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Full text of "History of Tama County, Iowa, together with sketches of their towns, villages and townships, educational, civil, military and political history ... and biographies of representative citizens. History of Iowa, embracing accounts of the pre-historic races, and a brief review of its civil and military history .."

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Tama County 

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AFTu!!. 1 ::. 
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A M A 



O U N T Y 









Tlie importance of local history cannot be overestimated. Many of the most 
noic<l men of the country Jiave given the best part of their lives to the preservation of 
the many incidents that form a part of the early settlement of the county in which 
they live. Hon. E. B. Washburn, Ex-Minister to France, devotes much lime to this 
woik; Hon. John Wentworth, of Chicago, has done more to preserve the early records 
of that city than any other person, and spares neither time or money to secure every 
litlle incident that serves to render interesting the history of that remarkable place: 
Hon. Lyman C. Draper, Corresponding Secretary, and Hon. Daniel S. Durkee, Libra- 
rian of the Historical Society of VV'isconsin, do everything in their power to encourage 
thecorapliation and preservation of local history. In the vast library of the Historical 
Society of Wisconsin, no works are more referred to than the local histories of the 
various counties of the States of the Union. 

Believing that Tama county afforded material for a good history, the LTnion Pub- 
lishing (company, of Springfield, Illinois, sent a corps of experienced historians into 
the field with instructions to spare no pains in compiling a complete and reliable work. 
As preliminary to the work, and in order to insure correctness and a work in which 
every citizen of the county might feel a just pride, the co-operation of the Old Settleis' 
Society was secured. That society appointed a committee to read and revise the 
general history of the county, and a like committee in each township to examine and 
correct the history of their respective townships. With but one or two exceptions, 
every man thus appointed served to the best of his ability, and the wisdom of the 




choice of the committees is shown in the work performed. We feel confident that we 
liere present to our patrons a history that is as correct as possible for human beings to 
make it. Tliat errors will be discovered, we have no doubt. Man is a fallible being, 
but every statement herein published is honestly believed in Ijy the parties furnishing 
the information, and by the members of the committee examining it. All desire th.e 
truth, and nothing but the truth. They gave much time to the work and deserve the 
thanks of the citizens of the county for the faithful manner in which they discharged 
the trust reposed in them. Our thanks they certainly have The thanks of the pub- 
lishers are also tendered to all who have assisted in the compilation of this work. 
We cannot name them all, for their name is legion, but we must not forget to men- 
tion Hons. G. R. Struble, Leander Clark, L. G. Kinne, J. C. Vermilya, J. H. Hollen, 
Thomas Murray, D. D. Appelgate and .1. B. Hedge. The historians of the company 
also deserve to be remembered — George A. Ogle, J. 1!. Ogle, J. J. Rising, C. H. Shaler, 
G. VV. Davy, C. VV. Deramon, E. F. Graves, W. M. Shumaker, H. O. l^rowii and 
F. H. Schlutsmeyer. They tried to do their work well and to please our patrons. 

In conclusion, we would say that our work is done; the History of Tama County 
is place'i in your hands. We hope you will be pleased with it. 

Union Publisuino Cojipanv. 



J- . 




Orig-inai iiihabitiints 17 

Mound Builders 18 

The Red Men 18 

Discovery of the Mississippi I'J 

Marquette 19 

LaSalle 20 

Purchase of Louisiana 30 



The minis, Sacs and Foxes 21 

The lowas 22 

War between Sacs and Foxes and lowas 22 

The Sioux- 24 

Black Hawk Wir 31 

Battle of Bad-Axe 33 



Black Hawk Treaty 36 

Sacs and Fox Trciitv 38 

Treaty with till' Siiiux 39 

TreatywiUi th.- Sues 39 

Treaty with the Fdxcs 39 

Treaty with the lowas 40 

Treaty with the Sues of Hock River 40 

Treaty of 1834 40 

Treaty of 1830 40 

Treaty with Sacs, Foxes and other Tribes 41 

Treaty with the \?inuebagos 41 

Treaty of 1836, with the Sacs and Foxes 43 

Treaty of 1837 42 

Treaty of Relinquishment 42 

Treaty of 1843 43 



The Dubuciue Settlement 43 

The Giard SettlcnuMlt 43 

The Montiosi' Settlement 43 

The Burlington Settlement 43 

The Keokuk Settlement 43 

Rules for the Goverument of Dubuque 45 


Military Interference with Settlements 4.") 

Extinguishment of Indian Titles 46 

The Fort Madison Settlement 47 

Flint Hills 47 

The I )aveiii)ort Settlement 48 

(iiiyton ("ouiity Settlement 48 

Couiieil Blulfs 48 

DesMoines 49 



Territory of Wisconsin .* 50 

Tei-ritorial Council 50 

Orgtuiization of Counties . 51 

Territory of Iowa 51 

First Territorial Officers 51 

First Iowa Territorial Legislature .53 

First Session of the Legislature 53 

A Stormy Session 52 

Selection of the Capital 53 

Iowa City 53 

Loan for the Completion of the State House. . . 53 

Woman's Kifrhts 54 

The Missdiiii War 55 

Attempt lit Slate Organization .56 

Const it utiiMial Convention .56 

Secoiiil Constitutioiuil Convention 57 

Election (it State' I iiHeers 57 

Salaries ot State OIBcers 58 



State School Superintendent 58 

Public Buildings .59 

Local ion of State University 59 

Appointment of Supreme Judges 60 

Railr.iiiil Huil. lings 63 

Orsaiiizalioii of the Republican Party 83 

Constitutional Convention 64 

Des Moines Chosen the State Capital 64 

Census by Counties 67 



A zoic System 70 

Lower Silurian System 70 

Upper Silurian System 71 





Devonian System 71 

Carboniferous System 71 

Cretacious System 75 

Peat 76 

Gypsum : 76 

Minor Deposits Sulphate of Lime 78 

Snlpiiatc of Stronita 78 

Siilpliute of liaryta 78 

Sulpliate of Magnesia 78 

Climate 79 

Topography 79 

Lakes and Streams 80 



Response to the Nation's Call 90 

First Infantry 96 

Second Infantry 97 

Third Infantry 97 

Fourth Infantry 98 

Fifth Infantry 98 

Sixth Infantry 98 

Seventh Infantry 98 

Eighth Infantry 99 

Ninth Infantry 99 

Tenth Infantry 99 

Eleventh Infantry 100 

Twelfth Infantry UK) 

Tliiiti.-i-nth Infantry 101 

Fciiiitiiiitli Infantry 101 

Fitticiitli Infantry 101 

SixtriMitli Infantry .. 102 

Si-\rnt»'«'iitli Infantry 102 

Eit'litri-ntli Infantry.' .- 103 

Niiiiteeiitli Infantry 103 

Twentieth Infantry 103 

Twi-nty-tirst Infantry 103 

Twcnty-siTori.l Infa'ntrr 104 

Twiiity-thinl Iiifantiv 104 

Twi-nty-fcinrth •Infantry lOi 

Tuiiity-tifth Infaiitrv". 105 

Twejity-sixth liifantiy 105 

Twiiity-sevi-Tith Infantry 105 

Twcnty-eiiihth Infantry 106 

'J'wiiitj -ninth Infantry 106 

Thirtiith Infantry 106 

Tliiity-lirst Infantry 107 

Thirty-sccoTid Infantry 107 

Thnty-thinl Infantry 107 

Thiity-fourth Infantry 107 

Thirty-tifth Infantry 108 

Thirty-siith Infantry 108 

Thirty-sexcnth Infantry 108 

Thirty-ci^'hth Infantry 109 

Tliiriy-ninth Infantry 109 

Fortieth Infantry 110 

Forty-first Infantry 110 

Fiirty-fou th Infantry 110 

Forty-fifth Infantry Ill 

Forty-sixth Infantry Ill 

Forty-seMTith Infaiitry Ill 

Forty-cijrhth Infantry Ill 

Fiivt I'avalry Ul 

.'^i-cond ra\alry 112 

Tliir.l ( 'avalry". 112 

Fourth Cavalry 113 

Fifth Cavalry 113 

Sixth Cavalry 113 

Seventh Cavalry 113 

Eighth Cavalry 114 

Ninlh <'a\ airy 114 

Fiisl liatti-ry 114 

Scic.nii liatti'ry 114 

Tliiiil liattery". 115 

Fourth liattery 115 

Iowa liegriment of Colored Troops 115 

Northern Border Drif^ade 115 

Southern Border nrigade 115 

Promotions 115 




The First School House 117 

Aft for the Establishment of Common Schools. 118 

The Stiite University 121 

Stflte Normal School 123 

State AKricultural College V24 

i >ther ( 'nlicyes and Universities 124 

I)<'tif ami l)miilt Institute ]'>6 

CulIPKrlur the Hlind '.'.'..'.'.'.'. V26 

Iowa Hosjiital lor the Insane 127 

llos}.it)il tortlir liisaniMit Independence 128 

S.ii.ii'Ts' Orphans' Home 128 

Asylum lor Frrhk- Minded Children 129 

l*"-iial I list it lit inns ." ]29 Pt-nifntiary..- 130 

ilo\s' Kttorm Sihool 1:30 

Stat*- Hi-^iorit-al Society 131 

St at I' A^iiicultural Society 131 

Fish-Hatehing^ House [[[ 13] 



First Election ]^g 

Campaij?n of 1840 ..'...'..'.'...'.... 132 

Campaig-n of 1841 ..'.....'. 132 

Campaig-n of 1843 ; !!!!!!!! 134 

Campaig'n of 1843 .....'.'.'.. IIM 

Campaign of 1844 K*4 

Constitutional Convention 136 

Campaign of IN4(> \2G 

Cumpaijrn of 1847 138 

Campaign of 1848 140 

Campaign of 1849 143 

Campaign of 1850 145 

Campaign of 1851 147 

Campaign of 1853 147 

Campaign of 1853 !!!!!!! 149 

Campaign of 1854 150 

Campaign of 1855 ]52 

Campaign of 1856 ]\ 153 

Campaign of 1857 154 

Campaign of 1858 157 

Campaign of 1859 159 

Campaign of 1860 103 

Campaign of 1861 165 

Campaign of 1862 kj; 

Campaign of 1863 no 

Campaign of 1864 172 

Campaign of 1865 113 

Campaign of 1866 176 

Campaign of 1867 119 

Campaign of 1868 ](■() 

Campaign of 1869 \ ]f2 

Campaign of 1870 ]] iss 

Campaign of 1871 ,,[[ 184 

Campaign of 1873 ite 

Campaign of 1S73 ]h9 

Campaign of 1874 IM 

Campaign of 1S75 ]94 

Campaign of 1S76 ii*(; 

Campaign of 1877 198 

Campaign of 1878 ^oi 

Campaign of 1879 2(6 

Campaign of 1880 210 

Campaign of 1881 212 



Robert Lucas. 215 

.John Chambers 220 

.Tames Clarke 22ti 

Other Territorial Officers 227 

State Officers 227 










Location 233 

Topography 233 

Geological 234 



Inriian Agents 240 

The Indian Name 241 

Customs and Habits 242 



Early Settlement 34() 

County Name 256 

Organization 256 

Location of County Seat 261 

First Events 262 

First Fourth of July Celebration 264 



Acts of County Court 266 

Acts of the Board of Supervisors 270 



Matrimonial 385 

Abstract of Assessments 289 

County Buildings 289 

Tama County Poor Farm 290 

Attempt to Make a Change 291 

Population of Tama County 292 

First Instruments Recorded 292 



Early Manners and Customs 296 

Character of the Pioneers 299 

Clothing 300 

Bee Hunting 302 

Snakes 302 

Religion 305 

Agriculture 305 

The Claim System 306 



First Trials 307 

District Court 308 

CircuitCourt 313 

CountyCourt 314 



TheBarofthe Past 316 

The Present Bar 327 



The Toledo Tribune 353 

The Iowa Transcript 354 

Tama County Republican 355 

The Toledo Chronicle 355 

The Press at Montour .'. 357 

The Tama county Union 357 

The Tama Citizen _ '.'..'. 357 

The Tama Herald... 3.57 

Tama (3ity Herald of Economy '.. . 358 

Tama County Liberal 358 

Chelsea Peoples' Friend 358 

The Traer Clipper 3.58 

Tamal^ounty Independent 362 

The Toledo Times 363 

The Tama County Democrat 364 

Tama City Press 365 

The Penman's Help 365 

Dysart Reporter 3(i5 

Tama County News 371 

The Free Press 373 

The Traer Star 375 

Gl adbrook Courier 376 

Toledo News '.. .. 379 

The Tama Northern 380 

The Dysart Record 381 

The Teacher and Student 382 



Reminiscence by Mrs. Rachael Vandorin 384 

The Wilkinson Party 386 

Tim Brown's Poetry 390 

Methodism Introduced in Northern Tama 391 

Reminiscence by Newton Miller 393 

The Pioneer Doctor 395 

Toledo Reminiscence by T. Brown 399 

How the Court Got Across the River 401 

Reminiscence of the Early Days of Northern 

Tama 402 

Pioneer Life by Christopher Spire 414 



The First Political Convention 418 

OfflcialVote 435 



Congressional 449 

Lieutenant Governor 453 






Attoi-ney General 457 

Supreme Court Reporter 457 

Collector of Internal Revenue 457 

Railroad Comissioners 458 

Government Clerkship 459 

Speaker of the House . ■ ■ 459 

Members of the General Assembly 45fl 

County Judge 463 

County Auditor 469 

Treasurer and Recorder 470 

County Recorder 473 

County Treasurer 476 

Clerks of Courts 477 

Sheriff 477 

County Surveyor 480 

County Coroner 483 

School Fund Commissioners 485 

County Superintendent 485 

County Assessor 485 

Prosecuting Attorney , 486 

Drainage Commissioners 486 



Old SettliTS' Society 487 

Farmers' Mutual Aid Company 488 

Iowa Mutual lieneflt Association 489 

Mutual Endowment Association 490 



Second Infantry 498 

Fifth Infantry 498 

Eighth Infantry 498 

Ninth I ntantry , 498 

Tenth Infantry 5U1 

Eleventh Infantry 505 

Twefth Infantry 505 

Thirteenth Infantry 505 

Fourteenth Infantry 50j 

Sixteenth Infantry 507 

Eigllti-enth Infantry 507 

Twenty-fourth Infantry 508 

Twenty-seventh Infantry 519 

Twentv-eighth Infantry 519 

Forty-seventh Infantry jwO 

FirstCavalry 530 

Second Cavalry Jo' 

Fourth Cavalry odl 

Fifth Cavalry ?31 

Sixth Cavalry 5dl 

Ninth Cavalry ■• 831 

Light Artillery 8A 

Honored Dead o3-- 


EDUCATIONAL .,-:;--; ^?- 

County Superintendent of Schools m> 

Nornuil Institutes ■ • ., ^Ti'i 

Tama County Teachers' Association 549 

Western College ■'^ 



First Physicians in the County 5 ;1 

Tama City Physicians •>;- 

Toledo Physicians ™'» 

Traer Physicians iji" 

Dysart Physicians o™ 

Gladlinidk Physicians 

('helsi'a Physicians ; 

Garwiii I'hysii-ians 

ChiIIoii I'hysicinns 

Eltieron Physicians 

Iiiiliantciwn I'hysicialis 

Montour Physicians 


Richland Physicians 687 

Irving Physicians 5.58 

Moore ville Physicians 587 

Crystal Physicians 587 

Tama County Medical Association 587 


TIES 588 

The first Fair .589 

Tama County Agricultural Society 590 

Agricultural .Vssociation of Tama County 592 

Traer District Agricultural Society .592 

Tama County Horticultural Society .592 



The F'irst Railroad tn Tama County 594 

Chicago & Northwestern jjsfi 

Toledo & Northwestern 5H7 

liurlington, I'liliir Kapids & Northern (i05 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul H(ir> 

Wisconsin, Iowa & Nebraska H(H) 

Projected Railroads 6(j6 



Settlement ti08 

Organic 627 

Educational 628 

Religious 629 

Historical Items b31 

PostotHces : 632 

The Larches 632 



Settlement and Growth leil 

Organic 6.'!8 

Items of Interest iw 

Religious 640 

liiiilniau Matters 642 

Kai-s I'ostolHce 642 

Town 4)f (iARWi;i t>4:i 

K'lucational.... 646 

I'listotBce 646 

Societies 646 



Settlement of Carroll 7 tU9 

Organic 6.5:j 

Religious 6,53 

F.dueational 65;) 

First Things 6,54 



Settlement 6.55 

Organic titil 

F.tiursltinnal 61)2 

Kttii- I'oslotlice 662 

Historical Items (iti:i 

Tiiw.N OF Dysaiit 6(i;t 

( ir^iinic fitW 

Business Matters and Men 66.3 

Hotels 667 

Pi istofflees 67(1 

Eilcational 671 

Religious 671 

Societies 674 



Early Settlement 






The Township Name 691 

Educational "jj 

Uelisious oM< 

Postofflce 5-,w 

Village of Columbia Wrf 

. Historical Items 6"* 



Early Settlement 696 

Organic 716 

Items of Interest y» 

Educational Jjl 

Postottices Pg 

Religious T33 



Settlement 735 

Organic 740 

Educational 740 

Religious 741 

Historical Events 743 

Postofflce 744 

Village OF MooREViLLe 744 



Settlement 746 

Organic 761 

Educational 763 

Various Items of Interest 762 

The Church in Grant 765 

Allendale Stock Farm 768 



Early settlement 770 

Organic 773 

First Things 774 

Educational 774 

Religious ". 775 



Settlement 776 

FiretErents 786 

Organic 787 

Religious 787 




Early Settlement 791 

Organic 796 

Historical Items 797 

Eduoitionnl 798 


I.KiiKA.Mi .Station 803 


Town op Montoub , 803 

Development 804 

Postofflce 810 

Organic 813 

Religious 813 

Societies 815 

Educational 817 



Settlement 819 

(Organic 826 

Fifteen Mile Grove Postofflce 837 

Colville Postofflce 838 

Items of Interest 838 




Early Settlement • 8,i0 

Historical Items 837 



Early Settlement...-. ^38 

Organic 84^ 

Postofflces 84d 

Gladstone 743 

Educational 84* 

Historical Items of Interest 844 



Early Settlement 844 

Organic 868 

Historical Items 868 

Educational 869 

Religious 8i0 

Wolf Creek Postofflce 873 

West Union Village .... 873 

Buckingham Village 874 

City of Tbaer 874 

Development 874 

Postofflce 891 

Educational 89« 

Religious 89^ 

Societies 890 



Settlement 898 

Historical Items 904 

Organic... 905 

Educational ™5 

Religious 906 

Village of Helena 908 

Village of Eureka 908 



Early Settlement 909 

Organic 91« 

Historical Items 916 

Educational 916 

Religious 917 


Chelsea 918 



Settlement 921 

Organic 932 

Various Items Bd^ 

Baiigei! Hill 933 

Gt..m>iihiii)k 935 

Growth and Business Development 9*5 

Postofflce 944 

Incorporation 945 

Educational 946 

Religious 946 

Societies 948 



Settlement 949 

Items of Interest 955 

Postofflee 956 

Organic 956 

TAMA City 958 

Banks 960 

Tama City Brewery 974 

Tama Creamery 974 








Paper Mill 


. 9"5 

Brick f^l 

Furniture Manufactory »|5 

TiiTiui Hvdniulic Power 97B 

P'-itom.r., 980 

Inc(iri)Oi»tiou ™2 

Educational 9°° 

Religious JS' 

Societies - 991 



Early Settlement 894 

Historical Items lOOo 

Organic 10^ 

CiTV ofToledo lOOB 

Early Settlers 1009 

Busines Interests 1009 

Toledo City Bank 1038 

Organic IJw- 

Postoffico 103f 

Educational 10*) 

Religious 1039 



Early Settlement 1052 

Organic ■.'.■■.'lOSg 


Village ofElberson 1061 

Village of Vinino logo 

PostofHces 1084 

Mills J064 

Historical Items Hjfis 

Religious 'loafi 

Education 195(5 



Criminal ; log- 

Gold in Tama county .' .' .107H 

A Blizzard m!l079 

Accidents '.'.['.['. 1079 

First Settlement in Tama County! .."."". 1081 



Abbott, John 792 

Abbott, Washington. .. 792 

Adams, N. H. H 760 

Adelbert, Sydney 856 

Aldrich, Sylvester A . . . 644 

Alevander, William 1056 

Alexander, William, Jr 105' 

Alexander, George 668 

Allard, Joseph 734 

A Hard, Jonathan 724 

Allard, Albert 940 

Allard, G. P 931 

Allen, Isaac L 318 

Allen, Isaac L 457 

A Hen, John 46:" 

Ames, J. T 632 

Antrim, Adin 86' 

Appelgate, D. D 339 

Appelgate, W. E 1024 

Appleton, Richard W.. 5S6 

Arbuthnot, S. W 669 

Armstrong, T. K 1019 

Arter, Jacob 653 

A sher. Isaac 230-791 

Austin, Robert E 344 

Austin, Michael 335 

Averill, J. C 878 

Itabb, Da%-id.. 
liabb, Quitu^y 


Beatty, Henry 856 

Beery, Samuel E 637 

Bcklen, H. B 1027 

Bent, Lorenz 569 

Benesh, Frank 1063 

IJentley, C. B 975 

Benson, Alvin 939 

Bennett, Eli S 751 

Benedict, E. H 351 

Best, B 880 

Bern, A. C 824 

Berry, S. W 940 

Billerbeck, Jacob 825 

Bisel, Benjamin 733 

Bishop, J. B. M 473 

Bishop. Jonathans — 69' 

Bishop, Charles A 691 

Bishop. John 1000 

niortgett. Miron 478 

ISoehmke, F 942 

Bolens, Eugene B 320 

Homer, F. A 905 

Bonney, M. D 659 


Brown, Fred W 370 

Brown, Timothy 316 

Bruner, D. F 470 

Bruner, Benjamin 744 

Bruner, Adam 1064 

Bruner, Solomon 994 

Brush, John B 711 

Bull, John G 628 

Bunce, Hiram 569 

Burge, James 9.56 Connell, John 

Burt. L.N. B.C 636 CooUdge, Liberty 

Burris, H. C . 83: 

Burright, Orrin 1030 

Butler, M. S 365 

Bvwater, A 932 

By water, W. C 932 

Bywater, Napoleon 637 

„ , ^ PA.QE 

Colebaugh, A. F 813 

Collins, C. C 877 

Collins, Andrew 857 

Conant, George W 636 

Conant, Marion A 6:^5 

Conant, W. L .581 

Conant William 682 

Connell, Daniel, Sr. .. 945 

Connell, Daniel 944 


. 657 
. 1020 

Cone, Albert G.. 865 

ConKUn, Charles H 311 

Converae, John T 662 

Cory, Henry 920 

Cory, John 6S1 

Cory, William 6Si 

Corns, William 567 

Cordner, Adam VW 

Calderwood, Hugh 

Camcry, James M . 

Camery, Denton . 

Campbell, John... 

Campbell, John P. 

Bonney, O. D 88o'Cannon, E. J 

Bowe, E. R 1031 Gary, Lyman 476|Cram, J. F 

Bowen, W. H 887 Cary, L. H 572 Crawford, C. H. 

Bowdle, J. A 469 Cart, S. M 987!Crenshaw, B. F.. 

Corfman, John 
1021|Co8krey, WilUam H'. 

661, Countryman, S. S.. . 

902|Covell, C. E 

1034|Cowan, Robert 

Bovennyer, Samuel. 

Boynton, H. W 

Bradley, James M. 

.. 679 
. . 10,58 
.. 913 
. 718 
.. 901 
.. 324 

781'Csrpentcr, E. S 968jCrittcnden, George 911 

57i't-'arini(hael, Lewis 964|Cron, James 865 

795 Carniichael, E. L 96,5|Cronk, J. G 793 

liabb, Anthony L 7n'Bra<lljrook^Walter 6H6|CannichaeL H. F. 

itabcock, Maxson. . ". -^ n.,., .^., 

Baker, D. W 

Bailey, Jehial 

Bailey, Alanson H . 

Baldy'p^L ....... 668 isranaraa'n, Henry 889 Churchill, 'Harry E 1012iCuther. Sl.L. 

Daldv H T 571, Brash, Hugh 752 Clark, Leander 465jCuthbertson, A. .. 

Baldwin Henry 1028 Brceht, Adam 783 Clark, Rush 431 

Baldwin, ('. H 820 Brennan, Edward "SOH'lark, T. F 888 Daniel, Wesley A 

Balfour, William 713 Brewer, James 947 Clay, Hiram 901 Davis, Franklin. . 

Ballard, Jeremiah 571 Brickcr, Anthony 6.3tlClausen, Heinrich 714 Davis, C. L 

Barbour Drydcn 861 Bricker, Truman 983 Cleveland, E. H 976, Davis, John R. . . 

Barker George 750 Brooks, J. H 982 Clough, J. E 664:Davis, Henry E 

641 linidliTii, T. F, 
. 71- Hracl-liHW, Homer S 

1011:; liraa,>^haw, C.B 329^ 

. 781 Itiaincnl. Orson T 346 

. 3:ti liiimnan, W. L 930 

668 ISranaraan, Henry 

966'Croskrey, Wesley 954 

323|Casey, Michael 730,Cummings, Martin 621 

335 Casey, Patrick 611 Cummings, A (il8 

Chambers, G. M 913 Cummings, John '. 621 

Chase, Tallman 46;3 Cummings, Thomas 618 

Chase, Stephen. _^ 794!Curnmings, W. H 9.58 

■" ' "580 



. 7(13 

Barnes', Charles 9fl0' Brooks, James H 95ICody. Lyman . 855 Davis, Henry F 914 

Barton, Edward .569'Broekway, A. L 827 Cohrt, .Inhann "lllDavies. A W loiiU 

Baxter, C. A 784 BiDCkman, N.J 643 Cold, !■'. G 

Beach R B 6.59 Bniwn, William 731 Ccild, C.J. C. 

Beardshear, W. M 539 Brown, H. A .546 Cold, J. F. G. 

824, Davidson, James 763 

824 Davenport, George L.. 241 
838iDay, H 96!t 





DeLand, W. A..... 
Be Long, Gibson w . . 

Dillinan, S. S S5 

Dini?ee, Allen 

Binsilale, James 

ninsdale. L. P 

Dixon, L. J 

Dodri, Edward 

Dodd, Andrew 

Doniivon, Jerry 

Donaldson, Andrew. 

Dooley, M. V 

Dnwd, J. J 

Downs, T. L 

Downs, W. A 

Dovle. John 

Draper, Norman 

Duncan, Charles F... 

Di-ipre, T. A 

Dysart, Joseph 

Ebersole, E. C 

Edmonds, Alonzo... 

Edwards, G. G 

Edwards, George A. 
Elhvood, George C... 

Ellwood, J. D 

Elmer, O. F 

Emmett, Patrick.... 
Emcrling, Charles... 

Eniierton, James 

EshbaiiKh, Frank... 
Eshbangh, John A.. 

EshbauKh, W. F 

Everett, Samuel 

Everett, K. E 

Evy, J.H 

Farnham, Eber C... 

Feddcison Brothers. 

Fee, W. A 

Fee, George M 

Feltcr, Nelson 

Fellows, B. W 

Fink, James 

Findley, J.T 

Fisher, Nathan 

Fitzgerald, Kiehard 
Fitzgerald, J. C. ... 

Fleming, John 

Fleming. John 

Fleming, William F 

Flint, J. C 

Flint, E. A 

Fowler, Allen S.... 

Foster, C.J. L 

Foster, H. C 

Fowler, James 

Frank. George M.. 
Franks, William. .. 

Frazee, K. H 

Free, Thomas S.... 
Furrow, Joseph — 

Gait, John 

Gallagher, William. 
Gallagher, D. K . . . 
Gallagher, William. 
Gallagly, Thomas... 
Garner, William — 

Gardiner, John 

Gaston, Hugh F.... 
Gethmann, Louis... 

Giger, JohnH 

Giger, Samuel 

Giger, I. F 

Gloss, Albert 

Goding, O. W 

Goding, F. W 

Goodeuow, Fitch... 
Goodrich, G. H 


.. flSl Gotthold, W. C 

.. TSSlGould, Samuel 

lli:ir) Gower, J. W 

.. 7!i:! Gran, J. M 

.. 621), Gray, John K 

. TGSJGray, Charles 

.. 796'Graham, James R 

.. TlSiGraham, T. A 

. 'iin'Graham, J.H 

.. 914 Gravatt, O ^..■ 

... 641 Oraham, William H... 

... 352|Granger. Robert 

,..102fl'Green, .LV. B 

. .. 545|Greve. Johann 

, .. 809',Gregorv, D. B 

684 Grinneil, J. B 

. . 632iGrover, George H.... 

. ■■ 669lGuernsey, Elijah 

... 843 Guernsey, A. W 


Haagen. Charles 

... 334!Habenich, J. H 

.. 666 Hall, B. A 

...1042 Hammitt, Benjamin. 
... "37 Hamilton, J. M . . • . 

... 93!iHaney, O. M 

... StOlHancock, .A.mosB.... 

... 937|Hait, John W 

... 727. Harris, J. F 

■ ■ fll2|Harrif5, Thomas 

.. 6.i7|Harris, William 

.•■ 682,Harman, E 

... 883iHartsock, William. .. 

... C81:Harmsen, .John 

.... 6.58:Harrison, W. H 

. .■ 806!Harrison, W. H 

.... 670Harrison, E. W 

... 624 Hartshorn. H. A . 

Haworth, James 

. • . 93B|Haworth, Alpheus... 
...1011 Haworth, Shepard.. 

.... 65l!Hawk, W. H 

.... 696iHayes, C. E.. 

.... 807'Haves, J. M 

.... 7ir)iHealy, HenryM... 

.... 6,59|Hedge, James B 

484 iicidl.-bausih, .John.. 

3.">I Hi.lni.WnodhuU 

••"" Helm, Vsirnum 

"6" Helm. I'hineas 


. 902 

. 786 
. 903 
. 801 

. 583 
. 617 
. 890 
. 621 

.' 784 
. 4.50 
.. 740 
., 726 
.. 342 

Jackson, Andrew . . 
Jackson, T. Walter. 
Jamoyson, Charles.. 

Jaqua, Gamaliel 

Jensen, P 

Jensen, John 

Johnson, Ale.\andei 
Johnson, Charles.... 

Johnston, W. F 

Johnston, W. S 

Johnston, Wesley... 

Jons, Claus 

Jones, P. C 

.loralemon, J. C .. 
Junker, F. W 




MeAlpine, John 886 

McAnulty, Hugh 982 

MeClnin, WilUiam bbj 

361 McCUiskey, .TohnR..... 4.4 
66.-, MoChirv, George W.... 881 

661 Mel 'lung. James Voi 

843 McCormick, JohnF.... i8^ 
883 McCormack Brothers.. 88.i 

Keeler, R. W 

Keith, L. P 

Kell.v, S. V. R... 
Kellogg, William 

931 Kendrick, J. C 

5.81 Keown, William — . 

978 Kephart, E. B 

778 Keup, Martin 

766 Kieser. John G 

667 Kile, Mrs. Ibby 

, a39 Kile, Nicholas 

879 King, William B — 

, 834 Kinnc, L. G 

. 823 Kinner, William 

831 Kinner, James M.... 

345 Kinner, John .\ 

685 Kline, Walter 

. 722 Kline, William 

997 Klingamon, George. 

.597 Knapi>, B. L 

714 Knight, Thomas L. . 
852 jvnoop. Christian .. . 
6.50 Knowlton. C. F 

. 6o; 

. 1010 
. 580 
.. .575 


.. 8.35 


McCosh, Andrew....... 8bl 

McCracken, Alexander ,55 

McCrcath, James i» 

McCuUogh, James .... »-■) 
McDonald, George W.. 664 

McGee, Charles F 941 

Mcllhinney, Andrew.. ^44 

McTntire, Daniel i4^ 

Mclntire, R. G i*^ 

McKay, Benjamin ,.« 

McKean, John ."■> 

p 808 McKune, John W 69 . 

485|McKune, George 
7.50lMcKune, John E... 
.5.57iMcMillan, GUliert.. 
687 McPherran, Robert 
928 McPherran, A . S... 

8.58McTurk, Widiam ^- 

8.58|Maden, Isaac •'■^* 

460 Magee, James 794 

, 330 Magee, Robert f,-'t 

. 835iMagec, James L i9.d 

835lMaiden, George lOO-i 


634|ii(.|i,\li, ks, jfohn P. 

,■,,„,,„ „„, John... 

900iHild, John 

... 900 Hill, Joseph 

■•• 8.58 Hinegardner, D. S .. 

•■■ 320JHitchner, W. D 

. ■• 4"8 Hixson, P 

. . . 345 Hoag. Joel 

■ ■■ 865 Hodgin, K. F 

..■ 811 Hollen, J. H 

...1015 Holstead, W. H 

■■ 469|Honian, Charles 

. . . 66o Horton, Silas H . . . . 

Houghton. William. 

... 616 Howard, H. W 

... 7.80 Howard, .lohn 

... 780 Howard, A. L 

■•■ 9.H4:Huev, John 

... 876 Hutford, .\braham. . 
■■•■ ■'"*', Hughes, D. L 

... 826 Hull, James L 

... 851;Hulelt. L. D 

.... 930 Hurd. Fayette 

... 777 Hutchison, G. A 

.... 776 

. 6.50 

. 83'l 
. 840 

. 357 
. 6.37 

. 613 
. 804 
. 546 
. 651 

Kober, John — 

Kober, George 

Kollman, William. 
Kremenak, J. W.. 
Krouse, William.. 

.. 747 
.. 747 
.. 614 
.. 866 
... 657 
... 885 
.. 615 
. .. 61: 
.. 913 
. .. 636 

Mann, Thomas E. 

Mann, S. S 

Marsh, Levi 

Martens, F 

Marston, H. L — 

Mason, O. N 

Mattern, Joseph.. 
Malin, William G. 

• ••' Ingham, S. W... 

902jinnes, James.. 

566lirish, CharlesW. 

■566, Ives, T. N 

183ijacobs, Horace.. 
325|jacob6, Claus F. 

LaDow, B. B 

LaDow. A lexander, . . . 

Ladd, John A 

Ladd, Daniel C 

Ladd, W.T. V 

Lage, Fred 

Lamb, Wi.liam L 

Lamb, D. C 

Lamb, Jacob W 

.1004 Langley, E. T 

847 Lauderdale, J. H — 

973 Law, Andrew 

680 Lawson, G. B 

938 Lee. Simon A 

9.-,li:Leibiandt, C. A 

483 Lelaiid, S. C 

1)70 Lesser, Wallaoe R — 

733 Levering, Noah 

718 Lewis. N'liinan 

6B6 Licht.v, Peter 

Life, John 

Lite, George M 

Livingston, David... 

Loder, William 

Loaan, James 

Long, Simeon D 

Loop, Anson 

Loop, Charles 

Loupee, Lewis 

Lonthan, John B 

Louthan, Wallace B. 

Ludwig, H 

480 Lundt, John 

383 Lynde, Edward 


Malin, Thomas M Bb4 

Malin, George M 

Maltbie, S, W 

Mathern. A 

Matthieson, Mathias 
Matthews, Lewis — 

._- Mavnard, SamuelP.. 

9991 Meagher, M 

.579;Meeker, William 

einjMeeker, Lathrop.... 

889 Meggers, Frank 

821|Meinger, Charles, 

339lMelick, Robert -- .. 

841|Merritt, James B. 


. 816 

. 974 

.. 836 

. 808 

.. 736 

.. 990 

. . 841 

. 841 

.. 837 

. 739 



, 3:38lMerritt, James A...... AW 

oooi ititri 1. HI. u HI"--" - - 

346:Meiritt, Theodore J.. 
683iMerchant, Lewis.... 

864!Merrill, William 

9jiMetz, Reinhard 

. 973 
. 7.38 
, . 896 
,. 895 
.. 669 
.. .540 
. . 691 

. . 871 

.. 988 Mills, 0. H. - 

. .569 Miller, William B.. 

337 Miller, C. W 

.. 375 Millard, J. C 

.. 318 Millard, O. P 

. 9.53 Mitchell, James.. 

,1004 Moffatt, .John B 

734 Monroe, Gilbert J J-; 

. 7371 Moore, Edwin ^'4 

8951 Moore, Theodore ^27 

. 8631Moore, Theodore "4- 

. 862 Moore, J. S 1"1{ 

Moore, R. H 881 


. 760 
. 8.59 
. 860 
. 586 

fl3 McAlevy, Samuel E.. 

Moore, Z T 88« 

Morton, John 698 

o„„ Morton, Margaret 698 

340;Morton, Jonathan.. . d)l 
8251Morton, Newman W.... .m 

837 Morgan, F. K »•" 

717 Morgan, M. R. . . . 8." 

Mortord, Isaac R »« 

933lMoreton, Isaac 914 







Mowrv. Welcome «34lKhoa<ls, L. L 

Mudjfett, Newton li44jUic-e, N. C 

Mwrray. Thomas 478 llice, Alfred 

Murray, James TSglltich, AlansonP. 

Mutch! James 15'\H\gg. HubertN... 

Myers, Tharles 645il{iley, John 

Myers, C.H 567] Roberts, C.H. 

. .. !I81 

... 347 
. .. 890 


Springer, J.N .573 

Stalev, T. J 470 

Slautfer, Isaac 942 

Newcomb, A. G 885 

Newcomer, Smith 878 

Nichols, JohnG 623 

Nicholson, John 568 

N utt Romanzo, 738 

O'Neill, James 6.52 

Olncv, Clinton 484 

Oriniston, J. S 582 

Osborne, N. L 255 

Otterman, George W. . , 779 

Otterman, Philip 7J9 

Overmire, Peter 254-777 

Owen, J. A 1010 

Owens, Henry A 625 

Pageler, Gerhard 931 

Parker, J. C 833 

T'a.\sou, .Josiah 796 

Penrose, E. G 1*66 

Pennell, V. B 652 

Pennell, L. H 981 

Peters, Henry 937 

Peterson, John 635 

Peterson, Jonathan 634 

Peverill, William 731 

Philp, William 636 

Philp. James 632 

Phillips, James 687 

Pickett, Moses 683 

Pierce, Milton H 10.58 

Pinkcrton, J.H. ... 667 

Pinkerton, W. B 887 

Ploen, Peter 716 

Pond, H. A 930 

Porter, William 821: 

Porterfleld Brothers ... 877 

Powers, Thomas 645 

Powers, Robert M 68' 

Powell, Robert 659 

Poyneer, E. M 806 

Poy neer, A.N 462 

Prindle, Truman 1054 

Putman, J. M 938 

(^ical, Paul 320 

Quinn, Abraham 7tV} 


Safely, John G.. 
Salsbury, W. C. 

Sapp, M. B 

Schocl, August. 
Schmidt, John. . 

Schroeder, Madison 784 

Scott, Robert A 867 

Scott. Jasper H 761 

Seamons, M. L 8.57 

Sears, W. G 340 

Sexton, Lemuel 685 

Shane, John 31; 

(^iiinn, Peter. 
t,|uintard, Charles C 

Rogers, Reuben 1055 

Rogers, AmosR 

Rogers, Reuben O... 

Rogers. Warren 

Ross, John 

Robs, Henry 

Roth rock. James H. 
Ruggles, Edward.. . 

.. 323 

. . 8o: 

.. 939 
. , 780 

Sharp, John. 713 

Sharp, John B 936 

Sharp, William 939 

Shaler, Jacob W 915 

Sherman, Phineas L... 729 

Sherrett, Thomas 863 

Shower, Isaiah 8.59 

Shugart, Z. T 1053 

Shugart, Levi H 1053 

Shultz, Valentine 698 

Shultz, Peter H 936 

Simon, Joseph 1063 

Simon, Frank 1063 

:^imon, Moses. 
Skrable, Charles. . 


Skrable, John 1061 

Skyles, Thomas 
Slossor, James 
Slessor, W. H. 
Slessor. W. T.. 
Sloss, George.. 

Sloss, Allan 758 

Sloss, James 756 

Smith, Henry L 1060 

Smith, E.H 364 

Smith, E. R 576 


Stavelev. Anthony 626 

Starr, Arthur P 963 

Stevens, H.J 943 

Stevens, J.H 586 

Ste\ens, C. J 4' 

.1055 Stewart, Andrew J 913 

.1056 Stewart, .lames 759 

888 Stewart. William 660 

470 Stewart, Joseph 546 

6:38 Sterretl, A. H .546 

311 Stc\-* nson, John 708 

805 Stivers, William H 327 

Stiger, H. J 339 

Stiger, S lOlli 

Stone, Benjamin loI3 

Stoner, Uavid 10;" 

Stoakes, Henry 8.54 

Stoakes, George 854 

Stoakes, John 853 

Stoakes, Eleazer 728 

Stoakes, William H. . . . 660 

Stoakes, Mathias 658 

Stoakes, J. N 6.58 

Stoddard, Lvman H.... 678 
Stoddard, William H.. 6' 

Stod'lard, Leonard 677 

Stoddard, William 677 

Stoddard, .\lbert ... 323 

Stoelting, C 946 

Struble, G.R 328-.349 

Struble, James H 476 

Striivc, John 10.58 

■ituart, James W 864 


■Vermilya, John C 464 

Voege, Joaehin 930 

Vogt, George 652 

Harvey 728 


Stuart, David M 865 

Surface, J. L. 

Swan, Peter 

Swan, John 

"wart/,. William. 
Swift, H. S 


Ramsdell, John .54.'; 

Itawson, A. Z 914 

Ituy, David 94:i 

Reamer, Daniel 341 

Rebok, Philip K. jr. ...1020 

Reed, J. D. E 680 

Redmond, John F 060 

Reed, Milton 884 

Reed, George 901 

Reedy, Johns 995 

Reedy, S. C 778 

Reichman, Rudolph .362 

Reichman, Edward 1024 

Reickhotf, William 3-.'5 

Reid, Samuel 7.59 

Rehder, Mar.\ H 822 

Rehder, P 823 

Rehder, Jurgen 822 

Smith, Frank S 

Smith, Roberts 

Smith, J. H 

Smith, James H 

Smith, Frank E 

Smith, C. A 

Smith, John C 

Smith .leremiah 

Smith Harzilla 

Smith, S. P . 

Smith, Henry 

. .585 
, 660 
. 686 
. 772 
. 943 
. 911 
. 900 
. 927 
. 877 

Taliiiage, T. S 

Tappen, W. W 

I'auk, Hinrich 

Taylor, David 

Taylor, William 

Taylor, Ira 

Taylor, Giles 

Tedford. John L 

Temple, T. C 

Temple, E. W 

Terpenning, Ransom . . 

Thomas, B. F 

Thomas. Enos 

1. Benjamin 

Smyth, William 309 

Snyder, Levi. 
Soleman, Garrett.. 

Sideman, H 

Souster, W. W 

Spayde, J. L 

Spavth, D 

Spatford, L. M 

Spiers, Aie.vander. 
Spire, Christopher. 
Sprole, William 


Tode, Claus 

'I'olund, David 
inpkins, A 



Wagner, H 

Waldon, M. M 4.51 

Walls, Solomon 707 

Walker, (I. W 904 

Walters. W. C 1012 

Walz, John..- 678 

Ward, .1. F 970 

Warren, T. E 475 

Watson, James 757 

Watsor, '1 homas 758 

Way, I). R 806 

Weaver, Frank 10.56 

Weaver, Solomtm 5.57 

Weir, Thompson 749 

Wenteh, P. P 6.56 

West, S. Newell . 73;) 

West, Alexander W... 842 

Wescott, D. G 935 

Whannell. Peter 707 

Whannell, Robert 748 

Whannell, Thomas 708 

Wheaton, Andrew J... 473 

White, Isaac W 733 

White, Nathan 863 

Whitten, C. C WM 

Whitaker, Thomas 959 

Whitmore, William 8;i4 

Wiebenson, E 939 

Wies, Clans 826 

Wicting. Nathan C 319 

Wild, John 1035 

Wiles, J. C KW 

Willey, JamesA 910 

Wilson, John , — 855 

Wilson, M.C 9.59 

Wilson, James 458 

Wilson, C. A 774 

Wilbur, George L :i48 

Wilson, West 701 

Willett,J. W 3:16 

Wik'o.x, Sylvester 842 

Willard, H. F 926 

in, J. A. . 

Daniel 626 

W. H :!41 

.. .1037 

774 ,;, 


Toinlinson, William. 

Towneend. J. S 

Townsend. .Tohn S 

Tnrbelt, W. S 

Purnbull, Richard 

9(iO ''■'■'<'''• -"^- •! 

5~rJTrowbridge, James. . . . 

671 i 
883 VanAnken, James It. 
(io-jiVanHorn, Peter .S. . . . 

679 VanN'liet, Henry 

(jjjil Vandever, Williaiii , , . 

4611 .s:iy 


, IW7 

, 860 

Williams, George S. . . 912 

Wilco.\on,T. D. H 795 

Wilkinson, A 250 

Wilkinson, Wm 250 

Williamson, W. R 836 

Wiilijiinson.H. A 479 

Wiim, Walter F 379 

Wuig, J. B 569 

Winders, Hiram 772 

Wise, Adam 651 

Withers, W. J 884 

Withinston, H. H 785 

Wood, F. C :i47 

Wood.W. H ;i47 

Wood. George 670 

Wood, Alfred 611 

Wood, Joshua C 616 

Wouil. Lyman 846 

Wood,Lynu\n I'j 847 

Wonser, W. W :i44 

Wonser, F.J. M 34:1 

Worrall, W. P 670 

Worden, William 863 

Woollev, E. M .579 

WooUev, H. M 884 

Wooilward, J.H 1013 

Wylie, Robert 702 

\'ciser, Jacob 

Veomans. Robert. 

^•ounK. W. F 

Voungnian, J. W. 

. 474 
... 945 

.. io;ii 




Tiailcv, George L 331 

Italdwin, C. H 4fl!) 

lieanlshear, W. M 553 

Uroiiks.J. H 509 

lillinoi-, I). F 303 

Carmichael, L 397 

Clark, Leander 357 

('urns, William 9B] 

Ciinimlnj^s, A 619 

Ebersole, E. C 

Fellows, B. W.... 

Guernsey, A. W.. 

Harrison, W. H 
Hartshorn, H. A 
Hawiirth, James. 
Hertgre, James H.. 
Hollen, J. H 


... 789 

Johnston, W. F.. 
453 Joralemon, J. C. 

.. fi09 

. . 849 

. .. 647 

. .. 359 

... 38' 

... 293 

. .. 573 

Keeler, R. W 

Kephart, E. B.... 
Kinne, L. G 


... 349 
... 543 
... 331 

Lamb, Jacob W 435 

Lite, John 471 

Mann, S. S 933 

Murray, Th<imas 275 

McAnulty, Hugh 415 

Parker, J. C 481 


Sleesor, James 763 

SlcHBor, W. T 753 

Smith, B. K 377 

Smith, Franks ,583 

Struble, G. R 499 

Thompson, Benjamin.. 563 
Townsend, J. L 699 

Whannell, Thomas 703 

Winn, W. F 933 

Willett, J. W 454 

Wilkinson, A 347 

Certificates of the Committees. 

Below is giyen a copy of the certificate, signed by the committee appointed by the Old Settlers' Society, 
to revise and correct the general history of Tama county, and also committees from each township to revise 
and correct the histories of the various townships, showing that the publishers have complied with their prom 
ises, and did their utmost to produce a reliable and complete history of the county. The following is the cer- 
tiflcate of the general committee: 

' 'We, Ihe undcrsigiUMl, members of flip general committee, appointed by the Old Settlers' Society of Tama 
county, ti> loirot and revlsi' the iiuniiisiTipt of the History of .Tama county, written and compiled by the 
Union Publisliiug Company, ot Springfield, Illinois, do hereby certify that we did, to the best ot our ability 
and recollecticHi, examine said nianuseri|it, and made all the changes and additions that we in our judgment 
deemed necessary, and as corrected appro\e the same: W. C. Salsbury, ] 

J.C. Vermilya, | 
P. Davis, I 

J. H. HoUen, \Cmnmiitee. 

D. F. Bruner, 
L. Clark, 
G. R. Struble, 

Following is the certiflcate of the committee for the respective cities and townships: 

"We, the committee appointed by the Old Settlers' Society, to revise and correct the history [of our res- 
pective townships] for the Historv of 'i'ama county, written and compiled l)y the Union Publishing Company, 
of Sprini' field, Illinois, do hcrcbv certify that said manuscript was sulnnittrd to us, and that we ilid make all 
the changes, corrections and additions that we in our judgment deemed nceessary, and as corrected approve 
the same:" 

J. V. B. Greene, 
W. A. Daniel, 
J. C. Wood, 
J. T. Ames, 

— Buclitualmm. 

Robert Whannell, 
William Kline, 
J. ('. Fleming, 
J. H. Scott, 


C. H. Baldwin, 
S. V. R. Kelley, 
J. F. G. Cold, 


J. P. Wood, 
G. Taylor, 


William B. King, 
R. Veomaus, 
A. Bywater, 

—Spring Creek. 

C. W. Dobson, 
John Peterson, 


.Tamf^s Trowbridge, 
L. Stoddard, 
Jacfd) ( 'roskrey, 
Eli Chase, 


Quincy W. Babli, 
Jacob Koons, 
J. B. Merritt, 


J. C. Wiles, 
O. N. Mason, 

A. Wilkinson, 
James A. Willey. 

— .SiiK Creek. 

L. H. Shugart, 
Amos Rogers, 
Jas. B. V^anAnken. 

— York. 

.Tames Haworth, 
G. M. Fee, 
Adam Wise, 


J. L. Townsend, 
J. B. Wvlle, 
J. B. M. Bishop, 


J H. Giger, 
J. H. Tindall, 
L F. Hammitt, 


Abram Tompkins, 
J. M. Hayes, 

C. E. Hayei, 

D. C. Lamb, 

—Utter Creek. 

W. T. Hollen, 

William Blodget, 

B. A. Hall, 

—Tama township and City. 

Joseph Dysart, 
T. S.Talmage, 
Charles Unger, 

J. L. Gedford, 
Harney Waper, 
Theodore Moore, 
John Riley, 
— Geneeeo. 

Edward Ruggles, 
A. N. Poyneer, 
J. M. Bradley, 
G. D. H. Wilco.xon, 

— /)i(ii<(ii Villyge. 

James F. Cram, 
John M. Ramsdcll, 

— Rictdoiul. 

Franklin Davis, 
A. LaDow, 
A.J. Whoaton, 
William E. Rogers, 

—Toledo townstdpand City. 

-, ....S5^ 





THE traveler, in wending bis way 
across the fair State of Iowa, with 
its evidences of civilization upon every 
hand; its magnificent churches with spires 
pointing heavenward; its school-houses 
almost upon every hill; palatial residences 
evincing wealth and refinement, cannot 
realize that, less than a half century ago, 
this "beautiful land" was the home only 
of the red man, who roamed at will over 
the fair and fertile prairies, liunting in the 
woods and ' fi.-hing in its streams. The 
change would seem too great for him to 
realize. But it is in !eed true. These 
churches, these school-houses, these pala- 
tial residences, these railroads, these tele- 
graph and telephone wires, all have been 
erected or placed here within the space of 
a half century. 

Before the advent of the Red Men, who 
were found in possession by the Europeans, 
who inhabited this country, is a subject 
yet unsolved, and is sbrjwded in mystery. 
That there were human beings of a distinct 
race from the red men of later days, is gen- 

erally conceded, but scientists fail as yet 
to agree as to their nature and origin. 
That this continent is co-existent with the 
world of the ancients Cinnot be questioned. 
Every investigation instituted under the 
auspices of modern civilization confirms 
this fact. It is thought by many that the 
firs inhabitants came from Asia, by way 
of Behriiig's Strait, and in large numbers. 
Mugnificent cities and moimments were 
raised at ihe bidding of tribal leaders, and 
populous settlements centered with thriv- 
ing villages sprang up everywhere in man- 
ifestation of the progress of the people. 
For the last four hundred years the colo- 
nizing Caucasian has trodden on the ruins 
of a civilization whose greatness he could 
only surmise. Among these ruins are 
pyram'.ds similar to those which have ren- 
dered Ejypt famous. The pyramid of 
Chalula is square, each side of its base 
being 1,335 feet, and its height 172 feet. 
Another pyramid north of Vera Cruz is 
formed of large blocks of highly polished 
porphyry, and bears upon iti front hiero- 





glyphic inscriptions and curious sculpture. 
It is 82 feet square, and a flight of 57 steps 
conducts to its summit, wliich is 65 feet 
high. The ruins of Palenque are said to 
extend 20 miles along the ridge of a moun- 
t;iin, and the remains of an Aztec city, near 
the banks of the Gila, are spread over 
more than a square league. The principal 
feature of the Aztec civilization which has 
come down to us was its religion, which 
we are told was of a dark and gloomy 
character. Each new god created by their 
priesthood, instead of arousing new life in 
the people, brought death to thousands; 
and their grotesque idols exposed to drown 
the senses of the beholders in fear, wrought 
wretchedness rather than spiritual happi- 
ness. In fact, fear was the great animating 
principal, the motive power which sustained 
this terrible religion. Their altars were 
sprinkled with blood drawn from their own 
bodies in large quantities, and on them 
thousands of human victims were sacri- 
ficed in honor of the demons whom they 
worshipped. The head and heart of 
every captive taken in war were offered 
up as a sacrifice to the god of battles, 
while the victorious legions feasted on the 
remaining portions of the bodies. It is 
said that during the ceremonies attendant 
on the consecration of two of their tem- 
ples, the number of prisoners offered up 
in sacrifice was 12,210, while they them- 
selves contributed large numbers of volun- 
tary victims to the terrible belief. 

The race known as the Mound-Builders 
next attracts the attention of the ethnolo- 
gists. Throughout the Mississippi Valley, 
including many portions of Iowa, are found 
mounds and wal's of earth or stone, which 

can only have a human origin. These 
mounds vary in size from a few feet to 
hundreds of feet in diameter. In them 
are often found stone axes, pestles, arrow- 
heads, spear-points, pieces of flint, and 
other articles. Pottery of various de- 
signs is very common in them, and from 
the material of which they are made geol- 
ogists have attempted to assign their age. 
Some have thought that the Mtun.l- 
Builders were a race quite distinct from 
the modern Indians, and that they were in 
an advanced state of civilization. The authorities now agree that while the 
comparatively civilized people called the 
Aztecs built the cities whose ruins are 
occasionally found, the Mound-Builders 
were the immediate ancestors of the In- 
dians De Soto first saw, and little different 
from the Indians of to-day. 

The origin of the Red Men, or Ameri- 
can Indi.ans, is a subject which interests 
as well as instructs. It is a favorite topic 
with the ethnologist, even as it is one of 
deep concern to the ordinary reader. A 
review of two works lately published on 
the origin of the Indians, treats the matter 
in a peculiarly reasonable light. It says : 

"Recently a German writer has put for- 
ward one theory on the subject, and an 
English writer has put forward another 
and directly opposite theory. The differ- 
ence in opinion concerning our aboriginals 
among authors who have made a profound 
study of races, is at once curious and in- 
teresting. Blumenbach treats them in his 
classifications as a distinct variety of the 
human family; but, in the three-fold divi- 
sion of Dr. Latham, they are ranked among 
the Mongolidse. Other writers on races 

® s^ 

^ g) 



regard them as a branch of the great Mon- 
golian family, which at a distant period 
found its way from Asia to this continent, 
. and remained here for centuries separate 
from the rest of mankind, passing, mean- 
while, through divers phases of barharism 
and civilization. Morton, our iminent 
ethnologist, and his followers, Nott and 
Gliddon, claim for our native Red Men an 
origin as distinct as the flora and fauna of 
this continent. Prichard, «hose views are 
apt to differ from Morten's, finds reason to 
believe, on comparing the American tribes 
together, that they must have formed a 
separate department of nations from the 
earliest period of the world. The era of 
their existence as a distinct and isolated 
people must probably be dated back to the 
time which separated into nations the in- 
habitants of the Old World, and gave to 
each its individuality and primitive lan- 
guage. Dr. Robert Brown, the latest 
autuority, attributes, in his 'Races of Man- 
kind,' an Asiatic origin to our aboriginals. 
He says that the Western Indians not only 
personally resemble' their nearest neighbors 
— the Northeastern Asiatics — but they re- 
semble them in language and tradition. 
The Esquimaux on the American and the 
Tchuktcis on the Asiatic side understand 
one another perfectly. Modern anthro- 
pologists, indeed, are disposed to think 
that Japan, the Kuriles, and neighboring 
regions, may be regarded as the original 
home of the greater part of the native 
American race. It is also admitted by 
them that between the tribes scattered 
from the Arctic sea to Cape Horn there 
is more uniformity of physical feature 
than is seen in any other quarter of the 
globe. The weight of evidence and au- 

thority is altogether in favor of the opin- 
ion that our so-called Indians are a branch 
of the Mongolian family, and all additional 
researches strengthen the opinion. The 
tribes of both North and South America 
are unquestionably homogeneous, and, in 
all likelihood, had their origin in Asia, 
though they have been altered and modi- 
fied by thousands of years of total separa- 
tion from the present stock " 

If the conclusions arrived at by the 
reviewer is correct, how can one account 
for the vast difference in manner and form 
between the Red Man as he is now known, 
or even as he appeared to Columbus and 
his successors in the field of discovery, and 
the comparatively civilized inhabitants of 
Mexico, as seen in 1521 by Cortez, and of 
Peru, as witnessed by Pizarro in 1532 ? 
The subject is worthy of investigation. 

In the year 1541, Ferdinand DeSoto, a 
Spaniar3, discovered the Mississippi river, 
at the mouth of the Washita. He, how- 
ever, penetrated no further north than 
the 35th parallel of latitude, his death ter- 
minating the expedition. It was thus left 
for a later discoverer to first view the 
"beautiful land." 

In a grand council of Indians on the 
shores of Lake Superior, they told the 
Frenchmen glowing stories of the "great 
river" and the countries near it. Mar- 
quette, a Jesuit father, became inspired 
with the idea of discovering this noble 
river. He was delayed in this great un- 
dertaking, however, and spent the interval 
in studying the language and habits of the 
Illinois Indians, among whom he expected 
to travel. In 1673 he completed his pre- 
parations for the journey, in which he was 
to be accompanied by Joliet, an agent of 





the French Government. The Indians, 
who had gathered in large numbers to wit- 
ness his departure, tried to dissuade him 
from the undertaking, representing that 
the Indians of the Mississippi Valley were 
cruel and bloodthirsty, and would resent 
the intrusion of strangers upon their do- 
main. The great river itself, they said, 
was the abode of terrible monsters, who 
could swallow both canoes and men. But 
Marquette was not diverted from his pur- 
pose by these reports, and set out on his 
adventurous trip May 13; he reached, first, 
an Indian vi'lage where once had been a 
mission, and where he was treated hospit- 
ably; thence, with the aid of two Miami 
guides, he proceeded to the Wisconsin, 
down which he sailed to the great Missis- 
sippi, which had so long been anxiously 
looked for; floating down its unknown 
waters, the explorer discovered, on the 
25ih of June, traces of Indians on the west 
bank of the river, and landed a little above 
the river now known as the Des Moines. 
For the first time Europeans trod the soil 
of Iowa. Marquette remained here a short 
t'me, becoming acquainted with the In- 
dians, and then proceeded on his explora- 
tions. He descended the Mississippi to 
the Illinois, by which and Lake Michigan 
he returned to French settlements. 

Nine years later, in 1682, La Salle de- 
scended the M'ssissippi to the Golf of 
Mexico, and, in the name of the king of 
France, took formal posession of all the 
immense region watered by the great river 
and its tributaries from its source to its 
mouth, and named it Louisiana, in honor 
of his master, Louis XIV. The river he 
called " Colbert," in honor of the French 
Minisier, and at its mouth erected a column 

and a cross bearing the inscription, in 

UEIG.MSG Al'i:iL 9, 1682." 

France then claimed by right of dis- 
covery and occupancy the whole valley of 
the Miss ssippi and its tributaries, includ- 
ing Texas. Spain at the same time laid 
claim to all the region about the Gulf of 
Mexico, and thus these two great nations 
were brought into collision. But the 
country was actually held and occupied by 
the native Indians, especially the great 
Miami Confederacy, the Miarais proper 
(anciently the Twightwees) being the east- 
ern and most powerful tribe. 

Spain having failed to make any settle- 
ment in the newly-di.- covered country, it 
was left for France to occupy the land, 
and that government, soon after the dis- 
covery of the mouth of the Mississippi by 
La Salle, in 1682, began to encourage the 
policy of establishing a line of trading 
posts acd miseionary stations, extending 
through the west from Canada to Louis- 

In 1762, France, in a time of extreme 
weakness, coded all the territory west of 
the Mississippi, including what is now 
Iowa, to Spain, which power I'etained pos- 
session until October 1, 1800, when it 
retroceded it to France. This latter power 
ceded it to the United States in 1303, for 
the sum of * 15,000,000. 

On assuming control, the United States 
organized all that region west of the Mis- 
sissippi and north of the Territory of 
Orleans as the District of Louisiana. In 
1805 the District of Louisiana was organ- 
ized into the Territory of Louisiana. 





This Territory was subsequently divided, 
and now forms seven great States — Louis- 

iana, Missouri, Arkansas, Iowa, Minnesota, 
Kansas and Nebraska. 



For more than one hundred years after 
Marquette and Joliet trod the virgin soil 
of Iowa, and admired its fertile plains, 
not a single settlement had been made or 
attempted, nor even a trading post estab- 
lished. The whole country remained in 
the undisputed possession of the native 
tribes, who often poured out their life 
blood in obstinate contest for supremacy. 
That this State, so aptly styled "The 
Beautiful Land," had been the theatre of 
numerous fierce and bloody struggles be- 
tween the rival nations for possession of 
the favored region long before its settle- 
ment by civilized man, there is no room 
for doubt. In these savage wars the 
weaker party, whether aggressive or de- 
fensive, was either exterminated or driven 
from its ancient hunting grounds. 

When Marquette visited this country 
in 16'73, the Illini were a very powerful 
people, occupying a large portion of the 
State ; but when the country was again 
visited by ihe whites, not a remnant of 
that once powerful tribe remained on the 
west side of the Mississippi, and Iowa 
was principally in the possession of the 

Sacs and Foxes, a warlike tribe which, 
originally two distinct nations, residing 
in New York and on ihe waters of the 
St. Lawrence, had gradually fought their 
way westward, and united, probably after 
the Foxes had been driven out of the Fox 
River country in 1846, and crossed the 
Mississippi. The death of Pontiac, a 
famous Sac chieftain, was made the pre- 
text for war against the Illini, and a fierce 
and bloody struggle ensued, which con- 
tinued until the Illini were nearly de- 
stroyed, and their hunting grounds pos- 
sessed by their victorious foes. The lowas 
also occupied a portion of the State, for a 
time, in common with the Sacs, but they, 
too, were nearly destroyed by the Sacs 
and Foxes, and in "The Beautiful Land" 
these natives met their equally warlike 
foes, the northern Sioux, with whom they 
maintained a constant warfare for the pos- 
session of the country for many years. 

In 1803, when Louisiana was purchased 
by the United States, the Sacs, Foxes and 
lowas possessed the entire State of Iowa, 
and the two former tribes, also, occupied 
most of Illinois. 






The Sacs had four principal villages, 
where most of them resided. Their 
largest and most important town — if an 
Indian village may be called such — and 
from which emanated most of the ob- 
stacles encountered by the Government in 
the extinguisliiuiint of Indian titles to 
land in this region, was on Rock river, 
near Rock Island ; another was on the 
east ba. k of the Mi.-sissippi, near the 
mouth of Henderson river ; the third 
was at the head of the Des Moines Rap- 
ids, near the present site of Montrose ; 
and the fourth was near the mouth of the 
upper Iowa. 

The Foxes had three principal villages. 
One was on the west side of the Missis- 
sippi, six miles abovo the rapids of Rock 
river ; another was about twelve miles 
from the river, in the rear of the Dubuque 
lead mines ; and the third was on Turkey 

The lowas, at one time identified with 
the Sacs of Rock river, had withdrawn 
from them and become a separate tribe. 
Their principal village was on the Des 
Moines river, in Van Buren county, on 
the site where lowaville now stands. Here 
the last great battle between the Sacs and 
Foxes and the lowas was fought, in which 
Black Hawk, then a young man, com- 
manded one division of the attacking 
£• rces. The following account of the bat- 
tle has been given: 

"Contrary to long established custom of 
Indian attack, this battle was commenced 
in the day-time, the attending circum- 
stances justifying this departure from the 
well-settled usages of Indian warfare. The 
battle-field was a level river bottom, about 
four miles in length, and two miles wide 

near the middle, narrowing to a point at 
either end. The main area of this bottom 
rises perhaps twenty feet above the river, 
leaving a narrow strip of low bottom along 
the shore, covered with trees that belted 
the ]irairie on the river side with a thick 
forest, and the immediate bank of the river 
was fringed with a dense growth of wil- 
low. Near the lower end of this prairie, 
near the river bank, was situated the Iowa 
village. About two miles above it and 
near the middle of the piairie is a mound, 
covered at the time with a tuft of small 
trees and underhrush growing on its sum- 
mit. In the rear of this little elevation or 
mound lay a belt of wet prairie, covered, 
at that time, with a dense growth of rank, 
coarse grass. Bordering this wet prairie 
on the north, the country rises abruptly 
into elevated broken river bluffs, covered 
with a heavy forest for many miles in ex- 
tent, and in places thickly clustered with 
undergrowth, affording convenient shelter 
for the stealthy approach of the foe. 

"Through this forest the Sac and Fox war 
party made their way in the night, and 
secreted themselves in the tall grass spoken 
of above, intending to remain in ambush 
during the day and make such observa- 
tions as this near proximity to their in- 
tended victims might afford, to aid them 
in their contemplated attack on the town 
during the following night. From this 
situation their spies could take a full sur- 
vey of the village, and watch every move- 
ment of the inhabitants, by which means 
they were soon convinced that the lowas 
had no suspicion of their presence. 

"At the foot of the mound above men- 
tioned the lowas had their race course, 
where they diverted themselves with the 




excitement of horse-racing, and schooled 
their young warriors in cavalry evolutions. 
In these exercises mock battles were fought, 
and the Indian tactics of attack and defense 
carefully inculcated, by which means a 
skill in horsemanship was acquired that is 
rarely excelled. Unfortunately for them 
this day was selected for their equestrian 
sports, and, wholly unconscious of the 
proximity of their foes, the warriors re- 
paired to the race-ground, leaving most of 
their arms in the village, and their old 
men, women and children unprotected. 

"Pash-a-po-po, who was chief in com- 
mand of tlie Sacs and Foxes, perceived at 
once the advantage this state of things 
afforded for a complete surprise of his now 
doomed victims, and ordered Black Hawk 
to file off with his young warriors through 
the tall grass and gain the cover of the 
timber along the river bank, and with the 
utmost speed reach the village and com- 
mence the battle, while he remained with 
ms division in the ambush to make a sim- 
ultaneous assault on the unarmed men 
whose attention was engrossed with the 
excitement of the races. The plan was 
skillfully laid and most dexterously exe- 
cuted. Black Hawk with his forces 
reached the village undiscovered, and 
made a furious onslaught upon the de- 
fenseless inhabitants by firing one general 
volley into their midst, and completing the 
slaughter with the tomahawk and scalping- 
knife, aided by the devouring flames with 
which they enveloped the village as soon 
as the fire-brand could be spread from 
lodge to lodge. 

"On the instant of the report of fire-arms 
at the village, the forces under Pash-a-po-po 
leaped from their couchant position in the 

grass, and sprang, tiger-like, upon the un- 
armed lowas in the midst of their racing 
sports. The first impulse of the latter natur- 
ally led them to make the utmost speed to- 
ward their arms in the village, and protect, 
if possible, their wives and children from 
the attack of their merciless assailants. 
The distance from the place of attack on 
the prairie was two miles, and a great 
number fell in their flight by the bullets 
and tomahawks of their enemies, who 
pressed them closely with a running file 
the whole way, and the survivors only 
reached their town in time to witness the 
horrors of its destruction. Their whole 
village was in flames, and the dearest 
objects of their lives lay in slaughtered 
heaps amidst the devouring element, and 
the agonizing groans of the dying, mingled 
with the exulting shouts of the victorious 
foe, filled their hearts with maddening 
despair. Their wives and children who 
had been spared the general massacre were 
pris^)ners, and together with their arms in 
the hands of their victors; and all that 
could now be done was to draw off their 
shattered and defenseless forces, and save 
as many lives as possible by a retreat 
across the Des Moines river, which they 
effected in the best possible manner, and 
took a p .'sition among the Soap Creek 

Previous to the settlement of their vil- 
lage on Rock river, the Sacs and Foxes 
had a fierce conflict with the Winnebagos, 
subdued them and took possession of their 
lands. At one time this village contained 
upward of 60 lodges, and was among the 
largest Indian villages on the continent. 
The number of Sacs and Foxes in 1825 
was estimated by the Secretary of War to 


(5 k^ 



be 4,600. Their village was situated in 
the immediate vicinity of the upper rapids 
of the MiFsissippi, where the flourishing 
towns of Rock Island and Davenport are 
now situated. The extensive prairies 
dotted over with groves, the beautiful 
scenery, the picturesque bluffs along the 
river banks, the rich and fertile soil pro- 
ducing large crops (if corn, squash and other 
vegetables with little labor, the abundance 
of wild fruit, game, fish, and almost every- 
thing calculated to make it a delightful 
spot for an Indian village, which was 
found there, had made this place a favorite 
home of the Sacs, and secured for it the 
strong att;ichment and veneration of the 
whole nation. 

The Sioux located their hunting grounds 
north of the Sacs and Foxes They were 
a fierce and warlike nation, who ofien dis- 
puted possessions with their rivals in savage 
and bloody warfare. The possessions of 
these tribes were mostly located in Minne- 
sota, but extended over a portion of 
Northern and Western Iowa to tlie Mis- 
souri river. Their descent from the north 
upon tlie liuiiting grounds of Iowa fre- 
quently brought them into collision with 
the Sacs and Foxes, a'"d after many a con- 
flict and bloody struggle, a boundary line 
was established between them by the 
Government of the United States, in a 
treaty held at Prairie du Chien in ls25 
Instead of settling the difticulties, this 
caused them to quarrel ail the more, in 
consequence of alleged trespasses upon 
each other's side of the line. So bitter 
and unre'enting became these contests, 
that, in 1630, the Government purchased of 
the respective tribes of the Sacs and Foxes, 
and the Sioux, a strip of land twenty miles 

wide on both sides of the line, thus throw- 
ing them forty miles apart by creating a 
"neutral ground," and commanded them 
to cease their hostilities. They were, 
however, allowed to fish and hint on the 
ground unmolested, provided they did not 
interfere with each other on Un-ited States 

Soon after the acquisition of Louisiana, 
the United States Government adopted 
measures for the exploration of the new 
Territory, having in view the conciliation 
of the numerous tribes of Indians by 
whom it was possessed, and a. so the se- 
lection of proper sites for the esiablish- 
ment of military posts and trading sta- 
tions. The Army of the West, Gen. Wil- 
kinson commanding, had its healquartors 
at St. Louis. From this post Captains 
Lewis and Clarke, with a sufficient force, 
were detailed to explore the unknown 
sources of the Missouri, and Lieut Zebu- 
Ion M. I'ike to ascend to the head waters 
of the Mississippi. Lieut. Pike, with 
one sergeant, two corporals and seven- 
teen privates, left the military camp, 
near St. Louis, in a keel boat, with four 
months' rations, August 9ih, 1S05. On 
the 20th of the same month the expedition 
arrived within the present limits of Iowa, 
at the foot of the Des Moines Rapids, 
where Pike met William Ewing, who had 
j'lstbeen appointed Indian Agent at this 
point, a French interpreter, four chiefs, 
fifteen Sacs and Fox warriors. At the 
head of the rapids, where Montrose is now 
situated, Pike held a council with the 
Indians, in which he addressed them sub- 
stantially as follows: 

" Your great father, the President of the 
United States, wishes to be more intimately 

^«1 5) v?" 


acquainted with the sifialion and wants 
of the different nations of llfd | c pie in 
our newly acquired Territory of Louis- 
iana, and has. ordered the General to send 
a number of his warriors in different 
dirtctions to take them by the l)and and 
make such inquiries as might afford the 
satisfaction required." 

At the close of the council he presented 
the Red Men with some knives, tobacco 
and whisky. On the 23d of August he 
arrived at what is suppo>ed, from his de- 
scription, to be the site of the present city 
of Burlington, which he selected as the 
location of a military post. He describes 
the place as "being on a hdl, about forty 
miles above the River de Moyne Rapids, 
on the west side of the river, in latitude 
about 40 deg. 21 min. north. The channel 
of the river runs on that shore. The hill 
in front is about 60 feet perpendicular, 
and nearly level at the top. About 400 
yards in the rear is a small prairie, fit for 
gardening, and immediately under the hill 
is a limestone spring, sufficient for the 
consumption of a whole regiment." In 
addition to this description, which corres- 
ponds to Burlington, the spot is laid down 
on his map at a bend in the river a short 
distance below the mouth of the Hender- 
son, which pours its waters into the Mis- 
sissippi from Illinois. The fort was built 
at Fort Madison, but from the distance, 
latitude, description and map furnished by 
Pike, it could not have been the place se- 
lected by him, while all the circumstances 
corroborate the opinion that the place he 
selected was the spot where Builington is 
now located, called by the early voyagers 
on the Mississippi " Flint Hills." In c m- 
pany with one of his men, I'ike went on 

shore on a hunting expedition, and follow- 
ing a stream which they supposed to be a 
p.irt of the Mississippi, they were led away 
from their course. Owing to the intense 
heat and tall grass, his two favorite dogs, 
wliicli he had taken with him, became ex- 
hausteil, and he left them on the prairie, 
supposing that they would follow him as 
foou as they should get rested, and went 
on to overtake his boat. After reaching 
the river he waited some time for his 
canine friends, but they did not come, and 
as he deemed it inexpedient to detain the • 
boat longer, two of his men volunteered to 
go in pursuit of them, and he continued on 
his way up the river, expecting that the 
two men would soon overtake him They 
lost their way, however, and for six days 
were without food, except a few morsels 
gathered from the stream, and might have 
perished had they not accidentally met a 
trader from St. Louis, who induced two 
Indians to take them up the river, and they 
overtook the boat at Dubuque. At ihe 
latter place Pike was cordially received by 
Julien Dubuque, a Frenchman, who held a 
mining claim under a grant from Spain. 
He had an old field piece, and fired a salute 
in honor of the advent of the first Amer- 
ican who had visited that part of the Ter- 
ritory. He was not, however, disposed to 
publish the wealth of his mines, and the 
young and evidently inquisitive officer 
obtained but little information from him. 

Upon leaving this place, Pike pursued 
his way up the river, but as he passed 
beyond the limits of the present State of 
Iowa, a detailed history of his explora- 
tions does not proporly belong to this vol- 
ume. It is sufficient to say that, on the 
site of Fort Snelling, Minnesota, he held a 

<? l^ 



council with the Sioux, Sept. 23, and ob- 
tained from them a grant of 100,000 acres 
of land. Jan. 8, 1806, he arrived at a trad- 
ing post belonging to the Northwest Com- 
pany, on Lake De Sable, in latitude 47 ® . 
This company at that time carried on their 
immense operations from Hudson's Bay to 
the St. Lawrence ; up that river, on both 
sides along the great lakes, to the head of 
Lake Superior, thence to the sources of the 
Red River of the North, and west to the 
Rjcky Mountains, embracing within the 
scope of their operations what was subse- 
quently the State of Iowa. After suc- 
cessfully accomplishing his mission and 
performing a valuable service to the whole 
Northwest, Pike returned to St. Louis, ar- 
riving there April 30, 1806. 

Before the Territory of Iowa could be 
open to settlement by the whites, it was 
necessary that the Indian title should be 
extinguished and the original owners re- 
moved. The Territory had been pur- 
chased by the United States, but was still 
occupied by the Indians, who claimed title 
to the soil by right of possession. In 
order to accomplish this purpose, large 
sums of mone}' were expended, besides the 
frontier being dislurb:d by Indian wars, 
terminated repeatedly by treaty, only to 
be renewed by some act of oppression on 
the part of the whites, or some violation 
of treaty stipulation. 

When the United States assumed con- 
trol of the country, by virtue of the Louis- 
iana purchase, n,-arly the whole State was 
in' possession of the Sacs and Foxes, a 
powerful and warlike nation, who were 
not disposed to submit without a struggle 
to what they considered the encroachment 
of the pale faces. Among the most noted 

chiefs, and one whose restlessness and 
hatred of the Americans occasioned more 
trouble to the Government than any other 
of his tribe, was Black Hawk, who was 
born at the Sac Village, on Rock river, in 
1767. He was simply the chief of his own 
band of Sac warriors; but by his energy 
and ambition he became the leading spirit 
of the united nation of Sacs and Foxes, 
and one of the ](rominent figures in the 
history of the country from 1804 till his 

In early manhood he attained dist'nc- 
tion as a fighting chief, having led cam- 
paigns against the 0^age8 and other neigh- 
Ijoring ttibes. About the beg'nning of 
the present century he began to appear 
prominent in affairs on the Mississippi. 
His life was a marvel. He is said by 
some to have been the victim of a narrow 
prejudice and bitter ill-will against the 

Upon the cession of Spain to France, in 
1801, it did not give up possession of the 
country, but retained it, and by the au- 
thority of France transferred it to the 
United States in 1804. At that time 
Black Hawk and h'n band were in St. 
Louis, and were invited to be present and 
witness the transfer; but he refused the 
invitation, and it is but just to say that 
this refusal was caused probably more 
from regret that the Indians were to be 
transferred from the jurisdiction of the 
Spanish authorities than from any i-jiecial 
hatred toward the Americans. In his life 
he says: "1 found many sad and gloomy 
faces because the United States were about 
to take possession of the town and country. 
Soon after the Americans came I took my 
b .nd and went to takj leave of my Spanish 

'2 S-^ 


— < 1 


father. The Americaus came to see 
him also. Seeing them approach, we 
passed out of one dour as they euiered an- 
otber, and immediately started in our 
canoes for our village on Rock river, not 
liking the change any belter than our 
friends appeared to at St. Louis. On 
arriving at our village, we gave the news 
that strange people had arrived at St. 
Louis, and that we should never see our 
Spanish father again. Tne information 
made all our people sorry." 

November 3, 1804, a treaty was con- 
cluded beiween William Henry Harrison, 
then Governor of Indiana Territory, on 
behalf of the United States, ard five chiefs 
of the Sac and Fox nation, by which the 
latter, in consideration of $2,234 worth of 
goods then delivered, and a yearly annuity 
of $1,000 to be paid in goods at just cost, 
ceded to the United States all that land on 
the east side of the Mississippi, extending 
from a point opposite the Jefferson, in 
Missouri, to the Wisconsin river, embra- 
cing an area of over 51,000,000 of acres. 
To this treaty Black Hawk always objected, 
and always refused to consider it binding 
upon his people. He asserted that the 
chiefs or braves who made it had no au- 
thority to relinquish the title of the nation 
to any of the lands they held or occu- 
pied, and, moreover, that they had been 
sent to St. Louis on quite a different 
errand, namely: to get oue of their people 
released, who had been imprisoned at St. 
Louis for killing a white man. 

In 1805 Lieutenant Pike came up the 
river for the purpose of holding friendly 
< ouncils with the Indians and selecting 
sites for forts within the territory recently 
acquired from France by the United 

States. Lieut. Pike seems to have been 
the lirst American whom Black Hawk 
ever met or had a personal interview with, 
and he seemed very much prepossessed in 
his favor. He gives the following account 
of his visit to Rock Island: "A boat came 
up the river with a young American chief 
and a small parly of soldiers. We heard 
of them soon after we passed Salt river. 
Some of our young braves watched them 
every day to see what sort of people he 
had on board. The boat at length arrived 
at Rock river, and the young chief came 
on shore with his interpreter, made a 
speech and gave us some presents We 
in turn presented him with meat and such 
other provisions as we had to spare. We 
were well pleased with the young chief; 
he gave us good advice, and said our 
American father would treat us well." 

Fort Edwards was erected soon after 
Pike's expedition, at what is now Warsaw, 
Illinois, also Fort Madison, on the site of 
the present town of that name, the latter 
being the first fort erected in Iowa. These 
movements occasioned great u:. easiness 
among the Indians. When work was 
commenced on Fort Edwards, a delegation 
from their nation, headed by some of their 
chiefs, went down to see what the Ameri- 
cans were doing, and had an interview 
with the commander, after which they 
returned home and were apparently satis- 
fied. In like manner, when Fort Madison 
was being erected, they sent down another 
delegation from a council of the nation 
held at liock river. According to Black 
Hawk's account, the American chief told 
them that he was building a house for a 
trader, who was coiuiiig to sell them goods 
cheap, and that the soldiers were coming 






to keep him company — a statement which 
Black Hawk says they distrusted at the 
lime, believing that the fort was an en- 
croachment upon their rights, and designed 
to aid it getting their lands away from 
thcra. It is claimed, by good authority, 
that the building of Fort Madison was a 
vjolation of the treaty of 18U4. By the 
11th article of that treaty, the United 
States had a right to build a fort near the 
mouth of the Wisconsin river, and by 
article 6 they had bound themselves "that 
if any citizen of the United States or any 
other white persons should form a settle- 
ment upon their lands, such intruders 
should forthwith be removed." Probably 
the authorities of the United States did not 
regard the establishment of military posts 
as coming properly within the meaning of 
the term "settlement" as used in the treaty. 
At all events, they erected Fort Madison 
within the territory reserved to the Indi- 
ans, who became very indignant. 

Very soon after the fort was built, a 
party led by Black Hawk attempted its 
destruction. They sent spies to watch the 
movements of the garrison, who ascer- 
tained that the soldiers were in the habil 
of marching out of the fort every morning 
and evening for parade, and the plan of 
the party was to conceal themselves near 
the fort, and attack and surprise them 
when they were outside. On the morning 
of the proposed day of the att ck, five 
soldiers came out and were fired upon by 
the Indians, two of them being killed. 
The Indians were too hasty in their move- 
ment, for the parade had not commenced. 
However, they kept up the attack several 
days, attempting the old Fox strategy of 
setting fire to the fort with blazing arrows; 

but finding their efif^irts unavailing, they 
soon gave up ;uk1 rt turned to Rnck river. 
In 1812, when war -was declared between 
this country and Great Britain, Black 
Hawk and his band allied themselves with 
the British, partly because he was dazzled 
by their specious promises, but more prob- 
ably because they were deceived by the 
Americans. Black Hawk himself declared 
that they were forced into war by being 
deceived. He narrates the circumstances 
as follows: "Several of the head men and 
chiefs of the Sacs and Foxes were called 
upon to go to Washingt n to see their 
Great Father. On their return they re- 
lated what had. been said and done. Th^y 
said the Great l'"athor wished them, in the 
event of a war taking place with England, 
not to interfere on eiiher side, but to re- 
main neutral He did not want our help, 
but wished us to bun*; and support our 
families, and live in peace. He said that 
British traders would not be permitted to 
come on the Mississippi to furnish us with 
goods, but that we should be supplied witli 
an American tr-ader. Our chiefs then told 
him that the British traders always gave 
them credit in the fall forguns, powder and 
goods, to enable us to hunt and clothe our 
families. He repeated that the traders at 
Fort Madison would have plenty of good^-; 
that we should go there in the fall and he 
would supply us on credit, as the Britisli 
traders had done." Black Hawk seems to 
have accepted the projiosilion, and he and 
his people were very much pleased. Act- 
ing in gjod faith, they titled out for their 
winter's hunt, and went to Fort MadLson 
in high spirits to receive from the trader 
their outfit of supplies; but after waiting 
some time, they were told by the trader 






that he would not trust them. In vain 
they pleailed the promise of their Great 
Fatlier at Wasliiugton; the trjder was 
iiR-xoi able Disappv^inted and crest fallen, 
the Indians tur.ied saiily to their duii vil- 
lage. S.iys Black Hawk: "Few of us hi. pt 
that niglit. All was gloom and discon- 
tent. Ill the luuruiiig- a canoe was seen 
ascending the river; ii, soou arrived bear- 
ing an express, who brought iiite ligence 
that a British trader had landed at Rock 
Island with two boats filled with goods, and 
requested us to come up immediately, be- 
cause he had good news for us, and a 
variety of presents. The express presented 
us with tobacco, pipes and wampum. The 
news ran through our camp like fire on a 
prairie. Our lodges were soon taken down 
and all started for Rock Island. Here 
ended all our hopes of remaining at peace, 
having been forced into the war by being 
deceived." He joined the British, who 
flattered him, and styled him "Gen. Black 
Hawk," decked him with medals, excited 
his jealousy against the Americans, and 
armed his band; but he met with defeat 
and disappointment, and soon abandoned 
the service and came home. 

There was a portion of the Sacs and 
Foxes; whom Black Hawk, with all his 
skill and cunning, could not lead into hos- 
tilities to the United States. With 
Keokuk ("The Watchful Fox ") at their 
head, they were disposed to abide by the 
treaiy of 1804 and to cultivate friendly 
relations with the Americau people. So, 
when Black Hawk and his band joined ihe 
fortunes of Great Britain, the rest of the 
nation remained neutral, and, for protec- 
tion, organized with Keokuk for their 
chief. Thus, the nation was divided into 

the "War and Peace party." Black Hawk 
says he was informed, after he had gone to 
the war, that the nation, which haj been 
reduced to so small a body of figliting 
men, were un.tblt! to defend theni-clves in 
case the Americans should attack them, 
and, having all the old nien, women and 
children belonging to the wairiors who 
had joined the British, on their hands to 
provide for, a council was held, and it was 
agreed that Qu-ish-qu i-ms (The Lance) 
and other chiefs, together with the old 
men, women and children, and such others 
as chose to accompany them, should go to 
St. Louis and place themselves und' r the 
Americau Chief stationed there. Accord- 
ingly they went down, and were received 
as the "friendly band" of Sacs and Foxes, 
and were provided for and sent up the 
Missouri river. • 

On Black Hawk's return from the 
British army, he says Keokuk was intro- 
duced to him as the war chief of the 
braves then in the village. He inquired 
how he had become chief; and was in- 
formed that their spies had seen a large 
armed force going toward Peoria, and 
fears were entertained of an attack upon 
the village; whereupon a council was held, 
which concluded to leave the village, and 
cross over to the other side of the Mis- 
sissippi. Keokuk had been standing at 
the door of the lodge when the council 
was held, not being allowed to enter on 
account of never having killed an eueray, 
where he remained until Wa-co-me came 
out. Keokuk asked permission to speak 
to the council, whi h VVa-cj-me obtained 
for him. He then addressed the chiefs.- 
He remonstrated against the desertion 
of their village, their own homes, and the 



graves of their fathers, and offered to 
defend the village. 

The council consented that he shou'd be 
their war chief. He marshaled hife braves, 
sent out spies, and advanced on the lead- 
ing trail to Peoria, but returned without 
seeing the enemy. The Amt-ricans did 
not disturb the village, and all were satis- 
fied with the appo ninient of Keokuk. 
Like Black ilawk, he was a descendant of 
the Sac branch of the nation, and was born 
on Rock river in IVSO. He was of a pacific 
disposition, but possessed the elements of 
true courage, and could fi.rht when occa- 
sion required with cool jmlgment and 
heroic energy. In his first battle he en- 
countered and killed a Sioux, which placed 
him in the rank of warriors, and he was 
honored with a public feast by his tribe 
in commemoration of the event. 

In person, Keokuk was tall and of portly 
bearing. In his public speeches he dis- 
played a commanding attitude and grace- 
ful gestures. He has been described as 
an orator, entitled to rank with the most 
gifted of his race. He spoke rapidly, but 
his enunciation was clear, distinct and 
forcible; he culled his figures from the 
Stores of nature, and based his arguments 
on skillful logic. Unfortunately for his 
reputation as an orator among white people, 
he was never able to obtain an interpreter 
who could claim even a slight acquaint- 
ance with philosophy. With one excep- 
tion only, his interpreters were unac- 
quainted with the elements of their 
molhtr tongue. Of this hindrance 
to his fame he was well aware, and re- 
tained Frank Labershure, who had re- 
ceived a rudimental education in the French 
and English languages, until the latter 

broke down by dissipation and died. 
Keokuk was thus compelled to submit his 
spetches for translation to unedmated 
men, whose range of thought fell far 
below the flighis of a gifted mind, and the 
fine imagery drawn from nature was be- 
yond their power of reproduction. 

Keokuk had suflicient knowledge of the 
English language to make him sensible of 
this bad rendering of his thoughts, and 
often a feeling of mortifi<atiou at the 
bungling efforts was depicted on his coun- 
tenance while speaking. The proper 
place to form a correct estimate of his 
ability as an orator was in the Indian 
council, where he addressed himself ex- 
clusively to those who understood his lan- 
guage, and witnessed the electrical effect 
of his eloquence upon his council. He 
seems to have possessed a more sober 
judgment, and to have had a more intelli- 
gent view of the great strength and re- 
sources of the United States, than his 
noted and restless cotemporary, Black 
Hawk. He knew from the first that the 
reckless war which Black Hawk and his 
band had determined to carry on could 
result in nothing but disaster and defeat, 
and he used every argument against it. 
The large number of warriors whom he 
had dissuaded from following Black Hawk 
became, however greatly excited with the 
war spirit after Stillman's defeat, and but 
for the signal tact displayed by Keokuk on 
that occasion, would have forced him to 
submit to their wishes in joining the rest 
of the warriors in the field. A war dance 
was held, and Keokuk took part in it, 
seeming to be moved with the current of 
the rising storm. When the dance was 
over, he called the council together to pre- 




pare for war. He made a speech, in which 
he admitted the justice of their complaints 
against the Americans. To seek redress 
was a noble aspiration of their nature. 
The blood of their brethren had been shed 
by the white man, and the spirits of their 
braves, slain in battle, called loudly for 

' I am your chief," said he, " and it is 
my duty to lead you to battle, if after fully 
considering the matter you are determined 
to go; but before you decide to take this 
important step, it is wise to inquire into 
the chances of success " 

He then portrayed to them the great 
power of the United States, against whom 
they would have to contend, and thought 
their chances of success was utterly hope- 
less. 'But," said he, "if you do deter- 
mine to go upon the warpath, I will agree 
to lead you on one condition — that before 
we go we kill our old men and our wives 
and children, to save them from a linger- 
ing death of starvation, and that every one 
of us determine to leave our homes on the 
other side of the Mississippi." This was 
a strong but truthful picture of the pros- 
pect before them, and was presented in 
such a forcible light as to cool their ardor 
and cause them to abandon their rash 
undertaking. From this time there was 
no serious troulle with the Indians until 
the Black Hawk war. 

The treaty of 1804, between the United 
States and the chiefs of the Sac and Fox 
nations was never acknowledged by Black 
Hawk, and, in 1831, he eslablishud him- 
self with a chosen band of warriors upon 
the disputed territory, ordering the whites 
to leave the country at once. The settlers 
complaining, Governor Reynolds, of Illi- 

nois, dispatched General Gaines with a 
company of regulars and 1,500 volunteers 
to the scene of action. Taking the Indians 
by surprise, the troops burnt their village, 
and forced them to conclude a treaty, by 
which they ceded all their lands east of 
the Mississippi, and agreed to remain on 
the west side of the river. 

Necessity forced the proud spirit of 
Black Hawk into submission, which made 
him more than ever determined to be 
avenged upon his enemies. Having ral- 
lied around him the warlike braves of the 
Sac and Fox nations, he recrossed the Mis- 
sissippi in the spring of 1832. Upon 
hearing of the invasion, Governor Rey- 
nolds hastily collected a body of 1,800 
volunteers, placing them under command 
of Brig.-Gen. Samuel Whiteside. 

The army marched to the Mississippi, 
and, having reduced to ashes the Indian 
village known as " Prophet's Town," pro- 
ceeded several miles up Rock river, to 
Dixon, to join the regular forces under 
Gtn. Atkinson. They formed, at Dixon, 
two companies of volunteers, who, sighing 
for glory, were dispatched to reconnoiter 
the enemy. They advanced, under com- 
mand of Major Stillman, to a creek after- 
wards called "Stillman's run," and, while 
encamping there, saw a party of mounted 
Indians at a distance of a mile. Several of 
Stillman's party mounted their horses and 
charged the Indians, killing three of them; 
but, attacked by the main body, under 
Black Hawk, they were routed, and, by 
their precipitate flight, spread such a panic 
through the camp that the vhole company 
ran off to Dixon as fast as their legs could 
carry them. On their arrival it was found 
that there had bnen eleven killed. The 



party came straggling into camp all night 
long, four or five at a time, each squad 
positive that all who were left behind were 
massacred . 

It is said that a big, tall Kontuckian, 
with a loud voice, who was a Colonel of the 
militia, upon his arrival in camp gave to 
Gen. Whiteside and the wondering multi- 
tude the following glowing and bombastic 
account of the battle: 

"Sirs," said he, "our detachment was 
encamped among some scattering timber 
on the north side of Old Man's creek, with 
the prairie from the north gently sloping 
down to our encampment. It was just 
after twilight, in the gloaming of the even- 
ing, when we discovered Black Hawk's 
army coming down upon us in solid column; 
they displayed in the form of a crescent 
upon the brow of the prairie, and such 
accuracy and precision of military move- 
ments were never witnessed by man; they 
were equal to the best troops of Wellington 
in Spain. I have said that the Indians 
came down in solid columns, and displayed 
in the form of a crescent; and, what was 
most wonderful, there were large squares 
of cavalry resting upon the points of the 
cuive, which squares were supported again 
by other columns fifteen deep, extending 
back through the woods and over a swamp 
thrte-quarters of a mile, which again rested 
on th« main body of Black Hawk's array, 
bivouacked upon the banks of the Kish- 
wakee. It was a terrible and a glurious 
bight to see the tawny warriors as they 
rode along our flanks attempting to out- 
flank us, with the glittering moonbeams 
g.isteuing from th&ir polished blades and 
burning spears. It was a sight well calcu- 
lated to strike consternation in the stoutest 

and boldest heart; and, accordingly, our 
men soon began to break, in small squads, 
for tall timber. 

"In a very little time the rout became 
general, the Indians were soon upon our 
flanks, and threatened the destiuction of 
our entire detachment. About this time 
Maj. Stillman, Col. Stephenson, Maj. Per- 
kins, Capt. Adams, Mr. Hackelton and my- 
self, with some others, threw ourselves into 
the rear to rally the fugitives and protect 
the retreat. But in a short time all my 
coiiipanious fell bravely fighting hanj-to- 
hand witli the savage enemy, ami I alone 
was left upon the tielJ of battle About 
this time I discovered not far to ,lie left a 
corps of horsemen, which seemed to be in 
tolerable order. I immediately deployed 
to the left, when, leaning down and placing 
mj' body in a recumbent posture upon the 
mane of my horse, so as to bring the heads 
of the horsemen betwetMi my eye and the 
horizon, I discovered, by the light of the 
moon, that they were gentlemen who did 
not wear hats, by which token I knew they 
were no friends of mine. I therefore made 
a retrograde movement, and recovered my 
position, where I remained some time, in 
thinking what further I could do for my 
country, when a random ball came whist- 
ling by my ear, and plainly whispered to 
me, 'Stranger, you have no further busi- 
ness here.' Upon hearing this, I followed 
the example of my companions-in-arms, 
and broke for tall timber, and the way I 
ran was not a little." 

For a long time afterward Maj. Stillman 
and his men were subjects of ridicule and 
merriment, which was as undeserving as 
their expedition \.as disastrous. Still- 
mau's defeat spread consternation through- 



out the State and nation. The number of 
Indians was greatly exaggerated, and the 
name of Black Hawk carried with it asso- 
ciations of great military talent, savage 
cunning and cruelty. 

A regiment sent to spy out the country 
between Galena and Rock Island, was sur- 
prised by a party of seventy Indians, and 
was on the point of being thrown into dis- 
order, when Gen. Whiteside, then serving 
as a private, shouted out that he would 
shoot the first man who turned his back on 
thj enemy. Order being restored, the bat- 
tle began. At its very outset Geo. White- 
side shot the leader of the Indians, who 
thereupon commenced a hasty retreat. 

In June, 1832, Black Hawk, with a band 
of one hundred and fifty warriors, attacked 
the Apple River Fort, near Galena, de- 
fended by twenty-five men. This fort, a 
mere palisade of logs, was erected to afford 
protectiim to the miners. For fifteen con- 
secutive hours the garrison had to sustain 
the assault of the savage enemy; but, 
knowing very well that no quarter would 
be given them, they fought with such fury 
and desperation that the Indians, after 
losing many of their warriors, were com- 
pelled to retreat. 

Another party of eleven Indians mur- 
dered two men near Fort Hamilton. They 
were afterward overtaken by a company 
of twenty men, and every one of them 

A new regime; t, under the command of 
Gen. Atkinson, assembled on the banks of 
the Illinois, in the latter part of June. 
Major Dement, with a small party, was 
sent out to reconnoiter the movements of 
a large body of Indians, whose endeavors 
to surround him made it advisable for him 

to retire. Upon hearing of this engage- 
ment. Gen Atkinson sent a detachment to 
intercept the Indians, while he with the 
main body of his army, moved north to 
meet the Indians under Black Hawk. 
They moved slowly and cautiously through 
the country, passed through Turtle Vil- 
lage, and marched up along R ick river. 
On their arrival news was brought of the 
discovery of the main trail of the Indians. 
Considerable search was made, but they 
were unable to discover any vestige of In- 
dians, save two, who had shot two soldiers 
the day previous. 

Hearing that Black Hawk was encamped 
on Ro k River, at the Manitou village, 
they rtsolved at once to advance upon the 
enemy, but in the execution of their de- 
sign they met with opposition from their 
officers and men. The officers of Gen. 
Henry handed to him a written protest; 
but he, a man equal to any emergency, 
ordered the officers to be arrested and. 
escorted to Gen Atkinson. Within a few 
minutes after the stern order was given, 
the officers all collected around the Gen- 
eral's quarters, many of them with tears in 
their eyes, pledging themselves that if for- 
given they would return to duty and never 
do the like again. The General rescinded 
the order, and they at once resumed duty. 


Gen. Henry marched, on the 15th of 
July, in pursuit of the Indians, reaching 
Rock river after three days' juurney, where 
he learned Black Hawk was encamped 
further up the river. On July 19 the 
troops were ordered to commence their 
march. After having made 50 miles, they 





were overtaken by a terrible thunder 
storm, which lasted all night. Nothing 
cooled, however, in their courage and zeal, 
they marched again 50 miles the next day, 
encamping near the place where the In- 
diana encamped the nightbefore. Hurrying 
along as fast as they could, the infantry 
keeping up an equal pace with the mounted 
force, the troops, on the morning of the 
2. St, crossed the river connecting two of 
the four lakes, by which the Indiani? had 
been endeavoring to escape. They found, 
on their way, the ground strewn with ket- 
tles and articles of baggage, which, in the 
haste of retreat, the Indians were obliged 
to throw away. The troops, inspired with 
new ardor, advanced so rapidly that at 
noon they fell in with the rear guard of 
the Indians. Those who closely pursued 
them were saluted by a sudden fire of 
musketry from a body of Indians who had 
concealed them elves in the high grass of 
the prairie. A most desperate charge was 
made upon the Indians, who, unable to 
resist, retreated obliquely in order to out- 
flank the Volunteers on the right; but the 
latter charged, tbe Indians in their ambush 
and expelled them from their thickets at 
the point of the bayonet, and dispersed 
them. Night set in and the battle ended, 
having cost the Indians sixty-eight of their 
bravest m.n, while the loss of the Illinois- 
ans amounted to but one killed and eight 

Soon after this battle. Gens. Atkinson 
and Henry joined iheir forces and pursued 
the Indians. Gen. Henry struck the main 
trail, left his horses behind, formed an 
advance guard of eight men, and marched 
forward upon their trail. When these 
eight men came within sight of tlie rivpr. 

they were su Idenly fired upon, and five of 
them killed, thu remaining three maintain- 
ing their ground till Gen. lle.ry caiiie U|i. 
Then the Indians, charged upon with the 
bayonet, fell back upon their main force; 
the battle now became general; the In- 
dians fought with desperate valor, but 
were furiously assailed by the volunteers 
with their bayonets, cutting many of the 
Indians to pieces and driving the rest into 
the river. Those who escaped from being 
drowned found refuge on an island. On 
hearing the frequent discharge of mus- 
ketry, indicating a general engagement, 
Gen. Atkinson abandoned the pursuit of 
the twenty Indians under Black Hawk 
himself, and hurried to the scene of action, 
where he arrived too late to take part in 
the battle. He immediately forded the 
river with his troops, the water reaching 
up to their necks, and landed on the island 
where the Indians had secreted them- 
selves. The soldiers rushed upon the 
Indians, killed several of them, took the 
others prisoners, and chased the rest into the 
river, where they were either drowned or 
shot before reaching the opposite shore. 
Thus ended the battle, the Indians losing 
three hundred, besides fifty prisoners; the 
whites, but seventeen killed and twelve 

Black Hawk, with his twenty braves, 
retreited up the Wisconsin river. The 
Winnebagos, desirous of securing the 
friendship of the whiles, went in pursuit 
and captured and delivered them to Gon. 
Street, the United States Indian Agent. 
Among the prisoners were the son of 
Black Hawk and the prophet of the tribe. 
These, with Black Hawk, were taken to 





Washington, D. C, and soon consigned 
as prisoners at Fortress Monroe. 

At the interview Blaok Hawk had with 
the President, he closed his speech deliv- 
ered on the occasion in the following 
words: "We did not expect to conquer 
the whites. They have too many huuses. 
too many men. I took up the haichel, for 
my part, to revenge injuries which my 
people could no longer endure. Had I 
borne them longer without striking, my 
people would have said: 'Black Hawk is a 
woman: he is too old to be a chief; he is 
no Sac' These reflections caused me to 
raise the war-whoop. I say no more. It 
is known to you. Keokuk once was here; 
you took him by the hand, and when he 
wished to return to his home, you were 
willing. Black Hawk expects, like Keo 
kuk, he shall be permitted to return, too." 

By order of the President, Black Hawk 
and his cumpauions, who were in confine- 
ment at Fortress Monroe, were set free on 
the 4th day of June, 1833. 

After their release from prison they 
were conducted in charge of Major Gar- 
land, through some of the principal cities, 
that they might witness the power of the 
United States and learn their own inability 
to cope with them in war. Great multi- 
tudes flocked to see them wherever they 
were taken, and the attention paid them 
rendered their progress through the coun- 
try a triumphal procession, instead of the 
transportation of prisoners by an officer. 
At Rock Island the prisoners were given 
their liberty amid great and impressive 
ceremony. In 1838 Black Hawk built him 

a dwelling near Des Moines, this State, 
and furnished it after the manner of the 
whites, aLd engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits and hunting and fishing. Here, with 
his wife, to whom he was greatly attached, 
he passed the few remaining days of his 
life To his credit, it may be said that 
Black Hawk remained true to his wife, 
and servL'd her with a devotion uncommon 
atLoiig Indians, living with her upward of 
forty years. 

At all times when Black Hawk visited 
the whites he was received with marked 
attention. He was an honored guest at 
the old settlers' reunion in Lee county, 
Illinois, at some of their meetings, and 
received marked tokens of esteem. In 
September, 1838, while on his way to 
Rock Island to receive his annuity from 
the Government, he contracted a severe 
cold, which resulted in a severe attack of 
bilious fever, and terminated his life Oct. 
3. After his death he was dressed in the 
uniform presented to him by the President 
while in Washington. He was buried in a 
grave six feet in depth, situated upon a 
beautiful eminence. The body was placed 
in the middle of the grave, in a sitting 
position upon a seat constructed for the 
purpose. On his left side the cane given 
him by Henry Clay was placed upright, 
with his right hand resting upon it. His 
remains were afterwards stolen and car- 
ried away, but they were recovered by the 
Governor of Iowa, and placed in the 
museum of the Historical Society at Bur- 
lington, where they were finally destroyed 
by fire. 






As bag already been stated, all Iowa was 
in actual possession of the Indians when 
purchased by the United States Govern- 
ment, and for purposes of settlement by 
the whites, could only be obtained by 
forcible ejectment or re-purchase from 
those inhabiting the country. This was 
effected in a series of treaties and pur- 
chases, of which a synopsis is given: 

The territory known as the "Black 
Hawk Purchase," although not the first 
portion of Iowa ceded to the United States 
by the Sacs and Foxes, was the first opened 
to actual settlement by the tide of emi- 
gration which flowed acro'S the Missis- 
sippi as soon as the Indian title was 
extinguished. The treaty which provided 
fur this cession was made at a council held 
on the west bank of the Mississippi, where 
now stands the thriving city of Davenport, 
on ground now occupied by the Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific R. R. Co , Sept. 21, 
1832. This was just after the "Black 
Hawk War," and the defeated savages had 
retired from east of the Mississippi. At 
the council the Government was repre- 
sented by Gen. Winfield Scott and Gov. 
Reynolds, of Illinois. Keokuk, Pashapaho 
and some thirty other chiefs and warriors 
were present. By this treaty the Sacs and 
Foxes ceded to the United Slates a strip 
of land on the eastern border of Iowa, fifty 
miles wide, from the northern boundary of 

Missouri to the mouth of the Upper Iowa 
river, cont^iining about 6,000,000 acres. 
The western line of the purchase was 
parallel wiih the Mississippi. In consider- 
ation of this cession, the United States 
Government stipulated to pay annually to 
the confederated tribes, for thirty con- 
secutive years, 120,000 in specie, and to 
pay the debts of the Indians at Roik 
Island, which had been accumulating for 
seventeen years, and amounted to |i.50,000, 
due to Davenport & Farnham, Indian 
traders. The Government also generously 
donated to the Sac and Fox women and 
children whose husbands and fathers had 
fallen in the Black Hawk War, 35 beef 
cattle, 12 bushels of salt, 30 barrels of 
pork, 50 barrels of ilour, and 6,000 bushels 
of corn. 

The treaty was ratified February 13, 
1833, and took effect on the 1st of June 
following, when the Indians quietly re- 
moved from the ceded territory, and this 
fertile and beautiful region was opened to 
white settlers. 

By terms of the treaty, out of the Black 
Ilavvk purchase was reserved for the Sacs 
and Foxes 400 square miles of land, sit- 
uated on the Iowa River, and inclu ling 
within its limits Keokuk village, on the 
right bank of that river. This tract was 
known as Keokuk's reserve, and was occu- 
pied by the Indians until 183(i, when, by 





a treaty made in September between them 
and Goy. Dodge, of Wisconsin Territory, 
it was ceded to the United States. The 
council was held on the banks of the Mis- 
sissippi, above Davenport, and was the 
largest assemblage of the kind ever held by 
the Sacs and Foxes to treat for the sale of 
lands. • About one thousand of their chiefs 
and braves were present, and Keokuk was 
the leading spirit of the occasion, and 
their principal speaker. 

By the terms of this treaty, the Sacs 
and Foxes were removed to another reser- 
vation on the Des Moines river, where an 
agency was established at what is now the 
town of Agency City. The Government 
also gave out of the Black Ilawk purchase 
to Antoine LeClare, interpreter, in fee 
siraplp, one section of land opposite Rock 
Island, and another at the head of the first 
rapids above the island on the Iowa side. 
This was the first land title granted by 
the United States to an individual in Iowa. 

Gen. Joseph M. Street established an 
agency among the Sacs and Foxes very 
soon after the removal of the latter to their 
new reservation. He was transferred from 
the agency of the Winnebagos for this 
purpose. A tarm was selected, upon which 
the necessary buildings were erected, in- 
cluding a comfortable farm house for the 
agent and his family, at the expense of the 
Indian fund. A salaried agent was era- 
ployed to superintend the farm and dispose 
of the crops. Two mills were erected — 
one on Soap creek, and the other on Sugar 
creek. The latter was soon swept aw^ay 
by a flood, bat the former remained and 
did good service for many years. 

Connected with the agency were Joseph 
Smart and John Goodell, interpreters. The 

latter was interpreter for Hard Fishes' 
band. Three of the Indian chiefs — Keo- 
kuk, Wapello and Appanoose — had each 
a large field improved, the two former on 
the right bank of the Des Moines, back 
from the river, in what is now " Keokuk's 
Prairie," and the latter on the present 
site of the city of Otturawa. Among the 
traders connected with their agency were 
the Metsrs. Ewing, from Ohio, and Phelps 
& Co , from Illinois, and also J. P. Eddy, 
who established his post at what is now 
the site of Eddyville. The Indians at this 
agency became idle and listless in the ab- 
sence of their natural and wonted excite- 
ments, and many of them plunged into 
dissipation. Keokuk himself bec.ime dis- 
sipated in the latter years of his life, and 
it has been reported that he died of de- 
lirium tremens after his removal with his 
tribe to Kansas. On May, 1S4-3, most of 
the Indians were removed up the Des 
Moines river, above the temporary line of 
Red Eock, having ceded the remnant of 
their lands in Iowa to the United States, 
Sept. 21, 1837, and Oct. 11, 1842. By the 
terms of the latter treaty, they held pos- 
session of the "New Purchase" till the 
autumn of 1845, when most of them were 
removed to their reservation in Kansas, 
the balance being removed in 1846. 

Before any permanent settlement was 
made in the Territory of Iowa, white ad- 
venturers, trappers and traders, many of 
whom were scattered along the Mississippi 
and its tributaries, as agents and employes 
of the American Fur Company, intermar- 
ried with the females of the Sac and Fox 
Indians, producing' a race of half-breeds, 
whose number was never definitely ascer- 
tained. There were some respectable and 




excellent people among them, children of 
some refinement and education. For in- 
stance: Dr. Muir, a gentleman educated at 
Edinburg, Scotland, a Surgeon in the 
United States Army, stationed at a mili- 
tary post located on the present site of 
Warsaw, married an Indian woman, and 
reared his family of three daughters in the 
city of Keokuk. Other examples might 
be cited, but they are probably exceptions 
to the general rule, and the race is now 
nearly or quite extinct in Iowa. 

August 4, 182+, a treaty was made be- 
tween the United States and the Sacs and 
Foxes, by which that portion ( f Lee county 
was reserved to the half-breeds of those 
tribes, and which was afterward known as 
the "half-breed tract." This reservation 
is the triangular piece of laud containing 
about 119,000 acres, lying between the 
Mississippi and the Des Moines rivers. It 
is bounded on the north by the prolonga- 
tion of the northern line of Missouri. This 
line was intended to be a straight one, run- 
ning due east, which would have caused it 
to strike the Mississippi river at or below 
Montrose; but tiie surveyor who run it took 
no notice of the change in the variation of 
the needle, as he proceeded eastward, and, 
in const quence, the line he run was bent, 
deviating more and more to the northward 
of a direct line as he approached the Mis- 
sissippi river, so that it struck that river at 
the lower edge of the town of Fort Madi- 
son. '"This erroneous line," says Judge 
Mason, '-has been acquiesced in as well in 
fixing the northern limit of the half-breed 
tract as in determining the northern 
boundary line of the State of Missouri." 
The litic thus run included in the reserva- 
tion a portion of the lower part of the city 

of Fort Madison, and all of the present 
townships of Van Buren, Charleston, Jef- 
ferson, Des Moines, Montrose and Jackson. 

Under tlie treaty of 182i,the half-breeds 
liaJ the right to occupy the soil, but could 
not convey it, the reversion' being reserved 
to the United Stales. But January 30lh, 
1843, by act of Congress, this reversionary 
riglit was relinquished, and the half-breeds 
acquired the Ian is in fee simple. This no 
sooner done than a horde of speculators 
rushed in to buy land of the half-breed 
owners, and, in many instances, a gun, 
blanket, a pony or a few quarts of whisky 
was sufficient for the purchase of large 
estates. There was a deal of sharp prac- 
tice on both sides. Indians would often 
claim ownership of land by virtue of being 
half-breeds, and had no difficulty in prov- 
ing their mixed blood by the Indians, and 
they would cheat the speculators by selling 
land to which they had no rightful title. 
On the other hand, speculators often 
claimed land in which they had no owner- 
ship. It was diamond cut diamond, until 
at last things became badly mixed. There 
were no authorized surveys, and no boun 
dary lines to claim, and, as a natural 
result, numerous conflicts and quarrels 

January 16, 1838, Edward Johnstone, 
Thomas S. Wilson and David Brighaiu 
were appointed commissioners by the Wis- 
consin Legislature, clothed with power to 
settle their difficulties, and to decide upon 
the validity of chtims, or sell them for the 
benefit of the real owners. The act pro- 
vided that these commissioners should be 
paid six dollars a day each. The commis- 
sion entered upon its duties, and continued 
until the next session of the Legi.slature, 




when the act creating it was repealed, in- 
validating all that had been done, and 
depriving the commissioners of their pay. 
The repealing act, however, authorized the 
commissioners to commence action against 
the owners of the half-breed tract, to re- 
ceive pay for their services in the District 
of Lee county. Two judgements were 
obtained, and on execution the whole tract 
was sold to Hugh T. Reid,the sheriii exe- 
cuting the deed. Mr. Reid sold portions 
of it to various parties; but his own title 
was questioned, and he became involved 
in litigation. Decisions in favor of Reid 
and those holding under him were made 
by both District and Supreme Courts; but 
in December, 1850, these decisions were 
finally reversed by the Supreme Court of 
the United States, in the case of Joseph 
Web iter, plaintiff in error, vs. Hugh T. 
Reid, and judgement titles failed. 

About nine years before the judgement 
titles were finally abrogated as above, 
another class of titles were brought into 
competition with them, and, in the conflict 
between the two, the final decision was 
obtained. These were the titles based on 
the "decree of partition" issued by the 
United States District Court for the Ter- 
ritory of Iowa, May 8, 1841, and certified 
to by the clerk on the 2d day of June of 
the same year. Edward Johnstone and 
Hugh T. Reid, then law partners at Fort 
Madison, filed the petition for the decree 
in behalf of the St. Louis claimants of 
half-breed lands. Francis S. Key, author 
of the Star-Spangled Banner, who was 
then attorney for the New York Land 
Company, which held heavy interests in 
these lands, took a leading part in the 
measure, and drew up the documents in 

which it was presented to the court." 
Judge Charles Mason, of Burlington, pre- 
sided. The plan of partition divided the 
the tract into 101 shares, and arranged that 
each claimant should draw his proportion 
by lot, and should abide the result, what- 
ever it might be. Tlie arrangement was 
entered into,-the lots drawn, and the plat 
of the same filed in the Recorder's office, 
October 6, IS4I. Upon this basis the titles 
to the land in the Half-Breed Tract are 
now held. 

We subjoin a synopsis of the different 
treaties made with the Indians of Iowa: 

1. Treaty with the Sioux. — Made July 
15, 1815; ratified December 16, 1815, This 
treaty was made at Portage des Sioux of 
Minnesota and Upper Iowa, and the United 
States, by William Clark and Ninian Ed- 
wards, Co;nmissioners, and was merely a 
treatise of peace and friendship on the 
part of these Indians toward the Unilel 
States at the close of the war of 1812. 

2. Treaty with the Sacs. — A similar 
treaty of peace was made at Portage des 
Sioux, between the United States and the 
Sacs, by William Clark, Ninian Edwards 
and Augu-ite Choteau, on the 13th of Sep- 
tember, 1815, and ratified at the same date 
as the abjve. In this the treaty of 1804 
was re-affirmed, and the Saci here repre- 
sented promised for themselves and their 
bxnds to keep entirely separate from the 
Sacs of Rocc river, who, under Black 
Hawk, had joined the Biitish in the war 

■just then closed. 

3. Treaty with the Foxes. — A separate 
treaty of peace was mide with the Foxes 
at Portage des Sioux, by the sime commis- 
sioners, on the 14th of September, 1815, 
and ratified the same as the ab )ve, wherein 




tliG Foxes re-affirmed the treaty of St. Louis, 
of November 3d, 1804, and agreed to de- 
liver up all their prisoners to the officer in 
command at Fort Clark, now Peoria, Illi- 

4 Treaty with the loicas. — A treaty of 
peace and mutual good-will was made 
between the Uuited States and the Iowa 
tribe of Indians, at Portage des Sioux, by 
the same commissioners as above, on the 
16th of September, 1815, at the close of the 
war with Great Britain, and ratified at the 
same date as the others. 

5. Treat)/ w-'th the Sacs of Hock 
Jiiver. — Made at St. Louis, on the 13th of 
May, 1816, between the United States and 
the Sacs of Rock river, by the Commis- 
sioners, William Clark, Ninian Edwards 
and Auguste Choteau, and ratified Dec. 30, 
1816. In this treaty that of 1804 was re- 
established and enforced by the chiefs and 
head men of the Sacs^of Rock river, and 
Black Hawk himself attached to it his sig- 
nature, or, as he said, "touched the goose- 

6. Treati/ of 1824.— On the 4th of 
August, 1824, a treaty was made between 
the United States and the Sacs and Foxes, in 
the city of Washington, by William Clark, 
Commissioner, wherein the Sac and Fox 
nations relinquished their title to all lands 
in Missouri, and that portion of the south- 
east corner of Iowa known as the "half- 
breed tract" was set off and reserved for 
the use of the half breeds of the Sacs and 
Foxes, they holding title in the same man- 
ner as Indians. . Ratified Jan. 18, 1825. 

7. Treaty of August 19, 1825.— At this 
date a treaty was made by William Clark 
and Lewis Cass, at Prairie du Chien, be- 

tween the United States and the Chippe- 
was. Sacs and Foxes, Menominees, Winne- 
bagos, and a portion of the Otiawas and 
Pot awatomies. In this treaty, in order 
make peace between the contending tribes 
as to the limits ot their respective hunting 
grounds in Iowa, it was agreed that the 
United States Government should run a 
b jundary line between the Sioux, on the 
north, and the Sacs and Foxes on the south, 
as follows: 

Commencing at the mouth of the Upper 
Iowa river, on the west bank of the Mis- 
sissippi, and ascending said Iowa river to 
its west fork; thence up the fork to its 
source; thence crossing the fork of Red 
Cedar river in a direct line to the lower 
fork of the Calumet river, and down that 
fork to its junction with the Missouri river. 

8. Treati/ of 1830.— On the loth of 
Ju'y, 1830, the confederate tribes of the 
Sacs and Foxes ceded to the United States 
a strip of country lying south of the above 
line, twenty miles in width, and extending 
along the line aforesaid from the Missis- 
sippi to the Des Moines river. The Sioux 
also, whose possessions were north of the 
line, ceded to the Government, in the same 
treaty, a strip on the north side of the 
boundary. Thus the United States, at the 
ratification of this treaty, February 24, 
1831, came into possession of a portion of 
Iowa forty miles wide, extending along 
the Clarke and Cass line of 1825, from the 
Mississippi to the Des Moines river. This 
territory was then known as the "Neutral 
Ground," and the tribes on either side of 
the line were allowed to fish and hunt on 
it unmolested until it was made a Winne- 
bago reservation, and the Winnebagos 
were removed to it in 1841. 




9. Treaty loith the Sacs and Foxes and 
other tribes. — At the same time of the 
above treaty respecting the '-ISreiUral 
Ground" (July 15, 1830), the Sacs and 
Foxes, Western Sioux,'Omahas, lowas and 
Missouris ceded to the United States a por- 
tion of the western slope of Iowa, the 
boundaries of which were defined as fol- 
lows: Beginning at the upper fork of the 
Des Moines river, and passing the sources 
of the Little Sioux and Floyd rivers, to the 
bank of the first creek that falls into ihe 
Big Sif ux, or Calumet, on the easi i-ide; 
thence down said ■ creek and the Calumet 
river to the Missouri river; thence down 
said Missouri river to the Missouri Slate 
line above the Kansas; thence along said 
line to the northwest corner of said State; 
thence to the high lands between the 
waters falling into the Missouri and Des 
Moines, passing to said h'gh lands along 
the dividing ridge between the forks of 
the Grand river; thence along said high 
lands or ridge separating the waters of the 
Missouri from those of the Des Moines, to 
a point opposite the source of the Boyer 
river, and thence in a direct line to the 
upper fork of the Des Moines, the place of 

It was understood that the lands ceded 
and relinquished by this treaty were to be 
assigned and allotted, under the direction 
of the President of the United States, to 
the tribes then living thereon, or to such 
other tribes as the President might locate 
thereon for hunting and other purposes. 
In consideration of three tracts of land 
ceded in this treaty, the United States 
agreed to pay to the Sacs $-3,000; to the 
Foxes, $.3,000; to the Sioux, $?,000; to the 
Yankton and Santee bands of Sioux, $3,000; 

to the Omahas, $1,500; and to the Ottoes 
and Missouris, $2,500— to be paid annually 
for ten successive ye.ars. In addition to 
these annuities, the Givernraent agreed to 
furnish some of the tribes with b'ack- 
sniiths and agricultural implements to the 
amount of $i00, at the expense of the 
Uniied States, and to set apart $3,000 an- 
nually for the education of the children of 
these tribes. It does not appear that any 
fort was erected in this territory prior to 
the erection of Fort Atkinson on the Neu- 
tral Ground in 184u-'-H. 

This treaty was made by William Clark, 
Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and Col. 
Willoughby Morgan, of the United States 
First Infantry, and came into effect by 
proclamation, February 24, 1831. 

10. Treaty with the Wumebagos. — 
Made at Fort Armstrong, Rock Island, 
September 15th, 1832, by General Winfie'd 
Scott and Hon. John R-ynolds, Governor 
of Illinois. In this treaty the Winne- 
bagos ceded to the United States all their 
land lying on the east side of the Missis- 
sippi, and in part consideration therefor 
the United Slates granted to the Winne- 
bagos, to be held as other Indian lands 
are held, that portion of Iowa known as 
the Neutral Grounds The exchange of 
the two tracts of country was to lake place 
on or before the Ist day of Juae, 1833. In 
addition to the Neutral Grounds, it was 
stipulated that the United States should 
give the Winnebagos, beginning in Sep- 
tember, 1833, and continuing for twenty- 
seven cuccessive years, $10,000 in specie, 
and establish a school among them with a 
farm and garden, and provide other facili- 
ties for the education of their chi dren, not 
to exceed in cost $3,000 a year, and to con- 






tinue the same twenty-seven successive 
years. Six agriculturists, twelve yoke of 
oxen, and plows and otber farming tools 
were to be supplied by the Government. 

11. ' Treaty o/1832 with the Saes and 
i^baies.^Already mentioned as the Black 
Hawk purcliase. 

12. Treaty of 1836 with the Sacs and 
Foxes. — Ceding Keokuk's reserve to the 
United States, for which the Government 
stipulated to pay $30,000, and an annuity 
of $10,000 for ten successive years, to- 
gether with other sums and debts of the 
Indians to various parties 

13. Treaty o/ 1837.— On the 2l8t of 
October, 1837, a treaty was made at the 
city of Washington, between Carey A. 
Harris, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 
and the confederate tribes of Sacs and 
Foxes, ratified February 21, 1838, wherein 
another slice of the soil of Iowa was ob- 
tained, described in the treaty as follows: 

"A tract of country containing 1,250,000 
acres, lying west and adjoining the tract 
conveyed by them to the United States in 
the treaty of September 21, 1832. It is 
understood that the points of termination 
for the present cession shall be the north- 
ern and southern points of tract as fixed 
by the survey made under the authority of 
the United States, and that a line shall be 
drawn between them so as to intersect a 
line extended westwardly from the angle 
of said tract nearly opposite to Rock Island, 
as laid down in the above survey, so far as 
may be necessary to include the number of 
acres hereby ceded, which last mentioned 

line, it is estimated, will be about twenty- 
five miles." 

This piece of land was about twenty -five 
miles in the middle, and ran off to a point 
at both ends, lying directly back to the 
Black Hawk purchase, and of the same 

14. Treaty of Relinquishment. — At the 
same date as the above treaty, in the city 
of Washington, Carey A. Harris, Commis- 
sioner, the Sacs and Foxes ceded to tl e 
United States all their right and interest 
in the country lying south of the boundary 
line between the Sacs, Foxes and Sioux, as 
described in the treaty of August 19, 1825, 
and between the Missouri and Mississippi 
rivers, the United S ates paying i<r the 
same 1160,000. The Indians also gave up 
all claims and interests under the treaties 
previously made with them, for the satis- 
faction of which no appropriations had 
been made. 

15. Treaty of 1842.— The last treaty 
was made with the Sacs and Foxes October 
11, 1842; ratified March 23, 1843. It was 
made at the Sac and Fox agency (Agency 
City), by John Chambers, Commissioner 
on behalf of the United States. In this 
treaty the Sac and Fox Indians ceded to 
the United States all their lands west of 
the Mississippi to which they had any 
claim or title By the terms of this treaty 
they were to be removed from the country 
at the expiration of three years, and all 
who remained after that were to move at 
their own expense. Part of them were 
removed to Kiiisas in the faH of 1845, and 
the rest the spring following. 








The first permanent settlement made by 
whites within the limits of Iowa, was by 
Julien Dubuque, in 1788, when, with a small 
party of miners, he settled on the site of 
the city that now bears his name, where he 
lived until his death, in 1810. What was 
known as the Girard settlement, in Clayton 
county, was made by some parties prior to 
the commencement of the present century. 
It consisted of three cabins, in 1805. Louis 
Honori settled on the site of the present 
town of Montrose, probably in 1799, and 
resided thereuntil 1805, when his property 
passed into other hands. Indian traders 
had established themselves at various points 
at an early date. Mr. Johnson, an agent 
of the American Fur Company, had a 
trading post below Burlington, where he 
carried on traffic with the Indians some- 
time before the United States purchased 
Louisiana. In 1820, LeMoliese, a French 
trader, had a station at what is now San- 
dusky, six miles above Keokuk, in Lee 
county. The same year, a cabin was built 
where the city of Keokuk now stands, by 
Dr. Samuel C. Muir, a surgeon in the 
United Stales Army. His marriage and 
subsequent life were very romantic. While 
stationed at a military post on the Upper 
Mississippi, th'e post was visited by a beau- 
tiful Indian maiden — whose native name, 
unfortunately, has not been preserved — 
who, in her dreams, had seen a white brave 

unmoor his canoe, paddle it across the 
river, and come directly to her lodge. She 
felt assured, according to the superstitious 
belief of her race, that in her dreams she 
had seen her future husband, and had come 
to the fort to find him. Meeting Dr. Muir, 
she instantly recognized him as the hero of 
her dream, which, with childlike innocence 
and simplicity, she related to him. Her 
dream was indeed prophetic. Charmed 
with Sophia's beauty, innocence and devo- 
tion, the doctor honorably married her; but 
after awhile the sneers and gibes of his 
brother officers — less honorable than he, 
perhaps — made him feel ashamed of his 
dark-skinned wife, and when his regiment 
was ordered down the river to Bellefon- 
taine, it is said he embraced the opportu- 
nity to rid himself of her, never expecting 
to see her again, and little dreaming that 
she would have the courage to follow him. 
But, with her infant child, this intrepid 
wife and mother started alone in her canoe, 
and after many days of weary labor and a 
lonely journey of 900 miles, she at last 
reached him. She afterward remarked, 
when speaking of this toilsome journey 
down the river in search of her husband: 
"When I got there I was all perished 
away — so thin !" The doctor, touched by 
such unexampled devotion, took her to his 
heart, and ever after, until his death, treat- 
ed her with marked respect. She always 

9 V 




presided at his table with grace and dig- 
nity, but never abandoned her native styie 
of dress. In 18l9-'20 he was stationed at 
Fort Edward, now Warsaw, but the sense- 
less ridicule of some of his brother officers 
on account of his Indian wife induced him 
to resign his commission He then built 
a cibin, as above stated, where Keokuk is 
now situated, and made a claim to some 
land. This claim he leased to Otis Rey- 
nolds and John Culver, of St Louis, and 
went to La Pointe (afterward Galena), 
where he practiced bis profession for ten 
years, when he returned to Keokuk. His 
Indian wife bore to him four children — 
Louise, James, Mary and Sophia. Dr. 
]\Iuir died suddenly of cholera, in 1832, 
but left his property in such a condition 
that it was soon wasted in vexatious liti- 
gation, and his brave and faithful wife, left 
friendless and penniless, became discour- 
aged, and, with her two younger .children, 
disappeared. It is said she returned to her 
people, on the Upper Missouri. 

The gentleman who had leased Dr. 
Muir's claim at Keokuk, subsequently em- 
ployed as their agent Moses Stillwell, who 
arrived with his family in 1828, and took 
possession. His br.ithers in-law, Amos and 
Valencourt Van Ansdal, came with him 
and settled near. Mr Stillwell's daughter 
Margaret (afterward Mrs. Ford), was born 
in lb3l at the foot of the rapids, called by 
the Indians Puckashetuck. She was prob- 
ably the first white American child born 
in Iowa. 

In 1829 Dr. Isaac Gallaud made a set- 
tlement on the Lower Rapids, at what is 
now Nashville. The same year James S. 
Lang worthy, who had been engaged in 
lead mining at Galena since 1824, resolved 

to visit the Dubuque mines The lead 
mines in the Dibuquo region were an 
objict of great ii terest to the miners about 
Galena, for they were known to be rich in 
lead ore. To explore these mines, and to 
obtain permission to work them was there- 
fore eminently desirable. Crossing the 
Mississippi at a point now known as Dun- 
leith, in a canoe, and swimming his horse 
by his side, he landed on the spot known 
as the Jones Street Levee. Before him 
was spread out a beautiful prairie, on 
which the city of Dubuque now stands. 
Two miles sourh, at the nnuth of Catfish 
creek, was a village of Sacs and Foxes. 
Thither Mr, Langworthy proceeded, and 
was well received by the natives. He 
endeavored to obtain permission from 
them to mine in their hills; but this they 
refused. He, however, succeeded in gain- 
ing the confidence of the chief to such an 
extent as to be allowed to travel in the 
interior for three weeks, and explore the 
country. He employed two young Indians 
as guides, and traversed in different direc- 
tions the whole region lying between the 
Maquoketa and Turkey rivers. He re- 
tu ned to the village, secured the good will 
of the Indians, and, returning to Galena, 
formed plans for future operations, to be 
executed as soon as the circumstances 
would permit. In the following year, with 
his brother, Lucius H., and others, having 
obtained the consent of the Indians, Mr. 
Langworlhy crossed the Mississippi and 
commenced mining in the vicinity around 

Although these lands had been pur- 
chased from France, they were not in the 
actual posession of the United States. . 
The Indian titles had not been ex- 

- (.9 



tiiiguished, and these adventurous persins 
were beyond the limits of any State or 
Territorial government. The first settlers 
were therefore obliged to be their own 
law-makers, and to agree to such regula- 
tions as the exegencies of the case de- 
manded. The first act resembling civil 
legislation in Iowa was done by the miners 
at this point, in June, 1830. They met on 
the bank of the river, by the side of an old 
Cottonwood drift log, at what is now the 
Jones Street Leevee, Dubuque, and elected 
a committee, consisting of J. C. Lang- 
worthy, H F. Lander, James McPbetres, 
Samuel Scales and E. M. Wren. This may 
be called the first Legislature in Iowa, the 
members of which gathered around that 
old Cottonwood log, and agreed to and re- 
ported the following, written by Mr. Lang- 
worthy, on a half sheet of coarse, unruled 
paper, the old log being the writing desk: 

"We, a committee, having been chosen 
to d:aft certain rules and regulations 
(laws), by which we, as miners, will be 
governed, and, having duly considered the 
subject, do UDaiiiinoasly agree that we will 
be governed by the regulations on the east 
side of the Mississippi river, with the fol- 
lowing exceptions, to-wit: 

Article I. That each and every man 
shall hold two hundred yards square of 
ground by working said ground one day 
in six." 

'•Article II. We further agree that 
there shall be chosen by the majority of 
the miners present, a person who shall hold 
this article, and who shall grant letters of 
arbitration on application having been 
made, and that said letters of arbitration 
shall be obligatory on the parties so apply- 

The report was accepted by the miners 
present, who elected Dr Jarote in accord- 
ance with article second. Here, then, we 
have, in 1830, a primitive Legislature 
elected by the people, the law drafted by 
it being submitted to the people for ap- 
proval, and under it Dr. Jarote was elected 
first Governor. And the laws thus enacted 
were as proniptly obeyed as any have been 

After this, the miners, who had thus 
erected an independent g.)vernment of 
their own on the west side of the Missis- 
sippi river, continued to work succ ssfully 
for a long time, and the new settlement 
attracted considerable attention. But the 
west side of the Mississippi belonged to 
the Sac and Fox Indians, and the Govern- 
ment, in order to preserve peace on the 
frontier, as well as to protect the Indians 
in their rights under the treaty, ordered 
the settlers not only to stop mining, but to 
remove from the Indian Territory. They 
were simply intruders. The execution of 
this order was intrusted to Col. Zachary 
Taylor, then in command of the military 
post at Prairie du Chien, who, early in 
July, sent an ofticer to the miners to forbid 
settlement, and to command the miners to 
remove, within ten days, to the east s'de 
of the Mississippi, or they would be driven 
off by armed force The miners, how- 
ever, were reluctant about leaving the rich 
"leads" iliey had already discovered and 
opened, and were not disposed to obey the 
order to remove with any considerable 
degree of alucrity. 

In due time Colonel Taylor dispatched 
a detachment of troops to enforce his 
order. The miners, anticipating their 
arrival, hail, excepting three, reerossed the 




river, and from the east bank saw the 
troops land on the western shore. The 
tliree who had lingered a little too long 
were, however, permitted to make their 
escape unmolested. From this time a mil- 
itary force was stitioned at Dubuque o 
prevent the setUers from returning, until 
June, 18.32. The Indians returned, and 
were encouraged to operate the rich mines 
opened by the late white occupants 

In June, 1832, the troops were ordered 
to the east side of the Mississippi to assist 
in the annihilation of the very Indians 
whose rights they had been protecting on 
the west side. Immediately after the close 
of the Black Hawk war, and the negotia- 
tions of the treaty in September, 1832, by 
which the Sacs and Foxes ceded the tract 
known as the "Black Hawk Purchase," the 
settlers, supposing that now they had a 
right to re-enter the territory, returned and 
took possession of their claims, built cab- 
ins, erected furnaces and prepared large 
quantities of lead for market. But the 
prospects of the hardy and enterprising 
settlers and miners were again ruthlessly 
interferred with by the Government, on 
the ground that the treaty with the Indians 
would not go into force until June 1st, 
1833, although they had withdrawn from 
the vicinity of the settlement. Col. Taylor 
was again ordered by the War Department 
to remove the miners, and, in January, 
1833, troops were again sent from Prairie 
du Chien to Dubuque, for that purpose. 
■This was a serious and perhaps unneces- 
sary hardship imposed upon the miners. 
They were compelleU to abandon their 
cabins and homes in mid-winter. This, 
too, was only out of respect for forms, for 
the purchase had been made, and the In- 

dians had retired. After the lapse of fifty 
years, no very satisfactory reason for this 
rigorous action of the Government can be 
given. Iiut the orders had been given, 
and there was no alternative but to obey. 
Many of the settlers re-crossed the river, 
and did not return; a few, however, re- 
moved to an island near the east bai k of 
the river, built rude cabins of poles, in 
which to store their lead until spriiig, when 
they could float the fruits of their labors 
to St. Louis for sale, and where they could 
remain until the treaty went into force, 
when they could return. Among these 
were the Langworthy brothers, who had 
on hand about 300,000 pounds of lead. 

No sooner had the miners left than Lieu- 
tenant Covington, who had been placed in 
command at Dubuque, by Colonel Taylor, 
ordered some of the cabins of the settlers 
to be torn down, and wagons and other 
property to be destroyed. This wanton 
and inexcusable action on the part of a 
subordinate, clothed with a little brief 
authority, was sternly rebuked by Col. 
Taylor, and Covington was superseded by 
Lieut. George Wilson, who pursued a just 
and friendly course with the p'oneers, who 
were only waiting for the time when they 
could repossess their claims. 

The treaty went formally into eflft'ct 
June, 1833; the troops were withdrawn, 
and the Langworthy brothers and a few 
others at once returned and resumed pos- 
session of their homes and claims. From 
this time must date the first permanent set- 
tlemet)t of this portion of Iowa Mr. John 
P. Sheldon was appointed superintendent 
of the mines, by the Government, and a 
system of permits to miners and licenses 
to smelters was adopted, similar. to that 





which had been in operation at Galena 
since 1825, under Lieut. Martin Thomas 
and Capt. Thomas C. Legate. Substan- 
tially the primitive law enacted by the 
miners assembled around that old cotton- 
wood drift log in 1830, was adopted and 
enforced by the United States Govern- 
ment, except that miners were required to 
sell their mineral to licensed smelters, and 
the smelter was required to give bonds for 
the payment of six per cent, of all lead 
manufactured, to the Government. 

The rule in the United States mines, 
on Fever river, in Illinois, had been, 
until 1830, that the miners must pay a ten 
per cent. tax. This tax upon the miners 
created much dissatisfaction among the 
miners on the west side, as it had on the 
east side of the Mississippi. They thought 
they had suffered hardships and privations 
enough in opening the way for civilization, 
without being subjected to the imposition 
of an odious Government tax upon their 
means of subsistence, when the Federal 
Government could better afford to aid than 
to extort from them. The measure soon 
became very unpopular. It was difficult 
to collect the taxes, and the whole system 
was abolished in about ten years. 

About five hundred people arrived in 
the mining district in 1833, after the In- 
dian title was fully extinguished, of whom 
one hundred and fifty were from Galena. 
In the same year Mr. Langworthy assisted 
in building the first school-house in Iowa, 
and thus was formed the nucleus of the 
populous and thriving city of Dubuque. Mr 
Langworthy lived to see the naked prairie 
on which he first settled become the site 
of a city of 15,000 inhabitants; the 
small school-house which he aided in c n- 

structing replaced by three substantial ed- 
ifices, wherein 2,000 children were being 
trained; churches erected in every part of 
the city, and railroads connecting the wil- 
derness, which he first explored, with all 
the eastern world. lie died suddenly, on 
the 13th of March, 18.65, while on a trip 
over the Dubuque & Southern railroad, at 
Monticello, and the evening train brought 
the news of his death, and his remains. 

Lucius H. Langworthy, his brother, was 
one of the most worthy, gifted and influ- 
ential of the old settlers of this section of 
Iowa. He died greatly lamented by many 
friends, in June, 1865. 

The name "Dubuque" was given to the 
settlement by the miners, at a meeting held 
in 1334. 

Soon after the close of the Black Hawk 
war, in 1832, Zachariah Hawkins, Benja- 
min Jennings, Aaron White, Augustine 
Horton, Samuel Gooch, Daniel Thompson 
and Peter Williams made claims at Fort 
Madison. In 1833, Gen. John H Knapp 
and Col. Nathaniel Knapp purchased these 
claims, and, in the summer of 1835, they 
laid out the town of "Fort Madison," and 
lots were exposed for sale early in 1836. . 
The town was subsequently re-surveyed 
and platted by the United States Govern- 
ment. The population rapidly increased, 
and in less than two years the beautiful 
location was covered by a flourishing town 
containing nearly 600 inhabitants, with a 
large proportion of enterprising merchants, 
mechanics and manufacturers. 

In the fall of 1832, Simpson S. White 
erected a cabin on the site of Burlington, 
79 miles below Rock Island During the 
war, parties had looked longingly upon the 
"Flint Hills" fmm the opposite side of the 



river, and White was soon followed by 
others. David Tothers made a claim on 
the prairie, about three miles back from 
the river, at a place since known as the 
farm of Judge Morgan. The following 
winter the settlers were driven off by t' e 
military from Rock Island, as intruders 
upon the rights of the Indians. White's 
cabin was burned by the soldiers. He 
returned to Illinois, where he remained 
during the winter, and, in the following 
summer, as soon as the Indian title was 
extinguished, returned and re-built his 
cabin. White was joined by his brother- 
in-law, Doolittle, and they laid out the 
town of Burlington in 1834, on a beautiful 
area of sloping eminences and gentle de- 
clevities, enclosed within a natural amphi- 
theater formed by the surrounding hills, 
which were covered with luxuriant forests, 
and presented the most picturesque scenery. 
The same autumn witnessed the opening 
of the first dry goods stores, by Dr. W. R. 
Ross and Major Jeremiah Smith, each well 
supplied with Western merchandise. Such 
was the beginning ef Burlington, which, 
in less than four years, became the seat of 
government for the territory of Wisconsin, 
and, in three years more, contained a pop- 
ulation of 1,400 persons. 

Immediately after the treaty with the 
Sacs and Foxes, in September, 1832, Col. 
George Davenport made the first claim on 
the site of the present thriving city of 
Davenport. As early as 1827, Col. Daven- 
port had established a flat-boat ferry, which 
ran between the island and the main shore 
of Iowa, by which he carried on a trade 
with the Indians west of the Mississippi. 

In 1833 Capt. Benjamin W. Clark moved 
from Illinois, and laid the foundation of 

the town of Buffalo, in Scott county, which 
was the first actual settlement within the 
limits of that county. 

The first settlers of Davenport were 
Antoine LeClaire, Col. George Davenport, 
Major Thomas Smith, Major Wm. Gordon, 
Philip Hambough, Alex. W. McGivgor, 
Levi S. Colton, Captain James May, and 

A settlement was made in Clayton county 
in the spring of 1832, on Turkey river, by 
Robert Hatfield and Wm. W. Wayman. 
No further settlement was made in this 
part of the State until 1836 

The first settlers of Muscatine county 
were Benjamin Nye, John Vanater and G. 
W. K'jsey, all of whom came in 1834. E. 
E. Fay, Wm. St. John, N. Fullington, 11. 
Reece, JonaPettihone, R. P.Lowe, Stephen 
Whicher, Abijah Whitney, J. E Fletcher, 
W. D. Abernethy and Alexis Smith were 
also early settlers of Muscatine. 

As early as 1824 a French trader named 
Hart had estab'ished a trading post, and 
built a cabin on the bluffs above the large 
spring now known as "Mynster Spring," 
within the limits of the present city of 
Council Bluffs, and had probably been 
there some time, as the post was known to 
the employes of the American Fur Com- 
pany as "La Cote de Hart," or "Hart's 

In 182? an agent of the American Fur 
CompanjT, Fiancis Guitar, with others, en- 
camped in the timber at the foot of the 
bluffs, about on the present location of 
Broadway, and afterward settled there. 
In 1839 a block house was built on the 
bluff in the east part of the city. The 
Pottawatomie Indians occupied this part 
of the State until 1846 7, when they re- 



Hnquiiihed the territory and removed to 
Kansas. Billy Caldwell was then princi- 
pal chief. There were no white settlers in 
that part of the State except Indian traders, 
until the arrival of the Mormons under the 
lead of Brigham Young. These people, 
on their way westward, halted for the win- 
ter of 18-t6-7 on the west bank of the Mis- 
souri river, about five miles above Omaha, 
at a place now called Florence. Some of 
them had reached the eastern bank of the 
river the spring before, in season to plant 
a crop In the spring of 1847 Young and 
a portion of the colony pursued their jour- 
ney to Salt Lake, but a large portion of 
them returned to the Iowa side and settled 
mainly within the present limits of Potta- 
watomie county. The principal settlement 
of this strange community was at a place 
first called ''Miller's Hollow," on Indian 
creek, and afterward named Kanesville, in 
honor of Col. Kane, of Pennsylvania, who 
visited them soon afterward. The Mor- 
mon settlement extended over the county 
and into neighboring counties, wherever 
timber and water furnished desirable loca- 
tions. Orson Hyde, priest, lawyer and 
editor, was installed as President of the 
Quorum of Twelve, and all that part of the 
State remained under Mormon control for 
several years. In 1847 they raised a bat- 
talion, numbering 500 men, for the Mexi- 
can war. In 1848 Hyde started a paper, 
called the Frontier Chiardian, at Kanes- 

In 1849, after many of the faithful had 
left to join Brigham Young, at Salt Lake, 
the Mormons in this section of Iowa num- 
bered 0,552, and, in 1850, 7,828, but they 
were not all within the limits of Pottawat- 
omie county. This county was organized 
in 1848, all the first officials being Mor-. 
mons. In 1852 the order was promulgated 
that pll the true believers should gather 
together at Salt Lake. Genti es flocked 
in, and in a few years nearly all the first 
settlers were gone. • 

May 9, 1843, Capt. James Allen, with a 
.small detachment of troops, on board the 
steamer "lone," arrived at the present site 
of the capital of the State, DesMnines. 
This was the first steamer to ascend the 
DesMoines river to this point. The troops 
and stores were landed at what is now the 
foot of Court Avenue, DesMoines, and 
Capt. Allen returned in the steamer to 
Fort Sanford, to arrange for bringing up 
more soldiers and supplies. In due time 
they, too, arrived, and a fort wrs built 
near the mouth of Raccoon Fork, at its 
confluence with the DesMoines, and named 
Fort DesMoines. Soon after the arrival of 
the troops, a trading post was established 
on the east side of the river, by two noted 
Indian traders, named Ewing, from Ohio. 
Among the first settlers in this part of 
Iowa were Benjamin Bryant, J. B. Scott, 
James Drake (gunsmith), John Sturtevant, 
Robert Kiuzie, Alexander Turner, Peter 
Newcomer, and others. 

w - 





The immigration to Iowa after the Black 
Hawk purchase was so rapid and steady 
that some provision for civil government 
became necessary. Accordingly, in 1834, 
all the territory comprising the present 
States of Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota 
was made subject to the jurisdiction of 
Michigan Territory. Up to this time there 
had been no county or other organization 
in what is now the State of Iowa, although 
one or two justices of the peace had been 
appointed, and a postoffice was established 
at Dubuque in 1833. In September of 
1834, therefore, the Territorial Legislature 
of Michigan created two counties on the 
west side of the Mississippi river — Du- 
buque and DesMoines — separated by a line 
drawn westward from the foot of Rock 
Island. These counties were partially or. 
ganized. John King was appointed Chief 
Justice of Dubuque county, and Isaac Lef- 
fler (of Burlington) of DesMoines county. 
Two associate justices, in each county, 
were appointed by the Governor. 

In October, 1835, Gen. George W. Jones, 
now a citizen of Dubuque, was elected a 
delegate to Congress. April 20, 1836, 
through the efforts of Gen. Jones, Con- 
gress passed a bill creating the Territory 
of Wisconsin, which went into operation 
July 4, of the same year. Iowa was then 
included in the Territory of Wisconsin, of 
which Gen. Henry Dodge was appointed 

. g 


Governor; John S. Horner, Secretary; 
Charles Dunn, Chief Justice; David Irwin 
and William C. Frazer, Associate Justices. 

Sept. 9, ] 836, Governor Dodge ordered 
a census of the new Territory to be taken. 
This census showed a population of 10,531, 
of which DesMoines county contained 
6,257, and Dubuque 4,274. Under the 
apportionment, the two above named 
counties were entitled to six members 
of the Council and thirteen of the House 
of Representatives. The Governor issued 
his proclamation for an election to be held 
on the first Monday of October, 1836, on 
which day the following members of the 
first Territoiial Legislature of Wisconsin 
were elected from the two counties in the 
Black Hawk purchase : 

Dubuque — Goimcil : John Fally, Thos. 
McKnight, Thos. McCraney. House: Lor- 
ing Wheeler, IJaldin Whelan, Peter Hill 
Engle, Patrick Quigly, Ilosea F. Camp. 

Df.sMoinks — Council: Jeremiah Smith, 
Jr., Joseph B. Teas, Arthur B. Ingram. 
House: Isaac LefHer, Thos. Blair, Warren 
L. Jenkins, John Box, George W. Teas, 
Eli Reynolds, David R Chance. 

The Legislature assembled at Belmont, 
in the present State of Wisconsin, October 
25th, 1836, and organized by electing Henry 
Baird President of the Council, and Peter 
Hill Engle (of Dubuque) Speaker of the 




At this session the county of DesMoines 
was divided into DesMoines, Lee, VanBu- 
ren, Henry, Muscatine and Cook. This 
last is now called Scott county. The first 
Legislature adjourned December 9th, 1836. 

The second Legis'ature assembled at 
Burlington, November 9, 1 S37. It divided 
Dubuque into the counties of Dubuque, 
Clayton, Fayette, Delaware, Buchanan, 
Jackson, Jones, Linn, Benton, Clinton and 
Cedar, and adjourned January ^Oth, 1838. 

A third session was held at Burlington, 
commencing June 1st, and ending June 
l:^th. It 38. Most of the new counties 
were not organized nntil several years 

The question of the organization of the 
Territory of Iowa now began to be agi- 
tated, and the desires of the people found 
expression in a convention held Noy. 1st, 
which memoralized Congress to organize a 
Territory west of the Mississippi, and to 
settle the boundary line between Wiscon- 
sin Territory and Missouri. The Territorial 
Legislature of Wisconsin, then in session 
at Burlington, joined in the petition Gen. 
George W. Jones, of Dubuque, then re- 
siding at Linsinawa Mound, in what is now 
Wisconsin, was delegate to Congress from 
Wisconsin Territory, and labored so earn- 
estly that the act was passed dividing the 
Territory of Wisconsin, and providing for 
the territorial government of Iowa. This 
was approved June 12, 1838, to take effect 
and be in force on and after July 3, 1838. 

The new Territory embraced "all that 
part of the prt sent Territory of Wisconsin 
west of the Mississippi river, and west of 
a line drawn due north from the head- 
waters or sources of the Mississippi to the 
Territorial line." The organic act pro- 

vided for a Governor, whose term of office 
should be three years; and for a Secretary, 
Chief Justice, two Associate Justices, and 
Attorney and Marshal, who should serve 
four years, to be appointed by the 
deiit, by and with the advice and consent 
of the Senate. 

The act also provided for the election, by 
the white male inhabitants, citizens of the 
United States, over 21 years of age, of a 
House of Representatives, consisting of 
26 members, and a council, to consist of 13 
members. It also appmpriated $5,000 for 
a public library, and $20,000 for the erec- 
tion of public buildings. 

In .accordance with this act, President 
Van Buren appointed ex-Governor Robert 
Lucas, of Ohio, to be the first Governer of 
the new Territory. Wm. B. Conway, of 
Pittsburg, was appointed Secretary of the 
Territory; Charles Mason, of Bilrlington, 
Chief Justice, and Thomas S. Wilson, of 
Dubuque, and Joseph Williams, of Penn- 
sylvania, Associate Judges of the Supreme 
and District Courts; Mr. Van Allen, of 
New York, Attorney; Francis Gehon, of 
Dubuque, Marshal;' Augustus C. Dodge, 
Register of the Land Office at Burlington, 
and Thos. McKnight, Receiver of the Land 
Office at Dubuque. Mr. Van Allen, the 
District Attorney, died at Rockingham 
soon after his appointment, and Col. Chas 
Weston was appointed to fill his vacancy. 
Mr. Conway, the Secretary, also died at 
Burlington during the second session of 
the Legislature, and James Clarke, editor 
of the Ga2ette,vfa,s appointed to succeed him. 

Governor Lucas, immediately after his 
arrival, issued a proclamation for the elec- 
tion of members of the first Territorial 
Legislature, to be held on the 10th of Sep- 

s \ 




tember, dividing the Territory into election 
districts for that purpose, and appointing 
tbe I2tli of November for the meeting of 
the Legislature to be elected at Burlington 
The members were elected in accordance 
with this proclamation, and assembled at 
the appointed time and place. The fol- 
lowing are their names : 

Council— Jesse B. Brown, J. Keith, E 

A. M. Swazey, Arthur Ingram, Robert 
Ralston, George Hepne'r, Jesse J. Payne, 
D. B. Hughes, James M. Clark, Charles 
Whittlesey, Jonathan W. Parker, Warner 
Lewis, Stephen Hempstead. 

House — Wm. Patterson, Hawkins Tay- 
lor, Calvin J. Price, James Brierly, James 
Hall, Gideon S. Bailey, Samuel Parker, 
James W. Grimes, George Temple, Van 

B. Delashmutt, Thomas Blair, George H. 
Beeler, Wm. G. Coop, Wm. H. Wallace, 
Asbiiry B. Porter, John Frierson, Wm. L. 
Toole, Levi Thornton, S. C. Hastings, 
Robert G. Roberts, Laurel Summers, Ja- 
bcz A. Burchard, Jr , Chauncey Swan, An- 
drew Bankson, Thomas Cox and Hardin 

Although a large majority of both 
branches of the Legislature were Demo- 
ocrats. Gen. Jesse B. Brown (Whig), of 
Lee county, was elicted President of the 
Council, and Hon. Wm. H.Wallace (Whig), 
of Henry county, Speaker of the House of 
Representatives — the former unanimously 
and the latter with but little opposition 
At that time national politics were little 
heeded by the people of the new Territory, 
but in 1840, during the Presidential cam- 
paign, parly lines were strongly drawn. 

At the same time with this Legislature, 
a Congressional delegate was also elected. 

Out of four candidates, William W. Chap- 
man was elected. 

The first session of the Iowa Territorial 
Legislature was a stormy and exciting one. 
By tbe organic law the Governor was 
clothed with almost unlimited veto power. 
Governor Lucus seemed disposed to make 
free use of it, and the independent Hawk- 
eyes could not quietly submit to arbitrary 
and absolute rule, and the result was an 
unpleasant controversy between the execu- 
tive and legislative departments; Congress, 
however, by act approved March 3d, 1839, 
amended the organic law by restricting 
the veto power of the Governor to the two- 
thirds rule, and took from him the power 
to appoint sheriffs and magistrates. Among 
the first important matters demanding at- 
tention was the location of the stat of 
government, and provision for the erection 
of public buildings, for which Congress 
had appropriated $20,000. Gov. Lucas, 
in his message, had recommended tbe ap- 
pointment of commissioners with a view 
to selecting a central location. The extent 
of the future State of Iowa was not known 
or thought of. Only a strip of land fifty 
miles wide, bordering on the Mississippi 
river, was the Indian title extinguished, 
and a central location meant some ceulial 
point in the Black Hawk Purchase. 

The friends of a central location sup- 
ported the Governor's suggestion. The 
Southern members were divided between 
Burlington and Mount Pleasant, but tinally 
united on the latter as the proper location 
for the seat of government. The central 
and southern parties were very nearly equal, 
and, in consequence, much excitement pre- 
vailed. The central party at last tri- 
umphed, and, on January 21st, 1839, an act 

S 4^ 

^ "kn 



was passed appointing Chauucey Swan, of 
Dubuque county, John Ronalds, of Louisa 
county, and Robert Ralston, of DesMoines 
county, Commissioners to select a site for 
a permanent seat of government within 
the limits of Johnson county. 

The first settlement within the limits of 
Johnson county was made in 1837. The 
county waS created by act of the Territorial 
Legislature of Wisconsin, approved Dec. 
21, 1837, and organized by act pa;sed at 
the special session at Burlington, in June, 
1838, the organization to date from July 4, 
following. Napoleon, on the Iowa river, 
a few miles below the future Iowa City, 
was designated as the temporary county 

All things considered, the location of 
the capital in Johnson county was a wise 
act. The Territory was bounded on the 
north by the British possessions; east, by 
the Mis.sissippi river to its source; thence 
by a line drawn due north to the northern 
boundary of the United States; south, by 
the State of Missouri, and west by the 
Missouri and White Earth rivers. But 
this immense territory was in undisputed 
possession of the Indians, except a strip 
on the Mississippi, known as the Black 
Hawk Purchase. Johnson county was, 
from north to south, in the geographical 
center of this purchase, and as near the 
east and west geographical center of the 
future State of Iowa as could then be made, 
as the boundary line between the lauds of 
the United States and the Indians estab- 
lished by the treaty of Oct. 21, 1837, was 
immediately west of the county limits. 

After selecting the site, the Commission- 
ers were directed to lay out 640 acres into 
a town, to be called Iowa City, and to pro- 

ceed to sell lots and erect public buildings 
thereon, Congress having granted a section 
of land to be selected by the Territory fur 
this purpose. The Commissioners met at 
Napoleon, Johnson county. May 1, 1839, 
selected for a site section 10, in township 
79 north, of range 6 west of the fifth prin- 
cipal meridian, and immediately surveyed 
it and laid off the town. The first sale of 
lots took place Aug. 16, 1839. The site 
selected for the public buildings was a 
little west of the center of the section, 
where a square of 10 acres, on the elevated 
grounds overlooking the river, was reserved 
for the purpose. The capitol is located in 
the center of this square. The second Ter- 
ritorial Legislature, which assembled in 
November, 1839, passed an act requiring 
the Commissioners to adopt such plan for 
the building that the aggregate cost, when 
complete, should not exceed $5l,iOO, and 
if they had already adopted a plan involv- 
ing a greater expenditure, they were direct- 
ed to abandon it. Plans for the building 
were designed and drawn by Mr. John F. 
Rague, of Sprinsifield, Ills., and July 4, 
1840, the corner-stone of the edifice was 
laid with appropriate ceremonies. Samuel 
C. Trowbridge was marshal of the day, 
and Governor Lucas delivered the address 
on that occasion. 

On July 13, 1840, Governor Lucas an- 
nounced to the Legislature then as- 
semble! in special Sess'ion, that on the 
4th of that month he had visited Iowa 
City, and found the basenienl of the cap- 
itol nearly completed. A bill authuriziug 
a loan of $^0,000 for the buildinj;; was 
passed January 15, 1841, the unsold lots of 
luwa City being the security offered, but 
only $5,5o0 was obtained under the act. 



Monday, December 6, 1841, the fourth 
Legislative Assembly met at the new cap- 
ital, Iowa City, but the eapitol building 
could not be used, and the Legislature oc- 
cupied a temporary frame house, that had 
been erected for that purpose during the 
session of 1841-2. At this session, the 
Superintendent of Public Buildings (who, 
with the Territorial Agent, had superseded 
the Commissioners first appointed,) esti- 
mated the expense of completing the build- 
ing at $33,330, and of completing rooms 
for the use of the Legislature at $15,600. 

During the following year the Superin- 
tendent commenced obtaining stone from a 
new quarry about ten miles northeast of the 
city. This is now known as the "Old Cap- 
itol Quarry," and is thought to contain an 
immense quantity of excellent building 
stone. Here all the stone for completing 
the building was obtained, and it was so 
far completed that, on the 5th day of De- 
cember, 1842, the Legislature assembled in 
the new Capitol. At this session the Su- 
perintendent estimated that it would cost 
$39,143 to finish the building. This was 
nearly ?i6,000 higher than the estimate of 
the previous year, notwithstanding a large 
sum had been expended in the meantime. 
This rather discouraging discrepancy was 
accounted for by the fact that the officers 
in charge of the work were constantly 
short of funds. Except the Congressional 
appropriation of $20,000, and the loan of 
$5,500 obtained from the Miners' Bank of 
Dubuque, all the funds for the prosecution 
of the work were derived from the sale of 
the city lots (which did not sell very rap- 
idly), from certificates of indebtedness, 
and from scrip, based upon unsold lots, 
which was to be received in payment for 

such lots when they were sold. At one 
time the Superintendent m idea requisition 
for bills of iron and glass, which could not 
be obtained nearer than St. Louis. To 
meet this, the agent sold some lots for a 
draft payable at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 
for which he was compelled to pay 25 per 
cent, exchange. This draft amounted to 
§507, which that oflicer reported to be more 
than one-half the cash actually handled by 
him during the entire season, when the dis- 
bursements amounted to very nearly 824,- 
000. \Vith such uncertainty, it could not 
be expected that the estimate could be 
very accurate. With all these disadvan- 
tages, however, the work appears to have 
been prudently prosecuted, and as rapidly 
as circumstances would permit. 

In 1841, John Chambers succeded Robert 
Lucas as Territorial Governor. The oflice 
was held by him until 1845, when it was 
filled by James Clarke. 

The first Legislative Assembly laid the 
broad foundation of civil equality, on which 
has been constructed one of the most lib- 
eral governments in the Union. Its first 
act was to recognize the equality of woman 
with man, before the law, by providing 
that " no action commenced by a single 
woman, who marries during the pendency 
thereof, shall abate on account of such 
marriage." *This principle has been 
adopted in all subsequent legislation in 
Iowa, and to-day woman has full and equal 
rights with man, excepting only the right 
of the ballot. 

Religious toleration was also secured to 
all, personal liberty strictly guarded the 
rights and privileges of citizenship ex- 
tended to all white persons, and the purity 
of election's secured by heavy penalties 



against bribery and corruption. The 
judiciary power was vested in a Supreme 
Court, District Court, Probate Court and 
justices of the peace. Real estate was 
made divisible by will, and intestate pro- 
perty divided equitably among heirs. 
Murder was made punishable by death, 
and proportionate penalties fixed for lesser 
crimes. A system of free schools, opeo 
for every class of white citizens, was estab- 
lished. Provision was made for a system 
of roads and highways. Thus, under the 
Territorial organization, the country began 
to emerge from a savage wilderness, and 
take on the foims of civil government. 

The Territorial Legislature held its 
eighth and last session at Iowa City, com- 
mencing December 1, 1845. James Clark 
was the same year appointed the successor 
of Governor Chambers, and was the third 
and last Territorial Governor. In 1843 the 
Territorial Legislature compiled and pub- 
lished a code of general statutes, making 
a volume of 800 pages, that continued in 
force until July, 1851. 


In defining the boundaries of the coun- 
ties bordering on Missouri, the Iowa 
authorities had fixed a line which has 
since been established as the boundary 
between Iowa and Missouri. The consti- 
tution of Missouri defined her northern 
boundary to be the parallel of latitude which 
passes through the rapids of Des Moines 
river. The lower rapids of the Mississippi 
immedjately above the mouth of the Des 
Ml ines river had always been known as 
the Des Moines Rapids, or the " rapids of 
the Des Moines river." The Missourians 
(evidently not well versed in history or 

geography), insisted on running the 
northern boundary line from the rapids in 
the Des Moines river, just helow Keosau- 
qua, thus taking from Iowa a strip of ter- 
ritory eight or ten miles wide. Assuming 
this as her northern boundary line, Missouri 
attempted to exercise jurisdiction over the 
disputed territory by assessing taxes, and 
sending her sheriffs to collect them by 
distraining the personal property of the 
settlers. The lowans, however, were not 
disposed to submit, and the Missouri offi- 
cials were arrested by the sheriffs of Davis 
and Van Buren counties and confined in 
jail. Governor Boggs, of Missouri, called 
out his milita to enforce the claim and 
sustain the officers of Missouri, Governor 
Lucas called out the militia of Iowa. 
About 1,200 men were enlisted, and 500 
were actually armed and encamped in 
Van Buren county, ready to defend the 
integrity of the Territory. Subsequently, 
Gen. A. C. Dodge, of Burlington, General 
Churchman, of Dubuque, and Dr. Clark, 
of Fort Madison, were sent to Missouri as 
envoys plenipotentiary, to effect, if possi- 
ble, a peaceable adjustment of the diffi- 
culty. Upon their arrival, they found that 
the county commissioners of Clark county, 
Missouri, had rescinded their order for the 
collection of taxes, and that Governor 
Boggs had dispatched messengers to the 
Governor of Iowa proposing to submit an 
agreed case to the Supreme Court of the 
United States for the settlement of the 
boundary question. This proposition was 
declined; but afterward, upon petition of 
Iowa and Missouri, Congress authorized a 
suit to settle the controversy. The suit 
was duly instituted, and resulted in the 
decision that Iowa had only asserted "the 


p «^ 



truth of history," and that she knew 
where the rapids of Des Moines river were 
located. Thus ended the Missouri war. 
"There was much good sense," says Hon. 
C. C. Nuurse, "in the basi- upon which 
peace was secured, to-wit: ' If Missourians 
did not know where the rapids of the river 
Des Moines were located, that was no suf- 
ficient reason for killing them off with 
powder and lead; and if we did know a 
little more of history and geography than 
they did, ve ought not to be shot for our 
learning. VVe commend our mutual for- 
bearance to oldtr and greater people.' " 
Under an order from the Supreme Court 
of the United States, William G. Miner, of 
Missouri, and Henry B. Hendershott, of 
Iowa, acted as commissioners, and surveyed 
and established the boundary. The ex- 
penses of the war on the part of Iowa were 
never paid, either by the United States or 
the Territorial Government. The patriots 
who furnished supplies to the troops had 
to bear the cost and charges of the struggle 
The population being sufficient to justify 
the formation of a State government, the 
Territorial Legislature of Iowa passed an 
act, which was approved February 12th, 
1844, submitting to the people the ques- 
tion of the formation of a State constitu- 
tion and providing for the election of 
delegates to a convention to be convened 
for that purpose. The people voted upon 
this at their township elections in the fol- 
lowing April. The measure was carried 
by a large majority, and the delegates 
elected assembled in convention at Iowa 
City October 7th, 1844. On the first day 
of November following, the convention 
completed its work, and adopted the first 
State constitution 

Hon Shepherd Ltliier, ilie president of 
this convention, was instrueied to transmit 
a certified copy of this constitution to the 
delegate in Congress, to be by him sub- 
mitted to that body at the earliest practi- 
cable day. It also provided that it should 
be submitted, together with any conditions 
or changes that might be made by Con- 
gress, to the People of the Territory, ft.r 
their approval or rejection, at the township 
election in April, 18 45. 

The Constitution, as thus prepared, pro- 
vided the following boundaries for the 
State: Beginning in the middle of the 
channel of the Mississippi river, opposite 
the mouth of the Des Moines river; thence 
up the said river Des Moines, in the mid- 
dle of the main channel thereof, to a point 
where it is intersected by the old Indian 
boundavy line, or line run by John C. Sul- 
livan in 1816; thence weslwardly along 
said line to the "old" northwest corner of 
Missouri; thence due west to the middle 
of the main channel of the Missouri river; 
thence up the middle of the main channel 
of the river last mentioned, to the mouth 
of the Sioux or Calumet river; thence in a 
direct line to the middle of the main chan- 
nel of the St. Peters river, where the Wa- 
tonwan river — according to NicoUett's 
map— enters the same; thence down the 
middle of the main channel of the said 
river to the middle of the main channel 
of the Mississippi river; thence down the 
middle of the main channel of said river 
to the place of beginning. 

These boundaries w-ere considerably 
more extended than other Weftern States, 
and Congress therefore amended the Con- 
stitution, by act approved March 3, 1845, 
as follows: Beginning at the mouth of 



the Des Moines river, at the middle of the 
Mississippi; thence by the middle of the 
channel of that river to a parallel of lati- 
tude, passing through the mouth of the 
Mankato or Blue Earth river; thence west, 
along said parallel of latitude, to a point 
where it is intersected by a meridia . line 
17 ® 30' west of the meridian of Wash- 
ington City; ther.ce due south, to the 
northern boundary line of the State of 
Missouri; thence eastwardly, following 
that boundary to the point at which the 
same intersects the Des Moines river; 
thence by the middle of the channel of 
that river to the place of beginning. 

Had these boundaries been accepted, 
they would have placed the northern 
boundary of the State about 30 miles 
north of its present location, and would 
have deprived it of the Missouri slope and 
the boundary of that river. The western 
boundary would have been near the west 
line of what is now Kossuth county. But 
it was not so to be. In consequence of 
this radical and unwelcome change in the 
boundaries, the people refused to accept 
the act of Congress, and rejected the Con- 
stitution, at the election held Aug. 4, 1845, 
by a vote of 7,656 to 7,235. 

May 4, 1846, a second Convention met 
at Iowa City, and on the 18th of the same 
month another Constitution, prescribing 
the boundaries as they now are, was 
adopted. This was accepted by the people, 
August 3, by a vote of 9,492 to 9,036. The 
new Constitution was approved by Con- 
gress, and Iowa was admitted as a sov- 
ereign State iu the American Union, Dec. 
28, 1846. 

The people of the State, anticipating 
favorable action by Congress, held an 

election for State officers October 26, 
which resulted in Ansel Briggs being de- 
clared Governor; Elisha Cutler, Jr., Secre- 
tary of State; Joseph T. Fales, Auditor; 
Morgan Reno, Treasurer; and members of 
the Senate and House of Representatives. 

The act of Congress which admitted 
Iowa gave her the 1 6lh section of every 
township of land in the State, or its 
equivalent, for the support of schools; 
also, 72 sections of land for the purpose of 
a university; also, five sections of land for 
the completion of her public buildings; 
also, the salt springs within her limits, not 
exceeding 12 in number, with sections of 
land adjoining each; also, in consideration 
that her public lands should be exempt 
from taxation by the State, she gave the 
State five per cent, of the net proceeds of 
the sale of public lands within the State. 
Thus provided for as a bride with her 
marriage portion, Iowa commenced house- 
keeping on her own account. 

A majority of the Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1846 were of the Democratic 
party; and the instrument contains some 
of the peculiar tenets of the party of that 
day. AH banks of issue were prohibited 
within the State. The State was prohibited 
from becoming a stockholder in any cor- 
poration for pecuniary profit, and the Gen- 
eral Assembly could only provide for pri- 
vate corporations by general statutes. The 
constitution also limited the State's indebt- 
edness to $100,000. It required the Gen- 
eral Assembly to provide public schools 
throughout the State for at least three 
months in the year. Six months previous 
residence of any white male citizen of the 
United States constituted him an elector. 



The government was started on an 
economical bas'is. The members of the 
General Assembly received, each, two dol- 
lars per day for the first fifty days of the 
session, and one dollar per day thereafter. 
The sessions were to be biennial. The 
salaries of the State officers were limited 
the first ten years as follows: Governor, 
$1,000 per annum; Secretary of State, $500; 
Treasurer of State, $400; Auditor of State, 
$600; and Judges of the Supreme Court, 
$1,000 each. And it may be said here that 

these prices did not discourage the best 
talent of the State from seeking these 
positions, and that during these ten years 
none of these officers were ever known to 
receive bribes, or to steal one dollar of the 
public money. At the time of organiza- 
tion as a State, Towa had a population of 
116,651, as appears by the census of 1847 
There weie twenty-seven organized coun- 
ties in the State, and the settlements were 
being rapidly pushed toward the. Missouri 




The first General Assembly was com- 
posed of nineteen Senators and forty Rep- 
resentatives. It assembled in Iowa City, 
November 30th, 1846, about one month be- 
fore Congress passed the act of admission. 
The most important business transacted 
was the passage of a bill authorizing a 
loan of $50,000 for means to run the State 
government and pay the expenses of the 
Constitutional Convention. The election 
of United States Senators was called up at 
this session, and was the occasion of much 
excitement and no little hard feeling. The 
Whigs had a majority of two in the House 
and the Democrats a majority of one in 

the Senate. After repeated attempts to 
control these majorities for caucus nom- 
inees, and frequent sessions of a joint con 
vention for purposes of an election, the 
attempt was abandoned. A public school 
law was passeil at this session, for the or- 
ganization of jniblic schools in the State. 
In pursuarce of its provisions, an election 
f r superintendent of public instruction 
was held the following spring, and James 
Uarlan received a majority of the votes 
cast. After the election the Democratic 
Secretary of State discovered that the law 
contained no provision for its publication 
in the newspapers, and he claimed it had 




not gone into efPect. He, therefore, and 
the Governor, refused Harlan a certificate 
of election. The Supreme Court sustained 
their action. 

At this first session of the General As- 
sembly, the Treasurer of State reported 
that the capitol building was in a very 
exposed condition, liable to injury from 
storms, and expressed the hope that some 
provision would be made to complete it, at 
least sufficiently to protect it from the 
weather. The General Assembly re- 
sponded by appropriating $2,500 for the 
completion of the public buihlings. At 
the first session, also, arose the question of 
the relocation of the capitol. The western 
boundary of the State, as now determined, 
left Iowa City too far toward the eastern 
and southern boundary of the State; this 
was conceded. Congress had appropri- 
ated five sections of land for the erection 
of public buildings, and toward the close 
of the session a bill was introduced pro- 
viding for the relocation of the seat of 
government, involving to some extent the 
location of the State University, which 
had already been discussed. This bill 
gave rise to much discussion, and parlia- 
mentary maneuvering almost purely sec- 
tional in its character. It provided for 
the appointment of commissioners, who 
were authorized to make a location as near 
the geographical centre of the State as 
a healthy and eligible site could be ob- 
tained; to select the five sections of land 
donated by Congress, to survey and plat 
into town lots not exceeding one section of 
the land so selected; to sell lots at public 
sale, not to exceed two in each block. 
Having done this, they were then required 
to suspend further operatio: s, and make a 

report of their proceeding to the Governor. 
The bill passed both Houses by decisive 
votes, received the signature of the Gov- 
ernor, and became a law. Soon after, by 
"An act to locate and establish a State 
University," approved Feb. 25, ISiT, the 
unfinished public buildings at Iowa City, 
together with the ten acres of lands on which 
they were situated, were granted for the 
use of the University, reserving their use, 
however, by the General Assembly and the 
State officers, until other provisions were 
made by law. 

The Commissioners forthwith entered 
upon their duties, and selected four sec- 
tions and two half sections in Jasper 
county. Two of these sections are in what 
is now DesMoines township, and the others 
in Fairview township, in the southern part 
of that county. These lauds are situated- 
between Prairie City and Monroe, on the 
Keokuk & DesMoines railroad, which runs 
diagonally through them. Here a town 
was platted called Monroe City, and a sale 
of lots took place. The number of 415 
lots were sold, at prices that were not con- 
sidered remarkably remunerative. The 
cash payments (one-fourth) amounted to 
$1,797.43, while the expenses of the sale 
and the claims of the Commissioners for 
services amounted to $2,206.67. The Com 
missioners made a report of their proceed 
ings to the Governor, as required by law- 
but the location was generally condemned 

When the report of the Commissioners, 
showing this brilliant financial operation 
had been read in the House of Represent 
ativ>s, at the next session, and while it was 
under consideration, an indignant member, 
afterward known as the eccentric Judge 
McFarland, moved to refer the report to a 




select committee of five, wltli instructions 
to report "how much of said city of Mon- 
roe was under water, and how much was 
burned " The report was referred, with- 
out the instructions, but Monroe City never 
becime the seat of government. By an 
act approved January 15, 1840, the law by 
which the location had been made was re- 
pealed, and the new town was vacated, the 
money paid by purchasers of lots being 
refunded to them. This, of course, re- 
tained the seat of government at Iowa 
City, and precluded for the time the occu- 
pation of the building and grounds by the 

At the same session |3,000 more were 
appropriated for completing the State 
building at Iowa City. In 1852, the fur- 
ther sum of $5,000, and in 1854 |4,000 
mire were appropriated for the same pur- 
pose, making the whole cost $123,000, paid 
partly by the general Government and 
partly by the State, but principally by the 
proceeds of the sale of lots in Iowa City. 

After the adjournment of the first Gen- 
eral Assembly, the Governor appointed 
Joseph Williams, Chief Justice, and Geo. 
Green and John F. Kinney Judsres, of the 
Supreme Court. They were afterward 
elected by the second General Assembly, 
and constituted the Supreme Court until 
1855, with the exception that Kinney re- 
signed in January, 1854, and J. C. Hall, of 
Burlington, was appointed in his place. 
Hall one of the earliest and ablest 
lawyers of the State, and his memory will 
long be cherished by the early members of 
the profession. Some changes having 
occurred by death and removal, the Gov- 
ernor was induced to call an extra session 
of the Genera! Asseinbly in January, 184S, 

with the hope of an election of United 
States Senators. The attempt, however, 
was again unsuccessful. .At this session, 
Charles Ma^on, William G. Woodward and 
Stephen Hempstead were appointed Com- 
missioners to prepare a code of laws for 
tVie State. Their work was finished in 
1850, and was adopted by tlie General As- 
sembly. This "code" contained, among 
other provisions, a code of civil practice, 
superseding the old common-law furms of 
actions and writs, and it was admissible 
for its simplicity and method. It remained 
in force until 1863, when it was superseded 
by the more complicated and metaphy.s- 
ical system of the revision of that year. 

The first Representatives in Congress 
were S. Clinton Hastings, of Muscatine, 
and Shepherd Leffler, of UesMoines county. 

The second General Assembly elected 
to the United States Senate, Augustus 
Ctesar Dodge and George W. Jones. The 
State government, after the first session, 
was under the c ntrol of Democratic ad- 
ministration till 1855. The electoral vote 
of the State was cist for Lewis Cass, in 
1848, and for Franklin Pierce in 1852. 
The popular vote shows that the Free-Soil 
element of Slate during this period very 
nearly held the balance of power, and thai. 
up to 1854 it acted in the State elections 
to some extent with the Democratic party. 
In 1848 Lewis Cass received 12,093 votes, 
Zachary Taylor 11,043, and Martin Van 
Buren,the Free-Soil candidate, 1,226 vote*, 
being 176 less than a majority for Cass. 

In 18a2, Pierce leoived 17,762 votes, 
Scott 15,855, and Hale (Free-Soil) 1,606, 
being for Pierce 301 votes more than a 


The question of the permanent location 
of the seat of government was not settled, 
and in 1851 bills were introduced for its 
removal to Fort DesMoines. The latter 
appeared to have the support of the major- 
ity, but was finally lost in the House on 
the question of ordering it to its third 

At the next session, in 1853, a bill was 
again introduced in the Senate for the re- 
moval of the seat of government to Fort 
DesMoines, and, on final vote, was just 
barely defeated. At the next session, how- 
ever, the effort was more successful, and 
January 15th, 1855, a bill relocating the 
Capital within two miles of the Raccoon 
Fork of the DesMoines, and for the ap- 
pointment of Commissioners, was approved 
by Gov. Grimes. The site was selected in 
1856, in accordance with the provisions of 
this act; the land being donated to the 
Slate by citizens and property-holders of 
Des^Ioines. An association of citizens 
erected a building for a temporary capitol, 
and leased it to the State at a nominal 

The passage by Congress of the act 
organizing the Territories of Kansas and 
Nebraska, and the provision it contained 
abrogating that portion of the Missouri 
bill that proh bited slavery and involuntary 
seivitude north of 36 ® 30' was the begin- 
ning of a political revolution in the North- 
ern Stales, and in none was it mure marked 
than in the Slate of Iowa. Iowa was the 
"first free child born of the Missouri com- 
promise," and has always resented the de- 
struction of her foster parent. 

In the summer of 1854 there was a tacit 
coalition or union of the Whig and Free- 
Soil elements of the State. Alarmed at 

the aggressive spirit manifested by the ad- 
herents of the peculiar institution, the 
Free-So;lers, who almost held the balance 
of power in the State, readily adopted as 
their candidate the Whig nominee for Gov- 
ernor. Many of the old line Whigs aban- 
doned their party because of this coalition, 
but many strong and able men am nig the 
Democrats co-operated with it. James W. 
Gi'imes was the nominee of the Whigs, 
and Curtis Bates, of Polk county, was the 
nominee of the Democratic party. Grimes 
was then in the vigor of his manhood, and 
all the energies of his being appeared to 
be aroused by what he denominated the 
aggressions of the slave ])()wer. He was 
thoroughly in earnest, and canvassed most 
of the organized counties of the State. 
The people flocked by the thousands to 
hear him, and were eleclritied by his elo- 
quence. No one of the opposition at- 
tempted to meet him in debate. The re- 
sult was his election by a majority of 1,404 
in a vote of 21,794. A majority was also 
secured in the General Assembly on joint 
ballot of the two Houses in opposition to 
the Democratic party. The opposition 
party in lS54-'5 were known as anti-Ne- 
braska Whigs. A caucus of this opposing 
element nominated James Harlan as their 
candidate for United States Senator, Geo. 
G. Wright for Chief Justice, and Norman 
W. Isbell and Wm. G. Woodward for 
Judges of the Supreme Court. 

A portion of the opposition, however, 
refused to go into this c.ucus, or to abide 
by its decision as to the United States Sen- 
ator. They were the personal friends of 
Ebenezer Cook, of Scott county. 

A joint convention was secured, and the 
Judges of the Supreme Court were elected. 



After frequent balloting and adjournments, 
it was at last understood that Cook's 
friends had yielded, and would support 
Mr. Harlan. When the hour arrived to 
which the joint convention had adjourned, 
messengers were sent to the Senate by the 
House, to inform that body that the House 
was ready to meet them in joint conven- 
tion. Before this message could be de- 
livered, the Senate had adjourned over 
until the next day. The anti-Nebras'ka 
Senators, however, entered the hall of the 
House and took their seats in joint conven- 
tion. Much confusion prevailed, but 
finally a President j>jro7ew, of the conven- 
tion was cho.sen, and Mr. Harlan was 
elected. His seat was contested, and his 
eh ction declared invalid by the United 
Slates Senate. 

At the next session of the General As- 
sembly, held in 1857, Mr. Harlan was re- 
elected, and was permitted to take his seat. 

The year 1856 marked a new era in the 
history of Iowa. In 1854 the Chicago & 
Rock Island railroad had been completed 
to the east bank of the Mississippi river, 
opposite Davenport. In the same year the 
corner-stone of a railroad bridge that was 
to be the first to span the "Father of 
Waters," was laid with appropriate cere- 
monies, at this point. St Louis had re- 
solved that the enterprise was unconstitu- 
tional, and by writs of injunction made an 
unsuccessful effort to prevent its complc: 
tion. Twenty years later in her history 
St. Louis repented her foil}-, and made 
atonement for her sin by imitating Iowa's 
example. January 1st, 1856, this railroad 
was completed to Iowa City. In the mean- 
time two Other railroads had reached the 
east bank of the Mississippi — one opposite 

Burlington and one opposite Dubuque — 
and these were being extended into the 
interior of the State. Indeed, four other 
lines of railroads had been projected across 
the State, from the Mississippi to the Mis- 
souri, having eastern connections. 

May 15th, 1856, Congress passed an act 
granting to the State, to aid in the con- 
struction of railroads, the public lands in 
alternate sections, six miles on each side 
of the proposed lines. An extra session 
of the General Assembly was called in 
July of this year, that disposed of the 
grant to the several companies that pro- 
posed to complete these enterprises. The 
population of Iowa was now 500,000. Pub- 
lic attention had been called to the neces- 
sity of a railroad across the continent. 
The position of Iowa, in the very heart 
and center of the republic, on the route 
of this great highway of the continent, 
began to attract attention. Cities and 
towns sprang up through the State as if 
by magic. Capital began to pour into the 
State, and had it been employed in devel- 
oping the vast coal measures and establish- 
ing manufactories, or if it had been 
expended in improving the lands, and in 
building houses and barns, it would have 
been well. But all were in haste to get 
rich, and the spirit of speculation ruled the 

In the meantime, every effort was made 
to help the speedy completion of the i ail- 
roads. Nearly every county and city on 
the Mississippi, and many in the interior, 
voted large corporate subscriptions to the 
stock of the railroad companies, and issued 
their negotiable bonds for the amount. 
Thus enormous county aud city debts were 
incurred, the payment of which these mu- 

- '9 . 

S *-. 




nicipalities tried to avoid, upon the plea 
that they had exceeded the constitutional 
limitation of their powers. The Supreme 
Court of the United States held these 
bonds to be valid, and the courts, by man- 
damus, compelled the city and county 
authorities to levy taxes to pay the judg- 
ments recovered upon them. These debts 
are not all paid, even to this' day; but the 
worst is over, and the incubus is in the 
course of ultimate extinction. The most 
valuable lessons are those learned in the 
school of experience, and, accordingly, the 
corporations of Iowa have ever since been 
noted for economy. 

In 1856 the Republican party of the 
State was duly organized, in full sympathy 
with that of the other free States, and at 
the ensuing presidential election the elec- 
toral vote of the State was cast for' John 
C. Fremont. The . popular vote was as 
follows : Fremont, 43,954; Buchanan, 36,- 
170, and Fillmore, 9,180. This was 1,396 
less than a majority for Fremont. The 
following year an election was held, after 
an exciting campaign, for State officers, 
resulting in a majority of 1,406 for Ralph 
P. Lowe, the Republican nominee. The 
Legislature was largely Republican in both 

In June, 1854, a Board of State Com- 
missioners contracted with the DesMoines 
Navigation Railroad Company, an organ- 
ization composed principally of New York 
capitalists, to undertake the work, agree- 
ing to convey to the company lands at 
$1.25 an acie for all moneys advanced 
and expended. In the meantime dithcul- 
tifcs arose in regard to the extent of the 
grant. The State claimed lands through- 
out the whole extent of the river to the 

north line of the State. The Department 
of the Interior changed its rulings under 
the several administrations. The Com- 
missioner of the General Land Office cer- 
tified to the State about 320,000 acres of 
land beh w the Eaccoon Fork of the river, 
and about 270,000 acres above it prior to 
1857, when he refused to certify any more. 
This led to a settlement and compromise 
with the Navigation Company in 1858, 
whereby the company took all the land 
certified to the State at that date, and paid 
the State $20,0C0 in addition to what they 
had already expended, cancelled their con- 
tract and abandoned the work. 

The General Assembly granted to the 
DesMoines Valley Eailroad Company the 
remainder of the grant to the State line, to 
aid in building a railroad up and along the 
DesMoines Valley ; and Congress, in 1862, 
extended the grant, by express enactment, 
to the north line of the State. 

The most injurious result to the State, 
arising from the spirit of speculation pre- 
valent in 1856, was the purchase and entry 
of great bodies of Government land within 
the State by non-residents. This land was 
held for speculation, and placed beyond 
the reach of actual settlers for many 

From no other one cause has Iowa suf- 
fered so much as from the short-sighted 
policy of the Federal Government in sell- 
ing lands within her borders. The money 
thus obtained by the Federal Government 
has been comparatively inconsiderable. 
The value of this magnificient public do- 
main to the United Slates was not in the 
few thousands of dollars she might exact 
from the hardy settlers, or that she might 
obtain from the speculator who hoped to 




profit by the settlers' labors in improving 
the country. Statesmen should have taken 
a broader and more comprehensive view 
of national economy, and a view more in 
harmony with the divine economy that had 
prepared these vast f< rlile plains of the 
West for the "homes of men and the seats 
of emjjire." It was here that new States 
were to be builded up that sLould be the 
future strength of the nation against for- 
eign invasion or home revolt. A single 
regiment of Iowa soldiers during the dark 
days of the Rebellion was worth more to 
the nation than all the money she ever ex- 
acted from the toil and sweat of Iowa's 
early settlers. Could the statesmen of 
forty years ago have looked forward to this 
day, when Iowa pays her $1,000,000 annu- 
ally into the treasury of the nation for the 
extinction of the national debt, they would 
have realized that the founding of new 
States was a greater enterprise than the 
retailing of public lands. 

In January, 1857, another Constitutional 
Convention assembled at Iowa City, which 
framed the present State constitution. One 
of the most pressing demands for this con- 
vention grew out of the prohibition of banks 
under the old constitution. The practical 
result of this prohibition was to flood the 
State with every species of "wild-cat" 
currency. Our circulating medium was 
made up in part of the free-bank paper of 
Illinois and Indiana. In addition to this, 
we had paper issued by Iowa brokers, who 
had obtained bank charters from the Ter- 
ritorial Legislature of Nebraska, and had 
their pretended headquarters at Omaha and 
Florence. Our currency was also well 
assorted with the bills from other States, 
generally such as had the best reputation 

where they were least known. This paper 
was all at 2, and some of it from 10 to 15 
per cent, discount. Every man who was 
not an expert in detecting counterfeit bills, 
and who was not posted in the history of 
all manner of banking institutions, did 
business at his peril. The new constitution 
made ample provisions for house banks 
under the supervision of our own laws. 
The limitation of our State debt was en- 
larged to $-'50,000, and the corporate in- 
debtedness of the cities and counties were 
also limited to five per cent, upon the valu- 
ation of their taxable property. 

The Judges of the Supreme Court were 
to be elected by the popular vote. 

The permanent seat of government 
was fixed at DesMoines, and the State Uni- 
versity located at Iowa City. The qualifi- 
cations of electors remained the same as 
under the old constitution, but the schedule 
provided for a vote of the people upon a 
separate proposition to strike the word 
"white" out of the suffrage clause, which, 
had it prevailed, would have resulted in 
conferring the right of suffrage without 
distinction of color. Since the early or- 
ganization of Iowa there had been upon 
the statute books a law providing that no 
negro, mulatto or Indian should be a com- 
petent witness in any suit or proceeding to 
which a white man was a party. The Gen- 
eral Assembly of ]856-'7 repealed this law, 
and the new constitution contained a clause 
forbidding such disqualification in the 
future. It also provided for the education 
of "all youth of the State" through a sys- 
tem of common schools. This constitution 
was adopted at the ensuing election by a 
vote of 40,311 to 38,681. 




October 19, 1857, Gov. Grimes issued a 
proclamation declaring the City of Des- 
Moines to be the capital of the State of 
Iowa. The removal of the archives and 
offices was commenced at once and con- 
tinued through the fall. It was an under- 
taking of no small magltude; there was 
not a mile of railroad to facilitate the 
work, and the season was unusually dis- 
agreeable. Rain, snow and other accom- 
paniments increased the difficulties, and it 
was not until December that the last of the 
effects,- — -the safe of the State Treasurer, 
loaded on two large "bob-sleds," drawn by 
ten yokes of oxen, — was deposited in the 
new capitol. Thus Iowa City ceased to be 
the capital of the State after four Territo- 
rial Legislatures, six State Legislatures and 
three Constitutional Conventions had held 
their sessions there. 

In 1856 and 1858 large appropriations 
were made for the erection of public build- 
ings and the support of the unfortunate 
classes, and a loan of $200,000 was author- 

During the years 1858-60, the Sioux In- 
dians became troublesome in the north- 
western part of the State. They made 
frequent raids for the purpose of plunder, 
and on several occasions murdered whole 
families of settlers. In 1861 several com- 
panies of militia were ordered to that por- 
tion of the State to hunt down and expel 
the thieves. No battles were fought, the 
Indians fleeing as soon as they ascertained 
systematical measures had been adopted 
for their punishment. 

In 1870 the General Assembly made an 
appropriation and provided for the appoint- 
ment of a Board of Commissioners to 
commence the work of building a new cap- 

itol. The corner-Btone was laid with ap- 
propriate ceremonies November 23, 1871. 

The building is a beautiful specimen of 
modern architecture. 

When Wisconsin Territory was organ- 
ized, in 1836, the entire population of that 
portion of the Territory now embraced in 
the State of Iowa, was 10,531. The Terri- 
tory then embraced two counties, Dubuque 
and DesMoines, erected by the Territory 
of Michigan, in 1834. Since then, the 
counties have increased to ninety-nine, and 
the population in 1880 was 1,624,463. The 
following table will show the population at 
different periods since the erection of Iowa 

Tear. Population. 

1838 22,5S9 

1840 48,115 

1S44 75,152 

1846 97,588 

1847 116,651 

1849 152,988 

1850 191,982 

1851 204,774 

1852 230,713 

1 854 3-26.0 1 3 

1856..'. 519,055 

1859 638,775 

1860 674 913 

1863 701 ,732 

1865 750,699 

1867 902,040 

1869 1,040,819 

1870 1,191,727 

1873 1,251,333 

1875 1,366,000 

1880 1,624,463 

The most populous county is Dubuque, 
42,1197. Polk county has 41,395, and Scott 
41,270. Not only in population, but in 

& - 

■^ — n- 





everything contributing to the growth and 
greatness of a State has Iowa made rapid 
progress. In a little more than thirty-five 
years its wild but beautiful prairies have 
advanced from the home of the savage to 
a highly civilized commonwealth, embra- 
cing all the elements of progress which 
chivracterize the older States. 

The first railroad across the State was 
completed to Council BlufiFs in January, 
186 1 The completion of three others 
soon followed. 

In 1854 there was not a mile of railroad 
in Iowa. Within the succeeding twenty 
years, 3,765 miles were built and put in 
successful operation. 

The present value of buildings for State 
institutions, including the estimated cost 
of the capitol, is as follows : 

State Capitol $2,500,000 

State University 400,000 

Agricultural College and Farm. 300,000 

Institution for the Blind 150,000 

Institution for the Deaf and 

Dumb 225.000 

Institutions for the Insane 1,149,000 

Orphans' Home .62,000 

Penitentiaries 408,000 

Normal School 50,000 

R form School 90,000 

The State has never levied more than 
two and one-half mills on the dollar for 
State tax, and this is at present the consti- 
tutional limit. The State has no debt. 

No other influence has contributed so 
much to the progress and development of 
Iowa as the newspapers of the State. No 
class of men have labored more assiduously 
and disintereKtedly for the development of 
the State and the advancement of her ma- 
terial interests, than her editors. There 

are now ]iublished in Iowa 25 daily papers, 
364 Weekly papers, and 13 monthly publi- 
cations. These are as a rule well supported 
by the people. 

Such is briefly a summary of the history 
and resources of I wa. There is perhaps 
no other country on earth where so few 
people are either rich or poor as in Iowa; 
where there is such an equality of condi- 
tion, and where so many enjoy .i comjie- 
tence. The law exempts from execution 
a homestead to every head of a family. 
Every sober, industrious man can in a short 
time acquire a home Iowa is the home 
for the immigrant. The children of the 
laboring man have no prejudice of caste to 
overcome in the effort they may choose to 
make for the improvement of their condi- 
tion in life. Here all men enjoy the alien 
able blessings of ' life, liberty and the pur- 
suit of happiness," not only unfettered by 
legal disabilities, but also untranimeled by 
those fixed conditions of social .ind busi- 
ness life that elsewhere result from accu- 
mulated wealth in the possession of the 
few. As education is free, so also the ave- 
nues of success are open in eveiy pursuit 
and calling. The highest incentives exist 
to exertion. Labor and effort, whether 
manual or mental, are held alike honorable; 
and idleness and crime are alone consid 
ered disreputable. 

Thriving cities and towns dot the land; 
an iron net-work of thousands of miles of 
railroads is woven over its I road acres; 
10,000 school-houses, in whicti more than 
500,000 children are being taught the rudi- 
ments of education, testify to the culture 
and liberality of the people; high schools, 
colleges and universities, are generously 
endowed by the State; manufactories, are 




bu8y on all her water-courses, and in most 
of her cities and towns. 

We quote from Judge Nourse: "The 
great ultimate fact that America would 
demonstrate is, the existence of a people 
capable of attaining and preserving a su- 
perior civilization, with a government self- 
imposed, self-administered and self-perpet- 
uated. In this age of wonderful progress, 
America can exhibit nothing to the world 
of mankind more wonderful or more glo- 
rious, than her new Stales — young empires. 

born of her own enterprise, and tutored at 
her own political hearth-stone. Well may 
she say to the monarchies of the old world, 
who look for evidence of her regal grandeur 
and state: 'Behold, these are my jewels !' 
And may she never blush to add: 'This 
one in the center of the diadem ia called 
Iowa !" ' 

The following is the census of Iowa 
by counties, as taken by the National Gov- 
ernment at each decade: 










12. 237 

8, 496 

4, 232 
4 915 
7, 906 






18, 949 




5, 41!7 



18, 938 



13, 764 






12, 073 


1, 309 





3. 982 


16. 466 

82, 4.4 

14, 584 

15, 528 

17, 034 
9 951 
5 464 

19, 731 

10, 180 

27, 771 
35, 357 
2, 530 
12, 019 

15, 565 
17, 432 
•-•7 2ii6 

1, 389 

38, 969 


16, 973 

10, 768 
4, 7.38 

11, 174 

4, 627 
6, 399 

11 199 

11 188 


16 636 

7 4 48 


Black Hawk 

23 913 


20, 838 
14 1 


18, 547 


14, 293 
5 .'95 


13 351 


16, 943 
18 937 




11, 461 

8, 240 





4 248 

Clayton -. 


2, 822 

36, 764 






12, 988 

18, 748 
16. 468 


15 336 

5, .177 

17,9 2 

33 099 



10, 841 


1 550 


22, 2,i8 


14 677 


10, 248 




12, 725 








CBJVSC/S OF IOWA— Continued. 













3, 11)8 



8, 029 
18, 493 

9, t<83 
15. 0:i8 
17, 573 

29. -.'32 
10. 370 

6, 055 


13, 6.-4 



6, 2S2 

2, 5l:6 


16, 664 
2-, 116 

17. 839 
24, 898 
19, 731 
19, 4 (4 

28, 852 

12, 877 


13, St<4 
25. 5 8 
24, 436 
17, 576 

9, 582 
3. 654 

5, 914 



3. 453 
17, 808 

20, 826 


4, 382 
19, 221 
25, 962 
25, 4i9 

21, 052 

34, 859 
37, 235 
13, 146 











4, 472 
4, 822 

4, 9;i9 










1, 373 



Ma'lison --........, 

5, 482 


7, 339 


16, Ml 



3, 409 



1, 256 

16, 444 


17 '^'^1 



25 111 

23, 7 .2 
14 135 





15, 895 
23. 168 
4 155 




Pag.. ;■ ■ 








2, 923 

25, 9;.9 




5. 285 

3, .590 
2 012 




14. 235 








9, 975 


2, l!i9 


27. 8.i7 

16. f93 




88, 509 




16, 131 


5, 9h6 
22. 346 
18, 952 
10, 484 

1, 52^ 
S3. 570 

6. 172 








42, 395 

39, 846 

18, 9:ii; 

12, 085 






12, 696 

21 5-5 




15, 635 

14 980 

Vai Baren 


12, 270 

4, 9..7 


17, 042 
2.5, 282 

19, 578 


20. 375 

18, 127 




23, 9.!7 

Woodbury ,, 


7, 953 


5 002 


43. lis 




1, 624, 463 

S r^ 






Geologists divide the soil of Iowa into 
three general divisions — drift, bluff and 
alluvial. The drift occupies a much larger 
part of the surface of the State than both 
the others. The bluff has the next greatest 
area of surface, and the alluvial least. All 
soil is disintegrated rock. The drift de- 
posit of Iowa was derived, to a consider- 
able extent, from the roclis of Minnesota; 
but the greater part of Iowa drift was de- 
rived from its own rocks, much of which 
has been transported but a short distance. 
lu northern and northwestern Iowa the 
drift contains more sand and gravel than 
elsewhere. In southern Iowa the soil is 
frequently stiff and clayey. The bluff soil 
is found only in the western part of the 

State, and adjacent to the Missouri river. 
Although it contains less than one per cent, 
of clay in its composition, it is in no re- 
spect inferior to the best drift soil. The 
alluvial soil is that of the flood plains of 
the river valleys, or bottom lands. That 
which is periodically flooded by the riveis 
is of little value for agricultural purposes; 
but a large part of it is entirely above the 
reach of the highest flood, and is very pro- 

The stratified rocks of Iowa range from 
the Azoic to the Mesozoic, inclusive; but 
the greater portion of the surface of the 
State is occupied by those of the Palaeozoic 
age. The table below will show each of 
these formations in their order: 






Upper Silurian. 

Lower Silurian. 
Azoio , 



I Post Tertiary 

[Lower Cretaceous, 

Coal Measures.... 


Niagara ... 






Slnoceramons Bed 
Wnodbury Sanrtstine and Shales. 
Niflhnabotaiiy Sandstone — 

{Upper Coal Meiisiirea 
Middle C"al Meaaures 
Lowe' Coal Measures 

St Louis Limestone 

Keoltuls Limestone 

Bnrlii'gTon Limestone 

^Kindeihoitk Beds 

Hamilton Limes'one and Shales 

Niagara Lime.- tone 

Maquolieta Shales 

Galena Limestone 

Trenton Limestone 

St Peter's Sandstone 

Lower Magcfsian Limestone. 

^ Potsdam S'tudslone 

Huroniaui I Sioux Qnan zite 



to 200 





20 1 






The Sioux qaartzite is found exposed in 
natural ledges only upon a few acres in 
the extreme northwest corner of the State, 
upon the banks of the Big Sioux river, 
for which reason the specific name of 
Sioux quarlzite has been given theiu. It 
is an intensely hard rock, breiks in 
splintery fracture, and of a color varying, 
in different localities, from a light to deep 
red. The proctss of metamorphism has 
been so complete throughout the whole 
formation, that the rock is almost every- 
where of uniform texture. The dip is 
four or five degrees to the northward, and 
the trend of the outcrop is east'vard and 


Primordial Group. — The Potsdam sand- 
stone formation is exposed only in a small 
portion of the northeastern part of the 
State. It is only to be eeen in the bases 
of the bluffs and steep valley sides which 
border the river there. It is nearly value- 
less for economic purposes. No fossils 
have been discovered in this formation in 

Lower Magnesian Limestone. — This 
formation has but little greater geographi- 
cal extent in Iowa than the Potsdam sand- 
stone. It lacks a uniformity of texture 
and stratification, owing to which it is not 
generally valuable for building purposes. 
The only fossils found in this formation in 
the Stale are a few traces of crinoids, near 

The St. Peters sandstone formation is 
remarkab'v uniform in thickness through- 

out its known geographical extent, and it 
occupies a large portion of the northern 
half of Allamakee county, immediately 
beneath the drift. 

Trenton Group. — With the exception of 
the Trenton limestone, all the limestones 
of both Upper and Lower Silurian age in 
Iowa are magnesian limestone — nearly 
pure dolomites. This formation occupies 
large portions of Winneshiek and Allama- 
kee counties and a pmall part of Clayton 
The greater part of it is useless for eco- 
nomic purposes; but there are some com- 
pact, even layers that furnish fine material 
for window-caps and sills. Fossils are so 
abundant in this formation that in some 
places the rock is made up of a mass of 
shells, corals and fragments < f trilobites, 
cemented by calcareous material into a 
solid rock. Some of these fossils are new 
to science and peculiar to Iowa. 

The Galena limestone is the upper form- 
ation of the Trenton Group. It is 150 
miles long, and seldom exceeds 12 miles 
in width. It exhibits its greatest develop- 
ment in Dubuque county. It is nearly a 
pure dolomite, with a slight admi.tture of 
silicons matter; good blocks for dressing 
are sometimes found near the top of the 
bed, although it is usually unfit for such a 
purpose. This formation is the source of 
the lead ore of the Dubuque lead mines. 
The lead region proper is confined to an 
area of about 15 miles square in the vicinity 
of Dubuque. The ore occurs in vertical 
fissures, which traverse the rock at regular 
intervals from east lowest; some is found in 
those which have a north and south direc- 
tion. This ore is mostly that known as 
Galena, or sulphiiret of lead, very small 





quantities only of the carbonate being 
found with it. 

Cincinnati Group — The surface occu- 
pied b}' the Maquoketa shales is more than 
100 miles iu length, but is singularly long 
and narrow, seldom reaching a mile or two 
in width. The most northern exposure 
yet recognized is in the western part of 
Winneshiek county, while the most south- 
erly is in Jackson county, in the bluffs of 
the Mississippi. The formation is largely 
composed of bluish and brownish shales, 
sometimes slightly arenaceous, sometimes 
calcareous, which weather into a tenacious 
clay upon the surface, and the soil derived 
from it is usually stiff and clayey. Several 
species of fossils which characterize the 
Cinciunati Group are found in the Maquo- 
keta shales, but they contain a larger num- 
ber than have been found anywhere else 
in these shales in Iowa, and their distinct 
faunal characteristics seem to warrant the 
separation of the Maquoketa shales as a 
distinct formation from others in the 


Niagara Group. — The area occupied by 
the Niagara limestone is 40 and 50 miles 
in width, and nearly 160 miles long, from 
north to south. This formation is entirely 
a magnesian limestone, with a considerable 
portion of silicious matter, in some places, 
in the form of chert or coarse flint. A 
large part of it probably affords the best 
and greatest amount of quarry rock in the 
State. The quarries at Anamosa, LeClaire 
and Farley are all opened in this forma- 


Hamilton Group. — The area of surface 
occupied by the Hamilton limestone and 

shales is as great as those by all the form- 
ations of both Upper and Lower Silurian 
age in the State. Its length is nearly 200 
miles, and width from 40 to 50. A large 
part of the material of this is quite worth- 
less, yet other portions are valuable for 
economic purposes; and, having a large 
geographical extent in the State, is a very 
important formation Its value for the 
production of hydraulic lime has been 
demonstrated at Waverly, Bremer county; 
the heavier piers and other material re- 
quiring strength and durability. All the 
Devonian strata of Iowa evidently belong 
to a single epoch The most conspicuous 
and characteristic fossils of this formation 
are brachiopodes, corals and mullusks. 
The coral Acervidaria, Davidsoni occurs 
near Iowa City, and is known as "Iowa 
City marble" and "Bird's Eye marble." 


Of the three groups of formations that 
constitute the carboniferous, viz: the sub- 
carboniferous, coal measures and Permian, 
only the first two are found in Iowa. 

Subcarboniferous Group. — This group 
occupies a very large area of surface. Its 
eastern border passes from the northeast- 
ern part of Winnebago county, with con- 
siderable directness in a southeasterly 
direction to the northern part of Washing- 
ton county. It then makes a broad and 
direct bend nearly eastward, striking the 
Mississippi at Muscatine. The southern 
and western boundaries are to a consider- 
able extent the same as that which separates 
it from the real field. From the southern 
part of Pocahontas county it passes south- 
east to Fort Dodge, thence to Webster 
City, thence to a yioint 3 or 4 miles north- 




east of Elilora, in Hardin county, thence 
south ward to the middle of the north line 
of Jasper county, thence southeastward to 
Sigouriiey, in Keokuk county, thence to 
the northeastern corner of Jefferson county, 
thence sweeping a few miles eastward to 
the southeast corner of Van Buren county. 
Its arc is about 250 miles long, and from 
20 to 50 miles wide. 

The Einderhook Bed» — The most south- 
erly exposure of these beds is in Des- 
Moines county, near the mouth of Skunk 
river. The most northerly now known is 
in the eastern part of Pocahontas county, 
more than 200 miles distant. The princi- 
pal exposures of this formation are along 
the bluffs which border the Mississippi and 
Skunk rivers, where they form the eastern 
and northern boundary of DesMoines 
county; along English river, in Washing- 
ton county; along the Iowa river in Tama, 
Marshall, Hamlin and Franklin counties, 
and along the DesMoines river in Hum- 
boldt county. This formation has consid- 
erable economic value, particularly in the 
northern portion of the region it occupies. 
In Pocahontas and Humboldt counties it 
is invaluable, as no other stone except a 
few boulders are found here. At Iowa 
Falls the lower division is very good for 
building purposes. In Marshall county all 
the limestone to be obtained comes from 
this fiirniation, and the quarries near Le 
Grand are very valuable. At this point 
some of the layers are finely veined with 
pefoxide of iron, and are wrought into both 
useful and ornamental objects. In Tama 
county the oolitic member is well exposed, 
where it is manufactured into lime. Upon 
exposure to atmosphere and frost it crum- 

bles to pieces; consequently it is not valu- 
able for building purposes. 

The remains of fishes are the only fossils 
yet discovered in this formation that can 
be referred to the sub-kingdom Vertebrata; 
and so far as yet recognized, they all be- 
long to the order Selachians Of Articu- 
ticulates, only two species have been recog- 
nized, both of which belong to the genus 
Phillipsia. The sub-kingdom Mollusca is 
also largely represented The Radiata are 
represented by a few crinoids, usually 
found in a very imperfect condition. The 
sub kingdom is also represented by corals. 
The prominent feature in the life of this 
epoch was moUuscan. It overshadowed 
all other branches of the animal kingdom. 
The prevailing classes are: Lamellibranch- 
iates, in the more arenaceous portions; and 
Brachropods in the more calcareous por- 
tions. No remains of vegetation have 
been detected in any of the strata of this 

The Burlington limestone formation 
consists of two distinct calcareous divi- 
sions, separated by a series of siliceous 
beds; both divisions are crinoidal. The 
Burlington limestone is carried down by 
the southerly dip of the Iowa rocks, so that 
it is seen for the last time in the Stale in 
the valley of Skunk river, near the south- 
ern boundary of DesMoines county, which 
is the most northerly point that it has been 
found, but it probably exists as far north 
as Marshall county. Much valuable mate- 
rial is afforded by this formation for eco- 
nomic purposes. The upper division 
furnishes excellent common quarry rock. 
Geologists are attracted by the great 
abundance and variety of its fossils — cri- 
noids — now known to be more than 300. 




The only remains of vertebrates discov- 
ered in this formation are those of fishes, 
and consist of teeth and spines. Bones of 
bony fish, on Buffinglon creek, Louisa 
county, is an exposure so fully cliarged 
with these remains that it might with pro- 
priety be called bone breccia. 

Remains of Articulates are rare in this 
formation; so far as yet discovered, they 
are confined to two species of trilobites of 
the genus Phillipsia. Fossil shells are 
very common. 

The two lowest classes of the sub-king- 
dom Riidiata are represented in the genera 
Zaphrentis, Amplexus and Syringaposa, 
while the highest class, Echinoderms, are 
found in most extraordinary profusion. 

The Keokuk limestone formation is to 
be seen only in four counties — Lee, Van 
Buren, Henry and DesMoines. In some 
localities the upper siliceous portion is 
known as the Geode bed; it is not recog-- 
nizable in the northern porlion of the 
formation, nor in connection with it where 
it is exposed, about 80 miles below Keo- 
kuk. The geodes of the Geode bed are 
more or less masses of silex, usually hol- 
low and lined with crystals of quartz; the 
outer crust is rough and unsightly, but the 
crystals which stud the interior are often 
very beautiful; they vary in size from the 
size of a walnut to a foot in diameter. 

This formation is of great economic 
value. Large quantities of its stone have 
been used in the finest structures in the 
State, among which are the postoffices at 
Dubuque and DesMoines. The principal 
quarries are along the banks of the Missis- 
sippi, from Keokuk to Nauvoo. The only 
vertebrate fossils in the formalion are 
fishes, all belonging to the order Selachians, 

some of which indicate that their owners 
reached a length of 25 or .30 feet. Of the 
Articulates, only two species of the genus 
Phillipsia have been found in this forma- 
tion. Of the Mollusks no Cephalopods 
have yet been recognized in this forma- 
tion in Iowa. Gasteropods are rare; 
Brachiopods and Polyzoans are quite 
abundant. Of Radiates, corals of genera 
Zaphrentis, Amplexus and Aiilo]iora are 
found, but crinoidi are most abundant Of 
the low forms of anim il life, the proto- 
zoans, a small fossil related to the sponges, 
is found in this formation in small num- 

The St. Louis limestone is the uppermost 
of the sub-carboniferous grtup in Iowa. It 
occupies a small superficial area, consisting 
of long, narrow strips, yet its extent is 
very great. It is first seen resting on the 
geode division of the Keokuk limestone, 
near Keokuk; proceeding northward, it 
forms a narrow border along the edge of 
the coal fields in Lee, DesMoines, Henry, 
Jefferson, Washington, Keokuk and Ma- 
haska counties; it is then lost sight of 
until it appears again in the banks of 
Boone river, where it again passes out of 
view under the Coal Measures, until it is 
next seen in the banks of the DesMoines, 
near Fort Dodge. As it exists in Iowa, it 
consists of three tolerably disiinct sub- 
divisions — the magnesian, arenaceous and 
calcareous. The upper division furnishes 
excellent material for quicklime, and when 
quarries are well opened, as in the north- 
western part of VanBuren county, large 
blocks are obtained. The sandstone, or 
middle division, is of little tconomicvalue. 
The lower, or miignesian division, furnishes 
a valuable and durable stone, exposures of 



which are found on Lick creek, in Van 
Buren county, and on Long creek, seven 
miles west of Burlington. 

Of the fossils of this formation, the 
vertebra'es are represented only by the 
remains of fish, belonging to the two 
orders, Selachians and Ganoids. The 
Articulates are represented by one species 
of the trilobite, genus Phillipsia; and two 
ostracoid genera, Cyihra and Beyricia. 
The MoUusks distinguished this formation 
more than any other branch of the animal 
kingdom. Radiates are exceedingly rare, 
showing a marked contrast between this 
formation and the two preceding it. 

The Coal Measure Group is properly 
divided into three formations, viz: the 
Lower, Middle and Upper Coal Measures; 
each having a vertical thickness of about 
two hundred feet. 

The Lower Coal Measures exists east- 
ward and northward of the DesMoines 
river, and also occupy a large area west- 
ward and southward of that river; but 
their southerly dip passes below the Middle 
Coal Pleasure at no great distance from 
the river. This formation possesses 
greater economic value than any other in 
the whole State. The clay that underlies 
almost every bed of coal, furnishes a large 
amount of material for potters' use. The 
sandstone of these measures is usually soft 
aiid unfit for use; but in some places, as in 
Red R;ck, in Marion county, blocks of 
large dimensions are obtained, which make 
good bui'ding material, samples of which 
can be seen in the State Arsenal, at Des 

But few fossils have been found in any 
of the strata of the Lower Coal Measures, 
but such animal remains as have been 

found are, without exception, of marine 
origin. All fossil plants found in these 
measures, probably belong to the class 
Acrogens. Specimens of Calaraites and 
several species of ferns are found in all the 
Coal Measures, but the genus Lepidoden- 
dron seems not to have existed later than 
the epoch of the Middle Coal Measures. 
The latter formation occupies a narrow 
belt of territory in the southern-central 
portion of the State, embracing a superfi- 
cial area of about 1,400 square miles The 
counties underlaid by this formation are, 
Guthrie, Dallas, Polk, Madison, Warren, 
< 'larke, Lucas, Monroe, Wayne and Appa- 

Few species of fossils occur in these 
beds. Some of the shales and sandstone 
have afforded a few imperfectly preserved 
land plants, three or four species of ferns, 
belonging to the genera. Some of the 
carboniferous shales afford beautiful speci- 
mens of what appears to have been sea- 
weed. Radiates are represented by coral?. 
The Mollusks are most numerously repre- 
sented. Trilobites and ostracoids are the 
only remains known of Articulates. Ver- 
tebrates are only known by the remains of 
Selachians, or sharks and ganoids. 

The Upper Coal Measures occupy a very 
large area, comprising thirteen whole 
counties, in the southwestern part of the 
State. By its northern and eastern boun- 
daries it adjoins the area occupied by the 
Middle Coal Measures. This formation 
contains a considerable portion of shales 
and sandstone, but the prominent lilho- 
logical features are its limestones. • Al- 
though it is known by the name of Upper 
Coal Measures, it contains but a single bed 
of coal, and that only about 20 inches in 




maximum thickness. The limestone ex- 
posed in this formation furnishes good 
building material, as in Madison and Fre- 
mont counties. The sandstones are quite 
worthless. No beds of clay, for potters' 
use, are found in the whole formation. 
The fossils are more numerous than in 
either the Middle or Lower Coal Measures. 
The vertebrates are represented by the 
fishes of the orders Selachians and Ganoids. 
The Articulates are represented by the 
trilobites and ostracoids. Mollusks are 
represented by the classes Cephalapoda, 
Gasterapoda, Lamellibranchiata, Brachio- 
poda and Polyzoa. Radiates are more 
numerous than in the Middle and Lower 
Coal Measures. Protozoans are repre- 
sented in the greatest abundance, some 
layers of limestone being almost entirely 
"composed of their small fusiform shells. 


The next strata in the geological series 
are of the Cretaceous age. They are found 
in the western half of the State, and do 
not dip, as do all the other formations 
upon which they rest, to the southward 
and westward, but have a general dip of 
their own to the north of westward, which, 
however, is very slight. Although the 
actual exposures of cretaceous rocks are 
few in Iowa, there is reason to believe that 
nearly all the western half of the State was 
originally occupied by them; but they have 
been removed by denudation, which has 
taken place at two separate periods. The 
first period was during its elevation from 
the cretaceous sea, and during the long 
Tertiary age that passed between the time 
of that elevation and the commencement 
of the Glacial epoch. The second period 

was during the Glacial epoch, when the ice 
produced their entire removal over consid- 
erable areas. All the cretaceous rocks in 
Iowa are a part of the same deposits farther 
up the Missouri river, and, in reality, form 
their eastern boundary. 

The Nishnabotany sandstone has the 
most easterly and southerly extent of the 
cretaceous deposits of Iowa, reaching the 
southeastern part of Guthrie county and 
the southern part of Montgomery county. 
To the northward, it passes beneath the 
Woodbury sandstones and shales, the latter 
passing beneath the Inoceramus, or chalky 
beds. This sandstone is, with few excep- 
tions, valueless for economic purposes. 
The only fossils found in this formation 
are a few fragments of angios permous 
leaves. The strata of Woodbury sand- 
stones and shales rest upon the Nishnabot- 
any sandstone, and have not been observed 
outside of Woodbury county; hence their 
name. Their principal exposure is at Ser- 
geant's BluflFs, seven miles below Sioux 
City. This rock has no value, except for 
purposes of common masonry. Fossil re- 
mains are rare. Detached scales of a lepi- 
doginoid species have been detected, but 
no other vertibrate remains of vegetation, 
leaves of Salix Meekii and Sassfras creta- 
ceum have been occasionally found. 

The Inoceramus beds rest upon the 
Woodbury sandstone and shales. They 
have not been observed in Iowa except in 
the bluffs which border the Big Sioux river 
in Woodbury and Plymouth counties. 
They are composed almost entirely of cal- 
careous material, the upper portion of 
which is extensively used for lime. No 
building material can be obtained from 
these beds, and the only value they possess, 




except lime, are the marls, which at some 
time may be useful on the soil of the adja- 
cent region. The only vertebrate remains 
found in the cretaceoUH rocks are the fishes. 
Those in the Inoceramus beds are two 
species of squaloid Selachians, or certra- 
cionts, and three genera of teliosts Mol- 
luscan remains are rare. 

PEAT. ^ 

Extensive beds of peat exist in Northern 
Middle Iowa,_^ which, it is estimated, con- 
tain the following areas: Cerro Gordo 
county, 1,.500 acres; Worth, 2,000; Winne- 
bago, 2,000; Hancock, 1,500; Wright, 500; 
Kossuth, 700; Dickinson, 80. Several con- 
tain peat beds, but the peat is inferior to 
that in the northern part of the State. 
The beds are of an average depth of four 
feet. It is estimated that each acre of 
these beds will furnish 250 tons of dry 
fuel for each foot in depth. At present 
this peat is not utilized, but, owing to its 
great distance from the coal fields, and the 
absence of timber, the time is coming when 
their value will be fully realized. 


The only sulphate of the alkaline earth 
of any economic value is gypsum, and it 
may be found in the vicinity of Fort 
Dodge, in Webster county. The deposit 
occupies a nearly central position in the 
county, the De- Moines river running nearly 
centrally through it, along the valley sides 
of wliich the gypsum is seen in the form of 
oiilinaiy rock cliff and ledges, and also oc- 
curring abundantly in similar positions 
along both sides of the valleys of the 
smaller streams and of the numerous 
ravines coming into the river valley. The 

most northerly known limit of the deposit 
is at a point near the mouth of Liza d 
creek, a tributary of the DesMoines river 
and almost adjoining the town of Fort 
Dodge. Tile most southerly point at which 
it has been exposed is about six miles, by 
way of the river, from the northirly point 
mentioned. The width of the area is un- 
known, as the gypsum becomes lost be- 
neath the overlying drift, as one goes up 
the ravines and minor valleys. 

On either side of the creeks and ravines 
which come into the valley of the Des 
Moines river, the gyi'sum is seen jutting 
out from beneath the drift in the form of 
ledges and bold quarry fronts, having 
almost the exact appearance of oidinary 
limestone expo ures, so horizontal and reg- 
ular are its lines of stralificalion, and so 
similar in color is it to some varieties of 
that rock. The principal quarries now 
opened are on Two-Mile creek, a couple of 
miles below Fort Uodge. 

Age of the Gijpsmn Dej>osit — No trace 
of fossil remains has been found in the 
gypsum or associated clays; neither has 
any other indication of its geologic age 
been'observed except that which is afforded 
by its stratigraphical relations; the most 
that can be said with certainly is that it is 
newer than the coal measures, and older 
than the drift. The indications affoide.l 
by the stratigraphical relations of the gy| - 
sum deposit of Fort Dodge are, however, 
of considerable value. No Tertiary d( - 
posits are known to exist within or near 
the borders of Iowa, to suggest that it 
might be of that age, nor are any of the 
Palieozoic strata newer than the subcar- 
boniferous unconformable upon each other 

O 4^ 



as the other gypsum is unconformable upon 
the strata beneath it. It therefore seems, 
in a measure, conclusive that the gypsum 
is of Mesozoic age; perhaps older than 
the cretaceous. 

The lithological origin of this deposit is 
as uncertain as its geological age. It seems 
to present itself in this relation, as in the 
former one, — an isolated fact. None of 
the associated strata show any traces of a 
double decomposition of pre-existing ma- 
terials, such as some have supposed all de- 
posits of gypsum to have resulted from. 
No considerable quantities of oxide of iron 
nor any trace of native sulphur have been 
found in connection with it, nor has any 
salt been found in the waters of the region. 
These substances are common in associa- 
tion with other gyp.sum deposits, and by 
many are regarded as indicative of the 
method of or resulting from their origin 
as such. Throughout the whole region the 
Fort Dodge gyp.sum has the exact appear- 
ance of a sedimentary deposit. From 
the.-ie facts it seems not unreasonable to en- 
tertain the opinion that this gypsum origin- 
ated as a chemical precipitation iu com- 
paratively still waters which were satu- 
rated with sulphate of lime and destitute 
of life; its stratification and impurities 
being deposited at the same time as clayey 
impurities which had been suopeuded in 
the same waters. 

Physical Properties. — Much has already 
been said of the physical character of this 
gypsum; but as it is so different in some 
re8]iects from other deposits, there are still 
other matters worthy of mention in con- 
nection with those. According to the re- 
sults of a complete analysis of Pr.if.Etnery, 

the ordinary gray gypsum contains only 
about eight per cent, of impurity, and it 
is possible that the average impurity for 
the whole deposit will not exceed that pro- 
portion, so uniform in quality is it from 
top to bottom and from one end of the 
region to the other. As plaster for agri- 
cultural purposes is sometimes prepared 
from gypsum that contains thirty per cent, 
of impurity, it will be seen that this is a 
very superior article for such purposes. 
The impurities are of such a character 
that they do not in any way interfere with 
its value for use in the arts. 

Although the gypsum rock has a gray 
color, it becomes quite white by grinding, 
and still whiter by the calcimining process 
necessary in the preparation of plaster of 
Paris. These tests have all been practi- 
cally made in the rooms of the Geological 
Survey, and the quality of the plaster of 
Paris still further tested by actual use and 
experiment. The only use yet made of 
the gypsum by the inahabitants is for the 
purposes of ordinary building stone. It is 
so compact it is found to be comparatively 
unaffected by frost, and its ordinary situa- 
tion in walls of houses is such that it is 
protected from the dissolving action of 
water, which can, at most, reach it only 
from occasional rains, and the effect of 
these is too slight to be perceived after the 
lapse of several years. Hon. John F. 
Buncombe, of Fort Do'lge, built a fine 
residence of it in 1861, the walls of which 
appear as unaffected by exposure and as 
btautiful as they were when first erected. 
.Several other houses in Fort Dcxlge have 
been constructed of it, including the depot 
buildings of the Dubuque and Sioux City 
Railroad. Marv of the sidewalks in the 



town are made of the slabs or flags of gyp- 
sum which occur in some of the quarries 
iu the form of thin layers. 


Sulphate of lime in the various forms 
of fibrous gypsum, selenite and small 
amorphous masses, has also been discov 
ered in various formations in different 
parts of the State, including the Coal 
Measure shales near Fort Dodge, where it 
exists in small quantities, quite independ- 
ently of the great gypsum deposit there. 
The quantity of gypsum in these minor 
deposits is always too small to be of any 
practical value, usually occurring in shales 
and shaJy clays. Associated with strata 
that contain more or less sulphuret of 
iron, gypsum has thus been detected in 
the Coal Measures, the St. Louis lime- 
stone, the Cretaceous strata, and also in 
the Dead Caves of Dubuque. 


This mineral is found at Fort Dodge, 
which is, perhaps, the only place in Iowa 
or in the valley of the Mississippi where 
it has as yet been discovered. There, it 
occurs in very small quantities in both the 
shales of the Lower Coal Measures and in 
the clays that overlie the gypsum deposit, 
and which is regarded as of the same age 
with it. The mineral is fibrous and crys- 
talline, the fibers being perpendicular to 
the pLine of the layer; it resembles, in 
physical character, the layer of fibro-crys- 
talline gypsum, before mentioned. Its 
color is of light b'ue, is transparent, and 
shows crystalline facets upon both the 

upper and under surfaces of the layer, of 
the upper surface being smaller and more 
numerous. The layer is probably not 
more than a rod in extent in any direction, 
and about three inches in maximum thick- 
ness. Apparent lines of stratification 
occur in it, corresponding with those of 
the shales which imbed it. The other 
deposit was still smaller in amount, and 
occurred as a mass of crystals imbedded 
in the clays that overlie the gypsum at 
Cummins' quarry, in the valley of Sol- 
diers' creek, upon the north side of the 
town. The mineral in this clay is nearly 
colorless, and somewhat resembles masses 
of impure salt. The crystals are so closely 
aggregated that they enclose but little im- 
purity in the mass, but in almost all other 
cases their fundamental forms are ob- 
sured. This mineral has almost no prac- 
tical value, and is only interesting as a 
mineralogical fact. 


In Iowa this mineral has been found 
only in minute quantities. It has been de- 
tected in the Coal Measure shales of De- 
catur, Madison and Marion counties, 
Devonian limestone of Johnson and Bre- 
mer counties, and, also, in the lead caves 
of Dubuque. It is in the form of crystals 
or small crystalline masses. 


Epsomite, or native Epsom salts, having 
been discovered near Burlington, all the 
sulphates of alkaline earths of natural 
origin have been recognized in Iowa; all 
except the sulphate of lime being in very 
small quantity. The Epsomite mentioned 


was found beneath the overhanging cliff of 
Burlington limestone near Starr's Mill. It 
occurs in the form of efflorescent encrusta- 
tions upon ihe surface of stones, and in 
similar small fragile masses among the 
pine debris that has fallen down beneath 
the overhanging cliff. The projection of 
the cliff over the perpendicular face of the 
strata beneath, amounts to near 20 feet at 
the point where Epsomite was found. The 
rock upon which it accumulates is an im- 
pure limestone, containing also some car- 
bonate of magnesia, together with a small 
proportion of iron pyrites, in a finely 
divided condition. By experiments with 
this native salt in the office of the Survey, 
a fine article of Epsom salts was produced, 
but the quantity obtained there is very 
small, and would bo of no practical value 
on account of the cheapness in the market. 


The greatest objection to the climate of 
this State is the prevalence of wind, which 
is somewhat greater than in the States 
south and east, but not so great as it is 
west. The air is pure and generally bra- 
cing, — the northern part particularly so 
during the winter. The prevailing direc- 
tion of the wind during the whole year is 
easterly. Correspondingly, thunder-storms 
are somewhat more violent in this State 
than east or south, but not near so much so 
as toward the mountains. As elsewhere in 
the Northwestern States, easterly wind- 
bring rain and snow, while westerly ones 
clear the sky. While the highest temper- 
ature occurs here in August, the month of 
July averages the hottest, and January the 
coldest. The mean temperature of April 
and October nearly corresponds to the 

mean temperature of the year, as well as to 
the seasons of spring and fall, while that 
of summer and winter is best represented 
by August and December. Indian summer 
is delightful and well prolonged. Untimely 
frosts sometimes occur, but seldom severely 
enough to do great injury. The wheat 
crop being a staple product of the State, 
and is not injured at all by frost, this great 
resource of the State continues intact. 


All the knowledge we have at present 
of the topography of the State of Iowa is 
that derived from incidental observations 
of geological corps, from the surveys made 
by railroad engineers, and from barometri- 
cal observations made by authority of the 
Federal Government. No complete topo- 
graphical survey has yet been made, lut 
this will doubtless be attended to in a few 

The State lies wholly within, ^nd com- 
prises a part of, a vast plain, and there is 
no mountainous or even hilly country 
within its borders; for the highest point is 
but 1,200 feet above the lowest point; these 
two points are nearly SCO miles apart, and- 
the whole State is traversed by gently 
flowing rivers. A clearer idea of the great 
uniformity of the surface of the State may 
be obtained from a statement of the gen- 
eral slopes in feet per mile, from point to 
point, in straight lines across it. 

From N. E. corner to S. E. cor- 
ner of State 1 ft. 1 in. 

From N. E. corner to Spirit Lake, 5 ft. 5 in. 

FromN.W corner toSpiritLake, 5 ft. 

From N.W. corner to S W. cor- 
ner of the State 2 ft. 

Per Mile. 

'Vis w. 

-> gt?\ 



Per Mile. 

F-rom S. W. corner to highest 
ridge between the two great 
rivers (in Ringgold county).. 4 ft. 1 in. 
From the highest point in the 
Slate (near Spirit Lake) to the 
lowest point in the Stale (at 
the mouth of DesMoines river) 4 ft. 
We thus find that there is good degree 
of propriety in regarding the whole State 
as belonging to a great plain, the lowest 
point of which within its border, the south- 
eastern corner of the 8tate, is only 444 
feet above the level of the sea. The aver- 
age height of the whole State above the 
level ot the sea is not far from 800 feet, 
although it is a thousand miles from the 
nearest ocean. 

These remarks are, of course, to be un- 
derstood as applying to the State as a 
whole. On examining its surface in detail, 
we find a great diversity of surface by the 
formation of valleys out of the general 
level, which have been evolved by the 
actions of streams during the unnumbered 
years of the terrace epoch. These river 
valleys are deepest in the northwestern 
part of the State, and consequently it is 
there that the country has the greatest di- 
versity of surface, and its physical features 
are most strongly marked. 

The greater part of Iowa was formerly 
one vast prairie. It has, indeed, been 
estimated that seven-eighths of the surface 
of the State was prairie when first settled. 
By prairie it must not be inferred that a 
level surface is meant, for they are found 
in hilly countries as well Nor are they 
confined to any particular variety of soil, 
for they rest upon all formations, from 
those of the Azotic to those of the Creta- 

ceous age, inclusive. Whatever may have 
been their origin, their present existence 
in Iowa is not due to the influence of cli- 
mate, of the soil, or of any of the under- 
lying formations. The real cause is the 
jircvaicnce of the annual fires. If these 
had been prevented fifty years ago, Iowa 
would now be a timbered country. The 
encroachment of forest trees upon prairie 
farms as soon as the bordering wood- 
land is protected from the annual prairie 
fires, is well known to farmers throughout 
the State. The soil of Iowa is justly 
famous for its fertility, and there is prob- 
ably no equal area of the earth's surface 
that contains so little untillable land, or 
whose soil has so high an average of fer- 
tility. Ninety-five per cent, of its surface 
is capable of a high state of cultivation. 


Lakes — 1 he lakes of Iowa may be prop- 
erly divided into two distinct classes The 
first may be called <h-ifl lakes, having had 
their origin in the depressions left in the 
surface of the drift at the close of the gla- 
cial epoch, and have rested upon the undis- 
turbed surface of the drift deposit ever 
since the glaciers disappeared. The others 
may be properly termed fluviatile or allu- 
vial lakes, because they have had their 
origin by the action of rivers while cut- 
ting their own valleys out from the surface 
of the drift as it existed at the close of the 
glacial epoch, and are now found resting 
upon the alluvium. By "alluvium" is 
meant the deposit which has accumulated 
in the valleys of rivers by the action of 
their own currents. It is largely composed 
of sand and other coarse material, and 

■2 k. 




upon that deposit are some of the best 
productive soils in the State. It is this 
deposit which forms the flood plains and 
deltas of our rivers, as well as the terraces 
of their valleys. The regions to which the 
drift lakes are principally confined are near 
the head waters of the principal streams 
of the State. They are consequently found 
in those regions which lie between the 
Cedar and DesMoines rivers, and the Des 
Moines and Little Sioux. No drift lakes 
are found in Southern Iowa. The largest 
of the lakes to be found in the State 
are Spirit and Okoboji, in Dickinson 
county, Clear Lake in Cerro Gordo county, 
and Storm Lake in Buena Vista county. 

Spirit Lake. — The width and length of 
this lake are about equal, and it contains 
about 1 2 square miles of surface, its north- 
ern border resting directly on the boun- 
dary of the State. It lies almost directly 
upon the great water-shed. Its shores 
are mostly gravelly, atid the country about 
it fertile. 

Okoboji Lake. — This body of water 
lies directly south of Spirit Lake, and has 
somewhat the shape of a horse-shoe, with 
its eastern projection within a few rods 
of Spirit Lake, where it receives the out- 
let of the latter. Okoboji Lake extends 
about five miles southward from Spirit 
Lake, thence about the same distance 
westward, and it then bends northward 
about as far as the eastern projection. 
The eastern portion is narrow, but the 
western is larger, and in some places 100 
feet deep. The surroundings of this and 
Spirit Lake are very pleasant; fish are 
abundant in them, and they are the re- 
sort of myriads of water-fowl. 

Clear Lake. — This lake is situated 
upon the water-shed between the Iowa and 
Cedar rivers. It is about 5 miles long, 2 
or 3 miles wide, and has a maximum 
depth of only 15 feet. Its shores and the 
country around are like that of Spirit 
Lake. ' 

Storm Lake. — This lake rests upon the 
great water-shed in Buena Vista county. 
It is a clear, beautiful sheet of water, con- 
taining a surface area of between 4 and 5 
square miles. The outlets of all these 
drift lakes are dry during a portion of the 
year, except Okoboji. 

Walled Lakes — Along the water-sheds 
of Northern Iowa great numbers of small 
lakes exist, varying from half a mile to a 
mile in diameter. One of the lates in 
Wright county, and another in Sac, have 
each received the name of "Walled Lake," 
on account of the embankments on their 
borders, which are supposed to be the work 
of ancient inhabitants. These embank- 
ments are from 2 to 10 feet in height, and 
from 5 to 30 feet across. They are the 
result of natural causes alone, being refer- 
able to the periodic action of ice, aided to 
some extent by the action of the waves. 

These lakes are very shallow, and in win- 
ter freeze to the bottom, so that but little 
unfrozen water remains in the middle. The 
ice freezes fast to everything on the bot- 
tom, and the expansive power of the water 
in freezing acts in all directions from the 
center to the circumference, and whatever 
was on the bottom of the lake has been 
thus carried to the shore. This has been 
going on from year to year, from century 
to century, forming the embankments 
which have caused so much wonder. 





Springs issue from all the geological 
formations, and form the sides of almost 
every valley, but they are more numerous, 
and assume proportions which give rise to 
the name of sink-holes, along the uplar.d 
borders of the Upper Iowa river, owing to 
the peculiar fissued and laminated charac- 
ter and great thickness of the stra'a of the 
age of the Trenton limestone which under- 
lies the whole region of the valley of that 
stream. No mineral springs, properly so- 
called, have yet been discovered in Iowa, 
though the water of several artesian wells 
is frequently found charged with soluable 
mineral substances. 

Rwers. — The two great rivers, the Mis- 
sissipi and Missouri, from the eastern and 
the western boundaries, respectively, of 
the State, receive the eastern and western 
drainage of it. The Mississippi with its 
tributaries in Eastern Iowa drain two- 
thirds of the State, and the Missouri with 
its tributaries drain the western third. The 
great water-shed which divides these two 
systems is a land running southward from 
a point on the northern boundary line of 
the State, near Spirit Lake, in Dickinson 
county, to a nearly central point in the 
northern part of Adair county. From the 
last named point this highest ridge of land 
between the two great rivers continues 
southward, without change of character, 
through Ringgold county, into the State 
of Missouri; but it is no longer the great 
water-shed. From that point another ridge 
bears off southward, through the counties 
of Madison, Clarke, Lucas and Appanoose, 
which is now the water-shed. 

All streams that rise in Iowa occupy, at 
first, only slight depressions of the land, 

and are scarcely perceptible. These uniting 
into larger streams, though still flowing 
over drift and bluff deposits, reach consid- 
er.ible depth into these deposits, in some 
cases to a depth of nearly 200 feet from 
the general prairie level. 

The great' r part of the streams in West- 
ern Iowa run either along the whole or a 
part of their course, upon that peculiar 
deposit known a,s bluff deposit. The 
banks even of the small streams are often 
five to ten feet in height and quile perpen- 
dicular, so that they render the streams 
almost everywhere unfordable, and a great 
impediment to travel across the open 
country where there are no bridges. 

This deposit is of a slightly yellowii-h 
ash color, except when darkoaed by decay- 
ing vegetation, very fine and silicious, but 
not sandy, not very cohesive, and not at 
all ))laslic. It forms excellent soil, and 
does not bake or crack in drying, e.xcept 
limy concretions, which are generally dis- 
tributed throughout the mass, in shape 
and size resembling pebbles; but not a 
stone or a pebble caa be found in the 
whole deposit. It was called "siliciou-; 
marl" by Dr. Owen, in his geological re- 
port to the Government, and he attribuies 
its origin to an accumulation of sediment 
in an ancient lake, which was afterwaid 
drained, and the sediment became dry land. 
Prof. Swallow gives it the name of "bluff," 
which is here adopted; but the term, "la- 
custrine" would have been more appro- 
priate. The peculiar properties of this 
deposit are that it will stand securely with 
a precipitous front 200 feet high, and yet 
is easily excavated with a spade. Wells 
dug in it require only to be walled to a 
point just above the water-line. Yet, com- 




pact as it is, it is very porous, so tbat 
water which falls on it does not remain at 
the surface, but percolates through it; 
neither does it accumulate within it at any 
point, as it does upon and within the drift 
and the stratified formations. 

The thickest deposit yet known in Iowa 
is in Fremont county, where it reaches 200 
feet. It is found throughout a region 
more than 200 miles in length, and nearly 
100 miles in width, and through which the 
Missouri runs almost centrally. 

This fine sediment is the same which 
the Missouri once deposited in a broad 
depression in the surface of the drift that 
formed a lake-like expansion of that river 
in the earliest period of the history of its 
valley. The extent of the deposit shows 
this lake to have been 100 miles wide and 
more than twice as long. The water of 
the river was muddy then as now, and the 
broad lake became filled with the sediment 
which the river brought down. After the 
lake became filled with the sediment, the 
valley below became deepened by the con- 
stant erosive action of the waters, to a 
depth sufficient to have drained the lake 
of its first waters; but the only effect then 
was to cause it to cut its valley out of the 
deposits its own muddy waters had formed. 
Thus along the valley of that river, so far 
as it forms the western boundary of Iowa, 
the bluffs which border it are composed of 
that sediment known as bluff deposit, 
forming a distinct border along the broad, 
level flood plain, the width of which varies 
from five to fifteen miles, while the orig- 
inal sedimentary deposit stretches far in- 

Chariton and Grand rivers rise and 
run for twenty-five miles of their course 

upon the drift deposits alone. The first 
strata that are exposed by the deepening 
valleys of both these streams belong to 
the Upper Coal Measure?, and they both 
continue upon the same formation until 
they make their exit from the State, (the 
former in Appanoose county, the latter in 
Ringgold county,) near the boundary of 
which they passed nearly or quite through 
the whole of that formation to the Middle 
Coal Measures. Their valleys deepen 
gradually, and 15 or 20 miles from the 
river they are nearly 1 50 feet below the gen- 
eral level of the adjacent highland. When 
the rivers have cut their valleys down 
through the series of limestone strata, they 
reach those of a clayey composition. Upon 
these they widen their valleys, and make 
broad flood plains or " bottoms," the soil 
of which is stiff and clayey, except where 
modified by sandy washings. These 
streams are prairie streams in their upper 
branches and tributaries, but flow through 
woodland farther down. The proportion 
of lime in the drift of Iowa is so great that 
the water of all the wells and springs is 
too " hard " for washing purposes, and the 
same substance is so prevalent in the drift 
clays that they are always found to have 
sufficient flux when used for the manufac- 
ture of brick. 

Platte river belongs mainly to Missouri. 
Its upper branches pass through Ringgold 
county. Here the drift deposit reaches its 
maximum thickness on an east and west 
line across the State, and the valleys are 
eroded in some instances to a depth of 
200 feet, apparently, through this deposit 
alone. The term " drift deposit " applies 
to the soil and sub soil of the greater part 

«<^ a 




of the State, and in it alone many wells 
are dug and our forests take root. It rests 
upon the stratified rocks. It is composed 
of clay, sand, gravel and boulders, promis- 
cuously intermixed without stratification, 
varying in character in different parts of 
the State. 

One Hundred and Two river is repre- 
sented in Taylor county, the valleys of 
which have the same general character of 
those just described. The country around 
and between the east and west forks of 
this stream is almost entirely prairie. 

Nodaway river is represented by east, 
middle and west branches. The two for- 
mer rise in Adair county, the latter in 
Cass county. These rivers and valleys are 
fine examples of the small rivers and 
valleys of Southern Iowa. They have the 
general character of drift valleys, and with 
beautiful undulating and sloping sides. 
The Nodaway drains one of the finest 
agricultural regions in the State, the soil 
of which is tillable almost to their very 
banks. The banks and the adjacent nar- 
row flood-plains are almost everywhere 
composed of a rich, deep, dark loam. 

N-inhiiabotany river is represented by 
east and west branches, the former having 
its source in Anderson county, the latter 
in Shelby county. Both these branches, 
from their source to their confluence, and 
also the main stream from there to the 
point where it enters the great flood-plain 
of the Missouri, run through a region, the 
surface of which is occupied by the bluff 

The West Nishnabotany is probably 
without any valuable mill-sites. In the 
western part of Cass county, the East 

Nishnabotany loses its identity by becom- 
ing abruptly divided up into five or six 
different creeks. A few good mill-sites 
occur here on this stream. None, how- 
ever, that are thought reliable, exist on 
either of these rivers, or on the main 
stream below the confluence, except, per- 
haps, one or two in Montgomery county. 
The valleys of the two branches, and the 
intervening upland, possess remarkable 

JBoyer river, until it enters the flood- 
plain of the Missouri, runs almost, if not 
quite, its entire course through the region 
occupied by the bluff deposit, and has cut 
its valley entirely through it along most of 
its passage. The only rocks exposed are 
the upper coal measures, near Reed's mil], 
in Harrison county. The exposures are 
slight, and are the most northerly now 
known in Iowa. The valley of this river 
has usually gently sloping sides, and an in- 
distinctly defined flood-plain. Along the 
lower half of its course the adjacent up- 
land presents a surface of the billowy 
character, peculiar to the bluff deposit. 
The source of this river is in Sac county. 

Soldier river — The east and middle 
branches of this stream have their source 
in Crawford county, and the west branch 
in Ida county. The whole course of this 
river is through the bluff deposit. It has 
no exposure of strata along its course. 

Little Siottx river. — Under this head are 
included both the main and west branches 
of that stream, together with the Maple, 
which is one of its branches. The west 
branch and the Maple are so similar to 
the Soldier river that they need no sep- 
arate description. The main stream has 





its boundary near the northern boundary 
of the State, and runs most of its course 
upon drift deposit alone, entering the 
region of the bluff deposit in the southern 
part of Cherokee county. The two prin- 
cipal upper branches near their source in 
Dickinson and Osceola counties are small 
prairie creeks within distinct valleys. On 
entering Clay county the valley deepens, 
and at their confluence has a depth of 200 
feet. Just as the valley enters Cherokee 
county it turns to the southward, and be- 
comes much wiilened, with its sides gently 
sloping to the uplands. When the valley 
enters the region of the bluff deposit, it 
assumes the billowy appearance. No ex- 
posures of strata of any kind have been 
found in the valley of the L'ttle Sioux or 
any of its branches. 

Floyd river. — This river rises upon the 
drift in O'Brien county, and flowing south- 
ward enters the region of the bluff deposit 
a little north of the centre of Plymouth 
county. Almost from its source to its 
mouth it is a prairie stream, with slightly 
sloping valley sides, which blend gradually 
with the uplands. A single slight exposure 
of sandstone of cretaceous age occurs in the 
valley near Sioux City, and which is the 
only known exposure of rock of any kind 
along its whole length. Near this exposure 
is a mill-site, but farther up the stream it 
is not valuable for such purposes. 

Mock river. — This stream passes through 
Lyon and Sioux counties. It was, evi- 
dently, so named from the fact ihat con- 
siderable exposures of the red Sioux 
quartzite occur along the main branches 
of the stream in Minnesota, a few miles 
north of the State boundary. Within the 

Slate the main stream and its branches are 
drift streams and strata are exposed. The 
beds and banks of the streams are usually 
sandy and gravelly, with occasionally 
boulders intermixed. 

Big Sioux Hiver. — The valley of this 
river, from the northwest corner of the 
State to its mouth, possesses much the 
same character as all the streams of the 
surface deposits. At Sioux Falls, a few 
miles above the northwest corner of the 
State, the streams meet with remarkable 
obstructions from the presence of Sioux 
quartzite, which outcrops directly across 
the stream, and causes a fall of about 60 
feet within a distance of half a mile, pro- 
ducing a series of cascades For the first 
25 miles above its mouth, the valley is 
very broad, with a broad, flat flood-plain, 
with eentle slopes, occasionally showing 
indistinctly defined terraces. These ter- 
races and valley bottoms constitute some 
of the finest agricultural land of the re- 
gion. Oil the Iowa side of the valley the 
upland presents abrupt bluffs, steep as the 
materials of which they are composed will 
stand, and from 100 to nearly 200 feet 
high above the stream. At rare intervals, 
about 15 miles from its mouth, the creta- 
ceous strata are exposed in the face of the 
bluffs of the Iowa side. No other strata 
are exposed along that part of the valley 
which borders our State, with the single 
exception of Sioux quartzite at its extreme 
northwestern corner. Some good mill- 
sites may be secured along that portion of 
this river which borders Lyon county, but 
below this the fall will probably be found 
insufficient and the locations for dams in- 

"^ K 



Missouri Miver. — This is one of the 
muddiest streams on the globe, and its 
waters are known to be very turbid far 
toward its source. The chief peculiarity 
of this river is its broad flood-plains, and 
its adjacent blufif deposits. Much the 
greater part of the flood-plain of this river 
is upon the Iowa side, and continues from 
the south boundary line of the State to 
Sioux City, a distance of more than 100 
miles in length, varying from three to five 
miles in width. This alluvial plain is" esti- 
mated to contain more than half a million 
of acres of land within the State, upward 
of 400,000 of which are now tillable. 

The rivers of the eastern system of 
drainage have quite a different character 
from those of the western system. They 
are larger, longer and have their valleys 
modified to a much greater extent by the 
underlying strata. For the latter reason, 
water-power is much more abundant upon 
them than upon the streams of the western 

DesMoines River. — This river has its 
source in Minnesota, but it enters Iowa 
before it has attained any size, and flows 
almost centrally through it from northwest 
to southeast, emptying into the Mississippi 
at the extreme southeastern corner of the 
State. It drains a greater area than any 
river within the State. The upper portion 
of it is divided into two branches, known 
as the east a:;d west forks These unite 
in Humboldt county. The valleys of these 
branches above their confluence are drift 
valleys, except a few small exposures of 
subcarbouiferous limestone about five 
miles above their confluence. These ex- 
posures produce several small mill-sites. 

The valleys vary from a few hundred yards 
to half mile in width, and are the finest 
agricultural lands. In the northern part 
of Webster county the character of the 
main valley is modified by the presence of 
ledges and low cliffs of the subcarbouifer- 
ous limestone and gypsim. From a point 
a little below Fort Dodge to near Amster- 
dam, in Marion county, the river runs all 
the way through and upon the lower Coal 
Measure strata. Along this part of the 
course the flood-plain varies from an 
eighth to a mile or more in width. From 
Amsterdam to Ottumwa the subcarbouifer- 
ous rocks pass beneath the river again, 
bringing down the Coal Measure strata 
into its bed; they rise from it in the ex- 
treme northwestern part of VanBuren 
county, and subcarbouiferous strata re- 
sume and keep their place along the valley 
to the north of the river. 

From Fort Dodge to the northern part 
of Lee county the strata of the Lower 
Coal Measures are present in the valley. 
Its flood-plain is frequently sandy from 
the debris of the sandstone and sandy 
shales of the Coal Measures produced by 
their removal in the process of the forma- 
tion of the valley. 

The principal tributaries of the Des 
Moines are upon the western side. These 
are the Raccoon and the three rivers, viz: 
South, Middle and North rivers. The 
three latter have their sources in the re- 
gion occupied by the Upper Coal Measure 
limestone formation, fljw eastward over 
the Middle Coal Measures, and enter the 
valley of the DesMoines upon the Lower 
Coal Measures. These streams, especially 
South and Middle rivers, are frequently 
bordered by high, rocky clifl^s. Raccoon 




river has its source upon the heavy surface 
deposits of the middle region of Western 
Iowa, and along the greater part of its 
course it has excavated its valley out of 
those deposits and the Middle Coal 
Measure alone. The valley of the Des 
Moines and its branches are destined to 
become the seat of extensive manufac- 
turies, in consequence of the numerous 
mill-sites of immense power, and the fact 
that the main valley traverses the entire 
length of the Iowa coal fields. 

Skunk river. — This has its source in 
Hamilton county, and runs almost its en- 
tire course upon the border of the outcrop 
of the Lower Coal Measures, or, more prop- 
erly speaking, upon the subcarboniferous 
limestone, just where it begins to pass be- 
neath the Coal Measures by its southerly 
and westerly dip. Its general course is 
southeast. From the western part of 
Henry county, up as far as Story county, 
the broad, flat flood-plain is covered with a 
rich, deep clay soil, which, in time of long- 
continued rains aVid overflows of the river, 
has made the valley of Skunk river a ter- 
ror to travelers from the earliest settlement 
of the country. There are some excellent 
mill-sites on the lower half of this river, 
but they are not so numerous or valuable 
as on other rivers of the eastern system. 

loioa river. — This river rises in Han- 
cock county, in the midst of a broad, 
slightly undulating drift region. The first 
rock exposure is that of subcarboniferous 
limestone, in the southwestern corner of 
Franklin county. It enters the region of 
the Devonian strata near the southwestern 
corner of Benton county, and in this it 
continues to its confluence with the Cedar 

in Louisa county. Below the junction 
with the Cedar, and for some miles above 
that point, its valley is broad, and especi- 
ally on the northern side, with a well- 
marked flood-plain. Its borders gradually 
blend with the uplands as they slope away 
in the distance from the river. The Iowa 
furnishes numerous and valuable mill-sites. 

Cedar river. — This stream is usually 
understood to be a branch of the Iowa, but 
it ought, really, to be regarded as the main 
stream. It rises by numerous branches in 
the northern part of the State, and flows 
the entire length of the State, through the 
region occupied by the Devonian strata and 
along the trend occupied by that formation. 
The valley of this river, in the upper part 
of its course, is narrow, and the sides slope 
so gently as to scarcely show where the 
lowlands end and the uplands begin. Be- 
low the confluence with the Shell Rock, 
the flood-plain is more distinctly marked, 
and the valley broad and shallow. Tne 
valley of the Cedar is one of the finest re- 
gions in the State, and both the main 
stream and its branches afford abundant 
and reliable mill-sites. 

Wapsipinnicon river. — This river has 
its source near the source of the Cedar, 
and runs parallel and near it almost its en- 
tire course, the upper half upon the same 
formation — the Devonian. In the north- 
eastern part of Linn county it enters the 
region of the Niagara limestone, upon 
which it continues to the Mississippi. It 
is 100 miles long, and yet the area of its 
drainage is only from 12 to 20 miles in 
width. Hence, its numerous mill-sites are 
unusually secure. 




Turkey river — This river and the Upper 
Iowa are, in many respects, unlike other 
Iowa rivers. The difference is dae to the 
great depth to which they have eroded 
their valleys and the different character of 
the material through which they have 
worked. Turkey river rises in Howard 
county, and in Winneshiek county, a few 
miles from its source, its valley has attained 
a depth of more than 200 feet, and in Fay- 
ette and Clayton counties its depth is in- 
creased to 300 and 400 feet. The summit 
of the uplands, bordering nearly the whole 
length of the valley, is capped by the Ma- 
quoketa shales. These shales are under- 
laid by the Galena limestone, between 2C0 
and 300 feet thick. The valley has been 
eroded through these, and runs upon the 
Trenton limestone. Thus all the forma- 
tions along and within this valley are Lower 
Silurian, The valley is usually narrow, 
and without a well-marked flood-plain. 
Water-power is abundant, but in most 
places inaccessible. 

Upper Iowa river. — This river rises in 
Minnesota, just beyond the northern boun- 
dary line, and enters our State in Howard 
county before it has attained any consider- 
able size. Its course is nearly eastward 
until it reaches the Mississippi. It rises in 
the region of the Devonian rocks, and 
flows across the outcrops, respectively, of 
the Niagara, Galena and Trenton lime- 
stone, the lower magnesian limestone, and 
Potsdam sandstone, into and through all 
of which, except the last, it has cut its val- 
ley, which is the deepest of any in Iowa. 
The valley sides are almost everywhere 
high and steep, and cliffs of lower magne- 
sian and Trenton limestone give them a 

wild and rugged aspect. In the lower part 
of the valley the flood-plain reaches a 
width suflicient for the location of small 
farms, but usually it is too narrow for such 
purposes. On the higher surface, however, 
as soon as you leave the valley you come 
immediately upon a cultivated country. 
This stream has the greatest slope per mile 
of any in Iowa, and consequently it fur- 
nishes immense water-power. In some 
places where creeks come into it, the valley 
widens and affords good locations for 
farms. The town of Decorah, in Winne- 
shiek county, is located in one of these 
spots, which makes it a lovely location; 
and the power of the river and the small 
spring streams around it offer tine facilities 
for manufacturing. This river and its 
tributaries are the only trout streams in 

Mississippi river. — This river may be 
described, in general terms, as a broad 
canal cut out of the general level of the 
country through which the river flows. It 
is bordered by abrupt hills or bluffs. The 
bottom of the valley ranges from one to 
eight miles in width. The whole space 
between the bluffs is occupied by the river 
and its bottom, or flood-plain only, if we 
except the occasional terraces or remains 
of ancient flood-plains, which are not now 
reached by the highest floods of the river. 
The river itself is from half a mile to 
nearly a mile in width. There are but four 
points along the whole length of the State 
where the bluffs approach the stream on 
both sides. The Lower Silurian formations 
compose the bluffs in the northern part of 
the State, but they gradually disappear by 
a southerly dip, and the bluffs are con- 

-'^ ^\'y 

<,T(5 IL. 



tinned successively by the Upper Silurian, 
Devonian and Subcarboniferous rocks 
which are reached near the southeastern 
corner of the State. 

Considered in their relation to the pres- 
ent general surface of the State, the rela- 
tive ages of the river valley of Iowa date 

back only to the close of the glacial epoch; 
but that the Mississippi and all the rivers 
of Northeastern Iowa, if no others, had at 
least a large part of the rocky portions of 
their valleys eroded by pre-glacial, or, per- 
haps, by palseogoic rivers, can scarcely be 




By her record in the war of the rebellion 
Iowa proved herself a truly loyal State. 
The Presidential campaign of 1860 was 
an exciting one, and the fact that civil war 
might be inaugurated in case Abraham 
Lincoln was elected, was well understood 
and duly considered. The people of Iowa 
indulged in no hatred or ill-will toward 
any section of the country, but were deter- 
mined to hold such opinions upon que.stions 
of public interests, and vote for such men 
as to them seemed for the general good, 
uninfluenced by any threat of violence or 
civil war. 

The General Assembly of the State of 
Iowa, as early as 1851, had by joint resolu- 
tion declared that the State of Iowa was 
" bound to maintain the union of these 
States by all the mean.s in her power." 
The same year the State furnished a block 

of marble for the Washington Monument 
at the national capitol, and by order of the 
General Assembly there was inscribed 
upon its enduring surface the following: 
"Iowa — Her affections, like the rivers of 
her borders, 'flow to an inseparable Union." 
The time was now approaching in her his- 
tory when these declarations of attachment 
and fidelity to the nation were to be put 
to a practical test. 

Certainly the people of no State in the 
nation could be more vitally interested in 
the question of our national unity than the 
people of Iowa. The older States of the 
Union, both North and South, were repre- 
sented in its population. lowans were 
nearly all immigrants, bound to those older 
communities by the most sacred ties of 
blood, and most endearing recollections of 
early days. In addition to these consider- 




ations of a personal cliaractef, there were 
others of the gravest political importance. 

Iowa's geographical position as a State 
made the dismemberment of the Union a 
matter of serious concern. The Missis- 
sippi had been for years its highway to 
the markets of the world. The people 
could not entertain the thought that its 
navigation should pass under the control 
of a foreign government. But more than 
this was to be feared the consequence of 
introducing and recognizing in our national 
system the principal of secession or disin- 

If this should be recognized as a right, 
what security had the States of the interior 
against their entire isolation from the com- 
merce of the world, by the future secession 
of the Atlantic and Pacific States? And 
the fact also remained, that secession or 
separation removed none of the causes of 
war. Whatever there was in the peculiar 
institution that created differences of sen- 
timent or feeling, or caused irritation, still 
existed after the separation, with no court 
or constitution as the arbiter of rights, and 
with the one resort, only, of the sword to 
settle differences. In secession and its 
logical and necessary results, we saw 
nothing but dire confusion and anarchy, 
and the utter destruction of that nation- 
ality through which alone we felt that our 
civil liberties as a people could be pre- 
served, and the hopes of our civilization 

The declaration of Mr. Buchanan's last 
annual message, that the nation posssesed 
no constitutional power to coerce a seced- 
ing State, was received by the great 
majority of oui- citizens with humiliation 

and distrust. Anxiously they awaited the 
expiring hours of his administration, and 
looked to the incoming President as to an 
expected deliverer that should rescue the 
n.ation from the hands of traitors, and the 
conlrol of those whose non-resistance in- 
T^:*^) her destruction. The firing upon the 
national flag at Sumter aroused a burning 
indignation throughout the loyal States of 
the Republic, and nowhere was it more 
intense than in Iowa. And when the 
proclamation of the President was puli- 
lished, April 15, 1861, calling for 75,000 
citizen soldiers to "maintain the honor, 
the integrity, and the existence of our 
national Union, and the perpetuity of pop- 
ular government," they were more than 
willing to respond to the call. Party lines 
gave way, and for a while, at least, party 
spirit was hushed, and the cause of our 
common country was supreme in the affec- 
tions of the people. Peculiarly fortunate 
were the people of Iowa at this crisis, in 
having a truly representative man as ex- 
ecutive of the State. Thoroughly honest 
and thoroughly earnest, wholly imbued 
with the enthusiasm of the hour, fully 
aroused to the importance of the crises, 
and the magnitude of the struggle upon 
which ^ were entering, with an indomit- 
able rt'iU under the control of a strong 
common sense, Samuel J. Kirkwood, was, 
indeed, a worthy chief to organize and 
direct the energies of the people. Within 
thirty days af ler the date of the Piesident'^* 
call for troops, the First Iowa Regiment 
was mustered into the service of the 
United States, a second regiment was in 
camp ready for the service, and the Gen- 
eral Assembly of the State was convened 
in special session, and had by joint resolu- 





tion solemnly pledged every resource of 
men and money to the national cause. 

So urgent were the offers of companies, 
that the Governor conditionally accepted 
enough additional companies to compose 
two additional regiments. These were 
soon accepted by the Secretary of War. 
Near the close of May, the Adjutant Gen- 
eral of the State reported that 1 70 compa- 
nies had been tendered the Governor to 
serve against the enerries of the Union. 
The question was eagerly asked, " Which 
of us will be allowed to go? " It seemed 
as if Iowa was monopolizing the honors 
of the period, and would send the larger 
part of the 75,000 wanted fr„m the whole 

There were much difficulty and consid- 
erable delay experienced in fitting the first 
three regiments for the field. For the 
First Infantry a complete outfit (not uni- 
form) of clothing was extemporized, prin- 
cipally by the volunteered labor of loyal 
women in the different towns — from mate- 
rial of various colors and qualities, ob- 
tained within the limits of the State. The 
same was done in part for the Second 
Infantry. Meantime, an extra session of 
the General Assembly had been called by 
the Governor, to convene on the 15th of 
May. With but little delay, that body 
authorized a loan of $800,000, to meet the 
extraordinary expenses incurred, and to be 
incurred, by the Eitecutive Department, 
in consequeni e of the new emergency. A 
wealthy merchaut of the Stale (ex-Gov. 
-Merrell, then a resident of McGregor) 
immediately took from the Governor a 
contract to supply a complete outfit of 
clothing for three regiments organized, 
agreeing to receive, should the Governor 

so elect, his pay therefor in the State bonds 
at par. This contract he executed to the 
letter, and a portion of the clothing (which 
was manufactured in Boston, at his order) 
was delivered at Keokuk, the place at 
which the troops had rendezvoused, in ex- 
actly one month from the day in which 
the contract had been entered into. The re- 
mainder arrived only a few days later. This 
clothing was delivered to the soldiers, but 
was subsequently condemned by the Gov- 
ernment, for the reason that its color was 
gray, and blue had been adopted as the 
color to be worn by the National troops. 
Other States had also clothed their troops, 
sent forward under the first call of Presi- 
dent Lincoln, with gray uniforms, but it 
was soon found that the Confederate forces 
were also clothed in gray, and that color 
was at once abandoned by the Union 
troops. If both armies were clothed alike, 
annoying, if not fatal, mistakes were liable 
to be made. 

While engaged in these efforts to dis- 
charge her whole duty in common with all 
the other Union-loving States in the great 
emergency, Iowa was compelled to make 
immediate and ample provision for the 
protection of her own borders from threat- 
ened invasions on the south by the seces- 
sionists of Missouri, and from danger of 
incursions from the west and northwest by 
bands of hostile Indians, who were freed 
from the usual restraint impo.sed upon 
them by the presence of regular troops 
stationed at the frontier posts. These 
troops w^ere withdrawn to meet the greater 
and more pressing danger threatening the 
life of the Nation at its very heart. 

The Governor of the State, in order to 
provide for the adequate defense of Iowa's 



borders from the ravages of both rebels 
in arms against the Government and of the 
more irresistible foes from the Western 
plains, was authorized to raise and equip 
two regiments of infantry, a squadron of 
cavalry (not less than five companies) and 
a battalion of artillery (not less than three 
companies). Only cavalry were enlisted 
for home defense, however, but in times of 
special danger, or when calls were made 
by the Unionists of Northern Missouri for 
assistance against their disloyal enemies, 
large numbers of militia on foot often 
turned out, and remained in the field until 
the necessity for their services had passed. 
June 13th, Gen. Lyon, then command- 
ing the United States forces in Missouri, 
issued the first order for the Iowa volun- 
teers to move to the field. The First and 
Second Infantry immediately embarked in 
steamboats and proceeded to Hannibal. 
Tivo weeks later the Third Infantry was 
ordered to the same point. These three, 
together with many other of the earlier 
organized Iowa regiments, rendered their 
first field service in Missouri. The First 
Infantry formed a part of the little army 
with which Gen. Lyon moved on Spring- 
field, and fought the bloody battle of Wil- 
son's creek. It received unqualified praise 
for its gallant bearing on the field. In the 
following month (September), the Third 
Iowa, with but very slight support, fought 
with honor the sanguinary engagement of 
Blue Mills Landing; and in November the 
Seventh Iowa, as a part of the force com- 
manded by Gen. Grant, greatly distin- 
guished itself in the battle of Belmont, 
where it poured out its blood like water — 
losing more than half of the men it took 
into action. 

The initial operations in which the bat- 
tles referred to took place were followed 
by the more important movements led by 
Gen. Grant, Gen. Curtis, of this State, and 
other commanders, which resulted in de- 
feating the armies defending the chief 
strategic lines held by the Confederates in 
Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri and Arkan- 
sas, compelling their withdrawal from 
much of the territory previously controlled 
by them in those States. In these and 
other movements, down to the grand cul- 
minating campaign by which Vicksburg 
was captured and the Confederacy perma- 
nently severed on the line of the Missis- 
sippi river, Iowa troops took part in 
steadily- increasing numbers. In the in- 
vestment and siege of Vicksburg, the 
State was represented by thirty regiments 
and two batteries, in addition to which 
eight regiments and one battery were 
employed on the outposts of the besieg- 
ing army. The brilliancy of their exploits 
on the many fields where they served, 
won for them the highest meed of praise, 
both in military and civil circles. Mul- 
tiplied were the terms in which expres- 
sion was given to this sentiment, but these 
words of the journals of a neighboring 
State: "The Iowa troops have been heroes 
among heroes," embody the spirit of all. 

In the veteran re-enlistment that dis- 
tinguished the closing month of 1803, 
above all other periods in the history of 
re-enlistment for the National armies, the 
Iowa three-years' men (who were rela- 
tively more numerous than those of any 
other Stale), were prompt to set the ex- 
ample of volunteering for another term 
of equal length, thereby adding many 
thousands to the great army of those who 




gave this renewed and practical assurance 
that the cause of the Union should not 
be left without defenders. 

In all the important movements of 1864 
and '65, by which the confederacy was pen- 
etrated in every quarter, and its military 
power finally overthrown, the Iowa troops 
took part. Their was heard on 
the banks of every great river of the 
South, from the Potomac to the Rio Grande, 
and everywhere they rendered the same 
faithful devoted service, maintaining on 
all occasions their wonted reputation for 
valor in the field, and endurance on the 
march. , 

Two Iowa 3-year cavalry regiments were 
employed during their whole term of ser- 
vice in the operations that were in progress 
from 1863 to 1866 against the hostile In- 
dians of the Western plains. A portion 
of these men were among the last of the 
volunteer troops to be mustered out of ser- 
vice. The State also supplied a consider- 
able number of men to the navy, who took 
part in most of the naval operations pros- 
ecuted against the Confederate power on 
the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, and the riv- 
ers of the West. 

The people of Iowa were early and con- 
stant workers in the sanitary field, and by 
their liberal gifts and personal efforts for 
the benefit of the soldiery, placed their 
State in the front rank of those who be- 
came distinguished for their exhibitions of 
patriotic benevolence during the period 
covered by the war. Agents appointed by 
the governor were stationed at points con- 
venient for rendering assistance to the sick 
and needy soldiers of the State, while oth- 
ers were employed in visiting, from time 
to time, hospitals, camps and armies in the 

field, and doing whatever the circumstances 
rendered possible for the health and com- 
fort of such of the Iowa soldiery as might 
be found there. 

Charitable enterprises also found a ready 
support in Iowa. Some of the benevolent 
people of the State early conceived the 
idea of establishing a home for such of the 
children of deceased soldiers as might be 
left in destitute circumstances. This idea 
first took form in 1863, and in the follow- 
ing year a home was opened at Farming- 
ton, VanBuren county, in a building leased 
for that purpose, and which soon became 
filled to its utmost capacity. The institu- 
tion received liberal donations from the 
general public, and also from the soldiers 
in the field. In 1865 it became necessary 
to provide increased accommodations for 
the large number of children who were 
seeking the benefits of its care. This was 
done by establishing a branch at Cedar 
Falls, in Black Hawk county, and by secur- 
ing, during the same year, for the use of 
the parent home. Camp Kinsman, near the 
city of Davenport This property, by act 
of Congress, was soon afterward donated 
to the institution. In 1866, in pursuance 
of a law enacted for that purpose, the Sol- 
diers' Orphans' Home (which then con- 
tained about 450 inmates), became a State 
institution, and thereafter the sums neces- 
sary for its support were appropriated from 
the State treasury. A second branch was 
established at Glenwood, Mills county. 
Convenient tracks were secured, and valu- 
able improvements made at all the different 
points. Schools were also established, and 
employments provided for such of the 
children as were of suitable -age. In every 
way the provision made for these wards 



of the State has been such a3 to challenge 
the approval of every benevolent mind. 
The number of children who have been 
inmates of the home from its foundation 
to the present time is considerably more 
than 2,000. 

No bounty was paid by the State on 
account of the men she placed in the field. 
In some instances, toward the close of the 
war, bounty, to a comparatively small 
amount, was paid by cities and towns On 
only o: e occasion, that of the call of July 
18, 180i,wa8a draft made in Iowa This 
did not occur on account of her proper lia- 
bility, as established by previous rulings 
of the War Department, to supply men 
under that call, but grew out of the great 
necessity that there existed for raising 
men. The Government insisted on tem- 
porarily setting aside, in part, the former 
rule of settlements, and enforcing a draft 
in all cases where sub-districts in any of 
the States should be found deficient in 
their supply of men. In no instance was 
Iowa, as a whole, found to be indebted to 
the General Government for men, on a 
settleme.jt of her quota accounts. 

Not satisfied with merely doing her duty 
under the law, Iowa, of her patriotic gen- 
erosity, did more than was required. The 
I7th, 18th and 37th regiments of infantry, 
the 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th regiments of cav- 
alry were all enrolled, not to meet any 
call from the General Government, but to 
enable citizens of the State to enlist un- 
der the banners of the Union, in excess of 
all demands which could lawfully be made. 

The State also contributed a large num- 
ber of men and many officers to regiments 
in Missouri, •Nebraska, Kansas, Illinois, 
Wisconsin and Minnesota, and out of a 

population of less than 2,000 arms-bearing 
colored citizens, raised nearly a whole reg- 
iment of African troops. But besides the 
troops thui regularly enrolled within the 
State, and those who formed part of regi- 
ments in neighboring States, there were 
not a few of Iowa's citizens in the regular 
army, in the different staff departments of 
the volunteer army, and in commands to 
far distant States. 

Those, also, should be noticed who were 
called upon to protect the State and a<ljoin- 
ing States from raids, to preserve the inter- 
nal peace of the State, etc., in 1861, when 
Northern Missouri was overrun by preda- 
tory bands, and. the loyal citizens were 
being driven from their homes by hun- 
dreds, and suffering in life, person and 
estate, the border Iowa yeomanry, utiskilled 
in anything pertaining to war, responded 
to the Macedonian cry of their neighbors 
and speeded across the line to help them 
to the number of 1,500; they were armed 
with old fowling pieces and antiquated 
militia gear, but they proved effective, 
nevertheless, their hearts being in the right 
place. In the same year three expeditions 
were sent out to beat back the Jackson 
bushwhackers who were advancing on 
Iowa, driving out the Union people on 
their way. These expeditions numbered 
about 1,800 men, and performed valuable 
service in Missouri 

On the northern bordir, during the 
same year, the Sioux City cavalry, ninety- 
three men, and Captain Tripp's company, 
about fifty men, were employed to protect 
the borders against the Indians. 

In 1862, under authority of the General 
Assembly, the Northern and Southern 
Border Brigades were organized — the one 



for the protection of the State against 
guerilla bands on the south along the entire 
border, the other to keep in check the dis- 
affected Indians intent on mischief in the 
northwest. There were five companies of 
the Northern Border Brigade,' two hun- 
dred and fifty men, and ten companies of 
the Southern Border Brigade, seven hun- 
dred and ninety-four men, "judiciously 
stationed at exposed points. For two 
years the State, at her own expense, sup- 
ported these organizations. There can be 
no doubt that this was a wise expenditure, 
considering the service done — that of stay- 
ing murder, rapine and arson, which were 
.threatening to stalk through the State. 

Subsequeotly eight hundred militia in 
eleven companies were called out to sup- 
press the celebrated Talley treason in 
Keokuk county, and five hundred on ac- 
count of the disturbances in Poweshiek 
and Davies counties. 

At the beginning of the war, the popu- 
lation of Iowa included about 150,000 men 
presumably liable to render military ser 
vice. The State raised for general service 
thirty-nine regiments of infantry, nine 
regiments of cavalry, and folir companies 
of artillery, composed of three years' men; 
one regiment of infantry, composed of 
three months' men, and four regiments 
and one batallion of infantry, composed of 
100 days' men. The original enlistments 
in these various organizations, including 
1,727 men raised by draft, numbered a 
little more than 69,000. The re-enlist- 
ments, including upward of 7,000 vete- 
rans, numbered very nearly 8,000. The 
enlistments in the regular army and navy, 
and organizations of other States, will, if 
added, raise the total to upward of 80,000. 

The number of men who, under special 
enlistments, and as militia, took part at 
different times in the operations on the 
exposed borders of the State, was probably 
as many as 5,000. 

As an inevitable result of war, many 
became prisoners, and suffered the cruel- 
ties of Libby, Andersonville and other 
"pens" in the South, which have become 
famous the world over, solely because of 
the incredible barbarities practiced in 
them. Considerable portions of the 8th, 
12th and 14th Regiments were captured, 
after hard fighting, at Shiloh; the 16ih 
was nearly all surrendered at Atlanta; the 
17th atTilton; the 19th at Sterling farm; 
the 36th at Mark's Mill. Many escaped 
heroically from rebel imprisonment, and 
the narratives of their sufferings would 
make many interesting volumes. 

Every loyal State of the Union had 
many women who devoted much time and 
great labor toward relieving the wants of 
our sick and wounded soldiery, but for 
Iowa can be claimed the honor of inaugu- 
rating the great charitable movement 
which was so successfully supported b/ 
the noble women of the North. Mrs. 
Harlan, wife of Hon. James Harlan, 
United States Senator, was the first woman 
of our country among those moving in 
high circles of society who personally 
visited the army and ministered to the 
wants of the suffering soldiery. In many 
of her visits to the army, Mrs. Harlan was 
accompanied by Mrs Joseph T. Fales, 
wife of the first State Auditor of Iowa. 
No words can describe the good done, the 
lives saved, and the deaths made easy by 
the host of noble women of Iowa, whose 
names it would take a volume to print. 

^ s 



Every county, every town, every neighbor- 
hood in the State had these true heroines, 
whose praise can never be fully known, till 
the final rendering of all accounts of deeds 
done in the body. The contributions of 
the State to "sanitary fairs" during the 
war were enormous, amounting to many 
hundred thousand dollars. Highly suc- 
cessful fairs were held at Dubuque, Mus- 
catine, Builington and Marshalltown, 
while all the towns contributed most gen- 
erously to fairs of a less general nature. 
All this must be added to the work of the 
many "Florence Nightingales" of Iowa, 
whose heroic sacrifices h.ave won for them 
the undying gratitude of the nation. 

It is said, to the honor and credit of 
Iowa, that while many of the loyal States, 
o'der and larger in population and wealth, 
incurred heavy State debts for the purpose 
of fulfilling their obligations to the Gene- 
ral Government, Iowa, while she was fore- 
most in duty, while she promptly discharged 
all her obligations to her sister States and 
the Union, found herself at the close of 
the war without any material additions to 
her pecuniary liabilities .incurred before 
the war commenced. Upon final settle- 
ment after restoration of peace, her claims 
upon the Federal Government were found 
to be fully equal to the amount of her 
bond issued and sold during the war to 
provide the means for raising and equip- 
ping her troops sent into the field, and to 
meet the inevitable demands upon her 
treasury in consequence of the war. 

It was in view of these facts that Iowa 
had done more than her duly during the 
war, and that without incurring any con- 
.siderable indebtedness, and tiiat her troops 
had fought most gallantly on nearly every 

battle-field of the war, that the Newark 
Advertiser and other prominent Eastern 
journals called Iowa the "Model State of 
the Eepublic." 

In the following pages a brief account 
is given of each regiment, which was cred- 
ited to Iowa during the war. 

The First Regiment was organized 
under the President's first proclamation 
for volunteers for three months, with John 
Francis Bates, of Dubuque, as Colonel; 
William H. Merritt, of Cedar Rapids, as 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and A. B. Porter, of 
Mt. Pleasant, as Major. 

The regiment was mustered into the 
service of the United States May i4th, 
1861, at Keokuk. The different compa- 
nies were independent military organiza- 
tions before the war; and teadeied their 
service before the breaking out of hostili- 
ties. The regiment was in quarters in 
Keokuk for two weeks, During this time 
they became proficient in the use of arms, 
and they learned something of practical 
camp life. June 13th, the regiment re- 
ceived orders to join General Lyon in 
Missouri. They immediately embarked 
on board a steamer, and by midnight were 
at Hannibal, Mo., where they slept on the 
floor of a large warehouse. They pro- 
ceeded without delay to the interior of the 
Slate, where Gen. Lyon had just defeated 
Gov. Jackson with his so-called State 
troops. Joining Lyon, they were soon 
given a taste of active service. For two 
months tliey were almost constantly on 
the march, and occasionally skirmisiicd 
with the enemy. August 10th, a sharp 
battle was fought with the enemy at 
Wilson's Creek, when the gallant and 

iS »i>_ 



noble Gun. Lyon was killed, and the regi- 
ment lost 10 killed and 50 wounded. 
After the battle the regiment proceeded to 
St. Louis, and their three months having 
expired, were mustered out August 25th, 
1861. The number of officers and men in 
this regiment were 959. Of these 13 were 
killed, 13 died, 141 were wounded, and 
three were missing. 

The Second Infantry was organized 
soon after the commencement of the war, 
with Samuel R. Curtis, of Keokuk, as 
Colonel; James M. Tuttle, of Keosauqua, 
as Lieutenant-Colonel; and M. M. Crocker, 
of DesMoiiies, as Major; and was mustered 
into the service of the United Stales, at 
Keokuk, in May, 1861. It participated in 
the following engagements: Fort Donel- 
son, Shiloh, advance on Corinth, Corinth, 
Little Bear Creek, Ala., Resaca, Ga., Rome 
Cross Roads, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Nickajack Creek, in front of Atlanta, Jan- 
uary 22, 1864, siege of Atlanta, Jonesboro, 
Eden Station, Little Ogeechee, Savannah, 
Columbia, Lynch's Creek and Bentonville; 
went with Sherman on his march to the 
sea, and through the Carolinas, home. 
This regiment was one of Iowa's most 
distinguished commands in ihe war. It 
was the first three years' regiment, and it 
left for the theatre of war even before the 
First Regiment, by a few hours. 

Its companies were enrolled during that 
first splendid enthusiasm which followed 
the bombardment of Fort Sumter, and 
they contained many men of talent and 
reputation. The regiment especially dis- 
tinguished itself in the capture of Fort 
Donelson, in entering which it was 
awarded the post of honor. It was then 

that the unenthusiastic Gen. Halleck pro- 
nounced the Iowa Second the " bravest of 
the brave." The Second Veteran Infantry 
was formed by the consolidation of the 
battalions of the Second and Third Vet- 
eran Infantry, and was mustered out at 
Louisville, Ky., July 12, 1865. The total 
number of officeis and men who iulisted 
in this regiment was 1,247. Of this num- 
ber during the war 65 were kil ed, 134 
died, 330 were discharged, 268 were 
wounded, 14 were missing and 24 were 

The Third Infantry was organized at 
about the same time as the Second, with 
Nelson G. Williams, of Dubuque county, 
as Colonel; John Scott, of Story county, 
Lieutenant-Colonel; William N. Stone, of 
Marian county,as Major, and was mustered 
into the United States service in June, 
1861, at Keokuk. The regiment was en- 
gaged at Blue Mills, Mo., Shiloh, Hatohie 
river, Matamoras, Vicksburg, Johnson, 
Miss., in the Meridian expedition at At- 
lanta, in Sherman's march to the sea, and 
through the Carolinas to Richmond and 
Washington. The regiment was veteran- 
ized and organized as a battalion in 1864, 
but before the officers received their com- 
missions the battalion bravely fought itself 
out of existence at the battle of Atlanta. 

The remnant was consolidated with the 
veterans of the Second, and the regiment 
was mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 
12, 1864. The total number of officers 
and men in the regiment was 1,074. Of 
this number, during the war, 57 were 
killed, 183 died, 231 were discharged, 269 
were wounded, 10 were missing, 93 were 
captured and 19 were transferred. 

— - '% 



The Foukth Infantry was organized 
with G. M. Dodge, of Council BlufiEs, as 
Colonel; John Galligan, of Davenport, as 
Lieutenant-Colonel; Wm. R. English, of 
Glenwood, as Major. The regiment was 
engaged at Pea Ridge, Chickasaw Bayou, 
Arkansas Post, Vicksburg, Jackson, Look- 
out Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Ring- 
gold, Eesaca and Taylor's Ridge, it came 
home on veteran furlough February 20, 
1864; returned in April; was in the cam- 
paign against Atlanta, Sherman's march to 
the sea, and thence through the Carolinas 
to Washington, and home; was mustered 
out at Louisville, Ky., July 24, 1865. The 
total number of officers and men in this 
regiment was 1,184, of whom 01 were 
killed, 205 died, 299 were discharged, 338 
were wounded, 5 were missing, 44 were 
■captured and 37 were transferred. ■ 

The Fifth Infantry was organized 
with Wm. H. Worthington, of Keokuk, as 
Colonel; C. Z. Mathias, of Burlington, as 
Lieutenant-Colonel; W. S. Robertson, of 
Columbus City, as Major, and was mus- 
tered into the service of the United States, 
at Burlington, July 15, 1861. The regi- 
ment was engaged at New Madrid, siege 
of Corinth, luka, Corinth, Champion Hills, 
siege of Vicksburg and Chickaraauga. 
Went home on veteran furlough in April, 
J 864, the non-veterans went home in July, 
1 804, leaving 180 veterans, who were trans- 
ferred to the Fifth Iowa Cavalry. The 
Fifth Cavalry was muitered out at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., August 11, 1865. The regi- 
ment had done brave service, and amply 
deserves the high encomium passed upon 
it by the generals of the army. The total 
number of officers and men in the regi- 
ment was 1,037, of whom 65 were killed. 

126 died, 244 were discharged, 288 were 
wounded, 103 were captured, and 50 were 

The Sixth Infantry was organized 
wiih John A. McDowell, of Keokuk, as 
Colonel; Markoe Cummins, of Muscatine, 
as Lieutf uaut-Colonel; John M. Corse, of 
Burlington, as Major; and was mustered 
into the service of the United States July 
6, 1861, at Burlington. It was engaged at 
Shiloh, Mission Ridge, Resaca, Dallas, Big 
Shanty, Kenesaw Mountain, Jackson, 
Black River Bridge, Jones' Ford, in Sher- 
man's march, then returned through the 
Carolinas. The regiment served with dis- 
tinction at the siege of Jackson, winning 
high praise from General Smith, command- 
ing. It marched through most of the 
Southern States, thousands of miles, and 
bore its share of fatigue with unflinching 
devotion to duty. The total number of 
officers and men in the regiment was 1,013, 
of whom 109 were killed, 157 died, 265 
wer», discharged, 355 were wounded, 3 were 
misatjg, and 8 were transferred. 

Tiiis Seventh Infantry was organized 
with J. G. Lauman, of Burlington, as Col- 
onel; Augustus Wentz, of Davenport, as 
Lieut. -Colonel; E. M. Rice, of Oskaloosa, 
as Major; and was mustered into the 
United States service at Burlington, July 
24, 1861. The regiment was engaged in 
the battles of Belmont, Fort Henry, Fort 
DonelsoD, Shiloh, siege of Corinth, Cor- 
inth, Rome Cross Roads, Dallas, Big 
Shanty, Kenesaw Mountain, Nickajack 
Creek, siege of Atlanta, July 22d in front 
of Atlanta, Sherman's campaign to the 
ocean, through the Carolinas to Richmond, 
and thence to Louisville. Was mustered 



out at Louisville, Ky., July 12, 1865. The 
battle in which the Seventh did the most 
service was that of Belmont, in which it 
lost 227 in killed, wounded and missing. 
The regiment, by four years of faithful 
service, earned as honorable a name as can 
be found anywhere in the annals of our 
volunteer soldiery. The Seventh contained 
altogether 1,138 oiEcers and men, and of 
these, during the war, 98 were killed, 178 
died, 291 discharged, 354 were wounded, 
and 29 were transferred. 

The Eighth Infantry was organized 
with Frederick Steel, of the regular array, 
as Colonel; James L. Gedds, of Vinton, 
as Lieutenant-Colonel; J. C. Ferguson, of 
Knoxville, as Major; and was mustered 
into the service of the United States Sep- 
tember 12, 1 SGI, at Davenport, Iowa. The 
regiment was engaged in the following 
battles: Shiloh, Corinth, Vicksburg, Jack- 
son and Spanish Fort. Was mustered out 
at Selma, Ala., April 20, 1866. The Eighth 
fought nobly at Sbiloh for ten hours, but 
was finally forced to surrender. Most of 
the command then suffered in rebel 
prisons for eight months, when they were 
paroled or released. A portion of the 
regiment was not surrendered, and it went 
into the famous "Union Brigade." The 
regiment was re-organized in 1863, and 
performed faithful service until mustered 
out in 1866. It was on duly in Alabama 
nearly a year after the collapse of the Re- 
bellion, and by the "Campaign of Mobile" 
earned as warm a reception as Iowa gave 
to any of her returning heroes. Of 1,027 
officers and men, 58 were killed, 1S7 died, 
014 were discharged, 288 were wounded. 

8 were missing, 394 were captured, and 
38 were transferred. 

The Ninth Infantry was organized 
with Vim. Vandever, of Dubuque, as Colo- 
nel; Frank G. Herron, of Dubuque, as 
Lieutenant-Colonel; Wm. H. Coyle, of 
Decorah, as Major. The regiment was in 
the following engagements: Pea Ridge, 
Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas Post, siege of 
Vicksburg, Ringgold, Dallas and Lookout 
Mountain. It also participated in the 
Atlanta campaign, Sherman's march to the 
sea, and the return home through North 
and South Carolina to Richmond. Was 
luiihtered out at Louisville, July 18, 1865. 
The Ninth Iowa was recruited and organ- 
ized by its first colonel, Wm. Vandever, 
who was, in 1862, made a Brigadier-Gene- 
ral. The regiment performed most bril- 
liant service during the whole war, and 
took a prominent part in the battle of 
Pea Ridge. It had marched more than 
4,000 miles, been transported by rail and 
steamer more than 6,000, and traversed 
every State by the Confederacy except 
Florida and Texas. The regiment brought 
home four flags, of which two were de- 
posited with the Adjutant-General, one 
given to the State Historical Society, and 
one was kept by the regimental associa- 
tion, formed by them on being mustered 
out. Of 1,090 men and officers, 84 were 
killed, 275 died, 274 were discharged, 385 
were wounded, 1 was missing, 32 were 
captured, and 30 were transferred. 

The Tenth Infantry was organized 
with Nicholas Perczel, of Davenport, as 
Colonel; W. E. Small, of Iowa City, as 
Lieutenant-Cojonel; John C. Bennett, of 



Polk county, as Major; and was mustered 
into the service of the United States at 
Iowa City, September 6, 1R61. The regi- 
ment participated in the following engage- 
ments: Siege of Corinth, luka, Corinth, 
Port Gibson, Raymond, Jack«on, Cham- 
pion Hills, Vicksburg and Mission Ridge 
Was mustered out August 15, 1865. 

The blordiest battle in which the Tenth 
took a prominent part was that of Cham- 
pion Hills, in which it lost half its number 
in killed, wounded and missing. Many 
regiments, on coming home, gave to the 
State banners with the names on them of 
the principal battles in which they had 
been engaged. The Tenth gave up its 
colors with the simple inscription, "Tenth 
Iowa Veteran Volunteers;" and when a 
visitor to the State Department looks at 
this banner, torn and bloody with four 
years of hard service, he will think that 
"Tenth Iowa Veteran Volunteers" is as 
proud an inscription as flag ever unfurled 
to the breeze of heaven. Of 1,027 officers 
and men, 63 were killed, 170 died, 256 
were discharged-, 277 were wounded, 17 
were captured, and 49 were transferred. 

The Eleventh Infantry was organ- 
ized with A. M. Hare, of Muscatine, as 
Colonel; John C. Abercrombie as Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel; Wm. Hall, of Davenport, 
as Maj ir; and was mustered into the ser- 
vice of the United States, at Davenport, 
in September and October, 1861 The 
regiment was engaged in the battle of 
Shiloh, siege of Corinth, batiles of Cor- 
inth, Vicksburg, Atlanta campaign, and 
battle of Atlanta. Was mustered out at 
Louisville, Ky., July 15, 18G5. No regi- 
ment did better service in the war, and no 

regiment met with heartier welcome on its 
return home. Of 1,022 men, 58 were 
killed, 178 died, 158 were discharged, 234 
were wounded, 4 were missing, 63 were 
captured, and 42 were transferred. 

The Twblfj'H Infantry was recruited 
soon after the disaster at Bull Run, under 
a proclamation by President Lincoln' call- 
ing for more volunteers. It was organized 
with J. J. Wood, of Maquoketa, as Colonel; 
John P. Coulter, of Cedar Rapids, as Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel; Samuel D. Brodtbeck, of 
Dubuque, as Major; and was mustered into 
the service of the United States in October 
and November, 1861, the last company 
November 25. The regiment was engaged 
at Shiloh, Fort Donelson siege of V.cks- 
burg, Tupelo, Mississippi, White River, 
Nashville and Spanish Fort. Was mus- 
tered out at Memphis, January 20, 1866. 
In the battle of Shiloh the Twelfth fought 
gallantly all day, in company with the 
Eighth and Fourteenth, and at sunset sur- 
rendered. They endured a loathsome 
captivity in rebel prisons for eight months, 
when they were exchanged, and the regi- 
ment was re-organized. A few who were 
not captured at Shiloh performed ac ive 
service in the " Union Brigade," during 
these eight months. The newly equipped 
regiment immediately joined the army be- 
fore Vicksburg, and served actively the 
rest of the war. When the regiment vet- 
eranized, January 4, 1864, a larger propor- 
tion of men re-enlisted than in any other 
regiment from Iowa The following 
spring the regiment was home for a few 
weeks on veteran furlough. After Lee's 
surrender the regiment was continued in 
the service in Alabama, on guard and gar- 





rison duty for several monlbs. Of 9SJ 
officers and men, 33 were killed, 285 died, 
258 were discharged, 222 were wounded, 
404 were captured, and 23 were trans- 

The Thirteenth Infantry was or- 
ganized with M. M. Crocker, of DesMoines, 
as Colonel; M. M. Price, of Davenport, as 
Lieutenant-Colonel; John Shane, of Vin- 
ton, as Major; and was mustered into the 
service of the United States, November 1, 
1861 The regiment was in the battle of 
Sliiloh, siege of Corinth, Corinth, Kenesaw 
Mountain, siege of Vicksburg, campaign 
agaiust Atlanta, Sherman's march to the 
sea, and through the Carolinas, home. 
Was mustered out at Louisville, July 21, 
1865. This regiment was especially fortu- 
nate in having such a commander as Col. 
Crocker. The men at first objected to 
drilling five or six hours every day, and 
other severe discipline; but afterward, in 
the battle of Shiloh and elsewhere, they 
had ample reason to be grateful for their 
drill under Col. Crocker The Thirteenth 
did noble service in many important affairs 
of the war, and had the honor of being the 
first Union troops to enter Columbia, S. C, 
where the secession movement first began. 
Of a total of 969 oflicers and men, 68 were 
killed, 224 died, 270 were discharged, 31.3 
were wounded, 6 were missing, 88 were 
captured, and 34 were transferred. 

The Fourteenth Infantry was or- 
ganized in the fall of 1861, under the call 
of October 3. Before the regiment was 
organized, the first three companies raised, 
A, B and C, were ordered on garrison duty 
at Fort Randall, Dakota Territory, and re- 

mained ever afterward detached from the 
regiment. So that, although in form they 
were a part of the Fourteenth Iowa for 
some time, they were never under its com- 
manding oflicer. Afterward, these com- 
panies for a time were called the First 
Battalion of the 41st Infantry; but this 
regiment never being organized, they 
finally were attached to a cavalry regi- 
ment. The Fourteenth, therefore, bad at 
first but seven companies. In June, 1863, 
the number of companies was raised to 10, 
and thus constituted for the first time a 
full regiment. The regiment was fiist 
organized with Wm.T. Shaw, of Anamosa, 
as Colonel; Edward W. Lucas, of Iowa 
City, as Lieutenant-Colonel; Hiram Leon- 
ard, of DesMoines county, as Major; and 
was mustered into the service of the United 
States at Davenport, in October, 1861. 
The regiment was in the battle' of Fort 
Donelson, Shiloh, Corinth, Pleasant Hill, 
Meridian, Fort De Russey, Tupelo, Town 
Creek, Tallahatchie, Pilot Knob, Old 
Town, Yellow Bayou, and others. Was 
mustered out, except veterans and recruits, 
at Davenport, November 16, 1864. The 
regiment was nearly all captured at the 
battle of Shiloh, but was after a few 
months exchanged and reorganized. The 
Fourteenth did some of the hardest fight- 
ing that was done in the war. Of 840 
officers and men, 31 were killed, 148 died, 
191 were discharged, 18G were wounded, 1 
was missing, 269 were captured, and 23 
were transferred. 

The Fifteenth Infantry was organ- 
ized in the winter of 1861-2, with Hugh 
T. Reid, of Keokuk, as Colonel; William 
Dewey, of Freemont county, as Lieutenant- 



Colonel; W. W. Belnap, of Keokuk, as 
Major; and was mustered into the service 
of the United States at Keokuk, March 19, 

The regiment participated in the battle 
of Shiloh, siege of Corinth, battles of 
Corinth, Vicksburg, campaign against At- 
lanta, battle in front of Atlanta, in Sher- 
man's march to the sea, and through the 
Carolinas to Richmond, Washington and 
Louisville, where it was mustered out 
August 1, 1864. The regiment was most 
actively engaged at the siege of Atlanta, 
where it was under fire from the rebels 
for 81 days. The gallant Fifteenth will 
long be honored by the grateful people of 
Iowa for its faithful service of three years 
and a half in the heart of the rebellion. 
Of 1,196 men, 58 were killed, 211 died, 
306 were discharged, 416 were wounded, 
1 were missing, 83 were captured, and 27 
were transferred. 

Thb Sixteenth Infantet was organ- 
ized under the first call of 1861, and was 
at that time supposed to be the last Iowa 
would be called upon to furnish. But the 
war was only begun, and Iowa was des- 
tined to furnish more troops after the 
Sixteenth than before. As organized, the 
Sixteenth had Alexander Chambers for 
Colonel; A. H. Sanders, of Davenport, for 
Lieutenant-Colonel; and William Purcell, 
of Muscatine, for Major. It was mus- 
tered into the service of the United States 
at Davenport, December 10, 1861. 

The Sixteenth was in the battles of 
Shiloh, siege of Corinth, luka, Corinth, 
Kenesaw Mountain, Nickajack Creek, and 
the various battles arouiid Atlanta; in 
Sherman's campaigns, and those in the 

Carolinas. Its first battle was the bloodiest 
of the war — Shiloh; and that they behaved 
so well under their first fire, showed that 
they were good men. After the battle of 
Shiloh, the "Iowa Brigade" was formed, 
of which the Sixteenth ever after formed a 
part. This "Iowa Brigade" was most 
highly praised by the Inspector-General of 
the Seventeenth Array Corp-, who de- 
clared in his oflicial report that he had 
never seen a finer looking body of men, in 
any respect. In the battle before Atlanta, 
the greater part of the regiment was cap- 
tured, and remained in captivity two 
months. The Sixteenth was mustered out 
July 19, 1865, at Louisville. Of its 819 
oflicers and men, 62 were killed, 255 died, 
211 were discharged, 311 were wounded, 
14 were missing, 257 were captured, and 
29 were transferred. 

The Seventeenth Infantry was raised 
during the spring of 1862, and organized 
with John W. Rankin, of Keokuk, as 
Colonel; D. B. Hillis, of Keokuk, as 
Lieutenant-Colonel; and Samuel M. Wise, 
of Mt. Pleasant, as Major. It was mus- 
tered into the service of the United 
States at Keokuk, April 16, 1862. 

The Seventeenth was in the siege of 
Corinth, the battles of luka, Corinth, Jack- 
son, Champion Hills, Fort Hill, siege of 
Vicksburg, Mission Ridge, and Tilton, 
Ga., where most of the regiment were 
made prisoners of war, October 13, 1864. 
The regiment won special commendation 
at the battle of Corinth. Of its 956 mem- 
bers, 45 weie killed, 121 died, 222 were 
discharged, 245 were wounded, 8 were 
missing, 278 were captured, and 28 were 



TuE Eighteenth Infantry, as well as 
the Seventeenth, was not recruited in re- 
sponse to any call of the President, but 
was a free gift from the people of Iowa. 
It was raised in the early summer of 1862, 
and was mustered into the service of the 
United States at Clinton, August 5, 6 and 
1, 1862, with John Edwards, of Chariton, 
as Colonel; T. Z. Cook, of Cedar Rapids, 
as Lieutenant-Colonel; Hugh J. Campbell, 
of Muscatine, as Major. It was engaged 
in the battles of Springfield, Moscow, 
Poison Spring, Ark., and others. Much of 
its time was spent in garrison duty, west 
of the Mississippi, and therefore it did not 
share in the brilliant honors of the great 
battles east of that river. Had oppor- 
tunity offered, no doubt they would have 
assaulted VicVsburg, or fought above the 
clouds on Lookout Mountain, as bravely 
as any troops in the Union. It was mus- 
tered out July 20, 1865, at Little Rock, 
Arkansas. Of 875 officers and men, 28 
were killed, 122 died, 2.33 were discharged, 
79 were wounded, 63 were captured, and 
15 were transferred. 

Thb Nineteenth Infantry was the 
first regiment organized under President 
Lincoln's call of July 2, 1862, made when 
the cause of the Union looked most 
gloomy. It was mustered into the United 
States service August 17, 1862, at Keokuk, 
with Benjamin Crabb, of Washington, as 
Colonel; Samuel McFarland, of Mt. Pleas- 
ant, as Lieutenant-Colonel; and Daniel 
Kent, of Ohio, as Major. 

The regiment served faithfully at Prai- 
rie Grove, Vicksburg, in the Yazoo river 
expeilition, at Sterling Farm, and at Span- 
ish Fort. At Sterling Farm, September 

29, 1863, most of the regiment surrend- 
ered, after a hard fight. They were ex- 
changed July 22d of the following year, 
when they rejoined their regiment at New 
Orleans. The Nineteenth was mustered 
out at Mobile, Ala., July 18, 1865. Of 985 
men and officers, 58 were killed, 133 died, 
191 were discharged, 198 were wounded, 
216 were captured, and 43 were transferred. 

The Twentieth Inf.'vntrt was the sec- 
ond of the twenty-two regiments raised in 
Iowa under the call of July 2, 1862. The 
regiment was raised within two counties, 
Linn and Scott, each of which contributed 
five companies, and which vied with each 
other in patriotism. Wm. McE Dye, of 
Marion, Linn county, was commissioned 
Colonel; J. B. Leek, of Davenport, Lieut- 
Colonel; and Wm. G. Thompson, of Ma- 
rion, Major. The muster-in took place at 
Clinton, August 25, 1862. The Twentieth 
fought at Prairie Grove and at Ft. Blakely. 
Though not engaged in prominent battles, 
it performed valuable garrison duties on 
the southern coast. It was on Mustang 
Island, off the coast of Texas, seven months. 
Was mustered out at Mobile, Ala., July 8, 
1865, and on its return home received a 
royal welcome from Iowa's citizens. Of 
925 officers and men in the Twentieth, 9 
were killed, 144 died, 166 were discharged, 
52 were wounded, 13 were captured and 
39 were transferred. 

The Twentt-Fiest Infantry was raised 
in August, 1862, with Samuel Merrill (ex- 
Governor of Iowa) as Colonel; Cornelius 
W. Dunlap, of Mitchell, as Lieut-Colonel; 
S. F. Van Anda, of Delhi, as Major; and 
was mustered into the service of the 

-5 C 



United States August 18, 20, 22 and 23, 
except one company, which had been mus- 
tered in June The Twenty-first was en- 
gaged at Hartsville, Mo., Black River 
Bridge, Fort Beauregard, siege of VicliS- 
burg, and battles of Mobile and Fort 
Blakely. For nearly a year the regiment 
served in Missouri, where it distinguished 
itself by the well-fought battle of Harts- 
ville. Then it fought in Mississippi, in 
Louisiana, in Texas, in Louisiana again, in 
Arkansas, in Tennessee, in Louisiana once 
more, and in Alabama. In the battle of 
Fort Gib on, this and several other Iowa 
regiments were prominent. The Twenty- 
first was mustered out at Baton Rouge, La„ 
July 15, 1865. Of its 980 officers and men, 
.39 were killed, 192 died, 159 were dis- 
charged, 161 were wounded, 2 were miss- 
ing, 21 were captured, and 56 were trans- 

The Twenty-Second Intantrt was or- 
ganized in August, 1862, with Wm. M. 
Stone, of Knoxville (formerly Major of 
the Third Infantry, and since Governor of 
Iowa), as Colonel; John A, Garrett, of 
Newton, as Lieut. Colonel; Harvey Gra- 
ham, of Iowa City, as Major; and was mus- 
tered into the United States seivice at Iowa 
City, September 10, 1862. 

The Twenty-second served in many of 
the Sfiutliern States, and was engaged at 
Vick.sburg, Tompson's Hills, in Sherman's 
campaign to Jackson, at Winchester, Fish- 
er's Hill, and Cedar Creek. The regiment 
particularly distinguished itself in an as- 
sault upon the enemy's works at Vicks- 
burg, and in the battle of Winchester, in 
the Shenandoah Valley, where it lost 109 
men. In the Vicksbnrg assault, the regi- 

ment lost 164 men. General Grant says 
in that assault, only Sergeant Griffith and 
11 privates (of the Twenty-second,) suc- 
ceeded in entering the fort. Of these, 
only the Sergeant and one man returned. 
Altogether, there were 30 Iowa regiments 
concerned in the siege of Vicksburg. The 
regiment was mustered out at Savannah, 
Ga., July 25, 1865. Of 1,008 members, 58 
were killed, 182 died, ^.61 were discharged, 
267 were wounded, 84 were captured, and 
42 were transferred. 

The Twexty-Thied Infantry was or- 
ganized with William Dewey, of Fremont 
county, as Colonel; W. H. Kinsman, of 
Council Blufi's, as Lieut.-Colonel; S. L. 
Glasgow, of Corydon, as Major; and was 
mustered into the service of the United 
States at DesMoines, September J 9, 1862. 
The regiment was engaged at Vicksburg, 
Port Gibson, Black River, Champion Hills, 
Jackson, Milliken's Bend, and Ft. Blakely. 
The Twenty-third are the acknowledged 
heroes of the battle of Black River Bridge, 
and the equal sharers with other troops of 
the honors of many battle-fields At Black 
River but a few minutes were used in as- 
saulting and carrying the rebel works, but 
those few were fought with fearful loss to 
the Twenty-third Iowa. After the success- 
ful fight, in which the Twenty-first also 
took part, Gen. Lawler passed down the 
line and shook every man's hand, so great 
was his emotion. Gen. Grant called it a 
brilliant and daring movement. It was 
mustered out at Harrisburg, Texas, July 
26, 1865. Of its 961 officers and men, 41 
were killed, 233 died, 181 were discharged, 
135 were wounded, 3 were captured, and 42 




The Twenty-Foukth Infantry, called 
" The Iowa Temperance regiment," was 
raised by Eber C. Byarn, of Linn county, 
and consisted of men who were pledged to 
abstain from the u-e of liquor in any shape. 
Eber C. Byarn, of Mt Vernon, was Colonel; 
John Q. Wilds, of Mt Vernon, Lieutenant- 
Colonel; Ed. Wright, of Springdale, as 
Major. The regiment was mustered 
into the service of the United States at 
Muscatine, September 18, 1862. The regi- 
ment was engaged at Fort Gibson, Cham- 
pion Hills, General Banks' Red river ex- 
pedition, Winchester, Fisbtr's Hill and 
Cedar Creek. The battles in which the 
Twenty-fourth took the nnst prominent 
part were those of Sabine Cross Roads (in 
the Re'd river expedition) and Fisher's 
Hill. Of 979 men and officers, 56 were 
killed, 259 died, 205 were discharged, 260 
were wounded, 2 were missing, 76 were 
captured and 55 were transferred. 

TpK Twenty-Fifth Infantry was or- 
ganized near the beautiful little city of 
Mt. Pleasant, with George A. Stone, of 
Mt. Pleasant, as Colonel; Fabian Bry- 
dolph as Lieutenant-Colonel; and Calom 
Taylor, of B!oomfield, as Major. Was 
mustered into the United States service, 
atMt. Pleasant, September 27, 1862. The 
regiment was engaged at Arkansas Post, 
Vicksburg, Walnut BluflP, Chattanooga, 
Campain, Ringgold, Resaca, Dallas, Kena- 
saw Mountain, battles around Atlanta, 
Lovejoy Station, Jonesboro, Ships Gap, 
Bentonville and was with Sherman on his 
march through Georgia and the Carolinas, 
to Richmond and Washington. The cap- 
ture of Columbia, the capital of the chief 
disloyal State, was effected by Iowa troops. 

among which were those of the Twenty- 
fifth. The regiment was mustered out at 
Washington, D. C , June 6, 1865. Of 995 
men and ofSoers, -39 were k lied, 223 died, 
140 were discharged, 183 were wounded, 4 
were missing, 18 were captured and 71 
were transferred. 

Tub Twenty-Sixth Infantry was or- 
ganized near the city of Clinton. Milo 
Smith, of Clinton, was Colonel; S. G. 
Magill, of Lyons, was Lieutenant-Colonel; 
Samuel Clark, of De Witt, was Major; and 
the regiment was mustered in at Clinton, 
in August of 1862. The regiment was 
engaged at Arkansas Post, Vicksburg, 
Snake Creek Gip, Ga., Resaca, Dallas, 
Kenesaw Mountain, Decatur, siege of At- 
lanta, Ezra Church, Jonesboro, Lovejoy 
Station, Ship's Gap, in Sherman's cam- 
paign to Savannah and home through the 
Carolinas. The regiment took part in 
many great battles, and did faithful service 
all through the war, after winning com- 
mendations from its Generals. On the re- 
turn home, the regimental flag was depos- 
ited with the State archives, inscribed in 
golden colors with the names of the battles 
and victories in which they had shared. 
It was mustered out of the service at 
Washington, D. C, June 6, 1865. Of 919 
men and officers, 44 were killed, 244 died, 
147 were discharged, 165 were wounded, 
27 were captured and 70 were transferred. 

The Twenty-Seventh Infantry was 
recruited in the northern part of Iowa, and 
was organized with James I. Gilbert, of 
Lansing, as Colonel; Jed. Lake, of Inde- 
pendence, as Lieutenant-Colonel; and G. 
W. Howard, of Bradford, as Major. It 


-^-^ v> 



was mustered into the service of the United 
States at Dubuque, October 3, 1862. The 
Twenty-seventh was engaged at Little 
Rock, Ark., the battles of the Red river 
expedition, Fort De Russey, Pleasant Hill, 
Yellow Bayou, Tupelo, Old Town Creek 
and Fort Blakely. This regiment had 
varied experience in the matter of climate; 
for their first active service was in Minne- 
sota, while before the war was over they 
made a voyage on the gulf, from the 
Balize to Mobile Bay. After faithful ser- 
vice through the rest of the war, the regi- 
ment was mustered out August 8, 1865, at 
Clinton, Iowa. Of 940 officers and men, 
9 were killed, 183 died, 207 were dis- 
charged, 142 wounded, 6 were missing, 32 
were captured and 47 were transferred. 

Thb Tv7entt-Eighth Infantry was 
organized during the autumn of 1862, with 
the following officers: \Vm. E Miller, of 
Iowa City, Colonel; John Connell, of To- 
ledo, Lieutenant-Colonel; and H.B Lynch, 
of Millersburg, as Major. The regiment 
was engaged at Port Gibson, Jackson and 
siege of Vicksburg; was in Bank's Red 
river expedition, and fought at Sabine 
Cross Roads, in the Shenandoah Valley, 
at Winchester, Fisher's Hill and Cedar 
Creek. In this last the regiment was most 
prominently engaged. During its service 
it fought a dozen battles, and traveled well- 
nigh the entire circuit of the Confederacy. 
The Twenty-eighth was mustered out of 
the service at Savannah, Ga., July 31,1865. 
Of its 956 officers and men, 56 were killed, 
111 died, 187 were discharged, 262 were 
wounded, 10 were missing, 93 were cap- 
tured and 44 were transferred. 

The Twenty-Ninth Infantry was or- 
ganized at Council Bluffs and mustered 
into the service of the United States, 
December 1, 1862, with Thomas H. Ben- 
ton, Jr , of Council Bluffs, as Colonel; R. 
F. Patterson, of Keokuk, as Lieutenant- 
Colonel; and Charles B, Shoemaker, of 
Clarinda, as Major. 

The Twenty-ninth was engaged at 
Helena, Arkansas Post, Terre Noir, and 
Spanish Fort. Though it was one of the 
best disciplined and bravest regiments in 
the war, it was long kept from participa- 
tion in active service by being stationed 
in Arkansas The regiment was mustered 
out at New Orleans, August 15, 1865, Of 
a total of 1,005 officers and men, 21 were 
killed, 268 died, 132 were discharged, 107 
were wounded, 1 was missing, 65 were 
captured and 37 were transferred. 

The Thirtieth Infantry was organ- 
ized in the summer of 1862, with Charles 
B. Abbott, of Louisa county, as Colonel; 
William M. G. Torrence, of Keokuk, as 
Lieut -Colonel; Lauren Dewey,of Mt. Pleas- 
ant, as Major; was mustered into the ser- 
vice of the United States at Keokuk, Sep- 
tember 23, 1862. The regiment was 
engaged at Arkansas Post, Yazoo Cily, 
Vicksburg, Cherokee, Ala., Chattanooga, 
Ringgold, Resacka, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Atlanta, Lovejoy Station, Jonesboro and 
Taylor's Ri<lge; accompanied Sherman in 
his campaign to Savannah and through the 
Carolinas to Richmond, and was in the 
grand review at Washington, D. C. The 
Thirtieth was in the thickest of the war, 
and came home loaded with honors, leav- 
ing its honored dead on a score of battle- 
fields. It was mustered out June 5, 1865. 







Of 978 officers and men in this regiment, 
44 were killed, 264 died, 145 were dis- 
charged, 22-2 were wounded, 2 were miss- 
ing, 19 were captured, and 48 were trans- 

TuE TniRTY-FiRST Infantkt was or- 
ganized in the summer of 1862, with 
William Smyth, of Marion, as Colonel; 
J. W. Jenkins, of Maquoketa, as Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel; and Ezekiel Cutler, of Ana- 
mosa, as Major. It was mustered into the 
service of the United States at Davenport, 
October 13, 1862. 

. The Thirty-first was engaged at Chicka- 
saw Bayou, Arkansas Post, Raymond, 
Jackson, Black River, Vicksburg, Chero- 
kee, Lookout Mountain, Mission Ridge, 
Einggpld, Taylor's Hills, Snake Creek 
Gap, liesaca, Dallas, New Hope Church, 
Big Shanty, Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta 
and Jonesboro; was in Sherman's cam- 
paign through Georgia and the Carolinas, 
and was mustered out at Louisville, Ky., 
June 27, 1865. The regiment always did 
its part nobly. It was received home with 
speeches, feasting, etc., but the people's 
joy was tempered with sadness, as the 
regiment had gone forth 1,000 strong, and 
returned with 370. But had not so many 
regiments returned with thinned ranks, the 
Rebellion had not been conquered — the 
Union had not been saved. Of 977 officers 
and men, 13 were killed, 279 died, 176 
were discharged, 85 were wounded, 13 
were captured, and 72 were transferred. 

The Thiety-Second Infantry was or- 
ganized in the fall of 1862, with John 
Scott, of Nevada, as Colonel; E. II. Mix, 
of Shell Rock, as Lieutenant-Colonel; and 

G. A Eberhart, of Waterloo, as Major. 
The regiment was mustered into the ser- 
vice of the United States at Dubuque, 
October 5, 1862. The regiment was en- 
gaged at Fort De Russey, Pleasant Hill, 
Tupelo, Old Tower Creek, Nashville and 
other battles. For some time the regi- 
ment was separated, and the detachments 
in different fields, but at last they were all 
united, and the regiment served as a unit. 
It was mustered out at Clinton, Iowa, 
August 24, 1805. Of 925 officers and men, 
59 were killed, 242 died, 174 were dis- 
charged, 142 were wounded, 98 were cap- 
tured, and 35 were transferred. 

The Thirty-Third Infantry was or- 
ganized in the fall of 1862, with Samuel 
A. Rice, a popular politician of Central 
Iowa, as Colonel; Cyrus H. Maskey, of 
Sigourney, as Lieutenant-Colonel; Hiram 
D. Gibson, of Knoxville, as Major; and 
was mustered into the service of the 
United States at Oskaloosa, October 1, 
1862 The regiment was engaged at Little 
Rock, Helena, Saline River, Spanish Fort 
and Yazoo Pass. The regiment worked 
to best advantage at the brilliant victory 
of Helena. It remained in Arkansas till 
the early part of 1865, when it moved 
south to take part in the closing scenes in 
Alabama. The Thirty-third was mustered 
out of service at New Orleans, July 17, 
1865. Of 985 men and officers, 26 were 
killed, 241 died, 145 were discharged, 177 
were wounded, 7 were missing, 74 were 
captured, and 32 were transferred. 

The Thirty- Fourth Infantry was 
organized in the fail of 1862, with Ge rge 
W. Clarke, of Indianola, as Colonel; W. 

'S— 4>_ 




S. Duiigan, of Chariton, as Litnitenant- 
Colonel; R. D. Kellogg, of Decatur, as 
Major; and was mustered into the service 
of the United States at Burlington, Octo- 
1hm-15, 1862. 

The regiment was engaged at Arkansas 
Post, Fort Gaines and other places in 
Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi and Ala- 
bama. January 1, 1865, the regiment was 
consolidat' d with the Thirty-eighth. Re- 
cruits from the Twenty-first and Twenty- 
third had bren, on the muster-out of those 
regiments, transferred to theThirty-fourth, 
and this regiment had a total of 1,131 offi- 
cers and mtn at its muster-out at Houston, 
Texas, August 15, 1865. Of 953 properly 
belonging to this regiment, 4 were killed, 
234 died, 314 were discharged, 16 were 
wounded, 4 were captured and 22 were 
transferred. The regiment traveled over 
15.000 miles in its service. 

The Thiett-Fifth Infantry was re- 
cruited in the summer of 1862, and mus- 
tered into the service of the United States, 
at Muscatine, September 18, with S. G. 
Hill, of Muscatine, as Colonel; James S. 
Rothrock, of Muscatine, as Lieutenant- 
Colonel, and Henry O'Conner, of Musca- 
tine, as MHJor. 

The regiment participated in the battles 
of Jackson, siege of Vicksburg, Bayou 
Rapids, Bayou de Glaze, Pleasant Hill, 
Old River Lake, Tupelo, Nashville and 
the Mobile campaign. The Thirty-fifth 
served bravely in a dozen battles, and 
traveled 10,000 miles. On its return home, 
it was greeted with a most hearty recep- 
tion, and a reunion of old soldiers. The 
regiment was mustered out at Davenport, 
.August 10, 1805, and paid and disbanded 

at Muscatine six days later. Of 984 offi- 
cers and men, 38 were killed, 208 died, 192 
were discharged, 95 were wounded, 3 were 
missing, 15 were captured and 65 were 

The TiiiRTT-SixTH Infantry was or- 
ganized in the summer of 1862, with 
Charles W. Kittredge, of Ottumwa, as 
Colonel; F. M. Drake, of Unionville, 
Appanoose county, as Lieutenant-Colonel, 
and T. C. Woodward, of Otturawa, as 
Major. The regiment was mustered into 
the service of the United States, at Keo- 
kuk, October 4, 1862. 

The Thirty-sixth was engaged at Mark's 
Mills Ark., Elkins' Ford, Camden, Helena, 
Jenkins' Ferry and other places during the 
"Little Rock expedition." The regiment 
suffered greatly from sickness Before it 
was fully organized, even, small-pox and 
nieasels attacked the men, and the com- 
mand lost 100 men. Then it was obliged 
to encounter the malarial fluences of Yazoo 
river and Helena. Before they recovered 
their vigor fully, more of them were forced 
to surrender to the rebels. The regiment 
was mustered out at Duvall's Bluflf, Ark , 
August 24, 1865. Of 986 officers and men, 
35 were killed, 258 died, 191 were dis 
charged, 166 were wounded, 460 were cap- 
tured and 24 were transferred 

The Thirty-Seventh Infantry was 
generally known as the "Gray-beard Reg- 
iment." It was composed of men over 45 
years of age, and hence not subject to 
military service, but their patriotism in- 
duced them to enlist, and the services of 
the regiment were accepted by the Secre- 
tary of War, for post and garrison service. 



It was organized with George W. Kincaid, 
of Muscatine, as Colonel; Geo. R. West, 
of Dubuque, as Lieutenant-Colonel, and 
Lyman Allen, of Iowa City, as Major. The 
muster-in took place at Muscatine, Decem- 
ber 15, 1862. 

The regiment served at St. Louis in 
guard of military prisons, then on the line 
of the Pacific railway, then at Alton, 111. 
Here they remained guarding the rebel 
prisoners till January, 1864, when they 
moved to Rock Island to perform similar 
duties until June 5. They served the next 
three months, in very hot weather, at 
Miniphis. Thence the command moved 
to Indianapolis. From here five companies 
went to Cincinnati, three to Columbus and 
two to Gallipolis, Ohio At these posts 
they remained till May, 1865 This "Gray- 
b( ard Regiment" was the only one of its 
kind in the war, and it received many 
favorable expressions from commanding 
officers under whom it served. It was 
mustered out %'ay 24, 1865, the day of the 
grand review at Washington. The Thirty- 
sevenih was the first Iowa three-years' 
regiment to come home, and was mustered 
out thus early by special request of General 
Wiliich, in whose brigade they were, in 
or. er that they raigJit save their crops, most 
of them being farmers. Of 914 officers 
and men, 3 were killed, 145 died, 369 were 
discharged, 2 were wounded, none were 
missing and none captured. 

The Thiett-Eighth Infantry was re- 
cruited in August, 186 ', and mustered into 
the service of the United States at Pu- 
buque, November 4, with D. H. Hughes, 
of Decorah, as Colonel; J. O. Hudmitt, of 
Waverly, as Lieut -Colonel; and Charles 

Chadwick, of West Union, as Major. 
The regiment participated in the siege 
of Vicksburg and Banks' Red River expe- 
dition, and was consolidated with thie 
Thirty-fourth Infantry, January 1, 1865. 
Of all Iowa's regiments, the Thirtj-eighth 
was most unfortunate in regard to sick- 
ness. It had not been in the service two 
years when more than 300 enlisted men 
and a number of officers had died of 
disease. Duiing the same period 100 had 
been discharged for inability. There were 
long weary weeks when there were not 
enough well men to take care of the sick — 
not even enough to bury the dead. It was 
at last obliged to give up its own existence. 
Though the regiment bad not had an op- 
portunity to achieve brilliant renown in 
the field, it did fulfill a no less honored 
destiny than many whose banners were 
covered with the names of battles. It did 
all that men could do — it gave itself up 
for the good of the service. Of its 910 
men, 1 was killed, 314 died, 120 were dis- 
charged, 2 were wounded and 14 were 

The Tittrtt-Ninth Infantry was or- 
ganized with H. J. B. Cummings, of Win- 
terset, as Colonel; James Rcdfield, of 
Redfit'ld, Dallas county, as Lieutenant- 
Colonel; and J. M. GriffiLhs, of DesMoines, 
as Major. 

The regiment was engaged at Parker's 
Cross Roads, Tenn., Corinth, Allatoona, 
Ga , Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta^ 
and was in Slierman's march to the sea, 
and through the Carolinas to Richmond. 
The regiment was one of the most distin- 
guished in the field, and met with a royal 
welcome from the warm hearted people 



of Iowa, on its return home. It had pre- 
viously taken part in the grand review at 
WaHhiiigton. It was mustered out at 
Washington, June 5, 1865, and was dis- 
banded at Clinton, Iowa. Of its 933 officers 
and men, 41 were killed, 143 died, 123 
were discharged, 113 were wounded, 206 
were captured and 16 were transferred. 

The Fortieth Infantry was the high- 
est in numerical order of Iowa's three- 
year's regiments, but not the last to leave 
the State. Thiee or four other regimental 
organizations, too, were commenced, but 
not completed. Some 300 men were 
enlisted for the Forty-first, who united 
with the three companies of the • Four- 
teenth, stationed at Fort Eaudall, Dakota 
Territory; another regiment, to be called 
the Forth-second, was attempted, with 
camp at Dubuque; and still another, at 
Oltumwa, was to be called the Forty- 
third. These attempts were unsuccessful 
in 80 far as the complete formation of an 
infantry regiment after the Fortieth was 
concerned. The Fortieth was organized 
at Iowa City, November 15, 1862, with 
John A. Garrett, of Newton, as Colonel; 
S. F. Cooper, of Grinnell, as Lieutenant- 
Colonel; and S. G. Smith, of Newton, as 

The regiment participated in the siege 
of Vicksbuig, Steele's expedition, Bank's 
Red River exi)Ldition, and the bailie of 
Jenkins' Ferry. It was called the "Cop- 
perhead Regiment," by political partisans, 
but it bore its share of the fatigues of war 
in a patriotic way that might have been 
emulated by some of their polilical ene- 
mies The fact is, moreover, the regiment 
always gave a small Republican majority, 

though the contrary was believed for a 
time. The Fortieth was mustered out at 
Port Gibson, August 2, 1865. Of 900 offi- 
cers and men, 5 were killed, 196 died, 
134 were discharged, 43 were wounded, 3 
were captured, and 26 were transferred. 

The F'oett-First Infantey was never 
completed as an infantry regiment. It con- 
tained tliree companies Its infantry or- 
ganization was under the command of John 
Pattee, of Iowa City. Under authority 
from the War Department, these three 
companies became K, L and M of the Sev- 
enth Cavalry. 

Tub Forty - Fourth Infantry was 
raised in the summer of 1864. Generals 
Grant and Sherman being aciively en- 
gaged with large armies against ihu enemy, 
the Governors of the Northwestern States 
proposed to the authorities of the War 
Department to send into the tield a consid- 
erable number of troops for a short term 
of service, who might relieve others on 
guard and garrison duty at the rear, and 
thus be the means of adding largely to the 
force of drilled and disoii)liued men at the 
front. This proposition was, after a time, 
accepted, and the term of service was es- 
tablished at KO days. Gov. Stone accord- 
ingly issued his proclamation calling for 
such troops, and the citizens responded 
with four regiments and one battalion. 
Because commissions had been issued to 
persons designated as officers of the Forty- 
tiist. Forty-second and Forty-third Regi- 
ments, which were never organized, how- 
ever, although considerable was done in 
the way of their formation, the number of 
the regiments of 100 days' men commenced 


— < s 




with Forty-four. This regiment was under 
the command of Colonel Stephen H. Hen- 
dereon, and was mustered in at Davenport, 
June 1, 1864. 

The regiment did garrison duty at 
Memphis and La Grange, Tenn., and was 
mustered out at Davenport, September 15, 
1864. Of 867 officers and men in the 
Forty fourth, 1 was killed and 18 died. 
■ There were no other casualties. 

The Forty-Fifth Infantry was mus- 
tered in at Keokuk, May 25, 1864, with 
A. J. Bereman, of Mt. Pleasant, as Colonel; 
S. A. Moore, of Bloomfield, as Lieutenant- 
Colonel; and J. B. Hope, of Washington, 
as Major. This was the first of the 
regiments of 100 days' men organized; 
it even preceded the Forty-fourth. it 
perftrmed garrison duty in Tennessee, 
and was mustered out at Keokuk, Septem- 
ber 16, 1864 Of 912 officers and men, 2 
were killed, 19 died, 1 wounded, and 2 
were transferred. 

The Forty-Sixth Infantry was organ- 
ized with D. B. Henderson, of Clermont, 
as Colonel; L. D. Durbin, of Tipton, as 
Lieutenant-Colonel; and G. L. Tarbet as 
Major. It was mustered in at Dubuque, 
June 10, 1864. 

The Forty-sixth performed garrison 
duty in Tennessee, and was mustered out 
at Davenport, September 23, 1864. Of its 
892 officers and men, 2 were killed, 24 
died, 1 was wounded, and 3 were captured. 

The Forty- Seventh Infantry was 
mustered into the service of the United 
States at Davenport, June 1, 1364, with 
James P. Sanford, of Oskaloosa, as Colo- 

nel; John Williams, of Iowa City, as 
Lieutenant-Colonel; and G. J. Wright, of 
Des Moines, as Major. 

This regiment was stationed at the 
sickly place of Helena, Arkansas, where 
many succumbed to disease. Of 884 
officers and men, 1 was killed, 46 died, and 
1 was transferred. 

The Forty Eighth Infantry (Bat- 
talion) was mustered into the United 
States service at D.ivenport, July 13, 1864, 
with O. H. P. Scott, of Farmington, as 
Lieutenant-Colonel. The battalion served 
its time guarding rebel prisoners on Rock 
Island, in the Mississippi river, opposite 
Davenport. It was mustered out at Rock 
Island barracks, October 21, 1864. Of 346 
officers and men, 4 died and 4 were trans- 
ferred The services of these lOO-days' men 
were of great value to the national cause. 
They were acknowledged by the President 
of the United States, in a special execu- 
tive order, returning his hearty thanks to 
officers and men. 

The First Cavalry was organized in 
the spring of 1861, with Fritz Henry War- 
ren, of Burlington, as Colonel; Charles E. 
Ml 88 of Keokuk, as Lieutenant-Colonel; 
E. W. Chamberlain, of Burlington, James 
O. Gower, of Iowa City, and W. M. G. 
Torrence, of Keokuk, as Majors. 

The regiment was engaged at Pleasant 
Hill, Mo , R ilia, New Lexington, Elkin's 
Ford, Little Ruck, HayouMetoe, Warrens- 
bur-, Big Creek Hlulfs, Antwineville, and 
Clear Crei k. The regiment veteranized 
in the spring of 1864. It did not take the 
usual 30 diiys' furlough until May, for their 
services were needed in the field, and they 



gallantly volunteered to remain. After 
the war was closed the First served in 
Texas, with Gen. Custer, until its muster- 
out, February 15, 186G. Of 1,478 officers 
and men, 43 were killed, 215 died, 207 
■were discharged, 88 were wounded, 2 
were missing, 22 were captured, and 39 
were transferred. 

The Second Cavalry was organized 
with W. L. Elliott, a Captain in the third 
cavalry of the regular army, as Colonel; 
Edward Hatch, of Muscatine, as Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel; and N. P. Hepburn, of Mar- 
shalltown, D. E. Coon, of Mason City, 
and H. W. Love, of Iowa City, as Majors. 
The regiment was mustered in at Daven- 
port, September 1, 1861. 

The Second participated in the siege of 
Corinth, the battles of Farmington, Boone- 
ville, Rienzi, Iiika, Corinth, Coffeeville, 
Palo Alto, Birmingham, Jackson, Grenada, 
CoUierviile, Moscow, Pontotoc, Tupelo, 
Old Town, Oxford and Nashville. The 
regiment performed active and arduous 
service all through the war, and so often 
distinguished itself as to become well 
known throughout the nation. It was 
mustered out at Selma, Ala., September 
19, 1865. Of its 1,394 officers and men, 
41 were killed, 224 died, 147 were dis- 
charged, 173 were wounded, 10 were 
missing, 74 were captured and 42 were 

The Third Cavalry was mustered in at 
Keokuk, August and September, 1861, 
with Cyius Bussey, of Bloomiiehl, as 
Colonel; H. H. Trimble, of Bloomfield, as 
Lieutenant-Colonel; and C. H. Perry, II. 
C. Caldwell and W. C. Drake, of Cory- 

don, as Majors. The Third was engaged 
at Pea Ridge, La Grange, Sycamore, near 
Little Rock, Columbus, Pope's Farm, Big 
Blue, Ripley, Cold water, Osage, Talla- 
hatchie, Moore's Mill, near Montevallo, 
near Independence, Pine Bluff, Botl's 
Farm, Gun Town, White's Station, Tupelo 
and Village Creek. The regiment was 
raised by Hon. Cyrus Bussey, who, in his 
call for volunteers, requested each man to 
bring with him a good cavalry horse to 
sell to the Government. In two weeks he 
had a thousand men well mounted, in the 
rendesvous at Keokuk. In order to still 
further hasten matters, Colonel Bussey 
personally contracted in Chic.ig'> for 
equipments. In this way the delay exper- 
ienced by other regiments in preparing for 
the field was entirely avoided Tiie regi- 
ment took an active part in many battles 
and raids, and always behaved with dis- 
tinguished gallantry. Was mustered out 
at Atlanta, Ga., August 9, 1865. Of 1,360 
officers and men, 65 were killed, 251 died, 
311 were discharged, 166 were wounded 
1 was missing, 146 were captured and 34 
were transferred. 

The Fourth Cavalry was organized 
and mustered into the service of the 
United States at Mt. Pleasant, November 
21, 1861, with Asbury B. Porter, of Mt 
Pleasant, as Colonel; Thomas Drummond, 
of Vinton, as Lieutenant-Colonel; and S. 
D. Swan, of Mt. Pleasant, J. E. Jewett, of 
DesMoines, and G. A. Stone, of Mt. 
Pleasant, as Majors. The Fourth fought 
bravely, and lost men at every one of the 
following engiigements: Gun Town, Miss., 
Helena, Bear Creek, Memphis, Town 
Creek, Columbus, Mechanicsburg, Little 



Blue river, Brownsville, Ripley, Black 
River Bridge, Grenada, Tupelo, Yazoo 
River, White River, Osage, Lock Creek, 
Okalona, and St. Francis River. The 
Fourth was one of the bravest and most 
successful regiments in the field, and 
its services were of the utmost value to 
the Union arms. It was mustered out 
at Atlanta, Ga.. August 10, 1865. Of 
1,227 officers and men, 4-4 were killed, 
207 died, 241 were discharged, 119 were 
wounded, 3 were missing, 94 were cap- 
tured, and 35 were transferred. 

TuE Fifth Cavalry was but in part an 
Iowa regiment. The States of Minnesota 
and lUissouri and the Territory of Ne- 
braska were largely represented; but as 
-Iowa had the most, it was designated as an 
Iowa regiment. It was organized and 
mustered into the service at Omaha, with 
Wm. W. Lowe, of the regular army, as 
Colonel; M. T. Patrick, of Omaha, as Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel; and Carl Schaefferde Bern- 
stein, a German baron, Wm. Kelsay and 
Alfred B. Braekett as Majors. This regi- 
ment was engaged at the second battle of 
Fort Donelson, Wartrace, Duck River 
Bridge, Sugar Creek, Ne wman,Camp Creek, 
Cumberland works, Tenn., Jonesboro, Ebe- 
nezer Church, Lockbridge's Mills, Pulaski 
and Cheraw. The gallant Fifth was in 
many situations requiring the greatest 
coolnes and courage, and always acquitted 
itself with high honor. At one time the 
regiment was surrounded by rebels, and 
the Colonel in charge of the brigade had 
escaped with two other regiments to the 
Union lines, reporting the Fifth all killed 
or captured. But the result was far from 
that. At the critical tim ■ the brave M,)jor 

Young, afterward the Colonel of the regi- 
ment, thundered out in the still night air, 
"The Fifth Iowa is going straight through; 
let the brave follovv!" Then came the 
single word of command, "Forward ! " and 
when they reached the rebel lines, 
"Ch irge ! " Fifteen hundred troopers 
dashed at full speed over the bodies of 
the surprised rebels, and escaped to the 
Union lines with the loss of but 15 men. 
The regiment was finally mustered out at 
Nashville, Tenn, August 11, 1865. Of 
its 1,245 officers and men, 47 were killed, 
141 died, 2 24 were discharged, 56 were 
wounded, 217 were captured and 17 were 

The Sixth Cavalry was organized and 
mustered in at Davenport, January 31, 
1863, with D. S. Wilson, of Dubuque, as 
Colonel; S. M. Pollock, of Dubuque, as 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and T. H. Shepherd, 
of Iowa City, E. P. TenBroeck, of Clin- 
ton, and A. E. House, of Delhi, as Majors 

This regiment was employed on the 
frontier against the Indians, and did excel- 
lent service. Their principal engagement 
was the battle of White Stone Hill, in 
which they severely punished a band of 
hostiles. The Sixth was mustered out at 
Sioux City, October 17, 1865 Of 1,125 
officers and men, 19 were killed, 72 died, 
89 were discharged, 19 were wounded and 
7 were transferred. 

The Seventh Cavalry was organized 
and mustered into the service at Daven- 
port, April 27, 1863, with S. W. Summers, 
of Ottumwa, as Colonel; John Pattee, of 
Iowa City, as Lieutenant-Colonel, and H. 
H. Heath and G. M. O'Rrien, of Dubuque, 
and John S. Wood, of Ottumwa, as Majors 




This regiment also served against the 
Indians in the West. It fought bravely 
in many battles and won the lasting grati- 
tude of the people of the AVcst. It was 
mustered out at Leavenworth, Kan., May 
17, 1866, except Companies K, L and M 
which were mustered out ai Sioux City, 
June 22, 1866. Of its 562 officers and 
men, 41 were killed, 101 died, 252 were 
discharged, 8 were wounded and 9 were 

The Eighth Cavalry was recruited by 
Lieutenant Dorr, of the Twelfth Infantry. 
As the result of his energy, 2,000 were 
soon enlisted for the Eighth. Some 300 
were rejected, 450 were turned over to the 
Ninth Cavalry and about 75 to the Fourth 
Battery. The Eighth was organized with 
Joseph B. Dorr, of Dubuque, as Colonel; 
H. G. Earner, of Sidney, as Lieutenant- 
Colonel; John J. Bowen, of Hopkinton; 
J. D. Thompson, of Eidora, and A. J. 
Price, of Guttenberg, as Majors; and was 
mustered into the United Slates service, 
at Davenport, September 30, 1863. 

This regiment served gallantly in guard 
ing Sherman's communications, and at the 
battles of Lost Mountain, Lovejoy's Sta- 
tion, Newman and Nashville. It partici- 
pated in Stoneman's cavalry raid round 
Atlanta, and Wilson's raid through Ala- 
bama. After the close of hostilities and 
before the muster-out. Col. Dorr died of 
disease. lie was much beloved by his 
command, and highly respected at home, 
where he had been an able editor. The 
Eighth was mustered out at Macon, (la., 
August 13, 1865. Of its 1,234 offieers and 
men, 30 were killed, lOG died, 67 were dis- 

char!red,87 were wounded, 2 were missing, 
259 were captured and 22 were transferred. 

The Ninth Cavalry was the last three 
years' regiment recruited in Iowa. It was 
organized and mustered into the servi'-e of 
the United States, at Davenport, Novem- 
ber 30, 1?63, with M. M. Trumbull, of 
Cedar Falls, as Colonel; J. P. Knight, 
of Mitchell, as Lieutenant-Colonel; E. T. 
Ensign, of DesMoines, Wil is Druramond, 
of McGregor, and William Haddock, of 
Waterloo, as Majors. 

The regiment performed . heavy scout- 
ing, guard and garrison duties in Ar- 
kansas, for the small part of the war after 
it was organized. It was mustered out 
at Little Eock, Ark., February 28, 1866. 
Of its 1,178 officers and men, 6 were 
killed, 178 died, 64 were discharged, 15 
were wounded, 1 was captured and 1 1 
were transferred. 

The First Battery op Light Artil- 
lery was enrolled in the counties of Wa- 
pello, DesMoines, Dubuque, Jefferson, 
Black Hawk and others, and was mustered 
into the service at Burlington, August 17, 
1861, with C. H. Fletcher, of Burlington, 
as Captain ; was engaged at Pea Ridge, 
Port Gibson, in the Atlanta oamp:iigi, at 
Chickasaw Bayou, Lookout Mountain, etc.; 
was mustered out .at Davenport, July 5, 
1865. Of 149 members, 7 were killed, 5'' 
died, 35 were discharged, 31 were wounded 
and 3 transferred. 

The Second Battery enrolled in 
the counties of Dallas, Polk, H.arrison, 
Fremont and Pottawatamie. and mustered 

in at Council BlufFs and at St. Louis, Aug- 

^ ^ 




ust 8 and 31, 18G1, with Nelson I. Spoor, 
of Couucil Bluffs, as Captain. The bat- 
tery was engaged at Farmington, Corinth, 
and other places Was mustered out at 
Davenport, August 7, 1805. Of a total of 
123 officers and men, 1 was killed, 30 died, 
10 were diooharged, 15 were wounded, 1 
was captured, and 6 were transferred. 

The Third Battery was enrolled in 
the counties of Dubuque, Black Ilawk, 
Butlei' and Floyd, and was mustered into 
the service at Dubuque, in September, 
isei, with M. M. Hayden, of Dubuque, as 
Captain. The battery was engaged at Pea 
ll.dge and other important batilts. Was 
mustered out at Davenport, October 23, 
1865. Of 142 officers and men, 3 were 
killed, 3t died, 28 were discharged, and 18 
were wounded. 

The FouRre Battery was enrolled in 
Mahaska, Henry, Mills and Fremont coun- 
ties, and was mustered in at Davenport, 
November 23, 1863. This battery was on 
duty most of the time in Louisiana, but 
did not serve in any important battles. 
Was rausieied out at Davenport, July 14, 
1805. Of 162 officers and men, 6 died, 11 
were discharged, and 1 was transferred. 

The Iowa Regiment of Colored Troops 
was organized and mustered into the ser- 
vice of the United States, October 23, 1863. 
John G. Hudson, Captain Company B, 
Thirty-third Missouri, was Colonel; M. F. 
Collins, cf Keokuk, was Lieut.-Colonel; 
and J. L. Muipliy, of Keokuk, was Major. 
This regiment was afterward the Si.ftieth 
Regiment of United States Colored Trooj-s. 
It was not called upon to tight, but it per 

formed valuable guard and garrison duties 
at St. Louis and elsewhere South. 

The Northern Border Brigade was 
organized by the State of Iowa to protect 
the Northwestern frontier. James A. Saw- 
yer, of Sioux City, was elected Colonel. 
It coueisted of five companies, all enlisted 
from the northwestern counties. 

The Si uthern Border Brigade was 
organized by the State for the purpose of 
protecting the southern border of the State, 
and was organized in the counties on the 
border of Missouri. It consisted of seven 
companies in three battalions. 

The following promotions were made by 
the United States Government from Iowa 
regiments : 


Samuel R. Curtis, Brigadier-General, fr m 
Maich 21, 1863. 

Fredericli Steele, Brigadier-General, from No- 
vember 29, 1863. 

Frank J. Herron, Brigadier-General, from No- 
vember 29, 1862. 

Qrenvillc M. Dodge, Brigadier- General, from 
June 7, 1864. 


Siimuel R. Curtis, Colonel 2d Infantry, from 
May 17, 1861. 

Frederick Steele, Colonel 8th Infantry, from 
February 6, 1863. 

Jacob G. Lanman, Colonel 7th Infantry, from 
March 31, 1863. 

Gienville M. Dodge, Colonel 4th Infantry, 
from Much 31, 1832. 

James M. Tulllc, Colonel 2d Infantry, from 
June 9, 1863. 


.,4' — ^ 




'\Vashingtoti L. Elliot, Colonel 2d Cavalry, 
from June 11, 1862. 

Fitz Tlptiry Warren, Colonel 1st Cavalry, from 
July 6, 1862 

Frank J. Herron, Lieut. -Colonel 9th Infantry, 
from July 30, 1962. 

Cbarles L. Mntthies, Colonel 5lh Infantry, 
from November 29, 1862. 

William Vaudever, Colonel 9th Infantry, from 
November 29, 1862. 

Maroellus M. Crocker, Colonel 13lh Infantry, 
from November 29, 1862 

Hugh T. Reid, Colonel 15th Infantry, from 
March 13, 1863. 

Samuel A. Rice, Colonel 33d Infantry, from 
August 4, 1863. 

John M. Corse, Colonel 6th Infantry, from 
August 11, 1863. 

Cyrus Bussey, Colonel 3d Cavalry, from Jan- 
uary 5, 1864. 

Eclvf iird Hatch, Colonel 2d Cavalry, from April 
27, 1864. 

Elliott W. Rice, Colonel 7th Infantry, from 
June 20, 1864. 

Wm. W. Belknap, Colonel 5th Infantry, from 
July 30, 1864. 

J /hn Edwards, Colonel 18th Infantry, from 

September 26, 1864. 

James A. Williamson, Colonel 4th Infantry, 
from January 13, 1864. 

James I. Gilbert, Colonel 27th Infantry, from 
February 9, 1865. 

Tliumas J. McKean, from November 21, 1861. 


John M. Corse, Biigadier-Qencral, from Octo 
bcr 5, 1861. 

Edward rfalcb, Brigadier-General, from De 
cember 15, 1864. 

William W. Belknap, Brigadier-General, from 
March 13, 1865. 

W. L. Elliott, Brigadier General, from March 
13, 1865. 

Wm. Vandever, Brigadier-General, from June 
7, 1865. 


Wm. T. Claik, A.A.Q., late of 13th Infantry, 
from July 22, 1864. 

Edward F. Winslow, Colonel 4th Cavalry, from 
December 12, 1861. 

S. 6. Hill, Colonel 35th Infantry, from Decem- 
ber 15, 1864 

Thus. H. Benton, Colonel 29th Infantry, from 
December 15, 1864. 

Samuel S. Glasgow, Colonel 23d Infantry, from 
December 19, 1864. 

Clark R. Weaver, Colonel 17th Infantry, from 
February 9, 1865. 

Geo. A. Stone, Colonel 25th Infantry, from 
March 13, 1865. 

Francis M. Drake, Lieut. -Colonel 36th Infant- 
ry, from February 22, 1865. 

Datus E. Coon, Colonel 2d Cavalry, Irom 
March 8, 1865. 

George W. Clark, Colonel 34th Infantry, from 
March 13, 1865. 

Hei-man H. Heath, Colonel 7th Cavalry, from 
March 13, 1865. 

J. M. Hedrick, Colonel 15th Infantry, from 
March 13, 1865. 

W. W. Lowe, Colonel 5th Cavalry, from March 
8. 1865. 



-U B 






The people of Iowa have ever taken a 
deep interefit in education, and in this 
direction no State in the Union can show 
a better record. The system of free pub- 
lic schools was planted by the early set- 
tlers, and it has expanded and improved 
until now it is one of the most complete, 
comprehensive and liberal in the country. 
In the lead-mining regions of the State, 
the first to be settled by the whites, the 
hardy pioneers provided the means for the 
education of their children even before 
they had comfortable dwellings for them- 
selves. School teachers were among the 
first immigrants to Iowa. Wherever a 
little settlement was made, the school 
house was the first thing undertaken by 
the settlers in a body, and the rude, primi- 
tive structures of the early time only dis- 
appeared when the communities increased 
in population and wealth, and were able to 
replace them with more commodious and 
comfortable buildings. Perhaps in no 
single instance has the magnificent pro- 
gress of the State of Iowa been more 
marked and rapid than in her common 
school system and in her school houses. 
To day the school houses which every- 
where dot the broad and fertile prairies of 
Iowa are unsurpassed by those of any 
other State in this great Union. More 
especially is this true in all her cities and 

villages, where liberal and lavish appro- 
priations have been voted by a generous 
people for the erection of large, commodi- 
ous and elegant buildings, furnished with 
all the modern improvements, and costing 
from $1 0,000 to $60,000 each. The people 
of the State have expended more than 
$10,000,000 for the erection of public 
school buildings. 

The first school house within the limits 
of Iowa was a log cabin at Dubuque, built 
by J. L. Langworthy, and a few other 
miners, in the autumn of 1833. When it 
was completed, George Cabbage was era- 
ployed as teacher during the winter of 
1833-4, and thirty five pupils attended his 
school. Barrett Whittemore taught the 
school terra, with twenty-five pupils in at- 
tendance. Mrs. Caroline Dexter com- 
menced teaching in Dubuque in March, 
1836. She was the first female teacher 
there, and probably the first in Iowa. In 
1839, Thomas H. Benton, Jr., afterward 
for ten years Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, opened an English and classi- 
cal school in Dubuque. The first tax for 
the support of schools at Dubuque was 
levied in 1840. 

At Burlington, a commodious log school 
house, built in 1«34, was among the first 
buildings erected. A Mr. Johnson taught 
the first school in the winter of 1834-5. 




lu Scott county, in the winter of 1835-6, 
Simon Crazin tauglit a four-mouths term 
of school in the house of J. B. Chamberlin. 

In Muscatine county, the first school 
was taught by George JJumgardLcr, in the 
spring of 1837. In 1339 a log school 
house was erected in Muscatine, which 
served for a long time as school house, 
church and public hall. 

Thefirst school in Davenport was taught 
in 1838. In Fairfield, Miss Chri.ssa Saw- 
yer, James F. Chambers and Mrs. Reed 
taught school in 1839. 

Johnson county was an entire wilder- 
ness when Iowa City was located as the 
capital of the Territory of Iowa, in May, 

1839. The first sale of lots took place 
August 18, 1839, and before January 1, 

1840, about twenty families had settled 
within the limits of the town. During 
the same year Mr. Jesse Berry opened a 
school in a small frame building he had 
erected on what is now College street. 

In Monroe county, the first settlement 
was made in 1843, by Mr. John R. Gray, 
about two miles from the present site of 
Eddyville; and in the summer of 1844 a 
log school house was built by Gray, Wm. 
V. Beedle, C. lienfro, Joseph McMuUen 
and Willoughby Randolph, and the first 
school was opened by Miss Urania Adams. 
The building was occupied for school 
purposes for nearly ten years. 

About a year after the first cabin was 
built at Cskaloosa, a log school house was 
built, in which school was opened by 
Samuel W. Caldwell, in 1844, 

At Fort DesMoines, now the capital of 
the State, the first school was taught by 
Le.wis Whitten, Clerk of the District 
Court, in the winter of 1846-'7, in one of 

the rooms on "Coon Row," built for 

The first school in Pottawattamie county 
was opened by George Green, a Mormon, 
at Council Point, prior to 1849; and until 
about 1854 nearly all the teachers in that 
vicinity were Mormons. 

The first school in Decorah was taught 
in 1855, by Cyrus C. Carpenter, since Gov- 
ernor of the State. In Crawford county 
the first school house was built in Mason's 
Grove, in 1856, and Morris McHenry first 
occupied it as teacher. 

During the first twenty years of the his- 
tory of Iowa, the log school house pre- 
vailed, and in 1801 there were 893 of these 
piimilive structures in use for school pu; 
pofces in the State. Since that time tliey 
have been gradually disappearing. In 
ISG5 there were 796; in 1870, 336; and iu 
1875, 121. 

January 1, 1839, the Territorial Legisla- 
ture ]ia.ssed an act providing that " there 
shall be established a common school, or 
.schools, in each of the counties in this 
Territory; which shall be open and free 
for every class of white citizens between 
the ages of five and twenty-one years." 
The second section of the act provided that 
"the County Board shall, from time to 
time, form school districts in their respec- 
tive counties, whenever a petition may be 
presented for the purpose by a majority of 
the voters resident within such contem- 
plated district." These districts were 
governed by boards of trustees, usually of 
three v)ersons; each district was required 
to maintain school at least three months 
in every year; and laier, laws were enacted 
providiiig for county school taxes for the 
payment of teachers, and that whatever 




-JU. 2> 



additional sum might be required should 
be assessed upon the parents sending, in 
proportion to the length of time sent. 

In 1846, the year of Iowa's admission as 
a State, there were 20,000 scholars, out of 
100,000 inhabitants. About 400 school 
districts had been organized. In 1850 
there was 1,200, and in 1857 the number 
had increased to 3,-65. 

In March 1858, upon the recommenda- 
tion of Hon. M. L. Fisher, then Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, the Seventh 
General Assembly enacted that "each 
civil township is declared a school dis- 
trict," and provided that these should be 
divided into sub-districts. This law went 
into force March 20, 1858, and reduced 
the number of school districts from about 
3,500 to less than 900. This change of 
school organization resulted in a very 
material reduction of the expenditures for 
the compensation of district secretaries 
and treasurers. An effort was made for 
several years, from 1^67 to 187:^, to abolish 
the sub-district system. Mr Kissell, 
Superintendent, recommended this in his 
report of January 1, 1872, and Governor 
Merrill forcibly endorsed his views in his 
annual message. But the Legislature of 
that year provided for the fcrraaiion of 
independent districts from the sub-districts 
of district townships. 

The system of graded schools was 
inaugurated in 1849, and mw schools, in 
which more than one teacher is employed, 
are universally graded. 

Teachers' institutes were organized 
early in the history of the State. The 
lirsl official mention of them occurs in the 
annual reiiort of Hon. Thou as U. Benton, 
Jr., made December 2, 1850, who said: "An 

institution of this character was organized 
a few years a\;o, composed of the teachers 
of the mineral regions of Illinois, Wiscon- 
sin and Iowa. An association of teachers 
has also been formed in the county of 
Henry, and an effort was made in October 
last to organize a regular -institute in the 
county of Jones." At that time, although 
the beneficial influence of these institutes 
was admitted, it was urged that the ex- 
penses of attending them was greater than 
teachers with limited compensation were 
able to bear. To obviate this objection, 
Mr. Benton recommended that " the sum 
of $150 should be appropriated annually 
for three years, to be drawn in installments 
of $50 by the Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, and expended for these insti- 
tutions." He proposed that three institutes 
should be held annually at points to be 
designated by the superintendent. 

The ex])i,'nse of this would be trifling, 
and all recognized the benefits to be 
derived; and yet no legislation was had 
until March, 1k58, when an act was passed 
autiiorizing tlie holding of teachers' insti- 
tutes for periods not less than six working 
days, whenever not less than 30 teachers 
should desire. The superintendent was 
authorized to expend not exceeding $100 
for any. one instiiuie, to be paid out by the 
county superintendent, as the institute 
might direct, for teachers and lecturers, 
and $1,000 was appropriated to defray the 
expenses of these institutes. 

Mr. Fi.«her at once pushed the matter of 
holding institutes, and December 6, 1858, 
he reported to the Board of Education 
that institutes had been appointed in 20 
counties within the preceding six months, 
and more would have been held but the 

T) rv 



appropriation had been exhausted. At the 
first session of the Board of Education, 
commencing December 6, 1858, a code of 
Bchool laws was enacted, which retained 
the existing provisions for teachers' insti- 

In March, 1860, the General Assembly 
amended the act of the Board by appro- 
priating "a sura not exceeding $50 annually 
for one such institute, held as provided by 
law in each county." In 18G5, the super- 
intendent, Mr. Faville, reported that "the 
provision made by the State for the benefit 
of teachers' institutes had never been so 
fully appreciated, both by the people and 
the teacher.s, as during the last two years." 

By an act approved March 19, 1874 
normal institutes were established in each 
county, to be held annually by the county 
superintendents. This was regarded a very 
decided step in advance by Mr. Abernethy, 
and in 1876 the General Assembly estab- 
lished the first permanent State Normal 
School, at Cedar Falls, Black Hawk county, 
appropriating the building and property of 
the Soldiers' Orphans' Home at that place 
for that purpose. This school is now "in 
the full tide of successful experiment." 

The present public school system is ad- 
mirably organized, and if the various offi- 
cers who are entrusted with educational 
interests of the commonwealth continue 
faithful and competent, should and will 
constantly improve. 

Funds for the support of public schools 
are derived in several ways. The 16th 
section of every congressional township 
was set apart by the General Government 
for school purposes, being one-thirtysixth 
part of all the lands in the State. The 
minimum price of these lands was fixed at 

one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre. 
Congress also made an additional donation 
to the State of 500,000 acres, and an ap- 
propriation of five per cent, on all the 
sales of public lands to the school fund. 
The State gives to this fund the procfieds 
of the sales of all lands which escheat to 
it; the proceeds of all fines for the viola- 
tion of the liquor and criminal laws. The 
money derived from these sources consti- 
tutes the permanent school fund of the 
State, which cannot be diverted to any 
other purpose. The penaltie.^ collected by 
the courts for fines and forfeitures go to 
the school fund in the counties where col- 
lected. The proceeds of the sale of these 
lands and the five per cent, fund go into the 
State treasury, and the State distributes 
these proceeds to the several counties accord- 
ing to their request, and the counties loan 
the money to individuals, for long terms, at 
eight per cent, interest, on security of land 
valued at three times the amount of the 
loan, exclusive of all buildings and im- 
provements thereon. The interest on 
these loans is paid into the State treasury, 
and becomes the available school fund of 
the State. The counties are responsible 
to the State for all money so loaned, and 
the State is likewise responsible to the 
school fund for all moneys transferred to 
the counties. The interest on these loans 
is apportioned by the State Auditor semi- 
annually to the several counties of the 
State, in proportion to the number of per- 
sons between the ages of five and twent}'- 
one years. The counties also levy an 
annual tax for school purposes, which is 
ajiportioned to the several district townships 
in the same way. A district tax is also 
levied for the same purpose. The money 



arising from these several sources consti- 
tutes the support of the public schools, 
and is sufficient to enable every nub-district 
in the State to afford from six to nine 
months' school each year. 

The burden of direct taxation is thus 
lightened, and tlie efficiency of the scliools 
increased. The taxes levied for the sup- 
port of the schools are self-imposed. Un- 
der the admirable school laws of the State, 
no taxes can be legally assessed or col- 
lected for the erection of school houses 
u'ltil they liave been ordered by the elec- 
lion of a district at a school meeting 
legally cal'ed. The school houses of Iowa 
are the pride of the State and an honor to 
the people. If they have been built some- 
times at a prodigal expense, the tax-payers 
have no one to blame but themselves. 
The teachers' and contingent funds are 
determined by the Board of Directors, 
under certain legal instructions. The-^e 
Boards are elected annually, except in the 
independent districts, in which the Board 
may be entirely changed every three years 
The only exception to this mode of levy- 
ing taxes for support of schools is the 
county school tax, which is determined by 
the County Board of Supervisors. The 
tax is from one to three mills on the dol- 
lar; usually, however, but one. 

In 1881 there were in the State 4,339 
school districts, containing 11,244 schools, 
and employing 21,776 teachers. The 
average monthly pay of male teachers was 
$32.50, and of female teachers 127 25. 
There were 594,730 persons of school age, 
of whom 431,513 were enrolled in the 
public schools. The average cost of tuition 
for each pupil per month was $1.62. The 
expenditures for all school purposes was 

$5,129,810.49. The permanent schofd 
fund is now $3,547,123.82, on which the 
income for 18S1 was i8!234,622.40. In each 
county a teachers' institute is held annu- 
ally, under the direction of the county 
superintendent, the Slate contributing 
annually $50 to each of these institutes. 


By act of Congress, approved July 20, 
1840, the Secretary of the Treasury was 
authorized to "set apart and reserve from 
sale out of any of the ijublic lands within 
the Territory of Iowa not otherwise claimed 
or appropriated, a quantity of land not ex- 
ceeding two entire town.ships, for the use 
and support of a University within said 
Territory when it becomes a State." The 
first General Assembly, therefore, by act 
approved February 25, 1847, established 
tbe "State University of Iowa," at Iowa 
City, then the Capital of the State. The 
public buildings and other property at Iowa 
City, were appropriated to the University, 
but the legislative sessions and State offices 
were to be held in them until a permanent 
location for a Capital was made. 

The control and management of the 
University were committed to a board of 
fifteen trustees, to be appointed by the 
Legislature, and five were to be chosen 
every two years. The Superintendent of 
Public Instruction was made President of 
this Board. The organic act provided that 
the University should never be under the 
control of any religious denomination 
whatever; nnd that as soon as the revenue 
from tbe grant and donations should 
amount to $2 000 a year, the University 
should commence and continue the instruc- 
tion, free of charge, of fifty students annu- 


<S (L_ 



ally. Of course the organization of the 
University at Iowa City was impracticable, 
80 long as the seat of government was re- 
tained there. 

In January, 1849, two branches of the 
University an^l three normal schools were 
established. The branches were located 
at Fairfield and Dubuque, and were placed 
ujion an equal footing, in respect to funds 
and all other matters, with the University 
at Iowa City. At Fairfield, the Board of 
Directors organized and erected a bvtilding 
at a cost of $2,500. This was nearly de- 
stroyed by a hurricane the following year, 
but was rebuilt more substantially by the 
citizens of Fairfield. This branch never 
received any aid from the State, and, Jan- 
uary 24, 1853, at the request of the Board, 
the General Assembly terminated its rela- 
tion to the State. The branch at Dubuque 
had only a nominal existence. 

The normal schools were located at An- 
drew, Oskaloosa and Mt. Pleasant. Each 
was to be governed by a Board of seven 
Trustees, to be appointed by the Trustees 
of the University. Each was to receive 
$500 annually from the income of the Uni- 
ver.sity fund, upon condition that they 
should educate eight common-school teach- 
ers, free of charge for tuition, and that the 
citizens should contribute an equal sum for 
the erection of the requisite buildings. 
The school at Andrew was organized No- 
vember 21, 1849, with Samuel Ray as 
Princii'al. A building was commenced, 
and over $l,0<iO ex-)t'nded on it, but it was 
never c<impleted. The school at Oskaloosa 
was started in the court hoi:se, September 
1.3, 1852, under the charge of Prof G. M. 
Drake and wife. A two-story brick build- 
ing was completed in 1853, costing $2,473 

The school at Mt. Pleasant was never or- 
ganized. Neither of these schools received 
any aid from the University fund, but in 
1857 the Legislature appropriated $1,000 
for each of the two schools, and repealed 
the laws authorizing the payment to them 
of money from the University fund. From 
that time they made no further effort to 
continue in operation. 

From 1847 to 1855, the Board of Trus- 
tees was kept full by regular elections by 
the Legislature, and the trustees held fre- 
quent meetings, but there was no actual 
organization of the University. In March, 
lb55, it was partially opened for a term of 
16 weeks. July 16, 1855, Amos Dean, of 
Albany, N. Y , was elected President, but 
he never entered fuliy upon its duties. 
The University was again opened in Sep- 
tember, 1855, and continued in operation 
until June, 1856, under Professors John- 
son, Wellon, Van Valkei burg and Grlliin. 

The faculty was then re-organized, with 
some changes, and the University was 
again opened on the third Wednesday of 
September, 1856. There were 124 students 
(83 males and 41 females) in attendance 
during the years 1856-7, and the first regu- 
lar catalogue was published 

At a special meeting of the Board, Sep- 
tember 22, 1857, the honorary degree of 
Bachelor of Arts was conferred on D. 
Franklin Wells. This was the first degree 
conferred by the University. 

The new constitution, adopted in 1857, 
definitely fixed the Capital at DesMoines, 
the St;ite University at Iowa City, and pro- 
vided that it should have no branches. In 
December of that year, the old capitol 
building was turned over to the Trustees 
of the University. In 1858, $10,000 were 




appropriated fo;' the erection of a board- 
ing hall. The Board closed theUiiivtrsiiy 
April 27, 1858, on account of insufBoient 
funds, and dismissed all the faculty eX' ept 
Chancellor Dean At the same time a res- 
olution was passed excluding females. 
This was soon after reversed by the General 

The University was re-opened Septem- 
ber 19, 1860, and from this date the real 
existence of the Univer.sity dates. Mr. 
Dean had resigned before this, and Silas 
Totten,D D.,LL D.was elected President, 
at a salary of -$2,000. August 19, 1862, he 
resigned, and was succeeded by Prof. Oli- 
ver M. Spencer. President Spencer was 
granted leave of absence for fifteen months 
to visit Europe Prof. Nathan R. Leonard 
was elected President /)ro te?n. President 
Spencer resigning, James Black, D D., 
Vice-President of Washington and Jeffer- 
son College, Peun., was elected President. 
He entered upon his duties in September 

The Law Department was established in 
June, lb68, and, soon after, the Iowa Law 
School, at DesMoines, which had been in 
successful operation for three years, was 
transferred to Iowa City and merged in 
the department 

The Medical Department was established 
in 1869. Since April 11, 1870, the gov- 
ernment of the University has been in the 
hands of a Board of Regents. 

Dr. Black resigned in 1870, to take 
effect December 1; and March 1, 1871, 
Rev George Thatcher was elected Presi- 

In June, 1874, the chair of military 
instruction was established, and Lieuten- 
ant A. D. Schf'nk, Second Artillery, U. S. 

A., was detailed by the President of the 
United States as Professor of Military 
Science and Tactics. 

In June, 1877, Dr. Thatcher's connection 
with the University was terminated, and 
C. W. S'agle was elected Prfsident. He 
was succeeded in 1878 by J. L. Pickard, 
LL D., who is the present incumbent. 

The University has gained "a reputation 
as one of the leading institutions of the 
West, and this position will doubtless be 
maintiined. The present educational 
corps consists of the following besides 
President Pickard: in the Collegiate De- 
partment, nine professors and six in- 
structor-, including the Professor of Mili- 
tary Science; in the Law Department, a 
chancellor, two professors and four lec- 
turers; in the jMtdical Department, eight 
professors and ten assistant professors, and 

x^o preparatory work is done in the 
University, but different high schools in 
the Stat'', with approved courses of study, 
are admitted as preparatory departments 
of the University, whose graduates are ad- 
mitted without examination. Common 
schools, high schools and university are 
thus made one connected system. 

The present number of students in the 
Collegiate Department is: males, 163; 
females, 69; total, 232; in Law Depart- 
ment, 140; in Medical Department, 196. 


This is located at Cedar Palls, Black 
Hawk county, and was opened in ls76. 
The institution trains teachers for our 
schools, and is doing excellent, thourjh 
limited, work. What is wanted is more 



room an(1 increased facilities of every 
kind. Other institutions of a similar kind 
slinuld also be established throughout the 


The State Agiicultural College and 
Farm were established by act of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, approved March 23, 1858. 
The farm was located in Story county, at 
Ames. In 1862 Congress granted to Iowa 
240,000 acres of land for the endowment 
of schools of agriculture and the mechani- 
cal arts. In 1864 the Assembly voted 
$20,000 for the erection of the college 
building. In 1866 $91,000 more were 
appropriated for the same purpose. The 
building was completed in 1868, and the 
institution was opened in the following 
year. The college is modeled to some 
extent after Michigan Agricultural Col- 

Tuition is free to pupils from the State 
over sixteen years of age. Students are 
required to work on the model farm two 
and a half hours each day. The faculty is 
of a very high character, and the institu- 
tion one of the best of its kind. Sale of 
spirits, wine and beer as a beverage is for- 
bidden by law within three miles of the 
college. The current expenses of this 
institution are paid by the income from 
the permanent endowment. A S. Welch, 
LL. D., is President, and is assisted by 
twelve professors and eight instructors. 
Whole number of students admitted, 2,600; 
present number, 240. The college farm 
consists of 860 acres, of which 400 are 
under cultivation. 

Besides the State University, Slate 
Agricultural College and State Normal 

School, ample provision for higher edu- 
cation has been made by the different 
religious denominations, assisted by local 
and individual munificence. There are, 
exclusive of State institutions, 23 universi- 
ties and colleges, 111 academies and other 
private schools. All these are in active 
operation, and most of them stand high. 
A list of the universities and colleges, and 
a brief notice of each, is herewith given: 

Amity College is located at College 
Springs, Page county. S. C. Marshall is 
Presi<lent. There are 6 instructors and 
225 students. 

Burlington University is located at Hur- 
lington, Des Moines county. E. F Stearns 
is President of the fa ulty. There are 5 
instructors and 63 students. 

Gallanan College is located at Des 
Moines, Polk county. There are 14 in the 
facu ty, of which C. R. Pomeroy is Presi- 
dent, and 188 students are enrolled. 

Central University is located .at Pella, 
Marian county. It is an institution of the 
Baptist denomination. Rev. G. W. G.ard- 
ner is President of the faculty, which 
numbers 7. There are 196 students. 

Goe College is located at Cedar Rapids, 
Linn county. S. Phelps is President. 
There are 10 in the faculty and 100 

Corpell College i.s located at Mt. Vernon, 
T.iiiii county, and is un er the control of 
the M E. Chur<-.h. W. F. King is Presi- 
dent. There are 20 instructors and 400 




students. This college is one of the 
highest in character, and Las a large at- 

Drake University is located at Des 
Moines, Polk county. G. T. Carpenter is 
President, and is ably assisted by 25 in- 
structors. There are 125 students. 

Griswold College is located at Daven- 
port, Scott County, and is under the control 
of the Episcopal Church. W. S. Perry is 
President. There are 7 instructors and 80 


I<noa College is located at Grinnell, Po- 
weshiek county. G. F. Magoun is Presi- 
dent. There are 14 instructors and 359 
stulents. The institution is one of the 
leading colleges in Iowa, and is perma- 
nently endowed. 

Iowa Wtsleyan University is located at 
Mt. ■ Pleasant, Henry county,. W. J. 
Spaulding is President. There are 6 in 
the faculty, and over 160 students in at- 
tendance. The University is under the 
auspices of the M. E. Ctiurch, and enjoys 
a high degree of prosperity. 

Luther College is situated in Decorah, 
Winneshiek county. L. Larson is Presi- 
dent of the faculty, which numbers 10. 
There are 1 65 students in attendance. 

Clin College is located at Olin, Jones 
county. C. L. Porter is President. 

Oskalnosa College is situated in Oaka- 
loosa, Mahaska county. G. H. McLaugh- 
lin is President. The faculty nuuibers 5, 

and the students 190, The college stands 
very high. 

Penn College is situated in Oskaloosa, 
Mahaska county. B Trueblood is Presi- 
dent of the faculty, which numbers 5. 
There are 175 students in attendance. 

Simpson Centenary College is located at 
Indianola, Warren county. E L Parks is 
President. There are 9 instructors and 
150 students. 

Tabor College is located at Tabor. Fre- 
mont county. Wm. M. Urooks is Presi- 
dent. The college was modeled after 
Oberlin college, in Ohio. The faculty 
Consists of 6, and there are 109 sLudenis. 

Upper Iowa University is located at 
Fayette, Fayetle county, and is under the 
control of the M. E. Church. Kev. J W. 
Bissell is President. There are 1 1 inslruo- 
tors and 350 students. This University 
stands very high among the educational 
institutions of the Slate. 

University of Des Moines, at DesMoines, 
has 5 instructors and 80 students. 

Whittier College was established at 
Salem, Henry county, by the Friends. J. 
W. Coitrane is Piesident. There are 4 
instructors and 1U5 siudeuts. 

liiverside Institute. — This school is 
located at Lyons, on a beau if ul elevation 
overlooking the Missi>sip[)i river. llev. 
W. T. Curr.e is the Principal of this 




By an act of the Legislature of Iowa, 
ap[iioveiJ January 24, 1855, tlie Iowa Insti- 
tute for the Deaf and Dumb was estab- 
lislied at Iowa City. 

In 1866 a great effort was made to re- 
move the Institute to DesMoines; but it 
was finally permanently located at Council 
BlufF.-i, and the school opened in a rented 
building In 1868 Commissioners were to 
locate a site, and superintend the erection 
of new building, for which the Legisla- 
ture appropriated $125,000, The Com- 
missioners selected 90 acres of land two 
milcs south of the city 

In October, 1870, the main building and 
one wing were completed and occupied. 
In February, 1S71, fire destroyed the main 
building and east wing, and during the 
summer following.a tornado blew off the 
roof of the new west wing and the walls 
were partially demolished. About 150 
puj^ils were in attendance at the time of 
the fire. After that, half of the class were 
dismissed, and the number of pupils re- 
duced to 70 

The present officers are: B. F Clayton, 
President, Macedonia, term expires in 
1886; A Rogers, Secretary, term expires 
1884; John H. Stubenranch, term expires 
in 1884. The county fcuperintendent of 
schools annually reports all persons of 
school age that are deaf and dumb; also 
those too deaf to acquire learning in the 
common schools. The cost per pupil is 
$28 per quarter, and is paid by the parents 
or guardian; but when unable to do so, the 
expense is borne by the respective county 
Tl'e regular appropriation is $11,000 per 
annum, drawn quarterly. Parents and 

g'lardian.s are allowed to clothe their 

The whole number admitted to the 
Institution is 621. Present number, 22i. 
Last biennial appropriation, $27,83U. 


The first person to agitate the subject of 
an In-litute for the Blind was Prof. Sam- 
upI Bacon, himself blind, who, in lt^52, 
established a school of instruction at 
Keokuk. Tlie next year the Institute was 
adopted by the State, and moved to Iowa 
City, by act of the Legislature, approved 
January 18, 1853, and opened for the re- 
ception of pupils, April 4, 1853 During 
the first term 23 pupils were admitted. 
Prof. Bacon, the Principal, made his first 
report in 1854, and suggested that the 
name be changed from "Asylum for the 
Blind" (which was the name first adopted) 
to that of " Institution for the Instruction 
of the Blind." This change was made in 
1855, and the Legislature made an annual 
appropriation of $55 per quarter for each 
pupil; afterward this appropriation was 
changed to $3,000 per annum. 

Prof. Bacon was a fine scholar, an eco- 
nomical manager, and in every way adapted 
to his position. During his administration 
the institution was, in a grtat measure, 
self-supporting by the sale of articles 
manufactured by the blind pupils. There 
was also a charge of $25 as an admission 
fee for each )nij)il. Prof. Bacon founded 
the Blind Asylum at Jacksonville, Illinois. 

In 1858 the citizens of Vinton, Benton 
county, donated a quarter section of land 
and $5,000 for the establi.-ihment of the 
asylum at that i>lace. On the 8ih of May, 



that same year, the trustees met at Vinton 
and made arrangt'ments for securing the 
donation, and adopted a plan for the erec- 
tion of a suitable building. In 1800 the 
contract for enclosing was let to Mei-sra 
Finkbine and Lovelace, for $10,420. In 
August, 1862, the goods and furniture were 
removed from Iowa City to Vinton, and in 
the fall of the same year the school was 
opened with 24 pupils. 

The institution has been built at a vast 
expenditure of money, much greater than 
it seemed to require for the number of 
occupants. The Legislative Committee, 
who visited the college in 1878, expressed 
their astonishment at this utter disregard 
of the litntss of things. They could not 
understand why 5i282,000 should have been 
expeiuitd for a mas-ive building for the 
accommodaiion of only 1.30 people, costing 
the Slate over $5,i 00 a year to heat it, and 
about $500 a year fur each pupil. 

The present officers are: Robert Car- 
others, Superintendent; T. F. McCune, 
Assistant Superintendent; Trustees: Jacob 
Springer, President; M. II. W^eslbrook, 
J. F. White, C. O. Il.irrington, W. IL 
Leavitt, S. II. Watson. Wliole number of 
occupants, 4:^6. Present number, males, 
36; females, 50. Salary of superintendent, 
11,200; assistant, $7U0; trustees, *4.00 per 
day and mileage. Annual appropriation, 
$8,000, and *I28 per year allowed for each 
pupil. Annual meeting of trustees in June, 
liieuuial appropriation in ISoO, $3,000, 


The Iowa Hospital for the Insane was 
established by an act of the L gis'alure, 
approved January 24, 1855. Gov. Gri files. 

Edward Johnson, of Lee county, and Chas. 
S.Ulake, of Henry county, were appointed 
to locate the institution and superintend 
the erection of the building; $4,425 were 
appropriated by the Legislature for the 
site, and $500 000 for the building. The 
commissioners located the institution at 
Mount Pleasant, Henry county, and a plan 
of the building was drawn by Dr. Bell, of 
Massacliusetts. The building was designed 
to acceramodate 300 patients, and in Octo- 
ber work commenced, superintended by 
Henry Winslow. The Legislature had 
appropriated 1258,555.67 before it was 
completed. One hundred patients were 
admitted within three months. In April, 
187(5, a portion of the building was de- 
stroyed by fire From the opening of the 
Hospital to the close of October, 1877, 
there were admitted 3,684 patients. Of 
these, 1,141 recovered, 505 were improved, 
589 were discharged unimproved, and 1 
died. During this period 1,384 of the pa- 
tients were females. 

The trustees are elected by the Legisla- 
ture, and all officers are chosen by the 
trustees. Superintendents are chosen for 
six years. Dr. lianney was first chosen in 
1805; salary, $2.00iJ annual. Whole number 
of patients admitted, 4,598; present num- 
ber males, 2'JS; present number females, 
2i5 Trustees piiid $5 per day and mile- 
age, not to exceed 30 days each year. 
Annual meeting, first Wednesday in Octo- 
ber; quarterly, January, April and Sep- 

Present officers are: Mark Ranney, M. 
D , Superintendent; II.M.Bassett, M. D., 
J. P. Brubaker, M.D., and Max Wiite, 
.M.D., assistant physicians. 









The Legislature of l>?67-8 adoptecl meas- 
ures providing for an additional hospital for 
the insane, and an appropriation of $125,- 
000 was made for that purpose. Malurin 
L. Fi-sher, of Clayton county, E G. Mor- 
gan, of Webster c unty, and Albert Clark, 
.of Buchanan county, were appointed com- 
missioners to locate and superintend the 
erection of a building. These commis- 
sioners commenced their labors June 8, 
1808, at Independence. They were author- 
ized 'o select the most desirable location, 
of not less than 320 acres, within two 
miles of the city of Independence, that 
might be offered by the citizens free of 
chirge. '1 hey finally selected a site on the 
west side of the Wapsipinicon river, about 
a mile from its banks, and about the same 
distance from Independence. The contract 
for building was awarded to David Arm 
strong, of Dubuque, for -§88,114. It was 
signed November 1, 1868, and work was 
immediately c-mincnced. George Josse- 
lyn was appointed superintendent of the 
work. The first meeting of the trustees 
was called in July, 1872 At the Septem- 
ber meeting, Albert Reynolds, M. D , was 
elected Superintendent of the Hospital; 
George Josselyn, Steward, and Mrs. Anna 
B. Josselyn, Matron. 

The Hospital opened May 1,187.3. Whole 
number of patients admitted, 2,000; pres- 
ent number (1882), 533; males, 290; fe- 
males, 243. Biennial appropriation (1880), 

The present officers are: G. H. Hill, 
Superintendent; terra expires in 1882; 
salary, $l.tiOO. H. G. Brainard, M. D., 

Assistant Superintendent; salary, ^1,000. 
Noyes Ai^pleman, Steward; salary, -SOOO. 
Mrs. Lucy M. Gray, Matron; salary, |C00, 

soldiers' orphans' home. 

This institution is located at Davenport, 
Scott county, and was originated by Mrs. 
Annie Witteiimeyer, during the late rtbel- 
lion. This noble woman called a conven- 
tion at Muscatine, September 7, 1863, for 
the purpose of devising means for the 
education and support of the orphan chil- 
dren of Iowa, whose fathers lost their lives 
in defending; their countiy's honor. The 
public interest in the moveii ent was so 
great that all parts of the State were 
largely represented, and an association was 
organized, called the Iowa State Orphan 
Asylum. The first meeting of the trus- 
tees was held February 14, 186t, at Des 
Moines, when Gov. Kirkwood suggested 
that a home for disabled soldiers should be 
connected with the Asylum, and arrange- 
ments were made for raising funds. At 
the next meeting, in Davenport, the fol- 
lowing month, a committee was appointed, 
of which JMr. Howell, of Keokuk, was 
chairman, to lease a suitable building, 
solicit donations, and procure suitable 
furniture. This committee secured a l.rge 
brick buildirg in Lawrence, VanBuren 
county, and engaged Mr. Fuller, of Mount 
Pleasant, as Steward. The work of prepa- 
ration was conducted so vigorously that 
July 13, following, the executive commit- 
tee announced that they were ready to 
receive children. Within three weeks 21 
were admitted, and in a little more than 
six months the soldiers' orphans admitted 
numbered 70. 

'\ -^ 



Miss M. Elliott, of Washington, was 
appointed the first Matron, but she resigned 
the following February, and was succeeded 
by Mrs. E Q. Piatt, of Fremont county. 

The Home was sustained by voluntary 
contributions, until 18G6, when it was 
taken charge of by the State. The Leg- 
islature appropriated $10 per month for 
each orphan actually supported, and pro- 
vided for the establishment of three 
homes. The one in Cedar Falls was organ- 
ized in lg65; an old hotel building was 
fitted up for it, and by the following Jan- 
uary there were 96 inmates. In October, 
1869, the Home was removed to a large 
brick building about two miles west of 
Cedar Falls, and was very prosperous for 
several years; but in 1876 the Legislature 
devoted this building to the State Normal 
School. The same year the Legislature 
also devoted the buildings and grounds of 
the Soldiers' Orphans' Home, at Glen wood, 
Mills county, to an Institution for the Sup- 
port of Feeble-Minded Children. It also 
provided for the removal of the soldiers' 
orphans at Glenwood and Cedar Falls 
Homes to the institution located at Daven- 

The present officers are: S. W. Pierce, 
Superintendent; Mrs. F. W. Pierce, Matron. 
Whole number admitted, 1,525; present 
number, males, 79; females, 90. The 18th 
Grand Army Corps appropriated $2,000 to 
build eight cottages, school house and other 
buildings; these have been completed, and 
the home will, when finished, accommo- 
date 200 children. Superintendent's sal- 
ary, 11,200 per annum. Trustees are 
elected for two years. 


An act of the General Assembly, ap- 
proved March 17, 1878, provided for the 
establishment of an asylum for feeble- 
minded children at Glenwood, Mills 
county; and the buildings and grounds of 
the Soldiers' Orphans' Home at that place 
were taken for this purpose. The asylum 
was placed under the management of three 
trustees, one of whom should be a resident 
of Mills County. 

The grounds to be used were found to 
be in a very dilapidated condition, and 
thorough changes were deemed necessary. 
The institution was opened September 1, 
1876, and t'le first pupil admitted Septem- 
ber 4. By November, 1877, the number 
of pupils had increased to 87. The whole 
number admitted has been 257. Present 
inmates number 200. 


The first penal institution was estab- 
lished by an act of the Territorial Legisla- 
ture, approved January 25, 1839. This 
act authorized the Governor to draw the 
sum of $20,000, appropriated by an act of 
Congress in 1838, for public buildings in 
the Territory of Iowa. It provided for a 
Board of Directors, consisting of three 
persons, to be elected by the Legislature, 
who should superintend the building of 
a penitentiary to be located within a mile 
of the public square, in the town of Fort 
Madison, county of Lee, provided that the 
latter deeded a suitable tract of land for 
the purpose, also a spring or stream of 
water for the use of the penitentiary. 

The first directors were John S. David 
and John Claypole. They were given the 
power of appointing the warden, the latter 



to appoint his owu assistants. The citizens 
of Fort iladison executed a deed of 10 
acres of land for the building, and Amos 
Ladd was appointed superintendent June 
5, 1839. The work was soon entered upon, 
and the main building and warden's house 
were completed in the fall of 1841. It 
continued to meet with additions and im- 
provements until the arrangements were 
all completed according to the design of 
the directors. The estimated cost of the 
building was $55,933.90, and was designed 
of sufficient capacity to accommodate 138 

Iowa has adopted the enlightened policy 
of humane treatment of prisoners, and 
utilizes their labor for their own support. 
Their labor is let out to contractors, who 
pay the State a stipulated sum therefor, 
the latter furnishing shops, tools, ma- 
chinery, etc , and the supervision of the 

The present officers of the prison are: 
E. C. McMillen, Warden, elected 1878 and 
1880; Hiel Hale, Deputy Warden; W. C. 
Gunn, Chaplain; A. W. Hoffmeister, 
Physician; M. T. Butterfield, Clerk. 

The whole number of convicts admitted 
up to the present time (1882) is 3,387. 
Number of males in 1881, 350; females, 
3; number of guards, 33. The Warden 
is chosen biennially by the Legislature, 
and receives a salary of ^2,000 per annum. 


In 18'72.the first steps toward the erec- 
tion of a prison at Anaraosa, Jones county, 
were taken, and by an act of the General 
Assembly, approved April 23, this year, 
William Ure, Foster L. Downing and Mar- 
tin Heisey were appointed commissioners 

to construct and control prison buildings, 
They met on the 4th of June, following, 
and selected a site donated by the citizens 
of Anamosa. The- plan, drawings and 
specifications were furnished by L. W. 
Foster & Co., of DesMoines, and work on 
the building was commenced September 
28, 1873. In 1873, 20 convicts were trans- 
ferred from the Fort Madison prison to 

The officers of the Anamosa prison are: 
A E. Martin, Warden; L. B. Peer, Deputy 
Warden; Mrs. A. C. Merrill, Chaplain; L. 
J. Adair, Physician; T. P. Parsons, Clerk. 
The whole number admitted since it was 
opened is 816. Number of males in 1882, 
133; females, 2. Salaries of < fficers the 
same as those of the Fort Madison peni- 

boys' reform school. 

By act approved March 31, 186S, the 
General Assembly established a reform 
school at Salem, Henry county, and pro- 
vided for a Board of Trustees, to consist 
of one person from each Congressional 
Di.itrict. The trustees immediately leased 
the property of the Iowa Manual Labor 
Institute, and October V following, the 
school received its first inmate. The law 
at first provided for the admission ( f 
children of both sexes under 18 years of 
age. The trustees were directed to organ- 
ize a sejtar.Tte school for girls. 

In 1872 the school was permanently 
located at Eldora, Hardin county, and 
•545,000 were appropriated for the neces- 
sary buildings. 

In 1876 tlie law was so amended that 
only children over 7 and under 10 years of 
age were admitted. 

(») — 





The children are taught the elements of 
education, in particular the useful branches, 
and are also trained in some regular course 
of labor, as is best suited to their age, dis- 
position and capacity. They are kept 
until they arrive at majority, unless bound 
out to some responsible party, which 
relieves the State of their care. Occasion- 
ally they are discharged before the age of 
21, for good conduct 

The institution is managed by five trus- 
tees, elected by the Legislature. Whole 
number of boys admitted, 818. There are 
i04 inmates at present, and also 63 in the 
girls' department, at Michellville. The 
biennial appropriation for 1880 was 


By act of the General Assembly ap- 
proved January 98, 1857, a State Historical 
Society was provided for in connection 
with the University. At the commence- 
ment, an appropriation of $250 was made, 
10 be expended in coUecting and preserv- 
ing a library of books, pamphlets, papers, 
paintings and other materials illustrative 
of the history of Iowa. There was appro- 
priated the sum of $500 per annum to 
maintain this Society. The management 
consists of a board of 18 curators, nine 
appointed by the Governor and nine 
elected by vote of the Society. 

The State Historical Society has pub- 
lished a series of very valuable collections, 
including history, biography, sketches, 
reminiscences, etc., with quite a large 
number of finely engraved portraits of 
prominent and early settlers, under the 
title of "Annals of Iowa." 


This Society is conducted under the 
auspices of the State, and is one of the 
greatest promoters of the welfare of the 
people under the management of the State 
government. It should receive more pe- 
cuniary assistance than it does. The 
Society holds an. annual fair, which has 
occurred at Des Moines since 187?*. At its 
meetings subjects are discussed of the 
highest interest and value, and these pro- 
ceedings are published at the expense of 
the State. 

The officers are a President, Vice-Presi- 
dent, Secretary, and Treasurer and five 
Directors. The last hold oflice for two 
years, and the other officers one year. 

FISH hatchIng-housk. 

This was established in 1874, and has 
for its object the supplying of rivers and 
lakes with valuable fish. The General 
Assembly first appropriated the sum of 
$3,000. Three fish commissioners were 
appointed, and the State is divided into 
three districts, one for each commissioner. 
The Hatching-House was erected near 
Anamosa, Jones county, and is conducted 
in the same manner as similar houses in 
other States. Since 1876 there has been 
but one commissioner, B. F. Shaw. Mr. 
Shaw is enthusiastic in his work, and has 
distributed hundreds of thousands of 
small fish of various kinds in the rivers 
and lakes of Iowa. The 16th General 
Assembly passed an act in 1878 prohibiting 
the catching of any kind of fish t.xcept 
brook trout from March until June of each 






The Territory of Iowa was organized in 
1838, and the following Territorial officers 
were appointed by President VanBuren: 
Governor, Robert Lucas, of Ohio; Secre- 
tary of the Territory, William B. Conway; 
Chief Justice, Charles Mason, of Burling- 
ton; Associate Justices, Thomas S. Wilson, 
of Dubuque, and Joseph Williams, of 
Pennsylvania; Attorney-General, M. Van 
Allen, of New York; Marshal, Francis 
Gehon, of Dubuque. 

The first election was for members of 
the Territorial Legislature and a delegate 
to Congress. The Democracy controlled 
the Legislature by a large majority. The 
vote on Delegate was as follows : 

Wm. W. Chapman, Dera 1,490 

PeterH. Engle, Dem 1,454 

B.F.Wallace, Whig 913 

David Rorer, De:r. 605 

Mr. Talliafero 30 

The election of 1839 was for members 
of the Second Territorial Legislature, and 
created little interest. 

In 1840, the year of the "hard cider 
campaign," the interest was awakened, and 
both parties put in nomination candidates 
for Delegate to Congress. There was also 
an election for Constitutional Convention, 
which was defeated. The vote on Dele- 
gate was as follows: 

A.C.Dodge, Dem 4,009—515 

Alfred Rich, Whig 3,494 

Mr. Churchman 92 

TJie Whigs held a convention in 1841, 
at Davenport, on the 5th day of May, and 
adopted the following platform : 

Whereas, It has pleased the Governor of the 
Universe, by one of those inscrutable acts the 
righteousness of which no man may question, 
to take from the American people their beloved 
Chief Magistrate, William Henry Harrison, and 
transfer him frc'm this to another, and, we trust, 
to a better world; therefore. 

Resolved, Tiiat we sincerely mourn over and 
deplori. the loss of one whose services in every 
department of society have been so pre-emi- 
nently useful. As a citizen, he was beloved for 
his rectitude and benevolence; as a soldier, dis- 
tinjjuished for his bravery and success; as a 
statesman, his ability, purity and patriotism 
were remarkable; as a Christian, he was humblo 
and pious. In short, his whole character was 
made up of traits seldom to be found in men 
occupying the place in society he filled, and is 
worthy >jf imitation by all those who love their 

Resolved, As a token of our sorrow on this 
providential bereavement, we will wear the 
usual badiio of mourning thirty days; and that 
we concur with President Tyler on recommend- 
ing to the people of the T3nitetl States that the 
14th of May be observed as a day of fasting and 

Resolved, That we have full confidence in the 
ability and current political sentiments of John 






Tyler, who, by the voice of the people and the 
Providence of God, uow fills the Executive 
Chair of the United States. 

Resolved, That we recognize in John Cham- 
bers, the gentleman lately appointed to the Ex- 
ecutive Chair of Iowa, a sterling Democratic 
Whig; one whose early life is honorably identi- 
fied with the history of our late war with Great 
Britain; ;ind whose uniform devotion t-,> the best 
interests of ouf country affords us a sure guar- 
anty of his usefulness in this Territory. 

Alfred Rich was again nominated for 
Delegate to Congress. 

Tlie Democrats held their convention 
June 7, at Iowa City, and passed the fol- 
lowing resolutions : 

"WnEEEAS, The Federalists, or self-styled 
Whigs of Iowa, flushed with their recent victory 
in the Presidential contest, and secure in the 
enjoyment of power, are laboriug zealously and 
perseveringly to effect a revolution in the polit- 
ical character of the Territory, to accomplish 
which all their united energies wiil be brought 
into action at the next general election; an'l. 

Whereas, The Democracy here, as well as 
elsewhere, believing the principles of their party 
to be based upon the immutable and eternal doc- 
trines of right and justice, feel it to be their 
duty to maintain and assert them upon all prop- 
er occasions — in the hour of defeat as when tri- 
umphant; and, 

Whereas, By union and harmony, exertion 
and activity, we can administer a rebuke to tbe 
arrogant spirit of Federalism, at our next gen- 
eral election, which, while it will exhibit Iowa 
to the Democracy of the Union in the most en- 
viable light, will also demonstrate to the enemies 
of our principles the futility and hopelessness 
of their efforts to obtain the ascendency; there- 

Besolved, That it is the duty of every Democrat 
of Iowa, no matter what may be his station in 
life, to be watchful, vigilant and active in main- 
taining the ascendency, of his party in the Ter- 
ritory; audit is earnestly urged upon all that 

they lay aside local questions and sectional feel- 
ings, and unite heart and hand in exterminating 
their common enemy, Federalism, from the 

Resolved, That Iowa, in defiance of the efforts 
of the National ad:ninistration to throw around 
her the shackles of Federalism, is, and will con- 
tinue to be. Democratic to the core; and she 
spurns, with a proper indignation, the attempt 
of those in power "to enslave her, by sending 
her rulers from abroad, whdse chief recom- 
mendation is, that they have not only been 
noisy, but brawling, clamorous politicians.. 

Resolved, That in the appointment of David 
Webster to be Secretary of the State, •i\ e see the 
destinies of our beloved country committed to 
the hands of a man who, during the late war 
with Great Britain, pursued a course to which 
the epithet ol "moral treason" was justly ap- 
plied at the time. In the gloomiest period of 
the war, Mr. Webster was found acting, upon 
all occasions, in opposition to every war meas- 
ure brought forward by the friends of the 
country; and the journals of Coni^ress and 
speeches of Mr. Webster clearly established the 
fact that, though not a member, he connived at 
and leagued in with the traitorous Hartford Con- 

Resolved, That the recent astounding and 
extraordinary disclosures made by the stock- 
holders of the United States Bank, with regard 
to the mismanagement, fraud and corruption of 
that wholesale swindling institution, prove the 
correctness of the course of the Democracy of 
the Nation in refusing to grant it a new charter, 
and redounds greatly to the sagacity, honesty 
and Roman firmness of our late venerable and 
iron-nerved President, Andrew Jackson. 

Resolved. That the distribution of the public 
lands is a measure not only fraught with evil, 
on the grounds of its illegality, but that, were it 
carried into effect, would greatly prejudice the 
rights and interests of the new States and Ter- 

Resolved, That a permanent prospective pre- 
emption law is the only effectual means of 
securing to the hardy pioneer his home, — the 




result of his enterprise and toil, which alone 
ha<i brought our lovely and cultivated plains 
from the rude hand of nature to their present 
high state of cultivation. 

Meaohed, That in Thomas H. Benton, the 
bold und fearless leader of the Democracy of 
our country, on this as well as all the matters of 
western policy, we behold the poor man's true 
and firmest friend, in whom, as the advocate of 
their interests and rights, they have the highest 
confidence, and on whom they can rely for sup- 
port and protection in the enjoyment of rights 
and privilegLS which it has ever been the policy 
of ttfe Federalists to divest them of. 

Resolved, That Deiiiocracy is based upon the 
principles of equal rights and justice to all men; 
that to deprive man of the privileges bestowed 
upon him by the laws of nature and his country, 
without yielding him a just equivalent, is to 
take from him all that renders lite worthy his 
possession — independence of action; such we 
believe to be the efi'ect of the recent order of the 
present Chief Magistrate. 

Resolved, That we respect all, of whatever 
station, who boldly and fearlessly advocate our 
, rights and secure us in the free enjoyment of 
the same, while we heartily despise and con- 
demn those, come from whence they may, who 
are leagued with our enemies in their efforts to 
wrest from us our homes and sacred altars. 

Resolved, That it is the characteristic doctrine 
of Democracy to secure to all the enjoyment of 
rights and privileges inalienable to freemen, 
and that the proscription of foreigners by the 
Federalists is a contracted efl'ort to secure to 
themselves the inestimable privileges of free- 
dom and free goverumeut, and thus cut oS a 
li'.rge portion of the human family from rights 
which the charter of our liberties declare are 
granted to all. 

Gen. A. C. Dodge was placed in nom- 
ination, and elected by the following vote: 

A. C. Dodge, Dem 4,828—513 

Alfred Rich, Whig 4,815 

No platforms were adopted by the par- 
ties in 1842; neither was there in 1843. 

William H. Wallace was nominated by 
the Whigs and A. C.»Dodge by the Dem- 
ocrats for Delegate to Congress. The 
vote stood: 

A. C. Dodge, Dem 6,084—1,272 

William Wallace, Whig 4,812 

On the 9lh day of January, 1844, the 
VVhigs met in convention, St Iowa City, 
and without making nominations adopted 
the following platform: 

Resolved, That ■ ublic meetings for the free in- 
terchange of feelings and opinions on the part 
of the American people, in regard to important 
measures, are interwoven with our political insti- 
tutions, and necessary to the perpetuity of our 
national liberty. 

Resolaed, That it is the duty of all patriots 
to keep a watchful eye upon their rulers, aud 
to resist at the threshold every inroad to cor- 
ruption; that we deprecate the prostitution of 
the patronage of the President and of the dif- 
ferent officers of the Government to the services 
of a party and the practice of offering the offices 
of honor and profit as a reward for political 
treachery; that we believe this exercise of; ower 
to be eminently dangerous to the political integ- 
rity and patriotism of the i ountry, aud that a 
limitatiou to one Presidential term would, in a 
great degree, arrest the i-TOgress of corruption 
and political proUigacy. 

Resolved, That inasmuch as the States, in the 
formation of the constitution, surrendered to tl.e 
General Government exclusive control of all the 
sources of incidental revenue and reserved to 
themselves the right of taxation alone as a 
source of revenue to meet their individual 
wants; justice, reason, and common honesty 
require that the General Government should 
provide an incidental revenue equal to all the 
wants of the Government, without resorting to 
the proceeds of the public lands or the odious 
and oppressive measure of direct taxation as 
coutende;! for by the so-called Democratic 




Resolved, That we regard the proceed3 of the 
sales of public lands as the legitimate property 
of the States, and as only a trust fund in the 
hands of the General Government, and that ihe 
trust should he executed without further delay 
by a distribution of the same among the States 
and Territories; that this measure is especially a 
debt of justice at this time, when many of the 
States are groaning with taxation and almost 
driven to bankruptcy by an accumulation of 
debts, which have resulted in a great measure 
from the ruinous policy of the so-called Demo- 
cratic party. 

Resolved, That we deprecate experiments in 
legislation where the result is uncertain and un- 
ascertainable, and that while we should avoid 
the errors of the past, we should cling with 
unfliuchiug tenacity to those institutions which 
have .successfully stood the test of experiment, 
and have received the sanction and support of 
the framers of the constitution. 

Resolved, That we deem the establishment of 
a national currency of certain value and every- 
where received, as indispensably necessary to 
the greatest degree of national prosperity; that 
the internaticmal commerce uf this widely ex 
tended country is greatly retarded and heavily 
burdened with taxation by Ihe want of a com- 
mon medium of exchange, and that it is the 
constitutional duty of the General Government 
to remove all impediments to its successful pros- 
ecution, and to foster and encourage the internal 
commerce and enterprise, the interchange of 
commodities among the States, not only by a 
reasonable system of internal improvements of 
a general character, but also by furnishing to 
the nation a currency of equal value in all parts 
of its wide-spread domain, and that the exper- 
ience of the past fully proves that this end has 
been accomplished by a national banli, can be 
again accomplished by a national bank, and in 
no way so safely and so certainly as by the 
agency of a well regulated national bank. 

Resolved, That a tariff which will afford a rev- 
enue adequate to all the wants of the General 
Governiuent, and at the same time protect the 
agricultural and mechanical industry of the 
American people, is a measure necessary to 
secure the prosperity of the country, and 

warmly advocated by the Whig party of this 

Resolved, That although we have no right to 
vote at the approaching Presidential election, 
yet we look forward to the exertions of our 
friends of the States for the elevation of Henry 
Clay to the Chief Magistracy of the Union with 
intense interest and assurance of our most 
ardent wishes for their success. 

Resolved, That governments should be admin- 
istered so as to produce the greatest good to the 
greatest number, and that this is true Bemocraey; 
that the self-styled Democratic party, by the 
policy they have pursued for the last ten years 
in their efforts to destroy the prosperity of our 
farmers and mechanics by rejecting a tariff for 
revenue and protection, by destroying the best 
currency evei- possessed in any nation, by seek- 
ing to deprive us of all currency except gold 
and silver, in refusing to the indebted States 
relief by paying to them their proportion of the 
proceeds of the public lands, in their continued 
uniform and violent opposition to all measures 
calculated to advancf the national and individ- 
ual prosperity, by means of the encouragement 
of commerce and internal improvements, by a 
narrow and selfish pvdicy in conv-rting the ex- 
ecutive power into an engine of party, by their 
federal and aristocratic exertions to maintain 
the veto power, and consolidate all the powers 
of Government in one leader, thereby rendering 
the administration of the Government a mere 
machine of party, in their repeated efforts to 
undermine and destroy the constitution and 
laws of Congress, by openly disregarding the 
rights secured by those laws, in their demoraliz- 
ing efforts to induce the States to disregard their 
honor and repudiate their debts, in their open 
violation of private rights, by repealing charters 
and violating the obligation of contract; in short, 
by their whole policy and principles which, in a 
time of peace, and abundant crops, and with the 
smiles of heaven, have reduced this wealthy, 
proud and prosperous nation to actual bank- 
ruptcy, t-ational and individual, they have for- 
feited the name of Democrats, and a? a party 
are no longer to be trusted with the reins of 




The Democrats adopted no platform in 

The Legislature on the 1 2th of February, 
1844, passed another act submitting the 
question of a constitutional convention to 
the people, which was carried. A consti- 
tution was framed by this convention, and 
Congress passed an act providing for the 
admission of Iowa as a State; but curtail- 
ing the northern and western boundaries. 
At an election held in April, 1845, the 
people rejected the constitution. The 
August election, 1845, was for Delegate to 
Congress. Ralph P. Lowe secured the 
Whig nomination, while A. C. Dodge was 
nominated for re-election by the Demo- 
crats. The vote stood: 

A.C.-Dodge, Dem 7,513—831 

R. P. Lowe, Whig 6,681 

In April, 1876, delegates were chosen to 
a second constitutional convention, which 
met at Iowa City, May 4, 1846 The con- 
stitution framed by this body was accepted 
by the people in August, Congress having 
repealed the obnoxious features respecting 
boundaries, giving Iowa the territory to 
which it was justly entitled. 

After the adoption of this constitution, 
the Whigs met in convention at Iowa 
City, September 25, and nominated the 
following State ticket: Governor, Thos. 
McKnight; Secretary of State, James H. 
Cowles; Auditor of State, Eastin Morris; 
Treasurer of State, Egbert T. Smith. The 
following platform was adopted: 

Resolved, That, considering it our duty, ^s 
Wliigs, to effect a thorough organization of our 
party, and, by use of all honorable means, f.-iith- 
fully and diligently strive to ensure the success 
of our political principles in the State of Iowa. 

Resolved, That we, as Whigs, do proudly and 
unhesitatingly proclaim to the worM the follow- 
ing distinctive and leading principles, that we, 
as a party, avow and advocate, and which, if 
carried out, we honestly believe will restore our 
beloved country to its prosperity, and its insti- 
tutions to their pristine purity: 

1. A sound national currency, regulated by 
the will and authority of the peoplr. 

2. A tariff that shall afford sufficient revenue 
to tlie national treasury and just protection to 
American labor. 

8. More ■■erfect restraints up"n executive 
power, especially upon the exercise of the veto. 

4. An equitable distribution of the proceeds 
of the sales of the pullic lands among all the 

5. One Presidential term. 

6. E.xpenditure of the surplus revenue in 
national improvements that will embrace tht 
great rivers, lakes, and main arteries of com- 
munication throughout our country, thus secur- 
ing the most efficient means of defense in war 
and commercial intercouise in peace. 

Resoloed, That the re-enactment of the thrice 
condemned sub-treasury, which will have the 
effect of drawing all coin from circulation and 
locking it up in the vaults and safes of the Gen- 
eral Government, the passage of McKay's BrUish 
tariff bill discriminating in favor of foreign and 
against American labor, and striking a blow, 
intended to be fatal, to home market for Ameri- 
can agricultural productions, and the executive 
veto of the river and harbor bill which paralyzes 
the western farmer's hope of just facilities for 
transporting his surplus products to a marliet, 
and cripples the enegies of commerce in every 
division of the Union, should conhigu the present 
administration to a condemnation so deep that 
the hand of political resurrection could never 
reach it. 

Resolved, That we hold these truths to be self- 
evident, that the foriv-uinth degree of north 
latitude is not fifty-four degrees, forty minutes; 
that James K. Polk's late letter was a deception 
and falsehood of a character so base as none but 
the most dishonorable mind would have resorted 
to; that McKay's tariff is not a judicious revenue 




tariff affording incidental protect to American 
industry; that the annexation of Texas is not 
a peaceful acquisition; that lamp-blnclc and 
rags, though called treasury notes and drawn on 
a bankrupt treasury, are not the constitutional 
currency, and that locofocoism is not Democ- 

Resolved, That we believe the American sys- 
tem of Henry Clay, as exemplified in the tariff 
of 1843, is essential to the independence and 
happiness of the producing classes of the United 
States; that in its protection of home protec- 
tions it nerves the arm of the farjuer and makes 
glad the hearts of the mechanic and manufac- 
turer by ensuring them a constant and satisfac- 
tory remuneration for their toils, and that it is 
found by the test of experience to be the only 
permanent check on the excessive importations 
of former years, which have been the princioal 
cause of hard times, repudiation, bankruptcy, 
and dishonor. 

Resolved, That we regard the adoption of the 
constitution at the recent election, by reason of 
the highly illiberal character of .some of its pro- 
visions, as an event not calculated to promote 
the future welfare and prosperity of the State of 
Iowa, and that it is our imperative duty to pro- 
cure its speedy amendment. 

Resolved, That we pledge ourselves to use our 
utmost exertiims to keep up a thorough organi- 
zation of the Whig party in Iowa; and although 
our opponents claim erronerusly, as we believe 
to possess an advantage in numbers and depend 
upon ignorance, prejudice and credulty for suc- 
cess, yet, having a superiority in the principles 
we profess, we have implicit confidence in the 
dawning ef a brighter day, when the clouds and 
darkness of locofocoism will be dispelled by the 
cheering rays and invigorating influence of 
truth and knowledge. 

On motion, it was 

Resolved, That we recommend to the support 
of the people of Iowa, at the coming election, 
the ticket nominated by this convention; that 
we believe the candidates to be good men, and 
that the members of this convention, in behalf 
of those for whom they act, pledge to them a 
cordial and zealous support. 

Tlie Democratic Convention was held 
September 24, which nominated the fol- 
lowing ticket: Governor, Ansel Briggs; 
Secretary of State, E. Cutler, Jr.; Auditor 
of State, J, T. Fales; Treasurer, Morgan 

The following platform was adopted: 
Resolved, That the conduct of James K. Polk, 
since he has been President of the United States' 
and particularly during the last session of Con- 
gress, has been that of an unwavering and un- 
flinching Democrat; that Young Hickoiy has 
proved himself to be a true scion of Old Hick- 
ory; and we tender to him au>l his coa.ljutors in 
the executive department the gratitude of the 
people of the State of Iowa. 

Resolved, That the recent session of Congress 
has been one of the greatest importance to the 
people of these United States, since the time of 
Mr. Jefferson, and we confidently reg.nd the 
acts passed by it, particulariy the patsage of 
the Independent Treasury Bi]], the settlement 
of the Oreg.m question (though the people of 
Iowa would have preferred 54, 40), and the re- 
peal of the odious tariff act of 1842, as destined 
to advance the welfare, promote the imeiest, 
and add to the peace and harmony not only of 
our people, but of the civilized world. 

Resolved, That the repeal of the unjust, un- 
equal and fraudulent tariff act of 1843, at the 
recent session of Congress, deserves the highest 
praise from the people of Iowa, and entitles 
those members of Congress who voted for it 
to the lasting gratitude of all good citizens; 
that by its minimum and -ijcci'ic duties— by its' 
unequal and unjust protection of the captaiists 
and moneyed institulions, ai5d by its casting the 
burden of taxation upon the laboring masses, 
and exempting the uper ten thousand, it was 
absolutely a federal tariff, based on the doc- 
trines of the great God-like Belshazzer of Massa- 
chusetts, viz: "Let the Government take care 
of the rich, and the rich take care of the poor"; 
that the conduct of the Vice-President of the 
United States, upon that great question of the 
age, entitles him to the highest place in the con- 
fidence of the Democracy of the United States. 




Resolved, That all modfis of niising revenue 
for the support of Government are taxes upon 
the capital, labor and industry of the country; 
and that it is the duty of a good government to 
impose its taxes in such a manner as to bear 
equally on nil classes of society; and that any 
government which, in levying duties for raising 
revenue, impresses burdens on any one class nf 
society, to build up others, though republican in 
form, is tyranical in deed, ceases to be a jusi 
government, and is unworthy of the confidence 
or support of a free people. 

Reifoleed, That the separation of the public 
moneys from the banking institutions of the 
country, in the passage of the Independent 
Treasury Bill, meets the approbation of this 
Convention, and the recent vote of the people 
of this Slate, adopting the Consliiution, is a de 
cisive indication of public senlimeut against all 
banking institutions of whatever name, nature 
or description. 

Resolved, That the repeated unjust aggression 
of the Mexican people and Mexican Government 
have long since called for redress, and the spirit 
which has discouraged, opposed and denounced 
the war which our Government is now carrying 
on against Mexico, is the same spirit which op- 
posed the formation of a liuiiublican Govern- 
ment, opposed .Icft'erson and denounced the list 
■war with Great Britain, and now, as they did 
then, from a federal fountain. 

Resolved, That General Taylor and our little 
army have won for themselves the everlasting 
gratitude of the country, for which they will 
never, like Scott, be exptised to a shot in their 
rear from Washington or any other part of the 

Resolved. That we repudiate the idea of party 
without principles; that Democracy has certain 
fixed and unalterable principles, among which 
are equal lights and equal protectiim to all, un- 
limited rights of sufl'i ,ge to every freeman, no 
property qualifications or religious tests, sov- 
ereignty of 'he peo]>le. subiection of the Legis- 
lature to the will of the people, obedience to the 
iuslructions of constituents, or resignation, and 
restriction of all exclusive privileges to corpo- 
rations to a level with individual rights. 

Resolved, That henceforth, as a political parly, 
we are determined to know nothing but Democ- 
racy, and that we will support men only for 
their principles. Our motto will be: Less leg- 
islation, few laws, strict obedience, short ses- 
sions, light taxes, and no State debt. 

The vote on Governor was as follows: 

Ansel Briggs, Dem 7,626—247 

Thomas JU Knight, Whig 7,375) 

The office of State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction having been vacated, it 
was provided in the act that an election 
should be held the first Monday in April, 
1847, for the purpose of filling the office. 
The \Miigs placed James Harlan in nomi- 
nation, and the Democrats, Charles Mason. 
Harlan was elected by a majority of 413 
out of a total vote of 15,663. 

By act approved February 24, 1847, the 
Legislature created a Board of Public 
Works for the improvement of DesMoines 
river, and provided for the election of a 
President, Secretary and Treasurer of such 
on the first Monday in August. The 
Democrats in State convention at Iowa 
City, June 11, placed the following ticket 
in the field: President of Board, H. W. 
Sample; Secretary, Charles Corkery; Treas- 
urer, Paul Bratton. The following plat- 
form was adopted: 

Whereas, Our countrj- is at present engaged 
in an expensive and sanguinary war, forced 
upon her against her will, and cariied on to 
repel aggravated and repeated instances of in- 
sult and injustice; and. 

Whereas, There are those among us, native- 
born Americans, who maintain that Mexico is 
in the right and the United States in the wrong 
in this vfar; and. 

Whereas, The public mind is, at the present 
time, agitated by other great questions of na- 
tional policy, in relation to which it is proper 
that the Democracy of Iowa should speak out 



through their representatives here assembled; 

Res<ilved, That we indignantly repel the charge 
made by the Whig press and the Whig leaders, 
that the war is one of aggression and conquest. 
The United States, we fearlessly assert, have 
for years submitted to treatment at the hands of 
Mexico which, by any European government, 
would have been legarded as a good cause of 
war, and which our own government would 
have made cause of quarrel with any transat- 
lantic power. 

Resolved, That we triumphantly point to the 
repeated efJorts made by our government, since 
the commencement of the war, to re-open nego- 
ti;itions with Mexico with a view of putting an 
end to hostilities as evidence of the pacific 
motives by which it is actuated, and we rely 
upon this testimony for the justification of our 
government in the eyes of the civilized world. 
We also point, with the highest satisfaction, to 
the humane and Christian lilie manner in which 
the war has been conductod on our part, show- 
ing, as it does, that the United States have 
throughout ncled upon principle in every respect 
worthy of the enlightened and civilized age in 
which we live. 

Resolved, That we have the most unlimited 
confidence in the ability and statesmanlike 
qualities of President Polk; that the measures 
of his administration, stiintling, as they have 
done, the test of time, have our most cordial 
approbation; that in the prosecution of the'war 
with Mexico, he and the several members of his 
cabinet have evinced the most signal energy and 
capacity; that the brilliant success of our arms 
at every point, and the fact that in the short 
space of one year more than one-half of Mexico 
has been overcome by our troops, and is now in 
our possession, furnishes a refutation of the 
assertion sometimes heard from the Whigs, that 
the war has been inefficiently conducted, and 
that the country has the amplest cause to con- 
gratulate itself that, great and important as the 
crisis is, it has men at the head of affairs fully 
equal to the emergency. 

Resolved, That the thanks of the American 
people are due to JNIajor-Generals Scott and 

Taylor, their officers and men, for their c<mrage, 
bravery and endurance; that in the victories they 
have achieved, they have shed imjierishable 
honor upon their country's flag at the same time 
that they have won for themselves, one and all, 
chaplets of imperishable renown. 

Resolved, That in the demand which now ex- 
ists in the countries of the old world for Ameri- 
can provisions, we have an illustruiou of the 
incalculable benefits which are sure to result to 
the United Stales, and particularly to the great 
West, from reciprocal interchange of commo- 
dities; that the agriculturists of Iowa have sen- 
sibly partaken of the benefits resulting from 
this liberal system of policy, and in the name of 
the Democratic party of Iowa, wo tender to 
President Polk and the Democratic members of 
Congress our thanks for the enactment of a 
tariff, which is likely to have the effect of caus- 
ing foreign countries to still further abolish their 
restrictions upon American grain and American 

Resolved, That the evidence to be found in the 
fact that, within the last three months, the enor- 
mous sum of fifty-five millions of dollars has 
been offered to be loaned to the G.ivernment at 
a premium, is a pruud vindication of the finan- 
cial ability of the Government, at the same time 
that it rebukes with merited severity the croak- 
ing of those who, at the commencement of the 
war, predicted that the treasury would be beg- 
gared in less than a year, with no means of re- 
plenishing itj 

Resolved, That we approve of the conduct of 
the Democratic members of our first State Legis- 
lature. Under the peculiar circumstances by 
which they were surrounded, their conduct was 
such as became them, and is sustained by the 
entire Democracy of the State. 

Resolved, That the Democratic party have ever 
regarded education as the only means of pre- 
serving and perpetuating our republican institu- 
tions; that it is now and ever has been solicitous 
for its extension throughout the whole length 
and breadth of our land; and that it is one of 
the chief objects of the Democratic party of this 
State to establish such a system of free schools 
as will enable every child within its borders to 




qualify himself to perform all the duties devolv- 
ing upon a citizen of this favored country. 

Resolved, That we pledge ourselves collectively 
to support the nominees of this convention; that 
in our respective counties we will spare no 
elloits to promote their success; that we will 
permit no selfish consideration, no sectional feel- 
ings, to influence us, but, rallying under the 
banner of the good old cause, the cause of De- 
mocracy, we will march on to victory, triumph- 
ant victory 1 

Tile Whigs nominated for President of 
the Board, Geo. Wilson; Secrelaiy, Madi- 
son Dagger; Treasurer, Pierre B Fagan. 
Sample was elected over Wilson by 510 
majority, out of a total vote of 16,250. 

The Whigs of Iowa were first in the 
field in 1848, meeting in convention May 
11th, at Iowa City. They nominated for 
Secretary of State J.M. Coleman; Auditor, 
M. Morley; Treasurer, Robert Holmes. 
The following platform was adopted : 

The Government of the United States is based 
upon and exists only by the consent of the |)eo- 
ple; and, 

AViiEREAS, It is the duty as well as the rights 
of the citizens of the United States to meet in 
their primary capacity, whenever their judg- 
ment may dictate, to examine into the affairs of 
the Government; and. 

Whereas, This right carries with it the power 
to approve the conduct of their public servants, 
whenever approval is merited by faithfulness 
and integrity, so it equally confers the duty of 
exposing imbecility, selfishness and corruption, 
when they exist in the administration of the Re- 
public, and of denouncing those who. disregard- 
ing the example and admonitions of the Fathers 
of the Uep\ililic, are abandoning the true prin- 
ciples on wliirh our civil institutions are found- 
ed, and proclaiming and carrying out measures 
that cannot but prove detrimental to the har- 
mony and best interests of the Union, and may 
eventuate in the overthrow of our present Re- 
publican form of government; therefore, 

Resolved, By the Whigs of Iowa, through their 
Representatives in State Convention assembled, 
that the Government of the United States is a 
limited Government, divided into three depart- 
ments, each having its appi< iriate sphere, and 
separate and well-defined duties to peiform; 
that it is necessary to the stability and periJelu- 
ity of our institutions, that the Executive, Leg- 
islative and Judicial Departments should be 
kept distinct, and confined to their legitimate 
duties; and that any encroachi;ent, by one de- 
partment, upon either of the others, is a viola- 
tion of the spirit and letter of the constitution, 
and should call down the severest reprehension 
of the American people. 

Resolved, That the admonition of a late Presi- 
dent of the United States, "Keep your eye upon 
the Presi'.ent," should especially recommend 
itself to all the people in times like the present; 
that the Government can only be kept pure l)y 
the constant watchfulness of the people and the 
i.-xpression of their loudest censure, when spec- 
ulation and corrupti^ n is detected. 

Resolved, That entertaining these opinions, we 
have no hesitation in declaring that the eleva- 
tion of James K. Polk to the Presidential office 
was a sad mishap to the American Government; 
and that his administration, by its total aban- 
donment of the principles of true Republican- 
ism, as taught by Washington, Jefferson and 
Madison; by its encroachments on the national 
constitation, and its entire disregard of the will 
of the people, as expressed through their Rep- 
resentatives in Congress; by its denunciations 
of its own constituents, its futile attempt to 
misrepresent facts and conceal the truth, its 
endeavors to prostrate the industrial energies of 
the people and discriminate in favor of the man- 
ufactures and machinery of Europe, its violation 
of its own much lauded system of finance, the 
sub treasury, thereby furnishing the people wilh 
promise to pay its officers with gold and silver; 
bv its war, commenced without the assent of 
the war-m king power, iit' a weak and dis- 
tracted sister Republic, while at the same time, 
it ignobly and cowardly crouched before 
the lion of England, and to;)k back its own asser- 
tions; its public debt of one hundred millions 

and its sacrifice of human life; its veto of meas- 
ures that met the approval of ever}- former Pres- 
ident; and, worse than all, by its infamous at- 
tempt to rob of their well-earned laurels, won on 
the tented field, in the heart of the enemy's 
country, those who commanded the armies of 
the Republic, and bring them into unmerited 
disgrace before the Ameiican people,— bv this 
aggregation of misdeeds, has signalized itself 
as the worst, most selfish and corrupt adminis- 
tration the United States ever had. 

Resolved, That, while we concede that it is the 
duty of every citizen to support his country 
when engaged iu a confiict with a foreign power, 
yet we equally insist that it is the duty of the 
people to hold their public servants to a strict 
accountability, and honestly to condemn what- 
ever their judgment cannot approve; that we 
indignantly hurl back the imputation of James 
K. Polk and his parasites, that the Whig party 
of the Unicn are wanting in love of country, 
and deficient in its defense, and in evidence of 
the patriotism of the Whig party, we proudly 
point to the commanding generals, the distin- 
guished officers and the brave soldiers who, in 
our army in Mexico, have shed luster upon them- 
selves and renown upon the flag of their country. 

Resolved, That, believins: the war terminated, 
our convictions require us to declare that the 
war with Mexico was a war brought on by the 
Executive, wilhout the approbation of the war- 
making power, that had the same prudence 
which governed the administration in its inter- 
course with Great Britain, relative to the settle- 
ment of the Oregon question, exercised toward 
Mexico, a nation" whose internal dissensions and 
weakness demanded our forbearance, the war 
wjuld have been averted, and the boundaries 
between the two nations amicably and satisfac- 
torily settled. 

Resolved, That we are m favor of the applica- 
tion of the principle contained iu the Wilmot 
proviso (so called), to all territory to be incor- 
porated into this Union, and are utterly opposed 
to the further extension of slave territory. 

Resolved, That our opposition to the sub- treas- 
ury and the tariff of 1845 has not been dimin- 

ished by the evidence furnished us of their oper- 
ations; that they are twin measures, calculated 
and designed to depress the free lab .r of the 
country, for the benefit of a minority of the 
people— the oie operating to lessen the price of 
labor, and bring down the wages of freemen, 
and the otlier throwing open our ports for the 
introduction of the productions of the pauper 
labor of Europe, thereby crippling our own man- 
ufacturers and compelling them either to sacri- 
fice their laborers or close their business; that 
the one has failed as a disturbing system of the 
Government, the administration having been 
compelled to resort to banks and paper in 
making their payments, and the other, as a rev- 
enue measure, has proved entirely inadequate to 
the support of the ordinary expenses of the Gov- 
ernment; that the one, by withdrawing from 
circulation, and shutting up in its vaults a large 
amount of specie, and the other, by overstock- 
ing the market with foreign goods, have largely 
contiibuted towards, if they have not entirely 
produced, the present financial difficulties; and 
that we cannot but foresee that the country will 
soon be visited, if these measures are coniinued, 
with a coirmercial revulsion as great and disas- 
trous as that of 1837. 

Resohed, That the profession of the adminis- 
tration of James K. Polk, that it is in favor of, 
and devoted to, an exclu.sively metallic currency! 
while it is issuing millions u. on millions of 
paper money, in shape of treasury notes, irre- 
deemable in specie, is an insult to the American 
people, and deserves the unqualified denuncia- 
tion of every lover of truth and honesty. 

Resolved, That the great West, whose popula- 
tion and commerce are rapidly increasing, bear- 
ing, as it does, its full proportion of tJie public 
burdens, is entitled to some consideration at the 
hands of the General Government, and to 
participation in the Union; that the Mis.sissippi 
river is to the whole Mississippi Valley what the 
Atlantic is to the Eastern and the lakes are to 
the Northern States; that if it is constitutional 
to clear and improve any harbors in the latter 
it is equally constitutional to do the same in the 
former; that the River and Harbor Bill of the 
last session of Congress contained only appro- 





priaiions for work tlirit hid met the approval of 
Jackson and VuiHurcu; that the veto of that 
measure by the Executive was a high-handed 
usurpation upon the rights of the people and 
their representatives, uncalled for and unneces- 
sary, and that, by that act, James K. Polk 
proved liifflself false to the principles of his pre- 
decessors, and hostile to the future growth and 
best interests of the West. 

Hesiileed, That in view of the misrule, venality 
and infractions of the Constitution which have 
characterized the present administration, we 
deem the approaching Presidential election one 
of the most important that Las occurred since 
the or::anization of the Government; that it is 
necessary to the preservation of the institutions 
bequeathed to us by our fathers, that there 
should be a change of rulers as well as a change 
of measures; that, animated by a sincere desire 
to promote the welfare and honor of our coun- 
try, we have determined to buckle on our armor 
and enlist for the war; and, in the language of 
one who never faltered in his devotion to his 
country, we call upon every Whig in Iowa to 
"Ariuse ! Awake I Shake off the dew-drops that 
glitter on j'our garments 1" and, in company 
with your brethren throughout the Union, "Once 
more march forth to battle and to victory I" 

Resolved. That, although the Whig party of 
Iowa has expressed a preference for General 
Taylor as the Whig candidate for President, yet 
the}- deem it due to themselves to declare that 
they commit the whole subject into the hands of 
the Whig National Convention, and whoever 
may be the nominee of that body for President, 
the Whigs of Iowa will give him a cordial sup- 

Resolved, That locofocoism in Iowa has proved 
itself ;i faction, "held together by the coercive 
power of public plunder," and devoid alike of 
generosity and prir.jiple; that, under cover of 
an assumed love of law and order, it has under- 
taken and cast from office a citizen chosen by a 
large majority of the popular voice, while, at the 
same time, it is represented in Congress bv men 
elected without the shadow of law; that in foist- 
ing into the halls of Legi-slature, men who had 
no right there, for the purpose of carrying out 

their own selfish designs, lhe\' were guilty of a 
clear violation of constitutional law, and of 
usurpation upon the rights of the people; and 
that the Whig members of the Legislature, by 
refusing to go iuto the election of Senators and 
Supreme Judges, while those individuals exer- 
cised the functions of Representatives, truly 
reflected the will of their constituents, and de- 
serve the thanks of every friend of good gov- 

Resolved, That we most cordially commend to 
the support of the people of Iowa the ticket 
placed in nomination by this convention, of 
Stale officers a:;d electors of President and Vice 
Pre-ident; that they are citizens distinguished 
for their ability, integrity, patriotism ■aid cor- 
rect moral deportment; and that we pledge to 
this ticket a full, hearty and zealous co-opera- 
tion in the ensuing canvass, with the confident 
assurance that if every Whig does his "duty, his 
whole duty, and nothing short of his duty," at 
the ballot-box, they will receive from the people 
of Iowa a m.ajority of their suffrages 

Resolved, That we are watching with deep in- 
terest the recent movements in Europe, indica- 
ting as they do, the spread of popular liberty, 
and the determination on the part of the masses 
to throw off the fetters of despotism and kingly 
rule; that we joyfully admit into the brother- 
hood of republicanism the new republic of 
France, trusting that an all-wise Providence 
will guide and watch over tTie destinies of the 
new government and establish it on a permanent 
basis; and that to the masses of the other na- 
tions of EuropBe, who are now struggling to be 
free, we tender our warmest sympathies, and 
bid them a heartfelt God- speed in their efforts to 
obtain a recognition of their rights aud liberties. 

The Democrats placed the following 
ticket in uomiuation at a State convention 
held June 1st, at Iowa City: Secretary of 
State, Josiah II. Bonney; Auditor, Joseph 
T. Fales; Treasurer, Morgan Reno. The 
official vote showed Bonney to be elected 
Secretary of State by 1,212 majority, out 
of a total of 23,522. 



The campaign of 1849 was opened by 
the Democrats, who met in convention at 
Iowa City, and nominated William Patter- 
son, President of Board of Public Works; 
for Secretary, Jesse Williams; Treasurer-, 
George Gillaspie. The platform adopted 
by the convention was as follows: 

Resolved, That, in view of the large interest at 
stalve in the judicious and vigorous prosecution 
of the public worlds on the DesMoines river, and 
in view also of the efforts on foot by the Whig 
party to obiain the control and direction of the 
same, by means of a Whig Board of Public 
Worlvs, it is important that the Democracy of 
the State should take immediate and energetic 
steps towaid a thorough and complete organiza- 
tion of the party, and be ready on the day of 
the election to secure to themselves, by a tri- 
umphant majority, the choice of the officers; 
and that, while we cordially and unreservedly 
recommend the nominees of this convention to 
the confidence and support of the people, we 
should also take occasion to admonish our 
friends, that in union there is strength, and in 
vigilance, success. 

Resolved, That this convention has received, 
with feelings nf prufound grief, the intelligence 
of the death of that pure patriot and able states- 
man, James K. Polk, late President of the United 
States; and that for liis eminent and distins^uished 
services to his country, for his faithfulness to 
principle, and for his puriiy of private life, his 
memory will ever live in the cherished recollec- 
tions of the Democracy of the nation, by none 
more honored than the people of this State. 

Re/tolved, That we recur with pride to the tri- 
umphant success, the splendid achievements, 
and the imperishable renown of the lute admin- 
istration; and that, while we point to these as 
the glorious remits of past labors, we should re- 
member that, as they were gained by a strict 
adherence to honest principles and the adoption 
of an honest policy, they can be sullied or im- 
paiied only by a base abandonment of them 
upon the altar of expediency, or by a disgrace- 
ful surrender in the form of coward silence. 

Resolved, That we still adhere as firmly as 
ever to the principles and measures which dic- 
tated and governed the course of the late admin- 
istration; and that we derive a high pleasure 
from the fact that a Democratic Senate is vouch- 
safed to us as an impassable barrier between the 
federal high tariff, bank and paper policy, hopes 
and designs of the present dynasty, and the gold 
and silver currency, and low tariff and inde- 
pendent treasury policy of the people. 

Resolved. That the admmistration of Gen. 
Taylor, as far as it has proceeded apon its mis- 
sion, has unblushiugly falsified every promise 
and giossly violated every pledge given before 
the election by its nominal chief; that a p:irty 
which can go before the countryjipon one set of 
issues, and immediately after its installation 
into power enter upon the practice of another 
set, is more than ever deserving of the reproba- 
tion of the world, and of the continued and 
uncompromising hostility of the Democratic 

Resolved, That General Taylor, for the part 
which he has played, or has been made to play 
in this d sgiaceful game of deception, has dis- 
played a Want of honest principle or weakness 
of mind and character, which equally disquali- 
fies him for the place he holds, and fuliv justi- 
fies the worst predictions ever made agaiusi his 
fitness for the Presidency; and that, alihough 
we may once have admired the soldier in the 
tented field, we are now reluctantly brought to 
condemn and to repudiate the cipher in the 
cabinet of the country. 

Resulted, That the removals in this State have 
been made without cause and in direct violation 
of the professions of General Tajlor, before the 
election; and that the appointments which have 
followed have been made in equal violation of 
the Same professions. 

Resolved, That the appointment of a bureau 
oflicer from this State, in the person of Fitz 
Henry Warren, is an act deserving the censure 
and undistinguished condemnation which it is 
rerelving from a htrge majoriiy of the Whigs of 
Iowa; and that his retention in oflice, in the 
face of these o|ien and emphatic expressions of 

'^ K 



public disgust, is well calculated to prepare the 
mind of every one to be surprised at nothing, in 
the way of moral turpitude, which may mark 
the future character of General Taylor's admin- 

Resolved, That the Democrats who have been 
removed from office in this State by the federal 
and proscriptLve administra'.iou now in power, 
retire from their respective posts without re- 
proach from government, and with the unim- 
paired confidence and respect of the Democracy 
of the Slate. 

Resolved, That we deprecate any separate and 
sectional organizations, in any portion of the 
country, having for their object the advocacy of 
an isolated point involving feeling, and not 
fact — pride, and not principle, as destructive to 
the peace and happiness of the people and dan- 
gerous to the stability of ihe Union. 

Resolved, That inasmuch as the Territories of 
New Mexico and California come to us free, and 
aie free now by law, it is oui desire that they 
should remain forever free; but that until it is 
proposed to repeal the laws making the country 
free, and to erect others in their stead for the 
extension of slavery, we deem it inexpedient 
and improper to add to the further distraction 
of the public mind by demauding, in the name 
of the Wilraot Proviso, what is already amply 
secured by the laws of the land. 

The Whigs met in convention June 30, 
at Iowa City, where they nominated the 
following ticket: President of Board, 
Thomas J. McKean; Secretary, William 
M. Allison; Treasurer, Henry 6. Stewart. 
The following platform was adopted: 

Resolved, That this convention has unlimited 
confidence in the integrity, ability and patriotism 
of the people's President, General Zachary Tay- 
lor. The illustrious services he has rendered 
his country in forty years' devotion to her in- 
terests and her glory in the fieid, and the abun- 
dant evidence he has given since his inaugura- 
tion as Chief Magistrate of the Republic, of the 
possession of eminent administrative talents, 
afford a sure guaranty that his administration 

will be devoted to the highest and best interests 
of the country, the whnle couutiy, and nothing 
but the country. With such a leader, one who 
has successfully encountered every danger, 
whether in front, rear or rank, we may look with 
coutideuce to the speedy leslor.itiou of the 
country to her true Republican destiny. 

Resolved, That, in the opinion of this meet- 
ing, the recent demonstration of public senti- 
ment inscribes on the list of executive duties, in 
characters too legible to be overlooked, the task 
of reform, and the correction of those abuses 
which have brought the patronage of the Federal 
Government into conflict with the freedom of 
election; and that as vacancies by death are 
few, by resignation none, the task of reform 
and the correction of those abuses can be accom- 
plished only byremov il; and we regard the wail- 
ings of the locofoco press at the salutary and 
essential changes which the administration has 
seen proper to make, as involving a disregard 
of the important truth here referred to, and a 
contempt of the first principles of Democracy. 

Resulted, That the welfare and interests of the 
peoi)le of Iowa imperative!}' require an amend- 
ment to the State Constitution, by which the 
incubus, imposed in some of its provisions upon 
their resources and prosperity, shall be removed. 

Resolved, That the- people have a right to 
demand that this question shall be submitted to 
them for their action, and in the judgment of 
this convention they will be recreant to their 
interests if they do not visit their condemnation 
upon a party that, with professions of Democ- 
racy perpetually upon its lips, has shown itself 
in practice to be destitute of the true principles 
of Democracy. 

Resolved, That the course of the dominant 
party of this State, in the late General AssemVily, 
in its daring assaults upon the most sacred pro- 
vision of the constitution; in the outrage which 
it committed against the great principles of civil 
and religious liberty, in depriving one of the 
counties of the State, as :i punishment for the 
free exercise by its voters of the elective fran- 
chise of the rights of representation, in ex- 
cluding it from all the judicial districts of the 





State, and in its fl;igitious attempt to destroy its 
organization altogether, and to excommunicate 
its inhabitants, indiscriminately, from the pro- 
tection of civil society; in its coniemptuous 
refusal to allow the people of the State the priv- 
ilege of expressing their opinion on the subject 
of a convention to amend the Slate constitution; 
in its refusal to instruct the Senators in Con- 
gress from this State to favor the policy of the 
Wilmot Proviso, by excluding the iuslilution of 
slavery from our newly acquired Territory; in 
its attempt to create new offices, not demanded 
by the public interest, as a sort of pension to 
partisan favorites— offices which would have im- 
posed new burdens in the shape of increased 
taxation without any corresponding benefit, — 
and in its reckless prodigality ot the public 
money, should consign it to the perpetual con- 
demnation of a free people. 

Resolved, That we are opposed to the exten- 
sion of slavery into territory now free, and that 
we believe it to be the duty of the Fedf-ral Gov- 
ernment to relieve itself of the responsibility of 
that institution, wherever it has the constitu 
tion^il authority so to do; and that the legislation 
necessary to effect those objects should be 

Resolved, That for the compliment paid to our 
State, in the appointment of one of our fellow- 
citizens to the important office of Assistant 
Postmaster, the Prejident is entitled to our 

Resolued, That we commend the ticket pre- 
sented by this convention to the people of this 
State for their cordial support. 

Patterson was elected President over 
McKean by a majority of 712 out of a total 
vote of 22,632. 

The Whigs met in convention May 15, 
1850, at Iowa City, and made the fo low- 
ing nominations: Governor, James L 
Thompson; Secretary of State, Isaac Cook; 
Auditor of State, William H. Seevers; 
Treasurer of State, Evan Jay; Treasurer 
of Board of Public Works, James Nosier. 

The resolutions adopted were as follows: 
Resolved, That every day's experience vindi- 
cates the sentiment proclaimed by the Whig 
State Convention last year, that the welfare and 
interests of the people of Iowa imperatively 
require an amendment to the State constitution, 
by which the incubus imported in some of its 
provisions upon their resources and prosperity 
shall be removed. 

Resolved, That the people have a right to de- 
mand that this question shall be submitted to 
them for their action, and in the judL-mert of 
this convention they will be recreat.t'to their 
interests if they do not so determine by their 
votes at the approaching election. 

Resolved, That we have undiminished confi- 
dence in the integrity, ability and patriotism of 
the people's President, General Z. Taylor, and 
in the wisdom of the policy by him recom- 
mended to Congress. 

Resolved. That the Whigs of the country owe 
it to themselves and the great principles they 
profess to cherish, to give the President a Con- 
gress disposed to co-operate with him in his 
patriotic purposes to serve the country, instead 
of pursuing a factious opposition to the bitter 

Resolved, That we cherish an ardent attach- 
ment to the union of the States, and a firm de- 
terudnation to adhere to it at all hazards and to 
the last extremity. 

Resolved, That we hail with the highest grati- 
fication the rising of a new Slate upon the 
borders of the Pacific, and that we are in favor 
of its immediate admissinn into the familv of 
States upon no other conditions than those'im- 
posed by the constitution of the United States, 
and untnimmelled by any question of Territorial 

Resolved, That while we hold it to be the duty 
of all to be ready and willing to stand to and 
abide by the provisions of the constitution of the 
United States, we are nevertheless free to re- 
affirm, as we now do, the opinion heretofore ex- 
pressed by the Whig party in I,,wa, that we are 
in favor of free men, free territory, and free 



Resolved, That the Surveyor General's ofiice 
of Wisconsin and lona, under the control of 
the Democratic party, has been, and is, an 
engine of vast political power, and that its 
extensive patronage has been used to subserve 
the interest of that party. We, therefore, re- 
spectively and earnestly request of the President 
of the United States the immediate removal of 
C:H. Booth, Esq., the present incumbent, and 
the appointment of one who will not use the 
patron;ige of this office for political ends. 

Resolved, That we cordially recomriend the 
candidates nominated by this convention^ for 
the various State offices to be filled at the next 
August election, to the confidence and support 
of the people of Iowa. 

The Democrats met at Iowa City June 
12, 1850, and nominated the following 
ticket: Governor, Stephen Hempstead; 
Secretary of Slate, G. W. McCleavy; 
Auditor, Wm. Pattee; Treasurer, Israel 
Keister; Treasurer Board Public Works, 
George Gillaspie. The following platform 
was adopted: 

Resolved, Tliat the events of the past year, 
having served to demonstrate the soundness and 
wisdom of the resolutions adopted by the last 
Democratic State Convention, we re-assert and 
re-adopt them, as follows: 

Resolved, That we recur with pride to the tri- 
umpliant success, the splendid achievements 
and the imperishable renown of the late admin- 
istration; and that, while we point to these as 
the glorious results of past labors, we should 
remember that, as they were gained by a strict 
adherence to honest principles, and the adoption 
of an honest policy, they can be sullied or im- 
paired only by a base abandonment of them 
upon the altar of expediency, or by a disgrace- 
ful surrender in the form of a cowardly silence. 
Resolved, That we still adhere, as firmly as 
ever, ty the principles and measures which dic- 
tated and governed the course of the late admin- 
istration; and that we derive a high pleasure 
from the fact that a Democratic Senate is vouch- 
safed to us as an impassable barrier between the 

Federal high-tarift", bank and paper policy, hopes 
and designs of the present dynasty, and the gold 
and silver currency, low tai ill" and independent 
treasury policy of the people. 

.Resolved, That the administration of General 
Taylor, as as it has proceeded upon its mis- 
sion, has unbUishingly falsified every promise and 
grossly violated every pledge given before the 
election by its nominal chief; and that a party 
which can go before the country upon one set of 
issues, and immediately after its installation 
into power enter upon the practice of another 
set, is more than ever deserving of the rep.roba- 
tion of the world, and of the continued and un- 
compromising hostility of the Democratic party. 

Resolved, That General Taylor, for the part 
which he has played, or has been made to play, 
in this disgraceful g.ime of deception, has dis- 
played a want of honest principle, or a weakness 
of mind and character, which equally disquali- 
fies him for llie place he holds, and fully juslifies 
the worst predictions ever made against his fit- 
ness for the Pi-esidency; and that, although we 
may have once admired the soldier in the tented 
field, we are now reluctantly brought to con- 
demn and to repudiate the cipher in the Cabinet 
of the country. 

Resolved, That the removals in this Stale have 
been made without cause and in direct violation 
of the professions of General Taylor before the 
election; and that the appointments which have 
followed have been made in equal violation of 
the same professions. 

Resolved, That it is as gratifying to the pride 
as it is creditable to the patriotism of the Dem- 
ocrats of Iowa, that prominent statesmen of all 
parties, in seeking for a satisfactory adjustment 
of the difficulties which unfortunately exist be- 
tween the slave and non-slaveholding States, 
are found uniting, in main, on the policy of non- 
intervention; and while they arrogate to them- 
selves no right to question the course of other 
States on this subject, they point to the fact, 
with feelings of unmingled satisfaction, and 
they, in co-operating with those who are striving 
t ■ preserve the Union, are required to "tread 
no steps backward." 





Resolved, That, regardiug the preservation of 
our happy form of govern iiienl as paramount to 
all other considerations, and believing that the 
threatened danger may be averted, we ni)prove 
of the bill recently introduced into the Uiiiled 
States Senate by the Committee of Thirteen, 
generally known as the "Compromise Bill." 

Resoloed, That, as this bill authorizes the im- 
mediate admission of Califurni i, organizes the 
Territories of New Mexico and Utah, provides 
for the settlement of the Texan boundary ques- 
tion, enforces the provisions of the constitution 
with regard to the reclamation of persons 
escaping from service, and abolishes the slave 
trade in the Distiict of Columbia, we believe its 
adoption, as a whole, would be hailed as a peace- 
offering by an overwhelming majority of the 
people; nor is our coiitiilence in the wisdom of 
the measure diminished by the fact that the 
ultraists of both extremes are found united in 
opposition to it, but rather increased. 

Resolved, That the late decision of Secretary 
Ewing, by which the State of Iowa has been 
robbud of nearly a million of acres of valuable 
land, and the improvement of her principal 
interior river, retarded, if not wholly destroyed, 
is an act which finds no justification in ihe pre- 
cedent or usages of the government; that it is a 
derogation of both the letter and spirit of the 
act of Congress making the donation, and that, 
in the name of the people of Iowa, we feel called 
upon to denounce it as illegal and unjust. 

Resulted, That this decision, taking away from 
the Stale, by a Whig administration, the greater 
portion of a valuable grant, made to it under a 
Democratic rule, the people of Iowa have suf- 
fered a wrong which, n hile they have no alterna- 
tive but submission, thoy cannot but feel most 
deeply and sensibly that the administration at 
Washington is not less responsible for the deci- 
sion than those who defend it; and that it is the 
duty of the Democracy to arraign them at the 
bar of public opinion at the approaching election 
for aiding and abetting in crippling the energies 
of our young and expanding commonwealth. 

Resolved, that President Taylor's Cabinet have, 
in the recent Galphin swindle and other specula- 
tions of the same kind, proven to the world that 

their promises of retrenchments and reform in 
the administratii'n of the government were made 
to deceive the people, and not with the intention 
of being kept. 

Resolved, Thit the present Governor, Secre- 
tary of State, Auditor and Treasurer, whose terms 
of office are about to expire, each and all of them, 
by tiie honest, efficient and impartial discharge 
of their duties, deserve the cordial approbation 
of the people of the State of Iowa. 

Resolved, That we confidently present the 
nominees of the conventi(m to the voters of the 
State of Iowa for their support; and that we, 
ourselves, will individually use all honorable 
means to secure theii election. 

The official vote on Governor was as fol- 

Stephen Hempstead, Dera 13,488 2,083 

James L. Thompson, Whig 11,403 

William Penn Clark 575 

In 1851, for Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, the Democrats nominated 
Thomas II. Benton, while the Whigs sup- 
ported William G. Woodward, an Inde- 
pendent candidate. Benton was elected 
by a majority of 1,351. 

In 1852 the Whigs were early in the 
field, meeting in convention at Iowa City, 
February 26, and placing in nomination 
the following ticket: Secretary of State, 
J. W. Jenkins; Auditor of State, Asbury 
Porter; Treasurer of State, Hosea B. 
Horn. The following platform, was 

Resolved, That we most cordially approve of 
the administration of President Fillmore, and 
have the fullest confidence in the executive 
officers of our government, and that the admin- 
istration of our foreign and domestic aflairs 
deserves our highest admiration and firmest 
support; and we have the assur.mce that under 
such an administration our republic will alvvuys 
be safe. 



Resolved, That our warmest gratitude is due 
to those of whatsoever political party, who 
have, for the last two years, battled for the 
union of these States, and that we now regard 
the question out of which our apprehension of 
disunion arose as settled now and foreiier. 

Resolved, That we rejoice to see our Demo- 
cratic fellow-citizens in the Western States 
occu|iying a part of our political platform, es- 
pecially that relating to currency, to the im- 
provement of rivers and harbors by appropria- 
tions from the national treasury, and a revision 
of the tariff of 1846. 

Resolved, Thai, as by alone following the 
advice of the illustrious Father of our Country 
lor three-quarters of a century, our nation is 
1 rosperous and happy, we are still for adhering 
to which teaches us to be at peace with all 
nations, and to form entangling alliances with 

Resolved, That the delegates to the National 
Convention be left free to act according to their 
own judgment, when they meet their brethren 
in the National Convention, to nominate candi- 
dates for President and Vice-President of the 
United States, according to the lights that there 
may be presented, and so to act as to harmonize 
conflicting claims and interests, and to maintain 
the integrity of the Whig party and the ascend- 
ancy of Whig principles. 

ResoUed, That it is the opinion of this con- 
vention that a convention to revise the constitu 
tion of the States should be called at as early a 
day as i< prac'icable; and, with a view to the 
advancement of this oliject, it is hereby recom- 
mended to State and local candidates in every 
part of the State to make this issue distinctly 
and strongly before the people. 

Resolved, That this convention request the 
executive committee of the Siate, and of each 
county and of each district composed of several 
counties, to effect a complete and efficient or- 
ganization of the Whig party in their respective 
counties and districts. 

The Deruocratic convention met May 
28th, at Iowa city, and nominated the fol- 

lowing ticl«et: Secretary of State, Geo. 
VV. McCIeary; Auditor, William Pattee; 
Treasurer, M. L. Morris. The following 
platform was adopted: 

Resolved, That paramount to all questions of a 
party or sectional nature, we are in favor of 
"The Uuiin now and forever." 

Resolved, That to carefully regard the rights 
of States, is the only possible way to strengthen 
and perpetuate our glorious confederacy. 

Resolved, That a strict construction of the 
Constitution of the United States is the only 
safeguard for the rights of the States, and that 
we fully recognize the doctrine of the Virginia 
and Kcntui ky resolutions of 1798 and 1799 and 
the Baltimore platform of 1844. 

Resolved, That we are opposed to a national 
bank, a high protective tariff and all measures 
and monopolies of a like nature, and are in 
favor of the independent treasury and tariff of 

Resolved, That we are opposed to a wasteful, 
extr.ivagant and coriupt system of internal im- 
provements; but hold that improvements of a 
national character may properly be made with 
the nation's money, and that, in justice, the 
general government, as a great landholder in the 
Stites, should contribute 6f her large domain to 
those public enteijiiises by which her interests 
are secured and promoted and tlie value of that 
domain enhanced. 

Resolved, That we are in favor of the "com- 
promise" as a final settlement of the question 
which has so long agitated the country upon the 
subject of domestic slavery. 

Resolved, That we are opposed to " nullifica- 
tion" of every kind, whether in the legislature 
of .Vermont, ';r in the latitude of South Carolina, 
and are in favor of a faithful execution of laws 
of Congress until Ihey are repealed, or declared 
inoperative by the proper tribunals of the 

Resolved, That our adopted citizens well 
deserve the political blessings which are now 
extended to them by the existing naturaliza- 

-^ — ^A^ 



tion laws passed by our Democratic forefathers, 
and we are opposed to any alter ition of them 
sougl.t for by native "Americanism." 

RrsoUed, That we are opposed to the nomi- 
nation of a candidate for the Presidency upon 
the nalied idea - >f availability, but are in favor 
of a candidate whose principles are linown to be 
national and in conformity to tlie time-honored 
tenets of the DLmocratic party. 

Resolved, That we are iu favor of the nominee 
of the Baltimire convention, as our candidate 
for the Presidency, and to such nominee we 
pledge our hearty and individual support. 

In regard to State policy — 

Resolved, That wo heartily concur in the great 
principles of judicial and tiuancial reform which 
are agitatiug the civilized world, and which have 
to some extent been recognized by the adoption 
of our revised code; but at the same time repro- 
bate many of the provisions as destructive of 
the great ends sought after, and earnestly recom 
mend a thorough revision of all obnoxious fea- 

The official vote for Secretary of State 
was as follows: 

George G.McCleary, Dem 16,884—1,857 

J. W. Keiikins, Whig 15,027 

In 1853 the Democrats inaugurated the 
campaign by nominating David C. Cloud 
for Attorney General, and adopting the 
following resolutions: 

Resolved, That the delegates this day in con- 
vention assembled, congratulate the Democracy 
of the Union, upon the emphatic verdict of the 
people in favor of Democratic principles, as ex- 
pressed in the election of Franklin Pierce and 
Wm. R. King, to the Presidency and Vice-Pres- 
idency of tliis Republic. 

Resolved, That we recognize as principles car- 
dinal in the Democratic faith: "The election of 
all officers by the people." "The limits of State 
indebtedness." 'Equal taxation" — cocipelling 
the property of the rich, invested in stock, to 
bear its pr iportion of the public buithen of con 

tribution to the taxes of the State. The restraint 
of the legislitive power — con lining it to the 
legitimate subject of general legislation, and the 
crowning glory of repeal, which secures the 
people sovereign from ever becoming slaves to 
any law or charter passed by their servants. 

Resolved, That a wise political economy de- 
mands a more liberal system of disposing of the 
public lauds, and that the prosperity of the 
country, and the hMppincss of individuals would 
be eminently promoted by the passage of a law 
giving the public domain in limited quantities 
to actual settlers at a price covering the cost of 
survey an.', other necessary expenses. 

Resolved, That no species of industry should 
be fostered to the injury of another, that no 
class of men should be taxed directly or indi- 
rectly for the benefil of another; that every de- 
scription of industry should stand or fall on its 
own merits, and that coniraorce should be unfet- 
tered, and, like the air, free. 

Resolved, That the Democracy of Iowa adhere 
to the known and long-established doctrines of 
the party relative to the currency. 

Resolved, That to the Democratic, Republican, 
State and federal institutions, resting on univer- 
sal suffrage and universal eligibility to office, do 
these United States owe their unexampled pros- 
perity among nations, and that it is our duty to 
sympathize with every people struggling against 
tyrants for freedom. 

Mr. Walker introd iced the following 
resolutions, which, on motion, were adopt- 
ed : 

Resolved, That the present Commissioner of 
the DesMoines Improvement, General V P. Van 
Antwerp, by the fidelity, energy and ability with 
which he has discharged the duties of his respon- 
sible position, Is entitled to the highest esteem 
and gratitude of the people of this State. 

Resolved, That to his faithful and judicious 
efforts we are indebted to the final grant by the 
general government of the fund for the Des 
Moines Riverlmprovcment, sufHcient and ample 
to ensure a completion of the work, and develop 
the resources of the DesMoines Valley. 



Resolved, That in prosecuting the ncgntiatlons 
for the State, he has disphiyed unsurpassed per- 
severance, industry and discretion against the 
most tryingdiscoui agements nnd embarassments. 
and that he has not only faithfully improved 
every opportunity to advance the interests of 
his trust, but has signalized his term <if service 
by measures wbicli will identify bis name with 
the successful completion of the public works. 

Resolved, Thrrefore, that in his viluntary re- 
tirement from the office which he hnsso ably tilled, 
we hereby tender to him, in convention of the 
Democracy of the State, the endorsement, "Well 
done, good and faithful servant." 

The ^^ higs maJe no nomination, but 
supported Samuel A. Kice for the office of 
Attorney-General. Cloud was elected over 
Rice by 7,3b4. 

In 1854 the Democrats convened on the 
9th of January, at Iowa City, placed the 
following ticket in the field, and adopted a 
platform: Governor, Curtis Bates; Secre- 
tary of State, Geo. W. McCleary; Auditor 
of State, Joseph L. Sharp; Treasurer of 
State, Martin L. Morris; Attorney-General, 
David C. Cloud; Supt. of Public Instruc- 
tion, Jas. D. Eads. The following is the 
platform : 

Resolved, That we, the delegates of the various 
counties of Iowa, in State Democratic Conven- 
tion assembled, do hereby re-affirm and pledge 
ourselves to the principles of the Baltimore Na- 
tional Convention of 18.'52, and that we hold and 
cons der them as constituting the true platform 
of the Democratic platform, and as fundamental 
and essential with all true Democrats. 

Resolved, That we look upon ourselves as 
members of the real National Deniocratic party, 
a party radically identical in all parts of the 
Union; and that we have no sectional views to 
gratify, no selfish designs to accomplish, but 
are wholly devoted to the Union, harmony and 
success of the cause; we therefore repudiate all 
disaflVction on sectional or personal grounds, 
and denounce all bickering among ourselves 

and most earnestly recommend "union, hir- 
mony, concession and compromise," as a nucleus 
for universal observance. 

ResoUed. That we have increiised confidence 
in the talents, and in the integrity and patriotism 
of Eranklin Pierce, that his administration of 
the g..vernment have been distinguished by 
wisdom, firmness and unwavering adherence to 
its sound Democratic principles; that he has 
fully redeemed the pledges given to the Ameri- 
can people, previous to his election. 

Resolved, That we regard the right of instruc- 
tion :is the sheet anchor, the main pillar ol our 
freedom; and that we are determined never to 
surrender it, but to the last stand by and defend 
it, convinced, as we thoroughly are, that it is 
only by frequent and rigid exercise of this in- 
v.duable privilege that the Democratic character 
of this government can be preserved, and we 
believe the agent who disobeys to be unworthy 
the confidence of his constituents, and that he 
ought to resign his seat. 

Resolved, That the liberal principles embodied 
by Jefferson in the Declaration if Independence, 
and sanctioned in the constitution, \vhiclj makes 
ours the land of liberty and the asylum of the 
oppressed of every nation, have ever been cardi- 
nal principles in the Democratic faith, and 
every attempt to abridge the privilege of becom- 
ing citizens and the owners of soil among us, 
ought to be resisted with the same spirit which 
swept the alien and sedition laws from our 
statute hooks. 

Resolved, That in the recent develoj ment of 
the grand political truth of the sovereignty of 
the people, and their capacity and power of 
self-government, we feel that a high and sacred 
duly is devolved with increased responsibility 
upon the Democratic party of this country as 
the party of the people, to sustain and advance 
among us constitutional "liberty, equality and 
fraternity," by continuing to resist all monopo- 
lies and exclusive legislation for the benefit of 
the few, at the expense of the many, and by 
vigilant and constant adherence to those prin- 
ciples and compromises and strong to uphold 
the Union as it was, the Union as it is, and the 


•) ly-t 



Union as it should be, in the full expansion of 
the energies and capacity of this great auJ pro- 
gressive people. 

Eesnh-cit, That we look upon the speedy or- 
ganization of Nebraska Territory as a highly 
imporiant object, and that its northern boundary 
should coincide, or nearly so, with the latitude 
of the northern boundary of Iowa. 

Resolved, That we hereby pledge ourselves to 
abide the decision of this convention, and to 
use all honorable means to secure the election 
of the nominees. 

Resolved, That the proceedings of this con- 
veniion be published in all the Democratic 
pa|)ers iu the State, and copies be sent to the 
President, heads of ricpanmeuts, and to our 
Representatives in Congress. 

The Whigs met at Iowa City, February 
22, and nominated the following ticket: 
Governor, James W. Grimes; Secretary of 
State, Simeon Winters; Auditor of State, 
Andrew Jackson Stephens; Treasurer, 
Eliphalet Price; Attorney-General, James 
W. Seiinett. The following is the jilat- 
f orm : 

Resolved, That an experience of seven years 
dnder our present constitution has demonstrated 
that that instrument is not suited to the politi- 
cal, the agricultural and commercial wants of 
the State or the Spirit of the age; that the wants 
of the people demand a constitution making 
liberal provisions for the jirdraniion of works of 
internal improvement, and providing, also, for 
a well regulated system if bunking, which will 
relieve the peo[ileof this State from the onerous 
and oppressive burden they now suffer in the 
shape of indirect taxation paid to the banks of 
others States, whose money is in circulation 
among us. 

Resolved, That, in cominon with the Whig 
party throughout the Union, we recognize the 
binding force and obligation of he act of Con- 
gress of 1820, known as the Missouri Compro- 
mise, and we view the same as a compact 
between the North and South, mutually binding 

and obligatory, and as a final settlement of the 
question of slavery within the geographical 
limits to which it applies. 

Resolved, That we most unqualifiedly and 
emphatic.dly disapprove of the ett'oi ts now being 
made in Congress to legislate slavery into the 
free Territory of Nebraska, and we do most 
heartily recommend to our Senators and Repre- 
sentatives in Congress to oppose by all honor- 
able means the passage of the Nebraska Bill, as 
reported by Senator Douglas, of Illinois; and 
that we cannot otherwise look upon the pretense 
by Mr. Douglas and his aiders and ahettors, that 
"the 8lh section of the Missouri Compromise is 
suppressed by the acts of l&50,"than as a propo- 
sition totally unreasonable and absurd on its 
face, conceived it bad faith and prompted by 
an ignoble ana most unworthy ambition for 
party and personal political preferment; and 
that we do, as citizens of the West and the free 
State of Iowa, most earnestly desire to see an 
immediate organization of Nebraska Territory, 
without any infringement of the solemn compact 
of 1820. commonly called the Missouri Compro- 

Resolved, That, as Whigs and citizens of the 
great valley of the Mississippi, we are heartily 
in favor of that well re5:ulated Whig policy of 
liberal appropriations by the geneial govern- 
ment, for works of internal improvement of a 
national character, and that we view all navi- 
gable waters in the country, whether rivers or 
inland seas, as eminently national in their char- 
acter, and recommend to our Senators and 
Representatives in Congress to endeavor, by all 
honorable means, to procure appropriations for 
such purposes, and especially for the removal of 
obstructions to navigation in the Mississippi 

Resolved, That we view the proposition of 
Hon. Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois, to effect 
an improvement by the levying of tonnage du- 
ties on the internal commerce of the country, as 
entirely inadequate to the accomplishment of 
such a purpose, and only calculated to impose 
heavy and unjust burdens on the people of the 
West, in the shape of indirect taxation, without 



securing to them any of the proposed advan- 

Resnheil. That we unreservedly and cordially 
approve of the course and conduct of the Hon. 
John P. Cook, our Representative in Congress 
from the Second Congressional District, and we 
hereby pledge ourselves to sustain him in his 
able and independent course. 

Wheueas, The object of our educational sys- 
tem was to place the means of a common school 
education within the reach of all; and 

WHEIIE.4S, Under its present management 
more than one third of the proceeds of the fund 
set apart to cherish an 1 maintain that sys- 
tem is annually absoibed by its constitutional 
guardians, subjecting it to a loss, in the year 
1851, of $10,751.40 to pay the salaries and ex- 
penses of the Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion and Commissioners of the School Fund, and 
leaving only the sum of $30,600.11 to be dis- 
tributed among the public schools; and 

Whereas, The duties of said officers may all 
be discharged by other State and county officers, 
without any or with but a trifling expense to said 
fund; Ihercfore, 

Resoloed, That sound policy and enlightened 
philanthropy demand such legislation and 
amendment to. our constitution as will preserve 
this fund inviolate to the purposes origipally 
intended as an inheritance to our children and 
their posterity. 

Resolved, That we are in favor of a donation, 
by Congress, of public lands, in limited quanti- 
ties, to actual settlers. 

Resolved, That we believe the people of this 
State are prepared for, and their interests re- 
quire, the passage of a law prohibiting the man- 
ufacture and sale of ardent spirits within the 
State as a beverage. 

Tlie official vote on Governor was as fol- 

.Tunes W. Grimes, Whig 23.02.5 1,823 

Curtis Bates, Dem 21,202 

The election of 1855 was for minor offi- 
cers. The Democrats met in convention, 

Jai.iiary 24, at the Capitol, and nominated 
the following ticket: Commissioner Des 
Moine.s River Improvement, O. D. Tisdale; 
Register DesMoines River Impro\ement, 
Wra. Dewey; Register Land Otlice, Stark 
H. Samuels. The following is the plat- 
form adopted: 

Whereas, It is in accordance with the Dem- 
ocratic party, to declare, from time to time, its 
views upon the various political principles that 
occupy the attention of the country; therefore, 

Resolved, That there has been a period in the 
history of our country, when we could with 
more confidence proclaim to the world our entire 
adherence to and approval of the old landmarks 
of the Democratic party. 

2. That the temporary success of our foes 
being a result of an abandonment of principles 
on their part, and of the aggression of discordant 
elements, brought together for mercenary ends, 
affords no .erounds for alarm; but confident of 
the correctness of our principles, and of the in- 
tegrity of the masses, we appeal to the sober, 
second thought of the peo.'le with no fears as to 
the verdict they may render. 

8. That we declare our firm determinaiion to 
sustain the principles recognized as correct, in 
reference to slavery agitation, to support the 
constitution faithfully, to carry out its provis- 
ions, and discountenance all incendiary move- 
ments that tend to the overthrow of our govern- 
ment, from whatever source they may originate. 

4. That the efforts being made to colonize 
free negroes in their native land, is a measure 
that commends itself to every philanthropist as 
being the only favorable plan for the ultimate 
accomplishment of the first wish of every friend 
of freedom. 

o. That we endorse, to the fullest extent, the 
compromise measure of 18.50, believing those 
measures to be constitutional, just, and proper. 

6. That in changing his domicile from one 
portion of a republican ;;overnmenl to another, 
man does not divest himself of his political, 
moral or natural rights, nor can he be deprived 




of thira .otherwise than as he has consented to 

7. That the liberal principles embodied by 
Jefl'ersou, in the Declaration of Independence, 
and sanctioned in the coustilution, whicli makes 
ours the land of liberty and the asylum of the op- 
pressed of every ualion, have ever been cardinal 
principles in ihe Democratic faith, and every at- 
tempt to abridge the right of becoming citizens 
and the owners of soil among us ought to be re- 
sisted with the same spirit that swept the alien 
and sedition laws from the statute books. 

8. That we adhere to the doctrine of an un- 
restrained religious liberty, as established by the 
coustilution of ilu; United States, and sustained 
by all Democratic administrations. 

The Whigs held their last State conven- 
tion at Iowa City, January 25, 1855, and, 
without resolutions, made the following 
nominations: Commissioner on DesMoines 
River Improvement, Wm. McKay; Regis- 
ter DesMoines River Improvement, J. C. 
Lock wood; Register Land Office, Anson 

The official vote for Commissioners was 
as follows: 

William McKay, Whig 24,743-4,737 

O. D. Tisdale, Dem 20,006 

A vote was taken this year on the pro- 
hibition liquor law, with the following re- 

For the law 25,555—2,910 

Against the law 22,645 

While the Whig party in this State ap- 
parently was in a well organized condition, 
throughout the Union it was undergoing a 
process of disintegration. In the South 
it was being absorbed by the American or 
Know Nothing party, and in the North by 
the newly organized Republican party, 
born out of the issues growing out of the 
slavery question. Representatives of the 
Republican party met in convention at 

Iowa City, February 22, 1856, and selected 
the following ticket: Secretary of Srate, 
Elijah Sells; Auditor, John Patten; Treas- 
urer, M. L. M^.rris; Attorney General, S. 
A. Rice. The following platform was 
adopted at the same time and place. 

United in a common resolve to maintain right 
against wrong, and believing in the determina- 
tion of a virtuous and intelligent people to sus- 
tain justice, we declare — 

1. That governments are instituted among 
men to secure the inalienable rights of life, 
liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. 

3. That the mission of the Republican party 
is to maintain the liberty of the press, the sov- 
ereignty of the State, and the perpetuity of the 

3. under the constitution, and by right, 
freedom is alone national. 

4. That the federal uovernraent, being one of 
limited powers, derived wholly from the consti- 
tution, its agents should construe these powers 
strictly, and never exercise a doubtful authority 
— always inexpedient and dangerous. 

5. If the plan is .Jeffersonian, and the early 
policy of the government is carried out, the fed- 
eral government would relieve itself of ail re- 
sponsibility for the existence of slavery, which 
Republicanism insists it should and means it 
shall do, and that regarding slavery in the State 
as a local institution, beyond our reach and above 
our autboriiy, but recognizing it as of vital con- 
cern to every citizen in its relation to the nation, 
we well oppose its spread, and demand that all 
national territory shall be free. 

6. That the repeal of the Missouri Compro- 
mise, and the refusal of the slave power to abide 
by the principles on which that repeal was pro- 
fessedly based, make the national domain the 
battle ground between freedom and shivery; and 
while Republicans stand on a national basis, and 
will ever manifest and maintain a national spirit, 
they will shrink from no conflict and shirk no 
responsibility on this issue. 

7. That the slave power, the present national 
administration and its adherents, having violated 

■iJ " — ^ 



this policy, and the principles on wliich it is 
based, by a disrcgaril of the law and its own 
priifessidn, by encroachments upon the State 
and personal rights, and by brealiing solemn 
covenants of the country, make the 
whether freedom shall be limited to the liee 
States, or slavery to the slave States, and make 
that issue absorbing and paramount. 

Resolced, That the firm, consistent, and 
patriotic course pursued by the Republican 
members of the present Congress, during the 
arduous prolrMCted struggle for the speakership, 
meets with our cordial approval, and we recog- 
nize in Hon. N. P. Bulks a statesman of mature 
abilities, a Republican of reliable charaeter; and 
we hail his eleciion as a proud triumph of those 
great principles of human liberty upon which 
the American guverument was founded. 

The Democratic convention met at Iowa 
City, June 26, 1856, and adopted a plat- 
form and made the following nominations: 
Secretary of State, Geo. Snyder; Auditor, 
Jas. Pollard; Treasurer, George Paul; At- 
torney-General, James Baker. The.follow- 
ing is the platform: 

Resolved, That the Democracy of Iowa receive 
with joy, and ratify with confidence, the nom- 
inations of James Buchanan and John G. Breck- 

2. Thiit the platform of Democratic principles 
laid down by the Cincinnati convention meets 
our hearty concurrence, and that it is such a one 
as is worthy of the only National parly in exist- 

On motion of Col. Martin, of Scott, the 
following resolution was unanimously 

Resolved, That freedom and equal rights are 
the basis of Democracy, and that no measure or 
principle not embracing or recognizing these is 
any part or parcel of the Democratic creed; that 
Democracy is equality against privilege, freedom 
against aristocracy, lihirty against licentious- 
ness, strict construction against Intitudinnrian 
interpretations of the constitution, l"W and order 

against anarchy and violence, and the peace, har- 
mony, prosperity and perpetuity of our glorious 
Union to the end of time. 

The entire Republican ticket was elected. 
Sells, for Secretary of State, received 40,- 
687 votes and Snyder 32,920. 

There were three elections in 1857 — the 
first in April, for Superintendent of Public 
Instniction, Register of Land Ottice and 
De^Moines River Commissioner; the sec 
ond in August, for the purpose of a vote 
on the new constitution; the third in Octo- 
ber, for Governor and Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. The Democrats nominated the 
following ticket: Superintendent Public 
Instruction, Maturin L. Fisher; Register, 
Theodore S. Parvin; DesMoines River 
Commissioner, Gideon Bailey; Governor, 
Benj. M. Samuels; Lieutenant-Governor, 
Geo. Gillaspie. 

The Republicans nominated the follow- 
ing ticket: Superintendent Public In- 
struction, L. A. Bugbee; Register, W. H. 
Holmes; DesMoines River Commissioner, 
II. F. Manning; Governor, Ralph P.Lowe; 
Lieutenant-Governor, Oran Faville. 

The following Republican platform was 

United in a common resolve to maintain right 
against wrong, and believitig in the determina- 
tion of a virtuous and intelligent people to sus- 
tain justice, we declare: 

1. That governments are instituted among 
men to secure the inalienable rights of life, lib- 
erty and the pursuit of happiness. 

2. That the mission of the Republican parly 
is to maintain the liberties of the people, the 
sovereignty of the States and the perpetuity of 
the Union. 

3 That under the constitution, and by right, 
freedom alone is national. 

4. That the Feder.d Government being one 
of limited powers, derived wholly from the con- 

is — 




stitution, its :!gent- should construe those powers 
strictly, and uever exercise a doubtful authority, 
iilways inexpedient and dangerous. 

5. That if this JefEcrsonism and early policy 
were cairied out, the Federal Goverument would 
relieve itself of all respousiliilily fur the exist- 
ence of slavery, which Republioauisui insists it 
should, and means it shall do, and that regard- 
ing slavery in the States as a local institution, 
beyond our reach, and above our autliority, but 
recognizing it as of vital concern to the nation, we 
still oppose its spread, and demand that all 
national territory shaU be free. 

6. That the repeal of the Missouri compro- 
mise, and the refusal of the slave power to abide 
bv the principle on which that repeal was pro- 
fessedly based, made the national domain the 
battle ground between freedom and slavery, and 
while R(_'publicans stand on a national basis, and 
maintain a national spirit, they will shirk no 
responsibility on this issue. 

7. That the slave power — the present national 
administration and its adherents having violated 
this policy, and the principles on which it is 
based, by a disregard of law and its own pro- 
fes.'-ions, by an invasion of the State and per- 
sonal rights, and by breaking solemn covenants, 
has forced upon the country the issue whether 
freedom shall be limited to the free States or 
slavery to the slave States, and makes that issue 
absorbing and paramount. 

Resolved, That the recent opinion of the Su- 
preme Court of the United States, In the Dred 
Scott case, is the most alarming of those bold 
innovations upon the rights of the free States 
which have marked the admiuiftration of the 
government for years past, as sectional and 
disloyal to the spirit of our free institutions. 
We regard it as virtually revolutionizing the 
judicial action of the government, if tolerated; 
by giving to s'avery a national instead of a local 
character; opening free States and free Terri- 
tories for its diffusion; reducing to the condi- 
tion of chattels those who are recognized by the 
constitution as men, belying the sentiments of 
the Declaration of Independence, and casting 
reproach upon the action of those who, amid 

toil and peril, laid deep the formation of the 

2. That the National Administration has 
brought disgrace upon the country by so long 
tolerating the demoralizing and heaven-defying 
practices of Brigham Young and his followers 
in Utah. The ei ■.barrassment experienced by 
the present administration in reaching i.nd cor- 
recting the evil, is mainly attributed to the doc- 
trine embodied in the Kansas JSfcbiviska Bill, 
and the retention of the U. S. soldiery in Kansas 
to overawe unoffending men, instead of sending 
them to Utah, where the authority of the gen- 
eral government is briizenly defied, is humili- 
ating evidence of perversion of the powers of 
the national government. 

3. That we invite the affiliation and co-opera- 
tion of frecmtn of all parties, however differing 
from us in other respects, in support of the 
principles herein declared, and believing that 
the spirit of our institutions as well as the con- 
stitution of our country, guarantee liberty of 
conscience and equality of rights among citi- 
zens, we oppose all legislation impairing their 

4. That we congratulate the people of Iowa 
upon the new constitution, for many reasons, 
but most of all in view of the fact that it enables 
them to provide for themselves a sound currency, 
and places the annual election in October instead 
of August, thus consulting the convenience of 
an agricultural population. 

5. That it is a deliberate conviction of this 
convention, that the next Legislature should 
provide a system of banking that will secure to 
the State a circulating medium, redeemable at all 
times, within its limits, in gold and silver; and 
we will support for State officers and the Legis- 
lature such, and such only, as are avowedly 
qualified favorable to this result. 

6. That the administration of Governor 
Grimes deserves and receives our warmest en- 
dorsement, and that the thanks of all who love 
the character and prosperity of the State, are 
due to him, as well as to the Legislature, for 
their efforts to bring to justice a dishonorable 
public servant, defeat speculation, and prevent 



the squaaiieiing of the fund coDsccnited to the 
educntioa of the children of the State. 

7. That ia the nominees for Governor and 
Lieutanant-Governor we recognize men Capable 
and honest, and every way worthy the support 
of the Republican party of this Slate. 

The Democrats adopted the following 

platfunu : 

As to national policy — 

1. That we have undiminished confidence in 
the present administration. That the policy 
adopted is eminently wise and proper, and 
should command the support and approval of 
every rational 

2 Tliat the opposition to President Buchanan 
is now composed of the fire eaters of the South 
and the Black Republicans of the North, who 
are vieingwith each other iu abusing the admin- 
istrrtion and Democratic party. We therefore 
place them iu the same category, and brand 
them as a united opposition, and will treat 
them alike as factiouists, disuuionists and ene- 
mies of the Democracy and the country. 

8. Th it we will maintain and preserve the 
Constitution of the United Stales, with all its 
checks and balances, and that treaties made 
by the President and Senate, laws passed by 
Congress under the Constitution, and decisions 
made by the Supreme Court of the United 
States, are equally binding on the people, and 
must be maintained in order to preserve the 
country from anarchy, and that it is the duty of 
every citizen to sustain these departmi-uls of 
government against the assaults of bigots, fanat- 
ics and traitors. 

As to State policy — 

1. That we will preserve and maintain the 
institutions of this State in a just lelaticm and 
haimony toward the general goveri;ment, and 
we repudiate and coudciiin any effort that ha- 
bcen made, or may be made, which asserts the 
right or remotely lends to bring our State into 
collision orcouflict with the genei'al government. 

3. That the conflict of the Black Republican 
party, acting through their Representatives in 
l)assing a law authorizing the Negroes and In- 

dians to become witnesses against the citizens 
ot this State, was an unjustifiable innovation 
upon the laws of the State, passed without ne- 
cessity, and the first step towards a system to 
equalize the black and white races. 

3. The late Constitutional Convention, com- 
posed of a large majority of Black Republican 
membeis, oiieuly advocated the equality of the 
bliick and white people, and unanimously recom 
mended, through an appendage to the constitu- 
tion, that the word "white" be stricken from 
that instiument; we, therefore, feel free to 
charge upon that party the design and purpose 
of abolitionizing the people of this State, and 
I lacing the negro upon an equality with the 
white man. 

4. That i!;l- National Dem icrucy of Iowa re 
gard the new constitution ja.':t adopted by the 
people, in many of its features, as essentially 
anti-Democratic, unjust, and containing prin- 
ciples that tend to subvert the distinction be- 
tween the black and svhite races, and looking to 
equality between them. 

We, therefore, now proclaim open and undis- 
guised hostility to each and every action and 
|)art of said instrument which contains these ob- 
noxious provisions, and wc here raise the stand- 
ard of opposition and ret'oim, and call upon 
every true patriot in the State to carry these 
questiims to the ballot-box, and to elect officers 
for govt rnmeiil of the Slate who will take every 
honorable measure to reform and amend said 

5. That the laws of the last Legislature ap- 
portioning the State into Repiesentative districts 
and the adoption of that law by the late Blai;k 
Republican Constitutional Convention, by which 
the majority of the members of the General 
Assembly are given to a minority of the people, 
and many thousands of our citizens are virtu dly 
disfranchised, was a tyrannical i^iid flagitious 
outrage, — a violation of every principle of a 
Repubrn;an Government, — and demands the 
seveiest rebuke from the people; that we recog- 
nize in these proceedings a manifest conspiracy 
against the rights of the majority, and a wanton 
violation of the principles of our Republican 
form of Government. 





6. That the refusal of thu late Constitutional 
Convention to allow the constitution to become 
the supreme law of the land, when sanctioned 
and adopted by a majority of the people, and 
postpiming the taldng effect of portions ^f the 
same for more than two years after its adoption, 
winch was avowedly done to withhold political 
power from the people, and retain it in the bands 
of already condemned officers, is an insult and 
an outrage upon the people, and deserving our 

7. That the Democracy of the State of Iowa 
take this method of expressing their giatitude 
and confidence in the Hon George W. Jones, 
cur Democratic Senator, and the Hon. A. Hall, 
late Democratic Representative, fur their faith- 
ful adlierenee to Democratic principles, and 
their untiring viuilance for the welfare of our 
young and promising State. 

Fisher was elected Superintendent over 
Biizbee by 505 mjority; Manning over 
Bally, for Commissioner, by .315; Lowe 
over Samuels, for Governor, by 2,149. 

The campaifjii of 1858 was opened by 
the Republicans, meeting in convention at 
Iowa City, June 17, and adopting the fol- 
lowing platform: 

Whereas, We, the representatives of the 
Republicans of Iowa, being again permilled to 
assemble in State Convention, deem this a fitting 
occasion to briefly express our views of national 
and State policy, and to affirm our adhesion to 
the principles of constitutional liberty, for 
which we have been long and earnestly con- 
■ tending. We believe this Republic specially 
ordained by the blood and treasure of our fore- 
fathers for the free homes of the mechanic, the 
operative and the farmer, and we, their descend- 
ents, are determined it shall be preserved and 
administered for our cominon welfare; and that 
the great problem of the ability of the people to 
govern themselves shall be clearly solved in the 
onward progress and prosperity of our Republi- 
can constitution; manifesting to the nations of 
this earth that ihe free spirit of this nation is 
unconquered and unconquerable; therefore, 

Resolved, That the principles laid down in the 
Philadeljiliia plalfoim, ad(<i)led on June 17,'1850, 
are founded upon the Coustituticm of the United 
States, are consonant with the teachings of 
Christianity, and are most heartily endorsed by 
the convention. 

2. That in the contest now waging between 
freedom and slavery our .'-ympathies are wholly 
and strongly with the former — that we have no 
truce to offer, no mercy to ask, that with us the 
watchword is victory or death. 

3. That the effort made to extend the area of 
slave territory on this continint, by the Demo- 
cratic party, is contrary to the spirit of the age 
and the genius of our Institutions. 

4. That by the passage of the English swindle 
for the admission of Kansas into the Union 
under the infamous Lecompton Constitution, 
whereby an unjust discrimination is made in 
favor of slave and against free States in the 
amcmnt of population required to form a State 
government, the so-called national Democracy 
have proven devoticm to slavery extension, their 
opposition to the interests of free labor, and 
their total disregard of the popular will. 

5. That the new doctrine of the so-called 
Democratic party originated by Chief Justice 
Taney, in the Dred Scott decision, and carry 
slavery into our national territory, has no foun- 
dation in the Federal Constitution, is at war 
with the verities of our history, civil and judi 
cial, and this is calculated to tolerate the en- 
slaving of our race in all the States. 

6. That we view with sati-;faction the course 
of those who, without respect to parly feeling, 
and uninfluenced by the threats and in scorn of 
the bribes and corrupting influences of the 
Buchanan administialion, boldly, and as free- 
men fighlinL' for fnenieii's rights, opposed with 
all their might the passage of the Lecompton 
Constitution and the English swindle through 
Congress, and we trust that among the people 
there will continue the san;e strong oppo>ilion 
to the encroachments of the slave jiower, whieh 
they have so gallantly manifested bel'oie the 



7. Th:it we loi'k forward bo, efully to that 
good time, not far distant, when it shall be 
deemed legitimate, proper and constitutional 
for this government to extend its protecting care 
over free lalior, the commerce and industrial 
inlereslsof all the country, instead of bending 
ils whole energies and treasure for the aggrand- 
izement of a slaveholding aristocracy in one 
section of the Union. 

8. That the corruption which stalks abroad 
at noonday, pc rvailing every dipartment of the 
Naiiunal Government, the gross and shameless 
use of Presidential power and patronage to in- 
fluence the action of Congress, the astounding 
increase in national expenditures in a time of 
pe:;ce and universal financial embarrassment 
(involving, as it does, a debt of forty-live mil- 
lions of dollars, and an expenditure of nearly 
one hundred millions of dollars during a single 
financial year), brinuing upon the government 
the burning disgrace of bankruptcy and threat- 
ening the onerous burthens of direct taxation, 
demand a solemn, earnest protest from us in 
behalf of the people of Iowa. 

9. That the mismanagement a-id reckless 
squandering of the scliool fund of the State by 
the late Seperiutendent of Public lubtruction, 
and the manner in which this sacred fund has 
been dealt with in many counties in the State, 
as developed by the investigation already insti- 
tuted, under a Republican Slate administration, 
demonstrates the wisdom of that thorough ac- 
countability and scruiinj' provided for by the 
State Legislature. 

10. That we, as Republicans, pledge our- 
selves to use all honorable cfTorts to promote 
the administration of the State and general 
government with strict ecoriomy and a just 
regard to the growing interests of our State and 

11. That our State should have that consider- 
ation from the general government to which her 
resources, power and future prospects entitle 
her, and that we will demand from the general 
government five per cent, of the proceeds of 
those lands hitherto entered with land warrants 
within the State; the improvement of the navi- 
gation of our great inland seas, and such addi- 

tional grants of lands to aid the building of 
railroads through unoccupied portions of Iowa 
as will upbuild the poiiulation and wc.dUi nf our 
State and the general welfare of our cc nimon 

12. That the meinbcr-i of this couveiili.m 
heartily end^^rse the candidates nominated to- 
day for the various i ffices, and promise thi ir 
united and zealous support in the ensuing cam- 
paign, and, if their labors can achieve it, a 
triumplianl election. 

13. That the entire Republican delegation in 
Congress are entitled to the gratitude of the 
natiiiu for their able and zealous advocacy of 
true Republican principles; and that our imme- 
diate Representatives, Messrs. Harlan, Curtis 
and Davis, have the unqualified approbation of 
their constituents for the talented and efficient 
manner in which they have represented the 
State of Iowa, and especially for the earnest -.ud 
uncomptomising opposition waged by them 
against the Lecompton English Bill bribe and 
other tyrannical abuses of the present adminis- 

The following ticket was then nomi- 
nated: Secretary of State, Elijah Sells; 
Auditor of State, J. W. Cattell; State 
Treasurer, John VV. Jones; Attorney-Gen- 
eral, S. A. Rice; Register of State Land 
Office, A. B. Miller; Cora, of DesMoines 
River Improvement, Wm. C. Drake. 

The Democrats met June 23 at Des 
Moines, nominated the following ticket 
and adopted a platform: Secretary of 
State, Samuel Douglas; Auditor of State, 
Theodore S. Parviu; Treasurer of State, 
Samuel H. Lorah; Attorney-General, Jas. 
S. El wood; Commissioner DesMoines 
River Improvement, Charles Baldwin; 
Register of Land Office, James M. Eeid. 
The following is the platform: 

The Democrats of Iowa, through representa- 
tives in State Convention assembled, proclaim 
their unalterable devotion and adhesion to the 
principles embodied in the resolutions following: 




Resolved, That we adopt, abide by, and will 
cherish and defend the platform of principles 
promulgated by the representatives of the De- 
mocracy of the nation, when assembled in 
national convention, at Cincinnati, in June, 
1856, believing, as we do, that the platform 
there laid down is broad and strong enough to 
uphold and sustain every true patriot, and with 
such only do we desire comp inionship. 

2. That all attempts to engender sectional 
prejudice and animosities are pregnant with 
mischief, tend to hinder the progress and devel- 
opment of our country, and must, if persisted 
in, lead to the dismemberment of the union of 
the States and the destruction of the only free 
government of the world. 

3. That the rights of the people should be 
maintained alike against the encroachment of 
federal power, the zi al of blind partisani^m and 
wiles of unscrupulous and demagogue poliii- 
cians, and that the office of the Democratic 
party is to see these cardinal principals main- 
tained in their parly. 

4. That the agitation of the slavery question 
tends to '.veaken the bonds of our union by de- 
stroying that confidence which should exist 
between the diftereni States, and begetting sec 
tioual animosities, and that it is the duty of all 
true patriots to frown upon such attempts, and 
secure, by all honorable means, the discredit 
alike of the extremists of the South and North. 

5. That the decision of the judicial tribunals 
of the State and Federal Government should be 
respected, must be submitted to, obeyed and 
carried into efl'ect; and that any attempt to set 
them at defiance is a step toward anarchy and 
confusion, tends to impair respect for the gov- 
ernment, and merits the unmeasured cimdecna- 
tion of all law-abiding and peaceably disposed 

6. That the outrages recently committed on 
our shipping by officers of the British Govern- 
ment demands an immediate and unequivocal 
denial and apology; that now is an appropriate 
time to settle finally the question of the rights 
to visit and seareli vessels n the seas, and in the 
event an~ apology is refused, the arrogant pre- 

tensions of European powers should try the 
"last resort" of nations, the caunon's mouth, 
and the worffl taught the lesson that our flag 
cannot be degraded, nor our nation insulted 
with impunity. 

7. That the administration of State affairs in 
Iowa, for the last four years, under Republican 
rule, is of a character to warrant the most rigid 
invest igalion by the people, and that the expo- 
suie thus far of their speculations, fraud and 
exlravagmce calls for the denunciation of all 
honest men 

8. That an empty treasury, extravagant ex- 
penditures, and the stifling of investigation into 
corruption, by Republican officials of Iowa, 
should be sufficient to arouse tux-payers to the 
enormous outrages perpetrated upon the people's 
treasury, and absolutely demand a change in 
the adm'nistration, that the guilty may be 
brought to punishment, and our State preserved 
from utter br;idiruptcy. 

9. That the Democracy of Iowa jiledge to the 
people their earnest, persistent and un-ilterable 
purpose to reform the State government, and to 
bring to condign punishment whoever may be 
found guilty of criminal default -in any of its 

The Rc'puhlicans carried the State by an 
average majority of 3,000. 

The Republicans were again first in the 
field for the State campaign of 1859. 
They met in convei.tioti, June 22, at Des 
Moines, and nominated the following 
ticket: Governor, S. J. Kirkwood; Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, Nicholas J. Rusch ; Su- 
preme Judges, Ralph P. Lowe, L. J. 
Stockton, Caleb Baldwin. The platform 
adopted was as follows: 

Possessing an abiding confidence in the intel- 
ligence and patrioiism of the American pe>)ple, 
an unwavering faith in their devotion to the 
eternal principles of liberty, as they came from 
the hand and heart of the fathers of "the Repub- 
lic, and invoking tiie blessing of heaven upon 
our efl'oits to maintain them iu their purity, we 



commend ihem most cordially to the sympathy 
and sujiport of the RepubliciiQS of Iowa and of 
thi; Nation. 

Resolved, That we entertain an abiding confi- 
donce in the cardinal doctrines contained in the 
Republican National pl.afoiin uf 1856, and le- 
aiEiming the same, we commend them anew to 
the discriminating consideration of the people. 

2. That the sum of nearly one hundred mil- 
lion dollars, supposed to be necessary to support 
the government under rule of the Africanized 
Democracy, is incompatible with just ideas of a 
simple, econoniical Republican government, and 
the issue of National siiiuplasters to meet such 
demand shoas the hopeless financial degrada- 
tion of the present administration. 

3. That we condemn the principles advocated 
by the Democratic party — no pmbibilion of 
slavery in the Teirilories — and proclaim as our 
principles, no interfeience with liberty by the 
President, by Congress or by the federal court. 

4. We claim for citizens, native and natural- 
ized, liberty and conscience, equality of rights 
and the free exercise of the right of suftVage. 
We favor whatever legislation and administra- 
tive reform that may be necessary to protect 
these rights, and guard against their infringe- 
ment or abuse, and opp se anv ab-iidgment 
whatever of the rights of naturalization now 
secured to emigrants, and all discrimination 
between naturalized citizens whatever, by the 
amendment of the State constitution or other- 
wise. And we cordially approve of the action 
taken by the Republican State Central Commit- 
tee in regard to the amendment proposed by the 
Massachusetts Legislature to its constitution. 

5. That the Republican party will forever 
oppose the demand of the fouthern Democracy 
for the enactment of a slave code for the Terri- 

6. That we look with horror upon the revival 
of the slave trade, and view with alarm the 
apathy and abortive attempts of adii'iniatration 
and judiciary in arresting and bringing to trial 
and justice those who have recently been guilty 
of open infractiou.s of ihosc laws of our country 
which declare it piracy, and in sending such as 

have been aiTested to places of trial where in- 
dictment was doubtful and acquittal certain; 
and while we will oppose, by every just means, 
the repeal of those laws, we will also insist upon 
their being hereafter faithfully executed and 
enforced, even though it involve the exercise of 
the full power of the federal government. 

7. That we are in favor of granting to actual 
settlers suitable portions of the public lands free 
of charge; and we do most unqualifiedly con- 
demn the course of the present slavery Dem c- 
racy in Congress, in opposing and defeating, in 
the United States Senate, the Homestead bill, 
which was designed to secure free homes for 
free people, whether of native or of foreign 

8. That the rights of citizens are equal, and 
they are equally entitled to protection at home 
and abroad, without reg.ard to nativitv or dura- 
tion of domicile; and that the late refusal by 
the government, as e.\pressed in the late 
official communication of Lewis Cass, Secretary 
of Slate, to guarantee against arrest and del en- 
tion, abroad, of naturalized citizens, on the 
ground of their allegiance to foreign power, is a 
cowardly abandonment of the true and noble 
position hitherto occupied by our government. 

9. That we re-assert, as cardinal principles of 
Republiianism, the maintenance of a strict 
economy in public expenditures, and the prompt 
and faithful discharge by public olficers of their 
public duties; and we congratulate the people 
of Iowa that the present State officers are honest 
and enjoy their confidence in the execution if 
their official duties. 

10. That while our State tax has been largely 
reduced, being less in 1858 than the preceding 
year; and less the present year than in 1858, the 
increasing county taxation is becoming so bur- 
densome as to call imperatively for reform in 
the system of county administration. 

The Democrats met at DesMoines, June 
23, adopted a platform, and placed tbe fol- 
lowing ticket in the field: Governor, A. C. 
Dodge; Lieutenant-Governor, L. W. Car- 
bitt; Supreme Judges, Charles Mason, T. 




S. Wilson, CO. Cole. The following is 
the platform^ as to National policy: 

Whereas. In view of the double relation in 
wh ch we stand toward the federal government 
on the one hand, and our own State on the other, 
we deem it expedient and proper, before enter- 
ing upon a contest which may, in no small de- 
gree, influence the character and destinies of 
both governments, to adopt and promulgate the 
following declaration of piinciples for the gov- 
ernment of our conduct: 

Resolved. That wc affirm the principles of the 
national Democratic platform of 1856, and re- 
assert the doctrines of n(m-intervention therein 
contained, as the ground upon which a national 
party can be maintained in these confederate 

2. That the organized Territories of the 
United States are only held in their Territorial 
condition until they attain a sufficient number 
of inhabitants to authorize their admission into 
the Union as States, and are justly entitled to 
self-government and the undisturbed regulation 
of their own domestic or local affairs, subject 
only to the constitution of the United States. 

3 That, inasmuch as the legislative power of 
the Territories extends undeniably to all right- 
ful subjects of legislation, no power can prevent 
them from passing such laws upon the subject 
of slavery as to them may seem proper, and 
whether such laws, when passed, be constitu- 
tional or not, can be finally determined, n.)t by 
Congress, but by the Supreme Court on appeal, 
from the decisions of tlie Territorial courts. 

4. That tbe Supreme Court of the United 
State.", being under the constitution, and an 
independent co-ordinate branch of the govern- 
ment, with a tenure of office which cannot be 
changed by the action of parties, through the 
instrumentality of Congress, we hold the Democ- 
racy entirely irresponsible for its doctrines, and 
in no case conclusively bound by the same, 
except so far as to inculcate obedience to its 
decisions while they continue in force. 

5. That without courts of justice, both State 
and national, respected by the people, and sus- 
tained in their proper functions by popular sen- 

timent, anarchy and violence become inevitable 
and all rights of both person and property be- 
come insecure and worthless. 

6. That the action of the public authorities 
in some of the States, in attempting to set at 
defiance by State authority, decisions of the 
Supri-me Court and acts of Congress passed in 
accordance with the constitution, is the very 
essence of nullitication. 

7. That a tariff for revenue alone is the true 
policy of this country, but an incidental protec- 
tion is one of its legitimate consequences. The 
amount of duties levied should be limited to the 
necessary wants of the government, and they 
should be so apportioned as to fall as lij;hlly as 
possible upon the people, by whom they are 
eventually to be paid. 

8. That it is a doctrine of the Democratic 
party that all naturalized citizens are entitled to 
the same protection, both at home and abroad, 
that is extended to the native born citizens, and 
that even a voluntary return of such citizens to 
the land of their birth, for a temporary purpose, 
does not place them beyond the range of that 
protection, but that our government is bound to 
shield them from injury and insult while there, 
at every hazard. 

9. That the expansion of our national domain 
is desirable whenever it shall be necessary for 
the safety, happiness and prosperity of the Re- 
public, and we will hail with pleasure the acqui- 
sition of the island of Cuba, whenever it can be 
effected with justice and in accordance with the 
wishes of the people thereof , and as a nation we 
can never assent to its appropriation by any of 
the powers of Europe, and will iucui all the 
hazards of war to avert such a result. 

10. That the building of a railroad connecting 
our Atlantic and Pacific coasts, by grants of the 
public lands along the line thereof, or by any 
other constitutional means, will meet with the 
hearty approval of the Democracy of Iowa. 

11. That we are in favor of granting a home- 
stead of 160 acres of laud by Congress to actual 
settlers, subject only to such restrictions as will 
exclude speculators from the benefits of such 



12. That we are in favor of an economical 
administration of the federal government, and 
will lend our best efTorts to those who advocate 
reform and relrenchme:.t in our national expen- 

13. That we are unconditionally opposed to 
the reopening of the African slave trade; that 
its revival would not only renew those cruelties 
which once provoked the indignation of the civ- 
ilized world, but would entail a foul blot on our 
country's fair escutcheon. 

14. That we cordially tender to the Democ- 
racy of the Union an invitation to unite with us 
in maintaining our organization on principles 
indicated in the foregoing resolutions, and that 
we earnestly appeal to them to drop past differ- 
ences, and assemble again as a band of brothers 
under the panoply of the constitution and Union. 

As to State policy — 

Resolved, That the burdens of taxation have 
increased and are increasing under the present 
administration of State affairs, and that a com- 
plete and thorough reform of existing abuses 
and expenditures is demanded by the highest 
interests of the people. 

2. That the Democracy cordially and sincerely 
invite emigrants to settle in the State, promising 
them all the protection and right they have en- 
joyed under the laws of Congress since the days 
of Jefferson; and that we earnestly deplore the 
acts of the Republican party in Massachusetts, 
and their attempts in New York, Connecticut 
and New Jersey, to confer upon the uncouth, 
semi barbarian negro from the South the right 
of siillVage and office in one year, and requiring 
for the same purpose of the naturalized citizens 
a residence of two years after naturalization, 
equivalent to an extension of the period for nat- 
uralization to seven years, thus degrading the 
foreign white man below the negro and mulatto. 

3. That we are opposed to the policy inaugu- 
rated in this State by the Republican party, by 
which the immigration to this State of the Afri- 
can race is encouraged and promoted, thus 
bringing cheap negro labor into direct competi- 
tion with the labor of the white man, and filling 
our State with a class of population that can 

never become citizens thereof; and we are in 
favor of a change which shall di.scourage and 
prevent the settlement of that race among us. 

4 That, since the border States of Ohio, In- 
diana and Illinois exclude the free negroes of 
the South from their limits by stringent laws, 
Iowa will become the great receptacle of the 
worthless population of the slave-holding States, 
to the e.xclusiou of an equal number of free 
white laborers, if the present Republican policy 
be persisted in, 

5. That such a policy leads necessai ily to the 
intermixing of black and white children in the 
common schools, or the necessity of dividing 
the common school fund to maintain separate 
and independent schools in every locality where 
free negroes reside. 

6. That the Democracy demand a total repeal 
of the provisions of our State constitution, and 
the law made in pursuance thereof, requiring 
negro children to be admitted into our common 
schools, or separate schools, to be supported out 
of the common school fund for their education. 

7. That the Maine liquor law is inconsistent 
with the spirit of a free people, and unjust and 
burdensome in its operations; it has vexed and 
harrassed the citizen, burdened the counties with 
expense and liiigation, and proven wholly use- 
less in the suppression of intemperance. 

8. That we favor a total change in the present 
common school system, so as to give the people 
the full benefits of a common school education 
without the cumbersome machinery and enor- 
mous ex])ense which the present system requires. 

The vote for Governor was as follows: 

L. J. Kirkwood, Rep 56,506—2,964 

A. C. Dodge, Dem 63,542 

The campaign of 1860 was the most ex- 
citing one in the history of the State, and, 
next to that of 1840, the most exciting 
campaign in the history of the Govern- 
ment. Abraham Lincoln had been nomi- 
nated by the Republicans for the Presi- 
dency; Stephen A. Douglas by the North- 
ern wing of the Democracy; John C. 




Breckenridge by the Southern wing, and 
John Bell by the Union party. The Re- 
publicans of Iowa met in convention at 
Iowa City, May 23d, and selected the fol- 
lowing named candidates : Secretary of 
State, Elijah Sells; Auditor of State, J. 
W. Cattell; State Treasurer, Charles C. 
Nourse; Register of State Land Office, A. 
B. Miller. The platform adopted was 
short, and as follows : 

Resolved, That this convention approve and 
endorse the platform of principles laid down by 
the late Republican convention at Chicago, as 
the true and sound exposition of Republican 
doctrine, which we are prepared to advocate and 

2. That, in reference to State policy, the Re- 
publican party of the State of Iowa are in favor 
of a rigid economy in the expenditures of the 
public money, and the holding of all public offi- 
cers to a strict accountability. 

3. That the Republicans of the State of Iowa 
in convention assembled, do hereby endorse the 
nominations made at the Chicago convention, of 
Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois, for President, and 
Hannibal Hamlin, of Maine, for Vice-President, 
and pledge to them the undivided support of 
the party of the State. 

4. That this convention have full confidence 
in the nominations made by it to-day, both for 
State and national officers, and we recommend 
them with entire unanimity to the support and 
confidence of the people of Iowa. 

The Democrats held their convention 
July 12, at DesMoines. Their ticket was 
as follows: Secretary of State, James M. 
Corse; Auditor of State, Geo. W. Max- 
field; Treasurer of State, John W. Ellis; 
Attorney-General, Wm McClintock; Reg- 
ister of Land Office, Patrick Robb. Their 
platform was as follows: 

Resolved, That the Democracy of Iowa, by 
their delegates in the State convention assem- 
bled, do hereby most cordially endorse and 

aiiprove of the Democratic National Convention, 
which convened at Charleston on the 23d day of 
April, and which concluded its labors at its 
adjourned session, in the city of Baltimore, on 
the 33d day of June, by the nomination of 
Stephen A. Douglas for the Presidency. 

2. That this convention heartily endorses 
and approves the platform enumerated by said 
convention; and that we will give that platform 
and the nominees of the national Democracy for 
the Presidency and Vice-Presidency, Douglas 
and Johnson, our most zealous and energetic 

3. That retaining unabated confidence in the 
intelligence, integrity and patriotism of the 
people, the Democracy of Iowa firmly adhere to 
the doctrine of non-intervention and popular 
sovereignty, laid down in the said platform,' as 
presenting Ihe only just and pnictlcable solution 
of the question of domestic slavery. 

4. That the Iowa delegates to the National 
Democratic Cojivention are entitled to the 
thanks of their constituency for the able and 
faithful manner in which they discharged the 
duly entrusted to them, and that this convention 
heartily approves of their action in said body. 

5. That in view of the fact that eflforts are 
being made in some of the States to form so- 
called union electoral tickets, pledi;jS to vote 
for this or that candidate for the Pre.^idency, as 
circumstances may subsequently determine, the 
Democracy of Iowa totally" disapprove of all 
attempts to compromise the integrity of the 
Democratic party organization, by putting Dem- 
ocratic candidates for electors upon the same 
ticket with candidates who are not pledged to 
vote, if elected, for Douglas and Johnson, and 
for no other persons whomsoever. 

6. That we approve of a homestead law, giv- 
ing to every citizen of the United States a home 
for himself and family; and that this convention 
recommend to our Representatives in Congress 
to use their best eflbrts to procure the passage 
of a law for that purpose. 

7. That we cordially invite all conservative 
national men to fall Into the Democratic ranks 
and help to crush the hydra-headed monster, 
Congressional Intervention. 


^'V j' ^ * > 




8. That the dominant party, called Republi 
can, during the brief period it has been in 
power, inflicted upon the people of Iowa a con- 
stitution and laws, the result of which has been 
the constant perplexity of the people, the crea- 
tion of an enormous, unconstitutional debt, and 
the imposition of taxes too grievous to be borne, 
thereby exhausting and using up the hard earn- 
ings of the industrious and the prudent — all of 
which call loudly for reform at the hands of the 

9. That it is high time there should be a 
change of men in power and policy iu govern- 
ment; that the Legislature should pass more 
wholesome and stringent laws, by which men in 
official station occupying a judicial capacity, 
either as directors and officers of banks or rail- 
road companies, shall be made personally liable 
for an improper use of the mnneys of the people 
entrusted to their care and custody. 

10. That the Democratic party of the State 
of Iowa is committed to and pledges itself to 
carry out, so soon as it obtains the administra- 
tion of the affairs of the State, the following 
measures of State policy: 

1. A reduction of the enormous and unneces- 
sai:j' expenses of the sovernment, which have 
grown up under the administration, and through 
the corrupt |)ariisan management of the so-called 
Republican party. 

2. A reduction of the appropriations of money 
for extraordinary purposes. 

3. A reduction of appropriations for chari- 
table institutions and purposes, to the necessary 
requests of those classes of the unfortunate, for 
which it is the duty of the State to fully and 
liberally provide 

4. To reduce the excessive taxation which 
now burdens the people and consumes the hard 
eartings of the industrious and frugal. 

5. The constructiim of buildings for the use 
of our charitable institutions upon plans com- 
mensurate with the wants of those institutions 
aud the ability of the State, without attempting 
to imitate tlie grandeur or magnificence of the 
public buildings erected for similar purposes in 
old aud wealth}' States or Governments. 

6. The early revision of the State constitu- 
tion, so as to free it from those features which 
render it justly obnoxious to the people. 

7. The amendment of our banking laws so 
as to throw reasonable restrictions upon the 
operations of the banks, and to secure the peo- 
ple against the frauds and swindling which, un- 
der e.\isting laws, enacted by Republican legis- 
lators, in the interests of the banks, may be 
practiced by bank officers, of which the system 
has already furnished its fruits in two important 

8. That we are in favor of removing the 
stocks or other securities, pledged for the prompt 
redemption of the issues of the banks, from the 
the custody and control of the Stale Bank to the 
custody of the Treasurer of the State. 

9. The increase of these securities to such an 
extent as will furnish ample protection to the 
people in using the issue of the banks, which is 
imperatively demanded as the officers of the 
State Bank themselves admit that at the present 
time there is no real security for the redemption 
of the notes of the banks. 

10. The entire separation of the finances of 
the State from the banks, and a repeal of all 
laws aithorizing either State or county officers 
to depcsit public money with the branches of 
the State Bank, save at their own risk. 

Mesolved, further, That the Democratic party 
is opposed to any and all attempts to create an 
enormous State debt, in violation of the consti- 
t\ition, for the purpose of promoting the schemes 
of plunder, of railroads or other speculators. 

2. That the system inaugurated by the Re 
publican party of erecting unnecessary and use- 
less offices for the purpose of providing for the 
politically lame, halt or blind, and that we hold 
the revenues of the Qovernment should be ap- 
plied strictly and economically to the legitimate 
wants of the Government. 

3. That while we are in favor of fostering 
popular education, until the means of liberal 
education be placed within the reach of every 
child in the State; that while we are in favoi of 
providing liberally and justly for all the benev 
olcnt institutions of the State, and for all classes 


of the unfortunate, which humanity demands 
shall be : rotected and cared for, — we are op- 
posed to enormous appropriations of public 
money for uncalled for purposes, or placing 
large sums of money in the hands of men, poli- 
ticians or unscrupulous persons, to be wasted in 
promoting private and political interests, instead 
of applying the same to the purpose for which 
the appropriations were made. 

For Secretary of State the .official vote 
was as follows : 

Elijah Sells, Rep 70,706—13,670 

J. M. Corse, Dem 57,036 

When the campaign of 1861 was inau- 
gurated the war for the Union was in 
progress. The Republicans met in con- 
vention, and placed in nomination Samuel 
J. Kirkwood for Governor; John R. 
Needham,for Lieutenant-Governor; Ralph 
P. Lowe, for Supreme Judge. The fol- 
lowing platform was adopted: 

1. Renewing our declarations of unalterable 
devotion to the constitution and Union of the 
States, to the doctrine of the Declaration of In- 
dependence, and to the law of submission to the 
will of the majority, constitutionally expressed, 
we again commend each and all of these corner- 
stones of our government to the unchanging 
affection of the people of Iowa. 

2. That this convention, in behalf of its own 
immediate constituency, of all patriotic citizens, 
acknowledges, with profound gratitude, the 
prompt dedication of life and fortune by our 
gallant volunteers, in response to the appeal 
made to a loyal people by a patriotic President, 
and in this action, creditable alike to the admin- 
istration and to the people, we witness a return 
of the noble spirit of the revolution. 

3. That the new doctrine of secession is a 
wicked abomination, as abhorrent to patriotism, 
as it is alien to the constitution, demoralizing in 
its principle, and destructive in its action, a dis- 
guise to tre.ison, and an apology for traitors, the 
ruin of commerce, and the vlissolution of political 
society, the mother of all political crimes and the 

sum of all villainies, and as such we utterly re- 
ject and hold it in absolute detestation. 

4. That government always means coercion 
when its lawful authority is resisted, and those 
who oppose " coercion," necessarily oppose t;ov- 
ernmeut itself, and deny to it the o: ly power by 
which it can be maintained. Anti-coercion, 
therefore, is only another of their disguises of 
treason, by which they hope so to weaken the 
government at present as to overthrow it in the 
future, and we brand it as hypocrisy and repu- 
diate it. 

5. Having, by our first war of 1776, won our 
indep'-ndence and established our glorious con- 
stitution and Union, and having, by our second 
war of 1812, maintained our national integrity 
against the most formidable of foreign foes, it 
now remains for us to establish that integiity 
for all years to come against internal foes, and 
in this third and last great trial of our country's 
history, in its struggle to maintain that system 
of government which has been the admiration 
of the world, whoever hesitates or falters should 
receive the execration of mankind, as he surely 
will the reproaches of posterity. 

6. The value of the constitution and the 
Union cannot be measured by dollars and cents, 
nor by the span of a human lite, and there should 
be no limit to appropriations of men and money 
for their preservation, except the amount requi- 
site for certain success. We therefore cordially 
approve both the action of the President in call- 
ing for men and money, and the action of Con- 
gress in placing at his disposal more of both 
than he demanded, thus giving assurance to the 
world of the unalterable determination of this 
government to perpetuate its existence as estab- 
lished by our fathers, to crush out the foulest 
rebellion known to history, and liberate the 
loyal people of the rebellious States from the 
odious despotism and terrorism which have 
wrenched from them the blessings of peace and 
prosperity in the Union of the States, and we 
demand the prosecution of the war until the 
insults to our national flag and authority are 
avenged by the restoratiim everywhere of law 
and order, and the supremacy acknowledged 
on its own terms. 



7. In the State affairs we demand all the 
economy consistefit with the public safety, and 
all the liberality required for the comfort and 
efficiency of our volunteers, nnd for the protec- 
tion of the State asrainst invasion. To that end 
we approve the action of tlie Gtneral Assembly, 
at its special session, in making appropriations 
for war purposes. 

8. We heartily invite co-operation with us of 
men of all parlies, whatever their former politi- 
cal ties, who acliiere to these sentiments, and 
who unite in the patriotic support of the present 
loyal administration uf the governmenL. 

The Democrats nominateri VVi linm 11. 
Merritt for Governor; Maturia L Fisher, 
for Lient.-Governor; James L. Elwood, for 
Supreme Juilge. Their platform was as 

The peoiile of the State of Iowa who regard 
the constitution of tie United States in its judi- 
cial relation' to the States and people as inter- 
preted by the Supreme Court, and its political 
principles as enunciated from time to time by 
ihe Democratic party, and as applied by several 
successive administrations in carrying on the 
government of the United States, being assem- 
bled by their delegates in convention, in the 
Capitol at DesMoines, on the 24t!. day of July, 
1861, do make and proclaim to their fellow citi- 
zens of the sister States of the Union, the follow- 
ing declaration: 

Whbkeab, In the vicissitudes which are inci- 
dent t all governments, to human safety, and to 
civiliza ion, the government and the people of 
the United States have become involved in a 
civil war, which threatens alike to be disastrous 
to the form of government which experience has 
proved to be the most conducive to the happi- 
ness of mankind, and to result in imposing upon 
ihe present and future generations onerous 
burdens, which it should be the duty of a gov- 
eriimenl having any regard for the well being of 
tlie people to avoid, it becomes the incumbent 
dutv upon the people for whose benefit alone 
government is instituted, and who, having the 
light to either alter .or abolish it when it ceases 

to be administered for their happiness and pros- 
perity, have also the right to determine and 
direct how it shall be administered when they 
fii:d it departing from the principles ujion which 
it was founded, and to be precipitatng into 
waste and ruii, the fabric of civil society, instead 
of preserving the people in peace, pi umoting 
their prosperity, and securiu;; their rights. 
Viewing, therefore, dispassionately, the present 
condition of our distracted country, and with 
the single purpose of ni iking an effort to avert 
impending and other threatened calamities, and 
of restoring peace, founded upon that fraternal 
patriotism which gave birth to the Anierican 
Union, and which preserved its integrity till the 
election of a President upon a principle which 
was hostile to the constitution of the United 
States and antagonistic to the vested right of 
the people of nearly half the States of the 
Union, do declare — 

1. That we regard the present condition of 
the country, the civil war in which tlie people 
are engaged, the effort to dismember the Uuion 
and all the concomitant evils which afflict us as 
a nation, as the legitimate result of the success- 
ful teaching of the doclrine and policy of the 
'■irrepressible conflict;" a doctrine and a policy 
which arrayed northern sentiment in antagonism 
to the constitutional rights of the people of the 
slive States, and which proclaim an "irrepres- 
sible" and unceasing hostility to the domestic 
institutions of our brethren of the South. 

2. That, notwithstanding the provocation 
given to the people of the South by the mani- 
festation of hostility toward their institutions, 
by a majority of the people of the North, we 
unequivocally ciindemu the course they have 
pursued to obtain a redress of their grievances, 
lielieving, as we do, that, aided by the conserva- 
tive people of the Northern States, their griev- 
ances would have been redressed, and their 
rights and interests respected and secured in a 
constitutional manner and by constitutional 

3. That we are heartily opposed to the doc- 
trine of secession, a heresy, unwar- 
ranted by the constitution, detrimental to the 

a fc- 



best interests of the whole country, and destruc- 
tive of the Union and that glorious heritage of 
liberty bequeathed to us by our fathers. 

4. That our obligations to the government, 
the duty we owe to posterity and the advance- 
ment of political freedom throughout the world, 
alike, command of us the preservation and i)er- 
petuity of our fedtral Uuiou, and we hereby 
pledge the whole power of the Democratic party 
to every just and constitutional means to main- 
tain the same, whether its destruction be at- 
tempted by the insidious teachings of the higher 
law doctrine of the Abolition Republican party, 
or by the open attacks of men in armed rebellion 
against it. 

5. That, as we were taught and admonished 
by the experience of every free people whose 
political existence was extinguished by the 
assumption of arbitrary power and the violation 
of fundamental principles, to resist the encroach- 
ment of executive prerogatives, we therefore 
emphatically and unequivocally condemn the 
assumption of unauthorized power by the Ex- 
ecutive of the United States, or by any other 
officers of the government. 

6. That our Union was formed in peace, and 
can never be perpetuated by force of arms, and 
that a republican government held together by 
the sword becomes a military despotism. 

7. That the Democratic party are in favor of 
a convention of the different States of the entire 
Union, as soon as the same can be properly had, 
for such legislation as may secure equal and full 
rights to all sections of this Union, and a full 
representation of all the States, and a removal 
of the agitation of the question of slavery from 
the halls of Congress and the States of the 

8. That we repudiate the modern heresy that 
the States of this confederacy never had an 
independent existence distinct from the federal 
government, and are indebted for their present 
position in the Union to that government, as a 
gross insult to the common sense of the country, 
and a shameless falsification of historical facts, 
unworthy of the source from whence it emin- 
ated, and unless promptly met with a stern re- 

buke on the part of the people, fraught with 
consequences fatal to the liberties of the country, 

9. That we are irreconcilably opposed to all 
paper .money banking, as being a system of 
legalized swindling, to be indulged in only by 
the designing capitalist, and are oppostd to 
every species of paper, except commercial pa- 
per, for the transaction of business and trade, 
and in favor of a speedy return to a specie cur- 
rency; and, if for a time we must submit to the 
banking system, we recommend that the bank 
law be so amended as to make each stockholder 
individually lisible (to tJ.e fall extent of his 
property not exempt from execution) for the 
debts of the bank, and to suljject their corpora- 
tions to such restraints as to make them amen- 
able to law. 

10. That we are opposed to a tariff of duties 
upon imports, for the purpose of protection, as 
creating monopolies, and that, in the present 
crisis of affairs, when the lab<irer is poorly paid 
and the products of agriculture are almost 
worthless, it is the interest of the people that 
the present burdens imposed U|>on these articles 
which enter into the consumption of the poorer 
classes of our citizens be at once removed. 

The official vote for Governor was as 


S. J. Kirkwook, Rep 69,853-16,608 

William H. Menitt, Dem 43,245 

The Democratic convention was held at 
the Capitol in 18(52, and the following 
ticket nominated: Secretary of State, 
Richard H. Sylvester; Auditor, John 
Browne; Treasurer, Samuel H. Lorah; 
Attorney-General, Benton J. Hall; Regis- 
ter of Land Office, Fred. Gottschalk. The 
following is the platform adopted: 

1. That the constitution and the Union and 
the laws must be preserved and maintained in 
all their rightful supremacy, and that rebellion 
against them must be suppressed and put down; 
and that we are in favor of the employment of 
all constitutional means for that purpose, not 
merely by force of arms, but by such other 

■^ « 




measures as common sense, reason and patriot- 
ism will readily suggest to the governing powers. 

2. That the true interests of the country, as 
well as the dictates of humanity, require no 
more war or acts of war should be prosecuted or 
done than are necessary and proper for the 
prompt and complete suppression of the rebel- 
lion. . 

3. That the present war, as avowed bj' the 
President and Congress, and understood by the 
people, was commenced and prosecuted for the 
purpose of suppressing the rebellion, and pre- 
serving and vindicating the constitution of the 
Union and the laws, and for that purpose only. 

4. That the doctrines of the secessionists and 
of the ab'ilitionists, as the latter are now repre- 
sented in Congress, are alike false to the consti- 
tution and irreconcilable with the unity and 
peace of the country, the first have already 
involved us in a cruel civil war, and the others 
(the abolitionists) will leave the country but 
little hope of the speedy restoration of Union or 
peace, unless the schemes of confiscation, eman- 
cipation, and other unconstitutional measures, 
which have been lately carried and attempted to 
be carried through Congress, be revoked by the 

5. That the doctrine of State necessity is 
unknown to our government or laws, but the 
constitution and the laws are sufficient for any 
emergency, and that the suppression of the free- 
dom of speech and the press, and the unlawful 
arrest of citizens, and the suspension of the writ 
of habeas corpus, in violation of the constitution 
in States where the civil authorities are unim- 
peded, is most dangerous to civil liberty, and 
.should be resisted at the ballot-box by every 
freeman of the land. 

6. That this is a government of white men, 
and was established exclusively for the white 
race; that the negroes are not eniilled to and 
ought not to be admitted to political or social 
equality with the while race, but that it is our 
duty to treat them with kindness and considera- 
tion, as an inferior and dependent race; that the 
right of the several Stales to determine the 
position and duties of the race is a sovereign 

right, and the pledges of the coustiiution require 
us, as loyal citizens, not to interfere therewith. 
That the party fanaticism or the crime, wtiich- 
ever it may be called, that seeks to turn the 
slaves of the Southern States loose to overrun 
the North, and into competition with the white 
laboring classes, thus degrading their manhood 
by placing them on an equality with negroes in 
their occupation, is insulting to our race and 
meets our emphatic and unqualified condemna- 

7. That the purchase of the slaves by the 
government, as proposed by the President, will 
impose an enormous and unendurable burden 
upon the present generation, and entail upon 
posterity grievous exactions. 

8. That Congress, in the enactment of the late 
tariff and tax bills, and the President by his 
avowal, have imposed unfair and unjust enact- 
ments upon the people at large, by discriminat- 
ing in these acts in favor of the comp;iralively 
wealthy, and against those who are least able to 
bear the burdens of taxation. 

9. That we recur with patriotic pride to the 
bravery and valor of the officers and soldiers of 
all the Iowa regiment.') exhibited in the struggle 
upon the many bloody fields in which they have 
been engaged; and that this convention, in be- 
half of the Democracy of this State, tenders to 
them a united testimony to their valor, and 
di-votion to the constitution and the Union, and 
ofler to the friends and families of those who 
have fallen upon the field, its sincere sympathy 
and condolence. 

10. That viewing the glories of the past and 
contemplating the realities of the present, we 
believe there is no hope in the future for the 
perpetuity of our government, but by preserving 
the constitution inviolate and in respecting it by 
both government and people as a sacred deposit 
of individual and Stite rights; in an economical 
and sj'stematic administration of the govein- 
ii.ent by which corruption will be prevented, 
extravagance restrained, expenditures reduced, 
and heavy taxation rendered unnecessary; in 
cultivating among the people that spirit of 
American fraternity which once knew ni North, 


no South, no East, no West, except as parts of 
one unbroken Union; in submitting questions 
which might arise hereafter, effecting the legal 
rights of States to the judicial tribunals and not 
to the executive or legislative branch of the 

And lirmly believing in the efficiency of the 
priuciijles herein enunciated, we implore the 
blessing of God upon our efforts to have them 
applied to the administration of the government, 
and we appeal to our fellow citizens who love 
the constitution and Union as it was before its 
harmony was disturbed by abolition fanaticism, 
and its bonds broken by rebellion. 

The Republicans met at DesMoines and 
nominated as follows: Secretary of State, 
James Wright; Auditor of State, Jona- 
than W. Cattell; Treasurer of State, VVm. 
H. Holmes; Attorney-General, Charles C. 
Nourse; Register of the State Land Office, 
Josiah A. Harvey. The platform adopted 
lead as follows: 

We, the delegates of the Republican party of 
Iowa, assembled to declare anew our i)olitical 
belief, and to select candidates for important 
official positions, present to the people the fol- 
lowing as our articles of faith: 

1 . That the constitution of the United States 
is the fundamental law of the land; that it was 
adopted by our fathers to establish justice and 
secure the blessings of liberty to themselves and 
their posterity; that in accordance with the 
forms prescribed by that instrument, and by the 
laws of Congress, Abraham Lincoln was elected 
by the voluntary suffrnges of the people as the 
Chief Magistrate of the United States for the 
term of four years; that before he had taken 
the oath of office or exercised any of the powers 
with which he had been clothed, certain States 
of the Union passed ordinances of secession, 
assuming thereby to be no longer a part of, nor 
subject to the laws of, the United States; that 
soon afterward they organized a separate con- 
federation, proclaimed their independence of 
and hostility to the federal government, and 
from that time to the present have waged cause- 

less, merciless and barbarious warfare against 
the republic, to which they owe perpetual grati- 
tude and allegiance. 

2. That for the maintenance of the govern- 
ment, in this the hour of its peril, it is the duty 
of every citizen to devote time, labor, property, 
life; that we, as the representatives of an organ- 
ized association of citizens, publicly pledge all 
our energies and substance, should they be 
needed, for the governmental defense. 

3. Tliat we have undiminished confidence in 
the President of the United States, that he is 
faithful to his pled-es, is honest and determined 
in his purposes to crush the rebellion and main- 
tain the upion of the States, and that we earn- 
estly endorse the action of our Representatives 
in Congress in aiding to pass laws for the aboli- 
tion of slavery in the District of Columbia; for 
the perpetuation of freedom in all the Territo- 
ries of the republic; for the confiscation of the 
property of rebels, and clothing the President 
with authority to use the slaves of traitors for 
all military purposes. 

4. That we abhor all sympathizers with seces- 
sion, who, to cover their treasonable sentiments, 
raise the cry of abolitionism; but that, on the 
contrary, we will honor any loyal citizen, what- 
ever may have been his former political associa- 
tions, who will suistain, with all his jjower, the 
struggle of Democratic Republicanism against 
traitorous aristocracy, North or South. 

5. That, extending a hearty welcome to those 
who are present witli us in this convention who 
have left the so-called Democratic party, we in- 
vite all loyal citizens, regardless of former 
political associations, and who are in favor of 
giving the national administration their honest 
support, to co-operate with us, and we commend 
to all of such the patriotic words of the lamented 
Douglas, who said: "There is only two sides to 
this question. Every man must be for the 
United States or against it. There can be no 
neutrality in this war — only patriots or traitors." 

6. That we reiterate the demand for an eco- 
nomical administration of our national and State 
government, and for a punishment of fraudu- 
lent contractors and plunderers of the public 

<5 C 



7. That the valor of our soldiers and sailors, 
and especially those of our own State, on every 
battli field to which they have been called, has 
earned for them a lasting gratitude, and com- 
mended themselves and their families to our 
practical sympathy and aid. 

8. That the State of Iowa will piomptly fur- 
nish her quota of troops called for by the recent 
proclamation of the President, and any addi- 
tional number which the public service may 

9. That the voluntary enlistment of our 
adopted citizens in the army and navy, and their 
tried valor ou our battle-fields, have demon- 
strateu the warmth of their patrio.tism and an 
apprLciation of liberty and good government 
which have earned for them the proud name of 
American citizens and soldiers. 

10. That as citizens of a loyal State, whose 
paliiotism, ' oth at home and upon foreign 
battle-fields, has spoken for itself, w« earnestly 
appeal to the incumbents of the legislative and 
executive departments of the government, to use 
every legitimate means in their possession to 
crush the rebellion, and if, as a last measure for 
the preservation of the republic, it shall become 
necessary to blot out the institution of slavery 
from the soil of every State, we will say Amen, 
letting the consequences fall upon the wicked 
auihurs of the war, and leaving the final issue 
with God. 

The official vote on Secretary of State 
was as follows: 

James Wright, Rep 66,014—15.205 

Richard H Sylvester, Dem 50,809 

In 186.3 the Democrats met in conven- 
tion at DesMoines, and nominated Maturin 
L. Fisher for Governor. Mr. Fisher sub- 
sequently declining, Gen. James M. Tuttle 
was substituttd; John F. Lumcombe was 
nominated for Lieutenant Governor, and 
Charles Mason for Supreme Judge. The 
following was the platform adopted: 

In view of the circumstances that have brought 
us together, we hereby resolve: 

1. That the will of the people is the founda- 
tion of all free government. That tu give effect 
to this will, free thought, free speech and free 
press are absolutely indispensable. Without 
free discussion there is no certainty of sound 
judgment; without sound judgment there cau 
be no wise government. 

2. That it is an iidierent and constitutional 
right of the people to discuss all measures of 
their government, and to approve or disapprove 
as to their best judgment seems right. That 
they have alike right to propose and advodle 
that policy which, in their judgment, is best, 
and to argue and vote against whatever policy 
seems to them to violate the constitution, to 
imperil their liVerties, or to be deirimenial to 
their welfare. 

3. That these and all other rights guaranteed 
to them by the constitution are their rights in 
war as well as in times of peace, and of fur more 
value and necessity in war than in peace: for in 
peace, liberty, security and projierty are seldom 
endangered; in war they are ever in peril. 

4. That we now say to all whom it may con- 
cern, not by way of threat, but calmly and 
firmly, that we will not surrender these rights, 
nor submit to their forcible violation Wc will 
obey laws ourselves, and all others must obey 

5. That there is a manifest difference between 
the administration of the government and the 
government itself. The government consists of 
the civic and political institutions created by 
the constitution, and to the people owe allegi- 
ance. That administrations are but agents of 
the people, subject to their approval or con- 
demnation, according to the merit or demerit of 
their acts. 

6. That we are opposed to the war for the 
purpose of cariyingoul the emancipation procla- 
mation of the President of the United States; 
and if the Federal administration expect a 
united North to attend its efforts to sup; ress a 
rebellion, it must not only come back to its 
object of the war, as set forth in the Crittenden 
resolution adopted by the House of Representa- 
tives in July, 1861, but it must, in its dealings 



with the people of the States, infringe upon no 
one single right guaranteed to the people by 
either the federal or State constitutions. 

7. That we declare our determined opposition 
to a system of emancipatiou by the Slate upon 
compeusation to be made out of the treasury of 
the United States, as burdeusome upon the 
people, unjust in its very nature, and wholly 
without warrant of the constitution. 

8. That we declare tiiat the power which has 
recently been assumed by the President, where- 
in, under the guise of military necessity, he has 
proclaimed and extended, or asserts the right to 
proclaim or extend, martial law over States 
where war docs not exist, and has suspended the 
writ of habeas corpus, is unwarranted by the 
constitution, and its tendency is to subordinate 
the civil to the military authority, and subvert 
our free government. 

9. Thai we deem it proper further to declare, 
that we, together with the loyal people of the 
State, would hail with delight any manifestation 
of a desire on the part of the seceded States to 
retutn to their allegiance to the government of 
the Union; and, in such event, we would cor- 
dially and earnestly co operate with them in the 
restoration of peace and the procurement of 
su h proper guarantees as would give security 
to all their interests and rights. 

10. That the soldiers composing our armies 
merit the warmest thanlis of the nation. The 
country called, and nobly did they respond. 
Living, they shall know a nation's gratitude; 
wounded, a nation's care; and, dying, they shall 
live In our memory, and monuments shall be 
raised to teach posterity to honor the patriots 
and heroes who oiTered their lives at their 
country's altar. The widows and orphans shall 
be adopted by the nation, to be watched over 
and careU for as objects fully worthy of the 
nation's guardianship. 

11. That we will adhere to the constitution 
and the Union as the best, it may be the last, 
hope of popular freedom, and for all wrongs 
which may exist, will seek redress under the 
constitution and within the Union by the peace- 
ful but powerful agency of the suffrages of a 
free people. 

12. That we hail with pleasure and hope, 
manifestations of conservative sentiment among 
the pe'ople of the Northern States in their elec- 
tions, and regard the same as the earnest <if a 
good purpose upon their part to co operate with 
all citizens in giving security to the rights of 
every section, an'l m:iintaining ihe Union and 
constitution as they were ordained by the foun- 
ders of the republic. 

13. That we will earnestly support every 
constitutional measure tending to preserve the 
union of the States. No men have a greater 
interest in its preservation than we have. None 
desire it more; none who will make greater 
sacrifices or endure more than we will to accom- 
plish that end. We are, as we have ever been, 
the devoted friends of the constitution and the 
Union, and have no sympathy with the enemies 
of either. 

14. That the establishment of military gov- 
ernment over loyal States where war does not 
exist, to supersede the civil authorities and sup- 
press the freedom of speech and uf the press, 
and to interfere with the elective franchise, is 
not only subversive of the constitution and the 
sovereignty of the States, but the actual inauyu- 
ralion of revolution. 

15. That we denounce as libelers of the 
Democratic party and enemies of the countiy, 
the men who are engaged in representing the 
Democracy as wanting in sympathy with our 
galh.nt defenders. 

16. That we earnestly denounce the authors 
of those heresies, secessionismand abolitiouisiu, 
which have culminated in an armed rebellion, 
desolated our country and brought sorrow to the 
heart of every person in this broad land. 

The Republicans met at DesMoinep, 
June 1 7th, and adopted the following 
platform : 

We, a convention of representatives of the 
loyal people of the State of Iowa, assembled 
under the call of the Republican organization 
of the State, as an expiession of the views which 
shall govern our political action, do declare: 

1. That when our fathers formed our consti- 
tution, and founded thereon a republican form 

^ d 




of government, they intended to and did grant 
to tliHt gov'inment full power to sustain its 
natural existence. 

2. That whenever the life of the Republic is 
endangered, either by invasion or rebellion, the 
constitution justifies the use of all necessary 
me ins known to civilized warfare in resisting 
invasion or suppressing rebellion. 

3. That we fully and heartily endorse the 
policy of the administration, and we will lo the 
utmost continue to sustain the government in 
suppressing the rebellion, and to effect that 
object we pledge our fortunes and our lives. 

4. That the gratitude of a free people is due 
to our soldiers in the field, both native and 
foreign born, for that heroic valor by which' 
they have honored us and sustained the flag of 
our country, and we guarantee to them con- 
tinued encouragement and support 

5. That we have witnessed with pride and 
admiration the bravery and heroism of Iowa 
soldiers, and we recognize in their brilliant ca- 
reer a history for the State of Iowa, second to 
that of no other Slate in the Union. 

6. That we approve of the action of the Gen- 
eral Assembly of the Slate, in enacting a law 
giving to our brave soldiers in the field an 
opportunity to vole at our elections, and we 
earnestly hope that no technicality may deprive 
them of their right. 

7. That this convention hereby tenders to 
Hon. Samuel J. Kirkwood the cordial thanks of 
the loyal pe()|)le of Iowa for the able, fearless, 
and patriotic discharge of his duties, during the 
two terms he held the office of Governor of the 

8. Finally, we declare that the preservation 
of Ihe constitution and the Union is above and 
beyond all olher interests, and that all questions 
of parly, of life, and of properly, must be sub- 
ordinate thereto. 

At that couvenlion the following ticket 
was nominalea: Governor, William M. 
Stone; Lieutenant-Governor, Enoch W. 
Ea.siman; Judge of the Supreme Court, 
John F Dillon. 

The official vote on Governor vras as 
follows : 

W. M. Stone, Rep., 86,12^—38,174 

J. M. Tuttle, Dem 47,948 

The year 1864 brought with it another 
Presidential campaign. The Republicans 
placed in the field for re-election Abraham 
Lincoln, while the Democrats nominated 
General George B. McClellan. In Iowa 
the Democrats met in convention at Des 
Moines, June 16th, and placed in nomin.a- 
tion the following named, without adopt 
ing resolutions: Secretary of State, John 
H. Wallace; Attorney-General, Charles A. 
Dunbar; Treasurer, J. B. Lash; Auditor, 
H. B. Hendershott; Register State Land 
Office, B. D. Holbrook; Supreme J idge, 
Thomas M. Monroe. 

The Republicans held their convention 
July 7th, at DesMoines, when they nomi- 
nated the following ticket: Supreme Judge, 
C. C. Cole; Secretary, of State, James 
Wright; Auditor of State, John A. Elliott; 
Treasurer, Wm. H. Holmes; Attorney- 
General, Isaac L. Allen; Register Land 
Office, J. A. Harvey. The platform 
adopted was as follows: 

Resolved, That we hereby ratify the nomina- 
tion of Abraham Lincoln for President, and 
Andrew Johnson for Vice-President of the 
United Stales, for the next term, and we pledge 
foi them the electoral vote of Iowa, 

■i. That we cordially aiiprove and adopt the 
platform of resolutions presented by the National 
Union Convention at its recent session in Balti- 
more, and that we most heartily endorse the 
action of Congress iu repealing all laws for the 
return of fugitive slaves and abolishing the 
iuler-State coastwise slave trade. 

3. That the brave sons of Iowa who have 
gone forth lo defend the cause of liberly and 
Union on the ballle-flelds of lire South, and 




whose heroic achievements have shed iiiipeiish- 
aiile glory on our State and nation, we offer our 
liiijhesl praises and our most fervent gratitude, 
and that our State government should continue 
to make liberal provisions for the protection 
and support of their families. 

4. That to the women of Iowa, whose patriotic 
labors have contributed so much moral aud 
material aid aud comfort to our sick and 
wounded soldiers, we tender our heartfelt 

A Peace Convention was beld at Iowa 
City, August '24th, when the following res- 
olutions were adopted : 

Whereas, We believe that there is indispu- 
table evidence existing that the Union may be 
restored on the basis of the federal constitution; 

Whebbas, We further believe that a vigorous 
prosecution of this aboliliou war means the 
speedy bringing about of a division of the Re- 
public; aud being ourselves in favor of a restored 
Union, and against the acknowledgment of a 
Southern Confederacy, therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the war now being prosecuted by 
the Lincoln administration is unconstitutional 
and oppressive, and is the prolific source of a 
multitude of usurpations, tyrannies and corrup- 
tions, to which no people can long submit, with- 
out becoming permanently enslaved. 

a. That we are opposed to the further prose- 
cution of the war, believing that the Union can 
be preserved in its integrity by the President 
agreeing to an armistice, and by calling a 
national convention of sovereign States, to con- 
sider the terms upon which all the people may 
again live together in peace and harinony. 

3. That believing war to be disunion, and 
desiring to stop the further flow of precious 
blood for a purpose so wicked as disunion, we 
respectfully urge the President to postpone the 
draft Ior500,000 men "to be driven like bullocks 
to the slaughter," until the result of an armistice 
and national convention of States is known. 

4. That in the coming election we will have 
a free ballot or a free flght. 

5. That should Abraham Lincoln owe his re- 
election to the electoral votes of the seceded 
States, under the application of the President's 
"one-tenth" system and, military dictation, and 
should he attempt to execute the dutie.i of the 
President by virtue of such an election, it will 
become the solemn mission of the people to 
depose the usurper, or else be worthy the slavish 
deeradatinn, which submission under such cir- 
cumstances, would seem to be their just desert. 

6. That if the nominee of the Chicago con- 
vention is fairly elected, he must be inaugurated, 
let it cost what it may. 

7. That, in respect to the gei eral relations 
which do and ought to exist between the federal 
and State governments, we approve and will ad- 
here to the principles in the Virginia and Ken- 
tucky resolutions of '98— to the interpretations 
thereof by Jefferson, Madison and Jackson — and 
to the resolutions passed by every Democratic 
convention held in this country — to all of which 
special reference is here made, in utter condem- 
nation of the war, and of its incicleuts. 

8. That in respect to the new and disturbing 
element of our times — negro equality — we shall 
maintain that the status of the inhabitants 
(black, white and mixed) of the States, wiihin 
their respective States (now soueht to be con- 
trolled by federal bayonets), is, and ought to be, 
an exclusively State regulation; that the African 
negro is not our equal in a political or social 
sense; and that every usurping attempt, by fed- 
eral force, so to declare him, will meet with our 
determined resistance. 

9. That the foregoing preamble and resolu- 
tions be i-ubmitted to our delegation to the Chi- 
cago convention, for their consideration. 

The official vote at the November elec- 
tion, on Secretary of State, was as follows: 

James Wright, Rep 90,033—40,090 

JohnH. Wallace, Dem 40,943 

The Republicans were the first to meet in 
convention in 1865. They met at Des 
Moines June 14th, and selected the follow- 
ing ticket : Governor, Wm. M. Stone; 
Lieutenant-Governor, Benjamin F. Gue; 



Supt. of Public Instruction, Oran Fayville; 
Supreme Judge, Geo. G. Wright. The 
platform adupted was as follows : 

Resolved. That the perpetuation of the federal 
Union, with all guarantees of Republican liberty 
which its founders contem]ilated, is the most 
sacred political duty of American citizenship. 

2. That during the four years of war, inau- 
gurated by pro-slavery traitors, the great truth 
has been demonstrated, in devastation and 
death, that the nation cannot exist half slave 
and half free, and believing that political and 
relifrious freedom is the natural right of man- 
kind evi rrwbere, we do most fervently pray, 
and shall most earnestly labor, for the ratiflca- 
tion of that amendment to the fundamental law 
which provides for the abolition of slavery 
throughout all the States and Territories of the 
federal Union. 

3. That, to the end that the consequences of 
treason may be made so apiialling that never 
again shall it be inaugurated upon the United 
States soil, we recommend the permanent dis- 
franchisement of leaders of the rebellion, civil 
and military; and that the late President of the 
so-called Confederate States of America, as the 
deepest embodiment of criminal barbarity, be 
brought to the speediest trial and swiftest execu- 
tion, regardless of llie habiliments, under the 
imniuniiies of whicli he sought, in the day of his 
calamity, to take refuge. 

4. Tliat, with proper safeguards to the purity 
of the ballot-box, the elective franchise should 
be based upon loyalty to the constitution of the 
Union, recognizing and affirming equality of all 
men before the law. "Therefore, we are in favor 
of amending the constitution of our State by 
striking out the word 'while' in the article of 

5. That we extend to Andrew Johnson, in his 
assumption of Presidential respousibililies, our 
confidence and support, pledgii)g for the patri- 
otic masses of Iowa a continuance of the same 
devotion to the federal flag which was promptly 
extended to his predecessors. 

6. That now the war is practically ended, and 
our br.ive citizen soldiery of Iowa may return to 

their homes and avocations of peace, we extend 
to them the grateful thanks of the people, and a 
welcome, such as only the patriotic and the 
brave are entitled to receive. 

7. That every man who voluntarily left his 
home in this State, before or during the rebellion, 
with a view to serve the cause of treason in the 
rebel army or navy, and also every man who left 
his State to avoid military service, due from him 
to the government, should be forever debarred 
by constitutional provision, from holding public 
oftice, and from the exercise of the rights of suf- 
frage in this State. 

8. That we approve the act'ons of our State 
executive in his hearty support of the general 
government, and we tender the thanks of this 
convention for the faithful administration ol his 

9. That we humbly return thanks to Almighty 
God for the deliverance of our State and nation 
from the further perils of war, and that we de- 
voutly recognize His hand in the great work 
which has been wrought in the last four years, 
for our people and for humanity. 

The next convention held this year was 
a "Soldiers' Convention," or, as the body 
termed itself, "The Union Anti-Negro Suf- 
frage Party," which convened at the Cap- 
itol August 23d, and adoptid a platform 
and selected candidates for the various 
offices to be filled, as follows: Governor, 
Gen. Thos. H. Benton; Lieut.-Governor, 
Col. S G. VanAnda; Supreme Judge, H. 
H. Trimble; Supt of Public Instruction, 
Capt J. W. Senate. The platform read as 
follows : 

We, tlie delegated representatives of the sol- 
diers and loyal citizens of Iowa, feeling pro- 
foundly grateful for the restoration of peace 
after four years of bloody war, have met to- 
gether, as free American citizens, to adopt such 
measures as in our judgment will most certainly 
tend to perpetuate our glorious union of Slates, 
and with the blessings of free institutions and 


@ k^ 




the peace bo happily restored, hereby adopt the 
following platform of principles, viz: 

1. We are in favor of the Monroe doctrine. 

3. We sustain the administration of Presi- 
dent Johnson, and especially endorse his recon- 
struction policy, and we pledge him our earnest 
and unqualified support. 

3. We are opposed to negro suffrage or to the 
striking of the word "while" out of the article 
on sufi'rage in our State constitution, and will 
support no candidate for office, either Stale or 
national, who is in favor of negro suffrage or of 
the equality of the white and black races. 

4 We are in favor of the amendment of the 
constitution of the United States, abolishing 
slavery and the ratificatiou of the same by our 
next Legislature 

5. That, inasmuch as we do not sufficiently 
know the sentiment of the people of the State 
in regard to the prohibitory liquor law, we deem 
it expedient to refer this matter to the different 
county conventions to take such action in the 
malter as by them is deemed proper, and to 
instruct their Senators and Representatives 

6. We are in favor of the brave soldiers and 
marines who have faithfully served their coun- 
try in the army and navy of the United States, 
and especially of the crippled or disab'ed sol- 
diers, having the preference for all ciffices of 
profit, honor or trust, cither by appointment or 
otherwise, where thej' are equally competent 
and qualified to discharge the duties of the 
office or the trust reposed. 

7. That we cherish with grateful remem- 
brance the memory of our dead soldiers, and 
ever will be ready and willing to lend ouraid, 
sympathy and protection to the crippled and 
disabled soldiers, and the widows and orphans 
of the war. 

The Democrats also held a convention, 
made no nominations, but adopted the fol- 
lowing platform: 

1. That we heartily rejoice in the suppres- 
sion of the great rebellion and the preservation 
of the Union, and give unfeisnod tlumks to 
Almighty God for the restoration of peace. 

2. In order that this peace may be permanent 
and its effects speedilj' and widely felt, we be- 
lieve it is the duty of every patriot to sustain 
cordially the present policy of President John- 
son in reconstructing the States recently in 

3. That the establishment of a monarchy on 
the soil of this continent is in direct defiance of 
the Monroe doctrine — a doctrine accepted and 
recognized by all true Americans; and it is the 
duty of the Government of the United Slates to 
see that the people of Mexico are freed from 
the oppression of foreign bayonets, and the 
republic restored. 

4. That we favor rigid economy in the 
national and State expenditures, and will insist 
on the reduction of the numberless horde of 
useless office-holders who feed like locusts on 
the hard earnings of the people. 

5. That we earnestly condemn the trial of 
American citizens for civil offenses by courts- 
martial and military courts, in Slates and dis- 
tricts where civil law is unimpeded in its opera- 
tions and in full fore. 

6. That we are radically opposed to negro 
equality in all its phases, and accept the issue 
tendered by the late Republican convention of 
the 14th of June in making that doctrine the 
chief plank in its platform by proposing to 
strike the word "white" out of the article on 
suffrage in the constitution of Iowa. 

7. That the attacks on General Sherman, 
originating in the War Department at Washing- 
ton, and servilely copied and endorsed by many 
of the leading Ripubli^an papers of the State, 
are the offspring of envy and fanatacism, and 
will recoil with crushing force on the heads of 
his calumniators. 

8. That we feel a just pride in the progress 
of our army and navy, and especially of the 
soldiers of Iowa, who, under Grant and Sher- 
man, have made a lasling and glorious record of 
their patient endurance of suffering, their ad- 
mirable discipline and indomitable valor. 

9. That we hail with joy the return of these 
brave men from the battlefield, and extend to 
them our grateful thanks for their services and 




a hearty welcome to their homes, and believe 
that it is the duty, as it will be the pleasure, of 
their fellow-citizens to see that a due proportion 
of the civil honors and cifflces of the State shall 
be distributed among them, and the fostering 
care of the public extended to the widows and 
orphans of those who died in tlie service of their 

10. That the assassinatian of President Lin- 
coln was an act of unmitigated barl)arism, and 
one that should be held in utter abhorance by 
every good citizen. 

The official vote for Governor is as fol- 

William M Stone, Rep 70,445—16,375 

Thos. H. Benton, Ami Negro Suf. 54,070 

Questions growing out of reconstruction 
of Southern States afforded the issues for 
1866. The first convention in this State 
was held by the Republicans at the Capi- 
tol, June 20, where the following ticket 
was nominated: Secretary of State, Col. 
Ed. Wright; Treasurer, Maj. S. E. Rankin; 
Auditor, J. A. Elliott; Register of State 
Land Office, Col. C. C. Carpenter; Attor- 
ney-General, F. E. Russell; Reporter of 
Supreme Court, E. H. Stiles; Clerk of 
Supreme Court, Lieut. C Liiiderman. A 
.platform was adopted, which reads as 

Resolved, That the first and highest duty of 
our free government is to secure to all its citi- 
zens, regardless of race, religion or color, 
equality before the law, equal protection frum 
it, equal resnonsibility to it, and to all that have 
proved their loyally by their acts, an equal 
voice in making it. 

2. That the reconstruction of the States 
lately in the rebellion belongs, through their 
representatives in Congress, to the people who 
have subdued the rebellion and preserved the 
nation, and not to the executive-alone. 

3. That we heartily approve of the joint 
resolution lately passed by the Senate and House 

of Representatives in Congress assembled, pro- 
posing to the Legislature of the several States 
an addilional article by way of amendment to 
the federal constitution, and we pledge the rati 
ficalion of that amendment by the Legislature 
of Iowa. 

4. That in the firm and manly adherence of 
the Union party in Congress to the above prin- 
ciples, we recognize new guarautys to the safety 
of the nation, and we pledge to Congress our 
continued and earnest support. 

5. That we are in favor of the enforcement 
of the Monroe doctrine, and that we extend to 
all people struggling to preserve nationality or 
to achieve liberty, our warmest support 

6. That we are in favor of the equalization of 
the bounties of soldiers who faithfuilj' served 
their country in the war for the suppression of 
the rebellion. 

7. That we are in favor of the nomination 
and election to office of such persons as are 
known to possess honesty and capacity, and we 
unqualifiedly condemn dishonesty and careless- 
ness in every department of the public service. 

A conservative convention was called, 
which convened at DesMoines June 27, 
and nominated the following ticket: Sec- 
retary of State, Col. S. G. VanAuda; 
Treasurer, Gen. Poe A. Slone; Auditor of 
Stale, Capt. R. W. Cross; Attorney-Gen- 
eral, Capt. Webster Balinger; Supreme 
Court Reporter, Capt. J. W. Senate; Clerk, 
Lewis Kinney. The following platform 
was adopted: 

1. We hold that the constitution of the 
United Slates is the paladium of our liberties, 
and that any departure from its rtquircmenls by 
the legislative, executive or judicial departments 
of the government is subversive of the funda- 
mental principles of our republican institutions. 

2. Repudiating the radical doctrine of State 
rights and secession on the one hand, and the 
centralization and consolidation of federal 
authority on the other, as equally dangerous; 
and believing that no State can secede, and the 



war having been prosecuted on our part, as ex- 
pressly dtchirid by Congress itself, to defend 
and maintain the supremacy of the constitution, 
and to preserve the Union inviolate, with all the 
dignity, equality and rights of the States unim- 
paired, the federal ai ms having been victorious, 
we hold that all the states are still in the Union, 
and entitled to equal rights under the constitu- 
tion, and that Congress has no power to exclude 
a State from the Union, to govern it as a terri- 
tory, or to deprive it of representation in the 
councils of the nation, when its representatives 
have been elected and qualified in accordance 
with the constilutiim and laws of t! e land. 

3. While we fully concede to the federal 
government the power to enforce obedience to 
the constitution and laws enacted in conformity 
with it, and to punish those who resent its legiti- 
mate authority in the several Slates, we believe 
in the maintenance, inviolable, of the rights of 
the Stales, and especially of the right of each 
State to order and control its own domestic insti- 
tutions according to its own judgment, exclu- 
sively, as essential to that balance of power on 
which the perfection and endurance of our 
political institutions depend. 

4. We hold that each State has the right to 
prescribe the qualifications of its electors, and 
we are opposed to any alteration of the State 
constitutions on the subject of suffrage. 

5. We Consider the national debt a sacred 
obligation, and the honor and reservation of the 
government as irrevocably pledged for its liqui- 
dation; no obligati<jn, incurred in any manner 
whatever in aid of the rebellion, should ever be 
assumed or paid. 

6. The nation owes a lasting debt of gratitude 
to our soldiers and sailors of the late war for the 
suppression of the rebellion; and in the bestowal 
of public patronage by election or appointment, 
preference should be given to those competent 
to perform duties required, and as a positive 
reward for their services, the government should 
give to each of those who have fallen in the ser- 
vice, or have been honorably discharged, or 
their legal representatives, one hundred and 
sixty acres of land; and justice to those who 

entered the service in the early part of the war 
d<mands that immediate provision should be 
made for the equalization of bounties. 

7. We cordially eudor.-e the restoration policy 
of President Johnson as wise, patriotic, consti- 
tutional, and in harmony wiih the loyal senti- 
ment and purpose of the people in the suppres- 
sion of the rebellion, with the platform upon 
which he was elected, with the declared policy 
of the late Presidmt Lincoln, the action of 
Congress, and the pledges given during the war. 

8. We regard the action of Congress, in refus- 
ing to admit loyal representatives from the 
States recently in rebellion, as unwananted by 
the constitution, and calculated to embarrass 
and complicate, rather than adjust, our national 

9. The ratilication by the legislatures of the 
several Slates of the amendment to the consti- 
tution of the United States, for the abolition of 
slavery, settles that question virtually, and 
meets our hearty approval. 

10. We are opposed to any further amend- 
ments to the constitution of the United Stales 
until all the States are represented in Congress, 
and have a vote in making the same. 

11. We are in favor of a strict adherence to 
the Monroe doctrine, and extend to all people 
stiuggling to preserve nationality and liberty 
our warmest sympathy. 

12. All officers entrusted with the manage- 
ment of funds should be held to a strict account- 
ability for the faithful application of the same, 
and in case of the defalcation or misuse of such 
funds, they should not be permitted to evade 
responsibility by implicating irresponsible agents 
selected by themselves. Any party counte- 
nances such evasion becomes accessory to the 

The Democratic convention assembled 
July 1 1th at DesMoines. No Democratic 
candidates were selected, save for two 
offices, the committee on nominations 
recommending that the convention nomi- 
nate candidates for Clerk and Reporter of 

%^ (i 

jj^-— -w- 



the Supreme Court, and "that we recom- 
mend and will co-operate with the conser- 
vative element of the Republican party in 
their efforts to restore the Union and de- 
feat radical disunionisra, and for that 
purpose hereby agree to support their 

The convention named Capt. Albert 
Stoddard for Clerk of the Supreme Court, 
and Capt. Fred. Gottschalk for Reporter. 
The following resolutions were adopted: 

Resolved, That the Democracy of Iowa will 
adhere in the present and the future, as in the 
past, with uulaUering fidelity and firmness to 
the organization of the Democratic party, and to 
its ancient and well settled principles, as enunci- 
ated by Thomas Jefl'erson, the great a.ioslle of 
American Democracy, and as acknowledged and 
accepted by the party from the foundation of 
the government, and especially of equal taxa- 
tion and representation of all the States subject 
to taxation. 

2. That the one great question of the day is 
the immediate and unconditional restoration of 
all the States to the exercise of their rights 
within the fcderalUnion under the constitution, 
and that we will cordially and actively support 
Andrew Johnson, President of the United 
States, in all necessary and proper means to 
carry out his policy as directed to that end, and 
especially in securing immediate representation 
in the Senate and House of Representatives, to 
the eleven States from which it is now unconsti- 
tutionally and arhilrarily withheld. 

3. That for the imrposes above set forth we 
will cu-oi)erate in public meeting, conventions 
and at the polls with all men without reference 
to past parly position, who lionestly, and by 
their acts and votes as well as by their profes- 
sion, support the President in his policy of res- 
toration as declared. 

4. That the exemption of United States 
bonds from tax is nothing else than exemption 
of rich men from tax, because they are rich, 
and they tax the poor man because he is poor. 

Hence, justice and equality require that said 
bonds should be taxed. 

5. That stricL and impartial justice demands 
that the expenses of the general government as 
well as the State governments should be paid by 
the people according to their abiliiy and not ac- 
cording to their necessities. Hence we are 
opposed now, as in the past, to the high tariff 
which tends to burden the producer for the ben- 
efit of the manufacturer. 

6. That the so called Maine liquor law is in- 
consistent with the genius of a free people, and 
unjust and burdensome in its operations. It 
has vexed and harrassed the citizens, burdened 
the counties with expenses, and proved wholly 
useless in the sup|iressiou of intemperance. 
The opinion of this convention is that the same 
ouglit to be re[iealed. 

7. That the plunder of the State treasury, by 
Governor Stone and accomplces, calls for the 
condemnation of every honest man in the Stale, 
and If the radicals of the last Legislaluie had 
been true to the interests of the people, they 
would not have labored to save the criminals, 
but would have piosecuted them to a speedy 
and condign punishment. 

8. That we are in favor of a prompt and 
effective enforcement of the Monroe doctrine, 
and we heartily sympathize with the people of 
every country struggling for their liberties. 

9. That we approve of the National Union 
Convention to be held at Philadelphia on the 
14th of next month; that we approve of the 
principles and policy set forth in the address of 
the Democratic members of Congress, urging ihe 
Democracy of the nation to unite with the 
objects of that convention. 

10. That the memory of the brave officers 
and soldiers who lost their lives tigliting for the 
Union during the recent rebellion, is embalmed 
in the hearts of the American people, and that 
justice, as well as humanitj', demands at the 
hands of the American people that the widows 
and orphans of those who died in the Union 
service shall be duly provided for by liberal 
pensions; that there shall be an equalization of 
bounty so that those who breasted the war at 





the start shall share the equal pecuniary mu- 
Diflcence ot those who entered the army at a 
later date. 

11. That we most cordially sympathize with 
the movement now being made by the friends 
of Ireland to obtain the independence of that 
glorious country from under the yolie of English 
tyranny, and that we bid them God speed in the 
noble work, and hope that the subject of the 
independence of Ireland will continue to be agi- 
tated until the Emerald Isle shall stand out in 
full and bold relief on the map of the world as 
one of the independent nations of the earth. 

On Secretary of State the official vote 
was as follows: 

Ed. Wright, Rep 91,227—35,373 

Q. G VanAnda, Dem 65,854 

In 1867 the Republicans met in conven- 
tion at DesMoines, June 19th. They 
nominated for Governor, Col. Satul. Mer- 
rill; Lieutenant-Governor, Col. Jno. Scott; 
Judge of Supreme Court, Hon. J. M. Beck; 
Attorney-General, Maj . Henry O'Connor; 
Superintendent Public Instruction, Prof. 
D. Franklin Wells. The following is the 
platform adopted by the convention: 

1. That we again proclaim it as a cardinal 
principle i)f our political faith that all men are 
equal before the law, and we are in favor of such 
ameudmenis to ihe constitution of the State of 
Iowa as will secure the rights of the ballot, the 
protection of the law and equal rights to all 
men, irrespective of color, race or religion. 

2. That we approve of the military recon- 
struction acts passed by the 39th and 40th Con- 
gress. The illiberal construction by unfriendly 
officials depriving these acts of their energy and 
vitality, we demand that Congress assemble in 
July to carry out by additional enactments the 
tiTie and original intent of said acts, the restora- 
tion of the rebel States upon a sure and loyal 

3. That the promt ■ trial and punishment, 
according to law, of the head of the late rebel- 
lion, for his infamous crimes, is imperatively 

demanded for the vindic;ition of the constitu- 
tion and the laws, and for the proper punish- 
ment of the highest crimes, it is demanded by 
justice, honor and a proper regard for the pro 
tection of American citizenship, and by a due 
regard for the welfare and future safety of the 
republic, and it is due not only to the dignity of 
the nation, but in justice to the loyal people who 
have been so heroic in their devotion to the 
cause of the constitution, the Union and liberty, 
and to the soldiers of the Union who survive 
and the memory of the heroic dead. 

4. That we are in favor of the strictest 
economy in the expenditures of public money, 
and that we demand at the hands of all officials, 
both State and national, a faithful and rigidly 
honest administration of public i^airs. 

5. That the Republican members of the Con- 
gress of the United States are entitled to the 
thanks of the nation for their firmness in resist- 
ing the conspiracy to turn over the control of 
the government to the hands of traitors and 
their allies, and defeating the purpose of a cor- 
rupt Executive, and thus sust dning the interests 
of liberty, in a great and dangerous crisis in our 

The Democracy were in convention July 
26th, and nominated the following ticket: 
Governor, Charles Mason ; Lieutenant- 
Governor, D. M. Harris; Supreme Judge, 
J. H. Craig; Attorney-General, W. T. 
Baker; Superintendent Public Instruction, 
M. L. Fisher. The platform adopted by 
the convention was as follows: 

Resolved, That the maintenance, inviolate, of 
the rights of the States, especially the rights of 
each State to order and control its own institu- 
tions according to its own judgment exclusively, 
is essential to that balance of power on which 
the perfection and endurance of our political 
fabric depends. 

2. That we believe each State has the right 
to regulate the elective franchises for itself, and, 
as citizens of the State of Iowa, are opposed to 
striking the word "white" out of our State con- 




3. That the existing tariff laws are unjust 
and heavily burdensome to the ngricullural 
States, wiihout boins "f a correspoiidiug benefit 
to the government, and only of advantage to a 
few manufacturing States, and should be re- 
pealed or greatly modified. 

4. That all classes of property should pay a 
proportionate rate toward defraying the ex- 
penses of the goverument. We are therefore in 
favor of taxing government bonds the same as 
other property. 

5. That we are in favor of repealing the pres- 
ent liquor law of this State, and in favor of 
enactins; a well regulated license law in lieu 

6. That we are in favor of an amendment to 
the coustilulisn of our State giving to foreigners 
the elective franchise after they have declared 
their intention of becoming citizens of the United 
States, and have resided in the State one year. 

7. That we demand of our public officers in 
the State of Iowa and in the United States the 
strictest economy in order to reduce the present 
burdensome taxation, and we denounce in the 
severest terms the profligacy, corruption and 
knavery of our Stale officers and Congressmen. 

8. That the denial of representation to ten 
States in the Union, through odious military 
reconstruction, in violation to the constitution, 
should meet the unqualified oppostion of every 
good citizen. 

On Governor the official vote was as fol- 

Samuel Merrill, Rep 90,200—27,240 

Charles Mason, Dem 02,960 

The year 1868 brought with it another 
Presidential campaign. Ulysses S. Grant 
was the Republican nominee for President, 
and Horatio Seymour that of the Demo- 
crats. Ill Iowa the campaign was opened 
by the Republicans, who nominated the 
following ticket : Secretary of State, Ed. 
Wright; Auditor of Slate, John A. Elli- 
ott; Treasurer of State, Maj. Samuel E. 

Rankin; Register of State Land Office, 
Col. C. C. Carpenter; Attorney-General, 
Major Henry O'Connor. The following 
platform was adopted : 

We, the delegates and representatives of the 
Republican party of Iowa, in convention assem- 
bled, do, for ourselves and party, resolve — 

1. That it is as important that the principles 
of the Republican parly should control, in the 
administration of the State and nation now, and 
for the future, as at any time since that party's 
organization; and that the restoration to power, 
under any pretext or any form of party organi- 
zation of the men who would again apply the 
principles and policy of the pro-slavery party 
before and during the war, to the present and 
future administration of State and national 
afl'airs, would be an evil of the greatest magni- 
tude, and full of danger to the country. 

2. That, while we recognize the fact that the 
electors of Iowa are to act individually and 
directly upon the proposed amendment to the 
constitution of the State; and while we Tecig- 
nize that the principles embodied in said amend- 
ment are more sacred than party ties, and above 
all consideration of mere party policy, never- 
theless we deem it proper to again proclaim it 
as a cardinal principle of our political faith, that 
all men are equal before the law, and we are in 
favor of the proposed amendment of the consti- 
tution of the Stale of Iowa, which will secure 
the rights of the ballot, the protection of the 
law, and equal justice to all men irrespective of 
color, race or religion 

3. That we demand the strictest economy in 
the administration ol our State and national 

4. That we are in favor of the nomination of 
U. S. Grant as our candidate for President, and 
as a guarantee of his life and safety as well as 
that of the nation, our delegates are especially 
enjoined to secure, as our candidate for Vice- 
President, a Republican of unswerving fidelity 
and unimpeacliable integrity. 

5. Tliat the views, purposes and principles of 
the Republican organization of Iowa has ever 




been well defined, understood and sustained, and 
we are resolved that the Republican standard 
shall never be lowered or compromised; that on 
the battle-field, at the polls, and in the councils 
of the nation, Iowa has ever been radically in 
earnest in fighting for and maintaining our lib 
erty, our Union, the rights of man and the honor 
and integrity of the nation; and that we expect 
and demand of the nation;il convention to as- 
semble at Chicago on the 20lh inst., an unequiv- 
ocal avowal of our principles, and upon such 
platform we propose to meet and overwhelm our 
political opponents. 

The Democracy met at DesMoines and 
mide nominations as follows : Secretary 
of State, David Hammer, Register of Land 
Office, A D. Anderson; Treasurer of State, 
L. McCarty; Auditor of Stale, H. Dun- 
lavey; Attorney-General, J. E. William- 
son. They also adopted the following res- 
olutions : 

Jiesoioed, By the Democracy of Iowa, in con- 
vention assembled, that the reconstruction policy 
of Congress is unconslitutional and destructive 
of the spirit of American liberty, and, if carried 
out, will inevitably result in a permanent mili- 
tary despotism. 

2. That the present depressed condition of 
the country, with its pro>tratcd Ijusiness, para- 
lyzed industiy, oppressive taxation and political 
anarchy, are the direct results of the unwise and 
unconslitutional legislation of the dominant 
party in Congress. 

3. That it is the avowed object of the Con- 
gressional piilicy to continue in power the most 
venal and corrupt political party that ever dis- 
honored any civilization; a policy vindictively 
enacted and mercilessly prosecuted, with the 
unconstitutional purpose of centralizing and 
perpetuating all the political power of the gov- 
ernment in the dominant radical party in Con- 

4. That for the maintenance of the national 
credit, we pledge the honor of the Democracy of 
Iowa; but that we will unalterably oppose that 
policy which opposes to pay the rich man in 

gold and the poor man in depreciated currency; 
and that we believe that the currency M'hich is 
good enough to pay the soldier, the widow and 
the orphan, is good enough for the bondholder; 
and that the bonds of the government, which 
are made payable on their face in "lawful 
money," popularly known as greenbacks, having 
been purchased with that kind of money, may 
be justly and honorably redeemed with the 
same; aijd it is the duty of the government to 
pay them off as rapidly as they become due, or 
the financial safety of the country will permit. 

5. That the national bank system, organized 
in the interest of the bondholders, ought to be 
abolished, and the United States notes substi- 
tuted in lieu of a bank currencj', thus 
saving to the people, in interest alone, more than 
$18,000,000 annually; and until such system of 
banks shall be abiilishcd, we demand that the 
shares of such banks in Iowa shall be subject to 
the same taxes, State and municipal, as other 
property of the State. 

6. That it is the duty of the United States to 
protect all citizens, whether native or natural- 
ized, in every right, at home and abroad, without 
the pretended claim of foreign nations to per- 
petuate allegiance. 

7. That we are in favor of the repeal of the 
prohibitory liquor law, and of the enactment of 
a judicious license law in its stead. 

8 That we are opposed to conferring the 
right of suffiasre upon the negroes in Iowa, and 
we deny the riuht of the general government to 
inteifere with the question of suffrage in any of 
the States of the Union. 

9. That the soldiers of Iowa, in the recent 
great revolution, exhibited a spirit of patriotism, 
courage and endurance, under great privation 
and sufferings, that liuve won for them the ad- 
miration of the nation, and entitle them to the 
kind recollection of their countrymen and the 
aid of a graceful government. 

10. That Hon. Geo. H. Pendleton, of Ohio, is 
the first choice of the Democracy of Iowa for 
President of the United States. 

On Secretary of State, the official vote 
stood as follows: 





Ed. Wright, Rep 120,265-45,801 

David Hammer, Dem 74,464 

The Republicans, in 1869, re-nominated 
Samuel Merrill for Governor; — Waldon 
for Lieutenant-Governor; Jolin F. Dillon 
for Supreme Judge; A. S. Kisseil for 
Superintendent of Public Instruc'ion. 
Tliey adopted the following resolutions: 

Resolced, That we heartily endorse the admin- 
istiation of Governor Merrill as economical and 
honest, and that it deserves, as it has received, 
the hearty approval of the people of Iowa. 

2. That we unite upon a continuance of strict 
and close economy in all departments of our 
State government in beh:ilf of the maintenance 
of the ha))py financial condition to which our 
State has attained under Republican rule. 

3. That the means now in the State treasury, 
and which may become available, ouffht to be 
issued for the purpose of defraying the neces- 
sary expenditures of the State government, 
economically aduiiuislered, and for no other 
purpose; and no State taxes, or only the mini- 
mum absolutely required, should be levied or 
collected until such means are exhausted, to the 
end that the bnrden of taxation may be made as 
light as possible. 

4. That we rejoice in the glorious national 
victory of 1868. which has brought peace, happi- 
ness and prosperity to our nation; and we 
heiutlly endorse the administration of General 

5. That the public expenditures of the na- 
tional government should be reduced to the 
lowest sum which can be reached by a system of 
the most rigid economy; that no money should 
be taken from the national treasury for afly 
work of internal improvements, or for the erec- 
tion of any public buildings not clearly neces- 
sary to be made or erected, until the national 
debt is piiid or greatly reduced. That all the 
money that can be saved from the national 
revenue, honestly collected, should be applied 
to the reduction of the national debt, to the end 
that the people may be relieved of the burthen 
of taxation :;s rapidly as practicable. 

6. That we endorse and approve the policy 
which the present Secretary of the Treasury of 
the United States has pursued. 

The Democrats placed in nomination 
the following ticket: Governor,- George 
Gillespie; Lieutenant-Governor, A. P. 
Richardson; Judge of the Supreme Court, 
W.F. Brannan; Superintendent of Public 
Instri clion, Edward Jaeger. They, also, 
adopted as a platform the following: 

WuEUEAS, Upon the eve of a political canvass, 
the tinir-liouortd usa^e of our party requires that 
a platform of principles be announced for the 
government of those who may be elected to of- 
lice; therefore, be it 

Resulted, That the Democratic party view with 
alarm the action of an unscrupulous majority in 
Congress, in its attempt to absorb the powers of 
the executive and judicial departments of the 
government, and to annihilate the rights and 
functions reserved to the State governments. 

2. That we favor a reform in the national 
banking system, looking to an ultimate abolition 
of that pernicious plan for the aggrandizement 
of the few at the expense of the many. 

3. That now, as in time past, we are opposed 
to a high protective tarilT, and that we will use 
every etlort to prevent and defeat that system of 
national legislation which will enrich a small 
class of manufacturers, at the expense of the 
great mass of producers and consumers, and that 
we are in favor of such reforms in our taritfsy.>;tem 
as shall promote commerce with every nation of 
the worlil. 

4. That the pretended trial, conviction and 
execution of persons not in the military or naval 
service of the United St:ites, by military commis- 
sion, is in direct conflict with the constitution, 
and we denounce the same as unworthy of a free 
people, and disgraceful to the American govern- 

5. That we demand no more, and will submit 
to nothing less than the settlement of the Ala- 
bama claims according to the recognized rules 
of international law, and that we declare it to be 



the duty of the government to protect every cit- 
izen, whether naturalized or native, in every right 
of iiljerty and pr.iperty throughout the world, 
without the pretended claims of foreign nations 
to their anei;iance. 

6. That we are in favor of, and insist on, an 
economical administration of the national and 
State governments, that the people may be as 
speedily as possible relieved from the load of 
taxation with which they are now oppressed, 
and that public oflicers should be held to a strict 
accountability to the people for their official 
acts . 

7. That a national debt is a national curse, 
and that while we favor the payment of the 
present indebtedness according to the strict let- 
ter of the contract, we would rather repudiate 
the same than see it made the means for the 
establishment of an empire upon the ruins of 
constitutional law and liberty. 

8. That in the opinion of this convention the 
so-called Maine liquor law, which now disgraces 
the statute books of the State of luwa, ought to 
be repealed at the earliest possible mumeat. 

The campaign of 1870 was short, the 
first convention being held by the Demo 
crats at DesMoines, August 10. Tlie 
nominations made were as follows: Sec- 
retary of State, Charles Doerr; Auditor of 
State, Wesley W. Garner; Treasurer of 
State, William C. James; Attorney-Gen- 
eral, H. M. Martin; Register of State Land 
Ottice, D. F. Ellswonb; Eejjortei of the 
Supreme Court, C. II. Bane; (Jlerk of the 
Supreme Court, William McLenan; Judge 
of the Supreme Court, long tertn, J. C. 
Knapp; Judge of the Supreme Court, to 
fill the vacancy occasioned by the resig- 
nation of Judge Dillon, P. Ilenry Sinyibe; 
Judge of the Supreme Court to fill the va- 
cancy occasioned by the resignation of 
Judge Wright, Reuben Noble. They 
adopted the following platform: 

The representatives of the Democracy of Iowa, 
coming together in a spirit of toleration and de- 

votion to the doctrines of representative govern- 
ment, and relying for final success upon public 
discussion and the intelligence and patriotism of 
the people, deem the present convention a fitting 
occasion to proclaim the following as the prin- 
ciples of the Democratic party of Iowa: 

Resolved, That the internal revenue system of 
the United States is unendurable in its oppres- 
sive exactions; that to impose burdens upon one 
class of citizens, or upon one branch of industry, 
to build up another, and to support an army of 
office-holders to enforce their collection, is an 
abuse of the taxing power, and that we are in 
favor of the collection of all taxes through State 

3. That we are opposed to the present unjust 
and unequal tariff system, and in favor of one 
which, while adapted to the purpose of rai,<ing 
the necessary revenue to provide fur the liquida- 
tion of our national indebtedness, to meet the 
expenditures of an economical admiuislration, 
will not oppress labor and build up monopolies. 

3. That we are in favor of such disposition 
of our public lands as will secure their occupa- 
tion by actual settlers, and prevent their absorp- 
tion by mammoth corporations. 

4. That we assert the right of the people by 
legislative enactment, to tax, regulate, and con- 
trol all moneyed corporations upon which extra- 
ordinary rights are conferred by charters. 

5. That we are opposed to any attempt to 
abridge the most full and free enjoyment of 
civil and religious liberty. 

6. That we cordially invite the electors of 
Iowa to co-operate with us in the support of the 
principles herein enunciated. 

The Republicans met one week later 
than the Democrats, and nominated for 
Supreme Judge, full term, C. C. Cole; Su- 
preme Judge, Dillon vacancy, W. E. Mil- 
ler; Supreme Judge, Wright vacancy, Jas. 
G. Day; Secretary of State, Ed. Wright; 
Au.iilor, John Russell; Treasurer, S. E. 
Hankin; Register of Land Office, Aaron 
Brown; Attorney-General, Henry O'Con- 
ner; R porter of the Supreme Court, E. 




H. Stiles; Clerk of Supreme Court, Chas. 
Linderman. The following are the reso- 
lutioDS adopted by the Republican conven- 
tion : 

Resolved, That we refer witli piide to the his- 
tory of the Republican party, aud congratulate 
the couulvy upon its successful career. Il has 
given to the poor man a hoin^steatl; it has abol- 
ished slavery, and established manhood suffrage; 
crushed treason, and given to us the Pacific rail- 
road; settled the doctrine of the right of expa- 
triation, maintained the honor, integrity aud 
credit of our nation. It has vindicated the 
Monroe doctrine by preventing foreign powers 
from interfering with the guvernnient on this 
continent; and to perpetuate it in power is the 
only safe guaranty for peace and prosperity in 
the future. 

3. That we heartily endorse the honest, faith- 
ful, and economical adminslralion of General 
Grant, by whicli our national debt has become 
so largely reduced, and our national credit and 
honor so firmly maintained. 

3. That a tariff for revenue is indispensable, 
and should be so adjusted as not to become pre- 
judiced to the industrial interests of any class 
or section of the country, while securing to our 
home products fair competition with foreign 
capital and labor. 

4. That we are opoosed to any system or 
plan of gran ling public lands to railroad or 
other corporations without amjjle provision 
being made, to secure their speedy sale at 
moderate prices, aud occupancy upon fair and 
liberal terms by any and all who desire to pur- 
chase and settle upon them. 

5. That we are in favor of an economical 
and judicious management of the afl'aii-s of the 
State, and with this view we endorse the present 
administration of the State government, and 
commend it to the favorable consideration of 
the people and to future adminstnuions. 

6. That we are in favor of such legislation as 
will protect the people from the oppression of 
monopolies controlled by aud in the interest of 
corporati' ns. 

7. That while, as Amiricans, we feel in duty 
bound to preserve a stiict neutrality in the con- 
test now waging in Europe, yet we cannot forget 
that in our late war the sympathies and material 
aid of the German states were freely given us, 
and we do not hesitate to declare our unqualilied 
syn pathy with the earnest efforts of the Germans 
to maintain and defend their national unity; and 
we condemn the course which the Democratic 
press of the country has been and is now pursu- 
ing in the support of adespotic, imperial dynasty, 
and a causeless war against a people desiring 
peace, and aspiring to perfect liberty. 

8. That the Republican party of Iowa wel- 
come to our shores all human beings of every 
nation, irrespective of race or color, voluntarily 
seeking a home in our midst; and all the rig.' ts 
and privileges which we, as citizens, demand for 
ourselves, we will freely accord to them. 

y. That we are in favor of amending our 
naturalization laws by striking out the word 
"while" from the same, whei'ever it occurs. 

The official vote on Secretary of State 
was as followt*: 

Ed. Wright, Rep 101,938—41,433 

Charles Dorr, Dem GO, 50.5 

In 1871 the Democrats were again first 
in the field, assembling in convention at 
DesMoines, June 14th, and nomiuated for 
Governor, J. C. Knapp; Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor, M. M. Ham; Supreme Judge, John 
F. Duncorabe; Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, Edward M. Munn. They 
adopted the following platform: 

Resolved, That we recognize our binding obli- 
gation to the constiluliou of the United Slates, 
as it now exists, without reference to the means 
by which the same became the supreme law of 
the land. 

2. That we will faithfully support the consti- 
tution of the United States, as it now exists, and 
that we demiind for il a strict construction so as 
to protect equally the rights of States aud indi- 

3. That we cherish the American system of 
State and local governments, and that we 





will forever defend the same against the central- 
ized federal power. 

4. That universal suffrage, having been estab- 
lished, should now be coupled with its twin 
measure, universal amnesty. 

5. That we denounce all riotous combinations 
and conspiracies against law, aud demand that 
the same be suppressed by the proper Stale 
authorities, and that the federal power ought not 
to intervene unless such intervention is de- 
manded by the State authorities. 

6. That the proposed anne.xation of the Do- 
minican republic meets with our earnest oppo- 
sition, partly on account of the character of the 
mougrel population, and that of their unfitness 
to become American citizens, but more especially 
on account of the corrupt motives in which that 
measure had its inception, and of the reprehen- 
sible means by which it was sought to be con- 

7. That while we have a tariff on imports, it 
must be regulated with an eye siusle to revenue, 
and not with a view to what is called protection, 
which is only another name for the legalized 
plundering of one industry to bestow favors 
upon another; and that the recent election to 
the United State's Senate, by the Legislature of 
Iowa, of a man wholly and openly committed to 
a protective tariff, demonstrates that the parly 
in power are in antagonism to the great agricul- 
tural interests of the State. 

8. That the profligate corruption and wanton 
extravagance which pervade every department of 
the federal government, the sacrifice of the inter- 
est of the laborer to aggrandize a handful of aris- 
tocrats, the wicked deprivation of the people of 
their rightful heritage to public lands, which have 
been made a gift to railroad and other monopo- 
lists, the payment of more than $;JO,000,000 prem- 
ium durihg the administration of President 
Grant on government bonds, payable at par, the 
maintenance, at an annual cost to the people of 
nearly $30,000,000, of an unconstitutional, op- 
pressive and extortionate system of banking, 
whereby money is made scarce and interest 
high, are abuses which call for wise and thor- 
ough remedies. 

9. That we are in favor of strict economy, of 
a large reduction in the expenditures of the 
federal and State governments, of civil service 
reform, of the collection of the internal revenue 
by State ahlliorities and return to honest labor 
the myriads of tax-gatherers who inflict our land 
and eat up its substance, and of the speedy trial, 
conviction and punishment of the thieves who 
have stolen the taxes paid by the people. 

10. That it is a fl:igrant outrage on the rights of 
the free laborers and mechanics of Iowa, that 
the labor of penitentiary convicts should be 
brought into conflict with theirs, and that it is 
the duty of the next Legislature to enact such 
laws as will certainly and effectually protect 
them from such unjust and ruinous competition. 

11. That section 2, article 8, of the constitu- 
tion of Iowa, which declares that "the property 
of all corporations for pecuniary profit shall be 
subject to taxation the same as that of individ- 
uals," should be rigidly and strictly enforced, 
and that by virtue thereof we demand that rail- 
roads and railroad property shall be taxed the 
same as the farmer and the mechanic are taxed, 
and we affirm the right of the people, by legis- 
lative enactment, to regulate and control all cor- 
porations doing business within the borders of 
the State. 

13. That with the watchword of reform we 
confidently go to the country; that we believe 
the interests of the great body of the people are 
the same; that without regard to the past political 
associations they are the friends of free govern- 
ment; that they are equally honest, brave and 
patriotic, and we appeal to them, as to our 
brothers and countrymen, to aid us to obtain 
relief from the grievous abuses which wrong 
and oppress every one except the wrong-doers 
and oppressors themselves. 

The Republicans met at DesMoines, 
June 2l8t, and placed the following ticket 
in nomination: Governor, C. C. Carpen- 
ter; Lieutenant-Governor, H. C. Bulls; 
Judge of Supreme Court, J. G. Day; Su- 
perintendent Public Instruction, Alonzo 

> "V 



Abernethy. The platform adopted by the 
convention was as follows: 

Resolved, That we refer with pride to the his- 
tory of the Republican party, ami congratulate 
the people of the country upon its successful 
career. It has given to the poor man a home- 
stead; it has abolished slavery and established 
manhood suffrage; crushed treason, and given 
us a continental railway; settled the doc'trine of 
the right of expatriation; maintained the honor, 
integrity and credit of the nation; has vindi 
cateil the Monroe doctrine by preventing foreign 
powers from interfering with the governments 
of this continent, and to perpetuate it in power 
is the only guaranty for peace and prosperity in 
the future. 

2. That we heartily congratulate the country 
upon the settlement of our vexed and dangerous 
controversies with the government of Great Brit- 
ain, and especially upon the just and Christian 
spirit and manner in which these controversies 
have been settled. 

3. That while we favor a just and reasonable 
degree of protection to all branches of American 
industry against foreign competition, we are 
unalterably opposed to any system of legislation 
which favors one section of the country or de- 
partment of industrial enterprise at the exnense 
of another, and therefore advocate such jirotec- 
tion only as a fairly adjusted revenue tariff will 

4. That wo are in favor of a uniform system 
of taxation, so that all property within the limits 
of the States, whether of individuals or corpo- 
rations, for pecuniary profit, shall bear its just 
share of the public burdens. 

5. That, believing that all corporations doing 
business within the limits of this State are right- 
fully subject to the control of the people, we are 
in favor of so providing, by proper legislative 
enactment, as to effectually prevent monopoly 
and extortion on the part of railroads and other 

6. That we are in favor of extending the 
blessings of civil and religious liberty to the 
human race everywhere, and therefore, when- 

ever it shall be made manifest that the people 
of San Domingo so desire annexation to the 
United States, for the purpose of enjoying the 
benetits which such relation would afford tliem, 
we shall favor the earnest and intelligent con- 
sideration of this question by the treaty-making 
power of the government. 

7. That, as agriculture is the basis of pros- 
perity of this State, we recognize its pre-emi- 
nent claims for support, by legislation or other- 
wise, as may be necessary to secure full devel- 
opment of our highly-favored Slate. 

8. That we are for such a modification of our 
revenue system as will, at as early a day as pos- 
sible, relieve the pressure of our internal reve- 
nue laws, and reduce, as far as praticable, ihe 
expenses of collecting the taxes. 

9. That we cordially approve and earnestly 
endorse the eminently wise, patriotic, and eco- 
nomical administration of President Grant, and 
heartily commend it to the favorable considera- 
tion t)f the country. 

10. That we are opposed to any system or 
plan of granting public lands to railroads or 
other corporations without ample provision be- 
ing made for securing their speedy sale at a 
moderate price, and occupancy, upon fair and 
liberal terms, to any and all who desire to pur- 
chase and settle upon them. 

11. That we are in favor of an economiral 
and judicious management of the affairs of the 
Slate, and,^ with this view, we endorse the 
present administration of the State govern- 

The official vote on Governor was as 

G. C. Carpenter, Rep 109,228^1,029 

J. C. Knapp, Dem 68. 199 

During Giant's first admiiilsiration new 
issues were funned, and a new movement 
sprung up, known as the f..eberal Republi- 
cans. This party placed in nomination 
Horace Greeley for President and B. Gratz 
Brown for Vice-President. The Demo- 
crats, meeting in convention shortly after 

^^ — ^ 

— « SiTw 



the nomination of Greeley, ratified the 
nomination and adopted the Liberal Re- 
publican platform. The disaffection was 
8o great among Democrats that Charles 
O'Connor was placed in nomination, as a 
regular Democrat, for the office of Presi- 
dent. Gen. Grant was re-nominated by 
the Republicans, with Henry Wilson for 
Vice-President. In Iowa the Democrats 
and Liberal Republicans met in convention 
August 1, 1872, at DesMoines, and agreed 
upon the following ticket, of wliich two 
candidates were Democrats and three 
Republicans: Secretary of State, Dr. 
E. A. Guilbert; Treasurer, M. S. Rohlfs; 
Auditor, J. P. Cassady; Attorney-Gent ral, 
A. G. Case; Register of State Land Office, 
Jacob Butler. The two conventioris also 
adopted the following platform: 

Resolved, That we approve of and endorse the 
actiun of the late Democratic convention at 
Baltimore, in placing in nomiaation Horace 
Gipeley for President and B. Gratz Brown for 
Vice-President, and we adopt its platform and 

2. Thiit in the State ticket this day presented 
by the joint action of the Democratic and Liberal 
State convt'utiuns, we recognize citizens of in- 
tegrity, worth and ability, whose eleclion would 
best subserve the interests of the State, and to 
whom we pledge our undivided and cordial 

The Republican convention met August 
21 and nominated, for Secretary of State, 
Josiah T.Young; Auditor, John Russell; 
Treasurer, Wm. Christy; Register of State 
Land Office, Aaron Brown; Attorney-Gen- 
eral, M. E. Cutts. The following platform 
was also adopted: 

The representatives of the Republican party 
of the State of Iowa, assembled in State conveu 
tion on the 21st day of August, A. D. 1873, 
declare their unceasing faith in the principles 

and platform adopted by the National Republi- 
can convention at Philadelphia, on the 6lh day 
of June. 1873, and witli honest pride refer to the 
history of the party in this State and nation, and 
anuounces an abiding faith in its present integ- 
rity and future supremacy. Under the control 
of this organization, a gigantic rebellion has 
been crushed, four millions of slaves not only 
released from bcmdage, but elevated to all the 
rights and duties of citizenship; freedom of 
speech has been secured, the national credit 
sustained; the taxes reduced, and the commer- 
cial interests of the whole country nurtured and 
protected, producing a condition of individual 
and national prosperity heretofore unequaled. 
So marked, decisive and unmistakable has been 
the judgment of the people of this country that 
the maintenance of the principles of the Repub- 
lican party are the only true guaranty of national 
prosperity and national security throughout the 
country; that at last the DCinocratic party have 
nominally abandoned the principles which they 
htve heretofore maintained, and announced 
their adhesion to the principles of the Republi- 
can party, and are endeavoring to steal into 
power by uominating recent Republicans. But 
with full confidence of our glorious triumph in 
the present campaign, both in this State and the 
nation, we hereby reiterate and re affli m the great 
principles that have governed and controlled the 
Republican party in the past, and pledge to the 
people their maintenance in the future. 

Resolved, That the nomination of our present 
able, earnest and incorruptible Chief Magistrate, 
Ulysses S. Grant, for re-election to the Piesl- 
dencyof the United States, and of Henry Wilson, 
of Massachusetts, for Vice-President, meets our 
unqualified and hearty approval. 

2. That we are in favor of the most rigid 
economy in the administration of the affairs of 
this State and the nation. 

3, That we are opposed to any legislation, 
State or national, that tends to unjustly dis- 
criminate between individual interest and that 
of corporations, believing that property, whether 
held by individuals or corporations, should bear 
their equal and just portion of the public bur- 


a i^ 



4. That we are opposed to all further giants 
of hind tonulioad or other corporations, and the 
public domain which is the common heritage of 
the peoide of this country should be sacredly 
held by the government for the use and benefit 
of actual and bona fide settlers. 

5. That we hereby endorse tfte recommenda- 
tion of General Grant, that emigrants be pro- 
tected by national legislation, and that all efforts 
on the part of the government of the State or 
nation to encourage emigration from foreign 
countries meet our approval; and we hereby 
commend the labors of the officers of the State 
in their efforts to encourage and secure emigra- 
tion to this State. 

6. That we cordially endorse the nominations 
made by this convention, and pledge to the 
nominees our hearty, active and earnest support. 

A " straight " Democratic convention 
was held at DesMoines, September 8th, 
which adopted the following platform, 
and placed in nomination a ticket: 

Resolved, That the coalition ef office hunters 
at Cincinnati and Baltimore, whereby Horace 
Greeley, a life long, mischievous and unchanged 
. Republican, was presented as Democratic candi- 
date for Presidency, merits the condemnation of 
every honest elector, and we repudiate the same 
on behalf of the unpurchasable Democracy of 
the Slate of Iowa. 

3. That, with Chas. O'Connor and the Louis- 
ville National Convention, we believe that 
Horace Greeley, above all other living Ameri- 
cans, is the recognized champion of the pernic- 
ious system of government. Intermeddling 
with those concerns of society which, under 
judicious laws of State enactment, should be 
left to individual action, and as such, he cannot 
consistently or safely receive the vote of any 

3. Witli the Louisville convention, we also 
believe that the priiKiples of the dual Republi- 
can party, one faction of which is led by Grant 
and the other by Greeley, are inimical to consti 
tutional free goveiument, and hostile to the fun- 
damental basis of our union of co-ordinate self- 

governing States, and that the policies of said 
dual party are in practice demoralizing to the 
public service, oppressive upon tlie laljor of the 
people, and subversive of the highest interests 
of the country. 

4. That we will act upon the advice of said 
convention, and for national regeneration will 
form political associations, independent of cither 
branch of said dual party, and nominate and sup- 
port, in the aiiproachingfall elections. State and 
district candidates who are in harmony with said 
convention, and who are opposed to all the prin- 
ciples, policies and practices of said dual party; 
that we heartily endorse all the proceedings of 
the Louisville national convention, and pledge 
to its nominees, Charles O'Connor and John 
Quincy Adams, our most cordial support. 

5. That the supposed availability of Horace 
Greeley, as a coalition candidate, upon which 
alone his name found any support, having 
already signally failed, it becomes the duty of 
the Baltimore delegates to formally withdraw 
from the lists a name which so manifestly fore- 
dooms the national Democratic party, with all 
its hopes and aspirations, to meritable and dis- 
honorable defeat. 

6. That the alacrity with which the Demo- 
cratic press of Iowa, with one honorable excep- 
tion, has championed the corrupt Greeley con- 
spiracy, presents the most scandalous defection 
in all our political history, amidst which the 
sturdy devotion to sound principle, exhibited by 
the Audubon county SerUinel and the Chicago 
Times, is especially gratifying, and we there- 
fore urge upon the Democracy of Iowa a deter- 
mined effort to give the Times and Sentinel an 
extensive circulation throughout the entire 
State, and such other reliable Diinocratic jour- 
nals as may be hereafter established. 

7. That it is the sentiment of this convention 
that we proceed to nominate a full O'Connor and 
Adams electoral ticket and substitute Demo- 
cratic names on the State ticket, where Kepub- 
licans have been placed in lieu thereof, and that 
we suggest that where Republicans have bten 
nominated tor Congress by the so called Demo- 
crats and Liberals in the seveial Congressional 




districts, that Democrats in favor of the Louis 
ville nominiitions be substituted in their stead 
by the several Congressional districts. 

The following State ticket was nomi- 
nated by the convention: Secretary of 
State, L. S. Parvin, who subsequently de- 
clined and Charles Baker was substituted; 
Trt'a.surer, D. B. Beers; Auditor, J. P. 
Cassady; Attorney-General, A. 6. Case; 
Register of Land Office, Dave Sheward. 
The following is the official vote on Sec- 
retary of State: 

J. T. Young, Rep 132,359-57,862 

E. A. Guilbert, Lib. andDem 74,497 

D. B. Beers, straight Dem 1,833 

Thj Republican State Convention for 
1873 met at DesMoiues, June 25, and 
nominated, for Governor, C. C. Carpenter; 
Lieutenant - Governor, Joseph Dysart; 
Judge of Supreme Court, J. M. Beck; 
Supt. of Public Instruction, Alonzo Aber- 
nethy. The following platform was 

The Republicans of Iowa, in mass convention 
assembled, make this declaration of principles: 
We hold the Republican party to be apolitical 
organization of those American citizens who are 
opposed to slavery in all its forms; who believe 
that all men are entitled to the same political 
and civil rights; who believe that all laws, State 
and national, should be made and administered 
so as to secure to all citizens, wherever born or 
whatever their color, creed, condition or occu- 
pation, the same rights before the law; who 
believe in free schools, free opinion and universal 
education; who believe that American society 
and the American people should all be raised 
to the highest possible plane of liberty, honesty, 
purity, intelligence and morality, and that all 
laws should be made and the government con- 
stantly administered with this aim in view, and 
thai uo parly has a right to supijort of the people 
which is not inspired with this purpose. Believ 
iug that the Republican party is still controlled 

by these principles, and that it is now, as it has 
been from its beginning, an organ iz,i.tion of the 
best anil purest political sentiment of the 
country, we, as Republicans, renew the expres- 
sion (if our devotion to it, and our belief that we 
can secure through it the political reform and 
the just and necessary measures of legislation, 
and of relief from monopolies and other abuses 
of power which the country so much needs; 

Resolved, That, proud as we are of most of the 
past record of the Republican party, we yet 
insist that it shall not rely upon its past achieve- 
ments; it must be a party of the present and of 
progress; and as it has preserved the Union, 
freed the slave and protected him from the 
op]3ression of the slave-master, it will now be 
direlict to its spirit and its duty if it does not 
protect all our people from all forms of oppres- 
sion, whether of monopolies, centralized capital, 
or whatsoever kind the oppression may be. 

2. That we insist upon the right and duty of 
the State to control every franchise of whatever 
kind it grants; and while we do not wish that 
any injustice shall be done to the individual or 
coi poration who invest capital in enterprises of 
this kind, we yet demand that no franchise shall 
be granted which is prejudicial to the public 
interests, or in which the rights and interests of 
the State and the people are not carefully and 
fully guarded. 

3. That the producing, commercial and in- 
dustrial interests of the country should have 
the best and cheapest modes of transportation 
possible; and while actual capital invested in 
such means of transit, whether by railroad or 
otherwise, should be perniitted the right of 
reasonable remuneration, an abuse in their man- 
agement, excessive rates, oppressive discrimina- 
tions against localities, persons or interests, 
should be corrected bj' law, and we demand con- 
gressional and legislative enactments that will 
control and regulate the railroads of the coun- 
try, and give to the people fair rates of trans- 
portation, and protect them against existing 

4. That we heartily applaud the active meas- 
ures of the late Congress, in ferreting out and 



exposing corruption. We have seen, ■with pro- 
found regret, in the developments made thereby, 
evidences of political and ofHcial corruption, 
and the abuse of responsible positions by men 
of all political parties, to further personal ends, 
and we demand pure official conduct and the 
punishment of unfaithful public men, who, 
having betrayed the confidence freely extended 
to them, shall not be shielded from the disgrace 
of their acts by any partisanship of ours, and 
we denounce all credit mobilier transactions and 
all ofHcial misconduct of whatever form. 

5 That we believe that whenever a person 
holding any position of trust given him by 
the people, is guilty of fr lud or embezzlement, 
he should be convicted and punished under the 
criminal laws of our land, in additiun to the re- 
covery from him or his bondsmen of the amount 
so embezzled. 

6. That the act of the majority of the mem- 
bers of the last Congress, in passing what is 
known as the back-pay steal, Uy which they 
voted into their pockets thousands of dollars 
which did not belong to them, as well as the act 
of those who voted against the same and yet re- 
ceived the money, is most flagrantly improper 
and infamous, and should secure the political 
condemnation of all who were party to it; and 
we demand that the provisions of the said act 
by which the salaries were increased, shall be 
promptly and unconditionally repealed. 

7. That we sympathize with every movement 
to secure for agriculture and labor their due in- 
fluence, interests and rights, and the Republican 
parly will be their ally in every just etlbrt to at- 
tain that end. 

8. That we are desirous of political reform, 
and for honesty, economy an ' purity in all offi 
cial administration; that to secure this is the 
duty -..f every citizen; that to this end every 
good man should feel bound to participate in 
politics, and to make an end to liad men forcing 
their election by securing a i)arty nomination, 
we declare it the duty of every Republican to 
oppose the election of a bad and incompetent 
candidate, whether he be a candidate upon our 
own or upon any other ticket. 

The question of monopolies began to 
agitate the people to a great extent at this 
time and the O|ipo8ition to Republicans 
united under the name of anti-monopolists. 
An Anti-Molopolist convention was held at 
Des Moines, August 12th, and the follow- 
ing ticket nominated Governor, Jacob 
G. Vale; Lieutenant-Governor, Fred. 
O'Donnell; Supreme Judge, B. J. Hall; 
Supt. of Public Instruction, D. M. Prindle. 
Tlie following platform was adopted at 
this convention: 

Whereas, Political parties are formed to 
meet public emergencies; and when they have 
discharged the duty which called them into 
being, they may become the means of abuse as 
gross as those they were organized to reform; 

Whereas, Both of the old political parties 
have discharged the obligations assumed at their 
organization, and being no longer potent as 
instruments for the reform of abuses which have 
grown up in them, therefore we deem it incon- 
sistent to attempt to accomplish a political reform 
by acting with and in such organization; there- 

Resolved, That we, in free convention, do 
declare, as' the basis of our future political 
action, — 

3. That all corporations are subject tb legisla- 
tive control; that those created by Congress 
should be restricted and controlled by Congress, 
and that those under State laws should be sub- 
ject to the control respectively of the Stale 
creating them; that such legislative control 
should be in expressed abrogation of the theory 
of the inalienable nature of chaiterid rights, and 
that it should be at all times so used as to 
prevent the moneyed- corporations from becom 
ing engines of oppression; that the property of 
all corporations should be assessed by the same 
officers, and taxed at the same rate as the pro- 
perty of individuals; that the Legislature of Iowa 
should, by law, fix maximum rates of freight to 
be charged by the railroads of the State, leaving 
them free to compete below the rates. 



3. Th;il we favor such modifloatiun of our 
banUiuir system as will cxlcnd its benefits to 
the whole people, and thus destroying all 
monopoly now enjoyed by a favored few. 

4. That we demand a general revision of the 
present tariflf laws that shall give us free salt, 
iron, lumber, and cotton and woolen fabrics, and 
reduce the whole system to a revenue basis only. 

5. That we will not knowingly nominate any 
bad man to ofl3oe, nor give place to persistent 
seekers therefor, but will freely seek for our- 
selves competent officers— as heretofore, politi- 
cal leaders have sought office for themselves— 
and that we will nominate only those known to 
be faithful and in sympathy with these declara- 
tions, and will, at the polls, repudiate any candi- 
date known to be unfit or incompetent. 

6. That we demand the repeal of the b;ick 
salary law, and the return to the United States 
treasury of all money received thereunder by 
members of the last Congress and of members 
of the present Congress. We demand a repeal 
of the law increasing salaries, and the fixing of a 
lower and more reasonable compensation for 
public officers, believing that until the public 
debt is paid and the public burden lightened, 
the salaries of our public servants should be 
more in proportion to the awards of labor in 
private life. 

7. That we are opposed to all future grants 
of land to railroads or other corporations, acd 
' elieve that the public domain should beheld 
sacred to actual settlers; and are in favor of a 
law by which each honorably discharged soldier 
or his heirs may use such discharge in any 
government land-office in full payment for a 
quarter-section of unappropriated public lands. 

8. That public officers who betray their 
pledges or trust are unworthy of renewed con- 
fidence, and those who criminally trifle with the 
public funds must be punished as criminals, 
regardless of their previous influence or the 
political importance of their bondsmen. 

9. That we are in favor of a strict construc- 
tion of our constitution by our Supreme and 
other courts, and are opposed to the exercise of 
the doubtful powers by judicial or other ofl5cers. 

10. That in the corrupt Tammany steal, the 
credit mobilier fraud, the congressional salary 
swindle and official embezzelements, and the 
hundreds of other combinations, steals, frauds, 
and swindles, by which Democratic and Repub- 
lican legislators, congressmen, and office-holders 
have enriched themselves, and defrauded the 
country and impoverished, the people, we find 
the necessity of independent action and the 
importance of united effort, and cordially invite 
men, of whatever calling, business, trade, or 
vocation, regardless of past political views, to 
join us in I'emoving the evils that .so seriously 
afliect us all. 

The vote was ligbt, and on Governor 
was as follows: 

C. C. Carpenter. Rep 10.5,1.32—24,112 

J. G. Vale, AntiM 81,020 

An Anti-Monopoly convention was held 
at De8Moine.s, June 23, 1874, which nom- 
inated the following ticket and adopted 
the following platform: Secretary, David 
Morgan; Auditor, J. M. King; Treasurer, 
J. W. Basner; Attorney-General, J. H. 
Keatley; Clerk of Supreme Court, Geo.W. 
Ball; Reporter of Supreme Court, J. M. 
Weart. The following is the platform: 

Besoltied, That we, the delegated representa- 
tives of the people of Iowa, favorable to the 
organization of an independent political party, 
laying aside past differences of opinion, and 
earnestly uniting in a common purpose to secure 
needful reforms in the administration of public 
afl'airs, cordially unite in submitting these decla- 

1. That all political power is inherent in the 
people; that no government is worthy of pre- 
servation or should be upheld which does not 
derive its power from the consent of the gov- 
erned, by equal and just laws; that the inesti- 
mable right of life, liberty and the pursuit of 
happiness should be secured to all men, without 
distinction of race, color or nativity; that the 
maintenance of these principles is essential to 
the prosperity of our republican institutions. 

li li^ 



and that to this end- the federal constitution, 
with all its amendments, the rights of the States, 
and the union of the States must and shall be 

3. That the maintenance inviolate of the 
rights of the States, and especinlly of the right 
of each State to uider and control its own 
domestic institutions according to its judg- 
ment exclusively, is essential to that b;il- 
ance of power on which the perfection and 
endurance of our political fabric depends; 
and that we denounce as a criminal excess of 
constitutional power the policy of President 
Grant's administration in fostering the enormi- 
ties perpetrated in certain States of the Union 
in arbitrarily interfering with their local affairs, 
in sustaining therein the usurpations of aliens 
and irresponsible adventurers, whereby certain 
men have been illegally invested with official 
authorit}', and others deprived of their constitu- 
tional rights, oppressive laws enacted, burden- 
some taxation imposed, and immense and ficti- 
tious indebtedness created, resulting in the 
degradation of those States, and the general 
impoverishment of their people. 

3. That the conduct of the present adminis- 
tration, in its bold defiance of public sentiment 
and disregard of the common good, in its prodi- 
gality and wasteful extravagance, in the innum- 
erable frauds perpetrated under its authority, in 
its disgraceful partiality for and rewards of un- 
worthy favorites, in its reckless and unstable 
financial policy, and in its total incapacity to 
meet the vital questions of the day, and provide 
for the general welfare, stands without a paral- 
lel in our national historyi and the highest con- 
siderations of duty require the American 
people, in the exercise of their inherent sover- 
eignty, to correct these accumulating evils, and 
bring the government back to its ancient land- 
marks, patiotism and economy. 

4. That the faith and credit of the nation 
must be maintained inviolate; that the public 
debt, of whatever kind, should be paid in strict 
accordance with the law under which it was 
contracted; that an over issue of paper money 
being at variance with the principles of a sound 
financial policy, the circulating medium should 

be based upon its redemption in specie at the 
earliest practicable day, and its convertibility 
into a specie equivalent at the will of the holder, 
and that, subject to these restrictions, it is the 
duty of Congress to so provide, by appropriate 
legislation, that the volume of our government 
currency shall at all times be adequate to the 
general business and commerce of the country, 
and equitably distributed among the several 

5. That tariffs and all other modes of taxa- 
tion should be imposed upon the basis of rev- 
enue alone, and be so adjusted as to yield the 
minimum amount required for the legitimate 
expenditure of the government, faithfully and 
economically administered, and that taxation to 
an extent necessary to the accumulation of a 
surplus revenue in the treasury, subjects the 
people to needless burdens and afl'ords a temp- 
tation to extravagance and oflicial corruption. 

6. That railroads and all other corporations 
for pecuniary profit should be rendered subser- 
vient to the public good; that we demand such 
constitutional and necessary legislation upon 
this subject, both State and national, as will 
eiTectually secure the industrial and producing 
interests of the country against all forms of 
corporate monopoly and extortion, and that the 
existing railroad legislation of this State should 
faithfully be enforced, until experience may 
have demonstrated the propriety and justice of 
its modification. 

7. That while demanding that railroads be 
subject to legislative control, we shall discoun- 
tenance any action on this subject calculated to 
retard the progress of railroad enterprise, or 
work injustice to those invaluable auxiliaries to 
commerce and civilization. 

8. That the limitation of the Presidency to 
one term, and the election of President, Vice 
President and United States Senators by a direct 
popular vole, and a thorough reform of our civil 
service to the end that capacity and fidelity be 
made the essential qualifications for election and 
appointment to office, are proposed reforms 
which meet our hearty endorsement. 

9. That we demand such a modification of 
the patent laws of the United States as shall 

^ «) 




destroy the monopoly now enjoyed by the man- 
ufacture of agricultural and other implements 
of industry. 

10. Thiit the personal liberty and social rights 
of the citizens should not be abridged or con- 
trolled by legislative enactment, except in so 
far as may be necessary to promote the peace 
and welfare of society. 

11. That holding in grateful remembrance 
the soldiers and sailors who fought our battles, 
and by whose heroism the nation was preserved, 
we insist that Congress shall equalize the boun- 
ties and grant to each one ot tliem, or to his 
widow and children, a homestead of one hun- 
dred and sixty acres of land from the unappro- 
priated domain of the country. 

12. That we desire hereafter to be known as 
the Independent party of Iowa, and recognizing 
the individual conscience of the voter as para- 
mount to the claims of the . party, ask the co- 
operation of those only to whom this declaration 
of princijjles and the candidates nominated 
by this convention may commend themselves 

The Republican couvention, which con- 
vened July Ist, at DesJVIoines, put in nom- 
ination for Secretary of State, Josiah T. 
Young; Treasurer of State, Wm. Christy; 
Auditor of State, Buren R. Sherman; Reg- 
ister of State Land Office, David Secoi; 
Attorney-General, M. C. Cults; Judge of 
Supreme Court, E. J. Holmes; Reporter of 
Supreme Court, John S. Runnells. The 
following is the Republican platform: 

We, the representatives of the Republican 
party of the State of Iowa, in convention assem- 
bled, do adopt the following platform of princi- 

Resolced, That as the policy of the Republi- 
can party in relation to finance, has allurded the 
people not only a safe, sound and popular cur- 
rency, of equal and uniform worth in every 
portion of our common country, but has like- 
wise greatly improved the credit of the country 
at home and abroad, we point with pride to its 
record and accomplishments in this regard. And 

while re-affirming the policy announced by the 
party in the national conventions of 1868 and 
1873, and triumphantly endorsed by the people 
at the polls — a policy which, while contributing 
to the public credit has also enhanced the indi- 
vidual and collective prosperity of the American 
people — we favor such legislation as shall make 
national banking free to all, under just and 
equal laws, based upon the policy of specie re- 
sumption at such time as is consistent with the 
material and industrial interests of the country, 
to the end that the volume of currency may be 
regulated by the national laws of trade. 

2. That we reaffirm the declaiation of the 
Republican national platform of 1872, in favor 
of the payment by the government of the United 
States of all its obligations in accordance with 
both the letter and the spirit of the laws under 
which such obligations were issued, and we de- 
clare that in the absence of any express provis- 
ion to the contrary, the obligations of the gov- 
ernment when issued and placed upon the mar- 
kets of the world, are payable in the world's 
currency, towit, specie. 

3. That under the constitution of the United 
States, Congress has power to regulate all "com- 
merce amongthe several States," whether carried 
on by railr ads or other means, and in the exer- 
cise of that power Congress may, and should, so 
legislate as to prohibit, under suitable ; enalties, 
extortion, unjust discrimination, and other 
wrong and unjust conduct on the part of per- 
sons or corporations engaged in such commerce; 
and, by virtue of the same constitutional power. 
Congress may and should provide for the im- 
provement of our great natural water-ways. 

4. That the State has the power, and it is its 
duty, to provide by law for the regulation and 
control of railway transportation within its own 
limits, and we demand that the law of this 
State passed for this purpose at the last session 
of the General Assembly shall be upheld and 
enforced until it shall be suiierseded by other 
legislation, or held unconstitutional by the 
proper judicial tribunal. 

5. That we feel bound to provide all appro- 
priate legislation for the full and equal protec- 



tion of all citizens, white or black, native or 
foreign born, in the enjoyment of all the rights 
guaranteed by the c institution of the United 
States and the amendments thereto. 

6. That the 137,000,000 reduction In the 
estimated general government expenses for the 
coming fiscal year meets our hearty commenda- 
tion, and shows tliat the Republican party on 
questions of retrenchment and economy is carry- 
ing out in good faith its oft repeated pledges to 
the people. 

7. That we are in favor of an amendment to 
the constitution of the United States, providing 
for the election of President and Vice-President 
by a direct vote of the people. 

8. That while inventors should be protected 
in their just rishts of property in their inven- 
tions, we demand such modifications of our 
patent laws as shall render the same more fair 
and equitable to consumers. 

9. That the faith of the Republican party is 
pledged to promote the best good of the civil 
service of the country, and that we, as Republi- 
cans of Iowa, demand that only honest and 
capable men be elected or apjioiuted to office, 
and that we commend the position of the party 
in instituting investigations of corruption in 
office, sparing therein neither friends nor foes. 

10. That since the people may be intrusted 
with all questions of govermental reform, we 
favor the final submission to the people of the 
question of amending the constitution so as to 
extend the rights of suffrage to women, pursuant 
to action of 15th General Assembly. 

On Secretary of State tlie vote stood: 

J. T. Young, Rep 107,243-28,183 

David Morgan, Dem 79,060 

For the campaign of 1875 the Democrats, 
Liberal Re|iublicaii» and Atili-Monoijolists 
met at Dcs Moines, June 24lh, and nom- 
inated a State ticket headed by Shepherd 
LcfliT for Governor; Lieutenant Governor, 
E. B. Woodward; Judge of Supreme Court, 
W. J. Knight; Supt. of Public Instruction, 

Isaiah Donane. The following platforn 
was then adopted: 

The Democrats, Libera! Republicans, and 
Anti Monopolistsof the State of Iowa, in delegate 
convention assembled, declare, as a basis of per- 
manent organizilion and united action, the 
following principles: 

1. A firm adherence to the doctrine of politi- 
cal government, as taught by .Jefferson, Madison, 
and other fathers of the republic. 

3. A stiict adherence to the constitution in 
all measures involving constitutional power. 

3. The supremacy of the Republican govero- 
ment within the sphere and reservation of the 
local authority of the constitution as opposed to 
the concentration of all powers in a strong cen- 
tralized govtrnment. 

4. Alisolule prohibition of military interfer- 
ence with the local State elections, and the 
peaceful assembling and organization of the 
State Legislatures, except in the manner clearly 
defined in the Constitution. 

5. Honesty in tlie administration of the 
public officers, and stiict economy in the public 

6. All officers to be held to a strict accounta- 
bility for the misuse of the public funds or for 
the prostitution of tUeir powers for private use. 

7. The preservation of all the rights of every 
citizen, without regard to race or color. 

8. The reservation of the public lands for the 
benefit of actual settlers, and opposition to any 
further grants to corporate monopolies for any 

9. The restoration of the Presidential salary 
to .|2ri,000. No third term. 

10. That we are n favor of the resumption of 
specie payment as soon as the same can be d me 
without injury to the business interests of the 
country, and maintain a sufficient supply of 
national cunency for business purposes; opposi- 
tion to present national banking law. 

11. A tariff on imports that will produce the 
largest amount of revenue, with the smallest 
amount of lax, and no imposition of duties for 



the benefit of manufactures at the- expense of 
agricultural interests 

13. We are in favor of the repeal of the present 
prohibitory liquor law, and the enactment, of a 
practical license law, sirictly enforced, as the 
best guard against, and the safest solution of, 
the evils of intemperance, 

13. That we are opposed to all legislation that 
restricts any citizen in his individual or social 
rights and privileges. 

With this declaration of principle and policy, 
in the language of our bnthren of Ohio, we 
arraign the leaders of the Republican party for 
their extravagant expenditure and profligate 
waste of the peopln's money, for their oppressive, 
unjust, and defective sj'stemof finance and taxa- 
tion; for their continued tyranny and cruelty to 
the Southern States of the Union, and their 
squandering of public lands, their cimtinuance 
of incompetent and corrupt men in the otfices 
at home and abroad, and for their general 
mismanagement of the government, and we cor- 
dially invite all men, without regard to past 
party association, to co-operate with us in 
removing them from power, and in securing 
such an administration of public affairs as char- 
acterized the purer and better days of the 

The Republican convention at Des- 
Moines placed in nomination for Governor, 
S. J. Kirkwood ; Lieutenant-Governor, 
Joshua G. Newbold; Judge of Supreme 
Court, Austin Adams ; Superintendent 
Public Instruction, Alonzo Abernethy. 
The convention also adopted the follow- 
ing platform: 

Resiilved, That we declare it a cardinal prin- 
ciple of the Republican faith that the republic 
is a nation, one and indissoluble, within which 
the constitutional rights of the States and of the 
people to local self-government must be faith- 
lully maintained. 

2. That we favor the early attainment of cur- 
rency convertible with coin, and therefore 
advocate the gradual resumption of specie pay- 
ments by continuous and steady steps. 

3. That we favor a tariff for revenue, so 
adjusted as to encourage home industry. 

4. That the earnest efforts of the government 
to collect the revenue, prevent and punish 
frauds, have our unqualified approval. 

5. We are opposed to further grants of land 
to railroads or other corporations, but we de- 
mand a reservation of public domain for settle- 
ment under the homestead laws, and for other 
bona fide settlers. 

6 We demand such a revision of the patent 
laws as will relieve industry from the oppression 
of monopolies in their administration. 

7. That we cordially approve the policy of 
the present administration in the settlement of 
difticulties between our.«elves and other nations, 
by arbitration, instead of appealing to arms. 

8. The Republican party of Iowa is opposed 
to a third term. 

9. We demand that all railway and other cor- 
porations shall be held in fair and just subjection 
to the law-making power. 

10. We stand by free education, our public 
school system, taxation of all for its support, 
and no division of the school fund. 

11. That our national and State administra- 
tion of public affairs have our hearty support. 

12. We cordially invite all who are opposed 
to the restoration of the Democratic party to 
power, to forget all past political differences, and 
unite with the Republican party in maintaining 
the cause of true reform. 

13. The persistent and tyrannical efforts of 
the enemies of the Union, by murder and intim- 
idation of the enfranchised citizens, and the 
ostracisms and proscriptions of the white Repub- 
licans of the South, tor the purpose of rendering 
null and void this amendment, merits the con- 
demnation of every honest man. 

14. That we heartily endorse the action of 
President Grant in enforcing the laws when 
called upon to do so by the proper authorities 
of the State. 

The Prohibitionists of the State met and 
nominated for Governor, Rev. John H. 




Lozier, and adopted the following plat- 
form : 

Whereas, The traffic in and use of intoxi 
eating liquors a8 a beverage, is tlie greatest evil 
of the present age; and, 

Whereas, The legal prohibition of said traffic 
and use of liquors Is the prime duly of those 
who frame and execute laws for the public wel- 
fare; and, 

Whereas, The existing political parlies, in 
their State platforms, have either ignored or re- 
pudiated the foregoing principles, the one de- 
claring for license, the other refusing to pass a 
resolution opposed to the repeal of the existing 
prohibitory law of our State; therefore. 

Resolved, That the temperance people of Iowa 
are, by this action of these political parties, 
forced to seek the promotion of their objects by 
such organizitiims and combinations as may 
prove most iffective for the success of the tem- 
perance cause, without reference to previous 
political affiliation. 

2. That we most cordially approve the policy 
of the present administration in the setllement 
of difficulties between ourselves and other na- 
tions, by arbitration, instead of appealing to 
arms; and also the efforts now being made to 
ciidify the international laws so that a World's 
Peace Congress may be established before which 
all iuternational difficulties may be adjusted, and 
thus •'nations learn war no more." 

3. That the desecration of the Christian Sab- 
bath by public amusement, such as target shoot- 
ing, dancing, theatrical performance, and kin- 
dred practices, together with ordinary business 
traffic, except by persons conscientiously ob- 
serving the seventh day of the week as a Sab- 
bath Clay, augurs evil to the public morals, and 
that the laws of our State, touching Sabbath 
desecrations, should be rigidly enforced. 

4. That we are in favor of maintaining our 
free school system at the expense of the whole 
people, and without the division of our school 
fund with any sectarian organization whatever, 
and in favor of such legislation as will secure 
the education of all children within our State in 

the element,ary branches of common school edu- 

5. That the doctrine of professed political 
parties ought to be, is, and shall continue to be, 
powerless to control men bound by their convic- 
tions to the mountain of great moral prin.iples, 
and we call upon all concerned in the promotion 
of public morals to promptly and earnestly re- 
buke the policy now inaugurated by such pro- 
fessed leaders, and to seek its overthrow. 

6. That we earnestly recommend that the 
temperance people of the several counties 
promptly form county organizatious, looking to 
the election of such Representatives in our Leg- 
islature, and such officers as will enact and en- 
force laws for the promotion of the foregoing 
principles, leaving the question of calling a con- 
vention for the nomination of State officers and 
of further organising to an executive committee 
to be elected by this convention. 

The vote on Governor was officially an- 
nounced as follows : 

S. J. Kirkwood, Rep 124,8-i5— 31,576 

S. Lefler, Dem 98,279 

J. H. Lozier, Pro 1,397 

The financial depression durinsr the sec- 
ond administration of Grant was such as 
to influence the formation of a new partj^ 
known as the Greenback party, or, as it 
was styled in national convention, the Na- 
tional Greenback Labor party. Peter 
Cooper was the candidate of this party for 
the Presidency, while the Republicans 
nominated Rutherford B. Hayes, and the 
Democrats Samuel J. Tilden. The Green- 
back men of Iowa held a convention May 
lOih, at DesMoines, and adopted the fol- 
lowing resolutions : 

Whereas, Labor is the basis of all our wealth, 
and capital cannot be accumulated except as the 
product of industry, or human life, given out in 
the daily labor of the toiling millions; an3, 

Whereas, Money is, in essence, only a certi- 
ficate of service rendered, and hence the solution 




of the financial question lies at the bottom of all 
true government, and is the paramount issue of 
the present campaign, in which the Democratic 
and Repuljlican leaders have failed to lake the 
side of the people; therefore, we, the citizens of 
Iowa, in mass conveniion assembled, do thus 
organize the Independent party of Iowa, and 
declare our faith in the following principles; 

1. That it is the duty of the government to 
establish a monetary system, based upim the 
faith and resources of the nation, in harmony 
with the genius of this government, and adapted 
to the demands of legitimate business. 

2. That we demand the immediate repeal of 
the specie resumption act of January 14, 1875, 
and that the circulating notes of our national 
and State banks, as well as the local currency, 
be withdrawn from circulation, and their place 
su|iplied by a uniform national currency, issued 
direct from the government, the same to be 
made a legal tender for all public and private 
debts, duties on imports not excepted, and inter- 
changeable at the option of the holder for bonds 
bearing a rate of interest not to exceed 3.65 per 
cent, per annum. 

3. We demand that the present bonded debt 
of the country be refunded as speedily as pos- 
sible into registered interchangeable bonds that 
shall bear interest at a low rate, not exceeding 
3 65 per cent, per annum. 

4 We are in favor of the repeal of the act 
of March 18, 1869, making greenbacks payable in 
coin, and making 5-20 bonds i)erpetual or pai'- 
able only in coin and thus unjustly discrimin- 
ating in favor of the money interest. 

A Greenback State ticket was nominated 
at a convention held September 20th, and 
these additional resolutions were adopted: 

1. We are in favor of the adoption of the 
platform of the Indianapolis National Conven- 

3. We recognize the rights of capital and its 
just protection; we condemn all special legisla- 
tion in its favor. 

3. We demand a reduction of official salaries, 
proportionate to the reduction of the profits on 

4. We demand a remonetization of silver. 

5. We demand the equality of the soldiers' 

6. We approve and endorse the nomination 
pf Peter Cooper for President, and Samuel F. 
Cary for Vice President of the United States. 

The following is the ticket nominated: 
Secretary of State, A. Macready; Auditor 
of State, Leonard Brown; Treasurer of 
State, Geo. C. Fry; Register State Land 
Office, Geo. M. Walker; Superintendent 
Pub. Instruction, Rev. J A. Nash; Supreihe 
Judges, Charles Negus, Oliver R. Jones. 

The Republicans placed in nomination 
the following, at a convention held in Des 
Moines: Secretary of Slate, Josiah T. 
Young; Auditor, Buren R. Sherman, 
Treasurer, Geo. W. Bemis; Register of 
Land Ofhce, David Secor; Supreme Judges, 
W. H. Seevers, J. 11. Rothrock; Attorney- 
General, J. F. McJunkin; Superintendent 
Public Instrtiction, 0. W. VonCoelln. At 
the same time they adopted as a platform 
the following: 

1. We are for maintaining the unity of the 
nation sacred and inviolable; for the just and 
equal rights of all men; for peace, harmony and 
brotherhood throughout the nation; for men of 
unsullied honesty, and purity of character and 
public trust, and for the swift pursuit and un- 
sparing punishment of all dishonest officials, 
high or low. 

2. That we are in faver of, and we demand, 
a rigid economy in the administration of the 
government, both State and national. 

3. That we favor a currency convertible with 
coin, and therefore advocate the gradual resump- 
tion of specie payment by continuous and speedy 
steps in that direction. 

4. That we demand that all railway and other 
corporations shall be held in fair and just sub- 
jection to the law making power. 

5. That we stand by free education, our 
school system, taxation of all for its support. 



and no diversion of the school fund from the 
public schools. 

6. That we cordially invite immigration from 
all civilized countries, guaiauteeing to emia;ninta 
the same political privileges and social and re- 
ligious freedom we ourselves enjoy, and favor- 
ing a free and uusectarian system of common 
schools for their children wilh ours. 

7. That in James G. Blaiue we recognize a 
pure Republican and patriot, and one well 
worthy to be chosen as the standard-bearer of 
the Republican party in the coming campaign. 

The Democrats, in convention at Des 
Moines, August 3utb, adopted the follow- 

Resolved, By the Liberal Democratic party of 
the State of Iowa, in convention assembled, ihat 
we adopt as our plalfuim of principles the reso- 
lutions and declarations of the National Con- 
vention at St. Louis, and earnestly approve the 
sentiments of the eminent statesmen of the 
party, Hon. Samuel J, Tilden and Thomas A. 
Hendricks, so ably presented in their letters of 
acceptance of the nominations at said conven- 

The following is the Democratic ticket: 
Secretary of State, J. II. Stubenrauch; 
Treasurer of State, W. Jones; Auditor of 
State, W. Growneweg; Register of State 
Land Office, H. C. Ridernour; Attorney- 
General, J. C. Cook; Judges of Supreme 
Court, W. I. Hayes, W. Graham. The 
vole on Secretary of State was as follows: 

J. T. Young, Rep 172,171 

J. H. SUibcnrauch, Dem 113,115 

A. Maoready, Gr 9,430 

Young's majority over all 50,620 

In the campaign of 1877 the Republi- 
cans met first in convention at Des 
Moines, June 28, where they nominated 
the following ticket: Governor, John H. 
Gear; Lieutenant - Governor, Frank T. 
Campbell; Supreme Judge, James G. Day; 

Supt. of Public Instruction, Carl W. Von 
Coelln. The following is the platform: 

Acting for the Republicans of Ljwa, by its 
authority and its name, this convention declares: 

1. The United States of America is a nation, 
and not a league, by the combined workings of 
the national and State governments under their 
respective institutions. The rights of every 
citizen shimld be secured at home and protected 
abroad, and the common welfare promoted. 
Any failure on the part of either national or 
State governments to use every possible consti- 
tutional power to afford ample protection to 
their citizens, both at home and abroad, is a 
criminal neglect of their highest duty. 

2. The Republican party has preserved the 
government in the commencement of the second 
century of the nation's existence, and its prin- 
ciples are embodied in the great truihs spoken 
at its cradle — thai all men are created as equals; 
that they are endowed by the Creator with cer- 
tain inalienable rights, among which are life, 
liberty and the pursuit of happiness; that for 
the attainment of these ends governments have 
been instituted among men deriving their justice 
from the consent of the governed, which con- 
sent is evidenced by a majority of the lawful 
suffrages of citizens, determined in the pursu- 
ance of the law. Until these truths are univers- 
ally recognized and carefully obeyed, the work 
of the Repul)lican party is unfinished, ahd the 
Re])ublican party of Iowa will stand by its colors 
and fight the good fight to the end. 

3. The permanent pacification of the southern 
section of the Union, and the complete protec- 
tion of all citizens in the free enjo^-menl of all 
their rights, is a duty to which the Republican 
parly stands sacredly pledged. The power to 
provide for the enforcement of the principles 
embodied in the recent constitutional amend- 
ments, is vested by these amendments in the 
constitution of the United Stales, and we declare 
it to be the solemn duly of the legislative and 
executive departments of the government to 
put in immediate and vigorous exercise all their 
powers for removing any just causes of discon- 
tent on the part of any class, and for securing 






to every American citizen complete liberty and 
exact equality in the exercise of the civil, polili- 
C!il and public rights. To this end we impera- 
tively demand of Congress and the Chief E.xccu 
tive a courage and fidelity to these duties which 
shall not faller until the results are placed 
beyond doubt or recall. 

4. That the public credit should be sacredly 
maintained, and all the obligations of the gov- 
ernment honestly discharged; and that we favor 
the early attainment of a currency convertible 
with coin, and therefore advocate the gradual 
resumption of specie payments by continuous 
and steady steps in that direction. 

5. That the silver dollar having been a legal 
unit of value from the foundation of the federal 
government until 1873, the laws under which its 
coinage was suspended should be repealed at the 
earliest possible day, and silver made, with 
gold a legal tender for the puymcntof all debts, 
both public and private. We also believe that 
the present volume of the currency should be 
maintained until the wants of trade and com- 
merce demand its further contraction, 

6. That the investment of capital in this 
State should be encouraged by wise and liberal 
legislation, but we condemn the policy of grant- 
ing subsidiec at public expense, either to indi- 
viJuals or corporations, loi their private use. 

7. That we demand the most rigid economy 
in all departments of the government, and that 
taxation be limited to the actual wants of public 

8. That we favor a wisely adjusted tariff for 

9. That we hold it to be a solemn obligation 
of the electors of Iowa to be earnest in securing 
the election to all positions of public trust of 
men of honesty and conscience; to administra- 
tive affairs, men who will faithfully administei 
the law; to legislative affairs, men who will 
rei^rescnt, upon all questions, the best sentiment 
of the people, and who will labor tariie.-tly for 
the enactment of .such laws as the best interests 
of society, temperance and good morals shall 

10. That we rejoice in the honorable name of 
Iowa, that we are proud of the State's achieve- 

ments, of the degree of purity with which its 
public affairs have been conducted, and the 
soundness of its credit at home and abroad. We 
pledge to do whatever may be done to preserve 
unsullied the State's reputation in these regards. 

The Greeubackers ■ met at DesMoines, 
July 12, and uoiuinated, for Governor, 
D. B. Siubbs; Lieutenant-Governor, A. 
Macready; Supreme Judge, John Porter; 
Supt. of Public Instruction, S. T. Ballard. 
The convention also adopted the following 
platform : 

Whereas, Throughout our entire country, 
labor, the creator of all wealth, is either uniui- 
plo^ed or denied its just reward, and all produc- 
tive interests are paralyzed; and. 

Whereas, These results have been brought 
about by class legislation, and the mismanage- 
ment of our national finances; and, 

Whereas, After generations of experience, 
we are forced to believe that nothing further 
can be hoped for through the old political 
parties; therefore we make the following dec- 
laration of principles: 

1. We demand the unconditional repeal of 
the specie resumption act of January 14, 1875, 
and the abandonment of the present siiicidal 
and destructive policy of contraction. 

2. We demand the abolition of national 
banks, and the issue of legal tender paper 
money, by the government, and made receiv- 
able tor all dues, public and private. 

3. We demand the remonetization of the 
silver dollar, and making it a full legal tender 
for the payment of all coin bonds of the govern- 
ment and for all other debts, public and private. 

4. We demand the equitable ia.\ation of all 
property, without favor or privilege. 

5. We commend every honest effort for the 
furtherance of civil service reform. 

6. We demand the repeal of all class legisla- 
tion and the enforcement of such wise and pro- 
gressive measures as shall secure equality of 
rights to all legitimate interests, and impartial 
justice to all persons. 



7. We demand a reduction of oflSces and sal- 
aries, to the end that there be less taxation. 

8. We demand that the Independents of Iowa 
sustain and endorse the principles of railroad 
legislative control, as expressed by the highest 
judicial authority, not as enemies of public 
enterprises, but as friends of the whole counti-y 
and of the people. 

9. We demand that all legal means be ex- 
hausted to eradicate the traffic in alcoholic 
beverages, and the abatement of the evil of 

10. We are opposed to all further subsidies 
by either the State or general government, for 
any and all purposes, either to individuals or 

11. We invite the considerate judgment of 
our fellow citizens; of ail political parties, upon 
these our principles and purposes, and solicit 
the co-operation of all men in the furtherance of 
them, as we do believe that upon their accept- 
ance or rejection by the people, the weal or woe 
of our beloved country depends. 

The Democracy met in convention this 
year at Mar.slialltown, and nominated the 
following ticket: Governor, John P. Irish; 
Lieutenant-Governor, W. C James; Su- 
preme Judge, H. G. Boardman; Superin- 
tendent of Public Iiislru tion, G. D. Culli- 
Bon. They also resolved — 

1. The Democracy of the State of Iowa in 
couventi JD assembled hereby declare in favor of 
a tariff for revenue, the only economic home 
rule, the supremacy of civil over military power, 
the separation of church and State, equulit3' of 
all citizens before the law, opposition to the 
granting by the general noverument of subsidies 
to any corporation whatever; and we believe, 

2. The destruction of the industry of the 
country and the paupeiism of labor are the in- 
evitable fruit of the vicious laws enacted by the 
Republican party. 

8. That as a means of relieving the distressed 
portions of the community, and removing the 
great stringency complained of in business cir- 

cles, we demand the immediate repeal of the 
specie resumption act. 

4. Thai we denounce as an outrage upon the 
rights of the people the enactment of the Re- 
publican mea.->ures demonetizing silver, and de- 
mand the passage of a law which shall restore to 
silver its monetary power. 

5. That we favor the retention of a green- 
back cuirency, and declare against any further 
coutr.iction, and favor the substitution of green- 
backs for national bank bills. 

6. We congratulate the country upon the ac- 
ceptance by the present administration of the 
constitutional and pacific policy of locU self- 
govtrnnient in the States of the South, so long 
advocated by the Democratic party, and which 
has brought peace and harmony to that section. 
And in reg.ud to the fu Ure financial policy, in 
the language of our national platform adopted 
in the New York convention, in 1868, we urge, 

7. Payment of the public debts of the United 
States as rapidly as practicable, — all the money 
drawn from the people by taxation, except so 
much as is requisite for the necessities of the 
government, economically administered, being 
honestly applied to such payment when due. 

8. The equal taxation of every species of 
property according to its value. 

9. One currency for the government and the 
people, the laborer and the ofiBce holder, the 
pensioner and the soldier, the producer and the 

10. The right of a State to regulate railroad 
corporations having been established by the 
higher court of the country, we now declare that 
this right must be exercised with due regard to 
justice, as there is no necessary antagonism be- 
tween the people and corporation, and the com- 
mon interests of both demand a speedy restora- 
tion of former friendly relations through just 
legislation on one side, and a cheerful submis- 
sion thereto on the otlier. 

11. Rights of capital and labor are equally 
sacred, and alike entitled to legal protection. 
They have no just cause of quarrel, and the 
proper relations to each other are adjustable by 

_( s 



national laws, and should not be tampered by 
legislative interference. 

13. That we favor a repeal of the present pro- 
hibitory liquor law of the State, and the enact- 
ment of a well-regulated license Liw instead, 
and all the money derived from license to go to 
the school fund of the State. 

A State Temperance or Prohibition con- 
vention assembled at Oskaloosa August 
30, and nominated Elias Jessup for Gov- 
ernor, and adopted, as a- platform, the fol- 
lowing : 

Whereas, Intemperance is the enemy of all 
— the drinker, the seller, the financier, the stales- 
man, the educator and the christian; therefore, 
be it 

Resolved, By the temperance peuple of the 
State of Iowa, that we hold these truths to be 
self-evident, and we do hereby declare them as 
the basis of our political action. 

2 We recognize intemperance as the great 
social, moral, financial and political evil of the 
present age; that it is not an incident of intelli- 
gence and retinemeut, but is one of the worst 
relics of barbarism; has produced the lowest and 
most degraded form of government; and there- 
fore should be overthrown by all republican 

3. We claim that all men are endowed by 
their Creator with the inalienable right of free- 
dom from the destructive efi'ects of intoxicating 
liquors, and the right to use all lawful and 
laudiable means to defend themselves and their 
neighbors against the traffic as a beverage within 
our State. 

4 That governments are instituted for the 
purpose of restraining and prohibiting the evil 
passions of men. and of promoting and protect- 
ing their best interests; and that, therefore, it 
is the duty of a government to use all its powers 
to make it as easy as possible for men to do 
right and as difficult as possible to do wrong. 

5. We believe that the prohibition of the 
traffic in intoxicating liquors is the only sound 
legislative theory upon which this vexed ques- 
tion can be solved and the nation saved from 
bankruptcy and demoralization. 

Therefore, we insist upon the maintenance 
and enforcement of our prohibitory law, and 
upon such amendments thereto as will place ale, 
wine, and beer under the same condemnation as 
other intoxicatmg liquors. 

6. That this great evil-has long since assumed 
a political form, and can never be eliminated 
from politics until our legislatures and courts 
accomplish its entire overthrow and destruction. 

7. We hereby declare that, since we believe 
prohibition to be the only sound legislative 
policy, and since law is only brought to bear 
upon society through its officers, legislative, 
judicial, and executive, we therefore can and 
will support only those men who are known to 
be tried and true temperance prohibitory men. 

8. We believe that in the security of home 
rests the security of State; that women is by her 
very nature the acknowledged guardian of this 
sacred shrine; that intemperance is its great:^st 
enemy; therefore we claim that the daughters of 
this commonwealth, as well as her sons, ought 
to be. allowed to say by their votes, what laws 
shall he made for the suppression of this evil, 
and what person shall execute the same. 

9. We believe the importation of intoxicat- 
ing liquors from foreign lands, and their protec- 
tion by the United States government, while in 
the hands of the importer, and inter-state com- 
merce in the same, cripple the power of Slate 
governments in enacting and enforcing such 
legislation as is and may be demanded by the 

The vote on Governor was as follows: 

JohnH. Gear, Rep 121,546 

D. P. Slubbs, Gr 38,228 

John P. Irish Dcm 79,853 

Elias Jessup, Temp .10,639 

Gear had a majority over Irish of 23,193, 
but the combined opposition vote was 
greater by 674. 

In 1878 the Greenbackers held the first 
State convention, assembling at Des 
Moines April 10th, and nominated for 
Secretary of State, E. M. Farnsworth; 


'1 ""V 



Treasurer, M. L. Devlin; Auditor, G. V. 
bwearenger; Treasurer, M. Farrington; 
Alloniey-General, General C. H. Jackson; 
Judgeof SupremeCourt, J G. Knapji; Cleik 
of Supreme Court, Alex. Runj'on; Reporter 
Supreme Court, Geo. W. Rutherford. They 
adopied the following platform: 

Whereas, Tbrougbout our entire cimuiry the 
value of real eslateis depreciated, industry para- 
lized, liiide dejiiessed, business income and 
w..ges reduced, unparalleled distress inflicted 
upon llic poorer and middle r.inks of our people, 
Ibe land tilled with fraud, embezzlement, liank- 
rupcy, Clime, sull'eriug, pauperism, aud starva- 
tion; and 

Whkheas, This state of things has been 
brought about by legislation in the interest of 
and dictated by money lenders, bankers, and 
bondholders; and, 

Whereas, The liiuiting of the legal tender 
quality of greenbacks, the changing of currency 
bonds into coin bonds, the demonetizing of the 
silver dollar, the exempting of bonds from taxa- 
tion, the contraction of the circulating medium, 
the proposed forced resumption of specie pay- 
ments, and the prodigal waste of the public 
lands, were crimes against the people, and so 
far as i)ussible the results of these criminal acts 
must be counteracted by judicious legislation. 

1 We demand the unconditional repeal of 
the specie resumption act of January 14th, 1875, 
and the abandonment of the present suicidal and 
destructive policy of contraction. 

2. We demand the abolition of national 
banks and the issue of a full legal tender paper 
money by the government, and receivable for 
all dues, public and private. 

3. We demand the remonctization of the 
silver dollar, making it a full legal tender for 
the paynientof all coin binds of the government, 
and for all other debts, public and private, and 
that the coinage of silver shall be placed on the 
same looting as that of the gold. 

4. Congress shall orovide said money ade- 
quate to the full emiiloyment of labor, the equit- 

able distribution of its products and the require- 
ments of business. 

5. We demand that Congress shall not, under 
liny circumstiinces, authorize the issuance of in- 
terest-bearing bonds of any kind or class. 

6. The adoption of an American monetary 
system, as proposed herein, will harnimize all 
difi'erences in regard to tariff and federal taxa- 
tion, distribute equitably the joint earnings of 
capital and labor, secure to the producers of 
wealth the results of their labor and skill, mus- 
ter out of servi; e the vast army of idlers, who, 
under the existing system, grow rich upon the 
earnings of others, that every man and womm 
may, by their own efforts, secure a competence, 
so that the overgrown fortunes and extreme 
poverty will be seldom found within the limits 
of our Republic. 

7. The Government should, by general enact- 
ment, encourage the development nf out agri- 
cultural, mineral, mechanical, manufacturing 
and commercial resources, to the end that labor 
may be fully and protitably employed, but no 
monopolies should be legalized. 

8. The public lands are the common property 
of the whole people, and should not be sold to 
speculators, nor granted to railroads or other 
corporations, but should be donated to actual 
settlers in limited quantities. 

9. It is inconsistent with the genius and 
spirit of popular government that any species 
of private or corporate pioperty should be ex- 
empt from bearing its just sliare of the public 

10. That, while the interests of the labor and 
pro.lucit'g classes throughout the nation are 
identical. North, South, Etist and West, and 
while it is an historic fact that the war of the 
rebellion was inaugurated in the interests of a 
class kindred to that which oppiesses us, there- 
fore we declare tliat the Government of the 
United States shall never pay any part or por- 
tion of what is known as the coufedirate or rebel 

11. We demand a constitutional amendment 
fixing the compensation of all State offirers, in- 



eluding members and employes of the General 


12. We demand a general reduction of all 
county and court expenses, with a reduction of 
otflcea, to lessen oppressive tuxes. 

13. We demand that all just and legal means 
shall be used for the evils of intemperance. 

14. We invite the considerate judgment of 
our fellow-citizens of all political parties upon 
these, our principles and purposes, and solicit 
the co-operation of all men in the furtherance of 
them, as we do believe that upon their accept- 
ance or rejection by the people, the weal or woe 
of our beloved country depends. 

The Democrats assembled in convention 
June 7th, and nominated the following 
ticket . Secretary of State, T. O. Walker; 
Auditciv, Col. Eiboeck; Treasurer, E. D. 
Fenn; Register of State Land Office, T. S. 
Bardwell; Judge of Supreme Court, Judge 
J. C. Knapp; Clerk of Supreme Court, M. 
V. Gannon; Reporter of Supreme Court, 
J. B. Elliott, Attorney-General, John Gib- 
bons. The convention adopted the fol- 
lowing platform : 

We, the Democracy of Iowa, in convention 
assembled, congratulate the country upon the 
restoration of home rule to the South and the 
era of peace brought about in response to the 
demands oi' the national Democracy, and make 
this declaration of principles: 

1. In favor of a tariff for revenue only; honest 
and economical home rule; the supremacy of 
civil over military power; the separation of the 
church and State; the equality of all citizens 
before the law; oppositicju to granting by the 
general government of subsidies to any corpora- 
tion whatever. 

2. We believe the financial system of the 
Republican party has been one of favor to the 
moneyed monopolies, of unequal taxation, of 
exemptions ofi class, and of a remorseless con- 
traction that has destroyed every enterprise 
which gave employment to labor, and therefore 
we denounce it, its measures and its men, as 

responsible for the financial distress, misery 
and want which now afflict the nation. 

3. Labor and capital have an equal demand 
upon and equal responsibility to the law. 

4. Public officials should be held to strict 
accountability, defaulters should be severely 
punished, and riot and disorder promptly sup- 

5. We deprecate the funding of our non-in- 
terest bearini; debt, and insist tliat our bonded 
debt be refunded at a rate of interest not ex- 
ceeding four per cent. 

6. We favor an equal recognition of gold, 
silver and United States notes in the discharge 
ol public and private obligations, except where 
otherwise provided by contract, and to the end 
that the same be secured, we favor the uncon- 
ditional rejieal of the resumption act, and the 
coinage of silver on equal conditions with gold. 
We oppose any further retirement of the United 
States notes now in circulation, and favor the 
substitution of United States treasury notes for 
national bank bills. 

7. We declare it as our opinion that it is the 
duty of the government to take immediate steps 
to improve our great Western rivers, and that 
the means provided should be commensurate 
with the importance and magnitude of the work. 

8. Thorough investigation into the election 
frauds of 1876 should be made, the frauds should 
be exposed, the truth vindicated, and the crimi- 
nals punished in accordance with law, wherever 

9 The management of our State institutions 
by Republican officials has been and is lotori- 
ously corrupt, and a disgrace to the people; we 
therefore demand a thorough investigation of 
the same, and tbe punishment of all parties who 
have betrayed their trust. 

Resolved, That we accept and re-affirm the doc- 
trine of Mr. Tilden upon tht war claims as a 
proper adjustment of the national policy con- 
cerning that class of claims upon the public 

The Republicans held their convention 
June 19, and nominated the following 

'C i 




ticket: Secretary of State, Capt. John 
A. T. Hull; Auditor, Maj. Buren K. 
Sherman; Treasurer, George W. Bemis; 
Register State Land Office, Lieut. James 
K. Powers; Judge of Supreme Court, Col. 
J. H. Rothrock They also adopted the 
following platform: 

1. That the United States of America is a 
nation, not a lengue. By the combined wmlc- 
ings of the national and State governments, 
under their respective constitutions, the right of 
every citizen should be secured at home and 
abroad, and the common welfare promoted. 
Any failure on the part of either the national or 
State governments to use every possible consti- 
tutional power to afford ample protection to 
their citizens, both at home and abroad, is a 
neglect of their highest duty. 

2. Against the assaults of traitors and rebels, 
the Republican party has preserved these gov- 
ernments, and thoy represent the great truths 
spoken to the world by the Doclaialion of Inde- 
pendence, that "all men are created equal;" 
that they "are endowed by their Creator with 
certain inalienable rights, among which are lite, 
liberly and the puisuit of happiness; that for 
the attainment of these ends, governments have 
been instituted among men, deriving just powers 
from the consent of the governed," which con- 
sent is evinced by a majority of the lawful 
suffrages of the citizens.detcrmined in pursuance 
of law; and in order that this end may be justly 
and fully reached, the Republican party of Iowa 
demands that every qualified elector in every 
Stale, North and South, Democrat or Republi- 
can, white or black, shall be permitted, un lis- 
turbed by force and uiiawed by fear, to vote at 
all elections at the jilace prescribed by law, and 
nowhere else, just once, and no more than once; 
and that every vote so cast sliall be honestly 
counted, and that every person chosen by such 
votes to any office shall be freely inducted into 
it, and effectively supported in the discharge of 
his duties; and every well informed person 
knows that with such freedom of elective action 
and honest administration as are herein de- 
manded, at least five of the Southern States are 

Republican by a large majority, and that they 
arc now in the hands of the Democratic party, 
solely through force, fraud, intimidalinn, and 
failure to enforce the principles herein set 

3. The permanent pacification of the southern 
section of the Union, and the complete protec- 
tion of all its citizens in all their civil, political, 
peisonal and property rights, is a duty to which 
the Republican parly stands sacredly pledged. 
In order to redeem this pledge, it placed the 
recent amendments in the constitution of the 
United States, and upon the righteous basis of 
said amendments it will go forward in the work • 
of pacification until peace shall come through 
right doing, and contentment through justice. 

4. The Democratic dogma of "home rule," 
which seeks to shut out from participation in 
the political affairs of the southern States all 
citizens who oppose the Democratic party and 
are not natives of said States, and i:. obedience 
to the spiiit lo which every man from the north, 
of republican senlimeuls, is termed a "car|iel- 
bagger," is hereby denounced as the worst phase 
of State rights yet developed, and we demand 
for the people of Iowa absolute freedom to go 
whithersoever they may please within the limits 
of the nation, to uttei' Iheir ^^entimeuts by speech 
or by press upon all suljjects toucliing their 
interests, and all matters of public concern. 

5. That the armed conflict between the 
traitors and the rebels who sought to destroy the 
republic, and the patriots wlio defended it, was 
more than a Iri: 1 of jihysical force between 
Greeks. It was a struggle of right against wrong, 
of a true civilization against a false one, of a 
good government against anarchy, of patriots 
against traitors, wherein the Republican party 
Was the defender of right, the cl.ampion of a 
true civilization, the promoter of good govern- 
ment, and in whose ranks patriots marched 
against traitors; and who ever fails to regard 
the Republican party from this standpoint and 
in this light, fails to comprehend its character, 
its achievements, its purposes, and its duties, 
and whoever treats with the Democratic party 
from any other standpoint, manifests incapacity 


to understand palpable facts, and will be ober- 
whelmed with disaster. 

6. That the soldiers who fought the battles 
of the republic are entitled to special credit for 
the heroism which they displayed, for their 
uusellish devotion to liberty and order, and fur 
the great fact that the war "turned out as it 
did;" and discredit, in like degree, attaches to 
the traitors and rebels who fought to destroy the 
nation. Whoever fails to apiircciate these facts, 
is derelict in the duly he ones to the party. 

7. Thit the Republican party is the party of 
order as opposed to all lawlessness in whatever 
quarter the same may arise, or in whatever foiin 
it may appear. 

8. That the wisdom of the financial policy of 
the Republican party is made manifest by its 
results. It has broU2;ht specie and paper practi- 
cally together mouths before the dale fixed by 
law for t.'.e resumption of specie payment by 
the gover.-.menl; ii has given to all classes money 
of the s^ame value; it has placed our nation on 
an equal footing with the other great nations of 
the world in all matters of financial couceru; it 
has promoted the refunding of the national debt 
at a low rale of interest; it has maintained the 
national ci edit; and any change in this policy 
which tends lo obstruct it in its work of restor 
ing specie payment, whereby paper currency 
becomes absolutely as valuable as gold and 
silver stand ird coin; of revivmg business, pro- 
moting industry, and maintaining the public 
credit, is hereby denounced as wholly evil and 
injurious to the best interest of the country. 

9. That the organized raid on Ihetreasury by 
the Southern Democratic members of Congress. 
for payment of hundreds of millions of dollars 
of rebel war claims, is an unparalleled impu- 
dence, and a present danger against the success 
of which the triumph of fie Republican party 
is our only security. 

10. That we favor a wisely adjused tariff for 

11. In the matter of the faithful administra 
tion of the public funds, the Republican parly 
challenges the closest scrutiny, and invites com- 
parison with any and all other agencies in pub- 

lic or private affairs. Notwithstanding the vast 
sums, amounting to thousands of millions of 
dollars, collected and distributed by Republican 
administration, the perceutige of loss is less 
than can be shown by any other political parly 
that has ever been entiuslcd with the control of 
public affairs, or by iudividuals in their own 
private business. This shows that the charge 
of corruption made against the Ri publican 
party is as grouudlessly impudent as was the 
attempt of the Southern Democracy to destroy 
the Union wantonly wicked and atrociously 

13. The title to the Presidential term was 
definitely and finally settled by the forty-fotirth 
Congress, and any attempt to open it is danger- 
ous, illegal, and unconstitutional, and the 
Republican party of Iowa will resist all efforts 
not founded on the constitution and the existing 
laws to displace the present posses-^or of said 
title, and it is a source of sincere congralulati-m 
that the firm attitude assumed by the Republi- 
can party of the country in this regard forced a 
majority of the House of Representatives to 
disavow the real but covert purposes of the so- 
called Potter investigation. 

13. That the eflotrs of the Democratic party in 
Congress to cripple and render inefficient the 
army and navy of the United States is most 
earnestly condemned, and all efloits looking to a 
permanent reduction of the same, with a view lo 
a future reorganization, whereby the official 
stations may be in whole or in part supplied by 
officers who engaged in rebellion against the 
nation, who hold to the doctrine of secession, 
and who acknowledge primary allegiance to a 
State, are hereby denounced as dangerous to the 
peace of the country and to the permanence of 
the Union. 

14. That it is not only the right, but the duty, 
of every good citizen at party caucus, in the 
party conventions, and at the polls, to use his 
best efforts to secure the nomination and elec- 
tion of good men to places of official trust, and 
we disapprove of all interference with the 
perfect freedom of action of any citizen in the 
exercise of said right and in the discharge of 
said dutv. 



15. Thai personal temperance is a most com- 
mendable virtue in a people, and the practical 
popular movement now active tlirougout the 
State, for the promotion of temperance, has our 
most profound respect, sympathy, and approval. 

16. That we demand the moat rigid economy 
in all departments of the public service, and 
rigid rttienchment in all public expenses in all 
possible directions, and the reduction of taxa- 
tion to the lowest limits consistent with efficient 
public service. In the direction of such economy 
and retrenchment, we heartly commend the 
action of the Republican legislature in reducing 
the expenses of the State in the sum of four hun- 
dred thousand dollars, and this example set by the 
State, should be followed in all other depart- 
ments of our government. 

17. That the Republican party of Iowa de- 
mauds an honest, faithful and i fflcient discharge 
of duty by all tfficers, whether federal. State, 
county or municipal, and requires a full, fair, 
and impartial and searching investigation into 
the official conduct of all officials and the busi- 
ness of all offlcers, without regard to party or 
personal association, and whenever or wherever 
fraud and dishonesty are discovered, the Repub- 
licans of Iowa demand the prompt punishment 
of the guilty parties. "Let no guilty mau es- 

A fusion tii^ket, composed of Green- 
backers and Democrats, was agreed on 
Sejiteinber 29th, as follows : Secretary of 
State, E. M. Farnsworth (Greenbac!<er); 
Auditor, Jos. Eiboeck (D. mocrat); Treas- 
urer, M L Devin (Greenbackei); Register 
of Land Office, M. Farrington (Green- 
backer); Judge of Supreme Court, Joseph 
C. Knapp (Democrat); Attorney-General, 
John Gibbons (Democrat); Clerk of Su- 
preme Court, Alex. Runyon (Greenback- 
er); Reporter of Supreme Court, John B. 
Elliott (Democrat). On Secretary of Slate 
the vote was as follows : 

J. A. T. Hull, Rep 134,544 

B. M. Farnsworth, Fusion 125,087 

T. O. Walker, Dem 1,303 

Hull, overall 8,055 

The Democrats held a convention May 
21, 1879, at Council Bluffs, and nominated 
the following State ticket: Governor, H. 
H. Trimble; Lieutenant-Governor, J. Y. 
Yeomans; Judge of Supreme Court, Reu- 
ben Noble; Siipt. of Public Instruction, 
Erwin Baker. The platform adopted by 
the convention is here given : 

Resolved, That the Democratic party now, as 
in the past, insists that om' liberties depend upon 
the strict construction and observance of the 
constitution of the United States and all its 

2. That the States and the general govern- 
ment should be sternly restrained to I heir respi c- 
tive spheres, aud to the exercise only of the 
poweis granted and reserved by the constitution. 

3. That the policy of the Republican party, . 
by which it inflates the importance of the Slates 
when necessary to cover the theft of the Presi 
dency, and in turn magnifies the functions of 
the general government to cover the coercion of 
the States into the endorsement of the partisan 
will of the fraudulent executive, is full of evil 
aud fruitful of danger. 

4. That such a policy is intended to array 
section against section, the States against the 
general government, and it ag;iinst the Stales in 
turn, for the purpose of destroying the freedom 
of both, and teaching the people to look to a 
strong government as a shelter from the anarchy 
its advocates have planned. 

5. That evidences of these nefarious pur- 
poses is furnished by the present attitude of the 
Republican party, which is arrayed against a 
free ballot, on which depend all the liberties se- 
cured to us by the constitution. 

6. That we view with alarm the determina- 
tion of the Republican party, through the fraud- 
ulent executive, to deprive this repuldic of its 
army, so necessary to the defence of its frontier, 
and its protection from foreign and domestic 
enemies, by vetoing appropriations for the pay 




and support of our euldiers, unless they can be 
used to force voters to record the mere will of 
the executive. 

7. That we hail the Democratie Senators and 

Representatives in Congress riS worthy the hero- 
ic lineage of American citizens, for standing 
firmly for the American idea in government as 
against the despotic theory from which our rev- 
oluliouary falhets revolted, and we ask all lovers 
of liberty to join us and them in a protest against 
the change in our form of government proposed 
by the Republican party, which will substitute 
the will of one man for that of the majority of 
all the people. 

8. That we are in favor of the substitution 
of United Slates treasury notes for national 
bank notes, and of the abolition of national 
banks as banks of issue; that the government of 
the Uiiitcd States issue the money for the people; 
and, fuitlur, that we favor a reduction of the 
bonded debt of the United States as fast as prac- 
ticable, and the application of the idle money in 
the treasury to that purpose. 

9. That we favor the free and unlimited coin- 
age of the silver dollar of 412)-2 grains, and pro- 
viding certificates for silver bullion which may 
be deposited in the United Sta'es treasury, the 
same to be legal tender for all purposes. 

10. That we favor a tarifE for revenue only. 

11. That we are in favor of economy in pub- 
lic expenditures, including reduction of salaries 
local and general wherever they may be deemed 
excessive; and also a reduction in the number of 

12. That the Democratic party of Iowa is de- 
sirous of promoting temperance, and, being op- 
posed to free whisky, it is in fav >rof a judicious 
license law. 

13. That we favor holding all public servants 
to a strict accountability, and their prompt and 
severe punishment for all thefts of public money 
and maladministration ot public office. 

A Temperance convention was held at 
Cedar Ripids? June 16th, and adopted the 
following platform : 

Eeaoloed, We recognize the traffic in intoxicat- 
ing liquors as the great moral, financial, social, 
and political evil of the present age; that it is 
one of the worst relics of barbarism; that it has 
always been the moving cause of crime, and is, 
therefore, subversive of our republican form of 
government, and should be overthrown. 

3. We believe that the prohibiliun of the 
traffic of intoxicating liquors is tbe only sound 
legislative theory upon which this vexed ques- 
tion can be solved and the nation saved from 
baukrupcy and demoralization; therefore, we 
insist upon the maintenance and enforcement of 
our prohibitory liquor law, and upon such 
amendments by the next Legi^ilature of the State 
of Iowa as will place ale, wine, and beer under 
the same condemnation as other intoxicating 

3. We believe that in the security of home 
rests the security of the State; that woman is by 
her very nature the acknowledged gu irdian of 
this Sacred shrine, and that intemperance is 
its greatest enemy, therefore we claim that the 
daughteis of this commonwealth, as well as her 
sons, be allowed to say.iby their vote, what laws 
should be made for the suppression of tliisevil, 
and what persons shall execute the same. 

4. That the present movement inaugurated 
by the temperance organizations of the State to 
prohibit the manufacture and sale of alcoholic 
liquors, except for mechanical and medical pur- 
poses, including malt and wine liquors, meets 
our active support. 

5. That we, as the Prohibitionists of the 
State of Iowa, in view of the great questions of 
public interest eflfecting the perpetuity of our 
general government, which are now absorbing 
the thought and action of all our people, deem 
it inexpedient and unwise to nominate a State 
prohibitory ticket at the present time. 

A portion of the convention in favor of 
the nomination of a State ticket seceded, 
and nominated a State ticket, headed by 
G. T. Carpenter for Governor. Mr Car- 
penter declining, D. R. Dungan was substi- 
tuted. The rest of the ticket was composed 





as follows: Lituleiiant-Governor, Frank 
T. Campbell; Judge of the Supreme Court, 
J. M. Beck;Supt. of Public Instruction, 
J. A. Nash. 

The Greenbackers assembled at Des 
Moines May 28tb, and nominated a ticket 
as follows: Governor, Daniel Campbell; 
Lieutenant-Governor, M. M. Moore; Su- 
preme Judge, M. H. Jones; Supt. of Pub- 
lic Instruciiou, J. A. Nash. The follow- 
ing platform was adopted: 

Whereas, The sovereign and supreme power 
of the American Union is vested in the free will 
of the citizens thereof, who have au equal and 
unqueslioii:ible right to express that will as to 
them stems best adapted to secure the peace, 
perpetuate the liberty, and promote the pros 
perity of each individual, as well as to enhance 
and protect the common welfare of our country; 

Whekeas, This power has been delegated to 
unworthy servants, who have diverted it from 
its original purpose, whereby grievous wrongs 
have been perpetrated on the masses of the 
people, subjccling them to gross injustice, 
widespread poverty, untold privations, and 
business paralyzation; and, 

Whereas, These grievances have been greatly 
augumented by limiting the legal-tender quality 
of the greenbacks; by loaning the credit of the 
government to national bank corporations; by 
changing trovernment bonds into coin bonds, 
and making the same exclusively payable in 
gold, by the conversion of a non-interest bearing 
circuliiting medium into an interest bearing 
government debt; by defrauding labor of employ- 
ment; by the ruinous shrinkage in the value of 
property; by the depression of busiiies.s;by the 
willful restrictions placed upon the remonetiza- 
tion of the silver dollar; by the exemption of 
capital from its just share of the burden of taxa- 
tion; by the contraction of the greenback cur- 
rency; by the forced resumption of specie pay- 
ment; by the increase iu the purchasing power 
of money, and its attendant hardships on the 
debtor class; by declaring poverty a crime, and 

providing punishment therefor; by the criminal 
waste of the public domain, through enormous 
grants of land to rai'road corporations; by 
oppressive taxation; by high rates of interest for 
the useof money; by exorbitant salaries and fees 
to i)ublic officeis; by official corruption in the 
adiuinistration of public affairs; and, 

Wheheas, a moneyed despotism has grown 
up in our land out of this state of affairs, which 
con trols the law-making power of our country, 
dictates judicial decisions, wields an undue 
influence over the chief executive of the nation 
— in the consideration of the laws passed for the 
benefit of the people, thus enabling the money 
power to carry on its schemes of public plundtr, 
under and by which colossal fortunes have been 
gathered in the hands of the ambitious and un- 
crupulous men whose interests are at war with 
the interests of the people, hostile to popular 
government, and deaf to the demands of honest 
toil; therefore, we, the representatives of the 
Union Greenback Labor Party of Iowa, adopt 
the following as our platform of princip'es: 

1. The general government alone to issue 
money; the amount in circulation to be fixed by 
a coustitulional amendment upon a, per capita 
basis; culling in of all United Slates bonds, and 
the payment of them in full legal tender money. 

2. That the national banks, as banks of issue, 
must be abolished by law, and the legal tender 
greenback money of the government of the 
United States shall be substituted for their cir- 

3. That we demand the unlimited coinage of 
the silver dollar of the present standard weight 
and fineness. 

4. That the American people owe a debt of 
gratitude to the Union soldiers that can never 
be fully paid, and iu recognition of their patri- 
otic services we endorse the arrear.iges of pen- 
sions, and favor the passage of a bill providing 
for the equalization of bounties similar to the 
one vetoed by es-Presjdent Grant. 

5. That we view with grave apprehension 
the continued oppres;,i.)n of the people by cor- 
porate powers; and while we execrate the inhu- 
man treatment of the Union soldiers iu prison 







pens of the South during the rebellion, we con- 
demn the violence of partisan spirit in the legisla- 
tive halls of Congress, which seeks to revive the 
dead issue of the past while conspiring agiiinst 
and deliberately refusing to provide measures of 
relief adequate to the living necessities of the 

6. That it is the right and duty of all qualified 
electors of any State n the Union to vote accord- 
ing to their conscientious convictions, and to 
have that vote honestly and fairly counted; and 
that any attempt to interfere with that right, 
either by threats of bands of armed men or the 
use of troops at the polls, or by fraud in con- 
ducting the election, or bribery in making out 
the returns, or by threats to dismiss from service, 
or any other means by which that right is 
abridged, is a crime that should be severely 

7. That the office-holders of our country are 
the servants and not the masters of the people, 
and that these officers should be removed and 
punished to the full extent of the law whenever 
they betray the public trust confided to them; 
and we demand that all official fees and salaries, 
commencing with the President, should be re- 
duced from twenty-five to tifty per cent.; and 
we furlhcr demand the strictest economy in the 
administration of our courts of justice, and in 
all other federal and State officers. 

8. That we highly commend the moral re- 
form of men and the elevation of families by 
agencies of the temperance cause, and demand 
the use of all just and legal means for the sup- 
pression of the evils of intemperance. 

9. That all real estate be assessed to the 
owner, and the tax thereon be paid by him, pro- 
vided, that in case there is a mortgage or ven- 
dor's lien upon the land, and he pays the whole 
tax, that he may deduct, as payment on said 
lien, the pro rata share of the tax. 

10. That the revenue law of the State shall 
be amended so that the penalty or interest on 
the sale of delinquent taxes should not exceed 
the sum of ten per cent, per annum, and that the 
time of redemption shall be extended to a teim 
of five years. 

11. We favor the repeal of the present rail- 
road commissioners' law, and the adoption of a 
suitable legislative action to reduce and equalize 

12. That the prison convict labor shall never 
come in competition with free labor, by the 
contract system, under any name. 

Reaolvedy That we approve the bold and inde- 
pendent stand taken by our Greenb ick repre- 
sentatives in Congress; and we especially endorse 
the conduct of Me-srs. Weaver and Gillette in 
their conduct with the combined opposition of 
both old parties. 

2. That the nominees of this convention are 
the candidates of the Greenback party of Iowa, 
and in no case will we recognize the right of any 
person or persons to alter or change the ticket 
here nominated, except to fill vacancies occa- 
sioned by death, in which case the central com- 
mittee shall not place on the ticket the names 
of any person or persons who are identified with 
either of the old parties. 

The Republicans assembled at Des 
Moines, June 11, and nominated the fol- 
lowing ticket: Governor, John H. Gear; 
Lieutenant-Goveroor, Frank T. Campbell; 
Supreme Judge, J. M. Beck; Suj»t. of 
Public Instruction, C. W. Von Coelln. 
A platform was adopted as follows: 

1. That the United States of America is a 
nation, not a league. This is the doctrine of the 
constitution, confirmed by the result of the war 
of the rebellion. The Democratic party denies 
this, and opposes to it the doctrine of State 
rights, which includes the power of a State to 
dissolve its connection with the Union, therefore 
it is dangerous to the national life to trust it to 
the Democratic party. 

2. Upon the foregoing doctrine of nationality 
depends the power of the republic to protect its 
citizens in all other rights, both at home and 
abroad, and from its denial by the Democratic 
party have resulted the barbarous outrages per- 
petrated on citizens in all of the disturbed sec- 
tions of the Southern States, and redress can be 





had aloue through the administration of public 
affairs in the several departments of the govern- 
meat by the Republican party. 

3. We denounce the attempt of the Demo- 
cratic party in Congress to render the federal 
elections insecure by the repeal of the election 
laws of the United States as d;ingerous to a free 
and pure expression of the voice of the people 
through the ballot-box, and as tending to subject 
said elections to the dominations of the bull- 
dozing elements of the Southern States, and of 
repeaters and promoters of fraud in the city of 
New York and elsewhere, and the resistence 
made to the accomplishment of this result by 
the Republican Senators and Representolives in 
Congress, and by President Hayes in his veto 
messages, is accorded our profound commenda- 

4. That we approve of the financial policy of 
the Republican party, and refer with pride to its 
results. The Southern Democratic rebellion for 
the perpetuation of slavery and the enforcement 
of State lights forced an enormous interest- 
bearing debt upon the people, which, in August, 
1865, reached its highest point, and then 
amounted to |2,381,53U,294.96, requiring an an- 
nual interest payment of $150,977,697.87. On 
the 1st of August next, when the Republican 
refunding opeialions will be completed, this 
Democratic debt will be reduced to $1,797,643,- 
700.00, with an annual interest charge of but 
$83,778,777.50, showing a reduction in the prin- 
cipal of $583,880. .591. 96, and of the annual 
interest charge of $57,203,619.37; and we declare 
this debt shall be honestly paid in honest money, 
and to this end are in favor of keeping our coin 
circulation at its largest practicable volume, and 
of maintaining our paper currency where the 
Republican party has placed It — at par with 
coin; and to the further end that the dollar 
earned by labor shall be worth as much as the 
dollar earned by capital. 

5. Concerning further financial legislation, 
we say, let us have peace, undisturbed by Con- 
gressional tinkering, that our business interests 
may revive, investments of luore idle capital be 
encouraged, commercial interests fostered, and 
the general welfare promoted. 

6. The profit arising from the coinage of gold 
and silver should inure to the benefits of the 
government, and not to the advantaire of private 
owners of bullion, as this tends to diminish the 
burdens of the tax-l)ayer8, and no part of the 
tax-paying currency should be converted into 
the new tax-paying list. 

7. We favor a wisely-adjusted tariff for rev- 

8. We demand a strict economy in the impo- 
sition of public taxes and expenditures of pub- 
lic money, and such just reduction and equali- 
zation of the salaries and fees of public officers 
as shall place them on an equality with like po- 
sitions in private employment. 

9. That we renew our expression of profound 
gratitude to the soldiers and snilor.sof the Union, 
and denounce the removal of employees of this 
class by the Democrats in Congress, and the ap- 
pointment, in their stead, of members of the 
Confederate army. 

10. That we re-affirm the position of the Re- 
publican party heretofore expressed upon the 
subject of temperance and pn hibition. 

Tbe vote on Governor was as follows : 

John H. Gear, Rep 1.57, 57t 

H. H. Trimble. Dem 85,0.58 

F T. Campbell. Qr 45.433 

D. R. Dungan, Temp 3,2.58 

Gear, over all 23,828 

The campaign of 1 880 was an exciting 
one. James A. Garfield wa.s the Repub- 
lican candidate for the Presidency; Win- 
field S. Hancock, the Democratic; J.imcs 
B Weaver, the Greenback; Neal Dow, the 
Prohibition. The Republicans of Iowa 
were first in the field this year, meeting in 
convention at DesMoines April 7'h, and 
nominating for Secretary of State, J. A. T. 
Hull; Treasurer, E. 11. Conger; Amlitor, 
W. V. liUcas; Attorney-General, Smith 
McPherson; Register of State Land Office, 
J. K. Powers. They also resolved — 

1. That we insist on the nomination of well- 
known Republicans of national reputation for 



ability, pufity and experience in public affairs, 
and adhesion to Republican princif les, for Pres- 
ident and Vice-President of the United States, 
by the National Republican Convention. 

2. That, as Republicans of Iowa, recognizing 
in the Hon. James G. Blaine a man of tried in- 
tegrity, of unconipromisiug loyalty and patriot- 
ism, of commanding ability both as a leader and 
statesman, and a fearless advocate of the prin- 
ciples which have preserved the Union and given 
undying luster to the party of which he is the 
admired representative, we take pleasure in re- 
cording the fact that he is the preference of the 
Republicans of Iowa for the office of President 
of the United States. And while we pledge our- 
selves to support the nominee of the Chicago 
convention, we nevertheless declare it is our 
conviction that no other candidate will develop 
the enthusiasm or call out the number of votes 
that would be polled by the American people 
for James G. Blaine, as the standard-bearer of 
the Republican party in the national contest of 

3. That the delegation of this convention to 
Chicago be instructed to cast the vote of Iowa 
as a unit; and that the delegation be further in- 
structed to use all honorable means to secure 
the nomination for President of the Hon. James 
G. Blaine. 

The Greeuback party assembled in con- 
vention May 19th, at Des Moines and 
nominated Secretary of State, G. M. Wal- 
ker; Treasurer of Slate, Matthew Farring- 
ton; Auditor of State, G. V. Swearengen; 
Attorney-General, W. A. Spurrier; Register 
of State Land-Office, Thos. Hooker. The 
following is the platform adopted : 

We, the National Greenback Labor Party of 
Iowa, decide, as our first broad principle of 
faith, that that which is created is subservient 
to the power that created it. 

Resolved, That all currency, whether metallic 
or paper, necessary for use and convenience of 
the people, should be issued and controlled by 
the government, and not by or through the bank 
corporations of the country; and when so issued 

shall be a full legal tender for the payments of 
all debts, public and private. 

2. That so much of the interest bearing debt 
of the United States as shall become redeemable 
in the year 1881, or prior thereto, being in 
amount 1783,01)0,000, shall not be refunded 
beyond the power of the government to call in 
said obligations and pay them at any time, but 
shall be paid as rapidly as possible, and accord- 
ing to contract. To enable the government to 
meet these obligations, the mints of the United 
States should be operated to their full capacity 
in the coinage of standard silver dollars, and 
such other coinage as the business of the country 
maj require. 

3. That as the producing classes are now 
enslaved by interest-bearing debt, therefore we 
are unalterably opposed to all bonded indebted- 

4. That the payment of the bond in coin, 
originally payable in lawful money, was a gift 
to the bond-holder, and the payment of the 
soldiers in paper, when by contract payable in 
coin, was and is an unjust discrimination in 
favor of the bondholder; therefore, we dimand, 
in justice to the soldier, that he be paid accord- 
ing to contract. 

5. That we are opposed to the importation of 
Chinese semi-barbarous labor, regarding it as a 
paralyzing and degrading system, that will, 
unless checked, undermine American free labor 

6. That we demand the immediate passage 
by Congress of a law for the equalization of 
soldiers' bounties similar to the one vetoed by 

President Grant 

7. That the right of suffrage, free press and 
speech, are the inalienable rights of every citi- 
zen of the United States. 

8. That we denounce the discrimination 
between government clerks and government 
laborers, the cleiks working six hours and the 
laborers ten hours. 

9. That we are opposed to a large standing 
army, either national or State, in times of pro- 
found peace, eating out the substance of the 



10. That we will continue to figitate the sub- 
ject of reform in this State, until official salaries 
shall bear a just proportion to the incomes of 
the jieople wlio pay them. 

11. That the last legislature of our State, in 
failing to pass the innocent purchaser bill, the 
bill to re "uce court expenses, the bill to protect 
the destruction of sheep from the ravages of 
flogs, the bill to cut down our tax penalties, the 
bill to reduce the rate of interest, have neglected 
the best interests of the State, and ought to be 
turned ought of power. 

12. That the State should not sell contract 
labor to compete with free labor. 

13. That as citizens of Iowa we feel proud of, 
and extend our heartfelt gratitude to Messrs. 
Weaver and Gillette, for their noble and untir- 
ing eflTorts in the halls of Congress to secure the 
rights of the worthy toiling millions. 

14. That we, as the National Greenback Labor 
Party, know no North, no South, no East, no 

15. That all banks of issue and all monopolies 
must go. 

The Democrats met at Des Moines, Sep- 
tember 2d, and nominated a ticket as fol- 
lows: For Secretary of State, A. B. Keith; 
Treasurer, Martin Bhm; Auditor, Chas. I. 
Barker; Attorney-General, C. A. Clark; 
Register of State Land-Office, C. A. 
Dougherty. They also resolved: 

1. We, the Democracy of Iowa, in delegate 
convention assembled, endorse the platform of 
the party adopted at Cincinnati, and pledge 
our earnest eft'orts in its behalf. 

2. The Democracy of Iowa are heartily in 
favor of the national nominees, Hancock and 
English, as they give a decided assurance of 
pure and more thoroughly careful admislration 
of national iiffairs. 

3. We are in favor of a judicious license law, 
and condemn all efforts to legislate against 
those natural rights which do not trespass upon 
those belonging to the whole community, and 
we applaud the action of our representatives at 

DesMoines in the Eighteenth General Assembly 
for their manly and able opposition to the at- 
tempt at sumptuary legislation made by a Re- 
publican legislature. 

Tlie vote on Secretary of State stood as 

S. A. T. Hull, Rep .181.106 

A B. Keith, Dem 10."), 700 

G. M. Walker, Gr 3'.;, 780 

Scattering 422 

Hull over all 4.5,204 

In the campaign of 1881, the first con- 
vention held was by the Democrats, at 
Des.Moines, June 16. They nominated 
for Governor, L. G. Kinne; Lieutenant- 
Governor, J. M. Walker; Judge of Su- 
preme Court, H. B. Hendershott; Supt. of 
Public luslruction, W. H. Butler. The 
conventioa adopted the following plat- 

The Democratic party of Iowa, in convention 
assembled, re-affirm the national platforms of 
1876 and 1880, demand strict economy in all 
public expenditures, a strict accountability of 
all public servants, and declares — 

1. For tarifE reform, ultimating in simpler 
revenue system, with commercial freedom as its 

2. That we oppose all sumptuary laws, and 
the proposed prohibitory amendment to the 
constitution in all it steps and stages as the most 
offensive form of sumptuary regulation. 

8. That the great agricultural and producinii 
interests of ihe country should be emancipated 
from the burdens of monopoly put upon them 
by Republican rule, and as a feature of such 
relief, for the cheapening of transportation by 
government appropriations for improvement of 
the Mississi|>pi river, its navigable tributaries 
and other water-ways. 

4. That we execrate the constant official cor- 
ruption grown into Republican practice, and 
that the demand of our national platform for 
civil service reform is freshly emphasized by the 
immoral spectacle of Republican factions dis- 






tuibing the public peace, not by the agitation of 

great measures of statesmanship, but by a vulgar 
quarrel over the partition of public spoils, and a 
squabble for the opportunities of ofBcial theft. 

The Greenback convention was held at 
Marshalkown, June 2, and the following 
ticket nominated: Governor, D. M.Clark; 
Lieutenant-Governor, James M. Holland; 
Supt. of Public Instruction, Mrs. A. M. 
Swain; Supreme Judge, W. W. William- 
son. The following platform was adopted 
by the convention: 

1. The right to make and issue money is a 
sovereign constitutional power to be maintained 
by the people for the coramon benefit. We de- 
mand the abolition of all banks of issue, and 
the substitution of full legal tender greenbacks 
in lieu of their notes. 

2. We oppose the refunding of the national 
debt or the issue of interest-bearing non-payable 
bonds upon any pretext, and demand the pay- 
ment and destruction of those outstanding at 
the earliest possible moment. 

3. We demand a gradual income tax, where- 
by capital shall bear a just share of the public 

4. We regard the act substituting a railroad 
commission for laws governing freight rates in 
the State as a fraud secured by the railroad 
companies through a Republican legislature, and 
demand its repeal. While we favor liberal na- 
tional appropriations for the creation and im- 
provement of waterways, we demand laws 
protecting the people of Iowa from discrimina- 
tion, pooling, watering of stock, drawbacks or 
rebates, and all unjust charges on the part of 
railroads, until such time as the people, who 
built most of these roads with land grants, 
taxes and subsidies, shall own and operate or 
fully control them. 

5. We demand a revision of our patent right 
laws, placing a fair limit upon the royalties of 
inventors, and protecting the people from injus- 

6. We demand that all land grants forfeited 
by reason of the non-fulfillment of conditions by 

railroad com|ianies shall be at once reclaimed 
by the government, and henceforth that the 
public domain be reserved exclusively for 
homesteaders or actual settlers. 

7. We demand absolutely Democratic rules 
for the government of Congress and State legis- 
latures, placing all representatives of the people 
upon an equal footing, and taking from all com- 
mittees a veto power upon proposed legislation 

8. We denounce as most dangerous the re- 
strictions of the right of suffrage in many 
States, and its abolition in the District of Col- 
umbia, and demand equal political rights for all 
men and women. 

9. Believing that all questions affecting the 
public interest sliould be decided by the people, 
we favor the submission of the proposed consti- 
tutional amendment to the popular vote. 

10. We demand that all ballots in this State 
shall be of uniform .size, color and material, and 
that each party having a State oiganization 
shall have one member on the election board of 
each township precinct. 

11. We favor the abolition of the electoral 
college, and the election of President, Vice- 
President and Senators of the United States by 
a direct vote of the people. 

12. In the furtherance of these ends, we ask 
the co-operation of all men and women, without 
regard to previous party affiliation or prejudice. 

The Republicans met at DesMoines, 
Jane 7, and nominated the following 
ticket: Governor, Buren R. Sherman; 
Lieutenant-Governor, Orlando H. Man- 
ning; Supt. of Public Instruction, John 
W Akers; Judge of Supreme Court, 
Austin Adams. The convention also 
adopted the following platform: 

We, the representatives of the Republican 
party of Iowa, demand anew of the people of 
the State their fullest confidence and support, 
because of the faithfulness of the party, in the 
State and in the nation, to party pledges; be- 
cause of the marvelous devotion it has shown in 
support of the Union; because of its abhorrence 

»? <S' 




of slavery and polygamy, and of its successful 
efforts to crush the one, and of its persistent 
struggle to get rid of the other, sure to go on to 
its tinal extirpation; because of its active inter- 
est in the relief of struggling and oppressed 
humanity everywhere; because of its determin- 
ation to abolish all inequ;ilities of citizenship, to 
give all men of all races and nationalities in this 
land equality of civil and political rights; be- 
cause of its efforts to establish temperance, to 
educate tlie people and buildup all moral forces; 
because it has been earnest in its efforts toward 
honest and economical government, and has 
been swift to correct abuses when it has discov- 
ered them; because it has steadily maintained 
the financial honor of the nation, is rapidly dis- 
charging its great war debt, and has made the 
recent financial history of the government the 
marvel of nations; because it has protected the 
labor of the country, and built up its agricultu- 
ral and manufacturing interests, and promoted 
the means of internal commerce by judicial leg- 
islation; because it is positive and progressive, 
and will, in the future, as in the past, prove its 
capacity to grapple promptly and successfully 
with every emergency of the nation, and with 
every question afi'ecting the people's interests; 
and, finally, because it will secure a complete 
and lasting unification of the country, entire 
peace and concord, upon the statute basis of 
free schools, free speech, a free press and a free 

In the spirit of the purpose that has redeemed 
former pledges and produced these results, the 
Republican party of Iowa resolves — 

1. We re-affirm the Republican national plat- 
form of 1880, and insist upon its enforcement in 
its relation to the several affairs of the nation, 
the States and the Territories, in order that 
sound policies shall pievail in the nation, and 
ample protection be afforded toils citizens in all 
of their rights of citizenship in the several 
States; and that the territories be made as abso- 
lutely free from the debasing presence and per- 
nicious influences of polygamy as the States 
now are of slavery. 

2. We congratulate this country upon the 
election of Janjes A. Garfield, and the national 

adminstration upon the vigorous manner in 
which it has undertaken' to ferret out fraud and 
suppress extravagance in public expenditures, to 
secure the personal and commercial rights of 
our people abroad, to deal justly with the Indian 
wards of the government, and upon the con- 
spicuous success of its financial policy. 

3. That we are in hearty sympathy with the 
spirit of recent conventions for supplementing 
and improving the great water routes of the 
nation, and cordially endorse all measures which 
look toward a practical andjadicious improve- 
meutof the magnificent water-ways which nature 
has afforded us for cheaply transporting the 
immense commerce of the States, and therefore 
developing the immense resources of the interior 
of our national domain. 

4. That we recognize railways as one of the 
most potent agencies in our national progre.-s, 
but one which by reason of its relation to the 
people, must be kept subordinate to the intere.sts 
of the people, and within the legislative control 
of Congress and the State. That in the spirit of 
its usefulness, it must be dealt with in fairness 
and without injustice. But we are in accord 
with the popular demand, that the unquestion- 
able legislative power shall be used to protect 
the people from any abuse and unjust exactions. 

5. That the plenary power of Congress over 
the subject of patent, should be so exercised as to 
protect the people against the wrongs and abuses 
which have been developed and are practiced 
under the present system of laws relating to 
patent rights, and we ask our senators and repre- 
sentatives in Congress, to lend their best efforts 
to the accomplishment of this end. 

6. That the position attained in our com- 
merce by American meats and live animals, 
demand the enactment of effective legislation 
by both the nation and the States, for the sup- 
pression of such diseases as are calculated to 
interfere with this important feature of our 
foreign trade. 

7. That in pursuance of the uniform justice 
of the Republican party to observe the pledges 
and perform the promises made and given in its 
platform, we declare that the provisions in the 

<a k^ 

_-« ® 




platform of 1879, for the submission of 
tlie so-ealled prohibitory amendment of the con- 
stitution of Iowa, to a vote of the people at a 
special and non-partisan election should be 
enforced, in order that the good faith of the 
party may be maintained, and that the people 

in this government of the people, by the people, 
and for the people, may have an opportunity to 
express their wishes concerning the pending 
amendment, regardless of party affiliations, and 
nith perfect freedom from all party restraint 
and influences. 



In the limited space of this State his- 
tory, sketches of the various Territorial 
and State officers cannot be given, though 
they would be of great interest. It is 
thought best, however, to insert sketches 
of the three Territorial Governors. These 
have been prepared by Hon. Samuel Mur- 
dock, of Clayton county, a gentleman than 
whom none are better qualified for the 

Robert Lucas. 

In the spring of 1832 the celebrated 
Indian Chief, Black Hawk, in violation of 
the treaty of St. Louis in 1804, which he 
himself had ratified fn 1816, and again 
partially ratified in 1831, started with his 
band, composing a part of the Sac and 
Fox Indians, ascended Rock River to a 
considerable distance, where he took up a 
strong military position. 

Gen. Atkinson, with a large number of 
United States troops and volunteers from 

the surrounding country, immediately pur- 
sued him, with the intention of forcing the 
cunning chief either to retire or give him 
battle. And in compliance with this reso- 
lution, he dispatched forward Major Still- 
man, with three or four hundred volunteers, 
to reconoitre the position of Black Hawk. 
But Stillraan had before him a "Warrior 
tred;" a man who had been born and 
cradled upon the battle-field; one who had 
followed his father through many a hard- 
fought battle with the Cherokees; one 
who had stood shoulder to shoulder with 
Tecumseh at Brownstown and the Thames; 
one who, by experience, understood both 
the tactics of the white man and the 
Indian; one who had mingled in the strife 
and carnage of every desperate and bloody 
battle along the whole western border for 
nearly half a century before. As soon as 
he heard that Stillman was approaching 
his camp, he made preparations to meet 
him, and in doing this he planned and 
accomplished one of the greatest and most 




skillful military stratagems known to 
modern times. 

Stillraan, underrating the character of 
the man before him, rushed, with his 
whole force, into the very jaws of death; 
his troops were thrown into the worst 
kind of disorder, and fell around him dead 
and dying over the field. 

Bravely did Stillman attempt to rally 
his men and bring them into order, which 
he came very near doing; but the eagle 
eye of an old warrior was looking over 
that field, and just at the moment when 
the tide of battle seemed to hang in a 
balance, this brave old warrior puts him- 
self at the head of a chosen number of his 
gallant braves, and with a yell that sent a 
thrill through many a bold and daring 
heart, rushed to the charge, dealing death 
and destruction in his way. 

Stillman ordered his men to fall back, 
but all was now utter confusion, and the 
retreat became a perfect rout. Thus, sir, 
commenced the short and bloody "Black 
Hawk War," a war in which few laurels 
were won, and nothing found to admire 
save the daring bravery of the savage 
commander. It is not my purpose to fol- 
low it further; its history is a history of 
the most disgraceful outrages and vile 
treacheries on the part of the Americans; 
and but for the noble conduct of the gal- 
lant Dodge connected with it, ought to be 
blotted forever from the recollections of 
American history. 

The war ended by the cai)ture of "Black 
Hawk" through the treachery of the Win- 
nebagos; and a treaty was concluded 
with him on the 2l8t of September, 1832, 
at Rock Island, by which he ceded to the 
United States a large tract of land, west 

of the Mississippi, which became known 
as the "Black Hawk Purchase." This 
war had its imporiant effects in the his- 
tory of the Great West; it brought into 
notice the rich valley of the Rnck river; 
it laid open to view the wealth and treas- 
ures locked up for past ages in the lead 
mines of Wisconsin; it opened to the view 
of the emigrant a rich and fertile valley, 
lying between the Mississippi on one side 
and the Missouri on the other; and long 
before the stipulations of the treaty of 
1832 could be carried out, thousands 
rushed pell mell into the new land, ming- 
ling savage and civilized life together. 

The National Legislature has never yet 
been able to keep up in making the neces- 
sary laws for their protection, with the 
great tide of civilization, as it rolls on- 
ward, year after year, upon the heels of 
retreating savages. 

On the 20th of April, 1836, Congress 
passed a law for the organization of the 
Territory of Wisconsin, by the provisions 
of which the northern boundary of Wis- 
consin extended west in a zigzag direction 
from a point opposite the main channel of 
Green Bay through Lake Superior, touch- 
ing the White Earth river, thence down 
said river to the main channel of the Mis- 
souri, thence down the Missouri to a point 
due west from the northwest corner of the 
State of Missouri, etc.; thus, you see, in- 
cluding within the boumls of Wisconsin 
all the lands and tenitoiy which now 
compose the great Slates of Iowa and 
Minnesota. It was soon evident that tliis 
arrangement could not last long; Young 
America had crossed the Mississippi, and 
had left a natural boundary behind him; 
stretching his eyes three hundred miles 

a. V 

(2 i^ 



west, his vision rested upon another, and 
with this in view, he demanded a separa- 
tion, whicn no Congress at that time dared 
to refuse. 

On the 13th day of June, 1838, Congress 
passed an act organizing the Territory of 
Iowa into a separate and distinct govern- 
ment. This was the era of many a dar- 
ling project on tlie part of Young Amer- 
ica, which he has since carried out to per- 
fection and success; wliile at the same 
time it became the era of many a '-bubble 
bursted" in the shape of fallen cities and 
deserted capitols. Cassville, below you, 
was once, in expectancy, a proud metropo- 
lis, and the seat of a more than Chinese 
Empire. The act took effect from and 
after the 3d day of July of that year, with 
all the requisites of a separate and inde- 
pendent existence. 

Robert Lucas, of Ohio, the person whose 
name heads this article, was appointed by 
Mr. VanBuren, her first Governor, in con- 
nection with Willian B. Conway, of Penn- 
sylvania, Secretary 

Governor Lucas, at the time of his 
appointment, was quite an old man, and 
far advanced in the decline of life; he had 
spent his best days in the service of his 
country. His youth was spent amid the 
strife and storms of a cruel and desperate 
border war. He was engaged in almost 
every battle from the Huron to the Thames. 
He had mingled personally in almost 
every skirmish on the frontier during the 
war of 1812, and his history was full of 
romantic adventures, hair-breadth escapes, 
and bold and daring encounters. He had 
seen the Great West territory pass from 
a howling wilderness, and become the 
abode of millions of freemen who could 

cultivate their own vine and fig tree, wor- 
ship at their own shrine, with none to fear 
or make them afraid. He had seen Ohio 
a despondency, a little colony, struggling 
for existence, with almost her entire male 
population drafted for a border war, and 
he left her for Iowa, the third among a 
confederation of States, the greatest, the 
most powerful, and at the same time the 
most proud and glorious republic the 
world ever saw. 

He commenced his public career in 
Ohio in her infancy; he assisted, by his 
valor and courage, to drive back the mur- 
derous foe who hung upon the borders to 
glut his vengeance on the innocent child 
at its mother's breast. And not until the 
Indian had buried the tomahawk, and 
England had ceased to desolate her fron- 
tiers, did he quit his post and return to 
enjoy himself in the peaceful avocations 
of private life. He mingled in her halls 
and in her councils, and his name con- 
nected with almost every public act of that 
great State, which gave her prosperity and 
greatness; and as a tribute to his worth 
and a reward for his services, she conferred 
upon him, in his declining years, the ofhce 
of Governor. 

It was soon after his term of ofBce ex- 
pired in Ohio that he received from the 
President the Governorship of Iowa. 

It was during his term of office as Gov- 
ernor of Ohio that the dispute arose 
between that State and the territory of 
Michigan, in relation to their respective 
boundaries, which came very near plung- 
ing both of them into a cruel, desperate 
and fratricidal war. The matter was set- 
tled, finally, by giving Ohio all she claimed; 
and in order to keep the youngest child of 

- a 

<S k— 



tbe Republic in tliese days from being 
naughty, she was given a strip of poor 
territory, two hundred and fifty miles 
from her, and north and west of the main 
channel of Green Bay. 

He commenced his career in Iowa with 
all the bouyancy of youth and better days, 
and looked forward with a great deal of 
interest to the day when he should see her 
a proud and noble State. 

Scarcely had he time to look around 
him and gather information, in his new 
field of labor, before he found himself 
involved in another question of boundry, 
between Iowa and the State of Missouri. 
Missouri had set up a claim to a strip of 
country about six miles wide extending 
along the south line of our whole State; 
and on this strip of land she had several 
times attempted to collect taxes and en- 
force her laws. 

The settlers resisted these claims of 
Missouri, and appealed to the Governor 
for protection. No sooner was their case 
made known to him than he resolved to 
call forth all the military force he could 
procure, and for this purpose he issued 
his proclamation. Hundreds responded 
to his call, and in a short time he had col- 
lected here and there through the territory 
a set of men who only wanted a nod from 
their commander, and they would have 
thrown themselves against odds into the 
very heart of Missouri. Gov. Boggs,. of 
Missouri, had also called on his State for 
assistance, and he, too, was on his march 
with a desperate set of men to assert his 
claim. Had those two forces have met, 
nothing could have prevented a dreadful 
and fatal encounter. 

But wise councils prevailed, and the 
legislature of Iowa, to its everlasting 
credit, drew up and passed a preamble and 
resolutions requesting both Governors to 
suspend hostilities until the first day of 
July thereafter. These resolutions had 
the desired effect; military preparations 
were suspended by both parties, and an- 
other cruel and fratricidal war averted. 

The matter was afterwards submitted to 
Congress, where, through the influence of 
A. C. Dodge, with his uncle, Dr. Linn, 
who was at that time a Senator in Congress 
from Missouri ; the matter was finally 
settled by giving to Iowa all she ever 

Thus ended the celebrated "Missouri 
war," a war whose history is full of fun 
and anecdote, a war which has since fur- 
nished the theme for many an idle, but 
interesting romance; and a war which will 
only be remembered in machine verse and 
burlesque song; for 

"Missouri shall many a day" 
"Tell of the l)loody fray" 
"When the Hawkeyes and Pukies" 
"First met on her border." 

Governor Lucas never forgot the inci- 
dents of this war during his life; and long 
after the ditficulties hp.d passed away, he 
never could talk about it without flying 
into a passion at the conduct of Missouri. 
He cherished a holy haired for the land of 
"Pukes" during his lifetime. 

Not long after the diflSoulties with Mis- 
souri were settled, he got into a desperate 
quarrel with the legislature, and for a time, 
everything about the capital wore a bel- 
ligerant aspect It- will be recollected 
that at that time the legislature was filled 
exclusively by young men; "mere boys," 




as it was said of tbem at the time, and a 
higher set of fellows than they were, 
could scarcely be found They looked 
upon Iowa aa their own and each of them 
looked himself as the future Senator, 
Governor, or chief justice of a future 
State, which he himself was at that time 
laboring to bring about; and the history of 
occurring events will show, that with a 
large number of them, their early antici- 
pations turned out to be true; and with 
those who are still in obscurity, but yet in 
the prime of life, abrightand happy future 
is still before them. The Governor was an 
old man, and, as they thought, tinctured 
somewhat with "Foggyism," and they did 
not hesitate to declare that he was here for 
the office, and for the office alone, and that 
as soon as his term expired, be would 
return again to Ohio, as all Governors of 
new Territories have generally done. 
What wonder, then, that between such 
elements, there should, in the course of 
events spring up a collision. 

The Governor attempted from time to 
time, to check these young law-makers in 
their public expenditures, and did not 
hesitate to call them a set of proflligates. 
In retaliation for these acts on the part of 
the Governor, the legislature appointed a 
committee, consistingof James W. Grimes, 
since United States Senator, Chauncy S\van> 
who subsequently died at sea on his return 
from California, and Laurel Summers, 
afterwards United States Marshal for Iowa, 
to inquire into his power, and define his 
duties. This committee after due delibera- 
tion, gravely reported to the legislature, 
that the Governor had full power and 
authority to vote all acts of the legislature, 
of every kind, name and description, except 

acts for the appropriation of money, and 
then asked to be discharged from the fur- 
ther consideration of the subject. But 
the maiter did not end here, for the legis- 
lature on the 16th of January, 1840, 
instructed their delegate to Congress, 
W. W. Chapman to use his influence in 
procuring a law, allowing the people to 
elect their own Governor, and provided in 
this resolution, that the Governor himself 
should circulate it. This resohuion he 
took good care to approve, and actually 
sent copies of it to Washington city. 

He was removed from the office of 
Governor, after the 4th of March, 1831, 
and John Chambers, of Kentucky was 
appointed to succeed him. 

After his removal he returned to private 
life, and resided at Bloomington for a 
number of years. 

Ho returned to Ohio and ran for Con- 
gress, but, was defeated, after which he 
again returned to Iowa, and if I mistake 
not, was a metpber of the first constitu- 
tional convention. 

Old age crept upon him at last, and he 
died a number of years ago, at Muscatine. 
He was always a Democrat of the Jack- 
sonian school, and throughout a long 
public life he was strictly and religiously 
honest. He was not a man of much talent, 
but his long public life had made him 
familiar with the whole routine of public 

With his intimate aquaintance with 
public men and public affairs, be could 
have written an admirable history of the 
Great Wests. But he has left nothiiig 
behind him save his own acts. 



In person, be waff tall and slender, and 
in his younger days, capable of enduring 
great hardships. 

As her first Governor, and one of her 
truest and best friends, he will live on the 
pagps' of Iowa's history, when statues of 
marble and brass, shall have crumbled into 

John Chambers. 

On the 4th day of March, 1841, William 
Henry Harrison was inaugurated President 
of the United States. He was carried into 
office through one of the most renowned 
and exciting political campaigns our coun- 
try has ever witnessed. 

During the administration of Mr. Van 
Buren, his immediate predecessor, our 
country, and indeed the whole civilized 
world, was visited by one of those great 
commercial revulsions which seems peri- 
odically to take place in the affairs of man. 
Never before had our country witnessed 
and felt such a universal depression of all 
kinds of business, nor could the most gifted 
seer in commercial pursuits tell how or 
when this great commercial calamity would 
end, or be remedied. 

The people thought they could look back 
into the administration of General Jack- 
son, when the deposits were removed, as 
the primary cause of all the distress in 
every ramification of trade which followed 
during the administration of his successor, 
and in order, as they supposed, to apply a 
remedy, and restore confidence and secu- 
rity again to the country, demanded a 
change in the affairs of the government. 

For twelve years previous to 1840, the 
government had been in the hands of a 

party calling themselves "Jack on Demo- 
crats," and from iheir long tenure in office, 
many of them had come to the conclusion 
thai they owned them in thlir own right, 
and that almost every office in the gift of 
the President was a life tenure. 

Acting upon this principle, many of these 
incumbents had become notoriously cor- 
rupt, and appropriated the money belong- 
ing to their respective offices to their own 
private and pecuniary profit. 

These things, added to the commercial 
distress I have mentioned, increased the 
popular clamor for a change, and General 
Harrison was triumphantly elected Presi- 
dent. And although the writer of this 
article heard him declare in a public 
speech that he would suffer his right hand 
to be cut off before he would remove a 
public officer for opinion sake alone, yet 
one of the first acts of his administration 
was the removal of Robert Lucas from the 
Governorship of Iowa, and the appoint- 
ment of John Chambers, of Kentucky, to 
succeed him. 

He arrived in Iowa a short time after he 
had received his appointment, and imme- 
diately took possession of his office. 

He was a Whig, and of that Kentucky 
school of politics, in his day, which took 
rather a conservative view of public affairs. 
He was an old man, and had seen some 
service in his day. He was among the 
Kentucky volunteers on the frontier during 
the war of 1812, and distinguished him- 
self in several skirmishes with the Indians, 
and was looked upon as one of Kentucky's 
bravest men. Everything in Iowa was in 
the hands of the Democrats; they had, 
since the formation of the Territory, filled 
every office; they had controlled and di- 





iX'Cted its whole legislation; they had 
carved and cut every act to suit them- 
selves. So that when the new Governor 
arrived he found Iowa in the hands of a 
joint stock company, with the shares above 
par, and none to dispose of at any price. 

These same stockholders had been for 
several years accustomed to look upon his 
predecessor, although one of their own 
faith, with considerable distrust; and need 
we wonder that when a new man made his 
a})pearance among them, of opposite faith, 
that, for a time at least, he should receive 
the cold shoulder? 

lie had been appointed for four years, 
and in all probability would remain his 
time out; but four years was an age, at 
that time, to those who in fact controlled 
the destinies of a future republic. 

A plan was therefore set on foot by those 
who owned the largest shares in the com- 
pany, to bring about a revolution, to change 
the form of government, to establish a 
State; and, in obedience to this plan, the 
legislature, on the 16th day of February, 
1842, provided that at the August election 
following, a vote should be taken for or 
against a convention to form a constitution 
for the State of Iowa. At this time the 
general government had paid all the ex- 
penses of the Territory, in hard money. 
At every session of every court, in every 
county throughout the whole Territory, the 
Judge, the District Attorney, and last, 
though not least, the United States Mar- 
shal, or one of his deputies, always ap- 
peared together. As soon as the court was 
over, and justice had been meted out with 
unsparing hand, the Marshal called up the 
Grand and Petit Juries, and the witnesses 
upon all criminal trials, cashed all their 

accounts in half dollars, and they went 
their own way over the broad prairies, 
whistling or singing that good old tune, 
"Uncle Sam is rich eno.ugh to give us all a farm." 

Taxes they did not feel, for there was no 
occasion to gather them, and I know of no 
happier State on earth than where man 
can live and enjoy all the sweets of unre- 
strained liberty, be assured of protection 
from aggression and wrong, his fields and 
gardens yielding a bounteous return for 
the slightest touch of the hoe and the 
spade, upon his own soil, with a cabin 
reared by his own hands, and "children 
who cluster like grapes at the door," with 
a table covered by the choicest viands, the 
latch-string never pulled in, and at the 
same time a government scattering broad- 
cast around him annually thousands of dol- 
lars in hard money, and asking nothing in 
return but good behavior. Such was the 
state of things in the Territory, at this 
time; and when the August election came, 
the people voted against a convention, and 
wisely concluded to remain a few years 
longer in a state of dependency, in order 
to enjoy, as long as possible, the benefits 
showered upon them by the general gov- 

During all this time the new Governor 
had not been idle. He had, previous to 
this, collected all the information he could 
in relation to the country. He had held a 
treaty with the Sac and Fox Indians, and 
had succeeded ,in making a purchase of 
all their lands lying west of the Blackhawk 
Purchase and extending west to the Mis- 
souri, and north to the "Neutral Ground." 
By this treaty Iowa acquired jurisdiction 
to the Missouri on the west, and by an act 



of Congress a criminal jurisdiction to the 
British possessions on the north. 

Long before this treaty could be ratified 
at Washington, tens of thousands rushed 
pell-mell upon the "New Purchase," deter- 
mined to make themselves "claims," and 
stand by them to the last. Troops were 
sent to drive them off until the stipulations 
of the treaty could be carried out, and in 
order to give time to the Indians to re- 

But before the troops had time to re- 
■ move a few squatters in one portion, 
"claims" were made in their rear, adjoin- 
ing one another, at the rale of fifty miles 
a day. So great was the for "claims" 
that it was no uncommon thing for the in- 
habitants of an Indian village to wake up 
in the morning, and to their utter conster- 
nation and surprise, find a log cabin or 
"claim shanty" which had been erected in 
their town during the night, while upon 
the door, perhaps, with chalk or coal, the 
unmistakable pictures of the bowie-knife 
and revolver, indicating, as the Indians 
well knew, the desperate character of him 
who sleeps within, upon that pallet of 
leaves and grass. 

No troops could restrain them, and the 
officers gave up in despair, thus in a short 
time the Territory had received a large 
addition to her population. 

The friends of a State government 
thought they could now, after so large an 
increase of population as this new pur- 
chase had brought about, venture again 
upon their darling scheme. 

On the 12th day of February, 1844, the 
Legislature again provided that ai the 
April election following a poll should be 
opened, and each elector interrogated "for 

or against a convention?" This time it 
was made a party measure, and to be 
"for a convention" was a true test of a 
man's Democracy. The plan succeeded 
admirably, even beyond the expectations 
of the "share-holders," and upon counting 
there was a small majority in favor of a 

The delegates were elected at the Aug- 
ust election following, and the convention, 
consisting of seventy members assembled 
at Iowa City on the first Monday in Octo- 
ber, 1844, and proceeded to form a consti- 
tution. After a few weeks deliberation, 
they produced what they called a constitu- 
tion, but, upon inspection, it was found to 
be rather a rickety affair; it was, however, 
in accordance with the doctrine of "Popu- 
lar Sovereignty," submitted to the people 
for their rejection or approval, at the April 
election, in 1845. At the time of its form- 
ation, the convention, in defining the boun- 
daries of the future State, had included on 
tht north nearly the whole of what is now' 
the State of Minnesota. Congress 'aad, 
however, in anticipation of our coming, 
and in order to meet us half way,, passed 
an act admitting us into the Union, but at 
the same time curtailing our boundaries, 
both on the north and west, cutting us off 
from the Missouri entirely. This act of 
Congress became known only a short time 
before the April election, and this fact, in 
connection with the unpopularity of the 
instrument itself, caused its defeat at the 
election which followed. 

The legislature had wisely provided, at 
the session which provided for a conven- 
tion, that in the event the constitution 
should be defeated, there should be an 
election for members of the legislature in 




April, and that such legislature should 
assemble on the first Monday in May, 1845. 

The election was held accordingly, and 
the Legislature assembled at Iowa City at 
the time designated. 

Immediately after the organization, the 
Democrats called together a caucus, in 
which it was resolved to submit again the 
same constitution to another test; and, 
agreeable to this resolution, 8hepard 
Leffler, of DeMoines, introduced into the 
Senate a bill for that purpose. This bill 
passed both Houses, and was submitted to 
Mr. Chambers for bis approval. But he 
differed with the legislature in regard to 
their power to pass an act of that kind, 
and he returned it with his veto. The 
legislature, however, was too strong for 
him, and they passed the bill over his 
veto, and again submitted the constitution 
at the August election following But the 
people by this time had got tired of the 
old thing. Copies of it had been handed 
from one to another until they were worn 
out; they believed the Governor was 
right in his veto; and the old man had the 
grand satisfaction in seeing his last public 
act in the territory triumphantly sustained 
by the people It was again rejected by a 
large majority, and came very near defeat- 
ing General Dodge for Congress, who 
undertook to pack it and run against 
R, P. Lowe, the present Chief Justice of 
the State. 

Mr. Polk was inaugurated President of 
the United States on the 4th of March, 
1845, and a short time after the close of 
the session of May, 1845, he removed 
Mr. Chambers, and appointed James 
Clarke, of Burlington, to succeed him. 
This closed the public career of John 

Chambers, second Governor of Iowa. A 
short time after his removal by Mr. Polk, 
he returned to his home in Kentucky, 
where he soon after died. 

He was a large, heavy man, round 
shouldered, and had rather a stooping 
gait. His manners were reserved, and at 
first sight you would not care about ap- 
proaching him, but a little familiar ac- 
quaintance with him would make him a 

A half hour's conversation with him, 
and he was as pleasing as a child; and 
take him all in all, he was about the most 
perfect specimen of Kentucky gentleman 
that was ever my lot to fall in with. 

The longer he remained in Iowa, the 
more the people loved him. 

I bid him farewell for the last time on 
the steps of the Capitol at Iowa City, when 
he wept like a child. 

When he left Iowa for his own bright 
and sunny land, he left no enemies behind 
him. A noble hearted man, he fixed his 
name forever on the pages of our history, 
and he left us to mingle his dust in that 
land which gave him birth. So far as my 
acquaintance with him is concerned, I can 
truly say with Burns: 

"An honest man now lies at rest, 
Oue who on earth was truly blest; 
If there's another worKi, he lies in bliss, 
And if there's none, he's made the best of this." 

jASfES Clarke. , 

Sometime in the autumn of the year 
1837, when the trees were in the yellow 
leaf, a printer boy of slender form and 
gentle appearance might have been seen 

fc^ a 




crossing the "Laurel Hills" of his own 
State. Behind him rolled the waters of 
the "Blue Juniata," on the banks of which 
he had spent, in merry glee, his youthful 
days. He had heard and read of strange 
counti'ies that lay far off towards the set- 
ting sun, through which broad rivers run, 
and spreading landscapes unfolded to 
human eyes the most rare and magnificent 

These things inspired his youthful mind 
with a spirit of wild adventure — "fields 
looked green far away" to his imagination, 
and he left the fcenes of his early youth, 
severed the strong and loving ties that 
bound him to the land of his nativity, bid 
farewell to all that was dear to him on 
earth, and with his youthful gaze fixed upon 
that star which never sets, he launched 
forth into the wilds of Wisconsin, a 
stranger in a strange land, an adventurer 
seeking his own fortune, depending upon 
his own exertions, with no recommend 
save an honest countenance and genteel 
deportment. This young man was James 
Clark, who in after years became the able, 
talented and popular Governor of Iowa. 
He remained in Wisconsin, working at 
his trade as a printer, until after the or- 
ganization of the Territory of Iowa, when 
he removed to Burlington, where the first 
legislature of Iowa assembled. After the 
death of Mr. Conway, he was appointed, 
by Mr. Van Bnren, Secretary of the Terri- 
tory, which office he filled with great 
credit to himself and satisfaction to the 
people. During the time he held this 
office he contrilnited, by his kind, gentle 
and amiable manner, to soften the feelings 
of haired and distrust which at one time ex- 
isted between leading men of the Territory. 

Whoever had Lu.siness at his office found 
him a kind, gentle, quiet, amiable man, 
always ready and willing to do whatever 
was deHired of liim, regretting, at the same 
time, that he could do no more. No man 
ever labored harder in an office than he 
did, and it always seemed to me that his 
whole pride and ambition was to serve 
some one, and by so doing make himself 
nseful to his fellow man. 

During the time he was Secretary he 
underwent great labor, but notwithstand- 
ing the large amount of business he trans 
acted, he still found time to write for the 
press, and contributed many valuable 
articles touching the future greatness of 

After he retired from the office of Secre- 
tary, he returned again to the Printing 
office, and became the leading Editor of 
the Burlington Gazette. To the columns 
of this paper he devoted his whole ener- 
gies, and by so doing, naade it the leading 
democrat paper of the territory; a position 
which he has held to this day. 
After the inauguration of Mr. Polk as 
President of the United States, in 1845, he 
removed Mr. Chambers, and appointed Mr_ 
Clarke to succeed him as Governor of Iowa. 
Previous to his appointment, he had been 
elected by the people of his county, a 
delegate to the first convention which 
assembled to form a constitution for the 
State of Iowa In this convention he dis- 
tinguislud himself, both for his talent and 
personal demeanor, and contributed to the 
pages of that constitution, these great ele- 
mentary principles which lie at the founda- 
tion of human riglits. 

And, although that constitution was 
defeated, he still had the satisfaction of 




seeing their spirit and meaning transferred 
to another, and still continued as the fun- 
damental law of our State 

The first legislature, after he received 
his appointment of Governor, assembled at 
Iowa City on the first Monday of Decem- 
ber^ 1845. His message to the legislature 
after its organization is a model of style 
and clearness. 

He set forth the importance of ?ia early 
extinguishment of the Indian title to all 
the lands within the limits of Iowa, and 
urges the legislature to memorialize Con- 
gress to purchase a tract of land on the 
upper Mississippi for a future home for the 
Wiunebagoes, and thus induce them to 
part with their title to a large tract of 
country known as the "neutral ground," 
a recommendation which the general 
government soon after acted upon and 
carried out. 

As soon as the "Blackhawk Purchase" 
had been surveyed, and it was discovered 
that it contained within its bounds large 
tracts which were supposed to contain 
valuable mineral, these tracts were reserved 
from market, and the government set itself 
up as a great landlord to lease out these 
lands at a stipulated rent. Mr Clarke soon 
saw the evil and injustice of such a system 
upon the inhabitants of Iowa, and he set 
himself at work to break it up; and it was 
through his influence and exertions that 
the land was afterwards thrown into 

There was not a barrier in the future 
greatness of Iowa that did not call forth 
his attention, and he had the grand satis- 
faction of seeing everything that he re- 
commended for the benefit and prosperity 
of Iowa afterwards carried out, and carried 

out, too, precisely, as he had suggested and 
wished. He seemed to be aware that he 
would soon be called upon to pass over the 
government, over which he presided 
with so much skill and ability, into the 
hands of the real sovereigns of the soil, 
and he was determined that nothing should 
be left undone by him to retard her future 

On the 16th day of January, 1846, the 
legislature passed, once more, an act for 
the purpose of electing delegates to frame 
a constitution for the State of Iowa. 

This time the friends of a State govern- 
ment took it for granted that the people 
of the territory wanted a constitution, so 
the legislature provided that at the April 
election following the passage of this act, 
the people of the territory should elect 
delegates to a convention. Accordingly, 
at the April election delegates were elected, 
and the convention, agreeable to said act, 
consisting of thirty-two members, instead 
of seventy as in the previous convention, 
met at Iowa City on the first Monday of 
May, 1846, and after a session of eighteen 
days produced a constitution, which con- 
stitution was submitted immediately fol- 
lowing, and was adopted by them as their 
constitution for the Stale of Iowa, 

Thus you see that Iowa, from a colony, 
a dependency, a territory, jumpeil, in the 
short space of seven months, from the 
time the act above mentioned first passed, 
to that of a sovereign independent State. 

After the result was known, the Gover- 
nor issued his proclamation for a general 
election in November following, at which 
election Ansel liriggs, of Jackson county 
was elected Governor of the State. 





This proclamation was ibe last public 
act of James Clarke, for as soon as the new 
Governor was qualified, he turned over to 
him all the archives of his office, and 
returned once more to the printing office. 
Again he scattered through Iowa his 
beautiful editorials through the columns of 
the Burlington Gazette, until the name and 
fame of Iowa became known throughout 
the length and breadth of the land. 

He appeared at the capitol at the first 
session of the State legislature under the 
new constitution, to which body he deli- 
vered an affecting and interesting farewell 
letter, then stood back quitely during the 
whole of the session, and gazed with indig- 
nation upon his countenance at the dread- 
ful strife, Ktorms and bitterness which was 
manifested during the entire session. 

Never since the organization of the ter- 
ritory, had any man seen, or even dreamed 
of anything like it; every man seemed to 
look upon each other as being iij his way 
to places of honor and profit, and it 
became a cut and thrust game. Both 
parties were without leaders, or if they 
had them, the leaders themselves stood in 
great need of being led. 

Neither done anything — neither party 
could do anything. When one party made 
a move it was instantly checkmated by the 
other. Speech after speech was made, 
each one declaring himself a patriot and a 
true lover of his country, ready at all 
times to bleed and die for her. No one 
could do anything for the reason that none 
of the rest would let him. They ate, 
drank, grew fat, and returned to their 
seats, only to play the same game over 
again as on the previous day. They in- 
stituted a court for the trial of any offender 

who should attempt to bribe any one of 
their number; and whenever such a tribu- 
nal is constituted, there is always sure to 
be some one to try. 

Now and then during the session some 
poor devil was snatched up, arraigned and 
tried for indiscretely showing his money to 
some one of its members. But such trials 
only served to lionize the victims, and it 
looked to an outsider as if these scamps 
themselves had purposely committed these 
offenses in order to bring themselves into 
notice, and thereby claim themselves to be 
the victims of a cruel persecution. 

In vain did they meet in joint conven- 
tion for the purpose of electing Judges of 
the Supreme Court and Senators. Every 
vote, some anxious aspirant in the "lobby" 
would brighten up, thinking perhaps this 
time the lucky card would turn up; but, 
alas! for human hopes, he lacked just onb 
vote of an election. 

Your humble servant was an idle and 
curious looker-on at most of the interest- 
ing scenes which took place at this seseion, 
and if it was not for the notes that he took 
at the time, he could hardly tell at this day 
whether these scenes were real, or whether 
they were the productions of an idle and 
troubled dream. 

They finally adjourned without electing 
either Judges or Senators, and the State 
toddled along very well, half State, half 

Tliis was the last time, I believe, that 
Mr. Clarke ever appeared at the legisla- 
tuie. He died soon after, at Burlington, 
with that horrible scourge, the cholera. 

This closed the earthly career of a just 
and noble man, cut off in the prime of life 
and in the midst of a useful career. 









OF IOWA. 227 


He was married to a sister of General 

Othkr Territorial Officers. 

Dodge, and this fact being known at tlie 


time of his appointment as Governor, drew 

Wm. B. Conway, 1838, died 1839. 

upon the Dodge family the title of the 

Jamea Claik,1839-4l 

"Eoyal Family." But whatever might 
have been said in this respect, the appoint- 

0. H. W. StuH, 1841-3. 

Samuel J. Burr, 1843-^ 
Jesae Williams, 1845. 

meut. was due to Mr. Clarke, nor could it 

have been bestowed upon a better man, or 


0B6 mora competent to fill it. 

Jesse Williams, 1840-43. 

He was the third and last Territorial 

William L. Gilbert, 1843-45. 

Governor of Iowa, and, like the other two 

Robert M. Secrest, 1845. 

who preceded him, as soon as he had passed 


the office into the hands of his successor. 

Thornton Baylie, 1839-40. 

he gently and calmly laid down and died. 

Morgan Reno, 1840. 

He was a tall, slender man, of a mild and 

Charles Mason, Chief Jualice, 1838. 

amiable disposition, and had quite a femi- 

nine look, He left a family behind to 

Joseph Williams, 1838. 

mourn his sad loss. His history is without 

Thomas S. Wilson, 1838. 

a stain or reproach, and throughout his 

Presidents of CouneiL 

whole life no man ever imputed ought 

against his character as a man and a citi- 

Jesse B. Brown, 1838-9. 
Stephen HempstBiid, 1839-40. 


M. Bainridge, 1840-1. 

J. W. Parker, 1841-3. 
John D. Elbert, 1843-3. 

I have thus given you a few random 

Thomas Cox, 1843-4. 

sketches of the three Territorial Governors 

8. Clinton Hasting, 1845. 

of Iowa, together with a few of the prin- 

Stephen Hempstead, 1845-9. 

cipal events in the history of Iowa, con- 

Speakers of the Uotis*. 

nected with their administration. 

William H. Wallace, 1838-9. 

Most of the incidents contained in these 

Edward Johnson. 1839-40. 

sketches I have given from memory alone, 

Thomas Cox, 1840-1. 

having been myself an eye-witness of, and 
personally cognizant of many of the facts. 

Warner Lewis, 1841-3. 

James M. Morgan, 184a-3. 
James P. Carletoc, 1&13-4. 

By these sketches you not only see the 

James M. Morgan, 1845. 

character and noble traits of the three 

George W. McLeary, 1845-fl. 

good and wise men, but you see that under 

State OFFicKRa. 

their care and protection, a young and 


thrifty State sprung into existence in the 
short space of eight years from the time 

Ansel Briggs, 1846-50. 
Stephen Hempstead, 1850-54. 


when the whole Territory was the home of 

James W. Grimes. 1854-58. 



the savage. 

Ralph P. Lowe, 1858-00. 


y ^ 

<S r- 

^ e 



Samuel J. Kirk wood. 1860-64. 

John W. Jones, 1859-63. 

William M. Stone, 18G4-68. 

William H. Holmes, 1863-67. 

Samuel Morrill, 18G8-73. 

Samuel E. Rankin. 1867-73. 

Cyrus C. Carpentir, 1872-76. 

William Christy, 1873-77. 

Samuel J. Kirkwooil, 1876-77. 

George W. Bemis, 1877-81. 

J. Q. Newbokl, 1877-78. 

Edwin H. Conger, 1881. 

John H. Gear, 1878-83. 

Buren R. Sherman, 1883. 

Attorney- Oener,ilt. 

David C. Cloud, 1853-56. 

Lieutenant- Oooernort. 

Samuel A. hice, 1856-60. 

Oran Favillc, 1858-60, 

Charles C. Nourse, 1860-64. 

Nicholas J. Rusch, 1860-63. 

Isaac L. Allen, 186.-)-66. 

John R Necdham. 1862-64. 

Frederick E. IJissi-ll, 1866-07. 

Enoch W. Eastman, 1864-66. 

Henry O'Conm.r, 1867-73. 

Benjamin F. Gue, 1866-68. 

Marccna E. Cutts, 1872-76. 

John Scott, 1868-70. 

John F. McJunkin, 1877-81. 

M. M. Walden, 1870-73. 

Smith McPherson, 1881. 

H. C. Bulls, 1872-74. 

Joseph Dysart, 1874-76. 

Adjutant- Generals, 

Joshua G. Newbold, 1876-78. 

Daniel S. Lee, 1851-55. 

Prank T. Campbell, 1878-83. 

George W. McLeary, 1855-57. 

Orlando H. Manning, 1883. 

Elijah Sells, 18.57. 

This office was created by the new constitu- 

Jesse Bo wen, 1857-61 

tion, September 8, 1859. 

Nathaniel Baker, 1861-77. 

John H. Luby, 1877-78. 

Secreliiries of State. 

W. L. Alexander, 1378. 

Elisha Cutter, Jr., 1846-48. 

Joseph H. Bonucy, 1848-50. 

Regiaters of the State Land Offie* 

George W. McCleary, l8oO-56. 

Anison Hart, 185.5-57. 

Elijah Sells, 1856-63. 

Theodore .->. Parvin, 1857-59. 

James Wright, 1863-67. 

Amos B. Miller, 1859-62. 

Ed. Wright, 1867-73. 

Edwin Mitchell, 1862-63. 

Josiah T. Young, 1873-79. 

Josiah A. Harvey, 1863-67. 

J. A. T Hull, 1869. 

Cyrus C. Carpenter, 1867-71. 

Auditors of Stata, 
Joseph T. Pales, 1846-50. 
William Pattec, 18.".0-54. 

Aaron Brown, 1871-75. 
David Secor, 1875-79. 
J. K. Powers, 1879. 

Andrew J. Stephens, 1855-69. 
Jonathan W. Catlell, 1859-65. 

Superintendents of Pvblie Instraetion. 

John A. Elliott, 186.5-71. 

James Harlan, 1847-48. 

John Russell, 1871-75. 

Thos. H. Benton, Jr., 1348-54. 

Rueu R. Sherman, 1S75-81. 

James D. Eads, 1854-57. 

William V. Lucas, 1881. 

Joseph C. Sloue, 1857. 

Maturin L. Fisher, 1857-58. 

Treasurers of Stat*, 

Oran Faville, 1861-67. 

Morgan Rcuo. 1846-50. 

D. Franklin Wells, 1867-68. 

Israel Kister, 1850-52. 

A. S. Kissell, 1868-73. 

Martin L. Morris, 1852-59. 

Alonzo Abernelhy, 1873-76. 

•(^ <3 




Carl W. Van Coelen, 1876-83. 

James Qranl, 1853-54. 

John W. Akers, 1833. 

Reuben Noble, 1854-56. 

This office was created in 1847 and abolished 

Samuel McFarland, 1856-57. 

in 1858," and the duties then developed upon the 

Stephen B. SheWdy, 1857-59. 

secretary of the Board of Education; it was re- 

John Edwards, 1859-01. 

created Jilarch 23, 1804. 

Rush Clark, 1861-63. 
Jacob Butler, 1863-65. 

Stale Printers. 

Ed. Wiighl, 186.5-67. 

Garrett D. Palmer and Gcorg( Paul, 1849-51 

John Russell, 1867-09. 

Williiim H. Merrilt, 1851-53. 

Aylelt R Cotton, 1869-71. 

William A. Huraish, 1853. 

James Wilson, 1871-73. 

Deu. A. Mahoney and Jos. B. Dorr, 1853-55. 

John H. Gear, 1873-77. 

Peter Moriarty, 1855-57. 

John T. Stone, 1877-79. 

John Teesdale, 1857-61. 

Lore Alford, 1880-81. 

Francis W. Palmer, 1861-69. 

G. R. Struble, 1882. 

Frank M. Mills, ]86lt-71. 

Q. W. Edwards, 1871-73. 

Chief Justices of the Supreme Court 

Rich. P. Clarkson, 1873-79. 

Charles Mason, 1817. 

Frank M. Mills, 1879. 

Joseph Williams, 1847-48. 
S. Clinton Hastings, 1848-49. 

State Binderi. 

Joseph Williams, 1819-55. 

■William M. Coles, 1855-58. 

George G. Wright, 185.5-GO. 

Frank M. Mills, 18.03-67. 

Ralph P. Lowe, 1860-63. 
Caleb Baldwin, 1862-64. 

James 8. Carter, 1867-71. 

J. J. Smart, 1871-75. 

George G. Wright, 1861-66. 

H. A Perkins, 1875-79. 

Ralph T. Lowe, 1866-G8. 
John F. Dillon, 1808-70. 

Matt. Parrott, 1879. 

Chester C. Cole, 1870-71. 

Secretttries of Board of Kdueation, 

James Q. Day, 1871-73. 
Joseph M. Beck, 1873-74. 

T. H. Biulon, jr , 18."j9-63. 

W. E Miller. 1874-76. 

Oran Faville, 1863-64. 

Chester C. Cole, 1870. 

This office waa abolished March 23, 1864. 

William H. Seevers, 1876-77. 

Presidents of the Senate. 

Jame-- G. Day, 1877-78 
James H. Rothrock, 1878-79. 

Thomas Baker, 1846-47. 

Joseph M. Beck, 1879-80. Hughes, 1847-48. 

Austin Adams, 1880-82. 

John J. Selman, 1848-49. 

William H Seevers, 1882. 

EnosLowe, 1849-51. 

W. E. Leffingwel!. 1851-53. 

Associate Justices. 

Maluriu L Fisher, 1853-55. 

Joseph Williams, held over from terri 

t Glial 

W. W. Hamilton, 1855-57. 

government until a successor was appointed. | 

Under the new cousliiution the Lieut.-Cover- 

Thomas S. Wilson, 1847. 

nor is President of the Senate. 

John F. Kinney, 1817-54. 
George Greene, 1847-55. 

Speakers of the, Ilmise. 

Jonathan C. Hall, 1854-55. 

Jesse B. Brown. 1816-48. 

William G. Woodward, 1S55. 

Smiley H. Bonham, 1818-50. 

Norman W. Isbell, 1855-57. 

George Temple, 1850-52, 

Lacon D. Stockton, 1856-00. 



Caleb Baldwin, 1860-01. 
Ralph P. Lowe, 1860. 
George G. Wright, 1860. 
John F. Dillion, 1864-70. 
Chester 0. Cole, 1864-77. 
Joseph M. Beck, 1868. 
W. E. Miller, 1870. 
James Q. Day, 1870. 

United States Senators 
Augustus C Dodge, 1848-55. 
George W. Jones, 1848-59. 
James B. Howell, 1870. 
George Q. Wright, 1871-77. 
James Harlan, 185";-65. 
James W. Grimes, 1859-69, 
Samuel J. Kirkwood, 1866. 
James Harlan, 1867-73. 
William B. Allison, 1873-79. 
Samuel J. Kirkwood, 1877-81. 
William B. Allison. 1879. 
James W. McDill, 1881. 

Members of House op Reprebkntattveb. 

1846^7— S.Cliuton Hastings, Shepherd Leffler. 

1847-49— Wm. Thompson, Shepherd Lefl3er. 

1849-51— Wm. Thompson, Dan. F. Miller, 
Shepherd Leffler, 

1851-53— B. Henn, Lincoln Clark. 

1853-55— Bernhart Henn, John P. Cook. 

18o5-57-Aug. Hall, Jas. Thorington. 

1857-59- Samuel R. Curtis, Timothy Davis. 

18.")9-61— Samuel R. Curtis, Wm. Vandever. 

1861-63— Samuel R. Curtis, J. F. Wilson, Wm. 

1803-65— James F. Wilson, Hiram Price, Wm. 
B. Allison, J. B. Grinnell, John A. Kasson, 
Asahel W. Hubbard. 

1865-67— James F Wilson, Hiram Price, Wil- 
liam B. Allison, Josiah B. Grinnell, John A. 
Kasson, Asahel W. Hubbard. 

1807-69— James F. Wilson, Hiram Price, Wil- 
liam B. Allison, William Loughbridge, Grenyille 
M. Dodge, Asahel W. Hubbard. 

1809-71- George W. MoCrary. William Smyth 
(died September 80, 1870, and succeeded by 
Wm. P. Wolf), William B. Allison, William 
Loughbridge, Frank W. Palmer, Charles Pome- 

1871-73— Geo. W. McCrary, Aylett R. Cotton, 
W. G. Donnan, Madison M. Waldtn, Frank W. 
Palmer, Jackson Orr. 

1873-75-Geo. W. McCrary. Aylett R. Cotton, 
W. G. Donnan, Henry O. Pratt, James Wilson, 
William Loughbridge, John A. Kasson. James 
W. McDill, Jackson Orr. 

1875-77— Geo. W. McCrary, John Q. Tufts, 
L. L. Ainsworth, Henry O. Pratt, James Wilson, 
Ezekiel S. Sampson, John A. Kasson, James W. 
McDill, Addison Oliver. 

1877-79~J. C. Stone, Hiram Price, T. W. Biir- 
dick, N. C. Deering, Rush Clark, E. S. Samp- 
son, H. J. B. Cummings, W. F. Sapp, Addison 

1879-81— Moses A. McCoid, Hiram Price, 
Thomas Updegraff, N. 0. Deering, Rush Clark 
(died in May, 1878, and succeeded by Wm. G. 
Thompson), J. B. Weaver, E. H. Gilktle, W. P. 
Sapp, Cyrus C. Carpenter. 

1881-83-M. A. McCoid. S. S Farwell, Thos. 
Updegraff, N. C. Deering, W. G. Thompson, 
M. E. Cutts, John A. Kasson, W. P. Hepburn, 
C. C. Carpenter. 

Present State OFriCERS. 

Qonernor, Buren R. Sherman. 
Secretary, John A. T. Hull. 
Deputy Secretary, Wm. T. Hammond. 
Auditor, Wm. V. Lucas. 
Deputy Auditor, Rufus L. Chase. 
Book keeper. L. E. Ayres. 
Treasurer, Edwin H. Conger. 
Deputy Treasurer, C. R. Chase. 
Reaister Land-office, Jas. K. Powerj. 
Deputy Register, John M. Davis. 
Sup't Pub. Inst , John W. Akers. 
Printer, Frank M. Mills. 
Binder, M:itl. Parrott. 
Adjutant- Oenernl W. L. Alexander. 
Superintendent Weights and Measure*, Prof. 
N. R. Leonard. 

Librarian, Mrs. S. B. Maxwell. 
Assistant Librarian, Jessie Maxwell. 

ScpRKMK Court. 

Chief Justice— ^m. H. Seevcrs, Oskaloosa. 
Judges — Jimes G.Day, Sidney. 

James H. Rothrock, Tipton. 

Joseph M. Beck, Fort Madison. 

Au-lin Adams, Dubuque 
Atfy Gfn.— Smith McPhers.^n, Red Oak. 
(Jlerk — E. J. Humes, Des Moines. 
Reporter — John S. Qunutlls, Des Moines. 

ri rj 


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% S the changes of less than half a cen- 
-^ *■ tury are contemplated, one can scarcely 
realize or comprehend that the wonderful 
results of Time's marvel-working hand are 
the achievements of a period so brief as 
to be within the remembrance — almost-^ 
of the present generation : 

Let us turn back, as it were, the leaves 
of Time's great book to but little more 
than a quarter of a century ago, and the 
stranger would have gazed upon a land- 
scape of wondrous beauty ; selected by 
the Sioux and Dakotahs as their camping- 
ground, with that singular appreciation of 
the beautiful which nature has made an 
instinct in the savage. These vast and 
rolling prairies were as green then as 
now ; the prairie flowers bloomed as thick- 
ly, and diffused their fragrance as bounti- 
fully. We are in the haunt of the red 
man, with scarcely a trace of civilization, 
while the freedom of bird and beast 

reigns supreme. But, to-day, what a con- 
trast ! Then, all was as nature had form- 
ed it, with its variegated hues of vegeta- 
tion ; in winter, a dreary, snow-mantled 
desert — in summer, a pei-fect paradise of 
flowers. Now, all traces of the primitive 
are obliterated ; in place of the tall prai- 
rie grass and tangled underbrush, one be- 
holds the rich, waving fields of golden 
grain. In place of the dusky warrior's 
rude cabins are the substantial, and often 
elegant dwellings of the thrifty farmers, 
and the " iron horse," swifter than the 
nimble deer, treads the pathway so re- 
cently the trail of the red man. Then, a 
sickle of fire annually cut away the wild 
herbage, and drove to its death the stag ; 
now, it is the home of the cereals, and 
nourishes on its broad bosom thousands of 
tons of the staple products of the great 
Hawkeye State. Then the storm drove 
the wolf and stag to their hiding place; 







now, the blast drives the herd of the hus- 
haiidnian to comfortable shelter. The 
traiistormation is complete. 

In this volume it will be the aim of the 
historian to record the progress of Tama 
County, from its earliest settlement to the 
present time ; to show the changes that 
from time to time have been made, and 
how they were brought about, and to re- 
cord the life work of individuals who have 
been instrumental in ctt'ecting the change. 
It will thus be .seen to embrace events 
which many will think insignificant. 
" Great events find ready record," says 
a well known writer, " but minor doings 
are often neglected until they become so 
obscured by the dust of time as to be for- 
ever clouded. Yet from such humble ori- 
gin may spring the mightiest results. The 
history of men's live.s is often incomplete 
through the negligence of those whose 
duty it was to record the dates of births, 
or deaths, or happenings, which have 
proved epochs in the woi-ld's progress. 
History is commonly regarded but the 
doings of rulers, who have the world for 
their theatre of operations, and the fate 
of empires fot their subject. Such grave 
performances are of necessity remember- 
ed ; but, they are no more in themselves 
w'orthy of preservation, than are the sim- 
plier deeds of heroism which pioneers so 
modestly participated in ; yet, when the 
careful student seeks for the moving for- 
ces which made thrones tremble, he is too 
often rewarded but meagerly. The peo- 

ple are seldom recorded in history. In 
rare exceptions may be found a clearer 
ray of light on humbler undertakings, but 
they serve only to show the other failures 
stronger by contrast. The Pilgrim 
Fathers who survived the shock of 
the first rude winter are recorded 
in the sparse annals of iS'ew Eng- 
land, and their descendants revert 
with pride to those heroic ancestors; 
but the fifty pilgrims who died during 
that bleak season are never spoken of by 
name, though they are none the less wor- 
thy of undying reverence. Again, had 
some one more thoughtful than the rest 
among John Winthrop's band, which, two 
and a half centuries ago set deep the 
seeds of civilization on the rough shores 
of Massachusetts, how invaluable would 
that book now be to those who might pre- 
pare a great work on Boston's history." 
This is, indeed, true, and realizing the 
fact, this work has been compiled. Thou- 
sands of facts are herein recorded, and 
individual sketches of hundreds of citi- 
zens, living and dead, are here placed in 
an enduring lorm. These men and women 
are, or have been actors in the diania of 
the settlement and development of Tama 
county. By inserting these sketches, in 
addition to other matter, is preserved iiol 
only the recital of historic fact, but a s\ili- 
ciivrent of individual deeds runs through 
all, giving a realism to the narrative 
which could be imparted in no other w.ay. 


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Nowhere in the great State of Iowa is 
Tama comity surpassed for its beautiful 
scenery ; its rolling prairies interspersed 
and diversified with natural and domes- 
tic groves; its meandering streams and its 
carpet of flowers and verdure. It also 
ranks among the flrst as to Agricultural 
resources, and wealth, as it stands to-day. 
Tama county citizens may well lie proud 
of their home. 


Tama couiity lies nearly in the center 
of the State, being five counties from the 
east, north, and south State lines andseven 
from the west. It is bounded on the north 
by Grundy and 151ack Ilawk counties; on 
the south by Poweshiek ; on the east by 
Benton ; and on the west by Marshall and 
Grundy counties. It comprises town- 
ships 8:2 to 86, north, inclusive, of ranges 
13 to 16 west inclusive, containing 720 
sipiare miles or 470,000 acres uf land. 


Tama county is sub-divided into twenty- 
one civil townships, each comprising a 
full congressional township except two — 
Tama and Toledo — which together make 
one congressional township. These civil 
townships are named as follows, com- 
mencing with the north-east corner: 
Geneseo, Buckingham, Grant, Lincoln, 

Spring Creek, Crystal, Perry, Clark, 
Oneida, Carroll, Howard, Carlton, Indian 
Village, Toledo, Tama, Otter Creek, York, 
Salt Creek, Richland, Columbia, and High- 


The county of Tama is one of the best 
in the State for general agriculture and 
stock-raising purposes. It is well watered 
in almost every part, its jirincipal stream 
being the Iowa River, which enters the 
county on section 6, township 83 north, 
range 16 west (Indian Village township) 
and pursues nearly a southeast course, 
through Indian Village, Tama, Richland 
and Salt Creek townships, emerging on 
section 36, in the latter township. This 
stream atfords some fine water-power, 
which has been utilized to some extent 
an account of which will be found in the 
township histories. Among the other 
streams are Deer Creek, Wolf Creek, 
Four Mile Creek, Twelve Mile Creek, Otter 
Creek, Salt Creek, and Richland Creek. 
Deer Creek takes its rise in Marshall 
county, entering Tama on section 30, 
Spring Creek township, and pursuing a 
southeasterly course, empties into the 
Iowa River near Tama City. Wolf Creek 
has two branches which rise in Grundy. 
The two form a junction in the northern 







part of Spring Creek township pursuing 
a torturous course through the townships 
of Spring Creek, Crystal, Perry, Buck- 
ingham, and Geneseo, emerges from sec- 
tion 24, in the latter township, and 
tiuallj empties into the Cedar River. 
Four Mile Creek and Twelve Mile Creek 
are tributaries of Wolf Creek, the for- 
mer heading in Lincoln township, and the 
latter in Grant. One branch of Sal Creek 
heads in Crystal and the other in Clark 
township. The two form a junction on 
section 34, Oneida township, and flowing 
south empty into the Iowa River on sec- 
tion 36, Salt Creek township. Otter Creek 
heads in Carroll township, flows south- 
east and empties into the Iowa River on 
section 20, Salt Creek township. Rich- 
land Creek heads in Highland township, 
flows east through Highland, Columbia 
and Richland townships, empties into the 
Iowa River on section 13, in the latter 
township. The various streams have 
numerous tri I utaries which help to swell 
the whole and afford water for stock. 

Timber is found along the banks of 
various streams, but principally along the 
Iowa river, where the timber belt ranges 
from a few rods to three miles in width. 
Nearly one-seventh of the county may be 
said to consist of timber lands including 
oak " opening land." 'I he remainder of the 
county is a beautiful rolling prairie, the 
soil of which is what is usually denomina- 
ted a black loam. 


In the year 1848 the Treasury Depart- 
ment of ihe Government employed David 
Dale Owen, of Indiana, to make a geolog- 
ical survey of Wisconsin, Iowa and Min- 
nesota. He soon after took the field in 

person, and in 1852 the Governn ent pub- 
lished his report in a large volume, accom- 
panied with maps, all of which contains a 
mass of highly valuable and interesting 
matter. He was ihe pioneer geologist of 
the upper Mississippi Valley and his great 
labor and work has formed the foundation 
for all who have, or all who may, succeed 

By an act of the Legislature o'' Iowa 
approved January 23, 1855, the Governor 
of Iowa, by the advice and consent of the 
Senate was authorized to nominate a per- 
son competent to make a geological sur- 
vey of the State, and in accordance James 
Hall, of New York, was appointed, and 
during the years 185.5-6-7, completed the 
survey, and in 1858 the State published 
his report in two volumes. 

By another act of the Legislature of 
Iowa, approved March, 30, 1.866, Charles 
A. White, was appointed State Geologist 
for two years, and he also proceeded to 
make another geological survey of the 
State, and his report was published in 
1870 in two volumes. This report also 
contains much valuable and interesting 
matter and is a valuable addition to that 
of its predecessors. 

Since then nothing has been done by the 
State to acquire more knowledge either of 
her mineral wealth, her palaeontology, or of 
the remains of the silent pre-historic races 
that lie entombed in her soil. The end and 
aim of all these surveys, was to give a gen- 
eral witline of the geology of the State,and 
from the means and time to which they 
were confined, it was ijupossible for them 
to give an extended local survey to each 
county, therefore one must be content with 
what is had from them, together with what 



obsorvations and reports that have been 
made by private parties. The following, 
regarding the geological formation of Tama 
county has been taken from these various 

In T.ima County neither coal or mineral 
has been found in paying quantities, yet 
coal exists and sandstone has been found 
not only along the river banks, but in the 
bluffs in the norlhern part of the county. 
Stone can be found in abundance in Carl- 
ton and Spring Creek township, and in 
Fifteen Mile and Six Mile Groves, while 
in the southwestern part of Indian Vil- 
lage township can be found limited quan- 
tities of stone. This stone is of peculiar 
formation, and belongs to the subcarbonif- 
erous lime-stone of the lower series di- 
vided into three classes. St. Louis lime- 
stone, Keokuk or Kinderhook lime-stone 
and ujiper and lower Burlington lime- 
stone. The solidity and compactness of 
the formation renders it susceptil)le of the 
highest polish. The bedsaie some twelve 
feet in thickness consisting of three layers 
divided as follows: 

First. Thin bedded sandy limestone 
three feet; Second. Thin bedded volitic 
limestone four feet; Third. Heavy bedded 
irregular limestone, gray with bluish tinge, 
s X feet ; and below this will be found thin 
beds of carboniferous limestone, from 8 
to 10 feet. 

The Keokuk or Kinderhook limestone 
is composed largely of fine grained, yel- 
lowish sandstone. 

The Burlington limestone formation con- 
sists of distinct calcareous divisions which 
are separated by a series of silieious shale 
and chert together with nodular masses of 
flint, the whole mixed with a smaller pro- 

portion of calcarious matter. It affords 
much valuable material for building pur- 
poses, but which is confined, however, en- 
tirely to its stone. It is seldom that it 
affords anything suitable for ashlar, but 
for the purpose of common masonry it is 
excellent, as it endures exposure to the 
atmosphere and frost without appreciable 
change. Good lime can be made from it, 
but the greater part of the lime is made 
from the upper division, because it usu- 
ally produces a whiter quality. The upper 
division furnishes excellent quarry rock 
wherevei it is exposed. The rock is also 
strong and endures exposure well. The 
color of some portions of this division is 
so nearly white and its texture somewhat 
crystaline, that the purer pieces resemble 
marble. Although the area occupied by 
the outcrops of this formation in the 
county, is comparatively small, yet the 
fossil remains which it presents are of the 
most I'emarkable character and profusion. 
The only remains of vertebrates which 
the formation has afforded, are those of 
fishes an 1 snals which in some loca ities 
are numerous. 

The St. Louis limestone formation, as it 
exists in Tama county consists of three 
tolerably distinct sub-divisions, princi])ally 
dependent on lithological character. They 
are magnesian, arena, ceous and calcarious. 

The first and lowest consists of a series 
of yellowish gray, more or less magnesian 
and usually massive layers. The second 
is yellowish or light gray, friable sand- 
stone. The third or upper division is 
principally composed of light gray com- 
pact limestone, sometimes uniformly bed- 
ded, but it often has a concretionary and 
even a brecciated character. It furnishes 





excellent material for quick lime even 
when it is so concretionary and brecciat- 
ed that it will not serve a good purpose 
for building material, and is usually too 
soft for any practical use. It contains a 
great many fossils and is very attractive. 

At Iiuliantown, in Tama county, the 
sub-carboniferous formation appears, com- 
mencing at the water Ipvel of the Iowa 

No. 1. Yellowish shuly line grained, '-0 feet 

No. 2. Light gray volitic limestone, in heavy 
layers, 15 feet. 

No. 3 Soft irregularly bedded, magnesian 
limestone passing up into purer and more reg- 
ularly bedded limestone, 40 feet. 

The surface deposits to which the name 
of drift is applied, has a far wider distri- 
bution than any o her surface deposit. It 
meets the eye almost everywhere, cover- 
ing the earth like a mantle and hiding the 
stratified rocks from view, except where 
they h.ave been exposed by the removal of 
the drift through the erasive action of 
waters. It forms tlie soil and subsoil of the 
greater part of the State, and in it alone 
many of our wells are dug and our forests 
take root. Occasionally it is itself covered 
by another de])Osit;as for exani])le the bluff 
deposit, in which case, the latter forms the 
soil and subsoil. Tlie diilt is composed of 
clay, sand and gravel with boulders, pro- 
niiscuouslv intermixed, without stralitica- 
lOii or any nther regular arraiigcmciit of 
lis material. 

'I'lie clay drift, which is always present 
in greater or less jiroportion, is al\va3"s im- 
pure; always finely distributed throughout 
the whole deposit, but not unfrequently ir- 
regular masses of it are separated from 
other materials. Its color is usually yel- 

lowish from the peroxyd of iron it con- 
tains, and which when it is burned into 
bricks gives them a red color. 

The sand of the unaltered drift is seldom 
separated from the other materials in any 
degree of purity, but it is not unfrequent- 
ly the case that it exists in excess of the 
others; and in some cases small accumula- 
tions or pockets of it are found," having a 
considerable degree of purity while the 
gravel is largely derived from rocks that 
are more or less purely silicious, but occa- 
sionally they are found to be of granite 

So small a portion of Tama county is 
occupied by the coal measures that it is 
scarcely worth while to mention it, though 
coal leposits have been found in the 
northern part of the county, and it is not 
improbable that other discoveries of it 
may yet be made in o .her portions. 

In Indian Village township, bed No. 2 
.is well expose I and is extensively quarried 
for lime. Near Le Grand, in the east rn 
part of Marshall county, oidy a few miles 
west of Indiaiitown, No. 3 of the preced- 
ing section is well exposed, showing a 
thickness of ab(uit forty feet from the 
Ic -el <) the river. No. 1 and 2 do not 
a]ii>ear, they having passed beneath its 
surface by a western dip, aided by the 
stream. The exposure here is composed 
almost entirely of light brown or buff 
colored limestone, more or less magnesian, 
and in some of the more calcarious layers 
a slight tendency to volitic structure is 
seen. Some of the layers are cherty, but 
a large j>art of it is quite free from silici- 
ous matter. 

The stone is largely quarried for various 


« c 



purposes, and the finer layers, which fre- 
quently have a beautiful veiuing of per- 
oxjmI of iron, are wrought into ornamental 
and useful objects, and is known in the 
market as " Iowa Marble." Several other 
exposures of the Kinderhook beds are 

owned in Tama and Marshall Counties, 
one by H. S. Dickson and one by David 
Houghton. Those first mentioned are the 
principal ones. 

In this county the volitic member is 
well exposed at several places where it is 

quarried and used for the manufactui-e of 
lime of excellent quality. It has been 
proposed to manufacture this volitic stone 
into table tops, mantles, etc., but although 
it may be made to receive a fair polish and 
its volitic structure gives it considerable 
beauty, it is feared that the well known ten- 
dency of all volitic limestone to become 
fragmentary will hp found to render it 
worthless for such purposes. However, 
that near Montour and Indiantown prom- 
ises to prove valuable for such uses. 



Long before the advent of white man, 
the entire State of Iowa, then called the 
Beautiful Land, was occupied by Indian 
tribes, chief among which were the Sacs 
and Foxes. Both these tribes were at one 
time powerful nations, and stood promi- 
nent among the aborigines of America. 
They were formerly two distinct nations, 
and resided near the waters of the St. 
Lawrence. By the Government they have 
always been treated as one people, al- 
though keeping up customs among them- 
selves calculated to maintain a separate 
nationality, and in their own government 
they were separate. The Fox Indians 

moved to the west, and settled in the vi- 
cinity of Green Bay, on Lake Michigan, 
but becoming involved in a war with the 
French and neighboring tribes, were so 
much reduced in number that they were 
unable to sustain themselves against their 
hostile neighbors. The Sac Indians, had 
been engaged in a war with the Iroquois, 
or six nations, who occupied the country 
which now comprises the State of New 
York, and had become so weak that they 
were forced to leave their old hunting 
ground and move to the West. They 
found the Fox tribe, their old neighbors, 
like themselves, reduced in number by the 


^ » 




havoc of war, and from a matter of neces- 
sity, as well as syiiipathy, they united 
their fortunes, and became in the sense of 
association, one people. The date of their 
removal from the St. Lawrence is not defi- 
nitely known. Father Hennepin speaks 
of the Fox Indians being at Green Bay, 
then known as the Bay of Puants, in 
ITGO. The date of their removal from 
Green Bay is unknown, but gradually they 
branched out, and occupied large tracts of 
land in Iowa, Missouri and Wisconsin. At 
this time they were famous for their prow- 
ess in war. 

When the " Black Hawk purchase " was 
made, a portion of this State was retained 
by the Indians, consisting of four hun- 
dred square miles, and known as " Keo- 
kuk's Reserve." 

This reservation was along the Iowa 
river, and therefore Tama county formed a 
](art of it. 

In the early part of the present century 
— in 1803, the first Council of the French 
Republic ceded the Province of Louisi- 
ana to tlie United States. At that time 
the greater portion of the territory which 
now constitutes Iowa was in the possess- 
ion of the tribes of the Sacs and Foxes, 
who were acting at that time as confeder- 
ate tribes. 

From this date the Indians ceded away 
by treaty tract after tract of this the most 
beautiful country the sun ever shown 
upon, until to-day in this great State of 
Iowa they hold only a few hundred acres 
of land in Tama county, and this only in 
re-purchase from the white man. 

In accord with the progressive and ag- 
gressive spirit of the American people, 
the Government of the United States 

made the last treaty with the Sac and Fox 
Indians in the fall of 1842, for the remain- 
ing portion of their lands in Iowa. The 
treaty provided that the Indians should 
retain possession of all the lands thus ced- 
ed until the autumn of 1845. These lands 
laid along the Iowa river, extending south- 
easterly, and embraced the southeastern 
part of the State. Their principal vil- 
lage at this time was Ot-tum-wah-no, 
where the city of Ottumwa now is. As 
soon as it became known that the treaty 
had been concluded there was a rush of 
emigration to Iowa, and a great number of 
temporary settlements were made near 
the boundary of the Indian line, awaiting 
the day set for the Indians removal. As 
the day approached hundreds of families 
encamped along the line, and their tents 
and wagons gave the scene the appear- 
ance of a military expedition, but the 
United States military autliorities had pre- 
vented any settlement, or even the mark- 
ing out of claims by any monument what- 
ever. To aid them in marking out their 
claims when the hour should arrive, the 
settlers had placed piles of dry wood on 
the rising ground at convenient distances, 
and at a short time before twelve o'clock 
of the night preceding the day set, these 
were lighted, and when the midnight hour 
arrived, it was announced by the discharge 
of firearms. The night was dark, but this 
army of occupation pressed forward, torch 
in hand, with ax and hatchet, blazing lines 
with all manner of curves and angles. 
When daylight came and revealed the 
confusion of these wonderful surveys, ma- 
ny disputes arose, settled generally by 
compromise, but sometimes by violence. 
While this scene was transpiring the 

iPV ' 




retreating Indian was enacting one, more 
impressive and melancholy. The winter 
following the treaty was one of unusual 
severity, and the Indian Prophet, who had 
disaj)proved of the treaty, attributed the 
severity of the winter to the anger of the 
Great Spirit because they had sold their 
country. Many religious rites were per- 
formed to atone for the crime. When the 
time arrived for leaving Ottumwa — where 
they had gathered — a solemn silence per- 
vaded the Indian camp ; the faces of their 
stoutest men were bathed in tears, and 
when their cavalcade was put in motion, 
toward the setting sun, there was a spon- 
taneous outburst of frantic grief. 

The Sac and Fox Indians were then re- 
moved to Kansas upon a reservation giv- 
en them. In the years 1859-60 they ced- 
ed to the Government that reservation, 
and removed to the lands now occupied 
by the original tribes, in Kansas. Three 
hundred and seventeen Indians of the 
Fo.x; or Musquakie tribe, after their re- 
moval, returned to Iowa and settled in Ta- 
ma county. The Government permitted 
them to remain, and by virtue of an act 
passed March 2, 1SG7, they are permitted 
to receive their share of the Tribal fund, 
which is the interest only on the amount 
due them from the Government for their 
hinds. This branch of the tribe began 
buying the tract of land which they now 
occupy as a reservation in Tama township, 
Tama county, with their annuity, and now 
own nearly 1400 acres. It cost 128,000, 
and is held in common, about 200 acres be- 
ing used for cultivation. Their personal 
property is valued at $20,000, mostly in 
horses. The strongest local attachment 
exists among them for their present home, 

it being the home of their fathers. They 
cannot forget the past with all its associ- 
ations, and will never consent to remove 
from their present place. They have 
from the earliest moment been friendly to 
the whites, and while no very marked de- 
gree of civilization has been attained, yet 
they are a peaceful, honest, and contented 
people, possessed of a good degree of 
moral character, and have a brighter out- 
look for the future. 

As to the present condition of the In- 
dians, the following, which is an e.\tract 
from the report by U. S. Agent Geo. L. 
Davenport, in August, 1881, treats at 
length : 

"According to the census taken of this 
tribe last winter, they number 91 men, 
104 women, 11 girls and 83 boys. Popu- 
lation in all 355. 

" In the spring, the Indians, with the 
assistance of the Agency farmer, plowed 
160 acres of land, and planted it with 
corn, beans, squash and potatoes. Their 
crops were well cultivated and looked very 
promising, when, in the early part of July, 
heavy storms set in, which caused the Iowa 
river to rise and overflow all the valley, 
the water rising four and live feet over 
their fields and village, destroying all 
their crops and doing great damage to 
their fences ; and forcing the Indians to 
move their families to the adjacent hills. 
This calamity will cause great suffering to 
their families unless they receive their 
annuities, which they have all along re- 
fused to do. 

"Their principal chief, Man-ma-wah-ne- 
kah, died in the early part of July. The 
tribe are in mourning for his death. He 
was very much beloved, and had great in- 







fluence with them. He was thoroughly 
Indian in his ideas and sentiments, and 
was very much opposed to making any 
progress in civilization. 

" In a short time this tribe will hold a 
council with their people to determine 
what they will do in regard to signing the 
])ay-roll and receiving their annuities, 
which have up to this time accumulated to 
be quite a large sum. Last winter I ob- 
tained the names and ages of all their peo- 
ple, without their consent or assistance. 
But the tribe were quite displeased, and I 
had to explain to them that I was obliged 
tt) carry out the instructions received from 
the department. I have informed them 
that they can now receive their annuities 
by the head of each family signing the 
pay-rolls, and I believe they will do so in 
a short time. 

" These are a very good people. They 
have behaved remarkably well during the 
past year. Their conduct toward the white 
people has been very friendly, honorable 
and upright. Their women are modest 
and chaste ; their children are brought up 
strictly, and behave well. I have not 
heard of a single instance of a quarrel or 
disturbance of any kind during the past 
year. The principal chief and council 
have done all they could to suppress in- 
temperance among them, and there have 
been but few cases of drunkenness among 
the young men during the past year, and 
then it has been the fault of the white 
man that gets the liquor for them. 

" In regard to schools, the old Indian ele- 
ment is very much opposed, and the chil- 
dren are forbid attending. But the young 
men make good progress in learning to 
Kead and write, and many of them can 

read and write in English. Quite a num- 
ber of women have attended the industri- 
al school, and have made very good prog- 
ress in making their garments and learn- 
ing to do household work. 

" Our teacher died in the early part of 
the mouth, after a long illness. She had 
acquired a knowledge of the Indian lan- 
guage, and was very much beloved by the 
women and children. It will take some 
time before we can overcome the preju- 
dice the Indians have to regular schools. 
It will require patience, perseverance and 
kindness to succeed. 

" The Secretary of the interior has kind- 
ly allowed me to purchase inqjlements, by 
which I have been enabled to help the 
working Indians to carry on their agricul- 
tural work, and it has given them great 

" The number of deaths during the 
year has been ten, and the number of 
births five. 

" The school building used for the 
agency is in good order and repair, and is 
the only building belonging to the Gov- 

\'ery respectfully, 
Geo. L. Davknpout, 
United States Indian Agent." 


The first Indian Agent for this tribe 
was Hon. Leander Clark, of Toledo. lie 
was appointed July 1, 1 SfHi, and served in 
that capacity until July 10, l!S6n, when he 
was succeeded by Lieut. Frank D. Garret- 
ty, U. S. A., under the regulation trans- 
ferring the Indian Bureau to the War De- 
partment. Lieut. Garretty served until Oc- 
tober 5, 18'70, when Leander Clark suc- 







ceeded him, ami .again became agent. In 
September, 1872, Mr. Clark was relieved 
by Kev. A. R. Ilowbert, of Belle Fon- 
taine, Ohio. 

In April, 1875, Thomas S. Free became 
agent of the Musquakie band. He took 
active steps to accomplish the advance- 
ment of the Indians in education and 
farming. In August, 1875, a school-house 
was built at a cost of $1200, in which A. 
B. Somers first taught. Mr. Free is now 
at Sioux Falls, D. T., practicing law. 

In June, 1879, George L. Davenport 
was appointed to succeed Thos. S. Free, 
and is the present officer. Mr. Davenport 
has had a varied and eventful life. He 
was born on Rock Island, Nov. 15, 1817, 
the eldest son of Col. Geo. Davenport, be- 
ing the first white child born in that part 
of the country. The city of Davenport 
was named in honor of his father, who 
was one of its founders. George was 
nursed by an Indian maid, and his play- 
mates were Indian boys ; he therefore 
learned to talk their language about as 
soon as he did Englisli. At an early age 
lie was adopted into the Fox tribe, and 
called " Mos(juake,"and was always a great 
favorite with them. His early education 
was gained at the school of an invalid sol- 
dier at Fort Armstrong, and at the age of 
ten he was sent to attend school at Cin- 
cinnati, O., where he remained two years, 
then returned to the Island, and was plac- 
ed in the store of the American Fur Com- 
pany, of which his father was a member, 
remaining until this post was given up in 
1843. During this time he attended school 
a part of the time at the Illinois College 
at Jacksonville, at the Catholic Universi- 
ty at St. Louis, and at the Winchester 

Academy, in Virginia. In the fall of 
1837 he accompanied, by request, the Sac 
and Fox delegations of chiefs to Wash- 
ington, and visited other large cities. In 
1832 he made the first claim west of the 
Mississippi, and built the first frame house 
in the territory. During the early days 
of the city of Davenport he was among 
the most zealous workers for the city's suc- 
cess, and for many years was one of the 
most prominent of her citizens. He was 
president of the Merchant's Bank and 
Davenport National Bank for eighteen 
years ; was president of the City Gas Cor- 
poration for twenty-two years. In 1871 
he was elected a director of the Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific Railway, and held 
that position for five years. He was mar- 
ried in 1839, and lost one son during the 
late rebellion. Politically, Mr. Daven- 
port is a Republican. He is an affable, 
pleasant gentleman, and as a business man 
is upright and honorable. For the place 
he holds he is well fitted, and his labors 
are leaving their marks. 


It is quite generally believed that the 
name by which the Indians in Tama coun- 
ty are known — Musquakies, [sometimes 
spelled Misquakies ] — is a misnomer which 
they have been given since they have liv- 
ed here. But this is a mistake, as is aleo 
the theory that the name was derived from 
the fact that they were a portion of Keo- 
kuk's followers in trying to avoid the last 
Black Hawk war, and means " Deserted." 
When the Sac and Fox Indians occupied 
the northeastern part of the United States 
they were called by their proper Indian 
names : Sockees for Sack ; and Musqua- 
kies for Fox. When the French landed 






upon tbe shores of that portion of the 
continent, they named them Sac and Rey- 
nard, or Fox. The former band have fi- 
nally accepted that name ; but the latter 
tribe, among themselves, still hold to the 
name " Musquakies," which means in their 
tongue " red men ; " or, " Musqua " red ; 
" kies," people. 


Much has been written in regard to the 
customs and habits of the Indian tribes 
of the northwest and as a description of 
one was supposed to apply to all, many of 
these articles have been reproduced as a 
treatise upon the Musquakies, or the tribes 
which at one time occupied the "Black 
Hawk Purchase." But most of these ar- 
ticles in many of the customs and peculi- 
arities they recite are entirely erroneous 
and, as a whole, very much exagerated. 
Contrary to the inference which would 
be drawn from them, the tribes of the Sac 
and Fox Indians, since their contact with 
the whites have always to a certain degree 
been civilized, and the pioneers who were 
associated with them during the early 
days when the red skins called this region 
"home,", agree in the opinion that, as a 
rule, their ideas of justice and morality 
were but a few paces in the rear of those 
held by "civilized humanity." The habits 
and customs of this tribe of to-day, do 
not differ very much from ^hose of early 
days. Very few of them deign to wear 
the dress of the white man, generally 
wearing a blanket over the shoulders, 
feathers in the hair, and not infrecjuently 
j)ainted fantastically .about the face, neck 
and arms. Beads and cheap brass jewelry 
usual! V adorn the neck and ears, and the 

Indian maids wear large and massive 
bracelets. The blankets are all highly 
colored, as, in fact, is all of their clothing. 
Instead of being frivolous, they are as 
a rule thrifty and industrious, but the 
squaws are made to do tbe hardest labor. 
Few quarrels are had among tluMnselvcs. 
and they are always peacable to Whites. 
Since their occupancy of the little reser- 
vation in Tama county there has only 
beeh one crime committed. 

They are more religiously iiu-lined than 
the white man, believing in God and rec- 
ognizing the existence of a Supreme Being 
whom they call the Great Spirit. Their 
conception of God differs only in part 
from that held by the Christian world. 
To them He is an individual being — a su- 
preme personage. They know nothing of 
Jesus Christ and have no traditions that 
tend to indicate a belief in any such per- 
sonage. They have a devil whom they 
designate as the Bad Spirit. To both are 
offered sacrifices. Their religion ))artakes 
more of the Jewish Creed than that of any 
other and abounds in numerous forms and 
customs, quite similar to the old customs 
first practiced by the Hebrews. They 
have a Bible which they call "Meeschaum." 
It is made up of about twenty-seven parts 
and the whole is written in strange signs 
only intelligible to the Indians, and the 
contents are never explained to the whites. 
There are about half a dozen of these 
"Meeschaum" in the tribe; they all worn 
and old and are handled with the greatest 
care. The word "Meeschaum" iu the In- 
dian tongue means "Holy words or laws." 
Meetings of worship are held which last 
for three and four hours, and a separate 
and distinct language is used for religious 





talk and worship. They listen with great 
interest to the explanation of the white 
man's belief and religion, and have tradi- 
tions which have been handed down from 
former generations that are almost iden- 
tical with Bible parables and illustrations. 
One of these traditions is that long years 
ago, when even the race of red men was 
in its infancy, there came a rainy season 
to the land inhabited by the fore-fathers 
of the Indians. It continued to pour 
down in drenching torrents for nearly " two 
7noons." The land became covered with 
water. It rose until even the highest hills 
began to disappear beneath the waves. The 
red men seeing that the end was not yet, 
resolved to cast their lot upon the waters 
and trust to the Great Spirit for safety. 
All the canoes that could be found, were 
collected together and bound with lariats. 
When the proper time came the raft was 
ladened with the necessary food, blankets 
and a few musk rats, and all got aboard as 
the last high mound was submerged by the 
rapidly rising waters. For many days and 
niyhts the bark tossed to and fro, the rain 
ceased, and they only waited for the water 
to go down. A rausk rat was dropped over- 
board. He sank toward the bottom and 
after remaining some time returned to the 
surface with clean paws and clambered 
into the raft. This indicated that the 
water was yet too deep to reach bottom. In 
a few days the experiment was repeated; 
l)ut with the same result. In a few days 
more the niuskrat was again put overboard 
and after being <lown a few moments 
came to tlie surface with his paws covered 
with mud, and again disappearing to re- 
turn no more. This was the h<)])eful sign 
tliey had looked for and in a few days the' 

canoes rested upon the summit of a high 
mountain. It is readily seen that this 
tradition is merely another version of the 
Bible narrative of Noah and the ark; told, 
it is true, in a rude way, but the truths are 
still intact and the Indians firmly believe 
in its authenticity. 

The Musquakies have a system of self 
government. They are divided into three 
families or clans, which are each repre- 
sented by a chief; then there is a council 
consisting of a number of braves who are 
chosen with reference to their general in- 
telligence or else those who have distin- 
guished themselves in war or otherwise, 
in addition to these there is a "liusiness 
Chief," who is the highest in authority; 
he attends to the business, leads them in 
case of war, and is the general executive. 
Nothing is done except what is agreed to 
by the council and their wishes are car- 
ried out by the head chief. Whatever be 
their decree most of the people at once 
submit to it without the need of perswa- 
sion or force, and it is very seldom that 
even the slightest of their laws are vio- 
lated. There are sometimes exceptions to 
this in the eases of young men who obtain 
liquor from the whites and wh' n under its 
influence will pay but little attention to 
the laws of the chiefs. 

The present "Business Chief" is "Mali- 
tah-e-ipia" who years ago distinguished 
himself in war with the Sioux. His name, 
in Indian tongue, indicates the office he 
holds : Major-General or Leader. 

The names of the principal clans, or 
families are Wolf, Elk and Bear. The 
name of the Wolf Chief is Muk-we-posh- 
e-to, which signifies " Old Bear." He is 
only about nineteen years of age, and 





5 )> 



therefore does not have much weight in 
the council. 

The Elk Chief is " Wah-ko-mo," mean- 
ing '■ clear or brisrht." He was born on 
Turkey Kiver, Iowa, and is about 65 
years old. His words have great influ- 
ence with the tribe, and he is, in one 
sense, a leader of the council. 

The Chief representing the Bear fami- 
ly is Push-e-to-nik, who is about 4.5 years 

As a rule, the offices of the Indians are 
hereditary. When a chief dies his son 
lakes his rank, and, if too young, they 
either wait until he has reached the years 
of discretion, or the remaining chiefs ap- 
point some one to fill tlie vacancy until 
the heir attains maturity. If any one of 
the tribe does wrong, his face is blacked, 
and he is obliged to fast a day or more, 
according to the nature of the crime or 

They are very much opposed to educa- 
tion, because, they say, "We don't want 
our children to grow up like white chil- 
dren. When white people come to our 
village we treat them well, the children 
stand back; but when the Indian goes to 
town the white children throw stones at him 
and call him names." They have a school 
house but are so predjudiced against edu- 
cation that it is hard work to get a young 
Indian into it. The old braves would not 
venture in until all the desks were taken 
out. They say that if they are educated 
they will become mean like the white 
man — "White man awful smart but awful 
mean." They say the "white man is so 
mean that when he dies his God puts him 
in an uwful hot place and burns him for- 
ever, Init the Indian's God is more merci-" 


ful, and the mean Indian less wicked; the 
Great Spirit sifts him like the chaif and 
the good Indian goes to the happy hunting 
ground beyond the river where the bad 
Indian and the white man never comes." 
They have a faith that laughs at the im- 
possible, and their confidence in the ways 
and workings of tlie Great Spirit for good 
would put to shame many faithless white 

Some of the Indians are very intelligent 
and philosophical. At one time Judge 
Leander Clark, who was their agent, asked 
one of the chiefs if he would allow one of 
his boys to be brought up by Mr. Clark as 
a white boy. The chief shook his head 
and upon being asked why, replied: "If 
you took my boy he would be brought up 
like a white man; the Great Spirit never 
intended that he should be a pail face or 
He would have made him white; He has 
made him red and intends he should be 
brought up like red men. Would you let 
me bring up your white boy like red men? 
Then you can have my Indian boy lo bring 
up like white man." 

The Indians have a way of expressing 
themselves in writing and often write kt- 
ters to acquaintances in Nebraska and the 
Indian Territory. Some of the Indians 
claim that they still own a strip of land 
crossing the State of Iowa, ten miles wide, 
claiming that at the time of the last treaty 
that much was reserved to them. W hether 
the majority of the Indians believe this is 
not known, as it is seldom, if ever, spoken 
of to-day, by any of them. 

After the birth of a child the mother 
keeps a separate fire and eats alone, and 
the brave does not go near to see either 
mother or child until the little one is at 




least a month old. 

The Indians cannot swear until they 
learn the English language in which to 
express it. The Indian language contains 
no words that could be used for profanity, 
and the worst thing one Indian can call 
another is " a dog " or " a fool," which is 
considered a deadly insult. 

The Indian village is located near the 
center of the reservation. In the spring 
they move to the fields and until the crop 
is sown, camp where they are at work. 
As soon as the spring's work is done they 
move into the village and have an easy 
time until the crop matures. They then 
move back to the fields and remain until 
the crop is gathered. After this the In- 
dians — most of them at least, — leave their 
Tama county home and spend the winter 
in some of the adjoining counties, only to 
make their appearance when the time for 
spring work again rolls round. They do 
that for the purpose of finding maj)le trees, 
game and charity. 

In a retrospective view of the tribe, 
while residents of the Tama county but 
one marked scene of violence can be re- 
called. This occurred upon the morning 
of June 13, 1874, resulting in the murder 
of a Pownee Indian. The facts as given 
by the Tama City Press of June 19, 1874, 
are as follows : 

"On the morning of June 12, 1874, four 
Pawnee Indians came to the camp of the 
Misquakies, and remained all day and the 
night of the 12th. On the next morning 

one of them while but a few steps from the 
wick-iup was approached from behind by 
one of the Musquakies called "Black 
Wolf," who drew a revolver and fired three 
shots. The first entering the back of the 
head, and passing through the brain lodged 
under the skull in front ; the second one 
passing into the base ofthe neck,passed up- 
ward toward the head and came to the sur- 
face near the right ear ; and the other was 
mearly a scalp wound. The last two 
wounds were not necessarily fatal, but the 
first one bore unmistakable evidence of the 
intention of him who held the fatal 
weapon. At the first shot the Pawnee 
went down, and the other two must have 
hit him while in the act of falling. When 
we reached the camp, the Pawnee, had 
been buried, and not fearing a dead 
Indian, we had no necessity for the pro- 
fessional assistance of either of the gentle- 
men who accompanied us. Soon after, the 
coroner, deputy sheriff, Indian agent and 
several other parties appeared upon the 
scene, and the dead Pawnee was resur- 
rected, brought to Tama city, togethei 
with his murderer and on Saturday even- 
ing an inquest was held by E. M. Beilby, 
county coroner." 

When it was proven that Black Wolf 
did the bloody deed, a warrant was issued 
and delivered to deputy sheriff Bartlett 
who arrested him and lodged him in jail. 
Black Wolf remained in jail until Febru- 
ary 18, 1875, when he was discharged, the 
witnesses failing to appear against him. 



9 K. 






To the readers of local history the 
chapter relating to the early settlement, 
the first events and beginning of the his- 
tory of a country, is of general interest. 
Kspecially is this the case with pioneers 
themselves ; those who have witnessed 
the clianges that have been made ; who 
have seen a trackless wilderness or prairie 
transformed into a beautiful country, and 
tilled with an enterprising and happy peo- 
ple. He reads here slowly and critically, 
every word recalling memories of the past, 
which for a generation have been buried 
among a host of recollections which now 
arise before him like a dream. His old 
associations, the deeds, the trials and bat- 
tles against hunger and cold, while setr 
tiers were few and far between, and 
wolves howled about the little log cabin, 
sending a chill to his heart ; and the wind 
driving the sifting snow through the crev- 
ices — all arise now vividly before him. 
Often it is with pleasure he can recall 
these recollections, viewing with satisfac- 
tion the thought that he_ lived through it 
all to see a thrifty and wealthy land, dot- 
ted with school-houses an<l churches, and 
villages and cities. 

But again it will be with sadness that 
tlie past is recalled, as thoughts spring up 
of the dark and painful side of weary 
davs. How a wife, whose virtues, bravery 

and simplicity will always be rememl)er- 
ed, or a child, prattling in its innocence 
being called from earth to its eternal 
home, was laid away under the cruel sod 
in solemn quietude, by the rough and ten- 
der hands of hardy pioneers. Time had 
partially allayed the sting, but the wound 
is now uncovered by the allusion to days 
gone by, and the cases are not a few, 
where a tear of bitter sadness will course 
down the cheek in honor of the memory 
of those who have departed. 

Notwithstanding the many disadvanta- 
ges, and even sorrows attendant upon the 
first steps of civilization, and the adversi- 
ties to be encountered, the pioneers led a 
happy life. The absence of the aristo- 
cratic and domineering power of wealth 
and position must have been a source of 
comfort and satisfaction. Merit alone in- 
sured ecpiality, and this could not be sup- 
pressed by tradition. The brotherhood of 
man was illustrated in a sincere and prac- 
tical way, and hospitality was not consid- 
ered so much of a christian trait as a du- 
ty to humanity. 


To learn with any degree of accuracy 
the first actual settler of a locality that has 
been settled for a generation is a more dif- 
ficult task than would be imagined. 
There is only one rule which can be adopt 




p'- -' . 






AStOK. LI sax AND 


B h 

4 k. 

.^ Z> 



ed, and that is to statu the arrivals in the 
order in which they came, giving the 
dates as given by tl'.e parties themselves, 
and let the reader judge for himself. 
For years past there has been controversy 
over the question as to who was really the 
very first settler in Tama county. The 
historian does not dispute a single claim, 
but presents the statement of each claim- 
ant. The matter was submitted to the 
General Committee appointed by the Old 
Settlers Society for the revision of the 
history, and they decided that full cre- 
dence should be given the statements of 
the settlers themselves, as there was no 
way of either proving or disproving the 

According to the dates given the histo- 
rian, the first to locate in the territory 
now comprising Tama coanty, with a 
view to secure a permanent home, was the 
Vandorin party, who came from Henry 
county, and settled in York township May 
21, 1849. The principal part of the little 
colony was William Riley Vandorin, his 
wife Rachel and two children. With 
them came two hired men, James Van- 
dorin and Isaac McKern ; Ephraim Whit- 
taker also came with his wife and two 
children. William Riley Vandorin and 
his wife's brother, Isaac Smith, came to 
Tama county in the fall of 1848, and took 
the claims upon which they afterward set- 
tled, and then returned to Henry county, 
where the family had been left. In Hen- 
ry county Smith was taken sick, and de- 
layed the party starting until May 9, 1849. 
When they finally got started, Smith was 
left to follow in June, as he was still un- 
able to travel. Vandorin had five yoke 
of cattle, and Whittaker four, and the 

mud was so bad that often it took the 
whole drove of nine yoke to pull one of 
the wagons. They were obliged to leave 
their breaking plows by the wayside. 
Vandorin settled upon the place he had 
selected in section 22, York township, 
where he had erected a cabin, upon the 
low lands. In 18.51 the hard rains came, 
flooded the cabin and surr undings, and 
Vandorin built another one upon the 
bluffs, whore he moved his family and 
stock. Ephraim Whittaker took a claim 
south of Irving, in what is now called 
Salt Creek township, about .5 miles from 
Vandorin's. He stayed until fall, but 
thought the country was " too new " for 
him, and returned to Henry county. The 
first furrow of land was turned by Van- 
dorin and Whittaker June 3, 1849. The 
men planted it in pumpkin seed and corn 
raised quite a lot of corn, and nearly a 
hundred wagon loads of pumpkins. Van- 
dorin's claim was entered away from him 
in 1854, and he took up another quarter. 
In 1883 he was living iu Coon Rapids, 
Carroll county, Iowa. In the chapter up- 
on "Reminiscences" will be found an 
interesting account of the settlement of 
this party, by Mrs. Rachel Vandorin. 

James Vandorin and Isaac McKern, 
who have been mentioned as being hired 
men, only remained imtil fall, returning 
to Henry county. They both took " squat- 
ter's claims." 

During the fall of the same year, 1849, 
another party made their appearance and 
became citizens of Tama county. These 
where the Wilkinsons, consisting of the 
mother, three brothers, Anthony, Robert, 
and William, and three sisters, who all 
settled in township 82, range 13 — now 



- ts 


e «^ 




Salt Creek. Their arrival in Tama coun- 
ty was on the 14th daj' of October, 1849; 
they came from Coshocton county, Ohio. 
Anthony anil William had been soldiers 
in the Mexican war and had just received 
their "land warrants," which they in due 
time located. The brother Robert pur- 
chased land near them in the same town- 
ship. They immediately commenced build- 
ing a hewn log cabin on the southwest 
quarter of section 21, which was then own- 
ed by Robert. In the "Reminiscence 
Chapter" will be found an interesting ac- 
count of their settlement by Anthony 
Wilkinson. Anthony and William still 
live in Salt Creek township, the oldest liv- 
ing settlers in Tama county. 

Anthony Wilkinson was born in Ireland, 
.luly 28, 1817. At the age of fourteen he 
came with his parents to America, spend- 
ing the first three years clerking in a store 
in Prince George county, Maryland, after 
which he joined his parents in Ohio, where 
they had settled on a farm. Shortly after, 
he commenced work at the carpenter trade 
and followed that business the greater part 
of the time until coming to Tama county 
in 1849, as stated. Here he located land 
on sections 19 and 20, where he still re- 
sides. November, 1850, he married Miss 
Sarah A. Graham, a native of Ohio. They 
have a family of seven children — Milton 
B., Albert A., Lincoln P., Grant, Thomas, 
Mary A. and Edith. In 1846, Mr. Wilk- 
inson enlisted and served under General 
Taylor in the Mexican war. After eight 
months of active service he was taken 
prisoner by the Mexicans and suffered un- 
told distress and exposure for seven months. 
After the seige and surrender of the City 
of Mexico, he was liberated on parole. 

He now owns a fine farm of 357 acres, but 
pays special attention to the raising of 
fine stock. He is highly respected as a 
man and citizen. 

William Wilkinson, also a native of 
Ireland, was born August 3, 1820. When 
fourteen years of age, he came with his 
parents to America, and located on a farm 
in Ohio, where he remained until 1847, 
when he enlisted and went with General 
Scott to Mexico, participating in the Mexi- 
can war. He served eighteen months and 
on receiving his discharge, returned to 
Ohio. In 1849, he came to Iowa, finally 
locating in Salt Creek township, Tama 
county, on section 21, where he has since 
made his home. In 1852, he married Miss 
Sarah Hollepeter, of Ohio. They have 
had a family of twelve children — Theres- 
sie J., Harriet I., Francis E., Charles A., 
William E., (dead ) Josiah A., Martha E., 
Harry O., Robbie ( deceased ) Kate A., 
Mabel E., and Reeba A. He has a large 
farm and is highly respected as a citizen. 

The next to arrive in Tama county with 
a view to securing a home, was Isaac 
Asher, who passed through the fertile ter- 
ritory of the Iowa Valley, during the year 
1847. In his meanderings he finally ar- 
rived near the present site of Indiantown, 
just over the line in Marshall county, on 
the 18th day of May of that year, and 
made a temjiorary settlement. Isaac 
Ashcr was a native of Tennessee, but 
when a y<)ung lad, removed to Shelby 
county, Indiana, where in 182-3 he was 
married to Martha Greer. In 1845, with 
his wife and family of nine children, he 
started for the great west, and on the last 
day of the year named, they crossed the 
Mississippi river at Burlington. Here 






they remained for eighteen months when 
they again pushed westward, and on the 
istli of May, 1847, halted just over the 
line, in Marshall county, as stated. Here 
on June 13, 1848, Elkanah Asher was 
born — the first birth in tliat county. The 
family remained upon that place until 
November, 1849, Mr. Asher often travers- 
ing many parts of Tama county in quest 
of game. At the time mentioned — in 
November, 1849, he moved his family into 
Tama county and located on section six, of 
what now comprises Indian Village town- 
ship. A few years later he removed to 
section eight, in the same township where 
he remained until the time of his death, 
which occurred in 18(30. His widow still 
occupies the homestead. 

This comprised all the arrivals up to 
the year 1850. Many had in the mean- 
time came this far west and then turned 
back disheartened and discouraged by the 
newness of things, and some even had 
pushed on westward in hopes of coming 
to some more beautiful spot, but they were 
merely transients, whose names if they 
were learned at all, have long been for- 

At this time the law favored " squatters 
claims " and some of these roving, rest" 
less pioneers, would, while passing through, 
drive a stake, on which were carved their 
initials. Markets were far from them, 
traveling tedious and hard, and when a 
trip was made, a good deal of study was 
had so as to be sure and get all that was 
required for the next six months. Be- 
tween the different settlements there was 
little or no communication, and, in fact, 
for several years after the time they were 
made in 1849, to one, the other was hardly 

known to exist. The Vandorins, on Salt 
Creek, in' what is now York township ; the 
Wilkinsons on the Iowa river, in what is 
now Salt Creek township, and the Ashers 
in the western part of the county, for 
several years never once heard of each 
other, and lived in almost seclusion, hav- 
ing only the society of themselves, and 
the transients who chanced to pass through. 
A little garden truck and some corn was 
raised, but they mostly lived upon what 
game they procured, and fared sumptuous- 
ly, for game was plenty and a good share 
of the time was spent in hunting. 

During the year 1850, a few actual set- 
tlers moved in, although a number of those 
who afterwards came and located perma. 
nently, came and secured claims there- 
Many passed through, along the Iowa 
river, which was a thoroughfare for emmi- 
grant travel, and many of these stopped 
for a short time. 

Rezin, A Redman came in the fall of 
1850, brought a load of goods and put up 
a shanty. He then left William Boaz with 
the stock and returned to Indiana. 

W. L. Brannan and family, Samuel J. 
Murphy and family, James Umbarger and 
family came in the fall of this year but 
only remained a few weeks. 

Robert Arbuthnot came early in 1850 
and settled in Salt Creek townshiji. 

In 1851, the southern part of the county 
received a number of settlers, among 
whom were Rezin A. Redman, William 
Blodgett, the Carters, Eli Chase, Anthony 
Bricker, Levi and D. D. Appolgate, New- 
ell Blodgett, William Taylor, Eli and John 
Daily, John Dooly and Mr. Warner. 

Rezin A. Redman, who is first mention- 
ed was' a well-known early settler. He 

« — »^ 

^ » 




came from Jackson county Indiana, mak- 
ing his first trip to Tama county in the 
fall of 1849, with J. C. Vermilya, and 
locatin;^ land warrants in timber land, in 
what is now Tama township. In the fall 
of ISol he moved his family to his new 
home, and remained for several years. 
He was a tailor by trade, but desired to go 
into the mercantile business. When he 
left Tama county ho went to Marengo and 
opened a general merchandise store; was 
not very successful, as he was visionary, 
his notions too high flown and extravagant, 
and he soon failed. It is said that Kedman 
erected the first cabin in Tama county 
north of the Iowa River. 

William Blodgett came from Jackson 
county, Indiana, from whence came 
a number of the early settlers of Tama 
county. He came west in 1851, and on 
the 1st day of August of that year, set- 
tled upon a claim where Tama City now 
is. He is a brother-in-law of Judge J. C. 
Vermilya. and is still living near his origi- 
nal claim. 

Eli Chase settled with his family in 
what is now Columbia township in March 

Early in the spring of 1851, Anthony 
Uricker, and family and Levi Appelgate, 
came from Indiana. Appelgate settled in 
what is now Carlton township, while 
liricker crossed the line and settled in 
Marshall county for a few months when 
he moved into Tama county. Here he 
remanined for a number of years, and now 
after having made his home in several 
states, lives in Idaho Territory. Levi 
Ajipelgate divides his time Ijetween Tama 
county and Nebraska. 

David 1). Appelgate came in tlic fall <>l' 

1851, and made his home with his brother 
Levi. He still lives in Toledo, has served 
the county many years in an oflBcial ca- 
pacity and is now engaged hi the practice 
of law. 

Newell Blodgett came during the sum- 
mer of this year and located in Indian 
Village township, where he still remains. 

William Taylor located at Indiantown 
in May, 1851, and still lives in the same 
township. He is a native of Ohio, but 
came to Iowa directly from Illinois. 

Eli Daily came with his family from 
Jackson county, Indiana, in the summer of 
1851, and located near Indiantown, where 
he opened a farm and remained until the 
time of his death, in 1860. He had been 
one of the associate Judges of the county 
from whence he came and was a man of 
worth and intelligence; a quiet, good citi- 
zen and an honest man. 

John Dooley came at about the same 
time, from Jackson county, Indiana and 
settled near Daily with his family. He 
only remained a few years. He is spoken 
of as a plain, good, sociable and honest 

The man Warner was a German, who 
settled near Indiantown in 1851; but not 
much is remembered of him. 

By this time the southen part of the 
county contained quite a settlement, but 
there was still room for more, and arrivals 
with a view of settling were received with 
cordiality. The year 1852 witnessed 
many additions, among the new settlers 
being Christain and David F. Bruner, .1. 
C. Vermilya, J. II. Ilollen, VV. T. Ilollen, 
the JSlorrisou family, William I'dtls 
Tliomas Everett, Widow Croskrey and 
sons, William H. Wesley, John, Joseph 





and Jacob and one girl, Mr. Beabout, 
Peter Overmire, William Schammerhorn, 
li. W. Wilson, Thomas Skilcs, William 
C'nithers, Washington Abbott, J. II. Voor- 
hies, William Martin, the Myers brothers, 
Henry Lance, Richard Podmore, John 
(Tolwitzer, Zebedee Rush, Ls.aac Butler, 
Samuel Giger and family. 

t^hristian Bruner and his son David F. 
Bruner and their families came to Tama 
county from Ohio in 1852, the former ar- 
riving in the summer and the latter in the 
fall, and making permanent settlements. 
Both had "been here in the fall of the pre- 
vious year. Christian settled in Howard 
township where he erected the first saw- 
mill in the county; was largely interested 
in the platting of Monticello, and was 
otherwise a prominent man in early times. 
David F. Bruner settled in Toledo town- 
ship, where he still lives. He was the 
first treasurer and recorder of the county 
elected, and in the chapter upon " Repre- 
sentation " a sketch of his life will be 

In March, 1852, J. C. Vermilya came 
with his family and located in what is now 
Tama township, where he still lives. He 
was the first judge of Tama county after 
organization, and is noticed at length in 
the chapter upon " Representation. " 

On the 27th of A\m\, 1852, J. H. Hol- 
len and family and W. T. Hollen, from 
Jackson county, Indiana, landed in Tama 
county, settling where Tama city now 
rests. They are still residents of the 
same township, and have taken an active 
and prominent part in the develofunent of 
tiie county. J- H. Hollen was one of the 
first -lustices of the Peace in the county. 

The Morrison family consisted of the 

old gentleman, William Morrison, his wife 
and two sons, George and Henry, togeth- 
er with a son-in-law, William Potts, also 
came in this year. They had taken 
claims and done breaking here in the fall 
of 1851, and in tlie sjiring of 1852 moved 
in, the Morrisons settling in Columbia 
township, and Potts in Richland, although 
at that time there were no township divis- 
ions. The old gentleman and wife are 
dead and buried there on the old home- 
stead. George was a married man ; he 
remained until 1871, when he removed to 
Missouri, where he has since died. George 
was quite a prominent man in early days, 
was one of the first Justices of the Peace 
in the county, was postmaster of Ola post- 
office in 185'i, and was a man of fair abili- 
ty. His great fault was, that he was too 
good natured for his own good ; being a 
man of strict integrity and too inclined to 
think all men like himself. Henry Morri- 
son remained here until 1871, when he 
went to Kansas, where he still lives. He 
was an easy going, clever and genial man. 
William Potts died at an early day. 

Thomas Everett came to I'ama county, 
with his family, from Ohio, in the fall of 
1852, and settled in the territory which 
now comprises Columbia township. He 
remained thereuntil the time of his death, 
which occurred a number of years ago. 
His family still live on the farm. He was 
a large, heavy man, a first rate farmer and 
had accumulated a large property before 
his death. Thomas Everett had been a 
soldier in the war of 1812, and parti cijiat- 
ed in the battle of Limdy's Lane, under 
General Scott. He very much resembled 
General Scott. 

Widow Croskrey and her sons, William 



« w. 




H., Wesley, John, Joseph, ami Jacob, 
and one ilaughtcr, settled in township 82, 
range 15, in the fall of 1852. Mrs. Cros- 
krey died there and the sons are still liv- 
ing in the county. The daughter married 
Geo. W. Louthan, and now lives in 
O'Brien county. 

Mr. Beabout settled in Salt Creek town- 
ship in 1852 with his family. Not much 
is remembered of him more than that he 
was a native of Tennessee and left this 
county years ago. 

Peter Overmire came to Tama county 
in the spring of 1852, and located in Tole- 
do township. He was a natiye of Ohio, 
born in Perry county of that State, Feb- 
ruary 1, 1814. He is a son of Jacob and 
Mary ( Guima ) Overmire, who emigrated 
to Ohio in 1810, being among the early 
settlers of Perry county. Here Peter 
grew to manhood, receiving an education 
in a log cabin. When eighteen years of 
age, he went to Sandusky county, where 
he became acquainted with and married 
Miss Elizabeth Hill on June 24, 1838. 
Five children blessed this union — Eve, 
John F., Levi W., Silas and Mary C. 
Mr. Overmire left Ohio, went to Indiana, 
and, in the summer of 1851, emigrated to 
Iowa City, where he spent the winter, 
emigrating in the spring of 1852, to Tama 
county, and settled on section 6, in Tole- 
do township. About the time of his ar- 
rival, there was a heavy snow storm, the 
snow falling to the depth of eleven inches. 
Mr. Overmire went to work and soon 
erected a log cabin, one among the first in 
the township, here he remained four years, 
when he removed to the vicinity of Monti- 
cello. In tlve spring of 1860, he moved to 
liis present farm, where he has since resid- 

ed. His farm consists of eighty acres of 
land under good cultivation, valued at 
$40.00 per acre, and twenty acres of tim- 
ber. Mr. Overmire is a member of the 
Baptist church and his wife of the 

The Myers brothers came from Indiana 
and located in Toledo township, Tama 
county,in June, 1852. Noah was the princi- 
pal factor of the party, his brothers being 
James, a young man, and Angelo, who 
was married. Noah was the first school 
fund commissioner of the county, and a 
prominent and influential politician in ear- 
ly days. He only remained in the county 
five or six years. He now lives in Mis- 

B. W. Wilson and Thomas Skiles set- 
tled with their families in what is now 
Salt Creek township, south of the river. 

William Cruthers settled with his fami- 
ly north of the river, in the same town- 
ship. He left the county some years ago. 

Washington Abbott and William Mar- 
tin settled with their families in the west- 
ern part of the county in 1852. 

Samuel Giger, E. Moler and R. A. Run- 
die all settled in the county during the 
year 1852. They are noticed elsewhere 
in this work. 

The northern part of Tama county did 
not lie in the same path of travel as the 
southern part. It seems that the valley of 
the Iowa River was followed by emigrants 
mostly from Davenport, Muscatine and 
other points in that direction. Northern 
Tama laid directly in the jiath of those 
coming by way of l)ubu(iue. Thus it was 
much later in receiving settlers. The Io- 
wa river was an established highway for 
travel, and in many places 100 miles west 






of Tama county, there were settlers be- 
fore any settled iu northern Tama, ten 
miles from the river. The first settlers 
in the northern part of the coivnty were 
Norman L. Osborn, David Dean and his 
two sons, Ira and Lewis, who arrived Jan- 
uary 1, 1852. During the summer and 
fall of that year, the following named 
made their appearance, and swelled the 
settlement in that vicinity : Samuel Dun- 
kle, Mr. Springmyer, Nelson Usher, Vol- 
ney Carpenter, Patrick Casey, John Con- 
nelly, Jonas P. Wood, Joseph and John 
Connell, William D. Hitchner, Joshua C. 
and L. E. Wood, Wesley A. Daniels, Dan- 
iel Connell, senior, Robert Connell and 
his sister Margaret, and Otto Story. 

Norman L. Osborne came to Tama coun- 
ty in .January, 1852, and claimed the 
southeast quarter of section 20, Bucking- 
ham township. After a few montlis he 
sold this claim to Mr. Dunkle, and remov- 
ing to what is now Perry township, enter- 
ed the northeast quarter of section 10. 
In 1853 he again sold out to the Taylor 
brothers, and entered the northwest quar- 
ter of the same section, where he broke 
several acres and built a log house. Two 
years later he sold to Stephen Klingaman, 
and sought a new field for speculation. 
At last accounts he was in Missouri. Mr. 
Osborn was a good man, of more than or- 
dinary intelligence. He and his family 
were well liked by his neighbors. 

The same year David Dean and family 
came and settled on the southwest quarter 
of section 27, Perry townshijj. His son 
Ira entered the southeast quarter of sec- 
tion 28, and another son, Lude, settled on 
the northeast quarter of section 33. They 
all sold out in 1855, and went west. One 

of the sons is now at Goldfield, Wright 
county, where he keeps a grocery store 
and meat market. The Dean family came 
from Indiana, and went from here to 
Wright county some time in 185'? or 1858. 
They were good neighbors. 

Mr. Dunkle came to the county in 1852, 
and purchased the farm of Norman L. Os- 
borne, but did not remain long, selling his 
farm and removing from the county. 

Another early settler who came in the 
year 1852, was Patrick Casey, a native of 
Ireland. He settled on secton 25, Buck- 
ingham township. In 1854 he sold his 
farm and went to Geneseo township, where 
he lived for a few years, and then I'emov- 
ed to Kansas. He is not living. Mr. Ca- 
sey was a full-blooded Irishman, and like 
all the rest of his race was genial and 

Otto Story came to Tama county with 
the Dean family in 1852, and made a 
claim on section 33, Buckingham town- 
ship. He did not prove up his claim, but 
sold in 1854, and went to Wright 

The same year Mr. Springmeyer came 
and setttled on section 26, Buckingham 
township, where he remained a short time ; 
then went to Cedar county in this State. 

Some time in June of 1852, Jonas P. 
Wood, William D. Hitchner, and Joseph 
and John Connell came together, and set- 
tled in what is now known as Perry town- 

J. P. Wood entered 400 acres of land 
in the northwest quarter of section 4, the 
north half, of the northwest quarter of 
section 5, in township 86, range 14 ; and 
the southeast quarter of section 3, in 
township 83, range 15. In October of 





that year, Mr. Wood returned to Oliio 
and brought out his family. He still lives 
here on section 4, Perry township. Two 
brothers of Mr. Wood, Joshua C. and 
Lyman E., came with him to Iowa, on his 
return from Ohio. J. C. now lives on 
section 33, Buckingham township, and L. 
E. Tf-sides on section 6, Perry. Sketches 
of them will be fourd elsewhere. 

William Ilitchner, who settled in what 
is now known as Perry township, commit- 
ted suicide in 1874. Details of this may 
be found in the chapter "Miscellaneous." 

The Connell brothers located on the 
north half of the southwest quarter of 
section 4, Perry township, and were join- 
ed in the fall of that year by their father, 
Daniel Connell, now deceased ; their 
brother, Robert, who died in 1876 ; and a 
sister, Margaret. Joseph Connell died in 
September, 1854, while on a trip to Vin- 
ton ; John t'Onnell now resides in Toledo. 
Daniel Connell, Jr., came seyeral years 

W. A. Daniels, also a settler of 1852, 
located on the west half of the southeast 
quarter of section 33, Buckingham, where 
he still lives. 

Nelson Usher and his son-in-law, Vol- 
noy Carpenter, came in 1852, the former 
entering the south half of the southwest 
quarter of section 4, and also a jjart of the 
northwest quarter of section 9, in Perry 
t(>\viiship. He sold in 1854, and went 
west. His son-in-law, Carpenter, followed 
him and at last accounts were both in 

Tills brings the settlement of the whole 
county up to January, 1853, after which 
time immigration set in rapidly. It is un- 
necessary to carry the settlement any 

further in this chapter, as this subject is 
treate I at length in the history of the 
various townships, where the most of the 
pioneers who have here been briefly treat- 
ed, and those who may h.ive been omitted, 
will receive due and lengthy notice. 


Tradition says that the name which 
Tama county bears, was given in honor or 
remembrance of the wife of the Indian 
chief " Poweshiek," after whom the coun- 
ty joining Tama on the south was named. 
In the Indian tongue, the name signifies 
beautiful, pleasant or lovely. This is gen- 
erally accepted and believed to be the 
true source from which came the name of 
the county. There is another thtory ad- 
vanced, however, which sets forth that the 
name was derived from that of an Indian 
chief " Pottama. " 


The occupancy of this territory by In- 
dians is treated at length in another chap- 
ter. In 1845-6, the tribe was removed to 
the reservation assigned them in Kansas, 
but many of them wandered back to the 
old hunting grounds, and began settling 
upon the tract of land where they yet re- 
main. Soon afterward the territory of 
Tama county was attached to Benton coun- 
ty for Revenue, Judicial and civil purpo- 
ses, to accommodate the few settlers. A 
portion of the county was surveyed in 
1843, and it was completed during 1845 
and J 846 by A. L. Brown and his corps of 
assistants. In 1848 entries of land were 
made and soon afterward the pioneers be- 
gan drifting into Tama county. In 1850 
the U. S. census gave the county a popu- 
lation of eight, but in reality it was about 
double that number. This rapidly increas- 






ed until in the spring of 1853 there were 
a number of neighborhoods in various 
parts of the county, which made a total 
population of considerably over 200. Early 
in 185:! the settlers began talking ' f the 
need of having some political organization. 
After considerable agitation, the matter 
was brought to a culmination by the pre- 
sentation of a petition to the county judge 
of Benton for the organization of the coun- 
ty into townships. This petition was sign- 
ed by most of the inhabitants of the coun- 
ty ; but who they were it is impossible at 
this late day to tell, as the petition itself 
has years ago been destroyed. 

Upon receiving this application, the 
county judge of Benton county issued or- 
ders for the organization of Tama county 
into three civil townships. These orders 
have also been lost ; but Daniel Connell, 
of Gladbrook, was thoughtful enough to 
make a transcript of the one authorizing 
the organization of the northern part of 
the county. This one reads as follows : 
" State of Iowa, [ ss 
Benton County, J 

7'o iV. i. Osborne, John Connell and Da- 
vid Dean: 

You are hereby notified that the Coun- 
ty Court of said County has this day or- 
ganized the following described townships 
into a Civil Township, for Judicial purpo- 
ses, viz :' Townships 85 and 86, in range 
1:5 ; 85 and 86, in range 14 ; 85 and 86, in 
range 15, west, in Tama County, Iowa ; 
and has appointed you the Trustees of 
said Township, and you are hereby au- 
thorized to call, according to law, and 
.,'ive necessary notice, and hold an elec- 
tion on the first Monday of April, A. D., 
185.3, as provided for in the Statutes. 

{ Signed ) J. C. Teaer, 

Clerk of the Court. 

By order of County Judge." 

The order bore no date, but it is pre- 
sumed to have been made some time in 
February, 1853. An informal meeting of 
the citizens was held to give name to the 
towns thus organized. The men failing to 
agree, it was left to Miss Margaret Con- 
nell, and she named it Buckingham, in 
honor of Gov. William A. Buckingham, 
of Norwich, Connecticut. 

By this it will be seen that Buckingham 
embraced the territory now organized in- 
to the following civil townships : Gene- 
seo, Buckingham, Grant, Crystal, Perry 
and Clark. 

The other two orders mentioned hereto- 
fore were for the organization of Howard 
and Indian Village Townships. Howard 
embraced the territory now comprising Co- 
lumbia, Toledo, Tama, Howard, Carroll, 
Otter Creek, Richland, Salt Creek, York 
and Oneida. Indian ^'illage embraced all 
the balance of the county. The electors 
of Buckingham met at the house of Nor- 
man L. Osborn ; those of Indian Village 
at the house of Eli W. Daily, and those 
of Howard at the residence of Rezin A. 
Redman. The townships were thus legal- 
ly organized. Thus was the territory of 
Tama coamty first set apart from all else, 
and the wheels of local government .started. 
In the meantime a movement for a coun- 
ty organization had been set on foot, and 
in March, 1853, a majority of the citizens 
of Tama county petitioned the County 
Judge of Benton County for the necessa- 
ry order for a county organization. The 
order was accordingly issued, command- 
jng that an election be held on the first 

— ^9 




Monday in May, 1853, for the election of 
county officers, who should perfect the 
county organization, and serve until the 
ensuing regular election in August. On 
the day set the election was held, and re- 
sulted in the choice of the first county of- 
ficers of T.ama County, as follows : 

County Judge, Tallman Chase ; Prose- 
cuting Attorney, John Huston ; Clerk of 
the Courts, David D. Applegate ; Survey- 
or, Wesley A. Daniels. For School Fund 
Commissioner, David F. Bruner and An- 
thony Wilkinson received an equal num- 
ber of votes, so neither was elected. 

The entry upon the record books regard- 
ing this election is a curiosity. A third of 
a century has nearly obliterated the marks 
of pen and ink, but, as best it can be read, 
the entry is liere presented rerbathri : 

" Be it remembered that on day of 

March 1853 a majority of the citizens of 
Tama county petitioned to the Judge of 
Benton county Iowa, to be organized, 
where upon receiving the said petition, an 
order was issued to hold an election on 
the first Monday in May 1853. Due notice 
was given, the election was held and the 
Returns was made to Benton county, the 
following officers was elected : Tallman 
Chaise, Co. Judge ; John Huston, Pros. 
Atty ; David D. Applegate, Clerk of the 
District Court. 

David F. Bruner and Anthony Wilkin- 
son was tie for School Fund Commission- 
ers. Wesley A. Daniels, Surveyor. 

The following officers qualified in time 
prescribed by law : John Huston, Pros. 
Atty.; David D. Applegate, Clerk of the 
District Court and Wesley A. Daniel, Co. 
Surveyor. Joun Hu.ston, 

Pros. Attv." 

Several of the officers did not (jualify, as 
the emoluments of the office would not 
pay for the trouble, and the regular elec- 
tion for officers for the full term would 
take jilace the following August. A local 
writer says of it: "They realized that 
they might not be in office long enough to 
get their seats warm before being invited 
to step down and out." However, these 
were the first county officers ever elected, 
and as was the j)revailing custom of those 
days, it is said they indulged, one and all, 
in a jolly time. Thus was the judicial 
life of Tama county " brought before tiie 

Those officers who did (|ualify, went to 
Vinton, Benton county, to be sworn in by 
the county Judge of that county. Those 
who qualified afterward, were sworn in by 
the prosecuting attorney of 'J'ama county. 

On the fourth Monday in July, lKo3, 
the first term of court was held, and, as 
Tallman Chase, who had been elected 
county Judge had not qualified, this term 
was presided over by the prosecuting at- 
torney, John Huston. It was held at the of Huston in Indian Village town- 
ship. At this time Davi<l F. Bruner was 
appointed Treasurer and recorder to serve 
until the ensuing August election. Nor- 
man L. Osborn was appointed Sheriff as 
he had failed to qualify within the time 
set by law. 

The tie for school fund commissioner 
was settled by the appointment of Noah 
Myers to the office. 

On the first Monday in August, ]S53, 
Tama county was permanently organized 
by the election of county officers for the 
regular term of two years. There were 
seventy-two votes polled, and from the 





returns it seems that politics did not enter 
into the campaign at all. There were 
three candidates for county judge, John 
C. Vermilya, James H. Hollen and J. P. 
Wood, and the former was successful by 
a majority of four votes. There were 
two candidates for Treasurer and Record- 
er, John Ross and David T. Bruner. 
Ross being successful by a majority of 'iO. 
For Sheriff, there were three. Miron 
Blodgett, W. F. Hollen and N. L. Osborn, 
and the first named came out ahead with 
eleven votes to spare. The " woods were 
full of candidates ; " for coroner, there 
being Franklin Davis, who received 40 
votes; Zebedee Rush, 15 ; J. H. Voor- 
hies, 10 ; Franklin Vorn, 4 ; and Wesley 
A. Daniels, 18 ; Wesley A. Daniels was 
elected surveyor with but little opposition. 
This makes the list — county judge, John 
C. Vermilya ; treasurer and recorder, John 
Ross ; sheriff, Miron Blodgett ; coroner, 
Franklin Davis ; surveyor, Wesley A. 
Daniels. The board of canvassers at this 
election was composed of John Huston, 
Robert Wilkinson, and William Booher. 
There were three voting precincts, How- 
ward, Buckingham and Indian Village. 


As soon as the organization of the 
county was permanently effected, the mat- 
ter of the location of the county seat pre- 
sented itself. Hon. James P. Carlton, 
Judge of the Fourth Judicial District, ap- 
pointed Joseph M. Ferguson of Mar- 
shall county, and R. B. Ogden, of Powe- 
shiek county, commissioners to Jocate a 
seat of justice for Tama county. They 
met at the house of John C. Vermilya, on 
the -.iUth day of October, 1853, and start- 
ed out in quest of a location. They first 

examined a quarter section near Bruner 
Mill, in Howard township. At this time, 
this was about the most notable point in 
the county. The town of Monticello had 
been here platted, and a saw mill erected 
by Christian Bruner. The commissioners 
were strongly inclined to at this 
point. David T. Bruner offered to give 
20 acres from the north part of his farm, 
on section 4 ; Christian Bruner offered 
twenty acres of the town site of Monti- 
cello, and twenty adjoining it on the north. 
But this difficulty arose : Adam Zehrung 
owned one-half of the townsite of Mon- 
ticello, and he refused to donate any of it, 
but insisted upon keeping the very centre 
of the town. In lieu thereof he offered 
to give twenty acres of bottom land, be- 
longing to his son, which was not fit to 
erect a house upon. The commissioners 
looked the matter over, and tried to per- 
suade Zehrung to give it up, and all the 
neighbors joined, but to no avail. Chris- 
tian Bruner offered to buy the land, pro- 
posing to give three times its value, but 
Zehrung refused to sell at any price, think- 
ing the county seat would be located 
there any way. Then Christian Bruner 
offered 160 acres of raw prairie, lying 
near the present location of Howard cem- 
etery, but this the commissioners refused 
to consider, because it was too far from 
water, and was not suitable. The Com- 
missioners^then moved' on and examined 
other locations. 

In the meantime quite a crowd of citi- 
zens had assembled, but the extreme 
southern part of the county had scarcely 
heard of it Finally Noah Myers started 
out to get help in the effort to secure the 
location as far south as possible. Going 





on a run to J. H. Hollins, he roused him 
by exclaiming . " What in thunder are 
you laying aronnd here for, when there is 
a county seat at stake ? " Hollen had ni>t 
heard that the commissioners had arrived, 
but it did not take him long to under- 
stand the situation, as ]\Iyers had been 
with the commissioners. In a few mo- 
ments they had decided upon a jilan to get 
it located where Toledo now rests. At 
that time this was school land, and was 
claiiTied by John Sporh, Solomon Iluf- 
ford, John Ross and Peter Overmire. 
The commissioners had decided not to 
consider bids of less than 80 acres, and 
Hollen and Myers immediately started for 
the houses of these settlers to get them to 
offer 20 acres each, thus making 80, which 
they at once agreed to do, so it only re- 
mained to arrange with the commission- 
ers. Hollen and Myers came upon the 
commissioners at the farm ot . Samuel 
Walkup, .and after a short explanation the 
whole crowd moved toward the present 
site of Toledo. While they were passing 
the house of Solomon Hufford, R. B. Og- 
den, one of the commissioners, picked up 
a stake and sharpened it, without sayinga 
word. When they arrived upon the spot 
now occupied by the Toledo Hotel Block, 
he halted and exclaimed : " Oentlemen, 
here is the spot that shall be the future 
county seat of Tama County ! " He then 
drove in the stake with an ax, which had 
been brought for the purjwse. This clos- 
ed their labors. The location was de- 
scribed as follows : Southwest quarter of 
southeast (juarter, and west half of south- 
east quarter of southeast quarter ; and 
south half of the northwest quarter, of 
the southeast quarter, of section 15, town- 

ship 83, range 15. 

The commissioners had the right to 
name the future county seat, but for some 
reason they failed to do so, and it took 
the name of Toledo from the postoffice, 
which had been established during the 
summer, with J. H. Hollen, as postmas- 
ter. Mr. Hollen got the name from read- 
ing the book, " Knight of Toledo, in 
Spain. " 


The first marriage in the county was 
that of Myron Blodgett to Miss Sarah 
Cronk, August U, 1853. The happy 
couple were united by John C. Vermilya, 
county judge. This was Judge Vermi- 
lya's first effort in this line and he was not 
a little embarrassed, it is said. Blodgett, 
in a joke, called upon him ijumediately 
after he qualified. 

The second marriage was that of Fred- 
erick L. Knott to Martha Gayor, in Buck- 
ingham township, on the IGth of October, 
1853, the ceremony being performed by 
Rev. S. W., who still resides in 
the county, ripe with many years of useful 

The first death in the county was Frank- 
lin, a son of David F. and Catharine Bru- 
ner who died September 19th, 1852. 

The second death as near as can be as- 
certained, was that of Miss Maria Blodg- 
ett, which occurred early in the spring of 

The next was William T., a son of Mr. 
and Mrs. J. II. Hollen, who died April 1, 
1853. The little <iiic was born February 
9, 1853. 

Will iaiii Hit ell lie rand wife lia<l a daught- 
er born to them on December 1st, 1852, 
and it is claimed upon good authority that 




« ^ 




tliis was the first birth in the county. 
They lived in Northern Tama. 

The first fire and destruction of proper- 
ty in the county, was the burning of the 
log cabin of Alexander Fowler, in what is 
now York township, in the fall of 1853. 

The first county warrants Nos. 1, -i, 3 
and 4, amounting to $19.50, were issued 
October 18, 1853, to David F. Bruner for 
services as assessor of Howard township. 

The first fiouring mill was erected by 
C. Bruner late in the winter of 1854. He 
did not get to grinding until the spring of 

About the same time the Indiantown 
mill was erected. 

As early as .July, 1852, a methodist de- 
vine — Rev. Hesswood — held religious ser- 
vices at Indiantown, in the cabins of 
various settlements, but no organization 
was effected. 

The next preaching in Tama county was 
by the Rev. Stone, a Presbyterian minister 
from Iowa City, in the winter of 1852-3. 
Services were held at the house of Chris- 
tian Bruner, in Howard township. 

Religious services were held at the 
house of Norman L. Osborn in Perry 
township in the latter part of May, 1853, 
with Rev. Solomon W. Ingham as preach- 
er. The reverend gentleman organized a 
class the same time and Ira Taylor was 
appointed leader. This meeting was held 
on what is now the site of Traer under 
the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal 
church and the organization was known as 
the " Tama Mission." 

Their first quarterly services were held 
Novembet 26, 1853, as the house of Zebe- 
dee Rush, near Toledo, and Elder Ingham 
delivered the sermon. They built their 

first church in Toledo in 1856. 

The first Congregational Church in 
Tama County was organized at Toledo In 
December, 1754, with a membership of 
nine. Rev. George H. Woodward was the 
first pastor and came in 1856. They 
erected and dedicated toeir first church in 

The first regular Baptist Church was 
organized at Toledo, JNIay 20, 1855 with 
a membership of sixteen persons, and 
Rev. George G. Edwards as pastor. 

The first Presbyterian Church in Tama 
County was organized by the settlers of 
Carlton township on the 20th of August, 
1855, called "Rock Creek Church" with 
ten members and James Laughlin and 
James Reed as elders. 

The first citizen to become naturalized 
was Gotlieb Waggoner, who received his 
final papers from Judge Smyth on the 20th 
of May, 1856. At the same time Jt)hn 
Waltz was naturalized. 

The first will probated was the will of 
James Hatfield, deceased, on the 27th day 
of November, 1854, in County Court, by 
John C. Vermilya, County Judge. 

The first letters of Administration were 
issued to Nathaniel E. Horton, October 
23rd, 1854. Amos Hatfield was the first 
guardian ajjpointed by the County Court 
on November 29th 1854. 

The first lo|ige of " Free and Accepted 
Masons" was organized at Indiantown. 
Their dispensation was received August 
4, 1867. Their charter was received June 
2, 1858, and called "Polar Star Lodge, No. 
115." The charter members were W. C. 
Salsbury, W. M.; Charles Gray, Jr., S. 
W.; S. Cronk, J. W. It was named by 
Judge Salsbury. 




Prior to the latter part of 1883, the 
pioneers traveling through this region 
usually followed trails, ](atbs, kept the set- 
ting sun straight ahead and followed any 
other devise to keep in the right direction. 
On July 1, 185.3, a State Road was laid out 
by the Legislature, running from Marengo 
to Fort Dodge through the southern part 
of Tama county. During the year fol- 
lowing (1854) a mail route was established 
from Merengo to Marietta, in Marshall 
county along this road. Prior to this, in 
the summer of 1853 a post office had been 
established with James II. Hollen as post 
master. In January, 1854, a post office 
was established at Kinnesaw, with An. 
tliony Wilkinson as post master, his com- 
mission bearing the date of February L'7, 
1854. These — the State road, mail route 
and post offices — were the first established 
in the county. They gave material aid to 
the settlers, and seemed in a degree to 
be a connecting link between their east- 
ern homes and the Far West. 

In August, 1853, the A. D. Stephen's 
and Hardin county road was located. 

In December of the same year a State 
road running from A. D. Stephen's place 
to Indiantown was located running north 
from the Iowa river, and with the streams 
temporarily bridged proved a great benefit 
to the country. 

Early in 1854, a road was located from 
J. H. Hollen's place, near the Iowa river 
running northwesterly to James Laugh 
lins house in Carlton township. 

On the 30th of May, 1854, the Black 
Hawk and Toledo road was located by 
way of Toledo and Buckingham to Black 
Hawk county. 

On the 15th of July, the same year, a 

road from Bruner's mill in Toledo town- 
ship to Salt Creek, was located and opened. 
On July 29, 1855, a road from Vinton 
to Newton by way of Toledo was located, 
and others followed rapidly, showing that 
Tama county pioneers had the determina- 
tion, energy and enterprise to carry it 
through, and to have the county open to 
travel and free communication. 


Buckingham township has the honor of 
passing into history as the first to celebrate 
the anniversary of American Independ- 
ence. It took place in 1853, and was en- 
tered into with a zeal and patriotism which 
has never since been surpassed. Probably 
no celebration since that time in Tama 
county has been more thoroughly enjoy cfl, 
and at that time, all being socially etjual, 
the brotherhood and common interest of 
human beings was felt and illustrated in a 
way that made the occasion doubly happy. 
The most important workers in the 
movement to inaugurate the celebration, 
were. Col. John Connell, J. C. Wood, J. 
P. Wood and Wesley A. Daniels. A sub- 
scri])tion paper was started, which was 
signetl by about twenty persons subscrib- 
ing in all, the amount of ^9.'i'5 ! The' col- 
lector of this subscription was Joshua C. 
Wood, and the list is still in his hands. 
The preamble is in the hand-writing of 
John Connell, and is in a good state of 
preservation, but the names signed are fast 
being obliterated. One name, remember- 
ed as that of Alvah L. Dean, cannot be 
distinguished at all, and those of L. E. 
Wood and Joseph Connell can barely be 
read. John Connell and J. C. Wood went 
to Cedar Rapids and procured the neces- 





saiy eatables, as that was the nearest point 
where provisions could be obtained. It 
was the intention to have the celebration 
begin in the morning of July 4, lS5;i, but 
the day before a heavy rain came and the 
streams were swollen to unusual propor- 
tions, so that it was with ditliculty that 
those who attended, reached the place to 
open the ceremonies in the afternoon and 
many were prevented from coming. About 
seventy-five persons were present, and had 
it not been for the high water, it is said 
that nearly the whole comity would have 
been in attendance. Swings were put up 
which furnished amusement for the young 
people ; some good singing enjoyed and 
the balance of the afternoon spent in 
social talk and having a pleasant visit. 
Several short speeches were made but no 

oration. In the evening a fine supper was 
prepared, which the assemblage greatly 
enjoyed, and the feast to this day, is often 
spoken of as being the best the partici- 
pants ever ate. After this they all return- 
ed to their homes, feeling that the day had 
been well spent. 

In 1854 a celebration was held at Ver 
milya's Grove, near the present site of 
Tama City. It was very largely attended) 
there being about 500 persons present. 
Orations were delivered by Alfred Phil- 
lips and Rev. Mr. Petefish. A table 200 
feet long was spread and all were fed in 

royal style. A notable feature was ice 
water, the ice having been furnished by J. 
C. Vermilya. No liquor was on the 
ground and not a drunken man was seen. 



For a few years j)rior to the organi/.a- 
tiori of Tama county, the territory now 
comprising it was attached to Benton for 
civil and judicial purposes. On the 10th 
of March, 1853, the voters of Tama coun- 
ty presented a petition to the County Judge 
of Benton asking for a separate organiza- 
tion. This was granted and the county 
effected a temporary organization by the 
election of the following named officers: 

Tallman Chase, County Judge; David D 
Appelgate, Clerk of Courts; Norman L. 
Osborn, Sheriff; John Huston, Prosecu- 
ting Attorney; Wesley A. Daniels, County 
Surveyor; David F. Bruner and Anthony 
Wilkinson received an equal number of 
votes for School Fund Commissioner, but 
Noah Myers received the appointment. 
This election was held on the first Monday 
of May 1853, and as the organization was 

9 fy 

9 ft^ 

^ » 




merely tempi irary, many of the officers did 
not (jualify. 

The next and first regular election was 
held on the first Monday in August, 1853, 
and the following officers were elected: 
County Judge, John C. Vermilya; Treas- 
urer and Recorder, John Ross; Coroner, 
Franklin Davis; Surveyor, W.. A. Daniel; 
Sheriff, Norman L. Osborn. This set the 
governmental wheels of the county in 
motion, and their busy hum has since con- 
tinued without interruption. The details 
of matters pertaining to organization, elec- 
tions and county officers, will be found 
elsewhere in this volume. 

In early days the mode of county gov- 
ernment differed very much from that of 
the present day. The executive depart- 
ment was vested in what was termed a 
" County Court," which exercised the same 
jursidiction and had the same powers 
which are now held by the County Board 
of Supervisors, and in addition to thii-- 
had jurisdiction in all cases of a civil 
nature which now come before the Circuit 
Court, together with probate and marriage 
license matters. The court consisted of 
the County Judge, Sheriff and a Clerk. 
The former had all the authority and the 
two latter, when they acted at all, were 
assistants. Thus the office of County 
.ludge was one of much importance. 


On the organization of Tama county it 
comprised three townshijis — Howard, In- 
dian \'illage and Buckingham. Each of 
these townships was organized by orderof 
llie County Judge of Benton county. 

The qualified electors of Howard town- 
ship met at the house of Rezin A. Red- 
man, and organized the township, tjjg 

boundary lines of which were as follows : 
Beginning at the southwest corner of 
township 82, north of range 15 west, 
thence to the northwest corner of town- 
ship 84, north of range 15 west, thence 
east to the north east corner of township 
84, north of range 13 west, thence south to 
the southeast corner of township 82, north 
of range 13 west, thence to the place of 
beginning. , 

Indian Village township was organized 
at the house of Eli W. Daily. Its boun- 
dary lines were as follows, as described in 
the records of the County Court : " Con- 
taining the west tier of Congi'essional 
townships in said county, which is town- 
ship 82, north of range 16 west, 
and tawnship 83, north of range 
16 west, township 84, north of range 10 
west, township 85, north of range 16 west, 
and township 86, north of range 16 west." 
The qualified electors of Buckingham 
township met at the house of N. L. Os- 
born, and organized the township, which 
was bounded as follows : — " Beginning at 
the southwest corner of township 85, north 
of range 15 west, thence north to the 
northwest corner of townsliip 86, north of 
range 15 west, thence east to the south- 
east corner of said county, thence south 
along said county line to the southeast cor- 
ner of township 85, north of range 13 
west, thence west to the j>lace of begin- 

The first session of county court was 
held at the house of John Huston, in In- 
dian Village township in 1853. 

Tallman Chase who had been elected 
county judge, had failed to qualify, and 
this term was ])resided over by the prose 
cuting attorney, John Huston. 




The first term of the county court, pre- 
sided over by Judge Vermilya, was held 
at the house of the Judge in October, 
1853. At this time the officers of the 
county made settlement with the county 
judge. The record is as follows : — 

Fees received by County Judge !}; 2 10 

Fees received by Clerk 3 35 

Fees received by Recorder iind Treas- 
urer . 

Due C'ouiUy Judge for salary 10 40 

Due CMerk for five month's salary 17 40 

Due Recorder and Treasurer for five 

months salary 13 50 

Warrants No. 1, 2, 3 and 4 were issued 
in favor of David Hruner for services ren- 
dered in assessing Howard township. Tte 
amount issued was for |19 50. 

The third record made by the County 
Judge was the report of the commission- 
ers to locate the county seat, of which 
mention is made elsewhere in this work. 
At the April term, 1854, the county of- 
ficers again made settlement, the record 
of which is as follows: 
Fees received by the County Judge for 

last quarter f 5 15 

Fees received by Clerk for last quarter. . 3 60 
Pees received l)y Recorder and Treamrer 

for last quarter 37 00 

Balance due (!ounty Judge for last quar- 
ts 7 35 

Balance Clerk for last quarter 9 90 

At this term a warrant was issued to 
the Sheriff for the organization of the 
following named townships. 

Carlton township to contain all of In- 
dian Village township that lies north of 
the Iowa river, its first election to be held 
at the house of William Murtz on the 
first Monday in April, 1854. 

Richland township to contain all of 
Howard township that lies south of the Iowa 



River, the first election to be held at the 
house of Aluson P. Rich on the first Mon- 
day in April, 1854. 

Salt Creek township to contain all of 
Howard township that lies east of the west 
line of range 15 west and north of the 
Iowa river, the first election to be held at 
the house of Levi Marshes, on the first 
Monday in April 1854. 

At the August term, 1854, settlement 
was made by the county ofiicers, showing 
the following amounts : 
Fees received by county Judge for last 

quarter |8 85 

Fees received by Clerk for last quarter. . 3 20 
Fees received by Treasurer and Recorder 

for last quarter 37 90 

Salary due county Judge 16 58 

Contingent expenses of county Judges 

allowed by Prosecuting attorney 75 00 

Clerk's salary 16 58 

Treasurer and Recorder's salary 16 58 

Prosecuting Attorney 9 00 

On the 5th day of February, 1856, the 
county Court met and received the petition 
of a number of the citizens of Bucking- 
ham township, for its division and the 
creation of a new township. The 
prayer of the petitioners was granted 
and a township was organized comprising 
Congressional township 86, north of range 
13 west of the 5th principal meridian, (o 
be known as Geneseo township. 

At the same term the townships of Co- 
lumbia, Otter creek, and Toledo were 
formed. The township of Columbia was 
formed from the township of Richland 
and was made to comprise Con- 
gressional township 82, north of range 
15, and that portion of township 83 range 
15, that lies on the soutTi side of the Iowa 
river. Otter Creek township was formed 
from Howard township and was made to 




-4 9 



comprise all of Congressional township 83, 
north of range 14, and that portion of town- 
ship 82, range 14, that lies on the north side 
of the Iowa river. Toledo township was 
also formed from Howard and made to 
comprise that part of Congressional town- 
ship 83, range 15, lying north of the Iowa 
river. Howard township, thus divided, 
as described upon the record " shall em- 
brace only the congressional townships 84, 
range 15, and township 84, range 14, and 
no more, and be hereafter bounded by the 
said lines, bounding said Congressional 
township and no more and no less." 

The election for Howard township was 
ordered to be held at the house of Benja- 
min Hamuiit ; in Otter Creek township at 
the house of A. Tomj)kins ; in Geneseo 
at the house of Nathaniel Spencer ; in 
Columbia at the house of Joshua Burley. 

On the second of October, 1854, by 
order of the County County, a proposition 
was submitted to the people " For or 
Against the Distraining of Sheep and 
Swine from running at large in the county 
from and after April 1st, 1855." The vote 
was canvassed by .John 0. Vermilya, 
County .Judge, Zachariah T. Shugart and 
Benjamin Hammit, and it was decided 
that " ninety votes were east for Distrain- 
ing, and forty-nine votes cast against Dis- 
training." Therefore it is presumed they 
were "Distrained." 

The iirst case of pauperism in Tama 
County was that of Charles Potter's fam- 
ily. It seems that Potter had deserted 
ills family, leaving them destitute. The 
County Court ordered that the property 
lie had left be used for the sustenance of 
the deserted family. This reconl liears 
the date of March 5, 1856, at which time 

Alfred Phillips is acting in the (Mpacity 
of ex-office County Judge. 

At a term of County Court held upon 
the 10th day of M rch, 1856, the town- 
ship of Salt Creek was divided and that 
of York was formed, as embracing town- 
ship 84, range 13, and township 83, 
range 13. Notice was given to James R. 
(4rahani to call the first election at his 
house on the first Monday in April, 1856, 
and organize the new township. A pe- 
tition was presented to the Judge on the 
22nd of March, 1856, to again consolidate 
the townships, but he refused to comply 
with the re<iuest. 

Judge Vermilya, at a session held on 
the first day of May, 1856, appointed John 
H. Myers as agent of the county for one 
year to sell li(|uors for medicinal, mechani- 
cal and sacramental purposes. The record 
adds " subject to I'cvocation for cause or at 
my pleasure ; annual salary of agent shall 
be dollars." 

At the same term the boundaries of the 
townships of Salt Creek and York, were 
slightly changed. 

At the July term, in 1856, a settlement 
was made with the countj' officials and it 
appears from the records that, for the 
quarter ending July 7th, they had iecei\ ed 
salaries as follows : 

Jobn C. Vtu'inilya, County Judge, $ 4 50 

D D. Ai)pleKate, Clerk ('f Courts, 'I'J 35 

G. Q. Staley, Treasurer and Recorder,. . . Kid 35 
Salarly due Judge over what liad been 

received 45 5(1 

BalaQCe duecnuuty f r >m Clerk !) 35 

" " " " Staley U(i 25 

Due Prosecuting Attorney for salary,. ... 20 00 
Due Sherill' for salary, 5 00 

Then followed receipts from the various 



• — fc- 

_^l » 




On the 9tli of August, 1856, it appeared 
to tlie Judge that the removal of the agent 
for selling intoxication liquors in the Vil- 
lage of Toledo, would be a benefit to the 
citizens, and he therefore revoked the 
license he had given to John H. Myers, 
and appointed Ira J. Wilkins, of Toledo 
township, in his stead. 

The labors of the year 18.57 were opened 
by the county court in session on the fifth 
of .lanuary, at which the usual settlement 
with the county officers was made. 

At the March term in 1857, the t wn- 
ship of Crystal was formed by the division 
of Buckingham; and Carroll was formed 
by the division of Howard. A warrant 
was issued to J. S. IJishop to organize 
Crystal, and one to Nathan Fisher to 
organize Carroll. 

The Judge fixed tlie bonds of various 
officers as follnws: County Treasurer, 
*10,0()0; Sheriff, * 1 0,000; Justices of the 
Peace, * 1,000; Constables, $1,000. 

During September of this year the name 
cf John C. ^'errailya drops from sight, 
Leander Clark taking his place, signing 
the records as county Judge. 

In December 18.57, the county Judge 
ordered that the School Fund Commisioner 
file a bond in addition to what had been 
filed in the amount of !i!iI7,000, the former 
amount not being deemed sufficent. L. S. 
Frederick was Commissioner at this time. 

On the 12th of February 1858, James 
Thorington, of Davenport was appointed 
special agent to select the swamp lands 
belonging to this county. 

About the same time, the entry beinf>- 
dated March 1st, the township of Buck- 
ingham was divided and Perry township 
was set off and ordered organized the 

warrant for calling the first election being 
issued to J. W. Southwick. The meeting 
was duly held on the first Monday in 
April 1858, at the store occupied by Geo. 
W. Free, Jr , in the village of West Union, 
and an organization was permanently 

The boundaries of the townshii)S of 
Toledo, Columbia, Richland and Otter 
Creek were also slightly changed. Carl- 
ton was divided and Sjjring Creek town- 
ship created. A warrant was issued to 
G. M. Fincli commanding him to call the 
first election of the new township at the 
house of William B. King. 

At a session of the county Court on 
March 3, 1859, the county Judge, ordered 
that the following proposition be submit- 
ted to the legal voters of Tama county, 
viz: "Shall the county Judge in behalf of 
said county issue county bonds to the 
amount of $40,000 to draw interest at the 
rate of six per cent per annum, as a dona- 
tion to the Iowa State Agricultural College 
and Model Farm, and the Board of E(iual- 
ization of Tama county be authorized to 
levy upon taxable property of said county 
two and one-half mills ujion the dollar of 
the valuation thereof, annually until an 
amount sufficient to liquidate said bonds 
and int rest shall be raised; the first levy 
to be made at the meeting of said board 
for the levy of ordinary taxes in the year 
1859, all to be done expressly on the con- 
dition that the said "Iowa State Agricul- 
tural College and Model Farm" shall be 
located in Tama county." 

The election was duly held and resulted 
in there being 444 votes in favor of the 
proposition and 195 against it. The offer, 
however, was not liberal enough and Story 









county secured the college. 

The following entry appears upon the 
record under the date of May 19th 1859, 
and explains itself. 

"To the Hon. Leauder Clark, County 

Judge of Tama county: This is to certify 

that at a meeting of the Presidents of the 

several township school districts in Tama 

county, the County Superintendents were 

allowed the sum of $100 by the said board 

of Presidents for the year ending April 

5th, 1859. 

Signed, ) W. C. Salsbury, Chairman, 
f T. A. Graham, Sec'y. 

At the July term of 1859 the matter of 
settlement with the various county officials 
again came up, and the following entry 
was made as to their salaries for the quar- 
ter ending July 4th, 1859, viz: 

Couuty Judge had Received $ 2 35 

Couuly Clerk had Received 128 45 

CouQly Treasurer aud Recorder R'c'd. . . 12;-! 90 
Salary due Judge above what he had 

Received 97 65 

Salary due Sheriff 10 00 

Due County from Clerk 28 45 

Due CouQty from Treas. and Recorder 23 90 

Then follows the receipts from the 

It will be noticed that often a long time 
elapses between the date of the extracts 
given. The balance of the time was spent 
in routine work, such as the issuance of 
marriage licences, attending to petitions, 
and like matters of no especial interest. 

In the winter of 1859-60, the General 
Assembly passed an • act which was duly 
signed by the Governor changing the mode 
of government in the various counties in 
the State, and creating the county Board 
of Supervisors. This body took charge of 
nearly all of the business formerly attend- 
ed to by the Judge of the County Court 

The office of County Judge, however, was 
continued until 1809, that officer having 
only jurisdiction in probate matters and 
the issuance of marriage licenses. Noth- 
ing of note transpired and a list of the 
various gentlemen who held the office of 
County Judge, will be found in connec- 
tion with the chapter upon National, State 
and County Representation, where sketch- 
es of each will also appear. 

In the new system — the Board of Suj)er- 
visors — consisted of one member from 
each township. 


Pursuant to law, the first meeting of the 
Board of Supervisors was held on the 7 th 
day of January, 1861, at the court house 
in Toledo; It was organized by appoint- 
ing Jonathan Peterson, temporary chair- 
man. The various townships were repre. 
sented by the following gentlemen — their 
respective townships and terms being 
marked opposite their names : 

Anthony Bricker, 1 year Indian Village 

Wesley A. Daniel, 2 years Buckingham 

T. Forker, 2 years Richland 

Wm. Gallagher, Jr., 1 year Howard 

B. A. Hall. 2 years Toledo 

Robison, Johnston, 2 years Highland 

Lucius Kibbe, 2 years Carroll 

A. C. Marston, 1 year Spring Creek 

G. G. Mason, 1 year Oneida 

M. Mitchell, 1 year Otter Creek 

Janathan Peterson, 1 year Carlton 

8. C. Rogers, 2 years Crystal 

P. L. Sherman, 1 year Qeneseo 

J. W. Southwick, 1 year Perry 

T. S. Talmage, 1 year Clark 

Isaac Toland, 2 jears Columbia 

James A. Willy 2 years Salt Creek 

L. B. Dresser, 2 years York 

The board proceeded to the election of 
a permanent cliairnian which resulted in 
jhe choice of P. L. Sherman, he receiving 

~» — 




ten votes and Jonathan Peterson seven. 
Committees were appointed to draft rules 
for the government of the body and order 
of business. 

At the same session the board appropri- 
ated the sum of 1104, for the support of 
the poor persons and paupers already on 
the county for the six months ending July 
Ist, 1861. 

On the 11th of January, 18G1, the com- 
mittee appointed to investigate the school 
fund matter reported as follows: 

"We, your committee appointed to ex- 
amine into the affairs of the School Fund 
beg leave to make the following report: 
Having examined the books and papers 
connected with the said School Fund we 
find the reports of the officers correct. 
We also ascertain that there are three 
tliousand and two hundred acres of land 
belonging to the said fund, the sales of 
which have been declared fraudulent. We 
also ascertain that there are 960 acres of 
these lands on which the payments have 
been made and patents issued. We there- 
fore recommend that the sales of these 
lands on which the patents have been 
issued, be considered legal, and that here 
after taxes be levied on the same." 
A. Bricker, ) 

G. G. Mason, [ Committee. 
T. S. Talmage, ) 

On the .5th of June, 1861, Spring Creek 
township was divided, and a new civil 
township under the name of Lincoln, was 
created. A warrant was issued to Joseph 
Prescott, commanding him to call the first 
election at his house. 

During this term Judge Leander Clark 
presented his resignation as County Judge, 
and it being referred to a committee, was 

reported on as follows : 

" WiiERKAS, Leander Clark, our county 
judge, has handed in his resignation, to 
take effect as soon as his successor shall 
be appointed and qualify, therefore, 

Kesolved, That we believe it due to Le- 
ander Clark to acknowledge our obliga- 
tions, and that of our constituents, for the 
faithful and impartial manner in which he 
has performed his duties. 

Hesolved, That while we believe it 
would be for the interest of the county 
that the Judge should continue in sprvice ; 
at the same time, in accordance with his 
desire, we reluctantly grant his request ; 

Jiesolred, That considering the legal 
ability, business tact and stability of many 
of our citizens, we trust we shall be able 
to fill the vacancy thus occasioned by one 
who will not disappoint the expectations 
of our constituents. 

S. C. Ro(;ers, ) 

( Signed ) J. Peterson, I Committee. 

B. A. Halt,, ) 

The following day John Allen was ap- 
pointed to fill the vacancy. 

The matter of appropriating money for 
the purchase of a poor farm came uj) at 
this meeting, but was defeated. 

The excitement of the war began over- 
spreading the country about this time, and 
Tama county was not long in officially 
taking the right position. 

Under the date of June 8, 1861, the 
Board of Supervisors unanimously adopt- 
ed the following resolution, which was 
presented by W. A. Daniels : 

" Whereas, The time has come when 
every patriot should show his devotion to 
the Government in a way that cannot be 
misunderstood, and as it is the duty of 

■ M* — ^ 



every one to aid in subduing rebellion and 
wipiiuj traitiirs from the face of this fiilr 
land ; " Therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the Board of Supervi- 
sors of Tama county pledge themselves 
and the county for the support of the fam- 
ilies of residents of the county who may 
volunteer and be called into service by 
the government as long as they are de- 
tained in such service ; also, all other ap- 
propriations that may be recjuired of us 
to aid in maintaining the government and 
enforcing the laws." 

On the L'oth of .Tuly, 1861, D. D. Ap- 
pelgate, clerk of courts, issued tlie follow- 
ing notice and call for a special meeting 
of the board of supervisors, viz. ; 

•' Whereas, The undersigned Clerk of 
tlie District Court of Tama County, Iowa, 
has been requested in writing by a major- 
ity of tlie members of said board to call a 
special meeting for the object hereinafter 
set forth : — 

Notice is hereby given that there will 
be a special meeting of the Board at the 
Court-House in Toledo Iowa, said county 
and State, on Monday, August 5, A. D., 
ISGl, at 12 o'clock m., of said day, for the 
purpose of taking into consideration the 
matter of making an appropriation for the 
organization of a Military Company from 
Tama County for the war, and the support 
of the families of Volunteers, and other 
matters connected therewith." 

Accordingly at the appointed time the 
Board convened with all the members 
present. On motion Messrs. Forker and 
T. Waller .Jackson were invited to ad- 
dress the Board, the latter complying. On 
motion of Mr. Mason, Daniels,Gallagher 
and Hall were appointed a committee of 


three, to report the amount necessary to 
equip the " Tama county Rifles, " as rec- 
ommended in the Governor's circular. 
Mason, Peterson and Rogers were appoint- 
ed a committee of three, to report a plan 
for the support of families of volunteers. 

The committee last named made a report 
which was adopted by the lioard as fol- 
lows : 

liesolved, That for the purpose of sup- 
porting the families of volunteers during 
their service from the time of enlistment 
until they are discharged, that tliere be, 
and hereby is, appr(q)riated out of the 
County Treasury the sum of five dollars 
per month for the wife and two dollars 
per month for each child under twelve 
years of ^age, of each volunteer. 

" Jicsolved, That when a father or inoili- 
er is dependent on a volunteer for support, 
they shall receive five dollars per month 
each, and also when a brother or sister un- 
der twelve years of age are dependent, 
they shall receive two dollars per month 
each, during his time of service. " 

" Jicsohrd, That all volunteers wlio shall 
be entitled to the above appropriations 
shall file with the County Clerk, their 
affidavit as to the number of their family 
and age of their children. 

" liesolved, That said appropriations be 
paid monthly upon orders of the clerk of 
the Board of Supervisors, who shall keep 
articles of clothing as recommended in 
the Governor's circular, making an aggre- 
gate of six hundred and thirty-seven dol- 
lars and fifty cents. Also that the sum of 
one hundred and twelve dollars and lifty 
cents be appropriated and placed in tlic 
liands of the clerk of this Board, for the 
purpose of clothing a further number of 



men as above, until the number of men 
reaches one hundred and one, the amount 
drawn for each man to be seven dollars 
and fift}' cents, and we would further rec- 
ommend that an agent be ap|ioiuted to go 
to Chicago and make the purchases. " It 
was then 

Mesolved That B. A. Hall, act as agent 
to go to Chicago. Thus the company was 
duly organized and equipped. 

John Connell was also special agent for 
a time to purchase clothing and supplies 
for volunteers. The following entry re- 
lative to his agency is rather amusing : 

" A statement was also received from 
Mr. Connell in regard to his expenses in 
going to Chicago to buy the clothing, 
showing that he had expended thirty-one 
dollars and forty cents, and had received 
from the county the sum of thirty dollars. 
On motion the account was considered 
square." Then on motion Mr. Connell 
was tendered a vote of thanks for the 
manner in which he discharged his duties. 

On the third of September, 1861, the 
Board passed the following resolutions : 

First — "That we do not consider it ex- 
pedient to make a specific appropriation 
for the support of families of volunteers 
who may hereafter enlist in the service of 
the State or Government during the pres- 
ent war, from this county." 

Second — "Resolved that the appropria- 
tions now made for the support of the 
families of the volunteers of Tama county 
be extended during the war to the families 
of those volunteers who now receive the 
benefit of said appropriation, who may be 
killed or die while in the service of the 
United States." 

The first resolution was presented by 

G. G. Mason and the latter by J. A. 

Just before the Board adjourned G. G. 
Mason, presented the following which was 

"Resolved, that we will grant aid to the 
families of volunteers who may hereafter 
enlist for the war from this county as far 
as we may judge to be for the interest of 
all parties concerned." 

S. C. Rogers followed by presenting 
the following concerning the soldiers, 
which was adopted: 

"Resolved, that we are highly gratified 
with the comfortable quarters furnished 
for the military company from tnis county, 
and pleased that the .soldiers acquiesce in 
the strict discipline enjoined upon them, 
and sincerely hope that all will be faithful 
in every respect to their superiors and 
their Country. 

At the October session the Board passed 
additional resolutions relative to furnish- 
ing aid to the families of volunteers. This 
closed the labors of the Board for the 
year 1861. 

The second annual meeting of the Board 
of Supervisors convened at the court house 
in Toledo on the 6th day of January 1862j 
as required by law. The following newly 
elected members qualified and took their 

John A. Tenny Indian "Village . 

Adam Harbaugh Howard. 

W. B. King Spring Creek. 

G. G. Mason Oneida. 

N. Lewis Otter Creek. 

Jonathan Peterson Carlton. 

T. F. Clarke Geneseo. 

Amos Kile Perry. 

T. S. Talmage Clark. 

G. W. Jlorehouse Lincoln. 

e ft. 

..4 » 



The Board then proceeded to organize 
by the- election of B. A. Ilall as chairman 
for the ensuing year, and by the appoint- 
ment of the various committees. 

At this session a committee appointed 
to examine the county property, reported 
tliat: "having viewed the county buildings 
would say that although they are not what 
we should like to see in our county, still 
we find them in a passable condition; we 
think there is a little, and but little repair- 
ing required at the present time." 

On the same day the following resolu- 
tion was adopted by the Board: " Whereas, 
the county of Tama in response to the call 
of the Governor furnished the "Tama 
county Rifles" with a fatigue dress at an 
expense of upwards of $800 or thereabouts, 
Therefore, Resolved that the clerk of this 
Board be instructed to present to the legis- 
lature a bill of particulars of clothing fur- 
nished and expenses incurred by the county 
and that our Senator, Hon. Joseph Dysart, 
and our Representative, Hon. Leander 
Clark, be requested to use all proper efforts 
to have the same promptly adjusted." 

It will be remembered that August 5, 
IHGl, the Board passed a resolution, appro- 
priating |!5.00 per month for the wife and 
12.00 per month for each child of volun- 
teers. At this session, January 1862, it 
was reported that according to the provis- 
ions of the act named, there had been paid 
*1,04'7, up to December 12, 1861. This 
was for the families of members of the 
"Tama county Rifles." 

Another relief appropriation was resolv- 
ed by the Board October 16, 1861, for the 
support of the families of the company 
raised by William H. Stivers, known as 

Company G. of 14th, Iowa Regiment, the 
wife to receive |!4.00 per month and the 
children 81.00; no family to receive more 
than $7.00 per month. 

The committee appointed for the pur- 
pose of summing up, reported. "We find 
the whole amount expended for clothing, 
sustenance and transportation of said com- 
pany to Marengo (Rifles), $1,052.14. 

We have received from the U. S. Disbursing 
officer $ 20.') 00 

We further expect the State will refund 
about $ 847 94 

There has been expended for the sup- 
port of the families of volunteers: 

For tlie first company up to December 12tli 
1861 $ 1,047 00 

For the second company 94 00 

Total 1,141 00 

This will amount in one year to 3,984 00 

Count}' Order No. 1 was issued at this session to 
John Allen, for the sum of 7 45 

No. 2 and No 3 to D. D. Applcgate. 

At the opening of the June session in 
1862, the Chairman announced the vacancy 
in the oflice of Supervisor from Carlton 
township occasioned by the death of Jona 
than Peterson, and presented the creden- 
tials of James Roakes, who had been ap- 
treasury, pointed. Mr. Roaks appeared, 
qualified and took his seat as a member. 

. On the fourth of June the Board de- 
clared the office of county Judge vacant, 
occasioned by the removal of John Allen 
from the county, and appointed T. F. 
Bradford, to fill the vacancy. 

On the following day Mr. Forker of- 
fered the following resolution which was 
adopted : 

" Resolved, That the families of commis- 
sioned oflicers of the 'Tama county Rifle 



(^^C^^ ,^^._^ 






company' shall not be allowed to receive any 
more of the appropriation made August 
5th, 1861, by this board from the county 
Treasury from June 1st, 1862, unless said 
families become in neady circumstances." 
Mr. Rogers, presented the following 

vote of thanks which was ailopted : 

"lic'solw<l, that the thanks of this board 
be tendered to Orrin Burright, of Crystal 
township, for his gratuitous services as 
drummer, together with the use of an 
omnibus and for horses in carrying volun- 
teers to different points in the county for 
the purpose of soliciting volunteers and 
finally to Marengo." 

On the 18th of August, 186-.^, a special 
session of the Board of Supervisors was 
held for the purpose of taking steps to fill 
the quota of the county in answer to the 
President's call for 600,000 men. It re- 
sulted in a]ipropriatiiig the sum of $2.5 to 
each volunteer who should enlist under 
the present call of the president." At 
the next meeting of the board, in Septem- 
lier, it was rescilved that the act above re- 
ferred to did not express fully the inten- 
tions of the Board, and it was declared 
that, the intention was to give this bounty 
of $25, only to residents of the county. 

Mr. Tenny at the same session offered 
the following resolution which was at once 
adopted : Whereas Isaac Butler has, in 
view of the condition of officers of our 
county, and the wants of the families of 
those who are now lighting the battles of 
the country, generously offered to give his 
foes as Justice in all State cases previous 
to this date, amounting to about nine dol- 
lars for the benefit of said families there- 

fore resolved that the thanks of this board 
be tendered him for his generosity." 

It seems that the Adjutant general had 
credited Iowa county with thirty-six vol- 
unteers, who had enlisted from Tama 
county, and at the September session S. C. 
Rodgers was appointed agent of the coun- 
ty, to go to the office of the adjutant Gen- 
eral and have the mistakes rectified. 

At the opening of the October session, 
in 1862. Samson Strong presented his 
credentials of appointment as Supervisor 
from Carlton township in place of James 
Roakers who had gone to the war. Mr. 
Strong qualified and took the seat. 

The third annual meeting of the board 
convened at the court house on the 
5th of January, 1863, and organized by 
the selection of B. A. Hall as chairman 
for the ensuing year. The following were 
the newly elected members: 

B. A. Hall Toledo 

R. Johnston Highland 

Peter McRoberta Carroll 

J. S. Townsend Crystal 

J. A. Willey Salt Creek 

Geo. W. Selvy York 

G. W. Morrison Columbia 

T. Forker Richland 

D. Connell Buckingham 

G. D. Berry i Howard 

Nothing of special interest transpired 
until December of this year when, on the 
2lstdayof the month, a special meeting 
of the board was held for the purpose of 
offering bounties to volunteers, and to 
provide in the best manner that the board 
should see fit for the families of those 
enlisting. The following was unanimous- 
ly adopted by the board being presented 
by T. Forker: 

'- ^ 







''Be it -Resolved by the lioard of Super- 
visors of Tama county, Iowa, that the sum 
of ten thoiisaml ilollars or so much there- 
of as may be necessary, be and the same 
is hereby appropriated from the funds to 
be hereinafter raised for the purpose of 
paying bounties to persons who have or 
may hereafter enlist in the service of 
the United States under the last call made 
by the President for 300,000 volunteers; 
that a tax of four mills on the dollar shall 
be levied on the taxable property of said 
county at the next regular meeting of 
said board for levying county taxes for the 
special purpose of paying the appropria- 
tion hereby made; and further, that each 
volunteer under said call shall receive a 
warrant on the Treasury of the county for 
the sum of ^100 payable at the ofhce of 
the county Treasurer of said county on or 
before January 1st, 1860, with ten percent, 
interest from .January 1, 1864. But the 
Board of Supervisors shall have the right 
to order said warrants paid at any time 
after they are issued by fziving thirty days 
notice in some newspaper published in 
said county, if there be one, and if not 
by causing a notice for the same length of 
time to be postecj on the court house door, 
after which time all interest on said war- 
rants shall cease; and be it further resolv- 
ed * * that the family of each volunteer, 
who are residents of said county enlisting 
under said call, shall be entitled to draw, 
the same amount from the County Treasury, 
as the families of the members of Com- 
pany G, 14th Regiment Iowa Volunteers, 
upon tiling of affidavits and complying in 
all respects with the regulations made 

for the members of said Company " G." 

It seems that at this term there was a 
little difficulty in regard to the seat of one 
of the members. The record states : 
" Mr. James A. Miller presented his cre- 
dentials as member from Lincoln town- 
ship in place of Mr. Morehouse, who had 
removed from the township ; Mr. More- 
house contested the right of Mr. Miller to 
appear as a member of said Board from 
Lincoln township- Mr. Forker moved that 
Mr. Miller be entitled to his seat as a 
member of this Board, carried and Mr. 
Miller came forward and qualified. " 

J. T. Shugart presented his credentials 
as a member of the Board of Supervisors 
from York township in place of Mr. Selvy 
who had removed from the county. He 
(jualitied and took his seat. 

The fourth annual session of the Board 
convened at the court house in Toledo, 
January 4, 1864. I'eter McRol>crts was_ 
made chairman pro-tem., and the follow 
ing members elect a|>peared and <iualified, 
representing the townships named : 

Indian Village A. Bnckii- 

Howaid Wm. Gallagber, Jr 

Spring Creek V. S. Burllelt 

Oneida Josiali Tlionins 

Otter Creek A. Tompkins 

Carlton Wm. C'onant 

Genesee T. F. Clark 

Perry Daniel Coiiiiell 

Clark Joseph Dysart 

Lincoln J A Miller 

The 15oard then proceeded to effect a 
permanent organization by the election of 
B. A. Hall, chairman for the ensuing 

At this session a committee was in- 
structed to investigate the matter of buy- 
ing a poor farm for the county. Another 

■"^s — 

• k_ 

-« » 




committee was instructed to issue a proc- 
lamation that at the next general elestion 
tlie question would be submitted whether 
sheep and hogs should run at large or not. 
It was also resolved that bonds of the 
eounty to the amount of $7500, be issued 
to pay bounty warrants.* 

At the June session Mr. Taplin was ap- 
pointed as supervisor from Indian Village 

'1 he Board resolved at its September 
session 1864, to submit the question of 
building a court house. The proclama- 
tion read: 

"Whether the Board of Supervisors 
shall on or before the first day of June, 
] 8(55, order and contract for the erection 
of a court house within the village of 
Toledo, the county seat of said county; 
l)robably costing over J|!2,000, jirovided 
that in no case and under no circumstances 
shall the said contract foi- the building and 
finishing and furnishing of said court 
house exceed the sum of |!-JO,OoO. The 
proposition was defeated at the polls. 

The Fifth annual meeting of the Board 
convened at Toledo on January 2nd 1865, 
and organized by the election of P. L. 
Sherman Chairman, for the ensuing year. 
The following newly elected members ap- 
peared and took their seats, vi/, 

Geneseo P. L. Slurraau. 

Bucki"glmm G. Jaqua. 

Lincoln A. C. Block way. 

Carroll S. Dooliltle. 

Toledo W. F. Jobnstou. 

York L B. Dodd. 

Salt Creek S. Prill, 

Columbia J. Ross. 

Highland E. M. Poyuecr. 

It was ordered that $5.00 be the bounty 
paid for wolf scalps. 


The war committee made a report at 
this session stating that "ui)on a careful 
examination of the books in the clerk's 
office we find that there has been paid on 
relief warrants for the benefit of soldiers 
families the sum of 4(9,155.00, for the year 
ending January 1st, 1865; also that the 
amount paid during the month of Decem- 
ber last is $785 which is less than the av- 
erage monthly expenditures for the year 
past; from which we infer that this branch 
of the county expenses has reached its 
maximum and is giadually on the de- 

On the 5th of January, 1865, Hon. Jos. 
Dysart offered the following resolution and 
moved its adoption. 

Whereas, "The President of the United 
States, has issued his proclamation calling 
for 300,000 volunteers to be enlisted before 
the 15th day of February 1865. There- 
fore, be it resolved, that each volunteer 
drafted man or substitute mustered into 
service of the United States under said 
call shall be entitled to receive a county 
warrant of the denomination of $200, pay- 
able January 1st 1868, with interest at six 
per cent from the 15th day of February, 
1865, provided that no warrant shall be 
issued until the certificate of the Provost 
Marshal of this district or that of the 
Aj't. General of Iowa be filed in the 
office of the Clerk of this Hoard, showing 
that the person claiming the same, shall 
have been credited to some township in 
Tama county; and provided further that 
the number of warrants issued to volun- 
teers, drafted men or substitutes of any 
township, shall not exceed the quota of 
volunteers, demanded of such township un- 
der the above named call, and further be 

- ^ 




it resolved that a tax of two mills on the 
dollar, on the taxable property of Tama 
county shall be levied by the Board of 
Supervisors of said county at the time of 
levying taxes in 1866, and every subse- 
i|uent year thereafter until said warrants 
with the interest thereon are paid. 

The power to direct the payment of the 
whole or any part of the warrants that 
may thus be is.sued is reserved by the 
Hoard of Supervisors, by giving thirty days 
notice by publication in some newspa])er 
in Tama county, or posting such notice on 
the court house door, and all interest there- 
after shall cease." 

The resolutions were unanimously 

At the June session C. N. Knapp pre- 
sented his appointment as Supervisor from 
Spring Creek township; John Ransdell 
from Richland township, Mr. Anthony, 
from Oneida, and all qualified and took 
their seats. 

The war committee on the 8th of June, 
1865, reported "that the amount now be- 
ing paid out of the relief fund monthly for 
the benefit of soldier's families is $748. 

At the September session a resolution 
was passed to the effect that a proposition 
be submitted to the legal voters of Tama 
county at the general election held in 
October, 1865, for the purpose of deter- 
mining whether or not said county will 
donate the swamp lands and the proceeds 
of the swamp lands and the proceeds of 
said swamp lands belonging to the county 
or held by the county, to the Iowa Central 
Railroad Company, provided, said road 
would build through the county. (See 
Railroad Chapter.) 

At the same term the bond of the county 

Treasiirer was fixed at iSCO,000. 

The railroad matter came up in different 
form at the same session and was decided 
that the following question be submitted 
to the voters of the county; whether the 
people would <lonate the sum of $40,000 to 
the Iowa Central R. R. Company to be 
used in building the same in this county, 
and a tax of four mills on the dollar be 
levied in the years 1866, 1867 and 1868, to 
pay the same. It carried at the polls. 

A resolution was passed about the same 
time offering a bounty of 10 cents upon 
each pocket gopher killed. This was pre- 
sented by Mr. Tompkins. 

The war committee consisting of A. N. 
Poyneer, L. B. Dodd and Wm. Gallagher, 
again reported this term, but treated of 
nothing except local matters. 

G. G. Mason appeared at the October 
session and qualified as Supervisor from 
Oneida township. 

The sixth annual session of the Board 
commenced on January 1st 1866, at the 
court house in Toledo, and Mr. Johnston 
was chosen temporary chairman. 'J'he 
following- named appeared and qualified 
as members from their various townships, 
they being the members-elect: 

Geneseo P. L- Shermim 

Clark Joseph Dysiirt 

Richland Turner Forker 

Perry James Wilson 

Indian Village A. C. Tenny 

Carroll B. Dickerson 

Salt Creek A. B. Haucox 

Howard. . ■. W. Gallagher 

York Z. T. Shugart 

Oneida Nathan Harmon 

Spring Creek C. N. Knapp 

Otter Creek J. H. Brooks 

Carlton A. Donaldson 

Lincoln W. C. Thomas 




Th6 Board permanently organized by 
the election of P. L. Sherman chairman 
for the ensuing year. 

It was resolved that each Sii))ervisor con- 
stitute a committee of one in their respec- 
tive townships, for the purpose of seeing 
that none of the families of soldiers 

Nothing of especial interest transpired 
during this year. 

The Board convened at its Seventh 
Annual session on the 7th of January 1867, 
A. Donaldson took the chair pro tem and 
upon the roll being called the following 
named gentlemen were found to be pres- 
ent representing their townships: 

Otter Creek .lames Brooks 

Columbia William Gory 

Oneida B. Dickersou 

Clark Joseph Dysart 

Carlton A. Donaldson 

Richland T. Forker 

Crystal C. C. Guilford 

Howard William Gallagher 

Toledo W. P. Johnston 

Buckingham W. T. V. Ladd 

Lincoln Greenwood Prescott 

Carroll Joseph Powell 

Highland A. N. Poyneer 

Geneseo P. L. Sherman 

Indian Village A. C. Tenny, Jr. 

Perry ! James Wilson 

The record &tates of York, Salt Creek 
and Spring Creek "no representatives." 
The matter of electing a permanent chair- 
man was then taken up and resulted in 
the re-election of P. L. Sherman, over 
James Wilson and A. Donaldson. 

The matter of erecting a court house 
received attention at the September ses- 
sion 1867, when the following resolution 

— r- 

was presented and read by Mr. Johnston, 
and adopted by the Board. . 

Resolved, "By the Toledo court house 
Association that for the consideration here- 
inafter expressed, the said Association do 
hereby release to Tama county the "One 
Hundred Dollars" heretofore contracted to 
be paid as rent for said house by said 
county and agree to furnish said building 
according to the plans and specifications 
as soon as said building can be reasonably 
completed, and then to give the full con- 
trol of said building and grounds to said 
county so long as .said county shall use the 
same for county purposes. Provided said 
county shall appropriate the sum of $5,000 
to help finish said building. * * * 
W. F. Johnston, President, 

A. J. Free, Secretary. 

The sum of $5,000 was then appropriated 
in compliance with the resolution of the 
Association, and the court house became 
county property. 

At the October session 1867, the county 
officers ware authorized to move into the 
court house as soon as possible. 

For 1868 the Board commenced their 
year's labor on the 6th of January. Mr. 
Tompkins was chosen temporary chairman 
and the following new members sworn in: 

Geneseo P. L. Sherman 

Oneida Martin Leavens 

Spring Creek H. P. Willard 

Howard Wm. Gallagher 

Clark Joseph Dysart 

Otter Creek .A. Tompkins 

Carlton C. Bratt 

Indian Village A. C. Tenny, Jr. 

Salt Creek James A. Willcy 

Perry W. Rogers 

P. L. Sherman was unanimously elected 






chairman for the ensuing year. 

At the June session R. J. Hall appeared 
and (jualitied as Supervisor from Crystal 
township in place of Mr. Guilford who had 
removed from the township. 

The township of Grant was created on 
the 2nd of June, 18G8, the resolution read- 
ing as follows: 

Resolved, "That this Board do grant the 
prayer of the petition of John W. Flem- 
mingand otliers asking that the congres- 
sional township descrilied as township 86, 
range 15, be set off from Buckingham 
township and be organized into a civil 
township to be known as "Grant." That 
the Clerk of this Board be directed to re- 
cord the boundaries of said township as 
required by law. That he issue a warrant 
for holding the next general election." 

At the same session the Board passed a 
I'esolution encouraging the cultivation of 
shade trees. 

During September the Board decided 
that at the next general election the ques- 
tion should be submitted to the legal voters 
of Tama county whether the Board of 
Supervisors should be authorized to offer 
and cause to be paid a bounty for the ex- 
termination of pocket gophers in Tama 

On the ninth of September 1868, Mr. 
Willard offered the fol owing resolution 
to the board, moving its adoption. It cx- 
[ilains itself : 

'' Jiesolved, That whereas, a child be- 
longiiigto Mr. Healy,of Spring creek, Tama 
county, Iowa, was lost or kidnapped on or 
about the 2nd day of September, A. I)., 
18G8, and whereas, report is being circu- 
lated that said child was kidnapped. 
Therefore resolved that the Clerk of thig 

board be authorized to offei a reward of 
five hundred dollars for the arrest of the 
kidnapper, and return of the child, and 
that said reward be published in the three 
county papers, for three consecutive 
weeks." (See chapter "Miscellaneous.") 

At the September session Mr. Dysart 
moved to change the -name of •' Tama city 
township " to " Tama township." It was 

The ninth annual session of the board 
commenced January 4, 1869. A. Tomp- 
kins was chosen as temporary chairman. 
The members who were present are record- 
ed as being Messrs. C. Bratt, E. S. Beck- 
ley, Jos. Dysart, T. Forker, A. N. Poy- 
neer, jNlartin Leavens, B. A. Hall, G. 
Jaqua, Jos. Powell, W. Rodgers, P. L. 
Sherman, A. Tompkins, Tenney, H. T. 
Willard, Jacob Loutzenheiser, J. S. Town- 
send, Jno. Flemming, C. H. Baldwin, II. 
L. Smith A. Wilkinson. P. L. Sherman, 
from Genesee, was duly elected chairman, 
for the ensuing year. 

At this session it was, 

" Hesolved, That in the opinion of this 
board the time has come to purchase a 
farm to be known as the "Poor Farm of 
Tama county. 

During the same session J. R. Stewart, 
the county Superintendent presented a 
lengthy paper to the board, showing the 
condition of educational matters. 

During this year the name of Thomas 
S. Free as Clerk of the board drops from 
sight, but reappears on the records as 

The years work of 1870 was inaugu- 
rated by the board in the session com- 
mencing on January 3, 1870, M. Wilkin- 
son was chosen as temporary chairman. 





Messrs. Willard, Withington, Sapp, Sher- 
man and Staley, all took the necessary 
oath qualifying them as the newly-elected 
members of the hoard. B. A. Hall was 
elected permanent chairman. 

Nothing of importance came before the 
board this year, their time being mostly 
occupied in routine work. 

During the winter of 1869 and ISVO an 
act was passed by the General Assembly 
changing the mode of government from 
what had been practiced for a decade past. 
The board of Supervisors was to consist of 
three members from the county at large 
instead of one from each township. The 
new board was elected at the general 
election in the fall of 1870. 

The new board first met on the second 
of January, 1871, and was composed of 
Leander Clark, G. Jaqua and A. N. Poy- 
neer although at the opening of this ses- 
sion only Leander Clark and A. N. Poy- 
neer were present. The following day all 
were present and Leander Clark was elect- 
ed chairman for the ensuing year. 

At the .June session a resolution was 
presented to the board favoring the sub- 
mission of the question to the voters as 
to whether or no, there should be five 
supervisors. It was lost. 

For 18/2 the board consisted of A. N. 
Poyneer, G. .Taqua and John Ramsdell, 
the latter, having been elected in the fall 
of 1871 to succeed Mr. Clark. A. N. 
Poyneer was elected chairman for the en- 
suing year. 

At the June session of this year it was 

Resolved, That the question be submit- 
ted to the legal voters of the county 
" whether or not the swamp lands, now 
owned by said county shall be sold and 

the proceeds thereof be devoted to the 
purchase of a poor farm in and for said 
coun ;y of Tama." 

In the fall of 1872 G. Jaqua was re- 
elected his own successor, and when the 
board first met in January 187::!, he ap- 
peared and took the oath. A. N. Poyneer 
was re-elected chairman for the year 1873. 

At the June session the board passed 
the following rather significant resolution: 

" Whereas : The Hon. M. M. Walden 
has donated to the school fund of this 
county $236.65, as a part of the proceeds 
of what has been called the " sal.ary 
grab," therefore, 

Hesolved, That believing the partaker 
in unjust gains is as bad as the principal, 
we herewith instruct the Auditor to return 
said donation, preferring to trust in Prov- 
idence and our own efforts for the educaj 
tion of our children rather than to dis 
honest gains, however obtained. 

For 1874 the board consisted of John 
Ramsdell, G. .Taqua, and S. W. Hutton, 
the 1 .tter having been elected lo succeed 
A. N. Poyneer. John Ramsdell was cho- 
sen chairman for the ensuing year. 

The fifteenth annual meeting of the 
Board was commenced on January 4th, 
1875, and the members were G. Jaqua, S, 
W. Hutton and J. H. Lauderdale. Mr. 
Lauderdale was the member-elect and he 
qualified and took his seat. G. Jaqua was 
elected chairman of the board for the 
ensuing year. Routine work occupied the 
attention of the board during this year. 

The sixteenth annual session convened 
on January 3d 1876, the board being com- 
posed of S. W. Hutton, J. H. Lauderdale 
and Theo. Clark, the latter having been 
elected in the previous fall to succeed G. 





Jaqiia, and the latter gentleman became 

Representative of Tama county iu the 
General Assembly. S. W. Hutton was 
chosen chairman for the ensuing year. 

A special fiieeting of the board was 
held in August, 1876, for the purpose of 
acting upon a petition of citizens of 
Chelsea and vicinity asking that a ditch 
drain and embankment be constructed 
from Long Point on the Iowa river south- 
easterly to Otter Creek. The scheme was 

The board for 1877 was composed of J. 
IT. Lauderdale, Theo. Clark and H. H. 
Withington, the latter named being the 
incoming member. He qualified at the 
opening of the .January session and took 
his seat. Mr. Lauderdale was elected 
chairman for the ensuing year, Mr. Clark 
was in feeble health and was unable to at- 
tend the meetings of the board. On the 
4th of December he resigned his office 
and Joseph Dysart was appointed to fill 
the place. 

R. M. Tenny was elected Supervisor in 
the fall of 1877, and thus the board for 
1S78 was composed of H. H. Withington, 
.Joseph Dysart and R. M. Tenny. Mr. 
Withington was elected clxair.nan for the 
ensuing year. 

At the .lune session it was resolved that 
the question be submitted to the people 
whether the Board of Supervisors should 
be increased to five members. It was sub- 
mitted at the ensuing general election and 

The following was adopted on the same 

"Whereas, It is uncertain what is the 
bounty for killing a wolf,lynx, swift or wild 

cat, in this county. Therefore be it 

Jifnolvcd, It be fixed at $2.00 per scalp 
in addition to the one dollar allowed by 

For the year 1870, the board was com- 
posed of the same gentlemen as the year 
previous, Joseph Dysart having been elect- 
ed his own successor. H. H. Withington 
was elected chairman for the ensuing 

The same board officiated in 1880, II. 
H. Withington being re-elected. 

In the fall of 1880 A. Z. Rawson was 
elected Supervisor to succeed R. M. Tenny. 
Thus for the year 1881, the board was 
composed of Joseph Dysart, II. II. With- 
ington and A. Z. Rawson. H. II. With- 
ington was elected chairman for the en- 
suing year. 

At the April session the Auditor pres- 
ented a certificate from the Secretary of 
the State showing length in miles, of the 
several railroads in Tama county, and the 
assessed value thereof as follows. 

Burlington, Cedar Rapids and Northern 
(Pacific Division) 18 miles, assessed at 
$4,000 per mile. 

Chicago & Northwestern, 25.38-100 
miles, assessed at $10,575 per mile. 

Toledo & Northwestern, 22.14-100 
miles, assessed at $2,(X)0 per mile. 

In 1882, the board first met January 
2, at the court house in Toledo, being 
composed of A. Z. Rawson, II. H. With- 
ington and B. Smith, the latter being the 
member-elect. II. II. Withington was 
elected chairman for the ensuing year. 

The official bonds of the various officers 
were fixed as follows: 






County Treasurer $100,000 

County Auditor 10,000 

Sheriff 1 5,000 

Coroner 2,000 

County Superintendent 1,000 

County Surveyor 1,000 

The work of the year 1883 was inaugu- 
rated by a meeting January 1 st. The 
board consisted of A. Z. Rawson, B. 
Smitii and Joseph Dysart, tlte latter be- 
ing the new member. 

Mr. Dysart presented a resolution which 

was adopted at the January session, fixing 
the salary of the County auditor at $1200 
per annum, sheriff $300 per annum exclu- 
sive of fees ; deputy clerk, deputy Audi- 
tor and deputy treasurer, each $50 per 

At the general election in the fall of 
1882, it was decided by the people that 
hereafter there should be live members of 
the Board of Supervisors. 



In this connection are presented various 
official matters, which, although too brief 
to place in a chapter separately, are too 
important to be entirely ignored. The 
items have been gathered from records 
and from interviews with those familiar 
with such matter. 


This is a matter which often attracts 
attention when treated historically. In 
various lands the marriage rite is solem- 
nized in different ways and by different 
ceremonies ; in all, the acts of the con- 
tracting parties must be understood by 
each, and by the community in which 
they live as being a mutual agreement to 
hold the relations toward one another as 
man and wife. In this State a license has 
always been required ; or in lieu thereof, 
for a number of years, a couple could be 

married by publishing their intentions 
through a public assembly, although in 
Iowa it was never practised to any great 

The first marriage that appears on the 
record books of the county was solemnized 
on Auguit 14, 1853, more than thirty 
years ago. The parties were Mlron Blod- 
gett and Sarah Cronk. They were mar- 
ried by John C. Vermilya, County Judge. 
It was the first marriage solemnized in the 
county subsequent to its organization. 

In early days young men and maidens 
were not married in the grand style which 
usually characterizes marriages of the 
present time. They did not wait for 
riches to come before marriage, as is gen- 
erally the present custom, but married 
and lived in simple and comfortable style, 
and generally lived happily and gained 





the respect of their neighbors by attend- 
ing to their own business. There were no 
" diamond weddings " in those days and 
the extravagance that often now attends 
the marriage ceremony was unheard of. 
The old folks were plain, economical and 
hospitable people, and the young folks 
were imbued with the same attributes that 
characterized their fathers and mothers. 
They were willing to commence house- 
keeping in a style corresponding with 
their means, trusting to the future for 
larger houses and more expensive furni- 

There are many rich anecdotes of the 
rustic marriages in early days, but where 
possible they are treated in connection 
with the history of the townships in which 
they occurred. How, when the time came, 
the blushing and rosy maid, would drop 
her milk pails, throw off her apron and 
tying on her sun bonnet, clamber into the 
lumber box wagon, while "John" in his 
over-alls and farm boots would take up 
the whip, and the oxen would move off 
with the bridal procession to the " Squires " 
who did the " jining of the knot. " 

One of these anecdotes, which is not 
located and therefore cannot properly be 
placed in the townships, is here given. 
In an early day a young couple, fresh 
from the wilds of the frontier, sauntered 
into one of the pioneer villages, entered a 
store and, confronting the proprietor, told 
him that "they wanted to get married." 
•'Why," said the merchant, "I — I — can't 
do any marrying. " " Well, if you can't, 
I'd like to know who can. We're goin' to 
get married, you bet" said the aspiring 
young bride-groom with a gushing look at 
the damsel at his side. "I tell you, " said 

the merchant ; " you go over to the post- 
master, I think he can do the job for 
you. " The young couple started off with 
great joy to find the man who could mar- 
ry them. They found the postmaster and 
told him that they had come to " git mar- 
ried. " This rather dazed the mail man 
and he told them " he couldn't marry. " 
" But, " says the bride-groom, " the man 
over there in that store said you could, 
and I guess he ought to know. " " Well 
I guess he ought ; that's so," said the post- 
master. " It seems to me that I've seen 
something about marrying somewhere in 
the instructions to postmasters. Yes, I 
guess that's all right. " Accordingly the 
couple were ranged in front of him and 
in the most approved style he pronounced 
them " Mr. and Mrs., as provided by the 
U. S. postal regulations. Go your way, 
keep your mouths shnt and you'll be hap- 
py. " As they turned to leave, he remark- 
ed, "only a dollar a piece, please. " 

The following is a list of all the mar- 
riages that occurred in the county for the 
first few years after organization, as taken 
from the record in the office of the Clerk 
of Court: 

Miron Ulodgett and Sarah Cronk, mar- 
ried on August 14, 1853, by John C. Ver- 
milya County Judge. 

Granville Dennis and Elizabeth Jane 
Shephard December 4, 185:!, by Rev. S. 
W. Ingham. 

Fred L. Knot and Martha Taylor Octo. 
her 16, 1«53, by Rev. S. W. Ingham. 

George Wier and Mary Jane Rush De- 
cember 25, 185:!, by Judge J. C. Vermilya. 

George McChambers and Cordelia A. 
Lux, October, 16, 1853, by Robert Wilkin- 
son, Justice. 




• «. 

r^ • 



A ' 




The marriages during the year 1854, 

December 17, by John C. Vermilya, Coun- 

were as follows. 

ty Judge. 

Solomon W. Ingham and Cynthia Tay- 

George Carter and Phebe Ann Cronk, 

lor, January 28, by Andrew Coleman. 

December 25, by John Vermilya, Coun y 

James W. Grant and Mary E. Wilkin- 


son, April 13, by Rev. S.Dunton. 

John Zehrung and MaryE. Connell, No- 

Jacob Bruner and Susan Ashby, April 

vember 26, by Rev. D. H. Petefish. 


16, by John C. Vermilya, County Judge. 

Joseph A. Brown and Margaret Hill, 

Alpheus Goodpaster and Mary Hill, 

December 3, by Re^'. D. H. Petefish. 

April -29, by John Connell, J. P. 

The following is a list of the marriages 

Wm. H. H. Hill and Sharlot Helm, 

for the year 1855, without going so par- 

May 21. by John Connell, J. P. 

ticularly into dates: 

Logan McChesney and Lucy A. Hancox, 

P. B. Hill and R. Dice by Rev. D. H. 

March 20, by A. Ladow Licentiate. 


Martin S. Slate and Charlotte M. Dingey 

William Blanchard and Sarah Wilkins, 

July 4, by Rev. Solomon Dunton. 

by N. B. Hiatt, J. P. 

.Joseph Riddle and Mary Ann Yoste, 

Jacob Yost .and Sarah Ann Sparks, by 

September 3, by J. C. Vermilya, County 

John C. Vermilya, County Judge. 


John Allraan and Julia K. Voorhies, by 

George W. Voorhies and Carlista J. 

Rev. Wm. Armstrong. 

Dingee, September 27, by John C. Ver- 

William Leach and Elvina Helm by 

milya, County Judge. 

Tobias R. Shiner. 

Mark Webh and Catharine Voorhies, 

Harrison Wisehart and Elcy Ann Ap- 

September 27, 1854, by John C. Vermilya, 

pelgate by John C. Vermilya. 


William T. Hollen and Sarah Bruner, 

Angelo A. Myers and Nancy Ross, by 
John C. Vermilya, County Judge. 

September 17, by Benjamin Ilammitt, J. 

John Eakins and Sophyna L. Leonard, 


by John C. Vermilya, County Judge. 

Joseph Davis and Rebecca Bruner, Sep- 

Elias H. Price and Sarah Hatfield by 

tember 17, by Benjamin Ilammitt. 

Newton B. Hiatt, J. P. 

.James Gillen and Lydia Grover, Octo- 
ber 11, by J. C. Vermilya, County Judge. 

George More and Mary Ann Howard, 
September 10, by N. B. Hyatt, J. P. 

Nathaniel E. Horton and Eunice Mary- 
ette Horton, October 26, by John Connell, 

P. L. Baldy and Asenith McChesney, by 
John C. Vermilya. 

Robert Carter and Eliza Ross, by Judge 

Truman Prindle and Emily M. Michael, 
l)y Judge Vermilya. 

Hiram Pickett and Louisa E. Miner, by 

J. P. 

N. B. Hiatt, J. P. 

Wm. Blodgett and Veteria A. Ladow, 
August 22, by A. Ladow, Licentiate. 

David Hunnew'ell and Katharine Myers 
by Judge Vermilya. 



Hugh Hammitt and Nancy Zehrung 

Newton Sanders and Mary McDormand 




» — .. 




by Geo S. Williams, J. P. 

Ellas Ilattield and Ellen S. Rich by 
Judge Vermilya. 

Andrew J. Litell an 1 Ann ITammett by 
Judge Vermilya. 

William Randall and Marintha Riccard 
by John C. Vermilya, County Judge. 

Jacob C. Zehrung and Caroline Gettis 
by Judge Vermilya. 

xVlbert Keneday and Sibel Harris, by 
Judge J. C. Vermilya. 

Robert Foster and Nancy Hunter, by 
Rev. W. X. Brown. 

Reuben Huffman and Maria Zehrung. by 
Benjamin Hammitt. 

Tyler Blake and Nancy J. Dairs, by 
Benjamin Hammitt, J. P. 

Chas. T. Stewart and Mary A. Sadler, by 
Judge J. C. Vermilya. 

Andrew Rorke and Sophia Earhurt, by 
Isaac Butler, J. P. 

The list for 18.56 materially increases 
as follows: 

Newton F. Crosley and Rebecca J, 

Fredrick Frederich and Susanah Mitch- 

George Cook and Sarah House. 

John D. Smith and Mary Mann. 

Henry Wilson and Absila Boling. 

Benjamin Rush and Rebecca Corfman. 

Ephriam Jeffries and Catharine Ross. 

Jesse Hopkins and Rebecca Myers. 

George. W^yvill and Nancy Southard. 

Elijah T. Rust and Julia K. Edwards. 

James Pickett and Nancy Bennett. 

William W. Davis and Eli/.a Jane Par- 

Cyrus Shelton and Mary Ann Southard. 

John II. Carlton and Sarah Stoddard. 

John Newton and Martha Arbuthnot. 

Adam Zehrung and Dorcas Denison. 

Isaiah Hunnewell and Minerva Chase. 

Martin Richardson and Elizabeth Mc- 

Ephriam A. Suthard and Elizabeth Jor- 

Alpheus Harworth and Elizabeth Fee. 

Horace A. Hartshorn and Philida Kyle. 

Samuel Long and Eliza Early. 

Henry C. Foster and Mary Jane Olthy. 

John Bruebaker and Racheai Lamm. 

J. S. Edraands and Malinda Shugart. 

Francis M. Davis and Martha Jane Ap- 
p legate. 

Charles Barnes and Harriet Hatfield. 

Lorenzo R. Dobson and Mary Judge. 

Jonas P. Wood and Margaret Connell. 

Riley Haworth and Melissa J. Fisher. 

Math: as Travis and Rachael Davis. 

Francis Henry and Sarah Myers. 

John Connell and Catharine Graham. 

Rezin Overturf and Henrietta Byron. 

I. F. Drake and Rachael Overturf. 

Elias H. Bowens and Elizabeth Powell. 

T. J. Staley and E. J. Graham. 

Alonzo Helm and Emily Recksten. 

David Gillespie and Francis A. Har- 

J. C. Wood and Elizabeth Kile. 

W. M. Dunlap and Fannie A. Johnson. 

Andrew Hanna and Sarah J. Bates. 

Geo. W. Shiner and Jennette Leffler. 

Tiberius Donaldson and Emily A. Fay. 

J. Williamson and Mary Richey. 

J. L. and A. Wood. 

Samuel Walker and Arminda Paxon. 

Andrew McPheters and Rachael Ab- 

The following table shows the number 


« »^ 




of marriages contracted from 1853 to 1883 
inclusive : 


















; 37 


. . .163 

1858. . . 
















.. 180 


1878 -. 













. . .324 







1883 to April 1st. 






A glance at the foregoing figures shows 
conclusively that the matrimonial market is 
affected by the state of the times. In 1857 
hard times set in and the marriage list de- 
creased in ratio. Again in 1874, banks 
suspended and a sea.son of depression set 
in and fewer marri .ges were contracted. 
The war too caused a falling off in the 
number of marriages annually contract- 
ed, but in 1866, when the boys got home 
the market at once jumped back to and 
above its normal condition. 

THE TEAR 1882. 

No. of Acres, exclusive of Town 


Value exclusive of Town Property. 
Total exemption for trees planted. . 

Total after deducting exemptions... 

Aggregate value of Realty in towns. 
Aggregate value of R. R. property. 
Aggregate value of Personal Proper- 
ty including horses and cattle .... 

Total valuation of Tama County. . 






6, 539,594 


Dysart $47,344 

Chelsea 18,053 

Traer 76,560 

Toledo City.. 130,383 

Tama City 303,364 

Gladbrook 31 130 

Garwin... 6,705 

Montour 39,159 

Other small towns 19,374 

Total 551,073 


No. Val. 

Cattle assessed in the county. . 31,917 $383,817 

Horses •' " " .. 11,670 401.880 

Mules " ■' "... 543 23,086 

Sheep " " " .. 3,043 3,376 

Swine " " '• ..37,115 98,333 

Total valuation $910 382 


The first building really used for official 
purposes was the house of John C. Ver- 
milya. County Judge, which stood about 
one-half mile east of the present site of 
Tama City. It was a log building and 
there was not room in it scarcely for a 
jury to sit. Judge Vermilya soon took 
proper steps for the erection of a court 
house, and the contract was let to T. A. 
Graham for the sum of $1,300. The court 
house was completed in the latter part of 
1854, and «as a commodious, two story 
frame building, which stood on lot 2, in 
block 5, Toledo. This building served the 
purpose until 1866, when it was sold. 

During the year 1865, the people of 
Toledo agitated the question of a new 
court house, as it was realized that a larger 
one was needed. At a meeting held in 
Toledo, there was a Court House Associa- 
tion organized, with A. J. Free as secreta- 
ry ; and W. F. Johnston, W. H. Harrison 

-^ — 




D. D. Applegate, T. A. Graliam, N. C. 
Wieting and G. R. Struble as trustees. 
The raatter was settled and bids for the 
erection advertised for, upon plans and 
specifications submitted. P. B. McCul- 
lougli, of Toledo, was the successful bid- 
der, and he began the construction of the 
building. He failed to complete it, and 
H. B. Belden agreed to finish it under the 
contract. The cost of the building was a 
trifle over $22,000, of which all but about 
$5,000 was paid by the association, and it 
was donated to the county. The building 
occupies a fine site, standing near the cen- 
tre of Toledo, in the Public Park, and 
presents an elegant and imposing appear- 
ance. The grounds have been beautified 
by shade trees, which were planted years 
ago. The basement is of stone, the build- 
ing is of brick and is roofed with corru- 
gated iron. A large belfry surmounts the 
building. The first floor is divided into 
the county offices, the court room and office 
of the county superintendent occupy the 
upper story. 

The county jail stands just northeast of 
the court house, and is a fine brick struct- 
ure 30 X 34 feet, two stories in heighth. 
It was erected in 1809, and was first occu- 
pied in 1870. The upper story contains 
six pleasant rooms and is occupied by the 
jailor or sheriff and family. The lower 
story, or jail proper, contains a large 
wrouglit iron cage, 22 x 2.5 feet, with 
sleeping apartments, for the close confine- 
ment of prisoners. The outer door lead- 
ing into the hall is also wrought iron, and 
the inner one is a grated door. The en- 
tire building is covered with a wrought 
iron roof. 


At the general election in 1875, the 
proposition of purchasing a poor farm and 
the erection of necessary buildings, was 
submitted to the voters of Tama county. 
It. carried by a large majority, and the 
Board of Supervisors purchased of A. J. 
Wheaton, a tract of one hundred and 
fifty acres in section two, township 83, 
range 15, for $6,750. The contract lor 
remodeling .and enlarging the building 
was awarded to the Tama Hydraulic 
and Builders' Association, for $4,084.65, 
while Kent and Conklin were the archi- 

The house is on a high elevation, a dry 
and healthy location ; it has been rebuilt 
and greatly enlarged, and various changes 
instituted. As the building appears from 
the road it is more suggestire of an East- 
ern suburban hotel, or something of tliat 
kind than a charitable institution. Its 
extreme length from north to south is 84 
feet, its width varies, being, we believe, 
24 feet and 34 feet. It is divided up into 
the rooms, kitchen, dining room, halls 
and bed rooms. It is so arranged that 
there are three different stair-cases lead- 
ing to the second story^ so that in case of 
fire the upper story could be easily empti- 
ed of its occupants and contents, no mat- 
ter in what locality the fire might be. The 
furniture is [ilaiu and substantial, though 
neat. Near the kitchen is an excellent 
well and a large cistern in which a force 
pump has been placed for protection 
against conflagration. The farm is well 
stocked with implements, and everything 
seems to be in good, healthy condition. 
The place is under the charge of Mr. Abel 
Child, who with the assistance of his 




amiable wife, seem to be the right people 
in the right places. It requires a pecu- 
liar disposition and manner to make a 
success of such an instituion, and Mr. and 
Mrs. Child seem to be possessed of that 

There is a certain discipline required, 
which, while it is kind and gentle, must, 
at the same time, be strict enough to easily 
quell, any refractory or perverse spirit 
which will at times show itself even under 
tlie most generous and favorable circum- 

Mr. Child keeps the farm in business 
like manner, and each month makes out 
duplicate reports, one copy of which is 
filed in the Auditor's oftice, while the 
other is preserved for reference, either for 
himself or any one that many be^visiting. 

Abel Childs, Superintendent of the 
County Poor Farm, was born in Broome 
county, N. Y., September 4, 1834. His 
parents, Josiali and Betsey (Aplington) 
Childs, died when he was a mere child, 
and he was reared by his grandfather Ap- 
lington, in Broome county, where he grew 
to manhood. At the age of twenty-one he 
left New York and removed to Ogle coun- 
ty, Illinois, where he engaged in farming. 
In 1862, he was married to Miss Margaret 
Lawson, a daughter of John Lawson, a 
native of Scotland. She was born in 
Paisley, Scotland. Her father was enga- 
ged largely in the dyeing business, and at 
the time of the World's Fair, he took the 
first jjremium on Paisley shawls. Mr. and 
Mrs. Childs are the parents of five child- 
ren : Mary, Fleeda, Lizzie, Fred, and Ros- 
coe. In the spring of 1856 Mr. Childs 
came to Tama county, and located in Car- 
roll township, remaining until 1870, when 

he received the appointment to his present 
position. In politics he is a Republican, 
and has held several local offices of trust 
in the gift of the people. 


In the Fifteenth General Assembly 
which convened at Des Moines, in Janu- 
ary, 1874, a bill was introduced in the 
Lower House to cut off the northwest 
corner townships of Tama county, and 
annex them to Grundy county. These 
townships were Lincoln and Grant. The 
following extract from the House Journal 
relates to the matter: 

"Tracy called up H. F. 191, to provide 
for a submission to the voters of Tama 
and Grundy counties the proposition to 
detach township 86, north range 15 and 
16 west, from Tama county and attach 
the same to Grundy county, and moved 
that the rules be suspended, bill be con- 
sidered engrossed and read a third time 
now, and advocated the bill. 

" Marlin, of Tama, asked for delay, in 
order to receive an expression from the 
people of the townships named. He be- 
lieved it a plan to make Grundy county 
square. Thought the people of Tama 
knew nothing of the matter. He had not 
heard of it himself until this bill was in- 

After some discussion the bill was laid 
over. It met with unqualified disapproval 
in Tama county, it being a scheme to 
make Grundy county Sfjuare by disfiguring 
Tama, and the people in the townships 
affected, soon manifested their desire to 
remain as they were. Remonstrances 
were circulated and extensively signed, 
which defeated the bill. 







The population of Tama county is made 
up of foreigners and Americans in about 
the same ratio as 1 to 6. They are all a 
hard working, industrious class, as is 
abundantly testified by the fact that the 
county is to-day recognized as among the 
leading counties of Iowa. The time of a 
great majority of the citizens is devoted 
to agricultural pursuits, yet a healthful 
proportion find employment in manufac- 
turing and other industrial enterprises, 
and mercantile pursuits. 

In the fall of 1849, the population of 
Tama county did not exceed 20. In the 
spring of 1849, there was not a white man 
within the boundaries of the present 
county. To show how rapidly the popula- 
tion increased: In 1852 it was 262; in 
1854, 1,163; in 1856, .3,520; in 1859, 
5,346; in 1860, 5,285; in 1863, 7,027; 
in 1865, 7,882; in 1867, 11,165; in 1869, 
14,254; in 1870,16,131; in 1873, 16,343 ; 
in 1875, 18,771 ; in 1880, 21,585. At pres- 
ent there are only 23 counties in the State 
that e.xceed it in population ; and there are 
77 that fall below it. 

The population of the various town- 
ships and towns in the county, as given by 
the census of 1867, 1875 and 1880, were as 
follows : 











Itniiau Village cxclvsive of 



Moutour, town of.... 































Otter Creek 

Perry, exclusive of Traer. . 


Salt Creek 

Spring Creek 

Tama, exclusive of Tama 


Tama City 

Toledo, exclusive of town 

Toledo City 


Traer, town of 







11, 165 










18, 771 






31, 586 


The earliest entry which affected Tama 
county land was made while the territory 
now comprising Tama county formed a 
part of Benton county, and was first en- 
tered upon the books of that county, and 
when Tama was organized was transcribed 
into Tama county books. It bears the 
date of January 5, 1849, and is an inden- 
ture transferring the southwest quarter of 
section 25, township 83, range 16, now 
Indian Village township, from Isaac VV. 
Tibbetts of Tippacanoe county, Indiana, 
to Samuel Opp, of Montgomery county, 
Indiana, for the sum of $400. 

The first deed entry upon the books 
which were opened for Tama county after 
its organization bears the date of July 19, 
1859. It is a conveyance of 160 acres of 
land in township 83, range 15, from Jacob 
S. Staley, of Johnson county, to William 
Blodgett, for the sum of $200. The wit- 
ness to the execution of the instrument 
was Edward Connelly. 

The second deed entry is dated August 
25, 1853, and conveys a piece of land from 
Le Grand Byinton to Noah ]Myers. 

The first real estate mortgage entered 
upon the Tama county records, was m.ade 





h~' \ 

I t; 

A (i V 






on June 19, 1856. In this instrument 
Robert Crawford mortgages to Samuel 
Strouse, for the sum of #258, several pie- 
ces of land lying in Tama county. The 
mortgage was witnessed by T. Walter 
Jackson, and recorded by T. J. Staley, 
County Recorder and his deputy, L. B. 


The following are the various amounts 
of taxes levied from 1856 to 1883. 

For the year 18.56 $ 15,266,87 

" " " 1857 16,164 13 

' 18.58 25,094.32 

" ," " 18.59 21,015..55 

" " " I860 16,.543.20 

" " " 1861 31,148.20 

" " " 1862 29,458.35 

1863 35,8.50.84 

1864 57 -,690.86 

1865 59,39975 

1866 79,.376.78 

1867 90,749.03 

1868 85,043.06 

1869 110,630,35 

1870 118,448.77 

1871 206,056.16 

1872 145,986.47 

1873 112.471.49 

1874 102,524.12 

1875 120,369,.31 

1876 126,386 37 

1877 123,173.25 

1878 119,619.71 

1879 137,229.58 

1880 120,226 97 

1881 117,6.55.49 

1882 172,626.43 



In this chapter it is the design to pre- 
sent some of the interesting and peculiar 
phases of frontier life. It is not the pur- 
pose to here portray conditions and cir- 
cumstances that apply to every case, but 
to pick out from the mass of material 
some of the most extreme cases, and be- 
longing properly to the. extreme frontier. 
While as a means of variety here and 
there are stated occurrences and conditions 
which have existed up to within a very 
recent day. It is impossible to single out 
Tama county as an issolated case in the 
description of pioneer life, for it finds its 
parallel in almost every county in the 

State and throughout the entire west. And 
it is, on the other hand, just as impossible 
to limit the portrayed so as to just precise- 
ly fit and cover given cases, and territory. 
Pioneer life must be taken as a whole, and 
as it existed a third of a century ago in 
the west. Some of the illustrations may 
not apply to the exact manner in which 
this or that particular settler got along, 
nor is it the intention that it should, but 
it is attempted to show what has been 
done in the early development of the 
Great West. 

But a little more than a third of a cen- 
tury ago Tama county was not in existence ; 


9 1^ 

^ » 




the territory comprising it was as wild and 
desolate as the Indians who inhabited it ; 
and there was not a white settler within 
its bounderies. When the Wilkinsons, 
the Ashers, and the Vandorins, first among 
the determined pioneers settled here they 
found an unbroken, uncultivated and un- 
inhabited prairie. Wild beasts, and but 
little less wild savages roamed at will over 
the prairie, through the groves and forests 
and along the waters of the Iowa river, 
their domain knowing no bounds. The 
miniature forests skirting the prairies 
were to be felled, cabins erected, homes 
prepared, mills built, and the river and 
creeks made to labor for the benefit of 
mankind. The beautiful prairies were to 
be robbed of their natural ornaments, and 
the hand of art was to assist in their dec- 
oration. Who was to undertake this 
work? What will be the effect of their 
labors upon future generations? 

Tama county pioneers had many diffi- 
culties to contend with, not the least of 
which was the journey from civilization to 
their prairie homes. The route lay for 
the most part through a rough country ; 
swamps and marshes were crossed with 
great exertion and fatigue ; rivers were 
fordeS with difficulty and danger ; nights 
<vere passed on open prairies, with the sod 
for 'a couch and the heavens for a shelter ; 
long, weary days and weeks of travel 
were endured, but finally "the promised 
land " was reached. 


The young men and women of to-diiy 
have little conception of the mode of life 
among the early settlers of the country. 
One can hardly conceive how great a 
change has taken place in so short a time 

In a new country, far removed from the 
conveniences of civilization, where all are 
compelled to build their own houses, make 
their own clothing and procure for them- 
selves the means of subsistence, is is to be 
expected that their dwellings and garments 
will be rude. These were matters con- 
trolled by surrounding circumstances and 
the means at their disposal. 

Some few of the earliest settlers con- 
structed what were called " three-faced 
camps " or in other words, three walls 
leaving one side open ; but this was, in 
reality only resorted to by some of the 
transient squatters who only remained 
long enough to find a purchaser for their 
claim to the land, and then move on 
farther west to repeat the process. These 
" three-faced camps are described as fol- 
lows: The walls were built seven feet 
high, when poles were laid across at a dis- 
tance of about three feet, and on 
these a roof of clapboards was laid, which 
were kept in place by weight poles placed 
on them. The clapboards were about four 
feet in lengtii and from five to eight 
inches in width, sjilit out of white oak 
timber. No floor was laid in the "camp." 
The structure required neither door, win- 
dow, or chimney. The one side left out 
of the cabin, answered all these purposes. 
In front of the open side was Vniilt a large 
log heap, which served for warmth in cold 
weather and for cooking purposes in all 
seasons. Of course there was an abund- 
ance of light, and on either side of the 
fire, space to enter in. 

They were probably more easily con- 
structed than the ordinary cabin, but in 
this region very few are renienibered, 
as having been built. A more connnon 


• fc^ 



place of abode was what might be called a 
" four faced camp." This was constructed 
in a good deal the same manner except 
that it had four sides. 

The cabin was a material advance for 
comfort, in home life. This was built of 
logs, the spaces between the logs being 
filled in with split sticks of wood called 
" chinks," and daubed over both inside 
and out, with mortar made of clay. The 
rtoor, sometimes, was nothing more than 
earth tramped hard and smooth, but it 
was commonly made of " puncheons," or 
split logs with the split side turned up- 
ward. The roof was made by gradually 
drawing the top to the ridge pole, on cross 
pieces, laying the "clapboards," which be- 
ing several feet in length, instead of being 
nailed were held in place or kept from 
rolling off by "knees " placed against the 
one below, which served as a prop. For a 
fire-place, a space was cut out of the logs 
on one side of the room, usually about six 
feet in length, and three sides were built 
up of logs, making an offset in the wall. 
This was lined with stone, if convenient ; 
if not, then earth. The flue, or upper 
part of the chimney, was built of small 
split sticks, two and a half or three feet 
in length, carried a little space above the 
roof, and plastered over with clay ; when 
finished it was called a "cat and clay" 
chimney. To describe it more minutely, 
the sticks are laid just as bricks are, with 
mortar; the clay is mixed with cut straw 
or grass to prevent it from crumbling, and 
then the outside and inside were plastered 
with the clay and rubbed smooth with the 
hands. The door was made by cut- 
ting a space in one side of the room of the 
required size, the door itself being made of 

clapboards secured by wooden pins to two 
crosspieces. The hinges were also some- 
times of wood, while the fastenings con- 
sisted of a wooden latch catching on a 
hook of the same material. To open the 
door from the outside, a strip of buckskin 
or leather was tied to the latch and drawn 
through a hole a few inches above the 
latch-bar, so that on pulling the string the 
latch was lifted from the catch or hook, 
and the door was opened without further 
trouble. To lock the door, it was only 
necessary to pull the string through the 
hole to the inside. Here the family lived, 
and here the guest and wayfarer were 
made welcome. The living room was of 
good size, but to a large extent it was all 
— kitchen, bed-room, parlor and arsenal, 
with flitches of bacon and sometimes rings 
of dried pumpkin suspended from the 

Sometimes in the more extreme cases a 
pioneer's cabin was erected of poles that 
one man could lay together; without 
" notching," after reaching about the 
height of a man, it would be covered with 
the bark taken from some Indian's aban- 
doned "Wick-e-up," the cracks filled 
with prairie grass, and skin hung upon the 
inside and outside to keep the wind from 
blowing out the grass. The skins thus 
used were wolf, bear, deer, elk, and fre- 
quently buffalo. The fire was built on 
the ground and a hole left in the roof for 
smoke to escape. No floor was had until 
the season came to " pieel Linn bark." A 
door would be made, almost always in 
these, extreme cases, of an elk skin. In 
cases of this kind the beds were made of 
j)rairie hay, spread on the ground floor. 
Sometimes, a forked stake would be driven 





into the ground at an equal distance from 
two walls which were at right angles, and 
poles laid through the fork to the walls. 
On this would be laid " shakes" and brush 
until quite a fair bed stead would be the 
result. For bed clothes, when quilts were 
wanting, skins and robes would make up 
the deticiency, and in cases like those just 
mentioned, skins were almost wholly used. 
In a great many instances all of the house- 
hold furniture was home-made, blocks 
being used for chairs, and rude benches, 
which were made from "shakes" with 
the " easy side up," holes bored in the 
bottom and rude legs inserted. A place 
for cooking utensils was made by boring 
holes in the wall, placing a smooth shake 
upon pegs which had been driven in, and 
a shelf was complete. In these extreme 
cases the pioneers usually had a few 
knives and forks and plates, but there 
were many who had neither. Rev. S. W. 
Ingham, who was the pioneer Methodist 
preacher in this part of the State, told the 
writer that he had many times, notwith- 
standing he was given the best, sat upon a 
rude block,which he doubted not conformed 
to the usual rule of " easy side up," and in 
eating, cut his venison upon a piece of 
bark laid on his knees, using his own jack- 
knife. It is difficult to describe some of 
the tables used, they were of all shapes 
and sizes, sometimes* a " shelf " would be 
made upon which the victuals were served. 
Sometimes a box or two in which the 
clothing was stored, pegs would be driven- 
into the log walls and clothing hung upon 
them. Books were very seldom found in 
these extreme cases, except probably a 
fraction of a book here and there, which 
was well thumbed. In one corner was 

placed the trusty rifle, and just above it 
were hung the powder horn, shot flask and 
hunting pouch. Often a loft was made to 
the cabin for a sleeping place and the 
storage of " traps " and articles not in 
common use. This was reached by a lad- 
der secured to the wall. Sometimes the 
bed rooms were separated by sheets and 
blanketji suspended from the rafters, but 
until the means of making these partitions 
were ample, they all lived and slept in the 
same room. If a" stranger was present, 
partaking of the hospitality, the light 
would be blown out when the old folks 
wished to retire ; the children would un- 
dress while the " stranger was looking the 
other way." Frequently the pigs and 
chickens inhabited the same room. 

Familiarity with this mode of living did 
away with much of the discomfort, but as 
soon as improvement could be made, there 
was occasionally added to the cabin an ad- 
ditional room, or a " double log cabin," 
being substantially a "three faced camp," 
liut generally the old cabin was replaced 
by a better one, 

The furniture in the cabin corresponded 
with the house itself. The articles used 
in the kitchen were as few and simple as 
can be imagined. A " dutch oven, " or 
skillet, a long-handled frying pan, an iron 
pot or kettle, and sometimes a coffee pot, 
constituted the utensils of the best fur- 
nished kitchen. A little later, when stone 
formed the base of the chimney, a long 
iron " crane " swung in the chimney place, 
which on its "pot-hook" carried the boil- 
ing kettle or heavy iron pot. The cook- 
ing was all done on the fire-place and at 
the fire, and the style of cooking was as 
simple as the utensils. Indian, or corn 


^ 9 




meal, was the common flour, which was 
made into " pone " or " corn-dodger, " or 
"hoe-cake," as the occasion or variety de- 
manded. The "pone" and the " dodger" 
was baked in the Dutch oven, which was 
first set on a bed of glowing coals. When 
the oven was filled with the dough, the lid, 
already heated on the fire, was placed on 
the oven and covered with red hot coals. 
When the bread was done it was taken 
from the oven and placed near the fire to 
keep warm while some other food was 
being prepared in the same " oven " for 
the forthcoming meal. The " hoe-cake " 
was prepared in the same way as the 
dodger — that is, a stiff dough was made of 
the meal and water, and, taking as much 
as could conveniently be held in both 
hands, it was moulded into the desired 
shape by being tossed from hand to hand 
then laid on a board or flat stone placed at 
an angle before the fire and patted down 
to the required thickness on the "johnny, 
cake board." In the fall and early win- 
ter, cooked pumpkin was sometimes added 
to tlie meal dough, giving a flavor and 
richness to the bread not attained by the 
modern methods. In the oven from which 
the bread was taken, the venison or ham 
was then fried, and, in winter, lye hominy, 
made from the unbroken grains of corn, 
added to the frugal meal. The woods 
abounded in honey, and of this in pioneer 
times, the early settlers had an abundance 
the year round. For some years after the 
very first settlement, corn meal formed the 
staple commodity for bread ; but as soon 
as the settlers began trading at Cedar 
Rapids, flour could be obtained more easi- 
ly than corn meal, for the reason that it 
was easier to grind. 

These simple cabins were inhabited by 
a kind and true-hearted people. They 
were strangers to mock-modesty, and the 
traveler seeking lodgings for the night, or 
desirous of spending a few days in the 
community, if willing to accept the rude 
offerings, was always welcome, although 
how they were disposed of at night the 
reader may not easily imagine ; for, as 
described, often a single room would be 
made to serve the purpose of a kitchen, 
dining-room, sitting room and parlor, and 
many families consisted of six or eight 


The character of the pioneers of Tama 
county falls properly within the range of 
the historian. They lived in a region of 
exuberance and fertility, where Nature had 
scattered her blessings with a liberal hand, 
The fair supply of timber, the fertile jirai- 
rie, and the many improvements constant, 
ly going forward, with the bright prospect 
for a glorious future in everything that 
renders life jileasant, combined to deeply 
impress their character, to give them a 
spirit of enterprise, an independence of 
feeling, and a joyousness of hope. They 
were a thorough admixture of many na- 
tions, characters, languages, conditions 
and opinions. There was scarcely a State 
in the Union that was not represented 
among the early settlers. All the various 
religious sects had their advocates. All 
now form one society. Says an early wri- 
ter : " Men must cleave to their kind, and 
must be dependent upon each other. Pride 
and jealousy give way to the natural yearn- 
ings of the human heart for society. They 
begin to rub off the neutral prejudices; 





one takes a step and then the other ; they 
meet half way and embrace ; and (he 
society thus newly organized and constitu- 
ted is more liberal, enlarged, unprejudiced, 
and, of course, more affectionate, than a 
society of people of like birth and char- 
acter, who bring all their early prejudices 
as a common stock, to be transmitted as 
an inheritance to posterity. " 

They were bound together by a feeling 
that all were equal and were laboring and 
striving for a common end. They had 
all left more or less comfortable homes 
in the eastern States, and cast their lot in 
a country where there was nothing save 
the intrinsic merit of the location. Here 
they were all on equal footing ; riches 
could give no advantage, even had they 
existed, and the absence of the aristocratic 
element that is now so painfully apparent 
in society, must alone have been a great 
source of comfort to the pioneers. They 
all felt an equal interest in the improve- 
ment and development of the country, and 
to the softening and smoothing over of 
the rough edged disadvantages against 
which they had to contend. Ev(!ryone 
was thought of and treated as a brother. 
Their public gatherings were like the re- 
union of a parted family, and the fact that 
there was no rivalry, made the occasions 
doubly joyous. Their hospitality knew 
no bounds. If a traveler pulled the latch 
string, it was considered that, as a matter 
of course, he should receive an equal share 
with the rest of the household, be it much 
or little. 


In this respect the settlers differed con- 
siderably, but were dressed as a rule as 
plain and simple, as their houses were 

built. Necessity compelled it to be in 
conformity to the strictest economy. The 
clothes which the early settlers brought 
with them were worn smooth, and dar