minnesota as lies east 
of the Mississippi River. It became a corporate 
existence soon after the formation of the Virginia 
Colony, and when that colony took on the dignity 
of State government it became a county thereof, 
whose exact outline was unknown. The county 
embraced in its limits more territoiy than is com- 
prised in all the New England and Middle States, 
and was the largest county ever known in the 
United States. It is watered by the finest system 
of rivers on the globe ; while its inland seas are 
without a parallel. Its entire southern boundary 
is traversed by the beautiful Ohio, its western by 
the majestic Mississippi, and its northern and a 
part of its eastern are bounded by the fresh-water 
lakes, whose clear waters preserve an even temper- 
ature over its entire surface. Into these reservoirs 
of commerce flow innumerable streams of limpid 
water, which come from glen and dale, from 
mountain and valley, from forest and prairie — all 
avenues of health, commerce and prosperity. 
Ohio is in the best part of this territory — south 
of its river are tropical heats ; north of Lake Erie 
are polar snows and a polar climate. 

The territory comprised in Ohio has always re- 
mained the same. Ohio's history differs somewhat 
from other States, in that it was never under Ter- 
ritorial government. When it was created, it was 
made a State, and did not pass through the stage 
incident to the most of other States, i. e., exist a.s 
a Territory before being advanced to the powers of 

a State. Such was not the case with the other 
States of the West ; all were Territories, with Terri- 
torial forms of government, ere they became States. 

Ohio's boundaries are, on the north, Lake Eria, 
and Michigan ; on the west, Indiana ; on the south, 
the Ohio River, separating it from Kentucky; 
and, on the east, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. 
It is situated between 38° 25' and 42° north 
latitude ; and 80° 30' and 84° 50' west longitude 
from Greenwich, or 3° 30' and 7° 50' west from 
Washington. Its greatest length, from north 
to south, is 210 miles; the extreme width, from 
east to west, 220 miles. Were this an exact out- 
line, the area of the State would be 46,200 square 
miles, or 29,568,000 acres ; as the outlines of the 
State are, however, rather irregular, the area is 
estimated at 39,964 square miles, or 25,576,960 
acres. In the last census — 1870 — the total num- 
ber of acres in Ohio is given as 21,712,420, of 
which 14,469,132 acres are improved, and 6,883,- 
575 acres are woodland. By the last statistical 
report of the State Auditor, 20,965,371 f acres are 
reported as taxable lands. This omits many acres 
untaxable for various reasons, which would make the 
estimate, 25,576,960, nearly correct. 

The face of the country, in Ohio, taken as a 
whole, presents the appearance of an extensive 
monotonous plain. It is moderately undulating 
but not mouufainous, and is excavated in places by 
the streams coursing over its surface, whose waters 
have forced a way for themselves through cliffs of 
sandstone rock, lca^^ng abutments of this material 
in bold outline. There are no mountain ranges, 
geological uplifts or peaks. A low ridge enters the 
State, near the northeast corner, and crosses it in a 
southwesterly direction, emerging near the inter- 
section of the 40th decree of north latitude with 

the western boundary of the State. This " divide " 
separates the lake and Ohio River v?aters, and main- 
tains an elevation of a little more than thirteen 
hundred feet above the level of the ocean. The 
highest part is in Logan County, where the eleva- 
tion is 1,550 feet. 

North of this ridge the surface is generally level, 
with a gentle inclination toward the lake, the ine- 
qualities of the surface being caused by the streams 
which empty into the lake. The central part of 
Ohio is almost, in general, a level plain, about one 
thousand feet above the level of the sea, slightly 
inclining southward. The Southern part of the 
State is rather hilly, the valleys growing deeper as 
they incline toward the great valley of the Ohio, 
which is several hundred feet below the general 
level of the State. In the southern counties, the 
surfice is generally diversified by the inequalities 
produced by the excavating power of the Ohio 
River and its tributaries, exercised through long 
periods of time. There are a few prairies, or plains, 
in the central and northwestern parts of the State, 
but over its greater portion originally existed im- 
mense growths of timber. 

The " divide," or water-shed, referred to, between 
the waters of Lake Erie and the Ohio River, is 
less elevated in Ohio than in New York and Penn- 
sylvania, though the difference is small. To a per- 
son passing over the State in a balloon, its surface 
presents an unvarymg plain, while, to one sailing 
down the Ohio River, it appears mountainous. 
On this river are bluffs ranging from two hundred 
and fifty to six hundred feet in height. As one 
ascends the tributaries of the river, these bluffs 
diminish in height until they become gentle undu- 
lations, while toward the sources of the streams, 
in the central part of the State, the banks often 
become low and marshy. 

The principal rivers are the Ohio, Muskingum, 
Scioto and Miami, on the southern slope, emptying 
into the Ohio ; on the northern, the Maumee, 
Sandusky, Huron and Cuyahoga, emptying into 
Lake Erie, and, all but the first named, entirely in 

The Ohio, the chief river of the State, and from 
which it derives its name, with its tributaries, drains 
a country whose area is over two hundred thousand 
sfpiare miles in extent, and extending from the 
water-shed to Alabama. The river was first dis- 
covered by La Salle in 1669, and was by him nav- 
igated as far as the Falls, at Louisville, Ky. It is 
formed by the junction of the Alleghany and 
Monongahela rivers, in Pennsylvania, whose waters 

unite at Pittsburgh. The entire length of the 
river, from its source to its mouth, is 950 miles, 
though by a straight line from Pittsburgh to Cairo, 
it is only 615 miles. Its current is very gentle, 
hardly three miles per hour, the descent being only 
five inches per mile. At high stages, the rate of 
the current increases, and at low stages decreases. 
Sometimes it is barely two miles per hour. The 
average range between high and low water mark is 
fifty feet, although several times the river has risen 
more than sixty feet above low water mark. At 
the lowest stage of the river, it is fordable many 
places between Pittsburgh and Cincinnati. The 
river abounds in islands, some of which are exceed- 
ingly fertile, and noted in the history of the West. 
Others, known as " tow-heads," are simply deposits 
of sand. 

The Scioto is one of the largest inland streams 
in the State, and is one of the most beautiful riv- 
ers. It rises in Hardin County, flows southeast- 
erly to Columbus, where it receives its largest 
affluent, the Olentangy or Whetstone, after which 
its direction is southerly until it enters the Ohio at 
Portsmouth. It flows through one of the rich- 
est valleys in the State, and has for its compan- 
ion the Ohio and Erie Canal, for a distance of 
ninety miles. Its tributaries are, besides the Whet- 
stone, the Darby, Walnut and Paint Creeks. 

The Muskingum River is formed by the junc- 
tion of the Tuscarawas and Waldhoning Rivers, 
which rise in the northern part of the State and 
unite at Coshocton. From the junction, the river 
flows in a southeastern course about one hundred 
miles, through a rich and populous valley, to the 
Ohio, at Marietta, the oldest settlement in the 
State. At its outlet, the Muskingum is over two 
hundred yards wide. By improvements, it has 
been made navigable ninety-five miles above Mari- 
etta, as far as Dresden, where a side cut, three 
miles long, unites its waters with those of the Ohio 
Canal. All along this stream exist, in abundant 
profusion, the remains of an ancient civiliza- 
tion, whose history is lost in the twilight of antiq- 
uity. Extensive mounds, earthworks and various 
fortifications, are everywhere to be found, inclosing 
a mute history as silent as the race that dwelt here 
and left these traces of their evistence. The same 
may be said of all the other valleys in Ohio. 

The Miami River — the scenes of many exploits 
in pioneer days — rises in Hardin County, near the 
headwaters of the Scioto, and runs southwesterly, 
to the Ohio, passing Troy, Dayton and Hamilton. 
It is a beautiful and ra])id stream, flowing through 





a highly productive and populous valley, in which 
limestone and hard timb'jr are abundant. Its total 
length is about one hunared and fifty miles. 

The Maumee is the largest river in the northern 
part of Ohio. It rises in Indiana and flows north- 
easterly, into Lake Ene. About eighty miles of 
its course are in Ohio. It is navigable as far as 
Perrysburg, eighteen miles from its mouth. The 
other rivers north of the divide are all small, 
rapid-running streams, affording a large amount of 
good water-power, much utilized by mills and man- 

A remarkable feature of the topography of 
Ohio is its almost total absence of natural lakes or 
ponds. A few very small ones are found near the 
water-shed, but all too small to be of any practical 
value save as watering-places for stock. 

Lake Erie, which forms nearly all the northern 
boundary of the State, is next to the last or lowest 
of America's " inland seas." It is 290 miles long, 
and 57 miles wide at its greatest part. There are 
no islands, except in the shallow water at the W'est 
end, and very few bays. The greatest depth of 
the lake is off Long Point, where the water is 312 
feet deep. The shores are principally drift-clay or 
hard-pan, upon which the waves are continually 
encroaching. At Cleveland, from the first sur- 
vey, in 1796, to 1842, the encroachment was 218 
feet along the entire city front. The entire coast 
is low, seldom rising above fifty feet at the water's 

Lake Erie, like the others, has a variable sur- 
face, rising and falling with the seasons, like great 
rivers, called the " annual fluctuation," and a gen- 
eral one, embracing a series of years, due to mete- 
orological causes, known as the " secular fluctua- 
tion." Its lowest known level was in February, 
1819, rising more or less each year, until June, 
1838, in the extreme, to six feet eight inches. 

Lake Erie has several excellent harbors in Ohio, 
among which are Cleveland, Toledo, Sandusky, 
Port Clinton and Ashtabula. Valuable improve- 
ments have been made in some of these, at the 
expense of the General Grovernment. In 1818, 
the first steamboat was launched on the lake. 
Owing to the Falls of Niagara, it could go no 
farther east than the outlet of Niagara Eiver. 
Since then, however, the opening of the Welland 
Canal, in Canada, allows vessels drawing not more 
than ten feet of water to pass from one lake to 
the other, gi-eatly facilitating navigation. 

As early as 1836, Dr. S.>. Hiidreth, Dr. John 
Locke, Prof. J. H. Riddle and Mr. I. A. Lapham, 

were appointed a committee by the Legislature of 
Ohio to report the " best method of obtaining a 
complete geological survey of the State, and an 
estimate of the probable cost of the same." In the 
preparation of their report, Dr. Hiidreth examined 
the coal-measures in the southeastern part of the 
State, Prof Riddle and Mr. Lapham made exam- 
inations in the western and northern counties, 
while Dr. Locke devoted his attention to chemical 
analyses. These investigations resulted in the 
presentation of much valuable infonuation con- 
cerning the mineral resources of the State and in 
a plan for a geological survey. In accordance 
with the recommendation of this Committee, the 
Legislature, in 1837, passed a bill appropriating 
$12,000 for the prosecution of the work during 
the next year. The Geological Corps appointed 
consisted of W. W. Mather, State Geologist, with 
Dr. Hiidreth, Dr. Locke, Prof J. P. Kirtland, J. 
W. Foster, Charles Whittlesey and Charles Briggs, 
Jr., Assistants. The results of the first year's 
work appeared in 1838, in an octavo volume of 134 
pages, with contributions fi-om Mather, Hiidreth, 
Briggs, Kirtland and Whittlesey. In 1838, the 
Legislature ordered the continuance of the work, 
and, at the close of the year, a second report, of 
286 pages, octavo, was issued, containing contribu- 
tions from all the members of the survey. 

Succeeding Legislatures failed to provide for a 
continuance of the work, and, save that done by 
private means, nothing was accomplished till 
1869, when the Legislature again took up the 
work. In the interim, individual enterprise had 
done much. In 1841, Prof. James Hall passed 
through the State, and, by his indentification of 
several of the formations with those of New York, 
for the first time fixed their geological age. The 
next year, he issued the first map of the geology 
of the State, in common with the geological maps 
of all the region between the Alleghanies and the 
Mississippi. Similar maps were published by Sir 
Charles Lyell, in 1845 ; Prof Edward Hitchcock, 
in 1853, and by J. Mareon, in 1856. The first 
individual map of the geology of Ohio was a very 
small one, published by Col. Whittlesey, in 1848, 
in Howe's History. In 1856, he published a 
larger map, and, in 1865, another was issued by 
Prof Nelson Sayler. In 1867, Dr. J. S. Newberry 
published a geological map and sketch of Ohio in 
the Atlas of the State issued by H. S. Stebbins. 
LTp to this time, the geological knowledge was very 
general in its character, and, consequently, errone- 
ous in many of its details. Other States had been 




accurately surveyed, yet Ohio remained a kind of 
terra incognita, of •which the geology was less 
known than any part of the surrounding area. 

In 18G9, the Legislature appropriated, for a new 
survey, $13,900 for its support during one year, 
and appointed Dr. Newberry Chief Geologist ; E. 
B. Andrews, Edward Orton and J. H. Klippart 
were appointed Assistants, and T. G. Wormley, 
Chemist. The result of the first year's work 
was a volume of 164 pages, octavo, published in 

This report, accompanied by maps and charts, 
for the first time accurately defined the geological 
formations as to age and area. Evidence was given 
which set at rest questions of nearly thirty years' 
standing, and established the fiict that Ohio in- 
cludes nearly double the number of formations be- 
fore supposed to exist. Since that date, the sur- 
veys have been regularly made. Each county is 
being surveyed by itself, and its formation ac- 
curately determined. Elsewhere in these pages, 
these results are given, and to them the reader is 
refeiTed for the specific geology of the county. 
Only general results can be noted here. 

On the general geological map of the State, are 
two sections of the State, taken at each northern 
and southern extremity. These show, with the 
map, the general outline of the geological features 
of Ohio, and are all that can be given here. Both 
sections show the general arrangements of the 
formation, and prove that they lie in sheets resting 
one upon another, but not horizontally, a.s a great 
arch traverses the State from Cincinnati to the 
lake shore, between Toledo and Sandusky. Along 
this line, which extends southward to Nashville, 
Tenn., all the rocks are raised in a ridge or fold, 
once a low mountain chain. In the lapse of 
ages, it has, however, been extensively worn 
away, and now, along a large part of its course, 
the strata which once arched over it are re- 
moved from its summit, and are found resting in 
regular order on either side, dipping away from its 
axis. Where the ridge was highest, the erosion 
has been greatest, that being the reason why the 
oldest rocks are exposed in the region about Cin- 
cinnati. By following the line of this great arch 
from Cincinnati northward, it will be seen that the 
Helderberg limestone (No. 4), midway of the State, 
is still unbroken, and stretches from side to side ; 
while the Oriskany, the Corniferous, the Hamilton 
and the Huron formations, though generally re- 
moved from the crown of the arch, still remain 
over a limited area near Bellefontaine, where they 

form an island, which proves the former continuity 
of the strata which compose it. 

On the east side of the great anticlinal axis, the 
rocks dip down into a basin, which, for several 
hundred miles north and south, occupies the inter- 
val between the Nashville and Cincinnati ridge and 
the first fold of the Alleghany Mountains. In 
this basin, all the strata form trough-like layers, 
their edges outcropping eastward on the flanks 
of the Alleghanies, and westward along the anti- 
clinal axis. As they dip from this margin east- 
ward toward the center of the trough, near its 
middle, on the eastern border of the State, the 
older rocks are deeply buried, and the surface is 
here underlaid by the highest and most recent of 
our rock formations, the coal measures. In the 
northwestern corner of the State, the strata dip 
northwest from the anticlinal and pass under the 
Michigan coal basin, precisely as the same forma- 
tions east of the anticlinal dip beneath the Alle- 
ghany coal-field, of which Ohio's coal area forms a 

The rocks underlying the State all belong to 
three of the great groups which geologists liave 
termed " systems," namely, the Silurian, Devonian 
and Carboniferous. Each of these are again sub- 
divided, for convenience, and numbered. Thus 
the Silurian system includes the Cincinnati group, 
the Medina and Clinton groups, the Niagara 
group, and the Salina and Water-Line groups. 
The Devonian system includes the Oriskany sand- 
stone, the Carboniferous limestone, the Hamilton 
group, the Huron shale and the Erie shales. The 
Carboniferous system includes the Waverly group, 
the Carboniferous Conglomerate, the Coal Meas- 
ures and the Drift. This last includes the surface, 
and has been divided into six parts, numbering 
from the lowest, viz.: A glacialed surface, the Gla- 
cial Drift, the Erie Clays, the Forest Bed, the Ice- 
berg Drift and the Terraces or Beaches, which 
mark intervals of stability in the gradual recession 
of the water surface to its present level. 

" The history we may learn fi-om these forma- 
tions," says the geologist, " is something as fol- 

" First. Subsequent to the Tertiary was a period 
of continual elevation, during which the topog- 
raphy of the country was much the same as now, 
the draining streams following the lines they now 
do, but cutting down their beds until they flowed 
sometimes two hundred feet lower than they do at 
present. In the latter part of this period of ele- 
vation, glaciers, descending from the Canadian 

'^ (5" 




islands, excavated and occupied the valleys of the 
great lakes, and covered the lowlands down nearly 
to the Ohio. 

'^Second. By a depression of the land and ele- 
vation of temperature, the glaciers retreated north- 
ward, leaving, in the interior of the continent, a 
great basin of fresh water, in which the Erie clays 
were deposited. 

" Third. This water was drained away until a 
broad land surface was exposed within the drift 
area. Upon this surface grew forests, largely of 
red and white cedar, inhabited by the elephant, 
mastodon, giant beaver and other large, now ex- 
tinct, animals. 

"Fourth. The submergence of this ancient land 
and the spreading over it, by iceberg agency, of 
gravel, sand and bowlders, distributed just as ice- 
bergs now spread their loads broadcast over the 
sea bottom on the banks of Newfoundland. 

"Fifth. The gradual draining-off of the waters, 
leaving the land now as we find it, smoothly cov- 
ered with all the layers of the drift, and well pre- 
pared for human occupation." 

" In six days, the Lord made the heavens and 
the earth, and rested the seventh day," records the 
Scriptures, and, when all was done, He looked 
upon the work of His own hands and pronounced 
it "good." Surely none but a divine, omnipotent 
hand could have done all this, and none can study 
the "work of His hands" and not marvel at its 

The ancient dwellers of the Mississippi Valley 
will always be a subject of great interest to the 
antiquarian. Who they were, and whence they 
came, are still unanswered questions, and may 
remain so for ages. All over this valley, and, 
in fact, in all parts of the New World, evidences 
of an ancient civilization exist, whose remains are 
now a wonder to all. The aboriginal races could 
throw no light on these questions. They had 
always seen the remains, and knew not whence 
they came. Explorations aid but little in the solu- 
tion of the problem, and only conjecture can be 
entertained. The remains found in Ohio equal 
any in the Valley. Indeed, some of them are vast 
in extent, and consist of forts, fortifications, moats, 
ditches, elevations and mounds, embracing many 
acres in extent. 

"It is not yet determined," says Col. Charles 
Whittlesey, "whether we have discovered the first 
or the original people who occupied the soil of 
Ohio. Modern investigations are bringing to light 
evidences of earlier races. Since the presence of 

man has been established in Europe as a cotempor- 
ary of the fossil elephant, mastodon, rhinoceros 
and the horse, of the later drift or glacial period, 
we may reasonably anticipate the presence of man 
in America in that era. Such proofs are already 
known, but they are not of that conclusive charac- 
ter which amounts to a demonstration. It is, how- 
ever, known that an ancient people inhabited Ohio 
in advance of the red men who were found here, 
three centuries since, by the Spanish and French 

" Five and six hundred years before the an-ival 
of Columbus," says Col. Charles Whittlesey, "the 
Northmen sailed from Norway, Iceland and Green- 
land along the Atlantic coast as far as Long Island. 
They found Indian tribes, in what is now New En- 
gland, closely resembling those who lived upon the 
coast and the St. Lawrence when the French and 
English came to possess these regions. 

" These red Indians had no traditions of a prior 
people ; but over a large part of the lake country 
and the valley of the Mississippi, earth-works, 
mounds, pyramids, ditches and forts were discov- 
ered — the work of a more ancient race, and a peo- 
ple far in advance of the Indian. If they were 
not civilized, they were not barbarians. They 
wei'e not mere hunters, but had fixed habitations, 
cultivated the soil and were possessed of consider- 
able mechanical skill. We know them as the 
Mound Builders ^ because they erected over the 
mortal remains of their principal men and women 
memorial mounds of earth or unhewn stone — of 
which hundreds remain to our own day, so large 
and high that they give rise to an impression of 
the numbers and energy of their builders, such as 
we receive from the pyramids of Egypt." 

Might they not have been of the same race and 
the same civiUzation ? Many competent authori- 
ties conjecture they are the work of the lost tribes 
of Israel ; but the best they or any one can do is 
only conjecture. 

" In the burial-mounds," continues Col. Whit- 
tlesey, " there are always portions of one or more 
human skeletons, generally partly consumed by 
fire, with ornaments of stone, bone, shells, mica 
and copper. The largest mound in Ohio is near 
Miamisburg, Montgomery County. It is the 
second largest in the West, being nearly seventy 
feet high, originally, and about eight hundred feet 
in circumference. This would give a superficial 
area of nearly four acres. In 1864, the citizens 
of Miamisburg sunk a shaft from the summit to 
the natural surface, without finding the bones 




or ashes of the great man for whom it was 
intended. The exploration has considerably 
lowered the mound, it being now about sixty feet 
in height. 

" Fort Ancient, on the Little Miami, is a good 
specimen of the military defenses of the Mound- 
Builders. It is well located on a long, high, nar- 
row, precipitous ridge. The parapets are now 
from ten to eighteen feet high, and its perimeter 
is sufficient to hold twenty thousand fighting men. 
Another prominent example of their works exists 
near Newark, Licking County. This collection 
presents a great variety of figures, circles, rectan- 
gles, octagons and parallel banks, or highways, 
covering more than a thousand acres. The county 
fiiir-ground is permanently located within an 
ancient circle, a quarter of a mile in diameter, 
with an embankment and interior ditch. Its high- 
est place was over twenty feet from the top of the 
moat to the bottom of the ditch." 

One of the most curious-sliaped works in this 
county is known as the "Alligator," from its sup- 
posed resemblance to that creature. When meas- 
ured, several years ago, while in a good state of 
preservation, its dimensions were two hundred 
and ten feet in length, average width over sixty 
feet, and height, at the highest point, seven feet. 
It appears to be mainly composed of clay, and is 
overgrown with grass. 

Speaking of the writing of these people, Col. 
Whittlesey says : " There is no evidence that they 
had alphabetical characters, picture-writing or 
hieroglyphics, though they must have had some 
mode of recording events. Neither is there any proof 
that they used domestic animals for tilling the soil, 
or for the purpose of erecting the imposing earth- 
Avorks they have left. A very coarse cloth of 
hemp, flax or nettles has been found on their 
burial-hearths and around skeletons not consumed 
by fire. 

" The most extensive earthworks occupy many 
of the sites of modern towns, and are always in 
the vicinity of excellent lajid. Those about the 
lakes are generally irregular earth forts, while 
those about the rivers in the southern part of the 
State are generally altars, pyramids, circles, cones 
and rectangles of earth, among which fortresses or 
strongholds are exceptions. 

'•' Those on the north may not have been cotem- 
porary or have been built by the same people. 
They are far less prominent or extensive, which 
indicates a people less in numbers as well as indus- 
try, and whose principal occupation was war among 

themselves or against their neighbors. This style 
of works extends eastward along the south shore 
of Lake Ontario, through New York. In Ohio, 
there is a space along the water-shed, between the 
lake and the Ohio, where there are few, if any, 
ancient earthworks. It appears to have been a 
vacant or neutral ground between different nations. 

"The Indians of the. North, dres.sed in skins, 
cultivated the soil very sparingly, and manufactured 
no woven cloth. ()n Lake Sujierior, there are 
ancient copper mines wrought by the Mound- 
Builders over fifteen hundred years ago." Copper 
tools are occasionally found tempered sufficiently 
hard to cut the hardest rucks. No knowledge of 
such tempering exists now. The Indians can give 
no more knowledge of the ancient mines than they 
can of the mounds on the river bottoms. 

" The Indians did not occupy the ancient earth- 
works, nor did they construct such. They were 
found as they are now — a hunter race, wholly 
averse to labor. Their abodes were in rock shel- 
ters, in caves, or in temporary sheds of bark and 
boughs, or skins, easily moved from place to place. 
Like most savage races, their habits are unchange- 
able ; at least, the example of white men, and 
their efforts during three centuries, have made 
little, if any, impression." 

A\nien white men came to the territory now em- 
braced in the State of Ohio, they found dwelling 
here the Iroquois, Delawares, Shawanees, Miamis, 
Wyandots and Ottawas. Each nation was com- 
posed of several tribes or clans, and each was 
often at war with the others. The first mentioned 
of these occupied that part of the State whose 
northern boundary was Lake Erie, as far west as 
the mouth of the Cuyahoga Eiver, where the city 
of Cleveland now is ; thence the boundary turned 
southward in an irregular line, until it touched the 
Ohio River, up which stream it continued to the 
Pennsylvania State line, and thence northward to 
the lake. This nation were the implacable foes of 
the French, owing to the flict that Champlain, in 
1G09, made war against them. They occupied a 
large part of New York and Pennsylvania, and 
were the most insatiate conquerors among the 
aborigines. When the French first came to the 
lakes, these monsters of the wilderness were engaged 
in a war against their neighbors, a war that ended 
in their conquering them, p )ssessing their terri- 
tory, and absorbing the remnants of the tribes into 
their own nation. At the date of Champlain's 
visit, the southern shore of Lake Erie was occupied 
by the Eries, or, as the orthography of the word is 




sometimes given, Erigos, or Errienous.* About 
forty years afterward, the Iroquois ( Five Nations) 
fell upon them with such fury and in such force 
that the nation was annihilated. Those who 
escaped the slaughter were absorbed among their 
C(in((uerors, but allowed to live on their own lands, 
paying a sort of tribute to the Iroquois. This was 
the policy of that nation in all its conquests. A 
few years after the conquest of the Eries, the 
Iroquois again took to the war-path, and swept 
through Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, even attacking 
the Mississippi tribes. But for the intervention 
and aid of the French, these tribes would have 
shared the fate of the Hurons and Eries. Until 
the year 1700, the Iroquois held the south shore 
of Lake Erie so finnly that the French dared not 
trade or travel along that side of the lake. Their 
missionaries and traders penetrated this part of 
Ohio as early as 1650, but generally suffered 
death for their zeal. 

Having completed the conquest of the Hurons 
or Wyandots, about Lake Huron, and murdered 
the Jesuit missionaries by modes of torture which 
only they could devise, they permitted the residue 
of the Hurons to settle around the west end of 
Lake Erie. Here, with the Ottawas, they resided 
when the whites came to the State. Their country 
was bounded on the south by a line running 
through the central part of Wayne, Ashland, 
Richland, Crawford and Wyandot Counties. At 
the western boundary of this county, the line di- 
verged northwesterly, leaving the State near the 
northwest corner of Fulton County. Their north- 
ern boundary was the lake ; the eastern, the Iro- 

The Delawares, or " Lenni Lenapes," whom the 
Iroquois had subjugated on the Susquehanna, were 
assigned by their conquerors hunting-grounds on 
the Muskingum. Their eastern boundary was the 
country of the Iroquois (before defined), and their 
northern, that of the Hurons. On the west, they 

♦ Father Loui8 Hennepin, in his work published in 1684, thus 
alludes to the Erii-s: ■'These good fathers," referring to the 
priests, " were great friends of the Hurons, who told them that the 
Iroquois went to war beyond Viririnia, or New Sweden, near a lake 
which they called ^ Eriqe,^ or 'Erie,' which signifies 'the cat,' or 
' nalion of the cat,' and because these savages brought captives from 
this nation in returning to their cantons along this lake, the 
Hurons named it, in their language, ' Erige,' or ' Erike,' 'the lake of 
th" cat.' and which our Canadians, in softening the word, have 
called ' Lake Erie.' " . 

Charlevoix, writing in 1721, says: "The name it bears is that 
of an Indian nation of the Huron (Wyandot) language, which was 
formerly seated on it^ banks, and who have been entirely destroyed 
by the Iroquois. Erie, in that language, signifies 'cat,' and, in 
some acounts, this nation is called the ' cat nation.' This name, 
probably, comes from the large numbers of that animal found in 
this region." 

extended as far as a line drawn from the central 
part of Richland County, in a semi-circular direc- 
tion, south to the mouth of Leading Creek. Their 
southern boundary was the Ohio River. 

West of the Delawares, dwelt the Shawanees, a 
troublesome people as neighbors, whether to whites 
or Indians. Their country was bounded on the 
north by the Hurons, on the east, by the Dela- 
wares ; on the south, by the Ohio River. On the 
west, their boundary was determined by a line 
drawn southwesterly, and again southeasterly — 
semi-circular — from a point on the southern 
boundary of the Hurons, near the southwest corner 
of Wyandot County, till it intersected the Ohio 

All the remainder of the State — all its western 
part from the Ohio River to the Michigan line — 
was occupied by the Miamis, Mineamis, Twigtwees, 
or Tawixtawes, a powerful nation, whom the Iro- 
quois were never fully able to subdue. 

These nations occupied the State, partly by per- 
mit of the Five Nations, and partly by inheritance, 
and, though composed of many tribes, were about 
all the savages to be found in this part of the 

No sooner had the Americans obtained control 
of this country, than they began, by treaty and 
purchase, to acquire the lands of the natives. 
They could not stem the tide of emigration ; peo- 
ple, then as now, would go West, and hence the 
necessity of peacefully and rightfully acquiring the 
land. " The true basis of title to Indian territory 
is the right of civilized men to the soil for pur- 
poses of cultivation." The same maxim may be 
applied to all uncivilized nations. When acquired 
by such a right, either by treaty, purchase or con- 
quest, the right to hold the same rests with the 
power and development of the nation thus possess- 
ing the land. 

The English derived title to the territory 
between the Alleghanies and the Mississippi partly 
by the claim that, in discovering the Atlantic coast, 
they had possession of the land from "ocean to 
ocean," and partly by the treaty of Paris, in Feb- 
ruary, 1763. Long before this treaty took place, 
however, she had granted, to individuals and colo- 
nies, extensive tracts of land in that part of Amer- 
ica, based on the right of di.scovcry. The French 
had done better, and had acquired title to the land 
by discovering the land itself and by consent of 
the Indians dwelling thereon. The right to pos- 
sess this country led to the French and Indian 
war, ending in the supremacy of the English. 



The Five Nations claimed the territory in ques- 
tion by right of conquest, and, though professing 
friendship to the EngUsh, watched them with jeal- 
ous eyes. In 1684, and again in 1726, that con- 
federacy made cessions of lands to the English, 
and these treaties and cessions of lands were re- 
garded as sufficient title by the English, and were 
insisted on in all subsequent treaties with the 
Western Nations. The following statements were 
collected by Col. Charles Whittlesey, which 
show the principal treaties made with the red men 
wherein land in Ohio was ceded by them to the 
whites : 

In September, 1726, the Iroquois, or Six Na- 
tions, at Albany, ceded all their claims west of 
Lake Erie and sixty miles in width along the 
south shore of Lakes Erie and Ontario, from the 
Cuyahoga to the Oswego River. 

In 1744, this same nation made a treaty at 
Lancaster, Penn., and ceded to the English all 
their lands "that may be within the colony of 

In 1752, this nation and other Western tribes 
made a treaty at Logstown, Penn., wherein they 
confirmed the Lancaster treaty and consented to 
the settlements south of the Ohio River. 

February 13, 1763, a treaty was made at Paris, 
France, between the French and English, when 
Canada and the eastern half of the Mississippi 
Valley were ceded to the English. 

In 1783, all the territory south of the Lakes, 
and east of the Mississippi, was ceded by England 
to America — the latter country then obtaining its 
independence — by which means the country was 
gained by America. 

October 24, 1784, the Six Nations made a 
treaty, at Fort Stanwix, N. Y., with the Ameri- 
cans, and ceded to them all the country claimed 
by the tribe, west of Pennsylvania. 

In 1785, the Chippewas, Delawares, Ottawas, 
and Wyandots ceded to the United States, at 
Fort Mcintosh, at the mouth of the Big Beaver, 
all their claims east and south of the " Cayahaga," 
the Portage Path, and the Tuscarawas, to Fort 
Laurens (Bolivar), thence to Loramie's Fort (in 
Shelby County) ; thence along the Portage Path to 
the St. Mary's River and down it to the "Omee," 
or Maumee, and along the lake shore to the 
" Cayahaga." 

January 3, 1786, the Shawanees, at Fort Fin- 
ney, near the mouth of the Great Miami (not 
owning the land on the Scioto occupied by them), 
were allotted a tract at the heads of the two 

Miamis and the Wabash, west of the Chippewas, 
Delawares and Wyandots. 

February 9, 1789, the Iroquois made a treaty 
at Fort Harmar, wherein they confirmed the Fort 
Stanwix treaty. At the same time, the Chippewas, 
Ottawas, Delawares, and Wyandots — to which the 
Sauks and Pottawatomies assented — confirmed the 
treaty made at Fort Mcintosh. 

Period of war now existed till 1795. 

August 3, 1795, Gen. Anthony Wayne, on 
behalf of the United States, made a treaty with 
twelve tribes, confirming the boundaries estab- 
lished by the Fort Harmar and Fort Mcintosh 
treaties, and extended the boundary to Fort Re- 
covery and the mouth of the Kentucky River. 

In June, 1796, the Senecas, represented by 
Brant, ceded to the Connecticut Land Company 
their rights east of the Cuyahoga. 

In 1805, at Fort Industry, on the Maumee, the 
Wyandots, Delawares, Ottawas, Chippewas, Shawa- 
nees, Menses, and Pottawatomies relinquished all 
their lands west of the Cuyahoga, as far west as 
the western line of the Reserve, and south of the 
line from Fort Laurens to Loramie's Fort. 

July 4, 1807, the Ottawas, Chippewas, Wyan- 
dots, and Pottawatomies, at Detroit, ceded all that 
part of Ohio north of the Maumee River, with 
part of Michigan. 

November 25, 1808, the same tribes with the 
Shawanees, at Brownstown, Mich., granted the 
Government a tract of land two miles wide, from 
the west line of the Reserve to the rapids of the 
Maumee, for the purpose of a road through the 
Black Swamp. 

September 18, 1815, at Springwells, near De- 
troit, the Chippewas, Ottawas, Pottawatomies, Wy- 
andots, Delawares, Senecas and Miamis, having 
been engaged in the war of 1812 on the British 
side, were confined in the grants made at Fort 
Mcintosh and Greenville in 1785 and 1795. 

September 29, 1817, at the rapids of the 
Maumee, the Wyandots ceded their lands west of 
the line of 1805, as far as Loramie's and the St. 
Mary's River and north of the Maumee. The 
Pottawatomies, Chippewas, and Ottawas ceded the 
territory west of the Detroit line of 1807, and 
north of the Maumee. 

October 6, 1818, the Miamis, at St. Mary's, 
m'ade a treaty in which they surrendered the re- 
maining Indian territory in Ohio, north of the 
Greenville treaty line and west of St. Mary's River. 

The numerous treaties of peace with the West- 
ern Indians for the delivery of prisoners were — 




one by Gen. Forbes, at Fort Du Quesne (Pitts- 
burgh), in 1758 ; one by Col. Bradstreet, at Erie, 
in August, 1764 ; one by Col. Boquet, at the 
mouth of the Walhouding, in November, 1764; 
in May, 1765, at Johnson's, on the Mohawk, and 
at Philadelphia, the same year; in 1774, by Lord 
Dunmore, at Camp Charlotte, Pickaway County. 
By the treaty at the Maumee Bapids, in 1817, 
reservations were conveyed by the United States 
to all the tribes, with a view to induce them to 
cultivate the soil and cease to be hunters. These 
were, from time to time, as the impracticability of 
the plan became manifest, purchased by the Gov- 
ernment, the last of these being the Wyandot 
Beserve, of twelve miles square, around Upper 
Sandusky, in 1842, closing out all claims and com- 
posing all the Indian difficulties in Ohio. The 
open war had ceased in 1815, with the treaty of 

" It is estimated that, from the Freijch war of 
1754 to the battle of the Maumee Ilapids, in 
1794, a period of forty years, there had been at 
least 5,000 people killed or captured west of the 

Alleghany Mountains. Eleven organized military 
expeditions had been carried on against the West- 
ern Indians prior to the war of 1812, seven regu- 
lar engagements fought and about twelve hundred 
men killed. Mure whites were slain in battle than 
there were Indian braves killed in military expedi- 
tions, and by private raids and murders ; yet, in 
1811, all the Ohio tribes combined could not mus- 
ter 2,000 warriors." 

Attempts to determine the number of persons 
comprising the Indian tribes in Ohio, and their 
location, have resulted in nothing better than 
estimates. It is supposed that, at the commence- 
ment of the Bevolution, there were about six 
thousand Indians in the present confines of the 
State, but their villages were little more than 
movable camps. Savage men, like savage beasts, 
are engaged in continual migrations. Now, none 
are left. The white man occupies the home of 
the red man. Now 

"The verdant hills 
Are covered o'er with growing grain, 
And white men till the soil, 
Where once the red man used to reign." 



WHEN war, when ambition, when avarice 
fail, religion pushes onward and succeeds. 
In the discovery of the New World, wherever 
man's aggrandizement was the paramount aim, 
failure was sure to follow. When this gave way, 
the followers of the Cross, whether Catholic or 
Protestant, came on the field, and the result before 
attempted soon appeared, though in a different way 
and through different means than those supposed. 
The first permanent efforts of the white race to 
penetrate the Western wilds of the New World 
preceded any permanent English settlement north 
of the Potomac. Years before the Pilgrims 
anchored their bark on the cheerless shores of Cape 
Cod, "the Boman Catholic Church had been plann- 
ed by missionaries from France in the Eastern 
moiety of Maine; and LeCaron, an ambitious 
Franciscan, the companion of Champlain,had passed 
into the hunting-grounds of the Wyandots, and, 
bound by the vows of his life, had, on foot or pad- 
dling a bark canoe, gone onward, taking alms of the 
savages until he reached the rivers of Lake 

Huron." This was in 1615 or 1616, and only 
eight years afler Champlain had sailed up the wa- 
ters of the St. Lawrence, and on the foot of a bold 
cliff laid the foundation of the present City of 
Quebec. From this place, founded to hold the 
country, and to perpetuate the religion of his King, 
went forth those emissaries of the Cross, whose zeal 
has been the admiration of the world. The French 
Colony in Canada was suppressed soon after its es- 
tablishment, and for five years, until 1622, its im- 
munities were enjoyed by the colonists. A grant 
of New France, as the country was then known, was 
made by Louis XIII to Biehelieu, Champlain, 
Bazilly and others, who, immediately after the res- 
toration of Quebec by its English conquerors, entered 
upon the control and government of their province. 
Its limits embraced the whole ba.sin of the St. 
Lawrence and of such other rivers in New France 
as flowed directly into the sea. AVhile away to 
the south on the Gulf coast, was also included a 
country rich in foliage and claimed in virtue of 
the unsuccessful efibrts of Coligny. 



Religious zeal as much as commercial prosperity 
had influenced France to obtain and retain the de- 
pendency of Canada. The commercial monopoly 
of a privileged company could not foster a 
colony ; the climate was too vigorous for agricult- 
ure, and, at first there was little else except relig- 
ious enthusiasm to give vitality to the province. 
Champlain had been touched by the simplicity of 
the Order of St. Francis, and had selected its priests 
to aid him in his work. But another order, more 
in favor at the Court, was interested, and succeed- 
ed in excluding the mendicant order from the New 
World, established themselves in the new domain 
and, by thus enlarging the borders of the French 
King, it became entrusted to the Jesuits. 

This "Society of Jesus," founded by Loyola 
when Calvin's Institutes first saw the light, saw an 
unequaled opportunity in the conversion of the 
heathen in the Western wilds; and, as its mem- 
bers, pledged to obtain power only by influence of 
mind over mind, sought the honors of opening the 
way, there was no lack of men ready for the work. 
Through them, the motive power in opening the 
wilds of the Northwest was relio-ion. " Reliiiious 
enthusiasm," says Bancroft, "colonized New Eng- 
land, and religious enthusiasm founded Montreal, 
made a concjuest of the wilderness about the upper 
lakes, and explored the Mississippi." . 

Thi'ough these priests — ^ increased in a few years 
to fifteen — a way was made across the West from 
Quebec, above the regions of the lakes, below 
which they dared not go for the relentless Mohawks. 
To the northwest of Toronto, near the Lake Iro- 
quois, a bay of Lake Huron, in September, 1634, 
they raised the first humble house of the Society of 
Jesus among the Hurons. Through them they 
learned of the great lakes beyond, and resolved 
one day to explore them and carry the Gospel of 
peace to the heathen on their shores. Before this 
could be done, many of them were called upon to 
give up their lives at the martyr's stake and re- 
ceive a martyr's crown. But one by one they 
went on in their good work. If one fell by hun- 
ger, cold, cruelty, or a terrible death, others stood 
ready, and carrying their lives in their hands, 
established other missions about the eastern shores 
of Lake Huron and its adjacent waters. The 
Five Nations were for many years hostile toward 
the French and murdered them and their red 
allies whenever opportunity presented. For a 
quarter of century, they retarded the advance of 
the missionaries, and then only after wearied with 
a long struggle, in which they began to see their 

power declining, did they relinquish their warlike 
propensities, and allow the Jesuits entrance to their 
country. While this was going on, the traders 
and Jesuits had penetrated farther and farther 
westward, until, when peace was declared, they 
had seen the southwestern shores of Lake Superior 
and the northern shores of Lake Michigan, called 
by them Lake Illinois.* In August, 1654, two 
young adventurers penetrated the wilds bordering 
on these western lakes in company with a band of 
Ottawas. Returning, they tell of the wonderful 
country they have seen, of its vast forests, its 
abundance of game, its mines of copper, and ex- 
cite in their comrades a desire to see and explore 
such a country. They tell of a vast expanse of 
land before them, of the powerful Indian tribes 
dwelling there, and of their anxiety to become an- 
nexed to the Frenchman, of whom they have 
heard. The request is at once granted. Two 
missionaries, Gabriel Dreuillettes and Leonard 
Gareau, w«re selected as envoys, but on their way 
the fleet, propelled by tawny rowers, is met by a 
wandering band of Mohawks and by them is dis- 
persed. Not daunted, others stood ready to go. 
The lot fell to Rene Mesnard. He is charged to 
visit the wilderness, select a suitable place for a 
dwelling, and found a mission. With only a short 
warning he is ready, "trusting," he says, "in the 
Providence which feeds the little birds of the 
desert and clothes the wild flowers of the forest." 
In October, 1660, he reached a bay, which he 
called St. Theresa, on the south shore of Lak > 
Superior. After a residence of eight months, he 
yielded to the invitation of the Hurons who had 
taken refuge on the Island of St. IMichael, and 
bidding adieu to his neophytes and the French, he 
departed. While on the way to the Bay of Che- 
goi-me-gon, probably at a portage, he became 
separated from his companion and was never after- 
ward heard of Long after, his cassock and his 
breviary were kept as amulets among the Sioux. 
Difficulties now arose in the management of the 
colony, and for awhile it was on the verge of dis- 
solution. The King sent a regiment under com- 
mand of the aged Tracy, as a safeguard against 
the Iroquois, now proving themselves enemies to 

* Mr. C. W. Bntterfield, author of Cran- ford's Campaign, and 
good authority, says: "John Nicholet, a Frenchman, lelt Quebec 
and Three Rivers in the summer of 1034, and visitel the Hurons on 
Georgian Bay, the Cliippewas «t the Sault Ste. Marie, and the Win- 
nebagoes in Wisronsin, returning to Quebec in the summer of U35. 
This was the first white man to see any part of the Northwest 
Territory. In 1641, two Jesuit priests were at the Sault Ste. Marie 
for a brief time. Tlien two Frencli traders reached Lalie Superior, 
and after them came that tide of emigration ou which the French 
based their claim to the country." 




the French. Accompanying him were Courcelles, 
as Governor, and M. Talon, who subsequently fig- 
ures in Northwestern history. By 1(31)5, affairs 
were settled and new attemjits to found a mission 
iimong the lake tribes were projected. 

" With better hopes — undismayed by the sad 
fate of their predecessors" in August, Claude 
Allouez embarked on a mission by way of Ottawa 
to the Far West. Early in September he reached 
the rapids "through which rush the waters of the 
lakes to Huron. Sailing by lofty sculptured rocks 
and over waters of crystal purity, he reached the 
Chippewa village just as the young warriors were 
bent on organizing a war expedition against the 
Sioux. Commanding peace in the name of his 
King, he called a council and offered the commerce 
and protection of his nation. He was obeyed, and 
soon a chapel arose on the shore of the bay, to 
which admiring crowds from the south and west 
gathered to listen to the story of the Cross. 

The scattered Hurons and Ottawas north of 
Lake Superior ; the Pottawatomies from Lake Mich- 
igan; the Sacs and Foxes from the Far West; the 
Illinois from the prairies, all came to hear him, and 
all besought him to go with them. To the last 
nation Allouez desired to go. They told him of a 
" great river that flowed to the .sea, "and of "their 
vast prairies, where herds of buffalo, deer and 
other animals grazed on the tall grass." "Their 
country," said the missionary, "is the best field 
for the Grospel. Had I had leisure, I would have 
gone to their dwellings to see with my own eyes 
all the good that was told me of them." 

He remained two years, teaching the natives, 
studying their language and habits, and then 
returned to Quebec. Such was the account that 
he gave, that in two days he was joined by 
Louis Nicholas and was on his way back to his 

Peace being now established, more missionaries 
came from France. Among them were Claude 
Dablon and Jacques Marquette, both of whom 
went on to the mission among the Chippewas at the 
Sault. They reached there in 1668 and found 
Allouez busy. The mission was now a reality and 
given the name of St. Mary. It is often written 
" Sault Ste. Marie," afler the French method, and 
is the oldest settlement by white men in the bounds 
of the Northwest Territory. It has been founded 
over two hundred years. Here on the inhospitable 
northern shores, hundreds of miles away from 
friends, did this triumvirate employ themselves in 
extending; their religion and the influence of their 

King. Traversing the shores of the great lakes 
near them, they pass down the western bank of 
Lake Michigan as far as Green Bay, along the 
southern shore of Lake Superior to its western ex- 
tremity, everywhere preaching the story of Jesus. 
" Though suffering be their lot and martyrdom 
their crown," they went on, only conscious that 
they were laboring for their Master and would, in 
the end, win the crown. 

The great river away to the West of which they 
heard so much was yet unknown to them. To ex- 
plore it, to visit the tribes on its banks and preach 
to them the Gospel and secure their trade, became 
the aim of Marquette, who originated the idea of 
its discovery. While engaged at the mission at the 
Sault, he resolved to attempt it in the autumn of 
1669. Delay, however, intervened — for Allouez 
had exchanged the mission at Che-goi-me-gon for 
one at Green Bay, whither Marquette was sent. 
AV^hile here he employed a young Illinois Indian 
to teach him the language of that nation, and there- 
by prepare himself for the enterprise. 

Continued commerce with the Western Indians 
gave protection and confirmed their attachment. 
Talon, the intendant of the colony of New France, 
to further spread its power and to learn more of the 
country and its inhabitants, convened a congress 
of the Indians at the Falls of St. Mary, to which 
he sent St. Lusson on his behalf Nicholas Perrot 
sent invitations in every direction for more than a 
hundred leagues round about, and fourteen nations, 
among them Sacs, Foxes and Miamis, agreed to be 
present by their embassadors. 

The congress met on the fourth day of June, 
1671. St. Lusson, through Allouez, his interpre- 
ter, announced to the assembled natives that they, 
and through them their nations, were placed under 
the protection of the French King, and to him 
were their furs and peltries to be traded. A cross 
of cedar was raised, and amidst the groves of ma- 
ple and of pine, of elm and hemlock that are so 
strangely intermingled on the banks of the St. 
Mary, the whole company of the French, bowing 
before the emblem of man's redemption, chanted to 
its glory a hymn of the seventh century : 

"The banners of heaven's King advance; 
The mysteries of the Cross shines forth."* 

A cedar column was planted by the cross and 
marked with the lilies of the Bourbons. Tlie 
power of France, thus uplifted in the West of 
which Ohio is now a part, was, however, not destined 

■ Bancroft. 




to endure, and the ambition of its monurchs was 
to have only a partial fulfillment. 

The same year that the congress was held, Mar- 
quette had founded a mission among the Hurons 
at Point St. Ignace, on the continent north of the 
peninsula of Michigan. Although the climate 
was severe, and vegetation scarce, yet fish abounded, 
and at this establishment, long maintained as a 
key to further explorations, prayer and praise were 
heard daily for many years. Here, also, Marquette 
gained a footing among the founders of Michigan. 
While he was doing this, Allouez and Dablon were 
exploring countries south and west, going as far as 
the Mascoutins and Kickapoos on the Milwaukee, 
and the Miamis at' the head of Lake Michigan. 
Allduez continued even as far as the Sacs and Foxes 
on the river which bears their name. 

The discovery of the Mississippi, heightened by 
these explorations, was now at hand. The enter- 
prise, projected by Marquette, was received with 
fiivor by M. Talon, who desired thus to perpetuate 
his rule in New France, now drawing to a close. 
He was joined by Joliet, of Quebec, an emissary 
of his King, commissioned by royal magnate to 
take possession of the country in the name of the 
French. Of him but little else is known. This 
one excursion, however, gives him immortality, 
and as long as time shall last his name and that of 
Marquette will endure. When Marquette made 
known his intention to the Pottawatomies, they 
were filled with wonder, and endeavored to dis- 
suade him from his purpose. "Those distant na- 
tions," said they, " never spare the strangers; the 
Great River abounds in monsters, ready to swal- 
low both men and canoes; there are great cataracts 
and rapids, over which you will be dashed to 
pii-ees; the excessive heats will cause your death." 
" I shall gladly lay down my life for the salvation 
of souls," replied the good man; and the docile 
nation joined him. 

On the 9th day of June, 1673, they reached 
the village on Fox River, where were Kickapoos, 
Mascoutins and Miamis dwelling together on an 
expanse of lovely prairie, dotted here and thereby 
groves of magnificent trees, and where was a 
cross gai-landed by wild flowers, and bows and ar- 
rows, and skins and belts, oiferings to the Great 
Manitou. Allouez had been here in one of his 
wanderings, and, as was his wont, had left this 
emblem of his faith. 

Assembling the natives, Marquette said, " My 
companion is an envoy of France to discover new 
countries ; and I am an embassador from God to 

enlighten them with the Gospel." Offering pres- 
ents, he begged two guides for the morrow. The 
Indians answered courteously, and gave in 
return a mat to serve as a couch during the long 

Early in the morning of the next day, the 10th 
of June, with all nature in her brightest robes, 
these two men, with five Frenchmen and two Al- 
gonquin guides, set out on their journey. Lifting 
two canoes to their shoulders, they quickly cross 
the narrow portage dividing the Fox from the 
Wisconsin River, and prepare to embark on its 
clear waters. "Uttering a special prayer to the 
Immaculate Virgin, they leave the stream, that, 
flowing onward, could have borne their greetings 
to the castle of Quebec. 'The guides returned,' 
says the gentle Marquette, 'leaving us alone in 
this unknown land, in the hand of Providence.' 
France and Christianity stood alone in the valley 
of the Mississippi. Embarking on the broad 
Wiscon.sin, the discoverers, as they sailed west, 
went solitarily down the stream between alternate 
prairies and hillsides, beholding neither man nor 
the wonted beasts of the forests; no sound broke 
the silence but the ripple of the canoe and the 
lowing of the buffalo. In seven days, ' they en- 
tered happily the Great River, with a joy that 
could not be expressed;' and the two birchbark 
canoes, raising their happy sails under new skies 
and to unknown breezes, floated down the calm 
magnificence of the ocean stream, over the broad, 
clear sand-bars, the resort of innumerable water- 
fowl-^— gliding past islets that swelled from the 
bosom of the stream, with their tufts of massive 
thickets, and between the wild plains of Illinois 
and Iowa, all garlanded with majestic forests, or 
checkered by island groves and the open vastness 
of the prairie."* 

Continuing on down the mighty stream, they 
saw no signs of human life until the 25th of 
June, when they discovered a small foot-path on the 
west bank of the river, leading away into the 
prairie. Leaving their companions in the canoes, 
Marquette and Joliet followed the path, resolved 
to brave a meeting alone with the savages. After 
a walk of six miles they came in sight of a village 
on the banks of a river, while not fiir away they 
discovered two others. The river was the " I\Iou- 
in-gou-e-na," or Moingona, now corrupted into 
Des Moines. These two men, the first of their 
race who ever trod the soil west of the Great 




River, commended themselves to God, and, uttering 
a loud cry, advanced to the nearest village. 
The Indians hear, and thinking their visitors 
celestial beings, four old men advance with rever- 
ential mien, and oifer the pipe of peace. " We 
are Illinois," said they, and they offered the calu- 
met. They had heard of the Frenchmen, and 
welcomed them to their wigwams, followed by the 
devouring gaze of an astonished crowd. At a 
great council held soon after, Marquette published 
to them the true God, their Author. He also 
spoke of his nation and of his King, who had 
chastised the Five Nations and commanded peace. 
He questioned them concerning the Great River 
and its tributaries, and the tribes dwelling on its 
banks. A magnificent feast was spread before 
them, and the conference continued several days. 
At the close of the sixth day, the chieftains of the 
tribes, with numerous trains of waiTiors, attended 
the visitors to their canoes, and selecting a peace- 
pipe, gayly caparisoned, they hung the sacred 
calumet, emblem of peace to all and a safeguard 
:iin;ing the nations, about the good Father's neck, 
and bid the strangers good speed. "I did not 
fear death," writes Marquette; "I should have 
esteemed it the greatest happiness to have died 
for the glory of God." On their journey, they 
passed the perpendicular rocks, whose sculptured 
sides showed them the monsters they should meet. 
Farther down, they pass the turgid flood of the 
Missouri, known to them by its Algonquin name, 
Pekitanoni. Resolving in his heart to one day 
explore its flood, Marquette rejoiced in the, new 
world it evidently could open to him. A little 
farther down, they pass the bluffs where now is a 
mighty emporium, then silent as when created. In 
a little less than forty leagues, they pass the clear 
waters of the beautiful Ohio, then, and long after- 
ward, known as the Wabash. Its banks were in- 
habited by numerous villages of the peaceful 
Shawanees, who then quailed under the incursions 
of the dreadful Iroquois. As they go on down the 
mighty stream, the canes become thicker, the insects 
more fierce, the heat more intolerable. The prairies 
and their cool breezes vanish, and forests of white- 
wood, admirable for their vastness and height, crowd 
close upon the pebbly shore. It is observed that the 
Chickasaws have guns, and have learned how to 
use them. Near the latitude of 33 degrees, they 
encounter a great village, whose inhabitants pre- 
sent an inhospitable and warlike front. The pipe 
of peace is held aloft, and instantly the savage foe 
drops his arms and extends a friendly greeting. 

Remaining here till the next day, they are escorted 
for eight or ten leagues to the village of Akansea. 
They are now at the limit of their voyage. The 
Indians speak a dialect unknown to them. The 
natives show furs and axes of steel, the latter prov- 
ing they have traded with Europeans. The two 
travelers now learn that the Father of Wa- 
ters went neither to the Western sea nor to the 
Florida coast, but straight south, and conclude not 
to encounter the burning heats of a tropical clime, 
but return and find the outlet again. They 
had done enough now, and must report their dis- 

On the 17th day of July, 1673, one hundred 
and thirty-two years after the disastrous journey 
of De Soto, which led to no permanent results, 
jNIarquette and Joliet left the village of Akansea 
on their way back. At the 38th degree, they en- 
counter the waters of the Illinois which they had 
before noticed, and which the natives told them 
afforded a much shorter route to the lakes. Pad- 
dling up its limpid waters, they see a country un- 
surpassed in beauty. Broad prairies, beautiful up- 
lands, luxuriant groves, all mingled in excellent 
harmony as they ascend the river. Near the head 
of the river, they pause at a great village of the 
Illinois, and across the river behold a rocky prom- 
ontory .standing boldly out against the landscape. 
The Indians entreat the gentle missionary to re- 
main among them, and teach them the way of life. 
He cannot do this, but promises to return when he 
can and instruct them. The town was on a plain 
near the present village of Utica, in La Salle 
County, 111., and the rock was Starved Rock, 
afterward noted in the annals of the Northwest. 
One of the chiefs and some young men conduct 
the party to the Chicago River, where the present 
mighty city is, from where, continuing their iour- 
ney along the western shores of the lake, they 
reach Green Bay early in September. 

The great valley of the West was now open. 
The "Messippi" rolled its mighty flood to a south- 
ern sea, and must be sully explored. INIarquette's 
health had keenly suffered by the voyage and he 
concluded to remain here and rest. Joliet hasten- 
ed on to Quebec to report his discoveries. During 
the journey, each had preserved a description of 
the route they had passed over, as well as the 
country and its inhabitants. While on the way 
to Quebec, at the foot of the rapids near Montreal, 
by some means one of Joliet's canoes became cap- 
sized, and by it he lost his box of papers and two 
of his men. A greater calamity could have 



liarcUy happened him. lu a letter to Gov, 
Froutenac, Joliet says : 

" I had escaped every peril from the Indians ; I 
had passed forty-two rapids, and was on the point 
of disembarking, full of joy at the success of so 
Ling and difficult an enterprise, when my canoe 
capsized after all the danger seemed over. I lost 
my two men and box of papers within sight of the 
French settlements, which I had left almost two 
years before. Nothing remains now to me but 
my life, and the ardent desire to employ it in any 
service you may please to direct." 

When Joliet made known his discoveries, a 
Te Dcum was chanted in the Cathedral at Quebec, 
and all Canada was filled with joy. The news 
crossed the ocean, and the French saw in the vista 
of coming years a vast dependency arise in the val- 
ley, partially explored, which was to extend her 
domain and enrich her treasury. Fearing En- 
gland might profit by the discovery and claim the 
country, she attempted as far as possible to prevent 
the news from becoming general. Joliet was re- 
warded by the gift of the Island of Anticosti, in 
the St. Lawrence, while Marquette, conscious of 
his service to his Master, was content with the 
salvation of souls. 

jSIarquette, left at Green Bay, suffered long with 
his malady, and was not permitted, until the au- 
tumn of the following year (1674), to return and 
teach the Illinois Indians. With this purpose in 
view, he left Green Bay on the 25th of October 
with two Frenchmen and a number of Illinois and 
Pottawatomie Indians for the villages on the 
Chicago and Illinois Rivers. Entering Lake 
Michigan, they encountered adverse winds and 
waves and were more than a month on the way. 
Going some distance up the Chicago River, they 
found Marquette too weak to proceed farther, his 
malady having assumed a violent form, and land- 
ing, they erected two hut.s and prepared to pass 
the winter. The good missionary taught the na- 
tives here daily, in spite of his afflictions, while 
his companions supplied him and themselves with 
food by fishing and hunting. Thus the winter 
wore away, and Marquette, renewing his vows, pre- 
pared to go on to the village at the foot of the 
rocky citadel, where he had been two years before. 
On the 13th of March, 1675, they left their huts 
and, rowing on up the Chicago to the portage be- 
tween that and the Desplaines, embarked on their 
way. Amid the incessant rains of spring, they 
were rapidly borne down that stream to the Illi- 
nois, on whose rushing flood they floated to the 

object of their destination. At the great town the 
missionary was received as a heavenly messenger, 
and as he preached to them of heaven and hell, 
of angels and demons, of good and bad deeds, 
they regarded him as divine and besought him to 
remain among them. The town then contained an 
immense concourse of natives, drawn hither by the 
reports they heard, and assembling them before him 
on the plain near their village, where now are pros- 
perous farms, he held before their astonished gaze 
four large pictures of the Holy Virgin, and daily 
harangued them on the duties of Christianity and 
the necessity of conforming their conduct to the 
words they heard. His strength was fast declining 
and warned him he could not long remain. Find- 
ing he must go, the Indians furnished him an 
escort as far as the lake, on whose turbulent waters 
he embarked with his two faithful attendants. 
They turned their canoes for the Mackinaw Mis- 
sion, which the afllicted missionary hoped to reach 
before death came. As they coasted along the 
eastern shores of the lake, the vernal hue of May 
began to cover the hillsides with robes of green, 
now dimmed to the eye of the departing Father, who 
became too weak to view them. By the 19th of 
the month, he could go no farther, and requested 
his men to land and build him a hut in which he 
might pass away. That done, he gave, with great 
composure, directions concerning his burial, and 
thanked God that he was permitted to die in the 
wilderness in the midst of his work, an unshaken 
believer in the faith he had so earnestly preached. 
As twilight came on, he told his weary attendants 
to rest, promising that when death should come he 
would call them. At an early hour, on the morn- 
ing of the 20th of May, 1675, they heard a feeble 
voice, and hastening to his side found that the gen- 
tle spirit of the good missionary had gone to heav- 
en. His hand grasped the crucifix, and his lips 
bore as their last sound the name of the Virgin. 
They dug a grave near the banks of the stream 
and buried him as he had requested. There in a 
lonely wilderness the peaceful soul of Marquette 
had at last found a rest, and his weary labors closed. 
His companions went on to the mission, where 
the news of his death caused great sorrow, for he 
was one beloved by all. 

Three years after his burial, the Ottawas, hunting 
in the vicinity of his grave, determined to carry 
his bones to the mission at their home, in accor- 
dance with an ancient custom of their tribe. Hav- 
ing opened the grave, at whose head a cross had 
been planted, they carefully removed the bones and 






cleaning them, a funeral of thirty canoes 
bore them to the Mackiuaw Mission, singing the 
songs he had taught them. At the shores of the 
mission the bones were received by the priests, and, 
with great ceremony, buried under the floor of the 
rude chapel. 

While Marquette and Joliet were exploring the 
head-waters of the "Great River," another man, 
fearless in purpose, pious in heart, and loyal to 
his country, was living in Canada and watching 
the operations of his fellow countrymen with 
keen eyes. When the French first saw the in- 
hospitable shores of the St. Lawrence, in 1535, 
under the lead of Jacques Cartier, and had opened 
a new country to their crown, men were not 
lacking to further extend the discovery. In 1608, 
Champlain came, and at the foot of a cliff" on that 
river founded Quebec. Seven years after, he 
brought four RecoUet monks ; and through them 
and the Jesuits the discoveries already narrated 
occurred. Champlain died in 1G35, one hundred 
years after Cartier's first visit, but not until he 
had explored the northern lakes as fiir as Lake 
Huron, on whose rocky shores he, as the progenitor 
of a mighty race to follow, set his feet. He, with 
others, held to the idea that somewhere across the 
country, a river highway extended to the Western 
ocean. The reports from the missions whose 
history has been given aided this belief; and not 
until Marquette and Joliet returned was the delu- 
sion in any way dispelled. Before this was done, 
however, the man to whom reference has been 
made, Robert Cavalier, better known as La Salle, 
had endeavored to solve the mystery, and, while 
living on his grant of land eight miles above 
Montreal, had indeed eff'ected important discoveries. 

La Salle, the next actor in the field of explor- 
ation after Champlain, was born in 1643. His 
father's family was among the old and wealthy 
burghers of Rouen, France, and its members 
were frequently entrusted with important govern- 
mental positions. He early exhibited such traits 
of character as to mark him among his associates. 
Coming from a wealthy family, he enjoyed all the 
advantages of his day, and received, for the times, 
an excellent education. He was a Catholic, 
though liis subsequent life does not prove him 
to have been a religious enthusiast. From some 
cause, he joined the Order of Loyola, but the cir- 
cumscribed sphere of action set for him in the 
order illy concurred with his independent dis- 
position, and led to his separaticm from it. This 
was eff'ected, however, in a good spirit, as they 

considered him fit for a different field of action 
than any presented by the order. Having a 
brother in Canada, a member of the order of St. 
Sulpice, he determined to join him. By his 
connection with the Jesuits he had lost his share 
of his lather's estate, but, by some means, on his 
death, which occurred about this time, he was 
given a small share; and with this, in 1666, 
he arrived in Montreal. All Canada was alive 
with the news of the explorations; and La 
Salle's mind, actively grasping the ideas he 
afterward carried out, began to mature plans for 
their perfection. At Montreal he found a semi- 
nary of priests of the St. Sulpice Order who were 
encouraging settlers by grants of land on easy 
terms, hoping to establish a barrier of settlements 
between themselves and the Indians, made ene- 
mies to the French by Champlain's actions when 
founding Quebec. The Superior of the seminary, 
learning of La Salle's arrival, gratuitously off"ered 
him a grant of land on the St. Lawrence, eight 
miles above Montreal. The grant, though danger- 
ously near the hostile Indians, was accepted, and 
La Salle soon enjoyed an excellent trade in furs. 
While employed in developing his claim, he learned 
of the great unknown route, and burned with a 
desire to solve its existence. He applied himself 
closely to the study of Indian dialects, and in 
three years is said to have made great progress 
in their language. While, on his farm his 
thoughts often turned to the unknown land away 
to the west, and, like all men of his day, he 
desired to explore the route to the Western sea, 
and thence obtain an trade with China and 
Japan. The " Great River, which flowed to the 
sea," must, thought they, find an outlet in the 
Gulf of California. While musing on these 
things, Marquette and Joliet were preparing to 
descend the Wisconsin; and LaSalle himself 
learned from a wandering band of Senecas that a 
river, called the Ohio, arose in their country and 
flowed to the sea, but at such a di.stance that it 
would require eight months to reach its mouth. 
This must be the Great River, or a part of it : 
for all geographers of the day considered the 
Mississippi and its tributary as one stream. Plac- 
ing great confidence on this hy])othesis. La Salic 
repaired to Quebec to obtain the sanction 
of Gov. Courcelles. His plausible statements 
soon won him the Governor and M. Talon, and 
letters patent were issued granting the exploration. 
No pecuniary aid was offered, and La Salle, hav- 
ing expended all his means in improving his 



estate, was obliged to sell it to procure the 
necessary outfit. The Superior of the seminary 
being favorably disposed toward him, purchased 
the greater part of his improvement, and realiz- 
ing 2,800 livres, he purchased four canoes and the 
necessary supplies for the expedition. The semi- 
nary was, at the same time, preparing for a similar 
exploration. The priests of this order, emulating 
the Jesuits, had established missions on the north- 
ern shore of Lake Ontario. Hearing of populous 
tribes still further west, they resolved to attempt 
their conversion, and deputized two of their number 
for the purpose. On going to Quebec to procure 
the necessary supplies, they were advised of La 
Salle's expedition down the Ohio, and resolved to 
unite themselves with it. La Salle did not alto- 
gether fiivor their attempt, as he believed the 
Jesuits already had the field, and would not care 
to have any aid from a rival order. His dispo- 
sition also would not well brook the part they 
assumed, of asking him to be a co-laborer rather 
than a leader. However, the expeditions, merged 
into one body, left the mission on the St. Law- 
rence on the 6th of July, 16G9, in seven canoes. 
The party numbered twenty-four persons, who 
were accompanied by two canoes filled with 
Indians who had visited La Salle, and who now 
acted as guides. Their guides led them up the 
St. Lawrence, over the expanse of Lake Ontario, 
to their village on the banks of the Genesee, 
where they expected to find guides to lead them 
on to the Ohio. As La Salle only partially under- 
stood their language, he was compelled to confer 
with them by means of a Jesuit stationed at the 
village. The Indians refused to furnish him the 
expected aid, and even burned before his eyes a 
prisoner, the only one who could give him any 
knowledge he desired. He surmised the Jesuits 
were at the bottom of the matter, fearful lest the 
disciples of St. Sulpice should gain a foothold in 
the west. He lingered here a month, with the 
hope of accomplishing his object, when, by chance, 
there came by an Iroquois Indian, who assured 
them that at his colony, near the head of the lake, 
they could find guides ; and off"ered to conduct 
them thither. Coming along the southern shore 
of the lake, they passed, at its western extremity, 
the mouth of the Niagara River, where they heard 
for the first time the thunder of the mighty cata- 
ract between the two lakes. At the village of the 
Iroquois they met a friendly reception, and were 
informed by a Shawanese prisoner that they could 
reach the Ohio in six weeks' time, and that he 

would guide them there. While preparing to 
commence the journey, they heard of the missions 
to the northwest, and the priests resolved to go 
there and convert the natives, and find the river 
by that route. It appears that Louis Joliet met 
them here, on his return from visiting the copper 
mines of Lake Superior, under command of M. 
Talon. He gave the priests a map of the country, 
and informed them that the Indians of those 
regions were in great need of spiritual advisers. 
This strengthened their intention, though warned 
by La Salle, that the Jesuits were undoubtedly 
there. The authority for Joliet's visit to them 
here is not clearly given, and may not be true, 
but the same letter which gives the account of 
the discovery of the Ohio at this time by La Salle, 
states it as a fact, and it is hence inserted. The 
missionaries and La Salle separated, the former to 
find, as he had predicted, the followers of Loyola 
already in the field, and not wanting their aid. 
Hence they return from a fruitless tour. 

La Salle, now left to himself and just recovering 
from a violent fever, went on his journey. From 
the paper from which these statements are taken, 
it appears he went on to Onondaga, where he pro- 
cured guides to a tributary of the Ohio, down 
which he proceeded to the principal stream, on 
whose bosom he continued his way till he came to 
the falls at the present city of Louisville, Ky. It 
has been asserted that he went on down to its 
mouth, but that is not well authenticated and is 
hardly true. The statement that he went as far as 
the falls is, doubtless, correct. He states, in a letter 
to Count Frontenac in 1677, that he discovered 
the Ohio, and that he descended it to the falls. 
Moreover, Joliet, in a measure his rival, for he was 
now preparing to go to the northern lakes and 
from them search the river, made two maps repre- 
senting the lakes and the Mississippi, on both of 
which he states that La Salle had discovered the 
Ohio. Of its course beyond the falls, La Salle 
does not seem to have learned anything definite, 
hence his discovery did not in any way settle the 
great question, and elicited but little comment. 
Still, it stimulated La Salle to more efi"ort, and 
while musing on his plans, Joliet and Marquette 
push on from Grrecn Bay, and discover the river 
and ascertain the general course of its outlet. On 
Joliet's return in 1673, he seems to drop from 
further notice. Other and more venturesome souls 
were ready to finish the work begun by himself 
and the zealous JMarquette, who, left among the 
for-away nations, laid down his life. The spirit of 




La Salle was equal to the enterprise, and as lie now 
had returned from one voyage of discovery, he 
stood ready to solve the mystery, and gain the 
country for his King. Before this could be ac- 
complished, however, he saw other things must be 
done, and made pi'eparations on a scale, for the 
time, truly marvelous. 

Count Frontenac, the new Governor, had no 
sooner established himself in power than he gave a 
searching glance over the new realm to see if any 
undeveloped resources lay yet unnoticed, and what 
country yet remained open. He learned from the 
exploits of La Salle on the Ohio, and from Joliet, 
now returned from the West, of that immense 
country, and resolving in his mind on some plan 
whereby it could be formally taken, entered 
heartily into the plans of La Salle, who, anxious to 
solve the mystery concerning the outlet of the 
Great River, gave him the outline of a plan, saga- 
cious in its conception and grand in its compre- 
hension. La Salle had also informed him of the 
endeavors of the English on the Atlantic coast to 
divert the trade with the Indians, and partly to 
counteract this, were the plans of La Salle adopted. 
They were, briefly, to build a chain of forts from 
Canada, or New France, along the lakes to the 
Mississippi, and on down that river, thereby hold- 
ing the country by power as well as by discovery. 
A fort was to be built on the Ohio as soon as the 
means could be obtained, and thereby hold that 
country by the same policy. Thus to La Salle 
alone may be ascribed the bold plan of gaining the 
whole West, a plan only thwarted by the force of 
arms. Through the aid of Frontenac, he was 
given a proprietary and the rank of nobility, and 
on his proprietary was erected a fort, which he, in 
honor of his Governor, called Fort Frontenac. It 
stood on the site of the present city of Kingston, 
Canada. Through it he obtained the trade of the 
Five Nations, and his fortune was so far assured. 
He next repaired to France, to perfect his arrange- 
ments, secure his title and obtain means. 

On his return he built the fort alluded to, and 
prepared to go on in the prosecution of his plan. 
A civil discord arose, however, which for three 
years prevailed, and seriously threatened his 
projects. As soon as he could extricate himself, 
he again repaired to France, receiving additional 
encouragement in money, grants, and the exclusive 
privilege of a trade in buffalo skins, then consid- 
ered a source of great Avealth. On his return, he 
was accompanied by Henry Tonti, son of an illus- 
trious Italian nobleman, who had fled from his 

own country during one of its political revolutions. 
Coming to France, he made himself famous as the 
founder of Tontine Life Insurance. Henry Tonti 
possessed an indomitable will, and though he had 
suffered the loss of one of his hands by the ex- 
plosion of a grenade in one of the Sicilian wars, 
his courage was undtniuied, and his ardor un- 
dimmed. La Salle also brought recruits, mechanics, 
sailors, cordage and sails tor rigging a ship, and 
merchandise for traffic with the natives. At 
Montreal, he secured the services of M. LaMotte, a 
person of much energy and integrity of character. 
He also secured several missionaries before he 
reached Fort Frontenac. Among them were 
Louis Hennepin, Gabriel Ribourde and Zenabe 
Membre. All these were Flemings, all Recollets. 
Hennepin, of all of them, proved the best assist- 
ant. They arrived at the fort early in the autumn 
of 1678, and preparations were at once made to 
erect a vessel in which to navigate the lakes, and 
a fort at the mouth of the Niagara River. The 
Senecas were rather adverse to the latter proposals 
when La Motte and Hennepin came, but by 
the eloquence of the latter, they were pacified 
and rendered friendly. After a number of vexa- 
tious delays, the vessel, the Griffin, the first on the 
lakes, was built, and on the 7th of August, a year 
after La Salle came here, it was launched, passed 
over the waters of the northern lakes, and, after a 
tempestuous voyage, landed at Green Bay. It was 
soon after stored with furs and sent back, while 
La Salle and his men awaited its return. It was 
never afterward heard of. La Salle, becoming 
impatient, erected a fort, pushed on with a 
part of his men, leaving part at the fort, 
and passed over the St. Joseph and Kankakee 
Rivers, and thence to the IlHnois, down whose 
flood they proceeded to Peoria Lake, where 
he was obliged to halt, and return to Canada 
for more men and supplies. He left Tonti 
and several men to complete a fort, called 
Fort " Crevecoeur " — broken-hearted. The Indians 
drove the French away, the men mutinied, and 
Tonti was obliged to flee. When La Salle returned, 
he found no one there, and going down as far as 
the mouth of the Illinois, he retraced his steps, to 
find some trace of his garrison. Tonti was found 
safe among the Pottawatomies at Green Bay, and 
Hennepin and his two followers, sent to explore 
the head-waters of the IMississippi, were again 
home, after a captivity among the Sioux. 

La Salle renewed his force of men, and the third 
time set out for the outlet of the Great River. 




He left Canada early in December, 1G81, and by 
February Ci, 1682, reached the majestic flood of 
the mighty stream. On the 24th, they ascended 
the Chickasaw Bluffs, and, while waiting to find 
a sailor who had strayed away, erected Fort Prud- 
homme. They passed several Indian villages fur- 
ther down the river, in some of which they met 
with no little opposition. Proceeding onward, ere- 
long they encountered the tide of the sea, and 
April 0, they emerged on the broad bosom of the 
Gulf, "to.ssing its restless billows, limitless, voice- 
less and lonely as when born of chaos, without a 
sign of life." 

Coasting about a short time on the shores of 
the Gulf, the party returned until a sufficiently 
dry place was reached to effect a landing. Here 
another cross was raised, also a column, on which 
was inscribed these words : 

" Louis le Grand, Roi de France et de Navarre, 
Regne; Le Neuvieme, Avril, 1682." * 

" The whole party," says a " proces verbal," in 
the archives of France, " chanted the Te Deuni, 
the Exaudiat and the Domiiiesalvum fac Regem^ 
and then after a salute of fire-arras and cries of 
Vive le Hoi, La Salle, standing near the column, 
said in a loud voice in French : 

"In the name of the most high, mighty, invin- 
cible and victorious Prince, Louis the Great, by 
the grace of God, King of France and of Navarre, 
Fourteenth of that name, this ninth day of April, 
one thousand six hundred and eighty two, I, in 
virtue of the commission of His Majesty, which I 
hold in my hand, and which may be seen by all 
whom it may concern, have taken, and do now 
take, in the name of His Majesty and of his suc- 
cessors to the crown, possession of this country of 
Louisiana, the seas, harbor, ports, bays, adjacent 
straights, and all the nations, people, provinces, cities, 
towns, villages, mines, minerals, fisheiies, streams 
and rivers, comprised in the extent of said Louisiana, 
from the north of the great river St. Louis, other- 
wise called the Ohio, Alighin, Sipore or Chukago- 
na, and this with the consent of the Chavunons, 
Chickachaws, and other people dwelling therein, 
with whom we have made alliance; as also along 
the river Colbert or Mississippi, and rivers which 
discharge themselves therein from its source beyond 
the Kious or Nadouessious, and this with their 
consent, and with the consent of the Illinois, Mes- 
igameas, Natchez, Koroas, which are the most con- 
siderable nations dwelling therein, with whom also 

* Lmiis the Groat, King of France and of Navarre, reigning the 
ninth day of April, 10b2. 

we have made alliance, either by ourselves or others 
in our behalf, as far as its mouth at the sea or 
Gulf of Mexico, about the twenty-seventh degree 
of its elevation of the North Pole, and also to the 
mouth of the River of Palms; upon the assurance 
which we have received from all these nations that 
we are the first Europeans who have descended or 
ascended the river Colbert, hereby protesting 
against all those who may in future undertake to 
invade any or all of these countries, peoples or 
lands, to the prejudice of the right of His Majesty, 
acquired by the consent of the nations herein 

The whole assembly responded with shouts and 
the salutes of fire-arms. The Sieur de La Salle 
caused to be planted at the foot of the column a 
plate of lead, on one side of which was inscribed 
the arms of France and the following Latin inscrip- 

Robertvs Cavellier, cvm Domino de Tonly, Legato, 
R. P. Zenobi Membro, RecoUecto, et, Viginti Gallis 
Primos Hoc Flvmen inde ab ilineorvm Pago, enavigavil, 
ejvsqve ostivm fecit Pervivvm, nono Aprilis cio ioc 

The whole proceedings were acknowledged be- 
fi)re La ]\Ietaire, a notary, and the conquest was 
considered complete. 

Thus was the foundation of France laid in the 
new republic, and thus did she lay claim to the 
Northwest, which now includes Ohio, and the 
county, whose history this book perpetuates. 

La Salle and his party returned to Canada soon 
after, and again that country, and France itself, 
rang with anthems of exultation. He went on to 
France, where he received the highest honors. 
He was given a fleet, and sailors as well as colon- 
ists to return to the New World by way of a south- 
ern voyage, expecting to find the mouth of the 
Mississippi by an ocean course. Sailing past the 
outlets, he was wrecked on the coast of Texas, and 
in his vain endeavors to find the river or return to 
Canada, he became lost on the plains of Arkansas, 
where he, in 1087, was basely murdered by one of 
his followers. " You are down now, Grand BashaAV," 
exclaimed his slayer, and despoiling his remains, they 
left them to be devoured by wild beasts. To such 
an ignominious end came this daring, bold adven- 
turer. Alone in the wilderness, he was left, with 
no monument but the vast realm he had discov- 
ered, on whose bosom he was left without cover- 
ing and without protection. 

" For force of will and vast conception ; for va- 
rious knowledge, and quick adaptation of his genius 




to untried circumstances; for a sublime magnani- 
mity, that resigned itself to the will of Heaven, 
and yet triumphed over affliction by energy of 
purpose and unfaltering hope — he had no superior 
among his countrymen. He had won the affec- 
tions of the governor of Canada, the esteem of 
Colbert, the confidence of Seignelay, the favor of 
Louis XIV. After the beginning of the coloniza- 
tion of Upper Canada, he perfected the discovery 
of the Mississippi from the Falls of St. Anthony 
to its mouth ; and he will be remembered through 
all time as the father of colonization in the great 
central valley of the West."* 

Avarice, passion and jealousy were not calmed by 
the blood of La Salle. All of his conspirators per- 
ished by ignoble deaths, while only seven of the six- 
teen succeeded in continuing the journey until 
they reached Canada, and thence found their way 
to France. 

Tonti, who had been left at Fort St. Louis, on 
" Starved Rock" on the Illinois, went down in 
search of his beloved commander. Failing to find 
him, he returned and remained here until 1700, 
thousands of miles away from friends. Then he 
went down the Mississippi to join D'Iberville, who 
had made the discovery of the mouth of the Mis- 
sissippi by an ocean voyage. Two years later, he 
went on a mission to the Chickasaws, but of his 
subsequent history nothing is known. 

The West was now in possession of the French. 
La Salle's plans were yet feasible. The period of 
exploration was now over. The great river and 
its outlet was known, and it only remained for that 
nation to enter in and occupy what to many a 
Frenchman was the "Promised Land." Only 
eighteen years had elapsed since Marquette and 
Joliet had descended the river and shown the 
course of its outlet. A spirit, less bold than La 
Salle's would never in so short a time have pene- 
trated for more than a thousand miles an unknown 
wilderness, and solved the mystery of the world. 

When Joutel and his companions reached France 
in 1688, all Europe was on the eve of war. Other 
nations than the French wanted part of the New 
World, and when they saw that nation greedily 
and rapidly accumulating territory there, they en- 
deavored to stay its progress. The league of Augs- 
burg was formed in 1 687 by the princes of the Em- 
pire to restrain the ambition of Louis XIV, and 
in 1688, he began hostilities by the capture of 
Philipsburg. The next year, England, under the 

lead of William III, joined the alliance, and Louis 
found himself compelled, with only the aid of the 
Turks, to contend against the united forces of the 
Empires of England, Spain, Holland, Denmark, 
Sweden and Norway. Yet the tide of battle wa- 
vered. In 1689, the French were defeated at 
Walcourt, and the Turks at Widin; but in 1690, 
the French were victorious at Charleroy, and the 
Turks at Belgrade. The next year, and also the 
next, victory inclined to the French, but in 1693, 
Louvois and Luxemberg were dead and Namur 
surrendered to the allies. The war extended to the 
New World, where it was maintained with more 
than equal success by the French, though the En- 
glish population exceeded it more than twenty to one. 
In 1688, the French were estimated at about 
twelve thousand souls in North America, while the 
English were more than two hundred thousand. 
At first the war was prosecuted vigorously. In 
1689, De. Ste. Helene and D'Iberville, two of the 
sons of Charles le Morne, crossed the wilderness 
and reduced the English forts on Hudson's Bay. 
But in August of the same year, the Iroquois, the 
hereditary foes of the French, captured and burned 
Montreal. Frontenac, who had gone on an ex- 
pedition against New York by sea, was recalled. 
Fort Frontenac was abandoned, and no French 
posts left in the West between Trois Rivieres and 
Mackinaw, and were it not for the Jesuits the en- 
tire West would now have been abandoned. To 
recover their influence, the French planned three 
expeditions. One resulted in the destruction of 
Schenectady, another, Salmon Falls, and the third, 
Casco Bay. On the other hand. Nova Scotia was 
reduced by the colonies, and an expedition against 
Montreal went as far as to Lake Champlain, where 
it failed, owing to the dissensions of the leaders. 
Another expedition, consisting of twenty-four ves- 
sels, arrived before Quebec, which also failed 
through the incompetency of Sir William Phipps. 
During the succeeding years, various border con- 
flicts occurred, in all of which border scenes of 
savage cruelty and savage ferocity were enacted. 
The peace of Ryswick, in 1697, closed the war. 
France retained Hudson's Bay, and all the places 
of which she was in possession in 1688; but the 
boundaries of the English and French claims in 
the New World were still unsettled. 

The conclusion of the conflict left the French 
at liberty to pursue their scheme of colonization 
in the Mississippi Valley. In 1698, D'Iberville 
was sent to the lower province, which, erelong, 
was made a separate independency, called Louisiana. 



Forts were erected on Mobile Bay, and the division 
of the territory between the French and the 
Spaniards was settled. Trouble existed between 
the French and the Chickasaws, ending in the 
cruel deaths of many of the leaders, in the 
fruitless endeavors of the Canadian and Louisi- 
anian forces combining against the Chickasaws. 
For many years the conflict raged, with unequal 
successes, until the Indian power gave way before 
superior military tactics. In the end, New Orleans 
was founded, in 1718, and the French power 

Before this was consummated, however, France 
became entangled in another war against the 
allied powers, ending in her defeat and the loss 
of Nova Scotia, Hudson's Bay and Newfound- 
land. The peace of Utrecht closed the war 
in 1713. 

The French, weary with prolonged strife, 
adopted the plan, more peaceful in its nature, of 
giving out to distinguished men the monopoly of 
certain districts in the fur trade, the most pros- 
perous of any avocation then. Crozat and 
Cadillac — the latter the founder of Detroit, in 
1701 — were the chief ones concerned in this. 
The founding of the villages of Kaskaskia, Ca- 
hokia, Vincennes, and others in the Mississippi 
and Wabash Valleys, led to the rapid develop- 
ment, according to the French custom of all 
these parts of the West, while along all the chief 
water-courses, other trading posts and forts were 
established, rapidly fulfilling the hopes of La 
Salle, broached so many years before. 

The French had, at the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, four principal routes to their 
western towns, two of which passed over the soil 
of Ohio. The first of these was the one followed 
by Marquette and Joliet, by way of the Lakes to 
Green Bay, in Wisconsin ; thence across a portage 
to the Wisconsin River, down which they floated 
to the Mississippi. On their return they came 
up the Illinois River, to the site of Chicago, 
whence Joliet returned to Quebec by the Lakes. 
La Salle's route was first by the Lakes to the St. 
Joseph's River, which he followed to the portage 
to the Kankakee, and thence downward to the 
Mississippi. On his second and third attempt, 
he crossed the lower peninsula of Michigan to 
the Kankakee, and again traversed its waters to 
the Illinois. The third route was established 
about 1716. It followed the southern shores of 
Lake Erie to the mouth of the Maumee River; 
following this stream, the voyagers went on to the 

junction between it and the St. Mary's, which 
they followed to the " Oubache " — — and 
then to the French villages in Vigo and Knox 
Counties, in Indiana. Vincennes was the oldest 
and most important one here. It had been 
founded in 1702 by a French trader, and was, at 
the date of the establishment of the third route, 
in a prosperous condition. For many years, the 
traders crossed the plains of Southern Illinois to 
the French towns on the bottoms opposite St. 
Louis. They were afraid to go on down the 
"Waba" to the Ohio, as the Indians had fright- 
ened them with accounts of the great monsters 
below. Finally, some adventurous spirit went 
down the river, found it emptied into the Ohio, 
and solved the problem of the true outlet of the 
Ohio, heretofore supposed to be a tributary of the 

The fourth route was from the southern shore 
of Lake Erie, at Presqueville, over a portage of 
fifteen miles to the head of French Creek, at 
Waterford, Penn.; thence down that stream to the 
Ohio, and on to the Mississippi. Along all these 
routes, ports and posts were carefully maintained. 
Many were on the soil of Ohio, and were the first 
attempts of the white race to possess its domain. 
Many of the ruins of these posts are yet found on 
the southern shore of Lake Erie, and at the 
outlets of streams flowing into the lake and the Ohio 
River. The principal forts were at Mackinaw, at 
Presqueville, at the mouth of the St. Joseph's, on 
Starved Rock, and along the Father of Waters. 
Yet another power was encroaching on them : a 
sturdy race, clinging to the inhospitable Atlantic 
shores, were coming over the mountains. The 
murmurs of a conflict were already heard — a con- 
flict that would change the fate of a nation. 

The French were extending their explorations 
beyond the Mississippi; they were also forming a 
political organization, and increasing their influence 
over the natives. Of a passive nature, however, 
their power and their influence could not with- 
stand a more aggressive nature, and they were 
obliged, finally, to give way. They had the 
fruitful valleys of the West more than a century; 
yet they developed no resources, opened no mines 
of wealth, and left the country as passive as they 
found it. 

Of the growth of the West under French rule, 
but little else remains to be said. The sturdy 
Anglo-Saxon race on the Atlantic coast, and their 
progenitors in England, began, now, to turn their 
attention to this vast country. The voluptuousness 




of the French court, their neglect of the true 
basis of wealth, agriculture, and the repressive 
tendencies laid on the colonists, led the latter to 
adopt a hunter's life, and leave the country unde- 
veloped and ready for the people who claimed the 
country from "sea to sea." Their explorers were 
now at work. The change was at hand. 

Occasional mention has been made in the his- 
tory of the State, in preceding pages, of settle- 
ments and trading-posts of the French traders, 
explorers and missionaries, within the limits of 
Ohio. The French were the first white men to 
occupy the northwestern part of the New World, 
and though their stay was brief, yet it opened the 
way to a sinewy race, living on the shores of the 
Atlantic, who in time came, saw, and conquered 
that part of America, making it what the people 
of to-day enjoy. 

As early as 1669, four years before the discov- 
ery of the Mississippi by Joliet and Marquette, 
La Salle, the fixmous explorer, discovered the Ohio 
lliver, and paddled down its gentle current as far 
as the ftills at the present city of Louisville, but he, 
like others of the day, made no settlement on its 
banks, only claiming the country for his King by 
virtue of this discovery. 

Early in the beginning of the eighteenth cent- 
ury, French traders and voyagers passed along the 
southern shores of Lake Erie, to the mouth of the 
Maumee, up whose waters they rowed their bark 
canoes, on their way to their outposts in the Wa- 
bash and Illinois Valleys, established between 
1675 and 1700. As soon as they could, without 
danger from their inveterate enemies, the Iroquois, 
masters of all the lower lake country, erect a 
trading-post at the mouth of this river, they did 
so. It was made a depot of considerable note, 
and was, probably, the first permanent habitation 
of white men in Ohio. It remained until after 
the peace of 1763, the termination of the French 
and Indian war, and the occupancy of this country 
by the English. On the site of the French trading- 
post, the British, in 1794, erected Fort Miami, 
which they garrisoned until the country came 
under the control of Americans. Now, Maumee 
City covers the ground. 

The French had a trading-post at the mouth of 
the Huron lliver, in what is now Erie County. 
When it was built is not now known. It was, how- 
ever, probably one of their early outposts, and 
may have been built before 1750. They had an- 
other on the shore of the bay, on or near the site 
of Sandusky City. Both this and the one at the 

mouth of the Huron lliver were abandoned before 
the war of the Revolution. On Lewis Evan's map 
of the British Middle Colonies, published in 1755, 
a French fort, called " Fort Junandat, built in 
175-4," is marked on the east bank of the San- 
dusky lliver, several miles below its mouth. Fort 
Sandusky, on the western bank, is also noted. 
Several Wyandot towns are likewise marked. But 
very little is known concerning any of these 
trading-posts. They were, evidently, only tempo- 
rary, and were abandoned when the English came 
into possession of the country. 

The mouth of the Cuyahoga River was another 
important place. On Evan's map there is marked 
on the west bank of the Cuyahoga, some distance 
from its mouth, the words '■'■French House^''' doubt- 
less, the station of a French trader. The ruins 
of a house, found about five miles from the mouth 
of the river, on the west bank, are supposed to 
be those of the trader's station. 

In 1786, the Moravian missionary, Zeisberger, 
with his Indian converts, left Detroit in a vessel 
called the Mackinaw, and sailed to the mouth of 
the Cuyahoga. From there they went up the 
river about ten miles, and settled in an abandoned 
Ottawa village, where Independence now is, which 
place they called " Saint's Rest." Their stay was 
brief, for the following April, they left for the 
Huron River, and settled near the site of IMilan, 
Erie County, at a locality they called New Salem. 

There are but few records of settlements made 
by the French until after 1750. Even these can 
hardly be called settlements, as they were simply 
trading-posts. The French easily afiiliated with 
the Indians, and had little energy beyond trading. 
They never cultivated fields, laid low forests, and 
subjugated the country. They were a half-Indian 
race, so to speak, and hence did little if anything 
in developing the West. 

About 1749, some English traders came to a 
place in what is now Shelby County, on the 
banks of a creek since known as Loramic's 
Creek, and established a trading-station with the 
Indians. This was the first English trading-place 
or attempt at settlement in the State. It was here 
but a short time, however, when the French, hear- 
ing of its existence, sent a party of soldiers to the 
Twigtwees, among whom it was founded, and de- 
manded the traders as intruders upon French ter- 
ritory. The Twigtwees refusing to deliver up 
their friends, the French, assisted by a large party 
of Ottawas and Chippewas, attacked the trading- 
house, probably a block-house, and, after a severe 




battle, captured it. The traders were taken to 
Canada. This fort was called by the English 
" Pickawillauy," from which "Piqua" is probably 
derived. About the time that Kentucky was sot- 
tied, a Canadian Frenchman, named Loramio, 
established a store on the site of the old fort. He 
was a bitter enemy of the Americans, and for a 
long time Loramie's store was the headquarters of 
mischief toward the settlers. 

The French had the faculty of endearing them- 
selves to the Indians by their easy assimilation of 
their habits; and, no doubt, Loramie was equal to 
any in this respect, and hence gained great influ- 
ence over them. Col. Johnston, many years an 
Indian Agent from the United States among the 
Western tribes, stated that he had often seen the 
" Indians burst into tears when speaking of the 
times when their French father had dominion 
over them ; and their attachment always remained 

So much influence had Loramie with the In- 
dians, that, when Gen. Clarke, from Kentucky, 
invaded the Miami Valley in 1782, his attention 
was attracted to the spot. He came on and burnt 
the Indian settlement here, and destroyed the store 
of the Frenchman, selling his goods among the 
men at auction. Loramie fled to the Shawanees, 
and, with a colony of that nation, emigrated west 
of the Mississippi, to the Spanish possessions, 
where he again began his life of a trader. 

In 1794, during the Indian war, a fort was 
built on the site of the store by Wayne, and 
named Fort Loramie. The last ofiicer who had 
command here was Capt. Butler, a nephew of 
Col. Ilichard Butler, who fell at St. Clair's defeat. 
While here with his family, he lost an interesting 
boy, about eight years of age. About his grave, 
the sorrowing father and mother built a substantial 
picket-fence, planted honeysuckles over it, which, 
long after, remained to mark the grave of the 
soldier's boy. 

The site of Fort Loramie was always an im- 
portant point, and was one of the places defined 
on the boundary line at the Greenville treaty. 
Now a barn covers the spot. 

At the junction of the Auglaize and Maumee 
Rivers, on the site of Fort Defiance, built by Gen. 
Wayne in 1794, was a settlement of traders, 
established some time before the Indian war 
began. "On the high ground extending from the 
Maumee a quarter of a mile up the Auglaize, 
about two hundred yards in Avidth, was an open 
S])ace, on the west and south of which were oak 

woods, with hazel undergrowth. Within this 
opening, a few hundred yards above the point, on 
the steep bank of the Auglaize, were five or six 
cabins and log houses, inhabited principally by 
Indian traders. The most northerly, a large 
hewed-log house, divided below into three apart- 
ments, was occupied as a warehouse, store and 
dwelling, by George Ironside, the most wealthy 
and influential of the traders on the point. Next 
to his were the houses of Pirault (Pero) a French 
baker, and McKenzie, a Scot, who, in addition to 
merchandising, followed the occupation of a silver- 
smith, exchanging with the Indians his brooches, 
ear-drops and other silver ornaments, at an 
enormous profit, for skins and furs. 

Still further up were several other fami- 
lies of French and English; and two Ameri- 
can prisoners, Henry Ball, a soldier taken in St. 
Clair's defeat, and his wife, Polly JMeadows, 
captured at the same time, were allowed to live 
here and pay their masters the price of their 
ransom — he, by boating to the rapids of the ]\Iau- 
mee, and she by washing and sewing. Fronting 
the house of Ironside, and about fifty yards from 
the bank, was a small stockade, inclosing two 
hewed-log houses, one of which was occupied by 
James Girty (a brother of Simon), the other, 
occasionally, by Elliott and McKee, British 
Indian Agents living at Detroit."* 

The post, cabins and all they contained fell 
under the control of the Americans, when the 
British evacuated the shores of the lakes. 
While they existed, they were an undoubted 
source of Indian discontent, and had much to do 
in prolonging the Indian war. The country 
hereabouts did not settle until some time after 
the creation of the State government. 

As soon as the French learned the true source 
of the Ohio and Wabash Rivers, both were made 
a highway to convey the products of their hunt- 
ers. In coursing down the Ohio, they made 
trading-places, or depots, where they could obtain 
furs of the Indians, at accessible points, generally 
at the mouths of the rivers emptying into the 
Ohio. One of these old forts or trading-places 
stood about a mile and a half south of the outlet 
of the Scioto. It was here in 1740; but when 
it was erected no one could tell. The locality 
must have been pretty well known to the whites, 
however; for, in 1785, three years before the 
settlement of IMarietta was made, four families 

♦Narrative of 0. M. Spencer. 




made an ineffectual attempt to settle near the same 
place. They were from Kentucky, but were 
driven away by the Indians a short time after 
they arrived, not being allowed to build cabins, 
and had only made preparations to plant corn 
and other necessaries of life. While the men 
were encamped near the vicinity of Piketown, 
in Pike County, when on a hunting expedition, 
they were surprised by the Indians, and two of 
them slain. The others hastened back to the 
encampment at the mouth of the Scioto, and 
hurriedly gathering the families together, fortu- 
nately got them on a flat-boat, at that hour on its 
way down the river. By the aid of the boat, 
they were enabled to reach Maysville, and gave 
up the attempt to settle north of the Ohio. 

The famous "old Scioto Salt Works," in Jack- 
son County, on the banks of Salt Creek, a tributary 
of the Scioto, were long known to the whites before 
any attempt was made to settle in Ohio. They 
were indicated on the maps published in 1755. 
They were the resort, for generations, of the In- 
dians in all parts of the West, who annually came 
here to make salt. They often brought white 
prisoners with them, and thus the salt works be- 
came known. There were no attempts made to 
settle here, however, until after the Indian war, 
which closed in 1795. As soon as peace was as- 
sured, the whites came here for salt, and soon after 
made a settlement. Another early salt spring 
was in what is now Trumbull County. It is also 
noted on Evan's map of 1755. They were occu- 
pied by the Indians, French, and by the Americans 
as early as 1780, and perhaps earlier. 

As early as 1761 Moravian missionaries came 
among the Ohio Indians and began their labors. 
In a few years, under the lead of Revs. Fredrick 
Post and John Heckewelder, permanent stations 
were established in several parts of the State, chief- 
ly on the Tuscarawas River in Tuscarawas County. 
Here were the three Indian villages — Shocnburn, 
Gnadcnhutten and Salem. The site of the first is 
about two miles south of New Philadelphia; Gna- 
dcnhutten was seven miles further south, and about 
five miles still on was Salem, a short distance from 
the present village of Port Washington. The first 
and last named of these villages were on the west 
side of the Tuscarawas River, near the margin of 
the Ohio Canal. Gnadcnhutten was on the east 
side of the river. It was here that the brutal 
massacre of these Christian Indians, by the rangers 
under Col. Williamson, occurred March 8, 1782. 
The account of the massacre and of these tribes 

appears in these pages, and it only remains to 
notice what became of them. 

The hospitable and friendly character of these 
Indians had extended beyond their white breth- 
ren on the Ohio. The American people at large 
looked on the act of Williamson and his men as an 
outrage on humanity. Congress felt its influence, 
and gave them a tract of twelve thousand acres, 
embracing their former homes, and induced them 
to return from the northern towns whither they had 
fled. As the whites came into the country, their 
manners degenerated until it became necessary to 
remove them. Through Gen. Cass, of Michigan, 
an agreement was made with them, whereby Con- 
gress paid them over $G,000, an annuity of $400, 
and 24,000 acres in some territory to be designated 
by the United States. This treaty, by some means, 
was never effectually carried out, and the princi- 
pal part of them took up their residence near a 
Moravian missionary station on the River Thames, 
in Canada. Their old churchyard still exists on 
the Tuscarawas River, and here rest the bones of 
several of their devoted teachers. It is proper 
to remark here, that Mary Heckewelder, daughter 
of the missionary, is generally believed to have 
been the first white child born in Ohio. How- 
ever, this is largely conjecture. Captive women 
among the Indians, before the birth of Mary 
Heckewelder, are known to have borne children, 
which afterward, with their mothers, were restored 
to their friends. The assertion that Mary 
Heckewelder was the first child born in Ohio, is 
therefore incorrect. She is the first of whom any 
definite record is made. 

These outposts are about all that are known 
to have existed prior to the settlement at Mari- 
etta. About one-half mile below Bolivar, on 
the western line of Tuscarawas County, are the 
remains of Fort Laurens, erected in 1778, by 
a detachment of 1,000 men under Gen. Mc- 
intosh, from Fort Pitt. It was, however, occu- 
pied but a short time, vacated in Aug-ust, 1770. as 
it was deemed untenable at such a distance from 
the frontier. 

During the existence of the six years' Indian 
war, a settlement of French emigrants was made 
on the Ohio River, that deserves notice. It illus- 
trates very clearly the extreme ignorance and 
credulity prevalent at that day. In IMay or June 
of 1788, Joel Barlow left this country for Europe, 
" authorized to dispose of a very large body of 
land in the West. " In 1790, he distributed pro- 
posals in Paris for the disposal of lands at five 





shillings per acre, which, says Volney, " promised 
a climate healthy and delightful ; scarcely such a 
thing as a frost in the winter ; a river, called by 
way of eminence ' The Beautiful, ' abounding in 
fish of an enormous size ; magnificent forests of a 
tree from which sugar flows, and a shrub which 
yields candles ; venison in abundance ; no military 
enrollments, and no quarters to find for soldiers." 
Purchasers became numerous, individuals and 
whole families sold their property, and in the 
course of 1791 many embarked at the various 
French sea-ports, each with his title in his pocket. 
Five hundred settlers, among whom were many 
wood carvers and guilders to His Majesty, King of 
France, coachmakers, friseurs and peruke makers, 
and other artisans and artistes, equally well fitted 
for a frontier Hfe, arrived in the United States in 
1791-92, and acting without concert, traveling 
without knowledge of the language, customs and 
roads, at last managed to reach the spot designated 
for their residence. There they learned they had 
been cruelly deceived, and that the titles they held 
were worthless. Without food, shelterless, and 
danger closing around them, they were in a position 
that none but a Frenchman could be in without 
despair. Who brought them thither, and who was 
to blame, is yet a disputed point. Some affirm 
that those to whom large grants of land were made 
when the Ohio Company procured its charter, were 
the real instigators of the movement. They failed 
to pay for their lands, and hence the title reverted 
to the Government. This, coming to the ears of 
the poor Frenchmen, rendered their situation more 
distressing. They never paid for their lands^ and 
only through the clemency of Congress, who after- 
ward gave them a grant of land, and confirmed 
them in its title, were they enabled to secure a foot- 
hold. Whatever doubt there may be as to the 

causes of these people being so grossly deceived, 
there can be none regarding their sufierings. They 
had followed a jack-o-lantern into the howling 
wilderness, and must work or starve. The land 
upon which they had been located was covered 
with immense forest trees, to level which the coach- 
makers were at a loss. At last, hoping to conquer 
by a coup de main, they tied ropes to the branches, 
and while a dozen pulled at them as many fell at 
the trunk with all sorts of edged tools, and thus 
soon brought the monster to the earth. Yet he 
was a burden. He was down, to be sure, but as 
much in the way as ever. Several lopped off the 
branches, others dug an immense trench at his side, 
into which, with might and main, all rolled the 
large log, and then buried him from sight. They 
erected their cabins in a cluster, as they had seen 
them in their own native land, thus afibrding some 
protection from marauding bands of Indians. 
Though isolated here in the lonely wilderness, and 
nearly out of funds with which to purchase pro- 
visions from descending boats, yet once a week 
they met and drowned care in a merry dance, 
greatly to the wonderment of the scout or lone 
Indian who chanced to witness their revelry. 
Though their vivacity could work wonders, it would 
not pay for lands nor buy provisions. Some of those 
at Gallipolis (for such they called their settlement, 
from Gallia, in France) went to Detroit, some to 
Kaskaskia, and some bought land of the Ohio 
Company, who treated them liberally. Congress, 
too, in 1795, being informed of their sufFering^, 
and how they had been deceived, granted them 
24,000 acres opposite Little Sandy River, to which 
grant, in 1798, 12,000 acres more were added. 
The tract has since been known as French Grant. 
The settlement is a curious episode in early West- 
ern history, and deserves a place in its annals. 









AS has been noted, the French title rested on 
the discoveries of their missionaries and 
traders, upon the occupation of the country, and 
upon the construction of the treaties of Ryswick, 
Utrecht and Aix la Chapelle. The English 
claims to the same region were based on the fact 
of a prior occupation of the corresponding coast, 
on an opposite construction of the same treaties, 
and an alleged cession of the rights of the 
Indians. The rights acquired by discovery were 
conventional, and in equity were good only 
between European powers, and could not affect the 
rights of the natives, but this distinction was dis- 
regarded by all European powers. The inquiry of 
an Indian chief embodies the whole controversy: 
" Where are the Indian lands, since the French 
claim all on the north side of the Ohio and the 
English all on the south side of it?" 

The English charters expressly granted to all 
the original colonies the country westward to the 
South Sea, and the claims thus set up in the West, 
though held in abeyance, were never relinquished. 
The primary distinction between the two nations 
governed their actions in the New World, and led 
finally to the supremacy of the English. They 
were fixed agricultural communities. The French 
were mere trading-posts. Though the French 
were the prime movers in the exploration of the 
West, the English made discoveries during their 
occupation, however, mainly by their traders, who 
penetrated the Western wilderness by way of the 
Ohio River, entering it from the two streams which 
uniting form that river. Daniel Coxie, in 1722, 
published, in London, "A description of the 
English province of Carolina, by the Spaniards 
called Florida, and by the French called La Louis- 
iane, as also the great and famous river Mescha- 
cebe, or Mississippi, the five vast navigable lakes 
of fresh water, and the parts adjacent, together 
with an account of the commodities of the growth 
and production of the said province." The title 
of this work exhibits very clearly the opinions of 
the English people respecting the West. As early 
as 1 G30, Charles I granted to Sir Robert Heath 
"All that part of America lying between thirty- 

one and thirty-six degrees north latitude, from sea 
to sea," out of which the limits of Carolina were 
afterward taken. This immense grant was con- 
veyed in 1638, to the Earl of Arundel, and after- 
ward came into the possession of Dr. Daniel Coxie. 
In the prosecution of this claim, it appeared that 
Col. Wood, of Virginia, from 165-1 to 1664, ex- 
plored several branches of the Ohio and " Mescha- 
cebe," as they spell the Mississippi. A Mr. Need- 
ham, who was employed by Col. Wood, kept a 
journal of the exploration. There is also the ac- 
count of some one who had explored the Missis- 
sippi to the Yellow, or Missouri River, before 1676. 
These, and others, are said to have been there 
when La Salle explored the outlet of the Great 
River, as he found tools among the natives which 
were of European manufacture. They had been 
brought here by English adventurers. Also, when 
Iberville was colonizing the lower part of Louis- 
iana, these same persons visited the Chickasaws 
and stirred them up against the French. It is also 
stated that La Salle found that some one had been 
among the Natchez tribes when he returned from 
the discovery of the outlet of the Mississippi, and 
excited them against him. There is, however, no 
good authority for these statements, and they are 
doubtless incorrect. There is also an account that 
in 1678, several persons went from New England 
as far south as New Mexico, " one hundred and 
fifty leagues beyond the Meschacebe," the narrative 
reads, and on their return wrote an account of the 
expedition. This, also, cannot be traced to good 
authority. The only accurate account of the 
English reaching the West was when Bienville 
met the British vessel at the "English Turn," 
about 1700. A few of their traders may have 
been in the valley west of the Alleghany Mount- 
ains before 1700, though no reliable accounts are 
now found to confirm these suppositions. Still, 
from the earliest occupation of the Atlantic Coast 
by the EngHsh, they claimed the country, and, 
though the policy of its occupation rested for a 
time, it was never ftilly abandoned. Its revival 
dates from 1710 properly, though no immediate 
endeavor was made for many years after. That 




year, Alexander Spottswood was made Governor of 
Virginia. No sooner did he assume the functions 
of ruler, than, casting his eye over his dominion, he 
saw the great West beyond the Alleghany Mount- 
ains unoccupied by the English, and rapidly filling 
with the French, who he observed were gradually 
confining the English to the Atlantic Coast. His 
prophetic eye saw at a glance the animus of the 
whole scheme, and he determined to act promptly 
on the defensive. Through his representation, the 
Virginia Assembly was induced to make an appro- 
priation to defray the expense of an exploration of 
the mountains, and see if a suitable pass could not 
then be found where they could be crossed. The 
Governor led the expedition in person. The pass 
was discovered, a route marked out for future em- 
igrants, and the party returned to Williamsburg. 
There the Governor established the order of the 
"Knights of the Golden Horseshoe," presented 
his report to the Colonial Assembly and one to his 
King. In each report, he exposed with great bold- 
ness the scheme of the French, and advised the 
building of a chain of forts across to the Ohio, and 
the formation of settlements to counteract them. 
The British Government, engrossed with other 
matters, neglected his advice. Forty years after, 
they remembered it, only to regret that it was so 
thoughtlessly disregarded. 

Individuals, however, profited by his advice. By 
1730, traders began in earnest to cross the mount- 
ains and gather from the Indians the stores beyond. 
They now began to adopt a system, and abandoned 
the heretofore renegade habits of those who had 
superseded them, many of whom never returned to 
the Atlantic Coast. In 1742, Joan Howard de- 
scended the Ohio in a skin canoe, and, on the 
Mississippi was taken prisoner by the French. His 
captivity did not in the least deter others from 
coming. Indeed, the date of his voyage was the 
commencement of a vigorous trade with the In- 
dians by the English, who crossed the Alleghanies 
by the route discovered by Gov. Spottswood. In 
1748, Conrad Weiser, a German of Herenberg, who 
had acquired in early life a knowledge of the jMo- 
hawk tongue by a residence among them, was sent 
on an to the Shawanees on the Ohio. He 
went as far as Logstown,a Shawanee village on the 
north bank of the Ohio, about seventeen miles bc- 
k)W the site of Pittsburgh. Here he met the chiefs 
in coun.sel, and secured their promise of aid against 
the French. 

The principal ground of the claims of the 
English in the Northwest was the treaty with the 

Five Nations — the Iroquois. This powerful confed- 
eration claimed the jurisdiction over an immense 
extent of country. Their policy differed considera- 
bly from other Indian tribes. They were the only 
confederation which attempted any form of gov- 
ernment in America. They were often termed the 
" Six Nations," as the entrance of another tribe 
into the confederacy made that number. Tliey 
were the conquerors of nearly all tribes from Lower 
Canada, to and beyond the Mississippi. They only 
exacted, however, a tribute from the conquered 
tribes, leaving them to manage their own internal 
affairs, and stipulating that to them alone did the 
right of cession belong. Their country, under 
these claims, embraced all of America north of the 
Cherokee Nation, in Virginia; all Kentucky, and 
all the Northwest, save a district in Ohio and Indi- 
ana, and a small section in Southwestern Illinois, 
claimed by the Miami Confederacy. The Iroquois, 
or Six Nations, were the terror of all other tribes. 
It was they who devastated the Illinois country 
about Rock Fort in 1680, and caused wide-spread 
alarm among all the Western Indians. In 16S4, 
Lord Howard, Governor of Virginia, held a treaty 
with the Iroquois at Albany, when, at the request 
of Col. Duncan, of New York, they placed them- 
selves under the protection of the English. They 
made a deed of sale then, by treaty, to the British 
Government, of a vast tract of country south and 
east of the Illinois River, and extending into Can- 
ada. In 1726, another deed was drawn up and 
signed by the chiefs of the national confederacy by 
which their lands were conveyed in trust to 
England, " to be protected and defended by His 
Majesty, to and for the use of the grantors and 
their heirs."* 

If the Six Nations had a good claim to the West- 
ern country, there is but little doubt but England 
was justified in defending their country against the 
French, as, by the treaty of Uti-echt, they had 
agreed not to invade the lands of Britain's Indian 
allies. This claim was vigorously contested by 
France, as that country claimed the Iroquois had 
no lawful jurisdiction over the West. In all the 
disputes, the interests of the contending nations 
was, however, the paramount consideration. The 
rights of the Indians were little regarded. 

The British also purchased land by the treaty 
of Lancaster, in 1744, wherein they agreed to pay 
the Six Nations for land settled unlawfully in 
Pennsylvania, Virginia and Maryland. The In- 

* Annals of the West. 




(lians were given goods and gold amounting to 
near a thousand pounds sterling. They were also 
promised the protection of the English. Had this 
latter provision been faithfully carried out, much 
blood would have been saved in after years. The 
treaties with the Six Nations were the real basis 
of the claims of Great Britain to ihe West ; claims 
that were only settled by war. The Shawanee In- 
dians, on the Ohio, were also becoming hostile to 
the English, and began to assume a threatening 
exterior. Peter Chartier, a half-breed, residing in 
Philadelphia, escaped from the authorities, those 
by whom he was held for a violation of the laws, 
and joining the Shawanees, persuaded them to join 
the French. Soon after, in 1743 or 1744, he 
placed himself at the head of 400 of their war- 
riors, and lay in wait on the Alleghany River for 
the provincial traders. He captured two, exhib- 
ited to them a captain's commission from the 
French, and seized their goods, worth £1,600. 
The Indians, after this, emboldened by the aid 
given them by the French, became more and more 
hostile, and Weiser was again sent across the mount- 
ains in 1748, with presents to conciliate them and 
sound them on their feelings for the rival nations, 
and also to see what they thought of a settlement 
of the English to be made in the West. The visit 
of Conrad Weiser was successful, and Thomas Lee, 
with twelve other Virginians, among whom were 
Lawrence and Augustine AVashington, brothers of 
George Washington, formed a company which 
they styled the Ohio Company, and, in 1748, peti- 
tioned the King for a grant beyond the mountains. 
The monarch approved the petition and the gov- 
ernment of Virginia was ordered to grant the Com- 
pany 500,000 acres within the bounds of that 
colony beyond the Alleghanies, 200,000 of which 
were to be located at once. This provision was to 
hold good for ten years, free of quit rent, provided 
the Company would settle 100 families within 
seven years, and build a fort sufficient for their 
protection. These terms the Company accepted, 
and sent at once to London for a cargo suitable for 
the Indian trade. This was the beginning of 
English Companies in the West; this one forming 
a prominent part in the history of Ohio, as will 
be .seen hereafter. Others were also formed in 
Virginia, whose object was the colonization of the 
West. One of these, the Loyal Company, received, 
on the 12th of June, 1749, a grant of 800,000 
acres, from the line of Canada on the north and 
west, and on the 29th of October, 1751, the Green- 
briar Company received a grant of 100,000 acres. 

To these encroachments, the French were by no 
means blind. They saw plainly enough that if 
the English gained a foothold in the West, they 
would inevitably endeavor to obtain the country, 
and one day the issue could only be decided by 
war. Vaudreuil, the French Governor, had long 
anxiously watched the coming struggle. In 1774, 
he wrote home representing the consequences that 
would surely come, should the English succeed in 
their plans. The towns of the French in Illinois 
were producing large amounts of bread-stuffs and 
provisions which they sent to New Orleans. These 
provinces were becoming valuable, and not be 
allowed to come under control of a rival power. 
In 1749, Louis Celeron was sent by the Governor 
with a party of soldiers to plant leaden plates, suit- 
ably inscribed, along the Ohio at the mouths of 
the principal streams. Two of these plates were 
afterward exhumed. One was .sent to the 3Iary- 
land Historical Society, and the inscription* deci- 
phered by De Witt Clinton. On these plates was 
clearly stated the claims of France, as will be seen 
from the translation below. 

England's claim, briefly and clearly stated, read 
as follows: "That all lands, or countries west- 
ward from the Atlantic Ocean to the South Sea, 
between 48 and 34 degrees of North Latitude, 
were expres.sly included in the grant of King 
James the First, to divers of his subjects, so long- 
time since as the year 1606, and afterwards con- 
firmed in the year 1620; and under this grant, 
the colony of Virginia claims extent so far west 
as the South Sea, and the ancient colonies of 
achusetts Bay and Connecticut, were by their 
respective charters, made to extend to the said 
South Sea, so that not only the right to the sea 
coast, but to all the Inland countries from sea to 
sea, has at all times been asserted by the Crown of 
England. "f 

To make good their titles, both nations were now 
doing their utmost. Professedly at peace, it only 
needed a torch applied, as it were, to any point, to 
instantly precipitate hostilities. The French were 

* The following is the translation of the inscription of the plate 
found at Venango : " In the year 1749, reign of Louis XV, King of 
France, we, Celeron, commandant of a detiichment by Monsieur 
thw Marquis of Giillisoniere, Commander-in-chief of New France, 
to establish tranquillity in certain Indian villages in these Cantons, 
have buried this plate at the confluence of the Toraclakoin, this 
twenty-ninth of July, near the River Ohio, otherwise Beautiful 
River, as a monument of renewal of possession which we have taken 
of the said river, and all its tributaries; and of all the land on both 
sides, as far as the sources of said rivers; inasmuch as th" preceding 
Kings of France have enjoyed it, and maintained it by tlnir arras 
and by treaties; especially by those of Eyswick, Utrecht, and Aix 
La Chapelle." 

1 Colonial Records of Pennsylvania. 




bu.silj engaged erecting forts from the southern 
shores of Lake Erie to the Ohio, and on down in 
the Illinois Valley ; up at Detroit, and at all its 
posts, preparations were constantly going on for the 
crisis, now sure to come. The issue between the 
two governments was now fully miule up. It ad- 
mitted of no compromise but the sword. To that, 
however, neither power desired an immediate ap- 
peal, and both sought rather to establish and fortify 
their interests, and to conciliate the Indian tribes. 
The English, through the Ohio Company, sent out 
Christopher Gist in the fall of 1750, to explore the 
regions west of the mountains. He was instructed 
to examine the passes, trace the courses of the 
rivers, mark the falls, seek for valuable lands, ob- 
serve the strength, and to conciliate the friendship 
of the Indian tribes. He was well fitted for such 
an enterprise. Hardy, sagacious, bold, an adept in 
Indian character, a hunter by occupation, no man 
was better qualified than he for such an undertak- 
ing. He visited Logstown, where he w^as jealously 
received, passed over to the Muskingum River and 
Valley in Ohio, where he found a village of Wyan- 
dots, divided in sentiment. At this village he met 
Crogaii, another equally famous frontiersman, who 
had been sent out by Pennsylvania. Together 
they held a council with the chiefs, and received 
assurance of the friendship of the tribe. This 
done, they passed to the Shawnee towns on the 
Scioto, received their assurances of friendship, and 
went on to the Miami Valley, which they crossed, 
remarking in Crogan's journal of its great fertili- 
ty. They made a raft of logs on which they 
crossed the Grreat Miami, visited Piqua, the chief 
town of the Pickawillanies, and here made treaties 
with the Weas and Piankeshaws. While here, a 
deputation of the Ottawas visited the Miami Con- 
federacy to induce them to unite with the French. 
They were repulsed through the influence of the 
English agents, the Miamis sending Gist word that 
they would " stand like the mountains. " Crogan 
now returned and published an account of their 
wanderings. Gist followed the IMiami to its 
mouth, passed down the Ohio till within fifteen 
miles of the falls, then returned by way of the 
Kentucky River, over the highlands of Kentucky 
to Virginia, arriving in May, 1751. He had 
visited the Mingoes, Delawares, Wyandots, Shawa- 
nees and Miamis, proposed a union among these 
tribes, and appointed a grand council to meet at 
Logstown to form an alliance among themselves 
and with Virginia. His journey was marvelous 
for the day. It was extremely hazardous, as he 

was part of the time among hostile tribes, who 
could have captured him and been well rewarded 
by the French Government. But Gist knew how 
to act. and was successful. 

While Gist was doing this, some English traders 
established themselves at a place in what is now 
known as Shelby County, Ohio, and opened a 
store for the purpose of trading with the Indians. 
This was clearly in the limits of the West, claimed 
by the French, and at once aroused them to action. 
The fort or stockade stood on the banks of Loramie's 
Creek, about sixteen miles northwest of the present 
city of Sydney. It received the name Loramie 
from the creek by the French, which received 
its name in turn from the French trader of 
that name, who had a trading-post on this 
creek. Loramie had fled to the Spanish country 
west of the Mississippi, and for many years 
was a trader there ; his store being at the junc- 
tion of the Kansas and Missouri, near the present 
city of Kansas City, Mo. When the English 
traders came to Loramie's Creek, and erected 
their trading-place, they gave it the name of Pick- 
awillany, from the tribe of Indians there. The 
Miami confederacy granted them this privilege 
as the result of the presents brought by Crogan and 
Gist. It is also asserted that Andrew Montour, 
a half-breed, son of a Seneca chief and the famous 
Catharine Montour, who was an important fac- 
tor afterward in the English treaties with the 
Indians, was with them, and by his influence did 
much to aid in securing the privilege. Thus was 
established the first English trading-post in the 
Northwest Territory and in Ohio. It, however, 
enjoyed only a short duration. The French could 
not endure so clear an invasion of their country, 
and gathering a force of Ottawas and Chippewas, 
now their allies, they attacked the stockade in 
June, 1752. At first they demanded of the Miamis 
the surrender of the fort, as they were the real 
cause of its location, having granted the English 
the privilege. The Miamis not only refused, but 
aided the British in the defense. In the battle that 
ensued, fourteen of the Miamis were slain, and all 
the traders captured. One account says they were 
burned, another, and probably the correct one, 
states that they were taken to Canada as prisoners 
of war. It is probable the traders were from Penn- 
sylvania, as that commonwealth made the Miamis 
presents as condolence for their warriors that were 

Blood had now been shed. The opening gun of 
the French and Indian war had been fired, and both 




nations became more deeply interested in affairs in 
the West. The English were determined to secure 
additional title to the West, and, in 1752, sent 
Messrs. Fry, Lomax and Patton as commissioners 
to Logstown to treat with the Indians, and confirm 
the Lancaster treaty. They met the Indians on 
the 9th of June, stated their desires, and on the 
11th received their answer. At first, the sav- 
ages were not inclined to recognize the Lancaster 
treaty, but agreed to aid the English, as the French 
had already made war on the Twigtees (at Picka- 
willany), and consented to the establishment of a 
fort and trading-post at the forks of the Ohio. 
This was not all the Virginians wanted, however, 
and taking aside Andrew Montour, now chief of the 
Six Nations, persuaded him to use his influence 
with the red men. By such means, they were in- 
duced to treat, and on the 13th they all united in 
signing a deed, confirming the Lancaster treaty in 
its full extent, consenting to a settlement southwest 
of the Ohio, and covenanting that it should not be 
disturbed by them. By such means was obtained 
the treaty with the Indians in the Ohio Valley. 

All this time, the home governments were en- 
deavoring to out-maneuver each other with regard 
to the lands in the West, though there the outlook 
only betokened war. The French understood bet- 
ter than the English how to manage the Indians, 
and succeeded in attaching them firmly to their 
cause. The English were not honest in their 
actions with them, and hence, in after years, the 
massacres that followed. 

At the close of 1752, Gist was at work, in con- 
formity with the Lancaster and Logstown treaties, 
laying out a fort and town on Chartier's Creek, 
about ten miles below the fork. Eleven families 
had crossed the mountains to settle at Gist's resi- 
dence west of Laurel Hill, not far from the Yough- 
iogheny. Goods had come from England for the 
Ohio Company, which were carried as fxr West as 
Will's Creek, where Cumberland now stands ; and 
where they were taken by the Indians and traders. 

On the other hand, the French were eatherins; 
cannon and stores on Lake Erie, and, without 
treaties or deeds of land, were gaining the good 
will of the inimical tribes, and preparing, when all 
was ready, to strike the blow. Their fortifications 
consisted of a chain of forts from Lake Erie to 
the Ohio, on the border. One was at Presque Isle, 
on the site of Erie ; one on French Creek, on the 
site of Waterford, Penn.; one at the mouth of 
French Creek, in Venango County, Penn.; while 
opposite it was another, effectually commanding 

that section of country. These forts, it will be 
observed, were all in the limits of the Pennsyl- 
vania colony. The Governor informed the Assem- 
bly of their existence, who voted £600 to be used 
in purchasing presents for the Indians n^ar the 
forts, and thereby hold their friendship. Virginia, 
also, took similar measures. Trent was sent, with 
guns and ammunition and presents, to the friendly 
tribes, and, while on his mission, learned of the 
plates of lead planted by the French. In October, 
1753, a treaty was consummated with representa- 
tives of the Iroquois, Delawares, Shawanees, Twig- 
twees and Wyandots, by commissioners from 
Pennsylvania, one of whom was the philosopher 
Franklin. At the conferences held at this time, 
the Indians complained of the actions of the 
French in forcibly taking possession of the dis- 
puted country, and also bitterly denounced them 
for using rum to intoxicate the red men, when 
they desired to gain any advantage. Not long 
after, they had similar grounds of complaint against 
the English, whose lawless traders cared for nothing 
but to gain the furs of the savage at as little ex- 
pense as possible. 

The encroachments of the French on what was 
regarded as English territory, created intense feel- 
ing in the colonies, especially in Virginia. The 
purpose of the French to inclose the English on 
the Atlantic Coast, and thus prevent their extension 
over the mountains, became more and more ap- 
parent, and it was thought that this was the open- 
ing of a scheme already planned by the French 
Court to reduce all North America under the do- 
minion of France. Gov. Dinwiddle determined 
to send an ambassador to the French posts, to as- 
certain their real intentions and to observe the 
amount and disposition of their forces. He selected 
a young Virginian, then in his twenty-first year, 
a surveyor by trade and one well qualified for the 
duty. That young man afterward led the Ameri- 
can Colonies in their struggle for liberty. George 
Washington and one companion, Mr Gist, suc- 
cessfully made the trip, in the solitude of a severe 
winter, received assurance from the French com- 
mandant that they would by no means abandon 
their outposts, and would not yield unless com- 
pelled by force of arms. The commandant was 
exceedingly polite, but firm, and assured the young 
American that " we claim the country on the Ohio 
by virtue of the discovery of La Salle (in 1669) 
and will not give it up to the English. Our orders 
are to make prisoners of every Englishman found 
trading in the Ohio Valley." 



During Washington's absence steps were taken 
to fortify the point formed by the junction of the 
Monongahela and Alleghany ; and when, on his 
return, he met seventeen horses loaded with mate- 
rials and stores for a fort at the forks of the Ohio, 
and, soon after, some families going out to settle, 
he knew the defense had begun. As soon as 
Washington made his report, Gov. Dinwiddle 
wrote to the Board of Trade, stating that the 
French were building a fort at Venango, and that, 
in March, twelve or fifteen hundred men would 
be ready to descend the river with their Indian 
allies, for which purpose three hundred canoes had 
been collected ; and that Logstown was to be made 
headquarters, while forts were to be built in other 
places. He sent expresses to the Governors of 
Pennsylvania and New York, apprising them of the 
nature of affairs, and calling upon them for assist- 
ance. He also raised two companies, one of which 
was raised by Washington, the other by Trent. 
The one under Trent was to be raised on the 
frontiers, and was, as soon as possible, to repair to 
the Fork and erect there a fort, begun by the Ohio 
Company. Owing to various conflicting opinions 
between the Governor of Pennsylvania and his 
Assembly, and the conference with the Six Nations, 
held by New York, neither of those provinces put 
forth any vigorous measures until stirred to action 
by the invasions on the frontiers, and until directed 
by the Earl of Holderness, Secretary of State. 

The fort at Venango was finished by the French 
in April, 1754. All along the creek resounded 
the clang of arms and the preparations for war. 
New York and Pennsylvania, though inactive, 
and debating whether the French really had in- 
vaded English territory or not, sent aid to the 
Old Dominion, now all alive to the conquest. The 
two companies had been increased to six; Washing- 
ton was raised to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, 
and made second under command of Joshua 
Fry. Ten cannon, lately from England, were for- 
warded from Alexandria ; wagons were got ready 
to carry westward provisions and stores through 
the heavy spring roads; and everywhere men were 
enlisting under the King's promise of two hundred 
thousand acres of land to those who would go. 
They were gathering along Will's Creek and far 
beyond, while Trent, who had come for more men 
and supplies, left a little band of forty-one men, 
working away in hunger and want at the Fork, to 
which both nations were looking with anxious eyes. 
Though no enemy was near, and only a few Indian 
scouts were seen, keen eyes had observed the low 

fortifications at the Fork. Swift feet had borne 
the news of it up the valley, and though Ensign 
Ward, left in command, felt himself secure, on the 
17 th of April he saw a sight that made his heart 
sick. Sixty batteaux and three hundred canoes 
were coming down the Alleghany. The com- 
mandant sent him a summons, which evaded no 
words in its meaning. It was useless to contend, 
that evening he supped with his conqueror ; the 
next day he was bowed out by the polite French- 
man, and with his men and tools marched up the 
Monongahela. The first birds of spring were fill- 
ing the air with iheir song ; the rivers rolled by, 
swollen by April showers and melting snows; all 
nature was putting on her robes of green ; and the 
fortress, which the English had so earnestly strived 
to obtain and fortify, was now in the hands of the 
French. Fort Du Quesne arose on the incomplete 
fortifications. The seven years' war that followed 
not only aff'ected America, but spread to all quar- 
ters of the world. The war made England a great 
imperial power ; drove the French from Asia and 
America; dispelled the brilliant and extended 
scheme of Louis and his voluptuous empire. 

The active field of operations was in the Canadas 
principally, and along the western borders of Penn- 
sylvania. There were so few people then in the 
present confines of Ohio, that only the possession 
of the country, in common with all the West, 
could be the animus of the conflict. It so much 
concerned this part of the New World, that a brief 
resume of the war will be necessary to fully under- 
stand its history. 

The fall of the post at the fork of the Ohio, Fort 
Du Quesne, gave the French control of the West. 
Washington went on with his few militia to re- 
take the post. Though he was successful at first, 
he was in the end defeated, and surrendered, 
being allowed to return with all his munitions of 
war. The two governments, though trying to 
come to a peaceful solution of the question, were 
getting ready for the conflict. France went stead- 
ily on, though at one time England gave, in a 
measure, her consent to allow the French to retain 
all the country west of the Alleghanies and south 
of the lakes. Had this been done, what a difi'erent 
future would have been in America ! Other des- 
tinies were at work, however, and the plan fell 

England sent Gen. Braddock and a fine force 
of men, who marched directly toward the post on 
the Ohio. His ill-fated expedition resulted only 
in the total defeat of his army, and his own death. 




Washington saved a remnant of the army, and 
made his way back to the colonies. The En- 
gHsh needed a leader. They next planned four 
campaigns; one against Fort Du Quesne; one 
against Crown Point; one against Niagara, and 
one against the French settlements in Nova Scotia. 
Nearly every one proved a failure. The English 
were defeated on sea and on land, all owing to the 
incapacity of Parliament, and the want of a suit- 
able, vigorous leader. The settlements on the front- 
iers, now exposed to a cruel foe, prepared to defend 
themselves, and already the signs of a government 
of their own, able to defend itself, began to 
appear. They received aid from the colonies. 
Though the French were not repulsed, they and 
their red allies found they could not murder with 
impunity. Self-preservation was a stronger incen- 
tive in conflict than aggrandizement, and the 
cruelty of the Indians found avengers. 

The great Pitt became Prime Minister June 29, 
1757. The leader of the English now appeared. 
The British began to regain their losses on sea and 
land, and for them a brighter day was at hand. 
The key to the West must be retaken, and to Gen. 
Forbes was assigned the duty. Preceding him, 
a trusty man was sent to the Western Indians 
at the head-waters of the Ohio, and along the Mg- 
nongahela and Alleghany, to see if some compro- 
mise with them could not be made, and their aid 
secured. The French had been busy through their 
traders inciting the Indians against the English. 
The lawless traders were another source of trouble. 
Caring nothing for either nation, they carried on a 
distressing traffic in direct violation of the laws, 
continually engendering ill-feeling among the na- 
tives. "Your traders," said one of them, "bring 
scarce anything but rum and flour. They bring 
little powder and lead, or other valuable goods. 
The rum ruins us. We beg you would prevent 
its coming in such quantities by regulating the 
traders. * * * These wicked whisky sell- 
ers, when they have got the Indians in liquor, make 
them sell the very clothes ofi" their backs. If this 
practice be continued, we must be inevitably ruined. 
We most earnestly, therefore, beseech you to remedy 
it." They complained of the French traders the same 
way. They were also beginning to see the animus 
of the whole conflict. Neither power cared as 
much for them as for their land, and flattered and 
bullied by turns as served their purposes best. 

The man selected to go upon this undertaking 
was Christian Frederic Post, a Moravian, who had 
lived among the Indians seventeen years, and mar- 

ried into one of their tribes. Ho was amissionary, 
and though obliged to cross a c(,ini.ry whose every 
stream had been dyed by blood, and every hillside 
rung with the death-yell, and grown red with the 
light of burning huts, he went willingly on his way. 
Of his journey, sufierings and doings, his own 
journal tells the story. He left Philadelphia on the 
15th of July, 1758, and on the 7th of August 
safely passed the French post at Venango, went on 
to Big Beaver Creek, where he held a conference 
with the chiefs of the Indians gathered there. It 
was decided that a great conference should be 
held opposite Fort Du Quesne, where there were 
Indians of eight nations. "We will bear you in 
our bosoms," said the natives, when Post expressed 
a fear that he might be delivered over to the 
French, and royally they fulfilled their promises. 
At the conference, it was made clear to Post that 
all the Western Indians were wavering in their 
allegiance to the French, owing largely to the fail- 
ure of that nation to fulfill their promises of aid to 
prevent them from being deprived of their land by 
the Six Nations, and through that confederacy, by the 
English. The Indians complained bitterly, more- 
over, of the disposition of the whites in over-run- 
ning and claiming their lands. "Why did you not 
fight your battles at home or on the sea, instead of 
coming into our country to fight them?" they 
asked again and again, and mournfully shook their 
heads when they thought of the future before them. 
" Your heart is good," said they to Post. " You 
speak sincerely ; but we know there is always a great 
number who wish to get rich ; they have enough ; 
look ! we do not want to be rich and take away 
what others have. The white people think we 
have no brains in our heads ; that they arc big, 
and we are a handful ; but remember when you 
hunt for a rattlesnake, you cannot always find it, 
and perhaps it will turn and bite you before you see 
it."* When the war of Pontiac came, and all 
the West was desolated, this saying might have 
been justly remembered. After concluding a peace. 
Post set out for Philadelphia, and after incredi- 
ble hardships, reached the settlement uninjured 
early in September. His mission had more to do 
than at first is apparent, in the success of the 
English. Had it not been for him, a second Brad- 
dock's defeat might have befallen Forbes, now on 
his way to subjugate Fort Du Quesne. 

Through the heats of August, the army hewed its 
way toward the West. Early in September it 

* Post's Journal. 




reached Raystown, whither Washington had been 
ordered with his troops. Sickness had prevented 
him from being here ah-eady. Two officers were 
sent out to reconnoiter the fort, who returned and 
gave a very good account of its condition. Gen. 
Forbes desired to know more of it, and sent out 
Maj. Grant, with 800 men, to gain more complete 
knowledge. Maj. Grant, supposing not more than 
21 M) soldiers to be in the fort, marched near it and 
made a feint to draw them out, and engage them 
in battle. lie was greatly misinformed as to the 
strength of the French, and in the engagement 
that followed he was badly beaten — 270 of his men 
killed, 42 wounded, and several, including himself, 
taken prisoners. The French, elated with their 
victory, attacked the main army, but were repulsed 
and obliged to retreat to the fort. The army con- 
tinued on its march. On the 24th of November 
they reached Turtle Creek, where a council of war 
was held, and where Gen. Forbes, who had been so 
ill as to be carried on a litter from the start, de- 
clared, with a mighty oath, he would sleep that 
night in the fort, or in a worse place. The Indi- 
ans had, however, carried the news to the French 
that the English were as plenty as the trees of the 
woods, and in their fright they set fire to the fort in 
the night and left up and down the Ohio River. 
The next morning the English, who had heard the 
explosion of the magazine, and seen the light of 
the burning walls, marched in and took peaceable 
possession. A small fortification was thrown up 
on the bank, and, in honor of the great English 
statesman, it was called Fort Pitt. Col. Hugh Mer- 
cer was left in command, and the main body of the 
army marched back to the settlements. It reached 
Philadelphia January 17, 1759. On the 11th of 
March, Gen. Forbes died, and was buried in the 
chancel of Christ's Church, in that city. 

Post was now sent on a mission to the Six Na- 
tions, with a report of the treaty of Easton. He 
was again instrumental in preventing a coalition of 
the Indians and the French. Indeed, to this ob- 
scure IMoravian missionary belongs, in a large 
measure, the honor of the capture of Fort Du 
Quesne, for by his influence had the Indians been 
restrained from attacking the army on its march. 

The garrison, on leaving the fort, went up and 
down the Ohio, part to Presque Isle by land, part to 
Fort Venango, while some of them went on down 
the Ohio nearly to the Mississippi, and there, in 
what is now Massac County, HI., erected a fort, 
called by them Fort Massac. It was afterward 
named by many Fort Massacre, from the erroneous 

supposition that a garrison had been massacred 

The French, though deprived of the key to 
the West, went on preparing stores and ammunition, 
expecting to retake the fort in the spring. Before 
they could do this, however, other places demanded 
their attention. 

The success of the campaign of 1758 opened 
the way for the consummation of the great scheme 
of Pitt — the complete reduction of Canada. Three 
expeditions were planned, by which Canada, 
already well nigh annihilated and suffering for 
food, was to be subjugated. On the west, Prideaux 
was to attack Niagara ; in the center, Amherst was 
to advance on Ticonderoga and Crown Point ; on 
the east, Wolfe was to besiege Quebec. All these 
points gained, the three armies were to be united 
in the center of the province. 

Amherst appeared before Ticonderoga July 22. 
The French blew up their works, and retired 
to Crown Point. Driven from there, they re- 
treated to Isle Aux Nois and entrenched them- 
selves. The lateness of the season prevented fur- 
ther action, and Amherst went into winter quar- 
ters at Crown Point. Early in June, Wolfe 
appeared before Quebec with an army of 8,000 
men. On the night of September 12, he silently 
ascended the river, climbed the heights of Abra- 
ham, a spot considered impregnable by the 
French, and on the summit formed his army of 
5,000 men. Montcalm, the French commander, 
was compelled to give battle. The British col- 
umns, flushed with success, charged his half-formed 
lines, and dispersed them. 

"They fly! they fly!" heard Wolfe, just as he 
expired from the effect of a mortal wound, though 
not till he had ordered their retreat cut off, and 
exclaimed, "Now, God be praised, I die happy." 
Montcalm, on hearing from the surgeon that death 
would come in a few hours, said, " I am glad of it. 
I shall not live to see the surrender of Quebec." At 
five the next morning he died happy. 

Prideaux moved up Lake Ontario, and on the 
6th of July invested Niagara. Its capture would 
cut off the French from the west, and every en- 
deavor was made to hold it. Troops, destined to 
take the small garrison at Fort Pitt, were held to 
assist in raising the siege of Niagara. M. de 
Aubry, commandant in Illinois, came up with 400 
men and 200,000 pounds of flour. Cut off by the 
abandonment of Fort Du Quesne from the Ohio 
route, he ascended that river as far as the Wabash, 
thence to portage of Fort Miami, or Fort Wayne, 





down the Maumee to Lake Erie, and on to Presqu- 
ville, or Presque Isle, over the portage to Le Bceuf, 
and thence down French Creek to Fort Venango. 
He was chosen to lead the expedition for the relief 
of Niagara. They were pursued by Sir William 
Johnson, successor to Prideaux, who had lost his 
life by the bursting of a cannon, and were obliged to 
flee. The next day Niagara, cut ofl" from succor, 

All America rang with exultation. Towns were 
bright with illuminations ; the hillsides shone with 
bonfires. From press, from pulpit, from platform, 
and from speakers' desks, went up one glad song of 
rejoicing. England was victorious everywhere. 
The colonies had done their fiiU share, and now 
learned their strength. That strength was needed 
now, for ere long a different conflict raged on the 
soil of America — a conflict ending in the birth of 
a new nation. 

The English sent Gen. Stanwix to fortify Fort 
Pitt, still looked upon as one of the principal for- 
tresses in the West. He erected a good fortifica- 
tion there, which remained under British control 
fifteen years. Now nothing of the fort is left. No 
memorial of the British possession remains in the 
West but a single redoubt, built in 1764 by Col. 
Bouquet, outside of the fort. Even this can hardly 
now be said to exist. 

The fall of Quebec did not immediately produce 
the submission of Canada. M. de Levi, on whom 
the command devolved, retired with the French 
Army to Montreal. In the spring of 1760, he be- 
sieged Quebec, but the arrival of an English fleet 
caused him to again retreat to Montreal. 

Amherst and Johnson, meanwhile, effected a 
union of their forces, the magnitude of whose 
armies convinced the French that resistance would 
be useless, and on the 8th of September, M. de 
Vaudreuil, the Governor of Canada, surrendered 
Montreal, Quebec, Detroit, Mackinaw and all other 
posts in Canada, to the English commander-in- 
chief, Amherst, on condition that the French in- 
habitants should, during the war, be "protected 
in the full and fi-ee exercise of their religion, and 
the full enjoyment of their civil rights, leaving 
their future destinies to be decided by the treaty 
of peace." 

Though peace was concluded in the New World, 
on the continent the Powers experienced some 
difficulty in arriving at a satisfactory settlement. 
It was finally settled by what is known in history 
as the "family compact." France and Spain saw 
in the conquest the growing power of England, 

and saw, also, that its continuance only extended 
that power. Negotiations were re-opened, and on 
the 3d of November, 1762, preliminaries were 
agreed to and signed, and afterward ratified in 
Paris, in February, 1763. By the terms of the 
compact, Spain ceded to Great Britian East and 
West Florida. To compensate Spain, France 
ceded to her by a secret article, all Louisiana west 
of the Mississippi. 

The French and Indian war was now over. 
Canada and all its dependencies were now in pos- 
session of the English, who held undisputed sway 
over the entire West as far as Mississippi. It only 
remained for them to take possession of the out- 
posts. Major Robert Rogers was sent to take pos- 
session ot Detroit and establish a garrison there. 
He was a partisan officer on the borders of New 
Hampshire, where he earned a name for bravery, 
but afterward tarnished it by treasonable acts. On 
his way to Detroit, on the 7th of November, 1760, 
he was met by the renowned chief, Pontiac, who 
authoritatively commanded him to pause and ex- 
plain his acts. Rogers replied by explaining the 
conquest of Canada, and that he was acting under 
orders from his King. Through the influence of 
Pontiac, the army was saved from the Indians 
sent out by the French, and was allowed to pro- 
ceed on its way. Pontiac had assured his protec- 
tion as long as the English treated him with due 
deference. Beletre, the commandant at Detroit, 
refused to surrender to the English commander, 
until he had received positive assurance from his 
Governor, Vaudreuil, that the country was indeed 
conquered. On the 29th of September, the colors 
of France gave way to the ensign of Great Britain 
amid the shouts of the soldiery and the astonish- 
ment of the Indians, whose savage natures could 
not understand how such a simple act declared one 
nation victors of another, and who wondered at 
the forbearance displayed. The lateness of the 
season prevented further operations, but early the 
next spring, Mackinaw, Green Bay, Ste. Marie, St. 
Joseph and the Ouitenon surrounded, and nothing 
was left but the Illinois towns. These were se- 
cured as soon as the necessary arrangements could 
be made. 

Though the English were now masters of the 
West, and had, while many of these events nav 
rated were transpiring, extended their settlements 
beyond the AUeghanies, they were by no means 
secure in their possession. The woods and prairies 
were full of Indians, who, finding the English like 
the French, caring more for gain than the welfare 




of the natives, began to exhibit impatience and re- 
sentment as they saw their lands gradually taken 
from them. The English policy differed very 
materially from the French. The French made 
the Indian, in a measure, independent and taught 
him a desire for European goods. They also 
affiliated easily with them, and became thereby 
strongly endeared to the savage. The French 
were a merry, easy-going race, fond of gayety and 
delighting in adventure. The English were harsh, 
stern, and made no advances to gain the friend- 
ship of the savage. They wanted land to cultivate 
and drove away the Indian's game, and forced him 
farther west. "Where shall we go?" said the 
Indian, despondently; "you drive us farther and 
farther west; by and by you will want all the 
land." And the Anglo-Saxon went sturdily on, 
paying no heed to the complaints. The French 

traders incited the Indian to resent the encroach- 
ment. " The English will annihilate you and take 
all your land," said they. " Their father, the King 
of France, had been asleep, now he had awakened 
and was coming with a great army to reclaim Can- 
ada, that had been stolen from him while he slept." 
Discontent under such circumstances was but 
natural. Soon all the tribes, from the mountains 
to the Mississippi, were united in a plot. It was 
discovered in 1761, and arrested. The next sum- 
mer, another was detected and arrested. The 
officers, and all the people, failed to realize the 
danger. The rattlesnake, though not found, was 
ready to strike. It is only an Indian discontent, 
thought the people, and they went on preparing to 
occupy the country. They were mistaken — the 
crisis only needed a leader to direct it. That 
leader appeared. 




PONTIAC, the great chief of the Ottawas, was 
now about fifty years old. He had watched 
the conflict between the nations with a jealous eye, 
and as he saw the gradual growth of the English 
people, their encroachment on the lands of the In- 
dians, their greed, and their assumption of the soil, 
his soul was stirred within him to do something 
for his people. He had been a true friend of the 
French, and had led the Indians at the defeat of 
Braddock. Amid all the tumult, he alone saw the 
true state of affairs. The English would inevit- 
ably crush out the Indians. To save his race he 
saw another alliance with the French was neces- 
sary, and a restoration of their power and habits 
needed. It was the plan of a statesman. It only 
failed because of the perfidy of the French. Matur- 
ing his plans late in the autumn of 1762, he sent 
messengers to all the Western and Southern tribes, 
with the black wampum and red tomahawk, em- 
blems of war, from the great Pontiac. "On a cer- 
tain day in the next year," said the messenger, "all 
the tribes are to rise, seize all the English posts, 
and then attack the whole frontier." 

The great council of all the tribes was held at 
the river Ecorces, on the 27th of April, 1763. 
There, before the assembled chiefs, Pontiac deliv- 

ered a speech, full of eloquence and art. He 
recounted the injuries and encroachments of the 
English, and disclosed their designs. The French 
king was now awake and would aid them. Should 
they resign their homes and the graves of their 
fathers without an effort? Were their young men 
no longer brave? Were they squaws? The 
Great Master of Life had chided them for their 
inactivity, and had sent his commands to drive 
the "Red Dogs" from the earth. The chiefs 
eagerly accepted the wampum and the tomahawk, 
and separated to prepare for the coming strife. 

The post at Detroit was informed of the plot 
the evening before it was to occur, by an Ojibway 
girl of great beauty, the mistress of the com- 
mander. Major Gladwin. Pontiac was foiled here, 
his treachery discovered, and he was sternly ordered 
from the conference. A regular seige followed, 
but he could not prevail. He exhibited a degree 
of sagacity unknown in the annals of savage war- 
fare, but all to no purpose ; the English were too 
strong for him. 

At all the other posts, save one, however, the 
plans of Pontiac were carried out, and atrocities, 
unheard of before in American history, resulted. 
The Indians attacked Detroit on the first of May, 




and, foiled in their plans, a siege immediately fol- 
lowed. On the 16th, a party of Indians appeared 
before the fort at Sandusky. Seven of them were 
admitted. Suddenly, while smoking, the massacre 
begins. All but Ensign Paulli, the commander, 
fall. He is carried as a trophy to Pontiac. 

At the mouth of the St. Joseph's, the mission- 
aries had maintained a mission station over sixty 
years. They gave way to an English garrison of 
fourteen soldiers and a few traders. On the 
morning of May 25, a deputation of Pottawato- 
mies are allowed to enter. In less than two min- 
utes, all the garrison but the commander are slain. 
He is sent to Pontiac. 

Near the present city of Fort Wayne, Ind., 
at the junction of the waters, stood Fort Miami, 
garrisoned by a few men. Holmes, the com- 
mander, is asked to visit a sick woman. He is 
slain on the way, the sergeant following is made 
prisoner, and the nine soldiers surrender. 

On the night of the last day of May, the wam- 
pum reaches the Indian village below La Fayette, 
Ind., and near Fort Ouitenon. The commander 
of the fort is lured into a cabin, bound, and his 
garrison surrender. Through the clemency of 
French settlers, they are received into their houses 
and protected. 

At Michilimackinac, a game of ball is projected. 
Suddenly the ball is thrown through the gate of the 
stockade. The Indians press in, and, at a signal, 
almost all are slain or made prisoners. 

The fort at Presque Isle, now Erie, was the 
point of communication between Pittsburgh and 
Niagara and Detroit. It was one of the most 
tenable, and had a garrison of four and twenty 
men. On the 22d of June, the commander, to 
save his forces from total annihilation, surrenders, 
and all are carried prisoners to Detroit. 

The capitulation at Erie left Le Bceuf with- 
out hope. He was attacked on the 18th, 
but kept oif the Indians till midnight, when he 
made a successful retreat. As they passed Ve- 
nango, on their way to Fort Pitt, they saw only 
the ruins of that garrison. Not one of its immates 
had been spared. 

Fort Pitt was the most important station west 
of the Alleghanies. " Escape ! " said Turtle's 
Heart, a Delaware warrior ; " you will all be 
slain. A great army is coming." "There are 
three large English armies coming to my aid," 
said Ecuyer, the commander. " I have enough 
provisions and ammunition to stand a siege of three 
years' time." A second and third attempt was 

made by the savages to capture the post, but all to 
no avail. Baffled on all sides here, they destroy 
Ligonier, a few miles below, and massacre men, 
women and children. Fort Pitt was besieged till 
the last day of July, but withstood all attacks. 
Of all the outposts, only it and Detroit were left. 
All had been captured, and the majority of the 
garrison slain. Along the frontier, the war was 
waged with fury. The Indians were fighting for 
their homes and their hunting-grounds; and for 
these they fought with the fury and zeal of 

Detachments sent to aid Detroit are cut off. 
The prisoners are burnt, and Pontiac, infusing his 
zealous and demoniacal spirit into all his savage 
allies, pressed the siege with vigor. The French 
remained neutral, yet Pontiac made requisitions 
on them and on their neighbors in Illinois, issuing 
bills of credit on birch -bark, all of which were 
faithfully redeemed. Though these two posts 
could not be captured, the frontier could be 
annihilated, and vigorously the Indians pursued 
their policy. Along the borders of Pennsylvania 
and Virginia a relentless warfare was waged, 
sparing no one in its way. Old age, feeble infancy, 
strong man and gentle woman, fair girl and hope- 
ful boy — all fell before the scalping-knife of the 
merciless savage. The frontiers were devastated. 
Thousands were obliged to flee, leaving their 
possessions to the torch of the Indian. 

The colonial government, under British direc- 
tion, was inimical to the borders, and the colonists 
saw they must depend only upon their own arms 
for protection. Already the struggle for freedom 
was upon them. They could defend only them- 
selves. They must do it, too ; for that defense is 
now needed in a different cause than settling dis- 
putes between rival powers. " We have millions 
for defense, but not a cent for tribute," said they, 
and time verified the remark. 

Gen. Amherst bestirred himself to aid the 
frontiers. He sent Col. Henry Bouquet, a native 
of Switzerland, and now an officer in the English 
Army, to relieve the garrison at Fort Pitt. They 
followed the route made by Gen. Forbes, and on 
the way relieved Forts Bedford and Ligonier, both 
beleaguered by the Indians. About a day's jour- 
ney beyond Ligonier, he was attacked by a body 
of Indians at a place called Bushy Run. For 
awhile, it seemed that he and all his army would 
be destroyed ; but Bouquet was bold and brave 
and, under a feint of retreat, routed the savages. 
He passed on, and relieved the garrison at Fort 




Pitt, and thus secured it against the assaults of 
the Indians. 

The campaign had been disastrous to the En- 
glish, but fatal to the plans of Pontiac. He could 
not capture Detroit, and he knew the great scheme 
must fail. The battle of Bushy Run and the 
relief of Fort Pitt closed the campaign, and all 
hope of co-operation was at an end. Circum- 
stances were combined against the confederacy, 
and it was fast falling to pieces. A proclamation 
was issued to the Indians, explaining to them the 
existing state of affairs, and showing to them the 
futility of their plans. Pontiac, however, would 
not give up. Again he renewed the siege of De- 
troit, and Gren. Gage, now in command of the 
army in the colonies, resolved to carry the war 
into their own country. Col. Bradstreet was or- 
dered to lead one army by way of the lakes, 
against the Northern Indians, while Col. Bouquet 
was sent against the Indians of the Ohio. Col. 
Bradstreet went on his way at the head of 1,200 
men, but trusting too much to the natives and 
their promises, his expedition proved largely a fail- 
ure. He relieved Detroit in August, 1764, which 
had been confined in the garrison over fifteen 
months, and dispersed the Indians that yet lay 
around the fort. But on his way back, he saw how 
the Indians had duped him, and that they were 
still plundering the settlements. His treaties were 
annulled by Gage, who ordered him to destroy 
their towns. The season was far advanced, his 
provisions were getting low, and he was obliged to 
return to Niagara chagrined and disappointed. 

Col. Bouquet knew well the character of the 
Indians, and shaped his plans accordingly. He 
had an army of 1,500 men, 500 regulars and 1,000 
volunteers. They had had experience in fighting 
the savages, and could be depended on. At Fort 
Loudon, he heard of Bradstreet's ill luck, and saw 
through the deception practiced by the Indians. 
He arrived at Fort Pitt the 17th of September, 
where he arrested a deputation of chiefs, who met 
him with the same promises that had deceived 
Bradstreet. He sent one of their number back, 
threatening to put to death the chiefs unless they 
allowed his messengers to safely pass through their 
country to Detroit. The decisive tone of his 
words convinced them of the fate that awaited 
them unless they complied. On the 3d of Octo- 
ber the army left Fort Pitt, marched down the 
river to and across the Tuscarawas, arriving in the 
vicinity of Fredrick Post's late mission on the 17th. 
There a conference was held with the assembled 

tribes. Bouquet sternly rebuked them fur their 
faithlessness, and when told by the chiefs they could 
not restrain their young men, he as sternly told 
them they were responsible for their acts. He 
told them he would trust them no longer. If they 
delivered up all their prisoners within twelve days 
they might hope for peace, otherwise there would 
be no mercy shown them. They were completely 
humbled, and, separating hastily, gathered their 
captives. On the 25th, the army proceeded down 
to the Tuscarawas, to the junction with White 
Woman River, near the town of Coshocton, in 
Coshocton County, Ohio, and there made prepa- 
rations for the reception of the captives. There 
they remained until the 18th of November; from 
day to day prisoners were brought in — men, women 
and children — and delivered to their friends. Many 
were the touching scenes enacted during this time. 
The separated husband and wife met, the latter 
often carrying a child born in captivity. Brothers 
and sisters, separated in youth, met ; lovers rushed 
into each other's arms ; children found their 
parents, mothers their sons, fathers their daughters, 
and neighbors those from whom they had been 
separated many years. Yet, there were many dis- 
tressing scenes. Some looked in vain for long-lost 
relatives and friends, that never should return. 
Others, that had been captured in their infancy, 
would not leave their savage friends, and when 
force was used some fled away. One mother 
looked in vain for a child she had lost years be- 
fore. Day by day, she anxiously watched, but no 
daughter's voice reached her ears. One, clad in 
savage attire, was brought before her. It could 
not be her daughter, she was grown. So was the 
maiden before her. " Can not you remember some 
mark?" asked Bouquet, whose sympathies were 
aroused in this case. "There is none," said the 
anxious and sorrowful mother. "Sing a song you 
sang over her cradle, she may remember," suggested 
the commander. One is sung by her mother. As 
the song of childhood floats out among the trees 
the maiden stops and listens, then approaches. 
Yes, she remembers. Mother and daughter are 
held in a close embrace, and the stern Bouquet 
wipes away a tear at the scene. 

On the 18th, the army broke up its encamp- 
ment and started on its homeward march. Bouquet 
kept six principal Indians as hostages, and re- 
turned to the homes of the captives. The Indians 
kept their promises faithfully, and the next year 
representatives of all the Western tribes met Sir 
William Johnson, at the German Flats, and made 





a treaty of peace. A tract of land in the Indian 
country was ceded to the whites for the benefit of 
those who had suffered in the late war. The In- 
dians desired to make a treaty with Johnson, 
whereby the Alleghany River should be the west- 
ern boundary of the English, but he excused him- 
self on the ground of proper power. 

Not long after this the Illinois settlements, too 
remote to know much of the struggle or of any of 
the great events that had convulsed an empire, and 
changed the destiny of a nation, were brought 
under the English rule. There were five villages 
at this date: Kaskaskia, Cahokia, St. Philip, Yin- 
cennes and Prairie du Rocher, near Fort Chartres, 
the military headquarters of these French posses- 
sions. They were under the control or command 
of M. de Abadie, at New Orleans. They had also 
extended explorations west of the Mississippi, and 
made a few settlements in what was Spanish terri- 
tory. The country had been, however, ceded to 
France, and in February, 1764, the country was 
formally taken possession of and the present city 
of St. Louis laid out. 

As soon as the French knew of the change of 
government, many of them went to the west side of 
the river, and took up their residence there. They 
were protected in their religion and civil rights by 
the terms of the treaty, but preferred the rule of 
their own King. 

The British took possession of this country early 
in 1765. Gen. G-age sent Capt. Stirling, of the 
English Army, who arrived before summer, and to 
whom St. Ange, the nominal commandant, surren- 
dered the authority. The British, through a suc- 
cession of commanders, retained control of the coun- 
try until defeated by George Rogers Clarke, and 
his "ragged Virginia militia." 

After a short time, the French again ceded the 
country west of the Mississippi to Spain, and re- 
linquished forever their control of all the West in 
the New World. 

The population of Western Louisiana, when the 
exchange of governments occurred, was estimated 
to be 13,538, of which 891 were in the Illinois 
country — as it was called — west of the Mississippi. 
East of the river, and before the French crossed 
into Spanish country, the population was estimated 
to be about 3,000. All these had grown into 
communities of a peculiar character. Indeed, that 
peculiarity, as has been observed, never changed 
until a gradual amalgamation with the American 
people effected it, and that took more than a cen- 
tury of time to accomplish. 

The English now owned the Northwest. True, 
they did not yet occupy but a small part of it, but 
traders were again crossing the mountains, ex- 
plorers for lands were on the Ohio, and families 
for settlement were beginning to look upon the 
West as their future home. Companies were again 
forming to purchase large tracts in the Ohio coun- 
try, and open them for emigration. One thing yet 
stood in the way — a definite boundary line. That 
line, however, was between the English and the 
Indians, and not, as had heretofore been the case, 
between rival European Powers. It was necessary 
to arrange some definite boundarj" before land com- 
panies, who were now actively pushing their claims, 
could safely survey and locate their lands. 

Sir William Johnson, who had at previous times 
been instrumental in securing treaties, wrote re- 
peatedly to the Board of Trade, who controlled the 
greater part of the commercial transactions in the 
colonies — and who were the first to exclaim against 
extending English settlements beyond a limit 
whereby they would need manufactures, and there- 
by become independent of the Mother Country — 
urging upon them, and through them the Crown, the 
necessity of a fixed boundary, else another Indian 
war was probable. The Indians found themselves 
gradually hemmed in by the growing power of the 
whites, and began to exhibit hostile feelings. The 
irritation became so great that in the summer of 
1767, Gage wrote to the Governor of Pennsylvania 
concerning it. The Governor communicated his 
letter to the General Assembly, who sent repre- 
sentatives to England, to urge the immediate set- 
tlement of the question. In compliance with these 
requests, and the letters of prominent citizens, 
Franklin among the number, instructions were sent 
to Johnson, ordering him to complete the purchase 
from the Six Nations, and settle all differences. 
He sent word to all the Western tribes to meet 
him at Fort Stanwix, in October, 1768. The con- 
ference was held on the 24:th of that month, and 
was attended by colonial representatives, and by 
Indians from all parts of the Northwest. It was 
determined that the line should begin on the Ohio, 
at the mouth of the Cherokee (Tennessee), thence 
up the river to the Alleghany and on to Kittan- 
ning, and thence across to the Susquehanna. By 
this line, the whole country south of the Ohio and 
Alleghany, to which the Six Nations had any 
claim, was transferred. Part of this land was 
made to compensate twenty-two traders, whose goods 
had been stolen in 1763. The deeds made, wore 
upon the express agreement that no claims should 

--« S) 





ever be based on the treaties of Lancaster, Logs- 
town, etc., and were signed by the chiefs of the Six 
Nations for themselves, their alUes and dependents, 
and the Shawanees, Delawares, Mingoes of Ohio, 
and others; though the Shawanees and Delaware 
deputies did not sign them. On this treaty, in a 
great measure, rests the title by purchase to Ken- 
tucky, Western Virginia and Western Pennsylva- 
nia. The rights of the Cherokees were purchased 
by Col. Donaldson, either for the King, Virginia, 
or for himself, it is impossible to say which. 

The grant of the northern confederacy was now 
made. The white man could go in and possess 
these lands, and know that an army would protect 
him if necessary. Under such a guarantee, West- 
ern lands came rapidly into market. In addition 
to companies already in existence for the purchase 
of land, others, the most notable of these being the 
"Walpole" and the "Mississippi" Land Companies, 
were formed. This latter had among its organizers 
such men as Francis Lightfoot Lee, Richard 
Henry Lee, George Washington and Arthur Lee. 
Before any of these companies, some of whom ab- 
sorbed the Ohio Company, could do anything, the 
Revolution came on, and all land transactions were 
at an end. After its close, Congress would not 
sanction their claims, and they fell through. This 
did not deter settlers, however, from crossing the 
mountains, and settling in the Ohio country. In 

spite of troubles with the Indians — some of whom 
regarded the treaties with the Six Nations as un- 
lawftil, and were disposed to complain at the rapid 
influx of whites — and the failure of the land com- 
panies, settlers came steadily during the decade 
from 1768 to 1778, so that by the close of that 
time, there was a large population south of the 
Ohio River ; while scattered along the northern 
banks, extending many miles into the wilderness, 
were hardy adventurers, who were carving out 
homes in the magnificent forests everywhere cov- 
ering the country. 

Among the foremost speculators in Western 
lands, was George Washington. As early as 1763, 
he employed Col. Crawford, afterward the leader in 
" Crawford's campaign," to purchase lands for him. 
In 1770, he crossed the mountains in company 
with several gentlemen, and examined the country 
along the Ohio, down which stream he passed to 
the mouth of the Great Kanawha, where he shot 
some buffalo, then plenty, camped out a few nights, 
and returned, fully convinced, it seems, that one 
day the West would be the best part of the New- 
World. He owned, altogether, nearly fifty thou- 
sand acres in the West, which he valued at $3.33 
per acre. Had not the war of the Revolution just 
then broken out, he might have been a resident of 
the West, and would have been, of course, one of 
its most prominent citizens. 



MEANWHILE, Kentucky was filling with 
citizens, and though considerable trouble 
was experienced with the Indians, and the operations 
of Col. Richard Henderson and others, who made 
unlawful treaties with the Indians, yet Daniel 
Boone and his associates had established a 
commonwealth, and, in 1777, a county was 
formed, which, erelong, was divided into three. 
Louisville was laid out on land belonging to 
Tories, and an important start made in this part 
of the West. Emigrants came down the Ohio 
River, saw the northern shores were inviting, and 
sent back such accounts that the land north of the 
river rapidly grew in favor with Eastern people. 

One of the most important Western characters, 
Col. (afterward Gen.) George Rogers Clarke, had 
had much to do in forming its character. He 
was born November 19, 1752, in Albemarle 
County, Va., and early came West. He had an 
unusually sagacious spirit, was an excellent sur- 
veyor and general, and took an active interest in 
all State and national affairs. He understood the 
animus of the Revolution, and was prepared to 
do his part. Col. Clarke was now meditating a 
move unequaled in its boldness, and one that had 
more to do with the success of America in the 
struggle for independence than at first appears. 
He saw through the whole plan of the British, 




who held all the outposts, Kaskaskia, Detroit, 
Vincennes and Niagara, and determined to circuna- 
vent them and wrest the West from their power. 
The British hoped to encircle the Americans by 
these outposts, and also unite the Indians in a 
common war against them. That had been 
attempted by the French when the English con- 
quered them. Then the French had a powerful 
ally in the person of Pontiac, yet the brave front- 
iersmen held their homes in many places, though 
the Indians " drank the blood of many a Briton, 
scooping it up in the hollow of joined hands." 
Now the Briton had no Pontiac to lead the scat- 
tered tribes — tribes who now feared the unerring 
aim of a settler, and would not attack him openly — 
Clarke knew that the Delawares were divided in 
feeling and that the Shawanees were but imperfectly 
united in favor of England since the murder of 
their noted chiefs. He was convinced that, if the 
British could be driven from the Western posts, 
the natives could easily be awed into submission, 
or bribed into neutrality or friendship. They 
admired, from their savage views of valor, the 
side that became victorious. They cared little for 
the cause for which either side was fighting. 
Clarke sent out spies among them to ascertain the 
feasibility of his plans. The spies were gone 
from April 20 to June 22, and fully corroborated 
his views concerning the English policy and the 
feelings of the Indians and French. 

Before proceeding in the narrative of this expe- 
dition, however, it will be well to notice a few acts 
transpiring north of the Ohio River, especially re- 
lating to the land treaties, as they were not without 
effect on the British policy. Many of the Indians 
north and south of the Ohio would not recognize 
the validity of the Fort Stanwix treaty, claiming 
the Iroquois had no right to the lands, despite 
their conquest. These discontented natives har- 
assed the emigrants in such a manner that many 
Indians were slain in retaliation. This, and the 
working of the French traders, who at all times 
were bitterly opposed to the English rule, filled the 
breasts of the natives with a malignant hate, which 
years of bloodshed could not wash out. The 
murder of several Indians by lawless whites fanned 
the coal into a blaze, and, by 1774, several retalia- 
tory murders occurred, committed by the natives 
in revenge for their fallen friends. The Indian 
slew any white man he found, as a revenge on some 
friend of his slain ; the frontiersman, acting on the 
same principle, made the borders extremely dan- 
gerous to invaders and invaded. Another cause 

of fear occurred about this time, which threatened 
seriously to retard emigration. 

Pittsburgh had been claimed by both Pennsyl- 
vania and Virginia, and, in endeavoring to settle 
the dispute, Lord Dunmore's war followed. Dr. 
John Connelly, an ambitious, intriguing person, 
induced Lord Dunmore to assert the claims of Vir- 
ginia, in the name of the King. In attempting to 
carry out his intentions, he was arrested by Arthur 
St. Clair, representing the proprietors of Pennsyl- 
vania, who was at Pittsburgh at the time. Con- 
nelly was released on bail, but went at once to 
Staunton, where he was sworn in as a Justice of 
Peace. Returning, he gathered a force of one 
hundred and fifty men, suddenly took possession of 
Pittsburgh, refused to allow the magistrates to 
enter the Court House, or to exercise the functions 
of their ofiices, unless in conformity to his will. 
Connelly refused any terms offered by the Penn- 
sylvania deputies, kept possession of the place, 
acted very harshly toward the inhabitants, stiiTed 
up the neutral Indians, and, for a time, threatened 
to make the boundary line between the two colonies 
a very serious question. His actions led to hostile 
deeds by some Indians, when the whites, no doubt 
urged by him, murdered seven Indians at the 
mouth of the Captina River, and at the house of 
a settler named Baker, where the Indians were 
decoyed under promises of friendship and offers of 
rum. Among those murdered at the latter place, 
was the entire family of the famous Mingoe chief, 
Logan. This has been charged to Michael Cresap ; 
but is untrue. Daniel Grreathouse had command 
of the party, and though Cresap may have been 
among them, it is unjust to lay the blame at his 
feet. Both murders, at Captina and Yellow Creek, 
were cruel and unwarranted, and were, without 
doubt, the cause of the war that followed, though 
the root of the matter lay in Connelly's arbitrary 
actions, and in his needlessly alarming the Indians. 
Whatever may have been the facts in relation to 
the murder of Logan's family, they were of such 
a nature as to make all feel sure of an Indian war, 
and preparations were made for the conflict. 

An army was gathered at Wheeling, which, 
some time in July, under command of Col. Mc- 
Donald, descended the Ohio to the mouth of Cap- 
tina Creek. They proposed to march against an 
Indian town on the Muskingum. The Indians 
sued for peace, but their pretensions being found 
spurious, their towns and crops were destroyed. 
The army then retreated to Williamsburg, having 
accomplished but little. 

■ T 



The Delawares were anxious for peace ; even the 
Mingoes, whose relatives had been slain at Yellow 
Creek, and Captina, were restrained; but Logan, 
who had been turned to an inveterate foe to the 
Americans, came suddenly upon the Monongahela 
settlements, took thirteen scalps in revenge for the 
loss of his family, returned home and expressed 
himself ready to treat with the Long Knives, the 
Virginians. Had Connelly acted properly at this 
juncture, the war might have been ended; but 
his actions only incensed both borderers and In- 
dians. So obnoxious did he become that Lord 
Dunmore lost faith in him, and severely repri- 
manded him. 

To put a stop to the depredations of the Indians, 
two large bodies of troops were gathered in Vir- 
ginia, one under Gren. Andrew Lewis, and one 
under command of Dunmore himself Before 
the armies could meet at the mouth of the Great 
Kanawha, their objective point, Lewis' army, which 
arrived first, was attacked by a furious band of Dela- 
wares, Shawanees, Iroquois and Wyandots. The 
conflict was bitterly prolonged by the Indians, who, 
under the leadership of Cornstalk, were deter- 
mined to make a decisive effort, and fought till 
late at night (October 10, 1774), and then only by 
a strategic move of Lewis' command — which re- 
sulted in the defeat of the Indians, compelling them 
to cross the Ohio — was the conflict ended. Mean- 
while, Dunmore's army came into the enemy's 
country, and, being joined by the remainder of 
Lewis' command, pressed forward intending to an- 
nihilate the Indian towns. Cornstalk and his 
chiefs, however, sued for peace, and the conflict 
closed. Dunmore established a camp on Sippo 
Creek, where he held conferences with the natives 
and concluded the war. When he left the country, 
he stationed 100 men at the mouth of the Great 
Kanawha, a few more at Pittsburgh, and another 
corps at Wheeling, then called Fort Fincastle. 
Dunmore intended to return to Pittsburgh the 
next spring, meet the Indians and form a definite 
peace ; but the revolt of the colonies prevented. 
However, he opened several offices for the sale of 
lands in the West, some of which were in the limits 
of the Pennsylvania colony. This led to the old 
boundary dispute again; but before it could be 
settled, the Revolution began, and Lord Duamore's, 
as well as almost all other land speculations in the 
West, were at an end. 

In 1775 and 1776, the chief events transpiring 
in the West relate to the treaties with the Indians, 
and the endeavor on the part of the Americans to 

have them remain neutral in the family quarrel now 
coming on, which they could not understand. The 
British, like the French, however, could not let 
them alone, and finally, as a retaliatory measure. 
Congress, under advice of Washington, won some of 
them over to the side of the colonies, getting their 
aid and holding them neutral. The colonies only 
offered them rewards for prisoners ; never, like the 
British, offering rewards for scalps. Under such 
rewards, the atrocities of the Indians in some quar- 
ters were simply horrible. The scalp was enough 
to get a reward, that was a mark of Indian valor, 
too, and hence, helpless innocence and decrepit old 
age were not spared. They stirred the minds of 
the pioneers, who saw the protection of their fire- 
sides a vital point, and led the way to the scheme 
of Col. Clarke, who was now, as has been noted, the 
leading spirit in Kentucky. He saw through the 
scheme of the British, and determined, by a quick, 
decisive blow, to put an end to it, and to cripple 
their power in the West. 

Among the acts stimulating Clarke, was the attack 
on Fort Henry, a garrison about one-half mile 
above Wheeling Creek, on the Ohio, by a renegade 
white man, Simon Girty, an agent in the employ of 
the British, it is thought, and one of the worst 
wretches ever known on the frontier. When Girty 
attacked Fort Henry, he led his red allies in regu- 
lar military fashion, and attacked it without mercy. 
The defenders were brave, and knew with whom 
they were contending. Great bravery was displayed 
by the women in the fort, one of whom, a Miss 
Zane, carried a keg of gunpowder from a cabin 
to the fort. Though repeatedly fired at by the sav- 
ages, she reached the fort in safety. After awhile, 
however, the effect of the frontiersmen's shots began 
to be felt, and the Indians sullenly withdrew. 
Re-enforcements coming, the fort was held, and 
Girty and his band were obliged to flee. 

Clarke saw that if the British once got con- 
trol over the Western Indians the scene at Fort 
Henry would be repeated, and would not likely, 
in all cases, end in fiivor of the Americans. With- 
out communicating any of his designs, he left Har- 
rodsburg about the 1st of October, 1777, and 
reached the capital of Virginia by November 5. 
Still keeping his mind, he awaited a favorable op- 
portunity to broach his plans to those in power, 
and, in the meanwhile, carefully watched the exist- 
ing state of feeling. When the opportunity came, 
Clarke broached his plans to Patrick Henry, Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, who at once entered warmly 
into them, recognizing their great importance. 



Through his aid, Clarke procured the necessary au- 
thority to prosecute his plans, and returned at once 
to Pittsburgh. He intended raising men about 
this post, but found them fearful of leaving their 
homes unprotected. However, he secured three 
companies, and, with these and a number of volun- 
teers, picked up on the way down the Ohio River, 
he fortified Corn Island, near the falls, and made 
ready for his expedition. He had some trouble in 
keeping his men, some of those from Kentucky 
refusing to aid in subduing stations out of their 
own country. He did not announce his real inten- 
tions till he had reached this point. Here Col. 
Bowman joined him with his Kentucky militia, 
and, on the 24tli of June, 1778, during a total 
eclipse of the sun, the party left the fort. Before 
his start, he learned of the capture of Burgoyne, 
and, when nearl}' down to Fort 3Iassac, he met 
some of his spies, who informed him of the exag- 
gerated accounts of the ferocity of the Long 
Knives that the French had received from the 
British. By proper action on his part, Clarke saw 
both these items of information could be made 
very beneficial to him. Leaving the river near 
Fort Massac, he set out on the march to Kaskas- 
kia, through a hot summer's sun, over a country 
fiill of savage foes. They reached the town un- 
noticed, on the evening of July 4, and, before 
the astonished British and French knew it, they 
were all prisoners. M. Rocheblave, the English 
commander, was secured, but his wife adroitly con- 
cealed the papers belonging to the garrison. In 
the person of M. Gibault, the French priest, Clarke 
found a true friend. When the true character of 
the Virginians became apparent, the French were 
easily drawn to the American side, and the priest 
secured the surrender and allegiance of Cahokia 
through his personal influence. M. Gibault told 
him he would also secure the post at St. Vincent's, 
which he did, returning from the mission about 
the 1st of AugTist. During the interval, Clarke re- 
enlisted his men, formed his plans, sent his pris- 
oners to Kentucky, and was ready for ftiture action 
when M. Gibault arrived. He sent Capt. Helm 
and a single soldier to Vincennes to hold that fort 
until he could put a garrison there. It is but 
proper to state that the English commander, Col. 
Hamilton, and his band of soldiers, were absent at 
Detroit when the priest secured the village on the 
" Ouabache." When Hamilton returned, in the 
autumn, he was greatly surprised to see the Amer- 
ican flag floating from the ramparts of the fort, 
and when approaching the gate he was abruptly 

halted by Capt. Helm, who stood with a lighted fuse 
in his hand by a cannon, answering Hamilton's 
demand to surrender with the imperative inquiry, 
"Upon what terms, sir?" "LTpon the honors of 
war," answered Hamilton, and he marched in 
greatly chagrined to see he had been halted by 
two men. The British commander sat quietly 
down, intending to go on down the river and sub- 
due Kentucky in the spring, in the mean time 
off'ering rewards for American scalps, and thereby 
gaining the epithet " Hair-buyer General." Clarke 
heard of his actions late in January, 1779, and, as 
he says, " I knew if I did not take him he would 
take me," set out early in February with his troops 
and marched across the marshy plains of Lower 
Illinois, reaching the Wabash post by the 22d of 
that month. The unerring aim of the Westerner 
was eff"ectual. " They will shoot your eyes out," 
said Helm to the British troops. " There, I told 
you so," he further exclaimed, as a soldier vent- 
ured near a port-hole and received a shot directly 
in his eye. On the 24th the fort surrendered. 
The American flag waved again over its ramparts. 
The "Hair-buyer General" was sent a prisoner to 
Virginia, where he was kept in close confinement 
for his cruel acts. Clarke returned to Kaskaskia, 
perfected his plans to hold the Illinois settlements, 
went on to Kentucky, from where he sent word to 
the colonial authorities of the success of his expe- 
dition. Had he received the aid promised him, 
Detroit, in easy reach, would have fallen too, but 
Gen. Green, failing to send it as promised, the capt- 
ure of that important post was delayed. 

Had Clarke failed, and Hamilton succeeded, the 
whole West would have been swept, from the Alle- 
ghanies to the Mississippi. But for this small 
army of fearless Virginians, the union of all the 
tribes from Georgia to Maine against the colonies 
might have been effected, and the whole current 
of American history changed. America owes 
Clarke and his band more than it can ever pay. 
Clarke reported the capture of Kaskaskia and the 
Illinois country early after its surrender, and in 
October the county of Illinois was established, 
extending over an unlimited expanse of country, 
by the Virginia Legislature. John Todd was 
appointed Lieutenant Colonel and Civil Governor. 
In November, Clarke and his men received the 
thanks of the same body, who, in after years, 
secured them a grant of land, which they selected 
on the right bank of the Ohio River, opposite 
Louisville. They expected here a city would rise 
one day, to be the peer of Louisville, then coming 





into prominence as an important place. By some 
means, their expectations failed, and only the 
dilapidated village of Clarkesburg perpetuates 
their hopes. 

The conquest of Clarke changed the face of 
aifairs in relation to the whole country north of 
the Ohio River, which would, in all probability, 
have been made the boundary between Canada and 
the United States. When this was proposed, the 
strenuous arguments based on this conquest, by 
the American Commissioners, secured the present 
boundary line in negotiating the treaty of 1793. 

Though Clarke had failed to capture Detroit, 
Congress saw the importance of the post, and 
resolved on securing it. Gren. McCosh, commander 
at Fort Pitt, was put in command, and $1,000,- 
000 and 3,000 men placed at his disposal. By 
some dilatory means, he got no further than the 
Tuscarawas River, in Ohio, where a half-way 
house, called Fort Laurens, for the President of 
Congress, was built. It was too far out to be of 
practicable value, and was soon after abandoned. 

Indian troubles and incursions by the British 
were the most absorbing themes in the West. 
The British went so far as Kentucky at a later 
date, while they intended reducing Fort Pitt, only 
abandoning it when learning of its strength. 
Expeditions against the Western Indians were led 
by Gen. Sullivan, Col. Daniel Broadhead, Col. 
Bowman and others, which, for awhile, silenced 
the natives and taught them the power of the 
Americans. They could not organize so readily 
as before, and began to attach themselves more 
closely to the British, or commit their depredations 
in bands, fleeing into the wilderness as soon as 
they struck a blow. In this way, several localities 
suffered, until the settlers became again exasper- 
ated ; other expeditions were formed, and a second 
chastisement given. In 1781, Col. Broadhead 
led an expedition against the Central Ohio Indians. 
It did not prove so successful, as the Indians were 
led by the noted chief Brant, who, though not 
cruel, was a foe to the Americans, and assisted the 
British greatly in their endeavors to secure the West. 

Another class of events occun-ed now in the 
West, civil in their relations, yet destined to form 
an important part of its history — its land laws. 

It must be borne in mind, that Virginia claimed 
the greater portion of the country north of the 
Ohio River, as well as a large part south. The 
other colonies claimed land also in the West under 
the old Crown grants, which extended to the 
South or Western Sea. To more complicate mat- 

ters, several land companies held proprietary rights 
to portions of these lands gained by grants from 
the Crown, or from the Colonial Assemblies. 
Others were based on land warrants issued 
in 1763; others on selection and survey and 
still others on settlement. In this state of 
mixed afiairs, it was difficult to say who held a 
secure claim. It was a question whether the old 
French grants were good or not, especially since 
the change in government, and the eminent pros- 
pect of still another change. To, in some way, 
aid in settling these claims, Virginia sent a com- 
mission to the West to sit as a court and determine 
the proprietorship of these claims. This court, 
though of as doubtful authority as the claims 
themselves, went to work in Kentucky and along 
the Ohio River in 1779, and, in the course of one 
year, granted over three thousand certificates. 
These were considered as good authority for a 
definite title, and were so regarded in after pur- 
chases. Under them, many pioneers, like Daniel 
Boone, lost their lands, as all were required to 
hold some kind of a patent, while others, who 
possessed no more principle than "land-sharks" 
of to-day, acquired large tracts of land by holding 
a patent the court was bound to accept. Of all 
the colonies, Virginia seemed to have the best 
title to the Northwest, save a few parcels, such as 
the Connecticut or Western Reserve and some 
similar tracts held by New York, Massachusetts 
and New Jersey. When the territory of the 
Northwest was ceded to the General Government, 
this was recognized, and that country was counted 
as a Virginia county. 

The Spanish Government, holding the region 
west of the Mississippi, and a portion east toward 
its outlet, became an important but secret ally of 
the Americans. When the French revolt was 
suppressed by O'Reilly, and the Spanish assumed 
the government of Louisiana, both Upper and 
Lower, there was a large tract of country, known 
as Florida (East and West), claimed by England, 
and duly regarded as a part of her dominion. 
The boundaries had been settled when the French 
first occupied Lower Louisiana. The Spaniards 
adopted the patriarchal form of rule, as much as 
was consistent with their interests, and allowed the 
French full religious and civil liberty, save that all 
tribunals were after the Spanish fashion, and 
governed by Spanish rules. The Spaniards, long 
jealous of England's growing power, secretly sent 
the Governors of Louisiana word to aid the 
Americans in their struggle for freedom. Though 




they controlled the Mississippi River, they allowed 
an American officer (Capt. Willing) to descend the 
river in January, 1778, with a party of fifty men, 
and ravage the British shore from Manchez Bayou 
to Natchez. 

On the 8th of May, 1779, Spain declared war 
against Great Britain; and, on the 8th of July, 
the people of Louisiana were allowed to take a 
part in the war. Accordingly, Galvez collected a 
force of 1,400 men, and, on the 7th of September, 
took Fort Manchac. By the 21st of September, 
he had taken Baton Rouge and Natchez. Eight 
vessels were captured by the Spaniards on the 
Mississippi and on the lakes. In 1780 Mobile 
fell; in March, 1781, Pensacola, the chief British 
post in West Florida, succumbed after a long 
siege, and, on the 9th of May, all West Florida 
was surrendered to Spain. 

This war, or the war on the Atlantic Coast, did 
not immediately affect Upper Louisiana. Great 
Britain, however, attempted to capture St. Louis. 
Though the commander was strongly suspected of 
being bribed by the English, yet the place stood 
the siege fi-om the combined force of Indians and 
Canadians, and the assailants were dispersed. This 
was done during the summer of 1680, and in the 
autumn, a company of Spanish and French resi- 
dents, under La Balme, went on an expedition 
against Detroit. They marched as far north as 
the British trading-post Ke-ki-ong-a, at the head 
of the Maumee River, but being surprised in the 
night, and the commander slain, the expedition 
was defeated, having done but little. 

Spain may have had personal interests in aiding 
the Americans. She was now in control of the Mis- 
sissippi River, the natural outlet of the Northwest, 
and, in 1780, began the troubles relative to the 
navigation of that stream. The claims of Spain 
were considered very unjust by the Continental 
Congress, and, while deliberating over the question, 
Virginia, who was jealously alive to her Western 
interests, and who yet held jurisdiction over Ken- 
tucky, sent through Jefferson, the Governor, Gen. 
George Rogers Clarke, to erect a fort below the 
mouth of the Ohio. This proceeding was rather 
unwarrantable, especially as the fort was built in 
the country of the Chickasaws, who had thus far 
been true friends to the Americans, and who looked 
upon the fort as an innovation on their territory. 
It was completed and occupied but a short time, 
Clarke being recalled. 

Virginia, in 1780, did a very important thing; 
namely, establishing an institution for higher edu- 

cation. The Old Dominion confiscated the lands 
of "Robert McKenzie, Henry Collins and Alex- 
ander McKee, Britons, eight thousand acres," and 
invested the proceeds of the sale in a public semi- 
nary. Transylvania University now lives, a monu- 
ment to that .spirit. 

While Clarke was building Fort Jefferson, a force 
of British and Indians, under command of Capt. 
Bryd, came down from Canada and attacked the 
Kentucky settlements, getting into the country be- 
fore any one was aware. The winter before had 
been one of unusual severity, and game was ex- 
ceedingly scarce, hence the army was not prepared 
to conduct a campaign. After the capture of Rud- 
dle's Station, at the south fork of the Licking, Bryd 
abandoned any further attempts to reduce the set- 
tlements, except capturing Martin's Station, and 
returned to Detroit. 

This expedition gave an additional motive for 
the chastisement of the Indians, and Clarke, on his 
return from Fort Jefferson, went on an expedition 
against the Miami Indians. He destroyed their 
towns at Loramie's store, near the present city of 
Sydney, Ohio, and at Piqua, humbling the natives. 
While on the way, a part of the army remained 
on the north bank of the Ohio, and erected two 
block-houses on the present site of Cincinnati. 

The exploits of Clarke and his men so effectually 
chastised the Indians, that, for a time, the West 
was safe. During this period of quiet, the meas- 
ures which led to the cession of Western lands to 
the General Government, began to assume a defi- 
nite form. All the colonies claiming Western 
lands were willing to cede them to the Government, 
save Virginia, which colony wanted a large scope 
of Southern country southeast of the Ohio, as far 
as South Carolina. All recognized the justice of 
all Western lands becoming public property, and 
thereby aiding in extinguishing the debts caused by 
the war of the Revolution, now about to close. 
As Virginia held a somewhat different view, the 
cession was not made until 1783. 

The subject, however, could not be allowed to 
rest. The war of the Revolution was now drawing 
to a close ; victory on the part of the colonies was 
apparent, and the Western lands must be a part of 
the public domain. Subsequent events brought 
about the desired cession, though several events 
transpired before the plan of cession was consum- 

Before the close of 1780, the Legislature of 
Virginia passed an act, establishing the "town of 
Louisville," and confiscated the lands of John 





Connelly, who was one of its original proprietors, 
and who distinguished himself in the commence- 
ment of Lord Dunmore's war, and who was now a 
Tory, and doing all he could against the patriot 
cause. The proceeds of the sale of his lands were 
divided between Virginia and the county of Jefferson. 
Kentucky, the next year, was divided into three 
counties, Jefferson, Lincoln and Fayette. Courts 
were appointed in each, and the entry and location 
of lands given into their hands. Settlers, in spite 
of Lidian troubles and British intrigue, were 
pouring over the mountains, particularly so during 
the years 1780 and 1781. The expeditions of 
Clarke against the Miami Indians ; Boone's cap- 
tivity, and escape from them ; their defeat when 
attacking Boonesboro, and other places — all 
combined to weaken their power, and teach them 
to respect a nation whose progress they could not 

The pioneers of the West, obliged to depend on 
themselves, owing to the struggle of the colonies 
for freedom, grew up a hardy, self-reliant race, 
with all the vices and virtues of a border life, and 
with habits, manners and customs necessary to 
their peculiar situation, and suited to their peculiar 
taste. A resume of their experiences and daily 
lives would be quite interesting, did the limits of 
this history admit it here. In the part relating 
directly to this county, the reader will find such 
lives given; here, only the important events can 
be noticed. 

The last event of consequence occurring in the 
West before the close of the Revolution, is one 
that might well have been omitted. Had such 
been the case, a great stain would have been spared 
the character of Western pioneers. Reference is 
made to the massacre of the Moravian Christian 

These Indians were of the Delaware nation 
chiefly, though other Western tribes were visited 
and many converts made. The first converts were 
made in New York and Connecticut, where, after 
a good start had been made, and a prospect of 
many souls being saved, they incurred the enmity 
of the whites, who, becoming alarmed at their suc- 
cess, persecuted them to such an extent that they 
were driven out of New York into Pennsylvania, 
where, in 1744, four years after their arrival in 
the New World, they began new missions. In 
1748, the New York and Connecticut Indians fol- 
lowed their teachers, and were among the founders 
of Friedenshutten, "Tents of Peace," a hamlet 
near Bethlehem, where their teachers were sta- 

tioned. Other hamlets grew around them, until 
in the interior of the colony, existed an Indian 
community, free from all savage vices, and grow- 
ing up in Christian virtues. As their strength 
grew, lawless whites again began to oppress them. 
They could not understand the war of 1754, and 
were, indeed, in a truly embarrassing position. 
The savages could form no conception of any cause 
for neutrality, save a secret sympathy with the 
English ; and if they could not take up the hatchet, 
they were in the way, and must be removed. Fail- 
ing to do this, their red brothers became hostile. 
The whites were but little better. The old suspi- 
cions which drove them from New York were 
aroused. They were secret Papists, in league with 
the French, and furnished them with arms and in- 
telligence; they were interfering with the liquor 
traffic; they were enemies to the Government, 
and the Indian and the white man combined against 
them. They were obliged to move from place to 
place; were at one time protected nearly a year, 
near Philadelphia, from lawless whites, and finally 
were compelled to go far enough West to be out 
of the way of French and English arms, or the 
Iroquois and Cherokee hatchets. They came 
finally to the Muskingum, where they made a set- 
tlement called Schonbrun, "beautiful clear spring," 
in what is now Tuscarawas County. Other settle- 
ments gathered, from time to time, as the years 
went on, till in 1772 large numbers of them were 
within the borders of the State. 

Until the war of independence broke out, they 
were allowed to peacefully pursue their way. When 
that came, they were between Fort Pitt and De- 
troit, one of which contained British, the other 
Americans. Again they could not understand the 
struggle, and could not take up the hatchet. This 
brought on them the enmity of both belligerent 
parties, and that of their own forest companions, 
who could not see wherein their natures could 
change. Among the most hostile persons, were 
the white renegades McKee, Girty and Elliott. 
On their instigation, several of them were slain, 
and by their advice they were obliged to leave their 
fields and homes, where they had many comforts, 
and where they had erected good chapels in which 
to worship. It was just before one of these forced 
removals that Mary, daughter of the missionary 
Hecke welder, was born. She is supposed to be 
the first white female child born north of the Ohio 
River. Her birth occurred April 16, 1781. It 
is but proper to say here, that it is an open ques- 
tion, and one that will probably never be decided, 





L e. Who was the first white child born in Ohio ? 
In all probability, the child was born during the 
captivity of its mother, as history plainly shows 
that when white women were released from the 
Indians, some of them carried children born while 
among the natives. 

When the Moravians were forced to leave their 
settlements on the Muskingum, and taken to San- 
dusky, they left growing fields of corn, to which 
they were obliged to return, to gather food. This 
aroused the whites, only wanting some pretext 
whereby they might attack them, and a party, 
headed by Col. David Williamson, determined to 
exterminate them. The Moravians, hearing of their 
approach, fled, but too late to warn other settle- 
ments, and Gnadenhutten, Salem and one or two 
smaller settlements, were surprised and taken. 
Under deceitful promises, the Indians gave up all 
their arms, showed the whites their treasures, and 
went unknowingly to a terrible death. When ap- 
prised of their fate, determined on by a majority 
of the rangers, they begged only time to prepare. 
They were led two by two, the men into one, the 
women and children into another "slaughter- 
house," as it was termed, and all but two lads were 
wantonly slain. An infamous and more bloody 
deed never darkened the pages of feudal times ; 
a deed that, in after years, called aloud for venge- 
ance, and in some measure received it. Some of 
Williamson's men wrung their hands at the cruel 
fate, and endeavored, by all the means in their 
power, to prevent it; but all to no purpose. The 
blood of the rangers was up, and they would not spare 
"man, woman or child, of all that peaceful band." 

Having completed their horrible work, (March 
8, 1782), Williamson and his men returned to 
Pittsburgh. Everywhere, the Indians lamented 
the untimely death of their kindred, their savage 
relatives determining on their revenge; the Chris- 
tian ones could only be resigned and weep. 

Williamson's success, for such it was viewed by 
many, excited the borderers to another invasion, 
and a second army was raised, this time to 
go to the Sandusky town, and annihilate the 
Wyandots. Col. William Crawford was elected 
leader ; he accepted reluctantly ; on the way, 
the army was met by hordes of savages on the 5th of 

June, and totally routed. They were away north, 
in what is now Wyandot County, and were obliged 
to flee for their lives. The blood of the murdered 
Moravians called for revenge. The Indians de- 
sired it ; were they not relatives of the fallen 
Christians? Crawford and many of his men fell 
into their hands ; . all sufi"ered unheard-of tortures, 
that of Crawford being as cruel as Indian cruelty 
could devise. He was pounded, pierced, cut with 
knives and burned, all of which occupied nearly 
three hours, and finally lay down insensible on a bed 
of coals, and died. The savage captors, in demoni- 
acal glee, danced around him, and upbraided him 
for the cruel murder of their relatives, giving him 
this only consolation, that had they captured Will- 
iamson, he might go free, but he must answer for 
Williamson's brutality. 

The war did not cease here. The Indians, now 
aroused, carried their attack as far south as into 
Kentucky, killing Capt. Estill, a brave man, and 
some of his companions. The British, too, were 
active in aiding them, and the 14th of August a 
large force of them, under Girty, gathered silently 
about Bryant's Station. They were obliged to re- 
treat. The Kentuckians pursued them, but were 
repulsed with considerable loss. 

The attack on Bryant's Station aroused the peo- 
ple of Kentucky to strike a blow that would be 
felt. Gen. Clarke was put at the head of an army 
of one thousand and fifty men, and the Miami 
country was a second time destroyed. Clarke even 
went as far north as the British trading-post at the 
head of the Miami, where he captured a great 
amount of property, and destroyed the post. Other 
outposts also fell, the invading army suffering but 
little, and, by its decisive action, practically closing 
the Indian wars in the West. Pennsylvania suf- 
fered some, losing Hannahstown and one or two 
small settlements. Williamson's and Crawford's 
campaigns aroused the fury of the Indians that 
took time and much blood and war to subdue. The 
Revolution was, however, drawing to a close. Amer- 
ican arms were victorious, and a new nation was 
now coming into existence, who would change the 
whole current of Western matters, and make of the 
Northwest a land of liberty, equality and union. 
That nation was now on the stage. 




® w_ 


^ ® 




THE occupation of the West by the American, 
really dates from the campaign of Gen. Clarke in 
1778, when he captured the British posts in the 
Illinois country, and Vincennes on the Wabash. 
Had he been properly supported, he would have 
reduced Detroit, then in easy reach, and poorly de- 
fended. As it was, however, that post remained in 
charge of the British till after the close of the war 
of the Revolution. They also held other lake 
posts ; but these were included in the terms of 
peace, and came into the possession of the Ameri- 
cans. They were abandoned by the British as 
soon as the different commanders received notice 
from their chiefs, and British rule and English 
occupation ceased in that part of the New World. 

The war virtually closed by the surrender of 
Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown, Va., October 19, 
1781. The struggle was prolonged, however, by 
the British, in the vain hope that they could re- 
trieve the disaster, but it was only a useless waste 
of men and money. America would not be sub- 
dued. "If we are to be taxed, we will be repre- 
sented," said they, "else we will be a free govern- 
ment, and regulate our own taxes." In the end, 
they were free. 

Provisional articles of peace between the United 
States and Great Britain were signed in Paris on 
the 30th of November, 1782. This was followed 
by an armistice negotiated at Versailles on the 20th 
of January, 1783; and finally, a definite treaty of 
peace was concluded at Paris on the 3d of the next 
September, and ratified by Congress on the 4th of 
January, 1784. By the second article of the defi- 
nite treaty of 1783, the boundaries of the United 
States were fixed. A glance at the map of that 
day shows the boundary to have been as follows: 
Beginning at Passamaquoddy Bay, on the coast of 
Maine, the line ran north a little above the forty- 
fifth parallel of latitude, when it diverged southwest- 
erly, irregularly, until it reached that parallel, when 
it followed it until it reached the St. Lawrence River. 
It followed that river to Lake Ontario, down its 
center ; up the Niagara River ; through Lake Erie, 

up the Detroit River and through Lakes Huron and 
Superior, to the northwest extremity of the latter. 
Then it pursued another irregular western course 
to the Lake of the Woods, when it turned south- 
ward to the Mississippi River. The commissioners 
insisted that should be the western boundary, as 
the lakes were the northern. It followed the Mis- 
sissippi south until the mouth of Red River was 
reached, when, turning east, it followed almost a 
direct line to the Atlantic Coast, touching the 
coast a little north of the outlet of St. John's 

From this outline, it will be readily seen what 
boundary the United States possessed. Not one- 
half of its present domain. 

At this date, there existed the original thirteen 
colonies : Virginia occupying all Kentucky and 
all the Northwest, save about half of Michigan and 
Wisconsin, claimed by Massachusetts ; and the upper 
part of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, and the lower 
part (a narrow strip) of Michigan, claimed by Con- 
necticut. Georgia included all of Alabama and 
Mississippi. The Spaniards claimed all Florida 
and a narrow part of lower Georgia. All the coun- 
try west of the Father of Waters belonged to Spain, 
to whom it had been secretly ceded when the fam- 
ily compact was made. That nation controlled the 
Mississippi, and gave no small uneasiness to the 
young government. It was, however, happily set- 
tled finally, by the sale of Louisana to the United 

Pending the settlement of these questions and 
the formation of the Federal Union, the cession of 
the Northwest by Virginia again came before 
Congress. That body found itself unable to fulfill 
its promises to its soldiers regarding land, and 
again urged the Old Dominion to cede the Terri- 
tory to the General Government, for the good of 
all. Congress forbade settlers from occupying the 
Western lands till a definite cession had been 
made, and the title to the lands in question made 
good. But speculation was stronger than law, 
and without waiting for the slow processes of courts, 




the adventurous settlers were pouring into the 
country at a rapid rate, only retarded by the rifle 
and scalping-knife of the savage — a temporary 
check. The policy of allowing any parties to obtain 
land from the Indians was strongly discouraged 
by Washington. He advocated the idea that only 
the General Government could do that, and, in a 
letter to James Duane, in Congress, he strongly 
urged such a course, and pointed out the danger 
of a border war, unless some such measure was 
stringently followed. 

Under the circumstances, Congress pressed the 
claims of cession upon Virginia, and finally in- 
duced the Dominion to modify the terms proposed 
two years before. On the 20th of December, 
1783, Virginia accepted the proposal of Congress, 
and authorized her delegates to make a deed to 
the United States of all her right in the territory 
northwest of the Ohio. 

The Old Dominion stipulated in her deed of 
cession, that the territory should be divided into 
States, to be admitted into the Union as any other 
State, and to bear a proportionate share in the 
maintenance of that Union; that Virginia should 
be re-imbursed for the expense incurred in subduing 
the British posts in the territory; that the French 
and Canadian inhabitants should be protected in their 
rights ; that the grant to Gen. George Rogers Clarke 
and his men, as well as all other similar grants, 
should be confirmed, and that the lands should be 
considered as the common property of the United 
States, the proceeds to be applied to the use of the 
whole country. Congress accepted these condi- 
tions, and the deed was made March 1, 1784. 
Thus the country came from under the dominion 
of Virginia, and became common property. 

A serious difficulty arose about this time, that 
threatened for awhile to involve England and 
America anew in war. Virginia and several 
other States refused to abide by that part of the 
treaty relating to the payment of debts, especially 
so, when the British carried away quite a number 
of negroes claimed by the Americans. This re- 
fusal on the part of the Old Dominion and her 
abettors, caused the English to retain her North- 
western outposts, Detroit, Mackinaw, etc. She 
held these till 1786, when the questions were 
finally settled, and then readily abandoned them. 

The return of peace greatly augmented emigra- 
tion to the West, especially to Kentucky. When 
the war closed, the population of that county (the 
three counties having been made one judicial dis- 
trict, and Danville designated as the seat of gov- 

ernment) was estimated to be about twelve thousand. 
In one year, after the close of the war, it increased 
to 30,0U0, and steps for a State government were 
taken. Owing to the divided sentiment among its 
citizens, its perplexing questions of land titles 
and proprietary rights, nine conventions were held 
before a definite course of action could be reached. 
This prolonged the time till 1792, when, in De- 
cember of that year, the election for persons to 
form a State constitution was held, and the vexed 
and complicated questions settled. In 1783, the 
first wagons bearing merchandise came across the 
mountains. Their contents were received on flat- 
boats at Pittsburgh, and taken down the Ohio to 
Louisville, which that spring boasted of a store, 
opened by Daniel Broadhead. The next year, 
James Wilkinson opened one at Lexington. 

Pittsburgh was now the principal town in the 
West. It occupied the same position regarding 
the outposts that Omaha has done for several years 
to Nebra.ska. The town of Pittsburgh was laid 
out immediately after the war of 1764, by Col. 
Campbell. It then consisted of four squares about 
the fort, and received its name from that citadel. 
The treaty with the Six Nations in 1768, con- 
veyed to the proprietaries of Pennsylvania all the 
lands of the Alleghany below Kittanning, and all 
the country south of the Ohio, within the limits of 
Penn's charter. This deed of cession was recog- 
nized when the line between Pennsylvania and 
Virginia was fixed, and gave the post to the Key- 
stone State. In accordance with this deed, the 
manor of Pittsburgh was withdrawn from market 
in 1769, and was held as the property of the Penn 
family. When Washington visited it in 1770, it 
seems to have declined in consequence of the 
afore-mentioned act. He mentions it as a " town of 
about twenty log houses, on the Monongahela, 
about three hundred yards from the fort." The 
Penn's remained true to the King, and hence all 
their land that had not been surveyed and returned 
to the land office, was confiscated by the common- 
wealth. Pittsburgh, having been surveyed, was 
still left to them. In the spring of 1784, Tench 
Francis, the agent of the Penns, was induced to 
lay out the manor into lots and offer them for sale. 
Though, for many years, the place was rather un- 
promising, it eventually became the chief town in 
that part of the West, a position it yet holds. In 
1786, John Scull and Joseph Hall started the 
Pittsburgh Gazette, the first paper published west 
of the mountains. In the initial number, appeared a 
lengthy article from the pen of H. H. Brackenridge, 

-^1 Si 



afterward one of the most prominent members 
of the Pennsylvania bar. He had located in 
Pittsburgh in 1781. His letter gives a most hope- 
ful prospect in store for the future city, and is a 
highly descriptive article of the Western country. 
It is yet preserved in the "Western Annals," and 
is well worth a perusal. 

Under the act of peace in 1783, no provision was 
made by the British for their allies, especially the 
Six Nations. The question was ignored by the 
English, and was made a handle by the Americans 
in gaining them to their cause before the war had 
fully closed. The treaties made were regarded by 
the Indians as alliances only, and when the En- 
glish left the country the Indians began to assume 
rather a hostile bearing. This excited the whites, 
and for a while a war with that formidable con- 
federacy was imminent. Better councils prevailed, 
and Congress wisely adopted the policy of acquiring 
their lands by purchase. In accordance with this 
policy, a treaty was made at Fort Stanwix with 
the Six Nations, in October, 1784. By this treaty, 
all lands west of a line drawn from the mouth of 
Oswego Creek, about four miles east of Niagara, 
to the mouth of Buffalo Creek, and on to the 
northern boundary of Pennsylvania, thence west 
along that boundary to its western extremity, 
thence south to the Ohio River, should be ceded 
to the United States. (They claimed west of this line 
by conquest.) The Six Nations were to be secured 
in the lands they inhabited, reserving only six miles 
square around Oswego fort for the support of the 
same. By this treaty, the indefinite claim of the 
Six Nations to the West was extinguished, and the 
question of its ownership settled. 

It was now occupied by other Western tribes, 
who did not recognize the Iroquois claim, and who 
would not yield without a purchase. Especially 
was this the case with those Indians living in the 
northern part. To get possession of that country 
by the same process, the United States, through 
its commissioners, held a treaty at Fort Mcintosh 
on the 21st of January, 1785. The Wyandot, 
Delaware, Chippewa and Ottawa tribes were pres- 
ent, and, through their chiefs, sold their lands to 
the Government. The Wyandot and Delaware 
nations were given a reservation in the north part 
of Ohio, where they were to be protected. The 
others were allotted reservations in Michigan. To 
all was given complete control of their lands, allow- 
ing them to punish any white man attempting to 
settle thereon, and guaranteeing them in their 

By such means Congress gained Indian titles to 
the vast realms north of the Ohio, and, a few 
months later, that legislation was commenced that 
should determine the mode of its disposal and the 
plan of its settlements. 

To facilitate the settlement of lands thus acquired, 
Congress, on May 20, 1785, passed an act for dispos- 
ing of lands in the Northwest Territory. Its main 
provisions were : A surveyor or surveyors should be 
appointed from the States ; and a geographer, and 
his assistants to act with them. The surveyors 
were to divide the territory into townships of six 
miles square, by lines running due north and 
south, and east and west. The starting-place 
was to be on the Ohio River, at a point where the 
western boundary of Pennsylvania crossed it. 
This would give the first range, and the first 
township. As soon as seven townships were 
surveyed, the maps and plats of the same were to 
be sent to the Board of the Treasury, who would 
record them and proceed to place the land in the 
market, and so on with all the townships as fast as 
they could be prepared ready for sale. Each town- 
ship was to be divided into thirty-six sections, or 
lots. Out of these sections, numbers 8, 11, 26 and 
29 were reserved for the use of the Government, 
and lot No. 16, for the establishment of a common- 
school fund. One-third of all mines and minerals was 
also reserved for the United States. Three townships 
on Lake Erie were reserved for the use of officers, 
men and others, refiigees from Canada and from 
Nova Scotia, who were entitled to grants of land. 
The Moravian Indians were also exempt from 
molestation, and guaranteed in their homes. Sol- 
diers' claims, and all others of a like nature, were 
also recognized, and land reserved for them. 

Without waiting for the act of Congress, settlers 
had been pouring into the country, and, when or- 
dered by Congress to leave undisturbed Indian 
lands, refused to do so. They went into the In- 
dian country at their peril, however, and when 
driven out by the Indians could get no redress 
from the Government, even when life was lost. 

The Indians on the Wabash made a treaty at 
Fort Finney, on the Miami, January 31, 1786, 
promising allegiance to the United States, and were 
allowed a reservation. This treaty did not include 
the Piankeshaws, as was at first intended. These, 
refusing to live peaceably, stirred up the Shawa- 
nees, who began a series of predatory excursions 
against the settlements. This led to an expedition 
against them and other restless tribes. Gen. Clarke 
commanded part of the army on that expedition. 




but got no farther than Vincennes, when, owing to 
the discontent of his Kentucky troops, he was 
obliged to return. Col. Benjamin Logan, how- 
ever, marched, at the head of four or five hundred 
mounted riflemen, into the Indian country, pene- 
trating as far as the head-waters of Mad River. 
He destroyed several towns, much corn, and took 
about eighty prisoners. Among these, was the 
chief of the nation, who was wantonly slain, 
greatly to Logan's regret, who could not restrain 
his men. His expedition taught the Indians sub- 
mission, and that they must adhere to their con- 

Meanwhile, the difficulties of the navigation of 
the Mississippi arose. Spain would not relinquish 
the right to control the entire southern part of the 
river, allowing no free navigation. She was secretly 
hoping to cause a revolt of the Western provinces, 
especially Kentucky, and openly favored such a 
move. She also claimed, by conquest, much of the 
land on the east side of the river. The slow move- 
ments of Congress; the failure of Virginia to 
properly protect Kentucky, and the inherent rest- 
lessness in some of the Western men, well-nigh 
precipitated matters, and, for a while, serious results 
were imminent. The Kentuckians, and, indeed, 
all the people of the West, were determined the 
river should be free, and even went so far as to 
raise a regiment, and forcibly seize Spanish prop- 
erty in the West. Great Britain stood ready, too, 
to aid the West should it succeed, providing it 
would make an alliance with her. But while the 
excitement was at its height, Washington coun- 
seled better ways and patience. The decisive tone 
of the new republic, though almost overwhelmed 
with a burden of debt, and with no credit, debarred 
the Spanish from too forcible measures to assert 
their claims, and held back the disloyal ones from 
attempting a revolt. 

New Y^ork, Massachusetts and Connecticut ceded 
their lands, and now the United States were ready 
to fulfill their promises of land grants, to the sol- 
diers who had preserved the nation. This did 
much to heal the breach in the West, and restore 
confidence there ; so that the Mississippi question 
was overlooked for a time, and Kentucky forgot her 

The cession of their claims was the signal for 
the formation of land companies in the East ; com- 
panies whose object was to settle the Western coun- 
try, and, at the same time, enrich the founders of 
the companies. Some of these companies had been 
formed in the old colonial days, but the recent war 

had put a stop to all their proceedings. Congress 
would not recognize their claims, and new com- 
panies, under old names, were the result. By such 
means, the Ohio Company emerged from the past, 
and, in 1786, took an active existence. 

Benjamin Tupper, a Revolutionary soldier, and 
since then a government surveyor, who had been 
west as far as Pittsburgh, revived the question. 
He was prevented from prosecuting his surveys by 
hostile Indians, and returned to Massachusetts. 
He broached a plan to Gen. Bufus Putnam, as to 
the renewal of their memorial of 1788, which re- 
sulted in the publication of a plan, and inviting all 
those interested, to meet in February in their re- 
spective counties, and choose delegates to a con- 
vention to be held at the " Bunch-of-grapes Tav- 
ern." in Boston, on the first of March, 1786. On 
the day appointed, eleven persons appeared, and 
by the 3d of March an outline was drawn up, and 
subscriptions under it began at once. The leading 
features of the plan were : " A fund of $1 ,000,000, 
mainly in Continental certificates, was to be raised 
for the purpose of purchasing lands in the Western 
country; there were to be 1,000 shares of $1,000 
each, and upon each share $10 in specie were to 
be paid for contingent expenses. One year's inter- 
est was to be appropriated to the charges of making 
a settlement, and assisting those unable to move 
without aid. The owners of every twenty shares 
were to choose an agent to represent them and 
attend to their interests, and the agents were to 
choose the directors. The plan was approved, and 
in a year's time from that date, the Company was 

By the time this Company was organized, all 
claims of the colonies in the coveted territory were 
done away with by their deeds of cession, Connect- 
icut being the last. 

While troubles were still existing south of the 
Ohio River, regarding the navigation of the Mis- 
sissippi, and many urged the formation of a sepa- 
rate, independent State, and while Congress and 
Washington were doing what they could to allay 
the feeling north of the Ohio, the New England 
associates were busily engaged, now that a Com- 
pany was formed, to obtain the land they wished 
to purchase. On the 8th of March, 1787, a meet- 
ing of the agents chose Gen. Parsons, Gen. Put- 
nam and the Rev. Mannasseh Cutler, Directors for 
the Company. The last selection was quite a 
fitting one for such an enterprise. Dr. Cutler was 

* Historical CoUectionB. 




an accomplished scholar, an excellent •gentleman, 
and a firm believer in freedom. In the choice of 
him as the agent of the Company, lies the fact, 
though unforeseen, of the beginning of anti-slavery 
in America. Through him the famous " compact 
of 1787," the true corner-stone of the Northwest, 
originated, and by him was safely passed. He 
was a good "wire-puller," too, and in this had an 
advantage. Mr. Hutchins was at this time the 
geographer for the United States, and was, prob- 
ably, the best-posted man in America regarding 
the West. Dr. Cutler learned from him that the desirable portions were on the Muskingum 
River, north of the Ohio, and was advised by him 
to buy there if he couH. 

Congress wanted money badly, and many of the 
members favored the plan. The Southern mem- 
bers, generally, were hostile to it, as the Doctor 
would listen to no grant which did not embody 
the New England ideas in the charter. These 
members were finally won over, some bribery be- 
ing used, and some of their favorites made officers 
of the Territory, whose formation was now going 
on. This took time, however, and Dr. Cutler, be- 
coming impatient, declared they would purchase 
from some of the States, who held small tracts in 
various parts of the West. This intimation brought 
the tardy ones to time, and, on the 23d of July, 
Congress authorized the Treasury Board to make 
the contract. On the 26th, Messrs. Cutler and 
Sargent, on behalf of the Company, stated in 
writing their conditions; and on the 27th, Con- 
gress referred their letter to the Board, and an 
order of the same date was obtained. Of this Dr. 
Cutler's journal says: 

" By this grant we obtained near five millions 
of acres of land, amounting to $3,500,000 ; 1 ,500,- 
000 acres for the Ohio Company, and the remainder 
for a private speculation, in which many of the 
principal characters of America are concerned. 
Without connecting this peculation, similar terms 
and advantages for the Ohio Company could not 
have been obtained." 

Messrs. Cutler and Sargent at once closed a ver- 
bal contract with the Treasury Board, which was 
executed in form on the 27th of the next Octo- 

By this contract, the vast region bounded on the 
south by the Ohio, west by the Scioto, east by the 
seventh range of townships then surveying, and 
north by a due west line, drawn from the north 

* Land Laws. 

boundary of the tenth township from the Ohio, 
direct to the Scioto, was sold to the Ohio associ- 
ates and their secret copartners, for $1 per acre, 
subject to a deduction of one-third for bad lands 
and other contingencies. 

The whole tract was not, however, paid for nor 
taken by the Company — even their own portion of 
a million and a half acres, and extending west to the 
eighteenth range of townships, was not taken ; and 
in 1792, the boundaries of the purchase proper 
were fixed as follows: the Ohio on the south, the 
seventh range of townships on the east, the six- 
teenth range on the west, and a line on the north 
so drawn as to make the grant 750,000 acres, be- 
sides reservations ; this grant being the portion 
which it was originally agreed the Company might 
enter into at once. In addition to this, 214,285 
acres were granted as army bounties, under the 
resolutions of 1779 and 1780, and 100,000 acres 
as bounties to actual settlers; both of the latter 
tracts being within the original grant of 1787, and 
adjoining the purchase as before mentioned. 

While these things were progressing. Congress 
was bringing into form an ordinance for the gov- 
ernment and social organization of the North- 
west Territory. Virginia made her cession in 
March, 1784, and during the month following the 
plan for the temporary government of the newly 
acquired territory came under discussion. On the 
19th of April, Mr. Spaight, of North Carolina, 
moved to strike from the plan reported by Mr. 
Jefferson, the emancipationist of his day, a provis- 
ion for the prohibition of slavery north of the Ohio 
after the year 1800. The motion prevailed. From 
that day till the 23d, the plan was discussed and 
altered, and finally passed unanimously with the ex- 
ception of South Carolina. The South would have 
slavery, or defeat every measure. Thus this hide- 
ous monster early began to assert himself. By the 
proposed plan, the Territory was to have been 
divided into States by parallels of latitude and merid- 
ian lines. This division, it was thought, would make 
ten States, whose names were as follows, beginning 
at the northwest corner, and going southwardly : 
Sylvania, Michigania, Cheresonisus, Assenispia, 
Metropotamia, Illinoia, Saratoga, Washington, 
Polypotamia and Pelisipia.* 

A more serious difficulty existed, however, to 
this plan, than its catalogue of names — the number 
of States and their boundaries. The root of the evil 
was in the resolution passed by Congress in October, 

* Spark's Washington. 




1 780, which fixed the size of the States to be formed 
from the ceded lands, at one hundred to one hundred 
and fifty miles square. The terms of that resolu- 
tion being called up both by Virginia and Massa- 
chusetts, further legislation was deemed necessary 
to change them. July 7, 1786, this subject came 
up in Congress, and a resolution passed in favor of 
a division into not less than three nor more than 
five States. Virginia, at the close of 1788, assented 
to this proposition, which became the basis upon 
which the division should be made. On the 29th 
of September, Congress having thus changed the 
plan for dividing the Northwestern Territory into 
ten States, proceeded again to consider the terms of 
an ordinance for the government of that region. At 
this juncture, the genius of Dr. Cutler displayed 
itself A graduate in medicine, law and divinity ; 
an ardent lover of liberty ; a celebrated scientist, 
and an accomplished, portly gentleman, of whom 
the Southern senators said they had never before 
seen so fine a specimen from the New England colo- 
nies, no man was better prepared to form a govern- 
ment for the new Territory, than he. The Ohio 
Company was his real object. He was backed by 
them, and enough Continental money to purchase 
more than a million acres of land. This was aug- 
mented by other parties until, as has been noticed, 
he represented over five million acres. This would 
largely reduce the public debt. Jefi'erson and Vir- 
ginia were regarded as authority concerning the 
land Virginia had just ceded to the Greneral Gov- 
ernment. Jefferson's policy was to provide for the 
national credit, and still check the growth of slavery. 
Here was a good opportunity. Massachusetts 
owned the Territory of Maine, which she was crowd- 
ing into market. She opposed the opening of 
the Northwest. This stirred Virginia. The South 
caught the inspiration and rallied around the Old 
Dominion and Dr. Cutler. Thereby he gained the 
credit and good will of the South, an auxiliary he 
used to good purpose. Massachusetts could not 
vote against him, because many of the constituents 
of her members were interested in the Ohio Com- 
pany. Thus the Doctor, using all the arts of the 
lobbyist, was enabled to hold the situation. True to 
deeper convictions, he dictated one of the most com- 
pact and finished documents of wise statesmanship 
that has ever adorned any statute-book. Jefferson 
gave it the term, "Articles of Compact," and 
rendered him valuable aid in its construction. This 
" Compact" preceded the Federal Constitution, in 
both of which are seen Jefferson's master-mind. 
Dr. Cutler followed closely the constitution of Mas- 

sachusetts, adopted three years before. The prom- 
inent features were : The exclusion of slavery from 
the Territory forever. Provision for public schools, 
giving one township for a seminary, and eveiy six- 
teenth section. (That gave one thirty-sixth of all 
the land for public education.) A provision pro- 
hibiting the adoption of any constitution or the 
enactment of any law that would nullify pre-exist- 
ing contracts. 

The compact further declared that " Religion, 
morality and knowledge being necessary to good 
government and the happiness of mankind, schools 
and the means of education shall always be en- 

The Doctor planted himself firmly on this plat- 
form, and would not yield. It was that or nothing. 
Unless they could make the land desirable , it was 
not wanted, and, taking his horse and buggy, he 
started for the Constitutional Convention in Phil- 
adelphia. His influence succeeded. On the 13th 
of July, 1787, the bill was put upon its passage 
and was unanimously adopted. Every member 
from the South voted for it ; only one man, Mr. 
Yates, of New York, voted against the measure ; 
but as the vote was made by States, his vote was 
lost, and the " Compact of 1787 " was beyond re- 
peal. Thus the great States of the Northwest 
Territory were consecrated to freedom, intelligence 
and morality. This act was the opening step for 
freedom in America. Soon the South saw their 
blunder, and endeavored, by all their power, to re- 
peal the compact. In 1803, Congress referred it 
to a committee, of which John Randolph was 
chairman. He reported the ordinance was a com- 
pact and could not be repealed. Thus it stood, 
like a rock, in the way of slavery, which still, in 
spite of these provisions, endeavored to plant that 
infernal institution in the West. Witness the 
early days of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. But the 
compact could not be violated ; New England ideas 
could not be put down, and her sons stood ready 
to defend the soil of the West from that curse. 

The passage of the ordinance and the grant of 
land to Dr. Cutler and his associates, were soon fol- 
lowed by a request from John Cleve Symmes, of 
New Jersey, for the country between the Miamis. 
Symmes had visited that part of the West in 178G, 
and, being pleased with the valleys of the Miamis, 
had applied to the Board of the Treasury for 
their purchase, as soon as they were open to set- 
tlement. The Board was empowered to act by 
Congress, and, in 1788, a contract was signed, giv- 
ing him the country he desired. The terms of his 






purchase were similar to those of the Ohio Com- 
pany. His appHcation was followed by others, 
whose success or failure will appear in the narrative. 

The New England or Ohio Company was all 
this time busily engaged perfecting its arrange- 
ments to occupy its lands. The Directors agreed 
to reserve 5,760 acres near the confluence of the 
Ohio and Muskingum for a city and commons, for 
the old ideas of the English plan of settling a 
country yet prevailed. A meeting of the Direct- 
ors was held at Bracket's tavern, in Boston, No- 
vember 23, 1787, when four surveyors, and twen- 
ty-two attendants, boat-builders, carpenters, black- 
smiths and common workmen, numbering in all 
forty persons, were engaged. Their tools were 
purchased, and wagons were obtained to transport 
them across the mountains. Gen. Rufus Putnam 
was made superintendent of the company, and 
Ebenezer Sproat, of Rhode Island, Anselm Tup- 
per and John Matthews, from Massachusetts, and 
R. J. Meigs, from Connecticut, as surveyors. At 
the same meeting, a suitable person to instruct them 
in religion, and prepare the way to open a school 
when needed, was selected. This was Rev. Daniel 
Storey, who became the first New England minis- 
ter in the Northwest. 

The Indians were watching this outgrowth of 
affairs, and felt, from what they could learn in Ken- 
tucky, that they would be gradually surrounded by 
the whites. This they did not relish, by any 
means, and gave the settlements south of the Ohio 
no little uneasiness. It was thought best to hold 
another treaty with them. In the mean time, to 
insure peace, the Grovernor of Virginia, and Con- 
gress, placed troops at Venango, Forts Pitt and 
Mcintosh, and at Miami, Vincennes, Louisville, 
and Muskingum, and the militia of Kentucky 
were held in readiness should a sudden outbreak 
occur. These measures produced no results, save 
insuring the safety of the whites, and not until 
January, 1789, was Clarke able to carry out his 
plans. During that month, he held a meeting at Fort 
Harmar,* at the mouth of the Muskingum, where 
the New England Colony expected to locate. 

The hostile character of the Indians did not 
deter the Ohio Company from carrying out its 
plans. In the winter of 1787, Gen. Rufus Put- 

*FortIIarmar was built in 1785, by a detachment of TJni tod States 
soldiers, under command of Maj. John Doughty. It was named in 
honor of Col. Josiah Harmar, to whose regiment Maj. Doughty was 
attached. It was the first military post erected by the Americans 
wit'iin the limits of Ohio, except Fort Laurens, a temporary struct- 
ure liuilt in 1778. When Marietta was founded it was the military 
post of that part of the country, and was for many years au impor- 
tant station. 

nam and forty-seven pioneers advanced to the 
mouth of the Youghiogheny River, and began 
building a boat for transportation down the Ohio 
in the spring. The boat was the largest craft that 
had ever descended the river, and, in allusion to 
their Pilgrim Fathers, it was called the Mayflower. 
It was 45 feet long and 12 feet wide, and esti- 
mated at 50 tons burden. Truly a formidable affair 
for the time. The bows were raking and curved 
like a galley, and were strongly timbered. The 
sides were made bullet-proof, and it was covered 
with a deck roof. Capt. Devol, the first ship- 
builder in the West, was placed in command. On 
the 2d of April, the Mayflower was launched, 
and for five days the little band of pioneers sailed 
down the Monongahela and the Ohio, and, on the 
7th, landed at the mouth of the Muskingum. 
There, opposite Fort Harmar, they chose a loca- 
tion, moored their boat for a temporary shelter, 
and began to erect houses for their occupation. 

Thus was begun the first English settlement in 
the Ohio Valley. About the 1st of July, they 
were re-enforced by the arrival of a colony from 
Massachusetts. It had been nine weeks on the 
way. It had hauled its wagons and driven its 
stock to Wheeling, where, constructing flat-boats, 
it had floated down the river to the settlement. 

In October preceding this occurrence, Arthur 
St. Clair had been appointed Governor of the Ter- 
ritory by Congress, which body also appointed 
Winthrop Sargent, Secretary, and Samuel H. 
Parsons, James M. Varnum and John Armstrong 
Judges. Subsequently Mr. Armstrong declined 
the appointment, and 3Ir. Symmes was given the 
vacancy. None of these were on the ground 
when the first settlement was made, though the 
Judges came soon after. One of the first things the 
colony found necessary to do was to organize 
some form of government, whereby difficulties 
might be settled, though to the credit of the colony 
it may be said, that during the first three months 
of its existence but one diff'erence arose, and that 
was settled by a compromise.* Indeed, hardly a 
better set of men for the purpose could have been 
selected. Washington wrote concerning this 
colony : 

" No colony in America was ever settled under 
such favorable auspices as that which has com- 
menced at the Muskingum. Information, prop- 
erty and strength will be its characteristics. I 
know many of the settlers personally, and there 

♦"Western Monthly Magazine." 




never were men better calculated to promote the 
welfare of such a community." 

On the 2d of July, a meeting of the Directors 
and agents was held on the banks of the Mus- 
kingum for the purpose of naming the newborn 
city and its squares. As yet, the settlement had 
been merely "The Muskingum;" but the name 
Marietta was now formally given it, in honor of 
Marie Antoinette. The square upon which the 
blockhouses stood was called Campus Martius; 
Square No. 19, Capitolium ; Square No. 61, Ce- 
cilia., and the great road running through the 
covert- way. Sacra Via.* Surely, classical scholars 
were not scarce in the colony. 

On the Fourth, an oration was delivered by 
James M. Varnum, one of the Judges, and a 
public demonstration held. Five days after, the 
Governor arrived, and the colony began to assume 
form. The ordinance of 1787 provided two dis- 
tinct grades of government, under the first of 
which the whole power was under the Governor 
and the three Judges. This form was at once 
recognized on the arrival of St. Clair. The first 
law established by this court was passed on the 
25th of July. It established and regulated the 
militia of the Territory. The next day after its 
publication, appeared the Governor's proclamation 
erecting all the country that had been ceded by 
the Indians east of the Scioto River, into the 
county of Washington. Marietta was, of course, 
the county seat, and, from that day, went on 
prosperously. On September 2, the first court 
was held with becoming ceremonies. It is thus 
related in the American Pioneer: 

"The procession was formed at the Point 
(where the most of the settlers resided), in the 
following order: The High Sheriff", with his 
drawn sword; the citizens; the officers of the 
garrison at Fort Harmar; the members of the 
bar ; the Supreme Judges ; the Governor and 
clergyman ; the newly appointed Judges of the 
Court of Common Pleas, Gens. Rufus Putnam 
and Benjamin Tupper. 

"They marched up the path that had been 
cleared through the forest to Campus Martius 
Hall (stockade), where the whole countermarched, 
and the Judges (Putnam and Tupper) took their 
seats. The clergyman, Rev. Dr. Cutler, then 
invoked the divine blessing. The Sheriff, Col. 
Ebenezer Sproat, proclaimed with his solemn ' Oh 
yes ! ' that a court is open for the administration of 

* " Carey's Museum," Vol. 4 

even-handed justice, to the poor and to the rich, 
to the guilty and to the innocent, without respect 
of persons; none to be punished without a trial of 
their peers, and then in pursuance of the laws and 
evidence in the case. 

" Although this scene was exhibited thus early 
in the settlement of the West, few ever equaled it 
in the dignity and exalted character of its princi- 
pal participators. Many of them belonged to the 
history of our country in the darkest, as well as 
the most splendid, period of the Revolutionary 

Many Indians were gathered at the same time 
to witness the (to them) strange spectacle, and for 
the purpose of forming a treaty, though how 
far they carried this out, the Pioneer does not 

The progress of the settlement was quite satis- 
factory during the year. Some one writing a 
letter from the town says: 

"The progress of the settlement is sufficiently 
rapid for the first year. We are continually erect- 
ing houses, but arrivals are constantly coming 
faster than we can possibly provide convenient 
covering. Our first ball was opened about the 
middle of December, at which were fifteen ladies, 
as well accomplished in the manner of polite 
circles as any I have ever seen in the older States. 
I mention this to show the progress of society in 
this new world, where, I believe, we shall vie with, 
if not excel, the old States in every accom- 
plishment necessary to render life agreeable and 

The emigration westward at this time was, 
indeed, exceedingly large. The commander at 
Fort Harmar reported 4,500 persons as having 
passed that post between February and June, 
1788, many of whom would have stopped there, 
had the associates been prepared to receive them. 
The settlement was fi-ee from Indian depredations 
until January, 1791, during which interval it 
daily increased in numbers and strength. 

Symmes and his friends were not idle during this 
time. He had secured his contract in October, 
1787, and, soon after, issued a pamphlet stating 
the terms of his purchase and the mode he intended 
to follow in the disposal of the lands. His plan 
was, to issue warrants for not less than one-quarter 
section, which might be located anywhere, save on 
reservations, or on land previously entered. The 
locator could enter an entire section should he de- 
sire to do so. The price was to be 60f cents per 
acre till May, 1788 ; then, till November, SI ; and 



after that time to be regulated by the demand for 
hind. Each purchaser was bound to begin im- 
provements within two years, or forfeit one-sixth 
of the land to whoever would settle thereon and 
remain seven years. Military bounties might be 
taken in this, as in the purchase of the associates. 
For himself, Symmes reserved one township near 
the mouth of the Miami. On this he intended to 
build a great city, rivaling any Eastern port. He 
offered any one a lot on which to build a house, 
providing he would remain three years. Conti- 
nental certificates were rising, owing to the demand 
for land created by these two purchases, and Con- 
gress found the burden of debt correspondingly 
lessened. Symmes soon began to experience diffi- 
culty in procuring enough to meet his payments. 
He had also some trouble in arranging his boundary 
with the Board of the Treasury. These, and other 
causes, laid the foundation for another city, which is 
now what Symmes hoped his city would one day be. 

In January, 1788, Mathias Denman, of New 
Jersey, took an interest in Symmes' purchase, 
and located, among other tracts, the sections upon 
which Cincinnati has since been built. Retaining 
one-third of this purchase, he sold the balance to 
Robert Patterson and John Filson, each getting 
the same share. These three, about August, agreed 
to lay out a town on their land. It was designated 
as opposite the mouth of the Licking River, to 
which place it was intended to open a road from 
Lexington, Ky. These men little thought of the 
great emporium that now covers the modest site of 
this town they laid out that summer. Mr. Filson, 
who had been a schoolmaster, and was of a some- 
what poetic nature, was appointed to name the 
town. In respect to its situation, and as if with 
a prophetic perception of the mixed races that 
were in after years to dwell there, he named it Los- 
antiville,* " which, being interpreted," says the 
" Western Annals," " means ville^ the town ; aiiti^ 
opposite to ; os, the mouth ; 7/, of Licking. This 
may well put to the blush the Campus Martins 
of the Marietta scholars, and the Fort Solon of 
the Spaniards." 

Meanwhile, Symmes was busy in the East, and, 
by July, got thirty people and eight four-horse 
wagons under way for the West. These reached 
Limestone by September, where they met Mr. 
Stites, with several persons from Redstone. All 

♦Judge Burnett, in his notes, disputes the above account of the 
origin of the city of Cincinnati. Ho says the name " Loaantiville " 
was determined on, but not adopted, when the town was laid out. 
This version is probably the correct one, and will be found fully 
given in the detailed history of the settlements. 

came to Symmes' purchase, and began to look for 

Symmes' mind was, however, ill at rest. He 
could not meet his fii-st payment on so vast a realm, 
and there also arose a difference of opinion be- 
tween him and the Treasury Board regarding the 
Ohio boundary. Symmes wanted all the land be- 
tween the two Miamis, bordering on the Ohio, 
while the Board wished him confined to no more 
than twenty miles of the river. To this proposal 
he would not agree, as he had made sales all along 
the river. Leaving the bargain in an unsettled 
state, Congress considered itself released from all 
its obligations, and, but fur the representations of 
many of Symmes' friends, he would have lost all 
his money and labor. His appointment as Judge 
was not favorably received by many, as they 
thought that by it he would accjuire unlimited 
power. Some of his associates also complained of 
him, and, for awhile, it surely seemed that ruin 
only awaited him. But he was brave and hope- 
ful, and determined to succeed. On his return 
from a visit to his purchase in September, 1788, 
he wrote Jonathan Dayton, of New Jersey, one of 
his best friends and associates, that he thought 
some of the land near the Great Miami "positively 
worth a silver dollar the acre in its present state." 

A good many changes were made in his original 
contract, growing out of his inability to meet his 
payments. At first, he was to have not less than 
a million acres, under an act of Congress passed in 
October, 1787, authorizing the Treasury Board to 
conti-act with any one who could pay for such 
tracts, on the Ohio and Wabash Rivers, whose 
fronts should not exceed one-third of their depth. 

Dayton and JMarsh, Symmes' agents, contracted 
with the Board for one tract on the Ohio, begin- 
ning twenty miles up the Ohio from the mouth of 
the Great Miami, and to run back for quantitj^ be- 
tween the Miami and a line drawn from the Ohio, 
parallel to the general course of that river. In 
1791, three years after Dayton and IMarsh made 
the contract, Symmes found this would throw the 
purchase too far back from the Ohio, and apj^lied 
to Congress to let him have all between the ]Mi- 
amies, running back so as to include 1,000,000 
acres, which that body, on April 12, 1792, agreed 
to do. When the lands were surveyed, however, it 
was found that a line drawn from the head of the 
Little Miami due west to the Great Miami, would 
include south of it less than six hundred thousand 
acres. Even this Symmes could not pay for, and 
when his patent was issued in September, 179-1, it 



gave him and his associates 248,540 acres, exclu- 
sive of reservations which amounted to 63,142 
acres. This tract was bounded by the Ohio, the 
two Miamis and a due east and west Une run so 
as to inckide the desired quantity. Symmes, how- 
ever, made no further payments, and the rest of 
his purchase reverted to the United States, who 
gave those who had bought under him ample pre- 
emption rights. 

The Government was able, also, to give him and 
his colonists but little aid, and as danger from hos- 
tile Indians was in a measure imminent (though all 
the natives were friendly to Symmes), settlers were 
slow to come. However, the band led by Mr. 
Stites arrived before the 1st of January, 1789, 
and locating themselves near the mouth of the 
Little Miami, on a tract of 10,000 acres which 
Mr. Stites had purchased from Symmes, formed 
the second settlement in Ohio. They were soon 
afterward joined by a colony of twenty-six persons, 
who assisted them to erect a block-house, and 
gather their corn. The town was named Columbia. 
While here, the great flood of January, 1789, oc- 
curred, which did much to ensure the future 
growth of Losantiville, or more properly, Cincin- 
nati. Symmes City, which was laid out near the 
mouth of the Great Miami, and which he vainly 
strove to make the city of the future, Marietta 
and Columbia, all suffered severely by this flood, 
the greatest, the Indians said, ever known. The 
site of Cincinnati was not overflowed, and hence 
attracted the attention of the settlers. Denman's 
warrants had designated his purchase as opposite 
the mouth of the Licking; and that point escap- 
ing the overflow, late in December the place was 
visited by Israel Ludlow, Symmes' surveyor, Mr. 
Patterson and Mr. Denman, and about fourteen oth- 
ers, who left JMaysville to "form a station and lay 
ofi" a town opposite the Licking." The river was 
filled with ice "from shore to shore;" but, says 
Symmes in May, 1789, "Perseverance triumphing 
over difficulty, and they landed safe on a most de- 
lightful bank of the Ohio, where they founded 
the town of Losantiville, which populates consid- 
erably." The settlers of Losantiville built a few 
log huts and block-houses, and proceeded to im- 
prove the town. Symmes, noticing the location, 
says: "Though they placed their dwellings in the 
most marked position, yet they suffered nothing 
from the freshet." This would seem to give cre- 
dence to Judge Burnett's notes regarding the origin 
of Cincinnati, who states the settlement was made 
at this time, and not at the time mentioned when 

jMr. Filson named the town. It is further to be 
noticed, that, before the town was located by Mr. 
Ludlow and Mr. Patterson, Mr. Filson had been 
killed by the Miami Indians, and, as he had not paid 
for his one-third of the site, the claim was sold to 
Mr. Ludlow, who thereby became one of the origi- 
nal owners of the place. Just what day the town 
was laid out is not recorded. All the evidence 
tends to show it must have been late in 1788, or 
early in 1789. 

While the settlements on the north side of the 
Ohio were thus progressing, south of it fears of the 
Indians prevailed, and the separation sore was 
kept open. The country was, however, so torn by 
internal factions that no plan was likely to suc- 
ceed, and to this fact, in a large measure, may be 
credited the reason it did not secede, or join the 
Spanish or French faction, both of which were 
intriguing to get the commonwealth. During 
this year the treasonable acts of James Wilkinson 
came into view. For a while he thought success 
was in his grasp, but the two governments were at 
peace with America, and discountenanced any such 
efforts. Wilkinson, like all traitors, relapsed into 
nonentity, and became mistrusted by the govern- 
ments he attempted to befriend. Treason is al- 
ways odious. 

It will be borne in mind, that in 1778 prepa- 
rations had been made for a treaty with the Indi- 
ans, to secure peaceful possession of the lands 
owned in the West. Though the whites held 
these by purchase and treaty, yet many Indians, 
especially the Wabash and some of the Miami In- 
dians, objected to their occupation, claiming the 
Ohio boundary as the original division line. Clarke 
endeavored to obtain, by treaty at Fort Harmar, 
in 1778, a confirmation of these grants, but was 
not able to do so till January, 9, 1789. Rep- 
resentatives of the Six Nations, and of the Wyan- 
dots, Delawares, Ottawas, Chippewas, Pottawato- 
mies and Sacs, met him at this date, and confirmed 
and extended the treaties of Fort Stanwix and 
Fort Mcintosh, the one in 1784, the other in 
1785. This secured peace with the most of them, 
save a few of the Wabash Indians, whom they 
were compelled to conquer by arms. When this 
was accomplished, the borders were thought safe, 
and Virginia proposed to withdraw her aid in sup- 
port of Kentucky. This opened old troubles, and 
the separation dogma came out afresh. Virginia 
offered to allow the erection of a separate State, 
providing Kentucky would assume part of the old 
debts. This the young commonwealth would not 




do, and sent a remonstrance. Virginia withdrew 
the proposal, and ordered a ninth convention, 
which succeeded in evolving a plan whereby Ken- 
tucky took her place among the free States of the 

North of the Ohio, the prosperity continued. 
In 1789, Rev. Daniel Story, who had been ap- 
pointed missionary to the West, came out as a 
teacher of the youth and a preacher of the Gospel. 
Dr. Cutler had preceded him, not in the capacity 
of a minister, though he had preached ; hence Mr. 
Story is truly the first missionary from the Prot- 
estant Church who came to the Ohio Valley in 
that capacity. When he came, in 1789, he found 
nine associations on the Ohio Company's purchase, 
comprising two hundred and fifty persons in all ; 
and, by the close of 1790, eight settlements had 
been made: two at Belpre (belle prairie), one at 
Newbury, one at Wolf Creek, one at Duck Creek, 
one at the mouth of Meigs' Creek, one at Ander- 
son's Bottom, and one at Big Bottom. An ex- 
tended sketch of all these settlements will be found 
farther on in this volume. 

Symmes had, all this time, strenuously endeav- 
ored to get his city — called Cleves City — favorably 
noticed, and filled with people. Pie saw a rival in 
Cincinnati. That place, if made military head- 
quarters to protect the Miami Valley, would out- 
rival his town, situated near the bend of the 
Miami, near its mouth. On the 15th of June, 
Judge Symmes received news that the Wabash 
Indians threatened the Miami settlements, and as 
he had received only nineteen men for defense, he 
applied for more. Before July, Maj. Doughty 
arrived at the "Slaughter House" — as the Miami 
was sometimes called, owing to previous murders 
that had, at former times, occurred therein. 
Through the influence of Symmes, the detach- 
ment landed at the North Bend, and, for awhile, 
it was thought the fort would be erected there. 
This was what Symmes wanted, as it would 
secure him the headquarters of the military, and 
aid in getting the headquarters of the civil gov- 
ernment. The truth was, however, that neither 
the proposed city on the Miami — North Bend, as 
it afterward became known, from its location — or 
South Bend, could compete, in point of natural 
advantages, with the plain on which Cincinnati is 
built. Had Fort Washington been built elsewhere, 
after the close of the Indian war, nature would 
have asserted her advantages, and insured the 
growth of a city, where even the ancient and mys- 
terious dwellers of the Ohio had reared the earthen 

walls of one of their vast temples. Another fact 
is given in relation to the erection of Fort Wash- 
ington at Losantiville, which partakes somewhat of 
romance. The Major, while waiting to decide at 
which place the fort should be built, happened to 
make the acquaintance of a black-eyed beauty, the 
wife of one of the residents. Her husband, notic- 
ing the affair, removed her to Losantiville. The 
Major followed; he told Symmes he wished to see 
how a fort would do there, but promised to give his 
city the preference. He found the beauty there, and 
on his return Symmes could not prevail on him to 
remain. If the story be true, then the importance 
of Cincinnati owes its existence to a trivial circum- 
stance, and the old story of the ten years' war 
which terminated in the downfall of Troy, which 
is said to have originated owing to the beauty of 
a Spartan dame, was re-enacted here. Troy and 
North Bend fell because of the beauty of a wo- 
man ; Cincinnati was the result of the downfall of 
the latter place. 

About the first of January, 1790, Governor St. 
Clair, with his officers, descended the Ohio River 
from Marietta to Fort Washington. There he es- 
tablished the county of Hamilton, comprising the 
immense region of country contiguous to the 
Ohio, from the Hocking River to the Great 
Miami; appointed a corps of civil and military 
officers, and established a Court of Quarter Ses- 
sions. Some state that at this time, he changed 
the name of the village of Losantiville to Cin- 
cinnati, in allusion to a society of that name 
which had recently been formed among the officers 
of the Revolutionary army, and established it as 
the seat of justice for Hamilton. This latter fact 
is certain; but as regards changing the name of 
the village, there is no good authority for it. With 
this importance attached to it, Cincinnati began at 
once an active growth, and from that day Cleves' 
city declined. The next summer, frame houses 
began to appear in Cincinnati, while at the same 
time forty new log cabins appeared about the 

On the 8th of January, the Governor arrived at 
the falls of the Ohio, on his way to establish a 
government at Vincennes and Kaskaskia. From 
Clarkesville, he dispatched a messenger to Major 
Hamtramck, commander at Vincennes, with 
speeches to the various Indian tribes in this part 
of the Northwest, who had not fully agreed to the 
treaties. St. Clair and Sargent followed in a few 
days, along an Indian trail to Vincennes, where he 
organized the county of Knox, comprisir?^ all the 




country along the Ohio, from the Miami to the 
Wabash, and made Vincennes the county seat. 
Then they proceeded across the lower part of Illi- 
nois to Ka.skaskia, where he established the county 
of St. Clair (so named by Sargent), comprising all 
the country from the Wabash to the Mississippi. 
Thus the Northwest was divided into three coun- 
ties, and courts established therein. St. Clair 
called upon the French inhabitants at Vincennes 
and in the Illinois country, to show the titles to 
their lands, and also to defray the expense of a 
survey. To this latter demand they replied through 
their priest, Pierre Gibault, showing their poverty, 
and inability to comply. They were confirmed in 
their grants, and, as they had been good friends to 
the patriot cause, were relieved from the expense 
of the survey. 

While the Governor was managing these affairs. 
Major Hamtramck was engaged in an effort to con- 
ciliate the Wabash Indians. For this purpose, he 
sent Antoine Gamelin, an intelligent French mer- 
chant, and a true friend of America, among them to 
carry messages sent by St. Clair and the Govern- 
ment, and to learn their sentiments and dispositions. 
Gamelin performed this important mission in the 
spring of 1790 with much sagacity, and, as the 

French were good friends of the natives, he did 
much to conciliate these half-hostile tribes. He 
visited the towns of these tribes along the Wabash 
and as far north and east as the Miami village, 
Ke-ki-ong-ga — St. Mary's — at the junction of the 
St. Mary's and St. Joseph's Rivers (Fort Wayne). 

Gamelin's report, and the intelligence brought by 
some traders from the Upper Wabash, were con- 
veyed to the Governor at Kaskaskia. The reports 
convinced him that the Indians of that part of the 
Northwest were preparing for a war on the settle- 
ments north of the Ohio, intending, if possible, to 
drive them south of it; that river being still consid- 
ered by them as the true boundary. St. Clair left 
the administration of affairs in the Western counties 
to Sargent, and returned at once to Fort Washing- 
ton to provide for the defense of the frontier. 

The Indians had begun their predatory incur- 
sions into the country settled by the whites, and 
had committed some depredations. The Kentuck- 
ians were enlisted in an attack against the Scioto 
Indians. April 18, Gen. Harmar, with 100 
regulars, and Gen. Scott, with 230 volunteers, 
marched from Limestone, by a circuitous route, to 
the Scioto, accomplishing but little. The savages 
had fled. 




A GREAT deal of the hostility at this period 
was directly traceable to the British. They 
yet held Detroit and several posts on the lakes, in 
violation of the treaty of 1783. They alleged as 
a reason for not abandoning them, that the Ameri- 
cans had not fulfilled the conditions of the treaty 
regarding the collection of debts. Moreover, they 
did nil they could to remain at the frontier and en- 
joy the emoluments derived from the ftir trade. 
That they aided the Indians in the conflict at this 
time, is undeniable. Just how, it is difiicult to 
say. But it is well known the savages had all the 
ammunition and fire-arms they wanted, more than 
they could have obtained from American and 
French renegade traders. They were also well 
supplied with clothing, and were able to prolong 
the war some time. A great confederation was on 
the eve of formation. The leading spirits were 

Cornplanter, Brant, Little Turtle and other noted 
chiefs, and had not the British, as Brant said, 
"encouraged us to the war, and promised us aid, 
and then, when we were driven away by the Amer- 
icans, shut the doors of their fortresses against us 
and refused us food, when they saw us nearly con- 
quered, we would have effected our object." 

McKee, Elliott and Girty were also actively en- 
gaged in aiding the natives. All of them were in 
the interest of the British, a fact clearly proven 
by the Indians themselves, and by other traders. 

St. Clair and Gen. Harmar determined to send 
an expedition against the IMaumee towns, and se- 
cure that part of the country. Letters were sent 
to the militia ofiicers of Western Pennsylvania, 
Virginia and Kentucky, calling on them for militia 
to co-operate with the regular troops in the cam- 
paign. According to the plan of the campaign. 





300 militia were to rendezvous at Fort Steuben 
( Jefferson ville), march thence to Fort Knox, at 
Vincennes, and join Maj. Hamtramck in an expe- 
dition up the Wabash ; 700 were to rendezvous at 
Fort Washington to join the regular army against 
the Maumee towns. 

While St. Clair was forming his army and ar- 
ranging for the campaign, three expeditions were 
sent out against the Miami towns. One against 
the Miami villages, not far from the Wabash, was 
led by Gen. Harmar. He had in his army about 
fourteen hundred men, regulars and militia. These 
two parts of the army could not be made to affili- 
ate, and, as a consequence, the expedition did little 
beyond burning the villages and destroying corn. 
The militia would not submit to discipline, and would 
not serve under regular officers. It will be seen 
what this spirit led to when St. Clair went on his 
march soon after. 

The Indians, emboldened by the meager success 
of Harmar's command, continued their depreda- 
dations against the Ohio settlements, destroying 
the community at Big Bottom. To hold them in 
check, and also punish them, an army under Charles 
Scott went against the Wabash Indians. Little 
was done here but destroy towns and the standing 
corn. In July, another army, under Col. Wilkin- 
son, was sent against the Eel River Indians. Be- 
coming entangled in extensive morasses on the 
river, the army became endangered, but was finally 
extricated, and accomplished no more than either 
the other armies before it. As it was, however, the 
three expeditions directed against the Miamis and 
Shawanees, served only to exasperate them. The 
burning of their towns, the destruction of their 
corn, and the captivity of their women and chil- 
dren, only aroused them to more desperate efforts 
to defend their country and to harass their in- 
vaders. To accomplish this, the chiefs of the 
Miamis, Shawanees and the Delawares, Little 
Turtle, Blue Jacket and Buckongahelas, were en- 
gaged in forming a confederacy of all the tribes of 
the Northwest, strong enough to drive the whites 
beyond the Ohio. Pontiac had tried that before, 
even when he had open allies among the French. 
The Indians now had secret allies among the Brit- 
ish, yet, in the end, they did not succeed. While 
they were preparing for the contest, St. Clair was 
gathering his forces, intending to erect a chain of 
forts from the Ohio, by way of the Miami and 
Maumee valleys, to the lakes, and thereby effect- 
ually hold the savages in check. Washington 
warmly seconded this plan, and designated the 

junction of the St. Mary's and St. Joseph's Rivers as 
an important post. This had been a fortification 
almost from the time the English held the valley, 
and only needed little work to make it a formid- 
able fortress. Glen. Knox, the Secretary of War, 
also favored the plan, and gave instructions con- 
cerning it. Under these instructions, St. Clair 
organized his forces as rapidly as he could, although 
the numerous drawbacks almost, at times, threat- 
ened the defeat of the campaign. Through the 
summer the arms and accouterments of the army 
were put in readiness at Fort Washington. Many 
were found to be of the poorest quality, and to be 
badly out of repair. The militia came poorly 
armed, under the impression they were to be pro- 
vided with arms. While waiting in camp, habits 
of idleness engendered themselves, and drunken- 
ness followed. They continued their accustomed 
freedom, disdaining to drill, and refused to submit 
to the regular officers. A bitter spirit broke out 
between the regular troops and the militia, which 
none could heal. The insubordination of the mi- 
litia and their officers, caused them a defeat after- 
ward, which they in vain attempted to fasten on 
the busy General, and the regular troops. 

The army was not ready to move till September 
17. It was then 2,300 strong. It then moved 
to a point upon the Great Miami, where they 
erected Fort Hamilton, the first in the proposed 
chain of fortresses. After its completion, they 
moved on forty -four miles farther, and, on the 12th 
of October, began the erection of Fort Jefferson, 
about six miles south of the present town of Green- 
ville, Darke County. On the 24th, the army again 
took up its line of march, through a wilderness, 
marshy and boggy, and full of savage foes. The 
army rapidly declined under the hot sun ; even the 
commander was suffering from an indisposition. 
The militia deserted, in companies at a time, leav- 
ing the bulk of the work to the regular troops. 
By the 3d of November, the army reached a 
stream twelve yards wide, which St. Clair sup- 
posed to be a branch of the St. Mary of the Mau- 
mee, but which in reality was a tributary of the 
Wabash. Upon the banks of that stream, the 
army, now about fourteen hundred strong, en- 
camped in two lines. A slight protection was 
thrown up as a safeguard against the Indians, who 
were known to be in the neighborhood. The Gen- 
eral intended to attack them next day, but, about 
half an hour before sunrise, just after the militia 
had been dismissed from parade, a sudden attack 
was made upon them. The militia were thrown 

^ a 




into confiision, and disregarded the command of 
the officers. They had not been sufficiently drilled, 
and now was seen, too late and too plainly, the evil 
effects of their insubordination. Through the 
morning the battle waged furiously, the men falling 
by scores. About nine o'clock the retreat began, 
covered by Maj. Cook and his troops. The re- 
treat was a disgraceful, precipitate flight, though, 
after four miles had been passed, the enemy re- 
turned to the work of scalping the dead and 
wounded, and of pillaging the camp. Through 
the day and the night their dreadful work con- 
tinued, one squaw afterward declaring " her arm 
was weary scalping the white men." The army 
reached Fort Jefferson a little after sunset, having 
thrown away much of its arms and baggage, though 
the act was entirely unnecessary. After remain- 
ing here a short time, it was decided by the officers 
to move on toward Fort Hamilton, and thence to 
Fort Washington. 

The defeat of St. Clair was the most terrible re- 
verse the Americans ever suffered from the Indi- 
ans. It was greater than even Braddock's defeat. 
His army consisted of 1,200 men and 86 officers, 
of whom 714 men and G3 officers were killed or 
wounded. St. Clair's army consisted of 1,400 
men and 86 officers, of whom 890 men and 16 
officers were killed or wounded. The comparative 
effects of the two engagements very inadequately 
represent the crushing effect of St. Clair's defeat. 
An unprotected frontier of more than a thousand 
miles in extent was now thrown open to a foe made 
merciless, and anxious to drive the whites from the 
north side of the Ohio. Now, settlers were scat- 
tered along all the streams, and in all the forests, ex- 
posed to the cruel enemy, who stealthily approached 
the homes of the pioneer, to murder him and his 
family. Loud calls arose from the people to defend 
and protect them. St. Clair was covered with abuse 
for his defeat, when he really was not alone to blame 
for it. The militia would not be controlled. Had 
Clarke been at their head, or Wayne, Avho succeeded 
St. Clair, the result might have been different. As 
it was, St. Clair resigned ; though ever after he en- 
joyed the confidence of Washington and Congress. 

Four days after the defeat of St. Clair, the army, 
in its straggling condition, reached Fort Washing- 
ton, and paused to rest. On the 9th, St. Clair 
wrote fully to the Secretary of War. On the 12th, 
Gen. Knox communicated the information to Con- 
gress, and on the 26th, he laid before the Presi- 
dent two reports, the second containing sugges- 
tions regarding future operations. His sugges- 

tions urged the establishment of a strong United 
States iVrmy, as it was plain the States could not 
control the matter. He also urged a thorough 
drill of the soldiers. No more insubordination 
could be tolerated. General Wayne was selected 
by Washington as the commander, and at once pro- 
ceeded to the task assigned to him. In June, 1792, 
he went to Pittsburgh to organize the army now 
gathering, which was to be the ultimate argu- 
ment with the Indian confederation. Through the 
summer he was steadily at work. "Train and dis- 
cipline them for the work they are meant for," 
wrote Washington, "and do not spare powder and 
lead, so the men be made good marksmen." In 
December, the forces, now recruited and trained, 
gathered at a point twenty-two miles below Pitts- 
burgh, on the Ohio, called Legionville, the army 
itself being denominated the Legion of the United 
States, divided into four sub-legions, and provided 
with the proper officers. Meantime, Col. Wilkinson 
succeeded St. Clair as commander at Fort Wash- 
ington, and sent out a force to examine the field of 
defeat, and bury the dead. A shocking sight met 
their view, revealing the deeds of cruelty enacted 
upon their comrades by the savage enemj'. 

While Wayne's army was drilling, peace meas- 
ures were pressed forward by the United States 
with equal perseverance. The Iroquois were in- 
duced to visit Philadelphia, and partially secured 
from the general confederacy. They were wary, 
however, and, expecting aid from the British, held 
aloof. Brant did not come, as was hoped, and it 
was plain there was intrigue somewhere. Five 
independent embassies were sent among the West- 
ern tribes, to endeavor to prevent a war, and win 
over the inimical tribes. But the victories they 
had won, and the favorable whispers of the British 
agents, closed the ears of the red men, and all 
propositions were rejected in some form or other. 
All the embassadors, save Putnam, suffered death. 
He alone was able to reach his goal — the Wabash 
Indians — and effect any treaty. On the 27th of 
December, in company with Heckewelder, the Mo- 
ravian missionary, he reached Vincennes, and met 
thirty-one chiefs, representing the Weas, Pianke- 
shaws, Kaskaskias, Peorias, Illinois, Pottawatomies, 
Mascoutins, Kickapoos and Eel River Indians, and 
concluded a treaty of peace with them. 

The fourth article of this treaty, however, con- 
tained a provision guaranteeing to the Indians 
their lands, and when the treaty was laid before 
Congress, February 13, 1793, that body, after 
much discussion, refused on that account to ratify it. 





A great council of the Indians was to be held 
at Auglaize during the autumn of 1702, when 
the assembled nations were to discuss fully their 
means of defense, and determine their future line 
of action. The council met in October, and was 
the largest Indian gathering of the time. The 
chiefs of all the tribes of the Northwest were there. 
The representatives of the seven nations of Canada, 
were in attendance. Cornplanter and forty-eight 
chiefs of the New York (Six Nations) Indians re- 
paired thither. " Besides these," said Cornplanter, 
"there were so many nations we cannot tell the 
names of them. There were three men from the 
Gora nation ; it took them a whole season to come ; 
and," continued he, " twenty -seven nations from 
beyond Canada were there." The question of 
peace or war was long and earnestly debated. Their 
future was solemnly discussed, and around the 
council fire native eloquence and native zeal 
shone in all their simple strength. One nation 
after another, through their chiefs, presented their 
views. The deputies of the Six Nations, who had 
been at Philadelphia to consult the "Thirteen 
Fires," made their report. The Western bound- 
ary was the principal question. The natives, with 
one accord, declared it must be the Ohio River. 
An address was prepared, and sent to the President, 
wherein their views were stated, and agreeing to 
abstain from all hostilities, until they could meet 
again in the spring at the rapids of the Maumee, 
and there consult with their white brothers. They 
desired the President to send agents, "who are 
men of honesty, not proud land-jobbers, but men 
who love and desire peace." The good work of 
Penn was evidenced here, as they desired that the 
embassadors "be accompanied by some Friend or 

The armistice they had promised was not, how- 
ever, faithfully kept. On the 6th of November, 
a detachment of Kentucky cavalry at Fort St. 
Clair, about twenty-five miles above Fort Hamil- 
ton, was attacked. The commander, Maj. Adair, 
was an excellent ofiicer, well versed in Indian tac- 
tics, and defeated the savages. 

This infraction of their promises did not deter 
the United States from taking measures to meet 
the Indians at the rapids of the Maumee " when 
the leaves were fully out." For that purpose, the 
President selected as commissioners, Charles Car- 
roll and Charles Thompson, but, as they declined 
the nomination, he appointed Benjamin Lincoln, 
Beverly Randolph and Timothy Pickering, the 1st 
of March, 1793, to attend the convention, which, 

it was thought best, should be held at the San- 
dusky outpost. About the last of April, these 
commissioners left Philadelphia, and, late in May, 
reached Niagara, where they remained guests of 
Lieut. Gov. Simcoe, of the British Government. 
This officer gave them all the aid he could, yet it 
was soon made plain to them that he would not 
object to the confederation, nay, even rather fav- 
ored it. They speak of his kindness to them, in 
grateful terms. Gov. Simcoe advised the Indians 
to make peace, but not to give up any of their 
lands. That was the pith of the whole matter. 
The British rather claimed land in New York, 
under the treaty of 1783, alleging the Americans 
had not fully complied with the terms of that 
treaty, hence they were not as anxious for peace 
and a peaceful settlement of the difficult boundary 
question as they sometimes represented. 

By July, "the leaves were fully out," the con- 
ferences among the tribes were over, and, on the 
15th of that month, the commissioners met Brant 
and some fifty natives. In a strong speech, Brant 
set forth their wishes, and invited them to accom- 
pany him to the place of holding the council. The 
Indians were rather jealous of Wayne's continued 
preparations for war, hence, just before setting out 
for the Maumee, the commissioners sent a letter to 
the Secretary of War, asking that all warlike 
demonstrations cease until the result of their mis- 
sion be known. 

On 21st of July, the embassy reached the head 
of the Detroit River, where their advance was 
checked by the British authorities at Detroit, com- 
pelling them to take up their abode at the house 
of Andrew Elliott, the famous renegade, then a 
British agent under Alexander McKee. McKee 
was attending the council, and the commissioners 
addressed him a note, borne by Elliott, to inform 
him of their arrival, and asking when they could 
be received. Elliott returned on the 29th, bring- 
ing with him a deputation of twenty chiefs from 
the council. The next day, a conference was held, 
and the chief of the Wyandots, Sa-wagh-da-wunk, 
presented to the commissioners, in writing, their 
explicit demand in regard to the boundary, and 
their purposes and powers. "The Ohio must be 
the boundary," said he, " or blood will flow." 

The commissioners returned an answer to the 
proposition brought by the chiefs, recapitulating 
the treaties already made, and denying the Ohio 
as the boundary line. On the 16th of August, 
the council sent them, by two Wyandot runners, 
a final answer, in which they recapitulated their 





former assertions, and exhibited great powers of 
reasoning and clear logic in defense of their po- 
sition. The commissioners reply that it is impos- 
ble to accept the Ohio as the boundary, and declare 
the negotiation at an end. 

This closed the efforts of the Government to ne- 
gotiate with the Indians, and there remained of 
necessity no other mode of settling the dispute 
but war. Liberal terms had been offered them, 
but nothing but the boundary of the Ohio River 
would suffice. It was the only condition upon 
which the confederation would lay down its arms. 
" Among the rude statesmen of the wilderness, 
there was exhibited as pure patriotism and as lofty 
devotion to the good of their race, as ever won ap- 
plause among civilized men. The white man had, 
ever since he came into the country, been encroach- 
ing on their lands. He had long occupied the 
regions beyond the mountains. He had crushed 
the conspiracy formed by Pontiac, thirty years be- 
fore. He had taken possession of the common 
hunting-ground of all the tribes, on the faith of 
treaties they did not acknowledge. He was 
now laying out settlements and building forts in 
the heart of the country to which all the tribes 
had been driven, and which now was all they could 
call their own. And now they asked that it should 
be guaranteed to them, that the boundary which 
they had so long asked for should be drawn, and 
a fijQal end be made to the continual aggressions of 
the whites ; or, if not, they solemnly determined to 
stake their all, against fearful odds, in defense of 
their homes, their country and the inheritance of 
their children. Nothing could be more patriotic 
than the position they occupied, and nothing could 
be more noble than the declarations of their 

They did not know the strength of the whites, 
and based their success on the victories already 
gained. They hoped, nay, were promised, aid from 
the British, and even the Spanish had held out to 
them assurances of help when the hour of conflict 

The Americans were not disposed to yield even 
to the confederacy of the tribes backed by the two 
rival nations, forming, as Wayne characterized it, a 
" hydra of British, Spanish and Indian hostility." 
On the 16th of August, the commissioners re- 
ceived the final answer of the council. The 17th, 
they left the mouth of the Detroit River, and the 
23d, arrived at Fort Erie, where they immediately 

* Annals of the West. 

dispatched messengers to Gen. Wayne to inform 
him of the issue of the negotiation. Wayne had 
spent the winter of 1792-93, at Legionville, in col- 
lecting and organizing his army. April 30, 1793, 
the army moved down the river and encamped at 
a point, called by the soldiers " Hobson's choice," 
because from the extreme height of the river they 
were prevented from landing elsewhere. Here 
Wayne was engaged, during the negotiations for 
peace, in drilling his soldiers, in cutting roads, and 
collecting suj^plies for the army. He was ready 
for an immediate campaign in case the council 
failed in its object. 

While here, he sent a letter to the Secretarj^ of 
War, detailing the circumstances, and suggesting 
the probable course he should follow. He re- 
mained here during the summer, and, when apprised 
of the issue, saw it was too late to attempt the 
campaign then. He sent the Kentucky militia 
home, and, with his regular soldiers, went into 
winter quarters at a fort he built on a tributary 
of the Great Miami. He called the fort Green- 
ville. The present town of Greenville is near the 
site of the fort. During the winter, he sent a de- 
tachment to visit the scene of St. Clair's defeat. 
They found more than six hundred skulls, and 
were obliged to "scrape the bones together and 
carry them out to get a place to make their beds." 
They buried all they could find. Wayne was 
steadily preparing his forces, so as to have every- 
thing ready for a sure blow when the time came. 
All his information showed the faith in the British 
which still animated the doomed red men, and 
gave them a hope that could end only in defeat. 

The conduct of the Indians fully corroborated 
the statements received by Gen. Wayne. On the 
30th of June, an escort of ninety riflemen and 
fifty dragoons, under command of Maj. 3IcMahon, 
was attacked under the walls of Fort Recovery by 
a force of more than one thousand Indians under 
charge of Little Turtle. They were repulsed and 
badly defeated, and, the next day, driven away. 
Their mode of action, their arms and ammunition, 
all told plainly of British aid. They also ex- 
pected to find the cannon lost by St. Clair Novem- 
ber 4, 1791, but which the Americans had secured. 
The 26th of July, Gen. Scott, with 1,600 
mounted men from Kentucky, joined Gen. Wayne 
at Fort Greenville, and, two days after, the legion 
moved forward. The 8th of August, the army 
reached the junction of the Auglaize and Mau- 
mee, and at once proceeded to erect Fort Defiance, 
where the waters meet. The Indians had abandoned 




their towns on the approach of the army, and 
were congregating further northward. 

While engaged on Fort Defiance, Wayne 
received continual and full reports of the Indians — 
of their aid from Detroit and elsewhere; of the 
nature of the ground, and the circumstances, 
favorable or unfavorable. From all he could 
learn, and considering the spirits of his army, 
now thoroughly disciplined, lie determined to 
march forward and settle matters at once. Yet, 
true to his own instincts, and to the measures of 
peace so forcibly taught by Washington, he sent 
Christopher Miller, who had been naturalized 
among the Shawanees, and taken prisoner by 
Wayne's spies, as a messenger of peace, offering 
terms of friendship. 

Unwilling to waste time, the troops began to 
move forward the 15th of August, and the next 
day met Miller with the message that if the Amer- 
icans would wait ten days at Auglaize the Indians 
would decide for peace or war. Wayne knew too 
well the Indian character, and answered the mes- 
sage by simply marching on. The 18th, the legion 
had advanced forty-one miles from Auglaize, and, 
being near the long-looked-for foe, began to take 
some measures for protection, should they be at- 
tacked. A slight breastwork, called Fort Deposit, 
was erected, wherein most of their heavy baggage 
was placed. They remained here, building their 
works, until the 20th, when, storing their baggage, 
the army began again its march. After advancing 
about five miles, they met a large force of the ene- 
my, two thousand strong, who fiercely attacked 
them. Wayne was, however, prepared, and in the 
short battle that ensued they were routed, and 
large numbers slain. The American loss was very 
slight. The horde of savages were put to flight, 
leaving the Americans victorious almost under 
the walls of the British garrison, under Maj. 
Campbell. This ofiicer sent a letter to Gen. 
Wayne, asking an explanation of his conduct in 
fighting so near, and in such evident hostility to 
the British. Wayne replied, telling him he was 
in a country that did not belong to him, and one 
he was not authorized to hold, and also charKintr 
him with aiding the Indians. A spirited corre- 
spondence followed, which ended in the American 
commander marching on, and devastating the In- 
dian country, even burning IMcKee's house and 
stores under the muzzles of the English guns. 

The 14lh of September, the army marched from 
Fort Defiance for the IVliami village at the junc- 
tion of the St. Mary's and St. Joseph Rivers. It 

reached there on the 17th, and the next day Gen. 
Wayne selected a site for a fort. The 22d of Oc- 
tober, the fort was completed, and garrisoned by a 
detachment under Maj. Hamtramck, who gave to it 
the name of Fort Wayne. The l-lth of October, 
the mounted Kentucky volunteers, who had be- 
come dissatisfied and mutinous, were started to 
Fort Washington, where they were immediately 
mustered out of service and discharged. The 28th 
of October, the legion marched from Fort Wayne 
to Fort Greenville, where Gen. Wayne at once 
established his headquarters. 

The campaign had been decisive and short, and 
had taught the Indians a severe lesson. The Brit- 
ish, too, had failed them in their hour of need, and 
now they began to see they had a foe to contend 
whose resources were exhaustless. Under these 
circumstances, losing faith in the English, and at 
last impressed with a respect for American power, 
after the defeat experienced at the hands of the 
"Black Snake," the various tribes made up their 
minds, by degrees, to ask for peace. During the 
winter and spring, they exchanged prisoners, and 
made ready to meet Gen. Wayne at Greenville, in 
June, for the purpose of forming a definite treaty, 
as it had been agreed should be done by the pre- 
liminaries of January 24. 

During the month of June, 1795, representa- 
tives of the Northwestern tribes began to gather at 
Greenville, and, the 16th of the month. Gen. Wayne 
met in council the Delawares, Ottawas, Pottawato- 
mies and Eel River Indians, and the conferences, 
which lasted till August 10, began. The 21st 
of June, Buckongahelas arrived ; the 23d, Little 
Turtle and other Miamis ; the 13th of July, 
Tarhe and other Wyandot chiefs ; and the 18th, 
Blue Jacket, and thirteen Shawanees and Massas 
with twenty Chippewas. 

Most of these, as it appeared by their statements, 
had been tampered with by the English, especially 
by McKee, Girty and Brant, even after the pre- 
liminaries of January 24, and while IMr. Jay was 
perfecting his treaty. They had, however, all de- 
termined to make peace with the "Thirteen Fires," 
and although some difficulty as to the ownership of 
the lands to be ceded, at one time seemed likely to 
arise, the good sense of Wayne and the leading 
chiefs prevented it, and, the 30th of July, the treaty 
was agreed to which should bury the hatchet for- 
ever. Between that day and the 3d of August, 
it was engro.ssed, and, having been signed by the 
various nations upon the day last named, it was 
finally acted upon the 7th, and the presents from 




the United States distributed. The basis of this 
treaty was the previous one made at Fort Harmar. 
The boundaries made at that time were re-affirmed ; 
the whites were secured on the lands now occu- 
pied by them or secured by former treaties ; and 
among all the assembled nations, presents, in value 
not less than one thousand pounds, were distributed 
to each through its representatives, many thousands 
in all. The Indians were allowed to remove and 

punish intruders on their lands, and were permitted 
to hunt on the ceded lands. 

" This great and abiding peace document wa.s 
signed by the various tribes, and dated August 3, 
1795. It was laid before the Senate December 9, 
and ratified the 22d. So closed the old Indian 
wars in the West." * 

* Aanals of the West." 



WHILE these six years of Indian wars were 
in progress, Kentucky was admitted as a 
State, and Pinckney's treaty with Spain was com- 
pleted. This last occurrence was of vital impor- 
tance to the West, as it secured the free navigation 
of the Mississippi, charging only a fair price for 
the storage of goods at Spanish ports. This, 
though not all that the Americans wished, was a 
great gain in their favor, and did much to stop 
those agitations regarding a separation on the part 
of Kentucky. It also quieted affairs further 
south than Kentucky, in the Georgia and South 
Carolina Territory, and put an end to French 
and Spanish intrigue for the Western Territory. 
The treaty was signed November 24, 1794. 
Another treaty was concluded by Mr. John Jay 
between the two governments, Lord Greenville 
representing the English, and Mr. Jay, the Ameri- 
cans. The negotiations lasted from April to 
November 19, 1795, when, on that day, the treaty 
was signed and duly recognized. It decided 
effectually all the questions at issue, and was the 
signal for the removal of the British troops from 
the Northwestern outposts. This was effected as 
soon as the proper transfers could be made. The 
second article of the treaty provided that, "His 
Majesty will withdraw all his troops and garrisons 
from all posts and places within the boundary 
lines assigned by the treaty of peace to the United 
States. This evacuation shall take place on or 
before the 1st day of June, 1796, and all the 
proper measures shall be taken, in the interval, by 
concert, between the Government of the United 
States and His Majesty's Governor General in 
America, for settling the previous arrangements 

which may be necessary respecting the delivery 
of the said posts; the United States, in the mean 
time, at their discretion, extending their settle- 
ments to any part within the said boundary line, 
except within the precincts or jurisdiction of any 
of the said posts. 

" All settlers and all traders within the precincts 
or jurisdiction of the said posts shall continue to 
enjoy, unmolested, all their property of every 
kind, and shall be protected therein. They shall 
be at full liberty to remain there or to remove 
with all, or any part, of their effects, or retain the 
property thereof at their discretion ; such of them 
as shall continue to reside within the said boundary 
lines, shall not be compelled to become citizens of 
the United States, or take any oath of allegiance 
to the Government thereof; but they shall be at 
full liberty so to do, if they think proper; they 
shall make or declare their election one year after 
the evacuation aforesaid. And all persons who 
shall continue therein after the expiration of the 
said year, without having declared their intention 
of remaining subjects to His Britannic Majesty, 
shall be considered as having elected to become 
citizens of the United States." 

The Indian war had settled all fears from that 
source ; the treaty with Great Britain had estab- 
lished the boundaries between the two countries 
and secured peace, and the treaty with Spain had 
secured the privilege of navigating the IMississippi, 
by paying only a nominal sum. It had also bound 
the people of the West together, and ended the 
old separation question. There was no danger 
from that now. Another difficulty arose, however, 
relating to the home rule, and the organization of 




the home government. There were two parties in 
the country, known as Federalist and Anti-Federal- 
ist. One favored a central government, whose au- 
thority should be supreme ; the other, only a 
compact, leaving the States supreme. The worth- 
lessness of the old colonial system became, daily, 
mure apparent. While it existed no one felt safe. 
There was no prospect of paying the debt, and, 
hence, no credit. When Mr. Hamilton, Secretary 
of the Treasury, offered his financial plan to the 
country, favoring centralization, it met, in many 
places, violent opposition. Washington was strong 
enough to carry it out, and gave evidence that he 
would do so. When, therefore, the excise law 
passed, and taxes on whisky were collected, an 
open revolt occurred in Pennsylvania, known as 
the "Whisky Insurrection." It was put down, 
finally, by military power, and the malcontents 
made to know that the United States was a gov- 
ernment, not a compact liable to rupture at any 
time, and by any of its members. It taught the 
entire nation a lesson. Centralization meant pres- 
ervation. Should a " compact " form of government 
prevail, then anarchy and ruin, and ultimate sub- 
jection to some foreign power, met their view. 
That they had just fought to dispel, and must it 
all go for naught ? The people saw the rulers 
were right, and gradually, over the West, spread a 
spirit antagonistic to State supremacy. It did not 
revive till Jackson's time, when he, with an iron 
hand and iron will, crushed out the evil doctrine 
of State supremacy. It revived again in the late 
war, again to be crushed. It is to be hoped that 
ever thus will be its fiite. " The Union is insepa- 
rable," said the Grovernment, and the people echoed 
the words. 

During the war, and while all these events had 
been transpiring, settlements had been taking place 
upon the Ohio, which, in tlieir influence ujjon the 
Northwest, and especially upon the State, as soon 
as it was created, were deeply felt. The Virginia 
and the Connecticut Reserves were at this time 
peopled, and, also, that part of the Miami Valley 
about Dayton, which city dates its origin from that 

As early as 1787, the reserved lands of the Old 
Dominion north of the Ohio were examined, and, 
in August of that year, entries were made. As 
no good title could be obtained from Congress at 
this time, the settlement practically ceased until 
1790, when the prohibition to enter them was 
withdrawn. As soon as that was done, surveying 
began again. Nathaniel Massie was amons; the 

foremost men in the survey of this tract, and lo- 
cating the lands, laid off a town about twelve miles 
above Maysville. The place was called Manchester, 
and yet exists. From this point, Massie continued 
through. all the Indian war, despite the danger, to 
survey the surrounding country, and prepare it for 

Connecticut had, as has been stated, ceded her 
lands, save a tract extending one hundred and 
twenty miles beyond the western boundary of 
Pennsylvania. Of this Connecticut Reserve, so 
far as the Indian title was extinguished, a survey 
was ordered in October, 1786, and an office opened 
for its disposal. Part was soon sold, and, in 1792, 
half a million of acres were given to those citizens 
of Connecticut who had lost property by the acts 
of the British troops during the Revolutionary 
war at New London, New Haven and elsewhere. 
These lands thereby became known as " Fire lands " 
and the "Sufferer's lands," and were located in the 
western part of the Reserve. In May, 1795, the 
Connecticut Legislature authorized a committee to 
dispose of the remainder of the Reserve. Before 
autumn the committee sold it to a company known 
as the Connecticut Land Company for $1,200,000, 
and about the 5th of September quit-claimed the 
land to the Company. The same day the Company 
received it, it sold 3,000,000 acres to John Mor- 
gan, John Caldwell and Jonathan Brace, in trust. 
Upon these quit-claim titles of the land all deeds 
in the Reserve are based. Surveys were com- 
menced in 1796, and, by the close of the next 
year, all the land east of the Cuyahoga was divided 
into townships five miles square. The agent of the 
Connecticut Land Company was Gen. Moses Cleve- 
land, and in his honor the leading city of the Re- 
serve was named. That township and five others 
were reserved for private sale; the balance were 
disposed of by lottery, the first drawing occurring 
in February, 1798. 

Dayton resulted from the treaty made by Wayne. 
It came out of the boundaiy ascribed to Symmes, 
and for a while all such lands were not recognized 
as sold by Congress, owing to the failure of 
Symmes and his associates in paying for them. 
Thereby there existed, for a time, considerable un- 
easiness regarding the title to these lands. In 
1799, Congress was induced to issue patents to the 
actual settlers, and thus secure them in their pre- 

Seventeen days after Wayne's treaty, St. Clairs 
Wilkinson, Jonathan Dayton and Israel Ludlow 
contracted with Symmes for the seventh and eighth 




ranges, between Mad River and the Little Miami. 
Three settlements were to be made: one at the 
mouth of Mad lliver, one on the Little Miami, in 
the seventh range, and another on Mad River. On 
the 21st of September, 1795, Daniel C. Cooper 
started to survey and mark out a road in the pur- 
chase, and John Dunlap to run its boundaries, 
which was completed before October 4. On No- 
vember 4, Mr. Ludlow laid oiF the town of Day- 
ton, which, like land in the Connecticut Reserve, 
was sold by lottery. 

A gigantic scheme to purchase eighteen or 
twenty million acres in Michigan, and then pro- 
cure a good title from the Government — who alone 
had such a right to procure land — by giving mem- 
bers of CongTcss an interest in the investment, 
appeared shortly after Wayne's treaty. When 
some of the members were approached, however, 
the real spirit of the scheme appeared, and, instead 
of gaining ground, led to the exposure, resulting 
iu the reprimanding severely of Robert Randall, 
the principal mover in the whole plan, and in its 
speedy disappearance. 

Another enterprise, equally gigantic, also ap- 
peared. It was, however, legitimate, and hence 
successful. On the 20th of February, 1795, the 
North American Land Company was formed in 
Philadelphia, under the management of such pat- 
riots as Robert Morris, John Nicholson and James 
Greenleaf. This Company purchased large tracts 
in the West, which it disposed of to actual settlers, 
and thereby aided greatly in populating that part 
of the country. 

Before the close of 1795, the Governor of the 
Territory, and his Judges, published sixty-four 
statutes. Thirty-four of these were adopted at 
Cincinnati during June, July and August of that 
year. They were known as the Maxwell code, 
from the name of the publisher, but were passed 
by Governor St. Clair and Judges Symmes and 
Turner. Among them was that which provided 
that the common law of England, and all its stat- 
utes, made previous to the fourth year of James 
the First, should be in full force within the Terri- 
tory. " Of the system as a whole," says Mr. Case, 
" with its many imperfections, it may be doubted 
that any colony, at so early a period after its first 
establishment, ever had one so good and applicable 
to all." 

The Union had now safely passed through its 
most critical period after the close of the war of 
independence. The danger from an irruption of 
its own members ; of a war or alliance of its West- 

ern portion with France and Spain, and many 
other perplexing questions, were now effectually 
settled, and the population of the Territory began 
rapidly to increase. Before the close of the year 
17 96, the Northwest contained over five thousand 
inhabitants, the requisite number to entitle it to 
one representative iu the national Congress. 

Western Pennsylvania also, despite the various 
conflicting claims regarding the land titles in that 
part of the State, began rapidly to fill with emigrants. 
The "Triangle" and the " Struck District " were 
surveyed and put upon the market under the act 
of 1792. Treaties and purchases from the various 
Indian tribes, obtained control of the remainder of 
the lands in that part of the State, and, by 1796, 
the State owned all the land within its boundaries. 
Towns were laid off, land put upon the market, so 
that by the year 1800, the western part of the 
Keystone State was divided into eight counties, viz.. 
Beaver, Butler, Mercer, Crawford, Erie, Warren, 
Venango and Armstrong. 

The ordinance relative to the survey and dis- 
posal of lands in the Northwest Territory has 
already been given. It was adhered to, save in 
minor cases, where necessity required a slight 
change. The reservations were recognized by 
Congi'ess, and the titles to them all confirmed to 
the grantees. Thus, Clarke and his men, the 
Connecticut Reserve, the Refugee lands, the 
French inhabitants, and all others holding patents 
to land from colonial or foreign governments, were 
all confirmed in their rights and protected in their 

Before the close of 1796, the upper North- 
western posts were all vacated by the British, 
under the terms of Mr. Jay's treaty. Wayne at 
once transferred his headquarters to Detroit, where 
a county was named for him, including the north- 
western part of Ohio, the northeast of Indiana, 
and the whole of Michigan. 

The occupation of the Territory by the Ameri- 
cans gave additional impulse to emigration, and a 
better feeling of security to emigrants, who fol- 
lowed closely upon the path of the army. Na- 
thaniel Masf-ie, who has already been noticed as 
the founder of Manchester, laid out the town of 
Chillicothe, on the Scioto, in 1796. Before the 
close of the year, it contained several stores, 
shops, a tavern, and was well populated. With 
the increase of settlement and the security guar- 
anteed by the treaty of Greenville, the arts of 
civilized life began to appear, and their influence 
upon pioneers, especially those born on the frontier, 



-rf 5) 



began to manifest itself. Better dwellings, schools, 
churches, dress and manners prevailed. Life 
began to assume a reality, and lost much of 
that recklessness engendered by the habits of a 
frontier life. 

Cleveland, Cincinnati, the Miami, the Mus- 
kingum and the Scioto Valleys were filling with 
people. Cincinnati had more than one hundred 
log cabins, twelve or fifteen frame houses and a 
population of more than six hundred persons. In 
1796, the first house of worship for the Presby- 
terians in that city was built. 

Before the close of the same year, ManchcvSter 
contained over thirty families ; emigrants from 
Virginia were going up all the valleys from the 
Ohio; and Ebenezer Zane had opened a bridle- 
path from the Ohio River, at Wheeling, across the 
country, by Chillicothe, to Limestone, Ky. The 
next year, the United States mail, for the first 
time, traversed this route to the West. Zane was 
given a section of land for his path. The popu- 
lation of the Territory, estimated at from five to 
eight thousand, was chiefly distributed in lower 
valleys, bordering on the Ohio River. The French 
still occupied the Illinois country, and were the 
principal inhabitants about Detroit. 

South of the Ohio River, Kentucky was pro- 
gressing favorably, while the '' Southwestern Ter- 
ritory," ceded to the United States by North 
Carolina in 1790, had so rapidly populated that, 
in 1793, a Territorial form of government was 
allowed. The ordinance of 1787, save the clause 
prohibiting slavery, was adopted, and the Territory 
named Tennessee. On June 6, 179(3, the Terri- 
tory contained more than seventy-five thousand 
inhabitants, and was admitted into the Union as a 
State. Four years after, the census showed a 
population of 105,002 souls, including 13,584 
slaves and persons of color. The same year 
Tennessee became a State, Samuel Jackson and 
Jonathan Sharpless erected the Redstone Paper 
Mill, four miles east of Brownsville, it being the 
first manufactory of the kind west of the Alle- 

In the month of December, 1796, Gen. Wayne, 
who had done so much for the development of the 
West, while on his way from Detroit to Philadel- 
phia, was attacked with sickness and died in a 
cabin near Erie, in the north part of Pennsylvania, 
lie was nearly fifty-one years old, and was one of 

the bravest officers in the Revolutionary war, and 
one of America's truest patriots. In 1809, his 
remains were removed Irom Erie, by his sou, Col. 
Isaac Wayne, to the Radnor churchyard, near the 
place of his birth, and an elegant monument erected 
on his tomb by the Pennsylvania Cincinnati So- 

After the death of Wayne, Gen. Wilkinson was 
appointed to the command of the Western anny. 
While he was in command, Carondelet, the Spanish 
governcjr of West Florida and Louisiana, made one 
more effort to separate the Union, and set up either 
an independent government in the West, or, Avliat 
was more in accord with his wishes, effect a 
union with the Spanish nation. In June, 1797, 
he sent Power again into the Northwest and into 
Kentucky to sound the existing feeling. Now, 
however, they were not easily won over. The 
home government was a certainty, the breaches had 
been healed, and Power was compelled to abandon 
the mission , not, however, until he had received a 
severe reprimand from many who saw through his 
plan, and openly exposed it. His mission closed 
the eff'orts of the Spanish authorities to attempt 
the dismemljerment of the Union, and showed 
them the coming downfall of their power in Amer- 
ica. They wei'e obliged to surrender the posts 
claimed by the United States under the treaty of 
1795, and not many years after, sold their Amer- 
ican possessions to the United States, rather than 
see a rival European power attain control over them. 

On the 7th of April, 1798, Congress passed an 
act, appointing Winthrop Sargent, Secretary of the 
Northwest Territory, Governor of the Territory of 
tlie INIississippi, formed the same day. In 1801, 
the boundary between America and the Spanish pos- 
sessions was definitely fixed. The Spanish retired 
from the disputed territory, and henceforward their 
attempts to dissolve the American Union ceased. 
The seat of the Mississippi Territory was fixed at 
Loftus Heights, six miles north of the thirty-first 
degree of latitude. 

The appointment of Sargent to the charge of the 
Southwest Territory, led to the choice of William 
Henry Harrison, who had been aid-de-camp to 
Gen. Wayne in 1794, and whose cliaracter stood 
very high among the people of the West, to the 
Secretaryship of the Northwest, which place he held 
until appointed to represent that Territory in Con- 

_< f) 





THE ordinance of 1787 provided that as soon 
as there were 5,000 persons in the Territory, 
it was entitled to a representative assembly. On 
October 29, 1798, Governor St. Clair gave notice 
by proclamation, that the required population ex- 
isted, and directed that an election be held on the 
third Monday in December, to choose representa- 
tives. These representatives were required, when 
assembled, to nominate ten persons, whose names 
were sent to the President of the United States, 
who selected five, and with the advice and consent 
of the Senate, appointed them for the legislative 
council. In this mode the Northwest passed into 
the second grade of a Territorial government. 

The representatives, elected under the proclama- 
tion of St. Clair, met in Cincinnati, January 22, 
1799, and under the provisions of the ordinance 
of 1787, nominated ten persons, whose names were 
sent to the President. On the 2d of March, he 
selected from the list of candidates, the names of 
Jacob Burnet, James Findlay, Henry Vander- 
burgh, Robert Oliver and David Vance. The 
next day the Senate confirmed their nomination, 
and the first legislative council of the Northwest 
Territory was a reality. 

The Territorial Legislature met again at Cincin- 
nati, September 16, but, for want of a quorum, 
was not organized until the 24th of that month. 
The House of Representatives consisted of nine- 
teen members, of whom seven were from Hamilton 
County, four from Ross — erected by St. Clair in 
1798; three from Wayne — erected in 1796; two 
from Adams — erected in 1797; one from Jeifer- 
son — erected in 1797 ; one from Washington — 
erected in 1788 ; and one from Knox — Indiana 
Territory. None seem to have been present from 
St. Clair County (Illinois Territory). 

After the organization of the Legislature, Gov- 
ernor St. Clair addressed the two houses in the Rep- 
resentatives' Chamber, recommending such meas- 
ures as, in his judgment, were suited to the con- 
dition of the country and would advance the safety 
and prosperity of the people. 

The Legislature continued in session till the 19th 
of December, when, having finished their business, 
they were prorogued by the Governor, by their 
own request, till the first Monday in November, 
1800. This being the first session, there was, of 
necessity, a gTeat deal of business to do. The 
transition from a colonial to a semi-independent 
form of government, called for a general revision 
as well as a considerable enlargement of the stat- 
ute-book. Some of the adopted laws were re- 
pealed, many others altered and amended, and a 
long list of new ones added to the code. New 
offices were to be created and filled, the duties at- 
tached to thcai prescribed, and a plan of ways and 
means devised to meet the increased expenditures, 
occasioned by the change which had now occurred. 

As Mr. Burnet was the principal lawyer in the 
Council, much of the revision, and putting the laws 
into proper legal form, devolved upon him. He 
seems to have been well fitted for the place, and 
to have performed the laborious task in an excel- 
lent manner. 

The whole number of acts passed and approved 
by the Governor, was thirty-seven. The most im- 
portant related to the militia, the administration of 
justice, and to taxation. During the session, a bill 
authorizing a lottery was passed by the council, 
but rejected by the LegisUiture, thus interdicting 
this demoralizing feature of the disposal of lands 
or for other purposes. The example has always been 
followed by subsequent legislatures, thus honorably 
characterizing the Assembly of Ohio, in this re- 
spect, an example Kentucky and several other 
States might well emulate. 

Before the Assembly adjourned, they issued a 
congratulatory address to the people, enjoining 
them to " Inculcate the principles of humanity, 
benevolence, honesty and ])unctuality in dealing, 
sincerity and charity, and all the social afiections." 
At the same time, they issued an address to the 
President, expressing entire confidence in the wis- 
dom and purity of his government, and their 
warm attachment to the American Constitution. 




The vote on this address proved, however, that the 
differences of opinion agitating the Eastern States 
had penetrated the West. Eleven Representatives 
voted for it, and five against it. 

One of the important duties that devolved on 
this Legislature, was the election of a delegate to 
Congress. As soon as the Governor's proclama- 
tion made its appearance, the election of a person 
to fill that position excited general attention. Be- 
fore the meeting of the Legislature public opinion 
had settled down on William Henry Harrison, and 
Arthur St. Clair, Jr., who eventually were the only 
candidates. On the 3d of October, the two houses 
met and proceeded to a choice. Eleven votes were 
cast for Harrison, and ten for St. Clair. The Leg- 
islature prescribed the form of a certificate of the 
election, which was given to Harrison, who at once 
resigned his office as Secretary of the Territory, 
proceeded to Philadelphia, and took his seat. Con- 
gress being then in session. 

" Though he represented the Territory but one 
year, " says Judge Burnett, in his notes, " he ob- 
tained some important advantages for his constitu- 
ents. He introduced a resolution to sub-divide 
the surveys of the public lands, and to offer them 
for sale in smaller tracts ; he succeeded in getting 
that measure through both houses, in opposition to 
the intei-est of speculators, who were, and who 
wished to be, the retailers of the land to the poorer 
classes of the community. His proposition be- 
came a law, and was hailed as the most beneficent 
act that Congress had ever done for the Territory. 
It put in the power of every industrious man, how- 
ever poor, to become a freeholder, and to lay a 
foundation for the future support and comfort of 
his family. At the same session, he obtained a 
liberal extension of time for the pre-emptioners in 
the northern part of the Miami purchase, which 
enabled them to secure their farms, and eventually 
to become independent, and even wealthy." 

The first session, as has been noticed, closed 
December 19. Gov. St. Clair took occasion to 
enumerate in his speech at the close of the session, 
eleven acts, to which he saw fit to apply his veto. 
These he had not, however, returned to the Assem- 
bly, and thereby saved a long struggle between the 
executive and legislative branches of the Territory. 
Of the eleven acts enumerated, six related to the 
formation of new counties. These were mainly 
disproved by St Clair, as he always sturdily main- 
tained that the power to erect new counties was 
vested alone in the Executive. This free exercise 
of the veto power, especially in relation to new 

counties, and his controversy with the Legislature, 
tended only to strengthen the popular discontent 
regarding the Governor, who was never fully able 
to regain the standing he held before his in- 
glorious defeat in his campaign against the Indians. 

While this was being agitated, another question 
came into prominence. Ultimately, it settled the 
powers of the two branches of the government, 
and caused the removal of St. Clair, then very 
distasteful to the people. The opening of the 
present century brought it fully before the 
people, who began to agitate it in all their 

The great extent of the Territory made the 
operations of government extremely uncertain, 
and the power of the courts practically worthless. 
Its division was, therefore, deemed best, and a 
committee was appointed by Congress to inquire 
into the matter. This committee, the 3d of 
March, 1800, reported upon the subject that, "In 
the three western counties, there has been but 
one court having cognizance of crimes in five 
years. The immunity which offenders experience, 
attracts, as to an asylum, the most vile and aban- 
doned criminals, and, at the same time, deters 
useful and virtuous citizens from making settle- 
ments in such society. The extreme necessity of 
judiciary attention and assistance is experienced 
in civil as well as criminal cases. The supplying 
to vacant places such necessary officers as may be 
wanted, such as clerks, recorders and others of 
like kind, is, from the impossibility of correct 
notice and information, utterly neglected. This 
Territory is exposed as a frontier to foreign nations, 
whose agents can find sufficient interest in exciting 
or fomenting insurrection and discontent, as 
thereby they can more easily divert a valuable 
trade in furs from the United States, and also have 
a part thereof on which they border, which feels 
so little the cherishing hand of their proper gov- 
ernment, or so little dreads its energy, as to render 
their attachment perfectly uncertain and am- 

" The committee would further suggest, that 
the law of the 3d of March, 1791, granting land 
to certain persons in the western part of said Ter- 
ritory, and directing the laying-out of the same, 
remains unexecuted; that great discontent, in 
consequence of such neglect, is excited in those 
who are interested in the provisions of said laws, 
which require the immediate attention of this 
Legislature. To minister a remedy to these evils, 
it occurs to this committee, that it is expedient 





that a division of said Territory into two distinct 
and separate governments should be made ; and 
that such division be made by a Una beginning at 
the mouth of the great Miami River, running 
directly north until it intersects the boundary 
between the United States and Canada." * 

The recommendations of the committee were 
favorably received by Congress, and, the 7th 
of jMay, an act was passed dividing the Ter- 
ritory. The main provisions of the act are as 
follows : 

" That, from and after the 4th of July next, 
all that part of the territory of the United States 
northwest of the Ohio River, which lies to the 
westward of a line beginning at the Ohio, opposite 
to the mouth of the Kentucky River, and running 
thence to Fort Recovery, and thence north until 
it intersects the territorial line between the United 
States and Canada, shall, for the purpose of tem- 
porary government, constitute a separate Territory, 
and be called the Indiana Territory. 

"There shall be established within the said Ter- 
ritory a government, in all respects similar to that 
provided by the ordinance of Congress passed July 
13, 1797." t 

The act further provided for representatives, and 
for the establishment of an assembly, on the same 
plan as that in force in the Northwest, stipulating 
that until the number of inhabitants reached five 
thousand, the whole number of representatives to 
the Greneral Assembly should not be less than seven, 
nor more than nine ; apportioned by the Governor 
among the several counties in the new Terri- 

The act further provided that " nothing in the 
act should be so construed, so as in any manner 
to affect the government now in force in the terri- 
tory of the United States northwest of the Ohio 
River, further than to prohibit the exercise thereof 
within the Indiana Territory, from and after the 
aforesaid 4th of July next. 

" Whenever that part of the territory of the 
United States, which lies to the eastward of a line 
beginning at the mouth of the Great Miami River, 
and running thence due north to the territorial 
line between the United States and Canada, shall 
be erected into an independent State, and admitted 
into the Union on an equal footing with the orig- 
inal States ; thenceforth said line shall become and 
remain permanently, the boundary line between 
such State and the Indiana Territory." 

*AniPri'-an State Papers. 
fLand Laws. 

It was further enacted, " that, until it shall be 
otherwise enacted by the legislatures of the said 
tei'ritories, respectively, Chillicothe, on the Scioto 
River, shall be the seat of government of the ter- 
ritory of the United States northwest of the Ohio 
River; and that St. Vincent's, on the Wabash 
River, shall be the seat of government for the 
Indiana Territory." * 

St. Clair was continued as Governor of the old 
Territory, and William Henry Harrison appointed 
Governor of the new. 

Connecticut, in ceding her territory in the West 
to the Genei'al Government, reserved a portion, 
known as the Connecticut Reserve. When she 
afterward disposed of her claim in the manner 
narrated, the citizens found themselves without any 
government on which to lean for support. At that 
time, settlements had begun in thirty-five of the 
townships into which the Reserve had been divided ; 
one thousand persons had established homes there ; 
mills had been built, and over seven hundred miles 
of roads opened. In 1800, the settlers petitioned 
for acceptance into the Union, as a part of the 
Northwest ; and, the mother State releasing her judi- 
ciary claims. Congress accepted the ti-ust, and 
granted the request. In December, of that year, 
the population had so increased that the county of 
Trumbull was erected, including the Reserve. 
Soon after, a large number of settlers came from 
Pennsylvania, from which State they had been 
driven by the dispute concerning land titles in its 
western part. Unwilling to cultivate land to 
which they could only get a doubtful deed, they 
abandoned it, and came where the titles were 

Congress having made Chillicothe the capital of 
the Northwest Territory, as it now existed, on the 
3d of November the General Assembly met at that 
place. Gov. St. Clair had been made to feel the 
odium cast upon his previous acts, and, at the open- 
ing of this session, expressed, in strong terms, his 
disapprobation of the censure cast upon him. He 
had endeavored to do his duty in all cases, he said, 
and yet held the confidence of the President and 
Congress. He still held the office, notwithstanding 
the strong dislike against him. 

At the second session of the Assembly, at Chil- 
licothe, held in the autumn of 1801, so much out- 
spoken enmity wa-s expressed, and so much abuse 
heaped upon the Governor and the Assembly, that 
a law was passed, removing the capital to Cincinnati 

* Land Laws. 




again. It was not destined, however, that the 
Territorial Assembly should meet again anywhere. 
The unpopularity of the Governor caused many to 
long for a State government, where they could 
choose their own rulers. The unpopularity of St. 
Clair arose partly from the feeling connected with 
his defeat ; in part from his being connected with 
the Federal party, fast falling into disrepute; and, 
in part, from his assuming powers which most 
thought he had no right to exercise, especially the 
power of subdividing the counties of the Terri- 

The opposition, though powerful out of the 
Assembly, was in the minority there. During the 
month of December, 1801, it was forced to protest 
against a measure brought forward in the Council, 
for changing the ordinance of 1787 in such a man- 
ner as to make the Scioto, and a line drawn from 
the intersection of that I'iver and the Indian 
boundary to the western extremity of the Reserve, 
the limits of the most eastern State, to be formed 
from the Territory. Had this change been made, 
the formation of a State government beyond the 
Ohio would have been long delayed. Against it, 
IleprcsentativesWortliington,Langham, Darlington, 
Massie, Dunlavy and Morrow, recorded their pro- 
test. Not content with this, they sent Thomas 
Worthington, who obtained a leave of absence, to 
the seat of government, on behalf of the objectors, 
there to protest, before Congress, against the pro- 
posed boundary. While Worthington was on his 
way, Massie presented, the 4th of January, 1802, 
a resolution for choosing a committee to address 
Congress in respect to the proposed State govern- 
ment. This, the next day, the House refused to 
do, by a vote of twelve to five. An attempt 
was next made to procure a census of the Ter- 
ritory, and an act for that purpose passed the 
House, but the Council postponed the considera- 
tion of it until the next session, which would com- 
mence at Cincinnati, the fourth iMonday of No- 

Meanwhile, Worthington pursued the ends of 
his mission, vising his influence to effect that organ- 
ization, "which, terminating the influence of tyr- 
anny," was to "meliorate the circumstances of thou- 
sands, by freeing them from the domination of a 
despotic chief" His efforts wore siiccessful, and, 
the -Ith of March, a report was made to the 
House in favor of authorizing a State convention. 
This report was based on the assumption that there 
were now over sixty thousand inhabitants in the 
proposed boundaries, estimating that emigration had 

increased the census of 1800, which gave the Ter- 
ritory forty-five thousand inhabitants, to that num- 
ber. The convention was to ascertain whether it 
were expedient to form such a government, and to 
prepare a constitution if such organization were 
deemed best. In the formation of the State, a 
change in the boundaries was proposed, by which 
all the territory north of a line drawn due east 
from the head of Lake Michigan to Lake Ei'ie was 
to be excluded from the new government about to 
be called into existence. 

The committee appointed by Congress to report 
upon the feasibility of forming the State, suggested 
that Congress reserve out of every township sections 
numbered 8, 11, 26 and 29. for their own use, and 
that Section 16 be reserved for the maintenance 
of schools. The committee also suggested, that, 
"religion, education and morality being necessary 
to the good government and happiness of mankind, 
schools and the means of education shall be forever 

Various other recommendations were given by 
the committee, in accordance with which, Congress, 
April 30, passed the resolution authorizing the 
calling of a convention. As tliis accorded with 
the feelings of the majority of the inhabitants of the 
Northwest, no opposition was experienced ; even 
the Legislature giving way to this embryo gov- 
ernment, and failing to assemble according to ad- 

The convention met the 1st of November. Its 
aiembers were generally Jeffersonian in their na- 
tional politics, and had been opposed to the change 
of boundaries proposed the year before. Before 
proceeding to business. Gov. St. Clair proposed to 
address them in his official character. This propo- 
sition was resisted by several of the members; but, 
after a motion, it was agreed to allow him to speak 
to them as a citizen. St. Clair did so, advising 
the postponement of a State government until the 
people of the original eastern division were plainly 
entitled to demand it, and were not subject to be 
bovind by conditi(ms. This advice, given as it was, 
caused Jefferson instantly to remove St. Clair, at 
which time his office ceased.* "When the vote 
was taken," says Judge Burnet, "upon doing what 

* After thiH, St. Clair returned to his old home in the Ligonier 
Valley, Pennsylviinia, where ho lived with his children in alnio-st 
abject poverty. He had lost, money in his jmblic life, as he gave 
close attention to public affairs, to the detriment of his own business. 
He presented a claim to Congress, afterward, for supplies furnished 
to the army, but the cbiira was outlawed. After trying in vain to 
get the claim allowed, he returned to his home. Pennsylvania, 
le!jrning of his distress, granted him an annuity of $.350, afterward 
raised to S'>'^0. He lived to enjoy this but a short time, his death 
occurring August 31, 1818. He was eighty-four years of age. 





he advised them not to do, but one of thirty-three 
(Ephraim Cutler, of Washington County) voted 
with the Grovernor." 

On one point only were the proposed boundaries 
of the new State altered. 

" To every person who has attended to this sub- 
ject, and who has consulted the maps of the West- 
ern country extant at the time the ordinance of 
1787 was passed, Lake Michigan was believed to 
bo, and was represented by all the maps of that 
day as being, very far north of the position which 
it has since been ascertained to occupy. I have 
seen the map in the Department of State which 
was before the committee of Congress who framed 
and reported the ordinance for the government of 
the Territory. On that map, the southern bound- 
ary of Michigan was represented as being above 
the forty-second degree of north latitude. And 
there was a pencil line, said to have been made by 
the committee, passing through the southern bend 
of the lake to the Canada line, which struck the 
strait not far below the town of Detroit. The 
line was manifestly intended by the committee 
and by Congress to be the northern boundary of 
our State; and, on the principles by which courts 
of chancery construe contracts, accompanied by 
plats, it would seem that the map, and the line 
referred to, should be conclusive evidence of our 
boundary, without reference to the real position of 
the lakes. 

"When the convention sat, in 1802, the under- 
derstanding was, that the old maps were nearly 
correct, and that the line, as defined in the ordi- 
nance, would terminate at some point on the strait 
above the Maumee Bay. While the convention 
was in session, a man who had hunted many years 
on Lake Michigan, and was well acquainted with 
its position, happened to be in Chillicothe, and, in 
conversation with one of the members, told him 
that the lake extended much farther south than 
was generally supposed, and that a map of the 
country which he had seen, placed its southern 
bend many miles north of its true position. This 
information excited some uneasiness, and induced 
the convention to modify the clause describing the 
north boundary of the new State, so as to guard 
against its being depressed below the most north- 
ern cape of the Maumee Bay."* 

With this change and some extension of the 
school and road donations, the convention agreed 
to the proposal of Congress, and, November 29, 

* Historical Transactions of Ohio, — Judof, Burnett. 

their agreement was ratified and signed, as was 
also the constitution of the State of Ohio — so 
named from its river, called by the Shawanees Ohio, 
meaning beautiful — forming its southern bound- 
ary. Of this nothing need be said, save that it 
bore the marks of true democratic feeling — of full 
faith in the people. By them, however, it was 
never voted for. It stood firm until 1852, when 
it was superseded by the present one, made neces- 
sary by the advance of time. 

The General Assembly was required to meet at 
Chillicothe, the first Tuesday of March, 1803. 
Tins change left the territory northwest of the 
Ohio River, not included in the new State, in the 
Territories of Indiana and Michigan. Subse- 
quently, in 181G, Indiana was made a State, and 
confined to her present limits. Illinois was made 
a Territory then, including Wisconsin. In 1818, 
it became a State, and Wisconsin a Territory at- 
tached to Michigan. This latter was made a State 
in 1837, and Wisconsin a separate Territory, which, 
in 1847, was made a State. Minnesota was made 
a Territory the same year, and a State in 1857, 
and the five contemplated States of the territory 
were complete. 

Preceding pages have shown how the territory 
north of the Ohio E-iver was peopled by the 
French and English, and how it came under the 
rule of the American people. The war of the 
Revolution closed in 1783, and left all America in 
the hands of a new nation. That nation brought 
a change. Before the war, various attempts had 
been made by residents in New England to people 
the country west of the Alleghanies. Land com- 
panies were formed, principal among which were 
the Ohio Company, and the company of which 
John Cleves Symmes was the agent and chief 
owner. Large tracts of land on the Scioto and 
on the Ohio were entered. The Ohio Company 
were the first to make a settlement. It was or- 
ganized in the autumn of 1787, November 27. 
They made arrangements for a party of forty-seven 
men to set out for the West under the supervision of 
Gen. Rufus Putnam, Superintendent of the Com- 
pany. Early in the winter they advanced to the 
Youghiogheny River, and there built a strong boat, 
which they named "Mayflower." It was built by 
Capt. Jonathan Devol, the first ship-builder in the 
West, and, when completed, was placed under his 
command. The boat was launched x\pril 2, 1788, 
and the band of pioneers, like the Pilgrim Fathers, 
began their voyage. The 7th of the month, 
they arrived at the mouth of the Muskingum, 



their destination, opposite Fort Harmar,* erected 
in the autumn of 1785, by a detachment of 
United States troops, under command of Maj. 
John Doughty, and, at the date of the Mayflower's 
arrival in possession of a company of soldiers. 
Under the protection of these troops, the little band 
of men began their labor of laying out a town, 
and commenced to erect houses for their own and 
subsequent emigrants' occupation. The names of 
these pioneers of Ohio, as far as can now be 
learned, are as follows: 

Gen. Putnam, Return Jonathan Meigs, Win- 
throp Sargeant (Secretary of the Territory ), Judges 
Parsons and Varnum, Capt. Dana, Capt. Jonathan 
Devol, Joseph Barker, Col. Battelle, Maj. Tyler, 
Dr. True, Capt. Wm. Gray, Capt. Lunt, the 
Bridges, Ebenezer and Thomas Cory, Andrew Mc- 
Clurc, Wm. Mason, Thomas Lord, Wm. Gridley, 
Gilbert Devol, Moody Russels, Deavens, Oakes, 
Wright, Clough, Green, Shipman, Dorance, the 
Masons, and others, whose names are now be- 
yond recall. 

On the 19th of July, the first boat of families 
arrived, after a nine-weeks journey on the way. 
They had traveled in their wagons as f\ir as Wheel- 
ing, where they built large flat-boats, into which 
they loaded their efiects, including their cattle, and 
thence passed down the Ohio to their destination. 
The families were those of Gen. Tupper, Col. 
Ichabod Nye, Col. Cushing, Maj. Coburn, and 
Maj. Goodale. In these titles the reader will ob- 
serve the preponderance of military distinction. 
Many of the founders of the colony had served 
with much valor in the war for freedom, and were 
well prepared for a life in the wilderness. 

They began at once the construction of houses 
from the forests about the confluence of the rivers, 
guarding their stock by day and penning it by 
night. Wolves, bears and Indians were all about 
them, and, here in the remote wilderness, they 
were obliged to always be on their guard. From 
the ground where they obtained the timber to erect 
their houses, they soon produced a few vegetables, 
and when the families arrived in August, they 
were able to set before them food raised for the 

♦The outlines of Fort Harmar formed a regular pentagon, 
embracing within the area about three-fourths of an acre. Its 
walls were formed of large horizontal timbers, and the bastions 
of large uprighttimberaaboutfourteen feet in height, fastened to each 
other by strips of timber, tree-nailed into each picket. In the rear 
of the fort Maj. Doughty laid out fine gardens. It continued to be 
occupied by United States troops until September 1700, when 
they were ordered to Cincinnati. A company, under Capt. Haskell, 
continued to raako the fort their headquarters during the Indian 
war, occasionally assisting the colonists at Marietta, Belpre and 
Waterford against the Indians. When not needed by the troops, 
the fort was used by the people of Marietta. 

first time by the hand of American citizens in the 
Ohio Valley. One of those who came in August, 
was Mr. Thomas Guthrie, a settler in one of the 
western counties of Pennsylvania, who brought a 
bushel of wheat, which he sowed on a plat of 
ground cleared by himself, and from which that 
fall he procured a small crop of wheat, the first 
grown in the State of Ohio. 

The Marietta settlement was the only one made 
that summer in the Territory. From their arrival 
until October, when Governor St. Clair came, they 
were busily employed making houses, and prepar- 
ing for the winter. The little colony, of which 
Washington wrote so favorably, met on the 2d day 
of July, to name their newborn city and its pub- 
lic sqares. Until now it had been known as " The 
Muskingum" simply, but on that day the name 
Marietta was formally given to it, in honor of Ma- 
rie Antoinette. The 4th of July, an ovation was 
held, and an oration delivered by James M. Var- 
num, who, with S. H. Parsons and John Arm- 
strong, had been appointed Judges of the Terri- 
tory. Thus, in the heart of the wilderness, 
miles away from any kindred post, in the forests 
of the Great West, was the Tree of Liberty watered 
and given a hearty growth. 

On the morning of the 9th of July, Governor 
St. Clair arrived, and the colony began to assume 
form. The ordinance of 1787 had provided for 
a form of government under the Governor and 
the three Judges, and this form was at once put 
into force. The 25th, the first law relating to the 
militia was published, and the next day the Gov- 
ernor's proclamation appeared, creating all the 
country that had been ceded by the Indians, east 
of the Scioto River, into the county of Washing- 
ton, and the civil machinery was in motion. From 
that time forward, this, the pioneer settlement in 
Ohio, went on prosperously. The 2d of Septem- 
ber, the first court in the Territory was held, but 
as it related to the Territory, a narrative of its pro- 
ceedings will be found in the history of that part 
of the country, and need not be repeated here. 

The 15th of July, Gov. St. Clair had published 
the ordinance of 1787, and the commissions of 
himself and the three Judges. He also assembled 
the people of the settlement, and explained to 
them the ordinance in a speech of considerable 
length. Three days after, he sent a notice to the 
Judges, calling their attention to the subject of 
organizing the militia. Instead of attending to 
this important matter, and thus providing for their 
safety should trouble with the Indians arise, the 



Judges did not even reply to the Governor's letter, 
but sent him what they called a "project" of a 
law for dividing real estate. The bill was so 
loosely drawn that St. Clair immediately rejected 
it, and set about organizing the militia himself. 
He divided the militia into two classes, "Senior" 
and "Junior," and organized them by appointing 
their officers. 

In the Senior Class, Nathan Cushing was ap- 
pointed Captain; George Ingersol, Lieutenant, 
and James Backus, Ensign. 

In the Junior Class, Nathan Groodale and Charles 
Knowls were made Captains ; Watson Casey and 
Samuel Stebbins, Lieutenants, and Joseph Lincoln 
and Arnold Colt, Ensigns. 

The Governor next erected the Courts of Pro- 
bate and Quarter Sessions, and proceeded to ap- 
point civil officers. Rufus Putnam, Benjamin 
Tupper and Winthrop Sargeant were made Jus- 
tices of the Peace. The 30th of August, the day 
the Court of Quarter Sessions was appointed, 
Archibald Cary, Isaac Pierce and Thomas Lord 
were also appointed Justices, and given power to 
hold this court. They were, in fact. Judges of a 
Court of Common Pleas. Return Jonathan Meigs 
was appointed Clerk of this Court of Quarter 
Sessions. Ebenezer Sproat was appointed Sheriff of 
Wa.shington County, and also Colonel of the militia; 
William Callis, Clerk of the Supreme Court; 
Rufus Putnam, Judge of the Probate Court, and 
R. J. Meigs, Jr., Clerk. Following these appoint- 
ments, setting the machinery of government in 
motion, St. Clair ordered that the 25th of Decem- 
ber be kept as a day of thanksgiving by the infant 
colony for its safe and propitious beginning. 

During the fall and winter, the settlement was 
daily increased by emigrants, so much so, that the 
greatest difficulty was experienced in finding them 
lodging. During the coldest part of the winter, 
when ice covered the river, and prevented navi- 
gation, a delay in arrivals was experienced, only to 
be broken as soon as the river opened to the beams 
of a spring sun. While locked in the winter's 
embrace, the colonists amused themselves in vari- 
ous ways, dancing being one of the most promi- 
nent. At Christmas, a grand ball was held, at 
which there were fifteen ladies, "whose grace," 
says a narrator, "equaled any in the East." 
Though isolated in the wilderness, they knew a 
brilliant prospect lay before them, and lived on in 
a joyous hope for the future. 

Soon after their arrival, the settlers began the 
erection of a stockade fort (Campus Martius), 

which occupied their time until the winter cf 
1791. During the interval, fortunately, no hos- 
tilities from the Indians were experienced, though 
they were abundant, and were frequent visitors to 
the settlement. 

From a communication in the American Pioneer, 
by Dr. S. P. Hildreth, the following description of 
Campus Martius is derived. As it will apply, in 
a measure, to many early structures for defense in 
the West, it is given entire : 

" The fort was made in the form of a regular 
parallelogram, the sides of each being 180 feet. 
At each corner was erected a strong block-house, 
surmounted by a tower, and a sentry box. These 
houses were twenty feet square below and twenty- 
four feet square above, and projected six feet be- 
yond the walls of the fort. The intermediate walls 
were made up with dwelling-houses, made of wood, 
whose ends were whip-sawed into timbers four 
inches thick, and of the requisite width and length. 
These were laid up similar to the structure of log 
houses, with the ends nicely dove-tailed together. 
The whole were two stories high , and covered with 
shingle roofs. Convenient chimneys were erected 
of bricks, for cooking, and warming the rooms. A 
number of the dwellings were built and owned by 
individuals who had families. In the west and 
south fronts were strong gateways ; and over the 
one in the center of the front looking to the Mus- 
kingum River, was a belfry. The chamber beneath 
was occupied by Winthrop Sargeant, as an office, 
he being Secretary to the Governor, and perform- 
ing the duties of the office during St. Clair's ab- 
sence. This room projected over the gateway, like 
a block-house, and was intended for the protection 
of the gate beneath, in time of an assault. At 
the outer corner of each block-house was erected a 
bastion, standing on four stout timbers. The floor 
of the bastion was a little above the lower story of 
the block -house. They were square, and built up 
to the height of a man's head, so that, when he 
looked over, he stepped on a narrow platform or 
" banquet " running around the sides of the bulwark. 
Port-holes were made, for musketry as well as for 
artillery, a single piece of which was mounted in 
the southwest and northeast bastions. In these, 
the sentries were regularly posted every night, as 
more convenient than the towers ; a door leading 
into them from the upper story of the block-houses. 
The lower room of the southwest block-house was 
occupied as a guard-house. 

" Running from corner to corner of the block- 
houses was a row of palisades, sloping outward. 





and resting on stout rails. Twenty feet in advance 
of these, was a row of very strong and large pick- 
ets, set upright in the earth. Gateways through 
these, admitted the inmates of the garrison. A 
few feet beyond the row of outer palisades was 
placed a row of abattis, made from the tops and 
branches of trees, sharpened and pointing outward, 
so that it would have been very difficult for an 
enemy to have penetrated within their outworks. 
The dwelling-houses occupied a space from fifteen 
to thirty feet each, and were sufficient for the ac- 
commodation of forty or fifty families, and did 
actually contain from two hundred to three hun- 
dred persons during the Indian war. 

" Before the Indians commenced hostilities, the 
block-houses were occupied as follows : The south- 
west one, by the family of Gov. St. Clair ; the 
northeast one as an office fur the Directors of the 
Company. The area within the walls was one 
hundred and forty-four feet square, and afi'orded a 
fine parade ground. In the center, was a well 
eighty feet in depth, for the supply of water to the 
inhabitants, in case of a siege. A large sun-dial 
stood for many years in the square, placed on a 
handsome post, and gave note of the march of 

" After the war commenced, a regular military 
corps was organized, and a guard constantly kept 
night and day. The whole establishment formed 
a very strong work, and reflected great credit on 
the head that planned it. It was in a manner im- 
pregnable to the attacks of Indians, and none 
but a regular army with cannon could have reduced 
it. The Indians possessed no such an armament. 

" The garrison stood on the verge of that beauti- 
ful plain overlooking the Muskingum, on which 
are seated those celebrated remains of antiquity, 
erected probably for a similar purpose — the defense 
of the inhabitants. The ground descends into shal- 
low ravines on the north and south sides ; on the 
west is an abrupt descent to the river bottoms or 
alluvium, and the east passed out to a level plain. 
On this, the ground was cleared of trees beyond 
the reach of rifle shots, so as to affiird no shelter 
to a hidden foe. Extensive fields of corn were 
grown in the midst of the standing girdled trees be- 
yond, in after years. The front wall of palisades 
was about one hundred and fifty yards from the 
Muskingum River. The ajipearance of the fort 
from without was imposing, at a little distance re- 
sembling the military castles of the feudal ages. 
Between the outer palisades and the river were 
laid out neat gardens for the use of Gov. St. Clair 

and his Secretary, with the officers of the Com- 

" Opposite the fort, on the shore of the river, 
was built a substantial timber wharf, at which was 
moored a fine cedar barge for twelve rowers, built 
by Capt. Jonathan Devol, for Gen. Putnam ; a 
number of pii'ogues, and the light canoes of the 
country ; and last, not least, the Mayflower, or 
' Adventure Galley,' in which the first detach- 
ments of colonists were transported from the shores 
of the ' Yohiogany ' to the banks of the Muskingum. 
In these, especially the canoes, during the war, 
most of the communications were carried on between 
the settlements of the Company and the more re- 
mote towns above on the Ohio River. Traveling 
by land was very hazardous to any but the rangers 
or spies. There were no roads, nor bridges across 
the creeks, and, for many years after the war had 
ceased, the traveling was nearly all done by canoes 
on the river." 

Thus the first settlement of Ohio provided for 
its safety and comfort, and provided also for that 
of emigrants who came to share the toils of the 

The next spring, the influx of emigration was 
so great that other settlements were determined, 
and hence arose the colonies of Belpre, Waterford 
and Duck Creek, where they began to clear land, sow 
and plant crops, and build houses and stockades. 
At Belpre (French for "beautiful meadow"), were 
built three stockades, the upper, lower and middle, 
the last of which was called " Farmers' Castle," 
and stood on the banks of the Ohio, nearly oppo- 
site an island, afterward famous in Western history 
as Blennerhasset's Island, the scene of Burr's con- 
spiracy. Among the persons settling at the upper 
stockade, were Capts. Dana and Stone, Col. Bent, 
William Browning, Judge Foster, John Rowse, 
Israel Stone and a Mr. Keppel. At the Farmers' 
Castle, were Cols. Gushing and Fisher, Maj. Has- 
kell, Aaron Waldo Putnam, Mr. Sparhawk, and, 
it is believed, George and Israel Putnam, Jr. At 
the lower, were Maj. Goodale, Col. Rice, Esquire 
Pierce, Judge Israel Loring, Deacon Miles, Maj. 
Bradford and Mr. Goodenow. In the summer of 
1789, Col. Ichabod Nye and some others, built a 
block-house at Newberry, below Belpre. Col. Nye 
sold his lot there to Aaron W. Clough, who, with 
Stephen Guthrie, Joseph Leavins, Joel Oakes, 
]^]leazer Curtis, JVIr. Denham J. Littleton and Mr. 
Brown, was located at that place. 

"Every exertion possible," says Dr. Hildreth, 
who has preserved the above names and incidents, 



"for men in these circumstances, was made to se- 
cure food for future difficulties. Col. Oliver, 3Iuj. 
Hatfield White and John Dod<z;e, of the Water- 
ford settlement, began mills oa Wolf Creek, about 
three miles from the fort, and got them running; 
and these, the first mills in Ohio, were never de- 
stroyed during the subsequent Indian war, though 
the proprietors removed their faniiles to the fort 
at Marietta. Col. E. Sproat and Enoch Shep- 
herd began mills on Duck Creek, three miles from 
Marietta, from the completion of which they were 
driven by the Indian war. Thomas Stanley be- 
gan mills farther up, near the Duck Creek settle- 
ment. These were likewise unfinished. The Ohio 
Company built a large horse mill near Campus 
Martius, and soon after a floating mill." 

The autumn before the settlements at Belpre, 
Duck Creek and Waterford, were made, a colony 
was planted near the mouth of the Little IMiami 
River, on a tract of ten thousand acres, purchased 
from Sy mines by Maj. Benjamin Stites. In the pre- 
ceding pages may be found a history of Symmes' 
purchase. This colony may be counted the second 
settlement in the State. Soon after the colony at 
Marietta was founded, steps were taken to occupy 
separate portions of Judge Symmes' purchase, be- 
tween the Miami Rivers. Three parties were 
formed for this purpose, but, owing to various 
delays, chiefly in getting the present colony stead- 
fast and safe from future encroachments by the 
savages, they did not get started till late in the fall. 
The first of these parties, consisting of fifteen or 
twenty men, led by 31 aj. Stites, landed at the 
mouth of the Little Miami in November, 1788, 
and, constructing a log fort, began to lay out a 
village, called by them Columbia. It soon grew 
into prominence, and, before winter had thoroughly 
set in, they were well prepared for a fi-ontier life. 
In the party were Cols. Spencer and Brown, Majs. 
Gauo and Kibbey, Judges Goforth and Foster, 
Rev. John Smith, Francis Dunlavy, Capt. Flina, 
Jacob White, John Riley, and Mr. Hubbell. 

All these were men of energy and enterprise, 
and, with their comrades, were more numerous 
than either of the other parties, who commenced 
their settlements below them on the Ohio. This 
village was also, at first, more flourishing; and, for 
two or three years, contained more inhabitants 
than any other in the Miami purchase. 

The second IMiami party was formed at Lime- 
stone, under Matthias Denham and Robert Pat- 
terson, and consisted of twelve or fifteen persons. 
They landed on the north bank of the Ohio, oppo- 

site the mouth of the Licking River, the 24th of 

December, 1788. They intended to establish a 
station and lay out a town on a plan prepared at 
Limestone. Some statements affirm that the town 
was to be called " L-vs-aati-vilk-,'^ by a romantic 
school-teacher named Filson. However, be this as 
it may, Mr, Filson was, unfortunately for himself, 
not long after, slain by the Indians, and, with him 
probably, the name disappeared. He was to have 
one-third interest in the proposed city, which, 
when his death occurred, was transferred to Israel 
Ludlow, and a new plan of a city adopted. Israel 
Ludlow surveyed the proposed town, lots were 
principally donated to settlers upon certain condi- 
tions as to settlement and improvement, and the 
embryo city named Cincinnati. Gov. St. Clair 
very likely had something to do with the naming 
of the village, and, by some, it is asserted that he 
changed the name from Losantiville to Cincinnati, 
when he created the county of Hamilton the en- 
suing winter. Tlie original purchase of the city'.'j 
site was made by Mr. Denham. It included about 
eight hundred acres, for which he paid 5 shillings 
per acre in Continental certificates, then worth, in 
specie, about 5 shillings per pound, gross weight. 
Evidently, the original site was a good investment, 
could Mr. Denham have lived long enough to see 
its present condition. 

The third party of settlers for the Miami pur- 
chase, were under the care of Judge Symmes, 
himself They left Limestone, January 20, 1789, 
and were much delayed on their downward jour- 
ney by the ice in the river. They reached the 
'• Bend,'' as it was then known, early in February. 
The Judge had intended to found a city here, 
which, in time, would be the rival of the Atlantic 
cities. As each of the three settlements aspired 
to the same position, no little rivalry soon mani- 
fested itself The Judge named liis proposed city 
North Bend, from the fact that it was the most 
northern bend in the Ohio below the mouth of the 
Great Kanawha. These three settlements ante- 
dated, a few months, those made near Marietta, 
already described. They arose so soon after, partly 
fi-om the extreme desire of Judge Symmes to settle 
his purchase, and induce emigration here instead 
of on the Ohio Company's purchase. The Judge 
labored earnestly for this purpose and to further 
secure him in his title to the land he had acquired, 
all of which he had so far been unable to retain, 
owing to his inability to meet his payments. 

All these emigrants came down the river in the 
flat-boats of the day, rude affairs, sometimes called 




" Arks," and then the only safe mode of travel in 
the West. 

Judge Symmcs found he must provide for the 
safety of the settlers on his purchase, and, after 
earnestly soliciting Gen. Harmar, commander of 
the Western posts, succeeded in obtaining a de- 
tachment of forty-eight men, under Capt. Kearsey, 
to protect the improvements just commencing on 
the Miami. This detachment reached Limestone 
in December, 1788. Part was at once sent for- 
ward to guard Maj. Stites and his pioneers. Judge 
Symmes and his party started in January, and, 
about February 2, reached Columbia, where the 
Captain expected to find a fort erected for his use 
and shelter. The flood on the river, however, de- 
feated his purpose, and, as he was unprepared to 
erect another, he determined to go on down to the 
garrison at the falls at Louisville. Judge Symmes 
was strenuously opposed to his conduct, as it left 
the colonies unguarded, but, all to no purpose; the 
Captain and his command, went to Louisville early 
in March, and left the Judge and his settlement 
to protect themselves. Judge Symmes immedi- 
ately sent a strong letter to Maj. Willis, command- 
ing at the Falls, complaining of the conduct 
of Capt. Kearsey, representing the exposed situ- 
ation of the Miami settlements, stating the indi- 
cations of hostility manifested by the Indians, 
and requesting a guard to be sent to the Bend. 
This request was at once granted, and Ensign 
Luce, with seventeen or eighteen soldiers, sent. 
They were at the settlement but a short time, 
when they were attacked by Indians, and one of 
their number killed, and four or five wounded. 
They repulsed the savages and saved the set- 

The site of Symmes City, for such he designed it 
should ultimately be called, was above the reach of 
water, and sufficiently level to admit of a conven- 
ient settlement. The city laid out by Symmes 
was truly magnificent on paper, and promised in 
the future to fulfill his most ardent hopes. The 
plat included the village, and extended across the 
peninsula between the Ohio and Miami Rivers. 
Each settler on this plat was promised a lot if he 
would improve it, and in conformity to the stipu- 
lation, Judge Symmes soon found a large number 
of persons applying for residence. As the number 
of these adventurers increased, in consequence of 
this provision and the protection of the military, 
the Judge was induced to lay out another village 
six or seven miles up the river, which he called 
South Bend, where he disposed of some donation 

lots, but the project failing, the village site was de- 
serted, and converted into a farm. 

During all the time these various events wei-e 
transpiring, but little trouble was experienced with 
the Indians. They were not yet disposed to evince 
hostile feelings. This would have been their time, 
but, not realizing the true intent of the whites until 
it was too late to conquer them, they allowed them 
to become prepared to withstand a warfare, and in 
the end were obliged to suff'er their hunting-grounds 
to be taken from them, and made the homes of a 
race destined to entirely supersede them in the 
New World. 

By the means sketched in the foregoing pages, 
were the three settlements on the Miami made. By 
the time those adjacent to Marietta were well estab- 
lished, these were firmly fixed, each one striving to 
become the rival city all felt sure was to arise. For 
a time it was a matter of doubt which of the rivals, 
Columbia, North Bend or Cincinnati, would event- 
ually become the chief seat of business. 

In the beginning, Columbia, the eldest of the 
three, took the lead, both in number of its in- 
habitants and the convenience and appearance of 
its dwellings. For a time it was a flourishing place, 
and many believed it would become the great busi- 
ness town of the Miami country. That apparent 
fact, however, lasted but a short time. The garri- 
son was moved to Cincinnati, Fort Washington 
built there, and in spite of all that Maj. Stites, or 
Judge Symmes could do, that place became the 
metropolis. Fort Washington, the most extensive 
garrison in the West, was built by Maj. Doughty, 
in the summer of 1789, and from that time the 
growth and future greatness of Cincinnati were 

The first house in the city was built on Front 
street, east of and near Main street. It was 
simply a strong log cabin, and was erected of the 
forest trees cleared away from the ground on which 
it stood. The lower part of the town was covered 
with sycamore and maple trees, and the upper with 
beech and oak. Through this dense forest the 
streets were laid out, and their cornel's marked on 
the trees. 

The settlements on the Miami had become 
sufficiently numerous to warrant a separate county, 
and, in January, 171H), Gov. St. Clair and his 
Secretary arrived in Cincinnati, and organized the 
county of Hamilton, so named in honor of the 
illustrious statesman by that name. It included 
all the country north of the Ohio, between the 
Miamis, as far as a line running " due east from the 




Standing Stone forks " of Big Miami to its inter- 
section with the Little Miami. The erection of 
the new county, and the appointment of Cincin- 
nati to be the seat of justice, gave the town a fresh 
impulse, and aided greatly in its growth. 

Through the summer, but little interruption in 
the growth of the settlements occurred. The 
Indians had permitted the erection of defensive 
works in their midst, and could not now destroy 
them. They were also engaged in traffic with the 
whites, and, though they evinced signs of discon- 
tent at their settlement and occupation of the 
country, yet did not openly attack them. The 
truth was, they saw plainly the whites were always 
prepared, and no opportunity was given them to 
plunder and destroy. The Indian would not 
attack unless success was almost sure. An oppor- 
tunity, unfortunately, came, and with it the hor- 
rors of an Indian war. 

In the autumn of 1790, a company of thirty- 
six men went from Marietta to a place on the 
Muskingum known as the Big Bottom. Here 
they built a block-house, on the east bank of the 
river, four miles above the mouth of Meigs Creek. 
They were chiefly young, single men, but little 
ac((uainted with Indian warfare or military rules. 
The savages had given signs that an attack on the 
settlement was meditated, and several of the know- 
ing ones at the strongholds strenuously opposed 
any new settlements that fall, advising their post- 
ponement until the next spring, when the question 
of peace or war would probably be settled. Even 
Gren. Putnam and the Directors of the Ohio Com- 
pany advised the postponement of the settlement 
until the next spring. 

The young men were impatient and restless, and 
declared themselves able to protect their fort 
against any number of assailants. They might 
have easily done so, had they taken the necessary 
precautions ; but, after they had erected a rude 
block-house of unchinked logs, they began to pass 
the time iu various pursuits ; setting no guard, and 
taking no precautionary measures, they left them- 
selves an easy prey to any hostile savages that 
might choose to come and attack them. 

About twenty rods from the block-house, and a 
little back from the bank of the river, two men, 
Francis and Isaac Choate, members of the com- 
pany, had erected a cabin, and commenced clearing 
lots. Thomas Shaw, a hired laborer, and James 
Patten, another of the a.ssociates, lived with them. 
About the same distance below the block-house 
was an old "Tomahawk Improvement" and a 

small cabin, which two men, Asa and Eleazur 
BuUard, had fitted up and occupied. The Indian 
war-path, from Sandusky to the mouth of the 
Muskingum, passed along the opposite shore of 
the river. 

" The Indians, who, during the summer," says 
Dr. Hildreth, " had been hunting and loitering 
about the Wolf Creek and Plaiufield settlements, 
holding frequent and friendly intercourse with the 
settlers, selling them venison and bear's meat in ex- 
change for green corn and vegetables, had with- 
drawn and gone up the river, early in the au- 
tumn, to their towns, preparatory to going into 
winter quarters. They very seldom entered on 
any warlike expeditions during the cold weather. 
But they had watched the gradual encroach- 
ment of the whites and planned an expedition 
against them. They saw them in fancied security 
in their cabins, and thought their capture an easy 
task. It is said they were not aware of the Big 
Bottom settlement until they came in sight of it, 
on the opposite shore of the river, in the afternoon. 
From a high hill opposite the garrison, they had a 
view of all that part of the bottom, and could see 
how the men were occupied and what was doing 
about the block-house. It was not protected with 
palisades or pickets, and none of the men were 
aware or prepared for an attack. Having laid 
their plans, about twilight they crossed the river 
above the garrison, on the ice, and divided their 
men into two parties — the larger one to attack the 
block-house, the smaller one to capture the cabins. 
As the Indians cautiously approached the cabin 
they found the inmates at supper. Part entered, 
addressed the whites in a friendly manner, but 
soon manifesting their designs, made them all pris- 
oners, tieing tbem with leather thongs they found 
in the cabin." 

At the block-house the attack was far different. 
A stout Mohawk suddenly burst open the door, 
the first intimation the inmates had of the pres- 
ence of the foe, and while he held it open his 
comrades shot down those that were within. Rush- 
ing in, the deadly tomahawk completed the on- 
slaught. In the assault, one of the savages was 
struck by the wife of Isaac Woods, with an ax, 
but only slightly injured. The heroic woman was 
immediately slain. All the men but two were 
slain before they had time to secure their arms, 
thereby paying for their failure to properly secure 
themselves, with their lives. The two excepted 
were John Stacy and his brother Philip, a lad six- 
teen years of age. John escaped to the roof, 




where he was shot by the Indians, while begging 
for his Ufe. The firing at the block-house alarmed 
the Bullards in their cabin, and hastily barring the 
door, and securing their arms and ammunition, they 
fled to the woods, and escaped. After the slaughter 
was over, the Indians began to collect the plunder, 
and in doing so discovered the lad Philip Stacy. 
They were about to dispatch him, but his entrea- 
ties softened the heart of one of the chiefs, who 
took him as a captive with the intention of adopt- 
ing him into his family. The savages then piled 
the dead bodies on the floor, covered them with 
other portions of it not needed for that purpose, 
and set fire to the whole. The building, being 
made of green logs, did not burn, the flames con- , 
suming only the floors and roof, leaving the walls 

There were twelve persons killed in this attack, 
all of whom were in the prime of life, and valuable 
aid to the settlements. They were well provided 
with arms, and had they taken the necessary pre- 
cautions, always pressed upon them when visited 
by the older ones from Marietta, they need not 
have suffered so terrible a fate. 

The Indians, exultant over their horrible victory, 
went on to Wolf's mills, but here they found the 
people prepared, and, after reconnoitering the place, 
made their retreat, at early dawn, to the great re- 
lief of the inhabitants. Their number was never 
definitely known. 

The news reached IMarietta and its adjacent 
settlements soon after the massacre occurred, and 
struck terror and dismay into the hearts of all. 
Many had brothers and sons in the ill-fated party, 
and mourned their loss. Neither did they know 
what place would fall next. The Indian hostilities 
had begun, and they could only hope for peace 
when the savages were eff"ectually conquered. 

The next day, Capt. Ptogers led a party of men 
over to the Big Bottom. It was, indeed, a melan- 
choly sight to the poor borderers, as they knew not 
now how soon the same fate might befall them- 
selves. The fire had so disfigured their comrades 
that but two, Ezra Putnam and William Jones, 
were recognized. As the ground was frozen out- 
side, a hole was dug in the earth underneath the 
block-house floor, and the bodies consigned to one 
grave. No further attempt was made to settle 
here till after the peace of 1795. 

The outbreak of Indian hostilities put a check 
on further settlements. Those that were estab- 
lished were put in a more active state of defense, 
and every preparation made that could be made 

for the impending crisis all felt sure must come. 
Either the Indians must go, or the whites must 
retreat. A few hardy and adventurous persons 
ventured out into the woods and made settle- 
ments, but even these were at the imminent risk 
of their lives, many of them perishing in the 

The Indian war that followed is given fully in 
preceding pages. It may be briefly sketched by 
stating that the first campaign, under Gen Ilar- 
mar, ended in the defeat of his army at the Indian 
villages on the Miami of the lake, and the rapid 
retreat to Fort Washington. St. Clair v/as next 
commissioned to lead an army of nearly three thou- 
sand men, but these were furiously attacked at 
break of day, on the morning of November 4, 
1791, and utterly defeated. Indian outrages 
sprung out anew after each defeat, and the borders 
were in a continual state of alarm. The most ter- 
rible sufi"erings were endured by prisoners in the 
hands of the savage foe, who thought to annihilate 
the whites. 

The army was at once re-organized. Gen. An- 
thony Wayne put in command by Washington, 
and a vigorous campaign inaugurated. Though 
the savages had been given great aid by the Brit- 
ish, in direct violation of the treaty of 1783, Gen. 
Wayne pursued them so vigorously that they could 
not withstand his army, and, the l^Oth of August, 
1794, defeated them, and utterly annihilated their 
forces, breaking up their camps, and laying waste 
their country, in some places under the guns of 
the British forts. The victory showed them the 
hopelessness of contending against the whites, and 
led their chiefs to sue for peace. The British, as 
at former times, deserted them, and they were again 
alone, contending against an invincible foe. A 
grand council was held at Greenville the 3d day 
of August, 1795, where eleven of the most power- 
ful chiefs made peace with Gen. Wayne on terms 
of his own dictation. The boundary established 
by the old treaty of Fort Mcintosh was confirmed, 
and extended westward from Loramie's to Fort 
Recovery, and thence southwest to the mouth of 
the Kentucky River. He also purchased all the 
territory not before ceded, within certain limits, 
comprehending, in all, about four-fifths of the State 
of Ohio. The line was long known as " The Green- 
ville Treaty line." Upon these, and a few other 
minor conditions, the United States received the 
Indians under their protection, gave them a large 
number of presents, and practically closed the war 
with the savages. 




The only settlement of any consequence made dur- 
ing the Indian war, was that on the plat of Hamilton, 
laid out by Israel Ludlow in December, 1794. Soon 
after, Darius C. Orcutt, John Green, William Mc- 
Clennan, John Sutherland,Jolin Torrence, Benjamin 
F.Randolph, Benjamin Davis, Isaac Wiles, Andrew 
Christy and William Hubert, located here. The 
town was laid out under the name of Fairfield, but 
was known only a short time by that name. Until 
1801, all the lands on the west side of the Great 
Miami were owned by the General Government ; 
hence, vintil after that date, no improvements were 
made there. A single log cabin stood there until 
the sale of lands in April, 1801, when a company 
purchased the site of Rossville, and, in March, 
180-1, laid out that town, and, before a year had 
passed, the town and country about it was well 

The close of the war, in 1795, insured peace, 
and, from that date, Hamilton and that part of the 
Miami Valley grew remarkably fast. In 1803, 
Butler County was formed, and Hamilton made 
the county seat. 

On the site of Hamilton, St. Clair built Fort 
Hamilton in 1791. For some time it was under 
the command of Maj. Rudolph, a cruel, arbitrary 
man, who was displaceSHBy Gen. Wayne, and who, 
it is said, perished ignobly on the high seas, at the 
hands of some Algerine pirates, a fitting end to a 
man who caused, more than once, the death of 
men under his control for minor offenses. 

On the return of peace, no part of Ohio grew 
more rapidly than the Miami Valley, especially 
that part comprised in Butler County. 

While the war with the Indians continued, but 
little extension of settlements was made in the 
State. It was too perilous, and the settlers pre- 
ferred the security of the block-house or to engage 
with the army. Still, however, a few bold spirits 
ventured away from the settled parts of the Terri- 
tory, and began life in the wilderness. In tracing 
the histories of these settlements, attention will be 
paid to the order in which they were made. They 
will be given somewhat in detail until the war of 
1812, after which time they become too numerous 
to follow. 

The settlements made in Washington — Marietta 
and adjacent colonies — and Hamilton Counties 
have already been given. The settlement at Gal- 
lia is also noted, hence, the narration can be re- 
sumed where it ends prior to the Indian war of 
1795. Before this war occurred, there were three 
small settlements made, however, in addition to 

those in Washington and Hamilton Counties. 
They were in what are now Adams, Belmont and 
Morgan Counties. They were block-house settle- 
ments, and were in a continual state of defense. 
The first of these, Adams, was settled in the winter 
of 1790-91 by Gen. Nathaniel Massie, near where 
Manchester now is. Gen. Massie determined to 
settle here in the Virginia Military Tract— in the 
winter of 1790, and sent notice throughout Ken- 
tucky and other Western settlements that he would 
give to each of the first twenty-five families who 
would settle in the town he proposed laying out, 
one in-lot, one out-lot and one hundred acres of 
land. Such liberal terms were soon accepted, and 
in a short time thirty families were ready to go 
with him. After various consultations with his 
friends, the bottom on the Ohio River, opposite 
the lower of the Three Islands, was selected as 
the most eligible spot. Here Massie fixed his sta- 
tion, and laid off into lots a town, now called 
iManchester. The little confederacy, with Massie 
at the helm, went to work with spirit. Cabins 
were raised, and by the middle of March, 
1791, the whole town was inclosed with strong 
pickets, with block-houses at each angle for de- 

This was the first settlement in the bounds of 
the Virginia District, and the fourth one in the 
State. Although in the midst of a savage foe, 
now inflamed with war, and in the midst of a 
cruel conflict, the settlement at Manchester suf- 
fered less than any of its cotemporaries. This 
was, no doubt, due to the watchful care of its in- 
habitants, who were inured to the rigors of a front- 
ier life, and who well knew the danger about them. 
" These were the Beasleys, Stouts, Washburns, 
Ledoms, Edgingtons, Denings, Ellisons, Utts, 
McKcnzies, Wades, and others, who were fully 
equal to the Indians in all the savage arts and 
stratagems of border war." 

As soon as they had completed preparations for 
defense, the whole population went to work and 
cleared the lowest of the Three Islands, and jilanted 
it in corn. The soil of the island was very rich, 
and produced abundantly. The woods supplied an 
abundance of game, while the river furnished a 
variety of excellent fish. The inhabitants thus 
found their simple wants fully supplied. Their 
nearest neighbors in the new Territory were at 
Columbia, and at the French settlement at Gallip- 
olis; but with these, owing to the state of the 
country and the Indian war, they could hold little, 
if any, intercourse. 




The station being established, Massie continued 
to make locations and surveys. Great precautions 
were necessary to avoid the Indians, and even the 
closest vigilance did not always avail, as the ever- 
watchful foe was always ready to spring upon tlie 
settlement, could an unguarded moment be ob- 
served. During one of the spring months. Gen. 
Massie, Israel Donalson, William Lytle and James 
Little, while out on a survey, were surprised, and 
Mr. Donalson captured, the others escaping at 
great peril. Mr. Donalson escaped during the 
march to the Indian town, and made his way to 
the town of Cincinnati, after suffering great hard- 
ships, anc\ almost perishing from hunger. In the 
spring of 1793, the settlers at Manchester com- 
menced clearing the out-lots of the town. While 
doing so, an incident occurred, which shows the 
danger to which they were daily exposed. It is 
thus related in Howe's Collections : 

" Mr. Andrew Ellison, one of the settlers, 
cleared an out-lot immediately adjoining the fort. 
He had completed the cutting of the timber, rolled 
the logs together, and set them on fire. The next 
morning, before daybreak, Mr. Ellison opened one 
of the gates of the fort, and went out to throw his 
logs together. By the time he had finished the 
job, a number of the heaps blazed up brightly, and, 
as he was passing from one to the other, he ob- 
served, by the light of the fires, three men walking 
briskly toward him. This did not alarm him in 
the least, although, he said, they were dark-skinned 
fellows ; yet he concluded they were the Wades, 
whose complexions were very dark, going early to 
hunt. He continued to right his log-heaps, until 
one of the fellows seized him by the arms, calling 
out, in broken English, ' How do ? how do ? ' He 
instantly looked in their faces, and, to his surprise 
and horror, found himself in the clutches of three 
Indians. To resist was useless. 

" The Indians quickly moved off with him in 
the direction of Paint Creek. When breakfast 
was ready, Mrs. Ellison sent one of her children 
to ask its father home ; but he could not be found 
at the log-heaps. His absence created no immedi- 
ate alarm, as it was thought he might have started 
to hunt, after completing his work. Dinner-time 
arrived, and, Ellison not returning, the family 
became uneasy, and began to suspect some acci- 
dent had happened to him. His gun-rack was 
examined, and there hung his rifles and his pouch. 
Gen. Massie raised a party, made a circuit around 
the place, finding, after some search, the trails of 
four men, one of whom had on shoes; and the 

fact that Mr. Ellison was a prisoner now became 
apparent. As it was almost night at the time the 
trail was discovered, the party returned to the 
station. Early the next morning, preparations 
were made by Gen. Massie and his friends to con- 
tinue the search. In doing this, they found great 
difiiculty, as it was so early in the spring that the 
vegetation was not grovrn sufficiently to show 
plainly the trail made by the savages, who took 
the precaution to keep on high and dry ground, 
where their feet would make little or no impres- 
sion. The party were, however, as unerring as a 
pack of hounds, and followed the trail to Paint 
Creek, when they found the Indians gained so 
fast on them that pursuit was useless. 

"The Indians took their prisoner to Upper 
Sandusky, where he was compelled to run the 
gantlet. As he was a large, and not very active, 
man, he received a severe flogging. He was then 
taken to Lower Sandusky, and again compelled to 
run the gantlet. He was then taken to Detroit, 
where he was ransomed by a British officer for 
^100. The officer proved a good friend to him. 
He sent him to Montreal, whence he returned 
home before the close of the summer, much to the 
joy of his family and friends, whose feehngs can 
only be imagined." 

"Another incident occurred about this time," 
says the same volume, "which so aptly illustrates 
the danger of frontier life, that it well deserves a 
place in the history of the settlements in Ohio. 
John and Asahel Edgington, with a comrade, 
started out on a hunting expedition toward Brush 
Creek. They camped out six miles in a northeast 
direction from where West Union now stands, and 
near the site of Treber's tavern, on the road from 
Chillicothe to JMaysville. They had good success 
in hunting, killing a number of deer and bears. 
Of the deer killed, they saved the skins and hams 
alone. They fleeced the bears ; that is, they cut 
off all the meat which adhered to the hide, with- 
out skinning, and left the bones as a skeleton. 
They hung up the proceeds of their hunt, on a scaf- 
fold out of the reach of wolves and other wild ani- 
mals, and returned to Manchester for pack-horses. 
No one returned to the camp with the Edgingtons. 
As it was late in December, few apprehended dan- 
ger, as the winter season was usually a time of re- 
pose from Indian incursions. When the Edgingtons 
arrived at their camp, they alighted from their 
horses and were preparing to start a fire, when a 
platoon of Indians fired upon them at a distance 
of not more than twenty paces. They had 





evidently found the results of the white men's labor, 
and expected they would return for it, and pre- 
pared to waylay them. Asahel Edgington fell 
dead. John was more fortunate. The sharp 
crack of the rifles, and the horrible yells of the 
savages as they leaped from their place of ambush, 
frightened the horses, who took the track for 
home at full speed. John was very active on foot, 
and now an opportunity offered which required his 
utmost speed. The moment the Indians leaped 
from their hiding-place, they threw down their 
guns and took after him, yelling with all their 
power. Edgington did not run a booty race. For 
about a mile, the savages stepped in his tracks al- 
most before the bending grass could rise. The 
uplifted tomahawk was frequently so near his head 
that he thought he felt its edge. He exerted 
himself to his utmost, while the Indians strove 
with all their might to catch him. Finally, he be- 
gan to gain on his pursuers, and, after a long race, 
distanced them and made his escape, safely reach- 
ing home. This, truly, was a most fearful and 
well-contested race. The big Shawanee chief, Capt. 
John, who headed the Indians on this occasion, 
after peace was made, in narrating the particulars, 
said, "The white man who ran away was a smart 
fellow. The white man run ; and I run. He run 
and run ; at last, the white man run clear off from 

The settlement, despite its dangers, prospered, 
and after the close of the war continued to grow 
rapidly. In two years afler peace was declared, 
Adams County was erected by proclamation of 
Gov. St. Clair, the next year court was held, and 
in 1804, West Union was made the county seat. 

During the war, a settlement was commenced 
near the present town of Bridgeport, in Belmont 
County, by Capt. Joseph Belmont, a noted Dela- 
ware Revolutionary officer, who, because his State 
could furnish only one company, could rise no 
higher than Captain of that company, and hence 
always maintained that grade. He settled on a 
beautiful knoll near the present county seat, but 
erelong suffered from a night attack by the In- 
dians, who, though unable to drive him and his 
companions from the cabin or conquer them, 
wounded some of them badly, one or two mortally, 
and caused the Captain to leave the frontier and 
return to Newark, Del. The attack was made 
in the spring of 1791, and a short time after, 
the Captain, having provided for the safety of his 
family, accepted a commission in St. Clair's army, 
and lost his life at the defeat of the General in 

November. Shortly after the Captain settled, a 
fort, called Dillie's Fort, was built on the Ohio, 
opposite the mouth of Grave Creek. About two 
hundred and fifty yards below this fort, an old 
man, named Tato, was shot d(jwn at his cabin door 
by the Indians, just as he was in the act of entering 
the house. His body was pulled in by his daugh- 
ter-in-law and grandson, who made an heroic de- 
fense. They were overpowered, the woman slain, 
and the boy badly wounded. He, however, man- 
aged to secrete himself and afterward escaped to 
the fort. The Indians, twelve or thirteen in num- 
ber, went off unmolested, though the men in the 
fort saw the whole transaction and could have 
punished them. Why they did not was never 

On Captina Creek in this same county, occurred, 
in May, 1794, the "battle of Captina," a fa- 
mous local skirmish between some Virginians from 
Fort Baker, and a party of Indians. Though the 
Indians largely outnumbered the whites, they were 
severely punished, and compelled to abandon the 
contest, losing several of their bravest warriors. 

These were the only settlements made until 
1795, the close of the war. Even these, as it will 
be observed from the foregoing pages, were tem- 
porary in all cases save one, and were maintained 
at a great risk, and the loss of many valuable lives. 
They were made in the beginning of the war,and such 
were their experiences that further attempts were 
abandoned until the treaty of Greenville was made, 
or until the prospects for peace and safety were 

No sooner, however, had the prospect of quiet 
been established, than a revival of emigration be- 
gan. Before the war it had been large, now it 
was largely increased. 

Wayne's treaty of peace with the Indians was 
made at Greenville, in what is now Darke County, 
the 3d of August, 1795. The number of Indians 
present was estimated at 1,300, divided among the 
principal nations as follows : 180 Wyandots, 381 
Delawares, 143 Shawanees, 45 Ottawas, 46 Chip- 
pewas, 240 Fottawatomies, 73 Miamis and Eel 
River, 12 Weas and Piankeshaws, and 10 Kicka- 
poos and Kaskaskias. The principal chiefs were 
Tarhe, Buckongahelas, Black Hoof, Blue Jacket 
and Little Turtle. Most of them had been tam- 
pered with by the British agents and traders, but 
all had been so thoroughly chastised by Wayne, and 
found that the British only used them as tools, 
that they were quite anxious to make peace with 
the " Thirteen Fires." By the treaty, former ones 



were established, the boundary lines confirmed and 
enlarged, an exchange and delivery of prisoners 
effected, and permanent peace assured. 

In the latter part of September, after the treaty 
of Greenville, Mr. Bedell, from New Jersey, 
selected a site for a home in what is now Warren 
County, at a place since known as " Bedell's Sta- 
lion," about a mile south of Union Village. Here 
he erected a block-house, as a defense against the 
Indians, among whom were many renegades as 
among the whites, who would not respect the 
terms of the treaty. Whether Mr. Bedell was 
alone that fall, or whether he was joined by others, 
is not now accurately known. However that may 
be, he was not long left to himself; for, ere a year 
had elapsed, quite a number of settlements were 
made in this part of the Territory. Soon after 
his settlement was made. Gen. David Sutton, Capt. 
Nathan Kelley and others began pioneer life at 
Deerfield, in the same locality, and, before three 
yeai's had gone by, a large number of New Jersey 
people were established in their homes; and, in 
18U3, the county was formed from Hamilton. 
Among the early settlers at Deerfield, was Capt. 
Robert Benham, who, with a companion, in 1779, 
sustained themselves many days when the Captain 
had lost the use of his legs, and his companion 
his arms, from musket-balls fired by the hands of 
the Indians. They were with a large party com- 
manded by Maj. Rodgers, and were furiously 
attacked by an immense number of savages, and 
all but a few slain. The event happened during 
the war of the Revolution, before any attempt 
was made to settle the Northwest Territory. The 
party were going down the Ohio, probably to the 
falls, and were attacked when near the site of 
Cincinnati. As mentioned, these two men sus- 
tained each other many days, the one having per- 
fect legs doing the necessary walking, carrying his 
comrade to water, driving up game for him to 
shoot, and any other duties necessary; while the 
one who had the use of his arms could dress his 
companion's and his own wounds, kill and cook 
the game, and perform his share. They were 
rescued, finally, by a flat-boat, whose occupants, 
for awhile, passed them, fearing a decoy, but, 
becoming convinced that such was not the case, 
took them on down to Louisville, where they were 
nursed into perfect health. 

A settlement was made near the present town of 
Lebanon, the county seat of Warren County, in 
the spring of 1796, by Henry Taylor, who built a 
mill one mile west of the town site, on Turtle 

Creek. Soon after, he was joined by Ichabod 
Corwin, John Osbourn, Jacob Vorhees, Samuel 
Shaw, Daniel Bonte and a Mr. Manning. When 
Lebanon was laid out, in 1803, the two-story log 
house built in 1797 by Ichabod Corwin was the 
only building on the plat. It was occupied by 
Ephraim Hathaway as a tavern. He had a black 
horse painted on an immense board for a sign, and 
continued in business here till 1810. The same 
year the town was laid out, a store was opened by 
John Huston, and, from that date, the growth of 
the county was very pro.sperous. Three years 
after, the Western Star was established by 
Judge John McLain, and the current news of 
the day given in weekly editions. It was one of 
the first newspapers established in the Territory, 
outside of Cincinnati. 

As has been mentioned, the opening of naviga- 
tion in the spring of 179(5 brought a great flood 
of emigration to the Territory. The little settle- 
ment made by Mr. Bedell, in the autumn of 1795, 
was about the only one made that fall ; others made 
preparations, and many selected sites, but did not 
settle till the following spring. That spring, colo- 
nies were planted in what are now Montgomery, 
Hoss, Madison, Mahoning, Trumbull, Ashtabula 
and Cuyahoga Counties, while preparations were 
in turn made to occupy additional territory that 
will hereafter be noticed. 

The settlement made in Montgomery County 
was begun early in the spring of 1796. As early 
as 1788, the land on which Dayton now stands was 
selected by some gentlemen, who designed laying- 
out a town to be named Venice. They agreed 
with Judge Symmes, whose contract covered the 
place, for the purchase of the lands. The Indian 
war which broke out at this time prevented an 
extension of settlements from the immediate 
neighborhood of the parent colonies, and the proj- 
ect was abandoned by the purchasers. Soon after 
the treaty of 1795, a new company, composed of 
Gens. Jonathan Dayton, Arthur St. Clair, James 
Wilkinson, and Col. Israel Ludlow, purchased the 
land between the Miamis, around the mouth of 
Mad River, of Judge Symmes, and, the 4th of 
November, laid out the town. Arrangements were 
made for its settlement the ensuing spring, and 
donations of lots, with other privileges, were offered 
to actual settlers. Forty-six persons entered into 
engagements to remove from Cincinnati to Day- 
ton, but during the winter most of them scat- 
tered in different directions, and only nineteen ful- 
filled their contracts. The first families who 




made a permanent residence here, arrived on the 
first day of April, 1796, and at once set about 
establishing homes. Judge Symmes, however, 
becoming unable soon after to pay for his purchase, 
the land reverted to the United States, and the set- 
tlers in and about Dayton found themselves with- 
out titles to their lands. Congress, however, came 
to the aid of all such persons, wherever they had 
purchased land of Symmes, and passed a pre-emp- 
tion law, under which they could enter their lands 
at the regular government price. Some of the set- 
tlers entered their lands, and obtained titles directly 
from the United States ; others made arrangements 
with Daniel C. Cooper to receive their deeds from 
him, and he entered the residue of the town lands. 
He had been the surveyor and agent of the first 
company of proprietors, and they assigned to him 
certain of their rights of pre-emption, by which he 
became the titular owner of the land. 

When the State government was organized in 
1803, Dayton was made the seat of justice for 
Montgomery County, erected the same year. At 
that time, owing to the title question, only five 
families resided in the place, the other settlers hav- 
ing gone to farms in the vicinity, or to other 
parts of the country. The increase of the town 
was gradual until the war of 1812, when its 
growth was more rapid until 1820, when it was 
again checked by the general depression of busi- 
ness. It revived in 1827, at the commencement 
of the Miami Canal, and since then its growth has 
always been prosperous. It is now one of the 
best cities in Ohio. The first canal boats fi-om 
Cincinnati arrived at Dayton January 25, 1829, 
and the first one from Lake Erie the 24th of 
June, 1845. In 1825, a weekly line of stages 
was established between Columbus and Cincinnati, 
via Dayton. One day was occupied in coming 
from Cincinnati to Dayton. 

On the 18th of September, 1808, the Dayton 
Repertory was established by William McClureand 
George Smith. It was printed on a foolscap sheet. 
Soon after, it was enlarged and changed from a 
weekly to a daily, and, ere long, found a number 
of competitors in the field. 

In the lower part of Miamisburg, in this county, 
are the remains of ancient works, scattered about 
over the bottom. About a mile and a quarter 
southeast of the village, on an elevation more than 
one hundred feet above the level of the Miami, 
is the largest mound in the Northern States, ex- 
cepting the mammoth mound at Grave Creek, on 
the Ohio, below Wheeling, which it nearly equals 

in dimensions. It is about eight hundred feet 
around the base, and rises to a height of nearly 
seventy feet. When first known it was covered 
with forest trees, whose size evidenced great age. 
The Indians could give no account of the mound. 
Excavations revealed bones and charred earth, 
but what was its use, will always remain a con- 

One of the most important early settlements 
was made cotemporary with that of Dayton, in 
what is now Ross County. The same spring, 
1796, quite a colony came to the banks of the 
Scioto River, and, near the mouth of Paint Creek, 
began to plant a crop of corn on the bottom. The 
site had been selected as early as 1792, by Col. 
Nathaniel Massie* and others, who were so de- 
lighted with the country, and gave such glowing 
descriptions of it on their return — which accounts 
soon circulated through Kentucky — that portions 
of the Presbyterian congregations of Caneridge and 
Concord, in Bourbon County, under Rev. Robert 
W. Finley, determined to emigrate thither in a 
body. They were, in a measure, induced to take 
this step by their dislike to slavery, and a desire 
for freedom from its baleful influences and the un- 
certainty that existed regarding the validity of the 
land titles in that State. The Rev. Finley, as a 
preliminary step, liberated his slaves, and addressed 
to Col. Massie a letter of inquiry, in December, 
1794, regarding the land on the Scioto, of which 
he and his people had heard such glowing ac- 

"The letter induced Col. Massie to visit Mr. 
Finley in the ensuing March. A large concourse 
of people, who wished to engage in the enterprise, 
assembled on the occasion, and fixed on a day to 
meet at the Three Islands, in Manchester, and 
proceed on an exploring expedition. Mr. Finley 
also wrote to his friends in Western Pennsylvania 

* Nathaniel Massie was born in Gfoochland County, Va., Decem- 
ber 28, 17G3. In 1780, he engaged, for a short time, in the Kevolu- 
tionary war. In 1783, he left for Kentucliy, where he acted as a 
surveyor. He was afterward made a Government surveyor, and 
labored much in that capacity for early Ohio proprietors, being paiil 
in lands, the amounts graded by the danger attached to the surv.y. 
In 1791, he established the settlement at Manchester, and a year or 
two after, continued liis surveys up the Scioto. Here he was con- 
tinually in great danger from the Iiuiians, but knew well how to 
guard against them, and thus jireserved himself. In 1790, he estab- 
lished the Cbillicotho settlement, and made bis home in the Scioto 
Valley, being now an extensive land owner by reason of his long 
surveying service. In 18(l7, he and Return J. Meigs were compet- 
itors for the office of Governor of Ohio. Meigs was elected, but 
Massie contested his eligibility to the office, on the grounds of his 
absence from the State and insuflnciency of time as a resident, as 
required by the Constitution. Meigs was declared inelicible by the 
General Assembly, and Massie declared Governor. He, however, 
renigned the office at once, not desiring it. He waa often Repre- 
Bentative afterward. He died November 13, 1813. 



informing tliem of the time and place of rendez- 

" About sixty men met, according to appoint- 
ment, who were divided into three companies, 
under Massie, Finley and Falenash. They pro- 
ceeded on their route, without interruption, until 
they struck the falls of Paint Creek. Proceeding 
a short distance down that stream, they suddenly 
found themselves in the vicinity of some Indians 
who had encamped at a place, since called Reeve's 
Crossing, near the present town of Bainbridge. 
The Indians were of those who had refused to 
attend Wayne's treaty, and it was determined to 
give them battle, it being too late to retreat with 
safety. The Indians, on being attacked, soon fled 
with the loss of two killed and several wounded. 
One of the whites only, Joshua Robinson, was 
mortally wounded, and, during the action, a Mr. 
Armstrong, a prisoner among the savages, escaped 
to his own people. The whites gathered all their 
plunder and retreated as far as Scioto Brush 
Creek, where they were, according to expectation, 
attacked early the next morning. Again the In- 
dians were defeated. Only one man among the 
whites, Allen Gilfillan, was wounded. The party 
of whites continued their retreat, the next day 
reached Manchester, and separated for their homes. 

" After Wayne's treaty, Col. Massie and several 
of the old explorers again met at the house of 
Rev. Finley, formed a company, and agreed to 
make a settlement in the ensuing spring (1796), 
and raise a crop of corn at the mouth of Paint 
Creek. According to agreement, they met at Man- 
chester about the first of April, to the number of 
forty and upward, from Mason and Bourbon 
Counties. Among them were Joseph McCoy, 
Benjamin and William Rodgers, David Shelby, 
James Harrod, Henry, Bazil and Reuben Abrams, 
William Jamison, James Crawford, Samuel, An- 
thony and Robert Smith, Thomas Dick, William 
and James Kerr, George and James Kilgrove, 
John Brown, Samuel and Robert Templeton, Fer- 
guson Moore, William Nicholson and James B. 
Finley, later a prominent local Methodist minister. 
On starting, they divided into two companies, one 
of which struck across the country, while the 
other came on in pirogues. The first arrived 
earliest on the spot of their intended settlement, 
and had commenced erecting log huts above the 
mouth of Paint Creek, at the 'Prairie Station,' 
before the others had come on by water. About 
three hundred acres of the prairie were cultivated 
in corn that season. 

" In August, of this year — 1796 — Chillicothe* 
was laid out by Col. Massie in a dense forest. He 
gave a lot to each of the first settlers, and, by the 
beginning of winter, about twenty cabins were 
erected. Not long after, a ferry was established 
across the Scioto, at the north end of Walnut 
street. The opening of Zane's trace produced a 
great change in travel westward, it having pre- 
viously been along the Ohio in keel-boats or canoes, 
or by land, over the Cumberland Mountains, 
through Crab Orchard, in Kentucky. 

" The emigrants brought corn-meal in their pi- 
rogues, and after that was gone, their principal 
meal, until the next summer, was that pounded in 
hominy mortars, which meal, when made into 
bi'ead, and anointed with bear's-oil, was quite pal- 

" When the settlers first came, whisky was S-4.50 
per gallon; but, in the spring of 1797, when the 
keel-boats began to run, the Monongahela whisky- 
makers, having found a good market for their fire- 
water, rushed it in, in such quantities, that the 
cabins were crowded with it, and it soon fell to 50 
cents. Men, women and children, with some excep- 
tions, drank it freely, and many who had been 
respectable and temperate became inebriates. 
Many of Wayne's soldiers and camp-women settled 
in the town, so that, for a time, it became a town 
of drunkards and a sink of corruption. There 
was, however, a little leaven, which, in a few 
months, began to develop itself 

'• In the spring of 1797, one Brannon stole a 
great coat, handkerchief and shirt. He and his 
wife absconded, were pursued, caught and brought 
back. Samuel Smith was appointed Judge, a 
jury impanneled, one attorney appointed by the 
Judge to manage the prosecution, and another the 
defense ; witnesses were examined, the case argued, 
and the evidence summed up by the Judge. The 
jury, having retired a few moments, returned with 
a verdict of guilty, and that the culprit be sen- 
tenced according to the discretion of the Judge. 
'The Judge soon announced that the criminal 
should have ten lashes on his naked back, or that 
he should sit on a bare pack-saddle on his pony, 
and that his wife, who was supposed to have had 
some agency in the theft, should lead the pony to 
every house in the village, and proclaim, 'This is 

♦Chillicothe appears to have been a favorite name among the 
Indians, as many localities were known by that name. Col. John 
Johnston says : "Chillicothe is the name of one of the principal 
tribes of the Shawanees. They would say, Chil-i-cotheotany, i. e., 
Chillicothe town. The Wyandots would say, for Chillicothe town, 
Tat-a-ra-ra, Do-tia, or town at the leaning of the bank." 




Brannon, who stole the great coat, handkerchief 
and shirt ; ' and that James B. Finley, afterward 
Chaplain in the State Penitentiary, should see the 
sentence faithfully carried out. Brannon chose 
the latter sentence, and the ceremony was faith- 
fully performed by his wife in the presence of 
every cabin, under Mr. Finley 's care, after which 
the couple made off. This was rather rude, but 
effective j urisprudence. 

" Dr. Edward Tiffin and Mr. Thomas Worth- 
ington, of Berkley County, Va., were brothers-in-law, 
and being moved by abolition principles, liberated 
their slaves, intending to remove into the Ter- 
ritory. For this purpose, Mr. Worthington visited 
Chillicothe in the autumn of 1797, and purchased 
several in and out lots of the town. On one of the 
former, he erected a two-story frame house, the 
first of the kind in the village. On his return, 
having purchased a part of a farm, on which his 
family long afterward resided, and another at the 
north fork of Paint Creek, he contracted with Mr. 
Joseph Yates, a millwright, and Mr. George Haines, 
a blacksmith, to come out with him the following 
winter or spring, and erect for him a grist and saw 
mill on his north-fork tract. The summer, fall 
and following winter of that year were marked by 
a rush of emigration, which spead over the high 
bank prairie, Pea-pea, Westfall and a few miles 
up Paint and Deer Creeks. 

" Nearly all the first settlers were either regular 
members, or had been raised in the Presbyterian 
Church. Toward the fall of 1797, the leaven of 
piety retained by a portion of the first settlers be- 
gan to diffuse itself through the mass, and a large 
log meeting-house was erected near the old grave- 
yard, and Rev. William Speer, from Pennsylvania, 
took charge. The sleepers at first served as seats for 
hearers, and a split-log table was used as a pulpit. 
Mr. Speer was a gentlemanly, moral man, tall and 
cadaverous in person, and wore the cocked hat of 
the Revolutionary era. 

" Thomas Jones arrived in February, 1798, 
bringing with him the first load of bar-iron in the 
Scioto Valley, and about the same time Maj. Eli?, 
Langham, an officer of the Revolution, arrived. Dr. 
Tiffin, and his brother, Joseph, arrived the same 
month from Virginia and opened a store not far 
from the log meeting-house. A store had been 
opened previously by John McDougal. The 17th 
of April, the families of Col. Worthington and 
Dr. Tiffin arrived, at which time the first marriage 
in the Scioto Valley was celebrated. The parties 
were George Kilgore and Elizabeth Cochran. The 

ponies of the attendants were hitched to the trees 
along the streets, which were not then cleared out, 
nearly the whole town being a wilderness. Joseph 
Yates, George Haines, and two or three others, 
arrived with the families of Tiffin and Worthing- 
ton. On their arrival there were but four shingled 
roofs in town, on one of which the shingles 
were fastened with pegs. Col. Worthington's 
house was the only one having glass windows. The 
sash of the hotel windows was filled with greased 

" Col. Worthington was appointed by Gen. Ru- 
fus Putnam, Surveyor General of the Northwest 
Territory, surveyor of a large district of Congress 
lands, on the east side of the Scioto, and INIaj. 
Langham and a Mr. Matthews, were appointed to 
survey the residue of the lands which afterward 
composed the Chillicothe land district. 

"The same season, settlements were made about 
the Walnut Plains by Samuel McCulloh and 
others; Springer, Osbourn, Dyer, and Thomas and 
Elijah Chenowith, on Darly Creek; Lamberts and 
others on Sippo ; on Foster's Bottom, the Fosters. 
Samuel Davis and others, while the following fam- 
ilies settled in and about Chillicothe: John Crouse, 
William Keys, William Lamb, John Carlisle, John 
McLanberg, William Chandless, the Stoctons, 
Greggs, Bates and some others. 

"Dr. Tiffin and his wife were the first Metho- 
dists in the Scioto Valley. He was a local preacher. 
In the fall, Worthington's grist and saw mills on 
the north fork of Paint Creek were finished, the 
first mills worthy the name in the valley. 

" Chillicothe was the point from which the set- 
tlements diverged. In May, 1799, a post office 
was established here, and Joseph Tiffin made Post- 
master. Mr. Tiffin and Thomas Gregg opened 
taverns; the first, under the sign of Gen. Anthony 
Wayne, was at the corner of Water and Walnut 
streets; and the last, under the sign of the 'Green 
Tree,' was on the corner of Paint and Water 
streets. In 1801, Nathaniel Willis moved in and 
established the Scioto Gazette, probably, the sec- 
ond paper in the Territory."* 

In 1800, the seat of government of the North- 
west Territory was removed, by law of Congress, 
from Cincinnati to Chillicothe. The sessions of 
the Territorial Assembly for that and the nest 
year were held in a small two-story, hewed-log 
house, erected in 1798, by Bazil Abrams. A wing 
was added to the main part, of two stories in 

* Recollections of Hon. Thomas Scott, of Chillicothe — Howe's 
"Annals of Ohio. 




height. In the lower room of this wing, Col. 
Thomas Gibson, Auditor of the Territory, kept 
his office, and in the upper room a small family 
lived. In the upper room of the main building 
a billiard table was kept. It was also made a re- 
sort of gamblers and disreputable characters. The 
lower room was used by the Legislature, and as a 
cqurt room, a church or a school. In the 
war of 1812, the building was a rendezvous and 
barracks for soldiers, and, in IS-IO, was pulled 

The old State House was commenced in 1800, 
and finished the next year for the accommodation 
of the Legislature and the courts. It is said to 
be the first public stone edifice erected in the Ter- 
ritory. Alaj. William Rutledge, a Revolutionary 
soldier, did the mason work, and William Guthrie, 
the carpenter. In 1801 , the Territorial Legislature 
held their first session in it. In it was also held 
the Constitutional Convention of Ohio, which be- 
gan its sessions the first Monday in November, 
1802. In March, 1803, the first State Legislature 
met in the house, and continued their sessions here 
until 1810. The sessions of 1810-11, and 1811- 
12, were held in Zanesville, and from there re- 
moved back to Chiliicothe and held in the old 
State House till 1816, when Columbus became the 
permanent capital of the State. 

INIaking Chiliicothe the State capital did much 
to enhance its growth. It was incorporated in 
1802, and a town council elected. In 1807, the 
town had fourteen stores, six hotels, two newspa- 
pers, . two churches — both brick buildings — and 
over two hundred dwellings. The removal of the 
capital to Columbus checked its growth a little, still, 
being in an excellent country, rapidly filling with 
settlers, the town has always remained a prominent 
trading center. 

During the war of 1812, Chiliicothe was made 
a rendezvous for United States soldiers, and a 
prison established, in which many British prison- 
ers were confined. At one time, a conspiracy for 
escape was discovered just in time to prevent it. 
The plan was for the prisoners to disarm the 
guard, proceed to jail, release the officers, burn the 
town, and escape to Canada. The plot was fortu- 
nately disclosed by two senior British officers, upon 
which, as a measure of security, the officers and 
chief conspirators were sent to the penitentiary 
at Frankfort, Kentucky. 

Two or three miles northwest of Chiliicothe, on 
a beautiful elevation, commanding an extensive 
view of the valley of the Scioto, Thomas Worth-- 

ington,* one of the most prominent and influential 
men of his day, afterward Governor of the State, 
in 1806, erected a large stone mansion, the wonder 
of the valley in its time. It was the most elegant 
mansion in the West, crowds coming to see it 
when it "was completed. Gov. Worthington named 
the place Adena, " Paradise " — a name not then 
considered hyperbolical. The large panes of glass, 
and the novelty of papered walls especially attracted 
attention. Its architect was the elder Latrobe, of 
Washington City, from which place most of the 
workmen came. The glass was made in Pitts- 
burgh, and the fireplace fronts in Philadelphia, the 
latter costing seven dollars per hundred pounds for 
transportation. The mansion, built as it was, cost 
nearly double the expense of such structures now. 
Adena was the home of the Governor till his death, 
in 1827. 

Near Adena, in a beautiful situation, is Fruit 
Hill, the seat of Gen. Duncan McArthur,! and 
later of ex-Gov. William Allen. Like Adena, Fruit 
Hill is one of the noted places in the Scioto Val- 
ley. Many of Ohio's best men dwelt in the valley ; 
men who have been an honor and ornament to the 
State and nation. 

Another settlement, begun soon after the treaty 
of peace in 1795, was that made on the Licking 
River, about four miles below the present city of 
Nev/ark, in Licking County. In the fall of 1798, 
John RatlifF and Elias Hughes, while prospecting 
on this stream, found some old Indian cornfields, 
and determined to locate. They were from West- 
ern Virginia, and were true pioneers, living mainly 
by hunting, leaving the cultivation of their small 
cornfields to their wives, much after the style of 

* Gov. Worthington was born in Jefferson County, Va., about the 
yearl70'J. He sytiU-din Oliio in 17;i8. He was a firm believer in 
liberty and came to the Territory al'tiT liberating his slaves. He was 
oiie of the niosi eflicifiit men of his day; was a member of the 
Constitutional Convention, and was sent on an important mission 
to Congress relative to the admiosion of Ohio to the Union. He 
was afterward a Senator to Congress, and then Governor. On 
the expiration of his guSernatorial term, he was appointed a mem- 
ber of the Board of Public Works, in which cajiacity ho did umch 
to advance the canals and ral roads, and other public improve- 
ments. He remained in this office till his death. 

t Gen. Mc.\rthur was born in Dutchess County, N. T., in 1772. 
When eight years of age, his father removed to ApVesteru Pennsyl- 
vania. When eighteen years of age, he served in Harmar's 
campaign. In 1792, he was a very elficient soldier among the front- 
iersmen, and gained their ajiprobation by liis bravery. In 1793, he 
was connected with Gen. jlassie, and afterward was engaged in 
land speculations and became very wealthy. He was made a mem- 
ber of the Legislature, in 1805 ; in 1800, a Colonel, and in 1808, a 
Major Ganeral of the militia. In this capacity he was in Hull's 
surrender at Detroit. On his return he was elected to Congress, 
and in 1813 commissioned Brigadier General. He was one of the 
most efticient officers in the war of 1812, and held many important 
posts. After the war, he was again sent to the Legislature ; in 1822 
to Congress, ar]d in 1830 elected Governor of the State. By an un- 
fortunate accident in 1830, he was maimed for life, and gradually 
declined till death came a few years after. 




their dusky neighbors. They were both inveterate 
Indian-haters, and never allowed an opportunity to 
pass without carrying out their hatred. For this, 
they were apprehended after the treaty; but, 
though it was clearly proven they had murdered 
some iuolFensive Indians, the state of feeling was 
such that they were allowed to go unpunished. 

A short time after their settlement, others joined 
them, and, in a few years, quite a colony had 
gathered on the banks of the Licking. In 1802, 
Newark was laid out, and, in three or four years, 
there were twenty or thirty families, several stores 
and one or two hotels. 

The settlement of G-ranville Township, in this 
county, is rather an important epoch in the history 
of this part of the State. From a sketch pub- 
lished by Rev. Jacob Little in 18-48, in Howe's 
Collections, the subjoined statements are taken: 

"In 1804, a company was formed at Granville, 
Mass., with the intention of making a settlement 
in Ohio. This, called the Scioto Company, was 
the third of that name which effected settlemen1;g 
in Ohio. The project met with great favor, and 
much enthusiasm was elicited, in illustration of 
which a song was composed and sung to the 
tune of ' Pleasant Ohio ' by the young people in 
the house and at labor in the field. We annex 
two stanzas, which are more curious than poetical: 

"'When rambling o'er these mountains 

And rocks where ivies grow 
Thick as the hairs upon your head, 

"Mongst which you cannot go — 
Great storms of snow, cold winds that blow, 

We scarce can undergo — 
Says I, my boys, we'll leave this place 

For the pleasant Ohio. 

" <Our precious friends that stay behind. 

We're sorry now to leave; 
But if they'll stay and break their shins, 

For them we'll never grieve. 
Adieu, my friends! — Come on, my dears, 

This journey we'll forego. 
And settle Licking Creek, 

In yonder Ohio.' " 

" The Scioto Company consisted of one hundred 
and fourteen proprietors, who made a purchase of 
twenty-eight thousand acres. In the autumn of 
1805, two hundred and thirty-four persons, mostly 
from East Granville, Mass., came on to the pur- 
chase. Although they had been forty-two days on 
the road, their first business, on their arrival, hav- 
ing organized a church before they left the East, 
was to hear a sermon. The first tree cut was that 

by which public worship was held, which stood 
just in front of the Presbyterian church. 

On the first Sabbath, November 16, although 
only about a dozen trees had been felled, they held 
divine service, both forenoon and afternoon, on 
that spot. The novelty of worshiping in the 
woods, the forest extending hundreds of miles each 
way ; the hardships of the journey, the winter set- 
ting in, the thoughts of home, with all the friends 
and privileges left behind, and the impression that 
such must be the accommodations of anew country, 
all rushed on their minds, and made this a day of 
varied interest. When they began to sing, the 
echo of their voices among the trees was so differ- 
ent from what it was in the beautiful meeting- 
house they had left, that they could no longer 
restrain their tears. They ivept when they remem- 
bered Zion. The voices of part of the choir were, 
for a season, suppressed with emotion. 

"An incident occurred, which many said Mrs. 
Sigourney should have put into verse. Deacon 
Theophilus Reese, a Welsh Baptist, had, two or 
three years before, built a cabin, a mile and a half 
north, and lived all this time without public wor- 
ship. He had lost his cattle, and, hearing a low- 
ing of the oxen belonging to the Company, set out 
toward them. As he ascended the hills overlook- 
ing the town plot, he heard the singing of the 
choir. The reverberation of the sound from hill- 
tops and trees, threw the good man into a serious 
dilemma. The music at first seemed to be behind, 
then in the tree-tops, or in the clouds. He stopped, 
till, by accurate listening, he caught the direction 
of the sound ; went on and passing the brow of 
the hill, he saw the audience sitting on the 
level below. He went home and told his wife that 
' the promise of God is a bond ' ; a Welsh proverb, 
signifying that we have security, equal to a bond, 
that religion will prevail everywhere. He said : 
' These must be good people. I am not afraid to 
go among them.' Though he could not under- 
stand English, he constantly attended the reading 
meeting. Hearing the music on that occasion 
made such an impression on his mind that, when 
he became old and met the first settlers, he would 
always tell over this story. The first cabin built 
was that in which they worshiped succeeding 
Sabbaths, and, before the close of the winter, they 
had a schoolhouse and a school. That church, in 
forty years, received more than one thousand per- 
sons into its membership. 

"Elder Jones, in 1806, preached the first ser- 
mon in the log church. The Welsh Baptist 





Church was organized in the cabin of David 
Thomas, Septen^^ber 4, 1808. April 21, 1827, 
the Grranville members were organized into the 
Granville Church, and the corner-stone of their 
house of worship laid September 21, 1829. In 
the fall of 1810, the first Methodist sermon was 
preached here, and, soon after, a class organized. 
In 1824, a church was built. An Episcopal 
church was organized in May, 1827, and a 
church consecrated in 1888. In 1849, there 
were in this township 405 families, of whom 214 
sustain family worship ; 1431 persons over four- 
teen years of age, of whom over 800 belong to 
church. The town had 150 families, of whom 80 
have family worship. In 1846, the township 
furnished 70 school teachers, of whom 62 prayed 
in school. In 1846, the township took 621 peri- 
odical papers, besides three small monthlies. The 
first temperance society west of the mountains was 
organized July 15, 1828, in this township; and, 
in 1831, the Congregational Church passed a by- 
law to accept no member who trafficked in or used 
ardent spirits." 

It is said, not a settlement in the entire West 
could present so moral and upright a view as that 
of Granville Township; and nowhere could so 
perfect and orderly a set of people be found. 
Surely, the fact is argument enough in favor of 
the religion of Jesus. 

The narrative of Mr. Little also states that, 
when Granville was first settled, it was supposed 
that Worthington would be the capital of Ohio, 
between which and Zanesville, Granville would 
make a great half-way town. At this time, wild 
animals, snakes and Indians abounded, and many 
are the marvelous stories preserved regarding the 
destruction of the animals and reptiles — the 
Indians being bound by their treaty to remain 
peaceful. Space forbids their repetition here. 
Suffice it to say that, as the whites increased, the 
Indians, animals and snakes disappeared, until 
now one is as much a curiosity as the other. 

The remaining settlement in the southwest- 
ern parts of Ohio, made immediately after the 
treaty — fall of 1795 or year of 1796 — was in 
what is now Madison County, about a mile north 
of where the village of Amity now stands, on the 
banks of the Big Darby. This stream received its 
name from the Indians, from a Wyandot chief, 
named Darby, who for a long time resided upon it, 
near the Union County line. In the fall of 1795, 
Benj amin Springer came from Kentucky and selected 
some land on the banks of the Big Darby, cleared 

the ground, built a cabin, and returned for his 
family. The next spring, he brought them out, 
and began his life here. The same summer he was 
joined by William Lapin, Joshua and James Ew- 
ing and one or two others. 

When Springer came, he found a white man 
named Jonathan Alder, who for fifteen years had 
been a captive among the Indians, and who could 
not speak a word of English, living with an Indian 
woman on the banks of Big Darby. He had been 
exchanged at Wayne's treaty, and, neglecting to 
profit by the treaty, was still living in the Indian 
style. When the whites became numerous about 
him his desire to find his relatives, and adopt the 
ways of the whites, led him to discard his squaw — 
giving her an unusual allowance — learn the English 
language, engage in agricultural pursuits, and be- 
come again civihzed. Fortunately, he could remem- 
ber enough of the names of some of his parents' 
neighbors, so that the identity of his relatives and 
friends was easily established, and Alder became a 
most useful citizen. He was very influential with 
the Indians, and induced many of them to remain 
neutral during the war of 1812. It is stated that 
in 1800, Mr. Ewing brought four sheep into the com- 
munity. They were strange animals to the Indians. 
One day when an Indian hunter and his dog were 
passing, the latter caught a sheep, and was shot by 
Mr. Ewing. The Indian would have shot Ewing in 
retaliation, had not Alder, who was fortunately 
present, with much difficulty prevailed upon him 
to refrain. 

While the southern and southwestern parts of 
the State were filling with settlers, assured of safety 
by Wayne's victories, the northern and eastern 
parts became likewise the theater of activities. 
Ever since the French had explored the southern 
shores of the lake, and English traders had car- 
ried goods thither, it was expected one day to be 
a valuable part of the West. It will be remem- 
bered that Connecticut had ceded a large tract of 
land to the General Government, and as soon as 
the cession was confirmed, and land titles became 
assured, settlers flocked thither. Even before that 
time, hardy adventurers had explored some of the 
country, and pronounced it a "goodly land," 
ready for the hand of enterprise. 

The first settlement in the Western Reserve, 
and, indeed, in the northern part of the State, was 
made at the mouth of Conneaut* Creek, in Ash- 
tabula County, on the 4th of July, 1796. That 

'Conneaut, in the Seneca language, signifiea "many fish." 




day, the first surveying party landed at the mouth 
of this creek, and, ou its eastern bank, near the 
lake shore, in tin cups, pledged — as they drank the 
limpid waters of the lake — their country's welfare, 
with the ordnance accompaniment of two or three 
fowling-pieces, discharging the required national 

The whole party, on this occasion, numbered 
fifty-two persons, of whom two were females (Mrs. 
Stiles and Mrs. Gunn) and a child, and all deserve 
a lusting place in the history of the State. 

The next day, they began the erection of a large 
log building on the sandy beach on the east side 
of the stream. When done, it was named " Stow 
Castle," after one of the party. It was the dwell- 
ing, storehouse and general habitation of all the 
pioneers. The party made this their headquar- 
ters part of the summer, and continued busily 
engaged in the survey of the Reserve. James 
Kingsbury, afterward Judge, arrived soon after 
the party began work, and, with his family, was 
the first to remain here during the winter follow- 
ing, the rest returning to the East, or going south- 
ward. Through the winter, Mr. Kingsbury's 
family suffered greatly for provisions, so much so, 
that, during the absence of the head of the family 
in New York for provisions, one child, born in his 
absence, died, and the mother, reduced by her suf- 
ferings and solitude, was only saved by the timely 
arrival of the husband and father with a sack of 
flour he had carried, many weary miles, on his 
back. He remained here but a short time, re- 
moving to Cleveland, which was laid out that same 
fall. In the spring of 1798, Alexander Harper, 
William McFarland and Ezra Gregory, with their 
flimilies, started from Harpersfield, Delaware Co., 
N. Y., and arrived the last of June, at their new 
homes in the Far West. The whole population on 
the Reserve then amounted to less than one hun- 
dred and fifty persons. These were at Cleveland, 
Youngstown and at Mentor. During the summer, 
three famiHes came to Burton, and Judge Hudson 
settled at Hudson. All these pioneers suffered 
severely for food, and from the fever induced by 
chills. It took several years to become accli- 
mated. Sometimes the entire neighborhood 
would be down, and only one or two, who could 
wait on the rest "between chills," were able to do 
anything. Time and courage overcame, finally. 

It was not until 1798, that a permanent settle- 
ment was made at the mouth of Conneaut Creek. 
Those who came there in 1796 went on with their 
surveys, part remaining in Cleveland, laid out that 

summer. Judge Kingsbury could not remain at 
Conneaut, and went nearer the settlements made 
about theCuyahoga. Inthespring of 1798, Thomas 
Montgomery and Aaron Wright settled here and 
remained. Up the stream they found some thirty 
Indian cabins, or huts, in a good state of preserva- 
tion, which they occupied until they could erect 
their own. Soon after, they were joined by others, 
and, in a year or two, the settlement was permanent 
and prosperous. 

The site of the present town of Austinburg in 
Ashtabula County was settled in the year 1799, 
by two families from Connecticut, who were in- 
duced to come thither, by Judge Austin. The 
Judge preceded them a short time, driving, in 
company with a hired man, some cattle about one 
hundred and fifty miles through the woods, follow- 
ing an old Indian trail, while the rest of the party 
came in a boat across the lake. When they ar- 
rived, there were a few families at Harpersburg ; 
one or two families at Windsor, twenty miles 
southwest; also a few families at Elk Creek, forty 
miles northeast, and at Vernon, the same distance 
southeast. All these were in a destitute condition 
for provisions. In 1800, another family moved 
from Norfolk, Conn. In the spring of 1801, sev- 
eral families came from the same place. Part came 
by land, and part by water. During that season, 
wheat was carried to an old mill on Elk Creek, 
forty miles away, and in some instances, half was 
given for carrying it to mill and returning it in 

Wednesday, October 21, 1801, a church of six- 
teen members was constituted in Austinburg. 
This was the first church on the Reserve, and was 
founded by Rev. Joseph Badger, the first mission- 
ary there. It is a fact worthy of note, that in 
1802, Mr. Badger moved his family fi-om Buffalo 
to this town, in the first wagon that ever came 
from that place to the Reserve. In 1803, noted 
revivals occurred in this part of the West, attended 
I by the peculiar bodily phenomenon known as the 
I " shakes " or "jerks." 

I The surveying party which landed at the mouth 
I of Conneaut'^ Creek, July 4, 1796, soon completed 
j their labors in this part of the Reserve, and ex- 
! tended them westward. By the first of September, 
I they had explored the lake coast as fiir west as the 
outlet of the Cuyahoga* River, then considered 

* Cuyahoga, id the Indian language, signifies "crooked."— 
Boioe'H Cnlleclions. 

"The liuiians called the river 'Cnyahoghan-uk,' 'Lake River 
It is, emphaticiUy, a Lake river. It rises in lakes and empties into 
a \a]i.e."—Atwate'-'s Hi lory of Ohio. 



by all an important Western place, and one des- 
tined to be a great commercial mart. Time has 
verified the prophecies, as now the city of Cleve- 
land covers the site. 

As early as 1755, the mouth of the Cuyahoga 
River was laid down on the maps, and the French 
had a station here. It was also considered an im- 
portant post during the war of the Ilevolution,, 
and later, of 1812. The British, who, after the 
Ilevolution, refused to abandon the lake country 
west of the Cuyahoga, occupied its shores until 
1790. Their traders had a house in Ohio City, 
north of the Detroit road, on the point of the hill 
near the river, when the surveyors arrived in 
1796. Washington, Jefferson, and all statesmen 
of that day, regarded the outlet of the Cuyahoga 
as an important place, and hence the early at- 
tempt of the surveyors to reach and lay out a town 

The corps of surveyors arrived early in Septem- 
ber, 1796, and at once proceeded to lay out a town. 
It was named Cleveland, in honor of Gen. Moses 
Cleveland, the Land Company's agent, and for 
years a very prominent man in Connecticut, where 
he lived and died. By the 18th of October, the 
surveyors had completed the survey and left the 
place, leaving only Job V. Stiles and family, and 
Edward Paine, who were the only persons that 
passed the succeeding winter in this place. Their 
residence was a log cabin that stood on a spot of 
ground long afterward occupied by the Commercial 
Bank. Their nearest neighbors were at Conne- 
aut, where Judge Kingsbury lived; at Fort 
Mcintosh, on the south or east, at the mouth of 
Big Beaver, and at the mouth of the river Raisin, 
on the west. 

The next season, the surveying party came again 
to Cleveland, which they made their headquarters. 
Early in the spring, Judge Kingsbury came over 
from Conneaut, bringing with him Elijah Gunn, 
who had a short time before joined him. Soon 
after, Maj. Lorenzo Carter and Ezekiel Hawley 
came with their fiimilies. These were about all 
who are known to have settled in this place that 
summer. The next year, 1798, Rodolphus Ed- 
wards and Nathaniel Doane and their families set- 
tled in Cleveland. Mr. Doane had been ninety- 
two days on his journey from Chatham, Conn. In 
the latter part of the summer and fill, nearly every 
person in the settlement was down with the bil- 
ious fever or with the ague. Mr. Doane's family 
consisted of nine persons, of whom Seth, a lad six- 
teen years of age, was the only one able to care for 

them. Such was the severity of the fever, that 
any one having only the ague was deemed quite 
fortunate. Much suffering for proper food and 
. medicines followed. The only way the Doane 
family was supplied for two months or more, was 
through the exertions of this boy, who went daily, 
after having had one attack of the chills, to Judge 
Kingsbury's in Newburg — five miles away, where 
the Judge now lived — got a peck of corn, mashed it 
in a hand-mill, waited until a second attack of the 
chills passed over, and then returned. At one time, 
for several days, he was too ill to make the trip, 
during which turnips comprised the chief article 
of diet. Fortunately, Maj. Carter, having only 
the ague, was enabled with his trusty rifle and dogs 
to procure an abundance of venison and other wild 
game, His family, being somewhat acclimated, 
suffered less than many others. Their situation can 
hardly now be realized. " Destitute of a physician, 
and with few medicines, necessity taught them to 
use such means as nature had placed within their 
reach. They substituted pills from the extract of 
the bitternut bark for calomel, and dogwood and 
cherry bark for quinine." 

In November, four men, who had so far recov- 
ered as to have ague attacks no oftener than once 
in two or three days, started in the only boat for 
Walnut Creek, Penn., to obtain a winter's supply 
of flour. When below Euclid Creek, a storm 
drove them ashore, broke their boat, and compelled 
their return. During the winter and summer fol- 
lowing, the settlers had no flour, except that 
ground in hand and coffee mills, which was, how- 
ever, considered very good. Not all had even that. 
During the summer, the Connecticut Land Com- 
pany opened the first road on the Reserve, which 
commenced about ten miles south of the lake 
shore, on the Pennsylvania State line, and extended 
to Cleveland. In January, 1799, Mr. Doane 
moved to Doane's Corners, leaving only Maj. Car- 
ter's family in Cleveland, all the rest leaving as 
soon as they were well enough. For fifteen months, 
the Major and his fxmily were the only white per- 
sons left on the town site. During the spring, 
Wheeler W. Williams and Maj. Wyatt built the 
first grist-mill on the Reserve, on the site of New- 
burg. It was looked upon as a very valuable acces- 
sion to the neighborhood. Prior to this, each fam- 
ily had its own hand-mill in one of the corners of 
the cabin. The old mill is thus described by a 
pioneer : 

" The stones were of the common grindstone 
grit, about four inches thick, and twenty in diame- 




ter. The runner, or upper, was turned by band, 
by a pole set in the top of it, near the outer edge. 
The upper end of the pole was inserted into a hole 
in a board fastened above to the joists, immedi- 
ately over the hole in the verge of the runner. 
One person fed the corn into the eye — a hole in 
the center of the runner — while another turned. 
It was very hard work to grind, and the operators 
alternately exchanged places." 

In 1800, several settlers came to the town and 
a more active life was the result. From this time, 
Cleveland began to progress. The 4th of July, 
1801, the first ball in town was held at Major 
Carter's log cabin, on the hill-side. John and 
Benjamin Wood, and R. H. Bhnn were managers; 
and Maj. Samuel Jones, musician and master of 
ceremonies. The company numbered aboutthirty, 
very evenly divided, for the times, between the 
sexes. " Notwithstanding the dancers had a rough 
puncheon floor, and no better beverage to enliven 
their spirits than sweetened whisky, yet it is doubt- 
ful if the anniversary of American independence 
was ever celebrated in Cleveland by a more joyful 
and harmonious company than those who danced 
the scamper-down, double-shuffle, western-swing 
and half-moon, that day, in Maj. Carter's cabin." 
The growth of the town, fi-om this period on, re- 
mained prosperous. The usual visits of the Indi- 
ans were made, ending in their drunken carousals 
and fights. Deer and other wild animals furnished 
abundant meat. The settlement was constantly 
augmented by new arrivals, so that, by 181-1, Cleve- 
land was incorporated as a town, and, in 1836, as 
a city. Its harbor is one of the best on the lakes, 
and hence the merchandise of the lakes has always 
been attracted thither. Like Cincinnati and Chil- 
licothe, it became the nucleus of settlements in this 
part of the State, and now is the largest city in 
Northern Ohio. 

One of the earliest settlements made in the 
Western Reserve, and by some claimed as the first 
therein, was made on the site of Youngstown, Ma- 
honing County, by a Mr. Young, afterward a Judge, 
in the summer of 1796. During this summer, 
before the settlements at Cuyahoga and Conueaut 
were made, Mr. Young and Mr. Wilcott, proprie- 
tors of a township of land in Northeastern Ohio, 
came to their possessions and began the survey of 
their land. Just when they came is not known. 
They were found here by Col. James Hillman, 
then a trader in the employ of Duncan & Wilson, 
of Pittsburgh, " who had been forwarding goods 
across the country by pack-saddle horses since 

1786, to the mouth of the Cuyahoga, thence to be 
shipped on the schooner Mackinaw to Detroit. 
Col. Hillman generally had charge of all these 
caravans, consisting sometimes of ninety horses 
and ten men. They commonly crossed the Big 
Beaver four miles below the mouth of the She- 
nango, thence up the left bank of the Mahoning — 
called by the Indians " Mahoni" or " Mahonick" 
signifying the " lick" or " at the lick " — crossing 
it about three miles below the site of Youngstown, 
thence by way of the Salt Springs, over the sites 
of Milton and Ravenna, crossing the Cuyahoga at 
the mouth of Breakneck and again at the mouth 
of Tinker's Creek, thence down the river to its 
mouth, where they had a log hut in which to 
store their goods. This hut was there when the 
surveyors came, but at the time unoccupied. At 
the mouth of Tinker's Creek were a few log huts 
built by iMoravian Missionaries. These were used 
only one year, as the Indians had gone to the Tus- 
carawas River. These and three or four cabins at 
the Salt Springs were the only buildings erected 
by the whites prior to 1796, in Northeastern Ohio. 
Those at the Salt Springs were built at an early 
day for the accommodation of whites who came 
from Western Pennsylvania to make salt. The 
tenants were dispossessed in 1785 by Gen. Harmar. 
A short time after, one or two white men were 
killed by the Indians here. In 1788' Col. Hill- 
man settled at Beavertown, where Duncan & 
Wilson had a store for the purpose of trading 
with the Indians. He went back to Pittsburgh 
soon after, however, owing to the Indian war, and 
remained there till its close, continuing in his busi- 
ness whenever opportunity offered. In 1796, 
when returning from one of his trading expeditions 
alone in his canoe down the Mahoning River, he 
discovered a smoke on the bank near the present 
town of Youngstown, and on going to the spot 
found Mr. Young and Mr. Wolcott, as before men- 
tioned. A part of Col. Hillman's cargo consisted 
of whisky, a gallon or so of which he still had. 
The price of "fire-water " then was 81 per quart 
in the currency of the country, a deerskin being 
legal tender for $1, and a doeskin for 50 cents. 
Mr. Young proposed purchasing a quart, and 
having a frolic on its contents during the even- 
ing, and insisted on paying Hillman his cus- 
tomary price. Hillman urged that inasmuch as 
they were strangers in the country, civility re- 
quired him to furnish the means for the entertain- 
ment. Young, however, insisted, and taking the 
deerskin used for his bed — the only one he had — 

~$) "V 



paid for his quart of whisky, and an evening's 
froUc "was the result. 

" HiUman remained a few days, when they ac- 
companied him to Beaver Town to celebrate the 
4th, and then all returned, and Hilhnan erected a 
cabin on the site of Youngstown. It is not cer- 
tain that they remained here at this time, and 
hence the priority of actual settlement is generally 
conceded to Conneaut and Cleveland. The next 
year, in the fall, a Mr. Bi'own and one other per- 
son came to the banks of the Mahoning and made 
a permanent settlement. The same season Uriah 
Holmes and Titus Hayes came to the same locality, 
and before winter quite a settlement was to be seen 
here. It proceeded quite prosperously until the 
wanton murder of two Indians occurred, which, 
for a time, greatly excited the whites, lest the In- 
dians should retaliate. Through the efforts of 
Col. Hilhnan, who had great influence with the 
natives, they agreed to let the murderers stand a 
trial. They were acquitted upon some technicality. 
The trial, however, pacified the Indians, and no 
trouble came from the unwarranted and unfortu- 
nate circumstance, and no check in the emigration 
or prosperity of the colony occurred."* 

As soon as an efifective settlement had been es- 
tablished at Youngstown, others were made in the 
surrounding country. One of these was begun by 
William Feuton in 1798, on the site of the pres- 
ent town of Warren, in Trumbull County. He 
remained here alone one year, when he was joined 
by Capt. Ephraim Quimby. By the last of Sep- 
tember, the next year, the colony had increased to 
sixteen, and from that date on continued prosper- 
ously. Once or twice they stood in fear of the 
Indians, as the result of quarrels induced by 
whisky. Sagacious persons generally saved any 
serious outbreak and pacified the natives. Mr. 
Badger, the first missionary on the Reserve, came 
to the settlement here and on the Mahoning, as 
soon as each was made, and, by his earnest labors, 
succeedcid in forming churches and schools at an 
early day. He was one of the most efficient men 
on the Reserve, and throughout his long and busy 
life, was well known and greatly respected. He 
died in 18-46, aged eighty-nine years. 

The settlements given are about all that were 
made before the close of 1797. In following the 
narrative of these settlements, attention is paid to 
the chronological order, as far as this can be done. 
Like those settlements already made, many which 

* Recollections of Col. HiUman. — Boive's AnnaU. 

are given as occurring in the next year, 1798, 
were actually begun earlier, but were only tem- 
porary preparations, and were not considered as 
made until the next year. 

Turning again to the southern portion of Ohio, 
the Scioto, Muskingum and Miami Valleys come 
prominently into notice. Throughout the entire 
Eastern States they were still attracting attention, 
and an increased emigration, busily occupying their 
verdant fields, was the result. All about Chilli- 
cothe was now well settled, and, up the banks of 
that stream, prospectors were selecting sites for 
their future homes. 

In 1797, Robert Armstrong, George Skidmore, 
Lucas Sullivant, William Domigan, James Mar- 
shall, John Dill, Jacob Grubb, Jacob Overdier, 
Arthur O'Hara, John Brickell, Col. Culbertson, 
the Deardorfs, McElvains, Selles and others, came 
to what is now Franklin County, and, in August, 
Mr. Sullivant and some others laid out the town of 
Franklinton, on the west bank of the Scioto, oppo- 
site the site of Columbus. The country about this 
locality had long been the residence of the Wyan- 
dots, who had a large town on the city's site, and 
cultivated extensive fields of corn on the river bot- 
toms. The locality had been visited by the whites 
as early as 1780, in some of their expeditions, and 
the fertility of the land noticed. As soon as peace 
was assured, the whites came and began a settle- 
ment, as has been noted. Soon after Franklinton 
was established, a Mr. Springer and his son-in-law, 
Osborn, settled on the Big Darby, and, in the sum- 
mer of 1798, a scattering settlement was made on 
Alum Creek. About the same time settlers came 
to the mouth of the Gahannah, and along other 
water-courses. Franklinton was the point to which 
emigrants came, and from which they always made 
their permanent location. For several years there 
was no mill, nor any such commodity, nearer than 
Chillicothe. A hand-mill was constructed in 
Franklinton, which was commonly used, unless the 
settlers made a trip to Chillicothe in a canoe. 
Next, a horse-mill was tried ; but not till 1805, 
when Col. Kilbourne built a mill at Worthington, 
settled in 1803, could any efficient grinding be 
done. In 1789, a small store was openedin Frank- 
linton, by James Scott, but, for seven or eight 
years, Chillicothe was the nearest post office. 
Often, when the neighbors wanted mail, one of 
their number was furnished money to pay the 
postage on any letters that might be waiting, and 
sent for the mail. At first, as in all new localities, 
a great deal of sickness, fever and ague, prevailed. 




As the people became acclimated, this, however, 

The township of Sharon in this county has a 
history similar to that of Granville Township in 
Licking County. It was settled by a " Scioto 
Company," formed in Granby, Conn., in the winter 
of 1801-02, consisting at first of eight associates. 
They drew up articles of association, among which 
was one limiting their number to forty, each of 
whom must be unanimously chosen by ballot, a 
single negative being sufiBcient to prevent an election. 
Col. James Kilbourne was sent out the succeeding 
spring to explore the country and select and pur- 
chase a township for settlement. He returned in 
the fall without making any purchase, through 
fear that the State Constitution, then about to be 
formed, would tolerate slavery, in which case the 
project would have been abandoned. While on 
this visit. Col. Kilbourne compiled from a variety 
of sources the first map made of Ohio. Although 
much of it was conjectured, and hence inaccurate, 
it was veiy valuable, being correct as far as the 
State was then known. 

"As soon as information was received that the 
constitution of Ohio prohibited slavery, Col. Kil- 
bourne purchased the township he had previously 
selected, within the United States military land 
district, and, in the spring of 1803, returned to 
Ohio, and began improvements. By the succeed- 
ing December, one hundred settlers, mainly from 
Hartford County, Conn., and Hampshire County, 
Mass., arrived at their new home. Obeying to the 
letter the agreement made in the East, the first 
cabin erected was used for a schoolhouse and a 
church of the Protestant Episcopal denomination ; 
the first Sabbath after the arrival of the colony, 
divine service was held therein, and on the arrival 
of the eleventh family a school was opened. This 
early attention to education and religion has left 
its favorable impress upon the people until this day. 
The first 4th of July was uniquely and appropri- 
ately celebrated. Seventeen gigantic trees, em- 
blematical of the seventeen States forming the 
Union, were cut, so that a few blows of the ax, at 
sunrise on the 4th, prostrated each successively 
with a tremendous crash, forming a national salute 
novel in the world's history."* 

The growth of this part of Ohio continued 
without interruption until the establishment of the 
State capital at Columbus, in 1816. The town was 
laid out in 1812, but, as that date is considered re- 

*IIowe's Collections. 

mote in the early American settlements, its history 
will be left to succeeding pages, and there traced 
when the history of the State capital and State 
government is given. 

The site of Zanesville, in Muskingum County, 
was early looked upon as an excellent place to form 
a settlement, and, had not hostilities opened in 
1791, with the Indians, the place would have been 
one of the earliest settled in Ohio. As it was, the 
war so disarranged matters, that it was not till 
1797 that a permanent settlement was effected. 

The Muskingum country was principally occu- 
pied, in aboriginal times, by the Wyanduts, Dela- 
wares, and a few Senecas and Shawanees. An In- 
dian town once stood, years before the settlement 
of the country, in the vicinity of Duncan's Falls, 
in Muskingum County, from which circumstance 
the place is often called "Old Town." Near Dres- 
den, was a large Shawanee town, called \5^.akato- 
maca. The graveyard was quite large, and, when 
the whites first settled here, remains of the town 
were abundant. It was in this vicinity that the 
venerable Maj. Cass, father of Lewis Cass, lived 
and died. He owned 4,000 acres, given him for 
his military services. 

The first settlers on the site of Zanesville were 
William McCulloh and Henry Crooks. The lo- 
cality was given to Ebenezer Zane, who had been 
allowed three sections of land on the Scioto, Mus- 
kingum and Hockhocking, wherever the road 
crossed these rivers, provided other prior claims 
did not interfere, for opening "Zane's trace." 
When he located the road across the Muskingum, 
he selected the place where Zanesville now stands, 
being attracted there by the excellent water privi- 
leges. He gave the section of land here to his 
brother Jonathan Zane, and J. Mclntire, who 
leased the ferry, established on the road over the 
Muskingum, to William McCulloh and Henry 
Crooks, who became thereby the first settlers. The 
ferry was kept about where the old upper bridge 
was afterward placed. The ferry-boat was made 
by fastening two canoes together with a stick. 
Soon after a flat-boat was used. It was brought 
from Wheeling, by Mr. Mclntire, in 1797, the 
year after the ferry was established. The road cut 
out through Ohio, ran from Wheeling, Va., to 
Maysville, Ky. Over this road the mail was car- 
ried, and, in 1798, the first mail ever carried 
wholly in Ohio was brought up fi"om Marietta to 
McCulloh's cabin by Daniel Convers, where, by 
arrangement of the Postmaster General, it met 
a mail from Wheeling and one from Maysville. 




McCuIIoh, who could hardly read, was authorized 
to assort the mails and send each package in its 
proper direction. For this service he received 
SoU per annum ; but owing to his inability to read 
well, Mr. Convers generally performed the duty. 
At that time, the mails met here once a week. 
Four years after, the settlement had so increased 
that a regular post office was opened, and Thomas 
Dowden appointed Postmaster. He kept his office 
in a wooden building near the river bank. 

Messrs. Zane and Mclntire laid out a town in 
1799, which they called Westbourn. When the 
post office was established, it was named Zanesville, 
and in a short time the village took the same name. 
A few families settled on the west side of the river, 
soon after McCulloh arrived, and as this locality 
grew well, not long after a store and tavern was 
opened here. Mr. Mclntire built a double log 
cabin, which was used as a hotel, and in which 
Louis Philippe, King of France, was once enter- 
tained. Although the fire and accommodations 
were of the pioneer period, the honorable guestseems 
to have enjoyed his visit, if the statements of Lewis 
Cass in his " Camp and Court of Louis Philippe" 
may be believed. 

In 1804, Muskingum County was formed by the 
Legislature, and, for a while, strenuous efforts made 
to secure the State capital by the citizens of Zanes- 
ville. They even erected buildings for the use of 
the Legislature and Governor, and during the ses- 
sion of 1810-11, the temporary seat of govern- 
ment was fixed here. When the permanent State 
capital was chosen in 181G, Zanesville was passed 
by, and gave up the hope. It is now one of the 
most enterprising towns in the Muskingum Valley. 

During the summer of 1797, John Knoop, then 
living ft)ur miles above Cincinnati, made several 
expeditions up the Miami Valley and selected the 
land on which he afterward located. The next 
spring Mr. Knoop, his brother Benjamin, Henry 
G-arard, Benjamin Hamlet and John Tildus estab- 
lished a station in what is now Miami County, near 
the present town of Staunton Village. That sum- 
mer, Mrs. Knoop planted the first apple-tree in 
the Miami * country. They all lived together for 
greater safety for two years, during which time 
they were occupied clearing their farms and erect- 
ing dwellings. During the summer, the site of 
Piquawas settled, and three young men located at a 
place known as " Freeman's Prairie." Those who 

*The word Miami in the Indian tongue signified mother. The 
Miamis wore the original owners of the valley by that name, and 
affirmed they were created there. 

settled at Piqua were Samuel Hilliard, Job Garard, 
Shadrac Hudson, Jonah Rollins, Daniel Cox, 
Thomas Rich, and a Mr. Hunter. The last named 
came to the site of Piqua first in 1797, and 
selected his home. Until 1799, these named were 
the only ones ia this locality ; but that year emi- 
gration set in, and very shortly occupied almost all 
the bottom land in Miami County. With the 
increase of emigration, came the comforts of life, 
and mills, stores and other necessary aids to civil- 
ization, were ere long to be seen. 

The site of Piqua is quite historic, being the 
theater of many important Indian occurrences, 
and the old home of the Shawanees, of which 
tribe Tecumseh was a chief. During the Indian 
war, a fort called Fort Piqua was built, near the 
residence of Col. John Johnston, so long the faith- 
ful Indian Agent. The fort was abandoned at the 
close of hostilities. 

When the Miami Canal was opened through this 
part of the State, the country began rapidly to 
improve, and is now probably one of the best por- 
tions of Ohio. 

About the same time the Miami was settled, a 
company of people fi'om Pennsylvania and Vir- 
ginia, who were principally of German and Irish 
descent, located in Lawrence County, near the iron 
region. As soon as that ore was made available, 
that part of the State rapidly filled with settlers, 
most of whom engaged in the mining and working 
of iron ore. Now it is very prosperous. 

Another settlement was made the same season, 
1797, on the Ohio side of the river, in Columbiana 
County. The settlement progressed slowly for a 
while, owing to a few difficulties with the Indians. 
The celebrated Adam Poe had been here as early 
as 1782, and several localities are made locally 
famous by his and his brother's adventures. 

In this county, on Little Beaver Creek, near its 
mouth, the second paper-mill west of the Alle- 
ghanies was erected in 1805-6. It was the pioneer 
enterprise of the kind in Ohio, and was named the 
Ohio Paper-Mill. Its proprietors were John 
Bever and John Coulter. 

One of the most noted localities in the State is 
comprised in Greene County. The Shawanee 
town, "Old Chillicothe," was on the Little Miami, 
in this county, about three miles north of the site 
of Xenia. This old Indian town was, in the an- 
nals of the West, a noted place, and is frequently 
noticed. It is first mentioned in 1773, by Cajit. 
Thomas Bullitt, of Virginia, who boldly advanced 
alone into the town and obtained the consent of 



the Indians to go on to Kentucky and make his 
settlement at the falls of the Ohio. His audacious 
bravery gained his request. Daniel Boone was 
taken prisoner early in 1778, with twenty-seven 
others, and kept for a time at Old Chillicothe. 
Through the influence of the British Governor, 
Hamilton, who had taken a great fancy to Boone, 
he and ten others were sent to Detroit. The In- 
dians, however, had an equal fancy for the brave 
frontiersman, and took him back to Chillicothe, 
and adopted him into their tribe. About the 1st 
of June he escaped from them, and made liis way 
back to Kentucky, in time to prevent a universal 
massacre of the whites. In July, 1779, the town 
was destroyed by Col. John Bowman and one 
hundred and sixty Kentuckians, and the Indians 

The Americans made a permanent settlement in 
this county in 1797 or 1798. This latter year, a 
mill was erected in the confines of the county, 
which implies the settlement was made a short 
time previously. A short distance east of the 
mill two block-houses were erected, and it was in- 
tended, should it become necessary, to surround 
them and the mill with pickets. The mill was 
used by the settlers at " Dutch Station," in Miami 
County, fully thirty miles distant. The richness 
of the country in this part of the State attracted a 
great number of settlers, so that by 1803 the 
county was established, and Xenialaid out, and des- 
ignated as the county seat. Its first court house, 
a primitive log structure, was long preserved as a 
curiosity. It would indeed be a curiosity now. 

Zane's trace, passing from Wheeling to Mays- 
ville, crossed the Hockhocking* River, in Fairfield 
County, where Lancaster is now built. Mr. Zane 
located one of his three sections on this river, 
covering the site of Lancaster. Following this 
trace in 1797, many individuals noted the desira- 
bleness of the locality, some of whom determined 
to return and settle. " The site of the city had 
in former times been the home of the Wyandots, 
who had a town here, that, in 1790, contained 
over 500 wigwams and more than 1 ,000 souls. 
Their town was called Tarhee^ or, in English, the 
Crane-toivn, a,nd derived its name from the princi- 

* The word Hock-hock-ing in the Delaware langviago signifies 
a bottle: tlie Shawanees have it Wen-lha-kiigh-qua sope, ie ; hoUle 
rioer. John White in the Amprican Pioiietr says: "Aliout seven 
miles nort 'wcst of Lancaster, tlipre is a fall In the Hockhocking of 
about twuity feet. Above the fall for a short distance, the creek 
is very narrow and straight forming a neck, while at the falls it 
suddenly widens on each sideand swells into the appearance of the 
body of a bottle. The whole, when seen from above, appears exactly 
in the shape of a bottle, and from this fact the Indians called the 
river Hock-hock-ing."' — Howe's CoUeciioiix. 

pal chief of that tribe. Another portion of the 
tribe then lived at Toby-town, nine miles west of 
Tarhe-town (now Royaltown), and was governed 
by an inferior chief called Toby. The chief's wig- 
wam in Tarhe stood on the bank of the prairie, 
near a beautiful and abundant spring of water, 
whose outlet was the river. The wigwams of the 
Indians were built of the bark of trees, set on 
poles, in the form of a sugar-camp, with one square 
open, fronting a fire, and about the height of a 
man. The Wyandot tribe that day numbered 
about 500 warriors. By the treaty of Greenville, 
they ceded all their territory, and the majority, un- 
der their chief, removed to Upper Sandusky. The 
remainder lingered awhile, loath to leave the home 
of their ancestors, but as game became scarce, they, 
too, left for better hunting-grounds."* 

In April, 1798, Capt. Joseph Hunter, a bold, 
enterprising man, settled on Zane's trace, on the 
bank of the prairie, west of the crossings, at a 
place since known as " Hunter's settlement." For 
a time, he had no neighbors nearer than the set- 
tlers on the Muskingum and Scioto Rivers. He 
lived to see the country he had found a wilderness, 
full of the homes of industry. His wife was the 
first white woman that settled in the valley, and 
shared with him all the privations of a pioneer 

Mr. Hunter had not been long in the valley till 
he was joined by Nathaniel Wilson, John and Al- 
len Green, John and Joseph McMullen, Robert 
Cooper, Isaac Shaefer, and a few others, who 
erected cabins and planted corn. The next year, 
the tide of emigration came in with great force. 
In the spring, two settlements were made in Green- 
field Township, each settlement containing twenty 
or more families. One was called the Forks of 
the Hockhocking, the other, Yankeetowu. Set- 
tlements were also made along the river below 
Hunter's, on Rush Creek, Raccoon and Indian 
Creeks, Pleasant Run, Felter's Run, at Tobeytown, 
Muddy Prairie, and on Clear Creek. In the fall, 
— 1799 — Joseph Loveland and Hezekiah Smith 
built a log grist-mill at the Upper Falls of the 
Hockhocking, afterward known as Rock 31111. 
This was the first mill on this river. In the latter 
part of the year, a mail route was established over 
the trace. The mail was earned through on horse- 
back, and, in the settlements in this locality, was 
left at the cabin of Samuel Coates, who lived on 
the prairie at the crossings of the river. 

* Lecture of George Sanderson. — Howe's CollecHont. 




In the fall of the next year, Ebenezer Zane laid 
out Lancaster, which, until 1805, was known as 
New Lancaster. The lots sold very rapidly, at 
$50 each, and, in less than one year, quite a vil- 
lage appeared. December 9, the Governor and 
Judges of the Northwest Territory organized 
Fairfield County, and made Lancaster the county 
seat. The year following, the Rev. John Wright, 
a minister of the Presbyterian Church, came, and 
from that time on schools and churches were estab- 
lished and tliereafter regularly maintained at this 

Not far from Lancaster are immense mural es- 
carpments of sandstone formation. They were 
noted among the aborigines, and were, probably, 
used by them as places of outlook and defense. 

The same summer Fairfield County was settled, 
the towns of Bethel and Williamsburg, in Cler- 
mont County, were settled and laid out, and in 
1800, the county was erected. 

A settlement was also made immediately south 
of Fairfield County, in Hocking County, by Chris- 
tian Westenhaver, a German, from near Hagers- 
town, Md. He came in the spring of 1798, and 
was soon joined by several families, who formed 
quite a settlement. The territory included in the 
county remained a part of Ptoss, Athens and 
Fairfield, until 1818, when Flocking County was 
erected, and Logan, which had been laid out in 
181(3, was made the county seat. 

The country comprised in the county is rather 
broken, especially along the Hockhocking River. 
This broken country was a favorite resort of the 
Wyandot Indians, who could easily hide in the 
numerous grottoes and ravines made by the river 
and its affluents as the water cut its way through 
the sandstone rocks. 

In 1798, soon after Zane's trace was cut through 
the country, a Mr. Graham located on the site of 
Cambridge, in Guernsey County. His was then 
the only dwelling between Wheeling and Zanes- 
ville, on the trace. He remained here alone about 
two years, when he was succeeded by George Bey- 
mer, from Somerset, Penn. Both these persons 
kept a tavern and ferry over Will's Creek. In 
April, 1803, Mr. Beymer was succeeded by John 
Beatty, who came from Loudon, Va. His family 
consisted of eleven persons. The Indians hunted 
in this vicinity, and were frequent visitors at the 
tavern. In June, 1806, Cambridge was laid out, 
and on the day the lots were offered for sale, sev- 
eral families from the British Isle of Guernsey, 
near the coast of France, stopped here on their 

way to the West. They were satisfied with the 
location and purchased many of the lots, and some 
land in the vicinity. They were soon followed by 
other families from the same place, all of whom 
settling, in this locality gave the name to the county 
when it was erected in 1810. 

A settlement was made in the central part of the 
State, on Darby Creek, in Union County, in the 
summer of 1798, by James and Joshua Ewing, 
The next year, they were joined by Samuel and 
David Mitchell, Samuel Mitchell, Jr., Samuel 
Kirkpatrick and Samuel McCullough,and, in 1800, 
by George and Samuel Reed, Robert Snodgrass 
and Paul Hodgson. 

"James Ewing's farm was the site of an an- 
cient and noted Mingo town, which was deserted 
at the time the Mingo towns, in what is now Logan 
County, were destroyed by Gen. Logan, of Ken- 
tucky, in 1786. When Mr. Ewing took posses- 
sion of his farm, the cabins were still standing, 
and, among others, the remains of a blacksmith's 
shop, with coal, cinders, iron-dross, etc. Jonathan 
Alder, formerly a prisoner among the Indians, 
says the shop was carried on by a renegade white 
man, named Butler, who lived among the Mingoes. 
Extensive fields had formerly been cultivated in 
the vicinity of the town."* 

Soon after the settlement was established. Col. 
James Curry located here. He was quite an influ- 
ential man, and, in 1820, succeeded in getting the 
county formed from portions of Delaware, Frank- 
lin, Madison and Logan, and a part of the old In- 
dian Territory. Marysville was made the county 

During the year 1789, a fort, called Foi-t Steu- 
ben, was built on the site of Steuben ville, but 
was dismantled at the conclusion of hostilities in 
1795. Three years after, Bezaleel Wells and Hon. 
James Ross, for whom Ross County was named, 
located the town of Steubenville about the old 
fort, and, by liberal offers of lots, soon attracted 
quite a number of settlers. In 1805, the town 
was incorporated, and then had a population of 
several hundred persons. Jefferson County was 
created by Gov. St. Clair, July 29, 1797, the year 
before Steubenville was laid out. It then included 
the large scope of country west of Pennsylvania ; 
east and north of a line from the mouth of the 
Cuyahoga ; southwardly to the Muskingum, and 
east to the Ohio ; including, in its territories, the 
cities of Cleveland, Canton, Steubenville and War- 

■ Howe's Collections. 





ren. Only a short time, however, was it allowed 
to retain this size, as the increase in emigration 
rendered it necessary to erect new counties, which 
was rapidly done, especially on the adoption c " the 
State government. 

The county is rich in early history, prior to its 
settlement by the Americans. It was the home of 
the celebrated Mingo chief, Logan, who resid id 
awhile at an old Mingo town, a few miles below t le 
site of Steubenville, the place where the troo )s 
under Col. WilHamson rendezvoused on their i i- 
famous raid against the Moravian Indians ; ar d 
also where Col. Crawford and his men met, whf n 
starting on their unfortunate expedition. 

In the Reserve, settlements were often made 
remote from populous localities, in accordance with 
the wish of a proprietor, who might own a tract of 
country twenty or thirty miles in the interior. In 
the present county of Geauga, three families located 
at Burton in 1798. They lived at a considerable 
distance from any other settlement for some time, 
and were greatly inconvenienced for the want of 
mills or shops. As time progressed, however, 
these were brought nearer, or built in their midst, 
and, ere long, almost all parts of the Reserve could 
show some settlement, even if isolated. 

The next year, 1799, settlements were made at 
Ravenna, Deerfield and Palmyra, in Portage 
County. Hon. Benjamin Tappan came to the site 
of Ravenna in June, at which time he found one 
white man, a Mr. Honey, living there. At this date, 
a solitary log cabin occupied the sites of Buffalo and 
Cleveland. On his journey from New England, 
My. Tappan fell in with David Hudson, the founder 
of the Hudson settlement in Summit County. 
After many days of travel, they landed at a prairie in 
Summit County. Mr. Tappan left his goods in a 
cabin, built for the purpose, under the care of a hired 
man, and went on his way, cutting a road to the 
site of Ravenna, where his land lay. On his return 
for a second load of goods, they found the cabin 
deserted, and evidences of its plunder by the In- 
dians. Not long after, it was learned that the man 
left in charge had gone to Mr. Hudson's settle- 
ment, he having set out immediately on his arrival, 
for his own land. Mr. Tappan gathered the re- 
mainder of his goods, and started back for Ravenna. 
On his way one of his oxen died, and he found 
himself in a vast forest, away from any habitation, 
and with one dollar in money. He did not falter 
a moment, but sent his hired man, a faithful fellow, 
to Erie, Penn., a distance of one hundred miles 
through the wilderness, with the compass for his 

guide, requesting from Capt. Lyman, the com- 
mander at the fort there, a loan of money. At 
the same time, he followed the township lines to 
Youngstown, where he became acquainted with 
Col. James Hillman, who did not hesitate to sell 
him an ox on credit, at a fair price. He returned 
to his load in a few days, found his ox all right, 
hitched the two together and went on. He was 
soon joined by his hired man, with the money, and 
together they spent the winter in a log cabin. He 
gave his man one hundred acres of land as a reward, 
and paid Col. Hillman for the ox. In a year or 
two he had a prosperous settlement, and when the 
county was erected in 1807, Ravenna was made 
the seat of justice. 

About the same time Mr. Tappan began his 
settlement, others were commenced in other locali- 
ties in this county. Early in May, 1799, Lewis 
Day and his son Horatio, of Granby, Conn., and 
Moses Tibbals and Green Frost, of Granville, 
Mass., left their homes in a one-horse wagon, and, 
the 29th of May, arrived in what is now Deerfield 
Township. Theirs was the first wagon that had 
ever penetrated farther westward in this region 
than Canfield. The country west of that, place 
had been an unbroken wilderness until within a 
few days. Capt. Caleb Atwater, of Wallingford, 
Conn., had hired some men to open a road to 
Township No. 1, in the Seventh Range, of which 
he was the owner. This road passed through 
Deerfield, and was completed to that place when 
the party arrived at the point of their destination. 
These emigrants selected sites, and commenced 
clearing the land. In July, Lewis Ely arrived 
from Granville, and wintered here, while those 
who came first, and had made their improvements, 
returned East. The 4th of March, 1800, Alva 
Day (son of Lewis Day), John Campbell and 
Joel Thrall arrived. In April, George and Rob- 
ert Taylor and James Laughlin, fi-om Pennsylvania, 
with their families, came. Mr. Laughlin built a 
grist-mill, which was of great convenience to the 
settlers. July 29, Lewis Day returned with 
his family and his brother-in-law, Maj. Rogers, 
who, the next year, also brought his family. 

" Much suffering was experienced at first on 
account of the scarcity of provisions. They were 
chiefly supplied from the settlements east of the 
Ohio River, the nearest of which was Georgetown, 
forty miles away. The provisions were brought 
on pack-horses through the wilderness. August 
22, Mrs. Alva Day gave birth to a child — a fe- 
male — the first child born in the township. 




November 7, the first wedding took place. John 
Campbell and Sarah Ely were joined in wedlock 
by Calvin Austin, Esq., of Warren. He was 
accompanied from Warren, a distance of twenty- 
seven miles, by Mr. Pease, then a lawyer, after- 
ward a well-known Judge. They came on foot, 
there being no road; and, as they threaded their 
way through the woods, young Pease taught the 
Justice the marriage ceremony by oft repetition. 

" In 1802, Franklin Township was organized, em- 
bracing all of Portage and parts of Trumbull and 
Summit Counties. About this time the settlement 
received accessions from all parts of the East. In 
February, 1801, Rev. Badger came and began his 
labors, and two years later Dr. Shadrac Bostwick 
organized a Methodist Episcopal church.* The 
remaining settlement in this county. Palmyra, was 
begun about the same time as the others, by David 
Daniels, from Salisbury, Conn. The next year he 
brought out his family. Soon after he was joined 
by E. N. and W. Bacon, E. Cutler, A. Thurber, 
A. Preston, N. Bois, J. T. Baldwin, T. and C. 
Gilbert, D. A. and S. Waller, N. Smith, Joseph 
Fisher, J. Tuttle and others. 

" When this region was first settled, there was 
an Indian trail commencing at Fort Mcintosh 
(Beaver, Penn.), and extending westward to San- 
dusky and Detroit. The trail followed the highest 
ground. Along the trail, parties of Indians were 
frequently seen passing, for several years after the 
whites came. It seemed to be the great aboriginal 
thoroughfare from Sandusky to the Ohio River. 
There were several large piles of stones on the 
trail in this locality, under which human skeletons 
have been discovered. These are supposed to be 
the remains of Indians slain in war, or murdered 
by their enemies, as tradition says it is an Indian 
custom for each one to cast a stone on the grave 
of an enemy, whenever he passes by. These stones 
appear to have been picked up along the trail, and 
cast upon the heaps at diiFerent times. 

"At the point where this trail crosses Silver 
Creek, Fredrick Daniels and others, in 1814, dis- 
covered, painted on several trees, various devices, 
evidently the work of Indians. The bark was 
carefully shaved off two-thirds of the way around, 
and figures cut upon the wood. On one of these 
was delineated seven Indians, equipped in a par- 
ticular manner, one of whom was without a head. 
This was supposed to have been made by a party 
on their return westward, to give intelligence to 

* Howe's Collections. 

their friends behind, of the loss of one of their 
party at this place ; and, on making search, a hu- 
man skeleton was discovered near by." * 

The celebrated Indian hunter, Brady, made his 
remarkable leap across the Cuyahoga, in this 
county. The county also contains Brady's Pond, 
a large sheet of water, in which he once made his 
escape from the Indians, from which circumstance 
it received its name. 

The locality comprised in Clark County was 
settled the same summer as those in Summit County. 
John Humphries came to this part of the State 
with Gen. Simon Kenton, in 1799. With them 
came six families from Kentucky, who settled 
north of the site of Springfield. A fort was 
erected on Mad River, for security against the In- 
dians. Fourteen cabins were soon built near it, 
all being surrounded by a strong picket fence. 
David Lowery, one of the pioneers here, built the 
first flat-boat, to operate on the Great Miami, and, 
in 1800, made the first trip on that river, coming 
down from Dayton. He took his boat and cargo 
on down to New Orleans, where he disposed of his 
load of " five hundred venison hams and bacon." 

Springfield was laid out in March, 1801. Griffith 
Foos, who came that spring, built a tavern, which 
he completed and opened in June, remaining in 
this place till 1814. He often stated that when 
emigrating West, his party were four days and a 
half getting from Franklinton, on the Scioto, to 
Springfield, a distance of forty-two miles. When 
crossing the Big Darby, they were obliged to carry 
all their goods over on horseback, and then drag 
their wagons across with ropes, while some of the 
party swam by the side of the wagon, to prevent 
its upsetting. The site of the town was of such 
practical beauty and utility, that it soon attracted 
a large number of settlers, and, in a few years, 
Springfield was incorporated. In 1811, a church 
was built by the residents for the use of all denom- 

Clark County is made famous in aboriginal 
history, as the birthplace and childhood home of 
the noted Indian, Tecumseh."}" He was born in 

* Howe's Collections. 

f Tecumseh, or Tecumshe, was a son of Puckeshinwa, a member 
of the Kiscopoke tribe, and Methoataske, of the Turtle tribe of the 
Shawanee nation. They removed from Florida to Ohio soon after 
their marriage. The father, Puckeshinwa, rose to the rank of a chief, 
and fell at the battle of Point Pleasant, in 1774. After his death, 
the mother, Methoata-ke, returned to the south, where she died at 
an advanced age. Tecum°eh was born about the year 1768. He 
early showsd a passion for war, and, when only 27 years of age, was 
made a chief. The next year he removed to Deer Creek, in the 
vicinity of Urbana. and from there to the site of Piqua, on the 
Great Miami. In 1798 he accepted the invitation of the Delawares 
in the vicinity of White River, Indiana, and from that time made 




the old Indian town of Piqua, the ancient Piqua 
of the Shawanees, on the north side of Mad River, 
about five miles west of Springfield. The town 
was destroyed by the Kentucky Rangers under 
Gen. (xeorge Rogers Clarke in 1780, at the same 
time he destroyed " Old Chillicothe." Immense 
fields of standing corn about both towns were cut 
down, compelling the Indians to resort to the hunt 
with more than ordinary vigor, to sustain them- 
selves and their wives and children. This search 
insured safety for some time on the borders. The 
site of Cadiz, in Harrison County, was settled in 
April, 1799, by Alexander Henderson and his 
family, from Washington County, Penn. When 
they arrived, they found neighbors in the persons 
of Daniel Peterson and his family, who lived near 
the forks of Short Creek, and who had preceded 
them but a very short time. The next year, emi- 
grants began to cross the Ohio in great numbers, 
and in five or six years large settlements could be 
seen in this part of the State. The county was 
erected in 1814, and Cadiz, laid out in 1803, made 
the county seat. 

While the settlers were locating in and about 
Cadiz, a few families came to what is now Monroe 
County, and settled near the present town of 
Beallsville. Shortly after, a few persons settled on 
the Clear Fork of the Little IMuskingum, and a 
few others on the east fork of Duck Creek. The 

next season all these settlements received addi- 
tions and a few other localities were also occupied. 
Before long the town of Beallsville was laid 
out, and in time became quite populous. The 
county was not erected until 1813, and in 1815 
Woodsfield was laid out and made the seat of 

The opening of the season of 1800 — the dawn 
of a new century — saw a vast emigration west 
ward. Old settlements in Ohio received immense 
increase of emigrants, while, branching out in all 
directions like the radii of a circle, other settle- 
ments were constantly formed until, in a few years, 
all parts of the State knew the presence of the 
white man. 

Towns sprang into existence here and there ; 
mills and factories were erected; post ofiices and 
post-routes were established, and the comforts and 
conveniences of life began to appear. 

With this came the desire, so potent to the mind 
of all American citizens, to rule themselves through 
representatives chosen by their own votes. Hith- 
erto, they had been ruled by a Governor and Judges 
appointed by the President, who, in turn, appointed 
county and judicial officers. The arbitrary rulings 
of the Governor, St. Clair, had arrayed the mass 
of the people against him, and made the desire for 
the second grade of government stronger, and 
finally led to its creation. 



SETTLEMENTS increased so rapidly in that 
part of the Northwest Territory included in 
Ohio, during the decade from 1788 to 1798, 
despite the Indian war, that the demand for an 
election of a Territorial Assembly could not be 
ignored by Gov. St. Clair, who, having ascertained 
that 5,000 free males resided within the limits of 
the Territory, issued his proclamation October 29, 
1798, directing the electors to elect representatives 
to a General Assembly. He ordered the election 

hia home with them. He was most active in the war of 1812 
against the Americans, and from the time he began his work to 
unite the tribes, his history is so closely identified therewith that 
the reader is referred to the history of that war in succeeding pages. 
It may not be amiss to say that all stories regarding the manner 
of his death are considered erroneous. He was undoubtedly killed 
in the outset of the battle of the Thames in Canada in 1814, and his 
body secretly buried by the Indians. 

to be held on the third Monday in December, and 
directed the representatives to meet in Cincinnati 
January 22, 1799. 

On the day designated, the representatives * 
assembled at Cincinnati, nominated ten persons, 
whose names were sent to the President, who 
selected five to constitute the Legislative Council, 

* Those elected were: from Washington Clounty, Return Jona- 
than Meigs and Paul Fearing; from Hamilton County, William 
Goforth, William McMillan, John Smith, John Ludlow, Robert 
Benham, Aaron Caldwell and Isaac Martin; from St. Clair County 
(Illinois), Shadrach Bond; from Knox County (Indiana), John 
Small; from Kandolph County (Illinois), John Edgar; from Wayne 
County, Solomon Sibley, Jacob Visgar and Charles F. ( habert de 
Joncaire; from Adams County, Joseph Darlington and Nathaniel 
Massie; from Jefferson County, James Pritchard; fiom Uoss County, 
Thomas Worthington, Elias Langham, Samuel Findley and Edward 
Ti£Bn. The five gentlemen, except Vanderburgh, chosen as the 
Upper House were all from counties afterward included in Ohio. 




or Upper House. These five were Jacob Burnet, 
James Findley, Henry Vanderburgh, Robert 
OHver and David Vance. On the 3d of March, 
the Senate confii-med their nomination, and the 
Territorial Government of Ohio* — or, more prop- 
erly, the Northwest — was complete. As this 
comprised the essential business of this body, it 
was prorogued by the Governor, and the Assembly 
directed to meet at the same place September 16, 
1799, and proceed to the enactment of laws for 
the Ten-itory. 

That day, the Territorial Legislature met again 
at Cincinnati, but, for want of a quorum, did not 
organize until the 24th. The House consisted of 
nineteen members, seven of whom were from Ham- 
ilton County, four from Ross, three from Wayne, 
two from Adams, one from Jefferson, one from 
Washington and one from Knox. Assembling 
both branches of the Legislature, Gov. St. Clair 
addressed them, recommending such measures to 
their consideration as, in his judgment, were suited 
to the condition of the country. The Council 
then organized, electing Henry Vanderburgh, Presi- 
dent ; William C. Schenck, Secretary; George 
Howard, Doorkeeper, and Abraham Carey, Ser- 

The House also organized, electing Edward Tif- 
fin, Speaker ; John Reilly, Clerk ; Joshua Row- 
land, Doorkeeper, and Abraham Carey, Sergeant- 

This was the first legislature elected in the old 
Northwestern Territory. During its first session, 
it passed thirty bills, of which the Governor vetoed 
eleven. They also elected Wilham Henry Harri- 
son, then Secretary of the Territory, delegate to 
Congress. The Legislature continued in session 
till December 19, having much to do in forming 
new laws, when they were prorogued by the Gov- 
ernor, until the first Monday in November, 1800. 
The second session was held in Chillicothe, which 
had been designated as the seat of government by 
Congress, until a permanent capital should be 

May 7, 1800, Congress passed an act establish- 
ing Indiana Territory, including all the country 
west of the Great Miami River to the Mississippi, 
and appointed William Henry Harrison its Gov- 
ernor. At the autumn session of the Legislature 

* Ohio never existed as a Territory proper. It was known, both 
before and after the division of the Northwest Territory, as the 
"Territory northwest of the Ohio River." Still, as the country 
comprised in its limits was the principal theater of action, the short 
resume given here is made necessary in the logical course of events. 
Ohio, as Ohio, never existed until the creation of the State in 
March, 1803. 

of the eastern, or old part of the Territory, Will- 
iam McMillan was elected to the vacancy caused 
by this act. By the organization of this Territory, 
the counties of Knox, St. Clair and Randolph, 
were taken out of the jurisdiction of the old Ter- 
ritory, and with them the representatives, Henry 
Vandenburgh, Shadrach Bond, John Small and 
John Edgar. 

Before the time for the next Assembly came, a 
new election had occurred, and a few changes were 
the result. Robert Oliver, of Marietta, was cho- 
sen Speaker in the place of Henry Vanderburgh. 
There was considerable business at this session ; 
several new counties were to be erected ; the coun- 
try was rapidly filling with people, and where the 
scruples of the Governor could be overcome, some 
organization was made. He was very tenacious of 
his power, and arbitrary in his rulings, affirming 
that he, alone, had the power to create new coun- 
ties. This dogmatic exercise of his veto power, 
his rights as ruler, and his defeat by the Indians, 
all tended against him, resulting in his displace- 
ment by the President. This was done, however, 
just at the time the Territory came from the second 
grade of government, and the State was created. 

The third session of the Territorial Legislature 
continued from November 24, 1801, to January 
23, 1802, when it adjourned to meet in Cincin- 
nati, the fourth Monday in November, but 
owing to reasons made obvious by subsequent 
events, was never held, and the third session 
marks the decline of the Territorial government. 

April 30, 1802, Congress passed an act " to 
enable the people of the eastern division of the 
territory northwest of the Ohio River, to form a 
constitution and State government, and for the 
admission of such States into the Union on 
an equal footing with the original States, and for 
other purposes." In pursuance of this act, an 
election had been held in this part of the Territory, 
and members of a constitutional convention cho- 
sen, who were to meet at Chillicothe, November 
1, to perform the duty assigned them. 

The people throughout the country contemplat- 
ed in the new State were anxious for the adoption 
of a State government. The arbitrary acts of the 
Territorial Governor had heightened this feeling ; 
the census of the Territory gave it the lawful 
number of inhabitants, and nothing stood in its 

The convention met the day designated and 
proceeded at once to its duties. When the time 
arrived for the opening of the Fourth Territorial 




Legislature, the convention was in session and had 
evidently about completed its labors. The mem- 
bers of the Legislature (eight of whom were mem- 
bers of the convention) seeing that a speedy 
termination of the Territorial government was inev- 
itable, wisely concluded it was inexpedient and 
unnecessary to hold the proposed session. 

The convention concluded its labors the 29th of 
November. The Constitution adopted at that time, 
though rather crude in some of its details, was an 
excellent organic instrument, and remained almost 
entire until 1851, when the present one was 
adopted. Either is too long for insertion here, 
but either will well pay a perusal. The one adopted 
by the convention in 1802 was never submitted 
to the people, owing to the circumstances of the 
times ; but it was submitted to Congress February 
19, 1803, and by that body accepted, and an act 
passed admitting Ohio to the Union. 

The Territorial government ended March 3, 
1803, by the organization, that day, of the State 
government, which organization defined the pres- 
ent limits of the State. 

" We, the people of the Eastern Division of the Ter- 
ritory of tlie United States, Northwest of tlie River 
Ohio, liaving the right of admission into the General 
Government as a member of the Union, consistent with 
the Constitution of the United States, the Ordinance 
of Congress of one thousand seven hundred and eighty- 
seven, and of the law of Congress, entitled ' An act to 
enable the people of the Eastern Division of the Terri- 
tory of the United States Northwest of the River Ohio, 
to form a Constitution and a State Government, and for 
the admission of such State into the Union on an equal 
footing with the original States, and for other purpo- 
ses ;' in order to establish justice, promote the well- 
fare and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves 
and our posterity, do ordain and establish the follow- 
ing Constitution or form of government; and do mu- 
tually agree with each other to form ourselves into a 
free and independent State, by the name of the State 
of Ohio."* — Preamble, Constitution of 180S. 

When the convention forming the Constitution, 
completed its labors and presented the results to 
Congress, and that body passed the act forming 

* The name of the State is derived from the river forming its 
southern lioimdaiy. Its origin \<i somewliat obscure, liut is com- 
monly ascribed to the Indians. On this point. Col. Johnston says: 
" The Sliawanoese called the Ohio River ' Ki'<-ke-pi-la, Sepe, i. e., '■Engle 
Etver.' The Wyamlots were in the country generations before the 
Sliawanoese, and, consequently, their name of the river is the prim- 
itive one and should stand in preference to all others. Ohio may 
be called an improvement on the expression, '0-he-zuh,' and was, no 
doubt, adopted by the early French voyagers in their boat-songs, 
and is substantially the same wori as used by the Wyandots: the 
meaning applied by the French, fair and beautiful ' la belle river,' 
being the same precisely as that meant by the Indians — 'great, 
grand and fair to look upon.' " — Howe's CoUeclioiis. 

Webster's Dictionary gives the word as of Indian origin, and its 
meaning to be, " Beautiful." 

the State, the territory included therein was di- 
vided into nine counties, whose names and dates of 
erection were as follows: 

Washington, July 27, 1788; Hamilton, Janu- 
ary 2, 1790; (owing to the Indian war no other 
counties were erected till peace was restored); Ad- 
ams, July 10, 1797; Jeiferson, July 29, 1797; 
Koss, August 20, 1798; Clermont, Fairfield and 
Trumbull, December 9, 1800; Belmont, Septem- 
ber 7, 1801. These counties were the thickest- 
settled part of the State, yet many other localities 
needed organization and were clamoring for it, but 
owing to St. Clair's views, he refused to grant 
their requests. One of the first acts on the as- 
sembling of the State Legislature, March 1, 1803, 
was the creation of seven new counties, viz., Gal- 
lia, Scioto, Geauga, Butler, Warren, Greene and 

Section Sixth of the "Schedule" of the Consti- 
tution required an election for the various oflicers 
and Representatives necessary under the new gov- 
ernment, to be held the second Tuesday of Janu- 
ary, 1803, these ofiicers to take their seats and as- 
sume their duties March 3. The Second Article 
provided for the regular elections, to be held on 
the second Tuesday of October, in each year. The 
Governor elected at first was to hold his oflice 
until the first regular election could be held, and 
thereafter to continue in oifice two years. 

The January elections placed Edward TiSin in 
the Governor's office, sent Jeremiah Morrow to 
Congress, and chose an Assembly, who met on the 
day designated, at Chillicothe. Michael Baldwin 
was chosen Speaker of the House, and Nathaniel 
Massie, of the Senate. The Assembly appointed 
William Creighton, Jr., Secretary of State ; Col. 
Thomas Gibson, Auditor ; William McFarland, 
Treasurer; Return J. Meigs, Jr., Samuel Hun- 
tington and William Sprigg, Judges of the Su- 
preme Court ; Francis Dunlevy, Wyllys Silliman 
and Calvin Pease, President Judges of the First, 
Second and Third Districts, and Thomas Worth- 
ington and John Smith, United States Senators. 
Charles Willing Byrd was made the United States 
District Judge. 

The act of Congress forming the State, con- 
tained certain requisitions regarding public schools, 
the " salt springs," public lands, taxation of Gov- 
ernment lands, Symmes' purchase, etc., which the 
constitutional convention agreed to with a few 
minor considerations. These Congress accepted, 
and passed the act in accordance thereto. The 
First General Assembly found abundance of work 





to do regarding these various items, and, at once, 
set themselves to the task. Laws were passed re- 
garding all these ; new counties created ; officers 
appointed for the same, until they could be elected, 
and courts and machinery of government put in 
motion. President Judges and lawyers traveled 
their circuits holding courts, often in the open air 
or in a log shanty ; a constable doing duty as 
guard over a jury, probably seated on a log under 
a tree, or in the bushes. The President Judge in- 
structed the officers of new counties in their duties, 
and though the whole keeping of matters accorded 
with the times, an honest feeling generally pre- 
vailed, inducing each one to perform his part as 
effectually as his knowledge permitted. 

The State continually filled with people. New 
towns arose all over the country. Excepting the 
occasional sicknesses caused by the new climate and 
fresh soil, the general health of the people im- 
proved as time went (5n. They were fully in ac- 
cord with the President, Jefferson, and carefully 
nurtured those principles of personal liberty en- 
grafted in the fundamental law of 1787, and later, 
in the Constitution of the State. 

Little if any change occurred in the natural 
course of events, following the change of govern- 
ment until Burr's expedition and plan of secession 
in 1805 and 1806 appeared. What his plans 
were, have never been definitely ascertained. His 
action related more to the Greneral Government, 
yet Ohio was called upon to aid in putting down 
his insurrection — for such it was thought to be — 
and defeated his purposes, whatever they were. 
His plans ended only in ignominious defeat ; the 
breaking-up of one of the finest homes in the 
Western country, and the expulsion of himself and 
all those who were actively engaged in his scheme, 
whatever its imports were. 

Again, for a period of four or five years, no 
exciting events occurred. Settlements continued ; 
mills and factories increased ; towns and cities 
grew ; counties were created ; trade enlarged, and 
naught save the common course of events trans- 
pired to mark the course of time. Other States 
were made from the old Northwest Territory, all 
parts of which were rapidly being occupied by 
settlers. The danger from Indian hostilities was 
little, and the adventurous wliites were rapidly 
occupying their country. One thing, however, 
was yet a continual source of annoyance to the 
Americans, viz., the British interference with the 
Indians. Their traders did not scruple, nor fail 
on every opportunity, to aid these sons of the 

forest with arms and ammunition as occasion 
offered, endeavoring to stir them up against the 
Americans, until events here and on the high seas 
culminated in a declaration of hostilities, and the 
war of 1812 was the result. The deluded red 
men found then, as they found in 1795, that they 
were made tools by a stronger power, and dropped 
when the time came that they were no longer 

Before the opening of hostilities occurred, how- 
ever, a series of acts passed the Greneral Assembly, 
causing considerable excitement. These were the 
famous "Sweeping Resolutions," passed in 1810. 
For a few years prior to their passage, considera- 
ble discontent prevailed among many of the legis- 
lators regarding the rulings of the courts, and by 
many of these embryo law-makers, the legislative 
power was considered omnipotent. They could 
change existing laws and contracts did they desire 
to, thought many of them, even if such acts con- 
flicted with the State and National Constitutions. 
The " Sweeping Resolutions " were brought about 
mainly by the action of the judges in declaring 
that justices of the peace could, in the collection 
of debts, hold jurisdiction in amounts not exceed- 
ing fifty dollars without the aid of a jury. The 
Constitution of the United States gave the jury 
control in all such cases where the amount did not 
exceed twenty dollars. Tiiere was a direct con- 
tradiction against the organic law of the land — to 
which every other law and act is subversive, and 
when the judges declared the legislative act uncon- 
stitutional and hence null and void, the Legisla- 
ture became suddenly inflamed at their independ- 
ence, and proceeded at once to punish the admin- 
istrators of justice. The legislature was one of 
the worst that ever controlled the State, and was 
composed of many men who were not only igno- 
rant of common law, the necessities of a State, and 
the dignity and true import of their office, but 
were demagogues in every respect. Having the 
power to impeach officers, that body at once did 
so, having enough to carry a two-thirds majority, 
and removed several judges. Further maturing 
their plans, the " Sweepers," as they were known, 
construed the law appointing certain judges and 
civil officers for seven years, to mean seven years 
from the organization of the State, whether they 
had been officers that length of time or not. All 
officers, whether of new or old counties, were con- 
strued as included in the act, and, utterly ignoring 
the Constitution, an act was passed in January, 
1810, removing every civil officer in the State. 




February 10, they proceeded to fill all these va- 
cant offices, from State officers down to the lowest 
county office, either by appointment or by ordering 
an election in the manner prescribed by law. 

The Constitution provided that the office of 
judges should continue for seven years, evidently 
seven years from the time they were elected, and 
not from the date of the admission of the State, 
which latter construction this headlong Legisla- 
ture had construed as the meaning. Many of the 
counties had been organized but a year or two, 
others three or four years ; hence an indescribable 
confusion arose as soon as the new set of officers 
were appointed or elected. The new order of 
things could not be made to work, and finally, so 
utterly impossible did the injustice of the proceed- 
ings become, that it was dropped. The decisions 
of the courts were upheld, and the invidious doc- 
trine of supremacy in State legislation received 
such a check that it is not likely ever to be repeated. 

Another act of the Assembly, during this pe- 
riod, shows its construction. Congress had granted 
a township of land for the use of a university, and 
located the township in Symmes' purchase. This 
Assembly located the university on land outside 
of this purchase, ignoring the act of Congress, as 
they had done before, showing not only ignorance 
of the true scope of law, but a lack of respect un- 
becoming such bodies. 

The seat of government was also moved from 
Chillicothe to Zanesville, which vainly hoped to be 
made the permanent State capital, but the next 
session it was again taken to Chillicothe, and com- 
missioners appointed to locate a permanent capital 

These commissioners were James Findley, Jo- 
seph Darlington, Wyllys Silliman, Reason Beall, 
and William McFarland. It is stated that they 
reported at first in favor of Dublin, a small town 
on the Scioto about fourteen miles above Colum- 
bus. At the session of 1812-13, the Assembly 
accepted the proposals of Col. James Johnston, 
Alexander McLaughlin, John Kerr, and Lyne 
Starling, who owned the site of Columbus. The 
Assembly also decreed that the temporary seat of 
government should remain at Chillicothe until the 
buildings necessary for the State officers should be 

erected, when it would be taken there, forever to 
remain. This was done in 1816, in December of 
that year the first meeting of the Assembly being 
held there. 

The site selected for the capital was on the east 
bank of the Scioto, about a mile below its junction 
with the Olentangy. Wide streets were laid out, 
and preparations for a city made. The expecta- 
tions of the founders have been, in this respect, re- 
alized. The town was laid out in the spring of 1812, 
under the direction of Moses Wright. A short 
time after, the contract for making it the capital was 
signed. June 18, the same day war was declared 
against Great Britain, the sale of lots took place. 
Among the early settlers were George McCor- 
mick, George B. Harvey, John Shields, Michael 
Patton, Alexander Fatten, William Altman, John 
Collett, William McElvain, Daniel Kooser, Peter 
Putnam, Jacob Hare, Christian Heyl, Jarvis, George 
and Benjamin Pike, William Long, and Dr. John 
M. Edminson. In 1814, a house of worship was 
built, a school opened, a newspaper — The Wtstern 
Intelligencer and Columbus Gazette^ now the 
Ohio State Journal — was started, and the old 
State House erected. In 1816, the "Borough of 
Columbus" was incorporated, and a mail route once 
a week between Chillicothe and Columbus started. 
In 1819, the old United States Court House was 
erected, and the seat of justice removed from 
Franklinton to Columbus. Until 1826, times were 
exceedingly " slow " in the new capital, and but lit- 
tle growth experienced. The improvement period 
revived the capital, and enlivened its trade and 
growth so that in 1834, a city charter was granted. 
The city is now about third in size in the State, 
and contains many of the most prominent public 
institutions. The present capitol building, one of 
the best in the West, is patterned somewhat after 
the national Capitol at Washington City. 

From the close of the agitation of the " Sweeping 
Resolutions," until the opening of the war of 1812, 
but a short time elapsed. In fact, scarcely had 
one subsided, ere the other was upon the country. 
Though the war was national, its theater of opera- 
tions was partly in Ohio, that State taking an act- 
ive part in its operations. Indeed, its liberty 
depended on the war. 

^^ '' 

.Jk s 




From the organization of the first civil government in the Northwest Territory ( 1 ' 

Ohio was apart, until the year 1880. 

to 1802), of which the State of 


(a) Arthur St. Clair 

*Charles Willing Byrd 

(6) Edward Tiiiin 

(c) fThomas Kirker 

Samuel Huntington 

(d) Return Jonathan Meigs. 

fOthniel Looker 

Thomas Worthington , 

(e) Ethan Allen Brown 

fAllen Trimble 

Jeremiah Morrow 

Allen Trimble 

Duncan McArthur 

Robert Lucas 

Joseph Vance 

Wilson Shannon 

Thomas Corwin 

(/) Wilson Shannon 

JThomas W. Bartley , 

Mordecai Bartley 

William Bebb , 

(g) Seabury Ford 

(h) Reuben Wood 

(i)^ William Medill 

Salmon P. Chase 

William Dennison 

David Tod 

(k) John Brough 

gCharles Anderson 

Jacob D. Cox , 

Rutherford B. Hayes , 

Edward F. Noyes , 

William Allen 

(I) Rutherford B. Hayes 

(m) Thomas L. Young 

Richard M. Bishop 

Charles Foster 



Ross , 










Ross , 


Champaign .., 

Belmont - 


Belmont , 












Trumbull , 

Hamilton , 








July 13 

March 3 
March 4 
Dec. 12 

April 14 


April 13 















March 2 
Jan. 14 
Jan. 14 

, 1803 
, 1807 
, 1808 
, 1810 
, 1814 
, 1814 
, 1818 
, 1822 
, 1822 
, 1826 
, 1830 
, 1832 
, 1836 
, 1838 
, 1840 
, 1842 
, 1844 
, 1844 
, 1846 
, 1850 
, 1853 
, 1856 
. 1860 
, 1862 
, 1864 
, 1 
, 1866 
, 1868 
, 1 
, 1874 
, 1876 
, 1877 
, 1878 
, 1880 

Term Ended. 


March 3 
March 4 
Dec. 12 
Dec. 8 
March 25 
Dec. 8 


April 13 
Dec. 3 


July 15 
Jan. 14 


Aug. 29 
Jan. 9 





March 2 
Jan. 14 
Jan. 14 



(a) Arthur St. Clair, of Pennsylvania, was Governor of the North- 
west Territory, of which Ohio was a part.from July 13, 1788, when the 
first civil government was estahliehed in the Territory, until about 
the close of the year 1802, when he was removed by the President. 

♦Secretary of the Territory, and was acting Governor of the 
Territory after the removal of Gov. St. Clair. 

ib) Resigned March 3, 1807, to accept the office of U. S. Senator. 

(c) Return Jonathan Meigs was elected Governor on the second 
Tuesday of October, 1807, over Nathaniel Massie, who contested the 
election of Meigs, on the ground that "he had not been a resident of 
this State for four years next preceding the election, as required by 
the ConstHution,"' and the General Assembly, in joint convention, 
declared that he was not eligible. The office was not given to 
Massie, nor does it appear, from the records that he claimed it, but 
Thomas Kirker, acting Governor, continued to discharge the duties 
of the office until December 12,1808, when Samuel Huntington was 
inaugurated, he having been elected on the second Tuesday of 
October in that year. 

(d) Resigned March 25, 1814, to accept the office of Postmaster- 
General of the United States. 

(«) Resigned January 4, 1822. to accept the office of United 
States !?enator. 

(/) Resigned April 13, 1844, to accept the office of Minister to 

(3) The result of the election in 1848 was not finally determined in 
joint convention of the two bouses of the General Asaembly until 
January 19,1849, and the inauguration did not take place until the 
22dof that month. 

(h) Resigned July 15, 1853 to accept the office of Consul to Val- 

0) Elected in October, 1853, for the regular term, to commence 
on tlie second Monday of January, 1854. 

(k) Died August 29, 18G5. 

t Acting Governor. 

i Acting Governor, vice Wilson Shannon, resigned. 

^ Acting Governor, vice Reuben Wood, resigned. 

^ Acting Governor, vice John Brough, deceased. 

(I) Resigned March 2, 1877, to accept the office of President of 
the United States. 

(m) Vice Rutherford B. Hayes, resigned. 







IN June, 1812, war was declared against Great 
Britain. Before this, an act was passed by Con- 
gress, authorizing the increase of the regular army 
to thirty-five thousand troops, and a large force of 
volunteers, to serve twelve months. Under this 
act. Return J. Meigs, then Governor of Ohio, in 
April and May, 1812, raised three regiments of 
troops to serve twelve months. They rendez- 
voused at Dayton, elected their officers, and pre- 
pared for the campaign. These regiments were 
numbered First, Second and Third. Duncan Mc- 
Arthur was Colonel of the First ; James Findlay, 
of the Second, and Lewis Cass, of the Third. 
Early in June these troops marched to Urbana, 
where they were joined by Boyd's Fourth Regiment 
of regular troops, under command of Col. Miller, 
who had been in the battle of Tippecanoe. Near 
the middle of June, this little army of about 
twenty-five hundred men, under command of Gov. 
William Hull, of Michigan, who had been author- 
ized by Congress to raise the troops, started on 
its northern march. By the end of June, the 
army had reached the Maumee, after a very severe 
march, erecting, on the way. Forts McArthur, Ne- 
cessity and Findlay. By some carelessness on the 
part of the American Government, no ofiicial word 
had been sent to the frontiers regarding the war, 
while the British had taken an early precaution to 
prepare for the crisis. Gov. Hull was very care- 
ful in military etiquette, and refused to march, or 
do any ofi"ensive acts, unless commanded by his 
superior officers at Washington. While at the 
Maumee, by a careless move, all his personal 
effects, including all his plans, number and strength 
of his army, etc., fell into the hands of the enemy. 
His campaign ended only in ignominious defeat, 
and well-nigh paralyzed future efi"orts. All Mich- 
igan fell into the hands of the British. The com- 
mander, though a good man, lacked bravery and 
promptness. Had Gen. Harrison been in com- 
mand no such results would have been the case, 
and the war would have probably ended at the 

Before Hull had surrendered, Charles Scott, 
Governor of Kentucky, invited Gen. Harrison, 

Governor of Indiana Territory, to visit Frankfort, 
to consult on the subject of defending the North- 
west. Gov. Harrison had visited Gov. Scott, and 
in August, 1812, accepted the appointment of 
Major General in the Kentucky militia, and, by 
hasty traveling, on the receipt of the news of the 
surrender of Detroit, reached Cincinnati on the 
morning of the 27th of that month. On the 30th 
he left Cincinnati, and the next day overtook the 
army he was to command, on its way to Dayton. 
After leaving Dayton, he was overtaken by an ex- 
press, informing him of his appointment by the 
Government as Commander-in-Chief of the armies 
of the Indiana and Illinois Territories. The army 
reached Piqua, September 3. From this place 
Harrison sent a body of troops to aid in the de- 
fense of Fort Wayne, threatened by the enemy. 
On the 6th he ordered all the troops forward, and 
while on the march, on September 17, he was 
informed of his appointment as commander of the 
entire Northwestern troops. He found the army 
poorly clothed for a winter campaign, now ap- 
proaching, and at once issued a stirring address to 
the people, asking for food and comfortable cloth- 
ing. The address was not in vain. After his 
appointment. Gen. Harrison pushed on to Au- 
glaize, where, leaving the army under command of 
Gen. Winchester, he returned to the interior of the 
State, and establishing his headquarters at Frank- 
liuton, began active measures for the campaign. 

Early in March, 1812, Col. John Miller raised, 
under orders, a regiment of infantry in Ohio, and 
in July assembled his enlisted men at Chillicothe, 
where, placing them — only one hundred and forty 
in number — under command of Captain Ang-us 
Lewis, he sent them on to the frontier. They erect- 
ed a block-house at Piqua and then went on to 
Defiance, to the main body of the armv. 

In July, 1812, Gen. Edward W. ^Tupper, of 
Gallia County, raised one thousand men for six 
months' duty. Under orders from Gen. Winches- 
ter, they marched through Chillicothe and Urbana, 
on to the Maumee, where, near the lower end of 
the rapids, they made an ineffectual attempt to 
drive off" the enemy. Failing in this, the enemy 





attacked Tupper and his troops, who, though worn 
down with the march and not a Httle disorganized 
through the jealousies of the officers, withstood 
the attack, and repulsed the British and their red 
allies, who returned to Detroit, and the Americans 
to Fort McArthur. 

In the fall of 1812, Gcii. Harrison ordered a 
detachment of six hundred men, mostly mounted, 
to destroy the Indian towns on the Missisineway 
River, one of the head-waters of the Wabash. 
The winter set in early and with unusual severity. 
At the same time this expedition was carried on, 
Bonaparte was retreating from Moscow. The expe- 
dition accomplished its design, though the troops 
suffered greatly from the cold, no less than two 
hundred men being more or less frost bitten. 

Gen. Harrison determined at once to retake 
Michigan and establish a line of defense along the 
southern shores of the lakes. Winchester was 
sent to occupy Forts Wayne and Defiance; Perkins' 
brigade to Lower Sandusky, to fortify an old 
stockade, and some Pennsylvania troops and artil- 
lery sent there at the same time. As soon as 
Gen. Harrison heard the results of the Missis- 
ineway expedition, he went to Chillicothe to con- 
sult with Gov. Meigs about further movements, 
and tlie best methods to keep the way between the 
Upper Miami and the Maumee continually open. 
He also sent Gen. Winchester word to move for- 
ward to the rapids of the Maumee and prepare for 
winter quarters. This Winchester did by the 
middle of January, 1813, establishing himself on 
the northern bank of the river, just above Wayne's 
old battle-ground. He was well fixed here, and 
was enabled to give his troops good bread, made from 
corn gathered in Indian corn-fields in this vicinity. 

While here, the inhabitants of Frenchtown, on 
the Raisin River, about twenty miles from Detroit, 
sent Winchester word claiming protection from the 
threatened British and Indian invasion, avowing 
themselves in sympathy with the Americans. A 
council of war decided in favor of their request, 
and Col. Lewis, with 550 men, sent to their relief 
Soon afler. Col. Allen was sent with more troops, 
and the enemy easily driven away from about 
Frenchtown. Word was sent to Gen. Winchester, 
who determined to march with all the men he 
could spare to aid in holding the post gained. He 
lefl, the 19th of January, with 250 men, and ar- 
rived on the evening of the 20th. Failing to 
take the necessary precaution, from some unex- 
plained reason, the enemy came up in the night, 
established his batteries, and, the next day, sur- 

prised and defeated the American Army with a 
terrible loss. Gen. Winchester was made a pris- 
oner, and, finally, those who were intrenched in 
the town surrendered, under promise of Proctor, 
the British commander, of protection from the 
Indians. This promise was grossly violated the 
next day. The savages were allowed to enter the 
town and enact a massacre as cruel and bloody as 
any in the annals of the war, to the everlasting 
ignominy of the British General and his troops. 

Those of the American Army that escaped, ar- 
rived at the rapids on the evening of the 22d of 
January, and soon the sorrowful news spread 
throughout the army and nation. Gen. Harrison 
set about retrieving the disaster at once. Delay 
could do no good. A fort was built at the rapids, 
named Fort Meigs, and troops from the south and 
west hurriedly advanced to the scene of action. 
The investment and capture of Detroit was aban- 
doned, that winter, owing to the defeat at French- 
town, and expiration of the terms of service of 
many of the troops. Others took their places, 
all parts of Ohio and bordering States sending 

The erection of Fort Meigs was an obstacle in 
the path of the British they determined to remove, 
and, on the 28th of February, 1813, a large band 
of British and Indians, under command of Proc- 
tor, Tecumseh, Walk-in-the-water, and other In- 
dian chiefs, appeared in the Maumee in boats, and 
prepared for the attack. Without entering into 
details regarding the investment of the fort, it is 
only necessary to add, that after a prolonged siege, 
lasting to the early part of May, the British were 
obliged to abandon the fort, having been severely 
defeated, and sailed for the Canadian shores. 

Next followed the attacks on Fort Stephenson, 
at Lower Sandusky, and other predatory excur- 
sions, by the British. All of these failed of their 
design; the defense of Maj. Croghan and his men 
constituting one of the most brilliant actions of the 
war. For the gallant defense of Fort Stephenson by 
Maj. Croghan, then a young man, the army merited 
the highest honors. The ladies of Chillicothe voted 
the heroic Major a fine sword, while the whole 
land rejoiced at the exploits of him and his band. 

The decisive efforts of the army, the great num- 
bers of men offered — many of whom Gen. Harrison 
was obliged to send home, much to their disgust — 
Perry's victory on Lake Erie, September 10, 
1813 — all presaged the triumph of the American 
arms, soon to ensue. As soon as the battle on 
the lake was over, the British at Maiden burned 




their stores, and fled, wliile the Americans, under 
their gallant commander, followed them in Perry's 
vessel to the Canada shore, overtaking them on 
the River Thames, October 5. In the battle that 
ensued, Tecumseh was slain, and the British Army 

The war was now practically closed in the "West. 
Ohio troops had done nobly in defending their 
northern frontier, and in regaining the Northwest- 
ern country. Gen. Harrison was soon after elected 
to Congress by the Cincinnati district, and Gen. 
Duncan McArthur was appointed a Brigadier 
General in the regular army, and assigned to the 
command in his place. Gen. McArthur made an 
expedition into Upper Canada in the spring of 
1814, destroying considerable property, and driv- 
ing the British farther into their own dominions. 
Peace was declared early in 1815, and that spring, 
the troops were mustered out of service at Chilli- 
cothe, and peace with England reigned supreme. 

The results of the war in Ohio were, for awhile, 
similar to the Indian war of 1795. It brought 
many people into the State, and opened new por- 
tions, before unknown. Many of the soldiers im- 
mediately invested their money in lands, and became 
citizens. The war drove many people from the 
Atlimtic Coast west, and as a result much money, 
for awhile, circulated. Labor and provisions rose, 
which enabled both workmen and tradesmen to 
enter tracts of land, and aided emigration. At the 
conclusion of Wayu-^'s war in 1795, probably 
not more than five thousand people dwelt in the 
limits of the State ; at the close of the war of 1812, 
that number was largely increased, even with the 
odds of war against them. After the last war, tlie 
emigration was constant and gradual, building up 
the State in a manner that betokened a healthful 

As soon as the effects of the war had worn off, 
a period of depression set in, as a result of too 
free speculation indulged in at its close. Gradu- 
ally a stagnation of business ensued, and many 
who found the'inselves unable to meet contracts 
made in "flush" times, found no alternative but 
to fail. To relieve the pressure in all parts of 
the West, Congress, about 1815, reduced the 
price of public lands from $2 to $1.25 
per acre. This measure worked no little 
hardship on those who owned large tracts of 
lands, for portions of which they had not fully 
paid, and as a consequence, these lands, as well 
as all others of this class, reverted to the 
Government. The general market was in New 

Orleans, whither goods were transported in flat- 
boats built especially for this pupose. This com- 
merce, though small and poorly repaid, was the 
main avenue of trade, and did much for the slow 
prosperity prevalent. The few banks in the State 
found their bills at a discount abroad, and gradu- 
ally becoming di-ained of their specie, either closed 
business or failed, the major part of them adopt- 
ing the latter course. 

The steamboat began to be an important factor 
in the river navigation of the West about this 
period. The first boat to descend the Ohio was 
the Orleans, built at Pittsburg in 1812, and in 
December of that year, while the fortunes of war 
hung over the land, she made her first trip fi-om the 
Iron City to New Orleans, being just twelve days 
on the way. The second, built by Samuel Smith, 
was called the Comet, and made a trip as far 
south as Louisville, in the summer of 1813. The 
third, the Vesuvius, was built by Fulton, and went 
to New Orleans in 1814. The fourth, built by 
Daniel French at Brownsville, Penn., made two 
trips to Louisville in the summer of 1814. The 
next vessel, the ^tna, was built by Fulton & 
Company in 1815. So fast did the business 
increase, that, four years after, more than 
forty steamers floated on the Western waters. 
Improvements in machinery kept pace with the 
building, until, in 1838, a competent writer stated 
there were no less than four hundred steamers in 
the West. Since then, the erection of railways 
has greatly retarded ship-building, and it is alto- 
gether probable the number has increased but 

The question of canals began to agitate the 
Western country during the decade succeeding the 
war. They had been and were being constructed 
in older countries, and presaged good and prosper- 
ous times. If only the waters of the lakes and 
the Ohio River could be united by a canal run- 
ning through the midst of the State, thought the 
people, prosperous cities and towns would arise on 
its banks, and commerce flow through the land. 
One of the firmest friends of such improvements 
was De Witt Clinton, who had been the chief man 
in forwarding the " Clinton Canal," in New York. 
He was among the first to advocate the feasibility 
of a canal connecting Lake Erie and the Ohio 
River, and, by the success of the New York canals, 
did much to bring it about. Popular writers of the 
day all urged the scheme, so that when thi; Assem- 
bly met, early in December, 1821, the resolution, 
offered by Micajah T. Williams, of Cincinnati, 





for the appointment of a committee of five mem- 
bers to take into consideration so much of the 
Governor's message as related to canals, and see if 
some feasible plan could not be adopted whereby a 
beginning could be made, was quickly adopted. 

The report of the committee, advising a survey 
and examination of routes, met with the approval 
of the Assembly, and commissioners were ap- 
pointed who were to employ an engineer, examine 
the country and report on the practicability of a 
canal between the lakes and the river. The com- 
missioners employed James Gleddes, of Onondaga 
County, N. Y., as an engineer. He arrived in 
Columbus in June, 1822, and, before eight months, 
the corps of engineers, under his direction, had 
examined one route. During the next two sum- 
mers, the examinations continued. A number of 
routes were examined and surveyed, and one, from 
Cleveland on the lake, to Portsmouth on the Ohio, 
was recommended. Another canal, from Cincin- 
nati to Dayton, on the Miami, was determined on, 
and preparations to commence work made. A 
Board of Canal Fund Commissioners was created, 
money was borrowed, and the morning of July 
4, 1825, the first shovelful of earth was dug near 
Newark, with imposing ceremonies, in the presence 
of De Witt Clinton, Grovernor of New York, and 
a mighty concourse of people assembled to witness 
the auspicious event. 

Gov. Clinton was escorted all over the State to 
aid in developing the energy everywhere apparent. 
The events were important ones in the history of 
the State, and, though they led to the creation of 
a vast debt, yet, in the end, the canals were a 

The main canal — the Ohio and Erie Canal — 
was not completed till 1832. The Maumee Canal, 
from Dayton to Cincinnati, was finished in 1834. 
They cost the State about $G,000,UOO. Each of 
the main canals had branches leading to important 
towns, where their construction could be made 
without too much expense. The Miami and Mau- 
mee Canal, from Cincinnati northward along the 
Miami River to Piqua, thence to the Maumee 
and on to the lake, was the largest canal made, 
and, for many years, was one of the most important 
in the State. It joined the Wabash Canal on the 
eastern boundary of Indiana, and thereby saved 
the construction of many miles by joining this 
great canal from Toledo to Evansville. 

The largest artificial lake in the world, it is said, 
was built to supply water to the Miami Canal. It 
exists yet, though the canal is not much used. It 

is in the eastern part of Mercer County, and is 
about nine miles long by from two to four wide. 
It was formed by raising two walls of earth from 
ten to thirty feet high, called respectively the east 
and west embankments ; the first of which is about 
two miles in length ; the second, about four. These 
walls, with the elevation of the ground to the 
north and south, formed a huge basin, to retain 
the water. The reservoir was commenced in 1837, 
and finished in 1845, at an expense of several 
hundred thousand dollars. When first built, dur- 
ing the accumulation of water, much malarial 
disease prevailed in the surrounding country, owing 
to the stagnant condition of the water. The citi- 
zens, enraged at what they considered an innova- 
tion of their rights, met, and, during a dark night, 
tore out a portion of the lower wall, letting the 
water flow out. The damage cost thousands of 
dollars to repair. All who participated in the 
proceedings were liable to a severe imprisonment, 
but the state of feeling was such, in Mercer County, 
where the offense was committed, that no jury 
could be found that would try them, and the affair 
gradually died out. 

The canals, so efficacious in their day, were, 
however, superseded by the railroads rapidly find- 
ing their way into the West. From England, 
where they were early used in the collieries, the 
transition to America was easy. 

The first railroad in the United States was built 
in the summer of 1826, from the granite quarry 
belonging to the Bunker Hill Monument Associa- 
tion to the wharf landing, three miles distant. The 
road was a slight decline from . the quarry to 
the wharf, hence the loaded cars were pro- 
pelled by their own gravity. On their return, 
when empty, they were drawn up by a single 
horse. Other roads, or tramways, quickly followed 
this. They were built at the Pennsylvania coal 
mines, in South Carolina, at New Orleans, and at 
Baltimore. Steam motive power was used in 1831 
or 1832, first in America on the Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad, and in Charlestown, on a railroad there. 

To transfer these highways to the West was the 
question of but a few years' time. The prairies of 
Illinois and Indiana offered superior inducements 
to such enterprises, and, early in 1835, they began 
to be agitated there. In 1838, the first rail was 
laid in Illinois, at Meredosia, a little town on the 
Illinois River, on what is now the Wabash Railway. 

"The first railroad made in Ohio," writes Caleb 
Atwater, in his "History of Ohio," in 1838, "was 
finished in 1836 by the people of Toledo, a town 

>^ <s~ 




some two years old then, situated near the mouth 
of Maumee River. The road extends westward in- 
to Michigan and is some thirty miles in length. 
There is a road about to be made from Cincinnati 
to Springfield. This road follows the Ohio River 
up to the Little Miami River, and there turns 
northwardly up its valley to Xenia, and, passing 
the Yellow Springs, reaches Springfield. Its length 
must be about ninety miles. The State will own 
one-half of the road, individuals and the city of 
Cincinnati the other half This road will, no 
doubt, be extended to Lake Erie, at Sandusky 
City, within a few short years." 

"There is a railroad." continues Mr. Atwater, 
"about to be made from Painesville to the Ohio 
River. There are many charters for other roads, 
which will never be made." 

Mr. Atwater notes also, the various turnpikes as 
well as the famous National road from Baltimore 
westward, then completed only to the mountains. 
This latter did as much as any enterprise ever en- 
acted in building up and populating the West. 
It gave a national thoroughfare, which, for many 
years, was the principal wagon-way from the At- 
lantic to the Mississippi Valley. 

The railroad to which Mr. Atwater refers as 
about to be built from Cincinnati to Springfield, 
was what was known as the Mad River Railroad. 
It is commonly conceded to be the first one built 
in Ohio.* Its history shows that it was chartered 
March 11, 1836, that work began in 1837; that 
it was completed and opened for business from 
Cincinnati to Milford, in December, 1842; to Xe- 
nia, in August, 1845, and to Springfield, in Au- 
gust, 1846. It was laid with strap rails until 
about 1848, when the present form of rail was 

One of the earliest roads in Ohio was what was 
known as the Sandusky, Mansfield & Newark Rail- 
road. It was chartered at first as the Monroeville 
& Sandusky City Railroad, March 9, 1835. March 
12, 1836, the Mansfield & New Haven road was 
chartered; the Columbus & Lake Erie, March 12, 

1845, and the Huron & Oxford, February 27, 

1846. At first it ran only from Sandusky to 
Monroeville, then from Mansfield to Huron. These 

* Hon. E D. Mansfield states, in 1873, that the " first actual piece 
of railroad laid in Ohio, was made on the Cincinnati & Sandusky 
Railroad; hut, about the same time we have the Little Miami Rail- 
road, which was surveyed in 1836 and 1837. If this, the generally 
accepted opinion, is correct, then Mr. Atwater's statement as given, 
is wrong. His history is, however, generally conceded to be correct. 
Written in 1838, he surely ought to know whereof he was writing, 
as the railroads were then only in construction ; but few, if any, 
in operation. 

two were connected and consolidated, and then ex- 
tended to Newark, and finally, by connections, to 

It is unnecessary to follow closely the history of 
these improvements through the years succeeding 
their introduction. At first the State owned a 
share in nearly all railroads and canals, but finally 
finding itself in debt about $15,00U,000 for such 
improvements, and learning by its own and neigh- 
bors' experiences, that such policy was detrimental 
to the best interests of the people, abandoned the 
plan, and allowed private parties entire control of 
all such works. After the close of the Mexican 
war, and the return to solid values in 1 854 or there- 
abouts, the increase of railroads in all parts of Ohio, 
as well as all parts of the West, was simply marvel- 
ous. At this date there are more than ten thou- 
sand miles of railroads in Ohio, alongside of which 
stretch innumerable lines of telegraph, a system of 
swift messages invented by Prof Morse, and adopted 
in the United States about 1851. 

About the time railroad building began to as- 
sume a tangible shape, in 1840, occurred the cele- 
brated political campaign known in history as the 
" Hard Cider Campaign." The gradual encroach- 
ments of the slave power in the West, its arrogant 
attitude in the Congress of the United States and 
in several State legislatures : its forcible seizure of 
slaves in the free States, and the enactment and 
attempted enforcement of the "fugitive slave" law 
all tended to awaken in the minds of the Northern 
people an antagonism, terminating only in the late 
war and the abolishment of that hideous system in 
the United States. 

The "Whig Party" strenuously urged the 
abridgment or confinement of slavery in the 
Southern States, and in the contest the party took 
a most active part, and elected William Henry 
Harrison President of the United States. As he 
had been one of the foremost leaders in the war of 
1812, a resident of Ohio, and one of its most pop- 
ular citizens, a log cabin and a barrel of cider were 
adopted as his exponents of popular opinion, as 
expressive of the rule of the common people repre- 
sented in the cabin and cider, in turn representing 
their primitive and simple habits of life. He 
lived but thirty days after his inauguration, dying 
on the 9th of April, 1841, when John Tyler, the 
Vice President, succeeded him as Chief Executive 
of the nation. 

The building of railroads ; the extension of com- 
merce ; the settlement of all parts of the State ; 
its growth in commerce, education, reHgion and 




population, are the chief events from 1841 to the 
Mexican war. Hard times occurred about as often 
as they do now, preceded by " flush" times, when 
speculation ran rife, the people all infatuated with 

an insane idea that something could be had for 
nothing. The bubble burst as often as inflated, 
ruining many people, but seemingly teaching few 




THE Mexican War grew out of the question of 
the annexation of Texas, then a province of 
Mexico, whose territory extended to the Indian 
Territory on the north, and on up to the Oregon 
Territory on the Pacific Coast. Texas had been 
settled largely by Americans, who saw the condi- 
tion of aft'airs that would inevitably ensue did the 
country remain under Mexican rule. They first 
took steps to secede from Mexico, and then asked 
the aid of America to sustain them, and annex the 
country to itself. 

The Whig party and many others opposed this, 
chiefly on the grounds of the extension of slave 
territory. But to no avail. The war came on, 
Mexico was conquered, the war lasting from April 
20, 1846, to May 30, 1848. Fifty thousand vol- 
unteers were called for the war by the Congress, 
and $10,000,000 placed at the disposal of the 
President, James K. Polk, to sustain the army and 
prosecute the war. 

The part that Ohio took in the war may be 
briefly summed up as follows : She had five vol- 
unteer regiments, five companies in the Fifteenth 
Infantry, and several independent companies, with 
her full proportion among the regulars. When 
war was declared, it was something of a crusade to 
many ; full of romance to others ; hence, many 
more were offiered than could be received. It was 
a campaign of romance to some, yet one of reality, 
ending in death, to many. 

When the first call for troops came, the First, 
Second and Third Regiments of infantry responded 
at once. Alexander Mitchell was made Colonel of 
the First; John E. Wellerits Lieutenant Colonel ; 
and Major L. Giddings, of Dayton, its Major, 
Thos. L. Hamer, one of the ablest lawyers in Ohio, 
started with the First as its Major, but, before the 
regiment left the State, he was made a Brigadier 
General of Volunteers, and, at the battle of Mon- 
terey, distinguished himself; and there contracted 

disease and laid down his life. The regiment's 
Colonel, who had been wounded at Monterey, came 
home, removed to Minnesota, and there died. 
Lieut. Col. Weller went to California after the 
close of the war. He was United States Senator 
from that State in the halls of Congress, and, at 
last, died at New Orleans. 

The Second Regiment was commanded by Col. 
George W. Morgan, now of Mount Vernon ; Lieut. 
Col. William Irwin, of Lancaster, and Maj. Will- 
iam Wall. After the war closed, Irwin settled in 
Texas, and remained there till he died. Wall lived 
out his days in Ohio. The regiment was never in 
active field service, but was a credit to the State. 

The ofiicers of the Third Regiment were. Col. 
Samuel R. Curtis; Lieut. Col. G. W. McCookand 
Maj. John Love. The first two are now dead ; 
the Major lives in McConneUsville. 

At the close of the first year of the war, these 
regiments (First, Second and Third) were mustered 
out of service, as their term of enlistment had 

When the second year of the war began, the 
call for more troops on the part of the Government 
induced the Second Ohio Infantry to re-organize, 
and again enter the service. William Irwin, of the 
former organization, was chosen Colonel ; William 
Latham, of Columbus, Lieutenant Colonel, and 
William H. Link, of Circleville, Major. Nearly 
all of them are now dead. 

The regular army was increased by eight Ohio 
companies of infantry, the Third Dragoons, and 
the Voltigeurs — light-armed soldiers. In the Fif- 
teenth Regiment of the United States Army, there 
were five Ohio companies. The others were three 
from Michigan, and two from Wisconsin. Col. 
Moi'gan, of the old Second, was made Colonel of 
the Fifteenth, and John Howard, of Detroit, an 
old artillery ofiicer in the regular army. Lieutenant 
Colonel. Samuel Wood, a captain in the Sixth 





United States Inftintry, was made Major ; but was 

afterward succeeded by Mill, of Vermont. 

The Fifteenth was in a number of skirmishes at first, 
and later in the battles of Contreras, Cherubusco 
and Chapultepec. At the battle of Cherubusco, 
the Colonel was severely wounded, and Maj. Mill, 
with several oflacers, and a large number of men, 
killed. For gallant service at Contreras, Col. Mor- 
gan, though only twenty-seven years old, was made 
a Brevet Brigadier General in the United States 
Army. Since the war he has delivered a number 
of addresses in Ohio, on the campaigns in Mex- 

The survivors of the war are now few. Though 
seventy-five thousand men from the United States 
went into that conflict, less than ten thousand now 
survive. They are now veterans, and as such de- 
light to recount their reminiscences on the fields of 
Mexico. They are all in the decline of life, and 
ere a generation passes away, few, if any, will be 

After the war, the continual growth of Ohio, 
the change in all its relations, necessitated a new 
organic law. The Constitution of 1852 was the 
result. It re-affirmed the political principles of 
the "ordinance of 1787" and the Constitution of 
1802, and made a few changes necessitated by the 
advance made in the interim. It created the 
office of Lieutenant Governor, fixing the term of 
service at two years. This Constitution yet stands 
notwithstanding the prolonged attempt in 1873-74: 
to create a new one. It is now the organic law of 

From this time on to the opening of the late war, 
the prosperity of the State received no check. 
Towns and cities grew ; railroads multiplied ; com- 
merce was extended; the vacant lands were rapidly 
filled by settlers, and everything tending to the 
advancement of the people was well prosecuted. 
Banks, after much tribulation, had become in a 
measure somewhat secure, their only and serious 
drawback being their isolation or the confinement 
of their circulation to their immediate localities. 
But signs of a mighty contest were apparent. A 
contest almost without a parallel in the annals of 
history ; a contest between freedom and slavery ; 
between wrong and right ; a contest that could 
only end in defeat to the wrong. The Republican 
party came into existence at the close of President 
Pierce's term, in 1855. Its object then was, prin- 
cipally, the restriction of the slave power ; ultimately 
its extinction. One of the chief exponents and sup- 
porters of this growing party in Ohio, was Salmon P. 

Chase ; one who never faltered nor lost faith ; and 
who was at the helm of State; in the halls of Con- 
gress; chief of one the most important bureaus of 
the Government, and, finally, Chief Justice of the 
United States. When war came, after the election 
of Abraham Lincoln by the Republican party, Ohio 
was one of the first to answer to the call for troops. 
Mr. Chase, while Governor, had re-organized the 
militia on a sensible basis, and rescued it from the 
ignominy into which it had fallen. When Mr. 
Lincoln asked for seventy-five thousand men, 
Ohio's quota was thirteen regiments. The various 
chaotic regiments and militia troops in the State 
did not exceed 1,500 men. The call was issued 
April 15, 1861 ; by the 18th, two regiments were 
organized in Columbus, whither these companies 
had gathered; before sunrise of the 19th the Jirst 
and second regiments were on their way to Wash- 
ington City. The President had only asked for 
thirteen regiments; thirty were gathering; the 
Government, not yet fully comprehending the 
nature of the rebellion, refused the surplus troops, 
but Gov. Dennison was authorized to put ten 
additional regiments in the field, as a defensive 
measure, and was also authorized to act on the 
defensive as well as on the offensive. The immense 
extent of southern border made this necessary, 
as all the loyal people in West Virginia and Ken- 
tucky asked for help. 

In the limits of this history, it is impossible to 
trace all the steps Ohio took in the war. One of 
her most talented sons, now at the head of one of 
the greatest newspapers of the world, says, regard- 
ing the action of the people and their Legislature : 

"In one part of the nation there existed a grad- 
ual growth of sentiment against the Union, ending 
in open hostility against its integrity and its Con- 
stitutional law ; on the other side stood a resolute, 
and determined people, though divided in minor 
matters, firmly united on the question of national 
supremacy. The people of Ohio stood squarely 
on this side. Before this her people had been di- 
vided up to the hour when — 

'"That fierce and sudden flash across the rugged black- 
ness broke, 

And, with a voice that shook the land, the guns of Sum- 
ter spoke ; 

And whereso'er the summons came, there rose the 
angry din, 

As when, upon a rocky coast, a stormy tide sets in.' 

" All waverings then ceased among the people 
and in the Ohio Legislature. The Union must be 




preserved. The white heat of patriotism and fe- 
alty to the flag that had been victorious in three 
wars, and had never met but temporary defeat 
then melted all parties^ and dissolved all hesitation, 
and, April 18, 1861, by a unanimous vote of 
ninety-nine Representatives in its favor, there was 
passed a bill appropriating $500,000 to carry into 
effect the requisition of the President, to protect 
the National Government, of which sum $4.50,000 
were to purchase arms and equipments for the 
troops recjuired by that requisition as the quota of 
Ohio, and $50,000 as an extraordinary contingent 
fund for the Governor. The commissioners of the 
State Sinking Fund were authorized, by the same 
bill, to borrow this money, on the per cent bonds 
of the State, and to issue for the same certificates, 
freeing such bonds from taxation. Then followed 
other such legislation that declared the property of 
volunteers free from execution for debt during 
their term of service; that declared any resident 
of the State, who gave aid and comfort to the 
enemies of the Union, guilty of treason against 
the State, to be punished by imprisonment at hard 
labor for life; and, as it had become already evi- 
dent that thousands of militia, beyond Ohio's 
quota of the President's call, would volunteer, the 
Legislature, adopting the sagacious suggestion of 
Gov. Dennison, resolved that all excess of volunteers 
should be retained and paid for service, under 
direction of the Governor. Thereupon a bill 
was passed, authorizing the acceptance of volunteers 
to form ten regiments, and providing $500,000 
for their arms and equipments, and $1,500,000 
more to be disbursed for troops in case of an in- 
vasion of the State. Then other legislation was 
enacted, looking to and providing against the ship- 
ment from or through the State of arms or mu- 
nitions of war, to States either assuming to be 
neutral or in open rebellion ; organizing the whole 
body of the State militia; providing suitable offi- 
cers for duty on the staff of the Governor; re- 
quiring contracts for subsistence of volunteers to 
be let to the lowest bidder, and authorizing the 
appointment of additional general officers. 

" Before the adjournment of that Legislature, 
the Speaker of the House had resigned to take 
command of one of the regiments then about to 
start for Washington City ; two leading Senators 
had been appointed Brigadier Generals, and many, 
in fact nearly all, of the other members of both 
houses had, in one capacity or another, entered the 
military service. It was the first war legislature 
ever elected in Ohio, and, under sudden pressure. 

nobly met the first shock, and enacted the first 
measures of law for war. Laboring under difficul- 
ties inseparable from a condition so unexpected, 
and in the performance of duties so novel, it may 
be historically stated that for patriotism, zeal and 
ability, the Ohio Legislature of 1861 was the 
equal of any of its successors ; while in that exu- 
berance of patriotism which obliterated party lines 
and united all in a common effort to meet the 
threatened integrity of the United States as a 
nation, it surpassed them both. 

" The war was fought, the slave power forever 
destroyed, and under additional amendments to her 
organic law, the L^nited States wiped the stain of 
human slavery from her escutcheon, liberating over 
four million human beings, nineteen-twentieths of 
whom were native-born residents. 

" When Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court 
House, Ohio had two hundred regiments of all 
arms in the National service. In the course of 
the war, she had furnished two hundred and thirty 
regiments, besides twenty-six independent batteries 
of artillery, five independent companies of cavalry, 
several companies of sharpshooters, large parts of 
five regiments credited to the West Virginia con- 
tingent, two regiments credited to the Kentucky 
contingent, two transferred to the United States 
colored troops, and a large proportion of the rank 
and file of the Fifty-fourth and Sixty-fifth Massa- 
chusetts Regiments, also colored men. Of these or- 
ganizations, twenty-three were infantry regiments 
furnished on the first call of the President, an ex- 
cess of nearly one-half over the State's quota ; one 
hundred and ninety-one were infantry regiments, 
furnished on subsequent calls of the President — 
one hundred and seventeen for three years, twenty- 
seven for one year, two for six months, two for 
three months, and forty-two for one hundred days. 
Thirteen were cavalry, and three artillery for three 
years. Of these three-years troops, over twenty 
thousand re-enlisted, as veterans, at the end of 
their long term of service, to fight till the war 
would end." 

As original members of these organizations, Ohio 
furnished to the National service the magnificent 
army of 310,654 actual soldiers, omitting from 
the above number all those who paid commuta- 
tion money, veteran enlistments, and citizens who 
enlisted as soldiers or sailors in other States. The 
count is made from the reports of the Provost 
Marshal General to the War Department, Penn- 
sylvania gave not quite 28,000 more, while Illinois 
fell 48,000 behind; Indiana, 116,000 less; 




Kentucky, 235,000, and Massachusetts, 164,000. 
Thus Ohio more than maintained, in the National 
army, the rank among her sisters which her popu- 
lation supported. Ohio furnished more troops than 
the President ever required of her ; and at the 
end of the war, with more than a thousand men in 
the camp of the State who were never mustered 
into the service, she still had a credit on the rolls 
of the War Department for 4,332 soldiers, beyond 
the aggregate of all quotas ever assigned to her; 
and, besides all these, 6,479 citizens had, in lieu of 
personal service, paid the commutation ; while In- 
diana, Kentucky, Pennsylvania and New York 
were all from five to one hundred thousand behind 
their quotas. So ably, through all those years of 
trial and death, did she keep the promise of the 
memorable dispatch from her first war Governor : 
'' If Kentucky refuses to fill her quota, Ohio will 
fill it for her." 

"Of these troops 11,237 were killed or mor- 
tally wounded in action, and of these 6,563 were 
left dead on the field of battle. They fought on 
well-nigh every battle-field of the war. Within 
forty-eight hours after the first call was made for 
troops, two regiments were on the way to Wash- 
ington. An Ohio brigade covered the retreat from 
the first battle of Bull Run. Ohio troops formed 
the bulk of army that saved to the Union the 
territory afterward erected into West Virginia ; 
the bulk of the army that kept Kentucky from 
seceding ; a large part of the army that captured 
Fort Donelson and Island No. 10 ; a great part of 
the army that from Stone River and Chickamauga, 
and Mission Ridge and Atlanta, swept to the sea 
and captured Fort McAllister, and north through 
the Carolinas to Virginia." 

When Sherman started on his famous march to 
the sea, someone said to President Lincoln, "T hey 
will never get through; they will all be captured, 
and the Union will be lost." " It is impossible," 
replied the President ; "it cannot be done. There 
is a 'mighty sight of fight iji one hundred thou- 
sand Western men^ 

Ohio troops fought at Pea Ridge. They charged 
at Wagner. They helped redeem North Carolina. 
They were in the sieges of Vicksburg, Charleston, 
Mobile and Richmond. At Pittsburg Landing, 
at Antietam, Gettysburg and Corinth, in the 
Wilderness, at Five Forks, before Nashville and 
Appomattox Court House; "their bones, reposing 
on the fields they won and in the graves they fill, are 
a perpetual pledge that no flag shall ever wave over 
their graves but that flag they died to maintain." 

Ohio's soil gave birth to, or furnished, a Grant, 
a Sherman, a Sheridan, a McPherson, a Rosecrans, 
a McClellan, a McDowell, a Mitchell, a Gilmore, a 
Hazen,a Sill, a Stanley, a Steadmau,and others — all 
but one, children of the country, reared at West Point 
for such emergencies. Ohio's war record shows 
one General, one Lieutenant General, twenty Major 
Generals, twenty seven Brevet Major Generals, and 
thirty Brigadier Generals, and one hundred and 
fifty Brevet Brigadier Generals. Her three war 
Governors were William Dennison, David Todd, and 
John Brough. She furnished, at the same time, 
one Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton, and 
one Secretary of the Treasury, Salmon P. Chase. 
Her Senators were Benjamin F. Wade and John 
Sherman. At least three out of five of Ohio's 
able-bodied men stood in the line of battle. On 
the head stone of one of these soldiers, who gave 
his life for the country, and who now lies in a 
National Cemetery, is inscribed these words : 

" We charge the living to preserve that Constitution we 
have died to defend." 

The close of the war and return of peace brought 
a period of fictitious values on the country, occa- 
sioned by the immense amount of currency afloat. 
Property rose to unheard-of values, and everything 
with it. Ere long, however, the decline came, and 
with it " hard times." The climax broke over the 
country in 1873, and for awhile it seemed as if 
the country was on the verge of ruin. People 
found again, as preceding generations had found, 
that real value was the only basis of true prosper- 
ity, and gradually began to work to the fact. The 
Government established the specie basis by 
gradual means, and on the 1st day of January, 
1879, began to redeem its outstanding obligations 
in coin. The efi"ect was felt everywhere. Busi- 
ness of all kinds sprang anew into life. A feeling 
of confidence grew as the times went on, and now, 
on the threshold of the year 1880, the State is en- 
tering on an era of steadfast prosperity ; one which 
has a sure and certain foundation. 

Nearly four years have elaped since the great 
Centennial Exhibition was held in Philadelphia ; 
an exhibition that brought from every State in the 
Union the best products of her soil, factories, and 
all industries. In that exhibit Ohio made an ex- 
cellent display. Her stone, iron, coal, cereals, 
woods and everything pertaining to her welfare were 
all represented. Ohio, occupying the middle ground 
of the Union, was expected to show to foreign na- 
tions what the valleys of the Mississippi and Ohio 



-it ® 



could produce. The State nobly stood the test 
and ranked foremost among all others. Her cen- 
tennial building was among the first completed 
and among the neatest and best on the grounds. 
During the summer, the Centennial Commission 
extended invitations to the Governors of the several 
States to appoint an orator and name a day for his 

delivery of an address on the history, progress and 
resources of his State. Gov. Hayes named the 
Hon. Edward D. Mansfield for this purpose, and 
August 9th, that gentleman delivered an address 
so valuable for the matter which it contains, that 
we here give a synopsis of it. 



AUGUST 9, 1876. 

ONE hundred years ago, the whole territory, 
from the Alleghany to the Rocky Mountains 
was a wilderness, inhabited only by wild beasts and 
Indians. The Jesuit and Moravian missionaries 
were the only white men who had penetrated the 
wilderness or beheld its mighty lakes and rivers. 
While the thirteen old colonies were declaring 
their independence, the thirteen new States, which 
now lie in the western interior, had no existence, 
and gave no sign of the future. The solitude of 
nature was unbroken by the steps of civilization. 
The wisest statesman had not contemplated the 
probability of the coming States, and the boldest 
patriot did not dream that this interior wilderness 
should soon contain a greater population than the 
thirteen old States, with all the added growth of 
one hundred years. 

Ten years after that, the old States had ceded 
their Western lands to the General Government, 
and the Congress of the United States had passed 
the ordinance of 1785, for the survey of the pub- 
lic territory, and, in 17 87, the celebrated ordinance 
which organized the Northwestern Territory, and 
dedicated it to freedom and intelligence. 

Fifteen years after that, and more than a quarter 
of a century after the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, the State of Ohio was admitted into the 
Union, being the seventeenth which accepted the 
Constitution of the United States. It has since 
grown up to be great, populous and prosperous 
under the influence of those ordinances. At her 
admittance, in 1803, the tide of emigration had 
begun to flow over the Alleghanies into the Valley 
of the Mississippi, and, although no steamboat, no 
railroad then existed, nor even a stage coach helped 
the immigrant, yet the wooden " ark " on the 
Ohio, and the heavy wagon, slowly winding over 

the mountains, bore these tens of thousands to the 
wilds of Kentucky and the plains of Ohio. In 
the spring of 1788 — the first year of settlement — 
four thousand five hundred persons passed the 
mouth of the Muskingum in three months, and 
the tide continued to pour on for half a century in 
a widening stream, mingled with all the races of 
Europe and America, until now, in the hundredth 
year of America's independence, the five States of the 
Northwestern Territory, in the wilderness of 1776, 
contain ten millions of people, enjoying all the 
blessings which peace and prosperity, freedom and 
Christianity, can confer upon any people. Of these 
five States, born under the ordinance of 1787, Ohio 
is the first, oldest, and, in many things, the greatest. 
In some things it is the greatest State in the Union. 
Let us, then, attempt, in the briefest terms, to 
draw an outline portrait of this great and remark- 
able commonwealth. 

Let us observe its physical aspects. Ohio is 
just one-sixth part of the Northwestern Territory 
— 10,000 square miles. It lies between Lake Erie 
and the Ohio River, having 200 miles of navigable 
waters, on one side flowing into the Atlantic Ocean, 
and on the other into the Gulf of Mexico. Through 
the lakes, its vessels touch on G,000 miles of 
interior coast, and, through the Mississippi, on 
36,000 miles of river coast; so that a citizen of 
Ohio may pursue his navigation through 42,000 
miles, all in his own country, and all within naviga- 
ble reach of his own State. He who has circumnavi- 
gated the globe, has gone but little more than 
half the distance which the citizen of Ohio finds 
within his natural reach in this vast interior. 

Looking upon the surface of this State, we find 
no mountains, no barren sands, no marshy wastes, 
no lava-covered plains, but one broad, compact 





body of arable land, intersected with rivers and 
streams and running waters, while the beautiful 
Ohio flows tranquilly by its side. More than three 
times the surface of Belgium, and one-third of the 
whole of Italy, it has more natural resources in 
proportion than either, and is capable of ultimately 
supporting a larger population than any equal sur- 
face in Europe. Looking from this great arable 
surface, where upon the very hills the grass and 
the forest trees now grow exuberant and abundant, 
we find that underneath this surface, and easily 
accessible, lie 10,000 square miles of coal, and 
4,000 square miles of iron — coal and iron enough 
to supply the basis of manufacture for a world ! 
All this vast deposit of metal and fuel does not in- 
terrupt or take from that arable surface at all. 
There you may find in one place the same machine 
bringing up coal and salt water from below, while 
the wheat and the corn grow upon the surface 
above. The immense masses of coal, iron, salt and 
freestone deposited below have not in any way 
diminished the fertility and production of the soil. 

It has been said by some writer that the char- 
acter of a people is shaped or modified by the 
character of the country in which they live. If 
the people of Switzerland have acquired a certain 
air of liberty and independence from the rugged 
mountains around which they live; if the people 
of Southern Italy, or beautifiil France, have ac- 
quired a tone of ease and politeness from their 
mild and genial clime, so the people of Ohio, 
placed amidst such a wealth of nature, in the tem- 
perate zone, should show the best fruits of peace- 
ful industry and the best culture of Christian 
civilization. Have they done so? Have their 
own labor and arts and culture come up to the ad- 
vantages of their natural situation? Let us exam- 
ine this growth and their product. 

The first settlement of Ohio was made by a 
colony from New England, at the mouth of the 
Muskingum. It was literally a remnant of the 
officers of the Revolution. Of this colony no 
praise of the historian can be as competent, or as 
strong, as the language of Washington. He says, 
in answer to inquiries addressed to him: "No col- 
ony in America was ever settled under such favor- 
able auspices as that which has just commenced at 
the Muskingum. Information, prosperity and 
strength will be its characteristics. I know many 
of the settlers personally, and there never were 
men better calculated to promote the welfare of 
such a community," and he adds that if he were 
a young man, he knows no country in which he 

would sooner settle than in this Western region." 
This colony, left alone for a time, made its own 
government and nailed its laws to a tree in the vil- 
lage, an early indication of that law-abiding and 
peaceful spirit which has since made Ohio a just 
and well-ordered community. The subsequent 
settlements on the Miami and Scioto were made by 
citizens of New Jersey and Virginia, and it is cer- 
tainly remarkable that among all the early immi- 
gration, there were no ignorant people. In the 
language of Washington, they came with " infor- 
mation," qualified to promote the welfare of the 

Soon after the settlement on the Muskingum 
and the Miami, the great wave of migration 
flowed on to the plains and valleys of Ohio and Ken- 
tucky. Kentucky had been settled earlier, but the 
main body of emigrants in subsequent years 
went into Ohio, influenced partly by the great 
ordinance of 1787, securing freedom and schools 
forever, and partly by the greater security of 
titles under the survey and guarantee of the 
United States Grovernment. Soon the new State 
grew up, with a rapidity which, until then, was 
unknown in the history of civilization. On the 
Muskingum, where the buffalo had roamed; on 
the Scioto, where the Shawanees had built their 
towns ; on the Miami, where the great chiefs of 
the Miamis had reigned ; on the plains of San- 
dusky, yet red with the blood of the white man ; 
on the Maumee, where Wayne, by the victory of 
the " Fallen Timbers," had broken the power of 
the Indian confederacy — the emigrants fi-om the 
old States and from Europe came in to cultivate 
the fields, to build up towns, and to rear the insti- 
tutions of Christian civilization, until the single 
State of Ohio is greater in numbers, wealth, and 
education, than was the whole American Union 
when the Declaration of Independence was made. 

Let us now look at the statistics of this growth 
and magnitude, as they are exhibited in the cen- 
sus of the United States. Taking intervals of 
twenty years, Ohio had: In 1810, 230,760; in 
1830, 937,903; in 1850, 1,980,329; in 1870, 
2,665,260. Add to this the increase of population 
in the last six years, and Ohio now has, in round 
numbers, 3,000,000 of people — half a million 
more than the thirteen States in 1776 ; and 
her cities and towns have to-day six times the 
population of all the cities of America one hund- 
red years ago. This State is now the third in 
numbers and wealth, and the first in some of 
those institutions which mark the progress of 




mankind. That a small part of the wilderness of 
1771) should be more populous than the whole 
Union was then, and that it should have made a 
social and moral advance greater than that of any 
nation in the same time, must be regarded as one 
of the most startling and instructive facts which 
attend this year of commemoration. If such has 
been the social growth of Ohio, let us look at its 
physical development ; this is best expressed by the 
aggregate productions of the labor and arts of a 
people applied to the earth. In the census statistics 
of the United States these are expressed in the 
aggregate results of agriculture, mining, manufact- 
ures, and commerce. Let us simplify these statis- 
tics, by comparing the aggregate and ratios as 
between several States, and between Ohio and some 
countries of Europe. 

The aggregate amount of grain and potatoes — 
farinaceous food, produced in Ohio in 1870 was 
134,938,413 bushels, and in 1874, there were 157,- 
323,597 bushels, being the largest aggregate 
amount raised in any State but one, Illinois, and 
larger per square mile than Illinois or any other 
State in the country. The promises of nature 
were thus vindicated by the labor of man ; and 
the industry of Ohio has fulfilled its whole duty 
to the sustenance of the country and the world. 
She has raised more grain than ten of the old 
States together, and more than half raised by 
Great Britain or by France. I have not the 
recent statistics of Europe, but McGregor, in his 
statistics of nations for 1832 — a period of pro- 
found peace — gives the following ratios for the 
leading countries of Europe : Great Britain, area 
120,324 miles; amount of grain, 262,500,000 
bushels; rate per square mile, 2,190 to 1; 
Austria — area 258,003 miles ; amount of grain, 
366,800,000 bushels; rate per square mile, 1,422 to 
1 ; France — area 215,858 miles ; amount of grain, 
233,847,300 bushels ; rate per square mile, 1,080 
to 1. The State of Ohio — area per square miles, 
40,000 ; amount of grain, 150,000,000 bushels ; 
rate per square mile, 3,750. Combining the great 
countries of Great Britain, Austria, and France, 
we find that they had 594,785 square miles and 
produced 863,147,300 bushels of grain, which was, at 
the time these statistics were taken, 1 ,450 bushels per 
square mile, and ten bushels to each one of the 
population. Ohio, on the other hand, had 3,750 
bushels per square mile, and fifty bushels to each 
one of the population ; that is, there was five 
times as much gi-ain raised in Ohio, in proportion 
to the people, as in these great countries of Europe. 

As letters make words, and words express ideas, so 
these dry figures of statistics express facts, and 
these facts make the whole history of civilization. 

Let us now look at the statistics of domestic 
animals. These are always indicative of the state 
of society in regard to the physical comforts. The 
horse must furnish domestic conveyances ; the 
cattle must furnish the products of the dairy, as 
well as meat, and the sheep must furnish wool. 

Let us see how Ohio compares with other States 
and with Europe : In 1870, Ohio had 8,818,000 
domestic animals ; Illinois, 6,925,000 ; New York, 
5,283,000; Pennsylvania, 4,493,000; and other 
States less. The proportion to population in these 
States was, in Ohio, to each person, 3.3 ; Illinois, 
2.7; New York, 1.2; Pennsylvania, 1.2. 

Let us now see the proportion of domestic ani- 
mals in Europe. The results given by McGregor's 
statistics are : In Great Britain, to each person, 
2.44; Russia, 2.00; France, 1.50 ; Prussia, 1.02; 
Austria, 1.00. It will be seen that the proportion 
in Great Britain is only two-thirds that of Ohio ; 
in France, only one-half; and in Austria and 
Prussia only one-third. It may be said that, in 
the course of civilization, the number of animals 
diminishes as the density of population increases ; 
and, therefore, this result might have been ex- 
pected in the old countries of Europe. But this 
does not apply to Russia or Germany, still less to 
other States in this country. Russia in Europe 
has not more than half the density of population 
now in Ohio. Austria and Prussia have less than 
150 to the square mile. The whole of the north 
of Europe has not so dense a population as the 
State of Ohio, still less have the States of Illinois 
and Missouri, west of Ohio. Then, therefore, 
Ohio showing a larger proportion of domestic ani- 
mals than the north of Europe, or States west of 
her, with a population not so dense, we see at once 
there must be other causes to produce such a 

Looking to some of the incidental results of this 
vast agricultural production, we see that the United 
States exports to Europe immense amounts of 
grain and provisions ; and that there is manufact- 
ured in this country an immense amount of woolen 
goods. Then, taking these statistics of the raw 
material, we find that Ohio produces one-fifth of 
all the wool ; one-seventh of all the cheese ; one- 
eighth of all the corn, and one-tenth of all the 
wheat ; and yet Ohio has but a fourteenth part of 
the population, and one-eightieth part of the sur- 
face of this country. 





Let us take another — a commercial view of this 
matter. We have seen that Ohio raises five times 
as much grain per square mile as is raised per 
square mile in the empires of Great Britain, France 
and Austria, taken together. After making allow- 
ance for the differences of living, in the working 
classes of this country, at least two-thirds of the 
food and grain of Ohio are a surplus beyond the 
necessities of life, and, therefore, so much in the 
commercial balance of exports. This corresponds 
with the fact, that, in the shape of grain, meat, 
liquors and dairy products, this vast surplus is con- 
stantly moved to the Atlantic States and to Europe. 
The money value of this exported product is equal 
to $100,000,000 per annum, and to a solid capital 
of $1,500,000,000, after all the sustenance of the 
people has been taken out of the annual crop. 

We are speaking of agriculture alone. We are 
speaking of a State which began its career more 
than a quarter of a century after the Declaration 
of Independence was made. And now, it may be 
asked, what is the real cause of this extraordinary 
result, which, without saying anything invidious of 
other States, we may safely say has never been 
surpassed in any country? We have already 
stated two of the advantages possessed by Ohio. 
The first is that it is a compact, unbroken body of 
arable land, surrounded and intersected by water- 
courses, equal to all the demands of commerce and 
navigation. Next, that it was secured forever to 
freedom and intelligence by the ordinance of 1787. 
The intelligence of its future people was secured 
by immense grants of public lands for the purpose 
of education ; but neither the blessings of nature, 
nor the wisdom of laws, could obtain such results 
without the continuous labor of an intelligent 
people. Such it had, and we have only to take 
the testimony of Washington, already quoted, and 
the statistical results I have given, to prove that 
no people has exhibited more steady industry, nor 
has any people directed their labor with more in- 

After the agricultural capacity and production 
of a country, its most important physical feature 
is its mineral products; its capacity for coal and 
iron, the two great elements of material civiliza- 
tion. If we were to take away from Great Britain 
her capacity to produce coal in such vast quanti- 
ties, we should reduce her to a third-rate position, 
no longer numbered among the great nations of the 
earth. Coal has smelted her iron, run her steam 
engines, and is the basis of her manufactures. 
But when we compare the coal fields of Great 

Britain with those of this country, they are insig- 
nificant. The coal fields of all Europe are small 
compared with those of the central United States. 
The coal district of Durham and Northumberland, 
in England, is only 880 square miles. There are 
other districts of smaller extent, making in the 
whole probably one-half the extent of that in 
Ohio. The English coal-beds are represented as 
more important, in reference to extent, on account 
of their thickness. There is a small coal district 
in Lancashire, where the workable coal-beds are in 
all 150 feet in thickness. But this involves, as is 
well known, the necessity of going to immense 
depths and incurring immense expense. On the 
other hand, the workable coal-beds of Ohio are 
near the surface, and some of them require no ex- 
cavating, except that of the horizontal lead from 
the mine to the river or the railroad. In one 
county of Ohio there are three beds of twelve, six 
and four feet each, within fifty feet of the surface. 
At some of the mines having the best coal, the 
lead from the mines is nearly horizontal, and just 
high enough to dump the coal into the railroad 
cars. These coals are of all qualities, from that 
adapted to the domestic fire to the very best qual- 
ity for smelting or manufacturing iron. Recollect- 
ing these facts, let us try to get an idea of the coal 
district of Ohio. The bituminous coal region de- 
escending the western slopes of the Alleghanies, 
occupies large portions of Western Pennsylvania, 
West Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky and Tennessee. I 
suppose that this coal field is not less than fifty 
thousand square miles, exclusive of Western iMary- 
land and the southern terminations of that field in 
Georgia and Alabama. Of this vast field of coal, 
exceeding anything found in Europe, about one- 
fifth part lies in Ohio. Prof Mather, in his 
report on the geology of the State (first Geologi- 
cal Report of the State) says: 

" The coal-measures within Ohio occupy a space 
of about one hundred and eighty miles in length by 
eighty in breadth at the widest part, with an area 
of about ten thousand square miles, extending 
along the Ohio from Trumbull County in the north 
to near the mouth of the Scioto in the south. 
The regularity in the dip, and the moderate incli- 
nation of the' strata, afford facilities to the mines 
not known to those of most other countries, espe- 
cially Great Britain, where the strata in which the 
coal is imbedded have been broken and thrown out 
of place since its deposit, occasioning many slips 
and faults, and causing much labor and expense in 
again recovering the bed. In Ohio there is very 





little difficulty of this kind, the faults being small 
and seldom found." 

Now, taking into consideration these geological 
facts, let us look at the extent of the Ohio coal 
field. It occupies, wholly or in part, thirty-six 
counties, including, geographically, 14,000 square 
miles ; but leaving out fractions, and reducing the 
Ohio coal field within its narrowest limits, it is 
10,000 S(piare miles in extent, lies near the surface, 
and has on an average twenty feet thickness of work- 
able coal-beds. Let us compare this with the coal 
mines of Durham and Northumberland (England), 
the largest and best coal mines there. That coal 
district is estimated at 850 square miles, twelve 
feet thick, and is calculated to contain 9,000,000,- 
000 tons of coal. The coal field of Ohio is twelve 
times larger and one-third thicker. Estimated by 
that standard, the coal field of Ohio contains 180,- 
000,000,000 tons of coal. Marketed at only $2 
per ton, this coal is worth $360,000,000,000, or, 
in other words, ten times as much as the whole 
valuation of the United States at the present time. 
But we need not undertake to estimate either its 
quantity or value. It is enough to say that it is a 
quantity which we can scarcely imagine, which is 
tenfold that of England, and which is enough to 
supply the entire continent for ages to come. 

After coal, iron is beyond doubt the most val- 
uable mineral product of a State. As the mate- 
rial of manufacture, it is the most important. 
What are called the " precious metals " are not to 
be compared with it as an element of industry or 
profit. But since no manufactures can be success- 
fully carried on without fuel, coal becomes the first 
material element of the arts. Iron is unquestion- 
ably the next. Ohio has an iron district extending 
from the mouth of the Scioto River to some point 
north of the Mahoning River, in Trumbull County. 
The whole length is nearly two hundred miles, and 
the breadth twenty miles, making, as near as we can 
ascertain, 4,000 square miles. The iron in this dis- 
trict is of various qualities, and is manufactured 
largely into bars and castings. In this iron dis- 
trict are one hundred furnaces, forty-four rolling- 
mills, and fifteen rail-mills, being the largest num- 
ber of either in any State in the Union, except 
only Pennsylvania. 

Althoughonly the seventeenth State inits admis- 
sion, I find that, by the census statistics of 1870, 
it is the third State in the production of iron and iron 
manufactures. Already, and within the life of 
one man, this State begins to show what must in 
future time be the vast results of coal and iron. 

applied to the arts and manufactures. In the 
year 1874, there were 420,000 tons of pig iron 
produced in Ohio, which is larger than the prod- 
uct of any State, except Pennsylvania. The 
product and the manufacture of iron in Ohio 
have increased so rapidly, and the basis for 
increase is so great, that we may not doubt that 
Ohio will continue to be the greatest producer of 
iron and iron fabrics, except only Pennsylvania. 
At Cincinnati, the iron manufacture of the Ohio 
Valley is concentrating, and at Cleveland the ores 
of Lake Superior are being smelted. 

After coal and iron, we may place salt among 
the necessaries of life. In connection" with the 
coal region west of the Alleghanies, there lies in 
Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio, a large 
space of country underlaid by the salt rock, which 
already produces immense amounts of salt. Of 
this, Ohio has its full proportion. In a large 
section of the southeastern portion of the State, 
salt is produced without any known limitation. 
At Pomeroy and other points, the salt rock lies 
about one thousand feet below the surface, but 
salt water is brought easily to the surface by the 
steam engine. There, the salt rock, the coal 
seam, and the noble sandstone lie in successive 
strata, while the green corn and the yellow wheat 
bloom on the surface above. The State of Ohio 
produced, in 1874, 3,500,000 bushels of salt, 
being one-fifth of all produced in the United 
States. The salt section of Ohio is exceeded only 
by that of Syracuse, New York, and of Saginaw, 
Michigan. There is no definite limit to the 
underlying salt rock of Ohio, and, therefore, the 
production will be proportioned only to the extent 
of the demand. 

Having now considered the resources and the 
products of the soil and the mines of Ohio, we 
may properly ask how far the people have employed 
their resources in the increase of art and manu- 
facture. We have two modes of comparison, the 
rate of increase within the State, and the ratio 
they bear to other States. The aggregate value 
of the products of manufacture, exclusive of 
mining, in the last three censuses were: in 1850, 
$62,692,000; in 1860, $121,691,000; in 1870, 

The ratio of increase was over 100 per cent in 
each ten years, a rate far beyond that of the in- 
crease of population, and much beyond the ratio of 
increase in the whole country. In 1850, the man- 
ufiictures of Ohio were one-sixteenth part of the 
aggregate in the country ; in 1860, one-fifteenth 




part; in 1870, one-twelfth part. In addition to 
this, we find, from the returns of Cincinnati and 
Cleveland, that the value of the manufactured prod- 
ucts of Ohio in 1875, must have reached $400,- 
000,000. and, by reference to the census tables, it 
will be seen that the ratio of increase exceeded that 
of the great manufacturing States of New York, 
Massachusetts and Connecticut. Of all the States 
admitted into the Union prior to Ohio, Pennsylvania 
alone has kept pace in the progress of manufacture. 
Some little reference to the manufacture of leading 
articles may throw some light on the cause of this. 
In the production of agricultural machinery and 
implements, Ohio is the first State ; in animal and 
vegetable oils and in pig iron, the second; in cast 
iron and in tobacco, the third ; in salt, in machinery 
and in leather, the fourth. These facts show how 
largely the resources of coal, iron and agriculture 
have entered into the manufactures of the State. 
This great advance in the manufactures of Ohio, 
when we consider that this State is, relatively to 
its surface, the first agricultural State in the 
country, leads to the inevitable inference that its 
people are remarkably industrious. When, on 
forty thousand square miles of surface, three mill- 
ions of people raise one hundred and fifty million 
bushels of grain, and produce manufactures to the 
amount of $269,000,000 (which is fifty bushels 
of breadstuff to each man, woman and child, and 
$133 of manufacture), it will be difficult to find 
any community surpassing such results. It is a 
testimony, not only to the State of Ohio, but to 
the industry, sagacity and energy of the American 

Looking now to the commerce of the State, we 
have said there are six hundred miles of coast line, 
which embraces some of the principal internal ports 
of the Ohio and the lakes, such as Cincinnati, Cleve- 
land, Toledo and Portsmouth, but whose commerce 
is most wholly inland. Of course, no comparison 
can be made with the foreign commerce of the 
ocean ports. On the other -hand, it is well known 
that the inland trade of the country far exceeds 
that of all its foreign commerce, and that the larg- 
est part of this interior trade is carried on its 
rivers and lakes. The materials for the vast con- 
sumption of the interior must be conveyed in its 
vessels, whether of sail or steam, adapted to these 
waters. Let us take, then, the ship-building, the 
navigation, and the exchange trades of Ohio, as 
elements in determining the position of this State 
in reference to the commerce of the country. At 
the ports of Cleveland, Toledo, Sandusky and Cin- 

cinnati, there have been built one thousand sail and 
steam vessels in the last twenty years, making an 
average of fifty each year. The number of sail, 
steam and all kinds of vessels in Ohio is eleven 
hundred and ninety, which is equal to the number 
in all the other States in the Ohio Valley and the 
Upper Mississippi. 

When we look to the navigable points to which 
these vessels are destined, we find them on all this 
vast coast line, which extends from the Gulf of 
Mexico to the Yellowstone, and from Duluth to 
the St. Lawrence. 

Looking again to see the extent of this vast in- 
terior trade which is handled by Ohio alone, we 
find that the imports and exports of the principal 
articles of Cincinnati, amount in value to $500,- 
000,000; and when we look at the great trade of 
Cleveland and Toledo, we shall find that the an- 
nual trade of Ohio exceeds $700,000,000. The 
lines of railroad which connect with its ports, are 
more than four thousand miles in length, or rather 
more than one mile in length to each ten square 
miles of surface. This great amount of railroads is 
engaged not merely in transporting to the Atlantic 
and thence to Europe, the immense surplus grain 
and meat in Ohio, but in carrying the largest part 
of that greater surplus, which exists in the States 
west of Ohio, the granary of the West. Ohio 
holds the gateway of every railroad north of the 
Ohio, from the Mississippi to the Atlantic, and 
hence it is that the great transit lines of the coun- 
try pass through Ohio. 

Let us now turn from the progress of the arts 
to the progress of ideas ; from material to intellect- 
ual development. It is said that a State consists 
of men, and history shows that no art or science, 
wealth or power, will compensate for the want of 
moral or intellectual stability in the minds of a 
nation. Hence, it is admitted that the strength 
and perpetuity of our republic must consist in the 
intelligence and morality of the people. A re- 
public can last only when the people are enlight- 
ened. This was an axiom with the early legislators 
of this country. Hence it was that when Vir- 
ginia, Connecticut and the original colonies ceded 
to the General Government that vast and then un- 
known wilderness which lay west of the Allegha- 
nies, in the valleys of the Ohio and Mississippi, thoy 
took care that its future inhabitants should be an 
educated people. The Constitution was not formed 
when the celebrated ordinance of 1787 was passed. 

That ordinance provided that, " Religion, mor- 
ality, and knowledge being necessary to good 






government and the happiness of mankind, schools 
and the means of education shall be forever en- 
couraged;" and by the ordinance of 1785 for the 
survey of public lands in the Northwestern Terri- 
tory, Section 16 in each township, that is, one 
thirty-sixth part, was reserved for the maintenance 
of public schools in said townships. As the State 
of Ohio contained a little more than twenty-five 
millions of acres, this, together with two special 
grants of three townships to universities, amounted 
to the dedication of 740,000 acres of land to the 
maintenance of schools and colleges. It was a 
splendid endowment, but it was many years before 
it became available. It was sixteen years after the 
passage of this ordinance (in 1803), when Ohio 
entered the Union, and legislation upon this grant 
became possible. The Constitution of the State 
pursued the language of the ordinance, and de- 
clared that "schools and the means of education 
shall forever be encouraged by legislative provision." 
The Governors of Ohio, in successive messages, 
urged attention to this subject upon the people; 
but the thinness of settlement, making it impossi- 
ble, except in few districts, to collect youth in suf- 
ficient numbers, and impossible to sell or lease 
lands to advantage, caused the delay of efficient 
school system for many years. In 1825, however, 
a general law establishing a school system, and levy- 
ing a tax for its support, was passed. 

This was again enlarged and increased by new 
legislation in 183(3 and 1846. From that time to 
this, Ohio has had a broad, liberal and efficient sys- 
tem of public instruction. The taxation for schools, 
and the number enrolled in them at different pe- 
riods, will best show what has been done. In 
1855 the total taxation for school purposes was 
$2,672,827. The proportion of youth of school- 
able age enrolled was 67 per cent. In 1874 the 
amount raised by taxation was $7,425,135. The 
number enrolled of schoolable age was 70 per 
cent, or 707,943. 

As the schoolable age extends to twenty-one 
years, and as there are very few youth in school 
after fifteen years of age, it follows that the 70 
per cent of schoolable youths enrolled in the ])ub- 
lic schools must comprehend nearly the whole 
number between four and fifteen years. It is im- 
portant to observe this fact, because it has been 
inferred that, as the whole number of youth be- 
tween five and twenty-one have not been enrolled, 
therefore they are not educated. This is a 
mistake; nearly all over fifteen years of age have 
been in the public schools, and all the native 

youth of the State, and all foreign born, young 
enough, have had the benefit of the public schools. 
But in consequence of the large number who 
have come from other States and from foreign 
countries, there are still a few who are classed by 
the census statistics among the "illiterate;" the 
proportion of this class, however, is less in propor- 
tion than in twenty-eight other States, and less in 
proportion than in Connecticut and Massachusetts, 
two of the oldest States most noted for popular 
education. In fact, every youth in Ohio, under 
twenty-one years of age, may have the benefit of a 
public education ; and, since the system of graded 
and high schools has been adopted, may obtain a 
common knowledge from the alphabet to the classics. 
The enumerated branches of study in the pub- 
lic schools of Ohio are thirty-four, including 
mathematics and astronomy, French, German and 
the classics. Thus the State which was in the 
heart of the wilderness in 1776, and was not a 
State until the nineteenth century had begun, now 
presents to the world, not merely an unrivaled de- 
velopment of material prosperity, but an unsur- 
passed system of popular education. 

In what is called the higher education, in the 
colleges and universities, embracing the classics 
and sciences taught in regular classes, it is the pop- 
ular idea, and one which few dare to question, that 
we must look to the Eastern States for superiority 
and excellence ; but that also is becoming an as- 
sumption without proof; a proposition difficult to 
sustain. The facts in regard to the education of 
universities and colleges, their faculties, students 
and course of instruction, are all set forth in the 
complete statistics of the Bureau of Education for 
1874. They show that the State of Ohio had the 
largest number of such institutions; the largest 
number of instructors in their faculties, except one 
State, New York ; and the largest number of stu- 
dents in regular college classes, in proportion to 
their population, except the two States of Connect- 
icut and Massachusetts. Perhaps, if we look at 
the statistics of classical students in the colleges, 
disregarding preparatory and irregular courses, we 
shall get a more accurate idea of the progress of 
the higher education in those States which claim 
the best. In Ohio, 36 colleges, 258 teachers, 
2,139 students, proportion, 1 in 124; in Penn- 
sylvania, 27 colleges, 239 teachers, 2,359 students, 
proportion, 1 in 150; in New York, 26 colleges, 
343 teachers, 2,764 students, proportion, 1 in 176; 
in the six NewEngland States, 17 colleges, 252 teach- 
ers, 3,341 students, proportion, 1 in 105; in Illi- 



nois, 24 colleges, 219 teachers, 1,701 students, 
proportion, 1 in 140. 

This shows there are more collegiate institutions 
in Ohio than in all New England ; a greater num- 
ber of college teachers, and only a little smaller ratio 
of students to the population ; a greater number of 
such students than either in New York or Pennsyl- 
vania, and, as a broad, general fact, Ohio has made 
more progress in education than either of the old 
States which formed the American Union. Such 
a fact is a higher testimony to the strength and the 
beneficent influence of the American Government 
than any which the statistician or the historian 
can advance. 

Let us now turn to the moral aspects of the 
people of Ohio. No human society is found with- 
out its poor and dependent classes, whether made 
so by the defects of nature, by acts of Providence, 
or by the accidents of fortune. Since no society 
is exempt from these classes, it must be judged 
not so much by the fact of their existence, as by 
the manner in which it treats them. In the civil- 
ized nations of antiquity, such as Greece and 
Rome, hospitals, infirmaries, orphan homes, and 
asylums for the infirm, were unknown. These 
are the creations of Christianity, and that must be 
esteemed practically the most Christian State which 
most practices this Christian beneficence. In Ohio, 
as in all the States of this country, and of all 
Christian countries, there is a large number of the 
infirm and dependent classes; but, although Ohio 
is the third State in population, she is only the 
fourteenth in the proportion of dependent classes. 
The more important point, however, was, how does 
she treat them ? Is there wanting any of all 
the varied institutions of benevolence? How does 
she compare with other States and countries in 
this respect? It is believed that no State or coun- 
try can present a larger proportion of all these 
institutions which the benevolence of the wise and 
good have suggested for the alleviation of suffer- 
ing and misfortune, than the State of Ohio. With 
3,500 of the insane within h§r borders, she has 
five great lunatic asylums, capable of accommodat- 
ing them all. She has asylums for the deaf and 
dumb, the idiotic, and the blind. She has the 
best hospitals in the country. She has schools 
of reform and houses of refuge. She has " homes " 
for the boys and girls, to the number of 800, who 
are children of soldiers. She has penitentiaries 
and jails, orphan asylums and infirmaries. In 
every county there is an infirmary, and in every 
public institution, except the penitentiary, there is a 

school. So that the State has used every human 
means to relieve the suff'ering, to instruct the igno- 
rant, and to reform the criminal. There are in 
the State 80,000 who come under all the various 
forms of the infirm, the poor, the sick and the 
criminal, who, in a greater or less degree, make 
the dependent class. For these the State has 
made every provision which humanity or justice 
or intelligence can require. A young State, de- 
veloped in the wilderness, she challenges, without 
any invidious comparison, both Europe and Amer- 
ica, to show her superior in the development of 
humanity manifested in the benefaction of public 

Intimately connected with public morals and 
with charitable institutions, is the religion of a 
people. The people of the United States are a 
Christian people. The people of Ohio have man- 
ifested their zeal by the erection of churches, of 
Sunday schools, and of religious institutions. So 
far as these are outwardly manifested, they are 
made known by the social statistics of the census. 
The number of church organizations in the leading 
States were : In the State of Ohio, 6,488 ; in 
the State of New York, 5,627 : in the State of 
Pennsylvania, 5,984 ; in the State of Illinois, 4,298. 
It thus appears that Ohio had a larger number 
of churches than any State of the Union. The 
number of sittings, however, was not quite as 
large as those in New York and Pennsylvania. 
The denominations are of all the sects known in 
this country, about thirty in number, the majority 
of the whole being Methodists, Presbyterians and 
Baptists. Long before the American Independ- 
ence, the Moravians had settled on the Mahoning 
and Tuscarawas Rivers, but only to be destroyed ; 
and when the peace with Great Britain was made, 
not a vestige of Christianity remained on the 
soil of Ohio ; yet we see that within ninety years 
from that time the State of Ohio was, in the num- 
ber of its churches, the first of this great Union. 

In the beginning of this address, I said that 
Ohio was the oldest and first of these great States, 
carved out of the Northwestern Territory, and that 
it was in some things the greatest State of the 
American Union. I have now traced the physi- 
cal, commercial, intellectual and moral features of 
the State during the seventy-five years of its 
constitutional history. The result is to establish 
fully the propositions with which I began. These 
facts have brought out : 

1. That Ohio is, in reference to the square 
miles of its surface, the first State in agriculture 





of tlie American Union; this, too, notwithstand- 
ing it has 800,000 in cities and towns, and a large 
development of capital and products in manu- 

2. That Ohio has raised more grain per square 
mile than either France, Austria, or Great Britain. 
They raised 1,450 bushels per square mile, and 
10 bushels to each person. Ohio raised 3,750 
bushels per square mile, and 50 bushels to each 
one of the population ; or, in other words, five 
times the proportion of grain raised in Europe. 

3. Ohio was the first State of the Union in 
the production of domestic animals, being far in 
advance of either New York, Pennsylvania or Illi- 
nois. The proportion of domestic animals to each 
person in Ohio was three and one-third, and in 
New York and Pennsylvania less than half that. 
The largest proportion of domestic animals pro- 
duced in Europe was in Great Britain and Russia, 
neither of which come near that of Ohio. 

4. The coal-field of Ohio is vastly greater than 
that of Great Britain, and we need make no com- 
parison with other States in regard to coal or iron ; 
for the 10,000 square miles of coal, and 4,000 
square miles of iron in Ohio, are enough to supply 
the whole American continent for ages to come. 

5. Neither need we compare the results of 
commerce and navigation, since, from the ports of 
Cleveland and Cincinnati, the vessels of Ohio 
touch on 42,000 miles of coast, and her 5,000 
miles of railroad carry her products to every part 
of the American continent. 

6. Notwithstanding the immense proportion 
and products of agriculture in Ohio, yet she has 
more th*an kept pace with New York and New 
England in the progress of manufactures during 
the last twenty years. Her coal and iron are pro- 
ducing their legitimate results in making her a 
great manuflicturing State. 

7. Ohio is the first State in the Union as to 
the proportion of youth attending school ; and the 
States west of the Alleghanies and north of the 
Ohio have more youth in school, proportionably, 
than New England and New York. The facts on 
this subject are so extraordinary that I may be 
excused for giving them a little in detail. 

The proportion of youth in Ohio attending 
school to the population, is 1 in 4.2; in Illinois, 1 
in 4.3; in Pennsylvania, 1 in 4.8; in New York, 
1 in 5.2 ; in Connecticut and Massachusetts, 1 in 

These proportions show that it is in the West, 
and not in the East, that education is now advanc- 

ing; and it is here that we see the stimulus given 
by the ordinance of 1787, is working out its great 
and beneficent results. The land grant for educa- 
tion was a great one, but, at last, its chief effort 
was in stimulating popular education ; for the State 
of Ohio has taxed itself tens of millions of dollars 
beyond the utmost value of the land grant, to 
found and maintain a system of public education 
which the world has not surpassed. 

We have seen that above and beyond all this 
material and intellectual development, Ohio has 
provided a vast benefaction of asylums, hospitals, 
and infirmaries, and special schools for the support 
and instruction of the dependent classes. There is 
not within all her borders a single one of the deaf, 
dumb, and blind, of the poor, sick, and insane, not 
an orphan or a vagrant, who is not provided for 
by the broad and generous liberality of the State 
and her people. A charity which the classic ages 
knew nothing of, a beneficence which the splendid 
hierarchies and aristocracies of Europe cannot 
equal, has been exhibited in this young State, 
whose name was unknown one hundred years ago, 
whose people, from Europe to the Atlantic, and 
from the Atlantic to the Ohio, were, like Adam 
and Eve, cast out — " the world be/ore them where 
to choose^ 

Lastly, we see that, although the third in pop- 
ulation, and the seventeenth in admission to the 
Union, Ohio had, in 1870, 6,400 churches, the 
largest number in any one State, and numbering 
among them every form of Christian worship. 
The people, whose fields were rich with grain, 
whose mines were boundless in wealth, and whose 
commerce extended through thousands of miles 
of lakes and rivers, came here, as they came to 
New England's rock-bound coast — 

" With freedom to worship God." 

The church and the schoolhouse rose beside the 
green fields, and the morning bells rang forth to 
cheerful children going to school, and to a Chris- 
tian people going to the church of God. 

Let us now look at the possibilities of Ohio in 
the future development of the American Repub- 
lican Republic. The two most populous parts of 
Europe, because the most food-producing, are the 
Netherlands and Italy, or, more precisely, Belgium 
and ancient Lombardy ; to the present time, their 
population is, in round numbers, three hundred to 
the square mile. The density of population in 
England proper is about the same. We may 
assume, therefore, that three hundred to the square 




mile is, in round numbers, the limit of comfortable 
subsistence under modern civilization. It is true 
that modern improvements in agricultural machin- 
ery and fertilization have greatly increased the 
capacity of production, on a given amount of 
land, with a given amount of labor. It is true, 
also, that the old countries of Europe do not 
possess an equal amount of arable land with Ohio 
in proportion to the same surface. It would seem, 
therefore, that the density of population in Ohio 
might exceed that of any part of Europe. On 
the other hand, it may be said with truth that the 
American people will not become so dense as in 
Europe while they have new lands in the West 
to occupy. This is true ; but lands such as those 
in the valley of the Ohio are now becoming 
scarce in the West, and we think that, with her 
great capacity for the production of grain on one 
hand, and of illimitable quantities of coal and 
iron to manufacture with on the other, that Ohio 
will, at no remote period, reach nearly the density 
of Belgium, which will give her 10,000,000 of 
people. This seems extravagant, but the tide of 
migration, which flowed so fast to the West, is 
beginning to ebb, while the manufactures of the 
interior offer greater inducements. 

With population comes wealth, the material for 
education, the development of the arts, advance 
in all the material elements of civilization, and the 
still grander advancements in the strength and 
elevation of the human mind, conquering to itself 
new realms of material and intellectual power, 
acquiring in the future what we have seen in the 
past, a wealth of resources unknown and undreamed 
of when, a hundred years ago, the fathers of the 
republic declared their independence. I know 
how easy it is to treat this statement with easy 
incredulity, but statistics is a certain science ; the 
elements of civilization are now measured, and we 
know the progress of the human race as we know 

that of a cultivated plant. We know the resources 
of the country, its food-producing capacity, its 
art processes, its power of education, and the unde- 
fined and illimitable power of the human mind 
for new inventions and unimagined progress. With 
this knowledge, it is not difiicult nor unsafe to say 
that the future will produce more, and in a far 
greater ratio, than the past. The pictured scenes 
of the prophets have already been more than ful- 
filled, and the visions of beauty and glory, which 
their imagination failed fully to describe, will be 
more than realized in the bloom of that garden 
which republican America will present to the 
eyes of astonished mankind. Long before another 
century shall have passed by, the single State of 
Ohio will present fourfold the population with which 
the thirteen States began their independence, more 
wealth than the entire Union now has ; greater 
universities than any now in the country, and a 
development of arts and manufacture which the 
world now knows nothing of. You have seen 
more than that since the Constitution was adopted, 
and what right have you to say the future shall 
not equal the past ? 

I have aimed, in this address, to give an exact 
picture of what Ohio is, not more for the sake of 
Ohio than as a representation of the products 
which the American Republic has given to the 
world. A State which began long after the 
Declaration of Independence, in the then unknown 
wilderness of North America, presents to-day 
the fairest example of what a republican govern- 
ment with Christian civilization can do. Look 
upon this picture and upon those of Assyria, 
of Greece or Rome, or of Europe in her best 
estate, and say where is the civilization of the 
earth which can equal this. If a Roman citizen could 
say with pride, " Civis Romanus sum," with far 
greater pride can you say this day, "I am an 
American citizen." 

■"I e) 

r^ Q 





WHEN the survey of the Northwest Terri- 
tory was ordered by Congress, March 20, 
1785, it was decreed that every sixteenth section 
of hind should be reserved for the "maintenance 
of pubhc schools within each township." The 
ordinance of 1787 — thanks to the New England 
Associates — proclaimed that, " religion, morality 
and knowledge being essential to good government, 
schools and the means of education should forever 
be encouraged." The State Constitution of 1802 
declared that " schools and the means of instruc- 
tion should be encouraged by legislative provision, 
not inconsistent with the rights of conscience." 
In 1825, through the persevering eflforts of Nathan 
Guilford, Senator from Hamilton County, Ephraim 
Cutler, Representative from Washington County, 
and other friends of education, a bill was passed, 
" laying the foundation for a general system of 
common schools." This bill provided a tax of one- 
half mill, to be levied by the County Commis- 
sioners for school purposes ; provided for school 
examiners, and made Township Clerks and County 
Auditors school officers. In 1829, this county 
tax was raised to three-fourths of a mill ; in 1834 
to one mill, and, in 1836, to one and a half mills. 
In March, 1837, Samuel Lewis, of Hamilton 
County,was appointed State Superintendent of Com- 
mon Schools. He was a very energetic worker, trav- 
eling on horseback all over the State, delivering ad- 
dresses and encouraging school officers and teachers. 
Through his efforts much good was done, and 

* From the School Commissioners' Reports, principally those of 
Thomns W. Harvey, A. M. 

Note 1. — The first school taught in Ohio, or in the Northwestern 
Territory, was iu 1791. The first teacher was Maj. Austin Tiipper, 
eldestson of Gen. Benjamin Tnpper, both Revolutionary officers. 
The room occupied was the same as that in which the first Court was 
held, and was situated in the northwest block-house of the garrison, 
called the stockade, at Marietta. During the Indian war school 
was taught at Fort Harmar, Point Marietta, and at other set- 
tlements. A meeting was held in Marietta, April 29, 1797, to con- 
sider the erection of a school building suitable for the instruction 
of the youth, and for conducting religious services. Resolutions 
were adopted which led to the erection of a building called the 
Muskingum Academy. The building was of frame, forty feet long 
and twenly-four feet wide, and is yet(lS78)standing. Thebuilding 
was twelve ffet higlj, with an arched ceiling. It stood upon astone 
foundation, three steps from the ground. There were two chimneys 
and a lobby projection. There was a cellar under the whole build- 
ing. It stood upon a beaiitiful lot, fronting the Muskingum River, 
and about sixty feet back fiom the street. Some large trees were 

many important features engrafted on the school 
system. He resigned in 1839, when the office was 
abolished, and its duties imposed on the Secretary 
of State. 

The most important adjunct in early education 
in the State was the college of teachers organized 
in Cincinnati in 1831. Albert Pickett, Dr. Joseph 
Ray, William H. McGuffey — so largely known by 
his Readers — and Milo G. Williams, were at its 
head. Leading men in all parts of the West at- 
tended its meetings. Their published deliberations 
did much for the advancement of education among 
the people. Through the efforts of the college, 
the first convention held in Ohio for educational 
purposes was called at Columbus, January 13, 
1836. Two years after, in December, the first 
convention in which the different sections of the 
State were represented, was held. At both these 
conventions, all the needs of the schools, both com- 
mon and higher, were ably and fully discussed, 
and appeals made to the people for a more coi'dial 
support of the law. No successful attempts were 
made to organize a permanent educational society 
until December, 1847, when the Ohio State Teach- 
ers' Association was formed at Akron, Summit 
County, with Samuel Galloway as President; T. 
W. Harvey, Recording Secretary; M. D. Leggett, 
Corresponding Secretary ; William Bowen, Treas- 
urer, and M. F. Cowdrey, Chairman of the Executive 
Committee. This Association entered upon its 
work with commendable earnestness, and has since 

upon the lot and on the street in front. Across the street was an 
open common, and beyond that the river. Immediately opposite 
tlie door, on entering, was a broad aisle, and, at the end of the 
aisle, against the wall, was a desk or pulpit. On the right and left 
of the pulpit, against the wall, and fronting the pulpit, was a row 
of slips. On each sideof the door, facing the pulpit, were two slips, 
and, at each end of the room, one slip. These slips were stationary, 
and were fitted with desks that could be let down, and there were 
boxes in the desks for holding books and papers. In the center of 
the room was an open space, which could be filled with movable 
seats. The first school was opened here in 1800." — Letter of A. T. 

Note 2. — Another evidence of the character of the New England 
Associates is the founding of a public library as early as 1796, or 
before. Another was also established at Belpre about the same time. 
Abundant evidence proves the existence of these libraries, all tend- 
ing to the fact that the early settlers, though conquering a wilder- 
ness and a savage foe, would not allow their mental faculties to 
lack for food. The character of the books shows that "solid" 
reading predominated. 




never abated its zeal. Semi-annual meetings were 
at first held, but, since 1858, only annual meetings 
occur. They are always largely attended, and al- 
ways by the best and most energetic teachers. 
The Association has given tone to the educational 
interests of the State, and has done a vast amount 
of good in popularizing education. In the spring 
of 1851, Lorin Andrews, then Superintendent of 
the Massillon school, resigned his place, and be- 
came a common-school missionary. In July, the 
Association, at Cleveland, made him its agent, and 
instituted measures to sustain him. He remained 
zealously at work in this relation until 1853, when 
he resigned to accept the presidency of Kenyon 
College, at Gambler. Dr. A. Lord was then chosen 
general agent and resident editor of the Journal 
of Education, which positions he filled two years, 
with eminent ability. 

The year that Dr. Lord resigned, the ex officio 
relation of the Secretary of State to the common 
schools was abolished, and the office of school com- 
missioner again created. H. H. Barney was 
elected to the place in October, 1853. The office 
has since been held by Rev. Anson Smyth, elected 
in 1856, and re-elected in 1859 ; E. E. White, 
appointed by the Grovernor, November 11, 1863, 
to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of C. 
W. H. Cathcart, who was elected in 1862; John 
A. Norris, in 1865; W. D. Henkle, in 1868; 
Thomas W. Harvey, in 1871; C. S. Smart, in 
1875, and the present incumbent, J. J. Burns, 
elected in 1878, his term expiring in 1881. 

The first teachers' institute in Northern Ohio 
was held at Sandusky, in September, 18-15, con- 
ducted by Salem Town, of New York, A. D. Lord 
and M. F. Cowdrey. The second was held at Char- 
don, Geauga Co., in November of the same year. 
The first institute in the southern part of the 
State was held at Cincinnati, in February, 1837; 
the first in the central part at Newark, in March, 
1848. Since then these meetings of teachers have 
occurred annually, and have been the means of 
great good in elevating the teacher and the public 
in educational interests. In 1848., on petition of 
forty teachers, county commissioners were author- 
ized to pay lecturers from surplus revenue, and the 
next year, to appropriate $100 for institute pur- 
poses, upon pledge of teachers to raise half that 
amount. By the statutes of 1864, applicants for 
teachers were required to pay 50 cents each as an 
examination fee. One-third of the amount thus 
raised was allowed the use of examiners as trav- 
eling expenses, the remainder to be applied to in- 

stitute instruction. For the year 1871, sixty-eight 
teachers' institutes were held in the State, at which 
308 instructors and lecturers were employed, and 
7,158 teachers in attendance. The expense incurred 
was $16,361.99, of which $10,127.13 was taken 
from the institute fund; $2,730.34, was contrib- 
uted by members; $680, by county commis- 
sioners, and the balance, $1,371.50, was ob- 
tained from other sources. The last report of the 
State Commissioners — 1878 — shows that eighty- 
five county institutes were held in the State, con- 
tinuing in session 748 days; 416 instructors were 
employed; 11,466 teachers attended; $22,531.47 
were received from all sources, and that the ex- 
penses were $19,587.51, or $1.71 per member. 
There was a balance on hand of $9,460.74 to com- 
mence the next year, just now closed, whose work 
has been as progressive and thorough as any former 
year. The State Association now comprises three 
sections; the general association, the superintend- 
ents' section and the ungraded school section. All 
have done a good work, and all report progress. 

The old State Constitution, adopted by a con- 
vention in 1802, was supplemented in 1851 by 
the present one, under which the General Assem- 
bly, elected under it, met in 1852. Harvey Rice, 
a Senator from Cuyahoga County, Chairman of 
Senate Committee on "Common Schools and 
School Lands," reported a bill the 29th of March, 
to provide "for the re-organization, supervision 
and maintenance of common schools." This bill, 
amended in a few particulars, became a law 
March 14, 1853. The prominent features of the 
new law were : The substitution of a State school 
tax for the county tax ; creation of the office of 
the State School Commissioner; the creation of a 
Township Board of Education, consisting of repre- 
sentatives from the subdistricts ; the abolition of 
rate-bills, making education free to all the youth of 
the State ; the raising of a fund, by a tax of one- 
tenth of a mill yearly, " for the purpose of fur- 
nishing school libraries and apparatus to all the 
common schools." This "library tax" was abol- 
ished in 1860, otherwise the law has remained 
practically unchanged. 

School journals, like the popular press, have 
been a potent agency in the educational history of 
the State. As early as 1838, the Ohio School 
Director was issued by Samuel Lewis, by legisla- 
tive authority, though after six months' continu- 
ance, it ceased for want of support. The same 
year the Fesfalozzian, by E. L. Sawtell and II. 
K. Smith, of Akron, and the Common School 



Advocate, of Cincinnati, were issued. In 1846, 
the School Journal began to be published by A. 
I). Lord, of Kirtland. The same year saw the 
Free School Clarion, by W. Bowen, of Massillon, 
and the School Friend, by W. B. Smith & Co., 
of Cincinnati. The next year, W. H. Moore & 
Co., of Cincinnati, started the Western School 
Journal. In 1851, the Ohio Teacher, by 
Thomas Rainey, appeared; the News and Edu- 
cator, in 1863, and the Educational Times, in 
1866. In 1850, Dr. Lord's Journal of Educa- 
tion was united with the School Friend, and 
became the recognized organ of the teachers in 
Ohio. The Doctor remained its principal editor 
until 1856, when he was succeeded by Anson 
Smyth, who edited the journal one year. In 1857, 
it was edited by John D. Caldwell ; in 1858 and 
and 1859, by W. T. Coggeshall; in 1860, by Anson 
Smyth again, when it passed into the hands of 
E. E. White, who yet controls it. It has an 
immense circulation among Ohio teachers, and, 
though competed by other journals, since started, 
it maintains its place. 

The school system of the State may be briefly 
explained as follows: Cities and incorporated vil- 
lages are independent of township and county con- 
trol, in the management of schools, having boards 
of education and examiners of their own. Some 
of them are organized for school purposes, under 
special acts. Each township has a board of edu- 
cation, composed of one member from each sub- 
district. The township clerk is clerk of this board, 
but has no vote. Each subdistrict has a local 
board of trustees, which manages its school affairs, 
subject to the advice and control of the township 
board. These officers are elected on the first 
Monday in April, and hold their offices three 
years. An enumeration of all the youth between 
the ages of five and twenty-one is made yearly. 
All public schools are required to be in session at 
least twenty-four weeks each year. The township 
clerk reports annually such facts concerning school 
affiiirs as the law requires, to the county auditor, 
who in turn reports to the State Commissioner, 
who collects these reports in a general report to 
the Legislature each year. 

A board of examiners is appointed in each 
county by the Probate Judge. This board has 
power to grant certificates for a term not exceed- 
ing two years, and good only in the county in 
which they are executed ; they may be revoked on 
sufficient cause. In 1864, a State Board of 
Examiners was created, with power to issue life cer- 

tificates, valid in all parts of the State. Since 
then, up to January 1, 1879, there have been 188 
of these issued. They are considered an excellent 
test of scholarship and abiHty, and are very credit- 
able to the holder. 

The school funds, in 1865, amounted to |3,27l,- 
275.66. They were the proceeds of appropriations 
of land by Congress for school purposes, upon 
which the State pays an annual interest of 6 per 
cent. The funds are known as the Virginia Mili- 
tary School Fund, the proceeds of eighteen quar- 
ter-townships and three sections of land, selected 
by lot from lands lying in the United States 
Military Reserve, appropriated for the use of 
schools in the Virginia Military Reservation; the 
United States Military School Fund, the proceeds 
of one thirty-sixth part of the land in the United 
States Military District, appropriated "for the 
of schools within the same;" the Western Reserve 
School Fund, the proceeds from fourteen quarter- 
townships, situated in the United States Military 
District, and 37,758 acres, most of which was lo- 
cated in Defiance, Williams, Paulding, Van Wert 
and Putnam Counties, appropriated for the use of 
the schools in the Western Reserve; Section 
16, the proceeds from the sixteenth section of 
each township in that part of the State in which 
the Indian title was not extinguished in 1803; the 
Moravian School Fund, the proceeds from one 
thirty-sixth part of each of three tracts of 
4,000 acres situated in Tuscarawas County, orig- 
inally granted by Congress to the Society of United 
Brethren, and reconveyed by this Society to the 
United States in 1824. The income of these funds 
is not distributed by any uniform rule, owing to 
defects in the granting of the funds. The territo- 
rial divisions designated receive the income in 
proportion to the whole number of youth therein, 
while in the remainder of the State, the rent of 
Section 16, or the interest on the proceeds 
arising from its sale, is paid to the inhabitants of 
the originally surveyed townships. In these terri- 
torial divisions, an increase or decrease of popula- 
tion must necessarily increase or diminish the 
amount each youth is entitled to receive ; and the 
fortunate location or judicious sale of the sixteenth 
section may entitle one township to receive a large 
sum, while an adjacent township receives a mere 
pittance. This inequality of benefit may be good 
for localities, but it is certainly a detriment to the 
State at large. There seems to be no legal remedy 
for it. In addition to the income from the before- 
mentioned funds, a variable revenue is received 




from certain fines and licenses paid to either county 
or township treasurers for the use of schools; 
from the sale of swamp lands ($25,720.07 allotted 
to the State in 1850), and from personal property 
escheated to the State. 

Aside from the funds, a State school tax is fixed 
by statute. Local taxes vary with the needs of 
localities, are limited by law, and are contingent 
on the liberality and public spirit of different com- 

The State contains more than twenty colleges 
and universities, more than the same number of 
female seminaries, and about thirty normal schools 
and academies. The amount of property invested 
in these is more than $6,000,000. The Ohio 
University is the oldest college in the State. 

In addition to the regular colleges, the State 
controls the Ohio State University, formerly the 
Agricultural and Mechanical College, established 
from the proceeds of the land scrip voted by Con- 
gress to Ohio for such purposes. The amount 
realized from the sale was nearly $500,000. This 
is to constitute a permanent fund, the interest only 
to be used. In addition, the sum of $300,000 
was voted by the citizens of Franklin County, in 
consideration of the location of the college in that 
county. Of this sum $111,000 was paid for three 
hundred and fifteen acres of land near the city of 
Columbus, and $112,000 for a college building. 

the balance being expended as circumstances re- 
quired, for additional buildings, laboratory, appa- 
ratus, etc. Thorough instruction is given in all 
branches relating to agriculture and the mechanical 
arts. Already excellent results are attained. 

By the provisions of the act of March 14, 1853, 
township boards are made bodies politic and cor- 
porate in law, and are invested with the title, care 
and custody of all school property belonging to 
the school district or township. They have control 
of the central or high schools of their townships ; 
prescribe rules for the district schools ; may appoint 
one of their number manager of the schools of the 
township, and allow him reasonable pay for his 
services ; determine the text-books to be used ; fix 
the boundaries of districts and locate schoolhouse 
sites ; make estimates of the amount of money re- 
quired ; apportion the money among the districts, 
and are required to make an annual report to the 
County Auditor, who incorporates the same in his 
report to the State Commissioner, by whom it 
reaches the Legislature. 

Local directors control the subdistricts. They 
enumerate the children of school age, employ and 
dismiss teachers, make contracts for building and 
furnishing schoolhouses, and make all necessary 
provision for the convenience of the district schools. 
Practically, the entire management rests with 






" Oft did the harvest to their sickles yield, 

Their furrow oft the stubborn glebe has broke ; 

How jocund did they drive their teams afield ! 

How bowed the woods beneath their sturdy stroke." 

THE majority of the readers of these pages are 
farmers, hence a resume of agriculture in the 
State, would not only be appropriate, but valuable 
as a matter of history. It is the true basis of 
national prosperity, and, therefore, justly occupies 
a foremost place. 

In the year 1800, the Territory of Ohio con- 
tained a population of 45,365 inhabitants, or a 
little more than one person to the square mile. At 

this date, the admission of the Territory into the 
Union as a State began to be agitated. When the 
census was made to ascertain the legality of the 
act, in conformity to the "Compact of 1787," no 
endeavor was made to ascertain additional statis- 
tics, as now ; hence, the cultivated land was not 
returned, and no account remains to tell how 
much existed. In 1805, three years after the ad- 
mission of the State into the Union, 7,252,856 
acres had been purchased from the General Gov- 
ernment. Still no returns of the cultivated lands 
were made. In 1810, the population of Ohio was 
230,760, and the land purchased from the Gov- 




ernment amounted to 9,933,150 acres, of which 
amount, however, 3,569,314 acres, or more than 
one-third, was held by non-residents. Of the lauds 
occupied by resident land-owners, there appear to 
have been 100,968 acres of first-rate, 1,929,600 
of second, and 1,538,745 acres of third rate lands. 
At this period there were very few exports from 
the farm, loom or shop. The people still needed 
all they produced to sustain themselves, and were 
yet in that pioneer period where they were obliged 
to produce all they wanted, and yet were opening- 
new liirms, and bringing the old ones to a productive 

Kentucky, and the country on the Monongahela, 
lying along the western slopes of the Alleghany 
Mountains, having been much longer settled, had 
begun, as early as 1795, to send considerable quan- 
tities of flour, whisky, bacon and tobacco to the 
lower towns on the Mississippi, at that time in the 
possession of the Spaniards. At the French set- 
tlements on the Ilhnois, and at Detroit, were 
being raised much more than could be used, and 
these were exporting also large quantities of these 
materials, as well as peltries and such commodities 
as their nomadic lives furnished. As the Missis- 
sippi was the natural outlet of the West, any at- 
tempt to impede its free navigation by the various 
powers at times controlling its outlet, would lead 
at once to violent outbreaks among the Western 
settlers, some of whom were aided by unscrupulous 
persons, who thought to form an independent 
Western country. Providence seems to have had 
a watchful eye over all these events, and to have 
so guided them that the attempts with such objects 
in view, invariably ended in disgi-ace to their per- 
petrators. This outlet to the West was thought 
to be the only one that could carry their produce to 
market, for none of the Westerners then dreamed 
of the immense system of railways now covering 
that part of the Union. As soon as ship-building 
commenced at Marietta, in the year 1800, the 
farmers along the borders of the Ohio and Musk- 
ingum llivers turned their attention to the culti- 
vation of hemp, in addition to their other crops. In a 
few years sufficient was raised, not only to furnish 
cordage to the ships in the West, but large quan- 
tities were worked up in the various rope-walks 
and sent to the Atlantic cities. Iron had been 
discovered, and forges on the Juniata were busy 
converting that necessary and valued material into 
implements of industry. 

By the year 1805, two ships, seven brigs and 
three schooners had been built and rigged by the 

citizens of Marietta. Their construction gave a 
fresh impetus to agriculture, as by means of them 
the surplus products could be carried away to a 
foreign market, where, if it did not bring money, 
it could be exchanged for merchandise equally 
valuable. Captain David Devoll was one of the 
earliest of Ohio's shipwrights. He settled on the 
fertile Muskingum bottom, about five miles above 
Marietta, soon after the Indian war. Here he 
built a "floating mill," for making flour, and, in 
1801, a ship of two hundred and fifty tons, called 
the Muskingum, and the brig Eliza Greene, of one 
hundred and fifty tons. In 1804, he built a 
schooner on his own account, and in the spring 
of the next year, it was finished and loaded for a 
voyage down the Mississippi. It was small, only of 
seventy tons burden, of a light draft, and intended 
to run on the lakes east of New Orleans. In 
shape and model, it fully sustained its name. Nonpa- 
reil. Its complement of sails, small at first, was 
completed when it arrived in New Orleans. It 
had a large cabin to accommodate passengers, was 
well and finely painted, and sat gracefully on the 
water. Its load was of assorted articles, and shows 
very well the nature of exports of the day. It con- 
sisted of two hundred barrels of flour, fifty barrels of 
kiln-dried corn meal, four thousand pounds of 
cheese, six thousand of bacon, one hundred sets 
of rum puncheon shooks, and a few grindstones. 
The flour and meal were made at Captain Devoll's 
floating mill, and the cheese made in Belpre, at that 
date one of Ohio's most flourishing agricultural dis- 
tricts. The Captain and others carried on boating as 
well as the circumstances of the days permitted, fear- 
ing only the hostility of the Indians, and the duty 
the Spaniards were liable to levy on boats going 
down to New Orleans, even if they did not take 
it into their erratic heads to stop the entire navi- 
gation of the great river by vessels other than 
their own. By such means, merchandise was car- 
ried on almost entirely until the construction of 
canals, and even then, until modern times, the 
flat-boat was the main-stay of the shipper inhabit- 
ing the country adjoining the upper Ohio and 
Mississippi Rivers. 

Commonly, very little stock was kept beyond 
what was necessary for the use of the family and 
to perform the labor on the farm. The Scioto 
Valley was perhaps the only exception in Ohio to 
this general condition. Horses were brought by the 
emigrants from the East and were characteristic 
of that region. In the French settlements in Illi- 
nois and about Detroit, French ponies, marvels of 




endurance, were chiefly used. They were impractic- 
able in hauHng the immense emigrant wagons over 
the mountains, and hence were comparatively 
unknown in Ohio. Until 1828, draft horses 
were chiefly used here, the best strains being 
brought by the "Tunkers," " Mennonites," and 
" Ormish," — three religious sects, whose members 
were invariably agriculturists. In Stark, Wayne, 
Holmes, and Richland Counties, as a general thing, 
they congregated in communities, where the neat- 
ness of their farms, the excellent condition of 
their stock, and the primitive simplicity of their 
manners, made them conspicuous. 

In 1828, the French began to settle in Stark 
County, where they introduced the stock of horses 
known as " Selim," "Florizel," "Post Boy" and 
" Timolen." These, crossed upon the descents of 
the Norman and Conestoga, produced an excellent 
stock of farm horses, now largely used. 

In the Western Reserve, blooded horses were in- 
troduced as early as 1825. John I. Van Meter 
brought fine horses into the Scioto Valley in 1815, 
or thereabouts. Soon after, fine horses were 
brought to Steubenville from Virginia and Penn- 
sylvania. In Northern Ohio the stock was more 
miscellaneous, until the introduction of improved 
breeds from 1815 to 1835. By the latter date 
the strains of horses had greatly improved. The 
same could be said of other parts of the State. 
Until after 1825, only farm and road horses were 
required. That year a race-course — the first in 
the State — was established in Cincinnati, shortly 
followed by others at Chillicothe, Dayton and Ham- 
ilton. From that date the race-horse steadily im- 
proved. Until 1838, however, all race-courses 
were rather irregular, and, of those named, it is 
difiicult to determine which one has priority of 
date over the others. To Cincinnati, the prece- 
dence is, however, generally given. In 1838, the 
Buckeye Course was established in Cincinnati, and 
before a year had elapsed, it is stated, there were 
fifteen regular race-courses in Ohio. The eifect 
of these courses was to greatly stimulate the stock 
of racers, and rather detract from draft and road 
horses. The organization of companies to import 
blooded horses has again revived the interest in 
this class, and now, at annual stock sales, these 
strains of horses are eagerly sought after by those 
having occasion to use them. 

Cattle were brought over the mountains, and, 
for several years, were kept entirely for domestic 
uses. By 1805, the country had so far settled 
that the surplus stock was fattened on corn and 

fodder, and a drove was driven to Baltimore. The 
drove was owned by George Renick, of Chillicothe, 
and the feat was looked upon as one of great im- 
portance. The drove arrived in Baltimore in ex- 
cellent condition. The impetus given by this 
movement of Mr. Renick stimulated greatly the 
feeding of cattle, and led to the improvement of 
the breed, heretofore only of an ordinary kind. 

Until the advent of railroads and the shipment 
of cattle thereon, the number of cattle driven to 
eastern markets from Ohio alone, was estimated at 
over fifteen thousand annually, whose value was 
placed at $600,000. Besides this, large numbers 
were driven from Indiana and Illinois, whose 
boundless prairies gave free scope to the herding of 
cattle. Improved breeds, "Short Horns," "Long 
Horns" and others, were introduced into Ohio as 
early as 1810 and 1815. Since then the stock 
has been gradually improved and acclimated, until 
now Ohio produces as fine cattle as any State in 
the Union. In some localities, especially in the 
Western Reserve, cheesemaking and dairy interests 
are the chief occupations of whole neighborhoods, 
where may be found men who have grown wealthy 
in this business. 

Sheep were kept by almost every family, in pio- 
neer times, in order to be supplied with wool for 
clothing. The wool was carded by hand, spun in 
the cabin, and frequently dyed and woven as well 
as shaped into garments there, too. All emigrants 
brought the best household and farming imple- 
ments their limited means would allow, so also did 
they bring the best strains of horses, cattle and 
sheep they could obtain. About the year 1809, 
Mr. Thomas Rotch, a Quaker, emigrated to Stark 
County, and brought with him a small flock of 
Merino sheep. They were good, and a part of 
them were from the original flock brought over 
from Spain, in 1801, by Col. Humphrey, United 
States Minister to that country. He had brought 
200 of these sheep, and hoped, in time, to see 
every part of the United States stocked with Me- 
rinos. In this he partially succeeded only, owing 
to the pi'ejudice against them. In 1816, Messrs. 
Wells & Dickenson, who were, for the day, exten- 
sive woolen manufacturers in Steubenville, drove 
their fine flocks out on the Stark County Plains 
for the summer, and brought them back for the 
winter. This course was pursued for several years, 
until farms were prepared, when they were per- 
manently kept in Stark County. This flock was 
originally derived from the Humphrey importation. 
The failure of Wells & Dickenson, in 1824, placed 




a good portion of this flock in the hands of Adam 
Hildebrand, and became the basis of his celebrated 
flock. Mr. T. S. Humrickhouse, of Coshocton, 
in a communication regarding sheep, writes as fol- 

" The first merinos brought to Ohio were doubtr- 
less by Seth Adams, of Zanesville. They were 
Humphrey's Merinos — undoubtedly the best ever 
imported into the United States, by whatever 
name called. He kept them part of the time in 
Washington, and afterward in Muskingum County. 
He had a sort of partnership agency from Gen. 
Humphrey for keeping and selling them. They 
were scattered, and, had they been taken care of 
and appreciated, would have laid a better found- 
ation of flocks in Ohio than any sheep brought 
into it from that time till 1852. The precise date 
at which Adams brought them cannot now be as- 
certained ; but it was prior to 1813, perhaps as 
early as 1804." 

"The first Southdowns," continues Mr. Hum- 
rickhouse," " New Leicester, Lincolnshire and Cots- 
wold sheep I ever saw, were brought into Coshocton 
County from England by Isaac Maynard, nephew 
of the famous Sir John, in 1834. There were 
about ten Southdowns and a trio of each of the 
other kinds. He was ofi"ered ^500 for his Lin- 
colnshire ram, in Buffalo, as he passed through, 
but refused. He was selfish, and unwilling to put 
them into other hands when he went on a farm, 
all in the woods, and, in about three years, most of 
them had perished." 

The raising and improvement of sheep has kept 
steady tread with the growth of the State, and 
now Ohio wool is known the world over. In quan- 
tity it is equal to any State in America, while its 
quality is unequaled. 

The first stock of hogs brought to Ohio were 
rather poor, scrawny creatures, and, in a short 
time, when left to themselves to pick a livelihood 
from the beech mast and other nuts in the woods, 
degenerated into a wild condition, almost akin to 
their originators. As the country settled, however, 
they were gathered from their lairs, and, by feed- 
ing them corn, the farmers soon brought them out 
of their semi-barbarous state. Improved breeds 
were introduced. The laws for their protection 
and guarding were made, and now the hog of to- 
day shows what improvement and civilization can 
do for any wild animal. The chief city of the 
State has become famous as a slaughtering place ; 
her bacon and sides being known in all the civil- 
ized world. 

Other domestic animals, mules, asses, etc., have 
been brought to the State as occasion required. 
Wherever their use has been demanded, they have 
been obtained, until the State has her complement 
of all animals her citizens can use in their daily 

Most of the early emigrants brought with them 
young fruit trees or grafts of some favorite variety 
from the " old homestead." Hence, on the West- 
ern Reserve are to be found chiefly — especially in 
old orchards — New England varieties, while, in the 
localities immediately south of the Reserve, Penn- 
sylvania and Maryland varieties predominate ; but 
at Marietta, New England fruits are again found, 
as well as throughout Southeastern Ohio. One of 
the oldest of these orchards was on a Mr. Dana's 
farm, near Cincinnati, on the Ohio River bank. It 
consisted of five acres, in which apple seeds and 
seedlings were planted as early as 1790. Part of 
the old orchard is yet to be seen, though the trees 
are almost past their usefulness. Peaches, pears, 
cherries and apples were planted by all the pioneers 
in their gardens. As soon as the seed produced 
seedlings, these were transplanted to some hillside, 
and the orchard, in a few years, was a productive 
unit in the life of the settler. The first fruit 
brought, was, like everything else of the pioneers, 
rather inferior, and admitted of much cultivation. 
Soon steps were taken by the more enterprising 
settlers to obtain better varieties. Israel Putnam, 
as early as 179G, returned to the East, partly to 
get scions of the choicest apples, and, partly, on 
other business. He obtained quite a quantity of 
choice apples, of some forty or fifty varieties, and 
set them out. A portion of them were distrib- 
uted to the settlers who had trees, to ingraft. 
From these old grafts are yet to be traced some of 
the best orchards in Ohio. Israel Putnam was one 
of the most prominent men in early Ohio days. 
He was always active in promoting the interests of 
the settlers. Among his earliest efforts, that of 
improving the fruit may well be mentioned. He 
and his brother, Aaron W. Putnam, living at Bel- 
pre, opposite Blennerhasset's Island, began the 
nursery business soon after their arrival in the 
West. The apples brought by them from their 
Connecticut home were used to commence the busi- 
ness. These, and the apples obtained from trees 
planted in their gardens, gave them a beginning. 
They were the only two men in Ohio engaged in 
the business till 1817. 

In early times, in the central part of Ohio, 
there existed a curious character known as "Johnny 




Appleseed." His real name was John Chapman. 
He received his name from his habit of planting, 
along all the streams in that part of the State, 
apple-seeds from which sprang many of the old 
orchards. He did this as a religious duty, think- 
ing it to be his especial mission. He had, it is 
said, been disappointed in his youth in a love 
affair, and came West about 1800, and ever after 
followed his singular life. He was extensively 
known, was quite harmless, very patient, and did, 
without doubt, much good. He died in 1847, at 
the house of a Mr. Worth, near Fort Wayne, 
Indiana, who had long known him, and oflen 
befriended him. He was a minister in the Swed- 
enborgian Church, and, in his own way, a zealous 

The settlers of the Western Reserve, coming 
from New England, chiefly from Connecticut, 
brought all varieties of fruit known in their old 
homes. These, whether seeds or grafts, were 
planted in gardens, and as soon as an orchard 
could be cleared on some favorable hillside, the 
young trees were transplanted there, and in time 
an orchard was the result. Much confusion 
regarding the kinds of fruits thus produced arose, 
partly from the fact that the trees grown from 
seeds did not always prove to be of the same qual- 
ity as the seeds. Climate, soil and surroundings 
oflen change the character of such fruits. 
Many new varieties, unknown to the growers, 
were the result. The fruit thus produced was 
often of an inferior growth, and when grafts were 
brought from the old New England home and 
grafted into the Ohio trees, an improvement as 
well as the old home fruit was the result. After 
the orchards in the Reserve began to bear, the 
fruit was very often taken to the Ohio River for 
shipment, and thence found its way to the South- 
ern and Eastern seaboard cities. 

Among the individuals prominent in introducing 
fi-uits into the State, were Mr. Dille, of Euclid, Judge 
Fuller, Judge Whittlesey, and Mr. Lindley. 
George Hoadly was also very prominent and ener- 
getic in the matter, and was, perhaps, the first to 
introduce the pear to any extent. He was one of 
the most persistent and enthusiastic amateurs in 
horticulture and pomology in the West. About 
the year 1810, Dr. Jared Kirtland, father of 
Prof. J. P. Kirtland, so favorably known 
among horticulturists and pomologists, came from 
Connecticut and isettled in Poland, Mahoning 
County, with his family. This family has done 
more than any other in the State, perhaps, to 

advance fruit culture. About the year 1824, 
Prof J. P. Kirtland, in connection with his brother, 
established a nursery at Poland, then in Trumbull 
County, and brought on from New England above 
a hundred of their best varieties of apples, cherries, 
peaches, pears, and smaller fruits, and a year or 
two afler brought from New Jersey a hundred of 
the best varieties of that State ; others were ob- 
tained in New York, so that they possessed the larg- 
est and most varied stock in the Western country. 
These two men gave a great impetus to fruit cult- 
ure in the West, and did more than any others 
of that day to introduce improved kinds of all 
fi-uits in that part of the United States. 

Another prominent man in this branch of indus- 
try was Mr. Andrew H. Ernst, of Cincinnati. 
Although not so early a settler as the Kirtlands, 
he was, like them, an ardent student and propa- 
gator of fine fi'uits. He introduced more than 
six hundred varieties of apples and seven hun- 
dred of pears, both native and foreign. His 
object was to test by actual experience the most 
valuable sorts for the diversified soil and climate 
of the Western country. 

The name of Nicholas Longworth, also of Cin- 
cinnati, is one of the most extensively known of any 
in the science of horticulture and pomology. For 
more than fifty years he made these his especial 
delight. Having a large tract of land in the 
lower part of Cincinnati, he established nurseries, 
and planted and disseminated every variety of 
fruits that could be found in the United States — 
East or West — making occasional importations 
from European countries of such varieties as 
were thought to be adapted to the Western climate. 
His success has been variable, governed by the 
season, and in a measure by his numerous experi- 
ments. His vineyards, cultivated by tenants, gen- 
erally Gi-ermans, on the European plan, during the 
latter years of his experience paid him a hand- 
some revenue. He introduced the famous Catawba 
grape, the standard grape of the West. It is 
stated that Mr. Longworth bears the same relation 
to vineyard culture that Fulton did to steam navi- 
gation. Others made earlier effort, but he was the 
first to establish it on a permanent basis. He has 
also been eminently successful in the cultivation of 
the strawberry, and was the first to firmly establish 
it on Western soil. He also brought the Ohio Ever- 
bearing Raspberry into notice in the State, and 
widely disseminated it throughout the country. 

Other smaller fi-uits were brought out to the 
West like those mentioned. In some cases fruits 



indigenous to the soil were cultivated and improved, 
and as improved fruits, are known favorably where- 
ever used. 

In chronology and importance, of all the cereals, 
corn stands foremost. During the early pioneer 
period, it was the staple article of food for both 
man and beast. It could be made into a variety 
of forms of food, and as such was not only palata- 
ble but highly nutritious and strengthening. 

It is very difficult to determine whether corn 
originated in America or in the Old World. Many 
prominent botanists assert it is a native of Turkey, 
and originally was known as " Turkey wheat." Still 
others claimed to have found mention of maize in 
Chinese writings antedating the Turkish discovery. 
Grains of maize were found in an Egyptian mum- 
my, which goes to prove to many the cereal was 
known in Africa since the earliest times. Maize 
was found in America when first visited by white 
men, but of its origin Indians could give no ac- 
count. It had always been known among them, 
and constituted their chief article of vegetable diet. 
It was cultivated exclusiveFy by their squaws, the 
men considering it beneath their dignity to engage 
in any manual labor. It is altogether probable corn 
was known in the Old World long before the New 
was discovered. The Arabs or Crusaders probably 
introduced it into Europe. How it was introduced 
into America will, in all probability, remain un- 
known. It may have been an indigenous plant, 
like many others. Its introduction into Ohio dates 
with the settlement of tlie whites, especially its 
cultivation and use as an article of trade. True, 
the Indians had cultivated it in small quantities ; 
each lodge a little for itself, but no effort to make 
of it a national support began until the civilization 
of the white race became established. From that 
time on, the increase in crops has grown with the 
State, and, excepting the great corn States of the 
West, Ohio produces an amount equal to any State 
in the Union. The statistical tables printed in 
agricultural reports show the acres planted, and 
bushels grown. Figures speak an unanswerable 

Wheat is probably the next in importance of the 
cereals in the State. Its origin, like corn, is lost 
in the mists of antiquity. Its berry was no doubt 
used as food by the ancients for ages anterior to 
any historical records. It is often called corn in 
old writings, and under that name is frequently 
mentioned in the Bible. 

"As far back in the vistas of ages as human 
records go, we find that wheat has been cultivated. 

and, with corn, aside from animal food, has formed 
one of the chief alimfentary articles of all nations ; 
but as the wheat plant has nowhere been found wild, 
or in a state of nature, the inference has been 
drawn by men of unquestioned scientific ability, 
that the original plant from which wheat has been 
derived was either totally annihilated, or else cul- 
tivation has wrought so great a change, that the 
original is by no means obvious, or manifest to bot- 

It is supposed by many, wheat originated in 
Persia. Others affirm it was known and cultivated 
in Egypt long ere it found its way into Persia. It 
was certainly grown on the Nile ages ago, and 
among the tombs are found grains of wheat in a 
perfectly sound condition, that unquestionably 
have been buried thousands of years. It may be, 
however, that wheat was grown in Persia first, and 
thence found its way into Egypt and Africa, or, 
vice versa. It grew first in Egypt and Africa and 
thence crossed into Persia, and from there found 
its way into India and all parts of Asia. 

It is also claimed that wheat is indigenous to 
the island of Sicily, and that from there it spread 
along the shores of the Mediterranean into Asia 
Minor and Egypt, and, as communities advanced, 
it was cultivated, not only to a greater extent, but 
with greater success. 

The goddess of agriculture, more especially of 
grains, who, by the Grreeks, was called Demeter, 
and, by the Romans, Ceres — hence the name ce- 
reals — was said to have her home at Euna, a fertile 
region of that island, thus indicating the source 
from which the Greeks and Romans derived their 
Ceralia. Homer mentions wheat and spelt as 
bread; also corn and barley, and describes his 
heroes as using them as fodder for their horses, as 
the people in the South of Europe do at present. 
Rye was introduced into Greece from Thrace, or 
by way of Thrace, in the time of Galen. In 
Caesar's time the Romans grew a species of wheat 
enveloped in a husk, hke barley, and by them 
called "Far." 

During the excavations of Herculaneum and 
Pompeii, wheat, in an excellent state of preserva- 
tion, was frequently found. 

Dr. Anson Hart, Superintendent, at one time, of 
Indian Affiiirs in Oregon, states that he found 
numerous patches of wheat and flax growing wild 
in the Yackemas country, in Upper Oregon. There 
is but little doubt that both cereals were intro- 
duced into Oregon at an early period by the Hud- 
son Bay, or other fur companies. Wheat was also 





found by Dr. Boyle, of Columbus, Ohio, growing 
in a similar state in tbe Carson Valley. It was, 
doubtless, brought there by the early Spaniards. 
In 153(>, one of Cortez's slaves found several grains 
of wheat accidentally mixed with the rice. The 
careful negro planted the handful of grains, and 
succeeding years saw a wheat crop in Mexico, 
which found its way northward, probably into 

Turn where we may, wherever the foot of civil- 
ization has trod, there will we find this wheat 
plant, which, like a monument, has perpetuated 
the memory of the event; but nowhere do we find 
the plant wild. It is the result of cultivation in 
bygone ages, and has been produced by "progress- 
ive development." 

It is beyond the limit and province of these 
pages to discuss the composition of this important 
cereal ; only its historic properties can be noticed. 
With the advent of the white men in America, 
wheat, like corn, came to be one of the staple prod- 
ucts of life. It followed the pioneer over the 
mountains westward, where, in the rich Missis- 
sippi and Illinois bottoms, it has been cultivated 
by the French since 1690. When the hardy New 
Englanders came to the alluvial lands adjoining 
the Ohio, Muskingum or Miami Kivers, they 
brought with them this "staiF of life," and forth- 
with began its cultivation. Who sowed the first 
wheat in Ohio, is a question Mr. A. S. Guthrie 
answers, in a letter published in the Agricultural 
Report of 1857, as follows: 

" My father, Thomas Guthrie, emigrated to the 
Northwest Territory in the year 1788, and arrived 
at the mouth of the Muskingum in July, about 
three months after Gen. Putnam had arrived with 
the first pioneers of Ohio. My father brought a 
bushel of wheat with him from one of the frontier 
counties of Pennsylvania, which he sowed on a 
lot of land in Marietta, which he cleared for that 
purpose, on the second bottom or plain, in the 
neighborhood of where the Court House now 

Mr. Guthrie's opinion is corroborated by Dr. 
Samuel P. Hildreth, in his " Pioneer Settlers of 
Ohio," and is, no doubt, correct. 

From that date on down through the years of 
Ohio's growth, the crops of wheat have kept pace 
with the advance and growth of civilization. The 
soil is admirably adapted to the growth of this ce- 
real, a large number of varieties being grown, and 
an excellent quality produced. It is firm in body, 
and, in many cases, is a successful rival of wheat 

produced in the great wheat-producing regions of 
the United States — Minnesota, and the farther 

Oats, rye, barley, and other grains were also 
brought to Ohio from the Atlantic Coast, though 
some of them had been cultivated by the French 
in Illinois and about Detroit. They were at first 
used only as food for home consumption, and, until 
the successful attempts at river and canal naviga- 
tion were brought about, but little was ever sent 
to market. 

Of all the root crops known to man, the potato 
is probably the most valuable. Next to wheat, 
it is claimed by many as the staff of life. In 
some localities, this assumption is undoubtedly 
true. What would Ireland have done in her fam- 
ines but for this simple vegetable? The potato is 
a native of the mountainous districts of tropical 
and subtropical America, probably from Chili to 
Mexico ; but there is considerable difficulty in 
deciding where it is really indigenous, and where 
it has spread after being introduced by man. 
Humboldt, the learned savant, doubted if it had 
ever been found wild, but scholars no less fiimous, 
and of late date, have expressed an opposite 
opinion. In the wild plant, as in all others, the 
tubers are smaller than in the cultivated. The 
potato had been cultivated in America, and its 
tubers used for food, long before the advent of the 
Europeans. It seems to have been first brought 
to Europe by the Spaniards, from the neighbor- 
hood of Quito, in the 4?eginning of the sixteenth 
century, and spread through Spain, the Netherlands, 
Burgundy and Italy, cultivated in gardens as an 
ornament only and not for an article of food. 
It long received through European countries the 
same name with the batatas — sweet potato, which 
is the plant meant by all English writers down to 
the seventeenth century. 

It appears that the potato was brought from 
Virginia to Ireland by Hawkins, a slave-trader, 
in 1565, and to England by Sir Francis Drake, 
twenty years later. It did not at first attract much 
notice, and not until it was a third time imported 
from America, in 1623, by Sir Walter Raleigh, 
did the Europeans make a practical use of it. 
Even then it was a long time before it was exten- 
sively cultivated. It is noticed in agricultural 
journals as food for cattle only as late as 1719. 
Poor people began using it, however, and finding it 
highly nutritious, the Royal Geographical Society, 
in 1663, adopted measures for its propagation. 
About this time it began to be used in Ireland as 





food, aad from the beginning of the eighteenth cent- 
ury, its use hiis never declined. It is now known 
in every (juarter of the world, and has, by cultiva- 
tion, been greatly improved. 

The inhabitants of America learned its use 
frorc. the Indians, who cultivated it and other 
root crops — rutabagas, radishes, etc., and taught 
the whites their value. When the pioneers of 
Ohio came to its fertile valleys, they brought 
improved species with them, which by cultiva- 
tion and soil, are now greatly increased, and are 
among the standard crops of the State. 

The cucurbitaceous plants, squashes, etc., were, 
like the potato and similar root crops, indigenous 
to America — others, like the melons, to Asia — 
and were among the staple foods of the original 
inhabitants. The early French missionaries of 
the West speak of both root crops and cucurbi- 
taceous plants as in use among the aboriginal inhab- 
itants. "They are very sweet and wholesome," 
wrote Marquette. Others speak in the same terms, 
though some of the plants in this order had found 
their way to these valleys through the Spaniards 
and others through early Atlantic Coast and Mex- 
ican inhabitants. Their use by the settlers of the 
West, especially Ohio, is traced to New England, 
as the first settlers came from that portion of the 
Union. They grow well in all parts of the State, 
and by cultivation have been greatly improved in 
quality and variety. All cucurbitaceous plants 
require a rich, porous soil, and by proper atten- 
tion to their cultivation, excellent results can be 

Probably the earliest and most important im])le- 
ment of husbandry known is the plow. Grain, 
plants and roots will not grow well unless the soil 
in which they are planted be properly stirred, 
hence the first requirement was an instrument that 
would fulfill such conditions. 

The first implements were rude indeed ; gener- 
ally, stout wooden sticks, drawn through the earth 
by thongs attached to rude ox-yokes, or fastened 
to the animal's horns. Such plows were in use 
among the ancient Egyptians, and may yet be 
found among uncivilized nations. The Old Testa- 
ment furnishes numerous instances of the use of 
the plow, while, on the ruins of ancient cities and 
among the pyramids of Egypt, and on the buried 
walls of Babylon, and other extinct cities, are rude 
drawings of this useful implement. As the use 
of iron became apparent and general, it was util- 
ized for plow-points, where the wood alone would 
not penetrate the earth. They got their plow- 

shares sharpened in Old Testament days, also 
coulters, which shows, beyond a doubt, that iron- 
pointed plows were then in use. From times 
mentioned in the Bible, on heathen tombs, and 
ancient catacombs, the improvement of the plow, 
like other farming tools, went on, as the race of 
man grew in intelligence. Extensive manors in 
the old country required increased means of turning 
the ground, and, to meet these demands, ingenious 
mechanics, from time to time, invented inqjroved 
plows. Strange to say, however, no improvement 
was ever made by the farmer himself This is ac- 
counted for in his habits of life, and, too often, 
the disposition to "take things as they are." When 
America was settled, the plow had become an im- 
plement capable of turning two or three acres per 
day. Still, and for many years, and even until 
lately, the mold-board was entirely wooden, the 
point only iron. Later developments changed the 
wood for steel, which now alone is used. Still 
later, especially in prairie States, riding plows are 
used. Like all other improvements, they were 
obliged to combat an obtuse public mind among 
the ruralists, who surely combat almost every 
move made to better their condition. In many 
places in America, wooden plows, straight ax 
handles, and a stone in one end of the bag, to bal- 
ance the grist in the other, are the rule, and for no 
other reason ui the world are they maintained than 
the laconic answer: 

" My father did so, and why should not I? Am 
I better than he? " 

After the plow comes the harrow, but little 
changed, save in lightness and beauty. Formerly, 
a log of wood, or a brush harrow, supplied its 
place, but in the State of Ohio, the toothed instru- 
ment has nearly always been used. 

The hoe is lighter made than formerly, and is 
now made of steel. At first, the common iron 
hoe, sharpened by the blacksmith, was in constant 
use. Now, it is rarely seen outside of the South- 
ern States, where it has long been the chief imple- 
ment in agriculture. 

The various small plows for the cultivation of 
corn and such other crops as necessitated their use 
are all the result of modern civilization. Now, 
their number is large, and, in many places, there 
are two or more attached to one carriage, whose 
operator rides. These kinds are much used in the 
Western States, whose rootless and stoneless soil is 
admirably adapted to such machinery. 

When the grain became ripe, implements to cut 
it were in demand. In ancient times, the sickle 




was the only instrument used. It was a short, 
curved iron, whose inner edge was sharpened and 
serrated. In its most ancient form, it is doubtful 
if the edge was but little, if any, serrated. It is 
mentioned in all ancient works, and in the Bible is 
frequently I'eferred to. 

" Thrust in the sickle, for the harvest is 
ripe," wrote the sacred New Testament, while 
the Old chronicles as early as the time of Moses : 
"As thou beginnest to put the sickle to the 

In more modern times, the handle of the sickle 
was lengthened, then the blade, which in time led 
to the scythe. Both are yet in use in many parts 
of the world. The use of the scythe led some 
thinking person to add a " finger " or two, and to 
change the shape of the handle. The old cradle 
was the result. At first it met considerable oppo- 
sition from the laborers, who brought forward the 
old-time argument of ignorance, that it would 
cheapen labor. 

Whether the cradle is a native of America or 
Europe is not accurately decided; probably of the 
mother country. It came into common use about 
1818, and in a few years had found its way into 
the wheat-producing regions of the West. Where 
small crops are raised, the cradle is yet much used. 
A man can cut from two to four acres per day, 
hence, it is much cheaper than a reaper, where the 
crop is small. 

The mower and reaper are comparatively mod- 
ern inventions. A rude reaping machine is men- 
tioned by Pliny in the first century. It was pushed 
by an ox through the standing grain. On its 
front was a sharp edge, which cut the grain. It 
was, however, impracticable, as it cut only a por- 
tion of the grain, and the peasantry preferred the 
sickle. Other and later attempts to make reapers 
do not seem to have been successful, and not till 
the present century was a machine made that would 
do the work required. In 1826, Mr. Bell, of 
Scotland, constructed a machine which is yet used 
in many parts of that country. In America, Mr. 
Hussey and Mr. McCormick took out patents for 
reaping machines of superior character in 1833 
and 1834. At first the cutters of these machines 
were various contrivances, but both manufacturers 
soon adopted a serrated knife, triangular shaped, at- 
tached to a bar, and driven through " finger 
guards " attached to it, by a forward and backward 
motion. These are the common ones now in use, 
save that all do not use serrated knives. Sincf 
these pioneer machines were introduced into the 

harvest fields they have been greatly improved and 
changed. Of late years they have been constructed 
so as to bind the sheaves, and now a good stout 
boy, and a team with a " harvester," will do as 
much as many men could do a few years ago, and 
with much greater ease. 

As was expected by the inventors of reapers, 
they met with a determined resistance from those 
who in former times made their living by harvest- 
ing. It was again absurdly argued that they would 
cheapen labor, and hence were an injury to the 
laboring man. Indeed, when the first machines 
were brought into Ohio, many of them were torn 
to pieces by the ignorant hands. Others left fields 
in a body when the proprietor brought a reaper to 
his farm. Like all such fallacies, these, in time, 
passed away, leaving only their stain. 

Following the reaper came the thresher. As 
the country filled with inhabitants, and men in- 
creased their possessions, more rapid means than 
the old flail or roller method were demanded. At 
first the grain was trodden out by horses driven over 
the bundles, which were laid in a circular inclosure. 
The old flail, the tramping-out by horses, and the 
cleaning by the sheet, or throwing the grain up 
against a current of air, were too slow, and 
machines were the result of the demand. In Ohio 
the manufacture of threshers began in 1846, in 
the southwestern part. Isaac Tobias, who came 
to Hamilton from Miamisburg that year, com- 
menced building the threshers then in use. They 
were without the cleaning attachment, and simply 
hulled the grain. Two years later, he began 
manufficturing the combined thresher and cleaner, 
which were then coming into use. He continued 
in business till 1851. Four years after, the in- 
creased demand for such machines, consequent 
upon the increased agricultural products, induced 
the firm of Owens, Lane & Dyer to fit their estab- 
lishment for the manufacture of threshers. They 
afterward added the manufacture of steam engines 
to be used in the place of horse power. Since 
then the manufacture of these machines, as well as 
that of all other agricultural machinery, has greatly 
multiplied and improved, until now it seems as 
though but little room for improvement remains. 
One of the largest firms engaged in the manufact- 
ure of threshers and their component machinery is 
located at Mansfield — the Aultman & Taylor 
Co. Others are at Massillon, and at other cities 
in the West. 
I Modern times and modern enterprise have devel- 
I oped a marvelous variety of agricultural implements 




— too many to be mentioned in a volume like 
this. Under special subjects they will occasionally 
be found. The farmer's life, so cheerless in pioneer 
times, and so full of weary labor, is daily becom- 
ing less laborious, until, if they as a class profit 
by the advances, they can find a life of ease 
in farm pursuits, not attainable in any other 
profession. Now machines do almost all the work. 
They sow, cultivate, cut, bind, thresh, winnow 
and carry the grain. They, cut, rake, load, mow 
and dry the hay. They husk, shell and clean the 
corn. They cut and split the wood. They do al- 
most all ; until it seems as though the day may 
come when the farmer can sit in his house and 
simply guide the affairs of his farm. 

Any occupation prospers in proportion to the 
interest taken in it by its members. This interest 
is always heightened by an exchange of views, hence 
societies and periodicals exercise an influence at 
first hardy realized. This feeling among prominent 
agriculturists led to the formation of agricultural 
societies, at first by counties, then districts, then 
by States, and lastly by associations of States. 
The day may come when a national agricul- 
tural fair may be one of the annual attractions of 

Without noticing the early attempts to found 
such societies in Europe or America, the narrative 
will begin with those of Ohio. The first agricul- 
tural society oi'ganized in the Buckeye State was 
the Hamilton County Agricultural Society. Its 
exact date of organization is not now preserved, 
but to a certainty it is known that the Society held 
public exhibitions as a County Society prior to 
1823. Previous to that date there were, doubt- 
less, small, private exhibitions held in older local- 
ities, probably at Marietta, but no regular organi- 
zation seems to have been maintained. The 
Hamilton County Society held its fairs annually, 
with marked success. Its successor, the present 
Society, is now one of the largest county societies 
in the Union. 

During the legislative session of 1832— .33, the 
subject of agriculture seems to have agitated the 
minds of the people through their representatives, 
for the records of that session show the first laws 
passed for their benefit. The acts of that body 
seem to have been productive of some good, for, 
though no records of the number of societies or- 
ganized at that date exist, yet the record shows 
that " many societies have been organized in con- 
formity to this act," etc. No doubt many societies 
held fairs from this time, for a greater or less 

number of years. Agricultural journals* were, 
at this period, rare in the State, and the subject of 
agricultural improvement did not receive that at- 
tention from the press it does at this time ; and, 
for want of public spirit and attention to sustain 
these fairs, they were gradually discontinued until 
the new act respecting their organization wa.s 
passed in 184G. However, records of several 
county societies of the years between 1832 and 
1846 yet exist, showing that in some parts of the 
State, the interest in these fairs was by no means 
diminished. The Delaware County Society re- 
ports for the year 1833 — it was organized in June 
of that year — good progress for a beginning, and 
that much interest was manifested by the citizens 
of the county. 

Ross County held its first exhibition in the 
autumn of that year, and the report of the mana- 
gers is quite cheerful. Nearly all of the exhibited 
articles were sold at auction, at greatly advanced 
prices from the current ones of the day. The en- 
try seems to have been ft-ee, in an open inclosure, 
and but little revenue was derived. Little was ex- 
pected, hence no one was disappointed. 

Washington County reports an excellent cattle 
show for that year, and a number of premiums 
awarded to the successful exhibitors. This same 
year the Ohio Importation Company was organ- 
ized at the Ross County fair. The Company began 
the next season the importation of fine cattle from 
England, and, in a few years, did incalculable good 
in this respect, as well as make considerable money 
in the enterprise. 

These societies were re-organized when the law 
of 1846 went into eff"ect, and, with those that had 
gone down and the new ones started, gave an im- 
petus to agriculture that to this day is felt. Now 
every county Iuls a society, while district. State 
and inter-State societies are annually held; all 
promotive in their tendency, and all a benefit to 
every one. 

The Ohio State Board of Agriculture was organ- 
ized by an act of the Legislature, passed February 
27, 1846. Since then various amendments to the 
organic law have been passed from time to time as 

*The Western TiVJerwas published in Cincinnati, in 1826. It was 
"miscellaneous," but cuutaiued many excellent articles on agri- 

The Farmers' Record was published in Cincinnati, in 1831, and 
continued for several years 

The Ohio Fanner was piitilished at Batavia, Clermont County, in 
1833, by Hon. Samuel Medary. 

These were the early agricultural journals, some of which yet 
suri'ive, though in new name8,and under new management. Others 
have, also, since been added, some of which havH an exceedingly 
large circulation, and are an influence for much good in the State. 




the necessities of the Board and of agriculture in 
the State demanded. The same day that the act 
was passed creating the State Board, an act was 
also passed providing for the erection of county and 
district societies, under which law, with subsequent 
amendments, the present county and district agri- 
cultural societies are managed. During the years 
from 1 846 down to the present time, great improve- 
ments have been made in the manner of conduct- 
ing these societies, resulting in exhibitions unsur- 
passed in any other State. 

Pomology and horticulture are branches of in- 
dustry so closely allied with agriculture that a 
brief resume of their operations in Ohio will be 
eminently adapted to these pages. The early 
planting and care of fruit in Ohio has already been 
noticed. Among the earliest pioneers were men of 
fine tastes, who not only desired to benefit them- 
selves and their country, but who were possessed 
with a laudable ambition to produce the best fruits 
and vegetables the State could raise. For this end 
they studied carefully the topography of the coun- 
try, its soil, climate, and various influences upon 
such culture, and by careful experiments with fruit 
and vegetables, produced the excellent varieties now 
in use. Mention has been made of Mr. Longworth 
and Mr. Ernst, of Cincinnati ; and Israel and Aaron 
W. Putnam, on the Muskingum River ; Mr. Dille, 

Judges Fuller and Whittlesey, Dr. Jared Kirtland 
and his sons, and others — all practical enthusiasts in 
these departments. At first, individual efforts alone, 
owing to the condition of the country, could be 
made. As the State filled with settlers, and means 
of communication became better, a desire for an in- 
terchange of views became apparent, resulting in 
the establishment of periodicals devoted to these 
subjects, and societies where diflFerent ones could 
meet and discuss these things. 

A Horticultural and Pomological Society was 
organized in Ohio in 1866. Before the organiza- 
tion of State societies, however, several distinct or 
independent societies existed ; in fact, out of these 
grew the State Society, which in turn produced 
good by stimulating the creation of county societies. 
All these societies, aids to agriculture, have pro- 
gressed as the State developed, and have done much 
in advancing fine fruit, and a taste for aesthetic cul- 
ture. In all parts of the West, their influence is 
seen in better and improved fruit ; its culture and 
its demand. 

To-day, Ohio stands in the van of the Western 
States in agriculture and all its kindred associa- 
tions. It only needs the active energy of her 
citizens to keep her in this place, advancing 
as time advances, until the goal of her ambition is 





THE climate of Ohio varies about four degrees. 
Though originally liable to malaria in many 
districts when first settled, in consequence of a 
dense vegetation induced by summer heats and 
rains, it has became very healthful, owing to clear- 
ing away this vegetation, and proper drainage. 
The State is as favorable in its sanitary char- 
acteristics as any other in its locality. Ohio is re- 
markable for its high productive capacity, almost 
every thing grown in the temperate climates being 
within its range. Its extremes of heat and cold 
are less than almost any other State in or near the 
same latitude, hence Ohio suffers less from the ex- 
treme dry or wet seasons which affect all adjoining 
States. These modifications are mainly due to the 
influence of the Lake Erie waters. These not 

only modify the heat of summer and the cold of 
winter, but apparently reduce the profusion of 
rainfall in summer, and favor moisture in dry pe- 
riods. No finer climate exists, all conditions consid- 
ered, for delicate vegetable growths, than that por- 
tion of Ohio bordering on Lake Erie. This is 
abundantly attested by the recent extensive devel- 
opment there of grape culture. 

Mr. Lorin Blodget, author of "American Clima- 
tology," in the agricultural report of 1853, says; 
"A district bordering on the Southern and West- 
ern portions of Lake Erie is more favorable in this 
respect (grape cultivation ) than any other on the 
Atlantic side of the Rocky Mountains, and it will 
ultimately prove capable of a very liberal extension 
of vine culture." 




Experience has proven Mr. Blodget correct in 
his theory. Now extensive fields of grapes are 
everywhere found on the Lake Erie Slope, while 
other small fruits find a sure footing on its soil. 

" Considering the climate of Ohio by isother- 
mal lines and rain shadings, it must be borne in 
mind," says Mr. Blodget, in his description of 
Ohio's climate, from which these ficts are drawn, 
" that local influences often requii'e to be considered. 
At the South, from Cincinnati to Steubenville, the 
deep river valleys are two degrees warmer than the 
hilly districts of the same vicinity. The lines are 
drawn intermediate between the two extremes. 
Thus, Cincinnati, on the plain, is 2° warmer than 
at the Observatory, and 4° warmer for each year 
than Hillsboro, Highland County — the one being 
5U0, the other 1,000, feet above sea-level. The 
immediate valley of the Ohio, from Cincinnati to 
Gallipolis, is about 75° for the summer, and 54° 
for the year; while the adjacent hilly districts, 
800 to 500 feet higher, are not above 73° and 52° 
respectively. For the summer, generally, the 
river valleys are 73° to 75° ; the level and central 
portions 72° to 73°, and the lake border 70° to 
72°. A peculiar mildness of climate belongs to 
the vicinity of Kelley's Island, Sandusky and 
Toledo. Here, both winter and summer, the cli- 
mate is 2° warmer than on the highland ridge ex- 
tending from Norwalk and Oberlin to Hudson and 
the northeastern border. This ridge varies from 
500 to 750 feet above the lake, or 850 to 1,200 
feet above sea level. This high belt has a summer 
temperature of 70°, 27° for the winter, and 49° 
for the year ; while at Sandusky and Kelley's 
Island the summer is 72°, the winter 29°, and the 
year 50°. In the central and eastern parts of 
the State, the winters are comparatively cold, the 
average falling to 32° over the more level districts, 
and to 29° on the highlands. The Ohio Kiver 
valley is about 35°, but the highlands near it fall 
to 31° and 32° for the winter." 

As early as 1824, several persons in the State 
began taking the temperature in tlieir respective 
localities, for the spring, summer, autumn and win- 
ter, averaging them for the entire year. From time 
to time, these were gathered and published, inducing 
others to take a step in the same direction. Not 
long since, a general table, from about forty local- 

ities, was gathered and compiled, covering a period 
of more than a quarter of a century. This table, 
when averaged, showed an average temperature of 
52.4°, an evenness of temperature not equaled 
in many bordering States. 

Very imperfect observations have been made 
of the amount of rainfall in the State. Until 
lately, only an individual here and there through- 
out the State took enough interest in this matter 
to faithfully observe and record the averages of 
several years in succession. In consequence of 
this fact, the illustration of that feature of Ohio's 
climate is less satisfactory than that of the 
temperature. "The actual rainfall of different 
months and years varies greatly," says Mr. Blod- 
get. "There may be more in a month, and, 
again, the quantity may rise to 12 or 15 inches 
in a single month. For a year, the variation may 
be from a minimum of 22 or 25 inches, to a maxi- 
mum of 50 or even 60 inches in the southern part 
of the State, and 45 to 48 inches along the lake 
border. The average is a fixed quantity, and, 
although requiring a period of twenty or twenty- 
five years to fix it absolutely, it is entirely certain 
and unchangeable when known. On charts, these 
average quantities are represented by depths 
of shading. At Cincinnati, the last fifteen years 
of observation somewhat reduce the average of 
48 inches, of former years, to 46 or 47 inches." 

Spring and summer generally give the most rain, 
there being, in general, 10 to 12 inches in the 
spring, 10 to 14 inches in the summer, and 8 to 
10 inches in the autumn. The winter is the most 
variable of all the seasons, the southern part of 
the State having 10 inches, and the northern part 
7 inches or less — an average of 8 or 9 inches. 

The charts of rainfall, compiled for the State, 
show a fall of 30 inches on the lake, and 46 inches 
at the Ohio River. Between these two points, the 
fall is marked, beginning at the north, 32, 34, 36 
and 38 inches, all near the lake. Farther down, 
in the latitude of Tuscarawas, Monroe and Mercer 
Counties, the fall is 40 inches, while the south- 
western part is 42 and 44 inches. 

The clearing away of forests, the drainage of 
the land, and other causes, have lessened the rain- 
fall, making considerable difference since the days 
of the aborioines. 








TO the inexperienced student of the history of 
Ohio, nothing is more perplexing and un- 
satisfactory, than the account of its pubUc lands. 
Held theoretically by the conflicting claims of col- 
onies, each jealous of the other's prestige, and prac- 
tically controlled by the determined assertion of his 
cLiim by the Indian, its territory came under the 
acknowledged control of the General Government 
in a fragmentary way, and in the early surveys it 
lacks that regular arrangement which marks the 
larger part of the old Northwestern Territory. But, 
to the early colonist, Ohio was the land of promise. 
The reports of the early explorers who had been 
sent to spy out the land were such as to stimulate 
the rapacity of greedy adventurers to the highest 
pitch, and Ohio became at once the center of at- 
traction, not only to that class, but also to the pio- 
neer settlements of the East. The spirit of land 
speculation was fostered by the system of royal 
charters and favoritism, and colonial officials were 
rapidly acquiring titles to large tracts of the fertile 
lands of the Northwest. Lord Dunmore, who rep- 
resented the crown in Virginia, had made arrange- 
ments to secure a large portion of this territory, 
which were only frustrated by the precipitation of 
the Revolutionary struggle. In all these operations 
the rights or interests of the Indians were ignored. 
Might was the measure of the white man's right, 
and, in the face of formal treaties very favorable to 
the whites, the lands reserved to the natives were 
shamelessly bought and sold. Titles thus secured 
were obviously of no value if the integrity of sol- 
emn treaties were to be respected, but, so generally 
had the public mind been corrupted by the greed 
for gain, that this consideration offered no hindrance 
whatever to this sort of traffic in land titles. In 
1776, however, the colonies having renounced 
their allegiance to the mother country, and having 
assumed a position as sovereign and independent 
States, a summary end was put to this speculation, 
and all persons were forbidden to locate in this ter- 
ritory, until its ownership and jurisdiction should 

♦Compiled from Howe's Historical rollpctions of Ohio, and a 
pamphlet by Judge W. W. Boynton, of the Supreme Court of Ohio. 

be determined. Each State claimed the right of 
soil, the jurisdiction over the district of country 
embraced by the provisions of its charter, and the 
privilege of disposing of the land to subserve its 
own interests. The States, on the contrary, which 
had no such charter, insisted that that these lands 
ought to be appropriated for the benefit of all the 
States, as the title to them, if secured at all, would 
be by the expenditure of the blood and moneys of 
all alike. The treaty of peace with England was 
signed at Paris, September 3, 1783, and Congress 
at once became urgent in seconding this demand of 
the non charter-holding States. Under the char- 
ters held by the individual State, the General Gov- 
ernment was powerless to fulfill its agreement with 
the troops, to grant land to each soldier of the 
war, and the general dissatisfaction occasioned by 
this state of things, formed a powerful influence 
which finally brought about a general cession of 
these unappropriated lands, held by the different 
States. In March, 1784, Virginia ceded her terri- 
tory situated northwest of the River Ohio, reserving 
the tract now known as the Virginia Military 
Lands. In 1786, Connecticut ceded her territory, 
save the " Western Reserve ;" reserved cessions 
were made by Massachusetts in 1785, and by New 
York in 1780. 

When Ohio was admitted into the Federal 
Union in 184)3, as an independent State, one of the 
terms of admission was, that the fee simple to all 
the lands within its limits, excepting those pre- 
viously granted or sold, should vest in the Ignited 
States. A large portion of the State, however, had 
been granted or sold to various individuals, compa- 
nies and bodies politic before this, and subsequent 
dispositions of Ohio public lands have generally 
been in aid of some public State enterprise. The 
following are the names by which the principal 
bodies of land are designated, taking their titles 
from the different forms of transfer: 

1. Congress Lands. 

2. United States Military Lands. 

3. Ohio Company's Purchase. 

4. Donation Tract. 





5. Symmes' Purvliase. 

6. Refugee Tract. 

7. French Grant. 

8. Dohrman's Grrant. 

9. Moravian Lands. 

10. Zane's Grant. 

11. Maumee Road Lands. 

12. Turnpike Lands. 

13. Ohio Canal Lands. 

14. School Lands. 

15. College Lands. 

16. Ministerial Lands. 

17. Salt Sections. 

18. Virginia Military Lands. 

19. Western Reserve. 

20. Fire Lands. 

These grants, however, may properly be di- 
vided into three general classes — Congress Lands, 
the Virginia Reserve and the Connecticut Reserve ; 
the former including all lands of the State, not 
known as the Virginia Military Land or the 
W(, stern Reserve. Previous to any grants of this 
territory, the Indian title had to be acquired. Al- 
though the United States has succeeded to the 
rights acquired by the English from the Iroquois, 
there were numerous tribes that disputed the right 
of the dominant nation to cede this territory, and a 
treaty was accordingly made at Fort Stanwix, in 
1784, and in the following year at Fort Mcin- 
tosh, by which the Indians granted all east of a 
line drawn from the mouth of the Cuyahoga 
River to the Ohio, and all south of what subse- 
quently became known as the Greenville Treaty 
line, or Indian boundary line. By this treaty, this 
line extended from the Portage, between the Cuya- 
hoga and the Tuscarawas Branch of the Muskingum, 
" thence down that branch, to the crossing above 
Fort Laurens, then westerly to the Portage of the 
Big Miami, which runs into the Ohio, at the 
mouth of which the fort stood, which was taken 
by the French in 1752; thence along said Portage 
to the Great Miami, or Omee River," whence 
the line was extended westward, by the treaty of 
Greenville, in 1705, to Fort Recovery, and thence 
southwest to the mouth of the Kentucky River. 

Congress Lands are so called they are 
sold to purchasers by the immediate officers of the 
General Government, conformably to such laws as 
are, or may be, from time to time, enacted by 
Congress. They are all regularly surveyed into 
townships of six miles square each, under the au- 
thority and at the expense of the National Govern- 

ment. All these lands, except Marietta and a part 
of Steubenville districts, are numbered as follows : 



































The seven Ranges, Ohio Company's Purchase, 
and Symmes' Purchase are numbered as here ex- 
hibited : 





































The townships are again subdivided into sec- 
tions of one mile square, each- containing 640 acres, 
by lines running parallel with the township and 
range lines. The sections are numbered in two 
different modes, as exhibited in the preceding fig- 
ures or diagrams. 

In addition to the foregoing division, the sec- 
tions are again subdivided into four equal parts, 
called the northeast quarter-section, southeast 
quarter section, etc. And again by a law of Con- 
gress, which went into effect July, 1820, these 
quarter-sections are also divided by a north-and- 






30 4 





south line into two equal parts, called the east half 
quarter-section No. — , and west half quarler-sec- 
tion No. — , which contain eighty acres each. The 
minimum price was reduced by the same law from 
$2 to $1.25 per acre, cash down. 

In establishing the township and sectional cor- 
ners, a post was first planted at the point of inter- 
section ; then on the tree nearest the post, and 
standing within the section intended to be desig- 
nated, was numbered with the marking iron the 
range, township, and number of the section, thus : 

R 21 R 20 

T 4 T 4 

1 S 31 The quarter corners are marked 
— 1 — 4 south, merely. 

2R 20 

T 3 

S 6 

Section No. 16 of every township is perpet- 
ually reserved for the use of sclools, and leased or 
sold out, for the benefit ot schools, under the State 
government. All the others may be taken up 
either in sections, fractions, halves, quarters, or 

For the purpose of selling out these lands, they 
were divided into eight several land districts, called 
after the names of the towns in which the land of- 
fices are kept, viz., Wooster, Steubenville, Zanes- 
ville, Marietta, Chillicothe, etc., etc. 

In May, 1785, Congress passed an ordinance for 
a.scertaining the mode of disposing of these lands. 
Under that ordinance, the Jifst seven ranges, 
bounded on the north by a line drawn due west 
from the Pennsylvania State line, where it crosses 
the Ohio River, to the United States Military 
Lands, forty-two miles; and, on the west, by the 
same line drawn thence south to the Ohio River, 
at the southeast corner of Marietta Township, and 
on the east and south by the Ohio River, were 
surveyed in 1786-87, and in the latter year, and 
sales were efl'ected at New York, to the amount of 
$72,974. In 1796, further portions of these lands 
were disposed of at Pittsbuigh, to the amount of 
S43,44B, and at Philadelphia, amounting to $5,- 
120. A portion of these lands were located under 
United States Military land warrants, and the rest 
was disposed of at the Steubenville Land Office, 
which was opened July 1, 1801. 

United States Military Lands are so called from 
the circumstance of their having been appropriat- 
ed, by an act of Congress of the 1st of June, 
1796, to satisfy certain claims of the officers and 

soldiers of the Revolutionary war. This tract of 
country, embracing lands, is bounded as fol- 
lows : Beginninir at the northwest corner of the 
original seven ranges of townships, thence south 
titty miles, thence west to the Scioto River, thence 
up i^aid river to the Greenville treaty line, thence 
northeasterly with said line to old Fort Laurens, 
on the Tuscarawas River, thence due east to the 
place of beginning, including a tract of about 
4,000 square miles, or 2,560,000 acres of land. 
It is, of course, bounded on the north by the Green- 
ville treaty line, east by the " seven ranges of town- 
ships," south by the Congress and Refugee lands, 
and west by the Scioto River. 

These lands are surveyed into townships of five 
miles square ; these townships were then again, 
originally, surveyed into quarter townships, of two 
and a half miles square, containing 4,000 acres 
each; and, subsequently, some of these quarter- 
townships were subdivided into forty lots, of 100 
acres each, for the accommodation of those soldiers 
holding warrants for only 100 acres each. And 
again, after the time originally assigned for ihe 
location of these warrants had expired, certain 
quarter-townships, which had not then been loca- 
ted, we re divided into sections of one mile .square 
each, and sold by the General Government, like 
the main body of Congress lands. 

The quarter-townships are numbered as exhib- 
ited in the accompanying figure, 
the top being considered north. 
.The place of each township is ascer- 
tained by numbers and ranges, the 
same as Congress lands ; the ranges 
being numbered from east to west, 
and the numbers from south to north. 

Ohio Company's Purchase is a body of land 
containing about 1,500.000 acr>s; including, how- 
ever, the donation tract, school lands, etc., lying 
along the Ohio River ; and including Meigs, nearly 
all of Athens, and a consideralile jiart of Wash- 
ington and Gallia Counties. This tract was pur- 
chased by the General Government in the year 
1787, by Manasseh Cutler and Winthrop Sar- 
geant, from the neighhorhood of Salem, in ^Lassa- 
chusetts, agents for the " Ohio Company," so 
called, which had then been formed in Massachu- 
setts, foi- the of a settlement in the Ohio 
country. Only 964,285 acres were ultimately 
paid for, and, of patented. This body of 
land was then apportioned out into 817 shares, of 
1,173 acres each, and a town lot of one-third of 
an acre to each share. These shares were made 








up to each proprietor in tracts, one of 640 acres, 
one of 262, one of 160, one of 100, one of 8, and 
another of 3 acres, besides the before-mentioned 
town lot. Besides every section 16, set apart, as 
elsewhere, for the support of schools, every Section 
29 is appropriated for the support of religious 
institutions. In addition to which were also 
granted two six-mile-square townships for the use 
of a college. But, unfortunately for the Ohio 
Company, owing to their want of topographical 
knowledge of the country, the body of land selected 
by ihem, with some partial exceptions, is the 
most hilly and sterile of any tract of similar ex- 
tent in the State. 

Donation Tract is a body of 100,000 acres, set 
oif in the northern limits of the Ohio Company's 
tract, and granted to them by Congress, provided 
they should obtain one actual settler upon each 
hundred acres thereof, within five years from the 
date of the grant ; and that so much of the 100,- 
000 acres aforesaid, as should not thus be taken 
up, shall revert to the Greneral Government. 

This tract may, in some respects, be considered 
a part of the Ohio Company's purchase. It is 
situated in the northern limits of Washington 
County. It lies in an oblong shape, extending 
nearly seventeen miles from east to west, and about 
seven and a half north to south. 

Symmes' Purchase is a tract of 311,682 acres of 
land in the southwestern quarter of the State, 
between the Great and Little Miami Rivers. It bor- 
ders on the Ohio River a distance of twenty-seven 
miles, and extends so far back from the latter between 
the two Miamis as to include the quantity of land 
just mentioned. It was patented to John Cleves 
Symmes, in 1794, for 67 cents per acre. Every 
sixteenth section, or square mile, in each town- 
ship, was reserved by Congress for the use of 
schools, and Sections 29 for the support of relig- 
ious institutions, besides fifteen acres around Fort 
Washington, in Cincinnati. This tract of land is 
now one of the most valuable in the State. 

Refugee Tract, a body of 100,000 acres of land, 
granted by Congress to certain individuals who 
left the British Provinces during the Revolutionary 
war and espoused the cause of freedom, is a nar- 
row strip of country, four and a half miles broad 
from north to south, and extending eastwardly 
from the Scioto River forty -eight miles. It has 
the United States twenty ranges of military or army 
lands north, twenty-two ranges of Congress lands 
south. In the western borders of this tract is 
situated the town of Columbus. 

French Grant is a tract of 24,000 acres of land, 
bordering upon the Ohio River, in the south- 
eastern quarter of Scioto County. A short time 
after the Ohio Company's purchase began to be 
settled, an association was formed under the name 
of the Scioto Land Company. A contract was 
made for the purchase of a part of the lands in- 
cluded in the Ohio Company's purchases. Plats 
and descriptions of the land contracted for were 
made out, and Joel Barlow was sent as an agent 
to Europe to make sales of the lands for the bene- 
fit of the company; and sales were effected of a 
considerable part of the land to companies and 
individuals in France. On February 19, 1791, 
two hundred and eighteen of tlusc purchasers left 
Havre de Grace, in France, and arrived in Alex- 
andria, J). C, on the 3d of May following. On 
their arrival, they were told that the Scioto Com- 
pany owned no land. The agent insisted that 
they did, and promised to secure them good titles 
thereto, which he did, at Winchester, Brownsville 
and Charleston (now Well;>burg). When they 
arrived at Mai-ietta, about fifty of them landed. 
The rest of the company proceeded to Gallipolis, 
which was laid out about that time, and were as- 
sured by the agent that the place lay within their 
purchase. Every efi"ort to secure titles to the 
lands they had purchased having failed, an appli- 
cation was made to Congress, and in March, 1795, 
the above grant was made to these persons 
Twelve hundred acres additional, were afterward 
granted, adjoining the above mentioned tract at its 
lower end, toward the mouth of the Little Scioto 

Dohrman's Grant is one six-mile-square town- 
ship of 23,040 acres, granted to Arnold Henry 
Dohrman, formerly a wealthy Portuguese merchant 
in Lisbon, fur and in consideration of his having, 
during the Revolutionary war, given shelter and 
aid to the American cruisers and vessels of war. 
It is located in the southeastern part of Tuscara- 
was County. 

Moravian Lands are three several tracts of 
4,000 acres each, originally granted by the old 
Continental Congress in July, 1787, and confirmed 
by act of Congress of June 1, 1796, to the Mora- 
vian brethren at Bethlehem, in Pennsylvania, in 
trust and for the use of the Christianized Indians 
living thereon. They are laid out in nearly square 
farms, on the Muskingum River, in what is now 
Tuscarawas County. They are called by the namrs 
of the Shoenbrun. Gnadenhutten and Salem tract.s. 

Zane's Tracts are three several tracts of one mile 



squire each — one on the Muskingum River, which 
incUides the town of Zuncsville - one at the cross 
of the Hocking River, on which the town of Lancas- 
ter is laid out, and the third on the left bank of the 
Scioto River, opposite Chillicothe. They were 
granted by Congress to one Ebenezer Zane, in 
May, 1786, on condition that he should open a 
road tlirough them, from Wheeling, Va., to Mays- 
ville, Ky. 

There are also three other tracts, of one mile 
square each, granted to Isaac Zane, in the year 
1802, in consideration of his having been taken 
prisoner by the Indians, when a boy, during the 
Revolutionary war, and living with them most of 
his life ; and having during that time performed 
m;!i)y acts of kindness and beneficence toward the 
American people. These tracts are situated in 
Champaign County, on King's Creek, from three 
to five miles northwest from Urbana. 

The Maumee Road's Lands are a body of lauds 
averaging two miles wide, l^ing along one mile on 
each side ofthe road, from the Maumee River, at Per- 
rysburg, to the western limits of the Wesiern Re- 
serve, a distance of about forty-six miles, and com- 
prising nearly 60,000 acres. They were originally 
granted by the Indian owners, at the treaty of 
Brownstown, in 1808, to enable the United States 
to miike a road on the line just mentioned. The 
General Grovernment never moved into the busi- 
ness until Fibruary, 1823, when Congress passed 
an act making over the aforesaid lands to the 
State of Ohio, provided she should, within four 
years thereafter, make and keep in repair a good 
road throughout the aforei-aid route of forty-six 
miles. This road the State government has 
already made, obtained possession, and sold most 
of the land. 

Turnpike Lands are forty-nine sections, amount- 
ing to 31,360 acres, situated along the western 
side of the Columbus and Sandusky turnpike, in 
the eastern parts of Seneca, Crawford and Marion 
Counties. They were originally granted by an act 
of Congress on March 3, 1827, and more specifi- 
cally by a supplementary act the year following. 
The considerations for which these lands were 
granted were that the mail stages and all troops 
and property of the United States, which should 
ever be moved and transported along this road 
should pass free fi-om toll. 

The Ohio Canal Lands are granted by Congress 
to the State of Ohio, to aid in constructing her 
extensive canals. These lands comprise over one 
million of acres. 

School Lan Js — By compact between the United 
States and the State of Ohio, when the latter was 
admitted into the Union, it was stipulated, for and 
in consideration that the State of Ohio should never 
tax the Congress lands until after they should have 
been sold five years, and in consideration tl at the 
public lands would thereby more readily sell, that 
the one-thirty-sixth part of all the territory in- 
cluded within the limits of the State should be 
set apart for the support of common schools there- 
in. And for the purpose of getting at lands 
which should, in point of quality of soil, be on an 
average with the whole land in the country, they 
decreed that it should be selected by lots, in small 
tracts each, to wit: That it should consist of 
Section No. 16, let that section be good or 
bad, in every township of Congress land, also 
in the Ohio Company's and in Symmes' Pur- 
chases, all of which townvhips are composed of 
thirty-six sections each ; and for the United States 
military lands and Connecticut Reserve, a num- 
ber of quarter-townships, two and a half miles 
square each (being the smallest public surveys 
therein, then made), should be selected by the 
Secretary of the Treasury in different townships 
throughout the United States military tract, 
equivalent in quantity to the one thirty-sixth 
part of those two tracts respectively ; and, for 
the Virginia military tract, Congress enacted 
that a quantity of land equal to the one- 
thirty-sixth part of the estimated quantity of 
land contained therein, should be selected by 
lot, in what was then called the " New Pur- 
chase," in quarter - township tracts of three 
miles square each. Most of these selections were 
accordingly made, but in some instances, by the 
carelessness of' the officers conducting the sales, or 
from some other cause, a few Sections 16 have 
been sold, in which case Congress, when applied 
to, has generally granted other lands in lieu 
thereof, as, for instance, no Section 16 was re- 
served in Montgomery Township, in which Co- 
lumbus is situated, and Congress afterward 
granted therefor Section 21, in township corner- 
ing thereon to the southwest. 

College Townships are three six-mile-square 
townships, granted by Congress ; two of them to 
the Ohio Company, for the use of a coll ge to be 
established within their purchase, and one for the 
use of the inhabitants of Symmes' Purchase. 

Ministerial Lands — In both the Ohio Company 
and the Symmes' Purchase every Section 29 (equal 
to every one-thirty-sixth part of every township) 




3 2 

4 1 

is reserved as a permanent fund for the Mipp(jrt of 
a settled minister. As the purchasers of these two 
tracts came from parts of the Union where it was 
customary and deemed necessary to have a regu- 
lar settled clergyman in every town, they therefore 
stipulated in this original purchase that a perma- 
nent fund in lands should thus he set apiirt for 
this purchase. In no other part of the State, 
other than these two pui'chases, are any lands set 
apart f )r this object. 

The Connecticut Western Reserve and the 
Fire Lands are surveyed into townships of about 
five miles square each ; and these townships are 
then subdivided into four quarters ; 
and these quarter- townships are 
numbered as in the accompanying 
figure, the top being considered 
north. And for individual conven- 
ience, these are again subdivided, 
by private surveys, into lots of from fifty to five 
hundi'ed acres each, to suit individual purchasers. 

In its history, the Western Reserve is far more 
important than any other of the early arbitrary 
divisions of the State. It was peopled by a dom- 
inant class that brought to this wilderness social 
forms and habits of thought that had been fostered 
in the Puritan persecutions of England, and crys- 
tallized by nearly half a century of pioneer life in 
Connecticut, into a civilization that has not yet 
lost its distinctive characteristics. Dating their 
history back to the early part of the seventeenth 
century, the true descendant of the Puritan points 
with pride to the permanency of their traditions, 
to the progressive character of their institutions, 
and marks their influence in the commanding 
power of the schoolhouse and church. 

The earliest measure which may be said to have 
affected the history of the Reserve, originated in 
1609. In this year, James I, granted to a com- 
pany called the London Company, a charter, under 
which the entire claim of Virginia to the soil 
northwest of the Ohio was asserted. It was 
clothed with corporate powers, with most of its 
members living in London. The tract of country 
embraced within this charter was immense. It 
commenced its boundaries at Point Comfort, on 
the Atlantic, and ran south 200 miles, and thence 
west across the continent to the Pacific ; com- 
mencing again at Point Comfort, and running 
200 miles north, and from this point northwest to 
the sea. This line ran through New York and 
Pennsylvania, crossing the eastern end of Lake 
Erie, and terminated in the Arctic Ocean. The 

vast empire lying between the south line, the east 
line, the diagonal line to the northwest, and the 
Pacific Ocean, was claimed by virtue of this char- 
ter. It included over half of the North American 
Continent. Notwithstanding the charter of the 
London Company included all the territory now 
embraced witliin the boundaries of Ohio, James I, 
on the 3d of November, 1620, by royal letters 
patent, granted to the Duke of Lenox and others, 
to be known as the Council of Plymouth, all the 
territory lying between the fortieth and fortv- 
eighth degrees of north latitude, and bounded on 
the east by the Atlantic, and on the west by the 
Pacific. This description embraced a large tract 
of the lands granted to the Virginia or London 
Company. In 1630, a portion of the same ter- 
ritory was granted to the Earl of Warwick, and 
afterward confirmed to him by Charles I. In 
1631, the Council of Plymouth, acting by the 
Earl of Warwick, granted to Lord Brook and Vis- 
counts Say and Seal, what were supposed to be 
the same lands, altliMUgh by a very imperfect de- 
scription. In 1662, Charles II granted a charter 
to nineteen patentees, with such associates as 
they should from time to time elect. This asso- 
ciation was made a body corporate and politic, by 
the name of the Governor and Company of the 
English Cotiony of Connecticut. This charter 
constituted the organic law of the State for up- 
ward of one hundi-ed and fifty years. The bound- 
aries were Massachusetts on the north, the sea 
on the south, Narragansett River or Bay on the 
east, and the South Sea (Pacific Ocean) on the 
west This description embraced a strip of land 
upward of six miles wide, stretching from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific, including a part of New 
York and New Jersey, and all the territory now 
known as the Western Reserve. 

In 1681, for the consideration of £16,000 and 
a fealty of two beaver skins a year, Charles II 
granted to ^Villiam Penn a charter embracing 
within its limits the territory constituting the 
present State of Pennsylvania. This grant in- 
cluded a strip of territor}- running across the en- 
tire length of the State on the north, and upward 
of fifty miles wide, that was embraced within the 
Connecticut charter. Massachusetts, under the 
Plymouth Charter, claimed all the land between 
the forty-first and forty-fifth degrees, of north lati- 
tude. In 1664, Charles II ceded to his brother, 
the Duke of York, afterward James II, by Icttei-s 
patent, all the countrybetween the St. Croix and 
the Delaware. After the overthrow of the gov- 



ernnient of " New Netherlands," then existing 
upon that territory, it was chiimed that the grant 
of the Duke of York extended west into the Mis- 
sissippi A'alley. 

Thus matters stood at the commencement of 
the Revolution. Virginia claimed all the territory 
northwest of the Ohio. Connecticut strenuously 
urged her titles to all lands lying between the par- 
allels -11° and 42° 2' of north latitude, from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific. Pennsylvania, under 
the charter of 1G81, had taken possession of the 
disputed land lying in that State, and had granted 
much of it to actual settlers. New York and 
Massachusetts were equally emphatic in the asser- 
tion of ownership to land between those lines of lat- 
itude. The contention between claimants under 
the Connecticut and Pennsylvania charters, on the 
Susquehanna, frequently resulted in bloodshed. 
The controversy between those two States was 
finally submitted to a Court of Commissioners, ap- 
pointed by Congress, upon the petition of Pennsyl- 
vania, under the ninth article of the confederation, 
which gave Congress power to establish a Court of 
Commissioners, to settle disputed boundaries be- 
tween States, in case of disagreement. The court 
decided in favor of Pennsylvania, and this decision 
terminated the controversy. The question of the 
title to lands lying west of Pennsylvania, was not 
involved in this adjudication, but remained a sub- 
ject for future contention. A party sprung up 
during the war that disputed the title of the 
States asserting it, to lands outside of State 
limits, and which insisted upon the right of the 
States by whose common treasure, dominion was to 
be secured, to participate in the benefits and results 
arising from the joint and common 'effort for inde- 
pendence. This party was particularly strong in 
the smaller States. Those colonies that had not 
been the favored recipients of extensive land 
grants, were little inclined to acquiesce in claims, 
the justice of which they denied, and which could 
be secured to the claimants, only by the success of 
the Revolution. 

There is little doubt, that the conflict in the 
early charters, respecting boundaries, grew out of 
the ignorance of the times in which they were 
granted, as to the breadth or inland extent of 
the American Continent. During the reign of 
James I, Sir Francis Drake reported, that, from 
the top of the mountains on the Isthmus of Pan- 
ama, he had seen both oceans. This led to the 
supposition that the continent, from east to west, 
was of no considerable extent, and that the South 

Sea, by which the grants were limited on the 
west, did not lie very far from the Atlantic ; and as 
late as 1740, the Duke of Newcastle addressed his 
letters to the ''Island of New Il]ngland." Hence 
it was urged as an argument against the claims of 
those States asserting title to Western lands, that 
the term, in the grants, of South Sea, being, by 
mutual mistake of the parties to the charter, an 
erroneous one — the error resulting from misinfor- 
mation or want of certainty concerning the local- 
ity of that sea — the claiming State ought not to 
insist upon an ownership resting upon such a foot- 
ing, and having its origin in such a circumstance. 
Popular feeling on the subject ran so high, at times, 
as to cause apprehension for the safety of the confed- 
eration. In 1780, Congress urged upon the States 
having claims to the Western country, the duty to 
make a surrender of a part thereof to the United 

The debt incurred in the Revolutionary contest, 
the limited resources for its extinguishment, if the 
public domain was unavailable for the purpose, the 
existence of the unhappy controversy growing out 
of the asserted claims, and an earnest desire to ac- 
commodate and pacify conflicting interests among 
the States, led Congress, in 1784, to an impressive 
appeal to the States interested, to remove all cause 
for further discontent, by a liberal cession of their 
domains to the General Government, for the com- 
mon benefit of all the States. The happy termi- 
n .tion of the war found the public mind in a con- 
dition to be easily impressed by appeals to its pat- 
riotism and liberality. New York had, in 1780, 
ceded to the United States, the lands that she 
claimed, lying west of a line running south from 
the west bend qf Lake Ontario ; and, in 1785, Mas- 
sachusetts relinquished her claim to the same lands 
— each Stat© reserving the same 19,000 square 
miles of ground, and each asserting an independent 
title to it. This controversy between the two 
States was settled by an equal division between 
them, of the disputed ground. Virginia had given 
to her soldiers of the Revolutionary war, and of the 
war between France and England, a pledge of 
bounties payable in Western lands ; and, reserving 
a sufiicien amount of land to enable her to meet 
the pledge thus given, on the 1st of March, 1784, 
she relinquished to the United States, her title to 
all other lands lying northwest of the Ohio. On 
the 14th day of September, 1786, the delegates in 
Congress, from the State of Connecticut, being au- 
thorized and directed so to do, relinquished to the 
United States, all the right, title, interest, jurisdic- 





tion and claim that she possessed to the hinds ly- 
ing west of a line running north from the 41° 
north latitude, to 42° 2', and being 120 miles west of 
the western line of Pennsylvania. The territory 
lying west of Pennsylvania, for the distance of 120 
miles, and between the above-named degrees of lat- 
itude, although not in terms reserved by the in- 
strument of conveyance, was in fact reserved — not 
having been conveyed — and by reason thereof, was 
called the Western Reserve of Connecticut. It 
embraces the counties of Ashtabula, Trumbull, 
Portage, Geauga, Lake, Cuyahoga, Medina, Lorain, 
Huron, Erie, all of Summit, save the townships of 
Franklin and Greene ; the two northern tiers of 
townships of Mahoning; the townships of Sulli- 
van, Troy and Ruggles, of Ashland ; and the 
islands lying north of Sandusky, including Kelley's 
and Put-in-Ba3% 

During the Revolution, the British, aided by 
Benedict Arnold, made incursions in the heart of 
Connecticut, and destroyed a large amount of 
property in the towns of Greenwich, Norwalk, 
Fairfield, Danbury, New and East Haven, New 
London, Richfield and Groton. There were up- 
ward of 2,000 persons and families that sustained 
severe losses by the de2")redations of the enemy. 
On the 10th of May, 1792, the Legislature of 
that State set apart and donated to the suffering 
inhabitants of these towns, 500,000 acres of the 
west part of the lands of the Reserve, to compen- 
sate them for the losses sustained. These lands 
were to be bounded on the north by the shore of 
Lake Erie, south by the base line of the Reserve, 
west by its western line, and east by a line par- 
allel with the western line of Pennsylvania, and 
so far from the west line of the Reserve as to in- 
clude within the described limits the 500,000 
acres. These are the lands now embraced within the 
counties of Huron and Erie, and the Township 
of Ruggles, in Ashland County. The islands 
were not included. The lands so given were called 
'• Suff"erers' Lands," and those to whom they were 
given were, in 1796, by the Legislature of Con- 
necticut, incorporated by the name of the " Pro- 
prietors of the half-million acres of land lying 
south of Lake Erie." After Ohio had become an 
independent State, this foreign corporation was 
not found to work well here, not being subject to 
her laws, and, to relieve the owners of all embar- 
rassment, on the 15th of April, 1803, the Legisla- 
ture of this State conferred corporate power on 
the owners and proprietors of the " Half-million 
acres of land lying south of Lake Erie," in the 

county of Trumbull, called " Sufferers' Land." 
An account of the losses of the inhabitants had 
been taken in pounds, shillings and pence, and a 
price placed upon the lands, and each of the suf- 
ferers received land proportioned to the extent of 
his loss. These lands subsequently took the 
name of " Fire Lands," from the circumstance 
that the greater part of the losses suff"ered resulted 
from fire. 

In 1795, the remaining portion of the Reserve 
was sold to Oliver Phelps and thirty-five others, 
wh I formed what became known as the " Connect- 
icut Land Company." Some uneasiness concern- 
ing the validity of the title arose fi-om the fact 
that, whatever interest Virginia, Massachusetts or 
New York may have had in the lands reserved, 
and claimed by Connecticut, had been transferred 
to the United States, and, if neither of the claim- 
ing States had title, the dominion and ownership 
passed to the United States by the treaty made 
with England at the close of the Revolution. 
This condition of things was not the only source of 
difficulty and trouble. The Reserve was so far 
from Connecticut as to make it impracticable for 
that State to extend her laws over the same, or 
ordain new ones for the government of the inhabit- 
ants; and, having parted with all interest in the 
soil, her right to provide laws for the people was 
not only doubted, but denied. Congress had 
provided by the ordinance of 1787 for the gov- 
ernment of the territory nurthwest of the Ohio ; 
but to admit jurisdiction in the United States to 
govern this part of that territory, would cast grave 
doubt upon the validity of the company's title. It 
was therefore insisted that the regulation.": pre- 
scribed by that instrument for the government of 
the Northwest Territory had no operation or 
effect within the limits of the Reserve. To quiet 
apprehension, and to remove all cause of anxiety 
on the subject. Congress, on April 28, 1800, 
authorized the President to execute and deliver, 
on the part of the Unite 1 States, letters patent to 
the Governor of Connecticut, whereby the United 
States released, for the uses named, all ight and 
title to the soil of the Reserve, and 3onfirmed it 
unto those who had purchased it from that State. 
The execution and delivery, however, of the letters 
patent were upon the condition that Connecticut 
should forever renounce and release to the United 
States entire and complete civil jurisdiction 
over the territory released. This condition was 
accepted, and thereupon Connecticut transferred 
her jurisdiction to the United States, and the 



United States released her claim and title to the 

While this controversy was going on, there was 
another contestant in the field, having the advan- 
tage of actual occupancy, and in no wise inclined 
to recognize a title adverse to his, nor yield, upon 
mere invitation, a possession so long enjoyed. 
This contestant was the Indian. By the treaty at 
Greenville in 1795, preceding treaties were con- 
firmed, and the different tribes released their 
claims to all territory east of the line of the Cuya- 
hoga River and south of the Indian boundary line. 
This left the larger part of the territory of 
the Western Reserve still in the hands of 
the savMge. On July 4, 18(l5, a treaty 
was made at Fort Industry with the chiefs 
and warriors of the different nations settled 
in the northern and western sections of the 
State, by which the Indian title to all the lands 
of the Reserve, lying west of the Cuyahoga, was 
extinguished. By this treaty all the lands lying 
between the Cuyahoga and the Meridian, one 
hundred and twenty miles west of Pennsylvania, 
were ceded by the Indians for $20,000 in goods, 
and a perpetual annuity of $9,500, payable in 
goods at first cost. The latter clause has become 
a dead letter, because there is no one to claim it. 
Since this treaty, the title to the land of the Re- 
serve has been set at rest. 

The price for which this vast tract of land was 
sold to the Connecticut Land Company was 
$1,200,000, the subscriptions to the purchase fund 
ranging from $1,683, by Sylvanus Griswold. to 
$168,185, by Oliver Phelps. Each dollar sub- 
scribed to this fund entitled the subscriber to one 
twelve hundred thousandth part in common and 
undivided of the land purchased. Having ac- 
quired the title, the Company, in the following 
spring, commenced to survey the territory lying 
east of the Cuyahoga, and during the years of 1796 
and 1797, completed it. The first surveying 
party arrived at Conneaut, in New Connecticut, 
July 4, 1796, and proceeded at once to celebrate 
the twentieth anniversary of American Independ- 
ence. There were fifty persons in the party, 
under the lead of Gen. Moses Cleveland, of Can- 
terbury, Conn. There will be found in Whittle- 
sey's Early History of Cleveland an extract from 
the journal of Cleveland, describing the particu- 
lars of the celebration. Among other things noted 
by him was the following : ''The day, memora 
ble as the birthday of American Independence 
and freedom from British tyrrany, and commemo- 

rated by all good, freeborn sons of America, and 
memorable as the day on which the settlement of 
this new country was commenced, and ( which j in 
time may raise her head among the most enlight- 
ened and improved States" — a prophecy already 
more than fulfilled. 

For the purposes of the survey, a point wher ; 
the 41st degree of north latitude intersected the 
western line of Pennsylvania, was found, and from 
this degree of latitude, as a base line, meridian lines, 
five miles apart, were run north to the lake. 
Lines of latitude were then run, five miles apart, 
thus dividing the territory into townships five 
miles square. It was not until after the treaty of 
1805 that the lands lying west of the Cuyahoga 
were surveyed. The meridians and parallels were 
run out in 1806, by Abraham Tappan and his 
assistants. The base and western lines of the Re- 
serve were run by Seth Pease, for the Govern- 
ment. The range of townships were numbered 
progressively west, from the western boundary of 
Pennsylvania. The first tier of townships, run- 
ning north and south, lying along the border of 
Pennsylvania, is Range No. 1 ; the adjoining tier 
west is range No. 2, and so on throughout the 
twenty-four ranges. The township lying next 
north of the 41st parallel of latitude in each range, 
is Township No. 1 of that range. The township 
next north is No. 2, and so on progressively to 
the lake. It was supposed that there were 4,- 
000,000 acres of land between Pennsylvania and 
the Fire Lands. If the supposition had proved 
true, the land would have cost 30 cents per 
acre ; as it resulted, there were less than 3,000,- 
000 acres. The misca'culation arose from the 
mistaken assumption that the south shore of Lake 
Erie bore more nearly west than it does, and also 
in a mistake made in the length of the east-and- 
west line. The distance west from the Pennsyl- 
vania line, surveyed in 1796-97, was only fifty-six 
miles, the survey ending at the Tuscarawas River. 
To reach the western limits of the Reserve a dis 
tance of sixty-four miles was to be made. Abra- 
ham Tappan and Anson Sessions entered into an 
agreement with the Land Company, in 1805, to 
complete the survey of the lands between the P^ire 
Lands and the Cuyahoga. This they did in 1806, 
and, from the width of Range 19, it is very evident 
that the distance from the east to the west line of 
the Reserve is less than one hundred and twenty 
miles. This range of townships is gore-shaped, 
and is much less than five miles wide, circum- 
stances leading the company to divide all below 



Township 6 into tracts for the purpose of equaliza- 
tion. The west line of Range 19, from north to 
south, as originally run, bears to the west, and 
between it and Eange 20, as indicated on the map, 
tliere is a strip of land, also gore-shaped, that was 
left in the first instance unsurveyed, the surveyors 
not knowing the exact whereabouts of the eastern 
line of the "half-million acres" belonging to the suf- 
ferers. In 180G, Amos Spafford, of Cleveland, and 
Almon Ilugiiles, of Huron, were agreed on by the 
two companies to ascertain and locate the line be- 
tween the Fire Lands and the lands of the Connecti- 
cut Company. They first surveyed off the " half- 
million acres " belonging to the " sufferers," and, 
not agreeing with Seth Pease, who had run out 
the base and west lines, a dispute arose between 
the two companies, which was finally adjusted be- 
fore the draft, by establishing the eastern line of 
the Fire Lands wher.) it now is. This left a strip 
of land east of the Fire Lands, called surplus lands, 
which was included in range 19, and is embraced 
in the western tier of townships of Lorain County. 
The mode of dividing the land among the indi- 
vidual purchasers, was a little peculiar, though 
evidently just. An equalizing committee accom- 
panied the surveyors, to make such observations 
and take such notes of the character of the town- 
ships as would enable them to grade them intelli- 
gently, and make a just estimate and equalization 
of their value. The amount of purchase money was 
divided into 400 shares of $3,000 a share. Certifi- 
cates were issued to each owner, showing him to be 
entitled to such proportion of the entire land, as the 
amount he paid, bore to the purchase price of the 
whole. Four townships of the greatest value were 
first selected from that part of the Western Reserve, 
to which the Indian t tie had been extinguished, and 
were divided into lots. P]ach township was di- 
vided into not less than 100 lots. The number of 
lots into which the four townships were divided, 
would, at least, equal the 400 shares, or a lot to a 
share, and each person or company of persons en- 
titled to one or more shares of the Reserve — each 
share being one four-hundredth part of the Re- 
serve — was allowed to participate in the draft that 
was determined upon for the division of the joint 
property. The committee appointed to select the 
four most valuable townships for such division, was 
directed to select of the remaining townships, a 
sufficient number, and of the best quality and 
greatest value, to be used for equalizing purposes. 
After this selection was made, they were to choose 
the best remaining township, and tliis township was 

the one, to the value of which all others were 
brought by the equalizing process of annexation, 
and if there were several of equal value with the 
one so selected, no annexations were to be made to 
them. The equalizing townships were cut up into 
parcels of various size and value, and these parcels 
were annexed to townships inferior in value to the 
standard toicnship, and annexations of land from 
the equalizing townships, were made to the inferior 
townships, in quantity and quality, sufficient to 
make all equal in value to the standard adopted. 
When the townships had thus all been equalized, 
they were drawn by lit. There were ninety-three 
equalized parcels drawn east of the Cuyahoga, and 
forty-six on the west. The draft of the lands east 
of the river, took place prior to 1800, and of those 
west of that river, on the 4th day of April, 18()7. 
]n the first draft, it required an ownership of 
$12,903.23 of the original purchase money, to en- 
title the owner to a township ; and in the second 
draft, it required an ownership of §26,087 in the 
original purchase-money, to entitle the owner to a 

The same mode and plan were followed in each 
draft. The townships were nuiubered, and the 
numbers, on separate pieces of paper, placed in a 
box. The names of the proprietors who liad sub- 
scribed, and were the owners of a sufficient amount 
of the purchase-money to entitle them to a township, 
were arranged ia alphabetical order, and when it 
was necessary for several persons to combine, be- 
cause not owning severally, a sufficient amount of 
the purchase-money, or number of shares, to en- 
title them to a township, the name of the person of 
the company that stood alphabetically first, was 
used to represent them in the draft, and in case the 
small owners were unable, from disagreement 
among themselves, to unite, a committee was ap- 
pointed to select and class the proprietors, and 
those selected were required to associate them- 
selves together, for the purpose of the draft. The 
township, or parcel of land, corresponding to the 
first number drawn from the box belonged to the 
person whose name stood first on the list, or to the 
persons whom he represented; and the second 
drawn belonged to the second person, and so down 
through the list. This w'as the mode adopted to 
sever the ownership in common, and to secure to 
each individual, or company of individuals, their 
interest in severalty. Soon after the conveyance to 
the land company, to avoid complications arising 
from the death of its members, and to facilitate the 
transmission of title.'', the company conveyed the 




entire purchase, in trust, to John Morpran, John 
Cadwell and Jonathan Brace ; and as titles were 
wanted, either before or after the division by draft, 
conveyances were made to the purchasers by these 

Little was known of this country at the time of 
its purchase by the Land Company. It was for- 
merly inhabited by a nation of Indians called the 
Erigas or Eries, from which the lake took its 
name. This nation was at an early date destroyed 
by the Iroquois. In his '■ History of New France," 
published in 1744, in speaking of the south shore 
of Lake Erie, Charlevoix says : "All this shore is 
nearly unknown." An old French map, made in 
1755, to be seen in the rooms of the Western Re- 
serve Historical Society, in Cleveland, names the 
country between the Cuyahoga and Sandusky 
Rivers, as Cauahogue ; and east of the Cuyahoga, 
as Gwahoga. This is also the name given to that 
river which is made to empty into Cuyahoga Bay; 
and the country designated as Cauahogue is indi- 
cated as the seat of war, the Mart of Trade, and 
the chief hunting grounds of the Six Nations of the 
lake. The earliest settlement was on the Reserve, 
at Warren, in 1798, though salt was made in 
Weathersfield, Mahoning County, as early as 1755, 
by whites, who made short sojourns there for that 
purpose. The number of settlers increased in this 
section until, in 1800, there were some sixteen fam- 
ilies. In 1796, the first surveying party for the 
Land Company, landed at Conneaut, followed three 
years later by the first permanent settler. Then 
followed settlements in Geauga and Cuyahoga, in 
1798; in Portage and Lake, in 1799; Summit, in 
1800; Lorain. 1807, and iMedina, in 1811. "The 
settlement of the Reserve commenced in a manner 
somewhat peculiar. Instead of beginning on one 
side of a county, and progressing gradually into 
the interior, as had usually been done in similar 
cases, the prorrietors of the Reserve, being gov- 
erned by ditterent and separate views, began their 
improvements wherever their individual interests 
led them. Here we find many of the first settlers 
immersed in a dense forest, fifteen or twenty miles 
or more from the abode of any white inhabitants. 
In consequence of their scattered situation, jour- 
neys were sometimes to be performed of twenty or 
fifty miles, for the sole purpose of having the staple 
of an ox-yoke mended, or some other mechanical 
job, in itself trifling, but absolutely essential for 
the successful prosecution of business. These jour- 
neys had to be performed through the wilderness, 
at a great expense of time, and, in many cases, the 

only safe guide to direct their course, were the 
town.ship lines made by the surveyors. The want 
of mills to grind the first harvest, was in itself a 
great evil. Prior to 1800, many families used a 
small hand-mill, properly called a .sweat-mill, which 
took the hard labor of two hours to supply flour 
enough for one person a single day. About the year 
1800, one or two grist-mills, operating by water- 
power, were erected. One of these was at Newburg, 
now in Cuyahoga Co. But the distance of many 
of the settlements from the mills, and the want 
of roads, often rendered the expense of grinding a 
single bushel equal to the value of two or three,"* 
Speaking of the settlement of the Fire Lands, C. 
B. Squier, late of Sandusky City, says : " The 
largest suff'erers, and, consequently, those who 
held the largest interest in the Fire LandS; pur- 
chased the rights of many who held smaller inter- 
ests. The proprietors of these lands, anxious that 
their new territory should be settled, off"ered strong 
inducements for persons to settle in this then un- 
known region. It is quite difficult to ascertain who 
the first settlers were, upon these lands. As early, 
if not prior to the organization of the State, sev- 
eral persons had squatted upon the lands at the 
mouth of the streams and near the shore of the lake, 
led a hunter's life, and trafficked with the Indians. 
But they were a race of wanderers, and gradually 
disappeared before the regular progress of the set- 
tlements. Those devoted missionaries, the Mora- 
vians, made a settlement, which they called New 
Salem, as early as 1790, on Huron River, about 
two miles below Milan. The first regular settlers, 
however, were Col. Ji'rard Ward, who came in the 
spring of 1808, and Almon Ruggles and Jabez 
Wright, in succeeding autumn." The next year 
brought a large inflow of immigration, which spread 
over the greater portion of both Erie and Huron 
Counties, though tlie first settlement in Sandusky 
City was not made until 1817. 

It was not until the year 1800 that civil govern- 
ment was organized on the Western Reserve. The 
Governor and Judges of the Northwest Territory, 
under the ordinance of 1787, by proclamation in 
the following year, organized the county of Wash- 
ington, and included within it all of the Western 
Reserve east of the Cuyahoga; and in 1790, the 
year of the first occupation by the whites of the 
New Connecticut, the county of Wayne was erected, 
which included over one-ha'f of Ohio, all of the 
Western Reserve west of the Cuyahoga, with a 
part of Indiana, all of Michigan^ and the Ameri- 

*Juiige Arazi Atwater. 



can ])ortion of Lakes Superior, Huron, St. Clair 
and Erie, to the mouth of the Cuyahoga, with the 
county scat at Detroit. In 1797, Jefferson County 
was estabUshed, and the Western lleserve, east of 
the Cuyahoga, became a part of it, by restricting 
the hiuits of Wiushington. Connecticut and the 
Land Company refused to recognize the right of 
the General Government to make such disposition 
of the Reserve. The act of including this territory 
within the counties of Washington, Jefferson and 
Wayne, they declared to be unwarranted, and the 
power of Congress to prescribe rules for the gov- 
ernment of the same, they denied, and from the 
opening settlement in 1796, until the transfer of 
jurisdiction to the General Government was com- 
plete, on May 30, 1800, the new settlers were entirely 
without municipal laws. There was no regulation 
governing the transmission of, or success to, prop- 
erty on the decease of the owner ; no regulations 
of any kind securing the protection of rights, or 
the redress of wrongs. The want of laws for the 
government of the settlers was seriously felt, and 
as early as 1796, the company petitioned the 
Legislature of Connecticut to erect the Reserve 
into a county, with proper and suitable laws to 
regulate the internal policy of the territory for a 
limited period. This petition, however, was not 
granted, and for upward of four years the inter- 
course and conduct of the early settlers were regu- 
lated and restrained only by their New England 
sense of justice and right. But on the 10th of 
July, 1800, after Connecticut had released her 
jurisdiction to the United States, the Western 
Reserve was erected into a county, by the name of 
Trumbull, in honor of the Governor of Connecti- 
cut, by the civil authority of Ohio. At the elec- 
tion in the fall of that year, Edward Paine received 
thirty-eight votes out of the forty-two cast, for 
member of tlie Territorial Legislature. The elec- 
tion was held at Warren, the county seat, and 
was the first participation that the settlers had in 
the affaiis of government here. During the same 
year the Court of Quarter Sessions, a tribunal that 
did not survive the Constitution of 1802, was es- 
tablished and organized, and by it the ccmnty was 
divided into eight organized townships. The town- 
ship of Cleveland was one, and embraced a large 
portion of territory east of the Cuyahoga, but all the 
Reserve lying west of that river. On December 1 , 
1805, Geauga County was erected. It included 
within its limits, nearly all the present counties of 
Ashtabula, Geauga, Lake and Cuyahoga. On 
February 10, 1807, there was a mire general di- 

vision into counties. That part of the Western 
Restrve lying west of the Cuyahoga and north of 
Township No. 4, was attached to Geauga, to be a 
part thereof until Cuyahoga should be organized. 
In the same year Ashtabula was erected out of 
Trumbull aud Geauga, to be organized whenever 
its population would warrant it ; also, all that part 
of Trumbull which lay west of the fifth range of 
townships, was erected into a county by the name 
of Portage, all of the Western Reserve west of the 
Cuyahoga and south of Townsbip No. 5, being 
attached to it. The C' unty of Cuyahoga was 
formed out of Geauga, on the same date, February 
10, 1807, to be organized whenever its population 
should be sufficient to require it, which occurred 
in 1810. 

On February 8, 1809, Huron County was 
erected into a county, covering the Fire Lands, 
but to remain attached to Geauga and Portage, for 
the time being, for purposes of government. The 
eastern boundary of this county was subsequently, 
in 1811, moved forward to the Black River, but, 
in the year 1822, it was given its present bounda- 
ries, and, in 1838, Erie County was erected, di- 
viding its territory. On the 18th of February, 
1812, Medina was formed, and comprised all the 
territory between the eleventh range of townships 
and Huron County, and south of Township No. 
5. It was attached to Portage, however, until 
January 14, 1818, when it received an indepcLd- 
ent organization. Lorain County was formed on 
the 2Gth day of December, 1822, from the outly- 
ing portions of Huron, Medina and Cuyahoga 
Counties. It was organized with an independent 
local administration, January 21, 1824. In 1840, 
were organized Summit County, on March 3, and 
Lake County on March G; the former drawing 
from Medina and Portage, and taking two town- 
ships from Stark County, and the latter being 
formed from Geauga and Cuyahoga. ' In 1846, 
Ashland County was formed, taking three town- 
ships of the Reserve, on February 26, and Maho- 
ning, on March 1, taking ten townships from 
Trumbull, leaving the boundaries of the Reserve 
as marked at present. 

In the history of its social development, the 
Western Reserve is not less interesting or peculiar 
than in the beginning of its material interests. 
The history of the mother State was peculiar, and 
the Reserve, it was fondly hoped, would be a re- 
production of the maternal features and graces, a 
New Connecticut. A chronicler* of the early 

*C'liarles W. Elliott. 




history of New England, writing of the New Ha- 
ven Colony of 1G37, says: "During the first 
year, little ' government ' was needed or exercised. 
Each man was a lord to himself. On the 4th of 
June (1638), the settlers met in Mr. Neuman's 
barn, and bound themselves by a sort of Constitu- 
tion. * * * They decided to make the Bible 
their law-book ; but by and by new towns were 
made, and new laws were needed, and they had 
the good sense to make them. Their State was 
founded upon their church, thus expressed in 
their first compact, signed by one hundred and 
eleven persons : ' That church members only 
shall be free Burgesses, and that they only shall 
choose Magistrates and officers among themselves, 
to have the power of transacting all publique civil 
affairs of this plantation, of making and repealing 
laws, dividing of inheritances, deciding of differ- 
ences that may arise, and doing all things or busi- 
nesses of like nature.' " Twenty-seven years later, 
when circumstances made a union of the two 
Connecticut Colonies necessary, the greatest and 
most lasting objection on the part of the New Ha- 
ven Colony was the lessening of the civil power 
of the church which would follow the union. In 
1680, the Governor of the United Colonies, thus 
describes the community: "The people are strict 
Congregationalists. There are four or five Seven- 
day men, and about as many Quakers. We have 
twenty-six towns and twenty-one churches. Beg- 
gars and vagabonds are not suffei-ed, but are bound 
out to service." These characteristics of Connect- 
icut have been marked by all historians as well as 
the facts, that she " Early established and sup- 
ported schools and colleges ; her people have, from 
the outset, been industrious and honest ; crime has 
not abounded ; while talent and character, and 
courage and cleanliness, have been common through 
all her history." It was to reproduce these 
characteristics throughout the territory embraced 
within the provisions of her charter, that the 
mother State labored. For one hundred and 
tliirty years she followed this purpose with an un- 
deviating method. " One tract after another, suf- 
ficient for a municipal government, was granted 
to trusty men, who were to form a settlement of 
well assorted families, with the church, the meet- 
ing house, the settled ministry of the Gospel, the 
seliool, the local magistracy, and the democratic 
town-meeting represented in the General Assem- 
bly. Under this method, se'f-governed towns in 
what is now a part of Pennsylvania, were once 
represented in the General Assembly at Hartford 

and New Haven.'"* It was with the hope of ex- 
tending this method to the Reserve that Connecti- 
cut so strenuously asserted her jurisdiction to her 
Western lands ; but in the years of rapid growth 
succeeding the war of the Revolution, the old 
method proved no longer practicable, and the par- 
ent surrendered her offspring to the hands of 
abler guardians. But there remained a field in 
which solicitous regard could find action, and 
the impress of her work in this direction is 
plainly apparent to this day. It was her method 
of " missions to the new settlements " which had 
become crystallized into a system about this time. 
Of the scope and character of this work. Rev. 
Leonard Bacon thus speaks : " At first, individ- 
ual pastors, encouraged by their brethren, and ob- 
taining permission from their churches, performed 
long and weary journeys on horseback into Ver- 
mont and the great wilderness of Central New 
York, that they might preach the Word and ad 
minister the ordinances of religion to such mem- 
bers of their flocks, and others, as had emigrated 
beyond the reach of ordinary New England priv- 
ileges. By degrees the work was enlarged, and 
arrangements for sustaining it were systematized, 
till in the year 1798, the same year in which the 
settlement of the Reserve brgan, the pastors of 
Connecticut, in then- General Association, instituted 
the Missionary Society of Connecticut. In 1802, 
one year after the jurisdiction of the old State 
over the Reserve was formally relinquished, the 
Trustees of the Missionary Society were incorpo- 
rated. As early as 1800, only two years alter 
the first few families from Connecticut had planted 
themselves this side of Northwestern Pennsylvania, 
the first missionary made hig appearance among 
them. This was the Rev. Joseph Badger, the 
apostle of the Western Reserve — a man of large 
and various experience, as well as of native force, 
and of venerable simplicity in character and man- 
ners. In those days the work of the missionary 
to the new settlements was by no means the same 
with what is now ca'lcd ' Home Missionary ' work. 
Our modern Home Missionary has his station and 
his home ; his business is to gather around him- 
self a permanent congregation ; his hope is to 
grow up with the congregation which he gathers, 
and the aid which he receives is given to help the 
church support its pa-tor. But the old-fashioned 
' missionary to the new settlements,' was an itiner- 
ant. He had no station and no settled home. If 
he had a family, his work was continually calling 

*AJdrrss by Leonard Bacon, D. D. 



him away from them. He went from one little 
settlement to another — from one lonely cabin to 
another — preaching from house to house, and not 
often spending two consecutive Sabbaths in one 
place. The nature of the emigration to the wilder- 
ness, in those days, required such labors. 

" It was soon felt that two mi-ssionaries were 
needed for the work among the scattered settle- 
ments. Accordingly, the Rev. Ezekiel J. Chap- 
man was sent. He arrived on the Reserve at the 
close of the year 1801, and returned to Connecti- 
cut in April, 1803. His place was soon supplied 
by a young man ordained expressly to the work, 
the Rev. Thomas Robbins, who continued labor- 
ing in this field from November, 1803, till April, 
1806. In a letter of his, dated June 8, 1805, 
I find the following statement : ' Since the be- 
ginniag of the present year, I have been taking 
pains to make an actual enumeration of the fami- 
lies in this county.* The work I have just com- 
pleted. There are one or more families in sixty- 
four towns. January 1, 1804, the number of 
families wa^ about 800. The first of last January 
there were a little more than 1100, of which 450 
are Yankees. There were twenty- four schools. 
There are seven churches, with a pr. spect that 
two more vail be organized soon, and more than 
twenty places where the worship of God is regu- 
larly maintained on the Sabbath.' " Such was the 
beginning of an influence to which the people of 
the Reserve are principally indebted for the early 
and secure foundation of the church and school, 
and for that individuality which marks them as a 
peculiar and envied people in a great common- 
wealth made up of the chosen intellect and brawn 
of a whole nation. 

Owing to the peculiar relation of the Reserve to 
the General Government in early years, the history 
of its public school fund is exceptional. Ry the ordi- 
nance of Congress in 1785, it was declared that 
Section 16 of every township should be reserved 
for the maintenance of public schools in the town- 
ship. The ordinance of 1787, re-afhrmed the 
policy thus declared. The provisions ordi- 
nances, in this respect, were not applicable to, nor 
operative over, the region of the Reserve, because 
of the fact that the United States did not own its 
soil ; and, although the entire amount paid to 
Connecticut by the Land Company for the terri- 

*Trumbull County then iucludcd the whole of the Reserye. 

tory of the Reserve was set apart for, and devoted 
to, the maintenance of public schools in that State, 
no part of that fund was appropriated to purposes 
of education here. There was an inequality of 
advantages between the people of the Reserve and 
the remai.ider of the State, in that respect. This 
inequality was, however, in a measure removed in 
1803, by an act of Congress, which set apart and 
appropriated to the Western Reserve, as an e(|uiv- 
alent for Section 16, a sufficient quantity of land 
in the United States Military District, to compen- 
sate the loss of that section, in the lands lying east 
of the "Cuyahoga. This amount was equal to one- 
thirty-sixth of the land of the reserve, to which 
the Indian title had before that time been extin- 
guished. The Indian title to the lands of the Re- 
serve west of the Cuyahoga, not then having been 
extinguished, the matter seemed to drop from 
public notice, and remain so until 1829. At this 
date, the Legislature, in a memorial to Congress, 
directed its attention to the fact, that, by the treaty 
of Fort Industry, concluded in 1805, the Indian 
title to the land west of the Cuyahoga, had been 
relinquished to the United States, and prayed in 
recognition of the fact, that an additional amount 
of land lying within the United States Military 
District, should be set apart for the use of the 
public schools of the Reserve, and equal in quan- 
tity to one thirty-sixth of the territory ceded 
to the United States by that treaty. The memo- 
rial produced the desired result. In 1834, Con- 
gress, in compliance with a request of the Leg- 
islature, granted such an additional amount 
of land to the Reserve for scho 1 purposes, 
as to equalize its di.stribu'ion of lands for 
such purpose, and in furtherance of its ob- 
ject to carry into effect its determination to 
donate one thirty-sixth part of the public domain 
to the purposes of education. The lands first 
allotted to the Reserve for such purpose, were sit- 
uated in the Counties of Holmes and Tuscarawas, 
and in 1831, were surveyed and sold, the proceeds 
arising from their sale as well as the funds arising 
from the sale of those subsefiuently appropri- 
ated, being placed and invested with other 
school funds of the State, and constitute one of 
the sources from which the people of the Reserve 
derive the means of supporting and maintaining 
their common schools. 















^ S'|>> 





"And riper eras ask for history's trutli." 

—Vliviir Wendell HnJmes. 

ri^^HE advantages resulting from the local his- 
_L tory of cities and countries is no longer a 
matter of doubt. Whether considered solel}' as 
objects of interest or amusement, or as having the 
still wider utilit}' of the places they describe, 
these records are worthy of high consideration. 
And although in a country like ours, this depart- 
ment of history can claim to chronicle no great 
events, nor to relate any of those local tradi- 
tions that make many of the countries of the 
Old World so famous in story and song, yet 
they can fulfill the equal use of directing the 
attention of those abroad to the rise, progress 
and present standing of places which ma}' fairly 
claim, in the future, what has made others great 
in the past. And in any age, when everj' en- 
ergy of the whole brotherhood of maij is 
directed to the future, and when mere utilitari- 
anism has taken the place of romance, it is a 
matter of more than ordinary- interest and value 
to all, to note the practical advancement, and 
so to calculate, upon the basis of the past, the 
probable results of the future of those places 
which seem to present advantages, either social 
or pecuniar}', to that large class of foreigners 
and others, who are constantly seeking for 
homes or means of occupation among us. Nor 
is it to these alone that such local history is of 
value. The country already possesses much 
unemployed capital seeking for investment, 
while many, having already procured the means 
of living well, are seeking for homes more con- 
genial to their tastes than the places where they 

* Contributed by W. II. Perrin. 

have lived but for pecuniary profit. To both 
of these, the history of individual localities is 
an invaluable aid in helping the one to discover 
a means of advantageously employing his sur- 
plus money, and in aiding the other to find a 
home possessing those social advantages which 
will render him comfortable and happy. But 
it is to the emigrant foreigner that local his- 
tory is of the greatest benefit. Leaving, as he 
does, a country, with whose resources, social, 
moral and political, he is intimately acquainted, 
for one of which he knows almost nothing, such 
works, carefully and authentically written, are 
to him what the guide-books of the Old World 
are to the wonder-seeking traveler ; they pre- 
sent him at once with a faithful view of the 
land of his adoption, and point out to him 
every advantage and disadvantage, every chance 
of profit or of pleasure, every means of gain, 
every hope of gratification, that is anywhere to 
be afforded. 

Impressed with these opinions, it is proposed 
to present the citizens of Summit County with 
an authentic and impartial history ; one which 
may be implicitly relied on in its calcula- 
tions and statistical details, and which shall 
present as accurate and faithful a survey as can 
bo obtained from any data known to ihe writers 
of the diflferent departments, or attainable by 
them. With all the care that may be exercised, 
however, the record will no doubt be found im- 
perfect; incidents and names be left out, and 
matters escape notice which many will deem 
unpardonable omissions. This is one of the 
things which detract from the pleasure of writing 
local annals. But it is more or less unavoid- 




able, as no one can know and remember every- 
thing, and both the time and space allotted to 
us are limited. 

Summit County lies in the northeastern part 
of the State, witli but one count}^ between it 
and the lake, and is bounded on the north by 
Cuyahoga County, on the east b}^ Portage, on 
the south by Stark, on the west by Medina, 
and embraces within its limits seventeen town- 
ships (including Cuyahoga Falls). It is sit- 
uated on the highlands, or the " summit " 
(from which it derives the name of Sum- 
mit), which separate the tributaries of the 
Ohio from the waters flowing north into Lake 
Erie, and has an average elevation of about 
five hundred feet above the lake. " The Cuya- 
hoga River, rising in the northern part of 
Geauga County, runs for forty miles in a 
southwesterly direction, then in the center of 
Summit County turns sharply to the north, and 
pursues a nearly straight course to the lake. 
In Geauga and Portage, the Cuyahoga flows on 
the surface of a plateau composed of the car- 
boniferous conglomerate. At the town of 
Cuyahoga Falls, in this county, this plateau is 
cut through in a series of cascades which give 
rise to much beautiful scenery. The river here 
falls 220 feet in two miles, so that from the vi- 
cinity of Akron to the north line of the county, 
it flows through a narrow valley or gorge more 
than three hundred feet deep. At frequent in- 
tervals, the Cuyahoga receives tributaries, both 
from the east and the west, and the valleys of 
these streams contribute their part to give va- 
riety to the topography of the central portion 
of the county." * 

In the geological and physical features of 
the county, we shall draw our information prin- 
cipall}^ from the State Geological Survey. It 
is the official report of the State on these sub- 
jects, and may be relied on as substantially 
correct. And as there were but a limited num- 
ber of them printed, and they are even now be- 
coming scarce, the extracts from them incorpo- 
rated in this work will be found of interest and 
value to our readers. We quote further, as 
follows : 

" The highest lands in Summit are the hills 
most distant from the channels of drainage, in 
Richfield, Norton, Green, Springfield, Tallmadge, 
and Hudson. In all these townships, summits 
rise to the height of 650 above the lake. The 

* Geological Survey. 

bottom of the Cuyahoga Valley, in the north- 
ern part of Northfield, is less than fifty feet 
above Lake Erie, so that within the county we 
have differences of level which exceed 600 feet. 
The altitudes in Summit County ai'e thus offi- 
cially given : Tallmadge, Long Swamp, above 
Lake Erie 470 feet ; Tallmadge road, east of 
Center, 543 feet ; Tallmadge, Coal No. 1, New- 
berry's mine, 520 feet ; Tallmadge, Coal No. 1, 
D. Upson's mine, 492 feet ; Tallmadge, summit 
of Coal Hill, 636 feet ; Akron, door-sill of 
court house, 452.65 feet ; Akron, railroad 
depot. 428.13 feet ; Akron, summit level, 
Ohio Canal, highwater, 395 feet ; Akron, P. 
& O. Canal, 370.64 feet ; Cuyahoga Falls, rail- 
road depot, 428.13 feet ; Monroe Falls, road 
before Hickok house, 460 feet ; Hudson Station, 
496 feet ; Hudson town, 547 feet ; Boston, 
Ohio Canal, 94.66 feet ; Peninsula, Ohio Ca- 
nal, 125.66 feet ; Yellow Creek, Ohio Canal, 
180 feet ; Old Portage, Ohio Canal, 188 feet ; 
Green, summit of Valley Railroad, 532 feet; 
New Portage, street in front of tavern, 400 
feet ; lake, between New Portage and Johnson's 
Corners, 399 feet ; Wolf Creek, below Clark's 
mill, 390.74 feet ; Wolf Creek, in Copley, one 
mile west of north-and-south center road, 419- 
.78 feet ; Little Cuyahoga, Mogadore, 477 feet ; 
Little Cuyahoga, at Gilchrist's mill-dam, 457 
feet ; Little Cuyahoga, old forge at trestle, 439 
feet ; Richfield,^East Center, 531.80 feet ; Rich- 
field, highest land (over), 675 feet ; Yellow 
Creek, one-fourth mile west of Ghent, 371 feet. 
" The soil of Summit County is somewhat 
varied. In the northern part, even where un- 
derlaid by the conglomerate in full thickness, 
the soil derived from the drift contains a great 
deal of clay, and Northfield, Twinsburg, Hudson, 
etc., are, as a consequence, dairy towns. The 
southern half of the countj^, however, has a 
loam soil, and the attention of the farmers has 
been directed more to grain-growing than stock- 
raising. This difference of soil was clearly in- 
dicated by the original vegetable growth. In 
Hudson and Twinsburg the forest was com- 
posed, for the most part, of beech, maple, bass- 
wood and elm, while in Stow, Tallmadge, and 
southward, the prevailing forest growth was 
oak. In Franklin and Green, the soil is decid- 
edly gravelly ; the original timber was oak, in 
groves and patches, and these townships form 
part of the famous wheat-growing district of 
Stark, Wayne, etc. In the central part of the 




county, between Akron and Cuyahoga Falls, 
a few thousand acres, called " The Plains," 
formerly presented a marked contrast to the 
rolling and densely- timbered surface of all the 
surrounding area. This is a nearly level dis- 
trict of which the peculiar features are mostly- 
obliterated by cultivation, but when in the state 
of nature, it had the aspect of the prairies of 
the West. It was almost destitute of timber, 
was covered with grass and scrub-oak (quercus 
baru'steri), and, in spring, was a perfect flower- 
garden ; for a much lai^ger number of wild 
flowers were found here than in any other part 
of the county. The origin of these peculiar 
features ma}' be traced to the nature of the 
substructure of the district. This area forms 
a triangle between the two branches of the 
Cuyahoga and the coal-hills of Tallmadge ; 
the soil is sandy, und this is underlaid by beds 
of gravel of unknown depth. It seems that 
there once existed here a deeply excavated rock 
basin, which was subsequently partly filled up 
with drift deposits and parti}' by water ; in 
other words, that it was, for a time, a lake. 
The waters of this lake deposited the sand 
which now forms the soil. and. in its deeper 
portions, a series of lacustrine clays, which are 
well shown in the cutting recently made for a 
road on the north side of the valley of the Lit- 
tle Cuyahoga, near Akron. The sections of 
these beds are as follows : 


1. Stratified sand 10 

2. Bkie clay 4 

3. Mixed yellow and blue clay, stratified 1 1 

4. Blue clay 10 

5. Yellow clay 10 

6. Blue clay 1 

7. Red clay 1 

8. Yellow clay 1 

9. Blue clay 8 

10. Red clay 2 

11. Blue clay 6 

12. Redclav 10 

13. Blue clay 1 6 

14. Red clay 3 

15. Yellow clay 1 6 

16. Blue clay 3 

17. Red clay 1 

18. Fine yellow sand 1 

19. Yellow clay 3 

20. Blue clay 4 

21. Yellow clay 3 

22. Blue clay 4 

" In another section, exposed neaoly in the 
valley of the Little Cuyahoga, the beds which 
have been enumerated are seen to be underlaid 

by about sixty feet of stratified sand and 
gravel to the bed of the stream. To what 
depth they extend is not known. On the op- 
posite side of the Little Cuyahoga, on the main 
road leading into Akron, the banks of the old 
valley present a very dirterent section from 
either of those to which I have I'eferred above. 
There we find a hill composed of finely washed 
and irregularly stratified sand, quite free from 
pebbles. About ten or twelve feet of the up- 
per part is yellow ; the lower part, as far as ex- 
posed, white ; a waved line separating the two 
colors. East and north of the locality where 
the detailed section given above was taken, 
heavy beds of gravel are seen to occupy the 
same horizon ; from which we may learn that 
these finely laminated clays were deposited in 
a basin of water, of which the shore was formed 
by gravel hills. A portion of the city of Ak- 
ron is underlaid by thick beds of stratified 
sand and gravel. These are often cross-strati- 
fied, and show abundant evidences of current 
action. They also contain large angular blocks 
of conglomerate attd many fragments of coal, 
some of which are of considerable size. ^Ye 
apparently have some of the materials which 
were cut out of the valleys that separate the 
isolated outliei's of the coal measures which are 
found in this part of the county. Beds of 
gravel and sand stretch away southward from 
Akron, and form part of a belt which extends 
through Stark County, partially filling the old, 
deeply-cut valley of the Tuscarawas, and ap- 
parently marking the line of the southern ex- 
tension of the valley of Cuyahoga when it was 
a channel of drainage from the lake basin to 
the Ohio. This old and partially obliterated 
channel has been referred to in the chapter on 
the physical geography of the State, and it will 
be more fully described in the chapters on sur- 
face geology and those formed by the reports 
on Stark and Tuscarawas Counties. I will only 
refer to it, in passing, to say that the line 
of the Ohio Canal, of which the summit is 
at Akron, was carried through this old water 
gap, because it still forms a comparatively low 
pass. In the western part of the State, the 
Miami Canal traverses a similar pass, and an- 
other, having nearly tlie same level with those 
mentioned, in Trumbull County, connects the 
valleys of Grand River and the Mahoning. 

" The thick beds of gravel and sand which 
underlie the plain and stretch eastward up the 




valley of the Little Cuj'ahoga, through Southern 
Tallmadge, perhaps form part of the great 
gravel belt to which I have already alluded, 
but may be of mere local origin. It seems to 
me quite possible that the Cuyahoga, in former 
times, passed eastward of its present course, 
from Kent or Monroe Falls to Akron ; that the 
falls of the Cuyahoga were then near the ' Old 
Forge,' and that this excavated basin beneath 
the ' plains ' was scooped out by them. We 
know that the position of the falls has been 
constantl}^ changing ; that they were once in 
Cuyahoga County, and have gradually receded 
to their present position. When they had 
worked back to the great bend of the Cuyahoga, 
the}' seem to have swung round the circle for 
some time before starting on their present line 
of progress. In this interval, the river appears 
to have flowed over a bi'oad front of the con- 
glomerate, and, cutting away the shales below, 
to have produced the rock basin which has 
been described. When the falls of the Cuya- 
hoga were at the north line of the count}', they 
must have had a perpendicular height of at 
least two hundred feet, for the hard layers in 
the Cu^'ahoga shale which produce the ' Big 
Falls ' do not extend so far north. The entire 
mass of the Cuyahoga shale there is soft argil- 
laceous material, which must have been cut out 
beneath the massive conglomerate, producing a 
cascade at least equal in height to that of Ni- 

" The north-south portion of the Cuyahoga 
Valley seems to have been once continued 
southward, and to have been connected with 
the old valley of the Tuscarawas, which is ex- 
cavated far below the bed of the present 
stream. At the north line of the count}', the 
valley of the Cuyahoga is cut down two hun- 
dred and twent}' feet below the present river 
bottom, as we learn by wells bored for oil. The 
bottom of the valley of the Tuscarawas is, at 
Canal Dover, one hundred and sevent3'-five feet 
below the surface of the stream, and there are 
many facts which indicate that there was once 
a powerful current of water passing from the 
lake basin to the Ohio through this deeply ex- 
cavated channel. Subsequently, this outlet was 
dammed up by heav}' Ijeds of drift; and the 
Cuyahoga, cut from its connection with the 
Tuscarawas, to which it had been a tributary, 
was forced to turn sharpl}' to the north, form- 
ing the abrupt curve that has always been re- 

garded as a peculiar feature in the course of 
this stream. The courses of the tributaries of 
the Maumee are not unlike that of the Cuj-a- 
hoga, and are probably dependent upon the 
same cause, namel}-, the depression of the lake 
level and the diversion of the drainage from the 
Mississippi system, with which it was formerly 
connectecl, into the lake basin. The drift clays 
which underlie the northern part of Summit 
County are plainly of northern origin, as they 
contain innumerable fragments of the Huron, 
Erie and Cuyahoga shales, and no such mass of 
argillaceous material could be derived from the 
conglomerate and coal measures which underlie 
all the country toward the south. The direc- 
tion of the glacial striae in the county is nearly- 
northwest and southeast, and these clays are 
plainly the result of glacial action. It is inter- 
esting to note, however, that in the drift cla}' at 
Hudson a large number of masses of coal have 
been found, some of which were several inches 
in diameter. This fact, taken in connection 
with the character and histoiy of the drift 
clays, proves — what we had good reason to be- 
lieve from other causes — that the coal rocks 
once extended at least as far north as the 
northern limits of the count}', and that from all 
the northern townships they were removed and 
the conglomerate laid bare by glacial erosion. 
A considerable portion of the drift gravels in 
the southern part of the county are of foreign 
and nox'thern orighi. As I have elsewhere re- 
marked, these gravels and the associated lands 
show distinct marks of water action, and have 
apparently been sorted and stratified by the 
sliore waves of the lake when it stood several 
hundred feet higher than now. The bowlders 
which are strewn over the surface in all parts 
of the county are mostly composed of Lanren- 
tian granite from Canada, and I have attributed 
their transportation to icebergs. In North- 
ampton, many huge bowlders of corniferous 
limestone are found, and these evidently came 
from the islands in Lake Erie. 

" One of the most striking of the surface 
features of Summit County is the great num- 
ber of small lakes which are found here. These 
are generally beautiful sheets of pure water, en- 
closed in basins of drift, gravel and sand. They 
form part of the great series of lake basins 
which mark the line of the water-shed from 
Pennsylvania to Michigan, and they have been 
described, and their origin explained, in the 





chapter on ' Physical Geography.' When a resi- 
dent of Summit County, I mapped and visited i 
nearly one hundred of these little lakes within 
a circle of twenty miles radius drawn around 
Cu^'ahoga Falls. Aside from the variety and 
beauty which these lakelets give to the surface, 
they afford many objects of scientific interest. 
They are usually stocked with excellent fish, 
and many rare and peculiar plants grow in and 
about them. They also contain great numbers 
of shells, some of which are rare. Springfield 
Lake, for example, is the only known locality 
of Melania gracilis, and Congress Lake contains 
two species of lAnnea {L. gracilis and L. stag- ; 
nalis), both of which are found in few, if any. ; 
other, localities in the State. i\Lany of these 
are being gradually filled up Ijy a growth of 
vegetation that ultimately forms peat. Li all 
those lakes where the shores are marshy and 
shake under the tread, peat is accumulating. ! 
We have evidence, too, that many lakelets have | 
been filled up and obliterated by this process ; 
for we find a large number of marshes in which 
there is now little water, but the surface is un- { 
derlaid b}' peat and shell marl, sometimes to 
the depth of twent}' or thirty feet. Every town- 
ship contains more or less of these, and some 
of them are quite extensive. The larger ones 
are usually known as whortleberry swamps or 
cranberry marshes, sometimes as tamarack 
swamps, from the growth of larch which fre- 
quently covers the surface. Among the largest 
of these is that west of Hudson, on Mud Brook, 
in which the peat is fifteen feet deep. Another 
lies east of Hudson, near the county line. In 
Stow, on Mud Brook, is a long peat swamp, in 
which the peat is not less than thirty feet deep. 
In Coventry is one in which the peat is said to 
be thirty or forty feet deep, and from this con- 
siderable peat of excellent quality has been 
manufactured b}^ J. F. Brunot. These peat 
bogs have excited some interest as possible 
sources of supply of fuel, and yet, where coal 
is as cheap and good as in Summit County, it 
seems hardl3' probably that peat can be profit- 
abl}' emplo^'ed as a fuel. The best of peat, 
when air-dried, contains nearly 20 per cent of 
water and 20 per cent of oxygen, and has a heat- 
ing power not greater than half that of our 
coals, while it occupies double the space. Hence, 
unless it can be produced at half the price of 
coal in the markets of Summit County, it can 
hardly compete with it. Peat is, however, an 

excellent fertilizer, and many, even of the 

smaller peat bogs, maj^ be made very valuable 
to the agriculturist. In some localities, such 
deposits of peat have been cleared up and cul- 
tivated for many years, without a suspicion 
that there was an^'thing of interest or value 
below the surface. Deposits of shell marl 
are frequently found underl3ang peat in ' cat 
swamps ' and filled-up lakelets. This marl is 
composed of the remains of the shells of mol- 
lusks, which, after the death of the animals that 
inhabited them, have accumulated at the bot- 
tom of the water. In some instances, these 
mai'ls are white, and nearly pure lime ; in others 
they are mixed with more or less earth}' and veg- 
etal3le matter. Such deposits occur in nearly 
every township in the count}', but they have 
attracted little attention, and their valuable 
fertilizing properties have been very sparingly 
made available. The deposit of shell marl on 
the road between Hudson and Stow, on land 
of Charles Darrow, is at least twelve feet deep 
and very pure. Similar marl-beds, though less 
extensive, are known in Hudson, Northampton 
and other parts of the county. Usually a sheet 
of peat or muck covers the marl, and it is not 
likely to be discovered, unless by ditching or 
special search. The simplest method of ex- 
ploring marshes for peat or shell marl is with an 
auger made from an old two-inch or three-inch 
carpenter's auger welded to a small, square rod 
of iron, on which a handle is made to slide, and 
fasten with a key. With this all marshes may 
be probed to the depth of eight or ten feet with 
the greatest facility. 

" The Erie shale is the lowest formation ex- 
posed in Summit County, and is visible only in 
the bottom of the valley of the Cuyahoga, where 
it is cut deepest, in the township of Northfield. 
About one hundred feet of the upper portion of 
the Erie shale is exposed in the cliffs which 
border the river, being a continuation of the 
outcrops which have been fully described in the 
report on the geology of Cuyahoga County. 
The same fossils have been found in the Erie 
shale in Northfield, as those collected in the 
valleys of Chii)i)ewa and Tinker's Creeks. 

'' The Lower Carboniferous or Waverly group 
is freely opened in the valley of the Cuyahoga, 
and we here find some of the most satisfactory 
sections of this formation that can be seen in 
the State. It has also yielded, perhaps, as 
large a number of fossils in Summit Countv as 




have been obtained from this group in any 
other localities. The Cleveland shale is the 
bi luminous shale which forms the base of the 
Waverly group, and has been fully described 
in the reports on the counties which form the 
northern border of the State. The outcrops of 
the Cleveland shale which are visible in the 
valley of the Cuyahoga are continuations south- 
ward of those noticed in Cuyahoga County. 
As the dip of all the strata is here gently 
southward, and the valley gradually deepens 
toward its mouth, the Cleveland shale, though 
on the north line of the county more than lUO 
feet above the bed of the stream, sinks out of 
sight near Peninsula, less than ten miles from 
the county line. The average thickness of the 
Cleveland shale in Summit County is about 
fifty feet, and it presents precisely the same 
lithological characters here as farther north. 
No fossils have been discovered in it at the lo- 
calities where it has been examined in this 
count}', but more careful search would undoubt- 
edly result in the discovery of the scales and 
teeth of fishes similar to those found at Bed- 
ford. As in Trumbull, Cuyahoga and Medina 
Counties, the outcrops of the Cleveland shale in 
Summit are marked by oil and gas springs, 
which are plainl}' produced b}- the decomposi- 
tion or spontaneous distillation of the lai'ge 
amounts of carbonaceous matter it contains. 
Tlie oil and gas springs which have been no- 
ticed on the sides of the Cuyahoga Valley at 
and below Peninsula, are distinctly' connected 
with the Cleveland shale, and have, as a conse- 
quence, misled those who have been influenced 
by them to l)ore for oil in the bottom of the 

'•The Bedford shale, a member of the Wa- 
verly group, is not well exposed in the valley 
of the Cuyahoga, though visible at a number of 
localities. It outcrops usuall}' from slopes 
covered with debris. Where the limits of the 
formation are concealed, judging from the 
glimpses obtained of it, the Bedford shale is 
apparenily about seventy feet thick in the valley 
of the Cu^'ahoga, and consists mainly of soft, 
blue, argillaceous strata, similar to those in the 
gorge of Tinker's Creek, at Bedford. In some 
localities it is more or less red, and has been 
here, as elsewhere, used as a mineral paint. In 
the \alley of Braudywine Creek, below the 
falls, the Bedford shale is fossiliferous, and 
contains the same species found at Bedford. 

Among these, Syringothyrls typa is the most 
conspicuous and abundant, and slabs may be 
obtained here which are thickly set with this 
fine fossil, forming beautiful specimens for the 

'■ The Berea sandstone is well exposed in the 
valley of the Cu3'ahoga in the northern part of 
the county, and forms two lines of outcrop — 
one on each side of the river — running from 
Peninsula to Independence on the west, and 
to Bedford and Newburg on the East. At 
Peninsula, the Berea grit has been extensively 
quarried for many years. The base of the 
formation is here from thirty to sixt}' feet above 
the canal, so that the quarries are worked 
with facility, and their product shipped with 
comparatively, Utile expense. The entire thick- 
ness of the formation in the valley' of the 
Cuyahoga is about sixty feet. The stone it 
furnishes varies considerably in character in 
the different localities where it is exposed. At 
the quarries of Mr. Woods, at Peninsula, it is 
lighter in color than at Independence, resem- 
bling the Berea stone in this respect, as also in 
hardness. Some layers are nearly white, and a 
large amount of excellent building stone has 
been shipped from this locality and used for the 
construction of various public buildings at 
Cleveland, Detroit, Buffalo, Oswego, etc. This 
stone is more firm and durable, but is harder 
and less homogeneous than that from the Am- 
herst quarries ; it is, however, so highly es- 
teemed, that a read}' market has been found 
for all that has been taken from the quarries. 
During 1871, the stone shipped from Peninsula 
was equal to 2,800 car loads of ten tons each. 
Between Peninsula and the county line, the 
outcrops of the Berea grit have been but imper- 
fectly explored. They are much obscured b}' 
the debris of the higher portion of the clifts, 
and the examinations necessary to determine 
the value of the stone would require the ex- 
penditure of considerable time and money. 
There is every probability, however, that good 
quarries could be opened at a great number of 
localities, and I think that I am quite safe in 
predicting that in future j-ears this portion of 
the valley of the Cu3'ahoga will be the theater 
of a very active industr}' growing out of the 
quarrying of Berea grit for the Cleveland mar- 
ket. Should the railroad, now proposed, be 
constructed through the valle^', this, with the 
canal, will supply such facilities for transporta- 





tion, that, if the quality of the stone should 
be found suitable, this district will contribute 
as largely as any other to the market of the 
great lakes. From the differences which are 
everywhere exhibited iia the quality of the 
stone in neighboring outcrops of the Berea 
grit, the banks of the Cuyahoga should be 
carefully examined, in order to discover such 
localities as will furnish stone of a superior 
quality. It is not too much to expect that 
some of these will have gTeat pecuniar}' value. 
The Berea grit forms the solid stratum that 
produces the falls of the Brand^^wine at Bran- 
dywine Mills, and it is here considerably more 
massive than at the outcrops further north on 
the same side of the Cu3-ahoga. No fossils 
have been found in the Berea grit in Summit 
County. It is elsewhere, as a general rule, re- 
markably barren, and yet, at Chagrin Falls, fos- 
sil fishes have been obtained from it, and at 
Bedford a Discina, a Lingida and an Annularia. 
These, and perhaps other fossils, may hereafter 
be met with in the Cuyahoga Valley. 

" The Cuyahoga shale is the upper division 
of the Waverly group, and is better exhibited in 
Summit Count}' than in any other part of the 
State. It has a thickness of from 150 to 200 
feet, and has been given the name it bears, be- 
cause it forms the greater pai't of the banks of the 
Cuyahoga, from Cuyahoga Falls, to the north 
line of the county. A short distance above 
Peninsula, the Berea grit sinks beneath the 
river, and the whole thickness of the Cuyahoga 
shale is revealed in the interval between that 
rock and the Conglomerate which caps the 
bluffs. In this part of the valley, the Cuya- 
hoga shale exhibits little variety in composi- 
tion, and consists of a mass of soft argillaceous 
material, inter-stratified with thin and local 
sheets of fine grained sandstone, rarel}' thick 
enough to serve as flagging. The surfaces of 
these sheets are marked with mud furrows, 
and, occasionally-, with the impressions of 
fucoids. At the ' Big Falls ' of the Cu^'ahoga, 
eighty feet below the conglomerate, a number 
of layers of fine-grained sandstone, from six to 
twelve inches in thickness, and occup3'ing a 
vertical space of about twenty feet, locall}' re- 
place the softer material of the Cuyahoga 
shale, and produce the beautiful waterfall at 
this locality. These harder strata ma}^ be 
traced for a mile or more down the river, but 
are not distinguishable in the sections of the 

Cuyahoga shale in the northern part of the 
county. The sandstone of the Big Falls is a 
compact, homogeneous rock, almost identical 
in character and utility with the ' blue stone ' 
of the East Cleveland quarries, although lying 
at a considerably higher level ; the East Cleve- 
land stone being a local modification of the 
lower portion of the Bedford shale. The upper 
part of the Cuyahoga shale near the Big Falls, 
has furnished a great number of fine specimens 
of 'cone-in-cone,' and they are referred to by 
Dr. Hildreth, in his notes on Cuyahoga Valley, 
published in Silinians Journal in 1836. This 
singular structure has given rise to much specu- 
lation ; it was, at one time, supposed to be or- 
ganic ; subsequently, the result of crystalliza- 
tion, and it is now considered by Prof 0. C. 
Marsh as of purely mechanical origin. The 
' cone-in-cone ' consist, as is well known, of a 
series of hollow cones, like extinguishers, placed 
one within another, and it sometimes makes up 
the entire mass of a stratum, several inches in 
thickness and man}' feet in lateral extent. It 
is by no means confined to this horizon, but is 
found in the older paleozoic rocks, in the coal 
measures, and is, perhaps, more abundant than 
anywhere else, in the cretaceous formation in 
the far West. This structure is apparently 
confined to rocks of a peculiar chemical com- 
position, viz. : to earthy limestones, or argilla- 
ceous shales impregnated with lime. The con- 
cretions, which include the great fishes of the 
Huron shale, not unfrequentl}' exhibit the ' cone- 
in-cone ' structure, and, in some instances, where 
the calcareous material forms simply a crust on 
the fossil, that ci'ust still shows more or less of 
it. From the locality under consideration, in 
the valley of the Cuyahoga. I have obtained 
specimens of ' cone-in-cone ' enveloping nodules 
of iron ore, and radiating in all directions from 
such nuclei. Specimens of this character, and 
the bones of BimchtJii/s, coated in all their 
irregularities, with 'cone-in-cone,' seemed to 
me incompatible with the theory that this 
structure is the product of mechanical forces, 
and appear rather to confirm the conclusion 
that it is an imperfect crystallization. Through- 
out most of its mass, and in most places, the 
Cuyahoga shale is. very barren of fossils. This, 
however, is fully compensated for b}' the ex- 
treme richness of some layers and some locali- 
ties. This is the rock which was excavated in 
the formation of the canal in the valley of the 

-^ ry 



Cuyahoga, below the falls, and through which 
an effort was made to conduct the water of the 
river to the proposed town of Summit. In this 
excavation, the formation was fully opened for 
several miles, and yet, with the most careful 
search, at various times during the progress of 
the work, I was only able to obtain a mere 
handful of fossils. At the base of the forma- 
tion, however, immediately over the Berea grit, 
the Cuyahoga shale is sometimes crowded with 
millions of Linyula melia and Discina New- 
herryi. The same species also occur at the 
' Big Falls ' of the Cuyahoga, and the valley of 
the Little Cuyahoga, near Akron. In the up- 
per part of the Cuj-ahoga shale, in vainous 
parts of Medina County, and at Richfield, in 
Summit Count}-, immense numbers of fossils 
are found, and those which form a long list of 
species. The Richfield locality is already quite 
famous, as extensive collections were made 
there before the commencement of the present 
survey by Messrs. IMeek & Worthen and Dr. 
Kellogg. Quite a large number of crinoids 
were discovered here hy the latter gentleman, 
which proved new to science, and were described 
by Prof. James Hall. 

"The carboniferous conglomerate underlies 
all the higher portions of the county, and forms 
the surface rock over all the middle and north- 
ern portions, except where cut through by the 
Cuyahoga and its tributaries. Though gener- 
ally covered and concealed b}' beds of drift, 
the conglomerate is exposed and quarried in 
all of the townships north of Akron. It is, 
however, best seen in the valley of the Cuya- 
hoga, where it forms cliffs sometimes 100 feet 
in perpendicular height. The rock is about 
100 feet in thickness, generally a coarse-grained, 
light drab sandstone, but in some localities, and 
especially near the base of the formation, be- 
coming a mass of quartz-pebbles, with just 
enough cement to hold them together. There 
are also some local bands of the conglomerate 
which are red or brown in color, and furnish a 
building-stone of great beauty. At Cu^'ahoga 
Falls, such a band has been quarried for many 
years, and has been used for the construction 
of the best buildings in the town. This stone 
is brown, contains much iron, and is very strong 
and durable. At Akron, a similar local strat- 
um in the conglomerate at Wolf's quarry, has 
a deep, reddish-purple color, and forms, per- 
haps, the most beautiful building-stone in the 

State. This has been quite extensively used 
in Cleveland. Unfortunately, the quantitv of 
this variety of building stone is not large. Its 
peculiar color is probably due to the fact that the 
iron of which it contains a large quantity, is in 
the condition of anh\'drous sesquioxide, and has 
associated with it a small percentage of manga- 
nese. Splendid sections of the conglomerate are 
seen in the gorge of the Cuyahoga, below Cuya- 
hoga Falls. Here, nearly the entire thickness of 
the formation is exposed, and vertical and over- 
hanging walls of 100 feet in height give great 
variety and beauty to the scener}'. In descend- 
ing the valley of the Cuyahoga, the walls of con- 
glomerate recede from the river, of which the 
immediate banks are formed by the underlj'ing 
shales. J^y the w^ashing out of these, the 
Mocks of conglomerate have been undermined 
and thrown down, and thus the valley' has been 
widened until in Boston and Northfield the con- 
glomerate cliffs are several miles apart. They 
still preserve their typical character, however, 
and this is well exemplified by the 'ledges' in 
Boston, which — like those of Nelson, in Por- 
tage County, on the other side of the conglom- 
erate plateau — are favorite places of resort to 
the lovers of the picturesque. The fossils of 
the .conglomerate are exclusively plants. These 
are generally broken and floating fragments, 
but are exceedingly numerous, their casts often 
making up a large part of the rock. In certain 
localities we find evidence that they have been 
gathered by the waves into some receptacle, 
and heaped up in a confused mass, like drift- 
wood on a shore at the present da\'. Since 
the conglomerate is composed of coarse mate- 
rials which could be only transported by water 
in rapid motion, it is evident all delicate plants 
would be destroyed from the trituration they 
would suflTer in the circumstances of its depo- 
sition; hence, we only find here the remains of 
woody plants, and of these usually only frag- 
ments. The most common plants are trunks 
and branches of Lepidodendron, Sigillaria and 
Calamites, also the nuts which have been de- 
scribed under the name of Trigonoearpon. Of 
all these, the calamites are the most common, 
and they are sometimes entire, showing not 
only the upper extremity but also the roots. 
More frequently, however, they are broken, 
and it is not at all uncommon to find the nuts 
to which I have referred, in the interior of a 
calamite, indicating that when floating about 





they were washed into the hollow, rush-like 
stem. Grenerall}', the plants of the conglomer- 
ate are represented simply by casts ; their car- 
bonaceous matter having been entirely re- 
moved. Occasionally, however, a sheet of coal 
is found, surrounding the cast of each, and in 
some localities ever}' plant is preserved in this 
way, the amount of coal enveloping the casts 
corresponding to the quantity of woody matter 
in the plant. Still more rarely, when many 
plants have accumulated, their carbon has 
made an irregular coal seam, but never exceed- 
ing a few inches in thickness, and a few rods 
or feet in extent. These coal seams, however, 
differ in many respects from coals of the over- 
lying coal measure, as they have no underclays, 
are very limited in extent, and evidently rep- 
resent heterogeneous collections of drifted, 
woody matter. The pebbles of the more peb- 
bl}^ portions of the conglomerate are sometimes 
as large as one's fist, but more generally range 
from the size of a hickory nut to that of an 
egg. They are most alwa}- s composed of quartz, 
but in every locality where they are abundant, 
more or less of them ma}' be found which are 
composed of quartzite or silicious slate, which 
shows lines of stratification. Sometimes these 
quartz pebbles, when in contact with the im- 
pressions of plants, are distinctly marked by 
such impressions. This circumstance has given 
rise to the theory that they are concretionary 
in character ; i. e., that they have been formed 
where found, and are not fragments of trans- 
ported quartz rock. There can be no question, 
however, that these pebbles are portions of 
quartz veins, which have been brought hun- 
dreds of miles from some area where meta- 
morphic crvstalliue rocks have suffered erosion. 
In process of transportation, the attrition to 
which these fragments were subjected, commi- 
nuted all but the most resistant, viz.: the 
quartz. The banded, silicious slates which are 
represented in the pebbles that accompany 
those of pure quartz, as well as the internal 
structure of the quartz-pebbles themselves, 
afford conclusive evidence that their origin is 
such as I have described. * * * * 

" All the southern part of Summit County is 
underlaid by the productive coal measures, and 
workable seams of coal are known to exist in 
Tallmadge, Springfield, Coventry, Norton, Cop- 
ley, Franklin and Green Townships. The line 
of the margin of the coal basin passes from 

Portage County into Summit in the northeast- 
ern portion of Tallmadge. It then runs west- 
erly nearly to Cuyahoga Falls, and then sweeps 
round to inclose what is known as Coal Hill ; 
the continuity of the coal measures being sev- 
ered by ' Long Swamp ' and the valley of Camp 
Brook. On the east side of this stream, the 
outcrop of the coal rocks passes southward to 
the valley of the Little Cuyahoga ; turning up 
this to the line of Portage County ; thence 
sweeping back on the south side of the valley 
across the township of Springfield to the vicin- 
ity of Middlebury. It thence runs southwest- 
erly to New Portage, where it crosses the Tus- 
carawas and strikes northwesterly through 
Norton and the corner of Copley to the Medina 
line. There is also a narrow patch of coal- 
measure rocks forming an isolated hill (Sher- 
bondy Hill) southwest of Akron, on the west 
side of Summit Lake. Along the line I have 
traced, we find the outcrops of only the lowest 
coal seam — Coal No. 1 (the Briar Hill coal) — 
and this not with any great constancy, inas- 
much as the coal occupies limited basins, and 
their margins are exceedingly sinuous and ir- 
regular. A large part of the territory which 
holds the place of the coal, fails to hold the 
coal itself, from one or the other of two causes, 
which frequently disappoint the miner in this 
region, as well as in the valley of the Mahon- 
ing. These causes are : First, that the lowest 
seam was formed from peat-like carbonaceous 
matter which accumulated on the irregular 
bottom of the old coal marsh, and the margin 
of this marsh ran into innumerable bights and 
channels, which were separated by ridges and 
hummocks where the coal was never deposited ; 
second, in many localities where the coal was 
once found, it was subsequently removed by 
erosion. The heavy bed of sandstone which 
lies a little above Coal No. 1, was deposited by 
currents of water moving rapidly and with such 
force as to cut away the coal in many channels, 
and leave in its place beds of sand, which, sub- 
sequently hardened, have become sandstone. 
These are frequently encountered by the miner, 
and are designated by him, as Iwrsehacks. 
Hence this excellent stratum of coal has been 
discovered to be wanting over much of the area 
where it was supposed to exist, and has there- 
fore been of less value to Summit County than 
was anticipated in the earlier days of coal min- 
ing. The first mineral coal used on the lake 



shore was sent to Cleveland b\^ ray father, 
Henry Newberrj^, from his mines in Tallmadge, 
in 1828. It was there offered as a substitute 
for wood in the generation of steam on the lake 
boats. Wood, however, was so abundant, and 
the population was so habituated to its use, that 
it proved ver^' difficult to supplant this by an}^ 
other fuel ; and it was necessary that nearly 
twenty years should pass before the value of 
the coal beds of Summit County was fully real- 
ized. Then coal-mining began with real vigor, 
and many thousand tons of excellent coal liave 
since been sent every year to Cleveland from 
the mines in Tallmadge and Springfield. As 
has been stated, the coal of these townships 
proved to be ver}' irregular in its distribution, 
and variable in thickness and quality. It is 
restricted to basins of limited extent, and is 
wanting over much of the area where it was 
supposed to be present. In the deeper por- 
tions of the basins or channels it occupies, the 
seam is from four and one-half to six feet in 
thickness, and the coal a bright, handsome 
open-burning variety, containing little sulphur, 
and a small percentage of ash. It is softer and 
more bituminous than the coal of the same 
seam in Mahoning and Trumbull Counties, 
but is still capable of being used in the raw 
state in the furnace, and is very highly valued 
both as a steam coal and a household fuel. In 
the southern part of the county. Coal No. 1 is 
more continuous, and has been proved, by recent 
researches to exist over a large part of Spring- 
field, Franklin and Green, and to reach into 
Coventry and Norton. Many mines have been 
opened in the townships referred to, and about 
two hundred and fift}' thousand tons are now 
sent from this region annuall}' to Cleveland. 
Most of this coal is similar in quality to that of 
Tallmadge, but in some localities, as at John- 
son's shaft in Franklin, we find a recurrence of 
the block charactei', which distinguishes the 
coal of the Mahoning Valley. In former years, 
nearly all of the coal used or exported from the 
count}', was mined in Tallmadge, and this 
mainly from ' Coal Hill,' which lies between the 
center of Tallmadge and CuA'alioga Falls. 
Several mines were once in active operation in 
this hill. Of these mines, that of Henry New- 
berry was situated at the north end of the hill, 
and those of Dr. D. Upson, Asaph Whittlesey 
and Francis Wright on the east side. On the 
opposite side of the valley, mines were opened 

b}' Mr. D. Harris and Dr. Amos Wright. In 
all these mines the coal has been nearly ex- 
hausted, as it was found to rise and run out 
in the interior of the hill. From this fact, a 
belief has come to be quite general, that the 
coal is pinched out in the body of this and 
other hills, by the weight of the superincum- 
bent material ; whereas, we have here only an 
instance of what has been before referred to, of 
the thinning out of the coal on the margin of 
the old coal swamp. In the central and east- 
ern portion of Tallmadge, most of the land rises 
high above the coal level, and basins of coal will 
doubtless be hereafter discovered there, but the 
same causes which have rendered coal mining 
so uncertain heretofore, will undoubtedly limit 
the productiveness of the nominally large coal 
area which is included within the township lines. 
In the southern part of Tallmadge, the surface 
is occupied by heav}' beds of drift, by which 
the underlying geology is very much obscured. 
Here, as in the adjoining township of Brimfield, 
in Portage County, nothing but patient and 
careful search will determine the limits of the 
basins of coal which unquestionably exist in 
this vicinity. As the dip of the coal rocks is 
toward the south and east, in Springfield, 
Grreen and Franklin, Coal No. 1 lies lower than 
in the more northerly townships where it occurs ; 
hence it can only be reached by boring, and 
that sometimes to the depth of 100 feet or per- 
haps even 200 feet. We have every reason to 
believe, however, that a considerable area in 
Green Township is underlaid b}' Coal No. 1, 
where it lies far below drainage ; and it is 
almost certain that careful search, by boring, 
will reveal the presence of basins of coal in this 
township, such as are not now suspected to ex- 
ist, and such as will contribute largelj' to the 
wealth of the count}-. 

''In Summit County the lowest seam of coal 
is usually separated from the conglomerate by 
an interval of from twenty-five to fift}' feet, 
which is filled with shale or shaly sandstone, 
and, immediately beneath the coal, by a seam 
of fire-clay, from two to six feet in tliickness. 
This fire-clay is, in some places, of good qualit}-, 
and may be used for fire-brick and pottery, 
but it is generally more sandy and contains 
more iron than the under-clay of the higher 
seam — Coal No. 3 — to which I shall have occa- 
sion to refer again. Coal No. 1 is usually 
overlaid immediately by gray shale, from ten 




to forty feet in thickness. This shale contains, 
especially where it forms the roof of the coal, 
large numbers of fossil plants, which are fre- 
quentl}' preserved in great beaut}' and profu- 
sion. About 150 species have already been 
collected from the shale of Coal No. 1, in the 
northern part of the State, and nearh' all of 
these are found in Summit Count}'. 

" Coal No. 2 is found thirty to fifty feet above 
Coal No. 1 in many parts of Summit Count}' — 
as in the Valley of the Mahoning — the second 
seam of coal in the ascending series, and which 
we have called Coal No. 2. It is usually from 
twelve to eighteen inches in thickness, and, 
though persistent over a large area, is nowhere 
in Summit County of workable thickness. 
Above Coal No. 2, and frequently cutting it 
out, is a bed of massive sandstone, which is a 
marked feature in "the geology of the county. 
This is well seen in Coal Hill, Tallmadge, and 
extends through the southern part of the county, 
passing through Stark, where, in the valley of 
the Tuscarawas, about and above Massillon, it 
is quarried in many places along the bank of 
the canal. The thickness of this sandstone 
varies very much in different localities, and it 
may be said to range from forty to one hundred 
feet. It is also somewhat variable in character, 
but is often massive, and affords a building- 
stone of excellent quality. It may generally 
be distinguished from the sandstones of the 
carboniferous conglomerate by the absence of 
quartz pebbles. So far as I know, no pebbles 
are found in the sandstone over the coal in 
Summit County. In Trumbull and Medina 
there are some local exceptions to this rule, for 
patches of conglomerate are sometimes found 
there immediately overlying the lowest coal 
seam. In Summit County the -pebble rock,' 
found in the explorations for coal, aflibrds infall 
ible evidence, when it is reached, that the hor- 
izon of the coal has been passed. 

" Coals Nos. 3 and 4 come next in order. 
Near Mogadore, in Springfield Township ; the 
higher lands are found to be underlaid by a 
stratum of limestone, beneath which are usually 
a thin seam of coal and a thick stratum of fire- 
clay, the latter supplying the material from 
which nearly all the stoneware of the county 
is manufactured. From twenty-five to forty 
feet aboA'e the limestone to which I have re- 
ferred, is another, which also overlies a coal 
seam. Both these mav be seen in Green 

Township, between Greenburg and Greentown, 
and they may be traced thence southerly, 
through Stark, Tuscarawas and Holmes Coun- 
ties, and, indeed, nearly or quite to the Ohio 
River. These are the limestone coals that 
will be found frequently referred to in the re- 
ports on the counties that have been mentioned, 
and those on Portage, Trumbull and Mahoning. 
The lowest of these limestones lies from 130 to 
ItiO above Coal No. 1; the upper limestone 
about 150 to 200 feet. Hent;e they will serve 
as useful guides in boring for the lower coal 
seam in those parts of the county where it lies 
considerably beneath the surface. 

" I have already alluded to the former pro- 
ductiveness of the coal mines of Tallmadge, 
and have mentioned the fact that most of these 
mines are now abandoned ; the basins of coal 
in which they were located having been practi- 
cally exhausted. Considerable coal is, how- 
ever, still produced in the township, and it is 
altogether probable, that with proper search, 
other basins will be discovered, from which its 
coal industry will be revived. The ' Centre ' 
and a large area north, south and east of it, lie 
considerably above the coal level, and as the 
dip is southeast, there are some localities where 
the horizon of the coal is nearly one hundred 
and fifty feet below the surface. Over most of 
the district I have mentioned, borings should be 
made to at least the depth of one hundred feet 
befoi'e the search is abandoned. It should be 
remembered, too, that the basins of Coal No. 1 
are frequently narrow, and the territory will 
only be fairly tested by borings made at fre- 
quent intervals. The principal center of coal 
industry in the county at present, is in Spring- 
field and Coventry. Steer's Mine, the mines of 
the Brewster Coal Company, and Brewster 
Brothers, and the Middlebury Shaft — all located 
near the line between the above mentioned 
townships— are now producing a large quantity 
of coal for shipment to Akron and Cleveland. 
The maximum thickness of the coal seam here 
is about five feet, and it thins out on all sides 
toward the margin of the basin. Doubtless here, 
as elsewhere, the basins of coal are connected, 
and future explorations will result in tracing 
such connection south and east into other im- 
portant deposits. ****** 

" At the Franklin Coal Company's mine, in 
the Northern part of Franklin, the coal is four 
and a half feet thick, of good quality, closely 




resembling that obtained at Massillon. It lies 
from sixty to one hundred feet below the sur- 
face, the massive sand rock above it ranging 
from forty to fift^^ feet in thickness. In the 
southwest corner of Franklin Township, the coal 
where opened is not as thick or as good as in 
the last-mentioned localities. At Steer's new 
shaft in Coventry, the coal is 4|- feet thick, 
90 to no feet from the surface, overlaid b}^ 15 
feet of black shale and from 30 to 40 feet of 
sandstone. Little coal has yet been mined here, 
but it seems to be of excellent quality. A sec- 
tion taken near the north line of Franklin Town- 
ship includes the following strata : 

1. Sandstone 40 to 60 feet. 

3. Shale 20 to 30 feet. 

3. Hard iron ore 1 foot. 

4. Coal 4ifeet. 

" On the land of Mr. Thomas Britton, one 
and a half miles east of Middlebury, is an im- 
portant deposit of iron ore, which I refer, with 
some hesitation, to the horizon of Coal No. 1. 
The drift from which the ore is taken exposes 
four feet of rock, which includes a thickness of 
about two feet of ore. Sherbondy Hill, west of 
Akron, is capped with the coal rocks, but gives 
no indication of any valuable deposit of coal. 
A band of iron ore, similar in character to that 
referred to above, but thinner, is exposed in this 
locality. A sheet of the coal measures under- 
lies the surface in the west part of Norton Town- 
ship, and a small area in Copley', but up to the 
present time no important coal strata have been 
found there. A boring made half a mile north 
of the center of Norton revealed the following 
section : 

1. Earth 17 feet. 

2. Shale 16 feet. 

3. Conglomerate 75 feet. 

All the borings made for coal in the township 
give similar results, the conglomerate being 
struck after passing through a thin bed of coal 
shale. ******** 

" The fire-claj^ which underlies Coal No. 3 
has already become one of the important ele- 
ments of wealth to the county. This deposit, in 
parts of Summit County, is of unusual thickness 
and purity, making excellent stoneware and fire- 
brick. It is estimated that there are produced 
from this stratum of clay in Springfield Town- 
ship alone, about one and a half millions of gal- 
lons of stoneware each year ; and a very large 
amount of the material is transported into other 
parts of the county and State. It is of interest 

to notice in this connection that this bed of fire- 
clay is the same with that worked at Atwater, 
in Portage, and still more extensively in Co- 
lumbiana Count3\ Over how large an area in 
Summit County it maintains the dimensions 
and excellence it exhibits in Springfield, we 
have, as yet, no means of knowing. At East 
Liberty it is apparently of good thickness and 
quality, but in central and southern Stark 
County — where exposed in the valleys of the 
Nimisiiillen and Sandy — it is of less value. The 
Springfield clay is eminentl}^ plastic, and hence 
better fitted for stoneware than fire-brick, but 
by mixing it largely with sand, and, still better, 
with the hard clay of Mineral Point, Mr. J. 
Parke Alexander, of Akron, has produced fire- 
brick scarcely inferior in quality to an}'- other 
made in the State, or even any imported. To 
get the best results with this clay alone, in mak- 
ing fire-brick, it should be first ground, made 
into a paste, and this burned, then again coarsely 
ground and the fragments cemented with one- 
sixth to one-tenth of fresh plastered clay, 
molded and burned again. 

" The following analyses will give additional 
information in regard to the useful minerals of 
this countv. They were made by Dr. Worm ley. 
State Chemist, with the exception of No. 4, 
which was made by Prof W. W. blather : 

1. Peat — Coventry Peat Company, Coventry. 

Ultimate Composition in Normal State. Per cent. 

Carbon 50.56 

Hydroijen 6.43 

Nitrogen 1.23 

Sulplmr 0.33 

Oxygen 34.85 

Ash 6.6 


Moisture 10.40 

Consisting of hydrogen 4.15 

Oxygen 6.25 

2. Coal No. 1 — Johnson's shaft, Franklin Town- 

3. Coal No. 1 — Franklin Coal Company, Frank- 
lin Township. 

4. Coal No. 1 — D. Upson's mine, Tallmadge 

5. Coal No. 3 — Greentown, both benches. 

Specific gravity 


Volatile combust, matter.. 

Fixed Carbon 







No. 3. No. 4. 

No. 5. 









No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. No. 4. 

Sulphur.... 0.93 0.799 0.549 1.73 

Ash White. White White. 

Colie Compact. Compact Compact. 

6. Iron Ore— H. Roberts, Middlebury. 

7. Iron Ore— Over Coal No. 3, Greentown. 

Specific gravity 

Moisture combined. 
Silicious matter. . . . 
Iron, Carbonate . . . . 
Iron, Sesquioxide. . . 



Lime phosphate . . . . 
Lime carbonate .... 
Magnesia carbonate 


Phosphoric acid . . . 

No. 6. 1 No. 7. 










99.10 100.333 

Metallic Iron 

Phosphoric acid 

8. Fire Clay — Mogadore. 

9. Fire Clay— East Liberty. 



No. 8. 


No. 9. 

Water (combined) 

7 00 

Silicic acid 











Potash and soda 




The foregoing comprises the geology of Sum- 
mit County, together with its coal deposits 
and mineral resources. Closely connected with 
the geology of a country is the science of agri- 
culture. Indeed, "the geology of a countr3'," it 
has been truthfully said, "determines the char- 
acter of the industrial vocation of the inhabit- 
ants of that country." In accordance with the 
geological formations, mining, farming, herding 
flocks, manufacturing, or even fishing, becomes 
the prominent industry. "From the connection 
of geology with agriculture, mining and manu- 
factures, it ma}^ be said that in its different 
branches this science lies at the foundation of 
our modern civilization, inasmuch as the occu- 
pations, the wealth and power of communities 
and nations, in many, we may, perhaps, sa}' in 
most, instances, depend directly upon the char- 
acter, structure and resources of that portion 
of the earth which the}^ inhabit."* From the 

* state Report. 

wealth, then, of Mother Earth, we draw our 
sustenance, and when we have run out our 
span of life, we return to her sheltering bosom. 

" Where is the dust that has not been alive? 
The spade, the plow, disturb our ancestors; 
From human mold we reap our daily bread." 

It is said that the agriculture of the State of 
Ohio may be regarded, in a general sense, as 
"being of a mixed character." The same may 
very truthfully be said of Summit County. 
Its agricultural resources are not only exten- 
sive, but the adaptability of the soil in the dif- 
ferent sections of the count}^ to agriculture, is 
to be found in but few counties of the State. 
In the southern part, wheat is the main staple ; 
in the central and northern portions, grazing, 
perhaps, predominates, while corn is exten- 
sively grown. In the last State Agricultui-al 
Report, we find, pertaining to Summit County, 
the following statistics : 

Wheat, 25,955 acres, yielding 518,979 bush- 
els ; rye, 852 acres, yielding 5,150 bushels ; 
oats, 14,284 acres, yielding 542,382 bushels ; 
barley, 63 acres, yielding 14,010 bushels ; corn, 
15,422 acres, yielding 1,077,945 bushels; tim- 
othy, 22,788 acres, j'ielding 31,951 tons of hay ; 
clover, 4,882 acres, yielding 6,910 tons of hay. 
While much attention is devoted to stock-rais- 
ing, the breeding of fine stock is not carried to 
that extent that it is in man}' sections of Ohio. 
More attention is given to cattle and sheep 
than to other stock, and to the two (cattle and 
sheep) the former is considered of more value 
in this community, and the dairy business is 
one of the largest ' interests of the agricultural 
class, not only of Summit Count}- but of the 
Western Reserve. From the State Report 
above quoted, we extract the following of this 
county : " Number of cattle, 24,348, value, 
$364,184 ; number of pounds of butter, 775,- 
915 ; number of pounds of cheese, 1,389,735." 
The same report has the following in regard to 
the dairy business of the Reserve : " x\lready, 
complaints are made that dairy farming is 
deteriorating the soil, but this complaint can 
scarcely be well founded, or, if well founded, 
must have reference more to the mechanical 
than tlie chemical condition of the soil. Soils 
very similar, geologically considered, haA'e been 
pastured and tilled in England since the days 
of the Saxon heptarchy, and no recuperating 
process practiced until within the past hundred 
years, and yet these British soils were at no 




time barren. There is no distinctive breed of 
cattle recognized on the Reserve as being pecu- 
liarly a dairy breed, but those in highest favor 
are generally a cross breed, such as short-horn 
or Devon crossed on the ' native.' * '"' * 
The factory system of cheese-making was in- 
troduced some years since, and has proved 
eminently successful. Having no reliable statis- 
tics at hand, there is no hazard in stating that 
there are fuU^' one hundred and fifty factories in 
active operation at the present time." Our 
space, however, will not admit of an extended 
notice in this connection, but the subject will 
be alluded to again in the several township 
histories. In addition to the cattle statistics of 
the count}' from the same report, we gather the 
following ; Number of horses, 8,552, value, 
$-169,010; number of mules, 179, value, $8,750 ; 
number of hogs, 11,577, value, $32,220 ; num- 
ber of sheep, 24,965, value, $58,817 ; number 
of pounds of wool shorn, 75,168. 

Without going further into this branch of the 
subject, we will now give place to the following- 
interesting sketch of the Agricultural Society 
of Summit County, prepared especially for 
this work by S. A. Lane, Esq., and which will be 
found of value to our readers : 

The loss, by fire, of the records pertaining to 
the Agricultural Societ}- matters of Summit 
County prior to 1859, made the task of collat- 
ing the proper materials for the commencement 
of this chapter somewhat difficult, there being 
radical differences in the recollections of the 
several living participants upon whom the writ- 
er called for information. By a patient search 
of the files of the Summit County Beacon of 
those da^'s, though its columns were far less 
prolific of local news then than now, we have 
been able to present to the reader a reliable, if 
not a very attractive, resume of the matters 
proper to be here treated of Though for some 
years there had been a growing interest in the 
subject thi;oughout the State, and, under the 
fostering care and aid given thereto b}' the Leg- 
islature of Ohio, a State Agricultural Society, 
and quite a number of county societies, had 
been organized previous to that date, the first 
move looking to the organization of a society 
in Summit County, was in 1849. From his po- 
sition as Auditor of the county, N. W. Good- 
hue, Esq., had abundant opportunity to ascer- 
tain the views of the people of the county upon 
the subject, and, believing, after consultation 

with Col. Simon Perkins and others, that a fa- 
vorable and hearty response would be made 
thereto, on the 31st day of October, 1849, Mr. 
Goodhue caused to be published in the Beacon 
the following notice : 


I, N. W. Goodhue, Auditor of Summit County, 
Ohio, hereby give notice that a public meeting will 
be held at the court house, in Akron, on the 14th 
day of November next, at 2 o'clock, P. M., for the 
purpose of perfecting the organization of a County 
Agricultural Society, the preliminary steps contem- 
plated in the act of March, 1839, having been al- 
ready taken. 

Nath'l W. Goodhue, 
County Auditor. 
Aiiditor's Office, Summit Co., ) 
Akron, October 31, 1849. \ 

An editorial in the same issue of the Beacon 
thus calls attention to the above notice : 

Attention is called to the notice of the Auditor, 
in another cohuiin, issued in pursuance of law, for 
an agricultural meeting on the 14th proximo. We 
rejoice that a move has been made in the matter, by 
the agriculturists of Summit County. The neigh- 
boring counties have their agricultural associations 
in successful operation. They have seen and felt 
the advantages flowing from them. And while the 
whole State seems to be awakening to a new inter- 
est, and searching after an improved agriculture, it 
would be mortifying to see the experienced and en- 
terprising farmers of Summit County asleep. Speed 
the plow ! Let tlie good work go forAvard in earn- 
est ! 

In the Beacon of November 21, 1849, ap- 
pears the following official report of the pro- 
ceedings of this preliminary meeting : 


Agreeably to public notice, previously given, a 
large number of gentlemen met in the court house 
in Akron, at 2 o'clock P. M., November 14, 1849, for 
the purpose of perfecting the organization of a 
County Agricubural Society. The meeting was 
called to order hy the County xluditor. A tempo- 
rary organization was liad by appointing Capt. 
Amos Seward, President; H. G. Weaver, Vice Presi- 
dent and Nathaniel W. Goodhue, Secretary. After 
the object of the meeting had been stated, the 
Chair, on motion, appointed a committee of five to 
report a constitution and code of by-laws for tlie 
government of tlie society, consisting of Lucius W. 
Hitchcock and William A. Hanford, of Tallmadge; 
Talman Beardsley, of Coventry'; Sylvester H. 
Thompson, of Hudson, and John Hoy, of Franklin. 
On motion, a committee of one from each township 
was appointed to procure members to the society as 
follows: Bath, William Hale; Boston, Hiram V. 
Bronson; Copley, Jonathan Starr; Coventry, Avery 
Spicer; Franklin, John Hoy; Green, Alexander 
Johnston; Hudson, Van R. Humphrey; Northamp- 






ton, Reese Jones; Northfield, John C. Wallace; 
Norton, Henry Van Hyning; Portage, Lucius V. 
Bicrce; Riclificld, Isaac T. Welton; Spring-field, 
Henry G. Weaver; Stow, Edwin Wetmore: Tall- 
madge, Samuel Treat; Twinsburg, Lyman Cham- 
berlain; Akron, Lucius S. Peck; Middlebury, Na- 
thaniel W. Goodhue; Cuyahoga Falls, Henry Wet- 
more; Hudson, Sylvester H. Thompson. 

On motion, Lucius V. Bierce and Van R. Hum- 
phrey, Esqs., were requested to deliver addresses 
at the next meeting. 

On motion, ordered that the proceedings of the 
meeting be published in the several papers of the 
county. On motion, adjourned to meet in the court- 
room "on Wednesdaj^ the 28th inst., at 10 o'clock 

Amos Seward, President. 

H. G. Weaver, Vice President. 

N. W. GooBHUE, Secretari/. 

From a postscript attached to the foregoing 
report, it is learned, that at this meeting, about 
sevent}' names were presented for membership. 
In the Beacon of December 5, 1849, is found 
the full report of the second meeting of the 
embryo society, as follows : 

agriculturaIj meeting. 

The Summit County Agricultural Society met 
November 28, at 1 o'clock P. M., pursuant to ad- 
jom'nment, and was called to order by Capt. Amos 
Seward, Chairman. In the absence of Henry G. 
Weaver, Vice President, Milo Stone, Esq., of Tall- 
madge, was chosen Vice President. 

On motion, a committee of one from each town- 
ship represented, was appointed by the Chair, to 
recommend oflicers for the .society. 

Committee appointed at former meeting, reported 
a constitution for the society, as folloAvs: 

■'Article 1. This society shall be called the Sum- 
mit County Agricultural Society. 

"Art. 2. The officers of this society shall consist 
of a President, Vice President, Secretary, Treasurer 
and five managers, who, together, shall constitute a 
Board of Directors for the general management of 
the affairs of the society; they shall be elected an- 
nually by the members of the society, and hold 
their offices until their successors are appointed. 
The President shall preside at all meetings of the 
society, and of the Board of Directors; sign orders 
on the Treasurer for awards of premiums and other 
appropriations of the Board of Directors. The 
Vice President, in the absence of the President, 
shall be the presiding officer of the society and 
Board. The Secretary shall keep an accurate record 
of the proceedings of the society, and of the Board 
of Directors; attend to correspondence ordered by 
the Board, and report annually to tlie State Board 
of Agriculture. The Treasurer shall receive the 
funds of the society, and pay them in accordance 
with the awards of the committees on premiums, 
and the votes of the Board of Directors, upon the 
order of the President, and shall, at the annual 
meeting, render a full account of his doings. The 
Board of Directors shall meet at the call of the 

President; a majority shall constitute a quorum for 
the transaction of business, and the Board shall 
have power to transact all business for the society, 
that shall not conflict with this instrument. 

"art, 3. Members of this society must be res- 
idents of this county, and pay $1 annually to the 
Treasurer of the society. 

"Art. 4. All competitors for premiums nuist be 
members of the society. 

"iVRT. 5. A list of the premiums offered by the .so- 
ciety must be printed in the several newspapers pub- 
lished in the county, at least one month previous to 
the day of exhibition. 

"Art. 6. All articles offered for premiums must 
be owned by the persons offering the same, or by 
members of their families, and products of the soil, 
or manufactured articles, must be produced or man- 
ufactured within the county. 

"Art. 7. Premiums on grain and grass crops shall 
not be awarded for less than one acre. 

"Art. 8. The awarding committees shall consist 
of three persons each, and shall be annually ap- 
pointed by the Directors of the society. 

"Art. 9. The annual exhibition of the society 
shall be held between the 1st day of September and 
the 1st day of November in each year, of which no- 
tice shall be given with the list of premiums offered. 

"Art. 10. The annual meeting of this society 
shall be at the court house, on the third Wednesday 
in November of each year, at 10 o'clock A. M., at 
which time oflicers of the society shall be chosen. 

"Art. 11. This Constitution may be amended at 
any regular meeting, by a majority of the votes cast." 

L. V. Bierce, Esq., addressed the meeting. 

Committee reported oflBcers for the society, which 
report was accepted, and the persons recommended 
were unanimously chosen officers of the society, as 
follows : Simon Perkins, President ; Henry G. Wea- 
ver, Vice President ; William A. Hanford, Secretary ; 
William H. Dewey, Treasurer ; John Hoy, Sylvester 
H. Thompson, Avery Spicer, Philo C. Stone aud 
James W. Weld, Managers. 

On motion— " Eesohed : That the thanks of this 
society be presented to L. V. Bierce, Esq., for his 
interesting address, and that he be requested to fur- 
nish a copy for publication." 

Mr. J. Teesdale presented a circular from the St ate 
Board of Agriculture, which was referred to the 
President, Secretary and Capt. Amos Seward for 
reply. On motion, adjourned. 

Amos Seward, President. 
Mn.o Stone, Vice President. 
N. W. Goodhue, Secretari/. 

Thus was the " Summit County Agricultural 
Society " duly and legally organized, and en- 
titled to draw from the county treasury, yearly, 
for its support, the sum of $137.50, as provided 
by law. The various oflicers, directors and 
committees, together with the people of the 
county, generally, both farmers and villagers, 
from this time on worked heartily and cordially 
for the success of the society, and for the 
favorable outcome of its first annual fair. In 





the Beacon of August 21, 1850, appears this 
announcement : 


The Board of Directors for the Summit County 
Agricultural Society will meet at the office of L. V. 
Bierce, Esq., on Tliursday, the 22dinst., at 1 o'clock 
P. M., to appoint committees to award premiums at 
the Annual Fair, to be held at Akron, on the 2d and 
3d days of October next. Those who have obtained 
members will please forward the names and money 
to th(! Auditor's office at Akron. 

Simon Perkins, President. 
W. A. IIanpord, Secretary. 

Akron, August 19, 1850. 

In the Beacon of September 11, 1850, ap- 
pears the premium list, offering premiums rang- 
ing from $1 to 1^8 on cattle ; from $3 to $8 on 
horses ; from $2 to $5 on sheep ; from $2 to $4 
on swine ; best kept dair}^, $10 ; best butter, 
$3 ; best cheese, $3 ; from $1 to $3 on farm 
implements ; from 50 cents to $3 on domestic 
manufactures ; from $2 to $3 on factory flan- 
nels and cloths ; $1 on grains and seeds ; from 
$1 to $2 on vegetables and fruits ; from $1 to 
$5 on field crops. Following, is a list of the 
awarding committees : Cattle — Milo Stone, of 
Tallmadge ; Frederick Baldwin, of Hudson ; 
Marcus Newton, of Richfield, Horses — Thad- 
deus H. Botsford, of Middlebuiy ; John Hoy, 
of Franklin ; Henry Van Hyning, of Norton. 
Saxony Sheep — John Brown (old " Ossawata- 
mie " of Harper's Ferry fame), of Portage; Jus- 
tin P. Goodale, of Middlebury ; Anson A. 
Brewster, of Hudson. Merino and other Sheep 
— Isaac T. Welton, of Richfield ; Jacob Allen, 
of Akron ; Jonathan Starr, of Copley. Swine 
— Miner Spicer, of Akron ; William Wetmore, 
of Stow ; Simon P. Starr, of Copley. Dairies 
— Edgar B. Ellsworth, of Hudson ; John B. 
Clark, of Hudson ; Ethan Ailing, of Twinsburg. 
Butter and Cheese— Mrs. Dana D. Evans, of 
Akron ; Mrs. Daniel Hine, of Tallmadge ; Mrs. 
Amos Avery, of Tallmadge ; Mrs. P^dwin Wet- 
more, of Stow. Farm Implements — Samuel 
Treat, of Tallmadge ; Alexander Johnston, of 
Green ; Mills Thompson, of Hudson. Domes- 
tic Manufactures — Mrs. Henry G. Weaver, of 
Springfield ; Mrs. George Kirkum, of Akron ; 
Mrs. John Hoy, of Franklin ; Mrs. N. W. Good- 
hue, of Middlebury. Factory Products — Ros- 
well Kent, of Middlebury ; Anson A. Brewster, 
of Hudson ; Orlando Hall, of Akron ; Grains 
and Seeds — Nathaniel Fiuch, of Akron ; Will- 
iam Hale, of Bath ; Philo Atwood, of Spring- 

field. Vegetables and Fruits — Van R. Hum- 
phrey, of Hudson ; Lucius S. Peck, of Portage ; 
Prof Sej-mour, of Hudson. Field Crops — 
Clark Sackett, of Tallmadge ; John Hall, of 
Springfield ; Talmon Beardsley, of Coventiy. 
Non-enumerated Articles — Joseph Hawkins, of 
Twinsburg ; Peter Voris, of Bath ; Daniel Hine, 
of Tallmadge. A " plowing match " was also 
announced for the second day of the fair ; pre- 
miums, $5 and $3. No trotting nor racing pre- 
miums were offered. 

The Beacon of September 18, 1850, editorially 
says : 

We are gratified to find that much interest is 
being awakened in the approaching agricultural 
fair in this county. As there has not been an ex- 
hibition of that character in the county since its 
organization, those who have charge of the arrange- 
ments have not the benefit of that amount of expe- 
rience they Avould like in the performance of their 
dutj'. Still, they have done and will do what they 
can. The work of preparation should be entered 
into in earnest. Hundreds can contribute their mite 
to the interest of the occasion. Let the exhibition 
be worthy of the object in view, and let there be a 
gathering which will render the day a memorable 

The First Fair, October 2 and 3, 1850.— 
Having no grounds nor buildings of its own, by 
permission of the County Commissioners, the 
court house and surrounding grounds were 
made use of b}'^ the society in giving its initial 
exposition. In the Beacon of October 16, 1850, 
is the official report of President Perkins and 
Secretary Hanford, together with a full list of 
the premiums awarded, aggregating about $100 
— quite a sum, when it is considered that no 
entrance fees on articles exhibited were 
charged, while admission to the fair was also 
free. " A team of thirty-four 3'oke of oxen, 
from Tallmadge, and another of fifteen span of 
horses, from the same town, attracted consider- 
able attention," says the report. Gen L. V. 
Bierce, of Akron, delivered the annual ad- 

The Beacon of same date editorially says : 

The highest expectations were more than realized. 
The attendance on both days was very large, several 
thousand persons being present, all of whom seemed 
inspired by the happiest spirit, and abundant ly 
compensated for what of labor and care was inci- 
dent to the exhibition. * * * The display of stock 
was unexpectedly good, the arrangements being 
such as to give a fair opportunity for exhibiting the 
animals brought in. The specimens of fruit, grain 
and vegetables were exceedingly fine. * * * A va- 
riety of farming implements were exhibited. * * * 



The court-house was fitted up for the horticultural 
exhibition and the handiwork of Flora. The high- 
est praise is due to the ladies for their taste in adorn- 
ing the room, and the myriad evidences of their skill 
displayed on every hand. The pyramid of flowers, 
prepared at Mrs. Dodge's, and the various smaller 
pyramids and rich bouquets exhibited, were the cen- 
ter of attraction, exciting universal praise by their 
gorgeous display of colors. The display of" fancy 
needle-work would have excited admiration any- 
where. Among other things exhibited in the ladies' 
department, worthy of note, were a variety of bed- 
quilts ; a counterpane, richly worked ; worsted work ; 
a strcm-bonnet made from straw raised in this county ; 
.some fancy cotton work, etc., etc. * * * An exhi- 
bition terminating so propitiously cannot but lead 
the way to others, and establish permanently a so- 
ciety whose first fruits are so pleasant to the eye and 
taste. In the awards of the future the managers of 
the fair should not be forgotten. 

/Second Annual Meeting. — The second annual 
meeting of the society was held at the court 
house, November 20, 1850. Treasurer Dewey 
reported : " Total receipts, $327.58 : total pay- 
ments to date, $221.86; balance in treasury, 
$105.72 — $100 of which is due for premiums." 
Officers were chosen for the ensuing- year, as 
follows : Simon Perkins, of Portage, President ; 
Amos Seward, of Tallmadge, Vice President ; 
Nelson B. Stone, of Akron, Treasurer ; Nathan- 
iel W. (loodhue, of Middlebury, Secretary ; 
Henry Van Hyning, of Norton ; Daniel Hine, of 
Tallmadge ; JNIilo Stone, of Tallmadge ; James 
M. Hale, of Akron, and Harvey Baldwin, of 
Hudson, Managers. On motion, the thanks of 
the society were presented to Secretary Will- 
iam A. Hanford, and his assistants, Messrs N. 
W. Goodhue and C. B. Bernard, for their serv- 
ices to the societ}'. 

Second Annual Fair. — In the Beacon of Sep- 
tember 10, 1851, appears the notice of Presi- 
dent Perkins and Secretary (xoodhue, announc- 
ing the second annual fair of the society, to be 
held at the court house in Akron, October 16 
and 17, with a somewhat enlarged premium list. 
Committees ns follows : Cattle — John Newton, 
of Richfield : Perry C. Carotliers. of Tallmadge ; 
Frederick Baldwin, of Hudson. JMilch Cows — 
William II. Devyey, of Akron ; Joseph Haw- 
kins, of Twinsburg ; Clark Sackett, of Tall- 
madge. Oxen — Perley Mansur, of Hudson ; 
Isaac T. Welton, of Richfield ; Kbenezer Par- 
dee, of Norton. Fat Oxen — Dennis A. Hine, 
of Middlebury ; David French, of Green ; 
Henry Van Hyning. of Norton. Best ten yoke '■ 
oxen in a strin<j:. from one township, and best 
ten span horses — Jedediah D. Cominins. of ! 

Akron ; Charles W. Brown, of Portage ; Charles 
B. Cobb, of Akron. Horses — Thaddeus H. 
Botsford, of Middlebury ; John Miller, of Nor- 
ton ; Ezra Starkweather, of Twinsburg. Long- 
wool Sheep — Jacob Allen, of Akron ; William 
Hale, of Bath ; Samuel N. Goodale, of Akron. 
Merinos— James W. Wallace, of Northfield ; 
Jonathan Starr, of Copley ; Van R. Humphrey, 
of Hudson. Saxons — William A. Hanford, of 
Cuyahoga Falls ; Lucius W. Hitchcock, of Tall- 
madge ; Peter A. More, of Copley. Swine — 
Avery Spicer, of Coventry ; George Darrow, 
of Hudson ; John Hoy, of Franklin. Pottery 
Ware — Allan Hibbard, Lorenzo B. Austin and 
James Christy, all of Akron. Farming Imple- 
ments, First Class — Alexander Johnston, of 
Green ; Benjamin Bear, of Franklin ; Samuel 
M. Combs, of Tallmadge. Second Class- 
John B. Clark, of Hudson ; George Lillie, of 
Northfield ; Talmon Beardsley, of Coventry. 
Harness Work — Jonathan Page, of Richfield ; 
John Johns, of Middlebury ; Harvey S. Weld, 
of Richfield. Boots and Shoes — Zebulon Jones, 
of Akron ; Peter Voris, of Bath ; John M. 
Cutler, of Akron. Stoves, Castings and 3Ia- 
chinery — Bradbury T. Blodgett, of Akron ; 
Harrison N. Gillett, of Cuyahoga Falls ; Will- 
iam S. Irish, of Middlebury. Carriages, etc. — 
David A. Scott, Lewis, Benjamin and Nathan- 
iel Finch, all of Akron. Musical Instruments 
— ^Amos Wright, of Tallmadge ; George P. 
Ashmun, of Hudson ; Henry Bill, of Cuyahoga 
Falls. Cabinet Ware — Henry S. Abbe}', of 
Akron ; Joseph T. HoUoway, of Cuyahoga 
Falls ; Henry B. Horton, of Akron. Blank 
Books, etc. — Elisha N. Sill, of Cuyahoga Falls ; 
Lucius S. Peck and Jared Jennings, of Akron. 
Flannels, etc. — Mrs. Henry G. Weaver, of 
Springfield ; Mrs. Elias W. Howard, Mrs. 
George Kirkum and Mrs. Allan Hibbard, of 
Akron. Linens — Mrs. Louisa A. Baldwin, of 
Middlebury ; Mrs. Harvey Baldwin, of Hud- 
son ; Miss Sarah A. Stone, of Tallmadge ; Mr. 
Alvin C. Voris, of Akron. Stockings, etc.— 
Mrs. Dana D. Evans, of Akron ; Mrs. Ira Haw- 
kins, of Portage; Mrs. Daniel Hine and 3Irs. 
Lucius C. Walton, of Tallmadge. Factors- 
Products — Roswell Kent, of Midcllebury ; Har- 
vey B. Spell man, of Akron, and Ezra S. Corn- 
stock, of Cuyahoga Falls. Grains and Seeds 
— Solomon Markliam, of Green ; Jeremiah B. 
Lambert, of Bath ; Andrew Harris of Spring- 
field. Vegetables and Fruits — Daniel McNaugh- 



ton, of Middlebury ; John E. King, and Lu- 
cius V. Bierce, of Akron. Crops — Daniel Hine, 
of Tallraadge ; Aver}' Spicer, of Coventry ; 
Edwin Wetmore, of Stow. Farms — Jolm C. 
Wallace, of Northfield ; James W. Weld, of 
Richfield ; Andrew Hale, of Bath. Butter — 
Mrs. Samuel M. Combs, of Tallmadge ; Mrs. 
John Hoy, of Franklin ; Mrs. William L. 
Clarke, and Mrs. Frederick Wadsworth of Ak- 
ron. Cheese — Mrs. Simon Perkins and Mrs. 
Sebried Dodge, of Portage ; Mrs. Mills Thomp- 
son, of Hudson ; Mrs. William L. Clarke, of 
Akron. Fancy-work — Mrs. Henry W. King, of 
Akron ; Mrs. Lucius C. Walton, of Tallmadge ; 
Mrs. George E. Pierce, of Hudson ; Mrs. Hoyt 
L. Henry, of Middlebury ; Mrs. John B. Clark, 
of Hudson ; Mr. Charles B. Bernard, of Akron. 

Of this second exhibition, the Beacon, of Oc- 
tober 22, 1851, says : 

The annual fair of the Summit County Agricult- 
ural Society was held on Thursday and Friday of 
last week. They were festive days among the 
farmers of Summit, and such a congregating to- 
gether of the true nobility of our county — the toil- 
ing masses, whose brows are browned by heaven's 
sunlight, whose hands are hardened by honest toil, 
and whose hearts are softened by the kindlier sym- 
pathies of humanity — we have rarely seen. The 
turn-out was tremendous, exceeding "largely, it is 
thought, that of last year. There was a perfect 
jam in and around the court house throughout each 
day, rendering it almost impossible to see many ob- 
jects of interest, and demonstrating the absolute 
necessity of erecting a suitable building for the fut- 
ure agricultural and mechanical exhibitions of the 
county. * * * Hon. Van R. Humphrey, of 
Hudson, delivered an address to the multitude, 
who were assembled in the court house inclosure 
for want of a building of sufficient capacity to re- 
ceive them. It was listened to with interest and 
profit, and was in keeping with the interest of the 
occasion. *^ * * It will afford much gratification 
to our citizens generally to learn that Col. Simeon 
Perkins, the President of the society, with a munifi- 
cence characteristic of the man, has donated to the 
society several acres south of Akron, admirably 
adapted for future exhibitions, the erection of suit- 
able buildings, etc., for the use of the society. A 
subscription'was started for inclosing the ground, 
and we cannot permit ourselves to doubt the suc- 
cess of the laudable enterprise. 

In the BeMcon of November 26, 1851, is the 
official report of the annual meeting of the so- 
ciety for 1851, held in the court house Novem- 
ber 19. The officers elected for the ensuing 
year were as follows : President, Avery Spicer, 
of Coventry ; Vice President, Daniel Hine, of 
Tallmadge ; Secretary, Nathaniel W. Goodhue, 
of Middlebury ; Treasurer, Nelson B. Stone, of 

Akron. Managers — Peter Voris, of Bath ; 
Thomas H. Goodwin, of Akron ; Isaac T. Wel- 
ton, of Richfield ; Samuel M. Combs, of Tall- 
madge ; Solomon Markham, of Green. A com- 
mittee of one from each township and village 
in the county was appointed "to solicit sub- 
scriptions to defray the expenses to be incurred 
during the coming year in the erection of suit- 
able buildings and fences and preparing other 
permanent fixtures for the use of the society." 
Among the proceedings of this meeting is 
found this highly commendable item : 

Resolved, That this society will award no premi- 
ums on anything that will intoxicate. 

At a meeting of the Directors, held at the 
court house, it was arranged that the fair for 
1852 should be held on Wednesday and Thurs- 
da}', October 6 and 7, at the court house, the 
new grounds donated by Col. Perkins not being 
yet fitted up. The premium list, as published 
in the Beacon of September 8, is about the 
same as in 1851, and the committees judi- 
ciously selected from every portion of the 
county. The court-room was used solely as a 
floral and fine-art department. A small admis- 
sion fee to this department was charged, the 
receipts being something over $100. The hall 
was occupied by a display of fashionable fur- 
niture, stoves, etc. On the north side of the 
building was erected a temporary frame struct- 
ure, forty by sixty feet, for the display of 
fancy work, mechanical products, farming im- 
plements, vegetables, fruits, etc. Horses, cattle, 
sheep, hogs, poultry, etc., were grouped, at con- 
venience of exhibitors, in various parts of the 
inclosure. In its editorial notice of this Third 
Annual Fair, the Beacon, of October 13, 1852, 
says : " It was attended by a larger number 
of persons, and, what is equally gratifying, the 
exhibition, taken as a whole, was, undoubtedl}', 
far in advance of its predecessors. * * * 
The gorgeous flower-tree, nearly ten feet high, 
blazing with dahlias of every conceivable shade, 
was a thing of beauty. * * * From the 
garden of Hon. E. N. Sill, of Cuyahoga Falls, 
as also from the gardens of Col. Perkins and 
Mrs. Dodge, were some of the finest dahlias 
we have ever seen. A design of cut flowers 
of every variety, arranged lay Mr. Thomas 
Wills, Mr. Sill's gardener, excited universal 
admiration. * * * But one opinion was 
expressed on one point, viz. : the necessity of 
the immediate erection of suitable buildings 


^ 6) 




for the agi'icultural fairs of Summit. It is 
foll}^ to expend more on temporary buildings. 
If eacli townsliip will move and select a good 
committee-man, as Tallmadge has done, the 
amount for the buildings, etc., ma}' be raised in 
a fortnight. Col. Perkins is still ready to 
donate the use of six acres of land as the site. 
If the society does not take the work in hand, 
the Commissioners should do so." The annual 
address was delivered by Herman Canfield, 
Esq., of Medina. \\\ their report, the officers 
of the societ}' say : " The necessity of a perma- 
nent building is apparent to all. The officers 
of the society labor under much embarrass- 
ment, and all that is necessary is the co-opera- 
tion of each township, and the means requisite 
for inclosing six acres of ground and erecting 
a large and commodious building, can be raised. 
We hope that the importance of immediate 
attention to this matter will be borne in mind, 
and that measures will be taken immediately 
for raising whatever sum is ne(!essary." 

At the annual meeting of the society held at 
the court house in Akron, November 17, 1852, 
officers for the ensuing year were elected as fol- 
lows : President, Daniel Hine, of Tallmadge ; 
Vice President, Sylvester H. Thompson, of Hud- 
son ; Secretaiy, Nathaniel W. Goodhue, of 
Akron ; Treasurer, Nelson B. Stone, of Akron ; 
Directors, Talmon Beardsley, of Coventry ; 
Andrew Hale, of Bath ; William Payne, of 
Richfield ; Lucius W. Hitchcock, of Tallmadge ; 
Henry W. Howe, of Akron. A committee of 
one in each township was appointed to solicit 
funds to build permanent buildings for the use 
of the society. 

The Beacon of September 7, 1853, editorially 
says : " The Board of Directors of the Summit 
County Agricultural Society have contracted 
for inclosing the new fairgrounds of the society, 
the erection of a suitable hall for future exhi- 
bitions, etc. The work is to be completed by 
October 10 ; the expense to be paid mainl}- by 
subscriptions, the county- doing its share." The 
grounds, six and a half acres, were substantially 
fenced, a building 40x100 feet was erected, and 
the grounds otherwise fitted up, at a total ex- 
pense of about $1,800, and the fourth annual 
fair was held there on VVednesday and Thurs- 
day October 12 and 13, 1853. Increased in- 
terest and attendance were manifested. A small 
entrance fee of 10 cents was charged, by which 
between $700 and $800 was realized, and, 

though somewhat in debt on improvements, the 

society was at last firmly established on a sound 
financial basis. 

The fifth annual meeting of the society was 
held at the court house on Wednesday, Novem- 
ber IG, 1853. Officers elected — President, 
Daniel Hine, of Tallmadge ; A^ice President, 
James M. Hale, of Akron ; Secretary, Nathaniel 
W. Goodhue ; Treasurer, Nelson B. Stone ; Di- 
rectors, Talmou Beardsley, of Coventry' ; Samuel 
M. Bronson, of Tallmadge ; Henry W. HowBj 
of Akron; Ethan Ailing, of Twinsburg; and 
Jeremiah B. Lambert, of Bath. 

The fifth annual fair was held on the grounds 
of the society October 1 1 and 12, 1854. Though 
the season had been very dry. there was a very 
fine display of field and garden products, fruits, 
flowers, etc., and, while stock and other de- 
partments were quite largel}' represented, 
"Ladies' Equestrianship " was a prominent 
feature of this exhibition, and added ver^' ma- 
terially to the niterest as well as to the financial 
results of the fair. Beceipts, $800. 

The sixth annual meeting was held on the 
22d day of November, 1854, at the court house, 
officers and Directors of previous year being 

The sixth annual fair was held October 3, 4 
and 5, 1855. Yearly- membership badges were 
sold at $1 each, and a gate fee of 10 cents was 
collected, the total receipts with ground rents 
being $903. Ladies' horsemanship, both driv- 
ing and equestrianism, was the chief attraction 
of the fair ; premiums being awarded as fol- 
lows : Harriet J. More, of Copley, $20 ; 
Miss Anna E. Howe, of Akron, $15 ; Miss C. 
L. Stauffcr, of Springfield, $10. A premium of 
$20, donated by spectators, was also awarded to 
Miss Cordelia Alden, of Medina, for her supe- 
rior equestrianism, the awards of the society be- 
ing confined to residents of the county. At 
this fair also ever\- department in which pre- 
miums were offered was a success, both in point 
of number and quality of animals and articles 

At the seventh annual meeting held at the 
court house in Akron November 21, 1855, offi- 
cers for the ensuing year were elected as fol- 
lows : President, Talmon Beardsley, of Cov- 
entry ; Vice President. Andrew Hale, of Bath ; 
Secretary, Henry W. Howe, of Akron ; Treas- 
urer, Charles B. Bern:ird, of Akron ; Directors, 
Wm. B. Ashmun, of Tallmadge; Simon V. Starr, 



of Copley ; James M. Hale, of Akron ; Houston 
Sisler, of Franklin; Julius Pond, of Hudson. 

Secretary Howe announces, in the Beacon of 
September 17, ISoG, that the Summit County 
Agricultural Society have added to tlieir list 
of premiums, to be awarded at their next an- 
nual fair, the following : " Fastest trotting horse 
owned within the county, $30 ; fastest trotting 
horse, under four years old, owned witliin the 
county, $20. A half-mile ring has been pre- 
pared, and a lively competition may be ex- 
pected." In a subsequent issue, Secretary Howe 
thus expatiates : " The farmers and mechanics 
of the county will remember that this is es- 
peciall}' their festival, while all the ' rest of 
mankind ' intend to be there to join them. The 
list of premiums is large, the grounds are 
beautiful and convenient ; the contests, upon 
two days, between the fast trotting horses, will 
be spirited ; the ' ladies riding,' upon the last 
day of the fair, will attract all who love ' women 
and horses,' and the smiling faces of friends 
will everywhere greet those who are in attend- 
ance. * * * Come all who delight in seeing 
the best of stock, the finest of fruits, grains and 
vegetables, who have a taste for the products 
of the 'glide housewife,' andean appreciate the 
value of churns and cultivators, carpets and 
carriages. Come all who can admire the beau- 
tiful in flowers, in needlework, in painting ; or 
can find pleasure in ' crowds of fair women and 
brave men,' expecting a rare entertainment, and 
you need not go away disappointed." 

Of this, the Seventh Annual Fair, held on 
the 8th, 9th and lUth days of October, 185G, 
the Beacon concludes a lengthy and enthusiastic 
editorial as follows : " On the whole, we are 
satisfied that the Summit County Fair of 1856, 
not only surpassed all its former fairs, but, in 
point of numbers attending and of a substan- 
tial excellence of stock, grains, vegetables, me- 
chanical and artistic skill, and whatever else 
makes up the show, was beyond any county 
fair of Ohio or any other State. We feel con- 
fident that Summit is entitled to the premium. 
In this judgment, we are supported by the vol- 
untary expressions of manj' witnesses who 
were present from abroad." The receipts at 
this fair were $1,230.50, which, with receipts 
from county authorized by law, paid the entire 
indebtedness of the society, running expenses, 
premiums, balance due for buildings, etc., and 
left a surplus in the treasury of $224.73. 

At the Eighth Annual Meeting, held No- 
vember 19, 1856, the following officers were 
elected : President, Talmon Beardsley, of Cov- 
entry ; Vice President, Andrew Hale, of Bath ; 
Secretar}', Henry W. Howe, of Akron ; Treas- 
urer, Alvin C. Voris, of Akron ; Directors, Jo- 
seph Hawkins, of Twinsburg ; William John- 
ston, of Copley; Lucius L. Strong, of Tallmadge ; 
Adam Yen-ick, of Green ; John R. Buchtel, of 

Eighth Annual Fair held October 7 , 8 and 9, 
1857.— Increased number of entries, increased 
interest and increased attendance ; nearly three 
columns in the Beacon of October 14 being 
devoted to an editorial review of the fair. At 
the Ninth Annual Meeting, held on the 18th 
of November, 1857, officers were elected as fol- 
lows : President, Samuel M. Combs, of Tall- 
madge ; Vice President, Andrew Hale, of Bath ; 
Secretary, Dudley Seward, of Akron ; Treas- 
urer, Alvin C. Voris, of Akron ; Directors, 
Avery Spicer, of Portage ; Lucius L. Strong, 
of Richfield ; William B. Ashmun, of Tall- 
madge ; Joseph Stauffer, of Green ; Horace P. 
Cannon, of Twinsburg. 

Ninth Annual Fair, October 6, 7 and 8, 1858. 
— The crowd upon and about the little six-acre 
inclosure, with the teams of visitors and ani- 
mals for exhibition, produced, according to the 
local reporter, " a perfect jam," and the cry for 
larger grounds was universal. Total entries 
for premiums, 965, as follows : Cattle, 105 ; 
horses, 152 ; sheep, 48 ; swine, 10 ; poultry, 
19 ; grain and seeds, 64 ; fruits, 40 ; garden 
products, 154; field crops, 9; butter, cheese 
and sugar, 51 ; farm implements, 30 ; domestic 
productions, 124 ; flowers and shrubbery, 44 ; 
carriages and harness, 17 ; boots, shoes, etc., 
10 ; bonnets, etc., 7 ; fine ax'ts, 17 ; iron and 
tin ware, 7 ; miscellaneous, 45 ; female eques- 
trians, 6. Total receipts, $1,350. 

At the Tenth Annual meeting, November 17, 
1858, the following officers were elected : Presi- 
dent, Samuel M. Combs, of Tallmadge ; Vice 
President, Horace P. Cannon, of Twinsburg ; 
Secretary, J. l*ark Alexander, of Akron ; Treas- 
urer, John R. Buchtel, of Akron. Directors — 
Avery Spicer, of Portage ; Lucius L. Strong, of 
Richfield ; Lewis Ailing, of Twinsburg ; Ed- 
win Upson, of Tallmadge ; Charles Coe, of 
Norton. At this meeting, the question of pro- 
curing other and more extensive grounds was 
discussed, and an adjourned meeting for the 



further consideration of the subject was held at 
the office of Edgerton & Sanders, in iVkron, 
January 8, 1859. At this meeting, President 
Combs, Vice President Cannon and Treasurer 
Buchtel " were appointed a committee to re 
ceive sealed proposals from au}- of the town- 
ships within the county for the site of fair 
grounds, and that such proposals be established 
by approved security for the amount sub- 
scribed. The attention of those interested is 
solicited. Proposals te be handed to Mr. Buch- 
tel by October 29." 

Of this action, the Beacon of January 12, 
1859, editorially, says : " The citizens of Cuya- 
hoga Falls, we are informed, propose to give 
$6,000 for the permanent location of the fair 
grounds at or near that village. The question is 
of importance to local interests as well as to 
those of the society itself The latter will be, 
we doubt not, the governing consideration with 
those who will decide upon the matter. Other 
things being equal, the count}' seat would seem 
to be the proper location for a count}' society; 
but there is some plausibility in the claim that 
Cuyahoga Falls is more central, and, if the citi- 
zens of that village subscribe $G,000 in good 
faith for that purpose, the}' exhibit a high ap- 
preciation of the advantages of secviring the 
annual fair as a permanent institution. We 
commend the consideration of this subject, in 
all its bearings, to the business men, property- 
holders and citizens of Akron, only observing 
that the competition of the people of Cuyahoga 
Falls is formidable and may be successful." 

At an adjourned meeting, held January 29, 
1859, the following proposal was submitted : 
" The society can have the present location of 
the fair grounds for |125 per acre by paying 
$150 down and $200 each January following, 
with 6 per cent annual interest, and that they 
can have more or less land south of the present 
grounds, in addition, at $80 per acre, or an ex- 
change on the opposite side of the road, acre 
for acre." This proposition was accepted b}' a 
vote of forty-nine in favor to ten against. At 
an adjourned meeting, held February 19, 1859, 
it was voted " to confine the society to the pres- 
ent location of the grounds." 

Thus matters stood until late in the follow- 
ing summer. In the meantime, not only had 
the contiguous lands been sold to other parties, 
but there was a rapidly growing conviction in 
the public mind that the future success of the 

society demanded both more room and a more 
eligible location than the old grounds afltbrded. 
So, too, in consequence of the differences of 
opinion which had obtained as to the matter of 
location, spirited rivalry had grown up, not only 
in the two " union " organizations in the north- 
east corner of the county, at Twinsburg, and 
the northwest corner of the county, at Rich- 
field, but in the spirited "union" association 
then being projected at Cuyahoga Falls. These 
considerations stimulated a number of the most 
active promoters of the society, in connection 
with the officers, to a combined and vigorous 
effort to the accomplishment of the desired 
change. At this juncture, our public-spirited 
fellow-citizen, Hon. David L. King, submitted 
a proposition, which, being at once accepted, 
placed the society in possession of Summit 
Grove — nearly thirty acres overlooking the city 
on the west— the beautiful grounds now occu- 
pied by the fine residences of Lewis Miller, 
Esq., Capt. Arthur L. Conger, and others, on 
Ash street and Park place, and immediately 
east of the southern portion of the beautiful 
grounds of the Akron Rural Cemetery. This 
fine tract of land was leased to the society for 
five years, at a reasonable annual rental, 31r 
King stipulating to either sell the ground to 
the society, at a price to be named by him, or 
to pa}- the society for its buildings, fences, etc., 
at their appraised value, on the expiration of 
the lease. 

Of these grounds, and the estimation in 
which they were held by the public, the follow- 
ing extracts from the Beacon, of September 7 
and 14, 1859, abundantly testify : 

The spot, has been appropriately named Summit 
Grove. It is an elevated plateau, witli sparse but 
large spreading oaks, of native growth, fm-uishing 
resting-place and shade, free from undergrowth, 
airy and dry ; in short, a natural park. * * * For 
the purpose of securing and inclosing this elegant 
piece of ground, erecting the proper buildings, and 
putting it in order for this and future fairs, the cit- 
izens of Akron, responsible business men, have con- 
tributed something more than $1,500. * * * We 
have never seen so much energy on the part of com- 
mittees and citizens, in any public enterprise, as 
has b(>en displayed in prep'aring the County Fair 
Grounds at Summit Grove. * * * Nf)t in the 
East or the West has any society a location more 
inviting, etc., etc. 

The buildings, fences, etc., from the old were 
removed to the new grounds, which, with the 
necessary additions, the erection of sheds, sta- 

•^^Is r- 



bles, pens, etc., the construction of a superb 
half-mile track, and other improvements, in- 
volved an expense of $3,128.60, of which 
amount $1,870.07 was contributed by the cit- 
izens of Akron, and $1,258.53 was paid b}- the 
societ}- ; a large amount of labor, of men and 
teams, also being donated by the people of 
Akron and contiguous towns, in the lltting-up 
of the grounds. 

From this time forward, the Summit County 
Fair became, emphatically, tlic Fair of Northern 
Ohio, not onW drawing together, in annual 
'' Harvest Home Festival," in Octol)er of each 
year, the great mass of the people of Summit 
County, but attracting man}' visitors from con- 
tiguous counties, and even from the more re- 
mote portions of the State. 

At the annual meeting of November 1 6. 1859, 
a new constitution was adopted increasing the 
number of directors from five to eighteen — one 
for each township. At this meeting, officers 
were elected as follows : President, Horace P. 
Caimon, of Twinsburg ; Vice President, Will- 
iam Wise, of Green ; Secrctar}-, James Mathews, 
of Akron ; Treasurer, John II. Buchtel, of Ak- 
ron. Directors : Bath, Andrew Hale ; Boston, 
Edmund H. Cole ; Coventr}-, William Buchtel ; 
Cu3'ahoga Falls. George Sackett ; Copley, Vin- 
cent G. Harris ; Franklin, Henr}' Daile}- ; Green, 
George Crouse ; Hudson, Julius Pond ; Middle- 
bury, Charles A. Collins ; Northampton, Beese 
Jones ; Northfield, John C. Wallace ; Norton, 
Charles Coe ; Portage, Avery Spicer ; Rich- 
field, John E. Hurlbut ; Springfield, John Ewart ; 
Stow, Virgil M. Thompson ; Tailmadge, Clark 
Sackett ; Twinsburg, Lewis Ailing. 

Resolutions were unanimously adopted ex- 
pressive of sorrow and condolence at the death 
of Capt. Amos Seward, of Tailmadge, the first 
President of the society under its written con- 
stitution, and one of its most enthusiastic sup- 
porters. Also a resolution tendering to the re- 
tiring Seci'etary, J. Park Alexander, the thanks 
of the societ}^ for his able and efficient services 
during the preceding year. 

Ax the expiration of the time for which the 
grounds had been leased, Mr. King, pursuant to 
his agreement, submitted a proposition to the 
officers of the society, to sell them the entire 
tract for $5,000, on ver}^ easy terms of payment, 
stipulating only, that should the grounds ever 
cease to be used for fair purposes, they should 
revert back to him. his heirs, etc. This truly 

munificent proposition, unfortunatel}' for the 
society and the county, was not accepted, a 
portion of the management, comparing the price 
named with the value of farming lands less 
eligibly situated, and more remote from the 
city, not being able to appreciate the magnificent 
prize they were letting slip through their fingers 
until it was too late. The society now leased, 
for the period of ten years, of Mr. P. D. Hall, 
about thirty acres of land, covered by a fine 
grove of original forest trees, in the western 
part of the city, fronting on Maple street upon 
the south, and Balch sti-eet upon the west, and a 
short distance northwest of Akron Rural Ceme- 
tery. To these grounds was removed the Imild- 
ings, fences and fixtures from " Summit Grove," 
and others were added, trotting track graded, 
etc., at an expense of over $1,000 to the societ}', 
over and above the liberal contributions of both 
money and labor, from the citizens of Akron 
and surrounding townships. These grounds 
were first occupied by the society in October, 
1864, the fair of that year not onl}' proving a 
very great success, but being followed up with 
such increasing interest, year by 3'ear, that the 
management were enabled to accumulate a fund 
of several thousand dollars in the treasury of 
the society, with which to purchase grounds at 
the expiration of their ten years' lease. In the 
meantime, however, the rapid growth of the city 
of Akron had so enhanced the value of the 
grounds then occupied as to place them entirely 
bej'ond the reach of the societ}^, while most of 
the lands adjacent to the cit}^, suitable for fair 
purposes, had been taken up and improved, or 
were held so high as not to be within the sup- 
posed ability of the society to purchase. 

At the annual meeting in January, 1870, a 
committee was appointed to select grounds to 
be purchased by the societ}', the committee 
reporting to the Directors March 15, 1870, the 
propositions which had been made to them, as 
follows : S. W. Bartges, thirty-five acres of the 
Mallison farm, on Wooster avenue, at $500 per 
acre; S. H. Coburn and Samuel Thornton, 
thirty acres, south of city limits and west of 
Main street, at $400 per acre ; A. C. Voris and 
E. Steinbacher, twenty-six acres, on the south 
line of city and east of Main street, at $500 per 
acre ; Messrs. Falor and AUyn, such portion 
of their lands on the north line of Coventry 
Township as the society might need, at $400 
per acre ; and Mr. J. H. Kramer, a tract of 




twenty acres along the Ohio Canal, south of 
cit}' limits, at $250 per acre. 

June 4, 1870, at a meeting of the society, 
called to consider these several propositions, 
the vote to purchase grounds was reconsidered, 
and the matter for the time being was dropped. 
October 24, 1870, another resolution to pur- 
chase grounds forthwith was adopted, and the 
committee, consisting of Edward Cranz, of 
Bath, James Hammond, of Copley, and David 
S. Alexander, of Akron, were, on motion of 
King J. Ellet, of Springfield, instructed to pur- 
chase the Coburn and Thornton tract, at a price 
not to exceed $400 per acre. At the annual 
meeting, January 18, 1871, the minutes of the 
October meeting were amended so as to show 
that a resolution offered by William Wheatley, 
of Richfield, was adopted, authorizing the com- 
mittee to look around and purchase grounds 
which, in their judgment, would be for the best 
interest of the society ; the committee in the 
meantime having purchased of James McAl- 
lister thirty acres off from the east portion of 
his farm, on the north side of the Medina 
road, one mile west of Akron, at $200 per acre, 
with a cash payment of $2,000. February 14, 
1872, committee reported grounds all paid for, 
with a balance due the Treasurer of $153.94. 

A ver}^ considerable number of the members 
and patrons of the society, both in the city of 
Akron and in the eastern, northern and south- 
ern townships of the county, dissatisfied with 
the location which had been selected, had so 
agitated and discussed the question, that, at 
the annual meeting of the society, held January 
20, 1874, after quite a stormy debate, a resolu- 
tion offered by Mr. Jacob H. Wise, that it was 
impracticable for the society to use the Mc- 
Allister grounds, and that a committee be ap- 
pointed to sell said grounds and secure others, 
accessible by railroad running through the 
county, was referred to the officers of the so- 
ciet}', with instructions to report at the next 
annual meeting. At an adjourned meeting, 
held February 7, 1874, a resolution was adopted 
that Nelson V. Wadsworth, of Hudson ; John 
H. Christy, of Akron ; Jared Barker, of Bath ; 
King J. Ellet, of Springfield ; Daniel Hine, of 
Tallmadge ; James Hammond, of Copley ; and 
Dennis Treat, of Tallmadge, constitute a com- 
mittee to report to the Directors at their next 
meeting what, if anything, should be done in 
the matter of disposing of the McAllister 

grounds and purchasing others. April 9, 1874, 
the committee submitted a majority report in 
favor of retaining and improving the grounds 
owned by the society, and a minority report 
in favor of disposing of those grounds and pur- 
chasing the Fouse tract, near Bettes' Corners, 
northeast of Akron, the majority report being 
adopted by a vote of ten to six. October 7, 
1874, the Directors resolved, by a vote of eight 
to five, to proceed at once to improve the Mc- 
Allister grounds. January 20, 1875, at the 
annual meeting of the society, the officers of 
the society, to whom was referred the resolu- 
tion offered by Mr. J. H. Wise, at the previous 
annual meeting, reported in favor of purchas- 
ing the Fouse tract, Mr. Fouse submitting a 
proposition to sell fift^^ acres to the society at 
$200 per acre. Mr. A. T. Burrosvs also sub- 
mitted a proposal to sell forty-five acres of his 
land on the •' Chuckery," at $400 per acre, or 
the whole tract at $450 per acre. A ballot on 
grounds resulted as follows : Burrows tract, 
336 ; McAllister grounds, 218. March 6, 1875, 
Dennis Treat, John H. Christy and Stephen H. 
Pitkin were appointed a committee, by ballot, 
and empowered to purchase the Burrows tract 
and sell the McAllister grounds. April 24, 
committee reported that they were unable to 
either buy or sell. A resolution was then 
adopted, appointing Dennis Treat, of Tallmadge, 
and William Wheatly, of Richfield, who, with 
a third man, to be selected by them from with- 
out the county, should finally decide the matter. 
May 24, 1875, Mr. Treat reported that Hon. 
R. P. Cannon, of Portage County, had been se- 
lected as the third member of the committee, 
and that a tract offered by Mr. Jacob H. Wise, 
on the " Chuckery," had been agreed upon by 
a majority of the committee, Mr. Wheatly dis- 
senting ; but that, since his return home, Mr. 
Cannon had receded from his action, and de- 
clined to make any further report. A resolu- 
tion was adopted, authorizing the committee to 
call to their aid Hon J. P. Robinson, of Cuya- 
hoga County, and that the committee, as thus 
constituted, proceed to locate grounds. June 
19, 1875, Mr. Treat reported that the committee 
had failed to agree upon a location, ]Mr. Wheatly 
reporting that the committee had failed for 
want of effort, Mr. Treat not aiding him (Mr. 
W.) in urging Dr. Robinson for an opinion. 
Letters from Dr. Robinson were read, coun- 
seling the society to meet and agree upon a 



location. Tlie following resolution was then 
adopted : 

Reiiolreil, That all of the Directors meet June 26, 
and view all the grounds offered, and then meet at 
the Secretary's ottice for a final vote. 

June 26, 1875, the Directors visited the Long, 
AUyn, Howe, Powder, Fouse, Barrows, Wise, 
Alexander and McAllister tracts, and adjourned 
to July 3. At the adjourned meeting, July 3, 
1875, the Directors proceeded to ballot for lo- 
cation, with the following result : First ballot 
— McAllister, 7 ; Fouse, 5 ; Burrows, 2 ; AUyn. 
1 ; Powder, 6 — 21 votes. Second ballot — Mc- 
Allister, 7 ; Fouse, 2 ; Burrows, 1 ; Alexander, 
1; Powder, 10—21 votes. Third ballot— Mc- 
Allister, 7 ; Fouse, 3 ; Alexander, 1 ; Powder, 
10—21 votes. Fourth ballot— McAllister, 8 ; 
Fouse, 3 ; Wise, 1 ; Powder, 9—21 votes. Fifth 
ballot — McAllister, 8 ; Fouse, 1 ; Wise, 1 ; Pow- 
der, 11 — 21 votes. The Powder tract having 
thus received the majority of the ballots cast, 
it was ordered that the President and Secretary 
proceed to close a contract for said tract, con- 
veying to the owners thereof the McAllister 
grounds, and executing the necessary papers to 
secure to them the balance of the purchase 
price, $5,000. 

The grounds thus selected, derisively called 
the "Powder Patch," from the fact that the 
works of the Austin Powder Company, now of 
Cleveland, were originally located thereon, is a 
tract of forty-five acres, in the valley of the 
Little Cuyahoga Ptiver, and within the corpor- 
ate linaits of the city of Akron. It is contigu- 
ous to both the New York, Pennsjivania & 
Ohio, and the Cleveland, Mount Vernon &' 
Columbus Railroads, while the track of the 
Valley Railway, from Cleveland to Canton, 
which originally ran on a high trestle, directl3^ 
through the grounds, has been thrown around 
the southern edge of the inclosure, thus doing 
away with one of the main objections which 
was urged against their selection, while adding 
very greatly to its accessibility and conven- 
ience in the transportation of stock and visit- 
ors to and from the fair. It is a romantic and 
picturesque spot, with the ever-limpid waters 
of the Little Cuyahoga, meandering through 
them from southeast to northwest, while in- 
numerable large springs, on the adjacent hills, 
furnish an abundant supply of water for artifi- 
cial lakes, fountains, etc ; the name of " Foun- 
tain Park "■ having been given to the grounds 

by common consent. A substantial high picket 
fence incloses the grounds, and commodious 
floral, commercial, agricultural, mechanical, 
domestic and dining halls and offices have been 
erected ; an abundant supply of cattle-pens 
and stables have been provided ; one of the 
finest half-mile trotting tracks in the State has 
been built ; an extensive covered stand with 
ample seating capacity, erected ; thousands of 
hitching posts provided ; ornamental trees and 
shrubbery planted, and the preliminary work 
done toward making " Fountain Park," not 
only one of the most convenient and beautiful 
fair grounds in the State, but, as contemplated 
improvements are completed, one of the most 
desirable pleasure resorts in Summit County. 

The first meeting held upon the society's 
own grounds, in October, 1875, notwithstanding 
the bitterness of feeling that had been engen- 
dered in regard to their selection, was a very 
decided success, as has been each subsequent 
yearly exposition of the society, the growth 
and steadily increasing popularity of its annual 
fairs, being well illustrated by its semi-decennial 
gross receipts, from 1850 to 1880, which, in 
round numbers, were as follows : For 1850, 
$327 ; for 1855, $903 ; for 1860, $2,100 ; for 
1865, $2,800; for 1870, $3,698; for 1875, 
$5,014 ; for 1880, $7,444. This munificent in- 
crease of patronage, has not only enabled the 
society, besides pajing its heavy running ex- 
penses, premiums, etc., to go steadily forward 
with the improvement of its grounds, and to 
pay the interest and very considerably reduce 
the principal of the debt incurred in the pur- 
chase of the original grounds, and the erection 
of the necessary buildings thereon, but has 
warranted the management in purchasing be- 
tween seven and eight acres of additional land 
at $200 per acre, the fair grounds, proper, now 
covering an area of something over fifty-two 
acres. In 1876, the constitution was so amended 
as to give a Director to each ward of the city of 
Akron, thus making the present number of 
Directors of the society twenty-four. 

The space assigned to this chapter not per- 
mitting a detailed statement of the proceedings 
of the successive annual meetings of the societ}' 
during its entire history, we can only give, in 
brief, the name, place of residence, and term of 
service, of the several gentlemen who have 
filled the offices of President, Vice President, 
Secretary and Treasurer, from 1860 to the pres- 




ent date (1881). Presidents — -Perry C. Caro- 
thers. Tallmadge, 1861, 18G2 ; Horace P. Can- 
non, Twinsburg, 1863, 186-4 ; J. Park Alexan- 
der, Akron, Januar}', 1865, to March, 1870, 
when, tendering his resignation, John II. Buch- 
tel, of Akron, was elected to fill the vacancy ; 
James Hammond, Cople^', 1871 to 1874, inclu- 
sive ; Dennis Treat, Tallmadge, 1875, 1876 ; 
John F. Moore, Copley, 1877, 1878, 1879 ; Ste- 
phen H. Pitkin, Portage, 1880 ; Simeon Dick- 
erman, Northampton, 1881. Vice Presidents — 
Charles Coe, Norton, 1861, 1862, 1863 ; Den- ! 
nis Treat, Tallmadge, 1864, 1865, 1866 ; James | 
Hammond, Copley, 1867 to 1870, inclusive ; 
Dennis Treat, Tallmadge, 1871 to 1874, inclu- 
sive ; John F. Moore, Cople}^ 1875, 1876 ; King 
J. Ellet, Springfield, 1877, 1878; Wellington 
Miller, Norton, 1879, 1880, 1881. Secretaries- 
James Mathews, Akron, 1861, 1862 ; J. Park 
Alexander, Akron, 1863, 1864 ; Hiram Viele, 
Akron, elected for 1865, but resigning, James 
Atkins, Akron, appointed to fill vacancy ; Jon- 
athan Starr. Akron, 1866, 1867 ; Othello W. 
Hale, Bath, Secretary ; Hiram S. Falor, Cov- 
entry, Assistant Secretary. 1868 ^ George W. 
Crouse, Akron, Secretar}^ ; Hiram S. Falor, As- 
sistant, 1869 ; Hiram S. Falor, Secretary, 1870 ; 
Stephen H. Pitkin, Portage, 1871 to 1879, 
inclusive ; John H. Christy, Akron, 1880, 1881. 
Treasurers— John K. Buchtel, 1861, 1862 ; Ja- 
cob H. Wise, Akron, 1863 ; George D. Bates, 
Akron, 1864 to 1870, inclusive ; John H. 
Christy, Akron, 1871 to 1875, inclusive. Mr. 
Christy resigning September 15, 1875, John J. 
Wagoner, Akron, appointed to fill vacancy ; 
John H. Christ}' again elected for 1876, but 
again resigning September 6, 1876, William B. 
Raymond, Akron, elected to fill vacancy, and 
re-elected for 1877 ; Herbert A. Peck, Tall- 
madge, 1878 to 1881, inclusive. 

A considerable number of the people of the 
western, northwestern and southwestern por- 
tions of the county being dissatisfied with the 
selection of the "Powder Patch " by the Sum- 
mit County Agricultural Societ}-, and honestly 
believing that the location was not only ineli- 
gible and inconvenient, on account of the bro- 
ken nature of the ground, but absolutely dan- 
gerous for stock, because of its pi'oximity to 
railroads, formed themselves into a joint-stock 
company, with a capital of $5,000, leased the 
Hall grounds, recently vacated b}' the old so- 
ciet}', and, refitting them in good stjde with 

new buildings, fences, sheds, etc., under the 
name and style of the " Summit County Fair 
Association,'" held a very successful fair of four 
days in September, 1875, with James Ham- 
mond, of Copley, President ; Frank A. Foster, 
of Copley, Vice President ; Wellington Miller, 
of Norton, Secretary ; and Philander D. Hall, 
Jr., of Akron, Treasurer. Vigorous efforts were 
made by the officers and members of the organ- 
ization to make the " Summit County Fair 
Association " one of the permanent institutions 
of the county, and its second exhibition, in 
Septembei", 1876, was also reasonably success- 
ful. Exhibitors and visitors, however, not par- 
ticularly desiring to contribute equally to the 
support of two rival fairs so near together in 
point of time and locality, and the new grounds 
of the old societj' rapidlj^ growing into public 
favor, the interest in the '• new fair on the old 
grounds " gradually died out, and the associa- 
tion disbanded, its affairs being placed in the 
hands of a receiver for liquidation. The " little 
unpleasantness " in regard to the selection of 
grounds by the old society having given way 
to general good feeling among the agriculturists, 
manufacturers, merchants and other fair pro- 
moters and supporters, it may be safel}' pre- 
dicted that all will henceforth vie with each 
other to make the Summit County Agricultural 
Society and its truly delightful grounds the 
model institution of its kind in Ohio. 

The great distance of the extreme north- 
eastern and northwestern townships of the 
county from the county seat, together with the 
remoteness of contiguous townships in adjoin- 
ing counties from their respective county seats, 
led to the formation of prosperous and spirited 
union fair organizations in the localities indi- 
cated, some twenty -five years ago. In 1851, the 
people of Richfield organized a township soci- 
ety, under the name and style of " Richfield 
Agricultural Club," the annual exhibitions of 
which became so popular that, in 1858, six 
other townships, viz.: Bath and Boston, in 
Summit; Brecksville and Royalton, in Cuya- 
hoga, and Hinckley and Granger, in Medina, 
united with her in an association known as the 
" Union Agricultural and Mechanic Art So- 
ciety," which was admirably managed for a 
number of years, the grounds being leased for 
the period of ten years, and the building, fenc- 
ing, etc.. being largely done by voluntary con- 
tributions. On the expiration of its lease, the 




association re-orgauized as a stock company, 
and purchased the grounds previously occu- 
pied, increased vitality and activity following 
the re-organization for several years. As the 
county fairs, however, of Summit and adjoining 
counties, increased their attractions, the inter- 
est in the local organization began to wane, 
and the society disbanded in 1875, selling its 
grounds and closing up its affairs in 1876. At 
Twinsburg, also, after a township exhibition 
upon the public square for two or three suc- 
cessive years, there was organized a " union 
fair " association, composed of the townships 
of Twinsburg, Hudson and Northfield, in 
Summit Count}' ; Aurora, in Portage County, 
and Solon and Bedford, in Cu^^ahoga County. 
The first meeting of the society was in Septem- 
ber, 1856, and, like the Richfield association, 
its annual fairs were, for many years, very suc- 
cessful and popular, the society owning its own 
grounds of some thirteen acres. The patrons 
and promoters of this fair being largel}^ inter- 
ested and engaged in dairying, and other kin 
dred industries, a succession of dry and unpro- 
ductive seasons, together with the decease and 
removal of a number of its most active sup- 
porters, so dampened the ai'dor of its remain- 
ing members that the meetings were at length 
discontinued, the last fair of the society being 
held in September, 1871, the grounds being sold 
and the affairs of the societj' closed in 1872. 

The Summit Count}' Agricultural Societ}' 
failing to accept the ver}^ liberal proposition 
which had been made by the people of Cuya- 
hoga Falls for the location of the county fair 
grounds at or near that place, a number of the 
citizens of that and adjacent townships organ- 
ized a Union Fair Association in 1859, and 
fitted up grounds, about a mile north of the 
village, on the Hudson Road. The first regular 
fair of the societj' was held September 1 , 2 and 
3, 1859, and was in ever}^ respect a first-class 
exhibition, both in point of display and at- 
tendance, netting its projectors some $600 over 
and above expenses. In addition to the usual 
list of premiums offered for cattle, horses and 
other farm stock, agricultural and mechanical 
products, domestic manufactures, etc., especial 
encouragement was given to matters pertaining 
to the turf, many local celebrities in the way of 
high and fast steppers being attracted thither. 
The managers, however, failing to secure the 
attendance of the intended " bis card " — the 

then greatest of American trotters, Flora Tem- 
ple — for the regular fiiir, arranged for a meet- 
ing on the 28th day of October, the same year, 
at which that renowned animal was pitted 
against another reputed very fast nag, " Ike 
Cook." The weather proved to be unpropitious 
and the track heav}^, but though the attendance 
was meager, the match came off on time, the 
Beacon of November 2 recording the result as 
follows : "Flora Temple, 1, 2, 1 ; Ike Cook, 2, 
1, 2. Time — First heat, 2.28 ; second heat, 
2.34 ; third heat, 2.33. This enterprise proved 
a losing venture, absorbing nearly, if not quite, 
all the profits of the September fair. Again in 
1860, September 5, 6 and 7, the regular annual 
fair of the society was held, also being reason- 
ably successful, though little more, if any, than 
paying the running expenses. The third an- 
nual fair was held upon the grounds of the 
society September 23, 24 and 25, 1861. The 
war of the rebellion was then upon us. and 
military displays at local fairs became very 
popular. The show was a very fine one, but 
the attendance was small, except on the last day. 
the military display' and competition drawing 
together quite a large crowd. There were pres- 
ent the Bath Guards, Capt. Schoonover; the 
Buckeye Guards, of Copley, Capt. Sackett ; 
and the Cowles Tiger Zouaves, from Bedford,. 
Cuyahoga County ; the latter, however, a very 
fine company, being excluded from competition 
for the prize by reason of being one member 
short of the required number. After a drill 
of thirty minutes each, the first prize, a silk 
flag, was awarded to the Bath Guards, and the 
second, a worsted flag, was awarded to the Cop- 
ley Guards. At the conclusion of the drill, 
a fantastic cavalry company, consisting of some 
seventy-five or eighty horsemen (representing 
the secesh army), came upon the grounds, and 
after skirmishing around awhile, to the infinite 
amusement of the crowd, were finally sur- 
rounded, and the entire company taken pris- 
oners, by the three companies of " regulars," 
assisted by the Tallmadge Artillery, Capt. 
Baimes, and the Young America Gun Squad, 
of Cuyahoga Falls, who performed the batter}- 
service of the occasion. The military and a 
large number of invited guests were given a 
free dinner upon the grounds, by the members 
of the society and the citizens of Cuyahoga 
Falls, and vicinity. Though a success as a 
show, this third fair was a financial unsuccess, 





the receipts being less tlian the disbursements, 
and war mattei's and other enterprises engaging 
the attention of its promoters, no further meet- 
ings were held, and the affairs of the society 
were closed. 

The writer trusts that no apology is needed 
from him for the space devoted to the subject 
of the Agricultural Societ}' matters of Summit 
County. A careful perusal of the foregoing 
pages not onl^^ forcibly illustrates the value of 
harmony and unity of purpose, in all efforts to 

promote the public welfare, but also clearly 
shows the inestimable worth of such associa- 
tions, as educators of the people, not alone in 
matters of husbandry, manufactures and sim- 
ilar sciences, but also in a social and moral 
point of view ; for who does not acknowledge 
the benign influences arising from the friendly 
mingling together of the masses of the people 
from time to time, in such pleasant and cheer- 
ful gatherings as the annual fairs of the Summit 
Count}^ Agricultural Societ}' have grown to l)e. 





"Fought eye to eye, and hand to hand, 

Alas! 'twas but to die! 
In vain the rifle's deadlj^ flash 
Scorched eagle plume and wampum sash — 

The hatchet liissed on high ; 
And down they fell in crhnsou heaps 
Like the ripe corn the sickle reaps." 

I^i the remote past ages of life upon the earth, 
at a period that lies wholly within the prov- 
ince of conjecture, and upon which the light of 
sleepless inquiry fails to fall, a strange and 
semi-civilized people, whose origin, customs 
and final fate are enshrouded in comparative 
obscurity, inhabited almost the entire territory 
of the Western Continent. All attempts to un- 
ravel the mysterj^ enveloping their peculiar 
lives meet with an uncompromising rebuff, save 
where the fast-decaying remnants of their works 
cast a feeble ray of light on the otherwise im- 
penetrable darkness. The first thought that 
enters the mind of the antiquarian in this de- 
partment of research, is, Whence originated 
this peculiar people ? So far, no satisfactory 
answer has been reached. Though many emi- 
nent men have devoted the best years of their 
lives in endeavoring to discover the origin of 
man, or, more specifically, the origin of the 
Mound-Builders, yet no word of encourage- 
ment comes fi'om the past to cheer on the pa- 
tient, tireless worker. Accepting the Mosaic 
account of the creation, we are led to believe 
that the Mound-Builders were the lineal de- 
scendants of Adam. When they came to 

*Co!itributcdby W. A. Goodspoed. 

America, or how, does not alter the significance 
and unquestionable correctness of the statement. 
There were but two persons — Adam and Eve — 
created, and from them, if we accept the record 
of Moses, have sprung all the countless hosts 
that have ever peopled the earth. If the Mosaic 
account of man's origin be rejected, we are still 
in darkness, on the sea of conjecture, tossed b}- 
the wild waves of doubt and unbelief, without 
helm or compass and with no land in sight. This 
perplexing situation is to be met, and what can 
l3e said ? Is the race of man descended from 
the lower animals, and through them as inter- 
mediate states ? or did it spring as a separate 
growth from the common mother of life — the 
Earth ? Had all life, both animal and vegeta- 
ble, a common origin, or was each species, of 
whatever kind, created apart from its fellows ? 
In either case, whence originated the primitive 
germ or seed from which life first sprung ? 
Was it created by a new condition or relation 
of its composing elements — by a new relation 
of the natural laws under which the elements 
united and quickened into life ? In the proc- 
ess of the development of natural laws, acting 
under new conditions, upon the simple organic 
and in-organic elements, did that remarkable 
phenomenon occur, bj' which the primitive 
germ of life was created. If so, why is not a 
repetition of the creative process possible ? 
Has the tide of evolution swept beyond the 
point at which the conditions of elements and 
relations could originate life ? Is it not true 





that spontaneous generation, at one stage of 
evolution, miglit have been possible, and that 
it also, at a later period, might have become 
extinct from natural causes ? x\ll these ques- 
tions are pertinent in discussing the origin of 
the Mound-Builders ; but no detinite answer is 
received, and even the manner and time of their 
appearance upon this continent, by whatever 
means, are problems for coming generations to 
solve. The most interesting point to be deter- 
mined regarding these people is. Whether they 
were created originally in America, or are the 
descendants of pre-historic Asiatics, who crossed 
over by way of Behring's Straits. Neither side 
of the question can be answered. The majority 
of authorities agree in sa}- ing that the Indians 
had no knowledge, traditional or otherwise, of 
the Mound-Builders, except what was derived 
from their works. They denied having any 
knowledge of the erection of the approximate 
10,000 mounds scattered throughout the State. 
or of the limitless number scattered throughout 
the continent. It is urged that, inasmuch as 
the Indians kept no record of events, their mea- 
ger and short-lived traditions could not cover 
the lapse of time since the Mound-Builders' oc- 
cupancy of the soil, and that possibly the 
former were the descendants of the latter. On 
the other hand, it seems probable that, if this be 
true, the Indians would have some traditional 
or other knowledge of the mounds, fortifica- 
tions, sepulchers, templar structures and va- 
rious species of implements, undoubtedly be- 
longing to the earlier race. However, with few 
exceptions, they profess utter ignorance. In 
opposition to this view, it is claimed that the 
Indians have deteriorated in mental power- 
have lost the use of many arts, etc., known to 
their alleged remote ancestors. And again, to 
meet this, it is asserted that many centuries 
elapsed from the Mound-Builders' period to the 
Indians, thus precluding the idea that the latter 
were their descendants. From their works is 
derived all that we know of their history, hab- 
its, modes of life, degree of civilization, knowl- 
edge of the arts of peace and war, mental and 
moral progress ; but their fate is wrapped in 
darkness. Many of their mounds and other 
earthworks have been found from time to time 
in Summit County ; and so much interest has 
been aroused regarding this almost unknown 
race of people, and so much light thrown b}^ 
patient labor upon their m3'stei"ious lives, that 

a brief statement will here be given of the prog- 
ress that has been made in this branch of 
archaeological research, before entering upon 
the description of the mounds in this county. 

Of all States or countries of the same limit, 
Ohio furnishes a greater number of earthworks, 
supposed to have been erected by Mound- 
Builders, than any other. The extent, variety, 
magnitude and labyrinthian intricacy of the 
Ohio mounds have rendered them of great value 
to antiquarians, who have come in pursuit of 
knowledge from distant parts of the globe. 
Here may be seen the perishing remains of 
gigantic artificial structures, that reared their 
summits high in the air, long years before the 
State was covered with its present qualit}' of 
timber, and unknown 3' ears before the Indians' 
occupancy of the soil. These structures, or 
mounds, have been properly divided into mounds 
proper, effigies and iuclosures. Mounds proper 
have been subdivided into sepulchral, templar, 
sacrificial, memorial and observatory. Effigies 
are animal, emblematic and symbolical. Iu- 
closures are military, covered or sacred.* The 
greater portion of the above works were con- 
structed of earth, a few of stone, and fewer 
still of earth and stone combined. Sepulchral 
mounds are usuall}' conical, and some of them, 
notwithstanding the lapse of time, are seventy 
feet in height. Tliey are more numerous than 
any other class, and beyond doubt were erected 
as memorials to the dead. The}' always con- 
tain one or more skeletons, together with im- 
plements and ornaments supposed to have been 
placed there when the individual was buried, 
for use in the Spirit Land. The mounds are 
of all sizes, and it has been conjectured that 
their magnitude bears some relation to the 
prominence of the persons in whose honor they 
were erected. Ashes and cliarcoal are often 
found in proximity to the skeletons, under con- 
ditions which render it probable that fires were 
used in the burial ceremony. With the skel- 
etons are also found specimens of mica, pot- 
tery, bone and copper beads, and animal bones. 
Though in this class of mounds, ordinarily but 
one skeleton is found, yet sometimes several 
are unearthed. A few years ago, a mound, sit- 
uated in Licking County, was opened, and 
found to contain, in whole or in part, seventeen 
skeletons. But the most noteworthy of all the 
mounds was one in Hardin Count}', which con- 

*Isaac Smucker, in Ohio Statistics. 




tained 300 crumbling skeletons. Col. Whittle- 
sey and others, however, entertained the opin- 
ion that they belonged to the Indians, who had 
used the mounds for burial purposes. Templar 
mounds are few in number, and are ordinarily 
circular. They are invariably truncated, and 
are often surrounded with embankments, in- 
clined planes or spiral pathways or steps, lead- 
ing to the summit. They are found round, 
square, oblong, oval and octangular, and rest 
generally upon a large base, but have a lim- 
ited altitude. It is supposed that these eleva- 
tions were surmounted with wooden temples, 
all traces of which have been removed by the 
ravages of time. These mounds and the build- 
ings at their summits are thought to have been 
erected for religious purposes. Sacrificial 
mounds are ordinaril}' stratified, with convex 
layers of claj- and loam above a stratum of 
sand. Thej' generally contain ashes, charcoal, 
igneous stones, calcined animal bones, beads, 
stone implements, pottery and specimens of 
I'ude sculpture. They are often found within 
inclosures, which are supposed to have been 
connected with the religious ceremonies of the 
Mound-Builders. Altars of igneous clay or 
stone are often found. Evidences of fire upon 
the altars A^et remain, showing that various ani- 
mals and probably human beings were immo- 
lated to secure the favor of the Great Spirit. 
These mounds infrequently contain skeletons, 
together with implements of war ; mica from 
the Alleghanies ; shells from the Gulf of Mex- 
ico ; difTerentl}- colored varieties of obsidian ; 
red, purple and green specimens of porph3-ry ; 
and silver, copper and other metallic ornaments 
and utensils. Mounds of observation were ap- 
parentl}- designed for alarm-towers ■ or signal 
stations. Some writers have fancied that they 
" occur in chains, or regulai systems, and that 
many of them still bear traces of the beacon 
fires that were once burning upon them." They 
are often found built like towers from the sum- 
mits of embankments surrounding inclosures. 
One of the latter, in Licking County, has a 
height of twenty-five feet. " Along the Miami 
River," says Judge Force, " are dotted small 
mounds or projecting highlands, which seem to 
have been built to carry intelligence by signals 
along the valley." Memorial mounds are of 
that class of ^(/Hn/7/ intended to commemorate 
some important event, or to perpetuate the 
memory of some distinguished character. Most 

of the stone mounds belong to this class, and 
usually contain no bones, for the supposed rea- 
son that they were used only for sepulchers. 
They are thought to correspond in design with 
the Bunker Hill Monument, and with the beau- 
tiful marble column on the field of Gettysburg. 
Eflfigies are elevations of earth in the form of 
men, beasts, birds, reptiles and, occasionally, of 
inanimate objects, varying in height from one 
foot to six feet above the surrounding soil, 
and often covering many acres of land. Mr. 
Schoolcraft expresses the belief that this class 
of mounds was designed for "totems" or tribu- 
lar symbols ; while Prof Daniel Wilson and 
other writers of distinction entertain the opin- 
ion that the}^ were erected in accordance with 
the religious belief of the various tribes of 
Mound-Builders, who worshiped, or in some 
way venerated, the animals or objects repre- 
sented by the elevations. A large mound near 
Newark represents a bird of enormous size, 
with its wings outspread in the act of flight. 
Its total length is about 200 feet. An excava- 
tion in. this efflg}' disclosed a clay and stone 
altar, upon which were evidences of fire, to- 
gether with ashes and charcoal. The sur- 
roundings indicated that the altar had been 
used for sacrificial offerings. It is called "Eagle 
Mound " from its fancied resemblance to that 
bird. Another mound near Newark repre- 
sents a huge alligator, having a total length 
of 200 feet. Prof Wilson believes that it 
"symbolizes some object of special awe and 
veneration, thus reared on one of the chief 
'high places' of the nation, with its accompanj-- 
ing altar, upon which these ancient people of 
the valley could witness the celebration of the 
rites of their worship, its site having been ob- 
viousl}' selected as the most prominent feature 
in a populous district abounding witli militarj'. 
civic and religious structures." The greatest 
breadth of the bodj' is twenty feet, and its 
bod}' from hind legs to fore legs is fifty feet. 
Each limb is twent3'-five feet long. The prin- 
cipal portions of the animal are elevated about 
six feet, wliile other portions are much lower. 
The most remarkable mound in Ohio is in 
Adams County. Its form is that of an enor- 
mous serpent, more than a thousand feet in 
length, with body in graceful, anfractuos folds, 
and tail ending in triple coils. The greatest 
width of the bodj' is thirty feet, and the effigy 
is elevated about five feet above the surround- 



, — i' u^ 



ing soil " The neck of the figure," saj^s the 
American Cyclopedia, " is stretched out and 
slightly curved, and the mouth is opened wide, 
as if in the act of swallowing or ejecting an 
oval figure, which rests partly within the dis- 
tended jaws. The combined figure has been 
regarded by some as a representation of the 
oriental cosmological idea of the serpent and 
the egg.' 

Defensive inclosures are irregular in form, and 
are always on high ground, in positions dififl- 
cult to approach b}^ a savage foe. "The walls," 
sa3-s the American Cyclopedia, " generally wind 
ax'ound the borders of the elevations they occu- 
py, and when the natui'e of the ground renders 
some points more accessible than others, the 
height of the wall and the depth of the ditch 
at these weak points are proportionally in- 
creased. The gateways are narrow and few in 
number, and well guarded by embankments of 
earth placed a few j-ards inside of the openings 
or gateways, and parallel with them, and pro- 
jecting somewhat be^'ond them at each end, 
thus fully covering the entrances, which, iu some 
cases, are still further protected by projecting 
walls on either side. These works are some- 
what numerous, and indicate a clear apprecia- 
tion of, at least, the elements of fortification, 
and unmistakably point out the purpose for 
which they were constructed. A large num- 
ber of these defensive woi'ks consist of a line 
of ditches and embankments, or several lines, 
carried across the neck of peninsulas or bluff 
headlands, formed within the bends of streams 
— an easy and obvious mode of fortification 
common to all rude peoples." The embank- 
ments of one of this class in Warren County 
are nearly four miles in length, varying in 
height from ten to twenty feet to accord with 
the locality to be protected, and inclose several 
hundred acres. Covered ways or parallel walls 
are often found, either connecting diflTerent in- 
closures or portions of the same. The}' were 
undoubtedly designed to protect those passing 
back and forth within. There are large num- 
bers of sacred inclosures in the form of circles, 
squares, hexagons, octagons, ellipses, parallelo- 
grams and others, many of which were designed 
with surprising geometrical accuracy. They 
are sometimes found within military inclosures, 
and very likely were connected with the relig- 
ious rites and ceremonies of the people, as small 
elevations are found within them, which were 

evidently used for altars, upon which sacrifices 
of various kinds were offered. Some archiBolo- 
gists maintain that many of the so-called sacred 
inclosures were intended and used for national 
games and celebrations, and it is probable that 
those without the altar were used as such. 

The mounds and their contents afllbrd abun- 
dant opportunity to speculate as to the charac- 
ter and customs of the ancient people, of whom 
notliins; is left save their crumblins; habitation?. 
They were a numerous people, as is clearly 
proved by the magnitude and elaboration of 
their works. Their presence here, beyond ques- 
tion, antedates the coming of Columbus, and 
very probabl}' extends back a thousand years or 
more. Perhaps a majority of intelligent men 
who have made the subject a stud}', place the 
Mound- Builders' period back to that of the 
Egyptians, Assyrians and Babylonians — to a 
period two or three or more thousand years be- 
fore the Christian era. Many interesting and 
important considerations, too lengthy to be 
narrated here, have been discovered in com- 
paring the customs of the Mound-Builders with 
those of ancient nations in the East. An un- 
accountable similarity is found in religion, in 
the arts of war and peace, in character and 
quality of habitations, in methods of agricul- 
ture, in domestic alfairs, and in many other essen- 
tial particulars. The Mound-Builders were un- 
questionably subservient to rulers, or superiors, 
who had power to enforce the erection of gigan- 
tic structures, which, considering the semi- 
barbarous condition of the people, their lack of 
suitable implements of labor, and their imper- 
fect and insufficient knowledge of mechanical 
principles, are surprisingly vast in extent and 
ingenious in design. Their works indicate that 
the people were warlike ; that they were famil- 
iar with many mathematical and mechanical 
rules ; that they were religious and probably 
idolatrous ; that they were skilled in the man- 
ufactui'e of bone and metnllic ornaments and 
pottery ; that they had attained no little degree 
of perfection in the working of metals ; and 
that they were essentially homogeneous in cus- 
toms, pursuits, religion and government. They 
of necessity were an agricultural people, being 
too numerous to live by the chase alone. They 
offered burnt and other sacrifices and oblations, 
to both good and bad spirits. Dr. Foster says 
they worshiped the elements, such as fire, air 
and water — also the sun, moon and stars, and 






offered human sacrifices to the gods the}' wor- 
shiped. Yet many of these views are specu- 
lative, and have but little substantial evidence 
upon which to rest. Authorities are widely at 
variance in their views. But little can ever be 
known of the history of these people, yet 
throughout all the future, the civilized world 
will look with awe upon the decaying remnants 
of their works, and weave the bright fabric of 
romance about their mysterious lives. 

This much has been given on the authority, 
among others, of Schoolcraft, Wilson, Pidgeon, 
Smucker, the American Cyclopedia and others, 
to prepare the way for the classification and 
detailed description of the ancient earth and 
stone works in this county. While almost every 
township can boast of the presence of these 
works within its limits, 3'et they are found in 
greatest number and magnitude along the val- 
Ic}' of the Cuyahoga K-iver, or on the adjacent 
highlands. It not infrequently happened that 
Indian villages were built on the sites of these 
ancient works, and care must be used to pre- 
vent confounding Indian earthworks with those 
of the Mound-Builders. A few of the princi- 
pal mounds and inclosures in the county have 
l)een personally' inspected by the writer, and 
these and all others of sufficient importance 
will be described. The inclosures usually oc- 
cupy naturall}^ strong, defensive positions, and, 
where necessary, are formed by earth embank- 
ments, varying in altitude and basal diameter, 
and protected on the outer side by a deep pit 
or moat. On the farm of Milton Arthur, Esq., 
Northfield Township, is an ancient earth forti- 
fication, of which the following description is 
given by Charles Whittlesey : " The engineers 
who selected the site of this fortitication un- 
derstood very well the art of turning natural 
advantages to good account. Wh}' they did 
not embrace in their plan the whole of the level 
space on the crest of the blutf is not easil}' ex- 
plained, unless we presume that their numbers 
were few, and not sufficient to defend the 
whole. On all sides, the gullies are from eighty 
to one hundred and ten feet deep, and are worn 
by running water into the blue and yellow 
hard-pan that here forms the bluffs along the 
Cuyahoga River. The earth is as steep as it 
will stand, and, in fact, is subject to slides, which 
leave the soil in terraces, resembling platforms 
made by art. Before the ground was cultivated, 
the ditches are said by the owner to have been 

so deep that a man standing in them could not 
look over the wall. In the gully on the north, 
the water is permanent at all seasons. But the 
ancient inhabitants appear to have dug wells 
within the fort at two or more points, and these, 
as stated by old settlers, were stoned up like 
our wells. On the western face of the bluff, 
near where the road descends, is a small spring, 
not reliable at all seasons. There are double 
earth embankments on each exposed side of 
the fortification, though they do not extend en- 
tirely across the necks of land, there being in 
two or three cases a small space left at the ends, 
apparentl}' for a passage-way. There is one 
small mound within the inclosure, and another 
just without. The approach is along a sharp 
I'idge, called a hog's back, nearly broad enough 
for a single road track, for the distance of thirty 
rods, and the sides are as steep as any part of 
the bluffs adjacent. It is not very evident why 
a few rods of ground were cut off by lines at 
the southwest angle, nor why part of the ditch 
was made on the inside on the north and west." 
It must be observed that inclosures of this 
character in the county are formed by an earth 
embankment and a moat or ditch running along 
its side, sometimes within and sometimes with- 
out the fort. There are two or more others in 
Northfield, similar in construction to the one 
described. One of these is protected on one 
side by a steep declivity, while on the exposed 
sides is a semi-circular embankment in the 
form of the curved portion of the letter D. 
Near the residence of John Hovey, in Northamp- 
ton, is a fort which, in early years, must have 
been one of the finest in the county. The em- 
bankment inclosed several acres, and was five 
or six feet in height, and near the walls were 
sevei'al low mounds, and small circular excava- 
tions, apparently designed for arrow pits. The 
walls can still be traced, although they have 
been plowed over many 3ears. Several small 
forts are to be seen in JBoston Township. There 
are mounds at the fai-ms of Ambrose Bliss, 
Mr. Wetmore, James Fairweather, Mr. McKay, 
and the old farm of Watrous Mather. These 
are usually some five or six feet in height, and 
twenty or twenty-five feet in diameter at the 
base. Several have been opened, but nothing 
noteworthy was discovered. In the western 
part of Northampton Township, where Hale 
Run and Furnace Run come quite close to- 
gether, is perhaps the most important fortifica- 





tion of the kind in the county. The streams 
approach each other, and form a steep, narrow 
ridge, barely wide enough for the passage of a 
wagon. This ridge descends some ten feet l:)e- 
low the mainland, to which it is connected, and 
extends about fifteen rods, when it gradually 
assumes a width of some ten rods, and, finally, 
after a distance of perhaps eighty rods from 
the mainland is reached, the blutf terminates 
perpendicularly- to the railroad track. When 
the ridge begins to widen, it ascends until on a 
level with the mainland. Beyond the neck or 
ridge, the summit of the bluff consists of about 
eight acres, and at the eastern extremity, where, 
on all sides except the western, the bluff ter- 
minates as abruptly as the soil will rest, is a 
well-defined earth fortification. Back toward 
the mainland, at a distance to leave at the ex- 
tremity of the bluff about five acres, an unusually 
large earth embankment, with its ditch, extends 
across the ridge at right angles to its course. 
The embankment is much larger than an}' other 
seen by the writer in the county, and at each 
end is an open space, evidenth' designed as a 
passage. On both sides of these two open 
spaces, are perhaps fifteen small circular exca- 
vations, arranged so as to guard the passages, 
and seemingly intended for arrow pits. The 
embankment is four or five rods in length, and 
on the side toward the extremity of the bluff, 
several of the supposed arrow pits are found 
at a considerable distance from the open spaces. 
In fact, proceeding from the embankment to- 
ward the termination of the bluff, it becomes at 
once apparent that arrow pits Avere dug along 
the edge of the bluflf, to defend the position 
from an assaulting foe, that might make the 
eflTort to ascend the steep sides. At the eastern 
end of the bluff, within a small area, are some 
fifteen or twenty more arrow pits, one of them 
being about eight feet across and three feet 
deep. This is one of the strongest positions of 
the kind in the county. 

In the same neighborhood are several other 
forfs, two of them being small with quite high, 
irregular walls, which seem to be strengthened 
by Ijastions, though William Hale and others 
reject this idea as improbable. These inclos- 
ures comprise from two to five square rods of 
land, and the interior has the appearance, as if 
a party of men, with spades, had thrown up 
the irregular embankment, leaving the surface 
extremel}' uneven. There are, also, in the 

same neighborhood, in a cultivated field, eight 
mounds, one of them, over which the plow has 
run for many years, being four feet high and 
eighty feet in diameter at the base. This is 
said to have been over eight feet high in early 
years. An Indian skeleton, in a fair state of 
preservation, was unearthed a number of 3'ears 
ago on the summit about two feet below the 
surface. An excavation was made to the cen- 
ter of this mound, and a small quantit}' of 
crumbled and crumbling bones was found. 
William Hale, who was present at the time, 
states that the bones were found in a position 
to lead to the inference that the party or parties 
were buried in a sitting posture, as the bones 
of the body, save those of the arms and legs, 
were together, while the latter extended out 
into the sandy soil like lines of chalk. Tlie 
remains, when found, were sufficiently well pre- 
served to prove beyond doubt that they were 
bones, though whether they were human bones 
or not is another question, not quite so well 
cleared up. The evidence satisfied all present, 
however, that the remains were those of human 
beings. The other seven mounds are not quite 
so large, and those which have been opened 
contained nothing of importance. It is thought 
that the large mound contained the crumbling 
bones of more than one person. The quantity 
found, and its state of preservation, would 
lead to this view. One of the small, irregular 
forts referred to above and found in this neigii- 
borhood on quite low land, has a double wall 
on the side adjoining the river. Another in- 
closure near this, but on high land, is an irregu- 
lar octagon in shape, and comprises over half 
an acre of land. William Hale's residence is 
situated in a small valley, which, in his opinion, 
was once a cultivated field. At the earliest 
settlement, the land was covered with a heavy 
forest ; but, when this was removed and the 
soil turned up by the plow, various implements 
were found, among which were arrow and spear 
heads ; fleshing instruments of flint ; pestles 
and mortars ; a small, smooth, hard, flat stone, 
shaped like a diamond, with the central portion 
elongated and perforated with a hole near each 
end, supposed to have been used in weaving a 
coarse cloth; and a rough, irregular stone, six 
or eight inches in diameter, flat on two sides, 
on one of which were from one to six artificial 
holes, about an inch deep and an inch and a 
half across, the use of which is extremely diffi- 




cult to determine. Many of these various liinds 
are found a few rods north of Botzurn Sta- 
tion, on the extremity of a blutf, through which 
the railroad cut has been made, in an Indian 
burying-ground. It comprises about an acre of 
land, and some forty skeletons, the most of 
which were in a fair state of preservation, have 
been unearthed, and many more are yet in the 
ground. They were first discovered in 1843, 
when an addition made to the canal disclosed 
several at the point of the bluff. When the 
r.'iilroad was cut through the center of this 
burying-ground, thirt}' or forty skeletons wei'e 
plowed out in almost as many minutes. They 
were lying in somewhat irregular rows, which 
extended north and south, v.'hile the individ- 
uals la}- with their heads some to the east and 
some to the west. There were skeletons of 
males and females, and perhaps one-third of 
these belonged to children. Many crumbled 
to pieces immediatel}' ; but quite a number of 
skulls and some of the larger bones were pre- 
served for several years — are perhaps in exist- 
ence yet. The soil where each skeleton lay, 
was discolored — was black — and in one of the 
graves was found a stone kettle, four inches 
deep and eight inches across. Various imple- 
ments have been found in the soil and on the 
surface. The skeletons were lying about two 
feet beneath the surface. The teeth were as 
sound and white, apparently, as when their 
owners used them. Ver}' likely many of the 
owners of these skeletons had been killed dur- 
ing the latter part of the last century, b}' dar- 
ing borderers from Virginia and Penns^dvania. 
Perhaps the grandfathers of those who assisted 
in unearthing these skeletons, were among 
these borderers. Probably the most important 
earth inclosure in the county, is in Copley 
Township, near the residence of Delos Bosworth. 
In the center of a swamp of muck and marl 
and partially formed peat, is a circular island 
about twenty-five rods across, which is elevated 
from five to fifteen feet above the surface of 
the swamp. There is no natural approach to 
this island. It is surrounded on all sides by 
twenty or thirty rods of what, in earl}^ years, 
must have been an impassable swamp. On 
this island and almost covering it, is an artifi- 
cial inclosure of earth. The embankment is 
about two feet high, and the ditch is on the 
outside. There are twelve or fifteen openings 
in the wall, and a causeway of earth leads from 

these across the ditch, down to the edge of the 
swamp. In some places, as on the south, a 
distance of three or four rods lies from the 
swamp to the edge of the wall ; but usually 
the distance is much smaller, and in some cases 
is reduced to a minimum. Supposing the sui-- 
rounding swamp to have been extremely wet 
and nasty (a Saxon word), as it must have 
been at an early day, the position was practi- 
cally impregnable. The island is covered with 
large trees, mostly hard maple, and no critical 
and extended examination has 3'et been made 
of the soil and what it contains. Within the 
inclosui'e may be seen numerous small mounds, 
but these may have been thrown up b}' trees 
that were blown down. Several of these have 
been opened without any important discover}-. 
The mainland approaches closest on the east 
side, and here is a large gateway in the em- 
bankment. A goodly number of arrow-heads 
have been picked up on the point of mainland 
closest to the fort. This island is called " Fort 
Island." and a short distance south of it is an- 
other called " Beech Island." On the southern 
extremity of the last, are a great number of 
small mounds which Gen. Bierce conceives to 
be Indians' or Mound-Builders' graves. The 
writer does not concur in this view, but refers 
their formation to natural causes, or to beavers. 
Several have been opened, but nothing was 
found. Just south of Botzurn Station is a 
very large mound, some thirty feet in height, 
and about a hundred feet in diameter at the 
base. Tliis was opened a few years ago by 
students from Akron, but nothing was discov- 
ered, save evidence from the soil to prove that 
the mound was a natural formation. Tbe soil 
was found to be similar to that of the adjacent 
bluffs, and dissimilar to that in the valley where 
the mound stands. Three hundred yards west 
is a very large mound, having a truncated sum- 
mit. This is connected by a low ridge with 
the main formation of bluffs, and, in the opin- 
ion of the writer, the other mound was once 
similarly connected to this one, the whole form- 
ing a bluff-projection into the valley. The 
following is kindly furnished by J. M. Mc- 
Creery, of Akron : •' On the land of Thomas 
Barnes, in Norton Township, the conglomerate 
sandstone rises into a very high knob, and 
from the top a view may be had of the country 
beyond Cuyahoga Falls in one direction, and of 
that nine miles across the Tuscarawas Vallev 





in the other, while the view north and south is 
ahnost as extended. At the time Mr. Barnes' 
father settled on this farm, some sixt^-five or 
seventy 3'ears ago, there was a mound built of 
" hardheads" on the highest point of this knob. 
It was about ten feet long and eight feet wide, 
and, although some of the top stones had 
fallen or been thrown down, it was still about 
three feet high. A chestnut tree, twelve or 
fourteen inches in diameter, was growing at 
one corner, and in its growth had thrown the 
corner down. There seems to be but little 
doubt, that this elevated point was nsed as a 
signal station, as a fire on its summit could be 
seen farther than from an}" other point for 
miles around, though whether this is Mound- 
Builders' work, or that of the Indians, is diffi- 
cult to determine. Owing to the scarcity of 
' hardheads,' or cobble-stones, in the vicinity, 
the building of this mound was quite a labori- 
ous task." Mr. McCreery also says : " Near 
Turkey -Foot Lake, are two very singular works, 
which are different from any I have ever seen 
elsewhere. They are funnel-shaped depres- 
sions, some ten or twelve feet across the top 
and eight or nine feet deep, running to a point 
at the bottom. They are walled around with 
small bowlders, and unless they were used for 
fire pits, I am unable to imagine any use to 
which they could have been put, as the stone 
work is too loose to suppose thej' were intended 
for cisterns." 

The principal earthworks in the county have 
now been described, though there are many 
others which as yet are comparativel}' un- 
known, and which some future searcher may 
moi'e fully disclose. Quite a number of small 
circular inclosures and insignificant mounds 
other than those above described are found 
throughout the county, more especially along 
the valley of the Cuyahoga and on the adja- 
cent bluffs. A special description of these is 
unnecessar}', as they are ver}- similar in con- 
struction to some of those referred to above. 
So far as can be determined, all the inclosures 
in the county belong to the military class. 
None seem to have been used as sacred or cov- 
ered. Some of the mounds are certainly sepul- 
chral, and beyond question some were me- 
morial. Those containing bones were sepul- 
chers, wherein were deposited the bodies of dis- 
tinguished characters, while those without 
bones and without any evidences that they 

once contained bones are probably memorial 
mounds. The ancient inhabitants had no need 
to erect mounds of observation in this count}^, 
as high bluffs in prominent positions furnished 
abundant natural facilities for watchfulness 
over a wide scope of country. There are sev- 
eral places in the county — as at Turkey' Foot 
Lake, at the gigantic truncated mound near 
Botzurn Station, at the elevated inclosure in 
northwestern Northampton and at various 
other places along the Cuyahoga and through- 
out the county — where, beyond doubt, fires 
were kindled in ancient times. The stones 
found at these places reveal this fact, and in 
some cases ashes and charcoal have been dis- 
covered. Of course, it is highly probable that 
the Indians, and not the mound builders, 
might have kindled these fires, and possibl}' 
erected some of the earthworks. Indian vil- 
lages were often found on the site of these 
ancient works, and it is to be presumed that 
some alterations were made. It is often diffi- 
cult, and sometimes impossible, to distinguish 
the individual works of these two people, yet in 
general no difficulty is experienced by persons 
well informed on the subject. 

It is impossible and unnecessary to give a 
description of all the ancient implements, orna- 
ments and utensils that have been found in the 
county. They are numbered by the thousand, 
and include all the varieties of stone axes, 
mauls, hammers, celts, mortars, pestles, flint 
arrow and spear heads, fleshing and skinning 
instruments, ceremonial stones, shuttles, col- 
ored slate ornaments, breast-plates of stone or 
shell, ornamental charms and totems, shell or- 
naments, rude and imperfect specimens of pot- 
ter}', bone and metallic ornaments, igneous 
stones, and a multitude more of all sizes and 
shapes, whose uses are unknown. In April, 
1877, there was found buried in muck, about 
three miles west of Akron, a heap of one hun- 
dred and ninety-seven flint instruments. Of 
these, one hundred and eighty-five were evi- 
dentl}' designed for arrow and spear heads, 
though the usual notches at one end are lack- 
ing. They are probably unfinished ari-ow and 
spear heads. They may be seen in the museum 
of the cit}" library at Akron. The various im- 
plements, ornaments, etc., just referred to, evi- 
dently belonged partly to the Indian and 
partly to the Mound Builder. It may be that 
both races used the same implements, as it is 





quite likel}- that the Indian would learn some- 
thing from the scattered remnants of the 
Mound Builders' works. Will the history of 
this strange people ever be known ? Can re- 
search ever clear up the mystery of their origin 
and fate ? Who can sa}- what the human mind 
will accomplish ? May not the evolution of 
tliought into new and numerous fields so widen 
the human understanding tliat existing evi- 
dences may be sufficient to disperse the gloom 
enveloping the origin of man ? If the theory 
of evolution be true, and man is spared upon 
the earth, who can measure the final result ? 
the children of men will come and go upon the 
earth ; imitated ideals will become loftier ; ex- 
cellence in all the arts of mind and spirit will 
be attained ; limitless intelligence will assume 
startling forms of power and penetration ; 
boundless wisdom will lead to prophecy ; 
prophecy perfected will become a science, by 
which past and future will be blotted out, and 
time be measured b}^ the present ; new and 
wonderful taculties of mind will be created by 
the developing laws of evokition ; new percep- 
tions and cognitions and emotions will open 
Ijroad fields of beauty to the mind that before 
were beyond the reach of human capabilities ; 
man's capacity will be multiplied a thousand- 
fold, and evidences will augment in a similar 
degree ; mental conclusions will peer into the 
sanctuarj' of creation, and the origin of life will 
be reached. When this state is reached, the 
history of the Mound Builders will be read as 
in a book, but, if it be not reached, their origin 
and fate will never be known until all mankind 
shall stand face to face before the bar of God. 
The Indian history of Summit County, though 
somewhat meager as I'egards prominent events, 
contains many interesting incidents, the princi- 
pal of which will be recorded. In the 3'ear 
l(Ji)U, the date at which the aboriginal history 
of Northeastern Ohio begins, a tribe of Indians, 
called the Eries, inhaliited that section of coun- 
try.* How far their lands extended southward 
from the lake is somewhat indefinite, although 
it is probable that they included the greater 
portion of Summit County, and, possibly, all 
the soil within its present limits. It is gener- 
ally admitted that the Eries were a member of 

* I'e Witt Clintdn in hid Historical Discourse ii|)on tlie Imlians 
of North America; Louis llciiiiepin, a Franciscan friar, whuse 
travels in "New France" were piiblislicd in 1698; Brant, the Mo- 
hawk chief, in a letter to Timothy Pick'jrinjr, November 20, 17a4, 
and Charlevoix, the historian of " New France," all assign the 
Kries or Erigas to the south shore of Lake Erie. 

the Iroquois family, as distinguished from the 
Algonquin tribes. At the date above given, 
the Iroquois, consisting of the confederated 
Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas and 
Senecas, occupied New York and Northern 
Pennsylvania. These confederated tribes, called 
the Five Nations, had formed their alliance as 
early as 1605 ; and, so powerful had they be- 
come, that their lands, acquired by conquest, 
covered a large tract of country. When the 
Tuscaroras were added to the alliance, the lat- 
ter were styled the Six Nations. AH other 
Northern tribes of Indians than those men- 
tioned above were Algonquins. The leading 
tribe of the latter was the Lenni Lenape, or 
Delaware, whose traditions declare it to be the 
parent stem whence other x\lgonquin tribes 
have sprung. Other tribes of this family were 
Wyandots, Ottawas, Shawanese, etc. The Iro- 
quois, grown strong and arrogant b}' years of 
confederated conquest, steadily enlarged their 
lands from the spoils of conquered tribes. 
About the middle of the seventeenth eentur}', 
they drove, the Hurons or Wyandots from their 
home in Canada, and took possession of their 
lands. They likewise conquered the Neutral 
Nation, the Andastes, the Satanas. or Shawanese, 
and others. "In 1655, the}' turned against 
their Erie brethren, and using their canoes as 
scaling ladders, invaded the Erie strongholds, 
leaping down like tigers among the defenders 
and butchering them withohj. mere}'."* Those 
that were not massacred or driven awa}-, were 
adopted by the conquerors. So powerful had 
the Iroquois become, that they conquered, with a 
few exceptions, all the Indian tribes east of 
the Mississippi. They thus came to own large 
tracts of country, much of which was afterward 
ceded by treaty to the colonies. In 1726, the\' 
ceded their lands to England under certain 
specified conditions, and from that time ceased 
to occupy the arrogant position of conquering 
tribes. After 1663, when the war broke out 
between the Iroquois and the Canadian colo- 
nists, the former could no longer continue their 
conquests in Ohio, and several Indian tribes 
hastened to occupy this beautiful country. In 
1750, there were living in Ohio, among others, 
the following Indian tribes : The Wyandots 
(called Hurons by the French) ; the Delawares 
and Shawanese (both members of the Algon- 

*Histor)' of the Stat? 
James W. Taylor. 

of Ohio: Fir.^t Period, 1G50-1787, by 


® w- 



quin group) ; the Miamis (also called Twig- 
twees) ; the Mingoes (a branch of the Iroquois 
or Six Nations), and the Ottawas and Chip- 
pewas. The Wyandots occupied the countr}^ 
in the vicinity of Sandusky River. The Dela- 
wares were established on the Muskingum and 
Tuscarawas Rivers, and at a few other points. 
The Shawanese were chiefly' found on the Scioto 
and Mad Rivers. The Miamis were on the 
Great and Little Miami Rivers. The Mingoes 
were in great force at Mingo Bottom, near Steu- 
benville and at several other points in Ohio. 
The Ottawas occupied the valleys of the Mau- 
mee and Sandusky Rivers, and the Chippewas, 
few in number, were confined to the southern 
shore of Lake Erie. From 1750 to the war of 
1812, these Indian tribes were found in differ- 
ent portions of Ohio, and a great portion of the 
time were engaged in border wars with the 
daring pioneers. The history of these wars 
would fill volumes. Parties of savages, dressed 
in the spangled paraphernalia of war, would 
hover about the settlements, and, when the ven- 
turesome pioneers were off their guard, would 
swoop down upon them, with horrid 3'ells, to 
massacre and pillage and carry into hopeless 
captivity, or for purposes of heart-rending tor- 
ture. To punish the savages, bands of daring 
borderers would make incursions into their 
country, laying waste their homes and slaughter- 
ing the inhabitants. Some of these Ohio tribes 
were almost constantly at war with the whites 
during the period mentioned. While members 
of all the tribes mentioned above were found 
in Ohio, only four tribes were, in numbers, 
sufficient to merit a special sketch. These are 
the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanese and 

The Wyandots, as indicated by the idioms 
and other characteristics of their language, were 
related to the Iroquois, but about the middle of 
the seventeenth century they embraced the re- 
ligious faith of the Roman Catholics, and, for 
some reason unknown, severed their connection 
with their relatives, the Iroquois, and cast their 
lot with the powerful Algonquins.* Their 
original residence was in Canada, some author- 
ities fixing their location on Georgian Bay, and 
others, as Mr. Schoolcraft, on Montreal Island. 
Their number is estimated to have been about 
40,000 souls. Some time after this, the}^ be- 

♦From the American Cyclopedia the sketches of these four 
Indian tribes have been taken. 

came involved in a war with the Iroquois, by 
whom they were nearly exterminated, after 
which they removed first to Charity Island and 
finally to Quebec. They were found south of 
the great lakes, in 16G0, by some French trad- 
ers, and, ten years later, having become in- 
volved in a war with the powerful Sioux, they 
removed to Michilimackinac, and were accom- 
panied by Father Marquette. Afterward, they 
established themselves at Detroit, their hunt- 
ing-grounds extending into Northern Ohio. In 
1778, remnants of the tribe were yet in Can- 
ada, while that at Detroit was estimated to con- 
tain about one hundred and eighty warriors. 
In 1829, a small band of the tribe was located 
in Michigan. They numbered about forty, and 
were provided with annuities b}^ the Govern- 
ment. Immediately after the war of 1812, the 
principal portion of the Wyandots, numbering 
about six hundred, was established on the San- 
dusky River on a tract of land eighteen miles 
long east and west, and twelve miles wide. In 
1835, the Wyandots decided to sell a strip of 
land five miles wide on the eastern border of 
their reservation, and the land was accordingly 
thrown into market, very likel}' through the in- 
fluence of the whites, who coveted the pos- 
sessions of the Indian. In 1843, the Wyan- 
dots were transferred to Kansas, where they 
have since resided, and the land of their reser- 
vation was annexed to the adjoining counties. 
The Shawanese are an erratic tribe of the 
Algonquin family. A tradition of recent origin 
makes them primarily one with the Kickapoo 
nation ; but they moved eastward, and a part 
are said to have remained, in 1648, along the 
Fox River, while the main body was met south 
of Lake Erie by the Iroquois, and was driven 
to the Cumberland River. Some passed thence 
to Florida and some to Carolina. One band 
was in Pennsylvania at the close of the seven- 
teenth century. Those in Florida lived at 
peace with the Spaniards, and afterward be- 
came known as Savannahs, or Yemassees. 
These retired to the Creeks, and finally- joined 
the Northern Shawanese. The Iroquois claimed 
sovereignty over the Shawanese, and drove 
them West. In 1731, they aided the French ; 
but, in 1758, they sided with the English. They 
joined the conspiracy of Pontiac, and were 
active in war until subdued by Boquet. In 
1774, enraged at the attacks of Col. Cresap, 
they roused most of the Western tribes, and, in 





October, defeated the Virginians at Pleasant 
Point, but sued for peace the following year. 
Col. Bowman, who marched against them in 
1779, was twice defeated. They joined the 
peace of 1786 ; but took part in the Miami war, 
in the campaigns against Harmar and St. Clair, 
but were reduced by Gen. Wayne, and then 
entered the peace treaty of 1795. The main 
body was at this time on the Scioto ; but a few 
had gone to Missouri, and another band had 
moved South. During the war of 1812, urged 
In^ Tecumseh and his brother, the Prophet, they 
endeavored to unite the Western Indians 
against the Americans ; but those in Ohio re- 
mained faithful. The Missouri band ceded 
their laud to the Government in 1825, and the 
Ohio band in 1831. In 1854, the band of 
Shawanese proper, living in that part of the 
Indian Territory now included in Kansas, and 
consisting of 1,600,000 acres, numbered 900 ; 
but at this time, or soon after the tribal rela- 
tion was dissolved by treaty, and the lands 
were divided in severalty. Besides these, there 
were, in 1872, 90 in the Quapau Agency, and 
663 in the Sac and Fox Agency. 

The Ottawas, when first known to the French 
explorers, were located on the Manitoulin 
Islands, and on the northwest shore of the 
Michigan peninsula. The}^ believed in Micha- 
l:)ou, "the great hare," a mythical personage, 
who formed the earth and developed men from 
animals ; in Mirabichi, " god of the water ;" in 
Missabizi, "the great tiger." Soon after 16-49, 
they fled before the Iroquois to Green Bay, 
thence west beyond the Mississippi to the 
country of the Sioux, with whom they became 
involved in war, when they fell back to Che- 
goimegon, before 1660, and finally to Mackin- 
naw. The tribe became considerably divided 
here, one of the divisions settling near Detroit, 
and the one at Mackinaw passing over to Ar- 
Iire Croche. The greater number of the Otta- 
was were in the last war with the French, and 
at its close Pontiac, an Ottawa chief, and one 
of the ablest Indians of any tribe that ever 
lived, organized a vast conspiracv for the de- 
struction of the English. They were under 
English influence during the Revolution, and 
at this time numbered about 1,500. They par- 
ticipated in the treaties of 1785, 1789 and 1795, 
and afterward, by other treaties, the}" acquired 
a tract of land on the Miami, thirty-four miles 
square. By the treaty of 1833, they ceded 

their land around Lake Michigan for land south 
of the Missouri River, and soon ceased to be a 
distinct band. A band of Ottawas at Maumee, 
in 1836, ceded 49,000 acres to Ohio, and 200 
emigrated to the Osage River, locating south of 
the Shawanese. Some 230 remained and be- 
came scattered in detached bands. In 1867, 
they became citizens, and in 1870 were re- 
moved to a reservation of 24,960 acres in In- 
dian Territory. Several thousand are yet liv- 
ing in scattei-ed bands in Michigan and Canada, 
and all are self-supporting. 

The Delawares are a tribe of the Algonquin 
family, and, when first known to the whites, 
were dwelling in detached bands, under sepa- 
rate sachems, on the Delaware River. They 
styled themselves Renappi, or, as now written, 
Lenape or Lenni Lenape. The Dutch began 
trading with them in 1616, and enjoyed friendl}' 
intercourse with them until 1632, when the set- 
tlement at Swanendael was utterly destroyed 
by a sudden attack, but trade was soon after- 
ward resumed. The Swedes made attempts to 
Christianize them, and had Luther's Catechism 
printed in their language. The Delawares claim 
to have come from the West with the Minguas, 
who soon afterward reduced them to a state of 
vassalage, and when the}' were conquered by 
the Five Nations, they were termed women by 
the latter. The Delawares formed three fami- 
lies, or clans — the Turtle, the Turkey and the 
Wolf At the time of the " walking treat}" " 
made by Penn, the Delawares complained that 
they had been defrauded in the interpretation 
of the treaty, and showed a reluctance to " walk," 
upon which the authorities called upon the Six 
Nations, who ordered the Delawai-es, as women, 
to retire. The Delawares were now thrown 
among warring people, and, though previously 
mild and peaceable, they now became energetic, 
and conducted their wars with great ferocity. 
In a war with the Cherokees, they reached the 
Ohio, where a portion remained until 1773. 
They took up arms and fought with the French 
at Braddock's Defeat and elsewhere, but suffered 
so much from English attacks that they finally 
treated for peace, part of them in 1757, and 
the others after the fall of Fort Du Quesne. 
They then centered on the Susquehanna, and a 
small nuinber soon afterward settled on the 
Muskingum. They took up arms in the border 
war, but were badly defeated at Bushy Run, 
August, 1763, by Boquet. Their towns on the 



Susquehanna were pillaged and burned, many 
were killed and dispersed, and in 1768, they 
emigrated to Ohio. In 1774. they were again 
badly defeated at Pleasant Point, and a part 
were afterward engaged in the Revolution. In 
1772. the Christian Delawares settled on the 
Muskingum, but were hastily removed to San- 
dusky, in 1781, by the English. Early the fol- 
lowing 3'ear, ninetj'-four who returned were 
murdered by a party of enraged borderers 
under Col. Williamson. By the treaty of 1785, 
the Delawares occupied the soil between 
the rivers Cuyahoga and Miami. At this 
time there were many scattered bands of 
Delawares, several of which were Christian, 
and at peace with the whites. The main tribe, 
at Grand Blaze, with 480 warriors, was hostile, 
and 400 under Buckongahelas were at the de- 
feat of St. Clair, in 1791 ; but four 3'ears later, 
they joined the peace treat}' at Greenville. In 
1808, there were 800 at Wapeminskink, a few 
at Sandusk}', a few on the Muskingum, and a 
large bod}- at Fairfield, Canada. In 1818, the 
Delawares, 1.800 strong, ceded their lands to the 
United States and emigrated to Missouri. In 
1829, many went to Kansas, and some south of 
the Red River. In 1853, they sold all their lands 
to the United States, except that in Kansas. 
During the last war, out of 201 able-bodied 
warriors, 170 enlisted and served in the arm}'. 
The}' sold their lands, in 1868, to the Missouri 
Railroad, and settled on the Verdigris and Cone. 
In 1866, they became citizens, though their 
clans — Turtle, Turkey and Wolf — still exist. 

During the border wars of the last half of 
the last century, the Indian villages, in what is 
now Summit County, were actively engaged.* 

*Wheti these villagps wi-rs first Pitulilisbed is not definitely 
liiiown ; but from an i>l(i mnp wliich Wiis publisherl in 1755, by 
Lewis Evans it is .ascertained tliat at tU;it tirue there was a Mingo 
vilbioje on the west liarjk of the river, pnibtbly in wliat is r,ow 
ensteni Rath, and an Ottawa villago on the opposite side of the 
river in Northampton, i>r peihaps, as 'omesay, in Boston. There is 
also marUeil on the ni ip a Krench trading-bouse-, which was located 
eitlicr in northwestern Boiton Township, or on the Cuyahoga, five 
miles from its month The bitter view is rendered improbable, 
from the fact, among othors, tint tlie house on the map is loeati^d 
very near the Ottawa village. The house, beyond reasonable doubt, 
was located on the bank of the river, about forty rods north of 
Boston Village. A few old apple trees were found growing near the 
ppotby the early settlers. These were probably idanted by the 
French. When the whites appeared, this place was occupied by the 
Ottawas, under their Chief Stigwanisli, while a hatf-milo northwest 
was a Seneca village under the Chief Ponty. There were two other 
Indian villages, in early years, at Cuyahoga Falls. On the north 
side of the river was an encampment of Ilela wares, and on the Bonth, 
one ol the Iroquois. There vvas a Delaware village in Coventry 
Township, under Capt. Pipe, or in the Indian language, Tauhango- 
cauponye, or IIopDcan. There were also, at times, temporary en- 
campments in almost every township in the county. The Chippe- 
was were found among others, as were also a few Wyandots. 

They sent numerous small bands to Western 
Pennsylvania to massacre the white pioneers 
on the border, and destroy their habitations. 
It is extremely probable that some of the 
borderers who were captured on these ex- 
peditions were tortured to death at the vil- 
lages in Summit County. Perhaps these spots, 
now so quiet and peaceful, once echoed with 
the frenzied death-cries of white men, while 
around, on every hand, circled the leaping and 
exulting savages, tearing up with hot iron 
the bleeding flesh of the despairing sufferers, 
and filling the air with their dreadful yells 
of revenge. Here the dusky savages, decked 
in the gaudy ornaments of border war, invoked 
the favor of their god before descending like 
death upon the defenseless settlements. Here 
could be heard their wild chants — 

" Ne-gau nls-sau — ne-gau nissau 
Kitchi-mau-li-sau — negau nissau" — 
(I will kill— I will kill 
The white man — I will kill)— 

before they started on those expeditions, of 
which we read in histories. In 1759, there 
lived in Cumberland County, Penn., a family 
named Campbell, consisting of the father and 
a bright little girl, about seven years old, named 
Mary. Residing in the same house was an 
other family named Stuart, consisting of the 
husband and wife, and four or five children, one 
of these being an infant. One day, when the 
men were absent, Mrs. Stuart left her children 
in charge of the little girl Mary, and went a 
mile or two distant to the house of a neighbor. 
In her absence, a small band of Delaware In- 
dians took possession of the cabin, and made 
all the children prisoners, much to the conster- 
nation of little Mary, who was old enough to 
know that some awful calamity was pending. 
The Indians, knowing that the adult members 
of the families were not far away, made prep- 
arations to receive them. As Mrs. Stuart, on 
her return, approached the house, she heard 
the children screaming, and hurried forward, 
but was instantly made prisoner by the savages, 
who then thought it best not to await the re- 
turn of the men, but, with their prisoners, 
started for their camp in Armstrong County. 
They soon became tired of carrying the in- 
fant, which was fretful, and one of them finally 
took it, and, in the presence of its shrieking 
mother, dashed its brains out against a tree, 
and cast its quivering body in the bushes. The 




Indians pushed on rapidly, uroiug their weary 
and agonized prisoners to their best pace, and 
carrying those that finally gave out. A little 
boy about seven years old, named Samni}', was 
carried upon the back of one of the Indians 
until the latter was tired. On the third day, 
this Indian fell behind the others, and when he 
again appeared, the little boy was missing, 
while at his belt Mrs. Stuart recognized the 
curly locks of her little Samni}-. The poor 
mother and her children were hurried on until 
at last, weary and footsore, they reached the 
Indian village. Here they were soon separated, 
and one or more of them was adopted by the 
Indians. The following 3"ear, Netawatwees, the 
chief of this band, removed with his followers 
and prisoners to their village at the " Big Falls " 
of the Cuyahoga, now in Summit County, Ohio. 
^liivy had been adopted by the chief, and was 
treated with uniform kindness, occupying a 
position of equality with the Indian children. 
Here the prisoners I'emained until 1764, when 
they were delivered to Col. Boquet, at his fort 
in Tuscarawas County, and soon afterward 
were returned to their friends in Penns3'lvania. 
It is vei'3' probable that other white prisoners 
from the Indian villages in Summit County 
were delivered up at this treaty. Col. Boquet 
had come out with an army of 1,500 men. The 
appearance of this force awed the Indians, and 
they sued for peace in the most abject manner, 
delivering up at the same time, some 300 white 
captives. Fathers, brothers and husbands had 
come out in hopes of finding their lost friends, 
and when the captives were given up the scene 
beggars description. " There were seen," says 
a writer in the Historical Ilecord, " fathers and 
mothers recognizing and clasping their once 
captive little ones ; husbands hung around 
their newly-recovered wives ; brothers and sis- 
ters met after long separation, scarcely able to 
speak the same language, or to realize that 
they were children of the same parents ! In the 
interviews, there w^as inexpressible J03' and 
rapture ; while, in some cases, feelings of a very 
different character were manifested by looks or 
language. Man}' were flying from place to 
place, making eager inquiries after relatives 
not found, trembling to receive answers to their 
questions, distracted with doubts, hopes and 
fears ; distressed and grieved on obtaining no 
information about the friends they sought, and, 
in some cases, petrified into living monuments 

of horror and woe on learning their unhappy 
fate." " In many cases," Albach says, " strong 
attachments had grown up between the savages 
and their captives, so that they were reluctantly- 
surrendered, some even not without tears, ac- 
companied with some token of remembrance." 
The girl, Mary Campbell, and Mrs. Stuart and 
her children, were the first white persons known 
to have lived in what is now Summit County. 
During and after the Revolution, the Indians 
of the Cuyahoga Valley were very troublesome 
to the Pennsylvania pioneers. The details of 
their savage barbarity would sicken the heart. 
All along the Ohio Iliver, on both sides, the 
Indians and borderers met in terrific conflicts, 
which resulted in the death or captivity of one 
of the parties. Almost the entire half of the 
last century was a succession of border wars. 
So dreadful and frequent became the attacks of 
the savages that many expeditions were sent 
to reduce their villages and slaughter the peo- 
ple or drive them far off into the forest. Young 
men on the border were trained to the one pur- 
suit of killing Indians, and the names of Poe, 
Kenton, Wetzel, Brady and a host of others 
will ever bear a prominent place on the page 
of the American border wars. The daring and 
intrepidity of many of these Indian slayers 
were astonishing. They seemed to delight in 
the awful work and courted death and torture 
with a reckless courage that arouses the keen- 
est interest of those who read of their exploits. 
Hundreds of Indians werfe killed without any 
pretext, save the sport afforded the intrepid 
borderers, or to avenge wrongs done by the 
savages. Horse-stealing became a great pas- 
time, in which the borderers and their savage 
foes freely indulged ; and man}- of the fierce 
pei'sonal conflicts, read of all over the country, 
were occasioned by lawless incursions of this 
character. Small armies were sent at various 
times to different portions of Ohio to defeat 
the Indians or treat with them for peace. 
Among these were the expeditions of Cols. 
Bradstreet and Boquet, in 1704, by which com- 
parative peace was secured until 1774, when a 
border war again slowly broke out. About 
this time, several unfortunate attacks on the 
Indians were made, in one of which the inof- 
fensive relatives of Logan, the Mingo chief, 
were ruthlessly murdered by a small command 
under Col. Michael Cresap. This barbarous 
act precipitated events, and the Indians, roused 






for vengeance, began scouring the border to 
murder and pillage. The utmost terror, gloom 
and consternation pervaded all the frontier set- 
tlements. Gen. Mcintosh conducted an expe- 
dition against the Indians in 1778, and Col. 
John Bowman the following year. Col. Q. K. 
Clarke marched against them in 1780 ; Gen. 
Daniel Broadhead in 1781 ; Col. Lowry the 
same year ; Col. Williamson in 1782 ; Col. 
Crawford the same year ; Gen. Clarke again in 
1782; Col. Benj. Logan in 1786; and, besides 
these, there were many others. It became the 
pi'actice on the border to organize small com- 
panies of " rangers," who, when the savages 
swept down upon some family and either killed 
or captured the members, would hastil}' assem- 
ble and pursue the enemy, to chastise them 
and recover the captives. A noted leader of 
these rangers, in Western Pennsylvania, was 
Capt. Samuel Brady. He was a man of pro- 
digious size, strength, endurance, activity and 
courage, and became known to all the Northern 
Indians, who made desperate attempts to either 
capture or kill him. A few years previous to 
this, his father and brother had been killed b}' 
the Indians, and he is said to have taken a 
solemn vow to devote his future life to revenge. 
The following is quoted from Howe's " Histori- 
cal Collection :" " Brad3''s residence was on 
Chartier Creek, on the south side of the Ohio, 
and being a man of herculean strength, activity 
and courage, he was generally selected as the 
leader of the hardy borderers in all their in- 
cursions into the Indian Territor}^ north of the 
river. In about the 3'ear 1780, a large party 
of warriors from the falls of the Cuyahoga and 
the adjacent country had made an inroad on 
the south side of the Ohio, in the lower part 
of what is now Washington County, on what 
was then known as the settlement of ' Cattish 
Camp,' after an old Indian of that name who 
had lived there when the whites first came into 
the Moaongahela Valley. This party had mur- 
dered several families, and with the ' plunder ' 
had recrossed the Ohio before effectual pur- 
suit could be made. Brady immediatel}' se- 
lected a few chosen rangers of known courage 
and activity, perhaps twelve or fifteen or more 
in number, and hastened on after the Indians, 
who, having one or two days the start, could 
not be overtaken in time to prevent their re- 
turn to their villages. Near the spot where 
the town of Ravenna now stands, the Indians 

separated into two parties, one of which went 
to the north and the other west to the falls of 
the Cuyahoga.* Brady's men also divided, a 
part pursuing the northern trail, and a part 
going with their commander to the Indian vil- 
lage laying on the river in the present township 
of Northampton, in Summit County. Although 
Brady made his approaches with the utmost 
caution, the Indians, expecting a pursuit, were 
on the lookout, and ready to receive him with 
numbers four times as great. When Brady's 
men were attacked, it was instantly seen that 
their only safet}' was in hasty flight, which, 
from the ardor of the pursuit, soon became a 
perfect rout. Brady directed his men to sep- 
arate, and each one to take care of himself; 
but the Indians knowing Brady, and having 
a most inveterate hatred and dread of him, 
from the numerous chastisements he had given 
them, left all the others, and, with united 
strength, pursued him alone. The Cuyahoga 
makes a wide bend just liefore entering Sum- 
mit County, thus forming a peninsula of sev- 
eral square miles of surface, within which the 
pursuit was hotly contested. The Indians, by 
extending their line to the right and left, forced 
him on to the bank of the stream. Having, in 
times of peace, often hunted over this ground 
with the Indians, and knowing ever}^ turn of 
the Cuyahoga as familiarly as the villager 
knows the street? of his own hamlet, Brady 
directed his course to the river at a spot where 
the width of the stream is compressed by the 
rocky cliffs, into a narrow channel of only 
twenty-two feet across the top of the chasm, al- 
though it is considerably wider beneath, near 
the water, and in height more than twice that 
number of feet above the current. As he ap- 
proached the chasm, Brady, knowing that life 
or death was the issue, concentrated his utmost 
efforts and leaped the river at a single bound. 
It so happened that on the opposite side, the 
leap was favored by a low place, into which he 
dropped, and, grasping the bushes, he was thus 
enabled to ascend to tlie top of the cliflT. The 

*A celebrated Iiiilian w;ii'-path, extending from Sandusky lo 
Bearer (Fort Mcfntosh), passed through Summit Cuuntj'. This was 
the tr«il traversed by the Indians of Northern Ohio, in their expe- 
ditions af;ainst the l)order settlements in Pennsylvania. The trail 
crossed the Cuyahoga in Franklin Township. Portage County, at 
what is called " Standing Slone," and divided at Fish Creek, the 
northern branch extending across Stow and Northampton Town- 
ships, to the Indian village in tlie latter, tlience across the river to 
the INlingo village in Bath, and tlience westward, while the s lutliern 
bran'h extending somewhat snuth of w. st, led to the villages at 
Cuyahoga Falls, thence on through Portage and Coventry, to the 
Tuscarawas lliver and the Delawaie village in Coventry. 





Indians, who were in close pursuit, were for a 
few moments lost in wonder and admiration, 
and before the}^ had recovered their recollection 
he was half way up the side of the opposite 
hill, but still within reach of their ritles. They 
could easily have shot him at any moment be- 
fore ; but, being bent on taking him alive for 
torture and to glut their long-delayed revenge, 
they forbore to use the rifle ; but seeing him 
now likely to escape thej^ all fired upon him, 
one bullet severely wounding him in the hip, 
liut not so badly as to prevent his pi'ogress. 
The Indians had to make considerable of a cir- 
cuit before the}' could cross the river, and b}' 
this time Brady had advanced a good distance 
ahead. His limb was growing stiff from the 
wound, and, as the Indians were gaining on 
him, he made for the pond, which now bears 
his name, and, plunging in. swam under water 
a considerable distance, and came up under the 
trunk of a large oak which had fallen into the 
pond. This, although leaving only a small 
breathing place to support life, still completely 
sheltered him from their sight. The Indians, 
tracing him by blood to the water, made dili- 
gent search all around the pond ; but, finding 
no sign of his exit, finally came to the conclu- 
sion that he had sunk and was drowned. As 
they were at one time standing on the very 
tree beneath which be was concealed — he, un- 
derstanding their language, was very glad to 
hear the result of their deliberations, and after 
they had gone he emerged from his hiding- 
l)lace, and, weary, lame and hungry, made good 
his retreat to his own home. His companions 
also returned in safety. The chasm across 
which he leaped is in sight of the bridge, where 
it crosses the Cuyahoga, and is known in all 
that region as "Brady's Leap." The pond 
where he concealed himself is also known as 
Brady's Pond. Just where he was first at- 
tacked by the Indians is not definitel}' known, 
but it was somewhere in Northampton Town- 
ship. It is not likely that the Indians, who 
were expecting an attack, delayed their move- 
ment upon the rangers until the latter reached 
their village. It is probable that the}^ were in 
ambush not far from their village, and the cau- 
tion of the rangers alone prevented their being 
caught in the trap. The savages came on in 
great numbers, and the rangers very likely kept 
together for several miles, or until they were 
somewhere in Stow Township, when they sep- 

arated, and each man provided for his own 
safet}'. Brady, on another occasion very simi- 
lar to the one above narrated, leaped a stream 
in Pennsylvania, twenty-three feet wide, and 
escaped from a large part}' of Indians, who 
were almost upon him. 

The Mingo village in Bath was no doubt 
often visited by Logan, the famous Indian 
chief He was the son of Shikellimus, a Cay- 
uga chief, who dwelt at Shamokin, Penn., in 
1742. The father was a personal friend of 
James Logan, the Secretary' of the Province, in 
whose honor the sou was named. They came 
to Ohio about 1772, locating at Mingo Bot- 
tom, near Steubenville. Here it was that, 
about 1774, at the breaking-out of Lord Dun- 
more's war, Logan's relatives were murdered. 
This I'oused him to vengeance, and he began 
an indiscriminate and extensive slaughter of 
all the whites he met. Within six or eight 
months, Logan alone murdered twenty or thirty 
persons. The following speech, though im- 
proved by Jefferson and others, was delivered 
by Logan to John Gibson, an interpreter, who 
had been sent out by Lord Dunmore to the 
Indian towns. According to Gibson, Logan 
asked him to walk out in the woods, and when 
the two had reached a lonely copse and had 
sat down, Logan, with many tears, delivered 
his celebrated speech : 

I appeal to any white man to say, if ever he en- 
tered Logan's cabin hungry, and he gave him not 
meat; if ever he came cold and naked, and he clothed 
him not. During the course of the last long and 
bloody war, Logan remained idle in his cabin, an 
advocate for peace. Such was my love for the 
whites, that my countrymen pointed as they passed, 
and said: "Logan is the friend of white men." I 
had even thought to have lived with you, but for 
the injuries of one man. Col. Cresap, the last 
spring, in cold blood and unprovoked, murdered all 
the relations of Logan, not even sparing my women 
and children. There runs not a drop of my blood 
in the veins of any living creature. This called on 
me for revenge. I have sought it. I have killed 
many. I have fully glutted my vengeance. For 
my country, I rejoice at the beams of peace. But 
do not harbor a thought that mine is the joy of 
fear. Logan never felt fear. He will not turn on 
his heel to save his life. Who is there to mourn 
for Logan? Not one. 

Mr. Jeflferson says : " I may challenge the 
whole orations of Demosthenes and Cicero, and 
of any more eminent orator, if Europe has fur- 
nished any more eminent, to produce a single 
passage superior to the speech of Logan, the 

» .. 




Mingo chief." It is considered a masterpiece 
of Indian eloquence. Logan is said to have 
been one of the noblest specimens of humanitj^ 
of any race, that ever lived. He was, as he 
said, the friend of the whites ; but the deliberate 
murder of his relatives inflamed his savage 
nature, and he "fully glutted his vengeance." 
He had a high sense of honor, and when trusted 
would die sooner than betray- the trust. He 
undoubtedly visited the Mingo village in Bath. 
At the mouth of Yellow Creek, in Northampton, 
is an extensive Indian cemetery, which prob- 
ably belonged to the Mingoes. This creek was 
named for the one down the river from Steu- 
benville, at which was the Mingo village, where 
Logan's relations were murdered.* 

The Delaware villages in Summit County, 
about the time of Lord Dunmore's war, were 
well populated ; though the larger villages of 
this tribe, in Eastern Ohio, were on the Mus- 
kingum. In the wars between Great Britain 
and France for an extension of territory in 
America, great efforts were made by both na 
tions to secure the Indians as allies, for thereby 
a dreaded and powerful weapon could be 
wielded. Sometimes the French were success- 
ful, and then the English pioneers in Pennsyl- 
vania and Virginia experienced the horrors of 
barbarous border wars. At other times, the 
English succeeded and the French were made 
to suffer in a like manner. Many times tribes 
of Indians remained neutral, while the French 
and English were struggling for the mastery ; 
or perhaps portions of some tribe would en- 
gage in the wars, while others would proclaim 
their neutrality and remain at peace, cultivat- 
ing their fields and engaging in the chase. 
After the murder of the relatives of Logan, 
several weeks were spent by the hostile Indian 
tribes to effect a confederation of all the Ohio 
Indians, for the blood}' purpose of an extermi- 
nating and universal border war against the 
American settlers. The Senecas and Shawa- 
nese were eager for hostilities to begin ; but 
the Delawares refused to join the confederation 
as a nation, though many of her young men 
were induced to take up the hatchet. They 
could not endure the derisive title — Shoioon- 

*This is not positivelj' known to the writer, though thorp are 
numerous evidences to indicate its truth. No one in the county 
who wa'i intprvicweii could tell why Yellow Creek was thus named, 
but from tlu- fact that, after the murder of Logan's relatives, the 
Jlingoes, or at least a large band of them, located in Bath near this 
stream, it seems highly probable that the stream received its name 
as stated iu the text. 

noks, or white people — which their war-like 
neighbors threw in their faces. The Delaware 
bands in Summit County remained at peace, 
though beyond a doubt many of their young 
men joined the tide of hostilities. The neu- 
trality of the Delawares, no doubt shortened 
the war and prevented a concentration of the 
hostile Indian forces. Just before the Ilevolu- 
tion, when it was seen that war was inevitable, 
great efforts were made by both the British and 
the Americans to secure the assistance of the 
Indians. It was estimated that the Indians in 
New York, Ohio, and near the lakes, could 
bring 10,000 warriors into the field ; and, it 
was plainly apparent that this large force 
might turn the pending crisis either way. The 
English, through their artful emissaries, made 
great efforts to effect an alliance, and were gen- 
erally successful. Four out of the six tribes 
of the Six Nations joined the British ; but, a 
majority of the Delawares and a numerous 
party of the Shawanese were for neutralit\'. 
At the Pittsburgh conference, Capt. White Eyes, 
a distinguished Delaware chief, boldly advo- 
cated the American cause, much to the anno}'- 
ance of the Senecas, who were for war in the 
interest of the British. The Wolf faction of 
the Delawares, under Newalike and Capt. Pipe, 
withdrew toward Lake Erie to join the British ; 
but Netawatwees, the Delaware chief, one of 
whose villages was at Cuyahoga Falls, sustained 
the view of Capt. White P]yes, as did also Big 
Cat, Capt. John, Killbuck and others. These 
chiefs sent embassies to all the hostile tribes, 
exhorting them not to take up the hatchet or 
to join either side. It will thus be seen that 
the powerful Delaware tribe was the only one 
in Ohio, which, as a nation, refused to take 
up the hatchet. In New York, the friendship 
of the Oneidas and Tuscaroras was secured. 
However, the Delawares were afterward swept 
into the vortex of war, but not until after the 
French alliance had been consummated, where- 
by much of the horror on the border was pre- 
vented. By 1777, the hostile Indians had be- 
gun their work in earnest, and the white settlers 
sought the protection of the forts, or fled to the 
colonies in the East. Numerous war parties of 
savages, under their chiefs, or the white rene- 
gades, Girty, McKee, Elliott, and others of their 
ilk, conducted their dreadful expeditions with 
such malignant ferocity as to cast gloom and 
terror over the frontier settlements. The Otta- 




was, Senecas and Miiigoes, of Summit County, 
were active in the war in the cause of the Brit- 
ish, and, beyond question, Simon Girt}-, who 
became a Seneca b}- adoption, and George 
Girt}', wlio became a Delaware, were often at 
these villages. The Delaware chiefs mentioned 
above, who advocated neutrality, had been 
mostly converted by the Moravian missiona- 
ries. The venerable Netawatwees, chief of the 
Turtle branch of the Delawares, was among 
the number. As near as can be learned, it was 
a band of the Turtle Delawares that had a vil- 
lage at Cuj-ahoga Falls ; while, ver^' likel}-, the 
band in Coventr}' was under Capt Pipe, or 
Kogieschquano-heel, the celebrated Delaware 
war-chief It was almost whoU}- due to the 
missionaries and their converts that the Dela- 
ware bands upon the Muskingum refused to 
take part in the border wars. To these men — noble missionaries — should be accorded 
the honor of preventing, in a material degree, 
man}' of the direful results of the Indian bor- 
der wars. Beyond all probability, these mis- 
sionaries visited the Indian towns, in Summit 
County, to conduct their good work of spiritual 
regeneration. Indian villages were strewn all 
along the valle}^ of the Tuscarawas, and on the 
portage path in this county. So successful 
were the missionaries in their efforts to secure 
peace, that at last the renegades, Girty, McKee 
and Elliott, complained to the British com- 
mandant at Detroit, saying that the Moravians 
not onl}^ prevented the Delawares from joining 
the British, but held constant communication 
with the Americans on the state of the war. 
Immediatel}' after the Coshocton campaign, 
when the peace-chiefs of the Delawai'es were 
subordinated to the war-chiefs, Buckongahelas 
became the controlling power at the head of 
this nation, and through his influence the In- 
dians, including many of those who had been 
converted, took up the hatchet. The Christian 
Indians were removed to Sandusk}' ; but a 
number who afterward returned were cruelly 
murdered ; but their death was bitterly avenged 
by the defeat of Crawford, and the awful death 
of himself and man}' of his command. 

On the 21st of Januar}', 1785, the treaty of 
Fort Mcintosh (Beaver) was effected, b}^ which 
the boundary line between the United States 
and the Delaware and Wyandot nations was 
fixed as follows : To begin at the mouth of the 
Cuyahoga, thence up said river to the portage 

between it and the Tuscarawas ; thence down 
said branch to the forks above Fort Laurens ; 
thence west to the portage of the Big Miami ; 
thence along said portage to the Ome River, 
and down the southeast side of the river to its 
month ; thence along the south shore of Lake 
Erie to the mouth of the Cuyahoga. It will 
thus be seen that the Delawares and W3'andots 
were confined to the west side of the Cuyahoga, 
the summit portage path, and the Tuscarawas ; 
while the tribes of the Six Nations were east of 
this dividing line. This boundary was con- 
firmed by subsequent treaties ; but, in 1805, at 
Fort Industry, the Delawares, Ottawas, Wyan- 
dots, Chippewas, Shawanese, Menses and Pot- 
tawatomies were removed to the western part 
of the State, and the celebrated Cuyahoga 
boundarv line became a thing of the past. The 
Senecas relinquished their rights to the land 
east of the Cuyahoga in 1796. This brings the 
Indian annals down to the time of the first ap- 
pearance of white settlers in the county. 

In the year 1800, there wei'e living in what 
is now Summit County^ bands of Delawares, 
Senecas, Wyandots, Chippewas, Ottawas, Min- 
goes, and very likel}' members of other tribes. 
But six 3'ears before, the most of these had 
been at war with the whites, and it was no wise 
impossible that the savages might again fall 
upon the settlers at an}- moment. All the war- 
like customs of the tribes were retained and 
practiced, probably to keep the warriors in 
trim for another struggle, should it break out. 
By 1805, many settlers had appeared in the 
county, and the movements of the Indians be- 
gan to be closely observed. They mingled freely 
with the whites, and although many personal 
encounters occurred, yet no general outbreak 
was made. It became the custom of the white 
hunters, many of whom had participated in the 
fierce border wars, to assemble at the Indian 
villages to talk with the natives, trade with 
them, race with them, shoot with them, and 
silently observe their peculiar customs. The 
Indians, regardless of the prospect for continued 
peace, still held their war and scalp dances, and 
engaged in all their wild and savage customs. 
The hunters, when present, were often invited 
to join the revelry, which they frequently did, 
but not with the peculiar and graceful skill of 
the natives. Large fires were lighted, and the 
savages, armed and painted as if for the war- 
path, surrounded them in circles, and then, with 





a wild, monotonous song accompaniment, they 
began their dance around the tire, springing up 
and down, first on one foot and then on the 
other, chanting in the meantime a guttural " he, 
he, he ; iuiw, haw, haw ! " blending their dance 
with innumerable antics, grimaces and contor- 
tions, and interspersing their song with wild 
whoops, made to quaver at first by the motion 
of the hand on the lips, but ending with a clear- 
ness and force that made the forest ring. Liquor 
they dearl}' loved, and, when thirsty, would 
part with anything they possessed to secure an 
ample potation of their favorite beverage. Un- 
der its influence, their savage and warlike 
spirit became dominant, and they were ready 
and anxious to assert their demands, and en- 
force them if the}' were denied. The}' often 
entered cabins and demanded whisky, and, if 
it was denied them, they often took it, espe- 
cially if the men were away from home. In a 
case of this kind, the women were usually wise 
enough to get rid of their guests at the earliest 
possible moment, before the liquor began to as- 
sert itself, as otherwise fright, anxiety, danger 
and, possibly, injur}', were sure to result. Some- 
times, however, the Indians refused to go, but 
remained to flourish their scalping-knives and 
tomahawks around the heads of the children, 
and terrify the distracted mother by threats of 
death. Sometimes the husband and father 
would return while the Indians were at the 
height of their deviltry, in which case a fight, 
often accompanied with wounds, was sure to 
ensue. Numerous instances of this character 
will be found in the chapters of township 
history. Capt. Heman Oviatt established a 
store in Hudson Township, where liquor was 
kept for sale. The Indians were drawn thither, 
and numerous drunken brawls occurred in the 
neighborhood. In the absence of Mr. Oviatt, 
his wife occupied the position behind the coun- 
ter (if there was such a piece of furniture), and 
dealt out goods and liquor to the whites and 
Indians. On one occasion of this kind, when 
there was a small temporary encampment of 
some twenty Indians, under the sub-chief, Wab- 
raung, near the store, and the men were at work 
in the woods, at a considerable distance from 
the house, and out of sight, an Indian pre- 
sented himself, saying that the chief, Wabmung, 
had sent him to the store to get a small keg of 
whisky. The credit of the chief was good, 
and Mrs. Oviatt gave the messenger the liquor. 

It occurred to her soon afterward that the chief 
had not sent for the whisky at all, but that the 
Indians, having no money nor credit, and desir- 
ing a spree, had adopted the ruse to secure the 
liquor. She instantly made up her mind to re- 
gain what was left, at any rate. The Indians 
were taking on at a great rate, and did not per- 
ceive her until she had seized the keg, and had 
gone some distance, on the run, toward the 
store. A few half-drunken ones immediately 
set up a yell and pursued her, but she succeeded 
in reaching the store before the Indians. Eliz- 
abeth Walker, a hired girl, was holding the 
door, and she slammed it shut as soon as Mrs. 
Oviatt had entered, but not before the foremost 
Indian had caught up a frying-pan that was 
on a bench at the side of the house, and had 
struck savagely at the hired girl, preventing, at 
the same time, the complete closing of the 
door. He began pushing hai'd at the door, and 
as the two women saw that he was half-helpless 
on account of the liquor he had drunk, they 
suddenly threw the door open, seized the Indian, 
who had fallen prostrate, dragged him into the 
room, and closed and barred the door just as 
several others threw themselves against it. The 
Indian in the room began kicking and thrashing 
around, whereupon the two women got some 
loose ropes and tied him securely. By this 
time, the Indians on the outside were pounding 
loudly on the door, demanding admittance ; but 
Mrs. Oviatt caught up a rifle, and pointing it 
through the window, warned them to leave or 
she would fire, at which they withdrew a short 
distance. She directed Betsy Walker to go to 
the loft and blow the horn for the men, which 
was promptly done, and soon they appeared, 
whereupon the Indians beat a retreat. The 
captive Indian was kept until dark, when his 
squaw appeared, and asked for the person of 
her recreant lord, but this was denied until he 
was completely sober, when he was allowed to 
depart with the ropes still about his arms. The 
last seen of the couple was the tumble they 
took together over a rail fence.* This event is 
narrated to illustrate a common occurrence, 
differing only in minor particulars. Sometimes 
the difficulties resulted in severe fights, but 
usually all the transactions between the two 
races were amic